Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eid S. A.
2016-07-01
Full Text Available The excited positive and negative parity states, potential energy surfaces, V ( ; , electromagnetic transition probabilities, B ( E 1, B ( E 2, electric monopole strength X ( E 0 = E 2 and staggering e ect, I = 1, were calculated successfully using the inter- acting boson approximation model IBA -1. The calculated values are compared to the available experimental data and show reasonable agreement. The energy ratios and contour plot of the potential energy surfaces show that 152 Sm is an X (5 candidate.
182Pt as a possible candidate for X(5) symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Petkov, P; Gladnsihki, K A; Dewald, A; Fransen, C; Hackstein, M; Jolie, J; Pissulla, Th; Rother, W; Zell, K O
2012-01-01
Recently, a new island of X(5) nuclei has been suggested around A=180 exemplified by some Osmium isotopes. To investigate the limits of its region, a Recoil-distance Doppler shift lifetime measurement has been performed for 182 Pt. For the data analysis, the Differential decay curve method has been applied in a newly developed version convenient for low recoil velocities and a non-negligible fraction of nuclei stopped already in the target. The level energies and the newly deduced transition quadrupole moments in the yrast band reveal the persistence of X(5) features in the investigated nucleus, but other spectroscopic data and IBM and GCM calculations indicate shape coexistence and a position of 182 Pt close but not at the critical point of the shape-transition.
Test of the X(5) symmetry in the A=180 mass region
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dewald, A.; Melon, B.; Moller, O. [Institut fur Kernphysik, Universitat zu Koln, (Germany)] (and others)
2005-07-01
The dynamical symmetry at the critical point phase transition from vibrator to axial rotor, called X, was first introduced by Iachello in 2001. So far the X(5) symmetry was experimentally firmly established only in the vicinity of A=150, e.g. {sup 152}Sm, {sup 154}Gd, {sup 150}Nd. Therefore it is of interest to search for nuclei showing the feature of this symmetry also in other mass regions. It has been shown that the energy spectrum and the experimental transition probabilities of {sup 178}Os can be very well described in the framework of the critical point symmetry X. {sup 178}Os is the first example of an X like nucleus in a mass region different to A=150. This good agreement motivated the authors to continue the investigation in the mass region A=180 searching X like nuclei. On the basis of the energy spectrum also {sup 176}Os is considered as a promising candidate for an X like nucleus. Therefore a coincidence recoil distance experiment was performed at the Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro.
Comparison of IBM-2 calculations with X(5) critical point symmetry for low lying states in 128-140Nd
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Uluer, I.; Olgun, D.; Inan, S.; Tuerkan, N.
2006-01-01
The X(5) would take place when moving continuously from the pure U(5) symmetry to the SU(3) symmetry and it implies a definite relations among the level energies and among the E2 transition strengths. It was recently shown that a signature of phase transition is observed in the chain of Sm, Mo and Nd isotopes, where 1 52Sm, 1 04Mo and 1 50Nd display the predicted features of the X(5) symmetry and mark therefore the critical point. However, more detailed studies and experiments are needed to get ideas about this signature. Without entering into detail we have firstly compared the results obtained in our previous study of 1 28- 1 40Nd with that of the limits in X(5) symmetry and then given a clear description about the validity of the Hamiltonian parameters used in the study. At the end, we have concluded that some of Nd isotopes display X(5) symmetry features
Dynamical symmetries for fermions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guidry, M.
1989-01-01
An introduction is given to the Fermion Dynamical Symmetry Model (FDSM). The analytical symmetry limits of the model are then applied to the calculation of physical quantities such as ground-state masses and B(E 2 ) values in heavy nuclei. These comparisons with data provide strong support for a new principle of collective motion, the Dynamical Pauli Effect, and suggest that dynamical symmetries which properly account for the pauli principle are much more persistent in nuclear structure than the corresponding boson symmetries. Finally, we present an assessment of criticisms which have been voiced concerning the FDSM, and a discussion of new phenomena and ''exotic spectroscopy'' which may be suggested by the model. 14 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stern, J.
2000-01-01
The problem of a uniform description of symmetries, their dynamic disturbing and the structure of the vacuum is discussed. The role which problems of this kind played in searching for and understanding the Standard Model of elementary particles from the 1960s till now is also highlighted. (Z.J.)
Bootstrap Dynamical Symmetry Breaking
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wei-Shu Hou
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Despite the emergence of a 125 GeV Higgs-like particle at the LHC, we explore the possibility of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking by strong Yukawa coupling of very heavy new chiral quarks Q . Taking the 125 GeV object to be a dilaton with suppressed couplings, we note that the Goldstone bosons G exist as longitudinal modes V L of the weak bosons and would couple to Q with Yukawa coupling λ Q . With m Q ≳ 700 GeV from LHC, the strong λ Q ≳ 4 could lead to deeply bound Q Q ¯ states. We postulate that the leading “collapsed state,” the color-singlet (heavy isotriplet, pseudoscalar Q Q ¯ meson π 1 , is G itself, and a gap equation without Higgs is constructed. Dynamical symmetry breaking is affected via strong λ Q , generating m Q while self-consistently justifying treating G as massless in the loop, hence, “bootstrap,” Solving such a gap equation, we find that m Q should be several TeV, or λ Q ≳ 4 π , and would become much heavier if there is a light Higgs boson. For such heavy chiral quarks, we find analogy with the π − N system, by which we conjecture the possible annihilation phenomena of Q Q ¯ → n V L with high multiplicity, the search of which might be aided by Yukawa-bound Q Q ¯ resonances.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Moeller, O.
2005-07-01
This work reports on results from two Recoil-Distance-Doppler-Shift lifetime measurements of excited states in {sup 155}Dy and {sup 178}Os. The experiments were carried out at the GASP spektrometer of the Laboratori Nazional i di Legnaro in combination with the Cologne plunger apparatus. The main purpose of the performed experiments was to test the predictions of the X(5) critical point symmetry in these two nuclei. In {sup 156}Dy and {sup 178}Os 29 lifetimes of excited states were derived using the Differential-Decay-Curve method. In weaker reaction channels the nuclei {sup 155}Dy, {sup 157}Dy and {sup 177}Os were populated. In these nuclei 32 additional lifetimes were measured, most of them for the first time. In order to calculate absolute transition probabilities from the measured lifetimes of the first excited band in {sup 156}Dy, essential branching ratios were derived from the measured data with a very small systematic error (<5%). The most important results can be summarized as mentioned below: Lifetimes measured in the first excited band, confirm that this nucleus can be located close to the critical point X(5). With model calculations, special criteria of the X(5) model were found that can be used to identify other X(5)-like nuclei. Using these criterias a new region of X(5)-like nuclei could be suggested within the osmium isotopes in the A=180 mass region. The measured lifetimes in {sup 178}Os confirm the consistency of a X(5) description in these nuclei. A comparision with the well established X(5)-like nuclei in the N=90 isotones gives an agreement with the X(5) description of at least the same quality. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moeller, O.
2005-01-01
This work reports on results from two Recoil-Distance-Doppler-Shift lifetime measurements of excited states in 155 Dy and 178 Os. The experiments were carried out at the GASP spektrometer of the Laboratori Nazional i di Legnaro in combination with the Cologne plunger apparatus. The main purpose of the performed experiments was to test the predictions of the X(5) critical point symmetry in these two nuclei. In 156 Dy and 178 Os 29 lifetimes of excited states were derived using the Differential-Decay-Curve method. In weaker reaction channels the nuclei 155 Dy, 157 Dy and 177 Os were populated. In these nuclei 32 additional lifetimes were measured, most of them for the first time. In order to calculate absolute transition probabilities from the measured lifetimes of the first excited band in 156 Dy, essential branching ratios were derived from the measured data with a very small systematic error ( 178 Os confirm the consistency of a X(5) description in these nuclei. A comparision with the well established X(5)-like nuclei in the N=90 isotones gives an agreement with the X(5) description of at least the same quality. (orig.)
Symmetry of quantum molecular dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burenin, A.V.
2002-01-01
The paper reviews the current state-of-art in describing quantum molecular dynamics based on symmetry principles alone. This qualitative approach is of particular interest as the only method currently available for a broad and topical class of problems in the internal dynamics of molecules. Besides, a molecule is a physical system whose collective internal motions are geometrically structured, and its perturbation theory description requires a symmetry analysis of this structure. The nature of the geometrical symmetry groups crucial for the closed formulation of the qualitative approach is discussed [ru
Symmetry of quantum intramolecular dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burenin, Alexander V
2002-01-01
The paper reviews the current progress in describing quantum intramolecular dynamics using merely symmetry principles as a basis. This closed qualitative approach is of particular interest because it is the only method currently available for a broad class of topical problems in the internal dynamics of molecules. Moreover, a molecule makes a physical system whose collective internal motions are geometrically structured, so that its description by perturbation methods requires a symmetry analysis of this structure. The nature of the geometrical symmetry groups crucial for the closed formulation of the qualitative approach is discussed. In particular, the point group of a molecule is of this type. (methodological notes)
Symmetries of dynamically equivalent theories
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gitman, D.M.; Tyutin, I.V. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Lebedev Physics Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)
2006-03-15
A natural and very important development of constrained system theory is a detail study of the relation between the constraint structure in the Hamiltonian formulation with specific features of the theory in the Lagrangian formulation, especially the relation between the constraint structure with the symmetries of the Lagrangian action. An important preliminary step in this direction is a strict demonstration, and this is the aim of the present article, that the symmetry structures of the Hamiltonian action and of the Lagrangian action are the same. This proved, it is sufficient to consider the symmetry structure of the Hamiltonian action. The latter problem is, in some sense, simpler because the Hamiltonian action is a first-order action. At the same time, the study of the symmetry of the Hamiltonian action naturally involves Hamiltonian constraints as basic objects. One can see that the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian actions are dynamically equivalent. This is why, in the present article, we consider from the very beginning a more general problem: how the symmetry structures of dynamically equivalent actions are related. First, we present some necessary notions and relations concerning infinitesimal symmetries in general, as well as a strict definition of dynamically equivalent actions. Finally, we demonstrate that there exists an isomorphism between classes of equivalent symmetries of dynamically equivalent actions. (author)
Test of the critical point symmetry X(5) in the mass region A=180
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Melon, B.; Dewald, A.; Moeller, O.; Pissulla, T.; Fransen, C.; Jolie, J.; Linnemann, A.; Zell, K.O. [IKP, Univ. zu Koeln (Germany); Petkov, P. [Bulg. Acad. of Sciences, Inst. for Nucl. Res. and Nucl. Ener., Sofia (Bulgaria); Tonev, D.; Angelis, G. De; Bazzacco, D. [INFN, LN di Legnaro (Italy); Ur, C.; Menegazzo, R.; Farnea, E. [Dip. di Fisica, Univ.' and INFN Sez. Padova (Italy)
2007-07-01
Recently, the first examples of X(5) like nuclei in the mass region A=180 have been identified, {sup 176,178}Os. We report on further results of a lifetime measurement performed at the LN Legnaro using the Koeln coincidence plunger device and the GASP spectrometer. Excited states were populated via the reaction {sup 152}Sm({sup 29}Si,5n){sup 176}Os at E({sup 29}Si) = 145 MeV. Special effort has been made to reduce the experimental uncertainty of the B(E2, 2{sub 1}{sup +} {yields} 0{sub 1}{sup +}) value in {sup 178}Os, used for transition strength normalizations in {sup 178}Os necessary for the comparison with theoretical models. A second experiment was performed to measure the lifetime of the first excited 2{sup +} state in {sup 178}Os with the Koeln coincidence plunger device at the FN Tandem accelerator of the University of Cologne using THE {sup 166}Er({sup 16}O,4n){sup 178}Os reaction at E({sup 16}O) = 80 MeV. The resulting lifetime has been compared to the value obtained using the delayed coincidence method. (orig.)
Symmetry of intramolecular quantum dynamics
Burenin, Alexander V
2012-01-01
The main goal of this book is to give a systematic description of intramolecular quantum dynamics on the basis of only the symmetry principles. In this respect, the book has no analogs in the world literature. The obtained models lead to a simple, purely algebraic, scheme of calculation and are rigorous in the sense that their correctness is limited only to the correct choice of symmetry of the internal dynamics. The book is basically intended for scientists working in the field of molecular spectroscopy, quantum and structural chemistry.
Superdeformations and fermion dynamical symmetries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wu, Cheng-Li
1990-01-01
In this talk, I will present a link between nuclear collective motions and their underlying fermion dynamical symmetries. In particular, I will focus on the microscopic understanding of deformations. It is shown that the SU 3 of the one major shell fermion dynamical symmetry model (FDSM) is responsible for the physics of low and high spins in normal deformation. For the recently observed phenomena of superdeformation, the physics of the problem dictates a generalization to a supershell structure (SFDSM), which also has an SU 3 fermion dynamical symmetry. Many recently discovered feature of superdeformation are found to be inherent in such an SU 3 symmetry. In both cases the dynamical Pauli effect plays a vital role. A particularly noteworthy discovery from this model is that the superdeformed ground band is not the usual unaligned band but the D-pair aligned (DPA) band, which sharply crosses the excited bands. The existence of such DPA band is a key point to understand many properties of superdeformation. Our studies also poses new experimental challenge. This is particularly interesting since there are now plans to build new and exciting γ-ray detecting systems, like the GAMMASPHERE, which could provide answers to some of these challenges. 34 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs
Dynamical symmetry breaking in barium isotopes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rawat, Bir Singh; Chattopadhyay, P.K.
1997-01-01
The isotopes of Xe with mass numbers 124, 126, 128, 130 and the isotopes of barium with mass numbers 128, 130, 132, 134 were shown to correspond to the O(6) dynamical symmetry of IBM. In the investigation of the dynamical symmetry breaking in this region, the barium isotopes for departures from O(6) symmetry have been studied
Dynamical Symmetry Breaking of Extended Gauge Symmetries
Appelquist, Thomas; Shrock, Robert
2003-01-01
We construct asymptotically free gauge theories exhibiting dynamical breaking of the left-right, strong-electroweak gauge group $G_{LR} = {\\rm SU}(3)_c \\times {\\rm SU}(2)_L \\times {\\rm SU}(2)_R \\times {\\rm U}(1)_{B-L}$, and its extension to the Pati-Salam gauge group $G_{422}={\\rm SU}(4)_{PS} \\times {\\rm SU}(2)_L \\times {\\rm SU}(2)_R$. The models incorporate technicolor for electroweak breaking, and extended technicolor for the breaking of $G_{LR}$ and $G_{422}$ and the generation of fermion ...
Dynamical study of symmetries: breaking and restauration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schuck, P.
1986-09-01
First symmetry breaking (spontaneous) is explained and the physical implication discussed for infinite systems. The relation with phase transitions is indicated. Then the specific aspects of symmetry breaking in finite systems is treated and illustrated in detail for the case of translational invariance with the help of an oversimplified but exactly solvable model. The method of projection (restauration of symmetry) is explained for the static case and also applied to the model. Symmetry breaking in the dynamical case and for instance the notion of a soft mode responsible for the symmetry breaking is discussed in the case of superfluidity and another exactly solvable model is introduced. The Goldstone mode is treated in detail. Some remarks on analogies with the breaking of chiral symmetry are made. Some recent developments in the theory of symmetry restauration are briefly outlined [fr
Fermion dynamical symmetry and identical bands
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guidry, M.
1994-01-01
Recent general attention has been directed to the phenomenon of identical bands in both normally deformed and superdeformed nuclei. This paper discusses the possibility that such behavior results from a dynamical symmetry of the nuclear many-body system. Phenomenology and the basic principles of Lie algebras are used to place conditions on the acceptable properties of a candidate symmetry. We find that quite general arguments require that such a symmetry have a minimum of 21 generators with a microscopic fermion interpretation
Fermion dynamical symmetry and identical bands
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guidry, M.
1995-01-01
Recent general attention has been directed to the phenomenon of identical bands in both normally deformed and superdeformed nuclei. This paper discusses the possibility that such behavior results from a dynamical symmetry of the nuclear many-body system. Phenomenology and the basis principles of Lie algebras are used to place conditions on the acceptable properties of a candidate symmetry. We find that quite general arguments require that such a symmetry have a minimum of 21 generators with a microscopic fermion interpretation. (author). 9 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab
Dynamical Symmetry Breaking in RN Quantum Gravity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. T. Kotvytskiy
2011-01-01
Full Text Available We show that in the RN gravitation model, there is no dynamical symmetry breaking effect in the formalism of the Schwinger-Dyson equation (in flat background space-time. A general formula for the second variation of the gravitational action is obtained from the quantum corrections hμν (in arbitrary background metrics.
Dynamical symmetries of the shell model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Van Isacker, P.
2000-01-01
The applications of spectrum generating algebras and of dynamical symmetries in the nuclear shell model are many and varied. They stretch back to Wigner's early work on the supermultiplet model and encompass important landmarks in our understanding of the structure of the atomic nucleus such as Racah's SU(2) pairing model and Elliot's SU(3) rotational model. One of the aims of this contribution has been to show the historical importance of the idea of dynamical symmetry in nuclear physics. Another has been to indicate that, in spite of being old, this idea continues to inspire developments that are at the forefront of today's research in nuclear physics. It has been argued in this contribution that the main driving features of nuclear structure can be represented algebraically but at the same time the limitations of the symmetry approach must be recognised. It should be clear that such approach can only account for gross properties and that any detailed description requires more involved numerical calculations of which we have seen many fine examples during this symposium. In this way symmetry techniques can be used as an appropriate starting point for detailed calculations. A noteworthy example of this approach is the pseudo-SU(3) model which starting from its initial symmetry Ansatz has grown into an adequate and powerful description of the nucleus in terms of a truncated shell model. (author)
Dynamical symmetries for odd-odd nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Balantekin, A.B.
1986-01-01
Recent work for developing dynamical symmetries and supersymmetries is reviewed. An accurate description of odd-odd nuclei requires inclusion of the fermion-fermion force (the residual interaction) and the distinguishing of fermion configurations which are particle like and those which are hole like. A parabolic dependence of the proton-neutron multiplet in odd-odd nuclei is demonstrated. It is shown that a group structure for Bose-Fermi symmetries can be embedded in a supergroup. These methods are used to predict level schemes for Au-196 and Au-198. 11 refs., 3 figs
Flavor universal dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burdman, G.; Evans, N.
1999-01-01
The top condensate seesaw mechanism of Dobrescu and Hill allows electroweak symmetry to be broken while deferring the problem of flavor to an electroweak singlet, massive sector. We provide an extended version of the singlet sector that naturally accommodates realistic masses for all the standard model fermions, which play an equal role in breaking electroweak symmetry. The models result in a relatively light composite Higgs sector with masses typically in the range of (400 - 700) GeV. In more complete models the dynamics will presumably be driven by a broken gauged family or flavor symmetry group. As an example of the higher scale dynamics a fully dynamical model of the quark sector with a GIM mechanism is presented, based on an earlier top condensation model of King using broken family gauge symmetry interactions (that model was itself based on a technicolor model of Georgi). The crucial extra ingredient is a reinterpretation of the condensates that form when several gauge groups become strong close to the same scale. A related technicolor model of Randall which naturally includes the leptons too may also be adapted to this scenario. We discuss the low energy constraints on the massive gauge bosons and scalars of these models as well as their phenomenology at the TeV scale. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society
Dual realizations of dynamical symmetry breaking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dudas, Emilian; Papineau, Chloe
2006-01-01
We show the infrared equivalence between a recently proposed model containing a six dimensional scalar field with a four-dimensional localized Higgs type potential and the four-dimensional Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model. In the dual NJL description, the fermions are localized at the origin of a large two-dimensional compact space. Due to a classical running effect above the compactification scale, the four-fermion coupling of the NJL model increases from the cutoff scale down to the compactification scale, providing the large Fermi coupling needed for the dynamical symmetry breaking. We also present a string theory embedding of our field-theory construction. On more general grounds, our results suggest that 4d models with dynamical symmetry breaking can be given a higher dimensional description in terms of field theories with nontrivial boundary conditions in the internal space
Dynamics of Symmetry Breaking and Tachyonic Preheating
Felder, G; Greene, P B; Kofman, L A; Linde, Andrei D; Tkachev, Igor I; Felder, Gary; Garcia-Bellido, Juan; Greene, Patrick B.; Kofman, Lev; Linde, Andrei; Tkachev, Igor
2001-01-01
We reconsider the old problem of the dynamics of spontaneous symmetry breaking using 3d lattice simulations, and develop a theory of tachyonic preheating, which occurs due to the spinodal instability of the scalar field. Tachyonic preheating is so efficient that symmetry breaking typically completes within a single oscillation of the field distribution as it rolls towards the minimum of its effective potential. As an application of this theory we consider preheating in the hybrid inflation scenario, including SUSY-motivated F-term and D-term inflationary models. We show that preheating in hybrid inflation is typically tachyonic and the stage of oscillations of a homogeneous component of the scalar fields driving inflation ends after a single oscillation. Our results may also be relevant for the theory of the formation of disoriented chiral condensates in heavy ion collisions.
Dynamics symmetries of Hamiltonian system on time scales
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Peng, Keke, E-mail: pengkeke88@126.com; Luo, Yiping, E-mail: zjstulyp@126.com [Department of Physics, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Hangzhou 310018 (China)
2014-04-15
In this paper, the dynamics symmetries of Hamiltonian system on time scales are studied. We study the symmetries and quantities based on the calculation of variation and Lie transformation group. Particular focus lies in: the Noether symmetry leads to the Noether conserved quantity and the Lie symmetry leads to the Noether conserved quantity if the infinitesimal transformations satisfy the structure equation. As the new application of result, at end of the article, we give a simple example of Noether symmetry and Lie symmetry on time scales.
Dynamics of symmetry breaking in strongly coupled QED
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bardeen, W.A.
1988-10-01
I review the dynamical structure of strong coupled QED in the quenched planar limit. The symmetry structure of this theory is examined with reference to the nature of both chiral and scale symmetry breaking. The renormalization structure of the strong coupled phase is analysed. The compatibility of spontaneous scale and chiral symmetry breaking is studied using effective lagrangian methods. 14 refs., 3 figs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Webb, G M; Zank, G P
2007-01-01
We explore the role of the Lagrangian map for Lie symmetries in magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) and gas dynamics. By converting the Eulerian Lie point symmetries of the Galilei group to Lagrange label space, in which the Eulerian position coordinate x is regarded as a function of the Lagrange fluid labels x 0 and time t, one finds that there is an infinite class of symmetries in Lagrange label space that map onto each Eulerian Lie point symmetry of the Galilei group. The allowed transformation of the Lagrangian fluid labels x 0 corresponds to a fluid relabelling symmetry, including the case where there is no change in the fluid labels. We also consider a class of three, well-known, scaling symmetries for a gas with a constant adiabatic index γ. These symmetries map onto a modified form of the fluid relabelling symmetry determining equations, with non-zero source terms. We determine under which conditions these symmetries are variational or divergence symmetries of the action, and determine the corresponding Lagrangian and Eulerian conservation laws by use of Noether's theorem. These conservation laws depend on the initial entropy, density and magnetic field of the fluid. We derive the conservation law corresponding to the projective symmetry in gas dynamics, for the case γ = (n + 2)/n, where n is the number of Cartesian space coordinates, and the corresponding result for two-dimensional (2D) MHD, for the case γ = 2. Lie algebraic structures in Lagrange label space corresponding to the symmetries are investigated. The Lie algebraic symmetry relations between the fluid relabelling symmetries in Lagrange label space, and their commutators with a linear combination of the three symmetries with a constant adiabatic index are delineated
Dynamical symmetry breakdown in SU(5) and SO(10)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shellard, R.C.
1983-09-01
Some restrictions imposed upon Grand Unified Theories by dynamical symmetry breakdown are examined. It is observed in particular, that theories with SU(5) as symmetry group, with 3 or more fermion families undergo dynamical symmetry breakdown, and some of the fermions will acquire mass at the Grand Unified scale. On the other hand, the SO(10) group, with 3 families is free from this problem. (Author) [pt
Broken dynamical symmetries in quantum mechanics and phase transition phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guenther, N.J.
1979-12-01
This thesis describes applications of dynamical symmetries to problems in quantum mechanics and many-body physics where the latter is formulated as a Euclidean scalar field theory in d-space dimensions. By invoking the concept of a dynamical symmetry group a unified understanding of apparently disparate results is achieved. (author)
RG analysis of magnetic catalysis in dynamical symmetry breaking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hong, Deog Ki; Kim, Youngman
1996-01-01
We perform the renormalization group analysis on the dynamical symmetry breaking under strong external magnetic field, studied recently by Gusynin, Miransky and Shovkovy. We find that any attractive four-Fermi interaction becomes strong in the low energy, thus leading to dynamical symmetry breaking. When the four-Fermi interaction is absent, the β-function for the electromagnetic coupling vanishes in the leading order in 1/N. By solving the Schwinger-Dyson equation for the fermion propagator, we show that in 1/N expansion, for any electromagnetic coupling, dynamical symmetry breaking occurs due to the presence of Landau energy gap by the external magnetic field. 5 refs
Electroweak symmetry breaking: Unitarity, dynamics, and experimental prospects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chanowitz, M.S.
1988-01-01
A review of what is known about the unexplained mechanism that breaks the electroweak symmetry and thereby gives mass to the W and Z gauge bosons while leaving the photon massless is given. Symmetry, unitarity, technicolor, supersymmetry, higgs sector dynamics, and experimental status and prospects are discussed
Dynamical symmetry breaking as an alternative for Higg's mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shellard, R.C.
1979-01-01
The effective action of a theory where dynamical symmetry breaking occurs is expanded in terms of loops, producing a Ginzburg-Landau-like Lagrangian reproducing fenomenologically the Higg's potencial. (L.C.) [pt
Matrix Elements in Fermion Dynamical Symmetry Model
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIU Guang-Zhou; LIU Wei
2002-01-01
In a neutron-proton system, the matrix elements of the generators for SO(8) × SO(8) symmetry areconstructed explicitly, and with these matrix elements the low-lying excitation spectra obtained by diagonalization arepresented. The excitation spectra for SO(7) nuclei Pd and Ru isotopes and SO(6) r-soft rotational nuclei Xe, Ba, andCe isotopes are calculated, and comparison with the experimental results is carried out.
Matrix Elements in Fermion Dynamical Symmetry Model
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIUGuang－Zhou; LIUWei
2002-01-01
In a neutron-proton system,the matrix elements of the generators for SO(8)×SO(8) symmetry are constructed exp;icitly,and with these matrix elements the low-lying excitation spsectra obtained by diagonalization are presented.The excitation spectra for SO(7) nuclei Pd and Ru isotopes and SO(6) r-soft rotational nuclei Xe,Ba,and Ce isotopes are calculated,and comparison with the experimental results is carried out.
Partial dynamical symmetries in quantal many-body systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Van Isacker, P.
2001-01-01
Partial dynamical symmetries are associated with Hamiltonians that are partially solvable. The determination of the properties of a quantal system of N interacting particles moving in an external potential requires the solution of the eigenvalue equation associated with a second-quantised Hamiltonian. In many situations of interest the Hamiltonian commutes with transformations that constitute a symmetry algebra G sym . This characteristic opens a way to find all analytically solvable Hamiltonians. The author gives a brief review of some recent developments
Dynamical symmetry enhancement near IIA horizons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gran, University; Gutowski, J.; Kayani, University; Papadopoulos, G.
2015-01-01
We show that smooth type IIA Killing horizons with compact spatial sections preserve an even number of supersymmetries, and that the symmetry algebra of horizons with non-trivial fluxes includes an sl(2,ℝ) subalgebra. This confirms the conjecture of http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP11(2013)104 for type IIA horizons. As an intermediate step in the proof, we also demonstrate new Lichnerowicz type theorems for spin bundle connections whose holonomy is contained in a general linear group.
Dynamical symmetries of the Klein-Gordon equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Fulin; Chen Jingling
2009-01-01
The dynamical symmetries of the two-dimensional Klein-Gordon equations with equal scalar and vector potentials (ESVPs) are studied. The dynamical symmetries are considered in the plane and the sphere, respectively. The generators of the SO(3) group corresponding to the Coulomb potential and the SU(2) group corresponding to the harmonic oscillator potential are derived. Moreover, the generators in the sphere construct the Higgs algebra. With the help of the Casimir operators, the energy levels of the Klein-Gordon systems are yielded naturally
Coupling-constant flows and dynamical symmetry breaking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yamagishi, H.
1981-01-01
The Coleman-Weinberg theory is reformulated in terms of flows in coupling-constant space. It is shown that the existence of dynamical symmetry breaking is governed essentially by the b functions. An application is made to the massless Weinberg-Salam model
Model for dynamical chiral symmetry breaking and quark condensate
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nekrasov, M.L.; Rochev, V.E.
1986-01-01
In the framework of the model, proposed earlier to describe nonperturbative QCD, the singularity of the type 1/k 4 in the gluon propagator is shown to result in dynamical chiral symmetry breaking and appearance of quark condensate. The value, obtained for quark condensate, is close to the phenomenological one
On the large-N dynamics of gauge symmetry breaking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Karchev, N.I.
1983-07-01
We consider a Gsub(W)xUsub(TC)(N) gauge theory. A method of colour singlet bilocal collective coordinates is proposed to show, large-N colour dynamics is responsible for the Gsub(W) gauge symmetry breaking if the large-N Schwinger-Dyson equation admits anomalous solutions. The dynamically generated mass matrix is computed through these solutions. The technicolour model is discussed. (author)
Heavy quark condensates from dynamically borken flavour symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Elliott, T.; King, S.F.
1992-01-01
We study the dynamics of top quark condensation induced by gauge interactions resulting from a broken flavour symmetry. The gap equation in dressed ladder approximation is solved numerically to obtain directly the top quark mass. The new high energy dynamics reduces the prediction of m t somewhat, but the usual problems of m t being too large and fine tuning remain. In order to solve these problems we extend our discussion to include fourth generation quark condensates. (orig.)
Dynamical symmetry breaking with hypercolour and high colour representations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zoupanos, G.
1985-01-01
A model is presented in which the electroweak gauge group is spontaneously broken according to a dynamical scenario based on the existence of high colour representations. An unattractive feature of this scenario was the necessity to introduce elementary Higgs fields in order to obtain the spontaneous symmetry breaking of part of the theory. In the present model, this breaking can also be understood dynamically with the introduction of hypercolour interactions. (author)
Invariant renormalization method for nonlinear realizations of dynamical symmetries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kazakov, D.I.; Pervushin, V.N.; Pushkin, S.V.
1977-01-01
The structure of ultraviolet divergences is investigated for the field theoretical models with nonlinear realization of the arbitrary semisimple Lie group, with spontaneously broken symmetry of vacuum. An invariant formulation of the background field method of renormalization is proposed which gives the manifest invariant counterterms off mass shell. A simple algorithm for construction of counterterms is developed. It is based on invariants of the group of dynamical symmetry in terms of the Cartan forms. The results of one-loop and two-loop calculations are reported
Facets of confinement and dynamical chiral symmetry breaking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maris, P.; Raya, A.; Roberts, C.D.; Schmidt, S.M.
2003-01-01
The gap equation is a cornerstone in understanding dynamical chiral symmetry breaking and may also provide clues to confinement. A symmetry-preserving truncation of its kernel enables proofs of important results and the development of an efficacious phenomenology. We describe a model of the kernel that yields: a momentum-dependent dressed-quark propagator in fair agreement with quenched lattice-QCD results; and chiral limit values, f π 0 =68 MeV and left angle anti q q right angle =-(190 MeV) 3 . It is compared with models inferred from studies of the gauge sector. (orig.)
Symmetry realization via a dynamical inverse Higgs mechanism
Rothstein, Ira Z.; Shrivastava, Prashant
2018-05-01
The Ward identities associated with spontaneously broken symmetries can be saturated by Goldstone bosons. However, when space-time symmetries are broken, the number of Goldstone bosons necessary to non-linearly realize the symmetry can be less than the number of broken generators. The loss of Goldstones may be due to a redundancy or the generation of a gap. In either case the associated Goldstone may be removed from the spectrum. This phenomena is called an Inverse Higgs Mechanism (IHM) and its appearance has a well defined mathematical condition. However, there are cases when a Goldstone boson associated with a broken generator does not appear in the low energy theory despite the lack of the existence of an associated IHM. In this paper we will show that in such cases the relevant broken symmetry can be realized, without the aid of an associated Goldstone, if there exists a proper set of operator constraints, which we call a Dynamical Inverse Higgs Mechanism (DIHM). We consider the spontaneous breaking of boosts, rotations and conformal transformations in the context of Fermi liquids, finding three possible paths to symmetry realization: pure Goldstones, no Goldstones and DIHM, or some mixture thereof. We show that in the two dimensional degenerate electron system the DIHM route is the only consistent way to realize spontaneously broken boosts and dilatations, while in three dimensions these symmetries could just as well be realized via the inclusion of non-derivatively coupled Goldstone bosons. We present the action, including the leading order non-linearities, for the rotational Goldstone (angulon), and discuss the constraint associated with the possible DIHM that would need to be imposed to remove it from the spectrum. Finally we discuss the conditions under which Goldstone bosons are non-derivatively coupled, a necessary condition for the existence of a Dynamical Inverse Higgs Constraint (DIHC), generalizing the results for Vishwanath and Wantanabe.
Dynamical breakdown of the electroweak gauge symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khosek, I.
1983-01-01
Fermion and gauge boson masses are calculated dynamically in the higgs-less Galshow-Weinberg-Salam model supplemented with a heavy neutral vector boson C. Fermion masses are determined by C-hypercharges of the left- and right-handed fermion fields. The W and Z-boson masses are related to the ferion masses and to the calculated fermion-would-be-Goldstone boson coupling constants by sum rules. Small deviation from the canonical relation msub(W)sup(2)/msub(Z)sup(2)cossup(2)thetasub(W)=1 is predicted. Fermion mixing is briefly discussed. Its necessary consequence is that the physical neutral current coupled to the C boson is nonuniversal and flavour changing
Dynamical symmetries of semi-linear Schrodinger and diffusion equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stoimenov, Stoimen; Henkel, Malte
2005-01-01
Conditional and Lie symmetries of semi-linear 1D Schrodinger and diffusion equations are studied if the mass (or the diffusion constant) is considered as an additional variable. In this way, dynamical symmetries of semi-linear Schrodinger equations become related to the parabolic and almost-parabolic subalgebras of a three-dimensional conformal Lie algebra (conf 3 ) C . We consider non-hermitian representations and also include a dimensionful coupling constant of the non-linearity. The corresponding representations of the parabolic and almost-parabolic subalgebras of (conf 3 ) C are classified and the complete list of conditionally invariant semi-linear Schrodinger equations is obtained. Possible applications to the dynamical scaling behaviour of phase-ordering kinetics are discussed
Inflation and cosmic strings in models with dynamical symmetry breaking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matheson, A.M.; Brandenberger, R.H.
1989-01-01
We derive the effective action for the composite field which in dynamical symmetry breaking plays the role of the Higgs field. We show that this effective action does not give rise to inflation. It is, however, possible to obtain topological defects such as cosmic strings. There will be fermionic zero modes trapped on the strings, and the strings will therefore be superconducting in a generalized sense. (orig.)
Dynamical breakdown of chiral symmetry and abnormal perturbation expansion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ebert, D.; Pervushin, V.N.
1976-01-01
Dynamical breakdown of γ 5 -symmetry is studied in the Abelian gauge theory of massless ''quarks'' interacting with massless vector ''gluons''. For this purpose the path-integral approach with bilocal fields as dynamical variables is used. The classical field equation defined by the stationary point of the generating functional turns out to be identical with the Schwinger-Dyson equation for the quark propagator. After a short discussion of the possible solutions of this equation an abnormal perturbation theory has been worked out
Conformal dynamics for electroweak symmetry breaking, from LHC to cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sannino, Francesco
2009-01-01
Full text. I will first introduce dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking and then present how to resolve some of the long-standing problems using (near) conformal dynamics. In order to construct sensible extension of DEWSB I will then review the state-of-the-art of the phase diagram of gauge theories of fundamental interactions as function of the number of colors, flavors and matter representation. Finally I will introduce recent models known as minimal walking models and show how they lead to natural candidates of dark matter. (author)
Schwinger Dyson equations: Dynamical chiral symmetry breaking and confinement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roberts, C.D.
1992-01-01
A representative but not exhaustive review of the Schwinger-Dyson equation (SDE) approach to the nonperturbative study of QCD is presented. The main focus is the SDE for the quark self energy but studies of the gluon propagator and quark-gluon vertex are also discussed insofar as they are important to the quark SDE. The scope of this article is the application of these equations to the study of dynamical chiral symmetry breaking, quark confinement and the phenomenology of the spectrum and dynamics of QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wehrhahn, R.F.; Cooper, I.L.
1992-05-01
Analysis of the dynamical symmetry of a system is used to predict properties arising from its supersymmetric quantum mechanical treatment. Two applications of the so(2,1) algebra, the Coulomb potential and Morse oscillator potential which display different structure with respect to the dynamical symmetry, are studied. This difference is shown to be responsible for the behaviour of the respective supersymmetric partner potentials. (orig.)
Connections between the dynamical symmetries in the microscopic shell model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Georgieva, A. I., E-mail: anageorg@issp.bas.bg [Institute of Solid State Physics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria); Drumev, K. P. [Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria)
2016-03-25
The dynamical symmetries of the microscopic shell model appear as the limiting cases of a symmetry adapted Pairing-Plus-Quadrupole Model /PQM/, with a Hamiltonian containing isoscalar and isovector pairing and quadrupole interactions. We establish a correspondence between each of the three types of pairing bases and Elliott’s SU(3) basis, that describes collective rotation of nuclear systems with quadrupole deformation. It is derived from their complementarity to the same LS coupling chain of the shell model number conserving algebra. The probability distribution of the S U(3) basis states within the pairing eigenstates is also obtained through a numerical diagonalization of the PQM Hamiltonian in each limit. We introduce control parameters, which define the phase diagram of the model and determine the role of each term of the Hamiltonian in the correct reproduction of the experimental data for the considered nuclei.
Confinement and dynamical chiral symmetry breaking in QED3
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bashir, A.; Raya, A.; Cloeet, I. C.; Roberts, C. D.
2008-01-01
We establish that QED3 can possess a critical number of flavors, N f c , associated with dynamical chiral symmetry breaking if, and only if, the fermion wave function renormalization and photon vacuum polarization are homogeneous functions at infrared momenta when the fermion mass function vanishes. The Ward identity entails that the fermion-photon vertex possesses the same property and ensures a simple relationship between the homogeneity degrees of each of these functions. Simple models for the photon vacuum polarization and fermion-photon vertex are used to illustrate these observations. The existence and value of N f c are contingent upon the precise form of the vertex but any discussion of gauge dependence is moot. We introduce an order parameter for confinement. Chiral symmetry restoration and deconfinement are coincident owing to an abrupt change in the analytic properties of the fermion propagator when a nonzero scalar self-energy becomes insupportable
Dynamical Symmetries and Causality in Non-Equilibrium Phase Transitions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Malte Henkel
2015-11-01
Full Text Available Dynamical symmetries are of considerable importance in elucidating the complex behaviour of strongly interacting systems with many degrees of freedom. Paradigmatic examples are cooperative phenomena as they arise in phase transitions, where conformal invariance has led to enormous progress in equilibrium phase transitions, especially in two dimensions. Non-equilibrium phase transitions can arise in much larger portions of the parameter space than equilibrium phase transitions. The state of the art of recent attempts to generalise conformal invariance to a new generic symmetry, taking into account the different scaling behaviour of space and time, will be reviewed. Particular attention will be given to the causality properties as they follow for co-variant n-point functions. These are important for the physical identification of n-point functions as responses or correlators.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Dianfu
2008-01-01
In terms of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio mechanism, dynamical breaking of gauge symmetry for the maximally generalized Yang-Mills model is investigated. The gauge symmetry behavior at finite temperature is also investigated and it is shown that the gauge symmetry broken dynamically at zero temperature can be restored at finite temperatures
Using dynamic software in mathematics: the case of reflection symmetry
Tatar, Enver; Akkaya, Adnan; Berrin Kağizmanli, Türkan
2014-10-01
This study was carried out to examine the effects of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) using dynamic software on the achievement of students in mathematics in the topic of reflection symmetry. The study also aimed to ascertain the pre-service mathematics teachers' opinions on the use of CAI in mathematics lessons. In the study, a mixed research method was used. The study group of this research consists of 30 pre-service mathematics teachers. The data collection tools used include a reflection knowledge test, a survey and observations. Based on the analysis of the data obtained from the study, the use of CAI had a positive effect on achievement in the topic of reflection symmetry of the pre-service mathematics teachers. The pre-service mathematics teachers were found to largely consider that a mathematics education which is carried out utilizing CAI will be more beneficial in terms of 'visualization', 'saving of time' and 'increasing interest/attention in the lesson'. In addition, it was found that the vast majority of them considered using computers in their teaching on the condition that the learning environment in which they would be operating has the appropriate technological equipment.
Constraints of dynamical symmetry breaking mechanisms from electroweak data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ali, A.; Degrassi, G.
1991-04-01
Consistency of the Salam-Weinberg theory, including quantum corrections, with high precision data from LEP and elsewhere imposes non-trivial bounds on the parameters of this theory, in particular the top quark mass. We take stock of the available experimental information in the electroweak sector with the view of constraining possible additional interactions, such as present in dynamical symmetry breaking scenarios. Using the Peskin-Takeuchi isospin conserving, S and -violating, T, parametrization of new physics contribution to vacuum polarization corrections, we show here that the full one family technicolor models are ruled out at the 95% C.L. from the LEP data and m W -measurements alone. We stress the role of improved precision measurements of the W-boson mass and the decay width Γ(Z→banti b) in the enhanced sensitivity gained on such interactions. (orig.)
Dynamic generation of light states with discrete symmetries
Cordero, S.; Nahmad-Achar, E.; Castaños, O.; López-Peña, R.
2018-01-01
A dynamic procedure is established within the generalized Tavis-Cummings model to generate light states with discrete point symmetries, given by the cyclic group Cn. We consider arbitrary dipolar coupling strengths of the atoms with a one-mode electromagnetic field in a cavity. The method uses mainly the matter-field entanglement properties of the system, which can be extended to any number of three-level atoms. An initial state constituted by the superposition of two states with definite total excitation numbers, |ψ〉 M1,and |ψ〉 M 2, is considered. It can be generated by the proper selection of the time of flight of an atom passing through the cavity. We demonstrate that the resulting Husimi function of the light is invariant under cyclic point transformations of order n =| M1-M2| .
Current-Current Interactions, Dynamical Symmetry - and Quantum Chromodynamics.
Neuenschwander, Dwight Edward, Jr.
Quantum Chromodynamics with massive gluons (gluon mass (TBOND) xm(,p)) in a contact-interaction limit called CQCD (strong coupling g (--->) (INFIN); x (--->) (INFIN)), despite its non-renormalizability and lack of hope of confinement, is nevertheless interesting for at least two reasons. (1) Some authors have suggested a relation between 4-Fermi and Yang-Mills theories. If g/x('2) slavery, perturbative evaluation of QCD in the infrared is a dubious practice. However, if g('2)/x('2) << 1 in CQCD, then the simplest 4-Fermi interaction is dominant, and CQCD admits perturbative treatment, but only in the infrared. With the dominant interaction, a dynamical Nambu-Goldstone realization of chiral symmetry -breaking (XSB) is found. Although in QCD the relation between confinement and XSB is controversial, XSB occurs in CQCD provided confinement is sacrificed.
Dynamical chiral-symmetry breaking in dual QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krein, G.; Williams, A.G.
1991-01-01
We have extended recent studies by Baker, Ball, and Zachariasen (BBZ) of dynamical chiral-symmetry breaking in dual QCD. Specifically, we have taken dual QCD to specify the nonperturbative infrared nature of the quark-quark interaction and then we have smoothly connected onto this the known leading-log perturbative QCD interaction in the ultraviolet region. In addition, we have solved for a momentum-dependent self-energy and have used the complete lowest-order dual QCD quark-quark interaction. We calculate the quark condensate left-angle bar qq right-angle and the pion decay constant f π within this model. We find that the dual QCD parameters needed to give acceptable results are reasonably consistent with those extracted from independent physical considerations by BBZ
Dynamical chiral symmetry breaking and pion decay constant
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gogohia, V.Sh.; Kluge, Gy.
1991-08-01
Flavour non-singlet, chiral axial-vector Ward-Takahashi identity is investigated in the framework of dynamical chiral symmetry breaking. The use of the condition of stationarity for the bound-state amplitude is proposed in order to fully determine this quantity and the regular piece of the corresponding axial vertex. This makes it possible to express the pion decay constant in terms of the quark propagator variables only. An exact expression was found for the pion decay constant in current algebra and in Jackiw-Johnson representation as well. We also find a new expression for the pion decay constant in the Pagels-Stokar-Cornwall variables within the framework of Jackiw-Johnson representation. (author) 22 refs.; 2 figs
Dynamics of the universe and spontaneous symmetry breaking
Kazanas, D.
1980-01-01
It is shown that the presence of a phase transition early in the history of the universe, associated with spontaneous symmetry breaking (believed to take place at very high temperatures at which the various fundamental interactions unify), significantly modifies its dynamics and evolution. This is due to the energy 'pumping' during the phase transition from the vacuum to the substance, rather than the gravitating effects of the vacuum. The expansion law of the universe then differs substantially from the relation considered so far for the very early time expansion. In particular it is shown that under certain conditions this expansion law is exponential. It is further argued that under reasonable assumptions for the mass of the associated Higgs boson this expansion stage could last long enough to potentially account for the observed isotropy of the universe.
Supplies in gravitational dynamics and electroweak symmetry breaking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Soldate, M.
1988-01-01
During the past few years, my research interests have centered on physics associated with the Planck and electroweak scales. In each instance there is a physical issue which has motivated my work. The first is the dynamical determination of the observed geometry of spacetime. Typically, in a theory of quantum gravity, the topology and long-distance geometry of spacetime are not fixed uniquely by the field equations. One would like to be able to determine them through a dynamical principle for predictive power. The matter is of particular relevance to superstring theories, as they are most simply formulated in 10-dimensional Minkowski space. The second topic is the origin of electroweak symmetry breaking (EWSB). My work here has tended to be more phenomenological; it appears unlikely that a complete understanding of the gauge hierarchy problem can be obtained without some experimental knowledge of particles rather directly related to EWSB. I feel that both of these issues are of broad interest. In this paper, I will describe my future research plans in these areas after motivating and summarizing my previous work on them. 22 refs
Nambu mechanism of dynamical symmetry breaking by the top quark
Pham, Xuan-Yem
1990-05-01
It may be possible that the gauge symmetry breaking of the standard electroweak interactions is not due to the elementary scalar Higgs fields but has a dynamic origin intimately involving the top quark. A prototype of this dynamical scenario is the Nambu and Jona-Lasinio model in which both the top quark and the gauge bosons become massive by some strong attractive nonlinear interactions similar to the gap energy produced in BCS superconductivity. Self-consistent equations for the charged Goldstone boson and for the vector meson are used to get an upper bound for the top quark mass. In the bubble approximation of keeping only fermion loops, we obtain an equation relating the top quark mass to the W boson one; from the top mass is found to be around 84 GeV. Its typical dominant decay mode t→W+s then follows. Also discussed are distinctive signatures of the scalar overlinett bound state identified as the physical Higgs particle whose mass is twice that of the top quark.
Dynamics of symmetry breaking during quantum real-time evolution in a minimal model system.
Heyl, Markus; Vojta, Matthias
2014-10-31
One necessary criterion for the thermalization of a nonequilibrium quantum many-particle system is ergodicity. It is, however, not sufficient in cases where the asymptotic long-time state lies in a symmetry-broken phase but the initial state of nonequilibrium time evolution is fully symmetric with respect to this symmetry. In equilibrium, one particular symmetry-broken state is chosen as a result of an infinitesimal symmetry-breaking perturbation. From a dynamical point of view the question is: Can such an infinitesimal perturbation be sufficient for the system to establish a nonvanishing order during quantum real-time evolution? We study this question analytically for a minimal model system that can be associated with symmetry breaking, the ferromagnetic Kondo model. We show that after a quantum quench from a completely symmetric state the system is able to break its symmetry dynamically and discuss how these features can be observed experimentally.
Scaling symmetries, conservation laws and action principles in one-dimensional gas dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Webb, G M; Zank, G P
2009-01-01
Scaling symmetries of the planar, one-dimensional gas dynamic equations with adiabatic index γ are used to obtain Lagrangian and Eulerian conservation laws associated with the symmetries. The known Eulerian symmetry operators for the scaling symmetries are converted to the Lagrangian form, in which the Eulerian spatial position of the fluid element is given in terms of the Lagrangian fluid labels. Conditions for a linear combination of the three scaling symmetries to be a divergence or variational symmetry of the action are established. The corresponding Lagrangian and Eulerian form of the conservation laws are determined by application of Noether's theorem. A nonlocal conservation law associated with the scaling symmetries is obtained by applying a nonlocal symmetry operator to the scaling symmetry-conserved vector. An action principle incorporating known conservation laws using Lagrangian constraints is developed. Noether's theorem for the constrained action principle gives the same formulas for the conserved vector as the classical Noether theorem, except that the Lie symmetry vector field now includes the effects of nonlocal potentials. Noether's theorem for the constrained action principle is used to obtain nonlocal conservation laws. The scaling symmetry conservation laws only apply for special forms of the entropy of the gas.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Qing; Hou Yu-Long; Jing Jian; Long Zheng-Wen
2014-01-01
In this paper, we study symmetrical properties of two-dimensional (2D) screened Dirac Hydrogen atom and isotropic harmonic oscillator with scalar and vector potentials of equal magnitude (SVPEM). We find that it is possible for both cases to preserve so(3) and su(2) dynamical symmetries provided certain conditions are satisfied. Interestingly, the conditions for preserving these dynamical symmetries are exactly the same as non-relativistic screened Hydrogen atom and screened isotropic oscillator preserving their dynamical symmetries. Some intuitive explanations are proposed. (general)
From symmetry violation to dynamics: The charm window
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Appel, J.A.
1997-12-01
C.S. Wu observed parity violation in the low energy process of nuclear decay. She was the first to observe this symmetry violation at any energy. Yet, her work taught us about the form and strengths of the couplings of the massive weak boson. Today, we use the same approach. We look for very much higher mass-scale interactions through symmetry violations in the decays of charm quark systems. These charm decays provide a unique window to new physics
Dynamical generation of a composite quark-lepton symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yasue, Masaki.
1981-05-01
We demonstrate the possibility that a basic [SU(2)]sup(N) symmetry of N subconstituents, which describes particle and antiparticle transitions, generates at most an ''effective'' SO(2N) symmetry and at least an ''effective'' SU(N) x U(1) symmetry of composite quarks and leptons whose states are specified by the N different kinds of subconstituents. The generators of the ''effective'' symmetry, are identified by the correct algebraic properties specific to SO(2N) of composite operators constructed from the [SU(2)]sup(N)-operators acting on the composite quark-lepton states. The composite quarks and leptons are found to respect SO(4) x SO(6) or SU(2)sub(L) x U(1)sub(R) x SU(3)sub(c) x U(1)sub(B-L) according to a new selection rule, which are generated by the bilinear products of the raising and lowering operators of [SU(2)] 5 . This construction of the SO(4) x SO(6) generators allows us to uniquely define the five quantum numbers of that symmetry even at the subconstituent level. The full SO(10) generators can be also constructed; however, one needs a newly arranged [SU(2)] 5 symmetry only defined at the composite level, the generators of which turn out to be at most N body operators of the original [SU(2)] 5 . (author)
Evidence for dynamic SU(5) symmetry breaking in meson mass multiplets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frikkee, E.
1994-07-01
It is shown that the mass differences and multiplet pattern for pseudoscalar and vector mesons correspond to a chain of dynamic symmetry reductions SU(n) contains SU(n-1)xU(1). In this symmetry-reduction model, the differences between the masses of the quark flavours are the result of intra-hadronic interactions. Quark confinement is explained as a consequence of the fact that this symmetry breaking chain only occurs in hadrons. The results of a quantitative analysis of mass splittings in meson multiplets indicate that SU(5) is probably the highest symmetry for hadron states. In the proposed dynamic symmetry breaking scheme with five quark flavours there is no one-to-one correspondence between lepton and quark generations. (orig.)
A Generalized Yang-Mills Model and Dynamical Breaking of Gauge Symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Dianfu; Song Heshan
2005-01-01
A generalized Yang-Mills model, which contains, besides the vector part V μ , also a scalar part S, is constructed and the dynamical breaking of gauge symmetry in the model is also discussed. It is shown, in terms of Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) mechanism, that the gauge symmetry breaking can be realized dynamically in the generalized Yang-Mills model. The combination of the generalized Yang-Mills model and the NJL mechanism provides a way to overcome the difficulties related to the Higgs field and the Higgs mechanism in the usual spontaneous symmetry breaking theory.
SO(8) fermion dynamical symmetry and strongly correlated quantum Hall states in monolayer graphene
Wu, Lian-Ao; Murphy, Matthew; Guidry, Mike
2017-03-01
A formalism is presented for treating strongly correlated graphene quantum Hall states in terms of an SO(8) fermion dynamical symmetry that includes pairing as well as particle-hole generators. The graphene SO(8) algebra is isomorphic to an SO(8) algebra that has found broad application in nuclear physics, albeit with physically very different generators, and exhibits a strong formal similarity to SU(4) symmetries that have been proposed to describe high-temperature superconductors. The well-known SU(4) symmetry of quantum Hall ferromagnetism for single-layer graphene is recovered as one subgroup of SO(8), but the dynamical symmetry structure associated with the full set of SO(8) subgroup chains extends quantum Hall ferromagnetism and allows analytical many-body solutions for a rich set of collective states exhibiting spontaneously broken symmetry that may be important for the low-energy physics of graphene in strong magnetic fields. The SO(8) symmetry permits a natural definition of generalized coherent states that correspond to symmetry-constrained Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov solutions, or equivalently a microscopically derived Ginzburg-Landau formalism, exhibiting the interplay between competing spontaneously broken symmetries in determining the ground state.
Dynamics and control of vibratory gyroscopes with special spherical symmetry
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Shatalov, M
2006-01-01
Full Text Available It was shown in 1985 by Acad. V. Zhuravlev that the angular rate of a pure vibrating mode excited in a vibratory gyroscope with spherical symmetry is proportional to an inertial angular rate of the gyroscope. The effect is three dimensional...
Symmetries, first integrals and splittability of dynamical systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gonzalez Gascon, F.; Moreno Insertis, F.
1978-01-01
A method for reducing the order of a system of ordinary differential equations by means of the successive use of both a set of symmetries and of first integrals is introduced. The geometrical problems underlying this method are emphasized. The method generalizes the well known reduction in Hamiltonian systems
Exotic Galilean conformal symmetry and its dynamical realisations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lukierski, J.; Stichel, P.C.; Zakrzewski, W.J.
2006-01-01
The six-dimensional exotic Galilean algebra in (2+1) dimensions with two central charges m and θ, is extended when m=0, to a ten-dimensional Galilean conformal algebra with dilatation, expansion, two acceleration generators and the central charge θ. A realisation of such a symmetry is provided by a model with higher derivatives recently discussed in [P.C. Stichel, W.J. Zakrzewski, Ann. Phys. 310 (2004) 158]. We consider also a realisation of the Galilean conformal symmetry for the motion with a Coulomb potential and a magnetic vortex interaction. Finally, we study the restriction, as well as the modification, of the Galilean conformal algebra obtained after the introduction of the minimally coupled constant electric and magnetic fields
Vacuum polarization and dynamical chiral symmetry breaking in quantum electrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gusynin, V.P.
1989-01-01
The Schwinger-Dyson equation in the ladder approximation is considered for the fermion mass function taking into account the vacuum polarization effects. It is shown that even in the 'zero-charge' situation there exists, at rather large coupling constant (α>α c >0), a solution with spontaneously broken chiral symmetry. The existence of the local limit in the model concerned is discussed. 30 refs.; 1 fig
Ten dimensional SO(10) G.U.T. models with dynamical symmetry breaking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hanlon, B.E.; Joshi, G.C.
1993-01-01
To date, considerations on SO (10) models within Coset Space Dimensional Reduction (CSDR) have been diagonalized to the standard model or rely upon imaginative applications of Wilson lines so as to avoid the problem of the nonexistence of an intermediate Higgs mechanism. However, there is an alternative approach involving four fermion condensates, breaking symmetries by a dynamical mechanism. Indeed, dynamical symmetry breaking has been the direction taken in some SU(5) models within this framework in order to avoid the problems of electroweak symmetry breaking at the compactification scale. This paper presents realistic models which utilize this mechanism. It is shown that the appropriate fermionic representations can emerge from CSDR and the construction of such condensates within the constraints of this scheme is presented. By introducing discrete symmetries onto the internal manifold a strong breaking of the SO(10) G.U.T. is produced and, more importantly, eliminate Higgs fields of geometrical origin. 31 refs
Integrability and chaos in quantum systems (as viewed from geometry and dynamical symmetry)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, Wei-Min.
1989-01-01
It is known that the development and deep understanding of modern interaction theory and classical mechanics are made through geometry and symmetry. Yet, quantum mechanics which was regarded to be the microscopic theory of classical mechanics and achieved the crowning success in interpreting the entire microscopic world was developed purely from algebraic methods. In this thesis, the author will study the geometry and dynamical symmetry in quantum systems, from which the question of integrability and chaos are explicitly addressed. First of all, the quantum dynamical degrees of freedom and quantum integrability are precisely defined and the inherent geometrical structure of quantum systems is explored from the fundamental structure of quantum theory. Such a geometrical structure can provide a framework to simultaneously build quantum and classical mechanics. The quantum-classical correspondence is then explicitly deduced. The dynamics of quantum system before it reaches the classical limit is formulated. Thus, the classical chaos is proven to be a special limiting phenomena of quantum systems and the dynamics before the system reaches its classical chaos is explored. The latter is the first step to seek the quantum manifestation of chaos. The relationship between integrability and dynamical symmetry are studied and some universal properties are discovered: a dynamical system (both quantum and classical) in integrable if it possesses a dynamical symmetry. Chaos will occur if the system undergoes a dynamical symmetry breaking and is accompanied by a structural phase transition. Thus, the concept of dynamical symmetry can be used to predict the general behaviors of a system. The theoretical underpinnings developed in this thesis are verified by many basic quantum mechanical examples
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Damski, Bogdan; Zurek, Wojciech H
2008-01-01
We discuss the dynamics of a quantum phase transition in a spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensate when it is driven from the magnetized broken-symmetry phase to the unmagnetized 'symmetric' polar phase. We determine where the condensate goes out of equilibrium as it approaches the critical point, and compute the condensate magnetization at the critical point. This is done within a quantum Kibble-Zurek scheme traditionally employed in the context of symmetry-breaking quantum phase transitions. Then we study the influence of the non-equilibrium dynamics near a critical point on the condensate magnetization. In particular, when the quench stops at the critical point, nonlinear oscillations of magnetization occur. They are characterized by a period and an amplitude that are inversely proportional. If we keep driving the condensate far away from the critical point through the unmagnetized 'symmetric' polar phase, the amplitude of magnetization oscillations slowly decreases reaching a nonzero asymptotic value. That process is described by an equation that can be mapped onto the classical mechanical problem of a particle moving under the influence of harmonic and 'anti-friction' forces whose interplay leads to surprisingly simple fixed-amplitude oscillations. We obtain several scaling results relating the condensate magnetization to the quench rate, and verify numerically all analytical predictions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chun-Yu, Zhao; Yi-Min, Zhang; Bang-Chun, Wen
2010-01-01
We derive the non-dimensional coupling equation of two exciters, including inertia coupling, stiffness coupling and load coupling. The concept of general dynamic symmetry is proposed to physically explain the synchronisation of the two exciters, which stems from the load coupling that produces the torque of general dynamic symmetry to force the phase difference between the two exciters close to the angle of general dynamic symmetry. The condition of implementing synchronisation is that the torque of general dynamic symmetry is greater than the asymmetric torque of the two motors. A general Lyapunov function is constructed to derive the stability condition of synchronisation that the non-dimensional inertia coupling matrix is positive definite and all its elements are positive. Numeric results show that the structure of the vibrating system can guarantee the stability of synchronisation of the two exciters, and that the greater the distances between the installation positions of the two exciters and the mass centre of the vibrating system are, the stronger the ability of general dynamic symmetry is
Dynamical Evolution of an Effective Two-Level System with {\\mathscr{P}}{\\mathscr{T}} Symmetry
Du, Lei; Xu, Zhihao; Yin, Chuanhao; Guo, Liping
2018-05-01
We investigate the dynamics of parity- and time-reversal (PT ) symmetric two-energy-level atoms in the presence of two optical and a radio-frequency (rf) fields. The strength and relative phase of fields can drive the system from unbroken to broken PT symmetric regions. Compared with the Hermitian model, Rabi-type oscillation is still observed, and the oscillation characteristics are also adjusted by the strength and relative phase in the region of unbroken PT symmetry. At exception point (EP), the oscillation breaks down. To better understand the underlying properties we study the effective Bloch dynamics and find the emergence of the z components of the fixed points is the feature of the PT symmetry breaking and the projections in x-y plane can be controlled with high flexibility compared with the standard two-level system with PT symmetry. It helps to study the dynamic behavior of the complex PT symmetric model.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhao Gang-Ling; Chen Li-Qun; Fu Jing-Li; Hong Fang-Yu
2013-01-01
In this paper, Noether symmetry and Mei symmetry of discrete nonholonomic dynamical systems with regular and the irregular lattices are investigated. Firstly, the equations of motion of discrete nonholonomic systems are introduced for regular and irregular lattices. Secondly, for cases of the two lattices, based on the invariance of the Hamiltomian functional under the infinitesimal transformation of time and generalized coordinates, we present the quasi-extremal equation, the discrete analogues of Noether identity, Noether theorems, and the Noether conservation laws of the systems. Thirdly, in cases of the two lattices, we study the Mei symmetry in which we give the discrete analogues of the criterion, the theorem, and the conservative laws of Mei symmetry for the systems. Finally, an example is discussed for the application of the results
Test of the fermion dynamical symmetry model microscopy in the sd shell
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Halse, P.
1987-01-01
The recently formulated fermion dynamical symmetry model treats low-lying collective levels as states classified in a pseudo-orbit pseudo-spin (k-i) basis having either k = 1 and zero i seniority, or i = (3/2) and zero k seniority. The validity of this suggestion, which has not previously been subjected to a microscopic examination, is determined for even-even nuclei in the sd shell, for which the model is phenomenologically successful, by comparing these states with the eigenfunctions of a realistic Hamiltonian. Most low-lying levels are almost orthogonal to the fermion dynamical symmetry model zero seniority subspaces
Maximally Generalized Yang-Mills Model and Dynamical Breaking of Gauge Symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Dianfu; Song Heshan
2006-01-01
A maximally generalized Yang-Mills model, which contains, besides the vector part V μ , also an axial-vector part A μ , a scalar part S, a pseudoscalar part P, and a tensor part T μν , is constructed and the dynamical breaking of gauge symmetry in the model is also discussed. It is shown, in terms of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio mechanism, that the gauge symmetry breaking can be realized dynamically in the maximally generalized Yang-Mills model. The combination of the maximally generalized Yang-Mills model and the NJL mechanism provides a way to overcome the difficulties related to the Higgs field and the Higgs mechanism in the usual spontaneous symmetry breaking theory.
Irreversible dynamics, Onsager-Casimir symmetry, and an application to turbulence.
Ottinger, Hans Christian
2014-10-01
Irreversible contributions to the dynamics of nonequilibrium systems can be formulated in terms of dissipative, or irreversible, brackets. We discuss the structure of such irreversible brackets in view of a degeneracy implied by energy conservation, where we consider different types of symmetries of the bracket corresponding to the Onsager and Casimir symmetries of linear irreversible thermodynamics. Slip and turbulence provide important examples of antisymmetric irreversible brackets and offer guidance for the more general modeling of irreversible dynamics without entropy production. Conversely, turbulence modeling could benefit from elucidating thermodynamic structure. The examples suggest constructing antisymmetric irreversible brackets in terms of completely antisymmetric functions of three indices. Irreversible brackets without well-defined symmetry properties can arise for rare events, causing big configurational changes.
Dynamical systems with first- and second-class constraints. II. Local-symmetry transformations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chitaia, N.P.; Gogilidze, S.A.; Surovtsev, Y.S.
1997-01-01
In the framework of the generalized Hamiltonian formalism by Dirac, local symmetries of dynamical systems with first- and second-class constraints are investigated. The method of constructing the generator of local-symmetry transformations is presented both for theories with an algebra of constraints of a special form (a majority of the physically interesting theories) and in the general case without restrictions on the algebra of constraints. It is proven that second-class constraints do not contribute to the transformation law of the local symmetry entirely stipulated by all the first-class constraints. A mechanism of the occurrence of higher derivatives of coordinates and group parameters in the symmetry transformation law in Noether close-quote s second theorem is elucidated. In the latter case it is shown that the obtained transformations of symmetry are canonical in the extended (by Ostrogradsky) phase space. It is thereby shown that in the general case the degeneracy of theories with first- and second-class constraints is due to their invariance under local-symmetry transformations. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society
A generalized Wigner function for quantum systems with the SU(2) dynamical symmetry group
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Klimov, A B; Romero, J L
2008-01-01
We introduce a Wigner-like quasidistribution function to describe quantum systems with the SU(2) dynamic symmetry group. This function is defined in a three-dimensional group manifold and can be used to represent the states defined in several SU(2) invariant subspaces. The explicit differential Moyal-like form of the star product is found and analyzed in the semiclassical limit
PAAR, [No Value; VORKAPIC, D; DIEPERINK, AEL
1991-01-01
We investigate the energy-level statistics in dependence on the boson number and the underlying classical motion for a system or collective states of zero angular momentum in gamma-soft nuclei described in the framework of the O(6) dynamical symmetry of the interacting boson model. This presents a
Dynamical breakdown of chiral symmetry in vectorial theories: QED and QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garcia, J.C.M.
1987-01-01
Using a variational approach for the Effective Potential for composite operators we dicuss the dynamical breakdown of chiral symmetry in two vectorial theories: Quantum Electrodynamics (QED) and Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). We study the energetic aspects of the problem calculating the Effective Potential with the asymptotic nonperturbative solutions of the Schwinger-Dyson equation for the fermion selfenergy. (author) [pt
Non-ladder extended renormalization group analysis of the dynamical chiral symmetry breaking
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aoki, Ken-Ichi; Takagi, Kaoru; Terao, Haruhiko; Tomoyose, Masashi [Kanazawa Univ., Inst. for Theoretical Physics, Kanazawa, Ishikawa (Japan)
2000-04-01
The order parameters of dynamical chiral symmetry breaking in QCD, the dynamical mass of quarks and the chiral condensates, are evaluated by numerically solving the non-perturbative renormalization group (NPRG) equations. We employ an approximation scheme beyond 'the ladder', that is, beyond the (improved) ladder Schwinger-Dyson equations. The chiral condensates are enhanced in comparison with the ladder approximation, which is phenomenologically favorable. The gauge dependence of the order parameters is reduced significantly in this scheme. (author)
Non-ladder extended renormalization group analysis of the dynamical chiral symmetry breaking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aoki, Ken-Ichi; Takagi, Kaoru; Terao, Haruhiko; Tomoyose, Masashi
2000-01-01
The order parameters of dynamical chiral symmetry breaking in QCD, the dynamical mass of quarks and the chiral condensates, are evaluated by numerically solving the non-perturbative renormalization group (NPRG) equations. We employ an approximation scheme beyond 'the ladder', that is, beyond the (improved) ladder Schwinger-Dyson equations. The chiral condensates are enhanced in comparison with the ladder approximation, which is phenomenologically favorable. The gauge dependence of the order parameters is reduced significantly in this scheme. (author)
Chiral dynamics and heavy quark symmetry in a solvable toy field-theoretic model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bardeen, W.A.; Hill, C.T.
1994-01-01
We study a solvable QCD-like toy theory, a generalization of the Nambu--Jona-Lasinio model, which implements chiral symmetries of light quarks and heavy quark symmetry. The chiral symmetric and chiral broken phases can be dynamically tuned. This implies a parity-doubled heavy-light meson system, corresponding to a (0 - ,1 - ) multiplet and a (0 + ,1 + ) heavy spin multiplet. Consequently the mass difference of the two multiplets is given by a Goldberger-Treiman relation and g A is found to be small. The Isgur-Wise function ξ(w), the decay constant f B , and other observables are studied
Effective meson lagrangian with chiral and heavy quark symmetries from quark flavor dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ebert, D.; Feldmann, T.; Friedrich, R.; Reinhardt, H.
1994-06-01
By bosonization of an extended NJL model we derive an effective meson theory which describes the interplay between chiral symmetry and heavy quark dynamics. This effective theory is worked out in the low-energy regime using the gradient expansion. The resulting effective lagrangian describes strong and weak interactions of heavy B and D mesons with pseudoscalar Goldstone bosons and light vector and axial-vector mesons. Heavy meson weak decay constants, coupling constants and the Isgur-Wise function are predicted in terms of the model parameters partially fixed from the light quark sector. Explicit SU(3) F symmetry breaking effects are estimated and, if possible, confronted with experiment. (orig.)
Gl(2/2)-oscillators and Gl(2/2)-dynamical symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kamupingene, A.H.; Nguyen Anh Ky.
1991-07-01
Extending the concept of the dynamical symmetry, we identify the Lie superalgebra Gl(2/2) as a dynamical (super-)algebra of a class of non-canonical quantum systems, whose dynamical variables and quantities can be realized in terms of the Gl(2/2)-generators. In this way, a new class of harmonic oscillators is established. As a consequence of the choice of the dynamical variables the Heisenberg algebra and the Hermitian condition for the Gl(2/2)-representations are also given. (author). 12 refs
Dynamical damping terms for symmetry-seeking shift conditions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alic, Daniela; Rezzolla, Luciano; Hinder, Ian; Moesta, Philipp
2010-01-01
Suitable gauge conditions are fundamental for stable and accurate numerical-relativity simulations of inspiralling compact binaries. A number of well-studied conditions have been developed over the last decade for both the lapse and the shift and these have been successfully used both in vacuum and non-vacuum spacetimes when simulating binaries with comparable masses. At the same time, recent evidence has emerged that the standard 'Gamma-driver' shift condition requires a careful and non-trivial tuning of its parameters to ensure long-term stable evolutions of unequal-mass binaries. We present a novel gauge condition in which the damping constant is promoted to be a dynamical variable and the solution of an evolution equation. We show that this choice removes the need for special tuning and provides a shift damping term which is free of instabilities in our simulations and dynamically adapts to the individual positions and masses of the binary black-hole system. Our gauge condition also reduces the variations in the coordinate size of the apparent horizon of the larger black hole and could therefore be useful when simulating binaries with very small mass ratios.
Dynamical mechanism of symmetry breaking and particle mass generation in gauge field theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miranskij, V.A.; Fomin, P.I.
1985-01-01
The dynamics of the spotaneous symmetry breaking and the particle mass generation in gauge theories with no fundamental scalar fields is considered. The emphasis is on the consideration of the symmetry breaking mechanism connected with the dynamics of the supercritical Coulomb-like forces caused by the gauge boson exchange between fermions. This mechanism is applied to different gauge theories, in particular, to the description of the spontaneous chira symmetry breaking in quantum chromodynamics. The mass relations for pseudoscalar meson nonet are obtained and it is shown that this mechanism resuls in the dynamical realisation of the hypothesis of the partial conservation of the axial-vector currents. The qualitative description of scalar mesons is given. The nature of the ultraviolet divergencies in quantum electrodynamics (QED) is investigated from the viewpoint of the dynamics of the fermion mass generation. The mechanism of the appearance of the additional (in comparison with perturbation theory) ultraviolet divergencies in QED with large bare coupling constant is indicated. The physical phenomenon underlying this mechanism is identified as the field theory analogue of the quantum mechanical ''fall into the centre'' (collapse) phenomenon. The similr phenomenon is shown to take place in some two-dimensional quantum field models. The dynamics of the bifermion condensates formation in tumblin gauge theories is briefly discussed
Conformal symmetry and non-relativistic second-order fluid dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chao Jingyi; Schäfer, Thomas
2012-01-01
We study the constraints imposed by conformal symmetry on the equations of fluid dynamics at second order in the gradients of the hydrodynamic variables. At zeroth order, conformal symmetry implies a constraint on the equation of state, E 0 =2/3 P, where E 0 is the energy density and P is the pressure. At first order, conformal symmetry implies that the bulk viscosity must vanish. We show that at second order, conformal invariance requires that two-derivative terms in the stress tensor must be traceless, and that it determines the relaxation of dissipative stresses to the Navier–Stokes form. We verify these results by solving the Boltzmann equation at second order in the gradient expansion. We find that only a subset of the terms allowed by conformal symmetry appear. - Highlights: ► We derive conformal constraints for the stress tensor of a scale invariant fluid. ► We determine the relaxation time in kinetic theory. ► We compute the rate of entropy production in second-order fluid dynamics.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schröck, M.
2013-01-01
Within the framework of this thesis, the interrelation between the two characteristic phenomena of quantum chromodynamics (QCD), i.e., dynamical chiral symmetry breaking and confinement, is investigated. To this end, we apply lattice gauge field theory techniques and adopt a method to artificially restore the dynamically broken chiral symmetry. The low-mode part of the Dirac eigenspectrum is tied to the dynamical breaking of the chiral symmetry according to the Banks--Casher relation. Utilizing two-flavor dynamical lattice gauge field configurations, we construct valence quark propagators that exclude a variable sized part of the low-mode Dirac spectrum, with the aim of using these as an input for meson and baryon interpolating fields. Subsequently, we explore the behavior of ground and excited states of the low-mode truncated hadrons using the variational analysis method. We look for the existence of confined hadron states and extract effective masses where applicable. Moreover, we explore the evolution of the quark wavefunction renormalization function and the renormalization point invariant mass function of the quark propagator under Dirac low-mode truncation in a gauge fixed setting. Motivated by the necessity of fixing the gauge in the aforementioned study of the quark propagator, we also developed a flexible high performance code for lattice gauge fixing, accelerated by graphic processing units (GPUs) using NVIDIA CUDA (Compute Unified Device Architecture). Lastly, more related but unpublished work on the topic is presented. This includes a study of the locality violation of low-mode truncated Dirac operators, a discussion of the possible extension of the low-mode truncation method to the sea quark sector based on a reweighting scheme, as well as the presentation of an alternative way to restore the dynamically broken chiral symmetry. (author) [de
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kremer, Christoph
2016-01-27
The first part of this thesis revolves around symmetries in the sd-IBA-1. A region of approximate O(6) symmetry for the ground-state band, a partial dynamical symmetry (PDS) of type III, in the parameter space of the extended consistent-Q formalism is identified through quantum number fluctuations. The simultaneous occurrence of a SU(3) quasi dynamical symmetry for nuclei in the region of O(6) PDS is explained via the β=1, γ=0 intrinsic state underlying the ground-state band. The previously unrelated concepts of PDS and QDS are connected for the first time and many nuclei in the rare earth region that approximately satisfy both symmetry requirements are identified. Ground-state to ground-state (p, t) transfer reactions are presented as an experimental signature to identify pairs of nuclei that both exhibit O(6) PDS. In the second part of this thesis inelastic electron scattering off {sup 96}Zr is studied. The experiment was performed at the high resolution Lintott spectrometer at the S-DALINAC and covered a momentum-transfer range of 0.28 - 0.59 fm{sup -1}. Through a relative analysis using Plane Wave Born Approximation (PWBA) the B(E2;2{sup +}{sub 2}→0{sup +}{sub 1}) value is extracted without incurring the additional model dependence of a Distorted Wave Born Approximation (DWBA). By combining this result with known multipole mixing ratios and branching ratios all decay strengths of the 2{sup +}{sub 2} state are determined. A mixing calculation establishes very weak mixing (V{sub mix}=76 keV) between states of the ground-state band and those of the band build on top of the 0{sup +}{sub 2} state which includes the 2{sup +}{sub 2} state. The occurrence of these two isolated bands is interpreted within the shell model in terms of type II shell evolution.
Symmetries and composite dynamics for the 750 GeV diphoton excess
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Franzosi, Diogo Buarque; Frandsen, Mads T.
2018-01-01
of a pseudo-scalar via gluon or photon fusion or via decay of a parent particle together with soft additional final states. We discuss possible underlying realizations of the scenarios motivated by dynamical models of electroweak symmetry breaking (without new coloured states) and fermion masses.......The ATLAS and CMS experiments at LHC observe small excesses of diphoton events with invariant mass around 750 GeV. Here we study the possibility of nearly parity degenerate and vector-scalar degenerate spectra as well as composite dynamics in 2 scenarios for explaining the excess: Production...
Dynamical instability induced by the zero mode under symmetry breaking external perturbation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takahashi, J.; Nakamura, Y.; Yamanaka, Y.
2014-01-01
A complex eigenvalue in the Bogoliubov–de Gennes equations for a stationary Bose-Einstein condensate in the ultracold atomic system indicates the dynamical instability of the system. We also have the modes with zero eigenvalues for the condensate, called the zero modes, which originate from the spontaneous breakdown of symmetries. Although the zero modes are suppressed in many theoretical analyses, we take account of them in this paper and argue that a zero mode can change into one with a pure imaginary eigenvalue by applying a symmetry breaking external perturbation potential. This emergence of a pure imaginary mode adds a new type of scenario of dynamical instability to that characterized by the complex eigenvalue of the usual excitation modes. For illustration, we deal with two one-dimensional homogeneous Bose–Einstein condensate systems with a single dark soliton under a respective perturbation potential, breaking the invariance under translation, to derive pure imaginary modes. - Highlights: • Zero modes are important but ignored in many theories for the cold atomic system. • We discuss the zero mode under symmetry breaking potential in this system. • We consider the zero mode of translational invariance for a single dark soliton. • We show that it turns into an anomalous or pure imaginary mode
Ralph, Joseph; Salmonson, Jay; Dewald, Eduard; Bachmann, Benjamin; Edwards, John; Graziani, Frank; Hurricane, Omar; Landen, Otto; Ma, Tammy; Masse, Laurent; MacLaren, Stephen; Meezan, Nathan; Moody, John; Parrilla, Nicholas; Pino, Jesse; Sacks, Ryan; Tipton, Robert
2017-10-01
Understanding what affects implosion symmetry has been a challenge for scientists designing indirect drive inertial confinement fusion experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF). New experimental techniques and data analysis have been employed aimed at improving our understanding of the relationship between hohlraum dynamics and implosion symmetry. Thin wall imaging data allows for time-resolved imaging of 10 keV Au l-band x-rays providing for the first time on the NIF, a spatially resolved measurement of laser deposition with time. In the work described here, we combine measurements from the thin wall imaging with time resolved views of the interior of the hohlraum. The measurements presented are compared to hydrodynamic simulations as well as simplified physics models. The goal of this work is to form a physical picture that better explains the relationship of the hohlraum dynamics and capsule ablator on laser beam propagation and implosion symmetry. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.
Broken symmetry within crystallographic super-spaces: structural and dynamical aspects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mariette, Celine
2013-01-01
Aperiodic crystals have the property to possess long range order without translational symmetry. These crystals are described within the formalism of super-space crystallography. In this manuscript, we will focus on symmetry breaking which take place in such crystallographic super-space groups, considering the prototype family of n-alkane/urea. Studies performed by X-ray diffraction using synchrotron sources reveal multiple structural solutions implying or not changes of the dimension of the super-space. Once the characterization of the order parameter and of the symmetry breaking is done, we present the critical pre-transitional phenomena associated to phase transitions of group/subgroup types. Coherent neutron scattering and inelastic X-ray scattering allow a dynamical analysis of different kind of excitations in these materials (phonons, phasons). The inclusion compounds with short guest molecules (alkane C n H 2n+2 , n varying from 7 to 13) show at room temperature unidimensional 'liquid-like' phases. The dynamical disorder along the incommensurate direction of these materials generates new structural solutions at low temperature (inter-modulated monoclinic composite, commensurate lock-in). (author) [fr
Geometric mechanics of ray optics as particle dynamics: refraction index with cylindrical symmetry
Cortés, Emilio; Ruiz, Melina
2017-09-01
Starting from the Fermat principle of geometrical optics, we analyse the ray dynamics in a graded refractive index system device with cylindrical symmetry and a refractive index that decreases parabolically with the radial coordinate. By applying Hamiltonian dynamics to the study of the ray path we obtain the strict equivalence of this optical system with the dynamics of a particle with an equivalent mass moving in a potential function that may exhibit a well, depending on the value of some associated parameters. We analyse the features of this potential function as well as the energy values and the symmetries of the system and see that both the azimuthal and axial components of the optical conjugate momentum are two constants of motion. The phase space relation for the momentum radial component is obtained analytically, and then we can obtain the components of the momentum vector at any point, given the value of the radial coordinate, and from this we have the direction of the ray. We discuss the optical path length as an action functional and we can evaluate this stationary path, with initial and final arbitrary points, as a line integral of the optical momentum, by showing that this momentum is a conservative vector field. We integrate the equations of motion numerically and obtain different ray paths which depend on the initial conditions. We believe that with this work the physics student will appreciate very clearly the close connection between geometrical optics and particle Hamiltonian dynamics.
Roles of dynamical symmetry breaking in driving oblate-prolate transitions of atomic clusters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oka, Yurie; Yanao, Tomohiro; Koon, Wang Sang
2015-01-01
This paper explores the driving mechanisms for structural transitions of atomic clusters between oblate and prolate isomers. We employ the hyperspherical coordinates to investigate structural dynamics of a seven-atom cluster at a coarse-grained level in terms of the dynamics of three gyration radii and three principal axes, which characterize overall mass distributions of the cluster. Dynamics of gyration radii is governed by two kinds of forces. One is the potential force originating from the interactions between atoms. The other is the dynamical forces called the internal centrifugal forces, which originate from twisting and shearing motions of the system. The internal centrifugal force arising from twisting motions has an effect of breaking the symmetry between two gyration radii. As a result, in an oblate isomer, activation of the internal centrifugal force that has the effect of breaking the symmetry between the two largest gyration radii is crucial in triggering structural transitions into prolate isomers. In a prolate isomer, on the other hand, activation of the internal centrifugal force that has the effect of breaking the symmetry between the two smallest gyration radii is crucial in triggering structural transitions into oblate isomers. Activation of a twisting motion that switches the movement patterns of three principal axes is also important for the onset of structural transitions between oblate and prolate isomers. Based on these trigger mechanisms, we finally show that selective activations of specific gyration radii and twisting motions, depending on the isomer of the cluster, can effectively induce structural transitions of the cluster. The results presented here could provide further insights into the control of molecular reactions
Conformal coupling associated with the Noether symmetry and its connection with the ΛCDM dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
De Souza, Rudinei C; Kremer, Gilberto M
2013-01-01
The aim of this work is to investigate a non-minimally coupled scalar field model through the Noether symmetry approach, with the radiation, matter and cosmological constant eras being analyzed. The Noether symmetry condition allows a conformal coupling and by means of a change of coordinates in the configuration space the field equations can be reduced to a single equation, which is of the form of the Friedmann equation for the ΛCDM model. In this way, it is formally shown that the dynamical system can furnish solutions with the same form as those of the ΛCDM model, although the theory here considered is physically different from the former. The conserved quantity associated with the Noether symmetry can be related to the kinetic term of the scalar field and could constrain the possible deviations of the model from the ΛCDM picture. Observational constraints on the variation of the gravitational constant can be imposed on the model through the initial condition of the scalar field. (paper)
Dynamical symmetry breaking of λφ4 theory in the two loop effective potential
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang Jifeng; Ruan Jianhong
2002-01-01
The two loop effective potential of massless λφ 4 theory is presented in several regularization and renormalization prescriptions and the dynamical symmetry breaking solution is obtained in the strong-coupling situation in several prescriptions except the Coleman-Weinberg prescription. The beta function in the broken phase becomes negative and the UV fixed point turns out to be a strong-coupling one, and its numeric value varies with the renormalization prescriptions, a detail which is different from the asymptotic-free solution in the one loop case. The symmetry-breaking phase is shown to be an entirely strong-coupling phase. The reason for the relevance of the renormalization prescriptions is shown to be due to the nonperturbative nature of the effective potential. We also reanalyze the two loop effective potential by adopting a differential equation approach based on the understanding that all the quantum field theories are ill-defined formulations of the 'low-energy' effective theories of a complete underlying theory. The relevance of the prescriptions of fixing the local ambiguities to physical properties such as symmetry breaking is further emphasized. We also tentatively propose a rescaling insensitivity argument for fixing the quadratic ambiguities. Some detailed properties of the strongly coupled broken phase and related issues are discussed
From Quantum Deformations of Relativistic Symmetries to Modified Kinematics and Dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lukierski, J.
2010-01-01
We present a short review describing the use of noncommutative spacetime in quantum-deformed dynamical theories: classical and quantum mechanics as well as classical and quantum field theory. We expose the role of Hopf algebras and their realizations (noncommutative modules) as important mathematical tool describing quantum-deformed symmetries: quantum Lie groups and quantum Lie algebras. We consider in some detail the most studied examples of noncommutative space-time geometry: the canonical and κ-deformed cases. Finally, we briefly describe the modifications of Einstein gravity obtained by introduction of noncommutative space-time coordinates. (author)
Structure of transition nuclei states in fermion dynamic-symmetry model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baktybaev, K.; Kojlyk, N.O.; Romankulov, K.
2007-01-01
In the paper collective structures of osmium heavy isotopes nucleons are studied. Results of diagonalization of SO(6) symmetric Hamiltonian of fermion-dynamical symmetry-model are comparing with results of other phenomenological methods such as Bohr-Mottelson model and interacting bosons model. For heavy osmium isotopes not only collective excitations spectral bands but also for probability of E2-electromagnet transition are which are compared with existing experimental data. It is revealed, that complexity of state structure for examined nuclei is related with competition and interweaving of rotation and vibration states and also more complicated states of γ instable nature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oppermann, R.; Rosenow, B.
1997-10-01
We report large effects of Parisi replica permutation symmetry breaking (RPSB) on elementary excitations of fermionic systems with frustrated magnetic interactions. The electronic density of states is obtained exactly in the zero temperature limit for (K = 1)- step RPSB together with relations for arbitrary breaking K, which lead to a new fermionic and dynamical Parisi solution at K = ∞. The Ward identity for charge conservation indicates RPSB-effects on the conductivity in metallic quantum spin glasses. This implies that RPSB is essential for any fermionic system showing spin glass sections within its phase diagram. An astonishing similarity with a neural network problem is also observed. (author)
Dynamical symmetry breaking in the Jackiw-Johnson model and the gauge technique
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Singh, J.P.
1984-01-01
The Jackiw-Johnson model of dynamical gauge symmetry breaking has been re-examined in the light of the gauge technique. In the limit where the ratio of the axial to vector coupling constants becomes small, or, consistently, in the limit where the ratio of the axial-vector-boson mass to the fermion mass becomes small, an approximate solution for the fermion spectral function has been derived. This gives an extremely small ratio of the axial-vector-boson mass to the fermion mass. (author)
Dynamical symmetry breaking of the electroweak interactions and the renormalization group
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hill, C.T.
1990-08-01
We discuss dynamical symmetry breaking with an emphasis on the renormalization group as the key tool to obtaining reliable predictions. In particular we discuss the mechanism for breaking the electroweak interactions which relies upon the formation of condensates involving the conventional quarks and leptons. Such a scheme indicates that the top quark is heavy, greater than or of order 200 GeV, and gives further predictions for the Higgs boson mass. We also briefly describe recent attempts to incorporate a 4th generation in a more natural scheme. 13 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab
Hadron spectroscopy and dynamics from light-front holography and conformal symmetry
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
de Téramond Guy F.
2014-06-01
Full Text Available To a first semiclassical approximation one can reduce the multi-parton light-front problem in QCD to an effective one-dimensional quantum field theory, which encodes the fundamental conformal symmetry of the classical QCD Lagrangian. This procedure leads to a relativistic light-front wave equation for arbitrary spin which incorporates essential spectroscopic and non-perturbative dynamical features of hadron physics. The mass scale for confinement and higher dimensional holographic mapping to AdS space are also emergent properties of this framework.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Muecher, Dennis
2009-04-28
Within this thesis the influence of subshell closures at neutron numbers N=40 and N=56 upon nuclear structure was examined. The work was focussed on the nucleus {sup 70}Zn that has been studied by a series of experiments. Firstly a photon-scattering experiment was performed at the University of Stuttgart in order to revise the lifetime of the 2{sup +}{sub 2} state in {sup 70}Zn. Furthermore {sup 70}Zn was measured using monoenergetic neutrons at the University of Kentucky yielding many decisive corrections to the low-energy level scheme. In addition, magnetic moments of shortlived states were investigated with the method of transient magnetic fields. As a consequnce of these results it was shown that the nucleus {sup 70}Zn can be described within the F spin symmetric dynamical symmetry U(5) of the IBM-2. A new interpretation was given for the inconvenient behavior of the 0{sup +}{sub 2} and 2{sup +}{sub 3} level. The 2{sup +}{sub 3} state was proposed as the mixedsymmetry state 2{sup +}{sub 1,ms}. Furthermore candidates for the mixed-symmetry states of higher phonon order were presented. It was shown that strong mixing of the involved states occurs. The exceptional behavior of the 2{sup +}{sub 1,ms} states in the even-even zinc isotopes was interpreted as a breaking of the F spin symmetry at the transition to an isospin symmetric system. Experiments with radioactive beams of the nuclei {sup 88}Kr and {sup 92}Kr were presented as well. This was done to show how far mixed symmetry states can be studied using radioactive ion beam experiments in the future. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Elizalde, E.; Gavrilov, S.P.; Shil'nov, Yu.I.
2000-01-01
A four-fermion model with additional higher-derivative terms is investigated in an external electromagnetic field. The effective potential in the leading order of large-N expansion is calculated in external constant magnetic and electric fields. It is shown that, in contrast to the former results concerning the universal character of 'magnetic catalysis' in dynamical symmetry breaking, in the present higher-derivative model the magnetic field restores chiral symmetry broken initially on the tree level. Numerical results describing a second-order phase transition that accompanies the symmetry restoration at the quantum level are presented. (author)
Masmoudi, Nabil; Pšenčí k, Ivan
2014-01-01
We present an approximate, but efficient and sufficiently accurate P-wave ray tracing and dynamic ray tracing procedure for 3D inhomogeneous, weakly orthorhombic media with varying orientation of symmetry planes. In contrast to commonly used approaches, the orthorhombic symmetry is preserved at any point of the model. The model is described by six weak-anisotropy parameters and three Euler angles, which may vary arbitrarily, but smoothly, throughout the model. We use the procedure for the calculation of rays and corresponding two-point traveltimes in a VSP experiment in a part of the BP benchmark model generalized to orthorhombic symmetry.
Finite-temperature spin dynamics in a perturbed quantum critical Ising chain with an E₈ symmetry.
Wu, Jianda; Kormos, Márton; Si, Qimiao
2014-12-12
A spectrum exhibiting E₈ symmetry is expected to arise when a small longitudinal field is introduced in the transverse-field Ising chain at its quantum critical point. Evidence for this spectrum has recently come from neutron scattering measurements in cobalt niobate, a quasi-one-dimensional Ising ferromagnet. Unlike its zero-temperature counterpart, the finite-temperature dynamics of the model has not yet been determined. We study the dynamical spin structure factor of the model at low frequencies and nonzero temperatures, using the form factor method. Its frequency dependence is singular, but differs from the diffusion form. The temperature dependence of the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxation rate has an activated form, whose prefactor we also determine. We propose NMR experiments as a means to further test the applicability of the E₈ description for CoNb₂O₆.
Particle dynamics around time conformal regular black holes via Noether symmetries
Jawad, Abdul; Umair Shahzad, M.
The time conformal regular black hole (RBH) solutions which are admitting the time conformal factor e𝜖g(t), where g(t) is an arbitrary function of time and 𝜖 is the perturbation parameter are being considered. The approximate Noether symmetries technique is being used for finding the function g(t) which leads to t α. The dynamics of particles around RBHs are also being discussed through symmetry generators which provide approximate energy as well as angular momentum of the particles. In addition, we analyze the motion of neutral and charged particles around two well known RBHs such as charged RBH using Fermi-Dirac distribution and Kehagias-Sftesos asymptotically flat RBH. We obtain the innermost stable circular orbit and corresponding approximate energy and angular momentum. The behavior of effective potential, effective force and escape velocity of the particles in the presence/absence of magnetic field for different values of angular momentum near horizons are also being analyzed. The stable and unstable regions of particle near horizons due to the effect of angular momentum and magnetic field are also explained.
Symmetry Breaking in Space-Time Hierarchies Shapes Brain Dynamics and Behavior.
Pillai, Ajay S; Jirsa, Viktor K
2017-06-07
In order to maintain brain function, neural activity needs to be tightly coordinated within the brain network. How this coordination is achieved and related to behavior is largely unknown. It has been previously argued that the study of the link between brain and behavior is impossible without a guiding vision. Here we propose behavioral-level concepts and mechanisms embodied as structured flows on manifold (SFM) that provide a formal description of behavior as a low-dimensional process emerging from a network's dynamics dependent on the symmetry and invariance properties of the network connectivity. Specifically, we demonstrate that the symmetry breaking of network connectivity constitutes a timescale hierarchy resulting in the emergence of an attractive functional subspace. We show that behavior emerges when appropriate conditions imposed upon the couplings are satisfied, justifying the conductance-based nature of synaptic couplings. Our concepts propose design principles for networks predicting how behavior and task rules are represented in real neural circuits and open new avenues for the analyses of neural data. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dynamic d-symmetry Bose condensate of a planar-large-bipolaron liquid in cuprate superconductors
Emin, David
2017-11-01
Planar-large-bipolarons can form if the ratio of the surrounding mediums' static to high-frequency dielectric constants is especially large, ε0/ε∞ >> 2. A large-bipolaron in p-doped La2CuO4 is modelled as two electrons being removed from the out-of-plane orbitals of four oxygen ions circumscribed by four copper ions of a CuO2 layer. These oxygen dianions relax inwardly as they donate electrons to the surrounding outwardly relaxing copper cations. This charge transfer generates the strong in-plane electron-lattice interaction needed to stabilise a large-bipolaron with respect to decomposing into polarons. The lowest-energy radial in-plane optic vibration of a large-bipolaron's four core oxygen ions with their associated electronic charges has d-symmetry. Electronic relaxation in response to multiple large-bipolarons' atomic vibrations lowers their frequencies to generate a phonon-mediated attraction among them which fosters their condensation into a liquid. This liquid features distinctive transport and optical properties. A large-bipolaron liquid's superconductivity can result when it undergoes a Bose condensation yielding macroscopic occupation of its ground state. The synchronised vibrations of large-bipolarons' core-oxygen ions with their electronic charges generate this Bose condensate's dynamic global d-symmetry.
Enhancement of neutral tc transitions in the model of dynamical breaking of electroweak symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arbuzov, B.A.; Osipov, M.Yu.
1999-01-01
The problem of possible deviations from the standard model is considered in the framework of a variant of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking. It comes clear, that the parameters of the theory, being obtained earlier and describing deviations from standard model in Z → b-barb decay, are also consistent with the existence of a nontrivial solution for vertex t-bar (Z, γ)c. The occurrence of this solution leads to a significant enhancement in neutral flavor changing transition t → c. The intensity of this transition is connected with the c-quark mass, that leads to estimates of probabilities of exotic decays t → c(Z, γ) and of the cross section of a single t-quark production in process e + e - → tc-bar, which threshold is already overcome at LEP2. The model is shown to be consistent with the totality of the existing data, the predictions allow its unambiguous check [ru
Sequence selection by dynamical symmetry breaking in an autocatalytic binary polymer model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fellermann, Harold; Tanaka, Shinpei; Rasmussen, Steen
2017-01-01
Template-directed replication of nucleic acids is at the essence of all living beings and a major milestone for any origin of life scenario. We present an idealized model of prebiotic sequence replication, where binary polymers act as templates for their autocatalytic replication, thereby serving...... as each others reactants and products in an intertwined molecular ecology. Our model demonstrates how autocatalysis alters the qualitative and quantitative system dynamics in counterintuitive ways. Most notably, numerical simulations reveal a very strong intrinsic selection mechanism that favors...... the appearance of a few population structures with highly ordered and repetitive sequence patterns when starting from a pool of monomers. We demonstrate both analytically and through simulation how this "selection of the dullest" is caused by continued symmetry breaking through random fluctuations...
Bhattacharyya, Debankur; Paul, Shibashis; Ghosh, Shyamolina; Ray, Deb Shankar
2018-04-01
We consider the Brownian motion of a collection of particles each with an additional degree of freedom. The degree of freedom of a particle (or, in general, a molecule) can assume distinct values corresponding to certain states or conformations. The time evolution of the additional degree of freedom of a particle is guided by those of its neighbors as well as the temperature of the system. We show that the local averaging over these degrees of freedom results in emergence of a collective order in the dynamics in the form of selection or dominance of one of the isomers leading to a symmetry-broken state. Our statistical model captures the basic features of homochirality, e.g., autocatalysis and chiral inhibition.
Correlations and symmetry of interactions influence collective dynamics of molecular motors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Celis-Garza, Daniel; Teimouri, Hamid; Kolomeisky, Anatoly B
2015-01-01
Enzymatic molecules that actively support many cellular processes, including transport, cell division and cell motility, are known as motor proteins or molecular motors. Experimental studies indicate that they interact with each other and they frequently work together in large groups. To understand the mechanisms of collective behavior of motor proteins we study the effect of interactions in the transport of molecular motors along linear filaments. It is done by analyzing a recently introduced class of totally asymmetric exclusion processes that takes into account the intermolecular interactions via thermodynamically consistent approach. We develop a new theoretical method that allows us to compute analytically all dynamic properties of the system. Our analysis shows that correlations play important role in dynamics of interacting molecular motors. Surprisingly, we find that the correlations for repulsive interactions are weaker and more short-range than the correlations for the attractive interactions. In addition, it is shown that symmetry of interactions affect dynamic properties of molecular motors. The implications of these findings for motor proteins transport are discussed. Our theoretical predictions are tested by extensive Monte Carlo computer simulations. (paper)
A self-consistent mean-field approach to the dynamical symmetry breaking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kunihiro, Teiji; Hatsuda, Tetsuo.
1984-01-01
The dynamical symmetry breaking phenomena in the Nambu and Jona-Lasimio model are reexamined in the framework of a self-consistent mean-field (SCMF) theory. First, we formulate the SCMF theory in a lucid manner based on a successful decomposition of the Lagrangian into semiclassical and residual interaction parts by imposing a condition that ''the dangerous term'' in Bogoliubov's sense should vanish. Then, we show that the difference of the energy density between the super and normal phases, the correct expression of which the original authors failed to give, can be readily obtained by applying the SCMF theory. Futhermore, it is shown that the expression thus obtained is identical to that of the effective potential (E.P.) given by the path-integral method with an auxiliary field up to the one loop order in the loop expansion, then one finds a new and simple way to get the E.P. Some numerical results of the E.P. and the dynamically generated mass of fermion are also shown. As another demonstration of the powerfulness of the SCMF theory, we derive, in the Appendix, the energy density of the O(N)-phi 4 model including the higher order corrections in the sense of large N expansion. (author)
Grozdanov, Sašo; Poovuttikul, Napat
2018-05-01
In this work, we show how states with conserved numbers of dynamical defects (strings, domain walls, etc.) can be understood as possessing generalized global symmetries even when the microscopic origins of these symmetries are unknown. Using this philosophy, we build an effective theory of a 2 +1 -dimensional fluid state with two perpendicular sets of immersed elastic line defects. When the number of defects is independently conserved in each set, then the state possesses two one-form symmetries. Normally, such viscoelastic states are described as fluids coupled to Goldstone bosons associated with spontaneous breaking of translational symmetry caused by the underlying microscopic structure—the principle feature of which is a transverse sound mode. At the linear, nondissipative level, we verify that our theory, based entirely on symmetry principles, is equivalent to a viscoelastic theory. We then build a simple holographic dual of such a state containing dynamical gravity and two two-form gauge fields, and use it to study its hydrodynamic and higher-energy spectral properties characterized by nonhydrodynamic, gapped modes. Based on the holographic analysis of transverse two-point functions, we study consistency between low-energy predictions of the bulk theory and the effective boundary theory. Various new features of the holographic dictionary are explained in theories with higher-form symmetries, such as the mixed-boundary-condition modification of the quasinormal mode prescription that depends on the running coupling of the boundary double-trace deformations. Furthermore, we examine details of low- and high-energy parts of the spectrum that depend on temperature, line defect densities and the renormalization group scale.
Z → bb-bar probability and asymmetry in a model of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arbuzov, B.A.; Osipov, M.Yu.
1997-01-01
The deviations from the standard model in the probability of Z → bb-bar decay and in the forward-backward asymmetry in the reaction e + e - → bb-bar are studied in the framework of the model of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking, the basic point of which is the existence of a triple anomalous W-boson vertex in a region of momenta restricted by a cutoff. A set of equations for additional terms in the W b t-bar vertex is obtained and its solution to the process Z → bb-bar is applied. It is shown that it is possible to obtain a consistent description of both deviations, which is quite nontrivial because these effects are not simply correlated. The necessary value of the anomalous W interaction coupling, λ = -0.22 ± 0.01, is consistent with existing limitations and leads to definite predictions, e.g., for pair W production in e + e - collisions at LEP 200
Current-current interactions, dynamical symmetry-breaking, and quantum chromodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Neuenschwander, D.E. Jr.
1983-01-01
Quantum Chromodynamics with massive gluons (gluon mass triple bond xm/sub p/) in a contact-interaction limit called CQCD (strong coupling g→infinity; x→infinity), despite its non-renormalizability and lack of hope of confinement, is nevertheless interesting for at least two reasons. Some authors have suggested a relation between 4-Fermi and Yang-Mills theories. If g/x 2 much less than 1, then CQCD is not merely a 4-Fermi interaction, but includes 4,6,8 etc-Fermi non-Abelian contact interactions. With possibility of infrared slavery, perturbative evaluation of QCD in the infrared is a dubious practice. However, if g 2 /x 2 much less than 1 in CQCD, then the simplest 4-Fermi interaction is dominant, and CQCD admits perturbative treatment, but only in the infrared. With the dominant interaction, a dynamical Nambu-Goldstone realization of chiral symmetry-breaking (XSB) is found. Although in QCD the relation between confinement and XSB is controversial, XSB occurs in CQCD provided confinement is sacrificed
Current-current interactions, dynamical symmetry-breaking, and quantum chromodynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Neuenschwander, D.E. Jr.
1983-01-01
Quantum Chromodynamics with massive gluons (gluon mass triple bond xm/sub p/) in a contact-interaction limit called CQCD (strong coupling g..-->..infinity; x..-->..infinity), despite its non-renormalizability and lack of hope of confinement, is nevertheless interesting for at least two reasons. Some authors have suggested a relation between 4-Fermi and Yang-Mills theories. If g/x/sup 2/ much less than 1, then CQCD is not merely a 4-Fermi interaction, but includes 4,6,8 etc-Fermi non-Abelian contact interactions. With possibility of infrared slavery, perturbative evaluation of QCD in the infrared is a dubious practice. However, if g/sup 2//x/sup 2/ much less than 1 in CQCD, then the simplest 4-Fermi interaction is dominant, and CQCD admits perturbative treatment, but only in the infrared. With the dominant interaction, a dynamical Nambu-Goldstone realization of chiral symmetry-breaking (XSB) is found. Although in QCD the relation between confinement and XSB is controversial, XSB occurs in CQCD provided confinement is sacrificed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weinberg, S.
1976-01-01
The problem of how gauge symmetries of the weak interactions get broken is discussed. Some reasons why such a heirarchy of gauge symmetry breaking is needed, the reason gauge heirarchies do not seem to arise in theories of a given and related type, and the implications of theories with dynamical symmetry breaking, which can exhibit a gauge hierarchy
Symmetry breaking in the opinion dynamics of a multi-group project organization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhu Zhen-Tao; Zhou Jing; Chen Xing-Guang; Li Ping
2012-01-01
A bounded confidence model of opinion dynamics in multi-group projects is presented in which each group's opinion evolution is driven by two types of forces: (i) the group's cohesive force which tends to restore the opinion back towards the initial status because of its company culture; and (ii) nonlinear coupling forces with other groups which attempt to bring opinions closer due to collaboration willingness. Bifurcation analysis for the case of a two-group project shows a cusp catastrophe phenomenon and three distinctive evolutionary regimes, i.e., a deadlock regime, a convergence regime, and a bifurcation regime in opinion dynamics. The critical value of initial discord between the two groups is derived to discriminate which regime the opinion evolution belongs to. In the case of a three-group project with a symmetric social network, both bifurcation analysis and simulation results demonstrate that if each pair has a high initial discord, instead of symmetrically converging to consensus with the increase of coupling scale as expected by Gabbay's result (Physica A 378 (2007) p. 125 Fig. 5), project organization (PO) may be split into two distinct clusters because of the symmetry breaking phenomenon caused by pitchfork bifurcations, which urges that apart from divergence in participants' interests, nonlinear interaction can also make conflict inevitable in the PO. The effects of two asymmetric level parameters are tested in order to explore the ways of inducing dominant opinion in the whole PO. It is found that the strong influence imposed by a leader group with firm faith on the flexible and open minded follower groups can promote the formation of a positive dominant opinion in the PO
Symmetry breaking in the opinion dynamics of a multi-group project organization
Zhu, Zhen-Tao; Zhou, Jing; Li, Ping; Chen, Xing-Guang
2012-10-01
A bounded confidence model of opinion dynamics in multi-group projects is presented in which each group's opinion evolution is driven by two types of forces: (i) the group's cohesive force which tends to restore the opinion back towards the initial status because of its company culture; and (ii) nonlinear coupling forces with other groups which attempt to bring opinions closer due to collaboration willingness. Bifurcation analysis for the case of a two-group project shows a cusp catastrophe phenomenon and three distinctive evolutionary regimes, i.e., a deadlock regime, a convergence regime, and a bifurcation regime in opinion dynamics. The critical value of initial discord between the two groups is derived to discriminate which regime the opinion evolution belongs to. In the case of a three-group project with a symmetric social network, both bifurcation analysis and simulation results demonstrate that if each pair has a high initial discord, instead of symmetrically converging to consensus with the increase of coupling scale as expected by Gabbay's result (Physica A 378 (2007) p. 125 Fig. 5), project organization (PO) may be split into two distinct clusters because of the symmetry breaking phenomenon caused by pitchfork bifurcations, which urges that apart from divergence in participants' interests, nonlinear interaction can also make conflict inevitable in the PO. The effects of two asymmetric level parameters are tested in order to explore the ways of inducing dominant opinion in the whole PO. It is found that the strong influence imposed by a leader group with firm faith on the flexible and open minded follower groups can promote the formation of a positive dominant opinion in the PO.
Chiral symmetry and chiral-symmetry breaking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peskin, M.E.
1982-12-01
These lectures concern the dynamics of fermions in strong interaction with gauge fields. Systems of fermions coupled by gauge forces have a very rich structure of global symmetries, which are called chiral symmetries. These lectures will focus on the realization of chiral symmetries and the causes and consequences of thier spontaneous breaking. A brief introduction to the basic formalism and concepts of chiral symmetry breaking is given, then some explicit calculations of chiral symmetry breaking in gauge theories are given, treating first parity-invariant and then chiral models. These calculations are meant to be illustrative rather than accurate; they make use of unjustified mathematical approximations which serve to make the physics more clear. Some formal constraints on chiral symmetry breaking are discussed which illuminate and extend the results of our more explicit analysis. Finally, a brief review of the phenomenological theory of chiral symmetry breaking is presented, and some applications of this theory to problems in weak-interaction physics are discussed
Dynamical generation of gauge bosons of hidden local symmetries in nonlinear sigma models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koegerler, R.; Lucha, W.; Neufeld, H.; Stremnitzer, H.
1988-01-01
We demonstrate how quantum corrections generate a kinetic term for the (at tree-level non-propagating) gauge fields of hidden local symmetries in nonlinear sigma models in four space-time dimensions. (orig.)
Dynamical symmetries of two-dimensional systems in relativistic quantum mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Fulin; Song Ci; Chen Jingling
2009-01-01
The two-dimensional Dirac Hamiltonian with equal scalar and vector potentials has been proved commuting with the deformed orbital angular momentum L. When the potential takes the Coulomb form, the system has an SO(3) symmetry, and similarly the harmonic oscillator potential possesses an SU(2) symmetry. The generators of the symmetric groups are derived for these two systems separately. The corresponding energy spectra are yielded naturally from the Casimir operators. Their non-relativistic limits are also discussed
On dynamics and control of vibratory gyroscopes with special spherical symmetry
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Shatalov, M
2006-05-01
Full Text Available It was shown in 1985 by Acad. V. Zhuravlev that the angular rate of a pure vibrating mode excited in a vibratory gyroscope with spherical symmetry is proportional to an inertial angular rate of the gyroscope. The effect is three dimensional...
Symmetry and symmetry breaking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Balian, R.; Lambert, D.; Brack, A.; Lachieze-Rey, M.; Emery, E.; Cohen-Tannoudji, G.; Sacquin, Y.
1999-01-01
The symmetry concept is a powerful tool for our understanding of the world. It allows a reduction of the volume of information needed to apprehend a subject thoroughly. Moreover this concept does not belong to a particular field, it is involved in the exact sciences but also in artistic matters. Living beings are characterized by a particular asymmetry: the chiral asymmetry. Although this asymmetry is visible in whole organisms, it seems it comes from some molecules that life always produce in one chirality. The weak interaction presents also the chiral asymmetry. The mass of particles comes from the breaking of a fundamental symmetry and the void could be defined as the medium showing as many symmetries as possible. The texts put together in this book show to a great extent how symmetry goes far beyond purely geometrical considerations. Different aspects of symmetry ideas are considered in the following fields: the states of matter, mathematics, biology, the laws of Nature, quantum physics, the universe, and the art of music. (A.C.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Town, R. P. J.; Bradley, D. K.; Kritcher, A.; Jones, O. S.; Rygg, J. R.; Tommasini, R.; Barrios, M.; Benedetti, L. R.; Berzak Hopkins, L. F.; Celliers, P. M.; Döppner, T.; Dewald, E. L.; Eder, D. C.; Field, J. E.; Glenn, S. M.; Izumi, N.; Haan, S. W.; Khan, S. F.; Ma, T.; Milovich, J. L.
2014-01-01
In order to achieve ignition using inertial confinement fusion it is important to control the growth of low-mode asymmetries as the capsule is compressed. Understanding the time-dependent evolution of the shape of the hot spot and surrounding fuel layer is crucial to optimizing implosion performance. A design and experimental campaign to examine sources of asymmetry and to quantify symmetry throughout the implosion has been developed and executed on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [E. I. Moses et al., Phys. Plasmas 16, 041006 (2009)]. We have constructed a large simulation database of asymmetries applied during different time intervals. Analysis of the database has shown the need to measure and control the hot-spot shape, areal density distribution, and symmetry swings during the implosion. The shape of the hot spot during final stagnation is measured using time-resolved imaging of the self-emission, and information on the shape of the fuel at stagnation can be obtained from Compton radiography [R. Tommasini et al., Phys. Plasmas 18, 056309 (2011)]. For the first time on NIF, two-dimensional inflight radiographs of gas-filled and cryogenic fuel layered capsules have been measured to infer the symmetry of the radiation drive on the capsule. These results have been used to modify the hohlraum geometry and the wavelength tuning to improve the inflight implosion symmetry. We have also expanded our shock timing capabilities by the addition of extra mirrors inside the re-entrant cone to allow the simultaneous measurement of shock symmetry in three locations on a single shot, providing asymmetry information up to Legendre mode 4. By diagnosing the shape at nearly every step of the implosion, we estimate that shape has typically reduced fusion yield by about 50% in ignition experiments
Collins, A T; Richardson, R T; Higginson, J S
2014-08-01
Individuals with knee OA often exhibit greater co-contraction of antagonistic muscle groups surrounding the affected joint which may lead to increases in dynamic joint stiffness. These detrimental changes in the symptomatic limb may also exist in the contralateral limb, thus contributing to its risk of developing knee osteoarthritis. The purpose of this study is to investigate the interlimb symmetry of dynamic knee joint stiffness and muscular co-contraction in knee osteoarthritis. Muscular co-contraction and dynamic knee joint stiffness were assessed in 17 subjects with mild to moderate unilateral medial compartment knee osteoarthritis and 17 healthy control subjects while walking at a controlled speed (1.0m/s). Paired and independent t-tests determined whether significant differences exist between groups (pknees compared to the healthy group (p=0.051). Subjects with mild to moderate knee osteoarthritis maintain symmetric control strategies during gait. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ordering dynamics of microscopic models with nonconserved order parameter of continuous symmetry
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhang, Z.; Mouritsen, Ole G.; Zuckermann, Martin J.
1993-01-01
crystals. For both models, which have a nonconserved order parameter, it is found that the linear scale, R(t), of the evolving order, following quenches to below the transition temperature, grows at late times in an effectively algebraic fashion, R(t)∼tn, with exponent values which are strongly temperature......Numerical Monte Carlo temperature-quenching experiments have been performed on two three-dimensional classical lattice models with continuous ordering symmetry: the Lebwohl-Lasher model [Phys. Rev. A 6, 426 (1972)] and the ferromagnetic isotropic Heisenberg model. Both models describe a transition...... from a disordered phase to an orientationally ordered phase of continuous symmetry. The Lebwohl-Lasher model accounts for the orientational ordering properties of the nematic-isotropic transition in liquid crystals and the Heisenberg model for the ferromagnetic-paramagnetic transition in magnetic...
Symmetry breaking in fluid dynamics: Lie group reducible motions for real fluids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Holm, D.D.
1976-07-01
The physics of fluids is based on certain kinematical invariance principles, which refer to coordinate systems, dimensions, and Galilean reference frames. Other, thermodynamic, symmetry principles are introduced by the material description. In the present work, the interplay between these two kinds of invariance principles is used to solve for classes of one-dimensional non-steady isentropic motions of a fluid whose equation of state is of Mie-Gruneisen type. Also, the change in profile and attenuation of weak shock waves in a dissipative medium is studied at the level of Burgers' approximation from the viewpoint of its underlying symmetry structure. The mathematical method of approach is based on the theory of infinitesimal Lie groups. Fluid motions are characterized according to inequivalent subgroups of the full invariance group of the flow description and exact group reducible solutions are presented
Is the Higgs boson associated with Coleman-Weinberg dynamical symmetry breaking?
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hill, Christopher T. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)
2014-04-01
The Higgs mechanism may be a quantum phenomenon, i.e., a Coleman-Weinberg potential generated by the explicit breaking of scale symmetry in Feynman loops. We review the relationship of scale symmetry, trace anomalies, and emphasize the role of the renormalization group in determining Coleman- Weinberg potentials. We propose a simple phenomenological model with "maximal visibility" at the LHC containing a "dormant" Higgs doublet (no VEV, coupled to standard model gauge interactions $SU(2)\\times U(1)$) with a mass of $\\sim 380$ GeV. We discuss the LHC phenomenology and UV challenges of such a model. We also give a schematic model in which new heavy fermions, with masses $\\sim 230$ GeV, can drive a Coleman-Weinberg potential at two-loops. The role of the "improved stress tensor" is emphasized, and we propose a non-gravitational term, analogous to the $\\theta$-term in QCD, which generates it from a scalar action.
Dynamical Electroweak Symmetry Breaking with a Heavy Fermion in Light of Recent LHC Results
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pham Q. Hung
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The recent announcement of a discovery of a possible Higgs-like particle—its spin and parity are yet to be determined—at the LHC with a mass of 126 GeV necessitates a fresh look at the nature of the electroweak symmetry breaking, in particular if this newly-discovered particle will turn out to have the quantum numbers of a Standard Model Higgs boson. Even if it were a 0+ scalar with the properties expected for a SM Higgs boson, there is still the quintessential hierarchy problem that one has to deal with and which, by itself, suggests a new physics energy scale around 1 TeV. This paper presents a minireview of one possible scenario: the formation of a fermion-antifermion condensate coming from a very heavy fourth generation, carrying the quantum number of the SM Higgs field, and thus breaking the electroweak symmetry.
Symmetry breaking in fluid dynamics: Lie group reducible motions for real fluids
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Holm, D.D.
1976-07-01
The physics of fluids is based on certain kinematical invariance principles, which refer to coordinate systems, dimensions, and Galilean reference frames. Other, thermodynamic, symmetry principles are introduced by the material description. In the present work, the interplay between these two kinds of invariance principles is used to solve for classes of one-dimensional non-steady isentropic motions of a fluid whose equation of state is of Mie-Gruneisen type. Also, the change in profile and attenuation of weak shock waves in a dissipative medium is studied at the level of Burgers' approximation from the viewpoint of its underlying symmetry structure. The mathematical method of approach is based on the theory of infinitesimal Lie groups. Fluid motions are characterized according to inequivalent subgroups of the full invariance group of the flow description and exact group reducible solutions are presented.
Off-critical W∞ and Virasoro algebras as dynamical symmetries of the integrable models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sotkov, G.; Stanishkov, M.
1993-01-01
An infinite set of new non commuting conserved charges in a specific class of perturbed CFT's is founded and a criterion for their existence is presented. They appear to be higher momenta of the already known commuting conserved currents. The algebra they close consists of two non commuting W ∞ algebras. Various Virasoro subalgebras of the full symmetry algebra are founded. It is shown on the examples of the perturbed Ising and Potts models that one of them plays an essential role in the computation of the correlation functions of the fields of the theory. (author)
Dynamic Isovector Reorientation of Deuteron as a Probe to Nuclear Symmetry Energy.
Ou, Li; Xiao, Zhigang; Yi, Han; Wang, Ning; Liu, Min; Tian, Junlong
2015-11-20
We present the calculations on a novel reorientation effect of deuteron attributed to isovector interaction in the nuclear field of heavy target nuclei. The correlation angle determined by the relative momentum vector of the proton and the neutron originating from the breakup deuteron, which is experimentally detectable, exhibits significant dependence on the isovector nuclear potential but is robust against the variation of the isoscaler sector. In terms of sensitivity and cleanness, the breakup reactions induced by the polarized deuteron beam at about 100 MeV/u provide a more stringent constraint to the symmetry energy at subsaturation densities.
Dynamics and symmetries of a field partitioned by an accelerated frame
Gerlach, Ulrich H.
1999-01-01
The canonical evolution and symmetry generators are exhibited for a Klein-Gordon (K-G) system which has been partitioned by an accelerated coordinate frame into a pair of subsystems. This partitioning of the K-G system is conveyed to the canonical generators by the eigenfunction property of the Minkowski Bessel (M-B) modes. In terms of the M-B degrees of freedom, which are unitarily related to those of the Minkowski plane waves, a near complete diagonalization of these generators can be reali...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arima, A.
2003-01-01
(1) There are symmetries in nature, and the concept of symmetry has been used in art and architecture. The symmetry is evaluated high in the European culture. In China, the symmetry is broken in the paintings but it is valued in the architecture. In Japan, however, the symmetry has been broken everywhere. The serious and interesting question is why these differences happens? (2) In this lecture, I reviewed from the very beginning the importance of the rotational symmetry in quantum mechanics. I am sorry to be too fundamental for specialists of nuclear physics. But for people who do not use these theories, I think that you could understand the mathematical aspects of quantum mechanics and the relation between the angular momentum and the rotational symmetry. (3) To the specialists of nuclear physics, I talked about my idea as follows: dynamical treatment of collective motions in nuclei by IBM, especially the meaning of the degeneracy observed in the rotation bands top of γ vibration and β vibration, and the origin of pseudo-spin symmetry. Namely, if there is a symmetry, a degeneracy occurs. Conversely, if there is a degeneracy, there must be a symmetry. I discussed some details of the observed evidence and this correspondence is my strong belief in physics. (author)
A symmetry-breaking phase transition in a dynamical decision model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lambert, Gaultier; Chevereau, Guillaume; Bertin, Eric
2011-01-01
We consider a simple decision model in which a set of agents randomly choose one of two competing shops selling the same perishable products (typically food). The satisfaction of agents with respect to a given store is related to the freshness of the previously bought products. Agents select with a higher probability the store that they are most satisfied with. Studying the model from a statistical physics perspective, both through numerical simulations and mean-field analytical methods, we find a rich behaviour with continuous and discontinuous phase transitions between a symmetric phase where both stores maintain the same level of activity, and a phase with broken symmetry where one of the two shops attracts more customers than the other
PT symmetry and a dynamical realization of the SU(1, 1) algebra
Banerjee, Rabin; Mukherjee, Pradip
2016-01-01
We show that the elementary modes of the planar harmonic oscillator can be quantized in the framework of quantum mechanics based on pseudo-hermitian Hamiltonians. These quantized modes are demonstrated to act as dynamical structures behind a new Jordan-Schwinger realization of the SU(1, 1) algebra. This analysis complements the conventional Jordan-Schwinger construction of the SU(2) algebra based on hermitian Hamiltonians of a doublet of oscillators.
Flavour from accidental symmetries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ferretti, Luca; King, Stephen F.; Romanino, Andrea
2006-01-01
We consider a new approach to fermion masses and mixings in which no special 'horizontal' dynamics is invoked to account for the hierarchical pattern of charged fermion masses and for the peculiar features of neutrino masses. The hierarchy follows from the vertical, family-independent structure of the model, in particular from the breaking pattern of the Pati-Salam group. The lightness of the first two fermion families can be related to two family symmetries emerging in this context as accidental symmetries
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
De Filippo, E.; Pagano, A. [INFN, Catania (Italy)
2014-02-15
Heavy-ion collisions have been widely used in the last decade to constrain the parameterizations of the symmetry energy term of the nuclear equation of state (EOS) for asymmetric nuclear matter as a function of baryonic density. In the Fermi energy domain one is faced with variations of the density within a narrow range of values around the saturation density ρ{sub 0}=0.16 fm{sup -3} down towards sub-saturation densities. The experimental observables which are sensitive to the symmetry energy are constructed starting from the detected light particles, clusters and heavy fragments that, in heavy-ion collisions, are generally produced by different emission mechanisms at different stages and time scales of the reaction. In this review the effects of dynamics and thermodynamics on the symmetry energy in nuclear reactions are discussed and characterized using an overview of the data taken so far with the CHIMERA multi detector array. (orig.)
Scaling symmetry, renormalization, and time series modeling: the case of financial assets dynamics.
Zamparo, Marco; Baldovin, Fulvio; Caraglio, Michele; Stella, Attilio L
2013-12-01
We present and discuss a stochastic model of financial assets dynamics based on the idea of an inverse renormalization group strategy. With this strategy we construct the multivariate distributions of elementary returns based on the scaling with time of the probability density of their aggregates. In its simplest version the model is the product of an endogenous autoregressive component and a random rescaling factor designed to embody also exogenous influences. Mathematical properties like increments' stationarity and ergodicity can be proven. Thanks to the relatively low number of parameters, model calibration can be conveniently based on a method of moments, as exemplified in the case of historical data of the S&P500 index. The calibrated model accounts very well for many stylized facts, like volatility clustering, power-law decay of the volatility autocorrelation function, and multiscaling with time of the aggregated return distribution. In agreement with empirical evidence in finance, the dynamics is not invariant under time reversal, and, with suitable generalizations, skewness of the return distribution and leverage effects can be included. The analytical tractability of the model opens interesting perspectives for applications, for instance, in terms of obtaining closed formulas for derivative pricing. Further important features are the possibility of making contact, in certain limits, with autoregressive models widely used in finance and the possibility of partially resolving the long- and short-memory components of the volatility, with consistent results when applied to historical series.
Scaling symmetry, renormalization, and time series modeling: The case of financial assets dynamics
Zamparo, Marco; Baldovin, Fulvio; Caraglio, Michele; Stella, Attilio L.
2013-12-01
We present and discuss a stochastic model of financial assets dynamics based on the idea of an inverse renormalization group strategy. With this strategy we construct the multivariate distributions of elementary returns based on the scaling with time of the probability density of their aggregates. In its simplest version the model is the product of an endogenous autoregressive component and a random rescaling factor designed to embody also exogenous influences. Mathematical properties like increments’ stationarity and ergodicity can be proven. Thanks to the relatively low number of parameters, model calibration can be conveniently based on a method of moments, as exemplified in the case of historical data of the S&P500 index. The calibrated model accounts very well for many stylized facts, like volatility clustering, power-law decay of the volatility autocorrelation function, and multiscaling with time of the aggregated return distribution. In agreement with empirical evidence in finance, the dynamics is not invariant under time reversal, and, with suitable generalizations, skewness of the return distribution and leverage effects can be included. The analytical tractability of the model opens interesting perspectives for applications, for instance, in terms of obtaining closed formulas for derivative pricing. Further important features are the possibility of making contact, in certain limits, with autoregressive models widely used in finance and the possibility of partially resolving the long- and short-memory components of the volatility, with consistent results when applied to historical series.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hojman, Sergio A.
1996-01-01
The purpose of these lectures is to present some of the ways in which non-Noetherian symmetries are used in contemporary mathematical physics. These include, among others, obtaining conservation laws for dynamical systems, solving non-linear problems, getting alternative Lagrangians for systems of differential equations and constructing symplectic structures and Hamiltonians for dynamical systems starting from scratch
Dynamical symmetry breaking through preons and the sizes of composite quarks and leptons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pati, J.C.
1984-01-01
It is observed that the assumptions that quarks and leptons are composites and that they acquire masses dynamically through preonic condensates rather than through the vacuum expectation value of a Higgs field lead to a relatively low upper bound of only 1 to 3 TeV for the inverse size of the heaviest family: e.g., the tau family. It is furthermore stressed that the e and μ families, within a large class of models, must, on the other hand, have a relatively large inverse size exceeding about 150 TeV; this is so in order that the limits from rare processes such as K/sub L/→mu-bare and K 0 -K-bar 0 may be satisfied. Certain theoretical and experimental implications of these two observations are noted
Dynamical effects of exchange symmetry breaking in mixtures of interacting bosons
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tichy, Malte C.; Sherson, Jacob; Mølmer, Klaus
2012-01-01
of two distinguishable species with identical physical properties, that is, which are governed by an isospecific interaction and external potential. In the mean-field limit, the spatial population imbalance of the mixture can be described by the dynamics of a single species in an effective potential...... approximates the full counting statistics well also outside the realm of spin-coherent states. The method is extended to general Bose-Hubbard systems and to their classical mean-field limits, which suggests an effective single-species description of multicomponent Bose gases with weakly an...... with modified properties or, equivalently, with an effective total particle number. The oscillation behavior can be tuned by populating the second species while maintaining the spatial population imbalance and all other parameters constant. In the corresponding many-body approach, the single-species description...
Spin-flip dynamics of the Curie-Weiss model Loss of Gibbsianness with possibly broken symmetry.
Külske, C
2005-01-01
We study the conditional probabilities of the Curie-Weiss Ising model in vanishing external field under a symmetric independent stochastic spin-flip dynamics and discuss their set of bad configurations (points of discontinuity). We exhibit a complete analysis of the transition between Gibbsian and non-Gibbsian behavior as a function of time, extending the results for the corresponding lattice model, where only partial answers can be obtained. For initial inverse temperature $\\b \\leq 1$, we prove that the time-evolved measure is always Gibbsian. For $1 \\frac{3}{2}$, we observe the new phenomenon of symmetry-breaking of bad configurations: The time-evolved measure loses its Gibbsian character at a sharp transition time, and bad configurations with non-zero spin-average appear. These bad configurations merge into a neutral configuration at a later transition time, while the measure stays non-Gibbs. In our proof we give a detailed analysis of the phase-diagram of a Curie-Weiss random field Ising model with possi...
Statistical symmetries in physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Green, H.S.; Adelaide Univ., SA
1994-01-01
Every law of physics is invariant under some group of transformations and is therefore the expression of some type of symmetry. Symmetries are classified as geometrical, dynamical or statistical. At the most fundamental level, statistical symmetries are expressed in the field theories of the elementary particles. This paper traces some of the developments from the discovery of Bose statistics, one of the two fundamental symmetries of physics. A series of generalizations of Bose statistics is described. A supersymmetric generalization accommodates fermions as well as bosons, and further generalizations, including parastatistics, modular statistics and graded statistics, accommodate particles with properties such as 'colour'. A factorization of elements of ggl(n b ,n f ) can be used to define truncated boson operators. A general construction is given for q-deformed boson operators, and explicit constructions of the same type are given for various 'deformed' algebras. A summary is given of some of the applications and potential applications. 39 refs., 2 figs
Aniello, Paolo; Chruściński, Dariusz
2017-07-01
A symmetry witness is a suitable subset of the space of selfadjoint trace class operators that allows one to determine whether a linear map is a symmetry transformation, in the sense of Wigner. More precisely, such a set is invariant with respect to an injective densely defined linear operator in the Banach space of selfadjoint trace class operators (if and) only if this operator is a symmetry transformation. According to a linear version of Wigner’s theorem, the set of pure states—the rank-one projections—is a symmetry witness. We show that an analogous result holds for the set of projections with a fixed rank (with some mild constraint on this rank, in the finite-dimensional case). It turns out that this result provides a complete classification of the sets of projections with a fixed rank that are symmetry witnesses. These particular symmetry witnesses are projectable; i.e. reasoning in terms of quantum states, the sets of ‘uniform’ density operators of corresponding fixed rank are symmetry witnesses too.
Zhao, Yumin
1997-07-01
By the techniques of the Wick theorem for coupled clusters, the no-energy-weighted electromagnetic sum-rule calculations are presented in the sdg neutron-proton interacting boson model, the nuclear pair shell model and the fermion-dynamical symmetry model. The project supported by Development Project Foundation of China, National Natural Science Foundation of China, Doctoral Education Fund of National Education Committee, Fundamental Research Fund of Southeast University
Voisin, Claire
1999-01-01
This is the English translation of Professor Voisin's book reflecting the discovery of the mirror symmetry phenomenon. The first chapter is devoted to the geometry of Calabi-Yau manifolds, and the second describes, as motivation, the ideas from quantum field theory that led to the discovery of mirror symmetry. The other chapters deal with more specialized aspects of the subject: the work of Candelas, de la Ossa, Greene, and Parkes, based on the fact that under the mirror symmetry hypothesis, the variation of Hodge structure of a Calabi-Yau threefold determines the Gromov-Witten invariants of its mirror; Batyrev's construction, which exhibits the mirror symmetry phenomenon between hypersurfaces of toric Fano varieties, after a combinatorial classification of the latter; the mathematical construction of the Gromov-Witten potential, and the proof of its crucial property (that it satisfies the WDVV equation), which makes it possible to construct a flat connection underlying a variation of Hodge structure in the ...
Dynamical rearrangement of symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vitiello, G.
1974-01-01
In quantum field theory, the invariance of the theory is expressed as the invariance of field equations under certain transformations of Heisenberg fields. Since one is interested in physically relevant entities, one is faced with the problem of how the original invariance of the theory manifests itself at the level of observable (physical) particles. This is the problem studied. (Diss. Abstr. Int., B)
Symmetry and Phase Transitions in Nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Iachello, F.
2009-01-01
Phase transitions in nuclei have received considerable attention in recent years, especially after the discovery that, contrary to expectations, systems at the critical point of a phase transition display a simple structure. In this talk, quantum phase transitions (QPT), i.e. phase transitions that occur as a function of a coupling constant that appears in the quantum Hamiltonian, H, describing the system, will be reviewed and experimental evidence for their occurrence in nuclei will be presented. The phase transitions discussed in the talk will be shape phase transitions. Different shapes have different symmetries, classified by the dynamic symmetries of the Interacting Boson Model, U(5), SU(3) and SO(6). Very recently, the concept of Quantum Phase Transitions has been extended to Excited State Quantum Phase Transitions (ESQPT). This extension will be discussed and some evidence for incipient ESQPT in nuclei will be presented. Systems at the critical point of a phase transition are called 'critical systems'. Approximate analytic formulas for energy spectra and other properties of 'critical nuclei', in particular for nuclei at the critical point of the second order U(5)-SO(6) transition, called E(5), and along the line of first order U(5)-SU(3) transitions, called X(5), will be presented. Experimental evidence for 'critical nuclei' will be also shown. Finally, the microscopic derivation of shape phase transitions in nuclei within the framework of density functional methods will be briefly discussed.(author)
Detection symmetry and asymmetry
du Buf, J.M.H.
1991-01-01
Experiments were performed on the detection symmetry and asymmetry of incremental and decremental disks, as a function of both disk diameter and duration. It was found that, for a background luminance of 300cd.m-2, thresholds of dynamic (briefly presented) foveal disks are symmetrical for all
Biomass Burning 5x5 degree data in Native Format
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The BIO_MASS_5X5_HAO_NAT data set contains data representing the geographical and temporal distribution of total amount of biomass burned. The data were collected by...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
De Filippo, E; Cardella, G; Guidara, E La; Pagano, A; Papa, M; Amorini, F; Colonna, M; Gianì, S; Grassi, L; Han, J; Maiolino, C; Auditore, L; Minniti, T; Baran, V; Berceanu, I; Geraci, E; Grzeszczuk, A; Guazzoni, P; Lanzalone, G; Lombardo, I
2013-01-01
We show new data from the 64 Ni+ 124 Sn and 58 Ni+ 112 Sn reactions studied in direct kinematics with the CHIMERA detector at INFN-LNS and compared with the reverse kinematics reactions at the same incident beam energy (35 A MeV). Analyzing the data with the method of relative velocity correlations, fragments coming from statistical decay of an excited projectile-like (PLF) or target-like (TLF) fragments are discriminated from the ones coming from dynamical emission in the early stages of the reaction. By comparing data of the reverse kinematics experiment with a stochastic mean field (SMF) + GEMINI calculations our results show that observables from neck fragmentation mechanism add valuable constraints on the density dependence of symmetry energy. An indication is found for a moderately stiff symmetry energy potential term of EOS.
Spontaneous emergence of gauge symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nielsen, H.B.; Brene, N.
1987-05-01
Within the framework of the random dynamics project we have demonstrated several mechanisms for breakdown of a preexisting exact gauge symmetry. This note concerns and reviews a mechanism which works essentially in the opposite direction, leading from am accidental approximate symmetry to an exact formal gauge symmetry. It was shown that although this symmetry is a priori only strictly formal, it can under certain circumstances lead to a physical consequence: the corresponding gauge boson becomes massless. In the chaotic models typical for our random dynamics project there is, of course, a strong competition between this mechanism and mechanisms which temd to destroy the symmetry and give mass(es) to the gauge boson(s). (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kondratyuk, S.; Kubodera, K.; Myhrer, F.; Scholten, O.
2004-01-01
The Adler-Weisberger and Goldberger-Miyazawa-Oehme sum rules are calculated within a relativistic, unitary and crossing symmetric dynamical model for pion-nucleon scattering using two different methods: (1) by evaluating the scattering amplitude at the corresponding low-energy kinematics and (2) by evaluating the sum-rule integrals with the calculated total cross section. The discrepancy between the results of the two methods provides a measure of the breaking of analyticity and chiral symmetry in the model. The contribution of the Δ resonance, including its dressing with meson loops, is discussed in some detail and found to be small
Symmetry, Symmetry Breaking and Topology
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Siddhartha Sen
2010-07-01
Full Text Available The ground state of a system with symmetry can be described by a group G. This symmetry group G can be discrete or continuous. Thus for a crystal G is a finite group while for the vacuum state of a grand unified theory G is a continuous Lie group. The ground state symmetry described by G can change spontaneously from G to one of its subgroups H as the external parameters of the system are modified. Such a macroscopic change of the ground state symmetry of a system from G to H correspond to a “phase transition”. Such phase transitions have been extensively studied within a framework due to Landau. A vast range of systems can be described using Landau’s approach, however there are also systems where the framework does not work. Recently there has been growing interest in looking at such non-Landau type of phase transitions. For instance there are several “quantum phase transitions” that are not of the Landau type. In this short review we first describe a refined version of Landau’s approach in which topological ideas are used together with group theory. The combined use of group theory and topological arguments allows us to determine selection rule which forbid transitions from G to certain of its subgroups. We end by making a few brief remarks about non-Landau type of phase transition.
Ageing test of the ATLAS RPCs at X5-GIF
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aielli, G.; Alviggi, M.; Ammosov, V.
2004-01-01
An ageing test of three ATLAS production RPC stations is in course at X5-GIF, the CERN irradiation facility. The chamber efficiencies are monitored using cosmic rays triggered by a scintillator hodoscope. Higher statistics measurements are made when the X5 muon beam is available. We report here the measurements of the efficiency versus operating voltage at different source intensities, up to a maximum counting rate of about 700 Hz/cm 2 . We describe the performance of the chambers during the test up to an overall ageing of 4 ATLAS equivalent years corresponding to an integrated charge of 0.12 C/cm 2 , including a safety factor of 5
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Znojil, Miloslav
2016-01-01
Roč. 8, č. 6 (2016), s. 52 ISSN 2073-8994 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA16-22945S Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : parity-time symmetry * Schrodinger equation * physical Hilbert space * inner-product metric operator * real exceptional points * solvable models * quantum Big Bang * quantum Inflation period Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 1.457, year: 2016
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Souriau, J.M.
1984-01-01
The sky uniformity can be noticed in studying the repartition of objects far enough. The sky isotropy description uses space rotations. The group theory elements will allow to give a meaning at the same time precise and general to the word a ''symmetry''. Universe models are reviewed, which must have both of the following qualities: - conformity with the physic known laws; - rigorous symmetry following one of the permitted groups. Each of the models foresees that universe evolution obeys an evolution equation. Expansion and big-bang theory are recalled. Is universe an open or closed space. Universe is also electrically neutral. That leads to a work hypothesis: the existing matter is not given data of universe but it appeared by evolution from nothing. Problem of matter and antimatter is then raised up together with its place in universe [fr
Konstantinou, Georgios; Moulopoulos, Konstantinos
2016-11-01
Due to the importance of gauge symmetry in all fields of physics, and motivated by an article written almost three decades ago that warns against a naive handling of gauge transformations in the Landau level problem (a quantum electron moving in a spatially uniform magnetic field), we point out a proper use of the generators of dynamical symmetries combined with gauge transformation methods to easily obtain exact analytical solutions for all Landau level-wavefunctions in arbitrary gauge. Our method is different from the old argument and provides solutions in an easier manner and in a broader set of geometries and gauges; in so doing, it eliminates the need for extra procedures (i.e. a change of basis) pointed out as a necessary step in the old literature, and gives back the standard simple result, provided that an appropriate use is made of the dynamical symmetries of the system and their generators. In this way the present work will at least be useful for university-level education, i.e. in advanced classes in quantum mechanics and condensed matter physics. In addition, it clarifies the actual role of the gauge in the Landau level problem, which often appears confusing in the usual derivations provided in textbooks. Finally, we go further by showing that a similar methodology can be made to apply to the more difficult case of a spatially non-uniform magnetic field (where closed analytical results are rare), in which case the various generators (pseudomomentum and pseudo-angular momentum) appear as line integrals of the inhomogeneous magnetic field; we give closed analytical solutions for all cases, and show how the old and rather forgotten Bawin-Burnel gauge shows up naturally as a ‘reference gauge’ in all solutions.
Fifty years of symmetry operations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wigner, E.P.
1978-01-01
The author begins by discussing the application of symmetry principles in classical physics, which began 150 years ago. He then offers a few remarks on the essence of these principles and their role in the structure of physics; events, laws of nature, and invariance principles - kinematic and then dynamic - are treated. After this general discussion of the various types of symmetries, he considers the fundamental differences in their application in classical and quantum physics; the symmetry principles have greater effectiveness in quantum theory. After a few critical remarks of a general nature on the invariance principles, the author reviews the application of symmetry principles in various areas of quantum mechanics: atomic spectra, molecular physics, solid state physics, nuclear physics, and particle physics. He notes that the role of the different symmetries recognized to be approximate provide the most interesting conclusions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frohlich, J.
1976-01-01
We prove that a Symanzik--Nelson positive quantum field theory, i.e., a quantum field theory derived from a Euclidean field theory, has a unique decomposition into pure phases which preserves Symanzik--Nelson positivity and Poincare covariance. We derive useful sufficient conditions for the breakdown of an internal symmetry of such a theory in its pure phases, for the self-adjointness and nontrivially (in the sense of Borchers classes) of its quantum fields, and the existence of time-ordered and retarded products. All these general results are then applied to the P (phi) 2 and the phi 3 4 quantum field models
Detectability of geothermal areas using Skylab X-5 data
Siegal, B. S.; Kahle, A. B.; Goetz, A. F. H.; Gillespie, A. R.; Abrams, M. J.
1975-01-01
The results are presented of a study which was undertaken to determine if data from a single near-noon pass of Skylab could be used to detect geothermal areas. The size and temperature requirements for a geothermally heated area to be seen by Skylab S-192 MSS X-5 thermal sensor were calculated. This sensor obtained thermal data with the highest spatial resolution of any nonmilitary satellite system. Only very large hot areas could be expected to be unambiguously recognized with a single data set from this instrument. The study area chosen was The Geysers geothermal field in Sonoma County, California, the only geothermal area of significant size scanned by Skylab. Unfortunately, 95% of the Skylab thermal channel data was acquired within 3 hours of local noon. For The Geysers area only daytime X-5 data were available. An analysis of the thermal channel data (10.2 to 12.5 um) revealed that ground temperatures determined by Skylab were normally distributed. No anomalous hot spots were apparent. Computer enhancement techniques were used to delineate the hottest 100 and 300 ground areas (pixel, 75 m by 75 m) within the study region. It was found that the Skylab MSS with the X-5 thermal detector does not have sufficient spatial resolution to locate unambiguously from daytime data any but the largest and hottest convectively created geothermal features, which in general are prominent enough to have been previously recognized.
Instantons and chiral symmetry breaking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carneiro, C.E.I.; McDougall, N.A.
1984-01-01
A detailed investigation of chiral symmetry breaking due to instanton dynamics is carried out, within the framework of the dilute gas approximation, for quarks in both the fundamental and adjoint representations of SU(2). The momentum dependence of the dynamical mass is found to be very similar in each representation. (orig.)
Instantons and chiral symmetry breaking
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Carneiro, C.E.I.; McDougall, N.A. (Oxford Univ. (UK). Dept. of Theoretical Physics)
1984-10-22
A detailed investigation of chiral symmetry breaking due to instanton dynamics is carried out, within the framework of the dilute gas approximation, for quarks in both the fundamental and adjoint representations of SU(2). The momentum dependence of the dynamical mass is found to be very similar in each representation.
Kishi, Ryohei; Nakano, Masayoshi
2011-04-21
A novel method for the calculation of the dynamic polarizability (α) of open-shell molecular systems is developed based on the quantum master equation combined with the broken-symmetry (BS) time-dependent density functional theory within the Tamm-Dancoff approximation, referred to as the BS-DFTQME method. We investigate the dynamic α density distribution obtained from BS-DFTQME calculations in order to analyze the spatial contributions of electrons to the field-induced polarization and clarify the contributions of the frontier orbital pair to α and its density. To demonstrate the performance of this method, we examine the real part of dynamic α of singlet 1,3-dipole systems having a variety of diradical characters (y). The frequency dispersion of α, in particular in the resonant region, is shown to strongly depend on the exchange-correlation functional as well as on the diradical character. Under sufficiently off-resonant condition, the dynamic α is found to decrease with increasing y and/or the fraction of Hartree-Fock exchange in the exchange-correlation functional, which enhances the spin polarization, due to the decrease in the delocalization effects of π-diradical electrons in the frontier orbital pair. The BS-DFTQME method with the BHandHLYP exchange-correlation functional also turns out to semiquantitatively reproduce the α spectra calculated by a strongly correlated ab initio molecular orbital method, i.e., the spin-unrestricted coupled-cluster singles and doubles.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tretyak, V.I.; Gaida, R.P.
1980-01-01
Symmetry properties of the single-time relativistic Lagrangian of an N-particle-system corresponding to the many-time action of the Fokker-type, which are a function of derivatives of particle coordinates with respect to time up to infinite order, are investigated. The conditions for quasi-invariance for such a Lagrangian, with respect to a representation of an arbitrary group in infinite continuation of configuration space of the system, are discussed. Using these conditions a general expression for the Lagrangian, securing Poincare covariance of corresponding equations of motion, is found, and the conservation laws related to this covariance are formulated. In the case of tensor interaction, the expansion of conserved quantities in c -1 up to terms of the order c -4 is performed. (author)
Efficient Symmetry Reduction and the Use of State Symmetries for Symbolic Model Checking
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Christian Appold
2010-06-01
Full Text Available One technique to reduce the state-space explosion problem in temporal logic model checking is symmetry reduction. The combination of symmetry reduction and symbolic model checking by using BDDs suffered a long time from the prohibitively large BDD for the orbit relation. Dynamic symmetry reduction calculates representatives of equivalence classes of states dynamically and thus avoids the construction of the orbit relation. In this paper, we present a new efficient model checking algorithm based on dynamic symmetry reduction. Our experiments show that the algorithm is very fast and allows the verification of larger systems. We additionally implemented the use of state symmetries for symbolic symmetry reduction. To our knowledge we are the first who investigated state symmetries in combination with BDD based symbolic model checking.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Henley, E.M.
1981-09-01
Internal and space-time symmetries are discussed in this group of lectures. The first of the lectures deals with an internal symmetry, or rather two related symmetries called charge independence and charge symmetry. The next two discuss space-time symmetries which also hold approximately, but are broken only by the weak forces; that is, these symmetries hold for both the hadronic and electromagnetic forces
Additional symmetries of supersymmetric KP hierarchies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stanciu, S.
1994-01-01
We investigate the additional symmetries of several supersymmetric KP hierarchies: the SKP hierarchy of Manin and Radul, the SKP 2 hierarchy, and the Jacobian SKP hierarchy. In all three cases we find that the algebra of symmetries is isomorphic to the algebra of superdifferential operators, or equivalently SW 1+∞ . These results seem to suggest that despite their realization depending on the dynamics, the additional symmetries are kinematical in nature. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Johnson, P.W.; Warnock, R.L.
1977-01-01
Equations for the construction of a crossing-symmetric unitary Regge theory of meson-meson scattering are described. In the case of strong coupling, Regge trajectories are to be generated dynamically as zeros of the D function in a nonlinear N/D system. This paper is concerned mainly with writing the inputs to the N/D system in such a way that a convergent theory with exact crossing symmetry is defined. The scheme demands elimination of ghosts, i.e., bound-state poles at energies below threshold where trajectories pass through zero. A method for ghost elimination is proposed which entails an s-wave subtraction constant, and allows the physical s wave to be different from the l-analytic amplitude evaluated at l = 0. A dynamical model is suggested in which the subtraction constant alone generates the meson-meson interaction. An alternative ghost-elimination scheme proposed by Gell-Mann, in which only l-analytic amplitudes are involved, can be discussed in a formalism including channels with spin
On the character of scale symmetry breaking in gauge theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gusijnin, V.P.; Kushnir, V.A.; Miransky, V.A.
1988-01-01
The problem of scale symmetry breaking in gauge theories is discussed. It is shown that the phenomenon of spontaneous breaking of scale symmetry in gauge theories is incompatible with the PCAAC dynamics. 12 refs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Henley, E.M.
1987-01-01
Nuclei are very useful for testing symmetries, and for studies of symmetry breaking. This thesis is illustrated for two improper space-time transformations, parity and time-reversal and for one internal symmetry: charge symmetry and independence. Recent progress and present interest is reviewed. 23 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs
Cohomology for Lagrangian systems and Noetherian symmetries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Popp, O.T.
1989-06-01
Using the theory of sheaves we find some exact sequences describing the locally Lagrangian systems. Using cohomology theory of groups with coefficients in sheaves we obtain some exact sequences describing the Noetherian symmetries. It is shown how the results can be used to find all locally Lagrangian dynamics Noetherian invariant with respect to a given group of kinematical symmetries.(author)
Spontaneous symmetry breakdown in gauge theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scadron, M.D.
1982-01-01
The dynamical theory of spontaneous breakdown correctly predicts the bound states and relates the order parameters of electron-photon superconductivity and quark-gluon chiral symmetry. A similar statement cannot be made for the standard electro-weak gauge symmetry. (author)
Crystal-field analysis of U3+ ions in K2LaX5 (X=Cl, Br or I) single crystals
Karbowiak, M.; Edelstein, N.; Gajek, Z.; Drożdżyński, J.
1998-11-01
An analysis of low temperature absorption spectra of U3+ ions doped in K2LaX5 (X=Cl, Br or I) single crystals is reported. The energy levels of the U3+ ion in the single crystals were assigned and fitted to a semiempirical Hamiltonian representing the combined atomic and crystal-field interactions at the Cs symmetry site. An analysis of the nephelauxetic effect and crystal-field splittings in the series of compounds is also reported.
Symmetry, Wigner functions and particle reactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chavlejshvili, M.P.
1994-01-01
We consider the great principle of physics - symmetry - and some ideas, connected with it, suggested by a great physicist Eugene Wigner. We will discuss the concept of symmetry and spin, study the problem of separation of kinematics and dynamics in particle reactions. Using Wigner rotation functions (reflecting symmetry properties) in helicity amplitude decomposition and crossing-symmetry between helicity amplitudes (which contains the same Wigner functions) we get convenient general formalism for description of reactions between particles with any masses and spins. We also consider some applications of the formalism. 17 refs., 1 tab
Ermolenko, Alexander E; Perepada, Elena A
2007-01-01
The paper contains a description of basic regularities in the manifestation of symmetry of human structural organization and its ontogenetic and phylogenetic development. A concept of macrobiocrystalloid with inherent complex symmetry is proposed for the description of the human organism in its integrity. The symmetry can be characterized as two-plane radial (quadrilateral), where the planar symmetry is predominant while the layout of organs of radial symmetry is subordinated to it. Out of the two planes of symmetry (sagittal and horizontal), the sagittal plane is predominant. The symmetry of the chromosome, of the embrio at the early stages of cell cleavage as well as of some organs and systems in their phylogenetic development is described. An hypothesis is postulated that the two-plane symmetry is formed by two mechanisms: a) the impact of morphogenetic fields of the whole crystalloid organism during embriogenesis and, b) genetic mechanisms of the development of chromosomes having two-plane symmetry.
Some general constraints on identical band symmetries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guidry, M.W.; Strayer, M.R.; Wu, C.; Feng, D.H.
1993-01-01
We argue on general grounds that nearly identical bands observed for superdeformation and less frequently for normal deformation must be explicable in terms of a symmetry having a microscopic basis. We assume that the unknown symmetry is associated with a Lie algebra generated by terms bilinear in fermion creation and annihilation operators. Observed features of these bands and the general properties of Lie groups are then used to place constraints on acceptable algebras. Additional constraints are placed by assuming that the collective spectrum is associated with a dynamical symmetry, and examining the subgroup structure required by phenomenology. We observe that requisite symmetry cannot be unitary, and that the simplest known group structures consistent with these minimal criteria are associated with the Ginocchio algebras employed in the fermion dynamical symmetry model. However, our arguments are general in nature, and we propose that they imply model-independent constraints on any candidate explanation for identical bands
Hidden Symmetries of Stochastic Models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Boyka Aneva
2007-05-01
Full Text Available In the matrix product states approach to $n$ species diffusion processes the stationary probability distribution is expressed as a matrix product state with respect to a quadratic algebra determined by the dynamics of the process. The quadratic algebra defines a noncommutative space with a $SU_q(n$ quantum group action as its symmetry. Boundary processes amount to the appearance of parameter dependent linear terms in the algebraic relations and lead to a reduction of the $SU_q(n$ symmetry. We argue that the boundary operators of the asymmetric simple exclusion process generate a tridiagonal algebra whose irriducible representations are expressed in terms of the Askey-Wilson polynomials. The Askey-Wilson algebra arises as a symmetry of the boundary problem and allows to solve the model exactly.
Symmetries and conservation laws of the damped harmonic oscillator
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
We work with a formulation of Noether-symmetry analysis which uses the properties of infinitesimal point transformations in the space-time variables to establish the association between symmetries and conservation laws of a dynamical system. Here symmetries are expressed in the form of generators. We have studied the ...
Permutational symmetries for coincidence rates in multimode multiphotonic interferometry
Khalid, Abdullah; Spivak, Dylan; Sanders, Barry C.; de Guise, Hubert
2018-06-01
We obtain coincidence rates for passive optical interferometry by exploiting the permutational symmetries of partially distinguishable input photons, and our approach elucidates qualitative features of multiphoton coincidence landscapes. We treat the interferometer input as a product state of any number of photons in each input mode with photons distinguished by their arrival time. Detectors at the output of the interferometer count photons from each output mode over a long integration time. We generalize and prove the claim of Tillmann et al. [Phys. Rev. X 5, 041015 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevX.5.041015] that coincidence rates can be elegantly expressed in terms of immanants. Immanants are functions of matrices that exhibit permutational symmetries and the immanants appearing in our coincidence-rate expressions share permutational symmetries with the input state. Our results are obtained by employing representation theory of the symmetric group to analyze systems of an arbitrary number of photons in arbitrarily sized interferometers.
Greiner, Walter
1989-01-01
"Quantum Dynamics" is a major survey of quantum theory based on Walter Greiner's long-running and highly successful courses at the University of Frankfurt. The key to understanding in quantum theory is to reinforce lecture attendance and textual study by working through plenty of representative and detailed examples. Firm belief in this principle led Greiner to develop his unique course and to transform it into a remarkable and comprehensive text. The text features a large number of examples and exercises involving many of the most advanced topics in quantum theory. These examples give practical and precise demonstrations of how to use the often subtle mathematics behind quantum theory. The text is divided into five volumes: Quantum Mechanics I - An Introduction, Quantum Mechanics II - Symmetries, Relativistic Quantum Mechanics, Quantum Electrodynamics, Gauge Theory of Weak Interactions. These five volumes take the reader from the fundamental postulates of quantum mechanics up to the latest research in partic...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nilles, Hans Peter
2012-04-01
Discrete (family) symmetries might play an important role in models of elementary particle physics. We discuss the origin of such symmetries in the framework of consistent ultraviolet completions of the standard model in field and string theory. The symmetries can arise due to special geometrical properties of extra compact dimensions and the localization of fields in this geometrical landscape. We also comment on anomaly constraints for discrete symmetries.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nilles, Hans Peter [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics; Bonn Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.; Ratz, Michael [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Physik-Department; Vaudrevange, Patrick K.S. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)
2012-04-15
Discrete (family) symmetries might play an important role in models of elementary particle physics. We discuss the origin of such symmetries in the framework of consistent ultraviolet completions of the standard model in field and string theory. The symmetries can arise due to special geometrical properties of extra compact dimensions and the localization of fields in this geometrical landscape. We also comment on anomaly constraints for discrete symmetries.
Symmetry, asymmetry and dissymmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wackenheim, A.; Zollner, G.
1987-01-01
The authors discuss the concept of symmetry and defect of symmetry in radiological imaging and recall the definition of asymmetry (congenital or constitutional) and dissymmetry (acquired). They then describe a rule designed for the cognitive method of automatic evaluation of shape recognition data and propose the use of reversal symmetry [fr
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fuentes Cobas, L.E.; Font Hernandez, R.
1993-01-01
An analytical treatment of electrostatic and magnetostatic field symmetry, as a function of charge and current distribution symmetry, is proposed. The Newmann Principle, related to the cause-effect symmetry relation, is presented and applied to the characterization of simple configurations. (Author) 5 refs
Rehren, K. -H.
1996-01-01
Weak C* Hopf algebras can act as global symmetries in low-dimensional quantum field theories, when braid group statistics prevents group symmetries. Possibilities to construct field algebras with weak C* Hopf symmetry from a given theory of local observables are discussed.
Raibert, M H
1986-03-14
Symmetry plays a key role in simplifying the control of legged robots and in giving them the ability to run and balance. The symmetries studied describe motion of the body and legs in terms of even and odd functions of time. A legged system running with these symmetries travels with a fixed forward speed and a stable upright posture. The symmetries used for controlling legged robots may help in elucidating the legged behavior of animals. Measurements of running in the cat and human show that the feet and body sometimes move as predicted by the even and odd symmetry functions.
Kemeth, Felix P.; Haugland, Sindre W.; Krischer, Katharina
2018-05-01
Symmetry broken states arise naturally in oscillatory networks. In this Letter, we investigate chaotic attractors in an ensemble of four mean-coupled Stuart-Landau oscillators with two oscillators being synchronized. We report that these states with partially broken symmetry, so-called chimera states, have different setwise symmetries in the incoherent oscillators, and in particular, some are and some are not invariant under a permutation symmetry on average. This allows for a classification of different chimera states in small networks. We conclude our report with a discussion of related states in spatially extended systems, which seem to inherit the symmetry properties of their counterparts in small networks.
Parastatistics and gauge symmetries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Govorkov, A.B.
1982-01-01
A possible formulation of gauge symmetries in the Green parafield theory is analysed and the SO(3) gauge symmetry is shown to be on a distinct status. The Greenberg paraquark hypothesis turns out to be not equivalent to the hypothesis of quark colour SU(3)sub(c) symmetry. Specific features of the gauge SO(3) symmetry are discussed, and a possible scheme where it is an exact subgroup of the broken SU(3)sub(c) symmetry is proposed. The direct formulation of the gauge principle for the parafield represented by quaternions is also discussed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gaiotto, Davide; Kapustin, Anton; Seiberg, Nathan; Willett, Brian
2015-01-01
A q-form global symmetry is a global symmetry for which the charged operators are of space-time dimension q; e.g. Wilson lines, surface defects, etc., and the charged excitations have q spatial dimensions; e.g. strings, membranes, etc. Many of the properties of ordinary global symmetries (q=0) apply here. They lead to Ward identities and hence to selection rules on amplitudes. Such global symmetries can be coupled to classical background fields and they can be gauged by summing over these classical fields. These generalized global symmetries can be spontaneously broken (either completely or to a subgroup). They can also have ’t Hooft anomalies, which prevent us from gauging them, but lead to ’t Hooft anomaly matching conditions. Such anomalies can also lead to anomaly inflow on various defects and exotic Symmetry Protected Topological phases. Our analysis of these symmetries gives a new unified perspective of many known phenomena and uncovers new results.
Symmetry and symmetry breaking in quantum mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chomaz, Philippe
1998-01-01
In the world of infinitely small, the world of atoms, nuclei and particles, the quantum mechanics enforces its laws. The discovery of Quanta, this unbelievable castration of the Possible in grains of matter and radiation, in discrete energy levels compels us of thinking the Single to comprehend the Universal. Quantum Numbers, magic Numbers and Numbers sign the wave. The matter is vibration. To describe the music of the world one needs keys, measures, notes, rules and partition: one needs quantum mechanics. The particles reduce themselves not in material points as the scholars of the past centuries thought, but they must be conceived throughout the space, in the accomplishment of shapes of volumes. When Einstein asked himself whether God plays dice, there was no doubt among its contemporaries that if He exists He is a geometer. In a Nature reduced to Geometry, the symmetries assume their role in servicing the Harmony. The symmetries allow ordering the energy levels to make them understandable. They impose there geometrical rules to the matter waves, giving them properties which sometimes astonish us. Hidden symmetries, internal symmetries and newly conceived symmetries have to be adopted subsequently to the observation of some order in this world of Quanta. In turn, the symmetries provide new observables which open new spaces of observation
SU(6) symmetry and the quark forces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bartnik, E.A.; Namyslowski, J.M.
1984-01-01
The short distance forces between 3 valence quarks in the proton are investigated in perturbative QCD formulated on the light cone. These forces are the driving terms in the Brodsky-Lepage type evolution equation for the partially decomposed distribution amplitudes. The one-gluon exchange force, which is the lowest order force in the running coupling constant αsub(s) retains the SU(6) symmetry, while the αsub(s) 2 -order force, corresponding to one Coulomb gluon and one transverse gluon, breaks the SU(6) symmetry. The latter force contributes to the deviation from 1/2 of the d/u ratio for the proton, observed experimentally. In the kinematical domain of one fast quark, the αsub(s) 2 -order force gives the leading (1-x) 3 behaviour of the deep inelastic structure function F 2 (x), in contrast to the αsub(s)-order force, which gives (1-x) 5 , for xapprox.=1. (orig.)
Atkinson, James H.; Bhaskaran, Lakshmi; Hill, Stephen; Myasoedov, Yuri; Zeldov, Eli; Del Barco, Enrique; Friedman, Jonathan; Fournet, Adeline; Christou, George
2015-03-01
The single-molecule magnet [Mn12O12(O2CCH3)16(CH3OH)4]CH3OH (``Mn12-MeOH'') is a high-symmetry sibling of the Mn12-Acetate SMM that offers a prime opportunity to explore the consequences of molecular symmetry. A previous study has shown that applied pressure induced changes in the Mn12-Acetate's anisotropy parameters. Here we present the results of a study in which uniaxial pressure was applied to a crystalline sample of Mn12-MeOH in order to examine how the pressure affects the quantum tunneling of magnetization at low temperature. We find that the pressure induces an increase in the resonant tunneling rate manifested as a change in the height of the tunneling steps in the magnetic hysteresis. These results suggest that pressure is altering symmetry-breaking terms in the molecule's spin Hamiltonian, giving rise to increased tunneling.
Dark Energy and Spacetime Symmetry
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Irina Dymnikova
2017-03-01
Full Text Available The Petrov classification of stress-energy tensors provides a model-independent definition of a vacuum by the algebraic structure of its stress-energy tensor and implies the existence of vacua whose symmetry is reduced as compared with the maximally symmetric de Sitter vacuum associated with the Einstein cosmological term. This allows to describe a vacuum in general setting by dynamical vacuum dark fluid, presented by a variable cosmological term with the reduced symmetry which makes vacuum fluid essentially anisotropic and allows it to be evolving and clustering. The relevant solutions to the Einstein equations describe regular cosmological models with time-evolving and spatially inhomogeneous vacuum dark energy, and compact vacuum objects generically related to a dark energy: regular black holes, their remnants and self-gravitating vacuum solitons with de Sitter vacuum interiors—which can be responsible for observational effects typically related to a dark matter. The mass of objects with de Sitter interior is generically related to vacuum dark energy and to breaking of space-time symmetry. In the cosmological context spacetime symmetry provides a mechanism for relaxing cosmological constant to a needed non-zero value.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mainzer, K.
1988-01-01
Symmetry, disymmetry, chirality etc. are well-known topics in chemistry. But they cannot only be found on the molecular level of matter. Atoms and elementary particles in physics are also characterized by particular symmetry groups. Even living organisms and populations on the macroscopic level have functional properties of symmetry. The whole physical, chemical, and biological evolution seems to be regulated by the emergence of new symmetries and the breaking down of old ones. One is reminded of Heisenberg's famous statement: 'Die letzte Wurzel der Erscheinungen ist also nicht die Materie, sondern das mathematische Gesetz, die Symmetrie, die mathematische Form' (Wandlungen in den Grundlagen der Naturwissenschaften, 1959). Historically the belief in symmetry and simplicity of nature has a long philosophical tradition from the Pythagoreans, Plato and Greek astronomers to Kepler and modern scientists. Today, 'symmetries in nature' is a common topic of mathematics, physics, chemistry, and biology. A lot of Nobel prizes were given in honour of inquiries concerning symmetries in nature. The fascination of symmetries is not only motivated by science, but by art and religion too. Therefore 'symmetris in nature' is an interdisciplinary topic which may help to overcome C.P. Snow's 'Two Cultures' of natural sciences and humanities. (author) 17 refs., 21 figs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mainzer, K
1988-05-01
Symmetry, disymmetry, chirality etc. are well-known topics in chemistry. But they cannot only be found on the molecular level of matter. Atoms and elementary particles in physics are also characterized by particular symmetry groups. Even living organisms and populations on the macroscopic level have functional properties of symmetry. The whole physical, chemical, and biological evolution seems to be regulated by the emergence of new symmetries and the breaking down of old ones. One is reminded of Heisenberg's famous statement: 'Die letzte Wurzel der Erscheinungen ist also nicht die Materie, sondern das mathematische Gesetz, die Symmetrie, die mathematische Form' (Wandlungen in den Grundlagen der Naturwissenschaften, 1959). Historically the belief in symmetry and simplicity of nature has a long philosophical tradition from the Pythagoreans, Plato and Greek astronomers to Kepler and modern scientists. Today, 'symmetries in nature' is a common topic of mathematics, physics, chemistry, and biology. A lot of Nobel prizes were given in honour of inquiries concerning symmetries in nature. The fascination of symmetries is not only motivated by science, but by art and religion too. Therefore 'symmetris in nature' is an interdisciplinary topic which may help to overcome C.P. Snow's 'Two Cultures' of natural sciences and humanities. (author) 17 refs., 21 figs.
From physical symmetries to emergent gauge symmetries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barceló, Carlos; Carballo-Rubio, Raúl; Di Filippo, Francesco; Garay, Luis J.
2016-01-01
Gauge symmetries indicate redundancies in the description of the relevant degrees of freedom of a given field theory and restrict the nature of observable quantities. One of the problems faced by emergent theories of relativistic fields is to understand how gauge symmetries can show up in systems that contain no trace of these symmetries at a more fundamental level. In this paper we start a systematic study aimed to establish a satisfactory mathematical and physical picture of this issue, dealing first with abelian field theories. We discuss how the trivialization, due to the decoupling and lack of excitation of some degrees of freedom, of the Noether currents associated with physical symmetries leads to emergent gauge symmetries in specific situations. An example of a relativistic field theory of a vector field is worked out in detail in order to make explicit how this mechanism works and to clarify the physics behind it. The interplay of these ideas with well-known results of importance to the emergent gravity program, such as the Weinberg-Witten theorem, are discussed.
Harris, A. Brooks
2006-01-01
This paper represents a detailed instruction manual for constructing the Landau expansion for magnetoelectric coupling in incommensurate ferroelectric magnets. The first step is to describe the magnetic ordering in terms of symmetry adapted coordinates which serve as complex valued magnetic order parameters whose transformation properties are displayed. In so doing we use the previously proposed technique to exploit inversion symmetry, since this symmetry had been universally overlooked. Havi...
Chiral symmetry breaking in finite quantum electrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Montero, J.C.; Pleitez, V.
1987-01-01
The dynamical breakdown of chiral symmetry in a finite Abelian gauge theory using a variational approach for the effective potential for composite operators is discussed. It is shown that, at least in a variational approach, the fermion either remains massless or gets a dynamical mass for every non-zero coupling constant. (Author) [pt
Symmetry remnants in the face of competing interactions in nuclei
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Leviatan, A., E-mail: ami@phys.huji.ac.il [Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Macek, M., E-mail: michal.macek@yale.edu [Center for Theoretical Physics, Sloane Physics Laboratory, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520-8120 (United States)
2015-10-15
Detailed description of nuclei necessitates model Hamiltonians which break most dynamical symmetries. Nevertheless, generalized notions of partial and quasi dynamical symmetries may still be applicable to selected subsets of states, amidst a complicated environment of other states. We examine such scenarios in the context of nuclear shape-phase transitions.
Approximate and renormgroup symmetries
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ibragimov, Nail H. [Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona (Sweden). Dept. of Mathematics Science; Kovalev, Vladimir F. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. of Mathematical Modeling
2009-07-01
''Approximate and Renormgroup Symmetries'' deals with approximate transformation groups, symmetries of integro-differential equations and renormgroup symmetries. It includes a concise and self-contained introduction to basic concepts and methods of Lie group analysis, and provides an easy-to-follow introduction to the theory of approximate transformation groups and symmetries of integro-differential equations. The book is designed for specialists in nonlinear physics - mathematicians and non-mathematicians - interested in methods of applied group analysis for investigating nonlinear problems in physical science and engineering. (orig.)
Approximate and renormgroup symmetries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ibragimov, Nail H.; Kovalev, Vladimir F.
2009-01-01
''Approximate and Renormgroup Symmetries'' deals with approximate transformation groups, symmetries of integro-differential equations and renormgroup symmetries. It includes a concise and self-contained introduction to basic concepts and methods of Lie group analysis, and provides an easy-to-follow introduction to the theory of approximate transformation groups and symmetries of integro-differential equations. The book is designed for specialists in nonlinear physics - mathematicians and non-mathematicians - interested in methods of applied group analysis for investigating nonlinear problems in physical science and engineering. (orig.)
5 X 5 rod bundle flow field measurements downstream a PWR spacer grid
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Castro, Higor F.P.; Silva, Vitor V A.; Santos, André A.C.; Veloso, Maria A.F., E-mail: higorfabiano@gmail.com, E-mail: mdora@nuclear.ufmg.br, E-mail: vitors@cdtn.br, E-mail: aacs@cdtn.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)
2017-07-01
The spacer grids are structures present in nuclear fuel assembly of Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR). They play an important structural role and also assist in heat removal through the assembly by promoting increased turbulence of the flow. Understanding the flow dynamics downstream the spacer grid is paramount for fuel element design and analysis. This paper presents water flow velocity profiles measurements downstream a spacer grid in a 5 x 5 rod bundle test rig with the objective of highlighting important fluid dynamic behavior near the grid and supplying data for CFD simulation validation. These velocity profiles were obtained at two different heights downstream the spacer grid using a LDV (Laser Doppler Velocimetry) through the top of test rig. The turbulence intensities and patterns of the swirl and cross flow were evaluated. The tests were conducted for Reynolds numbers ranging from 1.8 x 10{sup 4} to 5.4 x 10{sup 4}. This experimental research was carried out in thermo-hydraulics laboratory of Nuclear Technology Development Center – CDTN. Results show great repeatability and low uncertainties (< 1.24 %). Details of the flow field show how the mixture and turbulence induced by the spacer grid quickly decays downstream the spacer grid. It is shown that the developed methodology can supply high resolution low uncertainty results that can be used for validation of CFD simulations. (author)
5 X 5 rod bundle flow field measurements downstream a PWR spacer grid
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Castro, Higor F.P.; Silva, Vitor V A.; Santos, André A.C.; Veloso, Maria A.F.
2017-01-01
The spacer grids are structures present in nuclear fuel assembly of Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR). They play an important structural role and also assist in heat removal through the assembly by promoting increased turbulence of the flow. Understanding the flow dynamics downstream the spacer grid is paramount for fuel element design and analysis. This paper presents water flow velocity profiles measurements downstream a spacer grid in a 5 x 5 rod bundle test rig with the objective of highlighting important fluid dynamic behavior near the grid and supplying data for CFD simulation validation. These velocity profiles were obtained at two different heights downstream the spacer grid using a LDV (Laser Doppler Velocimetry) through the top of test rig. The turbulence intensities and patterns of the swirl and cross flow were evaluated. The tests were conducted for Reynolds numbers ranging from 1.8 x 10"4 to 5.4 x 10"4. This experimental research was carried out in thermo-hydraulics laboratory of Nuclear Technology Development Center – CDTN. Results show great repeatability and low uncertainties (< 1.24 %). Details of the flow field show how the mixture and turbulence induced by the spacer grid quickly decays downstream the spacer grid. It is shown that the developed methodology can supply high resolution low uncertainty results that can be used for validation of CFD simulations. (author)
Lie-algebra approach to symmetry breaking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anderson, J.T.
1981-01-01
A formal Lie-algebra approach to symmetry breaking is studied in an attempt to reduce the arbitrariness of Lagrangian (Hamiltonian) models which include several free parameters and/or ad hoc symmetry groups. From Lie algebra it is shown that the unbroken Lagrangian vacuum symmetry can be identified from a linear function of integers which are Cartan matrix elements. In broken symmetry if the breaking operators form an algebra then the breaking symmetry (or symmetries) can be identified from linear functions of integers characteristic of the breaking symmetries. The results are applied to the Dirac Hamiltonian of a sum of flavored fermions and colored bosons in the absence of dynamical symmetry breaking. In the partially reduced quadratic Hamiltonian the breaking-operator functions are shown to consist of terms of order g 2 , g, and g 0 in the color coupling constants and identified with strong (boson-boson), medium strong (boson-fermion), and fine-structure (fermion-fermion) interactions. The breaking operators include a boson helicity operator in addition to the familiar fermion helicity and ''spin-orbit'' terms. Within the broken vacuum defined by the conventional formalism, the field divergence yields a gauge which is a linear function of Cartan matrix integers and which specifies the vacuum symmetry. We find that the vacuum symmetry is chiral SU(3) x SU(3) and the axial-vector-current divergence gives a PCAC -like function of the Cartan matrix integers which reduces to PCAC for SU(2) x SU(2) breaking. For the mass spectra of the nonets J/sup P/ = 0 - ,1/2 + ,1 - the integer runs through the sequence 3,0,-1,-2, which indicates that the breaking subgroups are the simple Lie groups. Exact axial-vector-current conservation indicates a breaking sum rule which generates octet enhancement. Finally, the second-order breaking terms are obtained from the second-order spin tensor sum of the completely reduced quartic Hamiltonian
Physics of chiral symmetry breaking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shuryak, E.V.
1991-01-01
This subsection of the 'Modeling QCD' Workshop has included five talks. E. Shuryak spoke on 'Recent Progress in Understanding Chiral Symmetry Breaking'; below it is split into two parts: (i) a mini-review of the field and (ii) a brief presentation of the status of the theory of interacting instantons. The next sections correspond to the following talks: (iii) K. Goeke et al., 'Chiral Restoration and Medium Corrections to Nucleon in the NJL Model'; (iv) M. Takizawa and K. Kubodera, 'Study of Meson Properties and Quark Condensates in the NJL Model with Instanton Effects'; (v) G. Klein and A. G. Williams, 'Dynamical Chiral Symmetry Breaking in Dual QCD'; and (vi) R. D. Ball, 'Skyrmions and Baryons.' (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haxton, W.C.
1988-01-01
I discuss a number of the themes of the Symmetries and Spin session of the 8th International Symposium on High Energy Spin Physics: parity nonconservation, CP/T nonconservation, and tests of charge symmetry and charge independence. 28 refs., 1 fig
2016-01-01
The Symmetry Festival is a science and art program series, the most important periodic event (see its history) to bring together scientists, artists, educators and practitioners interested in symmetry (its roots, what is behind, applications, etc.), or in the consequences of its absence.
Quantum symmetry for pedestrians
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mack, G.; Schomerus, V.
1992-03-01
Symmetries more general than groups are possible in quantum therory. Quantum symmetries in the narrow sense are compatible with braid statistics. They are theoretically consistent much as supersymmetry is, and they could lead to degenerate multiplets of excitations with fractional spin in thin films. (orig.)
Wigner's Symmetry Representation Theorem
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
IAS Admin
At the Heart of Quantum Field Theory! Aritra Kr. ... principle of symmetry was not held as something very fundamental ... principle of local symmetry: the laws of physics are invariant un- .... Next, we would show that different coefficients of a state ...
Charged fluids with symmetries
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
It is possible to introduce many types of symmetries on the manifold which restrict the ... metric tensor field and generate constants of the motion along null geodesics .... In this analysis we have studied the role of symmetries for charged perfect ...
Marchis, Iuliana
2009-01-01
Symmetry is one of the fundamental concepts in Geometry. It is a Mathematical concept, which can be very well connected with Art and Ethnography. The aim of the article is to show how to link the geometrical concept symmetry with interculturality. For this mosaics from different countries are used.
The priority of internal symmetries in particle physics
Kantorovich, Aharon
2003-12-01
In this paper, I try to decipher the role of internal symmetries in the ontological maze of particle physics. The relationship between internal symmetries and laws of nature is discussed within the framework of ;Platonic realism.; The notion of physical ;structure; is introduced as representing a deeper ontological layer behind the observable world. I argue that an internal symmetry is a structure encompassing laws of nature. The application of internal symmetry groups to particle physics came about in two revolutionary steps. The first was the introduction of the internal symmetries of hadrons in the early 1960s. These global and approximate symmetries served as means of bypassing the dynamics. I argue that the realist could interpret these symmetries as ontologically prior to the hadrons. The second step was the gauge revolution in the 1970s, where symmetries became local and exact and were integrated with the dynamics. I argue that the symmetries of the second generation are fundamental in the following two respects: (1) According to the so-called ;gauge argument,; gauge symmetry dictates the existence of gauge bosons, which determine the nature of the forces. This view, which has been recently criticized by some philosophers, is widely accepted in particle physics at least as a heuristic principle. (2) In view of grand unified theories, the new symmetries can be interpreted as ontologically prior to baryon matter.
Symmetry and symmetry breaking in modern physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barone, M; Theophilou, A K
2008-01-01
In modern physics, the theory of symmetry, i.e. group theory, is a basic tool for understanding and formulating the fundamental principles of Physics, like Relativity, Quantum Mechanics and Particle Physics. In this work we focus on the relation between Mathematics, Physics and objective reality
Coupled oscillators with parity-time symmetry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tsoy, Eduard N., E-mail: etsoy@uzsci.net
2017-02-05
Different models of coupled oscillators with parity-time (PT) symmetry are studied. Hamiltonian functions for two and three linear oscillators coupled via coordinates and accelerations are derived. Regions of stable dynamics for two coupled oscillators are obtained. It is found that in some cases, an increase of the gain-loss parameter can stabilize the system. A family of Hamiltonians for two coupled nonlinear oscillators with PT-symmetry is obtained. An extension to high-dimensional PT-symmetric systems is discussed. - Highlights: • A generalization of a Hamiltonian system of linear coupled oscillators with the parity-time (PT) symmetry is suggested. • It is found that an increase of the gain-loss parameter can stabilize the system. • A family of Hamiltonian functions for two coupled nonlinear oscillators with PT-symmetry is obtained.
Gapless Symmetry-Protected Topological Order
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Thomas Scaffidi
2017-11-01
Full Text Available We introduce exactly solvable gapless quantum systems in d dimensions that support symmetry-protected topological (SPT edge modes. Our construction leads to long-range entangled, critical points or phases that can be interpreted as critical condensates of domain walls “decorated” with dimension (d-1 SPT systems. Using a combination of field theory and exact lattice results, we argue that such gapless SPT systems have symmetry-protected topological edge modes that can be either gapless or symmetry broken, leading to unusual surface critical properties. Despite the absence of a bulk gap, these edge modes are robust against arbitrary symmetry-preserving local perturbations near the edges. In two dimensions, we construct wave functions that can also be interpreted as unusual quantum critical points with diffusive scaling in the bulk but ballistic edge dynamics.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
O'Raifeartaigh, L.
1979-01-01
This review describes the principles of hidden gauge symmetry and of its application to the fundamental interactions. The emphasis is on the structure of the theory rather than on the technical details and, in order to emphasise the structure, gauge symmetry and hidden symmetry are first treated as independent phenomena before being combined into a single (hidden gauge symmetric) theory. The main application of the theory is to the weak and electromagnetic interactions of the elementary particles, and although models are used for comparison with experiment and for illustration, emphasis is placed on those features of the application which are model-independent. (author)
Sequential flavor symmetry breaking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Feldmann, Thorsten; Jung, Martin; Mannel, Thomas
2009-01-01
The gauge sector of the standard model exhibits a flavor symmetry that allows for independent unitary transformations of the fermion multiplets. In the standard model the flavor symmetry is broken by the Yukawa couplings to the Higgs boson, and the resulting fermion masses and mixing angles show a pronounced hierarchy. In this work we connect the observed hierarchy to a sequence of intermediate effective theories, where the flavor symmetries are broken in a stepwise fashion by vacuum expectation values of suitably constructed spurion fields. We identify the possible scenarios in the quark sector and discuss some implications of this approach.
Sequential flavor symmetry breaking
Feldmann, Thorsten; Jung, Martin; Mannel, Thomas
2009-08-01
The gauge sector of the standard model exhibits a flavor symmetry that allows for independent unitary transformations of the fermion multiplets. In the standard model the flavor symmetry is broken by the Yukawa couplings to the Higgs boson, and the resulting fermion masses and mixing angles show a pronounced hierarchy. In this work we connect the observed hierarchy to a sequence of intermediate effective theories, where the flavor symmetries are broken in a stepwise fashion by vacuum expectation values of suitably constructed spurion fields. We identify the possible scenarios in the quark sector and discuss some implications of this approach.
Schwichtenberg, Jakob
2015-01-01
This is a textbook that derives the fundamental theories of physics from symmetry. It starts by introducing, in a completely self-contained way, all mathematical tools needed to use symmetry ideas in physics. Thereafter, these tools are put into action and by using symmetry constraints, the fundamental equations of Quantum Mechanics, Quantum Field Theory, Electromagnetism, and Classical Mechanics are derived. As a result, the reader is able to understand the basic assumptions behind, and the connections between the modern theories of physics. The book concludes with first applications of the previously derived equations.
Patterns of symmetry breaking in chiral QCD
Bolognesi, Stefano; Konishi, Kenichi; Shifman, Mikhail
2018-05-01
We consider S U (N ) Yang-Mills theory with massless chiral fermions in a complex representation of the gauge group. The main emphasis is on the so-called hybrid ψ χ η model. The possible patterns of realization of the continuous chiral flavor symmetry are discussed. We argue that the chiral symmetry is broken in conjunction with a dynamical Higgsing of the gauge group (complete or partial) by bifermion condensates. As a result a color-flavor locked symmetry is preserved. The 't Hooft anomaly matching proceeds via saturation of triangles by massless composite fermions or, in a mixed mode, i.e. also by the "weakly" coupled fermions associated with dynamical Abelianization, supplemented by a number of Nambu-Goldstone mesons. Gauge-singlet condensates are of the multifermion type and, though it cannot be excluded, the chiral symmetry realization via such gauge invariant condensates is more contrived (requires a number of four-fermion condensates simultaneously and, even so, problems remain) and less plausible. We conclude that in the model at hand, chiral flavor symmetry implies dynamical Higgsing by bifermion condensates.
Symmetries and Dirac equation solutions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Souza, Marcio Lima de.
1991-06-01
The purpose of this thesis is the extension to be relativistic case of a method that has proved useful for the solution of various potential problems in non relativistic situation. This method, the method of dynamical symmetries, is based on the Baker-Campbell-Hausdorf formulae and developed first for the particular example of the relativistic Coulomb problem. Here we generalize the method for a Hamiltonian that can be written as a linear combination of generators of the SO(2,1) group. As illustrative examples, we solve the problem of a charged particle in a constant magnetic field and the exponential magnetic field. (author). 21 refs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dragon, N.
1979-01-01
The possible use of trilinear algebras as symmetry algebras for para-Fermi fields is investigated. The shortcomings of the examples are argued to be a general feature of such generalized algebras. (author)
Gauge symmetry from decoupling
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. Wetterich
2017-02-01
Full Text Available Gauge symmetries emerge from a redundant description of the effective action for light degrees of freedom after the decoupling of heavy modes. This redundant description avoids the use of explicit constraints in configuration space. For non-linear constraints the gauge symmetries are non-linear. In a quantum field theory setting the gauge symmetries are local and can describe Yang–Mills theories or quantum gravity. We formulate gauge invariant fields that correspond to the non-linear light degrees of freedom. In the context of functional renormalization gauge symmetries can emerge if the flow generates or preserves large mass-like terms for the heavy degrees of freedom. They correspond to a particular form of gauge fixing terms in quantum field theories.
Segmentation Using Symmetry Deviation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hollensen, Christian; Højgaard, L.; Specht, L.
2011-01-01
of the CT-scans into a single atlas. Afterwards the standard deviation of anatomical symmetry for the 20 normal patients was evaluated using non-rigid registration and registered onto the atlas to create an atlas for normal anatomical symmetry deviation. The same non-rigid registration was used on the 10...... hypopharyngeal cancer patients to find anatomical symmetry and evaluate it against the standard deviation of the normal patients to locate pathologic volumes. Combining the information with an absolute PET threshold of 3 Standard uptake value (SUV) a volume was automatically delineated. The overlap of automated....... The standard deviation of the anatomical symmetry, seen in figure for one patient along CT and PET, was extracted for normal patients and compared with the deviation from cancer patients giving a new way of determining cancer pathology location. Using the novel method an overlap concordance index...
Wigner's Symmetry Representation Theorem
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 10. Wigner's Symmetry Representation Theorem: At the Heart of Quantum Field Theory! Aritra Kr Mukhopadhyay. General Article Volume 19 Issue 10 October 2014 pp 900-916 ...
Recurrence and symmetry of time series: Application to transition detection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Girault, Jean-Marc
2015-01-01
Highlights: •A new theoretical framework based on the symmetry concept is proposed. •Four types of symmetry present in any time series were analyzed. •New descriptors make possible the analysis of regime changes in logistic systems. •Chaos–chaos, chaos–periodic, symmetry-breaking, symmetry-increasing bifurcations can be detected. -- Abstract: The study of transitions in low dimensional, nonlinear dynamical systems is a complex problem for which there is not yet a simple, global numerical method able to detect chaos–chaos, chaos–periodic bifurcations and symmetry-breaking, symmetry-increasing bifurcations. We present here for the first time a general framework focusing on the symmetry concept of time series that at the same time reveals new kinds of recurrence. We propose several numerical tools based on the symmetry concept allowing both the qualification and quantification of different kinds of possible symmetry. By using several examples based on periodic symmetrical time series and on logistic and cubic maps, we show that it is possible with simple numerical tools to detect a large number of bifurcations of chaos–chaos, chaos–periodic, broken symmetry and increased symmetry types
Strings, Branes and Symmetries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Westerberg, A.
1997-01-01
Recent dramatic progress in the understanding of the non-perturbative structure of superstring theory shows that extended objects of various kinds, collectively referred to as p-branes, are an integral part of the theory. In this thesis, comprising an introductory text and seven appended research papers, we study various aspects of p-branes with relevance for superstring theory. The first part of the introductory text is a brief review of string theory focussing on the role of p-branes. In particular, we consider the so-called D-branes which currently are attracting a considerable amount of attention. The purpose of this part is mainly to put into context the results of paper 4, 5 and 6 concerning action functionals describing the low-energy dynamics of D-branes. The discussion of perturbative string theory given in this part of the introduction is also intended to provide some background to paper 2 which contains an application of the Reggeon-sewing approach to the construction of string vertices. The second part covers a rather different subject, namely higher-dimensional loop algebras and their cohomology, with the aim of facilitating the reading of papers 1, 3 and 7. The relation to p-branes is to be found in paper 1 where we introduce a certain higher-dimensional generalization of the loop algebra and discuss its potential applicability as a symmetry algebra for p-branes. Papers 3 and 7 are mathematically oriented out-growths of this paper addressing the issue of realizing algebras of this kind, known in physics as current algebras, in terms of pseudo differential operators (PSDOs). The main result of paper 3 is a proof of the equivalence between certain Lie-algebra cocycles on the space of second-quantizable PSDOs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Blum, Alexander Simon
2009-06-10
This thesis deals with the possibility of describing the flavor sector of the Standard Model of Particle Physics (with neutrino masses), that is the fermion masses and mixing matrices, with a discrete, non-abelian flavor symmetry. In particular, mass independent textures are considered, where one or several of the mixing angles are determined by group theory alone and are independent of the fermion masses. To this end a systematic analysis of a large class of discrete symmetries, the dihedral groups, is analyzed. Mass independent textures originating from such symmetries are described and it is shown that such structures arise naturally from the minimization of scalar potentials, where the scalars are gauge singlet flavons transforming non-trivially only under the flavor group. Two models are constructed from this input, one describing leptons, based on the group D{sub 4}, the other describing quarks and employing the symmetry D{sub 14}. In the latter model it is the quark mixing matrix element V{sub ud} - basically the Cabibbo angle - which is at leading order predicted from group theory. Finally, discrete flavor groups are discussed as subgroups of a continuous gauge symmetry and it is shown that this implies that the original gauge symmetry is broken by fairly large representations. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blum, Alexander Simon
2009-01-01
This thesis deals with the possibility of describing the flavor sector of the Standard Model of Particle Physics (with neutrino masses), that is the fermion masses and mixing matrices, with a discrete, non-abelian flavor symmetry. In particular, mass independent textures are considered, where one or several of the mixing angles are determined by group theory alone and are independent of the fermion masses. To this end a systematic analysis of a large class of discrete symmetries, the dihedral groups, is analyzed. Mass independent textures originating from such symmetries are described and it is shown that such structures arise naturally from the minimization of scalar potentials, where the scalars are gauge singlet flavons transforming non-trivially only under the flavor group. Two models are constructed from this input, one describing leptons, based on the group D 4 , the other describing quarks and employing the symmetry D 14 . In the latter model it is the quark mixing matrix element V ud - basically the Cabibbo angle - which is at leading order predicted from group theory. Finally, discrete flavor groups are discussed as subgroups of a continuous gauge symmetry and it is shown that this implies that the original gauge symmetry is broken by fairly large representations. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Caballar, Roland Cristopher F.; Ocampo, Leonard R.; Galapon, Eric A.
2010-01-01
Internal symmetries can be used to classify multiple solutions to the time-energy canonical commutation relation (TE-CCR). The dynamical behavior of solutions to the TE-CCR possessing particular internal symmetries involving time reversal differ significantly from solutions to the TE-CCR without those particular symmetries, implying a connection between the internal symmetries of a quantum system, its internal unitary dynamics, and the TE-CCR.
Symmetry problems in particle physics: Progress report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kabir, P.K.; Fishbane, P.F.
1988-01-01
Progress is reported in the areas of family symmetry and the fermion mass matrix, consequences of heavy isosinglet fermions, and dynamics of confinement. Theorems were discovered relating the polarization of the transmitted neutrons after passage through a polarized medium to the initial polarization
Deriving GENERIC from a generalized fluctuation symmetry
Kraaij, R.; Lazarescu, A.; Maes, C.; Peletier, M.A.
2018-01-01
Much of the structure of macroscopic evolution equations for relaxation to equilibrium can be derived from symmetries in the dynamical fluctuations around the most typical trajectory. For example, detailed balance as expressed in terms of the Lagrangian for the path-space action leads to gradient
Some remarks on chiral symmetry in dense matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaellman, C.G.; Montonen, C.
1982-01-01
The restoration of chiral symmetry in quantum chromodynamics as the temperature T and the chemical potential vertical stroke μ vertical stroke are increased is discussed qualitatively and using effective field theories. The latter are shown not to give reliable quantitative estimates. It is argued that a dilute gas of instantons cannot be the main dynamical agent responsible for the breakdown of chiral symmetry. (orig.)
Symmetry energy in the liquid–gas mixture
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
López, J.A., E-mail: jorgelopez@utep.edu [University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Terrazas Porras, S. [Universidad Autónoma de Ciudad Juárez, Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua (Mexico)
2017-01-15
Results from classical molecular dynamics simulations of infinite nuclear systems with varying density, temperature and isospin content are used to calculate the symmetry energy at low densities. The results show an excellent agreement with the experimental data and corroborate the claim that the formation of clusters has a strong influence on the symmetry energy in the liquid–gas coexistence region.
limit and complete classification of symmetry schemes in proton ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Proton–neutron interacting boson model; pnIBM; symmetry limits; complete classifica- tion; F spin; F spin .... Dynamical symmetry limits of pnIBM correspond to the group chains starting withU(12) generating N ...... value must be. MFs = MF MFd.
Quantum Space-Time Deformed Symmetries Versus Broken Symmetries
Amelino-Camelia, G
2002-01-01
Several recent studies have concerned the faith of classical symmetries in quantum space-time. In particular, it appears likely that quantum (discretized, noncommutative,...) versions of Minkowski space-time would not enjoy the classical Lorentz symmetries. I compare two interesting cases: the case in which the classical symmetries are "broken", i.e. at the quantum level some classical symmetries are lost, and the case in which the classical symmetries are "deformed", i.e. the quantum space-time has as many symmetries as its classical counterpart but the nature of these symmetries is affected by the space-time quantization procedure. While some general features, such as the emergence of deformed dispersion relations, characterize both the symmetry-breaking case and the symmetry-deformation case, the two scenarios are also characterized by sharp differences, even concerning the nature of the new effects predicted. I illustrate this point within an illustrative calculation concerning the role of space-time symm...
Symmetry of priapulids (Priapulida). 2. Symmetry of larvae.
Adrianov, A V; Malakhov, V V
2001-02-01
Larvae of priapulids are characterized by radial symmetry evident from both external and internal characters of the introvert and lorica. The bilaterality appears as a result of a combination of several radial symmetries: pentaradial symmetry of the teeth, octaradial symmetry of the primary scalids, 25-radial symmetry of scalids, biradial symmetry of the neck, and biradial and decaradial symmetry of the trunk. Internal radiality is exhibited by musculature and the circumpharyngeal nerve ring. Internal bilaterality is evident from the position of the ventral nerve cord and excretory elements. Externally, the bilaterality is determined by the position of the anal tubulus and two shortened midventral rows of scalids bordering the ventral nerve cord. The lorical elements define the biradial symmetry that is missing in adult priapulids. The radial symmetry of larvae is a secondary appearance considered an evolutionary adaptation to a lifestyle within the three-dimensional environment of the benthic sediment. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Weiss, Asia; Whiteley, Walter
2014-01-01
This book contains recent contributions to the fields of rigidity and symmetry with two primary focuses: to present the mathematically rigorous treatment of rigidity of structures, and to explore the interaction of geometry, algebra, and combinatorics. Overall, the book shows how researchers from diverse backgrounds explore connections among the various discrete structures with symmetry as the unifying theme. Contributions present recent trends and advances in discrete geometry, particularly in the theory of polytopes. The rapid development of abstract polytope theory has resulted in a rich theory featuring an attractive interplay of methods and tools from discrete geometry, group theory, classical geometry, hyperbolic geometry and topology. The volume will also be a valuable source as an introduction to the ideas of both combinatorial and geometric rigidity theory and its applications, incorporating the surprising impact of symmetry. It will appeal to students at both the advanced undergraduate and gradu...
Schwichtenberg, Jakob
2018-01-01
This is a textbook that derives the fundamental theories of physics from symmetry. It starts by introducing, in a completely self-contained way, all mathematical tools needed to use symmetry ideas in physics. Thereafter, these tools are put into action and by using symmetry constraints, the fundamental equations of Quantum Mechanics, Quantum Field Theory, Electromagnetism, and Classical Mechanics are derived. As a result, the reader is able to understand the basic assumptions behind, and the connections between the modern theories of physics. The book concludes with first applications of the previously derived equations. Thanks to the input of readers from around the world, this second edition has been purged of typographical errors and also contains several revised sections with improved explanations. .
Deriving GENERIC from a Generalized Fluctuation Symmetry
Kraaij, Richard; Lazarescu, Alexandre; Maes, Christian; Peletier, Mark
2018-02-01
Much of the structure of macroscopic evolution equations for relaxation to equilibrium can be derived from symmetries in the dynamical fluctuations around the most typical trajectory. For example, detailed balance as expressed in terms of the Lagrangian for the path-space action leads to gradient zero-cost flow. We expose a new such fluctuation symmetry that implies GENERIC, an extension of gradient flow where a Hamiltonian part is added to the dissipative term in such a way as to retain the free energy as Lyapunov function.
Symmetry-adapted Liouville space. Pt. 7
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Temme, F.P.
1990-01-01
In examining nuclear spin dynamics of NMR spin clusters in density operator/generalized torque formalisms over vertical strokekqv>> operator bases of Liouville space, it is necessary to consider the symmetry mappings and carrier spaces under a specialized group for such (k i = 1) nuclear spin clusters. The SU2 X S n group provides the essential mappings and the form of H carrier space, which allows one to: (a) draw comparisons with Hilbert space duality, and (b) outline the form of the Coleman-Kotani genealogical hierarchy under induced S n -symmetry. (orig.)
BOOK REVIEW: Symmetry Breaking
Ryder, L. H.
2005-11-01
One of the most fruitful and enduring advances in theoretical physics during the last half century has been the development of the role played by symmetries. One needs only to consider SU(3) and the classification of elementary particles, the Yang Mills enlargement of Maxwell's electrodynamics to the symmetry group SU(2), and indeed the tremendous activity surrounding the discovery of parity violation in the weak interactions in the late 1950s. This last example is one of a broken symmetry, though the symmetry in question is a discrete one. It was clear to Gell-Mann, who first clarified the role of SU(3) in particle physics, that this symmetry was not exact. If it had been, it would have been much easier to discover; for example, the proton, neutron, Σ, Λ and Ξ particles would all have had the same mass. For many years the SU(3) symmetry breaking was assigned a mathematical form, but the importance of this formulation fell away when the quark model began to be taken seriously; the reason the SU(3) symmetry was not exact was simply that the (three, in those days) quarks had different masses. At the same time, and in a different context, symmetry breaking of a different type was being investigated. This went by the name of `spontaneous symmetry breaking' and its characteristic was that the ground state of a given system was not invariant under the symmetry transformation, though the interactions (the Hamiltonian, in effect) was. A classic example is ferromagnetism. In a ferromagnet the atomic spins are aligned in one direction only—this is the ground state of the system. It is clearly not invariant under a rotation, for that would change the ground state into a (similar but) different one, with the spins aligned in a different direction; this is the phenomenon of a degenerate vacuum. The contribution of the spin interaction, s1.s2, to the Hamiltonian, however, is actually invariant under rotations. As Coleman remarked, a little man living in a ferromagnet would
Symmetry, structure, and spacetime
Rickles, Dean
2007-01-01
In this book Rickles considers several interpretative difficulties raised by gauge-type symmetries (those that correspond to no change in physical state). The ubiquity of such symmetries in modern physics renders them an urgent topic in philosophy of physics. Rickles focuses on spacetime physics, and in particular classical and quantum general relativity. Here the problems posed are at their most pathological, involving the apparent disappearance of spacetime! Rickles argues that both traditional ontological positions should be replaced by a structuralist account according to which relational
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chimento, Luis P.
2002-01-01
We find the group of symmetry transformations under which the Einstein equations for the spatially flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe are form invariant. They relate the energy density and the pressure of the fluid to the expansion rate. We show that inflation can be obtained from nonaccelerated scenarios by a symmetry transformation. We derive the transformation rule for the spectrum and spectral index of the curvature perturbations. Finally, the group is extended to investigate inflation in the anisotropic Bianchi type-I spacetime and the brane-world cosmology
Symmetries and symmetry breaking beyond the electroweak theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grojean, Ch.
1999-01-01
The Glashow-Salam-Weinberg theory describing electroweak interactions is one of the best successes of quantum field theory; it has passed all the experimental tests of particles physics with a high accuracy. However, this theory suffers from some deficiencies in the sense that some parameters, especially those involved in the generation of the mass of the elementary particles, are fixed to unnatural values. Moreover gravitation whose quantization cannot be achieved in ordinary quantum filed theory is hot taken into account. The aim of this PhD dissertation is to study some theories beyond the Standard Model and inspired by superstring theories. My endeavour has been to develop theoretical aspects of an effective dynamical description of one of the soltonic states of the strongly coupled strings. An important part of my results is also devoted to a more phenomenological analysis of the low energy effects of the symmetries that assure the coherence of the theories at high energy: these symmetries could explain the fermion mass hierarchy and could be directly observable in collider experiments. It is also shown how the geometrical properties of compactified spaces characterize the vacuum of string theory in a non-perturbative regime; such a vacuum can be used to construct a unified theory of gauge and gravitational interactions with a supersymmetry softy broken at a TcV scale. (author)
Noether symmetry approach in the cosmological alpha-attractors
Kaewkhao, Narakorn; Kanesom, Thanyagamon; Channuie, Phongpichit
2018-06-01
In cosmological framework, Noether symmetry technique has revealed a useful tool in order to examine exact solutions. In this work, we first introduce the Jordan-frame Lagrangian and apply the conformal transformation in order to obtain the Lagrangian equivalent to Einstein-frame form. We then analyze the dynamics of the field in the cosmological alpha-attractors using the Noether symmetry approach by focusing on the single field scenario in the Einstein-frame form. We show that with a Noether symmetry the corresponding dynamical system can be completely integrated and the potential exhibited by the symmetry can be exactly obtained. With the proper choice of parameters, the behavior of the scale factor displays an exponential (de Sitter) behavior at the present epoch. Moreover, we discover that the Hubble parameters strongly depends on the initial values of parameters exhibited by the Noether symmetry. Interestingly, it can retardedly evolve and becomes a constant in the present epoch in all cases.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Albaladejo, M.; Fernandez-Soler, P.; Nieves, J.; Ortega, P.G. [Centro Mixto CSIC-Universidad de Valencia, Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular (IFIC), Institutos de Investigacion de Paterna, Aptd. 22085, Valencia (Spain)
2017-03-15
The discovery of the D{sup *}{sub s0}(2317) and D{sub s1}(2460) resonances in the charmed-strange meson spectra revealed that formerly successful constituent quark models lose predictability in the vicinity of two-meson thresholds. The emergence of non-negligible effects due to meson loops requires an explicit evaluation of the interplay between Q anti q and (Q anti q)(q anti q) Fock components. In contrast to the c anti s sector, there is no experimental evidence of J{sup P} = 0{sup +}, 1{sup +} bottom-strange states yet. Motivated by recent lattice studies, in this work the heavy-quark partners of the D{sub s0}{sup *}(2317) and D{sub s1}(2460) states are analyzed within a heavy meson chiral unitary scheme. As a novelty, the coupling between the constituent quark-model P-wave anti B{sub s} scalar and axial mesons and the anti B{sup (*)}K channels is incorporated employing an effective interaction, consistent with heavy-quark spin symmetry, constrained by the lattice energy levels. (orig.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Miloslav Znojil
2016-06-01
Full Text Available For a given operator D ( t of an observable in theoretical parity-time symmetric quantum physics (or for its evolution-generator analogues in the experimental gain-loss classical optics, etc. the instant t c r i t i c a l of a spontaneous breakdown of the parity-time alias gain-loss symmetry should be given, in the rigorous language of mathematics, the Kato’s name of an “exceptional point”, t c r i t i c a l = t ( E P . In the majority of conventional applications the exceptional point (EP values are not real. In our paper, we pay attention to several exactly tractable toy-model evolutions for which at least some of the values of t ( E P become real. These values are interpreted as “instants of a catastrophe”, be it classical or quantum. In the classical optical setting the discrete nature of our toy models might make them amenable to simulations. In the latter context the instant of Big Bang is mentioned as an illustrative sample of possible physical meaning of such an EP catastrophe in quantum cosmology.
Introduction to Chiral Symmetry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Koch, Volker [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
2017-05-09
These lectures are an attempt to a pedagogical introduction into the elementary concepts of chiral symmetry in nuclear physics. We will also discuss some effective chiral models such as the linear and nonlinear sigma model as well as the essential ideas of chiral perturbation theory. We will present some applications to the physics of ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisionsd.
Jinzenji, Masao
2018-01-01
This book furnishes a brief introduction to classical mirror symmetry, a term that denotes the process of computing Gromov–Witten invariants of a Calabi–Yau threefold by using the Picard–Fuchs differential equation of period integrals of its mirror Calabi–Yau threefold. The book concentrates on the best-known example, the quintic hypersurface in 4-dimensional projective space, and its mirror manifold. First, there is a brief review of the process of discovery of mirror symmetry and the striking result proposed in the celebrated paper by Candelas and his collaborators. Next, some elementary results of complex manifolds and Chern classes needed for study of mirror symmetry are explained. Then the topological sigma models, the A-model and the B-model, are introduced. The classical mirror symmetry hypothesis is explained as the equivalence between the correlation function of the A-model of a quintic hyper-surface and that of the B-model of its mirror manifold. On the B-model side, the process of construct...
Approximate symmetries of Hamiltonians
Chubb, Christopher T.; Flammia, Steven T.
2017-08-01
We explore the relationship between approximate symmetries of a gapped Hamiltonian and the structure of its ground space. We start by considering approximate symmetry operators, defined as unitary operators whose commutators with the Hamiltonian have norms that are sufficiently small. We show that when approximate symmetry operators can be restricted to the ground space while approximately preserving certain mutual commutation relations. We generalize the Stone-von Neumann theorem to matrices that approximately satisfy the canonical (Heisenberg-Weyl-type) commutation relations and use this to show that approximate symmetry operators can certify the degeneracy of the ground space even though they only approximately form a group. Importantly, the notions of "approximate" and "small" are all independent of the dimension of the ambient Hilbert space and depend only on the degeneracy in the ground space. Our analysis additionally holds for any gapped band of sufficiently small width in the excited spectrum of the Hamiltonian, and we discuss applications of these ideas to topological quantum phases of matter and topological quantum error correcting codes. Finally, in our analysis, we also provide an exponential improvement upon bounds concerning the existence of shared approximate eigenvectors of approximately commuting operators under an added normality constraint, which may be of independent interest.
Molecular symmetry and spectroscopy
Bunker, Philip; Jensen, Per
2006-01-01
The first edition, by P.R. Bunker, published in 1979, remains the sole textbook that explains the use of the molecular symmetry group in understanding high resolution molecular spectra. Since 1979 there has been considerable progress in the field and a second edition is required; the original author has been joined in its writing by Per Jensen. The Material of the first edition has been reorganized and much has been added. The molecular symmetry group is now introduced early on, and the explanation of how to determine nuclear spin statistical weights has been consolidated in one chapter, after groups, symmetry groups, character tables and the Hamiltonian have been introduced. A description of the symmetry in the three-dimensional rotation group K(spatial), irreducible spherical tensor operators, and vector coupling coefficients is now included. The chapters on energy levels and selection rules contain a great deal of material that was not in the first edition (much of it was undiscovered in 1979), concerning ...
Introduction to chiral symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koch, V.
1996-01-01
These lectures are an attempt to a pedagogical introduction into the elementary concepts of chiral symmetry in nuclear physics. Effective chiral models such as the linear and nonlinear sigma model will be discussed as well as the essential ideas of chiral perturbation theory. Some applications to the physics of ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions will be presented
Pels, D.L.
While symmetry and impartiality have become ruling principles in S&TS, defining its core ideal of a 'value-free relativism', their philosophical anchorage has attracted much less discussion than the issue or:how far their jurisdiction can be extended or generalized. This paper seeks to argue that
Symmetries in fundamental physics
Sundermeyer, Kurt
2014-01-01
Over the course of the last century it has become clear that both elementary particle physics and relativity theories are based on the notion of symmetries. These symmetries become manifest in that the "laws of nature" are invariant under spacetime transformations and/or gauge transformations. The consequences of these symmetries were analyzed as early as in 1918 by Emmy Noether on the level of action functionals. Her work did not receive due recognition for nearly half a century, but can today be understood as a recurring theme in classical mechanics, electrodynamics and special relativity, Yang-Mills type quantum field theories, and in general relativity. As a matter of fact, as shown in this monograph, many aspects of physics can be derived solely from symmetry considerations. This substantiates the statement of E.P.Wigner "... if we knew all the laws of nature, or the ultimate Law of nature, the invariance properties of these laws would not furnish us new information." Thanks to Wigner we now also underst...
Symmetries in fundamental physics
Sundermeyer, Kurt
2014-01-01
Over the course of the last century it has become clear that both elementary particle physics and relativity theories are based on the notion of symmetries. These symmetries become manifest in that the "laws of nature" are invariant under spacetime transformations and/or gauge transformations. The consequences of these symmetries were analyzed as early as in 1918 by Emmy Noether on the level of action functionals. Her work did not receive due recognition for nearly half a century, but can today be understood as a recurring theme in classical mechanics, electrodynamics and special relativity, Yang-Mills type quantum field theories, and in general relativity. As a matter of fact, as shown in this monograph, many aspects of physics can be derived solely from symmetry considerations. This substantiates the statement of E.P. Wigner "... if we knew all the laws of nature, or the ultimate Law of nature, the invariance properties of these laws would not furnish us new information." Thanks to Wigner we now also unders...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 10. Groups and Symmetry: A Guide to Discovering Mathematics. Geetha Venkataraman. Book Review Volume 4 Issue 10 October 1999 pp 91-92. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sezgin, E.
1991-08-01
We review the structure of W ∞ algebras, their super and topological extensions, and their contractions down to (super) w ∞ . Emphasis is put on the field theoretic realizations of these algebras. We also review the structure of w ∞ and W ∞ gravities and comment on various applications of W ∞ symmetry. (author). 42 refs
Fields, symmetries, and quarks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mosel, U.
1989-01-01
'Fields, symmetries, and quarks' covers elements of quantum field theory, symmetries, gauge field theories and phenomenological descriptions of hadrons, with special emphasis on topics relevant to nuclear physics. It is aimed at nuclear physicists in general and at scientists who need a working knowledge of field theory, symmetry principles of elementary particles and their interactions and the quark structure of hadrons. The book starts out with an elementary introduction into classical field theory and its quantization. As gauge field theories require a working knowledge of global symmetries in field theories this topic is then discussed in detail. The following part is concerned with the general structure of gauge field theories and contains a thorough discussion of the still less widely known features of Non-Abelian gauge field theories. Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), which is important for the understanding of hadronic matter, is discussed in the next section together with the quark compositions of hadrons. The last two chapters give a detailed discussion of phenomenological bag-models. The MIT bag is discussed, so that all theoretical calculations can be followed step by step. Since in all other bag-models the calculational methods and steps are essentially identical, this chapter should enable the reader to actually perform such calculations unaided. A last chapter finally discusses the topological bag-models which have become quite popular over the last few years. (orig.)
Symmetry of priapulids (Priapulida). 1. Symmetry of adults.
Adrianov, A V; Malakhov, V V
2001-02-01
Priapulids possess a radial symmetry that is remarkably reflected in both external morphology and internal anatomy. It results in the appearance of 25-radial (a number divisible by five) symmetry summarized as a combination of nonaradial, octaradial, and octaradial (9+8+8) symmetries of scalids. The radial symmetry is a secondary appearance considered as an evolutionary adaptation to a lifestyle within the three-dimensional environment of bottom sediment. The eight anteriormost, or primary, scalids retain their particular position because of their innervation directly from the circumpharyngeal brain. As a result of a combination of the octaradial symmetry of primary scalids, pentaradial symmetry of teeth, and the 25-radial symmetry of scalids, the initial bilateral symmetry remains characterized by the single sagittal plane. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Contact symmetries and Hamiltonian thermodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bravetti, A.; Lopez-Monsalvo, C.S.; Nettel, F.
2015-01-01
It has been shown that contact geometry is the proper framework underlying classical thermodynamics and that thermodynamic fluctuations are captured by an additional metric structure related to Fisher’s Information Matrix. In this work we analyse several unaddressed aspects about the application of contact and metric geometry to thermodynamics. We consider here the Thermodynamic Phase Space and start by investigating the role of gauge transformations and Legendre symmetries for metric contact manifolds and their significance in thermodynamics. Then we present a novel mathematical characterization of first order phase transitions as equilibrium processes on the Thermodynamic Phase Space for which the Legendre symmetry is broken. Moreover, we use contact Hamiltonian dynamics to represent thermodynamic processes in a way that resembles the classical Hamiltonian formulation of conservative mechanics and we show that the relevant Hamiltonian coincides with the irreversible entropy production along thermodynamic processes. Therefore, we use such property to give a geometric definition of thermodynamically admissible fluctuations according to the Second Law of thermodynamics. Finally, we show that the length of a curve describing a thermodynamic process measures its entropy production
Hidden symmetries and critical dimensions in the theory of modulated structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Babich, A.V.; Berezovsky, S.V.; Klepikov, V.F.
2009-01-01
Some aspects of the theory of the critical phenomena in systems with spontaneous symmetry breaking are considered. The applicability range of the mean field approximation for the systems with modulated structures is discussed. Connection between symmetries of a corresponding model and the existence of exact solutions is showed. The role of symmetries in the theory of dynamic long range ordering is discussed
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Roeder, Marko; Bemmerer, Daniel; Heidel, Klaus; Stach, Daniel; Wagner, Andreas; Weinberger, David [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Dresden (Germany); Cowan, Thomas E.; Gohl, Stefan; Reinicke, Stefan [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Dresden (Germany); TU Dresden (Germany); Reinhardt, Tobias P.; Zuber, Kai [TU Dresden (Germany); Collaboration: R3B-Collaboration
2016-07-01
The detection of 200-1000 MeV neutrons requires large amounts of detector material because of the long nuclear interaction length of these particles. In the example of the NeuLAND neutron time-of-flight detector at FAIR, this is accomplished by using 3000 scintillator bars of 270 x 5 x 5 cm{sup 3} size made of the fast plastic polyvinyltoluene. In the present work, we investigated whether silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) photosensors can replace fast timing photomultiplier tubes. The response of the system consisting of scintillator, SiPM, and preamplifier was studied using 30 MeV single electrons provided by the ELBE superconducting electron linac. The results were interpreted by a simple Monte Carlo simulation, and the time resolution was found to obey an inverse-square-root scaling law with the number of fired pixels. In the electron beam tests, a time resolution of σ{sub t}=136 ps was reached with a pure SiPM readout, well within the design parameters for NeuLAND.
Symmetries in physics and harmonics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kolk, D.
2006-01-01
In this book the symmetries of elementary particles are described in relation to the rules of harmonics in music. The selection rules are described in connections with harmonic intervals. Also symmetry breaking is considered in this framework. (HSI)
On systems having Poincaré and Galileo symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Holland, Peter
2014-01-01
Using the wave equation in d≥1 space dimensions it is illustrated how dynamical equations may be simultaneously Poincaré and Galileo covariant with respect to different sets of independent variables. This provides a method to obtain dynamics-dependent representations of the kinematical symmetries. When the field is a displacement function both symmetries have a physical interpretation. For d=1 the Lorentz structure is utilized to reveal hitherto unnoticed features of the non-relativistic Chaplygin gas including a relativistic structure with a limiting case that exhibits the Carroll group, and field-dependent symmetries and associated Noether charges. The Lorentz transformations of the potentials naturally associated with the Chaplygin system are given. These results prompt the search for further symmetries and it is shown that the Chaplygin equations support a nonlinear superposition principle. A known spacetime mixing symmetry is shown to decompose into label-time and superposition symmetries. It is shown that a quantum mechanical system in a stationary state behaves as a Chaplygin gas. The extension to d>1 is used to illustrate how the physical significance of the dual symmetries is contingent on the context by showing that Maxwell’s equations exhibit an exact Galileo covariant formulation where Lorentz and gauge transformations are represented by field-dependent symmetries. A natural conceptual and formal framework is provided by the Lagrangian and Eulerian pictures of continuum mechanics
Unified Symmetry of Hamilton Systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu Xuejun; Qin Maochang; Mei Fengxiang
2005-01-01
The definition and the criterion of a unified symmetry for a Hamilton system are presented. The sufficient condition under which the Noether symmetry is a unified symmetry for the system is given. A new conserved quantity, as well as the Noether conserved quantity and the Hojman conserved quantity, deduced from the unified symmetry, is obtained. An example is finally given to illustrate the application of the results.
Quantum symmetries in particle interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shirkov, D.V.
1983-01-01
The concept of a quantum symmetry is introduced as a symmetry in the formulation of which quantum representations and specific quantum notions are used essentially. Three quantum symmetry principles are discussed: the principle of renormalizability (possibly super-renormalizability), the principle of local gauge symmetry, and the principle of supersymmetry. It is shown that these principles play a deterministic role in the development of quantum field theory. Historically their use has led to ever stronger restrictions on the interaction mechanism of quantum fields
Symmetry and topology in evolution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lukacs, B.; Berczi, S.; Molnar, I.; Paal, G.
1991-10-01
This volume contains papers of an interdisciplinary symposium on evolution. The aim of this symposium, held in Budapest, Hungary, 28-29 May 1991, was to clear the role of symmetry and topology at different levels of the evolutionary processes. 21 papers were presented, their topics included evolution of the Universe, symmetry of elementary particles, asymmetry of the Earth, symmetry and asymmetry of biomolecules, symmetry and topology of lining objects, human asymmetry etc. (R.P.)
Development of socketed foundations for S3X5.7 posts.
2015-04-01
The objective of this study was to develop a socketed foundation for use with the S3x5.7 (S76x8.5) weak : post. The design focused on cylindrical, reinforced concrete foundations with a steel tube placed in the center for : use as the socket. The fou...
Charge independence and charge symmetry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Miller, G A [Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States). Dept. of Physics; van Oers, W T.H. [Manitoba Univ., Winnipeg, MB (Canada). Dept. of Physics; [TRIUMF, Vancouver, BC (Canada)
1994-09-01
Charge independence and charge symmetry are approximate symmetries of nature, violated by the perturbing effects of the mass difference between up and down quarks and by electromagnetic interactions. The observations of the symmetry breaking effects in nuclear and particle physics and the implications of those effects are reviewed. (author). 145 refs., 3 tabs., 11 figs.
Charge independence and charge symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miller, G.A.
1994-09-01
Charge independence and charge symmetry are approximate symmetries of nature, violated by the perturbing effects of the mass difference between up and down quarks and by electromagnetic interactions. The observations of the symmetry breaking effects in nuclear and particle physics and the implications of those effects are reviewed. (author). 145 refs., 3 tabs., 11 figs
Symmetry energy in nuclear surface
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Danielewicz, P.; Lee, Jenny
2009-01-01
Interplay between the dependence of symmetry energy on density and the variation of nucleonic densities across nuclear surface is discussed. That interplay gives rise to the mass dependence of the symmetry coefficient in an energy formula. Charge symmetry of the nuclear interactions allows to introduce isoscalar and isovector densities that are approximately independent of the magnitude of neutron-proton asymmetry. (author)
Emergence of Symmetries from Entanglement
CERN. Geneva
2016-01-01
Maximal Entanglement appears to be a key ingredient for the emergence of symmetries. We first illustrate this phenomenon using two examples: the emergence of conformal symmetry in condensed matter systems and the relation of tensor networks to holography. We further present a Principle of Maximal Entanglement that seems to dictate to a large extend the structure of gauge symmetry.
Group analysis and renormgroup symmetries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kovalev, V.F.; Pustovalov, V.V.; Shirkov, D.V.
1996-01-01
An original regular approach to constructing special type symmetries for boundary-value problems, namely renormgroup symmetries, is presented. Different methods of calculating these symmetries based on modern group analysis are described. An application of the approach to boundary value problems is demonstrated with the help of a simple mathematical model. 35 refs
Dark discrete gauge symmetries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Batell, Brian
2011-01-01
We investigate scenarios in which dark matter is stabilized by an Abelian Z N discrete gauge symmetry. Models are surveyed according to symmetries and matter content. Multicomponent dark matter arises when N is not prime and Z N contains one or more subgroups. The dark sector interacts with the visible sector through the renormalizable kinetic mixing and Higgs portal operators, and we highlight the basic phenomenology in these scenarios. In particular, multiple species of dark matter can lead to an unconventional nuclear recoil spectrum in direct detection experiments, while the presence of new light states in the dark sector can dramatically affect the decays of the Higgs at the Tevatron and LHC, thus providing a window into the gauge origin of the stability of dark matter.
Symmetries and microscopic physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blaizot, J.P.
1997-01-01
This book is based on a course of lectures devoted to the applications of group theory to quantum physics. The purpose is to give students a precise idea of general principles involving the concept of symmetry and to present practical methods used to calculate physical properties derived from symmetries. The first chapter is an introduction to the main results of group theory, 2 chapters highlight principles and methods concerning geometrical transformations in the space of states, state degeneracy and perturbation theory. The last 4 chapters investigate the applications of these methods to atom physics, nuclear structure and elementary particles. A chapter is devoted to the atom of hydrogen and another to the isospin. Numerous exercises and problems, some with their corrections, are proposed. (A.C.)
Asymmetry, Symmetry and Beauty
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Abbe R. Kopra
2010-07-01
Full Text Available Asymmetry and symmetry coexist in natural and human processes. The vital role of symmetry in art has been well demonstrated. This article highlights the complementary role of asymmetry. Further we show that the interaction of asymmetric action (recursion and symmetric opposition (sinusoidal waves are instrumental in generating creative features (relatively low entropy, temporal complexity, novelty (less recurrence in the data than in randomized copies and complex frequency composition. These features define Bios, a pattern found in musical compositions and in poetry, except for recurrence instead of novelty. Bios is a common pattern in many natural and human processes (quantum processes, the expansion of the universe, gravitational waves, cosmic microwave background radiation, DNA, physiological processes, animal and human populations, and economic time series. The reduction in entropy is significant, as it reveals creativity and contradicts the standard claim of unavoidable decay towards disorder. Artistic creations capture fundamental features of the world.
Strong Electroweak Symmetry Breaking
Grinstein, Benjamin
2011-01-01
Models of spontaneous breaking of electroweak symmetry by a strong interaction do not have fine tuning/hierarchy problem. They are conceptually elegant and use the only mechanism of spontaneous breaking of a gauge symmetry that is known to occur in nature. The simplest model, minimal technicolor with extended technicolor interactions, is appealing because one can calculate by scaling up from QCD. But it is ruled out on many counts: inappropriately low quark and lepton masses (or excessive FCNC), bad electroweak data fits, light scalar and vector states, etc. However, nature may not choose the minimal model and then we are stuck: except possibly through lattice simulations, we are unable to compute and test the models. In the LHC era it therefore makes sense to abandon specific models (of strong EW breaking) and concentrate on generic features that may indicate discovery. The Technicolor Straw Man is not a model but a parametrized search strategy inspired by a remarkable generic feature of walking technicolor,...
Symmetry rules. How science and nature are founded on symmetry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rosen, J.
2008-07-01
When we use science to describe and understand the world around us, we are in essence grasping nature through symmetry. In fact, modern theoretical physics suggests that symmetry is a, if not the, foundational principle of nature. Emphasizing the concepts, this book leads the reader coherently and comprehensively into the fertile field of symmetry and its applications. Among the most important applications considered are the fundamental forces of nature and the Universe. It is shown that the Universe cannot possess exact symmetry, which is a principle of fundamental significance. Curie's principle - which states that the symmetry of the effect is at least that of the cause - features prominently. An introduction to group theory, the mathematical language of symmetry, is included. This book will convince all interested readers of the importance of symmetry in science. Furthermore, it will serve as valuable background reading for all students in the physical sciences. (orig.)
Symmetry rules How science and nature are founded on symmetry
Rosen, Joe
2008-01-01
When we use science to describe and understand the world around us, we are in essence grasping nature through symmetry. In fact, modern theoretical physics suggests that symmetry is a, if not the, foundational principle of nature. Emphasizing the concepts, this book leads the reader coherently and comprehensively into the fertile field of symmetry and its applications. Among the most important applications considered are the fundamental forces of nature and the Universe. It is shown that the Universe cannot possess exact symmetry, which is a principle of fundamental significance. Curie's principle - which states that the symmetry of the effect is at least that of the cause - features prominently. An introduction to group theory, the mathematical language of symmetry, is included. This book will convince all interested readers of the importance of symmetry in science. Furthermore, it will serve as valuable background reading for all students in the physical sciences.
A broken symmetry ontology: Quantum mechanics as a broken symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Buschmann, J.E.
1988-01-01
The author proposes a new broken symmetry ontology to be used to analyze the quantum domain. This ontology is motivated and grounded in a critical epistemological analysis, and an analysis of the basic role of symmetry in physics. Concurrently, he is led to consider nonheterogeneous systems, whose logical state space contains equivalence relations not associated with the causal relation. This allows him to find a generalized principle of symmetry and a generalized symmetry-conservation formalisms. In particular, he clarifies the role of Noether's theorem in field theory. He shows how a broken symmetry ontology already operates in a description of the weak interactions. Finally, by showing how a broken symmetry ontology operates in the quantum domain, he accounts for the interpretational problem and the essential incompleteness of quantum mechanics. He proposes that the broken symmetry underlying this ontological domain is broken dilation invariance
Symmetry and quantum mechanics
Corry, Scott
2016-01-01
This book offers an introduction to quantum mechanics for professionals, students, and others in the field of mathematics who have a minimal background in physics with an understanding of linear algebra and group theory. It covers such topics as Lie groups, algebras and their representations, and analysis (Hilbert space, distributions, the spectral Theorem, and the Stone-Von Neumann Theorem). The book emphasizes the role of symmetry and is useful to physicists as it provides a mathematical introduction to the topic.
Gravitation, Symmetry and Undergraduates
Jorgensen, Jamie
2001-04-01
This talk will discuss "Project Petrov" Which is designed to investigate gravitational fields with symmetry. Project Petrov represents a collaboration involving physicists, mathematicians as well as graduate and undergraduate math and physics students. An overview of Project Petrov will be given, with an emphasis on students' contributions, including software to classify and generate Lie algebras, to classify isometry groups, and to compute the isometry group of a given metric.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bunakov, V.E.; Ivanov, I.B.
1999-01-01
Connections between the symmetries of Hamiltonian systems in classical and quantum mechanics, on one hand, and their regularity or chaoticity, on the other hand, are considered. The quantum-chaoticity criterion that was proposed previously and which was borrowed from the theory of compound-nucleus resonances is used to analyze the quantum diamagnetic Kepler problem - that is, the motion of a spinless charged particle in a Coulomb and a uniform magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
French, J.B.
1974-01-01
The concepts of statistical behavior and symmetry are presented from the point of view of many body spectroscopy. Remarks are made on methods for the evaluation of moments, particularly widths, for the purpose of giving a feeling for the types of mathematical structures encountered. Applications involving ground state energies, spectra, and level densities are discussed. The extent to which Hamiltonian eigenstates belong to irreducible representations is mentioned. (4 figures, 1 table) (U.S.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Herrero, O F, E-mail: o.f.herrero@hotmail.co [Conservatorio Superior de Musica ' Eduardo Martinez Torner' Corrada del Obispo s/n 33003 - Oviedo - Asturias (Spain)
2010-06-01
Music and Physics are very close because of the symmetry that appears in music. A periodic wave is what music really is, and there is a field of Physics devoted to waves researching. The different musical scales are the base of all kind of music. This article tries to show how this musical scales are made, how the consonance is the base of many of them and how symmetric they are.
Lie symmetries and superintegrability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nucci, M C; Post, S
2012-01-01
We show that a known superintegrable system in two-dimensional real Euclidean space (Post and Winternitz 2011 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 44 162001) can be transformed into a linear third-order equation: consequently we construct many autonomous integrals—polynomials up to order 18—for the same system. The reduction method and the connection between Lie symmetries and Jacobi last multiplier are used.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Herrero, O F
2010-01-01
Music and Physics are very close because of the symmetry that appears in music. A periodic wave is what music really is, and there is a field of Physics devoted to waves researching. The different musical scales are the base of all kind of music. This article tries to show how this musical scales are made, how the consonance is the base of many of them and how symmetric they are.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cortes P, A.; Becerril V, A.; Angeles C, A
1991-12-15
So far in that is carried out the first reload of nuclear fuel in the LVC, the monitoring of garbage has been carried out using monitors trade mark Eberline model RM 14. The procedure consists in manually monitoring each object and to separate of the considered 'clean' garbage the objects considered as contaminated, which register greater or equal counts to 100 cpm. This way to process was adequate under normal operation conditions, but not in the operation rhythm that implies a bigger maintenance since the time required for monitoring from 5 to 10 kg. of garbage is of the order of 0.5 hours and the production rhythm of this it ends up being a lot but high. Due to this necessity it was thought about the problem of looking by a more efficient monitoring method. In this work a method that uses a detector of NaI (Tl) of 5 x 5 inches is discussed. (Author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cortes P, A; Becerril V, A; Angeles C, A
1991-12-15
So far in that is carried out the first reload of nuclear fuel in the LVC, the monitoring of garbage has been carried out using monitors trade mark Eberline model RM 14. The procedure consists in manually monitoring each object and to separate of the considered 'clean' garbage the objects considered as contaminated, which register greater or equal counts to 100 cpm. This way to process was adequate under normal operation conditions, but not in the operation rhythm that implies a bigger maintenance since the time required for monitoring from 5 to 10 kg. of garbage is of the order of 0.5 hours and the production rhythm of this it ends up being a lot but high. Due to this necessity it was thought about the problem of looking by a more efficient monitoring method. In this work a method that uses a detector of NaI (Tl) of 5 x 5 inches is discussed. (Author)
Symmetry methods for option pricing
Davison, A. H.; Mamba, S.
2017-06-01
We obtain a solution of the Black-Scholes equation with a non-smooth boundary condition using symmetry methods. The Black-Scholes equation along with its boundary condition are first transformed into the one dimensional heat equation and an initial condition respectively. We then find an appropriate general symmetry generator of the heat equation using symmetries and the fundamental solution of the heat equation. The symmetry generator is chosen such that the boundary condition is left invariant; the symmetry can be used to solve the heat equation and hence the Black-Scholes equation.
Positive Disintegration as a Process of Symmetry Breaking.
Laycraft, Krystyna
2017-04-01
This article presents an analysis of the positive disintegration as a process of symmetry breaking. Symmetry breaking plays a major role in self-organized patterns formation and correlates directly to increasing complexity and function specialization. According to Dabrowski, a creator of the Theory of Positive Disintegration, the change from lower to higher levels of human development requires a major restructuring of an individual's psychological makeup. Each level of human development is a relatively stable and coherent configuration of emotional-cognitive patterns called developmental dynamisms. Their main function is to restructure a mental structure by breaking the symmetry of a low level and bringing differentiation and then integration to higher levels. The positive disintegration is then the process of transitions from a lower level of high symmetry and low complexity to higher levels of low symmetry and high complexity of mental structure.
Symmetry aspects in emergent quantum mechanics
Elze, Hans-Thomas
2009-06-01
We discuss an explicit realization of the dissipative dynamics anticipated in the proof of 't Hooft's existence theorem, which states that 'For any quantum system there exists at least one deterministic model that reproduces all its dynamics after prequantization'. - There is an energy-parity symmetry hidden in the Liouville equation, which mimics the Kaplan-Sundrum protective symmetry for the cosmological constant. This symmetry may be broken by the coarse-graining inherent in physics at scales much larger than the Planck length. We correspondingly modify classical ensemble theory by incorporating dissipative fluctuations (information loss) - which are caused by discrete spacetime continually 'measuring' matter. In this way, aspects of quantum mechanics, such as the von Neumann equation, including a Lindblad term, arise dynamically and expectations of observables agree with the Born rule. However, the resulting quantum coherence is accompanied by an intrinsic decoherence and continuous localization mechanism. Our proposal leads towards a theory that is linear and local at the quantum mechanical level, but the relation to the underlying classical degrees of freedom is nonlocal.
Financial Symmetry and Moods in the Market
Savona, Roberto; Soumare, Maxence; Andersen, Jørgen Vitting
2015-01-01
This paper studies how certain speculative transitions in financial markets can be ascribed to a symmetry break that happens in the collective decision making. Investors are assumed to be bounded rational, using a limited set of information including past price history and expectation on future dividends. Investment strategies are dynamically changed based on realized returns within a game theoretical scheme with Nash equilibria. In such a setting, markets behave as complex systems whose payoff reflect an intrinsic financial symmetry that guarantees equilibrium in price dynamics (fundamentalist state) until the symmetry is broken leading to bubble or anti-bubble scenarios (speculative state). We model such two-phase transition in a micro-to-macro scheme through a Ginzburg-Landau-based power expansion leading to a market temperature parameter which modulates the state transitions in the market. Via simulations we prove that transitions in the market price dynamics can be phenomenologically explained by the number of traders, the number of strategies and amount of information used by agents, all included in our market temperature parameter. PMID:25856392
Financial symmetry and moods in the market.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Roberto Savona
Full Text Available This paper studies how certain speculative transitions in financial markets can be ascribed to a symmetry break that happens in the collective decision making. Investors are assumed to be bounded rational, using a limited set of information including past price history and expectation on future dividends. Investment strategies are dynamically changed based on realized returns within a game theoretical scheme with Nash equilibria. In such a setting, markets behave as complex systems whose payoff reflect an intrinsic financial symmetry that guarantees equilibrium in price dynamics (fundamentalist state until the symmetry is broken leading to bubble or anti-bubble scenarios (speculative state. We model such two-phase transition in a micro-to-macro scheme through a Ginzburg-Landau-based power expansion leading to a market temperature parameter which modulates the state transitions in the market. Via simulations we prove that transitions in the market price dynamics can be phenomenologically explained by the number of traders, the number of strategies and amount of information used by agents, all included in our market temperature parameter.
[Expression, purification and antibody preparation of recombinat SARS-CoV X5 protein].
Wang, Li-Na; Kong, Jian-Qiang; Zhu, Ping; Du, Guan-Hua; Wang, Wei; Cheng, Ke-Di
2008-11-01
X5 protein is one of the putative unknown proteins of SARS-CoV. The recombinant protein has been successfully expressed in E. coli in the form of insoluble inclusion body. The inclusion body was dissolved in high concentration of urea. Affinity Chromatography was preformed to purify the denatured protein, and then the product was refolded in a series of gradient solutions of urea. The purified protein was obtained with the purity of > 95% and the yield of 93.3 mg x L(-1). Polyclonal antibody of this protein was obtained, and Western blotting assay indicated that the X5 protein has the strong property of antigen. Sixty-eight percent of the recombinant protein sequence was confirmed by LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Amgalanbaatar Baldansuren
2016-12-01
Full Text Available A well-defined, monodisperse Ag6+ cluster was prepared by mild chemical treatments including aqueous ion-exchange, dehydration, oxygen calcination at 673 K and hydrogen reduction 293 K, rather than autoreduction and irradiations with γ-ray and X-ray. H2 reduction was proved as a crucial step to form the nanosize cluster with six equivalent silver atoms. Hydrogen isotope exchange and dynamics were probed by EPR and HYSCORE to provide information relevant to the cluster geometry, size, charge state and spin state. Desorption experiments result in the deuterium desorption energy of 0.78 eV from the cluster, exceeding the experimental value of 0.38 eV for the single crystal Ag(111 surface. These experiments indicate that the EPR-active clusters are in delicate equilibrium with EPR-silent clusters.
Greene, Brian R
1997-01-01
Mirror symmetry has undergone dramatic progress during the last five years. Tremendous insight has been gained on a number of key issues. This volume surveys these results. Some of the contributions in this work have appeared elsewhere, while others were written specifically for this collection. The areas covered are organized into 4 sections, and each presents papers by both physicists and mathematicians. This volume collects the most important developments that have taken place in mathematical physics since 1991. It is an essential reference tool for both mathematics and physics libraries and for students of physics and mathematics.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hill, Christopher T.
2018-03-19
We review and expand upon recent work demonstrating that Weyl invariant theories can be broken "inertially," which does not depend upon a potential. This can be understood in a general way by the "current algebra" of these theories, independently of specific Lagrangians. Maintaining the exact Weyl invariance in a renormalized quantum theory can be accomplished by renormalization conditions that refer back to the VEV's of fields in the action. We illustrate the computation of a Weyl invariant Coleman-Weinberg potential that breaks a U(1) symmetry together,with scale invariance.
Leadership, power and symmetry
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Spaten, Ole Michael
2016-01-01
Research publications concerning managers who coach their own employees are barely visible despite its wide- spread use in enterprises (McCarthy & Milner, 2013; Gregory & Levy, 2011; Crabb, 2011). This article focuses on leadership, power and moments of symmetry in the coaching relationship...... regarding managers coaching their employees and it is asked; what contributes to coaching of high quality when one reflects on the power aspect as being immanent? Fourteen middle managers coached five of their employees, and all members of each party wrote down cues and experiences immediately after each...
Farmer, David W
1995-01-01
In most mathematics textbooks, the most exciting part of mathematics-the process of invention and discovery-is completely hidden from the reader. The aim of Groups and Symmetry is to change all that. By means of a series of carefully selected tasks, this book leads readers to discover some real mathematics. There are no formulas to memorize; no procedures to follow. The book is a guide: Its job is to start you in the right direction and to bring you back if you stray too far. Discovery is left to you. Suitable for a one-semester course at the beginning undergraduate level, there are no prerequ
Yale, Paul B
2012-01-01
This book is an introduction to the geometry of Euclidean, affine, and projective spaces with special emphasis on the important groups of symmetries of these spaces. The two major objectives of the text are to introduce the main ideas of affine and projective spaces and to develop facility in handling transformations and groups of transformations. Since there are many good texts on affine and projective planes, the author has concentrated on the n-dimensional cases.Designed to be used in advanced undergraduate mathematics or physics courses, the book focuses on ""practical geometry,"" emphasi
Symmetry-dictated trucation: Solutions of the spherical shell model for heavy nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guidry, M.W.
1992-01-01
Principles of dynamical symmetry are used to simplify the spherical shell model. The resulting symmetry-dictated truncation leads to dynamical symmetry solutions that are often in quantitative agreement with a variety of observables. Numerical calculations, including terms that break the dynamical symmetries, are shown that correspond to shell model calculations for heavy deformed nuclei. The effective residual interaction is simple, well-behaved, and can be determined from basic observables. With this approach, we intend to apply the shell model in systematic fashion to all nuclei. The implications for nuclear structure far from stability and for nuclear masses and other quantities of interest in astrophysics are discussed
Symmetry-protected coherent relaxation of open quantum systems
van Caspel, Moos; Gritsev, Vladimir
2018-05-01
We compute the effect of Markovian bulk dephasing noise on the staggered magnetization of the spin-1/2 XXZ Heisenberg chain, as the system evolves after a Néel quench. For sufficiently weak system-bath coupling, the unitary dynamics are found to be preserved up to a single exponential damping factor. This is a consequence of the interplay between PT symmetry and weak symmetries, which strengthens previous predictions for PT -symmetric Liouvillian dynamics. Requirements are a nondegenerate PT -symmetric generator of time evolution L ̂, a weak parity symmetry, and an observable that is antisymmetric under this parity transformation. The spectrum of L ̂ then splits up into symmetry sectors, yielding the same decay rate for all modes that contribute to the observable's time evolution. This phenomenon may be realized in trapped ion experiments and has possible implications for the control of decoherence in out-of-equilibrium many-body systems.
Symmetries of the Schrodinger Equation and Algebra/Superalgebra Duality
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Toppan, Francesco
2014-12-01
Some key features of the symmetries of the Schroedinger equation that are common to a much broader class of dynamical systems (some under construction) are illustrated. I discuss the algebra/superalgebra duality involving rst and second-order differential operators. It provides different viewpoints for the spectrum-generating subalgebras. The representation dependent notion of on-shell symmetry is introduced. The difference in associating the time derivative symmetry operator with either a root or a Cartan generator of the sl(2) subalgebra is discussed. In application to one-dimensional Lagrangian superconformal sigma-models it implies superconformal actions which are either supersymmetric or non-supersymmetric. (author)
Heavy axions from strong broken horizontal gauge symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Elliott, T.; King, S.F.
1993-01-01
We study the consequences of the existence and breaking of a Peccei-Quinn symmetry within the context of a dynamical model of electroweak symmetry breaking based on broken gauged flavour symmetries. We perform an estimate of the axion mass by including flavour instanton effects and show that, for low cut-offs, the axion is sufficiently massive to prevent it from being phenomenologically unacceptable. We conclude with an examination of the strong CP problem and show that our axion cannot solve the problem, though we indicate ways in which the model can be extended so that the strong CP problem is solved. (orig.)
Why are SiX5(-) and GeX5(-) (X = F, Cl) stable but not CF5(-) and CCl5(-)?
Marchaj, Marzena; Freza, Sylwia; Skurski, Piotr
2012-03-01
The possible existence of the CF(5)(-), CCl(5)(-), SiF(5)(-), SiCl(5)(-), GeF(5)(-), and GeCl(5)(-) anions has been investigated using ab initio methods. The species containing Si and Ge as central atoms were found to adopt the D(3h)-symmetry trigonal bipyramidal equilibrium structures whose thermodynamic stabilities were confirmed by examining the most probable fragmentation channels. The ab initio re-examination of the electronic stabilities of the SiF(5)(-), SiCl(5)(-), GeF(5)(-), and GeCl(5)(-) anions [using the OVGF(full) method with the 6-311+G(3df) basis set] led to the very large vertical electron detachment (VDE) energies of 9.316 eV (SiF(5)(-)) and 9.742 eV (GeF(5)(-)), whereas smaller VDEs of 6.196 and 6.452 eV were predicted for the SiCl(5)(-) and GeCl(5)(-) species, respectively. By contrast, the high-symmetry and structurally compact anionic CF(5)(-) and CCl(5)(-) systems cannot exist due to the strongly repulsive potential predicted for the X(-) (F(-) or Cl(-)) approaching the CX(4) (CF(4) or CCl(4)). The formation of weakly bound CX(4)···X(-) (CF(4)···F(-) and CCl(4)···Cl(-)) anionic complexes (consisting of pseudotetrahedral neutral CX(4) with the weakly tethered X(-)) might be expected at low temperatures (approaching 0 K), whereas neither CX(5)(-) (CF(5)(-), CCl(5)(-)) systems nor CX(4)···X(-) (CF(4)···F(-) and CCl(4)···Cl(-)) complexes can exist in the elevated temperatures (above 0K) due to their susceptibility to the fragmentation (leading to the X(-) loss). © 2012 American Chemical Society
Applications of chiral symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pisarski, R.D.
1995-03-01
The author discusses several topics in the applications of chiral symmetry at nonzero temperature. First, where does the rho go? The answer: up. The restoration of chiral symmetry at a temperature T χ implies that the ρ and a 1 vector mesons are degenerate in mass. In a gauged linear sigma model the ρ mass increases with temperature, m ρ (T χ ) > m ρ (0). The author conjectures that at T χ the thermal ρ - a 1 , peak is relatively high, at about ∼1 GeV, with a width approximately that at zero temperature (up to standard kinematic factors). The ω meson also increases in mass, nearly degenerate with the ρ, but its width grows dramatically with temperature, increasing to at least ∼100 MeV by T χ . The author also stresses how utterly remarkable the principle of vector meson dominance is, when viewed from the modern perspective of the renormalization group. Secondly, he discusses the possible appearance of disoriented chiral condensates from open-quotes quenchedclose quotes heavy ion collisions. It appears difficult to obtain large domains of disoriented chiral condensates in the standard two flavor model. This leads to the last topic, which is the phase diagram for QCD with three flavors, and its proximity to the chiral critical point. QCD may be very near this chiral critical point, and one might thereby generated large domains of disoriented chiral condensates
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Angel Garrido
2011-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we analyze a few interrelated concepts about graphs, such as their degree, entropy, or their symmetry/asymmetry levels. These concepts prove useful in the study of different types of Systems, and particularly, in the analysis of Complex Networks. A System can be defined as any set of components functioning together as a whole. A systemic point of view allows us to isolate a part of the world, and so, we can focus on those aspects that interact more closely than others. Network Science analyzes the interconnections among diverse networks from different domains: physics, engineering, biology, semantics, and so on. Current developments in the quantitative analysis of Complex Networks, based on graph theory, have been rapidly translated to studies of brain network organization. The brain's systems have complex network features—such as the small-world topology, highly connected hubs and modularity. These networks are not random. The topology of many different networks shows striking similarities, such as the scale-free structure, with the degree distribution following a Power Law. How can very different systems have the same underlying topological features? Modeling and characterizing these networks, looking for their governing laws, are the current lines of research. So, we will dedicate this Special Issue paper to show measures of symmetry in Complex Networks, and highlight their close relation with measures of information and entropy.
Locally Hamiltonian systems with symmetry and a generalized Noether's theorem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carinena, J.F.; Ibort, L.A.
1985-01-01
An analysis of global aspects of the theory of symmetry groups G of locally Hamiltonian dynamical systems is carried out for particular cases either of the symmetry group, or the differentiable manifold M supporting the symplectic structure, or the action of G on M. In every case it is obtained a generalization of Noether's theorem. It has been looked at the classical Noether's theorem for Lagrangian systems from a modern perspective
Wilczek, Frank
2004-01-01
Powerful symmetry principles have guided physicists in their quest for nature's fundamental laws. The successful gauge theory of electroweak interactions postulates a more extensive symmetry for its equations than are manifest in the world (8 pages) Powerful symmetry principles have guided physicists in their quest for nature's fundamental laws. The successful gauge theory of electroweak interactions postulates a more extensive symmetry for its equations than are manifest in the world. The discrepancy is ascribed to a pervasive symmetry-breaking field, which fills all space uniformly, rendering the Universe a sort of exotic superconductor. So far, the evidence for these bold ideas is indirect. But soon the theory will undergo a critical test depending on whether the quanta of this symmetry-breaking field, the so-called Higgs particles, are produced at the Large Hadron Collider (due to begin operation in 2007).
Symmetry of crystals and molecules
Ladd, Mark
2014-01-01
This book successfully combines a thorough treatment of molecular and crystalline symmetry with a simple and informal writing style. By means of familiar examples the author helps to provide the reader with those conceptual tools necessary for the development of a clear understanding of what are often regarded as 'difficult' topics. Christopher Hammond, University of Leeds This book should tell you everything you need to know about crystal and molecular symmetry. Ladd adopts an integrated approach so that the relationships between crystal symmetry, molecular symmetry and features of chemical interest are maintained and reinforced. The theoretical aspects of bonding and symmetry are also well represented, as are symmetry-dependent physical properties and the applications of group theory. The comprehensive coverage will make this book a valuable resource for a broad range of readers.
Trieste lectures on mirror symmetry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hori, K [Department of Physics and Department of Mathematics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)
2003-08-15
These are pedagogical lectures on mirror symmetry given at the Spring School in ICTP, Trieste, March 2002. The focus is placed on worldsheet descriptions of the physics related to mirror symmetry. We start with the introduction to general aspects of (2,2) supersymmetric field theories in 1 + 1 dimensions. We next move on to the study and applications of linear sigma model. Finally, we provide a proof of mirror symmetry in a class of models. (author)
Quantum symmetry in quantum theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schomerus, V.
1993-02-01
Symmetry concepts have always been of great importance for physical problems like explicit calculations, classification or model building. More recently, new 'quantum symmetries' ((quasi) quantum groups) attracted much interest in quantum theory. It is shown that all these quantum symmetries permit a conventional formulation as symmetry in quantum mechanics. Symmetry transformations can act on the Hilbert space H of physical states such that the ground state is invariant and field operators transform covariantly. Models show that one must allow for 'truncation' in the tensor product of representations of a quantum symmetry. This means that the dimension of the tensor product of two representations of dimension σ 1 and σ 2 may be strictly smaller than σ 1 σ 2 . Consistency of the transformation law of field operators local braid relations leads us to expect, that (weak) quasi quantum groups are the most general symmetries in local quantum theory. The elements of the R-matrix which appears in these local braid relations turn out to be operators on H in general. It will be explained in detail how examples of field algebras with weak quasi quantum group symmetry can be obtained. Given a set of observable field with a finite number of superselection sectors, a quantum symmetry together with a complete set of covariant field operators which obey local braid relations are constructed. A covariant transformation law for adjoint fields is not automatic but will follow when the existence of an appropriate antipode is assumed. At the example of the chiral critical Ising model, non-uniqueness of the quantum symmetry will be demonstrated. Generalized quantum symmetries yield examples of gauge symmetries in non-commutative geometry. Quasi-quantum planes are introduced as the simplest examples of quasi-associative differential geometry. (Weak) quasi quantum groups can act on them by generalized derivations much as quantum groups do in non-commutative (differential-) geometry
Neutrino masses and family symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grinstein, B.; Preskill, J.; Wise, M.B.
1985-01-01
Neutrino masses in the 100 eV-1 MeV range are permitted if there is a spontaneously broken global family symmetry that allows the heavy neutrinos to decay by Goldstone boson emission with a cosmologically acceptable lifetime. The family symmetry may be either abelian or nonabelian; we present models illustrating both possibilities. If the family symmetry is nonabelian, then the decay tau -> μ + Goldstone boson or tau -> e + Goldstone may have an observable rate. (orig.)
An introduction to Yangian symmetries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bernard, D.
1992-01-01
Some aspects of the quantum Yangians as symmetry algebras of two-dimensional quantum field theories are reviewed. They include two main issues: the first is the classical Heisenberg model, covering non-Abelian symmetries, generators of the symmetries and the semi-classical Yangians, an alternative presentation of the semi-classical Yangians, digression on Poisson-Lie groups. The second is the quantum Heisenberg chain, covering non-Abelian symmetries and the quantum Yangians, the transfer matrix and an alternative presentation of the Yangians, digression on the double Yangians. (K.A.) 15 refs
Killing symmetries in neutron transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lukacs, B.; Racz, A.
1992-10-01
Although inside the reactor zone there is no exact continuous spatial symmetry, in certain configurations neutron flux distribution is close to a symmetrical one. In such cases the symmetrical solution could provide a good starting point to determine the non-symmetrical power distribution. All possible symmetries are determined in the 3-dimensional Euclidean space, and the form of the transport equation is discussed in such a coordinate system which is adapted to the particular symmetry. Possible spontaneous symmetry breakings are pointed out. (author) 6 refs
The conservation of orbital symmetry
Woodward, R B
2013-01-01
The Conservation of Orbital Symmetry examines the principle of conservation of orbital symmetry and its use. The central content of the principle was that reactions occur readily when there is congruence between orbital symmetry characteristics of reactants and products, and only with difficulty when that congruence does not obtain-or to put it more succinctly, orbital symmetry is conserved in concerted reaction. This principle is expected to endure, whatever the language in which it may be couched, or whatever greater precision may be developed in its application and extension. The book ope
Leptogenesis and residual CP symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, Peng; Ding, Gui-Jun; King, Stephen F.
2016-01-01
We discuss flavour dependent leptogenesis in the framework of lepton flavour models based on discrete flavour and CP symmetries applied to the type-I seesaw model. Working in the flavour basis, we analyse the case of two general residual CP symmetries in the neutrino sector, which corresponds to all possible semi-direct models based on a preserved Z 2 in the neutrino sector, together with a CP symmetry, which constrains the PMNS matrix up to a single free parameter which may be fixed by the reactor angle. We systematically study and classify this case for all possible residual CP symmetries, and show that the R-matrix is tightly constrained up to a single free parameter, with only certain forms being consistent with successful leptogenesis, leading to possible connections between leptogenesis and PMNS parameters. The formalism is completely general in the sense that the two residual CP symmetries could result from any high energy discrete flavour theory which respects any CP symmetry. As a simple example, we apply the formalism to a high energy S 4 flavour symmetry with a generalized CP symmetry, broken to two residual CP symmetries in the neutrino sector, recovering familiar results for PMNS predictions, together with new results for flavour dependent leptogenesis.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shu-Kun Lin
2001-03-01
Full Text Available Abstract: Symmetry is a measure of indistinguishability. Similarity is a continuous measure of imperfect symmetry. Lewis' remark that Ã¢Â€Âœgain of entropy means loss of informationÃ¢Â€Â defines the relationship of entropy and information. Three laws of information theory have been proposed. Labeling by introducing nonsymmetry and formatting by introducing symmetry are defined. The function L ( L=lnw, w is the number of microstates, or the sum of entropy and information, L=S+I of the universe is a constant (the first law of information theory. The entropy S of the universe tends toward a maximum (the second law law of information theory. For a perfect symmetric static structure, the information is zero and the static entropy is the maximum (the third law law of information theory. Based on the Gibbs inequality and the second law of the revised information theory we have proved the similarity principle (a continuous higher similarityÃ¢ÂˆÂ’higher entropy relation after the rejection of the Gibbs paradox and proved the Curie-Rosen symmetry principle (a higher symmetryÃ¢ÂˆÂ’higher stability relation as a special case of the similarity principle. The principles of information minimization and potential energy minimization are compared. Entropy is the degree of symmetry and information is the degree of nonsymmetry. There are two kinds of symmetries: dynamic and static symmetries. Any kind of symmetry will define an entropy and, corresponding to the dynamic and static symmetries, there are static entropy and dynamic entropy. Entropy in thermodynamics is a special kind of dynamic entropy. Any spontaneous process will evolve towards the highest possible symmetry, either dynamic or static or both. Therefore the revised information theory can be applied to characterizing all kinds of structural stability and process spontaneity. Some examples in chemical physics have been given. Spontaneous processes of all kinds of molecular
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY OF THE SNOWMASS 2001 WORKING GROUP : ELECTROWEAK SYMMETRY BREAKING
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
CARENA, M.; GERDES, D.W.; HABER, H.E.; TURCOT, A.S.; ZERWAS, P.M.
2001-01-01
In this summary report of the 2001 Snowmass Electroweak Symmetry Breaking Working Group, the main candidates for theories of electroweak symmetry breaking are surveyed, and the criteria for distinguishing among the different approaches are discussed. The potential for observing electroweak symmetry breaking phenomena at the upgraded Tevatron and the LHC is described. We emphasize the importance of a high-luminosity e + e - linear collider for precision measurements to clarify the underlying electroweak symmetry breaking dynamics. Finally, we note the possible roles of the μ + μ - collider and VLHC for further elucidating the physics of electroweak symmetry breaking
Spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking and effective quark masses in quantum chromodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miransky, V.A.
1982-01-01
The ultraviolet asymptotics of the dynamical effective quark mass is determined directly from the equation for the fermion mass function. The indications about the character of the dynamics of the spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in QCD are obtained
Symmetries of cluster configurations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kramer, P.
1975-01-01
A deeper understanding of clustering phenomena in nuclei must encompass at least two interrelated aspects of the subject: (A) Given a system of A nucleons with two-body interactions, what are the relevant and persistent modes of clustering involved. What is the nature of the correlated nucleon groups which form the clusters, and what is their mutual interaction. (B) Given the cluster modes and their interaction, what systematic patterns of nuclear structure and reactions emerge from it. Are there, for example, families of states which share the same ''cluster parents''. Which cluster modes are compatible or exclude each other. What quantum numbers could characterize cluster configurations. There is no doubt that we can learn a good deal from the experimentalists who have discovered many of the features relevant to aspect (B). Symmetries specific to cluster configurations which can throw some light on both aspects of clustering are discussed
Holography without translational symmetry
Vegh, David
2013-01-01
We propose massive gravity as a holographic framework for describing a class of strongly interacting quantum field theories with broken translational symmetry. Bulk gravitons are assumed to have a Lorentz-breaking mass term as a substitute for spatial inhomogeneities. This breaks momentum-conservation in the boundary field theory. At finite chemical potential, the gravity duals are charged black holes in asymptotically anti-de Sitter spacetime. The conductivity in these systems generally exhibits a Drude peak that approaches a delta function in the massless gravity limit. Furthermore, the optical conductivity shows an emergent scaling law: $|\\sigma(\\omega)| \\approx {A \\over \\omega^{\\alpha}} + B$. This result is consistent with that found earlier by Horowitz, Santos, and Tong who introduced an explicit inhomogeneous lattice into the system.
Ratchet device with broken friction symmetry
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Norden, Bengt; Zolotaryuk, Yaroslav; Christiansen, Peter Leth
2002-01-01
An experimental setup (gadget) has been made for demonstration of a ratchet mechanism induced by broken symmetry of a dependence of dry friction on external forcing. This gadget converts longitudinal oscillating or fluctuating motion into a unidirectional rotation, the direction of which is in ac......An experimental setup (gadget) has been made for demonstration of a ratchet mechanism induced by broken symmetry of a dependence of dry friction on external forcing. This gadget converts longitudinal oscillating or fluctuating motion into a unidirectional rotation, the direction of which...... is in accordance with given theoretical arguments. Despite the setup being three dimensional, the ratchet rotary motion is proved to be described by one simple dynamic equation. This kind of motion is a result of the interplay of friction and inertia....
Analysis of chiral symmetry breaking mechanism
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guo, X. H.; Academia Sinica, Beijing; Huang, T.; CCAST
1997-01-01
The renormalization group invariant quark condensate μ is determined both from the consistent equation for quark condensate in the chiral limit and from the Schwinger-Dyson (SD) equation improved by the intermediate range QCD force singular like δ (q) which is associated with the gluon condensate. The solutions of μ in these two equations are consistent. The authors also obtain the critical strong coupling constant α c above which chiral symmetry breaks in these two approaches. The nonperturbative kernel of the SD equation makes α c smaller and μ bigger. An intuitive picture of the condensation above α c is discussed. In addition, with the help of the Slavnov-Taylor-Ward (STW) identity they derive the equations for the nonperturbative quark propagator from the SD equation in the presence of the intermediate range force and find that the intermediate-range force is also responsible for dynamical chiral symmetry breaking
Conformal Symmetry and Cosmological Entropy Production
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alexander B. Balakin
2002-03-01
Full Text Available Abstract: Introducing an effective refraction index of an isotropic cosmic medium, we investigate the cosmological fluid dynamics which is consistent with a conformal, timelike symmetry of a corresponding "optical" metric. We demonstrate that this kind of symmetry is compatible with the existence of a negative viscous pressure and, consequently, with cosmological entropy production. We establish an exactly solvable model according to which the viscous pressure is a consequence of a self-interacting one-particle force which is self-consistently exerted on the microscopic particles of a relativistic gas. Furthermore, we show that a suficiently high decay rate of the refraction index of an ultrarelativistic cosmic medium results in an in ationary expansion of the universe.
The role of Weyl symmetry in hydrodynamics
Diles, Saulo
2018-04-01
This article is dedicated to the analysis of Weyl symmetry in the context of relativistic hydrodynamics. Here is discussed how this symmetry is properly implemented using the prescription of minimal coupling: ∂ → ∂ + ωA. It is shown that this prescription has no problem to deal with curvature since it gives the correct expressions for the commutator of covariant derivatives. In hydrodynamics, Weyl gauge connection emerges from the degrees of freedom of the fluid: it is a combination of the expansion and entropy gradient. The remaining degrees of freedom, shear, vorticity and the metric tensor, are see in this context as charged fields under the Weyl gauge connection. The gauge nature of the connection provides natural dynamics to it via equations of motion analogous to the Maxwell equations for electromagnetism. As a consequence, a charge for the Weyl connection is defined and the notion of local charge is analyzed generating the conservation law for the Weyl charge.
ATLAS Level-1 Muon Barrel Trigger robustness study at X5 test facility
Di Mattia, A; Nisati, A; Pastore, F C; Vari, R; Veneziano, Stefano; Aielli, G; Camarri, P; Cardarelli, R; Di Ciaccio, A; Di Simone, A; Liberti, B; Santonico, R
2004-01-01
The present paper describes the Level-1 Barrel Muon Trigger performance as expected with the current configuration of the RPC detectors, as designed for the Barrel Muon Spectrometer of ATLAS. Results of a beam test performed at the X5-GIF facility at CERN are presented in order to show the trigger efficiency with different conditions of RPC detection efficiency and several background rates. Small RPC chambers with part of the final trigger electronics are used, while the trigger coincidence logic is applied off-line using a detailed simulation model. copy 2003 Published by Esevier B.V. 3 Refs.
Ion recombination characteristics of the MDH 10X5-6 ionisation chamber under continuous exposure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cerra, F.
1982-01-01
Volume recombination of the induced ionization in an X-ray ionization chamber is an important factor affecting the collection efficiency of the charge when such chambers are operated at atmospheric pressure. The volume recombination process is also dependent on the X-ray exposure rate. The theory for recombination in a cylindrical ionization chamber is shown to be in agreement with experimental measurements. For the MDH 10X5-6 cylindrical ionization chamber, the recombination loss is unimportant at exposure rates consistent with its intended usage. (U.K.)
Symmetry chains and adaptation coefficients
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fritzer, H.P.; Gruber, B.
1985-01-01
Given a symmetry chain of physical significance it becomes necessary to obtain states which transform properly with respect to the symmetries of the chain. In this article we describe a method which permits us to calculate symmetry-adapted quantum states with relative ease. The coefficients for the symmetry-adapted linear combinations are obtained, in numerical form, in terms of the original states of the system and can thus be represented in the form of numerical tables. In addition, one also obtains automatically the matrix elements for the operators of the symmetry groups which are involved, and thus for any physical operator which can be expressed either as an element of the algebra or of the enveloping algebra. The method is well suited for computers once the physically relevant symmetry chain, or chains, have been defined. While the method to be described is generally applicable to any physical system for which semisimple Lie algebras play a role we choose here a familiar example in order to illustrate the method and to illuminate its simplicity. We choose the nuclear shell model for the case of two nucleons with orbital angular momentum l = 1. While the states of the entire shell transform like the smallest spin representation of SO(25) we restrict our attention to its subgroup SU(6) x SU(2)/sub T/. We determine the symmetry chains which lead to total angular momentum SU(2)/sub J/ and obtain the symmetry-adapted states for these chains
Collective states and crossing symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heiss, W.D.
1977-01-01
Collective states are usually described in simple terms but with the use of effective interactions which are supposed to contain more or less complicated contributions. The significance of crossing symmetry is discussed in this connection. Formal problems encountered in the attempts to implement crossing symmetry are pointed out
Singlets of fermionic gauge symmetries
Bergshoeff, E.A.; Kallosh, R.E.; Rahmanov, M.A.
1989-01-01
We investigate under which conditions singlets of fermionic gauge symmetries which are "square roots of gravity" can exist. Their existence is non-trivial because there are no fields neutral in gravity. We tabulate several examples of singlets of global and local supersymmetry and Îº-symmetry and
''Natural'' left-right symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mohapatra, R.N.; Pati, J.C.
1975-01-01
It is remarked that left-right symmetry of the starting gauge interactions is retained as a ''natural'' symmetry if it is broken in no way except possibly by mass terms in the Lagrangian. The implications of this result for the unification of coupling constants and for parity nonconservation at low and high energies are stressed
Symmetry guide to ferroaxial transitions
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Hlinka, Jiří; Přívratská, J.; Ondrejkovič, Petr; Janovec, Václav
2016-01-01
Roč. 116, č. 17 (2016), 1-6, č. článku 177602. ISSN 0031-9007 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-04121S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : symmetry * symmetry breaking * ferroaxial Transitions * property tensors * Aizu species Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 8.462, year: 2016
Symmetry inheritance of scalar fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ivica Smolić
2015-01-01
Matter fields do not necessarily have to share the symmetries with the spacetime they live in. When this happens, we speak of the symmetry inheritance of fields. In this paper we classify the obstructions of symmetry inheritance by the scalar fields, both real and complex, and look more closely at the special cases of stationary and axially symmetric spacetimes. Since the symmetry noninheritance is present in the scalar fields of boson stars and may enable the existence of the black hole scalar hair, our results narrow the possible classes of such solutions. Finally, we define and analyse the symmetry noninheritance contributions to the Komar mass and angular momentum of the black hole scalar hair. (paper)
Shape analysis with subspace symmetries
Berner, Alexander
2011-04-01
We address the problem of partial symmetry detection, i.e., the identification of building blocks a complex shape is composed of. Previous techniques identify parts that relate to each other by simple rigid mappings, similarity transforms, or, more recently, intrinsic isometries. Our approach generalizes the notion of partial symmetries to more general deformations. We introduce subspace symmetries whereby we characterize similarity by requiring the set of symmetric parts to form a low dimensional shape space. We present an algorithm to discover subspace symmetries based on detecting linearly correlated correspondences among graphs of invariant features. We evaluate our technique on various data sets. We show that for models with pronounced surface features, subspace symmetries can be found fully automatically. For complicated cases, a small amount of user input is used to resolve ambiguities. Our technique computes dense correspondences that can subsequently be used in various applications, such as model repair and denoising. © 2010 The Author(s).
Hyperbolic-symmetry vector fields.
Gao, Xu-Zhen; Pan, Yue; Cai, Meng-Qiang; Li, Yongnan; Tu, Chenghou; Wang, Hui-Tian
2015-12-14
We present and construct a new kind of orthogonal coordinate system, hyperbolic coordinate system. We present and design a new kind of local linearly polarized vector fields, which is defined as the hyperbolic-symmetry vector fields because the points with the same polarization form a series of hyperbolae. We experimentally demonstrate the generation of such a kind of hyperbolic-symmetry vector optical fields. In particular, we also study the modified hyperbolic-symmetry vector optical fields with the twofold and fourfold symmetric states of polarization when introducing the mirror symmetry. The tight focusing behaviors of these vector fields are also investigated. In addition, we also fabricate micro-structures on the K9 glass surfaces by several tightly focused (modified) hyperbolic-symmetry vector fields patterns, which demonstrate that the simulated tightly focused fields are in good agreement with the fabricated micro-structures.
Discrete symmetries in the MSSM
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schieren, Roland
2010-12-02
The use of discrete symmetries, especially abelian ones, in physics beyond the standard model of particle physics is discussed. A method is developed how a general, abelian, discrete symmetry can be obtained via spontaneous symmetry breaking. In addition, anomalies are treated in the path integral approach with special attention to anomaly cancellation via the Green-Schwarz mechanism. All this is applied to the minimal supersymmetric standard model. A unique Z{sup R}{sub 4} symmetry is discovered which solves the {mu}-problem as well as problems with proton decay and allows to embed the standard model gauge group into a simple group, i.e. the Z{sup R}{sub 4} is compatible with grand unification. Also the flavor problem in the context of minimal flavor violation is addressed. Finally, a string theory model is presented which exhibits the mentioned Z{sup R}{sub 4} symmetry and other desirable features. (orig.)
Discrete symmetries in the MSSM
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schieren, Roland
2010-01-01
The use of discrete symmetries, especially abelian ones, in physics beyond the standard model of particle physics is discussed. A method is developed how a general, abelian, discrete symmetry can be obtained via spontaneous symmetry breaking. In addition, anomalies are treated in the path integral approach with special attention to anomaly cancellation via the Green-Schwarz mechanism. All this is applied to the minimal supersymmetric standard model. A unique Z R 4 symmetry is discovered which solves the μ-problem as well as problems with proton decay and allows to embed the standard model gauge group into a simple group, i.e. the Z R 4 is compatible with grand unification. Also the flavor problem in the context of minimal flavor violation is addressed. Finally, a string theory model is presented which exhibits the mentioned Z R 4 symmetry and other desirable features. (orig.)
Axions from chiral family symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chang, D.; Pal, P.B.; Maryland Univ., College Park; Senjanovic, G.
1985-01-01
We investigate the possibility that family symmetry, Gsub(F), is spontaneously broken chiral global symmetry. We classify the interesting cases when family symmetry can result in an automatic Peccei-Quinn symmetry U(1)sub(PQ) and thus provide a solution to the strong CP problem. The result disfavors having two or four families. For more than four families, U(1)sub(PQ) is in general automatic. In the case of three families, a unique Higgs sector allows U(1)sub(PQ) in the simplest case of Gsub(F)=[SU(3)] 3 . Cosmological consideration also puts strong constraint on the number of families. For Gsub(F)=[SU(N)] 3 cosmology singles out the three-family (N=3) case as a unique solution if there are three light neutrinos. Possible implication of decoupling theorem as applied to family symmetry breaking is also discussed. (orig.)
Quasigroup of local-symmetry transformations in constrained theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chitaya, N.P.; Gogilidze, S.A.; Surovtsev, Yu.S.
1996-01-01
In the framework of the generalized Hamiltonian formalism by Dirac, the local symmetries of dynamical systems with first- and second-class constraints are investigated in the general case without restrictions on the algebra of constraints. The method of constructing the generator of local-symmetry transformations is obtained from the requirement for them to map the solutions of the Hamiltonian equations of motion into the solutions of the same equations. It is proved that second-class constraints do not contribute to the transformation law of the local symmetry entirely stipulated by all the first-class constraints (only by them) of an equivalent set passing to which from the initial constraint set is always possible and is presented. A mechanism of occurrence of higher derivatives of coordinates and group parameters in the symmetry transformation law in the Noether second theorem is elucidated. In the latter case it is shown that the obtained transformations of symmetry are canonical in the extended (by Ostrogradsky) phase space. It is thereby shown in the general case that the degeneracy of theories with the first- and second-class constraints is due to their invariance under local-symmetry transformations. It is also shown in the general case that the action functional and the corresponding Hamiltonian equations of motion are invariant under the same quasigroup of local-symmetry transformations. 29 refs
Flavor mixing via dynamical chiral symmetry breaking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jaffe, R.L.
1988-01-01
This paper is concerned with the physics of the quark gluon plasma. The author interested in the complexity of the flavor structure of hadron wavefunctions. This issue bears upon the validity of the quenched approximation in lattice gauge theory and the structure of the QCD vacuum, both of which have been central issues here
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peskin, M.E.
1994-01-01
When the strong interactions were a mystery, spin seemed to be just a complication on top of an already puzzling set of phenomena. But now that particle physicists have understood the strong, weak, and electromagnetic interactions, to be gauge theories, with matter built of quarks and leptons, it is recognized that the special properties of spin 1/2 and spin 1 particles have taken central role in the understanding of Nature. The lectures in this summer school will be devoted to the use of spin in unravelling detailed questions about the fundamental interactions. Thus, why not begin by posing a deeper question: Why is there spin? More precisely, why do the basic pointlike constituents of Nature carry intrinsic nonzero quanta of angular momentum? Though the authos has found no definite answer to this question, the pursuit of an answer has led through a wonderful tangle of speculations on the deep structure of Nature. Is spin constructed or is it fundamental? Is it the requirement of symmetry? In the furthest flights taken, it seems that space-time itself is too restrictive a notion, and that this must be generalized in order to gain a full appreciation of spin. In any case, there is no doubt that spin must play a central role in unlocking the mysteries of fundamental physics
Symmetry breaking by bifundamentals
Schellekens, A. N.
2018-03-01
We derive all possible symmetry breaking patterns for all possible Higgs fields that can occur in intersecting brane models: bifundamentals and rank-2 tensors. This is a field-theoretic problem that was already partially solved in 1973 by Ling-Fong Li [1]. In that paper the solution was given for rank-2 tensors of orthogonal and unitary group, and U (N )×U (M ) and O (N )×O (M ) bifundamentals. We extend this first of all to symplectic groups. When formulated correctly, this turns out to be straightforward generalization of the previous results from real and complex numbers to quaternions. The extension to mixed bifundamentals is more challenging and interesting. The scalar potential has up to six real parameters. Its minima or saddle points are described by block-diagonal matrices built out of K blocks of size p ×q . Here p =q =1 for the solutions of Ling-Fong Li, and the number of possibilities for p ×q is equal to the number of real parameters in the potential, minus 1. The maximum block size is p ×q =2 ×4 . Different blocks cannot be combined, and the true minimum occurs for one choice of basic block, and for either K =1 or K maximal, depending on the parameter values.
Gravitation and Gauge Symmetries
Stewart, J
2002-01-01
The purpose of this book (I quote verbatim from the back cover) is to 'shed light upon the intrinsic structure of gravity and the principle of gauge invariance, which may lead to a consistent unified field theory', a very laudable aim. The content divides fairly clearly into four sections (and origins). After a brief introduction, chapters 2-6 review the 'Structure of gravity as a theory based on spacetime gauge symmetries'. This is fairly straightforward material, apparently based on a one-semester graduate course taught at the University of Belgrade for about two decades, and, by implication, this is a reasonably accurate description of its level and assumed knowledge. There follow two chapters of new material entitled 'Gravity in flat spacetime' and 'Nonlinear effects in gravity'. The final three chapters, entitled 'Supersymmetry and supergravity', 'Kaluza-Klein theory' and 'String theory' have been used for the basis of a one-semester graduate course on the unification of fundamental interactions. The boo...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Peskin, M.E. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)
1994-12-01
When the strong interactions were a mystery, spin seemed to be just a complication on top of an already puzzling set of phenomena. But now that particle physicists have understood the strong, weak, and electromagnetic interactions, to be gauge theories, with matter built of quarks and leptons, it is recognized that the special properties of spin 1/2 and spin 1 particles have taken central role in the understanding of Nature. The lectures in this summer school will be devoted to the use of spin in unravelling detailed questions about the fundamental interactions. Thus, why not begin by posing a deeper question: Why is there spin? More precisely, why do the basic pointlike constituents of Nature carry intrinsic nonzero quanta of angular momentum? Though the authos has found no definite answer to this question, the pursuit of an answer has led through a wonderful tangle of speculations on the deep structure of Nature. Is spin constructed or is it fundamental? Is it the requirement of symmetry? In the furthest flights taken, it seems that space-time itself is too restrictive a notion, and that this must be generalized in order to gain a full appreciation of spin. In any case, there is no doubt that spin must play a central role in unlocking the mysteries of fundamental physics.
Symmetries in nuclear structure
Allaart, K; Dieperink, A
1983-01-01
The 1982 summer school on nuclear physics, organized by the Nuclear Physics Division of the Netherlands' Physical Society, was the fifth in a series that started in 1963. The number of students attending has always been about one hundred, coming from about thirty countries. The theme of this year's school was symmetry in nuclear physics. This book covers the material presented by the enthusi astic speakers, who were invited to lecture on this subject. We think they have succeeded in presenting us with clear and thorough introductory talks at graduate or higher level. The time schedule of the school and the location allowed the participants to make many informal contacts during many social activities, ranging from billiards to surf board sailing. We hope and expect that the combination of a relaxed atmosphere during part of the time and hard work during most of the time, has furthered the interest in, and understanding of, nuclear physics. The organization of the summer school was made possible by substantia...
Quark diquark symmetry breaking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Souza, M.M. de
1980-01-01
Assuming the baryons are made of quark-diquark pairs, the wave functions for the 126 allowed ground states are written. The quark creation and annihilations operators are generalized to describe the quark-diquark structure in terms of a parameter σ. Assuming that all quark-quark interactions are mediated by gluons transforming like an octet of vector mesons, the effective Hamiltonian and the baryon masses as constraint equations for the elements of the mass matrix is written. The symmetry is the SU(6) sub(quark)x SU(21) sub(diquark) broken by quark-quark interactions respectively invariant under U(6), U(2) sub(spin), U(3) and also interactions transforming like the eighth and the third components of SU(3). In the limit of no quark-diquark structure (σ = 0), the ground state masses is titted to within 1% of the experimental data, except for the Δ(1232), where the error is almost 2%. Expanding the decuplet mass equations in terms of σ and keeping terms only up to the second order, this error is reduced to 67%. (Author) [pt
Astroparticle tests of Lorentz symmetry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Diaz, Jorge [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany)
2016-07-01
Lorentz symmetry is a cornerstone of modern physics. As the spacetime symmetry of special relativity, Lorentz invariance is a basic component of the standard model of particle physics and general relativity, which to date constitute our most successful descriptions of nature. Deviations from exact symmetry would radically change our view of the universe and current experiments allow us to test the validity of this assumption. In this talk, I describe effects of Lorentz violation in cosmic rays and gamma rays that can be studied in current observatories.
Geometrical spin symmetry and spin
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pestov, I. B.
2011-01-01
Unification of General Theory of Relativity and Quantum Mechanics leads to General Quantum Mechanics which includes into itself spindynamics as a theory of spin phenomena. The key concepts of spindynamics are geometrical spin symmetry and the spin field (space of defining representation of spin symmetry). The essence of spin is the bipolar structure of geometrical spin symmetry induced by the gravitational potential. The bipolar structure provides a natural derivation of the equations of spindynamics. Spindynamics involves all phenomena connected with spin and provides new understanding of the strong interaction.
Scale symmetry and virial theorem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Westenholz, C. von
1978-01-01
Scale symmetry (or dilatation invariance) is discussed in terms of Noether's Theorem expressed in terms of a symmetry group action on phase space endowed with a symplectic structure. The conventional conceptual approach expressing invariance of some Hamiltonian under scale transformations is re-expressed in alternate form by infinitesimal automorphisms of the given symplectic structure. That is, the vector field representing scale transformations leaves the symplectic structure invariant. In this model, the conserved quantity or constant of motion related to scale symmetry is the virial. It is shown that the conventional virial theorem can be derived within this framework
Numerical Analysis for IFM Grid Effect on 5x5 Rods Bundle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Seong Jin; Cha, Jeong Hun; Seo, Kyong Won; Kim, Tae Woo; Kwon, Hyuk; Hwang, Dae Hyun
2011-01-01
Generally, the fuel assembly consists of fuel rods, bottom and top grids, spacer grids, mixing vane, etc. The mixing vane with spacer grid is used to increase the thermal mixing between subchannels and to increase CHF(Critical Heat Flux). IFM(Intermediate Flow Mixer) grids are used to induce lateral flow between adjacent channels and are well-known as improving CHF, also. A numerical analysis using CFD code(ANSYS CFX, version 12.1) and subchannel code(MATRA-S) was conducted to investigate the influence of IFM grid on the subchannel temperature in 5x5 rods bundle with and without the IFM grid, thermohydraulically. In this study, the quantitative improvement of the mixing effect of the IFM grid is presented from the results of CFX and MATRA-S code. Moreover, capacity of predicting subchannel temperature of MATRA-S code is compared with CFX result
Monitoring of garbage with a 5x5NaI (Tl) detector
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cortes P, A.; Becerril V, A.; Angeles C, A.
1991-12-01
So far in that is carried out the first reload of nuclear fuel in the LVC, the monitoring of garbage has been carried out using monitors trade mark Eberline model RM 14. The procedure consists in manually monitoring each object and to separate of the considered 'clean' garbage the objects considered as contaminated, which register greater or equal counts to 100 cpm. This way to process was adequate under normal operation conditions, but not in the operation rhythm that implies a bigger maintenance since the time required for monitoring from 5 to 10 kg. of garbage is of the order of 0.5 hours and the production rhythm of this it ends up being a lot but high. Due to this necessity it was thought about the problem of looking by a more efficient monitoring method. In this work a method that uses a detector of NaI (Tl) of 5 x 5 inches is discussed. (Author)
Nuclear physics, symmetries, and quantum chaos
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bunakov, V.E.
1999-01-01
The reasons why the problem of chaos is of great topical interest in modern physics are briefly summarized, and it is indicated that ambiguities in the concept of quantum chaos present the greatest difficulties in these realms. The theory of random matrices and strength functions are generalized to demonstrate that chaotization of a system is associated with the violation of its symmetries. A criterion of quantum chaoticity is formulated in terms of the spreading width Γ spr . In the classical limit, this criterion reduces to Lyapunov's stability criteria. It is shown that the proposed criterion is applicable to standard problems of the modern theory of dynamical chaos
Stochastic mechanism of symmetry breaking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baseyan, H.Z.
1983-01-01
A new symmetry breaking mechanism conditioned by presence of random fields in vacuum is proposed. Massive Yang-Mills fields finally arise, that may be interpreted as ''macroscopic'' manifestation of the ''microscopic'' Yang-Mills massless theory
Shape analysis with subspace symmetries
Berner, Alexander; Wand, Michael D.; Mitra, Niloy J.; Mewes, Daniel; Seidel, Hans Peter
2011-01-01
We address the problem of partial symmetry detection, i.e., the identification of building blocks a complex shape is composed of. Previous techniques identify parts that relate to each other by simple rigid mappings, similarity transforms, or, more
Symmetries in the Lagrangean formalism
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grigore, D.R.
1987-09-01
We generalize the analysis of Levy-Leblond for lagrangean systems with symmetry. We prove that this analysis goes through practically unchanged and after that we analyse in detail some examples.(author)
Renormgroup symmetry for solution functionals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shirkov, D.V.; Kovalev, V.F.
2004-01-01
The paper contains generalization of the renormgroup algorithm for boundary value problems of mathematical physics and related concept of the renormgroup symmetry, formulated earlier by the authors with reference to models based on differential equations. These algorithm and symmetry are formulated now for models with nonlocal (integral) equations. We discuss in detail and illustrate by examples the applications of the generalized algorithm to models with nonlocal terms which appear as linear functionals of the solution. (author)
Conformal symmetry in quantum finance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Romero, Juan M; Lavana, Ulises; Miranda, Elio Martínez
2014-01-01
The quantum finance symmetries are studied. In order to do this, the one dimensional free non-relativistic particle and its symmetries are revisited and the particle mass is identified as the inverse of square of the volatility. Furthermore, using financial variables, a Schrödinger algebra representation is constructed. In addition, it is shown that the operators of this last representation are not hermitian and not conserved.
PREFACE: Symmetries in Science XVI
2014-10-01
-session, topics ranging from theoretical chemistry and molecular physics via fundamental problems in quantum theory to thermodynamics, nonlinear dynamics, soliton theory and finally cosmology, were examined and lively discussed. Nearly all the talks can also be viewed on the conference website. The majority of participants contributed to these Proceedings but some were unable to do so as their results were either previously submitted or published elsewhere. We refer to: · Quesne C 2013, J. Math. Phys. 54, 102102. · Spera M 2013, (Nankai Series in Pure, Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics): 11 Symmetries and Groups in Contemporary Physics: pp. 593-598 Proceedings of the XXIX International Colloquium on Group-Theoretical Methods in Physics Tianjin, China, 20 - 26 August 2012 (World Scientific, Singapore) · Snobl L and Winternitz P 2014, Classification and Identification of Lie Algebras, CRM Monograph Series 33 (Montreal) ISBN-10: 0-8218-4355-9, ISBN-13: 978-0-8218-4355-0 (http://www.ams.org/bookstore?fn=20&arg1=crmmseries&ikey=CRMM-33). Our personal thanks to Daniel and family! Endless support from the Schenk Family who, among other things, sponsored (yet again) the entire conference dinner (including wines and banquet hall) meant that some costs could be alleviated. We could therefore assist various colleagues from economically-weak countries, despite the lack of external funding. A financial deficit meant we would have had to forego the Conference Proceedings, published in previous years by IOP. After long deliberations, and with donations from Gerhard Berssenbrügge, Dr. Dr. Stephan Hauk and Dr. Volker Weisswange, this could be facilitated. We are very grateful to these private donors for their generous and wholehearted support. The staff of Collegium Mehrerau is also to be thanked for their hospitality. Finally, our sincere thanks to Yvette not only for her preparatory work and support during the conference, but also for her persistent interest and help in producing
Symmetry and group theory in chemistry
Ladd, M
1998-01-01
A comprehensive discussion of group theory in the context of molecular and crystal symmetry, this book covers both point-group and space-group symmetries.Provides a comprehensive discussion of group theory in the context of molecular and crystal symmetryCovers both point-group and space-group symmetriesIncludes tutorial solutions
Breaking of electroweak symmetry: origin and effects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Delaunay, C.
2008-10-01
The Higgs boson appears as the corner stone of high energy physics, it might be the cause of the excess of matter that led to the formation of the structures of the universe and it seems that it drives the breaking of the electroweak symmetry. Moreover, when the stability at low energies of the Higgs boson is assured by an extra space dimension, it appears that this extra dimension can explain most issues in the flavor physics that are not understood by the standard model. The first chapter presents the main tools of effective field theories, the role of experimental data in the construction of theories valid beyond the standard model is discussed. The second chapter focuses on the electroweak baryogenesis that allows the testing of new physics via the electroweak phase transition. We detail the calculation of a Higgs potential at finite temperature. We follow the dynamics of the phase transition including nucleation an supercooling. Finally we investigate the prospects of gravity wave detection to see the effects of a strong electroweak phase transition. The 2 last chapters are dedicated to the physics of extra-dimension. The properties of the dynamics of scalar, vector fields with a 1/2 spin plunged in a 5 d. Anti de Sitter geometry are reviewed. We present a model of lepton masses and mixings based on the A 4 non-Abelian discrete symmetry. It is shown that this model does not contradict the tests of electroweak precision. (A.C.)
Final Report Fermionic Symmetries and Self consistent Shell Model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zamick, Larry
2008-01-01
In this final report in the field of theoretical nuclear physics we note important accomplishments.We were confronted with 'anomoulous' magnetic moments by the experimetalists and were able to expain them. We found unexpected partial dynamical symmetries--completely unknown before, and were able to a large extent to expain them. The importance of a self consistent shell model was emphasized.
Spontaneous symmetry breaking in spinor Bose-Einstein condensates
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Scherer, Manuel; Lücke, Bernd; Peise, Jan
2013-01-01
We present an analytical model for the theoretical analysis of spin dynamics and spontaneous symmetry breaking in a spinor Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). This allows for an excellent intuitive understanding of the processes and provides good quantitative agreement with the experimental results...
Symmetry of the homogeneous linear partial differential equations and seperation of variables
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gegelia, D.T.; Markovski, B.L.
1990-01-01
The general interplay between dynamical symmetry of LPDE and the problem of variables splitting is analyzed. The existence of symmetry is only a necessary condition for separation of variables. The necessary and sufficient conditions for two-dimensional second-order LPDE are explicitly found in an appropriate coordinate system. The proposed construction can be straight forwardly extended for higher dimensions too. 8 refs
Minimally doubled fermions and spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Osmanaj (Zeqirllari Rudina
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Chiral symmetry breaking in massless QCD is a very important feature in the current understanding of low energy physics. Low - lying Dirac modes are suitable to help us understand the spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking, since the formation of a non zero chiral condensate is an effect of their accumulation near zero. The Banks – Casher relation links the spectral density of the Dirac operator to the condensate with an identity that can be read in both directions. In this work we propose a spectral method to achieve a reliable determination of the density of eigenvalues of Dirac operator near zero using the Gauss – Lanczos quadrature. In order to understand better the dynamical chiral symmetry breaking and use the method we propose, we have chosen to work with minimally doubled fermions. These kind of fermions have been proposed as a strictly local discretization of the QCD fermions action, which preserves chiral symmetry at finite cut-off. Being chiral fermions, is easier to work with them and their low - lying Dirac modes and to understand the dynamical spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking.
Minimally doubled fermions and spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking
Osmanaj (Zeqirllari), Rudina; Hyka (Xhako), Dafina
2018-03-01
Chiral symmetry breaking in massless QCD is a very important feature in the current understanding of low energy physics. Low - lying Dirac modes are suitable to help us understand the spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking, since the formation of a non zero chiral condensate is an effect of their accumulation near zero. The Banks - Casher relation links the spectral density of the Dirac operator to the condensate with an identity that can be read in both directions. In this work we propose a spectral method to achieve a reliable determination of the density of eigenvalues of Dirac operator near zero using the Gauss - Lanczos quadrature. In order to understand better the dynamical chiral symmetry breaking and use the method we propose, we have chosen to work with minimally doubled fermions. These kind of fermions have been proposed as a strictly local discretization of the QCD fermions action, which preserves chiral symmetry at finite cut-off. Being chiral fermions, is easier to work with them and their low - lying Dirac modes and to understand the dynamical spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking.
Structural symmetry and protein function.
Goodsell, D S; Olson, A J
2000-01-01
The majority of soluble and membrane-bound proteins in modern cells are symmetrical oligomeric complexes with two or more subunits. The evolutionary selection of symmetrical oligomeric complexes is driven by functional, genetic, and physicochemical needs. Large proteins are selected for specific morphological functions, such as formation of rings, containers, and filaments, and for cooperative functions, such as allosteric regulation and multivalent binding. Large proteins are also more stable against denaturation and have a reduced surface area exposed to solvent when compared with many individual, smaller proteins. Large proteins are constructed as oligomers for reasons of error control in synthesis, coding efficiency, and regulation of assembly. Symmetrical oligomers are favored because of stability and finite control of assembly. Several functions limit symmetry, such as interaction with DNA or membranes, and directional motion. Symmetry is broken or modified in many forms: quasisymmetry, in which identical subunits adopt similar but different conformations; pleomorphism, in which identical subunits form different complexes; pseudosymmetry, in which different molecules form approximately symmetrical complexes; and symmetry mismatch, in which oligomers of different symmetries interact along their respective symmetry axes. Asymmetry is also observed at several levels. Nearly all complexes show local asymmetry at the level of side chain conformation. Several complexes have reciprocating mechanisms in which the complex is asymmetric, but, over time, all subunits cycle through the same set of conformations. Global asymmetry is only rarely observed. Evolution of oligomeric complexes may favor the formation of dimers over complexes with higher cyclic symmetry, through a mechanism of prepositioned pairs of interacting residues. However, examples have been found for all of the crystallographic point groups, demonstrating that functional need can drive the evolution of
A (critical) overview of electroweak symmetry breaking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Csaki, Csaba
2010-01-01
This presentation discusses the following points: The standard Higgs, big vs. little hierarchy; Electroweak Symmetry Breaking in supersymmetry and little hierarchy of Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM): Buried Higgs, Bigger quartic (D-terms, Next-to-Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (NMSSM), fat Higgs,..); Strong dynamics and related models: Technicolor, Monopole condensate, Warped extra dimensions, Realistic RS, Higgs-less, Composite Higgs, Little Higgs. In summary, we do not understand how Higgs is light and still no trace of new physics. In Supersymmetry (SUSY) it calls for extension of MSSM. In strong dynamics models: electroweak penguin (EWP) usually issue (Warped extra dimension - composite Higgs, Higgs-less, Little Higgs, Technicolor, monopole condensation,..). None of them is fully convincing but LHC should settle these
Crossflow between subchannels in a 5 x 5 rod-bundle geometry
Lee, Jungjin; Park, Hyungmin
2017-11-01
In the present study, we experimentally investigate the single-phase (water as a working fluid) flow in a vertical 5 x 5 rod-bundle geometry using a particle image velociemtry, especially focusing on the crossflow phenomena between subchannels. This crossflow phenomena is very important in determining the performance and safety of nuclear power plant. To measure the flow behind the rod, it is made of FEP (Fluorinated Ethylene Propylene) to achieve the index matching. The ratio of pitch between rods and rod diameter is 1.4, and the considered Reynolds number based on a hydraulic diameter of a channel and an axial bulk velocity is 10000. Also, the typical grid spacer is installed periodically along the streamwise direction. Depending on the location of subchannel (e.g., distance to the side wall or grid spacer), the flow (turbulence) statistics show large variations that will be discussed in detail. Furthermore, we will suggest a modified crossflow model that can explain the varying crossflow phenomena more clearly. Supported by NRF Grant (NRF-2016M2B2A9A02945068) of the Korean government.
Localizability and local gauge symmetry in quantum theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leveille, J.P.
1976-01-01
An attempt is made to generalize a theorem of Jauch on the equivalence of local gauge symmetry and Galilean symmetry to relativistic theories. One first proves a converse to Jauch's theorem deriving the Galilei algebra from a locality postulate. When generalized to the relativistic case the locality postulate leads one to the relativistic dynamical group g 5 . A possible physical interpretation of g 5 as a relativistic dynamical group is given. An attempt to describe the dynamics solely in Minkowski space-time leads, in conjunction with the locality postulate, to a new relativistic dynamical algebra. We found that this new algebra is realized by field theoretical examples which exclude quantum electrodynamics, however, and other known gauge theories. This latter development forces one to seriously question the validity of the locality postulate. One concludes by proving a general theorem about the nonimplementability of local transformations by global operators independent of space-time in field theory
Symmetries and Invariants of the Time-dependent Oscillator Equation and the Envelope Equation
Qin, Hong
2005-01-01
Single-particle dynamics in a time-dependent focusing field is examined. The existence of the Courant-Snyder invariant* is fundamentally the result of the corresponding symmetry admitted by the oscillator equation with time-dependent frequency.** A careful analysis of the admitted symmetries reveals a deeper connection between the nonlinear envelope equation and the oscillator equation. A general theorem regarding the symmetries and invariants of the envelope equation, which includes the existence of the Courant-Snyder invariant as a special case, is demonstrated. The symmetries of the envelope equation enable a fast algorithm for finding matched solutions without using the conventional iterative shooting method.
Anomalies of hidden local chiral symmetries in sigma-models and extended supergravities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vecchia, P. di; Ferrara, S.; Girardello, L.
1985-01-01
Non-linear sigma-models with hidden gauge symmetries are anomalous, at the quantum level, when coupled to chiral fermions in not anomaly free representations of the hidden chiral symmetry. These considerations generally apply to supersymmetric kaehlerian sigma-models on coset spaces with hidden chiral symmetries as well as to extended supergravities in four dimensions with local SU(N) symmetry. The presence of the anomaly implies that the scenario of dynamical generation of gauge vector bosons has to be reconsidered in these theories. (orig.)
Prediction of Human Eye Fixations using Symmetry
Kootstra, Gert; Schomaker, Lambert R. B.
2009-01-01
Humans are very sensitive to symmetry in visual patterns. Reaction time experiments show that symmetry is detected and recognized very rapidly. This suggests that symmetry is a highly salient feature. Existing computational models of saliency, however, have mainly focused on contrast as a measure of saliency. In this paper, we discuss local symmetry as a measure of saliency. We propose a number of symmetry models and perform an eye-tracking study with human participants viewing photographic i...
Miller, G A
2003-01-01
Two new experiments have detected charge-symmetry breaking, the mechanism responsible for protons and neutrons having different masses. Symmetry is a crucial concept in the theories that describe the subatomic world because it has an intimate connection with the laws of conservation. The theory of the strong interaction between quarks - quantum chromodynamics - is approximately invariant under what is called charge symmetry. In other words, if we swap an up quark for a down quark, then the strong interaction will look almost the same. This symmetry is related to the concept of sup i sospin sup , and is not the same as charge conjugation (in which a particle is replaced by its antiparticle). Charge symmetry is broken by the competition between two different effects. The first is the small difference in mass between up and down quarks, which is about 200 times less than the mass of the proton. The second is their different electric charges. The up quark has a charge of +2/3 in units of the proton charge, while ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haas, Fernando
2016-01-01
A didactic and systematic derivation of Noether point symmetries and conserved currents is put forward in special relativistic field theories, without a priori assumptions about the transformation laws. Given the Lagrangian density, the invariance condition develops as a set of partial differential equations determining the symmetry transformation. The solution is provided in the case of real scalar, complex scalar, free electromagnetic, and charged electromagnetic fields. Besides the usual conservation laws, a less popular symmetry is analyzed: the symmetry associated with the linear superposition of solutions, whenever applicable. The role of gauge invariance is emphasized. The case of the charged scalar particle under external electromagnetic fields is considered, and the accompanying Noether point symmetries determined. Noether point symmetries for a dynamical system in extended gravity cosmology are also deduced. (paper)
Haas, Fernando
2016-11-01
A didactic and systematic derivation of Noether point symmetries and conserved currents is put forward in special relativistic field theories, without a priori assumptions about the transformation laws. Given the Lagrangian density, the invariance condition develops as a set of partial differential equations determining the symmetry transformation. The solution is provided in the case of real scalar, complex scalar, free electromagnetic, and charged electromagnetic fields. Besides the usual conservation laws, a less popular symmetry is analyzed: the symmetry associated with the linear superposition of solutions, whenever applicable. The role of gauge invariance is emphasized. The case of the charged scalar particle under external electromagnetic fields is considered, and the accompanying Noether point symmetries determined. Noether point symmetries for a dynamical system in extended gravity cosmology are also deduced.
Lie and conditional symmetries of the three-component diffusive Lotka–Volterra system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cherniha, Roman; Davydovych, Vasyl’
2013-01-01
Lie and Q-conditional symmetries of the classical three-component diffusive Lotka–Volterra system in the case of one space variable are studied. The group-classification problems for finding Lie symmetries and Q-conditional symmetries of the first type are completely solved. Notably, non-Lie symmetries (Q-conditional symmetry operators) for a multi-component nonlinear reaction–diffusion system are constructed for the first time. The results are compared with those derived for the two-component diffusive Lotka–Volterra system. The conditional symmetry obtained for the non-Lie reduction of the three-component system used for modeling competition between three species in population dynamics is applied and the relevant exact solutions are found. Particularly, the exact solution describing different scenarios of competition between three species is constructed. (paper)
Symmetry and Asymmetry Level Measures
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Angel Garrido
2010-04-01
Full Text Available Usually, Symmetry and Asymmetry are considered as two opposite sides of a coin: an object is either totally symmetric, or totally asymmetric, relative to pattern objects. Intermediate situations of partial symmetry or partial asymmetry are not considered. But this dichotomy on the classification lacks of a necessary and realistic gradation. For this reason, it is convenient to introduce "shade regions", modulating the degree of Symmetry (a fuzzy concept. Here, we will analyze the Asymmetry problem by successive attempts of description and by the introduction of the Asymmetry Level Function, as a new Normal Fuzzy Measure. Our results (both Theorems and Corollaries suppose to be some new and original contributions to such very active and interesting field of research. Previously, we proceed to the analysis of the state of art.
Symmetry breaking patterns for inflation
Klein, Remko; Roest, Diederik; Stefanyszyn, David
2018-06-01
We study inflationary models where the kinetic sector of the theory has a non-linearly realised symmetry which is broken by the inflationary potential. We distinguish between kinetic symmetries which non-linearly realise an internal or space-time group, and which yield a flat or curved scalar manifold. This classification leads to well-known inflationary models such as monomial inflation and α-attractors, as well as a new model based on fixed couplings between a dilaton and many axions which non-linearly realises higher-dimensional conformal symmetries. In this model, inflation can be realised along the dilatonic direction, leading to a tensor-to-scalar ratio r ˜ 0 .01 and a spectral index n s ˜ 0 .975. We refer to the new model as ambient inflation since inflation proceeds along an isometry of an anti-de Sitter ambient space-time, which fully determines the kinetic sector.
Flavor physics without flavor symmetries
Buchmuller, Wilfried; Patel, Ketan M.
2018-04-01
We quantitatively analyze a quark-lepton flavor model derived from a six-dimensional supersymmetric theory with S O (10 )×U (1 ) gauge symmetry, compactified on an orbifold with magnetic flux. Two bulk 16 -plets charged under the U (1 ) provide the three quark-lepton generations whereas two uncharged 10 -plets yield two Higgs doublets. At the orbifold fixed points mass matrices are generated with rank one or two. Moreover, the zero modes mix with heavy vectorlike split multiplets. The model possesses no flavor symmetries. Nevertheless, there exist a number of relations between Yukawa couplings, remnants of the underlying grand unified theory symmetry and the wave function profiles of the zero modes, which lead to a prediction of the light neutrino mass scale, mν 1˜10-3 eV and heavy Majorana neutrino masses in the range from 1 012 to 1 014 GeV . The model successfully includes thermal leptogenesis.
Symmetry gauge theory for paraparticles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kursawe, U.
1986-01-01
In the present thesis it was shown that for identical particles the wave function of which has a more complicated symmetry than it is the case at the known kinds of particles, the bosons and fermions, a gauge theory can be formulated, the so-called 'symmetry gauge theory'. This theory has its origin alone in the symmetry of the particle wave functions and becomes first relevant when more than two particles are considered. It was shown that for particles with mixed-symmetrical wave functions, so-called 'paraparticles', the quantum mechanical state is no more described by one Hilbert-space element but by a many-dimensional subspace of this Hilbert space. The gauge freedom consists then just in the freedom of the choice of the basis in this subspace, the corresponding gauge group is the group of the unitary basis transformation in this subspace. (orig./HSI) [de
Whirling orbits around twirling black holes from conformal symmetry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hadar, Shahar [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, University of Cambridge,Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom); Porfyriadis, Achilleas P. [Department of Physics, UCSB,Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States)
2017-03-03
Dynamics in the throat of rapidly rotating Kerr black holes is governed by an emergent near-horizon conformal symmetry. The throat contains unstable circular orbits at radii extending from the ISCO down to the light ring. We show that they are related by conformal transformations to physical plunges and osculating trajectories. These orbits have angular momentum arbitrarily higher than that of ISCO. Using the conformal symmetry we compute analytically the radiation produced by the physical orbits. We also present a simple formula for the full self-force on such trajectories in terms of the self-force on circular orbits.
Generalizations of teleparallel gravity and local Lorentz symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sotiriou, Thomas P.; Barrow, John D.; Li Baojiu
2011-01-01
We analyze the relation between teleparallelism and local Lorentz invariance. We show that generic modifications of the teleparallel equivalent to general relativity will not respect local Lorentz symmetry. We clarify the reasons for this and explain why the situation is different in general relativity. We give a prescription for constructing teleparallel equivalents for known theories. We also explicitly consider a recently proposed class of generalized teleparallel theories, called f(T) theories of gravity, and show why restoring local Lorentz symmetry in such theories cannot lead to sensible dynamics, even if one gives up teleparallelism.
Chiral symmetry breaking in a semilocalized magnetic field
Cao, Gaoqing
2018-03-01
In this work, we explore the pattern of chiral symmetry breaking and restoration in a solvable magnetic field configuration within the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. The special semilocalized static magnetic field can roughly mimic the realistic situation in peripheral heavy ion collisions; thus, the study is important for the dynamical evolution of quark matter. We find that the magnetic-field-dependent contribution from discrete spectra usually dominates over the contribution from continuum spectra and chiral symmetry breaking is locally catalyzed by both the magnitude and scale of the magnetic field. The study is finally extended to the case with finite temperature or chemical potential.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kastner, Ruth E.
2011-01-01
This paper seeks to clarify features of time asymmetry in terms of symmetry breaking. It is observed that, in general, a contingent situation or event requires the breaking of an underlying symmetry. The distinction between the universal anisotropy of temporal processes and the irreversibility of certain physical processes is clarified. It is also proposed that the Transactional Interpretation of quantum mechanics offers an effective way to explain general thermodynamic asymmetry in terms of the time asymmetry of radiation, where prior such efforts have fallen short.
Kastner, Ruth E.
2011-11-01
This paper seeks to clarify features of time asymmetry in terms of symmetry breaking. It is observed that, in general, a contingent situation or event requires the breaking of an underlying symmetry. The distinction between the universal anisotropy of temporal processes and the irreversibility of certain physical processes is clarified. It is also proposed that the Transactional Interpretation of quantum mechanics offers an effective way to explain general thermodynamic asymmetry in terms of the time asymmetry of radiation, where prior such efforts have fallen short.
Renormalizable models with broken symmetries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Becchi, C.; Rouet, A.; Stora, R.
1975-10-01
The results of the renormalized perturbation theory, in the absence of massless quanta, are summarized. The global symmetry breaking is studied and the associated currents are discussed in terms of the coupling with a classical Yang Mills field. Gauge theories are discussed; it is most likely that the natural set up should be the theory of fiber bundles and that making a choice of field coordinates makes the situation obscure. An attempt is made in view of clarifying the meaning of the Slavnov symmetry which characterizes gauge field theories [fr
Symmetry analysis of cellular automata
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
García-Morales, V.
2013-01-01
By means of B-calculus [V. García-Morales, Phys. Lett. A 376 (2012) 2645] a universal map for deterministic cellular automata (CAs) has been derived. The latter is shown here to be invariant upon certain transformations (global complementation, reflection and shift). When constructing CA rules in terms of rules of lower range a new symmetry, “invariance under construction” is uncovered. Modular arithmetic is also reformulated within B-calculus and a new symmetry of certain totalistic CA rules, which calculate the Pascal simplices modulo an integer number p, is then also uncovered.
Symposium Symmetries in Science XIII
Gruber, Bruno J; Yoshinaga, Naotaka; Symmetries in Science XI
2005-01-01
This book is a collection of reviews and essays about the recent developments in the area of Symmetries and applications of Group Theory. Contributions have been written mostly at the graduate level but some are accessible to advanced undergraduates. The book is of interest to a wide audience and covers a broad range of topics with a strong degree of thematical unity. The book is part of a Series of books on Symmetries in Science and may be compared to the published Proceedings of the Colloquia on Group Theoretical Methods in Physics. Here, however, prevails a distinguished character for presenting extended reviews on present applications to Science, not restricted to Theoretical Physics.
Chiral symmetry on the lattice
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Creutz, M.
1994-11-01
The author reviews some of the difficulties associated with chiral symmetry in the context of a lattice regulator. The author discusses the structure of Wilson Fermions when the hopping parameter is in the vicinity of its critical value. Here one flavor contrasts sharply with the case of more, where a residual chiral symmetry survives anomalies. The author briefly discusses the surface mode approach, the use of mirror Fermions to cancel anomalies, and finally speculates on the problems with lattice versions of the standard model
Cosmological Reflection of Particle Symmetry
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Maxim Khlopov
2016-08-01
Full Text Available The standard model involves particle symmetry and the mechanism of its breaking. Modern cosmology is based on inflationary models with baryosynthesis and dark matter/energy, which involves physics beyond the standard model. Studies of the physical basis of modern cosmology combine direct searches for new physics at accelerators with its indirect non-accelerator probes, in which cosmological consequences of particle models play an important role. The cosmological reflection of particle symmetry and the mechanisms of its breaking are the subject of the present review.
Optical metamaterials with quasicrystalline symmetry: symmetry-induced optical isotropy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kruk, S.S.; Decker, M.; Helgert, Ch.; Neshev, D.N.; Kivshar, Y.S.; Staude, I.; Powell, D.A.; Pertsch, Th.; Menzel, Ch.; Helgert, Ch.; Etrich, Ch.; Rockstuhl, C.; Menzel, Ch.
2013-01-01
Taking advantage of symmetry considerations, we have analyzed the potential of various metamaterials to affect the polarization state of light upon oblique illumination. We have shown that depending on the angle of illumination, metamaterials are able to support specific polarization states. The presented methodology that using ellipticity and circular dichroism, provides an unambiguous language for discussing the impact of the inherent symmetry of the metamaterial lattices on their far-field response. Our findings allow the quantification analysis of the impact of inter-element coupling and lattice symmetry on the optical properties of metamaterials, and to separate this contribution from the response associated with a single meta-atom. In addition, we have studied the concept of optical quasicrystalline metamaterials, revealing that the absence of translational symmetry (periodicity) of quasicrystalline metamaterials causes an isotropic optical response, while the long-range positional order preserves the resonance properties. Our findings constitute an important step towards the design of optically isotropic metamaterials and metasurfaces. (authors)
Five-fold local symmetry in metallic liquids and glasses
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li M Z; Li F X; Zhang H P; Peng H L; Hu Y C; Wang W H
2017-01-01
The structure of metallic glasses has been a long-standing mystery. Owing to the disordered nature of atomic structures in metallic glasses, it is a great challenge to find a simple structural description, such as periodicity for crystals, for establishing the structure–property relationship in amorphous materials. In this paper, we briefly review the recent developments of the five-fold local symmetry in metallic liquids and glasses and the understanding of the structure–property relationship based on this parameter. Experimental evidence demonstrates that five-fold local symmetry is found to be general in metallic liquids and glasses. Comprehensive molecular dynamics simulations show that the temperature evolution of five-fold local symmetry reflects the structural evolution in glass transition in cooling process, and the structure–property relationship such as relaxation dynamics, dynamic crossover phenomena, glass transition, and mechanical deformation in metallic liquids and glasses can be well understood base on the simple and general structure parameter of five-fold local symmetry. (paper)
The master symmetry and time dependent symmetries of the differential–difference KP equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khanizadeh, Farbod
2014-01-01
We first obtain the master symmetry of the differential–difference KP equation. Then we show how this master symmetry, through sl(2,C)-representation of the equation, can construct generators of time dependent symmetries. (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kotel'nikov, G.A.
1994-01-01
An algorithm id proposed for research the symmetries of mathematical physics equation. The application of this algorithm to the Schroedinger equation permitted to establish, that in addition to the known symmetry the Schroedinger equation possesses also the relativistic symmetry
Preface to the Special Issue: Chiral Symmetry in Hadrons and Nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Geng, Lisheng; Meng, Jie; Zhao, Qiang; Zou, Bingsong
2014-01-01
The recent past years have seen a remarkable progress towards a unified description of nonperturbative strong interaction phenomena based on the fundamental theory of the strong interaction, quantum chromodynamics, and effective field theories. The papers collected in this special issue focus on the recent progress in hadron and nuclear physics related to the chiral symmetry. They are written based on presentations at the Seventh International Symposium on Chiral Symmetry in Hadron and Nuclei which took place at Beihang University, Beijing, 27-30 October 2013. The sub-topics discussed in these papers include chiral and heavy-quark spin symmetry; chiral dynamics of few-body hadron systems; chiral symmetry and hadrons in a nuclear medium; chiral dynamics in nucleon-nucleon interaction and atomic nuclei; chiral symmetry in rotating nuclei; hadron structure and interactions; exotic hadrons, heavy flavor hadrons and nuclei; mesonic atoms and nuclei
Molecular symmetry, super-rotation, and semiclassical motion new ideas for solving old problems
Schmiedt, Hanno
2017-01-01
This book presents a range of fundamentally new approaches to solving problems involving traditional molecular models. Fundamental molecular symmetry is shown to open new avenues for describing molecular dynamics beyond standard perturbation techniques. Traditional concepts used to describe molecular dynamics are based on a few fundamental assumptions, the ball-and-stick picture of molecular structure and the respective perturbative treatment of different kinds of couplings between otherwise separate motions. The book points out the conceptual limits of these models and, by focusing on the most essential idea of theoretical physics, namely symmetry, shows how to overcome those limits by introducing fundamentally new concepts. The book begins with an introduction to molecular symmetry in general, followed by a discussion of nuclear spin symmetry. Here, a new correlation between identical particle exchange and spin angular momentum symmetry of nuclei is exhibited. The central part of the book is the discussio...
Effects of Initial Symmetry on the Global Symmetry of One-Dimensional Legal Cellular Automata
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ikuko Tanaka
2015-09-01
Full Text Available To examine the development of pattern formation from the viewpoint of symmetry, we applied a two-dimensional discrete Walsh analysis to a one-dimensional cellular automata model under two types of regular initial conditions. The amount of symmetropy of cellular automata (CA models under regular and random initial conditions corresponds to three Wolfram’s classes of CAs, identified as Classes II, III, and IV. Regular initial conditions occur in two groups. One group that makes a broken, regular pattern formation has four types of symmetry, whereas the other group that makes a higher hierarchy pattern formation has only two types. Additionally, both final pattern formations show an increased amount of symmetropy as time passes. Moreover, the final pattern formations are affected by iterations of base rules of CA models of chaos dynamical systems. The growth design formations limit possibilities: the ratio of developing final pattern formations under a regular initial condition decreases in the order of Classes III, II, and IV. This might be related to the difference in degree in reference to surrounding conditions. These findings suggest that calculations of symmetries of the structures of one-dimensional cellular automata models are useful for revealing rules of pattern generation for animal bodies.
Non-relativistic conformal symmetries and Newton-Cartan structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Duval, C; Horvathy, P A
2009-01-01
This paper provides us with a unifying classification of the conformal infinitesimal symmetries of non-relativistic Newton-Cartan spacetime. The Lie algebras of non-relativistic conformal transformations are introduced via the Galilei structure. They form a family of infinite-dimensional Lie algebras labeled by a rational 'dynamical exponent', z. The Schroedinger-Virasoro algebra of Henkel et al corresponds to z = 2. Viewed as projective Newton-Cartan symmetries, they yield, for timelike geodesics, the usual Schroedinger Lie algebra, for which z = 2. For lightlike geodesics, they yield, in turn, the Conformal Galilean Algebra (CGA) of Lukierski, Stichel and Zakrzewski (alias 'alt' of Henkel), with z = 1. Physical systems realizing these symmetries include, e.g. classical systems of massive and massless non-relativistic particles, and also hydrodynamics, as well as Galilean electromagnetism.
Charge symmetry at the partonic level
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Londergan, J. T.; Peng, J. C.; Thomas, A. W.
2010-07-01
This review article discusses the experimental and theoretical status of partonic charge symmetry. It is shown how the partonic content of various structure functions gets redefined when the assumption of charge symmetry is relaxed. We review various theoretical and phenomenological models for charge symmetry violation in parton distribution functions. We summarize the current experimental upper limits on charge symmetry violation in parton distributions. A series of experiments are presented, which might reveal partonic charge symmetry violation, or alternatively might lower the current upper limits on parton charge symmetry violation.
A model of intrinsic symmetry breaking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ge, Li; Li, Sheng; George, Thomas F.; Sun, Xin
2013-01-01
Different from the symmetry breaking associated with a phase transition, which occurs when the controlling parameter is manipulated across a critical point, the symmetry breaking presented in this Letter does not need parameter manipulation. Instead, the system itself suddenly undergoes symmetry breaking at a certain time during its evolution, which is intrinsic symmetry breaking. Through a polymer model, it is revealed that the origin of the intrinsic symmetry breaking is nonlinearity, which produces instability at the instance when the evolution crosses an inflexion point, where this instability breaks the original symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jiang Yu; Lozada-Cassou, M.; Vinet, A.
2003-01-01
The spatiotemporal dynamics of networks based on a ring of coupled oscillators with regular shortcuts beyond the nearest-neighbor couplings is studied by using master stability equations and numerical simulations. The generic criterion for dynamic synchronization has been extended to arbitrary network topologies with zero row-sum. The symmetry-breaking oscillation patterns that resulted from the Hopf bifurcation from synchronous states are analyzed by the symmetry group theory
From symmetries to number theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tempesta, P.
2009-01-01
It is shown that the finite-operator calculus provides a simple formalism useful for constructing symmetry-preserving discretizations of quantum-mechanical integrable models. A related algebraic approach can also be used to define a class of Appell polynomials and of L series.
Negative energy solutions and symmetries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sidharth, B.G.
2011-01-01
We revisit the negative energy solutions of the Dirac (and Klein–Gordon) equation, which become relevant at very high energies in the context of the Feshbach–Villars formulation, and study several symmetries which follow therefrom. Significant consequences are briefly examined. (author)
On four dimensional mirror symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Losev, A.; Nekrasov, N.; Shatashvili, S.
2000-01-01
A conjecture relating instanton calculus in four dimensional supersymmetric theories and the deformation theory of Lagrangian submanifolds in C 2r invariant under a (subgroup of) Sp(2r,Z) is formulated. This is a four dimensional counterpart of the mirror symmetry of topological strings (relating Gromov-Witten invariants and generalized variations of Hodge structure). (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Choi, K.; Kaplan, D.B.; Nelson, A.E.
1993-01-01
Conventional solutions to the strong CP problem all require the existence of global symmetries. However, quantum gravity may destroy global symmetries, making it hard to understand why the electric dipole moment of the neutron (EDMN) is so small. We suggest here that CP is actually a discrete gauge symmetry, and is therefore not violated by quantum gravity. We show that four-dimensional CP can arise as a discrete gauge symmetry in theories with dimensional compactification, if the original number of Minkowski dimensions equals 8k+1, 8k+2 or 8k+3, and if there are certain restrictions on the gauge group; these conditions are met by superstrings. CP may then be broken spontaneously below 10 9 GeV, explaining the observed CP violation in the kaon system without inducing a large EDMN. We discuss the phenomenology of such models, as well as the peculiar properties of cosmic 'SP strings' which could be produced at the compactification scale. Such strings have the curious property that a particle carried around the string is turned into its CP conjugate. A single CP string renders four-dimensional space-time nonorientable. (orig.)
Exploiting Symmetry on Parallel Architectures.
Stiller, Lewis Benjamin
1995-01-01
This thesis describes techniques for the design of parallel programs that solve well-structured problems with inherent symmetry. Part I demonstrates the reduction of such problems to generalized matrix multiplication by a group-equivariant matrix. Fast techniques for this multiplication are described, including factorization, orbit decomposition, and Fourier transforms over finite groups. Our algorithms entail interaction between two symmetry groups: one arising at the software level from the problem's symmetry and the other arising at the hardware level from the processors' communication network. Part II illustrates the applicability of our symmetry -exploitation techniques by presenting a series of case studies of the design and implementation of parallel programs. First, a parallel program that solves chess endgames by factorization of an associated dihedral group-equivariant matrix is described. This code runs faster than previous serial programs, and discovered it a number of results. Second, parallel algorithms for Fourier transforms for finite groups are developed, and preliminary parallel implementations for group transforms of dihedral and of symmetric groups are described. Applications in learning, vision, pattern recognition, and statistics are proposed. Third, parallel implementations solving several computational science problems are described, including the direct n-body problem, convolutions arising from molecular biology, and some communication primitives such as broadcast and reduce. Some of our implementations ran orders of magnitude faster than previous techniques, and were used in the investigation of various physical phenomena.
Strong coupling electroweak symmetry breaking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barklow, T.L.; Burdman, G.; Chivukula, R.S.
1997-04-01
The authors review models of electroweak symmetry breaking due to new strong interactions at the TeV energy scale and discuss the prospects for their experimental tests. They emphasize the direct observation of the new interactions through high-energy scattering of vector bosons. They also discuss indirect probes of the new interactions and exotic particles predicted by specific theoretical models
Strong coupling electroweak symmetry breaking
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barklow, T.L. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Burdman, G. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Physics; Chivukula, R.S. [Boston Univ., MA (United States). Dept. of Physics
1997-04-01
The authors review models of electroweak symmetry breaking due to new strong interactions at the TeV energy scale and discuss the prospects for their experimental tests. They emphasize the direct observation of the new interactions through high-energy scattering of vector bosons. They also discuss indirect probes of the new interactions and exotic particles predicted by specific theoretical models.
Symmetry breaking in string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Potting, R.
1998-01-01
A mechanism for a spontaneous breakdown of CPT symmetry appears in string theory, with possible implications for particle models. A realistic string theory might exhibit CPT violation at levels detectable in current or future experiments. A possible new mechanism for baryogenesis in the early Universe is also discussed
Lie symmetries in differential equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pleitez, V.
1979-01-01
A study of ordinary and Partial Differential equations using the symmetries of Lie groups is made. Following such a study, an application to the Helmholtz, Line-Gordon, Korleweg-de Vries, Burguer, Benjamin-Bona-Mahony and wave equations is carried out [pt
Chiral symmetry in perturbative QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Trueman, T.L.
1979-04-01
The chiral symmetry of quantum chromodynamics with massless quarks is unbroken in perturbation theory. Dimensional regularization is used. The ratio of the vector and axial vector renormalization constante is shown to be independent of the renormalization mass. The general results are explicitly verified to fourth order in g, the QCD coupling constant
'Oblique corrections' and symmetry breaking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ramirez, C.A.
1991-11-01
Low Energy Parameters (Peskin-Takeuchi) are computed for two Symmetry Braking Schemes (heavy Higgs and techni-ρ). The differences between them are found comparable to the experimental uncertainties (in agreement with previous calculations for the Technicolor Models). Some constraints are obtained for the techni-ρ case. (author). 22 refs, 11 figs
Experimental tests of fundamental symmetries
Jungmann, K. P.
2014-01-01
Ongoing experiments and projects to test our understanding of fundamental inter- actions and symmetries in nature have progressed significantly in the past few years. At high energies the long searched for Higgs boson has been found; tests of gravity for antimatter have come closer to reality;
Hyperscaling violation and electroweak symmetry breaking
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Elander, Daniel, E-mail: pelander@purdue.edu [Department of Physics, Purdue University, 525 Northwestern Avenue, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2036 (United States); Lawrance, Robert; Piai, Maurizio [Department of Physics, College of Science, Swansea University, Singleton Park, Swansea, Wales (United Kingdom)
2015-08-15
We consider a class of simplified models of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking built in terms of their five-dimensional weakly-coupled gravity duals, in the spirit of bottom-up holography. The sigma-model consists of two abelian gauge bosons and one real, non-charged scalar field coupled to gravity in five dimensions. The scalar potential is a simple exponential function of the scalar field. The background metric resulting from solving the classical equations of motion exhibits hyperscaling violation, at least at asymptotically large values of the radial direction. We study the spectrum of scalar composite states of the putative dual field theory by fluctuating the sigma-model scalars and gravity, and discuss in which cases we find a parametrically light scalar state in the spectrum. We model the spontaneous breaking of the (weakly coupled) gauge symmetry to the diagonal subgroup by the choice of IR boundary conditions. We compute the mass spectrum of spin-1 states, and the precision electroweak parameter S as a function of the hyperscaling coefficient. We find a general bound on the mass of the lightest spin-1 resonance, by requiring that the indirect bounds on the precision parameters be satisfied, that implies that precision electroweak physics excludes the possibility of a techni-rho meson with mass lighter than several TeV.
Flavor symmetry breaking and meson masses
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bhagwat, Mandar S.; Roberts, Craig D.; Chang Lei; Liu Yuxin; Tandy, Peter C.
2007-01-01
The axial-vector Ward-Takahashi identity is used to derive mass formulas for neutral pseudoscalar mesons. Flavor symmetry breaking entails nonideal flavor content for these states. Adding that the η ' is not a Goldstone mode, exact chiral-limit relations are developed from the identity. They connect the dressed-quark propagator to the topological susceptibility. It is confirmed that in the chiral limit the η ' mass is proportional to the matrix element which connects this state to the vacuum via the topological susceptibility. The implications of the mass formulas are illustrated using an elementary dynamical model, which includes an Ansatz for that part of the Bethe-Salpeter kernel related to the non-Abelian anomaly. In addition to the current-quark masses, the model involves two parameters, one of which is a mass-scale. It is employed in an analysis of pseudoscalar- and vector-meson bound-states. While the effects of SU(N f =2) and SU(N f =3) flavor symmetry breaking are emphasized, the five-flavor spectra are described. Despite its simplicity, the model is elucidative and phenomenologically efficacious; e.g., it predicts η-η ' mixing angles of ∼-15 deg. and π 0 -η angles of ∼1 deg
Molecular Eigensolution Symmetry Analysis and Fine Structure
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
William G. Harter
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Spectra of high-symmetry molecules contain fine and superfine level cluster structure related to J-tunneling between hills and valleys on rovibronic energy surfaces (RES. Such graphic visualizations help disentangle multi-level dynamics, selection rules, and state mixing effects including widespread violation of nuclear spin symmetry species. A review of RES analysis compares it to that of potential energy surfaces (PES used in Born-Oppenheimer approximations. Both take advantage of adiabatic coupling in order to visualize Hamiltonian eigensolutions. RES of symmetric and D2 asymmetric top rank-2-tensor Hamiltonians are compared with Oh spherical top rank-4-tensor fine-structure clusters of 6-fold and 8-fold tunneling multiplets. Then extreme 12-fold and 24-fold multiplets are analyzed by RES plots of higher rank tensor Hamiltonians. Such extreme clustering is rare in fundamental bands but prevalent in hot bands, and analysis of its superfine structure requires more efficient labeling and a more powerful group theory. This is introduced using elementary examples involving two groups of order-6 (C6 and D3~C3v, then applied to families of Oh clusters in SF6 spectra and to extreme clusters.
Chiral symmetry breaking and the pion quark structure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bernard, V.
1986-01-01
The mechanism of dynamical breaking of chiral symmetry in hadronic matter is first studied in the framework of the Nambu and Jona-Lasinio model on one hand and its generalisation to finite hadron size on the other hand. The analysis uses a variational procedure modelled after the BCS superconductor. Our study indicates for example, a great sensitivity of various quantities characterizing the breaking of symmetry to the shape of the interaction. Also the mechanism of breaking of chiral symmetry is essentially related to the mechanism of confinement. When a symmetry is spontaneously broken, there exists a Goldstone particle of zero mass. This is true in our model. This particle, the pion, is obtained as solution of a Bethe Salpeter equation for a qantiq bound state. This enables us to establish a connection between the pion as a Goldstone boson related to spontaneous symmetry breaking and the quark-antiquark structure of the pion. The finite mass of the physical pion is obtained with non zero current quark mass. Various properties of this particle are then studied in the RPA formalism. One important point of our model is the highly collective character of the pion. 85 refs [fr
Symmetry structure of the periodic system of elements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kitagawara, Y.
1983-01-01
Two different, exactly soluble, quantum mechanical many-body problems are presented and their symmetry properties are analyzed. One is based on the Demkov-Ostrovskii problem which models the (n + 1)-filling rule of the atomic Aufbau principle. The invariance properties of the model differential equation are studied in detail. Contrary to commonly known quantum problems, the degeneracy structure within the quantum number (n + 1) is not described by the representation of a Lie algebra. However, it is described by a symmetry algebra which does not quite close under the commutation relations. The properties of this new algebra are closely examined. It is shown that the characteristic 'period doubling' in Aufbau chart is due to the structure of this algebra. To attain a better physical understanding of the symmetry of the periodic system of elements, the Demkov-Ostrovskii equation is transformed into a new equation, without changing some of its symmetry properites. It is found that the quantum states of the transformed equation provide reasonable approximations to the correspinding Hartree-Fock-Slater atomic orbitals. Thus the symmetry of the periodic system is approximately described by the degeneracy algebra which is obtained in this thesis. In the second part of this work, a group theoretical investigation is developed for a class of Coulomb-type N-body quantum systems in three dimensions. The dynamical algebra for these systems is found to be SO(3N + 1,2)
Confinement, Chiral Symmetry Breaking and it's Restoration using Dual QCD Formalism
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Punetha Garima
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Utilizing the dual QCD model in term of magnetic symmetry structure of non- Abelian gauge theories, the dynamical chiral-symmetry breaking using Schwinger-Dyson equation has been investigated. A close relation among the color confinement and chiralsymmetry breaking has been observed and demonstrated by computing dynamical parameters. The recovery of the chiral symmetry has also been discussed at finite temperature through the variation of quark mass function and quark condensate which gradually decreases with temperature and vanishes suddenly near the critical temperature.
Quantum group and quantum symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chang Zhe.
1994-05-01
This is a self-contained review on the theory of quantum group and its applications to modern physics. A brief introduction is given to the Yang-Baxter equation in integrable quantum field theory and lattice statistical physics. The quantum group is primarily introduced as a systematic method for solving the Yang-Baxter equation. Quantum group theory is presented within the framework of quantum double through quantizing Lie bi-algebra. Both the highest weight and the cyclic representations are investigated for the quantum group and emphasis is laid on the new features of representations for q being a root of unity. Quantum symmetries are explored in selected topics of modern physics. For a Hamiltonian system the quantum symmetry is an enlarged symmetry that maintains invariance of equations of motion and allows a deformation of the Hamiltonian and symplectic form. The configuration space of the integrable lattice model is analyzed in terms of the representation theory of quantum group. By means of constructing the Young operators of quantum group, the Schroedinger equation of the model is transformed to be a set of coupled linear equations that can be solved by the standard method. Quantum symmetry of the minimal model and the WZNW model in conformal field theory is a hidden symmetry expressed in terms of screened vertex operators, and has a deep interplay with the Virasoro algebra. In quantum group approach a complete description for vibrating and rotating diatomic molecules is given. The exact selection rules and wave functions are obtained. The Taylor expansion of the analytic formulas of the approach reproduces the famous Dunham expansion. (author). 133 refs, 20 figs
Spectral signatures of x((5)) processes in four-wave mixing of homogeneously broadened excitons
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Langbein, W.; Meier, T.; Koch, S.W.
2001-01-01
-biexciton beating at the exciton resonance is observed that is vanishing for long negative delays owing to the faster dephasing in the two-exciton continuum compared with the bound biexciton state. These results are in qualitative agreement with microscopic model calculations that include the coherent dynamics...... of one- and two-exciton resonances up to the fifth order in the optical field....
Ratchet due to broken friction symmetry
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Norden, Bengt; Zolotaryuk, Yaroslav; Christiansen, Peter Leth
2002-01-01
A ratchet mechanism that occurs due to asymmetric dependence of the friction of a moving system on its velocity or a driving force is reported. For this kind of ratchet, instead of a particle moving in a periodic potential, the dynamics of which have broken space-time symmetry, the system must...... be provided with sonic internal structure realizing such a velocity- or force-friction dependence. For demonstration of a ratchet mechanism of this type, an experimental setup (gadget) that converts longitudinal oscillating or fluctuating motion into a unidirectional rotation has been built and experiments...... with it have been carried out. In this device, an asymmetry of friction dependence on an applied force appears, resulting in rectification of rotary motion, In experiments, our setup is observed to rotate only in one direction, which is in accordance with given theoretical arguments, Despite the setup being...
Chiral symmetry and strangeness at SIS energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lutz, M.F.M.
2003-11-01
In this talk we review the consequences of the chiral SU(3) symmetry for strangeness propagation in nuclear matter. Objects of crucial importance are the meson-baryon scattering amplitudes obtained within the chiral coupled-channel effective field theory. Results for antikaon and hyperon-resonance spectral functions in cold nuclear matter are presented and discussed. The importance of the Σ(1385) resonance for the subthreshold antikaon production in heavy-ion reaction at SIS is pointed out. The in-medium properties of the latter together with an antikaon spectral function based on chiral SU(3) dynamics suggest a significant enhancement of the π Λ → anti Κ N reaction in nuclear matter. (orig.)
Hermes, Matthew R.; Dukelsky, Jorge; Scuseria, Gustavo E.
2017-06-01
The failures of single-reference coupled-cluster theory for strongly correlated many-body systems is flagged at the mean-field level by the spontaneous breaking of one or more physical symmetries of the Hamiltonian. Restoring the symmetry of the mean-field determinant by projection reveals that coupled-cluster theory fails because it factorizes high-order excitation amplitudes incorrectly. However, symmetry-projected mean-field wave functions do not account sufficiently for dynamic (or weak) correlation. Here we pursue a merger of symmetry projection and coupled-cluster theory, following previous work along these lines that utilized the simple Lipkin model system as a test bed [J. Chem. Phys. 146, 054110 (2017), 10.1063/1.4974989]. We generalize the concept of a symmetry-projected mean-field wave function to the concept of a symmetry projected state, in which the factorization of high-order excitation amplitudes in terms of low-order ones is guided by symmetry projection and is not exponential, and combine them with coupled-cluster theory in order to model the ground state of the Agassi Hamiltonian. This model has two separate channels of correlation and two separate physical symmetries which are broken under strong correlation. We show how the combination of symmetry collective states and coupled-cluster theory is effective in obtaining correlation energies and order parameters of the Agassi model throughout its phase diagram.
Holographic theories of electroweak symmetry breaking without a Higgs Boson
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burdman, Gustavo; Nomura, Yasunori
2003-01-01
Recently, realistic theories of electroweak symmetry breaking have been constructed in which the electroweak symmetry is broken by boundary conditions imposed at a boundary of higher dimensional spacetime. These theories have equivalent 4D dual descriptions, in which the electroweak symmetry is dynamically broken by non-trivial infrared dynamics of some gauge interaction, whose gauge coupling (tilde g) and size N satisfy (tilde g) 2 N ∼> 16π 2 . Such theories allow one to calculate electroweak radiative corrections, including the oblique parameters S, T and U, as long as (tilde g) 2 N/16π 2 and N are sufficiently larger than unity. We study how the duality between the 4D and 5D theories manifests itself in the computation of various physical quantities. In particular, we calculate the electroweak oblique parameters in a warped 5D theory where the electroweak symmetry is broken by boundary conditions at the infrared brane. We show that the value of S obtained in the minimal theory exceeds the experimental bound if the theory is in a weakly coupled regime. This requires either an extension of the minimal model or departure from weak coupling. A particularly interesting scenario is obtained if the gauge couplings in the 5D theory take the largest possible values--the value suggested by naive dimensional analysis. We argue that such a theory can provide a potentially consistent picture for dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking: corrections to the electroweak observables are sufficiently small while realistic fermion masses are obtained without conflicting with bounds from flavor violation. The theory contains only the standard model quarks, leptons and gauge bosons below ≅2 TeV, except for a possible light scalar associated with the radius of the extra dimension. At ≅2 TeV increasingly broad string resonances appear. An analysis of top-quark phenomenology and flavor violation is also presented, which is applicable to both the weakly-coupled and strongly
Symmetry and electromagnetism. Simetria y electromagnetismo
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fuentes Cobas, L.E.; Font Hernandez, R.
1993-01-01
An analytical treatment of electrostatic and magnetostatic field symmetry, as a function of charge and current distribution symmetry, is proposed. The Newmann Principle, related to the cause-effect symmetry relation, is presented and applied to the characterization of simple configurations. (Author) 5 refs.
Symmetries, Integrals and Solutions of Ordinary Differential ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Second-and third-order scalar ordinary differential equations of maximal symmetry in the traditional sense of point, respectively contact, symmetry are examined for the mappings they produce in solutions and fundamental first integrals. The properties of the `exceptional symmetries', i.e. those not considered to be generic to ...
The symmetry of the Hubbard model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grosse, H.
1988-01-01
The spectrum of the Hubbard model shows permanent degeneracy of levels with different symmetry, if one considers only symmetry operators independent of the coupling constant. This suggests the existence of symmetry operators which depend on the coupling constant. We find these highly nontrivial operators and show that they explain the degeneracies in the energy spectrum. 5 refs. (Author)
Prediction of human eye fixations using symmetry
Kootstra, Gert; Schomaker, Lambert
2009-01-01
Humans are very sensitive to symmetry in visual patterns. Reaction time experiments show that symmetry is detected and recognized very rapidly. This suggests that symmetry is a highly salient feature. Existing computational models of saliency, however, have mainly focused on contrast as a measure of
Observation of symmetry-protected topological band with ultracold fermions
Song, Bo; Zhang, Long; He, Chengdong; Poon, Ting Fung Jeffrey; Hajiyev, Elnur; Zhang, Shanchao; Liu, Xiong-Jun; Jo, Gyu-Boong
2018-01-01
Symmetry plays a fundamental role in understanding complex quantum matter, particularly in classifying topological quantum phases, which have attracted great interests in the recent decade. An outstanding example is the time-reversal invariant topological insulator, a symmetry-protected topological (SPT) phase in the symplectic class of the Altland-Zirnbauer classification. We report the observation for ultracold atoms of a noninteracting SPT band in a one-dimensional optical lattice and study quench dynamics between topologically distinct regimes. The observed SPT band can be protected by a magnetic group and a nonlocal chiral symmetry, with the band topology being measured via Bloch states at symmetric momenta. The topology also resides in far-from-equilibrium spin dynamics, which are predicted and observed in experiment to exhibit qualitatively distinct behaviors in quenching to trivial and nontrivial regimes, revealing two fundamental types of spin-relaxation dynamics related to bulk topology. This work opens the way to expanding the scope of SPT physics with ultracold atoms and studying nonequilibrium quantum dynamics in these exotic systems. PMID:29492457
Soft Terms from Broken Symmetries
Buican, Matthew
2010-01-01
In theories of phyiscs beyond the Standard Model (SM), visible sector fields often carry quantum numbers under additional gauge symmetries. One could then imagine a scenario in which these extra gauge symmetries play a role in transmitting supersymmetry breaking from a hidden sector to the Supersymmetric Standard Model (SSM). In this paper we present a general formalism for studying the resulting hidden sectors and calculating the corresponding gauge mediated soft parameters. We find that a large class of generic models features a leading universal contribution to the soft scalar masses that only depends on the scale of Higgsing, even if the model is strongly coupled. As a by-product of our analysis, we elucidate some IR aspects of the correlation functions in General Gauge Mediation. We also discuss possible phenomenological applications.
Mirror symmetry and loop operators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Assel, Benjamin [Department of Mathematics, King’s College London,The Strand, London WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom); Gomis, Jaume [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 2Y5 (Canada)
2015-11-09
Wilson loops in gauge theories pose a fundamental challenge for dualities. Wilson loops are labeled by a representation of the gauge group and should map under duality to loop operators labeled by the same data, yet generically, dual theories have completely different gauge groups. In this paper we resolve this conundrum for three dimensional mirror symmetry. We show that Wilson loops are exchanged under mirror symmetry with Vortex loop operators, whose microscopic definition in terms of a supersymmetric quantum mechanics coupled to the theory encode in a non-trivial way a representation of the original gauge group, despite that the gauge groups of mirror theories can be radically different. Our predictions for the mirror map, which we derive guided by branes in string theory, are confirmed by the computation of the exact expectation value of Wilson and Vortex loop operators on the three-sphere.
Symmetry realization of texture zeros
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grimus, W.; Joshipura, A.S.; Lavoura, L.; Tanimoto, M.
2004-01-01
We show that it is possible to enforce texture zeros in arbitrary entries of the fermion mass matrices by means of Abelian symmetries; in this way, many popular mass-matrix textures find a symmetry justification. We propose two alternative methods which allow one to place zeros in any number of elements of the mass matrices that one wants. They are applicable simultaneously in the quark and lepton sectors. They are also applicable in grand unified theories. The number of scalar fields required by our methods may be large; still, in many interesting cases this number can be reduced considerably. The larger the desired number of texture zeros is, the simpler are the models which reproduce the texture. (orig.)
Steering particles by breaking symmetries
Bet, Bram; Samin, Sela; Georgiev, Rumen; Burak Eral, Huseyin; van Roij, René
2018-06-01
We derive general equations of motions for highly-confined particles that perform quasi-two-dimensional motion in Hele-Shaw channels, which we solve analytically, aiming to derive design principles for self-steering particles. Based on symmetry properties of a particle, its equations of motion can be simplified, where we retrieve an earlier-known equation of motion for the orientation of dimer particles consisting of disks (Uspal et al 2013 Nat. Commun. 4), but now in full generality. Subsequently, these solutions are compared with particle trajectories that are obtained numerically. For mirror-symmetric particles, excellent agreement between the analytical and numerical solutions is found. For particles lacking mirror symmetry, the analytic solutions provide means to classify the motion based on particle geometry, while we find that taking the side-wall interactions into account is important to accurately describe the trajectories.
Noncompact symmetries in string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maharana, J.; Schwarz, J.H.
1993-01-01
Noncompact groups, similar to those that appeared in various supergravity theories in the 1970's have been turning up in recent studies of string theory. First it was discovered that moduli spaces of toroidal compactification are given by noncompact groups modded out by their maximal compact subgroups and discrete duality groups. Then it was found that many other moduli spaces have analogous descriptions. More recently, noncompact group symmetries have turned up in effective actions used to study string cosmology and other classical configurations. This paper explores these noncompact groups in the case of toroidal compactification both from the viewpoint of low-energy effective field theory, using the method of dimensional reduction, and from the viewpoint of the string theory world-sheet. The conclusion is that all these symmetries are intimately related. In particular, we find that Chern-Simons terms in the three-form field strength H μνρ play a crucial role. (orig.)
Models of electroweak symmetry breaking
Pomarol, Alex
2015-01-01
This chapter present models of electroweak symmetry breaking arising from strongly interacting sectors, including both Higgsless models and mechanisms involving a composite Higgs. These scenarios have also been investigated in the framework of five-dimensional warped models that, according to the AdS/CFT correspondence, have a four-dimensional holographic interpretation in terms of strongly coupled field theories. We explore the implications of these models at the LHC.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schrader, D.M.
2004-01-01
We work out the complete symmetry and spin problem for diatomic positronium Ps 2 for the ground and singly excited states of zero orbital angular momentum. The general form of the wave function for each state is given, with due regard to charge conjugation parity. Annihilation rates are discussed, and correlations to dissociation products are deduced. We indicate how the approach is extensible to larger aggregates: i.e., PsPs n , n>2
Symmetries of the dual metrics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baleanu, D.
1998-01-01
The geometric duality between the metric g μν and a Killing tensor K μν is studied. The conditions were found when the symmetries of the metric g μν and the dual metric K μν are the same. Dual spinning space was constructed without introduction of torsion. The general results are applied to the case of Kerr-Newmann metric
Symmetries of cosmological Cauchy horizons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moncrief, V.; Isenberg, J.
1983-01-01
We consider analytic vacuum and electrovacuum spacetimes which contain a compact null hypersurface ruled by closed null generators. We prove that each such spacetime has a non-trivial Killing symmetry. We distinguish two classes of null surfaces, degenerate and non-degenerate ones, characterized by the zero or non-zero value of a constant analogous to the ''surface gravity'' of stationary black holes. We show that the non-degenerate null surfaces are always Cauchy heizons across which the Killing fields change from spacelike (in the globally hyperbolic regions) to timelike (in the acausal, analytic extensions). For the special case of a null surface diffeomorphic to T 3 we characterize the degenerate vacuum solutions completely. These consists of an infinite dimensional family of ''plane wave'' spacetimes which are entirely foliated by compact null surfaces. Previous work by one of us has shown that, when one dimensional Killing symmetries are allowed, then infinite dimensional families of non-degenerate, vacuum solutions exist. We recall these results for the case of Cauchy horizons diffeomorphic to T 3 and prove the generality of the previously constructed non-degenerate solutions. We briefly discuss the possibility of removing the assumptions of closed generators and analyticity and proving an appropriate generalization of our main results. Such a generalization would provide strong support for the cosmic censorship conjecture by showing that causality violating, cosmological solutions of Einstein's equations are essentially an artefact of symmetry. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Miller, G.A. [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle (United States); Kolck, U. van [Department of Physics, University of Arizona, Tucson (United States)
2003-06-01
Two new experiments have detected charge-symmetry breaking, the mechanism responsible for protons and neutrons having different masses. Symmetry is a crucial concept in the theories that describe the subatomic world because it has an intimate connection with the laws of conservation. The theory of the strong interaction between quarks - quantum chromodynamics - is approximately invariant under what is called charge symmetry. In other words, if we swap an up quark for a down quark, then the strong interaction will look almost the same. This symmetry is related to the concept of {sup i}sospin{sup ,} and is not the same as charge conjugation (in which a particle is replaced by its antiparticle). Charge symmetry is broken by the competition between two different effects. The first is the small difference in mass between up and down quarks, which is about 200 times less than the mass of the proton. The second is their different electric charges. The up quark has a charge of +2/3 in units of the proton charge, while the down quark has a negative charge of -1/3. If charge symmetry was exact, the proton and the neutron would have the same mass and they would both be electrically neutral. This is because the proton is made of two up quarks and a down quark, while the neutron comprises two downs and an up. Replacing up quarks with down quarks, and vice versa, therefore transforms a proton into a neutron. Charge-symmetry breaking causes the neutron to be about 0.1% heavier than the proton because the down quark is slightly heavier than the up quark. Physicists had already elucidated certain aspects of charge-symmetry breaking, but our spirits were raised greatly when we heard of the recent work of Allena Opper of Ohio University in the US and co-workers at the TRIUMF laboratory in British Columbia, Canada. Her team has been trying to observe a small charge-symmetry-breaking effect for several years, using neutron beams at the TRIUMF accelerator. The researchers studied the
Dark matter and global symmetries
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yann Mambrini
2016-09-01
Full Text Available General considerations in general relativity and quantum mechanics are known to potentially rule out continuous global symmetries in the context of any consistent theory of quantum gravity. Assuming the validity of such considerations, we derive stringent bounds from gamma-ray, X-ray, cosmic-ray, neutrino, and CMB data on models that invoke global symmetries to stabilize the dark matter particle. We compute up-to-date, robust model-independent limits on the dark matter lifetime for a variety of Planck-scale suppressed dimension-five effective operators. We then specialize our analysis and apply our bounds to specific models including the Two-Higgs-Doublet, Left–Right, Singlet Fermionic, Zee–Babu, 3-3-1 and Radiative See-Saw models. Assuming that (i global symmetries are broken at the Planck scale, that (ii the non-renormalizable operators mediating dark matter decay have O(1 couplings, that (iii the dark matter is a singlet field, and that (iv the dark matter density distribution is well described by a NFW profile, we are able to rule out fermionic, vector, and scalar dark matter candidates across a broad mass range (keV–TeV, including the WIMP regime.
Infinitesimal symmetries: a computational approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kersten, P.H.M.
1985-01-01
This thesis is concerned with computational aspects in the determination of infinitesimal symmetries and Lie-Baecklund transformations of differential equations. Moreover some problems are calculated explicitly. A brief introduction to some concepts in the theory of symmetries and Lie-Baecklund transformations, relevant for this thesis, are given. The mathematical formalism is shortly reviewed. The jet bundle formulation is chosen, in which, by its algebraic nature, objects can be described very precisely. Consequently it is appropriate for implementation. A number of procedures are discussed, which enable to carry through computations with the help of a computer. These computations are very extensive in practice. The Lie algebras of infinitesimal symmetries of a number of differential equations in Mathematical Physics are established and some of their applications are discussed, i.e., Maxwell equations, nonlinear diffusion equation, nonlinear Schroedinger equation, nonlinear Dirac equations and self dual SU(2) Yang-Mills equations. Lie-Baecklund transformations of Burgers' equation, Classical Boussinesq equation and the Massive Thirring Model are determined. Furthermore, nonlocal Lie-Baecklund transformations of the last equation are derived. (orig.)
Neutrino masses and spontaneously broken flavor symmetries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Staudt, Christian
2014-01-01
We study the phenomenology of supersymmetric flavor models. We show how the predictions of models based on spontaneously broken non-Abelian discrete flavor symmetries are altered when we include so-called Kaehler corrections. Furthermore, we discuss anomaly-free discrete R symmetries which are compatible with SU(5) unification. We find a set of symmetries compatible with suppressed Dirac neutrino masses and a unique symmetry consistent with the Weinberg operator. We also study a pseudo-anomalous U(1) R symmetry which explains the fermion mass hierarchies and, when amended with additional singlet fields, ameliorates the fine-tuning problem.
Symmetry, from Euclid to Pierre Curie
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sivardiere, J.
1997-01-01
A historical review of the principles of symmetry is presented, starting with Egyptian pavements and Euclid regular polyhedrons, 2 and 3 dimensional paving studies with Kepler in the 17. century, modern crystallography with the constant angle law and the rational truncations law in the 18. century, the identification of the various crystal symmetries (19. century), the discovery of liquid crystals, the relations between the symmetry and the physical and optical properties of systems, molecules, etc.. Finally, P. Curie has determined the general principle of symmetry, linking symmetry and its effects
Global spacetime symmetries in the functional Schroedinger picture
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Halliwell, J.J.
1991-01-01
In the conventional functional Schroedinger quantization of field theory, the background spacetime manifold is foliated into a set of three-surfaces and the quantum state of the field is represented by a wave functional of the field configurations on each three-surface. Although this procedure may be covariantly described, the wave functionals generally fail to carry a representation of the complete spacetime symmetry group of the background, such as the Poincare group in Minkowski spacetime, because spacetime symmetries generally involve distortions or motions of the three-surfaces themselves within that spacetime. In this paper, we show that global spacetime symmetries in the functional Schroedinger picture may be represented by parametrizing the field theory---raising to the status of dynamical variables the embedding variables describing the spacetime location of each three-surface. In particular, we show that the embedding variables provide a connection between the purely geometrical operation of an isometry group on the spacetime and the operation of the usual global symmetry generators (constructed from the energy-momentum tensor) on the wave functionals of the theory. We study the path-integral representation of the wave functionals of the parametrized field theory. We show how to construct, from the path integral, wave functionals that are annihilated by the global symmetry generators, i.e., that are invariant under global spacetime symmetry groups. The invariance of the class of histories summed over in the path integral is identified as the source of the invariance of the wave functionals. We apply this understanding to a study of vacuum states in the de Sitter spacetime. We make mathematically precise a previously given heuristic argument for the de Sitter invariance of the matter wave functionals defined by the no-boundary proposal of Hartle and Hawking
Thick domain wall spacetimes with and without reflection symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Melfo, Alejandra; Pantoja, Nelson; Skirzewski, Aureliano
2003-01-01
We show that different thick domain wall spacetimes, for which the scalar field configuration and the potential are the same, can be found as solutions to the coupled Einstein-scalar field equations, depending on whether or not reflection symmetry on the wall is imposed. Spacetimes with reflection symmetry may be dynamic or static, while the asymmetric ones are static. Asymmetric walls are asymptotically flat on one side and reduce to the Taub spacetime on the other. Examples of asymmetric thick walls in D-dimensional spacetimes are given, and previous analysis on the distributional thin-wall limit of the dynamic symmetric thick walls are extended to the asymmetric case. A new family of reflection symmetric, static thick domain wall spacetimes, including previously known Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield walls, is presented
Nonsymmorphic symmetry-protected topological modes in plasmonic nanoribbon lattices
Zhang, Yong-Liang; Wu, Raymond P. H.; Kumar, Anshuman; Si, Tieyan; Fung, Kin Hung
2018-04-01
Using a dynamic eigenresponse theory, we study the topological edge plasmon modes in dispersive plasmonic lattices constructed by unit cells of multiple nanoribbons. In dipole approximation, the bulk-edge correspondence in the lattices made of dimerized unit cell and one of its square-root daughter with nonsymmorphic symmetry are demonstrated. Calculations with consideration of dynamic long-range effects and retardation are compared to those given by nearest-neighbor approximations. It is shown that nonsymmorphic symmetry opens up two symmetric gaps where versatile topological edge plasmon modes are found. Unprecedented spectral shifts of the edge states with respect to the zero modes due to long-range coupling are found. The proposed ribbon structure is favorable to electrical gating and thus could serve as an on-chip platform for electrically controllable subwavelength edge states at optical wavelengths. Our eigenresponse approach provides a powerful tool for the radiative topological mode analysis in strongly coupled plasmonic lattices.
Streamwise-Localized Solutions with natural 1-fold symmetry
Altmeyer, Sebastian; Willis, Ashley; Hof, Björn
2014-11-01
It has been proposed in recent years that turbulence is organized around unstable invariant solutions, which provide the building blocks of the chaotic dynamics. In direct numerical simulations of pipe flow we show that when imposing a minimal symmetry constraint (reflection in an axial plane only) the formation of turbulence can indeed be explained by dynamical systems concepts. The hypersurface separating laminar from turbulent motion, the edge of turbulence, is spanned by the stable manifolds of an exact invariant solution, a periodic orbit of a spatially localized structure. The turbulent states themselves (turbulent puffs in this case) are shown to arise in a bifurcation sequence from a related localized solution (the upper branch orbit). The rather complex bifurcation sequence involves secondary Hopf bifurcations, frequency locking and a period doubling cascade until eventually turbulent puffs arise. In addition we report preliminary results of the transition sequence for pipe flow without symmetry constraints.
Chiral symmetry breaking in gauge theories from Reggeon diagram analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
White, A.R.
1991-01-01
It is argued that reggeon diagrams can be used to study dynamical properties of gauge theories containing a large number of massless fermions. SU(2) gauge theory is studied in detail and it is argued that there is a high energy solution which is analogous to the solution of the massless Schwinger model. A generalized winding-number condensate produces the massless pseudoscalar spectrum associated with chiral symmetry breaking and a ''trivial'' S-Matrix
Field theories without fundamental (gauge) symmetries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nielsen, H.B.
1983-12-01
By using the lack of dependence of the form of the kinetic energy for a non-relativistic free particle as an example, it is argued that a physical law with a less extended range of application (non-relativistic energy momentum relation) often follows from a more extended one (in this case the relativistic relation) without too much dependence on the details of the latter. This is extended to the ideal of random dynamics: no fundamental laws are needed to be known. Almost any random fundamental model will give the correct main features for the range of physical conditions accessible today (energies less than 1000 GeV) even if it is wrong in detail. This suggests the programme of attempting to 'derive' the various symmetries and other features of physics known today from random models at least without the feature to be derived. The achievements in the programme of random dynamics up till now are briefly reviewed. In particular, Lorentz invariance may be understood as a low energy phenomenon. (Auth.)
Symmetry-enhanced supertransfer of delocalized quantum states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lloyd, Seth; Mohseni, Masoud
2010-01-01
Coherent hopping of excitation relies on quantum coherence over physically extended states. In this work, we consider simple models to examine the effect of symmetries of delocalized multi-excitation states on the dynamical timescales, including hopping rates, radiative decay and environmental interactions. While the decoherence (pure dephasing) rate of an extended state over N sites is comparable to that of a non-extended state, superradiance leads to a factor of N enhancement in decay and absorption rates. In addition to superradiance, we illustrate how the multi-excitonic states exhibit 'supertransfer' in the far-field regime-hopping from a symmetrized state over N sites to a symmetrized state over M sites at a rate proportional to MN. We argue that such symmetries could play an operational role in physical systems based on the competition between symmetry-enhanced interactions and localized inhomogeneities and environmental interactions that destroy symmetry. As an example, we propose that supertransfer and coherent hopping play a role in recent observations of anomalously long diffusion lengths in nano-engineered assembly of light-harvesting complexes.
Symmetries within chaos: A route to effective mixing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Franjione, J.G.; Leong, C.; Ottino, J.M.
1989-01-01
Experimental studies show that simple two-dimensional time-periodic flows can produce chaotic mixing. However, the mixing is not always complete; depending on the choice of the period, there can exist large dynamic structures, called islands, that stretch and compress in a time-periodic manner but remain segregated even after long times. Obviously, a flow that contains very few islands is desired. Unfortunately, in most real systems, an analytic expression for the velocity field (or the motion) does not usually exist, making theoretical prediction of the location and size of islands virtually impossible. However, using only minimal knowledge of the gross properties of the velocity field, the flow can be analyzed in terms of its symmetries. Symmetries can be detected without reference to precise mathematical equations. Large islands are located on lines of symmetry, or in pairs on opposite sides of the line. With this knowledge, it is possible to manipulate symmetries in a systematic way so as to move an island into a region of good mixing. Applying this idea repeatedly results in a recursively generated flow history that is neither periodic nor random, but is self-similar. Mixing in these flows is efficient over the entire flow domain. In addition, the idea of recursively generated flow histories might have implications for understanding the mechanisms of turbulent flow
Expediting model-based optoacoustic reconstructions with tomographic symmetries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lutzweiler, Christian; Deán-Ben, Xosé Luís; Razansky, Daniel
2014-01-01
Purpose: Image quantification in optoacoustic tomography implies the use of accurate forward models of excitation, propagation, and detection of optoacoustic signals while inversions with high spatial resolution usually involve very large matrices, leading to unreasonably long computation times. The development of fast and memory efficient model-based approaches represents then an important challenge to advance on the quantitative and dynamic imaging capabilities of tomographic optoacoustic imaging. Methods: Herein, a method for simplification and acceleration of model-based inversions, relying on inherent symmetries present in common tomographic acquisition geometries, has been introduced. The method is showcased for the case of cylindrical symmetries by using polar image discretization of the time-domain optoacoustic forward model combined with efficient storage and inversion strategies. Results: The suggested methodology is shown to render fast and accurate model-based inversions in both numerical simulations andpost mortem small animal experiments. In case of a full-view detection scheme, the memory requirements are reduced by one order of magnitude while high-resolution reconstructions are achieved at video rate. Conclusions: By considering the rotational symmetry present in many tomographic optoacoustic imaging systems, the proposed methodology allows exploiting the advantages of model-based algorithms with feasible computational requirements and fast reconstruction times, so that its convenience and general applicability in optoacoustic imaging systems with tomographic symmetries is anticipated
Reflection symmetry-integrated image segmentation.
Sun, Yu; Bhanu, Bir
2012-09-01
This paper presents a new symmetry-integrated region-based image segmentation method. The method is developed to obtain improved image segmentation by exploiting image symmetry. It is realized by constructing a symmetry token that can be flexibly embedded into segmentation cues. Interesting points are initially extracted from an image by the SIFT operator and they are further refined for detecting the global bilateral symmetry. A symmetry affinity matrix is then computed using the symmetry axis and it is used explicitly as a constraint in a region growing algorithm in order to refine the symmetry of the segmented regions. A multi-objective genetic search finds the segmentation result with the highest performance for both segmentation and symmetry, which is close to the global optimum. The method has been investigated experimentally in challenging natural images and images containing man-made objects. It is shown that the proposed method outperforms current segmentation methods both with and without exploiting symmetry. A thorough experimental analysis indicates that symmetry plays an important role as a segmentation cue, in conjunction with other attributes like color and texture.
Crossing symmetry in Alpha space
CERN. Geneva
2017-01-01
The conformal bootstrap program aims to catalog all conformal field theories (second-order phase transitions) in D dimensions. Despite its ambitious scope much progress has been made over the past decade, e.g. in computing critical exponents for the 3D O(N) models to high precision. At this stage, analytic methods to explore the CFT landscape are not as well developed. In this talk I will describe a new mathematical framework for the bootstrap known as "alpha space", which reduces crossing symmetry to a set of integral equations. Based on arXiv:1702.08471 (with Balt van Rees) and arXiv:1703.08159.
Torus knots and mirror symmetry
Brini, Andrea; Marino, Marcos
2012-01-01
We propose a spectral curve describing torus knots and links in the B-model. In particular, the application of the topological recursion to this curve generates all their colored HOMFLY invariants. The curve is obtained by exploiting the full Sl(2, Z) symmetry of the spectral curve of the resolved conifold, and should be regarded as the mirror of the topological D-brane associated to torus knots in the large N Gopakumar-Vafa duality. Moreover, we derive the curve as the large N limit of the matrix model computing torus knot invariants.
Symmetries applied to reactor calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Makai, M.
1982-03-01
Three problems of a reactor-calculational model are discussed with the help of symmetry considerations. 1/ A coarse mesh method applicable to any geometry is derived. It is shown that the coarse mesh solution can be constructed from a few standard boundary value problems. 2/ A second stage homogenization method is given based on the Bloch theorem. This ensures the continuity of the current and the flux at the boundary. 3/ The validity of the micro-macro separation is shown for heterogeneous lattices. A formula for the neutron density is derived for cell homogenization. (author)
Hexagonal response matrix using symmetries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gotoh, Y.
1991-01-01
A response matrix for use in core calculations for nuclear reactors with hexagonal fuel assemblies is presented. It is based on the incoming currents averaged over the half-surface of a hexagonal node by applying symmetry theory. The boundary conditions of the incoming currents on the half-surface of the node are expressed by a complete set of orthogonal vectors which are constructed from symmetrized functions. The expansion coefficients of the functions are determined by the boundary conditions of incoming currents. (author)
Symmetry generators in singular theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lavrov, P.M.; Tyutin, I.V.
1989-01-01
It is proved that in the singular nondegenerate theories any symmetry of the lagrangian under non-point transformations of lagrangian variables with the open (in the general case) algebra in the hamiltonian approach generates corresponding transformations of canonical variables the generator of which is the Noether charge with respect to the Dirac brackets. On the surface of all constraints these transformations leave the hamiltonian invariant and the algebra of the Noether charges is closed. As a consequence it is shown that the nilpotent BRST charge operator always exists in gauge theories of the general form (if possible anomalies are not taken into account)
History of electroweak symmetry breaking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kibble, T W B
2015-01-01
In this talk, I recall the history of the development of the unified electroweak theory, incorporating the symmetry-breaking Higgs mechanism, as I saw it from my standpoint as a member of Abdus Salam's group at Imperial College. I start by describing the state of physics in the years after the Second World War, explain how the goal of a unified gauge theory of weak and electromagnetic interactions emerged, the obstacles encountered, in particular the Goldstone theorem, and how they were overcome, followed by a brief account of more recent history, culminating in the historic discovery of the Higgs boson in 2012. (paper)
Quantum chaos for nonstandard symmetry classes in the Feingold-Peres model of coupled tops.
Fan, Yiyun; Gnutzmann, Sven; Liang, Yuqi
2017-12-01
We consider two coupled quantum tops with angular momentum vectors L and M. The coupling Hamiltonian defines the Feingold-Peres model, which is a known paradigm of quantum chaos. We show that this model has a nonstandard symmetry with respect to the Altland-Zirnbauer tenfold symmetry classification of quantum systems, which extends the well-known threefold way of Wigner and Dyson (referred to as "standard" symmetry classes here). We identify the nonstandard symmetry classes BDI_{0} (chiral orthogonal class with no zero modes), BDI_{1} (chiral orthogonal class with one zero mode), and CI (antichiral orthogonal class) as well as the standard symmetry class AI (orthogonal class). We numerically analyze the specific spectral quantum signatures of chaos related to the nonstandard symmetries. In the microscopic density of states and in the distribution of the lowest positive energy eigenvalue, we show that the Feingold-Peres model follows the predictions of the Gaussian ensembles of random-matrix theory in the appropriate symmetry class if the corresponding classical dynamics is chaotic. In a crossover to mixed and near-integrable classical dynamics, we show that these signatures disappear or strongly change.
Broken chiral symmetry and the structure of hadrons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Spence, W.L.
1982-01-01
The spontaneous breaking of chiral symmetry plays a decisive role in the structure of hadrons composed of light quarks. The formalism by which the dynamics of chiral symmetry breaking and its implications for hadronic structure can be explored in a simplified world in which fully relativistic zero-bare-mass quarks interact through a chirally symmetric instantaneous confining potential is presented. By thus modeling the essentials of the chiral limit-N/sub c/ infinity limit of QCD contact is made with the successes of existent semiphenomenological models of hadrons but post assumptions which explicitly violate chiral symetry are avoided. This revised approach then makes possible a unification of the dynamics of hadron structure with the mechanism of spontaneous chiral breaking and guarantees the appearance of the correct Goldstone excitations. The chiral breaking order parameter (absolute value anti psi psi), effective quark mass, and Goldstone boson wave function are obtainable by solving a single non-linear integral equation once a potential has been prescribed. The stability of the chiral asymmetric vacuum must then be established by studying the linear eigenvalue problem which determines the spectrum of states with vacuum quantum numbers. The nature of the instability of the chiral symmetric vacuum that leads to spontaneous symmetry breaking is explained and its apparent contingency on details of the dynamics is emphasized. It is argued that a single massless fermion in a chirally symmetric potential does form bound states for which a semi-classical description is given. Coupling to vacuum pairs of such bound states occasions the possibility of chiral symmetry breakdown
Symmetry breaking in clogging for oppositely driven particles
Glanz, Tobias; Wittkowski, Raphael; Löwen, Hartmut
2016-11-01
The clogging behavior of a symmetric binary mixture of colloidal particles that are driven in opposite directions through constrictions is explored by Brownian dynamics simulations and theory. A dynamical state with a spontaneously broken symmetry occurs where one species is flowing and the other is blocked for a long time, which can be tailored by the size of the constrictions. Moreover, we find self-organized oscillations in clogging and unclogging of the two species. Apart from statistical physics, our results are of relevance for fields like biology, chemistry, and crowd management, where ions, microparticles, pedestrians, or other particles are driven in opposite directions through constrictions.
Flavor symmetries and fermion masses
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rasin, A.
1994-04-01
We introduce several ways in which approximate flavor symmetries act on fermions and which are consistent with observed fermion masses and mixings. Flavor changing interactions mediated by new scalars appear as a consequence of approximate flavor symmetries. We discuss the experimental limits on masses of the new scalars, and show that the masses can easily be of the order of weak scale. Some implications for neutrino physics are also discussed. Such flavor changing interactions would easily erase any primordial baryon asymmetry. We show that this situation can be saved by simply adding a new charged particle with its own asymmetry. The neutrality of the Universe, together with sphaleron processes, then ensures a survival of baryon asymmetry. Several topics on flavor structure of the supersymmetric grand unified theories are discussed. First, we show that the successful predictions for the Kobayashi-Maskawa mixing matrix elements, V ub /V cb = √m u /m c and V td /V ts = √m d /m s , are a consequence of a large class of models, rather than specific properties of a few models. Second, we discuss how the recent observation of the decay β → sγ constrains the parameter space when the ratio of the vacuum expectation values of the two Higgs doublets, tanΒ, is large. Finally, we discuss the flavor structure of proton decay. We observe a surprising enhancement of the branching ratio for the muon mode in SO(10) models compared to the same mode in the SU(5) model
Spinor Structure and Internal Symmetries
Varlamov, V. V.
2015-10-01
Spinor structure and internal symmetries are considered within one theoretical framework based on the generalized spin and abstract Hilbert space. Complex momentum is understood as a generating kernel of the underlying spinor structure. It is shown that tensor products of biquaternion algebras are associated with the each irreducible representation of the Lorentz group. Space-time discrete symmetries P, T and their combination PT are generated by the fundamental automorphisms of this algebraic background (Clifford algebras). Charge conjugation C is presented by a pseudoautomorphism of the complex Clifford algebra. This description of the operation C allows one to distinguish charged and neutral particles including particle-antiparticle interchange and truly neutral particles. Spin and charge multiplets, based on the interlocking representations of the Lorentz group, are introduced. A central point of the work is a correspondence between Wigner definition of elementary particle as an irreducible representation of the Poincaré group and SU(3)-description (quark scheme) of the particle as a vector of the supermultiplet (irreducible representation of SU(3)). This correspondence is realized on the ground of a spin-charge Hilbert space. Basic hadron supermultiplets of SU(3)-theory (baryon octet and two meson octets) are studied in this framework. It is shown that quark phenomenologies are naturally incorporated into presented scheme. The relationship between mass and spin is established. The introduced spin-mass formula and its combination with Gell-Mann-Okubo mass formula allows one to take a new look at the problem of mass spectrum of elementary particles.
Dual symmetry in gauge theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koshkarov, A.L.
1997-01-01
Continuous dual symmetry in electrodynamics, Yang-Mills theory and gravitation is investigated. Dual invariant which leads to badly nonlinear motion equations is chosen as a Lagrangian of the pure classical dual nonlinear electrodynamics. In a natural manner some dual angle which is determined by the electromagnetic strengths at the point of the time-space appears in the model. Motion equations may well be interpreted as the equations of the standard Maxwell theory with source. Alternative interpretation is the quasi-Maxwell linear theory with magnetic charge. Analogous approach is possible in the Yang-Mills theory. In this case the dual-invariant non-Abelian theory motion equations possess the same instanton solutions as the conventional Yang-Mills equations have. An Abelian two-parameter dual group is found to exist in gravitation. Irreducible representations have been obtained: the curvature tensor was expanded into the sum of twice anti-self-dual and self-dual parts. Gravitational instantons are defined as (real )solutions to the usual duality equations. Central symmetry solutions to these equations are obtained. The twice anti-self-dual part of the curvature tensor may be used for introduction of new gravitational equations generalizing Einstein''s equations. However, the theory obtained reduces to the conformal-flat Nordstroem theory
Symmetry breaking and scalar bosons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gildener, E.; Weinberg, S.
1976-01-01
There are reasons to suspect that the spontaneous breakdown of the gauge symmetries of the observed weak and electromagnetic interactions may be produced by the vacuum expectation values of massless weakly coupled elementary scalar fields. A method is described for finding the broken-symmetry solutions of such theories even when they contain arbitrary numbers of scalar fields with unconstrained couplings. In any such theory, there should exist a number of heavy Higgs bosons, with masses comparable to the intermediate vector bosons, plus one light Higgs boson, or ''scalon'' with mass of order αG/sub F/sub 1/2/. The mass and couplings of the scalon are calculable in terms of other masses, even without knowing all the details of the theory. For an SU(2) direct-product U(1) model with arbitrary numbers of scalar isodoublets, the scalon mass is greater than 5.26 GeV; a likely value is 7--10 GeV. The production and decay of the scalon are briefly considered. Some comments are offered on the relation between the mass scales associated with the weak and strong interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hsu, J.P.
1976-01-01
A new picture of nature is proposed in which there are only two fundamental universal constants anti e (identical with e/c) and dirac constant (identical with dirac constant/c). The theory is developed within the framework of a new four-dimensional symmetry which is constructed on the basis of the Poincare--Einstein principle of relativity for the laws of physics and the Newtonian concept of time. One obtains a new space--light transformation law, a velocity-addition law, and so on. In this symmetry scheme, the speed of light is constant and is completely relative. The new theory is logically self-consistent, and it moreover is in agreement with all previously established experimental facts, such as the ''lifetime dilatation'' of unstable particles, the Michelson--Morley experiment, etc. There is a difference relative to the usual theory, though, in that our theory predicts a new law for the Doppler frequency shift, which can be tested experimentally by measuring the second-order frequency shift
Discrete symmetries with neutral mesons
Bernabéu, José
2018-01-01
Symmetries, and Symmetry Breakings, in the Laws of Physics play a crucial role in Fundamental Science. Parity and Charge Conjugation Violations prompted the consideration of Chiral Fields in the construction of the Standard Model, whereas CP-Violation needed at least three families of Quarks leading to Flavour Physics. In this Lecture I discuss the Conceptual Basis and the present experimental results for a Direct Evidence of Separate Reversal-in-Time T, CP and CPT Genuine Asymmetries in Decaying Particles like Neutral Meson Transitions, using Quantum Entanglement and the Decay as a Filtering Measurement. The eight transitions associated to the Flavour-CP eigenstate decay products of entangled neutral mesons have demonstrated with impressive significance a separate evidence of TRV and CPV in Bd-physics, whereas a CPTV asymmetry shows a 2σ effect interpreted as an upper limit. Novel CPTV observables are discussed for K physics at KLOE-2, including the difference between the semileptonic asymmetries from KL and KS, the ratios of double decay rate Intensities to Flavour-CP eigenstate decay products and the ω-effect. Their observation would lead to a change of paradigm beyond Quantum Field Theory, however there is nothing in Quantum Mechanics forbidding CPTV.
Symmetry between bosons and fermions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ohnuki, Y.; Kamefuchi, S.
1986-01-01
By definition Bosons and Fermions behave quite differently as regards statistics. It is equally true, however, that in some other respects they do behave similarly or even symmetrically. In the present paper they would like to show that such similarity or symmetry can be exhibited most fully when the theory is formulated in a specific manner, i.e. in terms of annihilation and creation operators a/sub j/ and a/sub j//sup dagger/ or what they term g-numbers. The difference between Bosons and Fermions can, of course, be traced back to the difference in the signatures (jj) = +,- attached to the brackets in the basic commutation relations: [a/sub j/,a/sub j//sup dagger/]-(jj) = 1, [a/sub j/,a/sub j/]-(jj) = 0. However, the substantial part of the theory can in fact be formulated without specifying the individual signatures (jj). This is why it is possible to treat Bosons and Fermions in a unified manner, and to thereby consider, among the two, super- or more general, g-symmetry transformations. 6 references, 1 table
Vertex algebras and mirror symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Borisov, L.A.
2001-01-01
Mirror Symmetry for Calabi-Yau hypersurfaces in toric varieties is by now well established. However, previous approaches to it did not uncover the underlying reason for mirror varieties to be mirror. We are able to calculate explicitly vertex algebras that correspond to holomorphic parts of A and B models of Calabi-Yau hypersurfaces and complete intersections in toric varieties. We establish the relation between these vertex algebras for mirror Calabi-Yau manifolds. This should eventually allow us to rewrite the whole story of toric mirror symmetry in the language of sheaves of vertex algebras. Our approach is purely algebraic and involves simple techniques from toric geometry and homological algebra, as well as some basic results of the theory of vertex algebras. Ideas of this paper may also be useful in other problems related to maps from curves to algebraic varieties.This paper could also be of interest to physicists, because it contains explicit description of holomorphic parts of A and B models of Calabi-Yau hypersurfaces and complete intersections in terms of free bosons and fermions. (orig.)
Gauge symmetries, topology, and quantisation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Balachandran, A.P.
1994-01-01
The following two loosely connected sets of topics are reviewed in these lecture notes: (1) Gauge invariance, its treatment in field theories and its implications for internal symmetries and edge states such as those in the quantum Hall effect. (2) Quantisation on multiply connected spaces and a topological proof the spin-statistics theorem which avoids quantum field theory and relativity. Under (1), after explaining the meaning of gauge invariance and the theory of constraints, we discuss boundary conditions on gauge transformations and the definition of internal symmetries in gauge field theories. We then show how the edge states in the quantum Hall effect can be derived from the Chern-Simons action using the preceding ideas. Under (2), after explaining the significance of fibre bundles for quantum physics, we review quantisation on multiply connected spaces in detail, explaining also mathematical ideas such as those of the universal covering space and the fundamental group. These ideas are then used to prove the aforementioned topological spin-statistics theorem
Comment to: "Particle-hole symmetry breaking in the pseudogap state of Bi2201"
Panas, Itai
2010-01-01
Shen et al. [1] recently reported on ARPES data from Pb-Bi2201 revealing both particle-hole symmetry breaking and pronounced spectral broadening, which they interpret to be indicative of spatial symmetry breaking without long-range order at the opening of the pseudogap. Here is demonstrated how their results could be interpreted to reflect static and dynamic inhomogeneous crystal fields causing inter-band transfer of holes upon cooling below T*. Possible relevance to formation of charge carri...
Group theoretical symmetries and generalized Bäcklund transformations for integrable systems
Haak, Guido
1994-05-01
A notion of symmetry for 1+1-dimensional integrable systems is presented which is consistent with their group theoretic description. It is shown how a group symmetry may be used together with a dynamical reduction to produce new generalizations of the Bäcklund transformation for the Korteweg-de Vries equation to its SL(n,C) generalization. An additional application to the relativistic invariance of the Leznov-Saveliev systems is given.
Local discrete symmetries from superstring derived models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Faraggi, A.E.
1996-10-01
Discrete and global symmetries play an essential role in many extensions of the Standard Model, for example, to preserve the proton lifetime, to prevent flavor changing neutral currents, etc. An important question is how can such symmetries survive in a theory of quantum gravity, like superstring theory. In a specific string model the author illustrates how local discrete symmetries may arise in string models and play an important role in preventing fast proton decay and flavor changing neutral currents. The local discrete symmetry arises due to the breaking of the non-Abelian gauge symmetries by Wilson lines in the superstring models and forbids, for example dimension five operators which mediate rapid proton decay, to all orders of nonrenormalizable terms. In the context of models of unification of the gauge and gravitational interactions, it is precisely this type of local discrete symmetries that must be found in order to insure that a given model is not in conflict with experimental observations
On the origin of neutrino flavour symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
King, Stephen F.; Luhn, Christoph
2009-01-01
We study classes of models which are based on some discrete family symmetry which is completely broken such that the observed neutrino flavour symmetry emerges indirectly as an accidental symmetry. For such 'indirect' models we discuss the D-term flavon vacuum alignments which are required for such an accidental flavour symmetry consistent with tri-bimaximal lepton mixing to emerge. We identify large classes of suitable discrete family symmetries, namely the Δ(3n 2 ) and Δ(6n 2 ) groups, together with other examples such as Z 7 x Z 3 . In such indirect models the implementation of the type I see-saw mechanism is straightforward using constrained sequential dominance. However the accidental neutrino flavour symmetry may be easily violated, for example leading to a large reactor angle, while maintaining accurately the tri-bimaximal solar and atmospheric predictions.
Symmetry analysis in parametrisation of complex systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sikora, W; Malinowski, J
2010-01-01
The symmetry analysis method based on the theory of group representations is used for description of complex systems and their behavior in this work. The first trial of using the symmetry analysis in modeling of behavior of complex social system is presented. The evacuation of large building scenarios are discussed as transition from chaotic to ordered states, described as movements of individuals according to fields of displacements, calculated correspondingly to given scenario. The symmetry of the evacuation space is taken into account in calculation of displacements field - the displacements related to every point of this space are presented in the coordinate frame in the best way adapted to given symmetry space group, which is the set of basic vectors of irreducible representation of given symmetry group. The results got with using the symmetry consideration are compared with corresponding results calculated under assumption of shortest way to exits (Voronoi assumption).