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Sample records for dynamical density fluctuations

  1. General framework for fluctuating dynamic density functional theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán-Olivencia, Miguel A.; Yatsyshin, Peter; Goddard, Benjamin D.; Kalliadasis, Serafim

    2017-12-01

    We introduce a versatile bottom-up derivation of a formal theoretical framework to describe (passive) soft-matter systems out of equilibrium subject to fluctuations. We provide a unique connection between the constituent-particle dynamics of real systems and the time evolution equation of their measurable (coarse-grained) quantities, such as local density and velocity. The starting point is the full Hamiltonian description of a system of colloidal particles immersed in a fluid of identical bath particles. Then, we average out the bath via Zwanzig’s projection-operator techniques and obtain the stochastic Langevin equations governing the colloidal-particle dynamics. Introducing the appropriate definition of the local number and momentum density fields yields a generalisation of the Dean-Kawasaki (DK) model, which resembles the stochastic Navier-Stokes description of a fluid. Nevertheless, the DK equation still contains all the microscopic information and, for that reason, does not represent the dynamical law of observable quantities. We address this controversial feature of the DK description by carrying out a nonequilibrium ensemble average. Adopting a natural decomposition into local-equilibrium and nonequilibrium contribution, where the former is related to a generalised version of the canonical distribution, we finally obtain the fluctuating-hydrodynamic equation governing the time-evolution of the mesoscopic density and momentum fields. Along the way, we outline the connection between the ad hoc energy functional introduced in previous DK derivations and the free-energy functional from classical density-functional theory. The resultant equation has the structure of a dynamical density-functional theory (DDFT) with an additional fluctuating force coming from the random interactions with the bath. We show that our fluctuating DDFT formalism corresponds to a particular version of the fluctuating Navier-Stokes equations, originally derived by Landau and Lifshitz

  2. Effects of phase transition induced density fluctuations on pulser dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagchi, Partha; Das, Arpan; Srivastava, Ajit M.; Layek, Biswanath

    2016-01-01

    We show that density fluctuations during phase transitions in pulsar cores may have non-trivial effects on pulsar timings, and may also possibly account for glitches and anti-glitches. These density fluctuations invariably lead to non-zero off-diagonal components of the moment of inertia, leading to transient wobbling of star. Thus, accurate measurements of pulsar timing and intensity modulations (from wobbling) may be used to identify the specific pattern of density fluctuations, hence the particular phase transition, occurring inside the pulsar core. Changes in quadrupole moment from rapidly evolving density fluctuations during the transition, with very short time scales, may provide a new source for gravitational waves. (author)

  3. Effects of phase transition induced density fluctuations on pulsar dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partha Bagchi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We show that density fluctuations during phase transitions in pulsar cores may have non-trivial effects on pulsar timings, and may also possibly account for glitches and anti-glitches. These density fluctuations invariably lead to non-zero off-diagonal components of the moment of inertia, leading to transient wobbling of star. Thus, accurate measurements of pulsar timing and intensity modulations (from wobbling may be used to identify the specific pattern of density fluctuations, hence the particular phase transition, occurring inside the pulsar core. Changes in quadrupole moment from rapidly evolving density fluctuations during the transition, with very short time scales, may provide a new source for gravitational waves.

  4. Modeling a nucleon system: static and dynamical properties - density fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idier, D.

    1997-01-01

    This thesis sets forth a quasi-particle model for the static and dynamical properties of nuclear matter. This model is based on a scale ratio of quasi-particle to nucleons and the projection of the semi-classical distribution on a coherent Gaussian state basis. The first chapter is dealing with the transport equations, particularly with the Vlasov equation for Wigner distribution function. The second one is devoted to the statics of nuclear matter. Here, the sampling effect upon the nuclear density is treated and the state equation of the Gaussian fluid is compared with that given by Hartree-Fock approximation. We define state equation as the relationship between the nucleon binding energy and density, for a given temperature. The curvature around the state equation minimum of the quasi-particle system is shown to be related to the speed of propagation of density perturbation. The volume energy and the surface properties of a (semi-)infinite nucleon system are derived. For the resultant saturated auto-coherent semi-infinite system of quasi-particles the surface coefficient appearing in the mass formula is extracted as well as the system density profile. The third chapter treats the dynamics of the two-particle residual interactions. The effect of different parameters on relaxation of a nucleon system without a mean field is studied by means of a Eulerian and Lagrangian modeling. The fourth chapter treats the volume instabilities (spinodal decomposition) in nuclear matter. The quasi-particle systems, initially prepared in the spinodal region of the utilized interaction, are set to evolve. It is shown then that the scale ratio acts upon the amount of fluctuations injected in the system. The inhomogeneity degree and a proper time are defined and the role of collisions in the spinodal decomposition as well as that of the initial temperature and density, are investigated. Assuming different effective macroscopic interactions, the influence of quantities as

  5. Fluctuations of the single-particle density in nuclear dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgio, G.F.; Chomaz, P.; Randrup, J.

    1991-01-01

    In recent years semiclassical methods have been developed to study heavy-ion collisions in the framework of the Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck theory, in which the collisionless mean field evolution has been augmented by a Pauli-blocked Nordheim collision term. Since these models describe the average dynamic trajectory, they cannot be applied to describe fluctuations of one-body observables, correlations in the emission of light particles and catastrophic processes like multifragmentation. The authors have developed a new method in order to include the stochastic part of the collision integral into BUU-type simulations of the nuclear dynamics. They apply this method to a two-dimensional gas of fermions on a torus, for which the time evolution of the mean trajectory and the associated correlation function are calculated; the variance of the phase-space occupancy follows closely the predictions of the corresponding Fokker-Planck equation and relaxes towards the appropriate quantum-statistical limit. The breaking of the translational and spherical symmetry in the model permits the study of unstable situations in phase-space. The introduction of the nonlinear one-body field allows them to explore dynamical instabilities and bifurcations. Therefore the model can be appropriate for studying nuclear multifragmentation

  6. Dynamics of density fluctuations in a non-Markovian Boltzmann- Langevin model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayik, S.

    1996-01-01

    In the course of the past few years, the nuclear Boltzmann-Langevin (BL)model has emerged as a promising microscopic model for nuclear dynamics at intermediate energies. The BL model goes beyond the much employed Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck (BUU) model, and hence it provides a basis for describing dynamics of density fluctuations and addressing processes exhibiting spontaneous symmetry breaking and catastrophic transformations in nuclear collisions, such as induced fission and multifragmentation. In these standard models, the collision term is treated in a Markovian approximation by assuming that two-body collisions are local in both space and time, in accordance with Boltzmann's original treatment. This simplification is usually justified by the fact that the duration of a two-body collision is short on the time scale characteristic of the macroscopic evolution of the system. As a result, transport properties of the collective motion has then a classical character. However, when the system possesses fast collective modes with characteristic energies that are not small in comparision with the temperature, then the quantum-statistical effects are important and the standard Markovian treatment is inadequate. In this case, it is necessary to improve the one-body transport model by including the memory effect due to the finite duration of two-body collisions. First we briefly describe the non-Markovian extension of the BL model by including the finite memory time associated with two-body collisions. Then, using this non-Markovian model in a linear response framework, we investigate the effect of the memory time on the agitation of unstable modes in nuclear matter in the spinodal zone, and calculate the collisional relaxation rates of nuclear collective vibrations

  7. Modelling an infinite nucleonic system. Static and dynamical properties. Study of density fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idier, D.; Farine, M.; Remaud, B.; Sébille, F.

    For one decade, several fields in physics as well microscopic as macroscopic benefit from the computational particle-models (astrophysics, electronics, fluids mechanics...). In particular, the nuclear matter offers an interesting challenge as many body problem, owing to the quantal nature of its components and the complexity of the in-medium interaction. Using a model derived from semi-classical Vlasov equation and the projection of the Wigner function on a Gaussian coherent states basis (pseudo-particles), static and dynamical properties of nuclear matter are studied, featuring the growing of bulk instabilities in dilute matter. Using different zero and finite range effective interactions, the effect of the model parameters upon the relation total energy - density - temperature and surface energy of the pseudo-particles fluid is pointed out. The dynamical feature is first based upon a model of the 2-body Uehling-Ulhenbeck collisionnal term. A study of the relaxation of a nucleonic system is performed. At last, the pseudo-particle model is used in order to extract time scale for the growing of density fluctuations. This process is supposed to be a possible way to clusterization during heavy nuclei collisions. Depuis une dizaine d'années, plusieurs domaines de la physique aussi bien microscopiques que macroscopiques bénéficient des modèles à particules pour ordinateurs (astrophysique, électronique, plasmas...). En particulier, la matière nucléaire constitue un objet intéressant pour le problème à N corps ; tant par la nature quantique des nucléons que par la complexité des interactions dans ce milieu. A travers un modèle dérivant de l'équation de Vlasov semi-classique et de la projection de la fonction de Wigner sur une base d'état cohérents gaussiens (les pseudo-particules), on étudie les propriétés statiques et dynamiques de la matière nucléaire dont en particulier le développement des instabilités de volume en milieu dilué. Pour diff

  8. Addendum to ''Density fluctuations in liquid rubidium''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haan, S.W.; Mountain, R.D.; Hsu, C.S.; Rahman, A.

    1980-01-01

    We performed molecular-dynamics simulations of liquid rubidium and the Lennard-Jones fluid at several densities and temperatures, and of a system whose pair potential is the repulsive core of the rubidium potential. In all cases, propagating density fluctuations occurred in the rubidiumlike systems at much shorter wavelengths than in the Lennard-Jones system. This indicates that the repulsive part of the pair potential is the dominant factor in determining the relaxation of short-wavelength density fluctuations

  9. Spin-density correlations in the dynamic spin-fluctuation theory: Comparison with polarized neutron scattering experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melnikov, N.B., E-mail: melnikov@cs.msu.su [Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Reser, B.I., E-mail: reser@imp.uran.ru [Miheev Institute of Metal Physics, Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Ekaterinburg 620990 (Russian Federation); Paradezhenko, G.V., E-mail: gparadezhenko@cs.msu.su [Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-01

    To study the spin-density correlations in the ferromagnetic metals above the Curie temperature, we relate the spin correlator and neutron scattering cross-section. In the dynamic spin-fluctuation theory, we obtain explicit expressions for the effective and local magnetic moments and spatial spin-density correlator. Our theoretical results are demonstrated by the example of bcc Fe. The effective and local moments are found in good agreement with results of polarized neutron scattering experiment over a wide temperature range. The calculated short-range order is small (up to 4 Å) and slowly decreases with temperature.

  10. Magnetosheath density fluctuations and magnetopause motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sibeck, D.G. [Johns Hopkins Univ. Applied Physics Lab., Laurel, MD (United States); Gosling, J.T. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) orientation controls foreshock densities and modulates the fraction of the solar wind dynamic pressure applied to the magnetosphere. Such pressure variations produce bow shock and magnetopause motion and cause the radial profiles for various magnetosheath parameters to sweep inward and outward past nearly stationary satellites. The authors report ISEE 2 observations of correlated density and speed fluctuations, and anticorrelated density and temperature fluctuations, on an outbound pass through the northern dawnside magnetosheath. Densities decreased when the magnetic field rotated southward and draped about the magnetopause. In the absence of any significant solar wind density or dynamic pressure variations, they interpret the magnetosheath fluctuations as evidence for radial magnetosheath motion induced by variations in the IMF orientation. 41 refs., 8 figs.

  11. Effect of temperature and density fluctuations on the spatially heterogeneous dynamics of glass-forming Van der Waals liquids under high pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koperwas, K; Grzybowski, A; Grzybowska, K; Wojnarowska, Z; Sokolov, A P; Paluch, M

    2013-09-20

    In this Letter, we show how temperature and density fluctuations affect the spatially heterogeneous dynamics at ambient and elevated pressures. By using high-pressure experimental data for van der Waals liquids, we examine contributions of the temperature and density fluctuations to the dynamics heterogeneity. We show that the dynamic heterogeneity decreases significantly with increasing pressure at a constant structural relaxation time (isochronal condition), while the broadening of the relaxation spectrum remains constant. This observation questions the relationship between spectral broadening and dynamic heterogeneity.

  12. Origin of cosmological density fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, B.J.

    1984-11-01

    The density fluctuations required to explain the large-scale cosmological structure may have arisen spontaneously as a result of a phase transition in the early Universe. There are several ways in which such fluctuations may have ben produced, and they could have a variety of spectra, so one should not necessarily expect all features of the large-scale structure to derive from a simple power law spectrum. Some features may even result from astrophysical amplification mechanisms rather than gravitational instability. 128 references

  13. Current density fluctuations and ambipolarity of transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, W.; Dexter, R.N.; Prager, S.C.

    1991-10-01

    The fluctuation in the plasma current density is measured in the MIST reversed field pinch experiment. Such fluctuations, and the measured radial profile of the k spectrum of magnetic fluctuations, supports the view and that low frequency fluctuations (f r >) demonstrates that radial particle transport from particle motion parallel to a fluctuating magnetic field is ambipolar over the full frequency range

  14. Solidity of viscous liquids. IV. Density fluctuations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyre, J. C.

    2006-01-01

    This paper is the fourth in a series exploring the physical consequences of the solidity of highly viscous liquids. It is argued that the two basic characteristics of a flow event (a jump between two energy minima in configuration space) are the local density change and the sum of all particle...... displacements. Based on this it is proposed that density fluctuations are described by a time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau equation with rates in k space of the form C+Dk^2 with D>>C a^2 where a is the average intermolecular distance. The inequality expresses a long-wavelength dominance of the dynamics which...... with Debye behavior at low frequencies and an omega^{−1/2} decay of the loss at high frequencies. Finally, a general formalism for the description of viscous liquid dynamics, which supplements the density dynamics by including stress fields, a potential energy field, and molecular orientational fields...

  15. Extremal-point densities of interface fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toroczkai, Z.; Korniss, G.; Das Sarma, S.; Zia, R. K. P.

    2000-01-01

    We introduce and investigate the stochastic dynamics of the density of local extrema (minima and maxima) of nonequilibrium surface fluctuations. We give a number of analytic results for interface fluctuations described by linear Langevin equations, and for on-lattice, solid-on-solid surface-growth models. We show that, in spite of the nonuniversal character of the quantities studied, their behavior against the variation of the microscopic length scales can present generic features, characteristic of the macroscopic observables of the system. The quantities investigated here provide us with tools that give an unorthodox approach to the dynamics of surface morphologies: a statistical analysis from the short-wavelength end of the Fourier decomposition spectrum. In addition to surface-growth applications, our results can be used to solve the asymptotic scalability problem of massively parallel algorithms for discrete-event simulations, which are extensively used in Monte Carlo simulations on parallel architectures. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  16. Magnetic fluctuations associated with density fluctuations in the tokamak edge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y.J.; Gentle, K.W.; Ritz, C.P.; Rhodes, T.L.; Bengtson, R.D.

    1989-01-01

    Electrostatic density and potential fluctuations occurring with high amplitude near the edge of a tokamak are correlated with components of the fluctuating magnetic field measured outside the limiter radius. It has been established that this turbulence is associated with fluctuations in current as well as density and potential. The correlation extends for substantial toroidal distances, but only if the probes are displaced approximately along field lines, consistent with the short coherence lengths poloidally but long coherence lengths parallel to the field which are characteristic for this turbulence. Furthermore, the correlation can be found only with density fluctuations measured inside the limiter radius; density fluctuations behind the limiter have no detectable magnetic concomitant for the toroidally spaced probes used here. (author). Letter-to-the-editor. 12 refs, 3 figs

  17. Spherical harmonics analysis of surface density fluctuations of spherical ionic SDS and nonionic C12E8 micelles: A molecular dynamics study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshii, Noriyuki; Nimura, Yuki; Fujimoto, Kazushi; Okazaki, Susumu

    2017-07-21

    The surface structure and its fluctuation of spherical micelles were investigated using a series of density correlation functions newly defined by spherical harmonics and Legendre polynomials based on the molecular dynamics calculations. To investigate the influence of head-group charges on the micelle surface structure, ionic sodium dodecyl sulfate and nonionic octaethyleneglycol monododecylether (C 12 E 8 ) micelles were investigated as model systems. Large-scale density fluctuations were observed for both micelles in the calculated surface static structure factor. The area compressibility of the micelle surface evaluated by the surface static structure factor was tens-of-times larger than a typical value of a lipid membrane surface. The structural relaxation time, which was evaluated from the surface intermediate scattering function, indicates that the relaxation mechanism of the long-range surface structure can be well described by the hydrostatic approximation. The density fluctuation on the two-dimensional micelle surface has similar characteristics to that of three-dimensional fluids near the critical point.

  18. Fluctuations, dynamical instabilities and clusterization processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgio, G.F.; Chomaz, Ph.; Randrup, J.

    1992-01-01

    Recent progress with regard to the numerical simulation of fluctuations in nuclear dynamics is reported. Cluster formation in unstable nuclear matter is studied within the framework of a Boltzmann-Langevin equation developed to describe large amplitude fluctuations. Through the Fourier analysis of the fluctuating nuclear density in coordinate space, the onset of the clusterization is related to the dispersion relation of harmonic density oscillations. This detailed study on the simple two-dimensional case demonstrates the validity of the general approach. It is also shown, how the inclusion of fluctuations implies a description in terms of ensemble of trajectories and it is discussed why the presence of a stochastic term may cure the intrinsic unpredictability of deterministic theories (such as mean-field approximation) in presence of instabilities and/or chaos. (author) 8 refs., 3 figs

  19. Density Fluctuations in a Polar Coronal Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Michael; D’Huys, Elke; Savin, Daniel Wolf

    2018-06-01

    We have measured the root-mean-square (rms) amplitude of intensity fluctuations, ΔI, in plume and interplume regions of a polar coronal hole. These intensity fluctuations correspond to density fluctuations. Using data from the Sun Watcher using the Active Pixel System detector and Image Processing on the Project for Onboard Autonomy (Proba2), our results extend up to a height of about 1.35 R ⊙. One advantage of the rms analysis is that it does not rely on a detailed evaluation of the power spectrum, which is limited by noise levels to low heights in the corona. The rms approach can be performed up to larger heights where the noise level is greater, provided that the noise itself can be quantified. At low heights, both the absolute ΔI, and the amplitude relative to the mean intensity, ΔI/I, decrease with height. However, starting at about 1.2 R ⊙, ΔI/I increases, reaching 20%–40% by 1.35 R ⊙. This corresponds to density fluctuations of Δn e/n e ≈ 10%–20%. The increasing relative amplitude implies that the density fluctuations are generated in the corona itself. One possibility is that the density fluctuations are generated by an instability of Alfvén waves. This generation mechanism is consistent with some theoretical models and with observations of Alfvén wave amplitudes in coronal holes. Although we find that the energy of the observed density fluctuations is small, these fluctuations are likely to play an important indirect role in coronal heating by promoting the reflection of Alfvén waves and driving turbulence.

  20. Density fluctuations in extended inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guth, A.H.; Jain, B.

    1992-01-01

    We estimate the density perturbation spectrum δρ/ρ in the extended inflationary model, in which the scalar curvature is coupled to a Brans-Dicke field. Through a conformal transformation and a redefinition of the Brans-Dicke field, the action of the theory is cast into a form with no coupling to the scalar curvature and a canonical kinetic term for the redefined field. Following Kolb, Salopek, and Turner, we calculate δρ/ρ using the transformed action and the standard recipe developed for conventional inflation. This recipe is expected to give a valid order-of-magnitude estimate, but a precise calculation would require a more careful treatment of several aspects of the problem. The spectrum behaves as a positive power of the wavelength, a feature that might be useful in building models to account for the observed large-scale structure of the universe. Our result for the overall amplitude of density perturbations differs slightly from that of the previous authors, and the reasons for these differences are discussed. We also point out that the conformal transformation method can be applied to a wider class of generalized gravity theories

  1. Density fluctuations in ohmic Asdex discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodel, G.; Holzhauer, E.

    1989-01-01

    The investigations on the wave-number and frequency spectra of the density fluctuations, occurring in the different operational modes of ASDEX, are summarized. The aim of the experiments is to study the physical nature of fluctuations and their influence on anomalous transport. The scattering system is described. The results reported were obtained using a 100 mW, λ = 119 μm CW CH-30H laser and homodyne detection

  2. Origin of density fluctuations in extended inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolb, E.W.; Salopek, D.S.; Turner, M.S.

    1990-05-01

    The density fluctuations (both curvature and isocurvature) that arise due to quantum fluctuations in a simple model of extended inflation based upon the Jordan-Brans-Dicke theory are calculated. Curvature fluctuations arise due to quantum fluctuations in the Brans-Dicke field, in general have a nonscale-invariant spectrum, and can have an amplitude that is cosmologically acceptable and interesting without having to tune any coupling constant to a very small value. The density perturbations that arise due to the inflation field are subdominant. If there are other massless fields in the theory, e.g., an axion or an ilion, then isocurvature fluctuations arise in these fields too. Production of gravitational waves and the massless particles associated with excitations of the Brans-Dicke field are also discussed. Several attempts at more realistic models of extended inflation are also analyzed. The importance of the Einstein conformal frame in calculating curvature fluctuations is emphasized. When viewed in this frame, extended inflation closely resembles slow-rollover inflation with an exponential potential and the usual formula for the amplitude of curvature perturbations applies

  3. Fluctuation relations for anomalous dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chechkin, A V; Klages, R

    2009-01-01

    We consider work fluctuation relations (FRs) for generic types of dynamics generating anomalous diffusion: Lévy flights, long-correlated Gaussian processes and time-fractional kinetics. By combining Langevin and kinetic approaches we calculate the probability distributions of mechanical and thermodynamical work in two paradigmatic nonequilibrium situations, respectively: a particle subject to a constant force and a particle in a harmonic potential dragged by a constant force. We check the transient FR for two models exhibiting superdiffusion, where a fluctuation-dissipation relation does not exist, and for two other models displaying subdiffusion, where there is a fluctuation-dissipation relation. In the two former cases the conventional transient FR is not recovered, whereas in the latter two it holds either exactly or in the long-time limit. (letter)

  4. Density Fluctuations of Hard-Sphere Fluids in Narrow Confinement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Nygård

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Spatial confinement induces microscopic ordering of fluids, which in turn alters many of their dynamic and thermodynamic properties. However, the isothermal compressibility has hitherto been largely overlooked in the literature, despite its obvious connection to the underlying microscopic structure and density fluctuations in confined geometries. Here, we address this issue by probing density profiles and structure factors of hard-sphere fluids in various narrow slits, using x-ray scattering from colloid-filled nanofluidic containers and integral-equation-based statistical mechanics at the level of pair distributions for inhomogeneous fluids. Most importantly, we demonstrate that density fluctuations and isothermal compressibilities in confined fluids can be obtained experimentally from the long-wavelength limit of the structure factor, providing a formally exact and experimentally accessible connection between microscopic structure and macroscopic, thermodynamic properties. Our approach will thus, for example, allow direct experimental verification of theoretically predicted enhanced density fluctuations in liquids near solvophobic interfaces.

  5. Origin of density fluctuations in extended inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolb, E.W.; Salopek, D.S.; Turner, M.S.

    1990-01-01

    We calculate both the curvature and isocurvature density fluctuations that arise due to quantum fluctuations in a simple model of extended inflation based upon the Jordan-Brans-Dicke theory. The curvature fluctuations that arise due to quantum fluctuations in the Brans-Dicke field in general have a non-scale-invariant spectrum and an amplitude that is cosmologically acceptable and interesting without having to tune any coupling constant to a very small value. The curvature perturbations that arise due to the Higgs field are subdominant. If there are other massless fields in the theory, e.g., an axion or an ilion, then isocurvature fluctuations arise in these fields too. Production of gravitational waves and the massless particles associated with excitations of the Brans-Dicke field are also discussed. Several attempts at more realistic models of extended inflation are also analyzed. The importance of the Einstein conformal frame in calculating curvature fluctuations is emphasized. When viewed in this frame, extended inflation closely resembles slow-rollover inflation with an exponential potential, and the usual formula for the amplitude of curvature perturbations applies directly

  6. Analysis of dynamic multiplicity fluctuations at PHOBOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Zhengwei; PHOBOS Collaboration; Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Ballintijn, M.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Chai, Z.; Decowski, M. P.; García, E.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Heintzelman, G. A.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Holynski, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Katzy, J.; Khan, N.; Kucewicz, W.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; McLeod, D.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Remsberg, L. P.; Reuter, M.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rosenberg, L.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sawicki, P.; Skulski, W.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Sukhanov, A.; Tang, J. L.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Verdier, R.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Wozniak, K.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Wyslouch, B.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the analysis of the dynamic fluctuations in the inclusive charged particle multiplicity measured by PHOBOS for Au+Au collisions at surdsNN = 200GeV within the pseudo-rapidity range of -3 < η < 3. First the definition of the fluctuations observables used in this analysis is presented, together with the discussion of their physics meaning. Then the procedure for the extraction of dynamic fluctuations is described. Some preliminary results are included to illustrate the correlation features of the fluctuation observable. New dynamic fluctuations results will be available in a later publication.

  7. Density fluctuations in the de Sitter universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, N.; Mallik, S.

    1991-01-01

    The de Sitter space-time appears to be the most widely chosen manifold to study quantum field theories on curved space-time. The reason is, of course, its high symmetry and the related fact that the mode functions can be obtained exactly in terms of known functions. Thus the different problems of quantization on curved space-time, like the non-uniqueness of the vacuum, regularization and renormalization of the stress tensor, have all been studied extensively in this model. The other reason of interest in the de Sitter geometry is related to the inflationary scenario of the early universe. For a brief period, the energy density of the false (symmetric) vacuum may dominate the total energy density, giving rise to de Sitter space-time. The resulting inflation may solve a number of outstanding problems of cosmology and particle physics. The properties of a Higgs-type scalar field theory is of central importance in the investigation of such a scenario. In this paper, a scalar Higgs field theory in de Sitter space-time has been investigated using the real time formulation of Semenoff and Weiss. The authors calculate the two-point function at late times and use it to obtain a general expression for the amplitude of fluctuation in energy density on scales which come out of the de Sitter horizon

  8. Density Fluctuations in Uniform Quantum Gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosse, J.; Pathak, K. N.; Singh, G. S.

    2011-01-01

    Analytical expressions are given for the static structure factor S(k) and the pair correlation function g(r) for uniform ideal Bose-Einstein and Fermi-Dirac gases for all temperatures. In the vicinity of Bose Einstein condensation (BEC) temperature, g(r) becomes long ranged and remains so in the condensed phase. In the dilute gas limit, g(r) of bosons and fermions do not coincide with Maxwell-Boltzmann gas but exhibit bunching and anti-bunching effect respectively. The width of these functions depends on the temperature and is scaled as √(inverse atomic mass). Our numerical results provide the precise quantitative values of suppression/increase (antibunching and bunching) of the density fluctuations at small distances in ideal quantum gases in qualitative agreement with the experimental observation for almost non-trapped dilute gases.

  9. Impact of neutral density fluctuations on gas puff imaging diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wersal, C.; Ricci, P.

    2017-11-01

    A three-dimensional turbulence simulation of the SOL and edge regions of a toroidally limited tokamak is carried out. The simulation couples self-consistently the drift-reduced two-fluid Braginskii equations to a kinetic equation for neutral atoms. A diagnostic neutral gas puff on the low-field side midplane is included and the impact of neutral density fluctuations on D_α light emission investigated. We find that neutral density fluctuations affect the D_α emission. In particular, at a radial distance from the gas puff smaller than the neutral mean free path, neutral density fluctuations are anti-correlated with plasma density, electron temperature, and D_α fluctuations. It follows that the neutral fluctuations reduce the D_α emission in most of the observed region and, therefore, have to be taken into account when interpreting the amplitude of the D_α emission. On the other hand, higher order statistical moments (skewness, kurtosis) and turbulence characteristics (such as correlation length, or the autocorrelation time) are not significantly affected by the neutral fluctuations. At distances from the gas puff larger than the neutral mean free path, a non-local shadowing effect influences the neutral density fluctuations. There, the D_α fluctuations are correlated with the neutral density fluctuations, and the high-order statistical moments and measurements of other turbulence properties are strongly affected by the neutral density fluctuations.

  10. Fluctuations in the multiparticle dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozek, P.; Ploszajczak, M.

    1993-01-01

    The appearance and properties of intermittent fluctuations in physical systems, in particular the formation of rare structures in transport phenomena are discussed. The distribution of fluctuations approaches a limiting log-normal statistical distribution. The log-normal distribution is introduced as a simple parametrization of the energy fluctuations leading to the subthreshold production of particles in nuclear collisions, and it is shown that it fits all available data both for total π 0 production cross section as well as the π 0 kinetic energy spectra for E/A < 90 MeV. It is suggested that the same universal distribution should also describe the subthreshold production of other hadrons like η and K. (author) 36 refs., 11 figs

  11. Primordial black holes from passive density fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Chia-Min; Ng, Kin-Wang

    2013-01-01

    In this Letter, we show that if passive fluctuations are considered, primordial black holes (PBHs) can be easily produced in the framework of single-field, slow-roll inflation models. The formation of PBHs is due to the blue spectrum of passive fluctuations and an enhancement of the spectral range which exits horizon near the end of inflation. Therefore the PBHs are light with masses ≲10 15 g depending on the number of e-folds when the scale of our observable universe leaves horizon. These PBHs are likely to have evaporated and cannot be a candidate for dark matter but they may still affect the early universe.

  12. Primordial black holes from passive density fluctuations

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Chia-Min; Ng, Kin-Wang

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we show that if passive fluctuations are considered, primordial black holes (PBHs) can be easily produced in the framework of single-field, slow-roll inflation models. The formation of PBHs is due to the blue spectrum of passive fluctuations and an enhancement of the spectral range which exits horizon near the end of inflation. Therefore the PBHs are light with masses $\\lesssim 10^{15}g$ depending on the number of e-folds when the scale of our observable universe leaves horizon...

  13. Intermittent dislocation density fluctuations in crystal plasticity from a phase-field crystal model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Jens M.; Angheluta, Luiza; Mathiesen, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    Plastic deformation mediated by collective dislocation dynamics is investigated in the two-dimensional phase-field crystal model of sheared single crystals. We find that intermittent fluctuations in the dislocation population number accompany bursts in the plastic strain-rate fluctuations...... propose a simple stochastic model of dislocation reaction kinetics that is able to capture these statistical properties of the dislocation density fluctuations as a function of shear rate....

  14. Broadband magnetic and density fluctuations in the TCA tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollenstein, Ch.; Keller, R.; Pochelon, A.; Ryter, F.; Sawley, M.L.; Simm, W.; Weisen, H.

    1987-01-01

    The results of comparative studies of broadband magnetic and density fluctuations during ohmic discharges in the TCA tokamak are described. Long coherence lengths are observed in poloidal and toroidal directions between magnetic probes in the scrape-off layer. A phase contrast diagnostic provides a newly accessible range of density fluctuations in the bulk plasma with very long wavelengths. Langmuir probes provide similar measurements in the scrape-off layer. Statistical dispersion relations for both density and magnetic fluctuations are deduced and are shown to be substantially different. Low mean poloidal wavenumbers (m ∼ 2 at 100 kHz) are obtained for the magnetic fluctuations, in contrast to the much higher values measured for density fluctuations. The difference between magnetic and density fluctuations is also reflected in different scalings with plasma parameters and with electron confinement time. The helicity of the coherent magnetic structures is analyzed to show that interior regions of the plasma, such as the q = 2 region contribute to the magnetic activity at the edge. This explains why the magnetic fluctuations measured at the edge are likely to reflect the confinement properties of the bulk plasma. The results of detailed probe rotation experiments and coherence measurements give indications of the physical nature and origin of magnetic fluctuations

  15. State densities and spectrum fluctuations: Information propagation in complex nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French, J.B.; Kota, V.K.B.

    1988-01-01

    At excitation energies in nuclei where the state density is unambiguously defined there is a sharp separation between the smoothed spectrum (which defines the density) and fluctuations about it which have recently been studied with a view to understanding some aspects of quantum chaos. We briefly review these two complementary subjects, paying special attention to: the role of the effective interaction in determining the density; the calculation of interacting-particle state and level densities, and of expectation values of interesting operators; the information about the effective nucleon-nucleon interaction which is carried both by the density and the fluctuations. 28 refs., 1 fig

  16. Cytoskeleton dynamics: Fluctuations within the network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bursac, Predrag; Fabry, Ben; Trepat, Xavier; Lenormand, Guillaume; Butler, James P.; Wang, Ning; Fredberg, Jeffrey J.; An, Steven S.

    2007-01-01

    Out-of-equilibrium systems, such as the dynamics of a living cytoskeleton (CSK), are inherently noisy with fluctuations arising from the stochastic nature of the underlying biochemical and molecular events. Recently, such fluctuations within the cell were characterized by observing spontaneous nano-scale motions of an RGD-coated microbead bound to the cell surface [Bursac et al., Nat. Mater. 4 (2005) 557-561]. While these reported anomalous bead motions represent a molecular level reorganization (remodeling) of microstructures in contact with the bead, a precise nature of these cytoskeletal constituents and forces that drive their remodeling dynamics are largely unclear. Here, we focused upon spontaneous motions of an RGD-coated bead and, in particular, assessed to what extent these motions are attributable to (i) bulk cell movement (cell crawling), (ii) dynamics of focal adhesions, (iii) dynamics of lipid membrane, and/or (iv) dynamics of the underlying actin CSK driven by myosin motors

  17. Mesoscopic fluctuations and intermittency in aging dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibani, P.

    2006-01-01

    Mesoscopic aging systems are characterized by large intermittent noise fluctuations. In a record dynamics scenario (Sibani P. and Dall J., Europhys. Lett., 64 (2003) 8) these events, quakes, are treated as a Poisson process with average αln (1 + t/tw), where t is the observation time, tw is the age and α is a parameter. Assuming for simplicity that quakes constitute the only source of de-correlation, we present a model for the probability density function (PDF) of the configuration autocorrelation function. Beside α, the model has the average quake size 1/q as a parameter. The model autocorrelation PDF has a Gumbel-like shape, which approaches a Gaussian for large t/tw and becomes sharply peaked in the thermodynamic limit. Its average and variance, which are given analytically, depend on t/tw as a power law and a power law with a logarithmic correction, respectively. Most predictions are in good agreement with data from the literature and with the simulations of the Edwards-Anderson spin-glass carried out as a test.

  18. Effect of density fluctuations on ECCD in ITER and TCV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coda S.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Density fluctuations near the edge of tokamak plasmas can affect the propagation of electron cyclotron (EC waves. In the present paper, the EC wave propagation in a fluctuating equilibrium is determined using the ray-tracing code C3PO. The evolution of the electron distribution function is calculated self-consistently with the EC wave damping using the 3-D Fokker-Planck solver LUKE. The cumulative effect of fluctuations results in a significant broadening of the current profile combined with a fluctuating power deposition profile. This mechanism improves the simulation of fully non-inductive EC discharges in the TCV tokamaks. Predictive simulations for ITER show that density fluctuations could make the stabilization of NTMs in ITER more challenging.

  19. Phase space dynamics and collective variable fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benhassine, B.; Farine, M.; Idier, D.; Remaud, B.; Sebille, F.; Schuck, P.

    1995-01-01

    A dynamical study of collective variable fluctuations in heavy ion reactions is performed within the framework of the Boltzmann-Langevin theory. A general method to extract dispersions on collective variables from numerical simulations based on test particles models is presented and its validity is checked by comparison with analytical equilibrium results. (authors)

  20. Phase space dynamics and collective variable fluctuations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benhassine, B.; Farine, M.; Idier, D.; Remaud, B.; Sebille, F. [Laboratoire de Physique Nucleaire de Nantes, 44 (France); Schuck, P. [Institut des Sciences Nucleaires, 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1995-12-31

    A dynamical study of collective variable fluctuations in heavy ion reactions is performed within the framework of the Boltzmann-Langevin theory. A general method to extract dispersions on collective variables from numerical simulations based on test particles models is presented and its validity is checked by comparison with analytical equilibrium results. (authors) 10 refs.

  1. Charge density fluctuation of low frequency in a dusty plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李芳; 吕保维; O.Havnes

    1997-01-01

    The charge density fluctuation of low frequency in a dusty plasma, which is derived from the longitudinal dielectric permittivity of the dusty plasma, has been studied by kinetic theory. The results show that the P value, which describes the relative charge density on the dust in the plasma, and the charging frequency of a dust particle Ωc, which describes the ratio of charge changing of the dust particles, determine the character of the charge density fluctuation of low frequency. For a dusty plasma of P<<1, when the charging frequency Ωc is much smaller than the dusty plasma frequency wd, there is a strong charge density fluctuation which is of character of dust acoustic eigen wave. For a dusty plasma of P>>1, when the frequency Ωc, is much larger than wd there are weaker fluctuations with a wide spectrum. The results have been applied to the ionosphere and the range of radius and density of dust particles is found, where a strong charge density fluctuation of low frequency should exist.

  2. Sensitivity of orthopositronium annihilation to density fluctuations in ethane gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eftekhari, A.

    1982-01-01

    The annihilation rates of orthopositronium (o-Ps) and free positrons and positronium formation fractions have been measured in gaseous ethane at seven temperatures between 295 and 377 K for densities in the range 1.2-286 amagat. The pick off quenching rate of o-Ps is observed to vary with temperature at low densities of ethane. The observed behavior of the o-Ps annihilation rates with density and temperature is interpreted in terms of density fluctuations in ethane gas. A simple theoretical model is developed which explains the observed annihilation behavior reasonably well at those temperatures and densities where density fluctuations are small. The annihilation rates of flow-energy positrons indicate the formation of positron-ethane collision complexes and self-trapping of positrons in clusters of ethane molecules. The o-Ps yields appear to be independent of temperature and show a strong dependence on the density of the gas

  3. Measurement of current density fluctuations and ambipolar particle flux due to magnetic fluctuations in MST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Weimin.

    1992-08-01

    Studies of magnetic fluctuation induced particle transport on Reversed Field Pinch plasmas were done on the Madison Symmetric Torus. Plasma current density and current density fluctuations were measured using a multi-coil magnetic probes. The low frequency (f parallel B r >. The result of zero net charged particle loss was obtained, meaning the flux is ambipolar. The ambipolarity of low frequency global tearing modes is satisfied through the phase relations determined by tearing instabilities. The ambipolarity of high frequency localized modes could be partially explained by the simple model of Waltz based on the radial average of small scale turbulence

  4. Fluctuating fluid dynamics for the QGP in the LHC and BES era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bluhm Marcus

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In an era of high-precision determinations of QGP properties a full incorporation of fluid dynamical fluctuations into our models has become crucial, in particular, when describing the dynamics of small systems or near the conjectured QCD critical point. In this talk we discuss some effects of the propagation of these fluctuations. For LHC physics we focus on fluctuations in the energy-momentum tensor, while the impact of fluctuations in the diffusive net-baryon density is studied to improve our knowledge on the formation of critical fluctuations being searched in current and future BES programs.

  5. Spectral density of electron concentration fluctuations in ionospheric D region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martynenko, S.I.

    1989-01-01

    Expression for spectral density of electron concentration fluctuations in D-region with regard to the effect of ionization-recombination proceses and negative ions is obtained in terms of atmospheric turbulence model which obeys Kolmogorov-Obukhov 2/3 law

  6. Lyapunov spectra of density fluctuations in TBR-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oiwa, N.N.; Fidler-Ferrara, N.

    1993-01-01

    The results for the Lyapunov exponents associated with density fluctuations measured by Langmuir probes placed in the scrape-off layer of the Tokamak TBR-1 are reported. By a judicious use of the Sano-Sawada and Eckmann-Ruelle algorithms conclusive values for the positive Lyapunov exponents for most of the analysed signals are used showing evidences of chaotic behavior. (author)

  7. Thermodynamic fluctuations and the monopole density of the early Universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diosi, L.; Lukacs, B.

    1984-10-01

    The probability of thermodynamic fluctuations is calculated by explicitly using the Riemannian structure of the thermodynamic state space. By means of this probability distribution, a correlation volume can be defined. Identifying this volume with one domain in the GUT continuum at the symmetry breaking phase transition in the early Universe, a prediction can be obtained for the primordial monopole density. (author)

  8. Control of density fluctuations in atomistic-continuum simulations of dense liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotsalis, E.M.; Walther, Jens Honore; Koumoutsakos, P.

    2007-01-01

    with a continuum solver for the simulation of the Navier-Stokes equations. The lack of periodic boundary conditions in the molecular dynamics simulations hinders the proper accounting for the virial pressure leading to spurious density fluctuations at the continuum-atomistic interface. An ad hoc boundary force...... is usually employed to remedy this situation.We propose the calculation of this boundary force using a control algorithm that explicitly cancels the density fluctuations. The results demonstrate that the present approach outperforms state-of-the-art algorithms. The conceptual and algorithmic simplicity...

  9. Phase space fluctuations and dynamics of fluctuations of collective variables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benhassine, B.; Farine, M.; Idier, D.; Remaud, B.; Sebille, F. (Lab. de Physique Nucleaire, IN2P3/CNRS, 44 - Nantes (France) Nantes Univ., 44 (France)); Hernandez, E.S. (Dept. de Fisica, Ciudad Universitaria, Buenos Aires (Argentina))

    1992-08-03

    Within the framework of theoretical approaches based on stochastic transport equation of one-body distribution function, a numerical treatment of the fluctuations of collective observables is studied and checked in comparison with analytical results either at equilibrium or close to it. (orig.).

  10. Phase space fluctuations and dynamics of fluctuations of collective variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benhassine, B.; Farine, M.; Idier, D.; Remaud, B.; Sebille, F.; Hernandez, E.S.

    1992-01-01

    Within the framework of theoretical approaches based on stochastic transport equation of one-body distribution function, a numerical treatment of the fluctuations of collective observables is studied and checked in comparison with analytical results either at equilibrium or close to it. (orig.)

  11. Electron density fluctuation measurements in the TORTUR tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remkes, G.J.J.

    1990-01-01

    This thesis deals with measurements of electron-density fluctuations in the TORTUR tokamak. These measurements are carried out by making use of collective scattering of electromagnetic beams. The choice of the wavelength of the probing beam used in collective scattering experiments has important consequences. in this thesis it is argued that the best choice for a wavelength lies in the region 0.1 - 1 mm. Because sources in this region were not disposable a 2 mm collective scattering apparatus has been used as a fair compromise. The scattering theory, somewhat adapted to the specific TORTUR situation, is discussed in Ch. 2. Large scattering angles are admitted in scattering experiments with 2 mm probing beams. This had consequences for the spatial response functions. Special attention has been paid to the wave number resolution. Expressions for the minimum source power have been determined for two detection techniques. The design and implementation of the scattering apparatus has been described in Ch. 3. The available location of the scattering volume and values of the scattering angle have been determined. The effect of beam deflection due to refraction effects is evaluated. The electronic system is introduced. Ch. 4 presents the results of measurements of density fluctuations in the TORTUR tokamak in the frequency range 1 kHz to 100 MHz end the wave number region 400 - 4000 m -1 in different regions of the plasma. Correlation between density and magnetic fluctuations has been found in a number of cases. During the current decay at the termination of several plasma discharges minor disruptions occurred. The fluctuations during these disruptions have been monitored. Measurements have been performed in hydrogen as well as deuterium. A possible dependence of the wave number on the ion gyroradius has been investigated. The isotropy of the fluctuations in the poloidal plane was investigated. A theoretical discussion of the measured results is given in ch. 5. ( H.W.). 63

  12. Experimental study of particle transport and density fluctuation in LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, K.; Michael, C.; Sanin, A.

    2005-01-01

    A variety of electron density (n e ) profiles have been observed in Large Helical Device (LHD). The density profiles change dramatically with heating power and toroidal magnetic field (B t ) under the same line averaged density. The particle transport coefficients, i.e., diffusion coefficient (D) and convection velocity (V) are experimentally obtained in the standard configuration from density modulation experiments. The values of D and V are estimated separately in the core and edge. The diffusion coefficients are found to be a strong function of electron temperature (T e ) and are proportional to T e 1.7±0.9 in the core and T e 1.1±0.14 in the edge. Edge diffusion coefficients are proportional to B t -2.08 . It is found that the scaling of D in the edge is close to gyro-Bohm-like in nature. Non-zero V is observed and it is found that the electron temperature gradient can drive particle convection, particularly in the core region. The convection velocity in the core reverses direction from inward to outward as the T e gradient increases. In the edge, convection is inward directed in most cases of the present data set. It shows a modest tendency, being proportional to T e gradient and remaining inward directed. However, the toroidal magnetic field also significantly affects the value and direction of V. The density fluctuation spectrum varies with heating power suggesting that it has an influence on particle transport. The value of K sub(perpendicular) ρ i is around 0.1, as expected for gyro-Bohm diffusion. Fluctuations are localized in both positive and negative density gradient regions of the hollow density profiles. The fluctuation power in each region is clearly distinguished having different phase velocity profiles. (author)

  13. Structure of density fluctuations in the edge plasma of ASDEX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudyj, A; Carlson, A; Endler, M; Giannone, L.; Niedermeyer, H; Theimer, G [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany)

    1990-01-01

    It is now generally believed that the anomalous particle and energy transport in tokamaks is caused by turbulent fluctuations. The physical nature of these fluctuations (mode type, the driving mechanism) have still to be identified experimentally before a self consistent transport theory can be developed. In contrast to the confinement region the plasma edge can be well diagnosed. H{sub {alpha}}-light, which is emitted at the edge, reacts to density and to some extend to temperature fluctuations. It delivers information about radially integrated spectra and correlations. Langmuir probes measure density and potential fluctuations with good spatial resolution. The edge transport governs the physics in the scrape-off layer and in the divertor which is extremely important for a reactor and therefore deserves a major experimental effort. In this paper we report on an attempt to gain detailed information about the spatial and temporal structure of the edge turbulence hoping to reduce the degrees of freedom for theoretical models to a manageable number. (author) 3 refs., 3 figs.

  14. Structure of density fluctuations in the edge plasma of ASDEX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudyj, A.; Carlson, A.; Endler, M.; Giannone, L.; Niedermeyer, H.; Theimer, G.

    1990-01-01

    It is now generally believed that the anomalous particle and energy transport in tokamaks is caused by turbulent fluctuations. The physical nature of these fluctuations (mode type, the driving mechanism) have still to be identified experimentally before a self consistent transport theory can be developed. In contrast to the confinement region the plasma edge can be well diagnosed. H α -light, which is emitted at the edge, reacts to density and to some extend to temperature fluctuations. It delivers information about radially integrated spectra and correlations. Langmuir probes measure density and potential fluctuations with good spatial resolution. The edge transport governs the physics in the scrape-off layer and in the divertor which is extremely important for a reactor and therefore deserves a major experimental effort. In this paper we report on an attempt to gain detailed information about the spatial and temporal structure of the edge turbulence hoping to reduce the degrees of freedom for theoretical models to a manageable number. (author) 3 refs., 3 figs

  15. Scattering of ECRF waves by edge density fluctuations and blobs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Abhay K.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The scattering of electron cyclotron waves by density blobs embedded in the edge region of a fusion plasma is studied using a full-wave model. The full-wave theory is a generalization of the usual approach of geometric optics ray scattering by blobs. While the latter allows for only refraction of waves, the former, more general formulation, includes refraction, reflection, and diffraction of waves. Furthermore, the geometric optics, ray tracing, model is limited to blob densities that are slightly different from the background plasma density. Observations in tokamak experiments show that the fluctuating density differs from the background plasma density by 20% or more. Thus, the geometric optics model is not a physically realistic model of scattering of electron cyclotron waves by plasma blobs. The differences between the ray tracing approach and the full-wave approach to scattering are illustrated in this paper.

  16. Scattering of lower-hybrid waves by density fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, P.L.; Perkins, F.W.

    1981-07-01

    The investigation of the scattering of lower-hybrid waves by density fluctuations in tokamaks is distinguished by the presence in the wave equation of a large, random, derivative-coupling term. Assuming the fluctuations to be of long wavelength compared to the incident wave the similarity of the wave equation to the Schroedinger equation for a particle in a random magnetic field is used to derive a two-way diffusion equation for the wave energy density. The diffusion constant found disagrees with earlier findings and the source of the discrepancy is pointed out. When the correct boundary conditions are imposed this equation can be solved by separation of variables. However most of the important features of the solution are apparent without detailed algebra

  17. Experimental study of particle transport and density fluctuation in LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, K.; Morita, S.; Sanin, A.; Michael, C.; Kawahata, K.; Yamada, H.; Miyazawa, J.; Tokuzawa, T.; Akiyama, T.; Goto, M.; Ida, K.; Yoshinuma, M.; Narihara, K.; Yamada, I.; Yokoyama, M.; Masuzaki, S.; Morisaki, T.; Sakamoto, R.; Funaba, H.; Komori, A.; Vyacheslavov, L.N.; Murakami, S.; Wakasa, A.

    2005-01-01

    A variety of electron density (n e ) profiles have been observed in Large Helical Device (LHD). The density profiles change dramatically with heating power and toroidal magnetic field (B t ) under the same line averaged density. The particle transport coefficients, i.e., diffusion coefficient (D) and convection velocity (V) are experimentally obtained from density modulation experiments in the standard configuration. The values of D and V are estimated separately at the core and edge. The diffusion coefficients are strong function of electron temperature (T e ) and are proportional to T e 1.7±0.9 in core and T e 1.1±0.14 in edge. And edge diffusion coefficients are proportional to B t -2.08 . It is found that the scaling of D in edge is close to gyro-Bohm-like in nature. The existence of non-zero V is observed. It is observed that the electron temperature (T e ) gradient can drive particle convection. This is particularly clear in the core region. The convection velocity in the core region reverses direction from inward to outward as the T e gradient increases. In the edge, the convection is inward directed in the most of the case of the present data set. And it shows modest tendency, whose value is proportional to T e gradient keeping inward direction. However, the toroidal magnetic field also significantly affects value and direction of V. The spectrum of density fluctuation changes at different heating power suggesting that it has an influence on particle transport. The peak wavenumber is around 0.1 times the inversed ion Larmor radius, as is expected from gyro-Bohm diffusion. The peaks of fluctuation intensity are localized at the plasma edge, where density gradient becomes negative and diffusion contributes most to the particle flux. These results suggest a qualitative correlation of fluctuations with particle diffusion. (author)

  18. POPULATION DYNAMICS OF CHAFF SCALE, PARLATORIA PERGANDII COMSTOCK IN COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF FLUCTUATING POPULATION DENSITIES ON THREE CITRUS VARIETIES IN EL-BEHEIRA GOVERNORATE, EGYPT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moursi Khadiga, S; Abdel Fattah, S; Rasha; Omar, M A A; Mourad, A K

    2015-01-01

    Investigation throughout the subsequent years of 2011-2012 and 2012-2013 indicated that chaff scale, P. pegandii is an important economic pest on citrus trees in Abou El-Matamer area, El-Beheira Governorate, Egypt. It has been recorded in relatively high rates all over the year on three citrus varieties called Succari, Baladi and Navel oranges. Field observation and recorded data revealed that the common abundance was recorded for chaff scale on Succari oranges followed by Navel oranges then the least abundant on Baladi oranges. Generally, the calculated data on Succari oranges showed that, the population of P. pergandii reached the maximum during July and there were five highly variation periods in both the growing seasons of 2011-2012 and 2012-2013. The maximal percent of pre and adult females was observed during Spring and early Summer and reached 100% of the total counted individuals during October and December in the first year, but in the second one a higher population was recorded during Summer and early Winter months. The adult males were observed during Summer and Autumn months. Results showed also that the relationship between daily mean temperature and population density of chaff scale was weak, insignificantly negative in the two growing seasons (2011-2012 and 2012-2013) and also insignificantly but positive with relative humidity. That relationship with wind speed indicated weak positive significance in the first year and strong in the second season. The relationship between dew point and insect population was weak of positive significance in both growing seasons.

  19. Statistical study of density fluctuations in the tore supra tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devynck, P.; Fenzi, C.; Garbet, X.; Laviron, C.

    1998-03-01

    It is believed that the radial anomalous transport in tokamaks is caused by plasma turbulence. Using infra-red laser scattering technique on the Tore Supra tokamak, statistical properties of the density fluctuations are studied as a function of the scales in ohmic as well as additional heating regimes using the lower hybrid or the ion cyclotron frequencies. The probability distributions are compared to a Gaussian in order to estimate the role of intermittency which is found to be negligible. The temporal behaviour of the three-dimensional spectrum is thoroughly discussed; its multifractal character is reflected in the singularity spectrum. The autocorrelation coefficient as well as their long-time incoherence and statistical independence. We also put forward the existence of fluctuations transfer between two distinct but close wavenumbers. A rather clearer image is thus obtained about the way energy is transferred through the turbulent scales. (author)

  20. The dynamics of variable-density turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandoval, D.L.

    1995-11-01

    The dynamics of variable-density turbulent fluids are studied by direct numerical simulation. The flow is incompressible so that acoustic waves are decoupled from the problem, and implying that density is not a thermodynamic variable. Changes in density occur due to molecular mixing. The velocity field, is in general, divergent. A pseudo-spectral numerical technique is used to solve the equations of motion. Three-dimensional simulations are performed using a grid size of 128 3 grid points. Two types of problems are studied: (1) the decay of isotropic, variable-density turbulence, and (2) buoyancy-generated turbulence in a fluid with large density fluctuations. In the case of isotropic, variable-density turbulence, the overall statistical decay behavior, for the cases studied, is relatively unaffected by the presence of density variations when the initial density and velocity fields are statistically independent. The results for this case are in quantitative agreement with previous numerical and laboratory results. In this case, the initial density field has a bimodal probability density function (pdf) which evolves in time towards a Gaussian distribution. The pdf of the density field is symmetric about its mean value throughout its evolution. If the initial velocity and density fields are statistically dependent, however, the decay process is significantly affected by the density fluctuations. For the case of buoyancy-generated turbulence, variable-density departures from the Boussinesq approximation are studied. The results of the buoyancy-generated turbulence are compared with variable-density model predictions. Both a one-point (engineering) model and a two-point (spectral) model are tested against the numerical data. Some deficiencies in these variable-density models are discussed and modifications are suggested

  1. Density fluctuations due to Raman forward scattering in quantum plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Punit, E-mail: punitkumar@hotmail.com; Singh, Shiv; Rathore, Nisha Singh, E-mail: nishasingh-rathore@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, University of Lucknow, Lucknow-226007 (India)

    2016-05-06

    Density fluctuations due Raman forward scattering (RFS) is analysed in the interaction of a high intensity laser pulse with high density quantum plasma. The interaction model is developed using the quantum hydrodynamic (QHD) model which consist of a set of equations describing the transport of charge, density, momentum and energy of a charged particle system interacting through a self-consistent electrostatic potential. The nonlinear source current has been obtained incorporating the effects of quantum Bohm potential, Fermi pressure and electron spin. The laser spectrum is strongly modulated by the interaction, showing sidebands at the plasma frequency. Furthermore, as the quiver velocity of the electrons in the high electric field of the laser beam is quit large, various quantum effects are observed which can be attributed to the variation of electron mass with laser intensity.

  2. On lower hybrid wave scattering by plasma density fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrzilka, V.

    1988-01-01

    The scattering of lower hybrid waves on plasma density fluctuations in a thin turbulent layer at the plasma periphery is studied numerically. The lower hybrid waves are supposed to be radiated by a four-waveguide grill used on the CASTOR tokamak. A great number of calculated scattered wave spectra show that the scattered spectrum shifts to larger values of the parallel-to-magnetic-field component of the wave vector (to slower waves) with increasing central plasma density and with the decreasing safety factor at the boundary. As known, this shift of the wave spectra results in a decrease in current drive efficiency. The current drive efficiency will hence decrease with growing plasma density and with decreasing safety factor. (J.U.). 2 figs., 4 refs

  3. Fluctuation dynamics in geoelectrical data: an investigation by using multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telesca, Luciano; Colangelo, Gerardo; Lapenna, Vincenzo; Macchiato, Maria

    2004-01-01

    We analyzed fluctuations in the time dynamics of nonstationary geoelectrical data, recorded in a seismic area of southern Italy, by means of the multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA). The multifractal character of the signal depends mostly on the different long-range properties for small and large fluctuations. The time variation of indices, denoting the departure from monofractal behaviour, reveals an enhancement of the multifractality of the signal prior seismic occurrences

  4. Dynamic Evolution Analysis of Stock Price Fluctuation and Its Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhua Xu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies a simple dynamical system of stock price fluctuation time series based on the rule of stock market. When the stock price fluctuation system is disturbed by external excitations, the system exhibits obviously chaotic phenomena, and its basic dynamic properties are analyzed. At the same time, a new fixed-time convergence theorem is proposed for achieving fixed-time control of stock price fluctuation system. Finally, the effectiveness of the method is verified by numerical simulation.

  5. Scattering of Neutrons on Fluctuations of the Density of the Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. G. ABDULVAHABOVA

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The cross section for scattering neutron  on the density of  fluctuations of the  thin films is obtained in the framework of the quantum theory of multiple scattering  in the quasielastic approximation. Inhomogeneity can be caused by dynamic density fluctuations, and be statistical in nature. Fluctuations in the density of the scattering material cause neutron scattering wave. The probability of a collision between a neutron and an atomic nucleus depends on the number of neutrons and on their velocity. The formulas have been obtained under the assumption that the imaginary part of the optical potential is a local operator. It was determined that the scattering in density fluctuations does not contribute to the attenuation of the coherent neutron wave. In the approximation of a thin target the solution of the equation for the total scattering amplitude is identical to the expression obtained in the usual eikonal approximation and differs significantly, at least functionally, from the solution for the case of a thick target. There have been detailed investigations of the reflection and refraction of neutron waves in matter, and the details of their dispersion law have been studied. The results are  hown  also, that  the total cross section for scattering by the complete target becomes universal and does not depend on cross section for scattering by one nucleus.Keywords: 25.40-Ep

  6. Size scaling effects on the particle density fluctuations in confined plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez, Federico; Markus, Ferenc

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, memory and nonlocal effects on fluctuating mass diffusion are addressed in the context of fusion plasmas. Nonlocal effects are included by considering a diffusivity coefficient depending on the size of the container in the transverse direction to the applied magnetic field. It is obtained by resorting to the general formulation of the extended version of irreversible thermodynamics in terms of the higher order dissipative fluxes. The developed model describes two different types of the particle density time correlation function. Both have been observed in tokamak and nontokamak devices. These two kinds of time correlation function characterize the wave and the diffusive transport mechanisms of particle density perturbations. A transition between them is found, which is controlled by the size of the container. A phase diagram in the (L,2π/k) space describes the relation between the dynamics of particle density fluctuations and the size L of the system together with the oscillating mode k of the correlation function.

  7. The nucleation process and the roles of structure and density fluctuations in supercooled liquid Fe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Rong; Wu, Yongquan; Xiao, Junjiang

    2014-01-01

    We observed homogeneous nucleation process of supercooled liquid Fe by molecular dynamics simulations. Using bond-orientational order parameters together with Voronoi polyhedron method, we characterized local structure, calculated the volume of Voronoi polyhedra of atoms and identified the structure and density fluctuations. We monitored the formation of nucleus and analyzed its inner structure. The birth and growth of the pre-nucleus and nucleus are accompanied with aggregating and disaggregating processes in the time scale of femtosecond. Only the initial solid-like clusters (ISLC), ranging from 1 to 7 atoms, pop up directly from liquid. The relation between the logarithm of number of clusters and the cluster size was found to be linear for ISLCs and was observed to be parabolic for all solid-like clusters (SLC) due to aggregating and disaggregating effects. The nucleus and pre-nuclei mainly consist of body centered cubic (BCC) and hexagonal close packed atoms, while the BCC atoms tend to be located at the surface. Medium-range structure fluctuations induce the birth of ISLCs, benefit the aggregation of embryos and remarkably promote the nucleation. But density fluctuations contribute little to nucleation. The lifetime of most icosahedral-like atoms (ICO) is shorter than 0.7 ps. No obvious relationship was found between structure/density fluctuations and the appearance of ICO atoms

  8. Dynamics of voids and clusters and fluctuations in the cosmic background radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salpeter, E.E.

    1983-01-01

    The author summarizes briefly calculations on spherically symmetric models without dissipation for the dynamical development of large voids and galaxy (super)clusters from small underdensities and overdensities, respectively, at the recombination era. Implications are mentioned and conjectures for more complex geometries are discussed. He infers the density fluctuations which must have been present just after the recombination era to produce some present-day configuration. Fluctuations in the present-day cosmic background radiation are related to this and their inferred amplitude depends very strongly on the present-day value of the cosmological density parameter. The relation to observed upper limits on these fluctuations are discussed. (Auth.)

  9. Propagating particle density fluctuations in molten NaCl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demmel, F.; Hosokawa, S.; Pilgrim, W.-C.; Lorenzen, M.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we present the observation of acoustic modes in the spectra of molten NaCl measured over a large momentum transfer range using synchrotron radiation. A surprisingly large positive dispersion was deduced with a mode velocity exceeding the adiabatic value by nearly 70%. The large effect seems to be describable as a viscoelastic reaction of the liquid. Additionally, the derived dispersion resembles the Q-ω relation of the acoustic modes in liquid sodium. As an explanation for the large positive dispersion we propose that the density fluctuations in molten NaCl can be interpreted as a decoupled motion of the lighter and smaller cations on a nearly resting anionic background. These molten alkali halide measurements are the first experimental evidences for the so-called fast sound in a binary ionic liquid

  10. Density Fluctuation in Aqueous Solutions and Molecular Origin of Salting-Out Effect for CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, Tuan Anh; Ilgen, Anastasia

    2017-01-01

    Using molecular dynamics simulation, we studied the density fluctuations and cavity formation probabilities in aqueous solutions and their effect on the hydration of CO 2 . With increasing salt concentration, we report an increased probability of observing a larger than the average number of species in the probe volume. Our energetic analyses indicate that the van der Waals and electrostatic interactions between CO 2 and aqueous solutions become more favorable with increasing salt concentration, favoring the solubility of CO 2 (salting in). However, due to the decreasing number of cavities forming when salt concentration is increased, the solubility of CO 2 decreases. The formation of cavities was found to be the primary control on the dissolution of gas, and is responsible for the observed CO 2 salting-out effect. Finally, our results provide the fundamental understanding of the density fluctuation in aqueous solutions and the molecular origin of the salting-out effect for real gas.

  11. Scrape-off layer-induced beam density fluctuations and their effect on beam emission spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulton, D.; Marandet, Y.; Tamain, P.; Dif-Pradalier, G.

    2015-07-01

    A statistical model is presented to calculate the magnitude of beam density fluctuations generated by a turbulent scrape-off layer (SOL). It is shown that the SOL can induce neutral beam density fluctuations of a similar magnitude to the plasma density fluctuations in the core, potentially corrupting beam emission spectroscopy measurements. The degree of corruption is quantified by combining simulations of beam and plasma density fluctuations inside a simulated measurement window. A change in pitch angle from the separatrix to the measurement window is found to reduce the effect of beam fluctuations, whose largest effect is to significantly reduce the measured correlation time.

  12. Magnetic Fluctuations in Pair-Density-Wave Superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Morten H.; Jacobsen, Henrik; Maier, Thomas A.; Andersen, Brian M.

    2016-04-01

    Pair-density-wave superconductivity constitutes a novel electronic condensate proposed to be realized in certain unconventional superconductors. Establishing its potential existence is important for our fundamental understanding of superconductivity in correlated materials. Here we compute the dynamical magnetic susceptibility in the presence of a pair-density-wave ordered state and study its fingerprints on the spin-wave spectrum including the neutron resonance. In contrast to the standard case of d -wave superconductivity, we show that the pair-density-wave phase exhibits neither a spin gap nor a magnetic resonance peak, in agreement with a recent neutron scattering experiment on underdoped La1.905 Ba0.095 CuO4 [Z. Xu et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 177002 (2014)].

  13. Dynamic magnetoconductance fluctuations and oscillations in mesoscopic wires and rings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, D. Z.; Hu, Ben Yu-Kuang; Stafford, C. A.

    1994-01-01

    Using a finite-frequency recursive Green's-function technique, we calculate the dynamic magnetoconductance fluctuations and oscillations in disordered mesoscopic normal-metal systems, incorporating interparticle Coulomb interactions within a self-consistent potential method. In a disorderd metal ...

  14. Chaotic Dynamical Ferromagnetic Phase Induced by Nonequilibrium Quantum Fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerose, Alessio; Marino, Jamir; Žunkovič, Bojan; Gambassi, Andrea; Silva, Alessandro

    2018-03-01

    We investigate the robustness of a dynamical phase transition against quantum fluctuations by studying the impact of a ferromagnetic nearest-neighbor spin interaction in one spatial dimension on the nonequilibrium dynamical phase diagram of the fully connected quantum Ising model. In particular, we focus on the transient dynamics after a quantum quench and study the prethermal state via a combination of analytic time-dependent spin wave theory and numerical methods based on matrix product states. We find that, upon increasing the strength of the quantum fluctuations, the dynamical critical point fans out into a chaotic dynamical phase within which the asymptotic ordering is characterized by strong sensitivity to the parameters and initial conditions. We argue that such a phenomenon is general, as it arises from the impact of quantum fluctuations on the mean-field out of equilibrium dynamics of any system which exhibits a broken discrete symmetry.

  15. Dynamical fluctuations for semi-Markov processes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maes, C.; Netočný, Karel; Wynants, B.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 36 (2009), 365002/1-365002/21 ISSN 1751-8113 R&D Projects: GA ČR GC202/07/J051 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : nonequilibrium fluctuations * semi-Markov processes Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.577, year: 2009 http://www.iop.org/EJ/abstract/1751-8121/42/36/365002

  16. Dynamics and fluctuation spectra of electrostatic resistive interchange turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sydora, R.D.; Leboeuf, J.N.; An, Z.G.; Diamond, P.H.; Lee, G.S.; Hahm, T.S.

    1985-11-01

    The saturation mechanism for density and potential fluctuation spectra which evolve from linearly unstable electrostatic resistive interchange modes, are investigated using particle simulations. Detailed comparisons of the nonlinear evolution, saturation levels and resultant spectra between two- and three-dimensional sheared magnetic field configurations are made. Significant differences appear. The single rational surface, quasilinear-dominated evolution, fluctuation spectrum is adequately described using a density convection model. For the multiple rational surface case, the potential fluctuations are adequately represented by a balance between the nonlinearly modified source (curvature drive) and linear sink (parallel resistive field line diffusion). An accurate description of the density spectrum requires a mode coupling theory based on the two-point density correlation evolution equation. 24 refs., 15 figs

  17. Fluctuation-Driven Neural Dynamics Reproduce Drosophila Locomotor Patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Maesani

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The neural mechanisms determining the timing of even simple actions, such as when to walk or rest, are largely mysterious. One intriguing, but untested, hypothesis posits a role for ongoing activity fluctuations in neurons of central action selection circuits that drive animal behavior from moment to moment. To examine how fluctuating activity can contribute to action timing, we paired high-resolution measurements of freely walking Drosophila melanogaster with data-driven neural network modeling and dynamical systems analysis. We generated fluctuation-driven network models whose outputs-locomotor bouts-matched those measured from sensory-deprived Drosophila. From these models, we identified those that could also reproduce a second, unrelated dataset: the complex time-course of odor-evoked walking for genetically diverse Drosophila strains. Dynamical models that best reproduced both Drosophila basal and odor-evoked locomotor patterns exhibited specific characteristics. First, ongoing fluctuations were required. In a stochastic resonance-like manner, these fluctuations allowed neural activity to escape stable equilibria and to exceed a threshold for locomotion. Second, odor-induced shifts of equilibria in these models caused a depression in locomotor frequency following olfactory stimulation. Our models predict that activity fluctuations in action selection circuits cause behavioral output to more closely match sensory drive and may therefore enhance navigation in complex sensory environments. Together these data reveal how simple neural dynamics, when coupled with activity fluctuations, can give rise to complex patterns of animal behavior.

  18. Radiation Belt Transport Driven by Solar Wind Dynamic Pressure Fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kress, B. T.; Hudson, M. K.; Ukhorskiy, A. Y.; Mueller, H.

    2012-12-01

    The creation of the Earth's outer zone radiation belts is attributed to earthward transport and adiabatic acceleration of electrons by drift-resonant interactions with electromagnetic fluctuations in the magnetosphere. Three types of radial transport driven by solar wind dynamic pressure fluctuations that have been identified are: (1) radial diffusion [Falthammer, 1965], (2) significant changes in the phase space density radial profile due to a single or few ULF drift-resonant interactions [Ukhorskiy et al., 2006; Degeling et al., 2008], and (3) shock associated injections of radiation belt electrons occurring in less than a drift period [Li et al., 1993]. A progress report will be given on work to fully characterize different forms of radial transport and their effect on the Earth's radiation belts. The work is being carried out by computing test-particle trajectories in electric and magnetic fields from a simple analytic ULF field model and from global MHD simulations of the magnetosphere. Degeling, A. W., L. G. Ozeke, R. Rankin, I. R. Mann, and K. Kabin (2008), Drift resonant generation of peaked relativistic electron distributions by Pc 5 ULF waves, textit{J. Geophys. Res., 113}, A02208, doi:10.1029/2007JA012411. Fälthammar, C.-G. (1965), Effects of Time-Dependent Electric Fields on Geomagnetically Trapped Radiation, J. Geophys. Res., 70(11), 2503-2516, doi:10.1029/JZ070i011p02503. Li, X., I. Roth, M. Temerin, J. R. Wygant, M. K. Hudson, and J. B. Blake (1993), Simulation of the prompt energization and transport of radiation belt particles during the March 24, 1991 SSC, textit{Geophys. Res. Lett., 20}(22), 2423-2426, doi:10.1029/93GL02701. Ukhorskiy, A. Y., B. J. Anderson, K. Takahashi, and N. A. Tsyganenko (2006), Impact of ULF oscillations in solar wind dynamic pressure on the outer radiation belt electrons, textit{Geophys. Res. Lett., 33}(6), L06111, doi:10.1029/2005GL024380.

  19. Calculation of thermal-diffusion coefficients from plane-wave fluctuations in the heat energy density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, B.J.

    1994-01-01

    A method to calculate the thermal diffusivity D T from spontaneous fluctuations in the local heat energy density is presented. Calculations of the thermal diffusivity are performed for the Lennard-Jones fluid, carbon dioxide, and water. The results for the Lennard-Jones fluid are in agreement with calculations of the thermal conductivity using Green-Kubo relations and nonequilibrium molecular-dynamics techniques. The results for carbon dioxide and water give thermal diffusivities within a factor of 2 of the experimental values

  20. A note on chaotic vs. stochastic behavior of the high-latitude ionospheric plasma density fluctuations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. W. Wernik

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Four data sets of density fluctuations measured in-situ by the Dynamics Explorer (DE 2 were analyzed in an attempt to study chaotic nature of the high-latitude turbulence and, in this way to complement the conventional spectral analysis. It has been found that the probability distribution function of density differences is far from Gaussian and similar to that observed in the intermittent fluid or MBD turbulence. This indicates that ionospheric density fluctuations are not stochastic but coherent to some extent. Wayland's and surrogate data tests for determinism in a time series of density data allowed us to differentiate between regions of intense shear and moderate shear. We observe that in the region of strong field aligned currents (FAC and intense shear, or along the convection in the collisional regime, ionospheric turbulence behaves like a random noise with non-Gaussian statistics implying that the underlying physical process is nondeterministic. On the other hand, when FACs are weak, and shear is moderate or observations made in the inertial regime the turbulence is chaotic. The attractor dimension is lowest (1.9 for 'old' convected irregularities. The dimension 3.2 is found for turbulence in the inertial regime and considerably smaller (2.4 in the collisional regime. It is suggested that a high dimension in the inertial regime may be caused by a complicated velocity structure in the shear instability region.

  1. Cascade and intermittency model for turbulent compressible self-gravitating matter and self-binding phase-space density fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biglari, H.; Diamond, P.H.

    1988-01-01

    A simple physical model which describes the dynamics of turbulence and the spectrum of density fluctuations in compressible, self-gravitating matter and self-binding, phase-space density fluctuations is presented. The two systems are analogous to each other in that each tends to self-organize into hierarchical structures via the mechanism of Jeans collapse. The model, the essential physical ingredient of which is a cascade constrained by the physical requirement of quasivirialization, is shown to exhibit interesting geometric properties such as intrinsic intermittency and anisotropy

  2. Dynamical charge fluctuation at FAIR energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Somnath; Mukhopadhyay, Amitabha

    2015-01-01

    The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment to be held at the Facility for antiproton and ion research (FAIR) is being designed to investigate the baryonic matter under extreme thermodynamic conditions. The hot and dense matter produced in this experiment will be rich in baryon number. It would be worthwhile to examine how the signatures proposed for identifying and characterizing a baryon free QGP like state behave in a baryon rich environment. Event-by-event fluctuation of net electrical charge and/or baryon number is one such indicator of the formation of the QGP, used and tested in RHIC and LHC heavy-ion experiments. One starts by defining the net charge Q = (N + - N - ) and the total charge N ch = (N + + N - ) where the quantities N + and N - are respectively, the multiplicities of positively and negatively charged particles

  3. Parallel-beam correlation technique for measuring density fluctuations in plasmas with strong magnetic shear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobson, A.R.

    1981-04-01

    A laser diagnostic scheme is described which facilitates localization of density fluctuations along the line of sight. The method exploits both the generally observed anisotropy of density fluctuations in low-beta plasmas, as well as the twisting of the magnetic field which occurs across the minor diameter of reversed-field pinches, spheromaks, etc. Both interferometric and schlieren variations are discussed

  4. Dynamics of Shape Fluctuations of Quasi-spherical Vesicles Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miao, L.; Lomholt, Michael Andersen; Kleis, J.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, the dynamics of spontaneous shape fluctuations of a single, giant quasi-spherical vesicle formed from a single lipid species is revisited theoretically. A coherent physical theory for the dynamics is developed based on a number of fundamental principles and considerations, and a sy......In this paper, the dynamics of spontaneous shape fluctuations of a single, giant quasi-spherical vesicle formed from a single lipid species is revisited theoretically. A coherent physical theory for the dynamics is developed based on a number of fundamental principles and considerations...... of the phenomenological constants in a canonical continuum description of fluid lipid-bilayer membranes and shown the consequences of this new interpretation in terms of the characteristics of the dynamics of vesicle shape fluctuations. Moreover, we have used the systematic formulation of our theory as a framework...... against which we have discussed the previously existing theories and their discrepancies. Finally, we have made a systematic prediction about the system-dependent characteristics of the relaxation dynamics of shape fluctuations of quasi-spherical vesicles with a view of experimental studies...

  5. The influence of the edge density fluctuations on electron cyclotron wave beam propagation in tokamaks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelli, N.; Balakin, A.A.; Westerhof, E.

    2010-01-01

    are estimated in a vacuum beam propagation between the edge density layer and the EC resonance absorption layer. Consequences on the EC beam propagation are investigated by using a simplified model in which the density fluctuations are described by a single harmonic oscillation. In addition, quasi......A numerical analysis of the electron cyclotron (EC) wave beam propagation in the presence of edge density fluctuations by means of a quasi-optical code [Balakin A. A. et al, Nucl. Fusion 48 (2008) 065003] is presented. The effects of the density fluctuations on the wave beam propagation...

  6. Fluctuation in nuclear dynamics and multifragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chomaz, P.; Di Toro, M.; Randrup, J.

    1993-01-01

    We first explain why any reduced descriptions, such as mean field approximation, are stochastic in nature. This concept is illustrated on the schematic example of the Hysteresis circle of two compasses. We study the dynamical behaviour of unstable systems, characterized by the occurrence of bifurcations or phase transitions. Concerning nuclear matter, we discuss the spinodal instability both in two and in three dimensions. In such a critical situation, we explore the possibility to replace the stochastic part of the collision integral in the Boltzmann-Langevin model by the numerical noise associated with the finite number of test particles in ordinary BUU treatment

  7. Fluctuation in nuclear dynamics and multifragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chomaz, P.; Colonna, M.; Burgio, G.F.; Guarnera, A.; Di Toro, M.; Randrup, J.

    1993-01-01

    We first explain why any reduced descriptions, such as mean field approximation, are stochastic in nature. This concept is illustrated on the schematic example of the Hysteresis circle of two compasses. We study the dynamical behaviour of unstable systems, characterized by the occurrence of bifurcations or phase transitions. Concerning nuclear matter, we discuss the spinodal instability in two dimensions. In such a critical situation, we explore the possibility to replace the stochastic part of the collision integral in the Boltzmann-Langevin model by the numerical noise associated with the finite number of test particles in ordinary BUU treatment. (author). 24 refs., 10 figs

  8. Fluctuation in nuclear dynamics and multifragmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chomaz, P. [Grand Accelerateur National d`Ions Lourds (GANIL), 14 - Caen (France); Colonna, M.; Burgio, G.F.; Guarnera, A. [Grand Accelerateur National d`Ions Lourds (GANIL), 14 - Caen (France)]|[Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Catania (Italy); Di Toro, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Catania (Italy); Randrup, J. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)]|[Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany)

    1993-12-31

    We first explain why any reduced descriptions, such as mean field approximation, are stochastic in nature. This concept is illustrated on the schematic example of the Hysteresis circle of two compasses. We study the dynamical behaviour of unstable systems, characterized by the occurrence of bifurcations or phase transitions. Concerning nuclear matter, we discuss the spinodal instability in two dimensions. In such a critical situation, we explore the possibility to replace the stochastic part of the collision integral in the Boltzmann-Langevin model by the numerical noise associated with the finite number of test particles in ordinary BUU treatment. (author). 24 refs., 10 figs.

  9. Evolutionary dynamics with fluctuating population sizes and strong mutualism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chotibut, Thiparat; Nelson, David R.

    2015-08-01

    Game theory ideas provide a useful framework for studying evolutionary dynamics in a well-mixed environment. This approach, however, typically enforces a strictly fixed overall population size, deemphasizing natural growth processes. We study a competitive Lotka-Volterra model, with number fluctuations, that accounts for natural population growth and encompasses interaction scenarios typical of evolutionary games. We show that, in an appropriate limit, the model describes standard evolutionary games with both genetic drift and overall population size fluctuations. However, there are also regimes where a varying population size can strongly influence the evolutionary dynamics. We focus on the strong mutualism scenario and demonstrate that standard evolutionary game theory fails to describe our simulation results. We then analytically and numerically determine fixation probabilities as well as mean fixation times using matched asymptotic expansions, taking into account the population size degree of freedom. These results elucidate the interplay between population dynamics and evolutionary dynamics in well-mixed systems.

  10. Evolutionary dynamics with fluctuating population sizes and strong mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chotibut, Thiparat; Nelson, David R

    2015-08-01

    Game theory ideas provide a useful framework for studying evolutionary dynamics in a well-mixed environment. This approach, however, typically enforces a strictly fixed overall population size, deemphasizing natural growth processes. We study a competitive Lotka-Volterra model, with number fluctuations, that accounts for natural population growth and encompasses interaction scenarios typical of evolutionary games. We show that, in an appropriate limit, the model describes standard evolutionary games with both genetic drift and overall population size fluctuations. However, there are also regimes where a varying population size can strongly influence the evolutionary dynamics. We focus on the strong mutualism scenario and demonstrate that standard evolutionary game theory fails to describe our simulation results. We then analytically and numerically determine fixation probabilities as well as mean fixation times using matched asymptotic expansions, taking into account the population size degree of freedom. These results elucidate the interplay between population dynamics and evolutionary dynamics in well-mixed systems.

  11. House price fluctuations and the business cycle dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abate, Girum Dagnachew; Anselin, Luc

    This paper investigates the impact of house price movements on output in a space-time dynamic framework. The transmission of house price fluctuations to the macroeconomy both across space and over time is explicitly considered through spatial econometric modeling techniques. Using 373 metropolita...

  12. Minimum entropy production principle from a dynamical fluctuation law

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maes, C.; Netočný, Karel

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 5 (2007), 053306/1-053306/12 ISSN 0022-2488 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/07/0404 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : dynamical fluctuations * entropy production Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 1.137, year: 2007

  13. The influence of the edge density fluctuations on electron cyclotron wave beam propagation in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertelli, N; Balakin, A A; Westerhof, E; Garcia, O E; Nielsen, A H; Naulin, V

    2010-01-01

    A numerical analysis of the electron cyclotron (EC) wave beam propagation in the presence of edge density fluctuations by means of a quasi-optical code [Balakin A. A. et al, Nucl. Fusion 48 (2008) 065003] is presented. The effects of the density fluctuations on the wave beam propagation are estimated in a vacuum beam propagation between the edge density layer and the EC resonance absorption layer. Consequences on the EC beam propagation are investigated by using a simplified model in which the density fluctuations are described by a single harmonic oscillation. In addition, quasi-optical calculations are shown by using edge density fluctuations as calculated by two-dimensional interchange turbulence simulations and validated with the experimental data [O. E. Garcia et al, Nucl. Fusion 47 (2007) 667].

  14. Observations of density fluctuations in an elongated Bose gas: ideal gas and quasicondensate regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteve, J; Trebbia, J-B; Schumm, T; Aspect, A; Westbrook, C I; Bouchoule, I

    2006-04-07

    We report in situ measurements of density fluctuations in a quasi-one-dimensional 87Rb Bose gas at thermal equilibrium in an elongated harmonic trap. We observe an excess of fluctuations compared to the shot-noise level expected for uncorrelated atoms. At low atomic density, the measured excess is in good agreement with the expected "bunching" for an ideal Bose gas. At high density, the measured fluctuations are strongly reduced compared to the ideal gas case. We attribute this reduction to repulsive interatomic interactions. The data are compared with a calculation for an interacting Bose gas in the quasicondensate regime.

  15. CO{sub 2} laser diagnostics for measurements of the plasma density profile and plasma density fluctuations on LHD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vyacheslavov, L.N. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Tanaka, K.; Kawahata, K. [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan)

    2001-04-01

    A CO{sub 2} laser based diagnostics complimentary to the existing FIR interferometer is proposed. It combines interferometry for plasma density profile measurement under conditions of large density gradients, and both imaging and scattering techniques for observation of plasma fluctuations. Two-colour interferometer with a slablike probe beam and a single multichannel linear detector array provide observation of plasma density profile and density fluctuations at two locations along the probe beam. Basic characteristics of the diagnostics are considered as well as some effects that include dispersion and are critical for two colour imaging technique. The results of the bench-top experiments with the prototype of the interferometer are presented. (author)

  16. CO2 laser diagnostics for measurements of the plasma density profile and plasma density fluctuations on LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vyacheslavov, L.N.; Tanaka, K.; Kawahata, K.

    2001-04-01

    A CO 2 laser based diagnostics complimentary to the existing FIR interferometer is proposed. It combines interferometry for plasma density profile measurement under conditions of large density gradients, and both imaging and scattering techniques for observation of plasma fluctuations. Two-colour interferometer with a slablike probe beam and a single multichannel linear detector array provide observation of plasma density profile and density fluctuations at two locations along the probe beam. Basic characteristics of the diagnostics are considered as well as some effects that include dispersion and are critical for two colour imaging technique. The results of the bench-top experiments with the prototype of the interferometer are presented. (author)

  17. DENSITY FLUCTUATIONS UPSTREAM AND DOWNSTREAM OF INTERPLANETARY SHOCKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitňa, A.; Šafránková, J.; Němeček, Z.; Goncharov, O.; Němec, F.; Přech, L. [Charles University, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, V Holešovičkách 2, 180 00 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Chen, C. H. K. [Department of Physics, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Zastenker, G. N., E-mail: jana.safrankova@mff.cuni.cz [Space Research Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia, Profsoyuznaya ul. 84/32, Moscow 117997 (Russian Federation)

    2016-03-01

    Interplanetary (IP) shocks as typical large-scale disturbances arising from processes such as stream–stream interactions or Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejection (ICME) launching play a significant role in the energy redistribution, dissipation, particle heating, acceleration, etc. They can change the properties of the turbulent cascade on shorter scales. We focus on changes of the level and spectral properties of ion flux fluctuations upstream and downstream of fast forward oblique shocks. Although the fluctuation level increases by an order of magnitude across the shock, the spectral slope in the magnetohydrodynamic range is conserved. The frequency spectra upstream of IP shocks are the same as those in the solar wind (if not spoiled by foreshock waves). The spectral slopes downstream are roughly proportional to the corresponding slopes upstream, suggesting that the properties of the turbulent cascade are conserved across the shock; thus, the shock does not destroy the shape of the spectrum as turbulence passes through it. Frequency spectra downstream of IP shocks often exhibit “an exponential decay” in the ion kinetic range that was earlier reported at electron scales in the solar wind or at ion scales in the interstellar medium. We suggest that the exponential shape of ion flux spectra in this range is caused by stronger damping of the fluctuations in the downstream region.

  18. Mass density fluctuations in quantum and classical descriptions of liquid water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galib, Mirza; Duignan, Timothy T.; Misteli, Yannick; Baer, Marcel D.; Schenter, Gregory K.; Hutter, Jürg; Mundy, Christopher J.

    2017-06-01

    First principles molecular dynamics simulation protocol is established using revised functional of Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (revPBE) in conjunction with Grimme's third generation of dispersion (D3) correction to describe the properties of water at ambient conditions. This study also demonstrates the consistency of the structure of water across both isobaric (NpT) and isothermal (NVT) ensembles. Going beyond the standard structural benchmarks for liquid water, we compute properties that are connected to both local structure and mass density fluctuations that are related to concepts of solvation and hydrophobicity. We directly compare our revPBE results to the Becke-Lee-Yang-Parr (BLYP) plus Grimme dispersion corrections (D2) and both the empirical fixed charged model (SPC/E) and many body interaction potential model (MB-pol) to further our understanding of how the computed properties herein depend on the form of the interaction potential.

  19. Neutron density fluctuations in point reactor systems with dichotomic reactivity noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sako, Okitsugu

    1984-01-01

    The exactly solvable stochastic point reactor model systems are analyzed through the stochastic Liouville equation. Three kinds of model systems are treated: (1) linear system without delayed neutrons, (2) linear system with one-group of delayed neutrons, and (3) nonlinear system with direct power feedback. The exact expressions for the fluctuations of neutron density, such as the moments, autocorrelation function and power spectral density, are derived in the case where the colored reactivity noise is described by the dichotomic, or two state, Markov process with arbitrary correlation time and intensity, and the effects of the finite correlation time and intensity of the noise on the neutron density fluctuations are investigated. The influence of presence of delayed neutrons and the effect of nonlinearity of system on the neutron density fluctuations are also elucidated. When the reactivity correlation time is very short, the correlation time has almost no effect on the power spectral density, and the relative fluctuation of neutron density in the stationary state is not affected very much by the presence of delayed neutrons and also by the nonlinearity of system. On the other hand, if the reactivity correlation time is very long, the effect of the reactivity noise on the power spectral density appears at very low frequency, and the presence of delayed neutrons has an effect of reducing the neutron density fluctuations. (author)

  20. Density fluctuations in ohmic-, L-mode an H-mode discharges of ASDEX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodel, G; Holzhauer, E [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Plasmaforschung; Niedermeyer, H; Endler, M; Gerhardt, J; Giannone, L.; Wagner, F; Zohm, H [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany)

    1991-01-01

    The 119 [mu]m laser scattering device ASDEX was used to investigate the direction of propagation and temporal development of density fluctuations. In ohmic discharges the density fluctuations propagate predominantly in the electron-diamagnetic direction and change direction with NI co-injection. A strong drop in total scattered power together with a further increase in the frequency shift is observed after the build-up of the transport barrier. Similar observations have been reported on other tokamaks. Due to the finite spatial resolution of the scattering system the variation of the fluctuations with local parameters cannot be sufficiently resolved to confirm their nature. (author) 5 refs., 3 figs.

  1. Density fluctuations in ohmic-, L-mode an H-mode discharges of ASDEX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodel, G.; Holzhauer, E.

    1991-01-01

    The 119 μm laser scattering device ASDEX was used to investigate the direction of propagation and temporal development of density fluctuations. In ohmic discharges the density fluctuations propagate predominantly in the electron-diamagnetic direction and change direction with NI co-injection. A strong drop in total scattered power together with a further increase in the frequency shift is observed after the build-up of the transport barrier. Similar observations have been reported on other tokamaks. Due to the finite spatial resolution of the scattering system the variation of the fluctuations with local parameters cannot be sufficiently resolved to confirm their nature. (author) 5 refs., 3 figs

  2. Emergent dynamics of spiking neurons with fluctuating threshold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Anindita; Das, M. K.

    2017-05-01

    Role of fluctuating threshold on neuronal dynamics is investigated. The threshold function is assumed to follow a normal probability distribution. Standard deviation of inter-spike interval of the response is computed as an indicator of irregularity in spike emission. It has been observed that, the irregularity in spiking is more if the threshold variation is more. A significant change in modal characteristics of Inter Spike Intervals (ISI) is seen to occur as a function of fluctuation parameter. Investigation is further carried out for coupled system of neurons. Cooperative dynamics of coupled neurons are discussed in view of synchronization. Total and partial synchronization regimes are depicted with the help of contour plots of synchrony measure under various conditions. Results of this investigation may provide a basis for exploring the complexities of neural communication and brain functioning.

  3. Density, potential and temperature fluctuations in Wendelstein 7-AS and ASDEX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balbin, R.; Hidalgo, C.; Carlson, A.; Endler, M.; Giannone, L.; Herre, G.; Niedermeyer, H.; Rudyj, A.; Theimer, G.

    1992-01-01

    Measurements of ion saturation current, floating potential and temperature fluctuations in Wendelstein 7-AS stellarator (W7-AS) and ASDEX tokamak have been carried out. A reciprocating Langmuir probe with an array of 19 graphite tips has been used to obtain the radial profiles of these fluctuations in W7-AS and ASDEX. In both devices, a reversal of the radial electric field and an associated velocity shear layer at the plasma boundary have been observed. At the radial position where the phase velocity the poloidal direction of the fluctuations goes to zero, the normalised ion saturation current fluctuation level of 0.2 is the same for edge plasma parameters of similar temperatures and densities. A spatial crosscorrelation between floating potential and ion saturation current fluctuations has been observed in both machines and this feature can be explained in terms of turbulent eddies. A comparison of fluctuations in a tokamak and stellarator therefore shows many features in common. (orig.)

  4. Plasma density fluctuation measurements from coherent and incoherent microwave reflection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conway, G.D.; Schott, L.; Hirose, A.

    1996-01-01

    Using the spatial coherency present in a reflected microwave signal (Conway et al 1994 Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65 2920) it is possible to measure a coherent, Γ c , and an incoherent, Γ i , reflection coefficient (proportional to the radar cross section) from a turbulent plasma cutoff layer. Results acquired with a 17 GHz reflectometer from a STOR-M tokamak edge region (r/a ∼ 0.8) give significant Γ c and Γ i , which suggests two-dimensional structure in the reflection layer. Using a 'distorted-mirror' model for the plasma fluctuations, estimates of an effective radial width, σ, and poloidal correlation length, L p , can be derived from the reflection coefficients. STOR-M results typically give a σ of a few millimetres and an L p of a couple of centimetres. (author)

  5. Structural fluctuation governed dynamic diradical character in pentacene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hongfang; Chen, Mengzhen; Song, Xinyu; Bu, Yuxiang

    2015-06-07

    We unravel intriguing dynamical diradical behavior governed by structural fluctuation in pentacene using ab initio molecular dynamics simulation. In contrast to static equilibrium configuration of pentacene with a closed-shell ground state without diradical character, due to structural fluctuation, some of its dynamical snapshot configurations exhibit an open-shell broken-symmetry singlet ground state with diradical character, and such diradical character presents irregular pulsing behavior in time evolution. Not all structural changes can lead to diradical character, only those involving the shortening of cross-linking C-C bonds and variations of the C-C bonds in polyacetylene chains are the main contributors. This scenario about diradicalization is distinctly different from that in long acenes. The essence is that structural distortion cooperatively raises the HOMO and lowers the LUMO, efficiently reducing the HOMO-LUMO and singlet-triplet energy gaps, which facilitate the formation of a broken-symmetry open-shell singlet state. The irregular pulsing behavior originates from the mixing of normal vibrations in pentacene. This fascinating behavior suggests the potential application of pentacene as a suitable building block in the design of new electronic devices due to its magnetism-controllability through energy induction. This work provides new insight into inherent electronic property fluctuation in acenes.

  6. Glass transition and density fluctuations in the fragile glass former orthoterphenyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monaco, G.; Fioretto, D.; Comez, L.; Ruocco, G.

    2001-01-01

    High-resolution Brillouin light scattering is used to measure the dynamic structure factor of the fragile glass former orthoterphenyl (OTP) in a wide temperature range around the glass transition region and up to the boiling point. The whole set of spectra is described in terms of a phenomenological generalized hydrodynamic model. In the supercooled phase, we show the contemporary existence of the structural process, whose main features come out to be consistent with the results obtained with other spectroscopies, and of a secondary, activated process, which occurs on the 10 -11 s time scale and has a low activation energy (E a f =0.28 kcal/mol). This latter process, which is also present in the glassy phase and seems to be insensitive to the glass transition, is attributed to the coupling between the density modes and intramolecular degrees of freedom. In the normal liquid phase, the two processes merge together, and the resulting characteristic time is no longer consistent with those derived with other spectroscopies. The analysis points to the conclusion that, for what concerns the long-wavelength density fluctuations in fragile glass formers such as OTP, the universal dynamical features related to the glass transition come out clearly only in the supercooled phase and at frequencies lower than ∼10 6 Hz

  7. Super-Hubble de Sitter fluctuations and the dynamical RG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgess, C.P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Leblond, L.; Shandera, S. [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, Ontario (Canada); Holman, R., E-mail: cburgess@perimeterinstitute.ca, E-mail: lleblond@perimeterinstitute.ca, E-mail: rha@andrew.cmu.edu, E-mail: sshandera@perimeterinstitute.ca [Department of Physics, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Perturbative corrections to correlation functions for interacting theories in de Sitter spacetime often grow secularly with time, due to the properties of fluctuations on super-Hubble scales. This growth can lead to a breakdown of perturbation theory at late times. We argue that Dynamical Renormalization Group (DRG) techniques provide a convenient framework for interpreting and resumming these secularly growing terms. In the case of a massless scalar field in de Sitter with quartic self-interaction, the resummed result is also less singular in the infrared, in precisely the manner expected if a dynamical mass is generated. We compare this improved infrared behavior with large-N expansions when applicable.

  8. Radial evolution of the intermittency of density fluctuations in the fast solar wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruno, R.; D'Amicis, R.; Telloni, D.; Primavera, L.; Sorriso-Valvo, L.; Carbone, V.; Malara, F.; Veltri, P.; Pietropaolo, E.

    2014-01-01

    We study the radial evolution of the intermittency of density fluctuations in the fast solar wind. The study is performed by analyzing the plasma density measurements provided by Helios 2 in the inner heliosphere between 0.3 and 0.9 AU. The analysis is carried out by means of a complete set of diagnostic tools, including the flatness factor at different timescales to estimate intermittency, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test to estimate the degree of intermittency, and the Fourier transform to estimate the power spectral densities of these fluctuations. Density fluctuations within the fast wind are rather intermittent and their level of intermittency, together with the amplitude of intermittent events, decreases with the distance from the Sun, at odds with the intermittency of both magnetic field and all other plasma parameters. Furthermore, the intermittent events are strongly correlated, exhibiting temporal clustering. This indicates that the mechanism underlying their generation departs from a time-varying Poisson process. A remarkable, qualitative similarity with the behavior of plasma density fluctuations obtained from a numerical study of the nonlinear evolution of parametric instability in the solar wind supports the idea that this mechanism has an important role in governing density fluctuations in the inner heliosphere.

  9. Density fluctuation measurement at edge and internal transport barriers in JT-60U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyama, N; Bruskin, L G; Takenaga, H; Shinohara, K; Isayama, A; Ide, S; Sakamoto, Y; Suzuki, T; Fujita, T; Kamada, Y; Miura, Y

    2004-01-01

    A new analytical method using a combination of the O-mode reflectometer and a time-dependent two-dimensional full-wave simulation code has been developed for the quantitative evaluation of density fluctuations in JT-60U. Two statistical parameters of the reflectometer signals, fluctuation index (F) and elongation factor (χ), are introduced as measures of the fluctuation amplitude (γ) and the width of the poloidal wave number spectrum (k θ0 ). This method is applied to the edge transport barrier (ETB) and internal transport barrier (ITB). At the transition to the ELM free H-mode phase, analysis suggests that the density fluctuation level reduced from 1.9-3.2% to 0.29-0.44%, while the value of k θ0 changed from 1.6-2.0 to 0.77-0.81 cm -1 in the ETB region. On the other hand, the amplitude of the density fluctuation was evaluated as 1.0-2.0% at the ITB region, even after the formation of the box type ITB. Instead, when a pellet was injected into the plasma with a box type ITB as an external perturbation, a remarkable change in the frequency spectrum was observed. Analysis suggests a reduction in the density fluctuation level to 0.4-0.6% after the pellet injection

  10. Topological terms induced by finite temperature and density fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemi, A.J.; Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210)

    1986-01-01

    In (3+1)-dimensional finite-temperature and -density SU(2) gauge theories with left-handed fermions, the three-dimensional Chern-Simons term (topological mass) can be induced by radiative corrections. This result is derived by use of a family's index theorem which also implies that in many other quantum field theories various additional lower-dimensional topological terms can be induced. In the high-temperature limit these terms dominate the partition function, which suggests applications to early-Universe cosmology

  11. Ras activation by SOS: Allosteric regulation by altered fluctuation dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iversen, Lars; Tu, Hsiung-Lin; Lin, Wan-Chen; Christensen, Sune M.; Abel, Steven M.; Iwig, Jeff; Wu, Hung-Jen; Gureasko, Jodi; Rhodes, Christopher; Petit, Rebecca S.; Hansen, Scott D.; Thill, Peter; Yu, Cheng-Han; Stamou, Dimitrios; Chakraborty, Arup K.; Kuriyan, John; Groves, Jay T.

    2014-01-01

    Activation of the small guanosine triphosphatase H-Ras by the exchange factor Son of Sevenless (SOS) is an important hub for signal transduction. Multiple layers of regulation, through protein and membrane interactions, govern activity of SOS. We characterized the specific activity of individual SOS molecules catalyzing nucleotide exchange in H-Ras. Single-molecule kinetic traces revealed that SOS samples a broad distribution of turnover rates through stochastic fluctuations between distinct, long-lived (more than 100 seconds), functional states. The expected allosteric activation of SOS by Ras–guanosine triphosphate (GTP) was conspicuously absent in the mean rate. However, fluctuations into highly active states were modulated by Ras-GTP. This reveals a mechanism in which functional output may be determined by the dynamical spectrum of rates sampled by a small number of enzymes, rather than the ensemble average. PMID:24994643

  12. Core density fluctuations in reverse magnetic shear plasmas with internal transport barrier on JT-60U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazikian, R.; Shinohara, K.; Yoshino, R.; Fujita, T.; Shirai, H.; Kramer, G.T.

    1999-01-01

    First measurements of the radial correlation length of density fluctuations in JT-60U plasmas with internal transport barrier (ITB) is reported. The measurements are obtained using a newly installed correlation reflectometer operating in the upper X-mode. Before transport barrier formation in the low beam power current ramp-up phase of the discharge, reflectometer measurements indicate density fluctuation levels n-tilde/n∼0.1-0.2% and radial correlation lengths 2-3 cm (k r p i ≤0.5) in the central plasma region (r/a r p i ∼3. However, fluctuation levels are considerably higher than measured near the magnetic axis. Reflectometer measurements obtained at the foot of the ITB also indicate high fluctuation levels compared to measurements in the central region of the discharge. (author)

  13. Effect of magnetic configuration on density fluctuation and particle transport in LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, K.; Michael, C.; Yamagishi, O.; Ida, K.; Yamada, H.; Yoshinuma, M.; Yokoyama, M.; Miyazawa, J.; Morita, S.; Kawahata, K.; Tokzawa, T.; Shoji, M.; Vyacheslavov, L.N.; Sanin, A.L.

    2005-01-01

    The study of fluctuations and particle transport is important issue in heliotron and stellarator devices as well as in tokamaks. A two dimensional phase contrast interferometer (2D PCI) was developed to investigate fluctuation characteristics, which play role in confinement. The current 2D PCI can detect fluctuations for which -1 0.3 -1 and 5< f<500kHz. With the use of magnetic shear and the 2D detector, the spatial resolution around 20% of averaged minor radius is possible presently. The strongest fluctuations are localized in the plasma edge, where density gradients are negative, but fluctuations also exist in the positive density gradient region of the hollow density profile. The phase velocity of fluctuations in the positive gradient region is close to plasma ErxBt rotation. On the other hand, fluctuations in the negative density gradient region propagate in the ion diamagnetic direction in the plasma frame and do not follow ErxBt rotation. This suggests there is a different nature of the fluctuations in the positive and negative density gradient regions. A particle transport was studied by means of density modulation experiments. The systematic study was done at Rax=3.6m, which is so-called standard configuration. The density profiles vary from peaked to hollow with increasing heating power. It was also found that particle diffusion and convection are functions of electron temperature and its gradient respectively. The magnetic configuration is another parameter, which characterizes particle confinement. At more outward shifted configurations, helical ripple becomes larger and the ergodic region becomes thicker, then neoclassical transport becomes larger. However estimated diffusion coefficients are still around one order of magnitude larger than neoclassical values in edge region, where ρ = 0.7 ∼ 1.0 and they are larger at more outward configurations. At the same time the convection velocity is found to be comparable with neoclassical prediction at Rax=3

  14. Response functions of cold neutron matter: density, spin and current fluctuations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, Jochen; Sedrakian, Armen [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Goethe-Universitaet, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    We study the response of a single-component pair-correlated baryonic Fermi-liquid to density, spin, and their current perturbations. A complete set of response functions is calculated in the low-temperature regime. We derive the spectral functions of collective excitations associated with the density, density-current, spin, and spin-current perturbations. The dispersion relations of density and spin fluctuations are determined and it is shown that the density fluctuations lead to exciton-like undamped bound states, whereas the spin excitations correspond to diffusive modes above the pair-breaking threshold. The contribution of the collective pair-breaking modes to the specific heat of neutron matter at subnuclear densities is computed and is shown to be comparable to that of the degenerate electron gas at not too low temperatures.

  15. Density, potential and temperature fluctuations in Wendelstein 7-AS and ASDEX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balbin, R; Hidalgo, C [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Madrid (Spain); Carlson, A; Endler, M; Giannone, L.; Niedermeyer, H; Rudyj, A; Theimer, G [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany)

    1993-12-31

    Measurements of density, potential and temperature fluctuations in Wendelstein 7-AS stellarator (W7-AS) and ASDEX tokamak have been carried out. The properties of plasma fluctuations in a tokamak and stellarator can then be compared. A reciprocating Langmuir probe with an array of 19 graphite tips has been used to measure the radial profiles of fluctuations in the ion saturation current and floating potential in W7-AS and ASDEX. In both devices, a reversal in radial electric field and an associated velocity shear layer at the plasma boundary have been observed and in both cases the normalized ion saturation current fluctuation level decreases monotonically moving towards the plasma centre and through the shear layer. At the radial position where the phase velocity in the poloidal direction of the fluctuations goes to zero, the normalized ion saturation current fluctuation level of 0.25 are similar for edge plasma parameters of similar temperatures and densities. A spatial crosscorrelation between fluctuations in floating potential and ion saturation current has been observed in both machines. (author) 6 refs., 4 figs.

  16. Temperature, density and potential fluctuations by a swept Langmuir probe in Wendelstein 7-AS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giannone, L.; Niedermeyer, H; Endler, M; Theimer, G; Rudyj, A; Verplancke, Ph [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Balbin, R; Hidalgo, C [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Madrid (Spain)

    1994-12-31

    Numerous experiments using a Langmuir probe to investigate the magnitude of temperature fluctuations and their contribution to heat transport in the edge region of tokamak plasmas have been carried out. Sweeping the voltage applied to a tip fast enough to ensure that the ion saturation current, floating potential and electron temperature may be assumed to be constant during the sweep is experimentally more difficult than alternative schemes but this disadvantage is compensated by the ability to measure all three of these quantities at one spatial location. Sweep frequencies up to 600 kHz have been employed to obtain the current-voltage characteristic. A radial scan in the vicinity of the velocity shear layer on W7-AS stellarator was performed. Inside and outside the shear layer the normalised magnitude of the temperature fluctuations was found to be approximately 30% larger than the magnitude of the electron density fluctuations, approaching a value of 0.12 and 0.09 respectively at a radial position 1 cm inside the shear layer. An increase in the coherency of the temperature, floating potential and density fluctuations between tips with a poloidal separation of 2 mm was also measured as the shear layer was crossed. Heat conduction produced by correlated temperature and poloidal electric field fluctuations is therefore possible. An increasing coherence of temperature and floating potential fluctuations leads to an increase in the coherence of temperature and plasma potential fluctuations as the shear layer was crossed. (author) 7 refs., 3 figs.

  17. Investigation of density fluctuations in the ASDEX tokamak via collective laser scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodel, G.; Holzhauer, E.

    1990-01-01

    A 119μm laser scattering experiment is used on ASDEX to investigate wavenumber and frequency spectra of the density fluctuations occurring in the different operational modes of the machine. The aim of the measurements is to get insight in the physical nature of the fluctuations and their possible role in connection with anomalous transport. Since no complete theory exists, the simple guidelines of gyroradius-scaling and mixinglength level are used in the choice of parameters to be varied. Particular emphasis has been placed on the investigation of the fluctuations in the ohmic phase. (author) 1 ref., 3 figs

  18. Investigation of density fluctuations in the ASDEX tokamak via collective laser scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodel, G.; Holzhauer, E.

    1990-01-01

    A 119 μm laser scattering experiment is used on ASDEX to investigate wavenumber and frequency spectra of the density fluctuations occurring in the different operational modes of the machine. The aim of the measurements is to get insight in the physical nature of the fluctuations and their possible role in connection with anomalous transport. Since no complete theory exists, the simple guidelines of gyroradius-scaling and mixinglength level are used in the choice of parameters to be varied. Particular emphasis has been placed on the investigation of the fluctuations in the ohmic phase. (orig./AH)

  19. Study of the thermal and suprathermal electron density fluctuations of the plasma in the Focus experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jolas, A.

    1981-10-01

    An experiment on Thomson scattering of ruby laser light by the electrons of a plasma produced by an intense discharge between the electrodes of a coaxial gun in a gas at low pressure has been carried out. It is shown that the imploding plasma is made up of layers with different characteristics: a dense plasma layer where the density fluctuations are isotropic and have a thermal level, and a tenuous plasma layer where the fluctuations are anisotropic, and strongly suprathermal. The suprathermal fluctuations are attributed to microscopic instabilities generated by the electric current circulating in the transition zone where the magnetic field penetrates the plasma [fr

  20. Coherent density fluctuation model as a local-scale limit to ATDHF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonov, A.N.; Petkov, I.Zh.; Stoitsov, M.V.

    1985-04-01

    The local scale transformation method is used for the construction of an Adiabatic Time-Dependent Hartree-Fock approach in terms of the local density distribution. The coherent density fluctuation relations of the model result in a particular case when the ''flucton'' local density is connected with the plane wave determinant model function be means of the local-scale coordinate transformation. The collective potential energy expression is obtained and its relation to the nuclear matter energy saturation curve is revealed. (author)

  1. Effect of magnetic and density fluctuations on the propagation of lower hybrid waves in tokamaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahala, George; Vahala, Linda; Bonoli, Paul T.

    1992-12-01

    Lower hybrid waves have been used extensively for plasma heating, current drive, and ramp-up as well as sawteeth stabilization. The wave kinetic equation for lower hybrid wave propagation is extended to include the effects of both magnetic and density fluctuations. This integral equation is then solved by Monte Carlo procedures for a toroidal plasma. It is shown that even for magnetic/density fluctuation levels on the order of 10-4, there are significant magnetic fluctuation effects on the wave power deposition into the plasma. This effect is quite pronounced if the magnetic fluctuation spectrum is peaked within the plasma. For Alcator-C-Mod [I. H. Hutchinson and the Alcator Group, Proceedings of the IEEE 13th Symposium on Fusion Engineering (IEEE, New York, 1990), Cat. No. 89CH 2820-9, p. 13] parameters, it seems possible to be able to infer information on internal magnetic fluctuations from hard x-ray data—especially since the effects of fluctuations on electron power density can explain the hard x-ray data from the JT-60 tokamak [H. Kishimoto and JT-60 Team, in Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, 1989), Vol. I, p. 67].

  2. Multi-spacecraft observations of small-scale fluctuations in density and fields in plasmaspheric plumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Matsui

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this event study, small-scale fluctuations in plasmaspheric plumes with time scales of ~10 s to minutes in the spacecraft frame are examined. In one event, plasmaspheric plumes are observed by Cluster, while IMAGE measured density enhancement at a similar location. Fluctuations in density exist in plumes as detected by Cluster and are accompanied by fluctuations in magnetic fields and electric fields. Magnetic fluctuations are transverse and along the direction of the plumes. The E/B ratio is smaller than the Alfvén velocity. Another similar event is briefly presented. We then consider physical properties of the fluctuations. Alfvén mode modulated by the feedback instability is one possibility, although non-local generation is likely. It is hard to show that the fluctuations represent a fast mode. Interchange motion is possible due to the consistency between measurements and expectations. The energy source could be a pressure or density gradient in plasmaspheric plumes. When more events are accumulated so that statistical analysis becomes feasible, this type of study will be useful to understand the time evolution of plumes.

  3. Separating intrinsic from extrinsic fluctuations in dynamic biological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilfinger, Andreas; Paulsson, Johan

    2011-07-19

    From molecules in cells to organisms in ecosystems, biological populations fluctuate due to the intrinsic randomness of individual events and the extrinsic influence of changing environments. The combined effect is often too complex for effective analysis, and many studies therefore make simplifying assumptions, for example ignoring either intrinsic or extrinsic effects to reduce the number of model assumptions. Here we mathematically demonstrate how two identical and independent reporters embedded in a shared fluctuating environment can be used to identify intrinsic and extrinsic noise terms, but also how these contributions are qualitatively and quantitatively different from what has been previously reported. Furthermore, we show for which classes of biological systems the noise contributions identified by dual-reporter methods correspond to the noise contributions predicted by correct stochastic models of either intrinsic or extrinsic mechanisms. We find that for broad classes of systems, the extrinsic noise from the dual-reporter method can be rigorously analyzed using models that ignore intrinsic stochasticity. In contrast, the intrinsic noise can be rigorously analyzed using models that ignore extrinsic stochasticity only under very special conditions that rarely hold in biology. Testing whether the conditions are met is rarely possible and the dual-reporter method may thus produce flawed conclusions about the properties of the system, particularly about the intrinsic noise. Our results contribute toward establishing a rigorous framework to analyze dynamically fluctuating biological systems.

  4. Frequency-resolved interferometric measurement of local density fluctuations for turbulent combustion analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Köberl, S; Giuliani, F; Woisetschläger, J; Fontaneto, F

    2010-01-01

    A validation of a novel interferometric measurement technique for the frequency-resolved detection of local density fluctuation in turbulent combustion analysis was performed in this work. Two laser vibrometer systems together with a signal analyser were used to obtain frequency spectra of density fluctuations across a methane-jet flame. Since laser vibrometry is based on interferometric techniques, the derived signals are path-integrals along the measurement beam. To obtain local frequency spectra of density fluctuations, long-time-averaged measurements from each of the two systems were performed using correlation functions and cross spectra. Results were compared to data recorded by standard interferometric techniques for validation purposes. Additionally, Raman scattering and laser Doppler velocimetry were used for flame characterization

  5. Anisotropic dynamic mass density for fluidsolid composites

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Ying; Mei, Jun; Sheng, Ping

    2012-01-01

    By taking the low frequency limit of multiple-scattering theory, we obtain the dynamic effective mass density of fluidsolid composites with a two-dimensional rectangular lattice structure. The anisotropic mass density can be described by an angle

  6. BULK THERMODYNAMICS AND CHARGE FLUCTUATIONS AT NON-VANISHING BARYON DENSITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MIAO, C.; SCHMIDT, C.

    2007-01-01

    We present results on bulk thermodynamic quantities as well as net baryon number, strangeness and electric charge fluctuations in QCD at non-zero density and temperature obtained from lattice calculations with almost physical quark masses for two values of the lattice cut-off aT = 1/4 and 1/6. We show that with our improved p4fa3-action the cut-off effects are under control when using lattices with a temporal extent of 6 or larger and that the contribution to the equation of state, which is due to a finite chemical potential is small for μ q /T < 1. Moreover, at vanishing chemical potential, i.e. under conditions almost realized at RHIC and the LHC, quartic fluctuations of net baryon number and strangeness are large in a narrow temperature interval characterizing the transition region from the low to high temperature phase. At non-zero baryon number density, strangeness fluctuations are enhanced and correlated to fluctuations of the net baryon number. If strangeness is furthermore forced to vanish, as it may be the case in systems created in heavy ion collisions, strangeness fluctuations are significantly smaller than baryon number fluctuations

  7. Plasma mass density, species mix and fluctuation diagnostics using fast Alfven wave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikezi, H.; deGrassie, J.S.; Pinsker, R.I.; Snider, R.T.

    1996-06-01

    The authors propose to employ a fast Alfven wave interferometer and reflectometer as a tokamak diagnostic to measure the plasma mass density, D-T species mix profile, and density fluctuations. Utilize the property that the phase velocity of the fast wave propagating across the magnetic field is the Alfven speed with thermal correction, this fast wave interferometer on the DIII-D tokamak was successfully used to obtain the line integrated density. Since the position of the ion-ion hybrid cut-off in tokamaks is uniquely determined by the species mix ratio and the wave frequency, the reflectometer arrangement finds the species mix profile. The inversion method of reflectometry is discussed. The multiple chord interferometer also measures the mass density fluctuation profile.

  8. Plasma mass density, species mix and fluctuation diagnostics using fast Alfven wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikezi, H.; deGrassie, J.S.; Pinsker, R.I.; Snider, R.T.

    1996-06-01

    The authors propose to employ a fast Alfven wave interferometer and reflectometer as a tokamak diagnostic to measure the plasma mass density, D-T species mix profile, and density fluctuations. Utilize the property that the phase velocity of the fast wave propagating across the magnetic field is the Alfven speed with thermal correction, this fast wave interferometer on the DIII-D tokamak was successfully used to obtain the line integrated density. Since the position of the ion-ion hybrid cut-off in tokamaks is uniquely determined by the species mix ratio and the wave frequency, the reflectometer arrangement finds the species mix profile. The inversion method of reflectometry is discussed. The multiple chord interferometer also measures the mass density fluctuation profile

  9. Gas density fluctuations in the Perseus Cluster: clumping factor and velocity power spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuravleva, I.; Churazov, E.; Arevalo, P.; Schekochihin, A. A.; Allen, S. W.; Fabian, A. C.; Forman, W. R.; Sanders, J. S.; Simionescu, A.; Sunyaev, R.; Vikhlinin, A.; Werner, N.

    2015-05-20

    X-ray surface brightness fluctuations in the core of the Perseus Cluster are analysed, using deep observations with the Chandra observatory. The amplitude of gas density fluctuations on different scales is measured in a set of radial annuli. It varies from 7 to 12 per cent on scales of ~10–30 kpc within radii of 30–220 kpc from the cluster centre. Using a statistical linear relation between the observed amplitude of density fluctuations and predicted velocity, the characteristic velocity of gas motions on each scale is calculated. The typical amplitudes of the velocity outside the central 30 kpc region are 90–140 km s-1 on ~20–30 kpc scales and 70–100 km s-1 on smaller scales ~7–10 kpc. The velocity power spectrum (PS) is consistent with cascade of turbulence and its slope is in a broad agreement with the slope for canonical Kolmogorov turbulence. The gas clumping factor estimated from the PS of the density fluctuations is lower than 7–8 per cent for radii ~30–220 kpc from the centre, leading to a density bias of less than 3–4 per cent in the cluster core. Uncertainties of the analysis are examined and discussed. Future measurements of the gas velocities with the Astro-H, Athena and Smart-X observatories will directly measure the gas density–velocity perturbation relation and further reduce systematic uncertainties in this analysis.

  10. The scattering of E. M. waves from density fluctuations in a plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagfors, T.

    1977-01-01

    The scattering of electromagnetic (EM) waves by a single electron is developed from first principles. The result is used to derive the relationship of the scattered power spectrum to the spacetime Fourier transform of the electron density fluctuations in a plasma. (Auth.)

  11. Interplanetary Type III Bursts and Electron Density Fluctuations in the Solar Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupar, V.; Maksimovic, M.; Kontar, E. P.; Zaslavsky, A.; Santolik, O.; Soucek, J.; Kruparova, O.; Eastwood, J. P.; Szabo, A.

    2018-04-01

    Type III bursts are generated by fast electron beams originated from magnetic reconnection sites of solar flares. As propagation of radio waves in the interplanetary medium is strongly affected by random electron density fluctuations, type III bursts provide us with a unique diagnostic tool for solar wind remote plasma measurements. Here, we performed a statistical survey of 152 simple and isolated type III bursts observed by the twin-spacecraft Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory mission. We investigated their time–frequency profiles in order to retrieve decay times as a function of frequency. Next, we performed Monte Carlo simulations to study the role of scattering due to random electron density fluctuations on time–frequency profiles of radio emissions generated in the interplanetary medium. For simplification, we assumed the presence of isotropic electron density fluctuations described by a power law with the Kolmogorov spectral index. Decay times obtained from observations and simulations were compared. We found that the characteristic exponential decay profile of type III bursts can be explained by the scattering of the fundamental component between the source and the observer despite restrictive assumptions included in the Monte Carlo simulation algorithm. Our results suggest that relative electron density fluctuations /{n}{{e}} in the solar wind are 0.06–0.07 over wide range of heliospheric distances.

  12. Effect of Stochastic Charge Fluctuations on Dust Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Lorin; Shotorban, Babak; Hyde, Truell

    2017-10-01

    The charging of particles in a plasma environment occurs through the collection of electrons and ions on the particle surface. Depending on the particle size and the plasma density, the standard deviation of the number of collected elementary charges, which fluctuates due to the randomness in times of collisions with electrons or ions, may be a significant fraction of the equilibrium charge. We use a discrete stochastic charging model to simulate the variations in charge across the dust surface as well as in time. The resultant asymmetric particle potentials, even for spherical grains, has a significant impact on the particle coagulation rate as well as the structure of the resulting aggregates. We compare the effects on particle collisions and growth in typical laboratory and astrophysical plasma environments. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant PHY-1414523.

  13. Propagation of the lower hybrid wave in a density fluctuating scrape-off layer (SOL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madi, M; Peysson, Y; Decker, J; Kabalan, K Y

    2015-01-01

    The perturbation of the lower hybrid wave (LH) power spectrum by fluctuations of the plasma in the vicinity of the antenna is investigated by solving the full wave equation in a slab geometry using COMSOL Multiphysics®. The numerical model whose generality allows to study the effect of various types of fluctuations, including those with short characteristic wavelengths is validated against a coupling code in quiescent regimes. When electron density fluctuations along the toroidal direction are incorporated in the dielectric tensor over a thin perturbed layer in front of the grill, the power spectrum may be strongly modified from the antenna mouth to the plasma separatrix as the LH wave propagates. The diffraction effect by density fluctuations leads to the appearance of multiple satellite lobes with randomly varying positions and the averaged perturbation is found to be maximum for the Fourier components of the fluctuating spectrum in the vicinity of the launched LH wavelength. This highlights that fast toroidal inhomogeneities with short characteristics length scales in front of the grill may change significantly the initial LH power spectrum used in coupled ray-tracing and Fokker–Planck calculations. (paper)

  14. Density Fluctuations in the Solar Wind Driven by Alfvén Wave Parametric Decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Trevor A.; Badman, Samuel; Hellinger, Petr; Bale, Stuart D.

    2018-02-01

    Measurements and simulations of inertial compressive turbulence in the solar wind are characterized by anti-correlated magnetic fluctuations parallel to the mean field and density structures. This signature has been interpreted as observational evidence for non-propagating pressure balanced structures, kinetic ion-acoustic waves, as well as the MHD slow-mode. Given the high damping rates of parallel propagating compressive fluctuations, their ubiquity in satellite observations is surprising and suggestive of a local driving process. One possible candidate for the generation of compressive fluctuations in the solar wind is the Alfvén wave parametric instability. Here, we test the parametric decay process as a source of compressive waves in the solar wind by comparing the collisionless damping rates of compressive fluctuations with growth rates of the parametric decay instability daughter waves. Our results suggest that generation of compressive waves through parametric decay is overdamped at 1 au, but that the presence of slow-mode-like density fluctuations is correlated with the parametric decay of Alfvén waves.

  15. The role of fluctuations and interactions in pedestrian dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbetta, Alessandro; Meeusen, Jasper; Benzi, Roberto; Lee, Chung-Min; Toschi, Federico

    Understanding quantitatively the statistical behaviour of pedestrians walking in crowds is a major scientific challenge of paramount societal relevance. Walking humans exhibit a rich (stochastic) dynamics whose small and large deviations are driven, among others, by own will as well as by environmental conditions. Via 24/7 automatic pedestrian tracking from multiple overhead Microsoft Kinect depth sensors, we collected large ensembles of pedestrian trajectories (in the order of tens of millions) in different real-life scenarios. These scenarios include both narrow corridors and large urban hallways, enabling us to cover and compare a wide spectrum of typical pedestrian dynamics. We investigate the pedestrian motion measuring the PDFs, e.g. those of position, velocity and acceleration, and at unprecedentedly high statistical resolution. We consider the dependence of PDFs on flow conditions, focusing on diluted dynamics and pair-wise interactions (''collisions'') for mutual avoidance. By means of Langevin-like models we provide models for the measured data, inclusive typical fluctuations and rare events. This work is part of the JSTP research programme ``Vision driven visitor behaviour analysis and crowd management'' with Project Number 341-10-001, which is financed by the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO).

  16. Density fluctuation effects on collective neutrino oscillations in O-Ne-Mg core-collapse supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherry, John F.; Fuller, George M.; Wu Mengru; Qian Yongzhong; Carlson, J.; Duan Huaiyu

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the effect of matter density fluctuations on supernova collective neutrino flavor oscillations. In particular, we use full multiangle, three-flavor, self-consistent simulations of the evolution of the neutrino flavor field in the envelope of an O-Ne-Mg core-collapse supernova at shock breakout (neutronization neutrino burst) to study the effect of the matter density ''bump'' left by the He-burning shell. We find a seemingly counterintuitive increase in the overall ν e survival probability created by this matter density feature. We discuss this behavior in terms of the interplay between the matter density profile and neutrino collective effects. While our results give new insights into this interplay, they also suggest an immediate consequence for supernova neutrino burst detection: it will be difficult to use a burst signal to extract information on fossil burning shells or other fluctuations of this scale in the matter density profile. Consistent with previous studies, our results also show that the interplay of neutrino self-coupling and matter fluctuation could cause a significant increase in the ν e survival probability at very low energy.

  17. The theory of electromagnetic wave scattering by density fluctuations in nonequilibrium plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlenko, V.N.; Panchenko, V.G.

    1993-01-01

    Scattering of electromagnetic waves by density fluctuations in a magnetized plasma in the presence of the external pump field is investigated. The spectral density of electron density fluctuations is calculated. The pump wave is supposed to decay into a lower hybrid wave and low frequency oscillations (ion-acoustic wave, modified convective cell and ion-cyclotron wave with ion-temperature anisotropy). When the pump wave amplitude tends to the threshold strength of the electric field, the scattering cross section increases anomalously, i.e. there is the critical opalescence. The differential scattering cross section dependence on the pump amplitude and ion temperature anisotropy is obtained in the region above the parametric instability threshold. For characteristic parameters of fusion and space plasmas it is shown that the pump field terms considerably surmount the thermal noise contribution to the scattering cross section

  18. Bond index: relation to second-order density matrix and charge fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giambiagi, M.S. de; Giambiagi, M.; Jorge, F.E.

    1985-01-01

    It is shown that, in the same way as the atomic charge is an invariant built from the first-order density matrix, the closed-shell generalized bond index is an invariant associated with the second-order reduced density matrix. The active charge of an atom (sum of bond indices) is shown to be the sum of all density correlation functions between it and the other atoms in the molecule; similarly, the self-charge is the fluctuation of its total charge. (Author) [pt

  19. Microwave background anisotropies and the primordial spectrum of cosmological density fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suto, Yasushi; Gouda, Naoteru; Sugiyama, Naoshi

    1990-01-01

    Microwave background anisotropies in various cosmological scenarios are studied. In particular, the extent to which nonscale-invariant spectra of the primordial density fluctuations are consistent with the observational upper limits is examined. The resultant constraints are summarized as contours on (n, Omega)-plane, where n is the power-law index of the primordial spectrum of density fuctuations and Omega is the cosmological density parameter. They are compared also with the constraints from the cosmic Mach number test, recently proposed by Ostriker and Suto (1990). The parameter regions which pass both tests are not consistent with the theoretical prejudice inspired by the inflationary model. 44 refs

  20. Dynamic heterogeneity and conditional statistics of non-Gaussian temperature fluctuations in turbulent thermal convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaozhou; Wang, Yin; Tong, Penger

    2018-05-01

    Non-Gaussian fluctuations with an exponential tail in their probability density function (PDF) are often observed in nonequilibrium steady states (NESSs) and one does not understand why they appear so often. Turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection (RBC) is an example of such a NESS, in which the measured PDF P (δ T ) of temperature fluctuations δ T in the central region of the flow has a long exponential tail. Here we show that because of the dynamic heterogeneity in RBC, the exponential PDF is generated by a convolution of a set of dynamics modes conditioned on a constant local thermal dissipation rate ɛ . The conditional PDF G (δ T |ɛ ) of δ T under a constant ɛ is found to be of Gaussian form and its variance σT2 for different values of ɛ follows an exponential distribution. The convolution of the two distribution functions gives rise to the exponential PDF P (δ T ) . This work thus provides a physical mechanism of the observed exponential distribution of δ T in RBC and also sheds light on the origin of non-Gaussian fluctuations in other NESSs.

  1. Simultaneous Microwave Imaging System for Density and Temperature Fluctuation Measurements on TEXTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, H.; Mazzucato, E.; Munsat, T.; Domier, C.W.; Johnson, M.; Luhmann, N.C. Jr.; Wang, J.; Xia, Z.; Classen, I.G.J.; Donne, A.J.H.; Pol, M.J. van de

    2004-01-01

    Diagnostic systems for fluctuation measurements in plasmas have, of necessity, evolved from simple 1-D systems to multi-dimensional systems due to the complexity of the MHD and turbulence physics of plasmas illustrated by advanced numerical simulations. Using the recent significant advancements in millimeter wave imaging technology, Microwave Imaging Reflectometry (MIR) and Electron Cyclotron Emission Imaging (ECEI), simultaneously measuring density and temperature fluctuations, are developed for TEXTOR. The MIR system was installed on TEXTOR and the first experiment was performed in September, 2003. Subsequent MIR campaigns have yielded poloidally resolved spectra and assessments of poloidal velocity. The new 2-D ECE Imaging system (with a total of 128 channels), installed on TEXTOR in December, 2003, successfully captured a true 2-D images of Te fluctuations of m=1 oscillation (''sawteeth'') near the q ∼ 1 surface for the first time

  2. Effects of density gradients and fluctuations at the plasma edge on ECEI measurements at ASDEX Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanovac, B.; Wolfrum, E.; Denk, S. S.; Mink, F.; Laggner, F. M.; Birkenmeier, G.; Willensdorfer, M.; Viezzer, E.; Hoelzl, M.; Freethy, S. J.; Dunne, M. G.; Lessig, A.; Luhmann, N. C., Jr.; the ASDEX Upgrade Team; the EUROfusion MST1 Team

    2018-04-01

    Electron cyclotron emission imaging (ECEI) provides measurements of electron temperature (T e ) and its fluctuations (δT e ). However, when measuring at the plasma edge, in the steep gradient region, radiation transport effects must be taken into account. It is shown that due to these effects, the scrape-off layer region is not accessible to the ECEI measurements in steady state conditions and that the signal is dominated by the shine-through emission. Transient effects, such as filaments, can change the radiation transport locally, but cannot be distinguished from the shine-through. Local density measurements are essential for the correct interpretation of the electron cyclotron emission, since the density fluctuations influence the temperature measurements at the plasma edge. As an example, a low frequency 8 kHz mode, which causes 10%-15% fluctuations in the signal level of the ECEI, is analysed. The same mode has been measured with the lithium beam emission spectroscopy density diagnostic, and is very well correlated in time with high frequency magnetic fluctuations. With radiation transport modelling of the electron cyclotron radiation in the ECEI geometry, it is shown that the density contributes significantly to the radiation temperature (T rad) and the experimental observations have shown the amplitude modulation in both density and temperature measurements. The poloidal velocity of the low frequency mode measured by the ECEI is 3 km s-1. The calculated velocity of the high frequency mode measured with the magnetic pick-up coils is about 25 km s-1. Velocities are compared with the E × B background flow velocity and possible explanations for the origin of the low frequency mode are discussed.

  3. Verifying detailed fluctuation relations for discrete feedback-controlled quantum dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camati, Patrice A.; Serra, Roberto M.

    2018-04-01

    Discrete quantum feedback control consists of a managed dynamics according to the information acquired by a previous measurement. Energy fluctuations along such dynamics satisfy generalized fluctuation relations, which are useful tools to study the thermodynamics of systems far away from equilibrium. Due to the practical challenge to assess energy fluctuations in the quantum scenario, the experimental verification of detailed fluctuation relations in the presence of feedback control remains elusive. We present a feasible method to experimentally verify detailed fluctuation relations for discrete feedback control quantum dynamics. Two detailed fluctuation relations are developed and employed. The method is based on a quantum interferometric strategy that allows the verification of fluctuation relations in the presence of feedback control. An analytical example to illustrate the applicability of the method is discussed. The comprehensive technique introduced here can be experimentally implemented at a microscale with the current technology in a variety of experimental platforms.

  4. Density, temperature, and potential fluctuation measurements by the swept Langmuir probe technique in Wendelstein 7-AS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giannone, L.; Balbin, R.; Niedermeyer, H.; Endler, M.; Herre, G.; Hidalgo, C.; Rudyj, A.; Theimer, G.; Verplanke, P.

    1994-01-01

    In the Wendelstein 7-AS stellarator (W7-AS) [Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 33, 1591 (1991)], current-voltage characteristics of the Langmuir probe at sweep frequencies in the range 400 kHz to 1 MHz were measured and it was found that the mean and fluctuation values of the ion saturation current, floating potential, and electron temperature were independent of the sweep frequency. A radial scan in the vicinity of the velocity shear layer was performed. The simultaneous sweeping of 3 probe tips showed a statistically significant spatial coherence of the fluctuations in the poloidal direction and a decrease in spatial coherence of the fluctuations with increasing tip separation could be demonstrated. The observation of a change in the propagation direction of fluctuations as the shear layer was crossed and a calculation of the transport spectrum show that the swept probe method is capable of reproducing known results. Apparent temperature fluctuations, due to variations of density and potential during a sweep, are shown by simulations to be only of importance at frequencies above half the Nyquist frequency

  5. Finding evidence for density fluctuation effects on electron cyclotron heating deposition profiles on DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brookman, M. W.; Austin, M. E.; Petty, C. C.

    2015-01-01

    Theoretical work, computation, and results from TCV [J. Decker “Effect of density fluctuations on ECCD in ITER and TCV,” EPJ Web of Conf. 32, 01016 (2012)] suggest that density fluctuations in the edge region of a tokamak plasma can cause broadening of the ECH deposition profile. In this paper, a GUI tool is presented which is used for analysis of ECH deposition as a first step towards looking for this broadening, which could explain effects seen in previous DIII-D ECH transport studies [K.W. Gentle “Electron energy transport inferences from modulated electron cyclotron heating in DIII-D,” Phys. Plasmas 13, 012311 (2006)]. By applying an FFT to the T e measurements from the University of Texas’s 40-channel ECE Radiometer, and using a simplified thermal transport equation, the flux surface extent of ECH deposition is determined. The Fourier method analysis is compared with a Break-In-Slope (BIS) analysis and predictions from the ray-tracing code TORAY. Examination of multiple Fourier harmonics and BIS fitting methods allow an estimation of modulated transport coefficients and thereby the true ECH deposition profile. Correlations between edge fluctuations and ECH deposition in legacy data are also explored as a step towards establishing a link between fluctuations and deposition broadening in DIII-D

  6. Finding evidence for density fluctuation effects on electron cyclotron heating deposition profiles on DIII-D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brookman, M. W., E-mail: brookmanmw@fusion.gat.com; Austin, M. E. [Institute for Fusion Studies, University of Texas at Austin, MS 13-505, 3483 Dunhill St, San Diego, CA 92121-1200 (United States); Petty, C. C. [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States)

    2015-12-10

    Theoretical work, computation, and results from TCV [J. Decker “Effect of density fluctuations on ECCD in ITER and TCV,” EPJ Web of Conf. 32, 01016 (2012)] suggest that density fluctuations in the edge region of a tokamak plasma can cause broadening of the ECH deposition profile. In this paper, a GUI tool is presented which is used for analysis of ECH deposition as a first step towards looking for this broadening, which could explain effects seen in previous DIII-D ECH transport studies [K.W. Gentle “Electron energy transport inferences from modulated electron cyclotron heating in DIII-D,” Phys. Plasmas 13, 012311 (2006)]. By applying an FFT to the T{sub e} measurements from the University of Texas’s 40-channel ECE Radiometer, and using a simplified thermal transport equation, the flux surface extent of ECH deposition is determined. The Fourier method analysis is compared with a Break-In-Slope (BIS) analysis and predictions from the ray-tracing code TORAY. Examination of multiple Fourier harmonics and BIS fitting methods allow an estimation of modulated transport coefficients and thereby the true ECH deposition profile. Correlations between edge fluctuations and ECH deposition in legacy data are also explored as a step towards establishing a link between fluctuations and deposition broadening in DIII-D.

  7. Stability and propagation of the high field side high density front in the fluctuating state of detachment in ASDEX Upgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Manz

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available During detachment a structure of strongly enhanced density develops close to the inner target. Its dynamics is approximated by those of radiative fluctuations appearing at a similar position and studied by means of a time-delay-estimation technique in the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak. Compared to theory the dynamics can be described as follows: at increasing density the ionization front moves upstream to reduce ionization radiation in order to balance the increased recombination radiation. The recombination zone stays close to the target strike point. The parallel motion of the ionization front is determined by the perpendicular neutral motion. The divertor nose constitutes an obstacle for the perpendicular neutral flux from the target to the region above the X-point. Passing into this shadow the neutral flux above the X-point is strongly reduced, the ionization front fades away and the heat flux from upstream can increase the temperature in the recombination region, subsequently reducing recombination and reforming an ionization front below the X-point. A cyclic reformation of the ionization front propagating from below to above the X-point occurs leading to a fluctuation as observed in the experiment.

  8. Electron-cyclotron wave scattering by edge density fluctuations in ITER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsironis, Christos; Peeters, Arthur G.; Isliker, Heinz; Strintzi, Dafni; Chatziantonaki, Ioanna; Vlahos, Loukas

    2009-11-01

    The effect of edge turbulence on the electron-cyclotron wave propagation in ITER is investigated with emphasis on wave scattering, beam broadening, and its influence on localized heating and current drive. A wave used for electron-cyclotron current drive (ECCD) must cross the edge of the plasma, where density fluctuations can be large enough to bring on wave scattering. The scattering angle due to the density fluctuations is small, but the beam propagates over a distance of several meters up to the resonance layer and even small angle scattering leads to a deviation of several centimeters at the deposition location. Since the localization of ECCD is crucial for the control of neoclassical tearing modes, this issue is of great importance to the ITER design. The wave scattering process is described on the basis of a Fokker-Planck equation, where the diffusion coefficient is calculated analytically as well as computed numerically using a ray tracing code.

  9. Collective laser light scattering from electron density fluctuations in fusion research plasmas (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzhauer, E.; Dodel, G.

    1990-01-01

    In magnetically confined plasmas density fluctuations of apparently turbulent nature with broad spectra in wave number and frequency space are observed which are thought to be the cause for anomalous energy and particle transport across the confining magnetic field. Collective laser light scattering has been used to study the nature of these fluctuations. Specific problems of scattering from fusion plasmas are addressed and illustrated with experimental results from the 119 μm far infrared laser scattering experiment operated on the ASDEX tokamak. Using the system in the heterodyne mode the direction of propagation with respect to the laboratory frame can be determined. Spatial resolution has bean improved by making use of the change in pitch of the total magnetic field across the minor plasma radius. Special emphasis is placed on the ohmic phase where a number of parameter variations including electron density, electron temperature, toroidal magnetic field, and filling gas were performed

  10. Measurements of density, temperature, and their fluctuations in turbulent supersonic flow using UV laser spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Douglas G.; Mckenzie, R. L.

    1992-01-01

    Nonintrusive measurements of density, temperature, and their turbulent fluctuation levels were obtained in the boundary layer of an unseeded, Mach 2 wind tunnel flow. The spectroscopic technique that was used to make the measurements is based on the combination of laser-induced oxygen fluorescence and Raman scattering by oxygen and nitrogen from the same laser pulse. Results from this demonstration experiment are compared with previous measurements obtained in the same facility using conventional probes and an earlier spectroscopic technique. Densities and temperatures measured with the current technique agree with the previous surveys to within 3 percent and 2 percent, respectively. The fluctuation amplitudes for both variables agree with the measurements obtained using the earlier spectroscopic technique and show evidence of an unsteady, weak shock wave that perturbs the boundary layer.

  11. Measurements of plasma density fluctuations and electric wave fields using spherical electrostatic probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, A.I.; Bostroem, R.

    1995-04-01

    Spherical electrostatic probes are in wide use for the measurements of electric fields and plasma density. This report concentrates on the measurements of fluctuations of these quantities rather than background values. Potential problems with the technique include the influence of density fluctuations on electric field measurements and vice versa, effects of varying satellite potential, and non-linear rectification in the probe and satellite sheaths. To study the actual importance of these and other possible effects, we simulate the response of the probe-satellite system to various wave phenomena in the plasma by applying approximate analytical as well as numerical methods. We use a set of non-linear probe equations, based on probe characteristics experimentally obtained in space, and therefore essentially independent of any specific probe theory. This approach is very useful since the probe theory for magnetized plasmas is incomplete. 47 refs

  12. The spectrum of small-scale density fluctuations in the solar wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Readhead, A.C.S.; Kemp, M.C.; Hewish, A.

    1978-01-01

    Interplanetary scintillation observations at frequencies between 74 and 1400 MHz and solar elongations in the range 10 to 90 0 are combined to determine the form of the wavenumber spectrum of electron density fluctuations in the range 10 -3 -1 /km (where k = 2π/lambda). The data are best explained by a spectrum in which there is a genuine scale-length; they are not consistent with a simple power-law spectrum. This suggests that turbulence may be less important than some kind of plasma instability in generating small-scale density fluctuations. The relevance of these conclusions to the use of IPS for determining radio source structure is discussed. (author)

  13. Power spectral density of velocity fluctuations estimated from phase Doppler data

    OpenAIRE

    Jicha Miroslav; Lizal Frantisek; Jedelsky Jan

    2012-01-01

    Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA) and its modifications such as PhaseDoppler Particle Anemometry (P/DPA) is point-wise method for optical nonintrusive measurement of particle velocity with high data rate. Conversion of the LDA velocity data from temporal to frequency domain – calculation of power spectral density (PSD) of velocity fluctuations, is a non trivial task due to nonequidistant data sampling in time. We briefly discuss possibilities for the PSD estimation and specify limitations caused...

  14. Density fluctuations in the interstellar medium: Evidence for anisotropic magnetogasdynamic turbulence. II. Stationary structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higdon, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    A model of anisotropic, plasma-fluid variations was used to investigate the unknown origin of the power spectra of interstellar electron fluctuations inferred by Armstrong, Cordes, and Rickett (1981). The modeled electron variations are interpreted as density components of an anisotropic stationary mode of nonlinear magnetogasdynamics-tangential pressure balances. It is suggested that the wavenumber spectra of electron variations are identical to the spectra of the convecting velocity fields over a wide range of wavenumbers. 55 references

  15. Density fluctuation measurements via reflectometry on DIII-D during L- and H-mode operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyle, E.J.; Lehecka, T.; Luhmann, N.C. Jr.; Peebles, W.A.; Philipona, R.

    1990-01-01

    The unique ability of reflectometers to provide radial density fluctuation measurements with high spatial resolution (of the order of ≤ centimeters, is ideally suited to the study of the edge plasma modifications associated with H-mode operation. Consequently, attention has been focused on the study of these phenomena since an improved understanding of the physics of H-mode plasmas is essential if a predictive capability for machine performance is to be developed. In addition, DIII-D is ideally suited for such studies since it is a major device noted for its robust H-mode operation and excellent basic plasma profile diagnostic information. The reflectometer system normally used for fluctuation studies is an O-mode, homodyne, system utilizing 7 discrete channels spanning 15-75 GHz, with corresponding critical densities of 2.8x10 18 to 7x10 19 m -3 . The Gunn diode sources in this system are only narrowly tunable in frequency, so the critical densities are essentially fixed. An X-mode system, utilizing a frequency tunable BWO source, has also been used to obtain fluctuation data, and in particular, to 'fill in the gaps' between the discrete O-mode channels. (author) 12 refs., 5 figs

  16. Anisotropic frequency response of critical density fluctuation of NIPA gel under oscillation shear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugiyama, Masaaki [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Osaka 590-0494 (Japan)]. E-mail: sugiyama@rri.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Vigild, Martin E. [Danish Polymer Centre, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Fukunaga, Toshiharu [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Osaka 590-0494 (Japan); Itoh, Keiji [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Osaka 590-0494 (Japan); Mori, Kazuhiro [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Osaka 590-0494 (Japan); Sato, Takashi [Department of Engineering Physics and Mechanics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Annaka, Masahiko [Department of Chemistry, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan)

    2006-11-15

    A relation between rheology and structure of high density NIPA gel around a critical point on volume phase transition was studied by a simultaneous rheology and small-angle neutron scattering measurement. Just below the critical temperature, the NIPA gel showed softening: G{sup '} and G{sup '}' get closer (G{sup '}>G{sup '}'). At this temperature, the density fluctuation enhanced along the shear direction corresponding to the shear frequency but not to the shear strength. It means that this anisotropy is different from that observed in a statically stretched gel.

  17. Scattering effects of small-scale density fluctuations on reflectometric measurements in a tokamak plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, J.P.; Manso, M.E.; Serra, F.M.; Mendonca, J.T.

    1989-01-01

    When a wave propagates in a non homogeneous fluctuating plasma part of the incident energy is scattered out to the nonlinear interaction between the wave and the oscillating modes perturbing the plasma. The possibility of enhanced scattering at the cutoff layer, where reflection of the incident wave occurs, has been recently suggested as the basis of a reflectometric experiment to determine the spatial location of small scale fluctuations in a fusion plasma. Here we report on the development of a theoretical model to evaluate the flux of energy scattered by fluctuations, in order to give insight about the interpretation of measurements using a microwave reflectometry diagnostic in a tokamak. The scattered field is obtained through the resolution of a (non-homogeneous) wave propagation equation where the source term is related with the nonlinear current due to the interaction between the incident wave and local fluctuations. We use a slab model for the plasma, and an ordinary (0) wave propagation along the density gradient is considered. The amplitude of the scattered wave at the border of the plasma is estimated. In order to know the contributions to the energy scattered both from the propagation region and the reflecting layer, an approach was used where perturbations are modelled by spatial step functions at several layers. The main contribution to the scattered power comes from the cutoff region, where the electric field amplitude swells as compared with the incident value. Considering the reflectometric system recently installed on the ASDEX tokamak, and using typical density profiles, expected values of the 'swelling factor' have been numerically evaluated. The role of incoherent scattering due to drift wave activity is discussed as well as the coherent scattering due to fluctuations induced by lower hybrid (LH) waves. (author) 2 refs., 4 figs

  18. A new interferometry-based electron density fluctuation diagnostic on Alcator C-Moda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasten, C. P.; Irby, J. H.; Murray, R.; White, A. E.; Pace, D. C.

    2012-10-01

    The two-color interferometry diagnostic on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak has been upgraded to measure fluctuations in the electron density and density gradient for turbulence and transport studies. Diagnostic features and capabilities are described. In differential mode, fast phase demodulation electronics detect the relative phase change between ten adjacent, radially-separated (ΔR = 1.2 cm, adjustable), vertical-viewing chords, which allows for measurement of the line-integrated electron density gradient. The system can be configured to detect the absolute phase shift of each chord by comparison to a local oscillator, measuring the line-integrated density. Each chord is sensitive to density fluctuations with kR < 20.3 cm-1 and is digitized at up to 10 MS/s, resolving aspects of ion temperature gradient-driven modes and other long-wavelength turbulence. Data from C-Mod discharges is presented, including observations of the quasi-coherent mode in enhanced D-alpha H-mode plasmas and the weakly coherent mode in I-mode.

  19. Dynamically fluctuating electric dipole moments in fullerene-based magnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambe, Takashi; Oshima, Kokichi

    2014-09-19

    We report here the direct evidence of the existence of a permanent electric dipole moment in both crystal phases of a fullerene-based magnet--the ferromagnetic α-phase and the antiferromagnetic α'-phase of tetra-kis-(dimethylamino)-ethylene-C60 (TDAE-C60)--as determined by dielectric measurements. We propose that the permanent electric dipole originates from the pairing of a TDAE molecule with surrounding C60 molecules. The two polymorphs exhibit clear differences in their dielectric responses at room temperature and during the freezing process with dynamically fluctuating electric dipole moments, although no difference in their room-temperature structures has been previously observed. This result implies that two polymorphs have different local environment around the molecules. In particular, the ferromagnetism of the α-phase is founded on the homogeneous molecule displacement and orientational ordering. The formation of the different phases with respect to the different rotational states in the Jahn-Teller distorted C60s is also discussed.

  20. 2D image of local density and magnetic fluctuations from line-integrated interferometry-polarimetry measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, L; Ding, W X; Brower, D L

    2014-11-01

    Combined polarimetry-interferometry capability permits simultaneous measurement of line-integrated density and Faraday effect with fast time response (∼1 μs) and high sensitivity. Faraday effect fluctuations with phase shift of order 0.05° associated with global tearing modes are resolved with an uncertainty ∼0.01°. For physics investigations, local density fluctuations are obtained by inverting the line-integrated interferometry data. The local magnetic and current density fluctuations are then reconstructed using a parameterized fit of the polarimetry data. Reconstructed 2D images of density and magnetic field fluctuations in a poloidal cross section exhibit significantly different spatial structure. Combined with their relative phase, the magnetic-fluctuation-induced particle transport flux and its spatial distribution are resolved.

  1. 2D image of local density and magnetic fluctuations from line-integrated interferometry-polarimetry measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, L.; Ding, W. X.; Brower, D. L.

    2014-01-01

    Combined polarimetry-interferometry capability permits simultaneous measurement of line-integrated density and Faraday effect with fast time response (∼1 μs) and high sensitivity. Faraday effect fluctuations with phase shift of order 0.05° associated with global tearing modes are resolved with an uncertainty ∼0.01°. For physics investigations, local density fluctuations are obtained by inverting the line-integrated interferometry data. The local magnetic and current density fluctuations are then reconstructed using a parameterized fit of the polarimetry data. Reconstructed 2D images of density and magnetic field fluctuations in a poloidal cross section exhibit significantly different spatial structure. Combined with their relative phase, the magnetic-fluctuation-induced particle transport flux and its spatial distribution are resolved

  2. Intermittent electron density and temperature fluctuations and associated fluxes in the Alcator C-Mod scrape-off layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kube, R.; Garcia, O. E.; Theodorsen, A.; Brunner, D.; Kuang, A. Q.; LaBombard, B.; Terry, J. L.

    2018-06-01

    The Alcator C-Mod mirror Langmuir probe system has been used to sample data time series of fluctuating plasma parameters in the outboard mid-plane far scrape-off layer. We present a statistical analysis of one second long time series of electron density, temperature, radial electric drift velocity and the corresponding particle and electron heat fluxes. These are sampled during stationary plasma conditions in an ohmically heated, lower single null diverted discharge. The electron density and temperature are strongly correlated and feature fluctuation statistics similar to the ion saturation current. Both electron density and temperature time series are dominated by intermittent, large-amplitude burst with an exponential distribution of both burst amplitudes and waiting times between them. The characteristic time scale of the large-amplitude bursts is approximately 15 μ {{s}}. Large-amplitude velocity fluctuations feature a slightly faster characteristic time scale and appear at a faster rate than electron density and temperature fluctuations. Describing these time series as a superposition of uncorrelated exponential pulses, we find that probability distribution functions, power spectral densities as well as auto-correlation functions of the data time series agree well with predictions from the stochastic model. The electron particle and heat fluxes present large-amplitude fluctuations. For this low-density plasma, the radial electron heat flux is dominated by convection, that is, correlations of fluctuations in the electron density and radial velocity. Hot and dense blobs contribute only a minute fraction of the total fluctuation driven heat flux.

  3. Novel analysis technique for measuring edge density fluctuation profiles with reflectometry in the Large Helical Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creely, A. J.; Ida, K.; Yoshinuma, M.; Tokuzawa, T.; Tsujimura, T.; Akiyama, T.; Sakamoto, R.; Emoto, M.; Tanaka, K.; Michael, C. A.

    2017-07-01

    A new method for measuring density fluctuation profiles near the edge of plasmas in the Large Helical Device (LHD) has been developed utilizing reflectometry combined with pellet-induced fast density scans. Reflectometer cutoff location was calculated by proportionally scaling the cutoff location calculated with fast far infrared laser interferometer (FIR) density profiles to match the slower time resolution results of the ray-tracing code LHD-GAUSS. Plasma velocity profile peaks generated with this reflectometer mapping were checked against velocity measurements made with charge exchange spectroscopy (CXS) and were found to agree within experimental uncertainty once diagnostic differences were accounted for. Measured density fluctuation profiles were found to peak strongly near the edge of the plasma, as is the case in most tokamaks. These measurements can be used in the future to inform inversion methods of phase contrast imaging (PCI) measurements. This result was confirmed with both a fixed frequency reflectometer and calibrated data from a multi-frequency comb reflectometer, and this method was applied successfully to a series of discharges. The full width at half maximum of the turbulence layer near the edge of the plasma was found to be only 1.5-3 cm on a series of LHD discharges, less than 5% of the normalized minor radius.

  4. Temporal separation of the density fluctuation signal measured by light scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antar, G.; Devynk, P.; Laviron, C.; Garbet, X.; Sabot, R.; Fenzi, C.; Hennequin, P.; Truc, A.; Quemeneur, A.; Honore, C.; Gervais, F.

    1999-02-01

    On Tore Supra, the frequency spectra of the turbulent fluctuations often have two peaks centered on some positive and negative values. These two peaks correspond to a poloidal motion of electron turbulence in opposite directions. In this paper, a criterion is elaborated allowing us to distinguish, in time, density fluctuations convected in the parallel from those in the anti-parallel direction with respect to the analysing wavevector. Two signals are thus extracted out of one. The validity of our model is experimentally checked up by comparing the auto-correlation coefficients and the frequency spectra computed for the whole and the separated signals. Consequently, the frequency spectrum is studied in detail as a function of the analysing wavenumber leading to an accurate determination of some plasma properties. (authors)

  5. Initial density fluctuations effects on the microphase separation in ramified polymer mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghaouar, N. [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matiere Molle, Faculte des Sciences de Tunis, Campus Universitaire 2092 (Tunisia) and Institut National des Sciences Appliquees et de Technologie, INSAT, Centre Urbain Nord, BP. 676, Tunis (Tunisia)]. E-mail: naoufel-ghaouar@lycos.com

    2007-02-19

    Our study focuses on the initial density fluctuations effects on microphase separation in ramified polymer mixture. For this purpose, we introduce a screening length {kappa} by considering the condition that the scattered intensity should not be changed by cross-linking. We recover that {kappa}{sup 2}{approx}C/({chi}-{chi}{sub i}), where C is the rigidity constant of the network and {chi} the Flory parameter. Three regimes versus the temperature of the mixture are discussed. The kinetics of the microphase separation is also studied through the relaxation rate. The derived relaxation rate evolution relative to ramified polymers mixture must be compared to that relative to a linear polymer mixture. Finally, we discuss the solvent effect on the microphase separation and we show that the initial fluctuations have little importance because of the excluded volume interaction.

  6. A new analysing approach for the structure of density fluctuation of supercritical fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, T; Sugiyama, M; Itoh, K; Mori, K; Fukunaga, T; Misawa, M; Otomo, T; Takata, S

    2008-01-01

    Large scale structural evolution of supercritical carbon dioxide along the isotherm at 32 deg. C was investigated with small-angle neutron scattering. The maximum of the density fluctuation, the so-called 'ridge', was confirmed with Ornstein-Zernike analysis. To investigate the structural change in more detail, the molecular distribution over a large domain was determined with a newly developed reverse Monte Carlo method. From the molecular distribution obtained, the pair distribution function and cluster-size distribution can be calculated. With increasing density of carbon dioxide, the cluster size increases monotonically, whereas the pair distribution function for the range of sizes shorter than 10 A shows a monotonic decrease. From this result, it is suggested that the structural change along the isotherm is caused by the change of balance between growth of clusters and increase of the average density

  7. A comparison of different measures for dynamical event mean transverse momentum fluctuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Lianshou; Fu Jinghua

    2004-01-01

    Various measures for the dynamical event mean transverse momentum fluctuation are compared with the real dynamical fluctuation using a Monte Carlo model. The variance calculated from the G-moments can reproduce the dynamical variance well, while those obtained by subtraction procedures are approximate measures for not very low multiplicity. Φ pt , proposed by Gazdzicki M and Mrowczynski S, can also serve as an approximate measure after being divided by the square root of mean multiplicity

  8. Phase space density representations in fluid dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramshaw, J.D.

    1989-01-01

    Phase space density representations of inviscid fluid dynamics were recently discussed by Abarbanel and Rouhi. Here it is shown that such representations may be simply derived and interpreted by means of the Liouville equation corresponding to the dynamical system of ordinary differential equations that describes fluid particle trajectories. The Hamiltonian and Poisson bracket for the phase space density then emerge as immediate consequences of the corresponding structure of the dynamics. For barotropic fluids, this approach leads by direct construction to the formulation presented by Abarbanel and Rouhi. Extensions of this formulation to inhomogeneous incompressible fluids and to fluids in which the state equation involves an additional transported scalar variable are constructed by augmenting the single-particle dynamics and phase space to include the relevant additional variable

  9. Experimental and theoretical investigation of density and potential fluctuations in the scrape-off layer of ASDEX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endler, M.; Giannone, L.; Niedermeyer, H.; Rudyj, A.; Theimer, G.

    1993-01-01

    In the divertor tokamak ASDEX density and potential fluctuations in the scrape-off layer were investigated with high temporal and spatial resolution by Langmuir probes and an H α diagnostic. Many results of these measurements were reported and are summarized below. Several of these properties of the fluctuations have also been reported from other experiments. (orig.)

  10. Lyman-alpha clouds as a relic of primordial density fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, J.R.; Szalay, A.S.; Silk, J.

    1988-01-01

    Primordial density fluctuations are studied using a CDM model and primordial clouds some of which are expanding, driven by pressure gradients created when the medium is photionized, and some of which are massive enough to continue collapsing in spite of the pressure. Normalization of CDM models to the clustering properties on large scales are used to predict the parameters of collapsing clouds of subgalactic mass at early epochs. It is shown that the abundance and dimensions of these clouds are comparable to those of the Lyman-alpha systems. The evolutionary history of the clouds is computed, utilizing a spherically symmetric hydrodynamics code with the dark matter treated as a collisionless fluid, and the H I column density distribution is evaluated as a function of N(H I) and redshift. The observed cloud parameters come out naturally in the CDM model and suggest that Lyman-alpha clouds are the missing link between primordial density fluctuations and the formation of galaxies. 31 references

  11. Quantum density fluctuations in liquid neon from linearized path-integral calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poulsen, Jens Aage; Scheers, Johan; Nyman, Gunnar; Rossky, Peter J.

    2007-01-01

    The Feynman-Kleinert linearized path-integral [J. A. Poulsen et al., J. Chem. Phys. 119, 12179 (2003)] representation of quantum correlation functions is applied to compute the spectrum of density fluctuations for liquid neon at T=27.6 K, p=1.4 bar, and Q vector 1.55 Aa -1 . The calculated spectrum as well as the kinetic energy of the liquid are in excellent agreement with the experiment of Cunsolo et al. [Phys. Rev. B 67, 024507 (2003)

  12. Quasi-static electron density fluctuations of atoms in hot compressed matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimaldi, F.; Grimaldi-Lecourt, A.

    1982-01-01

    The standard theoretical methods for the calculation of properties of hot compressed matter lead to a description based on the Average Atom model. In this model the degenerate orbitals are populated with the Fermi-Dirac (FD) density, partitioned according to the binomial distribution. Since the one particle picture is inadequate to evaluate reliable optical properties, a method involving correlated population fluctuations, but limited to unrelaxed orbitals and lacking time dependence, has been examined. The probability distribution of fluctuations in a particular level is evaluated through a decoupling procedure. The method is carried out self consistently. For each level this leads to the definition of an effective 1st order ionization energy as a statistical sum of all possible transition energies. As a result the effective number of electrons exchanged with the outside weights the chemical potential. This defines an effective chemical potential μsup(k) for each level. In many cases of interest the statistics leads to FD type average occupation numbers. This allows a treatment of the continuum in a Thomas-Fermi like model using the effective ionization energy and μsup(k). We obtain a simultaneous description of charge rearrangements and net fluctuations in the Wigner-Seitz cell. The discussion is supported by numerical results for iron. (author)

  13. On the influence of density and temperature fluctuations on the formation of spectral lines in stellar atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stahlberg, J.

    1985-01-01

    A method taking into account the influence of temperature and density fluctuations generated by the velocity field in stellar atmospheres on the formation of spectral lines is presented. The influenced line profile is derived by exchanging the values in a static atmosphere by a mean value and a fluctuating one. The correlations are calculated with the help of the well-know hydrodynamic eqs. It results, that in normal stellar atmospheres the visual lines are only very weakly influenced by such fluctuations due to the small values of the gradients of the pressure and density and of the velocity dispersion. (author)

  14. Consistent treatment of one-body dynamics and collective fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfitzner, A.

    1986-09-01

    We show how the residual coupling deltaV between collective and intrinsic motion induces correlations, which lead to fluctuations of the collective variables and to a redistribution of single-particle occupation numbers rho/sub α/. The evolution of rho/sub α/ and of the collective fluctuations is consistently described by a coupled system of equations, which accounts for the dependence of the transport coefficients on rho/sub α/, and for the dependence of the transition rates in the master equation on the collective variances. (author)

  15. Power spectral density of velocity fluctuations estimated from phase Doppler data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedelsky, Jan; Lizal, Frantisek; Jicha, Miroslav

    2012-04-01

    Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA) and its modifications such as PhaseDoppler Particle Anemometry (P/DPA) is point-wise method for optical nonintrusive measurement of particle velocity with high data rate. Conversion of the LDA velocity data from temporal to frequency domain - calculation of power spectral density (PSD) of velocity fluctuations, is a non trivial task due to nonequidistant data sampling in time. We briefly discuss possibilities for the PSD estimation and specify limitations caused by seeding density and other factors of the flow and LDA setup. Arbitrary results of LDA measurements are compared with corresponding Hot Wire Anemometry (HWA) data in the frequency domain. Slot correlation (SC) method implemented in software program Kern by Nobach (2006) is used for the PSD estimation. Influence of several input parameters on resulting PSDs is described. Optimum setup of the software for our data of particle-laden air flow in realistic human airway model is documented. Typical character of the flow is described using PSD plots of velocity fluctuations with comments on specific properties of the flow. Some recommendations for improvements of future experiments to acquire better PSD results are given.

  16. Power spectral density of velocity fluctuations estimated from phase Doppler data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jicha Miroslav

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA and its modifications such as PhaseDoppler Particle Anemometry (P/DPA is point-wise method for optical nonintrusive measurement of particle velocity with high data rate. Conversion of the LDA velocity data from temporal to frequency domain – calculation of power spectral density (PSD of velocity fluctuations, is a non trivial task due to nonequidistant data sampling in time. We briefly discuss possibilities for the PSD estimation and specify limitations caused by seeding density and other factors of the flow and LDA setup. Arbitrary results of LDA measurements are compared with corresponding Hot Wire Anemometry (HWA data in the frequency domain. Slot correlation (SC method implemented in software program Kern by Nobach (2006 is used for the PSD estimation. Influence of several input parameters on resulting PSDs is described. Optimum setup of the software for our data of particle-laden air flow in realistic human airway model is documented. Typical character of the flow is described using PSD plots of velocity fluctuations with comments on specific properties of the flow. Some recommendations for improvements of future experiments to acquire better PSD results are given.

  17. Magnetized Reverse Shock: Density-fluctuation-induced Field Distortion, Polarization Degree Reduction, and Application to GRBs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng Wei; Zhang Bing [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nevada Las Vegas, Las Vegas, NV 89154 (United States); Li Hui [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Stone, James M., E-mail: deng@physics.unlv.edu, E-mail: zhang@physics.unlv.edu, E-mail: hli@lanl.gov, E-mail: jstone@astro.princeton.edu [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544-1001 (United States)

    2017-08-10

    The early optical afterglow emission of several gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) shows a high linear polarization degree (PD) of tens of percent, suggesting an ordered magnetic field in the emission region. The light curves are consistent with being of a reverse shock (RS) origin. However, the magnetization parameter, σ , of the outflow is unknown. If σ is too small, an ordered field in the RS may be quickly randomized due to turbulence driven by various perturbations so that the PD may not be as high as observed. Here we use the “Athena++” relativistic MHD code to simulate a relativistic jet with an ordered magnetic field propagating into a clumpy ambient medium, with a focus on how density fluctuations may distort the ordered magnetic field and reduce PD in the RS emission for different σ values. For a given density fluctuation, we discover a clear power-law relationship between the relative PD reduction and the σ value of the outflow. Such a relation may be applied to estimate σ of the GRB outflows using the polarization data of early afterglows.

  18. Nuclear dynamics of zero point fluctuations in ordinary and in gauge space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broglia, R.A.; Barranco, F.; Gallardo, M.

    1985-01-01

    The change of the nuclear density due to the zero point fluctuations associated with surface modes are calculated making use of field theoretical many-body techniques. For medium heavy nuclei the density renormalizations (vertex corrections) are much smaller than the potential renormalizations (self-energy contributions). The microscopic results agree well with the results of the collective model. Zero point fluctuations associated with pairing vibrations renormalize the properties of strongly rotating nuclei around the critical frequency at which the pairing phase transition takes place. Fluctuations of the pairing field play also an important role in the sub-barrier fusion cross section associated with the 58 Ni+ 64 Ni reaction. (orig.)

  19. Nonlinear growth dynamics and the origin of fluctuating asymmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emlen, J.M.; Freeman, D.C.; Graham, J.H.

    1993-01-01

    The nonlinear, complex nature of biosynthesis magnifies the impacts of small, random perturbations on organism growth, leading to distortions in adaptive allometries and, in particular, to fluctuating asymmetry. These distortions can be partly checked by cell-cell and inter-body part feedback during growth and development, though the latter mechanism also may lead to complex patterns in right-left asymmetry. Stress can be expected to increase the degree to which random growth perturbations are magnified and may also result in disruption of the check mechanisms, thus exaggerating fluctuating asymmetry.The processes described not only provide one explanation for the existence of fluctuating asymmetry and its augmentation under stress, but suggest additional effects of stress as well. Specifically, stress is predicted to lead to decreased fractal dimension of bone sutures and branching structures in animals, and in increased dimension of growth trace patterns such as those found in mollusc shells and fish otoliths and scales.A basic yet broad primer on fractals and chaos is provided as background for the theoretical development in this manuscript.

  20. A Bayesian perspective on Markovian dynamics and the fluctuation theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virgo, Nathaniel

    2013-08-01

    One of E. T. Jaynes' most important achievements was to derive statistical mechanics from the maximum entropy (MaxEnt) method. I re-examine a relatively new result in statistical mechanics, the Evans-Searles fluctuation theorem, from a MaxEnt perspective. This is done in the belief that interpreting such results in Bayesian terms will lead to new advances in statistical physics. The version of the fluctuation theorem that I will discuss applies to discrete, stochastic systems that begin in a non-equilibrium state and relax toward equilibrium. I will show that for such systems the fluctuation theorem can be seen as a consequence of the fact that the equilibrium distribution must obey the property of detailed balance. Although the principle of detailed balance applies only to equilibrium ensembles, it puts constraints on the form of non-equilibrium trajectories. This will be made clear by taking a novel kind of Bayesian perspective, in which the equilibrium distribution is seen as a prior over the system's set of possible trajectories. Non-equilibrium ensembles are calculated from this prior using Bayes' theorem, with the initial conditions playing the role of the data. I will also comment on the implications of this perspective for the question of how to derive the second law.

  1. Evolutionary dynamics of fluctuating populations with strong mutualism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chotibut, Thiparat; Nelson, David

    2013-03-01

    Evolutionary game theory with finite interacting populations is receiving increased attention, including subtle phenomena associated with number fluctuations, i.e., ``genetic drift.'' Models of cooperation and competition often utilize a simplified Moran model, with a strictly fixed total population size. We explore a more general evolutionary model with independent fluctuations in the numbers of two distinct species, in a regime characterized by ``strong mutualism.'' The model has two absorbing states, each corresponding to fixation of one of the two species, and allows exploration of the interplay between growth, competition, and mutualism. When mutualism is favored, number fluctuations eventually drive the system away from a stable fixed point, characterized by cooperation, to one of the absorbing states. Well-mixed populations will thus be taken over by a single species in a finite time, despite the bias towards cooperation. We calculate both the fixation probability and the mean fixation time as a function of the initial conditions and carrying capacities in the strong mutualism regime, using the method of matched asymptotic expansions. Our results are compared to computer simulations.

  2. Structure and Function of Intra-Annual Density Fluctuations: Mind the Gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battipaglia, Giovanna; Campelo, Filipe; Vieira, Joana; Grabner, Michael; De Micco, Veronica; Nabais, Cristina; Cherubini, Paolo; Carrer, Marco; Bräuning, Achim; Čufar, Katarina; Di Filippo, Alfredo; García-González, Ignacio; Koprowski, Marcin; Klisz, Marcin; Kirdyanov, Alexander V; Zafirov, Nikolay; de Luis, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Tree rings are natural archives of climate and environmental information with a yearly resolution. Indeed, wood anatomical, chemical, and other properties of tree rings are a synthesis of several intrinsic and external factors, and their interaction during tree growth. In particular, Intra-Annual Density Fluctuations (IADFs) can be considered as tree-ring anomalies that can be used to better understand tree growth and to reconstruct past climate conditions with intra-annual resolution. However, the ecophysiological processes behind IADF formation, as well as their functional impact, remain unclear. Are IADFs resulting from a prompt adjustment to fluctuations in environmental conditions to avoid stressful conditions and/or to take advantage from favorable conditions? In this paper we discuss: (1) the influence of climatic factors on the formation of IADFs; (2) the occurrence of IADFs in different species and environments; (3) the potential of new approaches to study IADFs and identify their triggering factors. Our final aim is to underscore the advantages offered by network analyses of data and the importance of high-resolution measurements to gain insight into IADFs formation processes and their relations with climatic conditions, including extreme weather events.

  3. Structure and Function of Intra–Annual Density Fluctuations: Mind the Gaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna eBattipaglia

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Tree rings are natural archives of climate and environmental information with a yearly resolution. Indeed, wood anatomical, chemical and other properties of tree rings are a synthesis of several intrinsic, environmental factors, and interconnected processes acting during tree growth. In particular, Intra-Annual Density Fluctuations (IADFs can be considered as tree-ring anomalies that can be used to better understand tree growth and to reconstruct past climate conditions with intra-annual resolution. However, the ecophysiological processes behind IADF formation, as well as their functional impact, remain unclear. Are IADFs resulting from a prompt adjustment to fluctuations in environmental conditions to avoid stressful conditions and/or to take advantage from favorable conditions? In this paper we discuss: (1 the influence of climatic factors on the formation of IADFs; (2 the occurrence of IADFs in different species and environments; (3 the potential of new approaches to study IADFs and identify their triggering factors. Our final aim is to underscore the advantages offered by network analyses of data and the importance of high-resolution measurements to gain insight into IADFs formation processes and their relations with climatic conditions, including extreme weather events.

  4. Effect of the ground state correlations in the density distribution and zero point fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barranco, F.; Broglia, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    The existence of collective vibrations in the spectrum implies that the description of the ground state in an independent particle model must be corrected. This is because of the zero point fluctuations induced by the collective vibrations, so that ground state correlations have to be included. These are taken into account via the diagrammatic expansion of the Nuclear Field Theory, giving place to a renormalization in the different properties of the ground state. As far as the density distribution is concerned, in a NFT consistent calculation, the largest contributions arise from diagrams that cannot be expressed in terms of backward going amplitudes of the phonon RPA wave function. For a given multipolarity the main correction comes from the low lying state. The giant resonance is of smaller relevance since it lies at larger energies in the response function. The octupole modes give the dominant contribution, and the effect in average becomes smaller as the multipolarity increases. These results agree quite well with those obtained taking into account the zero point fluctuations of the nuclear surface in the collective model with the Esbensen and Bertsch prescription, which the authors use to explain the anomalous behaviour of the mean square radii of the Calcium isotopes

  5. Spacecraft radio scattering observations of the power spectrum of electron density fluctuations in the solar wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, R.; Armstrong, J.W.

    1979-01-01

    Solar wind electron density power spectra in the solar equatorial region are inferred from observations of phase scintillations and spectral broadening made with the Viking, Helios, and Pioneer spacecraft. The heliocentric distance range covered is 2--215 R/sub S/, and for some observations close to the sun the spectra extend to fluctuation frequencies as high as 100 Hz. For heliocentric distances > or approx. =20 R/sub S/ the equivalent spacecraft-measured one-dimensional density spectrym V/sub n/e is well modeled by a single power law (f/sup -alpha/) in the frequency range 10 -4 -5 x 10 -2 Hz. The mean spectral index α is 1.65, very close to the Kolmogorov value of 5/3. Under the assumption of constant solar wind speed, V/sub n/e varies as R/sup -3.45/, where R is heliocentric distance. Within 20 R/sub S/, V/sub n/e can still be modeled by a single power law over the frequency range 10 -3 -10 1 Hz, but the spectral index becomes smaller, αapprox.1.1. The flattening of the density spectrum with 20 R/sub S/ is presumably associated with energy deposition in the near-sun region and acceleration of the solar wind

  6. Study of density fluctuation in L-mode and H-mode plasmas on JFT-2M by microwave reflectometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinohara, Kouji

    1997-08-01

    We propose the model which can explain the runaway phase. The model takes account of the scattered wave which is caused by the density fluctuation near the cut-off layer. We should take a new approach instead of the conventional phase measurement in order to derive the information of the density fluctuation from the data with the runaway phase. The complex spectrum and the rotary spectrum analyses are useful tools to analyze such data. The density fluctuation in L-mode and H-mode plasmas is discussed by using this new approach. We have observed that the reduction of the density fluctuation is localized in the edge region where the sheared electric field is produced. The fluctuations in the range of frequency lower than 100 kHz are mainly reduced. Two interesting features have been observed. One is the detection of the coherent mode around 100 kHz in H-mode. This mode appears about 10 ms after L to H transition. The timing corresponds to the formation of a steep density and temperature gradient in the edge region. The other is the enhancement of the fluctuations with the frequency higher than 300 kHz in H-mode in contrast to the reduction of the fluctuations with the frequency lower than 100 kHz. The Doppler shift is observed in the complex auto-power spectrum of the reflected wave when the plasma is actively moved. We have confirmed that the movement of the plasma is appropriately measured by using the low pass filter. The reflectometer can be used to measure the density profile by using a low pass filter even when the runaway phase phenomenon occurs. (author). 150 refs

  7. Edge density fluctuation diagnostic for DIII-D using lithium beams: 1992 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, D.M.

    1994-01-01

    During the past several months the Lithium beam diagnostic was commissioned of DIII-D and began yielding useful information. The author developed the remote control and monitoring of the ion source operation and beam formation and focussing, and integrated the control system and data acquisition into the DIII-D operating system. Several detector types were fabricated, and fluorescence data were collected using several differing detector arrangements. Beam-gas measurements were conducted to analyze the intrinsic beam fluctuations and stability. Fluorescence data was then obtained on a number of Tokamak discharges under varying discharge conditions. Analysis of this initial data is proceeding but has already yielded some interesting features. These include changes in the edge plasma density behavior during the l- to h-transition, disruptions, and edge localized modes (ELMs). Based on the quality of data obtained the author proceeded with the design and construction of the full 16-channel detection system which will be completed and tested shortly

  8. Dispersion relations of density fluctuations observed by heavy ion beam probe in the TEXT tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, D.W.

    1990-09-01

    Wave numbers as functions of frequency for density fluctuations in the core of the TEXT tokamak are measured in Heavy Ion Beam Probe experiments by analyzing the relative phases of signals originating from nearby points in the plasma. The adjacent points are typically 2 cm apart, with their relative orientation (δr, δθ) depending on position (r,θ). for angular frequencies ω ≤ 10 6 /s the signals are quite coherent, leading to reasonably well-defined ''dispersion relations.'' These do not correspond to known modes of the drift wave type, i.e., ballooning or slab-like electron drift waves or ion temperature gradient modes. The effect of finite sample volume size does not significantly alter this conclusion. 25 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  9. Density nonlinearities and a field theory for the dynamics of simple fluids

    OpenAIRE

    Mazenko, Gene F.; Yeo, Joonhyun

    1994-01-01

    We study the role of the Jacobian arising from a constraint enforcing the nonlinear relation: ${\\bf g}=\\rho{\\bf V}$, where $\\rho,\\: {\\bf g}$ and ${\\bf V}$ are the mass density, the momentum density and the local velocity field, respectively, in the field theoretic formulation of the nonlinear fluctuating hydrodynamics of simple fluids. By investigating the Jacobian directly and by developing a field theoretic formulation without the constraint, we find that no changes in dynamics result as co...

  10. Nonlinear dynamics of mushy layers induced by external stochastic fluctuations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrov, Dmitri V; Bashkirtseva, Irina A; Ryashko, Lev B

    2018-02-28

    The time-dependent process of directional crystallization in the presence of a mushy layer is considered with allowance for arbitrary fluctuations in the atmospheric temperature and friction velocity. A nonlinear set of mushy layer equations and boundary conditions is solved analytically when the heat and mass fluxes at the boundary between the mushy layer and liquid phase are induced by turbulent motion in the liquid and, as a result, have the corresponding convective form. Namely, the 'solid phase-mushy layer' and 'mushy layer-liquid phase' phase transition boundaries as well as the solid fraction, temperature and concentration (salinity) distributions are found. If the atmospheric temperature and friction velocity are constant, the analytical solution takes a parametric form. In the more common case when they represent arbitrary functions of time, the analytical solution is given by means of the standard Cauchy problem. The deterministic and stochastic behaviour of the phase transition process is analysed on the basis of the obtained analytical solutions. In the case of stochastic fluctuations in the atmospheric temperature and friction velocity, the phase transition interfaces (mushy layer boundaries) move faster than in the deterministic case. A cumulative effect of these noise contributions is revealed as well. In other words, when the atmospheric temperature and friction velocity fluctuate simultaneously due to the influence of different external processes and phenomena, the phase transition boundaries move even faster. This article is part of the theme issue 'From atomistic interfaces to dendritic patterns'.This article is part of the theme issue 'From atomistic interfaces to dendritic patterns'. © 2018 The Author(s).

  11. Probing non-thermal density fluctuations in the one-dimensional Bose gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacopo De Nardis, Miłosz Panfil, Andrea Gambassi, Leticia F. Cugliandolo, Robert Konik, Laura Foini

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Quantum integrable models display a rich variety of non-thermal excited states with unusual properties. The most common way to probe them is by performing a quantum quench, i.e., by letting a many-body initial state unitarily evolve with an integrable Hamiltonian. At late times, these systems are locally described by a generalized Gibbs ensemble with as many effective temperatures as their local conserved quantities. The experimental measurement of this macroscopic number of temperatures remains elusive. Here we show that they can be obtained by probing the dynamical structure factor of the system after the quench and by employing a generalized fluctuation-dissipation theorem that we provide. Our procedure allows us to completely reconstruct the stationary state of a quantum integrable system from state-of-the-art experimental observations.

  12. Molecular Rayleigh Scattering Diagnostic for Dynamic Temperature, Velocity, and Density Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielke, Amy R.; Elam, Kristie A.; Sung, Chi-Jen

    2006-01-01

    A molecular Rayleigh scattering technique is developed to measure dynamic gas temperature, velocity, and density in unseeded turbulent flows at sampling rates up to 16 kHz. A high power CW laser beam is focused at a point in an air jet plume and Rayleigh scattered light is collected and spectrally resolved. The spectrum of the light, which contains information about the temperature and velocity of the flow, is analyzed using a Fabry-Perot interferometer. The circular interference fringe pattern is divided into four concentric regions and sampled at 1 and 16 kHz using photon counting electronics. Monitoring the relative change in intensity within each region allows for measurement of gas temperature and velocity. Independently monitoring the total scattered light intensity provides a measure of gas density. A low speed heated jet is used to validate the measurement of temperature fluctuations and an acoustically excited nozzle flow is studied to validate velocity fluctuation measurements. Power spectral density calculations of the property fluctuations, as well as mean and fluctuating quantities are presented. Temperature fluctuation results are compared with constant current anemometry measurements and velocity fluctuation results are compared with constant temperature anemometry measurements at the same locations.

  13. POWER SPECTRAL DENSITY OF FLUCTUATIONS OF BULK AND THERMAL SPEEDS IN THE SOLAR WIND

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Šafránková, J.; Němeček, Z.; Němec, F.; Přech, L.; Chen, C. H. K.; Zastenker, G. N.

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzes solar wind power spectra of bulk and thermal speed fluctuations that are computed with a time resolution of 32 ms in the frequency range of 0.001–2 Hz. The analysis uses measurements of the Bright Monitor of the Solar Wind on board the Spektr-R spacecraft that are limited to 570 km s 1 bulk speed. The statistics, based on more than 42,000 individual spectra, show that: (1) the spectra of bulk and thermal speeds can be fitted by two power-law segments; (2) despite their large variations, the parameters characterizing frequency spectrum fits computed on each particular time interval are very similar for both quantities; (3) the median slopes of the bulk and thermal speeds of the segment attributed to the MHD scale are 1.43 and 1.38, respectively, whereas they are 3.08 and 2.43 in the kinetic range; (4) the kinetic range slopes of bulk and thermal speed spectra become equal when either the ion density or magnetic field strength are high; (5) the break between MHD and kinetic scales seems to be controlled by the ion β parameter; (6) the best scaling parameter for bulk and thermal speed variations is a sum of the inertial length and proton thermal gyroradius; and (7) the above conclusions can be applied to the density variations if the background magnetic field is very low.

  14. POWER SPECTRAL DENSITY OF FLUCTUATIONS OF BULK AND THERMAL SPEEDS IN THE SOLAR WIND

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Šafránková, J.; Němeček, Z.; Němec, F.; Přech, L. [Charles University, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, V Holešovičkách 2, 180 00 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Chen, C. H. K. [Department of Physics, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Zastenker, G. N., E-mail: jana.safrankova@mff.cuni.cz [Space Research Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia, Profsoyuznaya ul. 84/32, Moscow 117997 (Russian Federation)

    2016-07-10

    This paper analyzes solar wind power spectra of bulk and thermal speed fluctuations that are computed with a time resolution of 32 ms in the frequency range of 0.001–2 Hz. The analysis uses measurements of the Bright Monitor of the Solar Wind on board the Spektr-R spacecraft that are limited to 570 km s{sup 1} bulk speed. The statistics, based on more than 42,000 individual spectra, show that: (1) the spectra of bulk and thermal speeds can be fitted by two power-law segments; (2) despite their large variations, the parameters characterizing frequency spectrum fits computed on each particular time interval are very similar for both quantities; (3) the median slopes of the bulk and thermal speeds of the segment attributed to the MHD scale are 1.43 and 1.38, respectively, whereas they are 3.08 and 2.43 in the kinetic range; (4) the kinetic range slopes of bulk and thermal speed spectra become equal when either the ion density or magnetic field strength are high; (5) the break between MHD and kinetic scales seems to be controlled by the ion β parameter; (6) the best scaling parameter for bulk and thermal speed variations is a sum of the inertial length and proton thermal gyroradius; and (7) the above conclusions can be applied to the density variations if the background magnetic field is very low.

  15. Anisotropic dynamic mass density for fluidsolid composites

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Ying

    2012-10-01

    By taking the low frequency limit of multiple-scattering theory, we obtain the dynamic effective mass density of fluidsolid composites with a two-dimensional rectangular lattice structure. The anisotropic mass density can be described by an angle-dependent dipole solution, to the leading-order of solid concentration. The angular dependence vanishes for the square lattice, but at high solid concentrations there is a structure-dependent factor that contributes to the leading-order solution. In all cases, Woods formula is found to be accurately valid for the effective bulk modulus, independent of the structures. Numerical evaluations from the solutions are shown to be in excellent agreement with finite-element simulations. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  16. Quantum theory of dynamic multiple light scattering in fluctuating disordered media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skipetrov, S. E.

    2007-01-01

    We formulate a quantum theory of dynamic multiple light scattering in fluctuating disordered media and calculate the fluctuation and the autocorrelation function of the photon number operator for light transmitted through a disordered slab. The effect of disorder on the information capacity of a quantum communication channel operating in a disordered environment is estimated, and the use of squeezed light in diffusing-wave spectroscopy is discussed

  17. Dynamics of collisional particles in a fluctuating magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spineanu, F.; Vlad, M.

    1995-01-01

    The equations of motion of a test particle in a stochastic magnetic field and interacting through collisions with a plasma are Langevin-type equations. Under reasonable assumptions on the statistical properties of the random processes (field and collisional velocity fluctuations), we perform an analytical calculation of the mean-square displacement (MSD) of the particle. The basic nonlinearity in the problem (Lagrangian argument of the random field) yields complicated averages, which we carry out using a functional formalism. The result is expressed as a series, and we find the conditions for its convergence, i.e. the limits of validity of our approach (essentially, we must restrict attention to non-chaotic regimes). Further, employing realistic bounds (spectral cut-off and limited time of observation), we derive an explicit formula for the MSD. We show that from this unique expression, we can obtain several previously known results. (author)

  18. Core fluctuations and current profile dynamics in the MST reversed-field pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brower, D.L.; Ding, W.X.; Lei, J.

    2003-01-01

    First measurements of the current density profile, magnetic field fluctuations and electrostatic (e.s.) particle flux in the core of a high-temperature reversed-field pinch (RFP) are presented. We report three new results: (1) The current density peaks during the slow ramp phase of the sawtooth cycle and flattens promptly at the crash. Profile flattening can be linked to magnetic relaxation and the dynamo which is predicted to drive anti-parallel current in the core. Measured core magnetic fluctuations are observed to increases four-fold at the crash. Between sawtooth crashes, measurements indicate the particle flux driven by e.s. fluctuations is too small to account for the total radial particle flux. (2) Core magnetic fluctuations are observed to decrease at least twofold in plasmas where energy confinement time improves ten-fold. In this case, the radial particle flux is also reduced, suggesting core e.s. fluctuation-induced transport may play role in confinement. (3) The parallel current density increases in the outer region of the plasma during high confinement, as expected, due to the applied edge parallel electric field. However, the core current density also increases due to dynamo reduction and the emergence of runaway electrons. (author)

  19. Stellar Disk Truncations: HI Density and Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Ignacio; Bakos, Judit

    2010-06-01

    Using HI Nearby Galaxy Survey (THINGS) 21-cm observations of a sample of nearby (nearly face-on) galaxies we explore whether the stellar disk truncation phenomenon produces any signature either in the HI gas density and/or in the gas dynamics. Recent cosmological simulations suggest that the origin of the break on the surface brightness distribution is produced by the appearance of a warp at the truncation position. This warp should produce a flaring on the gas distribution increasing the velocity dispersion of the HI component beyond the break. We do not find, however, any evidence of this increase in the gas velocity dispersion profile.

  20. Unfair and Anomalous Evolutionary Dynamics from Fluctuating Payoffs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stollmeier, Frank; Nagler, Jan

    2018-02-01

    Evolution occurs in populations of reproducing individuals. Reproduction depends on the payoff a strategy receives. The payoff depends on the environment that may change over time, on intrinsic uncertainties, and on other sources of randomness. These temporal variations in the payoffs can affect which traits evolve. Understanding evolutionary game dynamics that are affected by varying payoffs remains difficult. Here we study the impact of arbitrary amplitudes and covariances of temporally varying payoffs on the dynamics. The evolutionary dynamics may be "unfair," meaning that, on average, two coexisting strategies may persistently receive different payoffs. This mechanism can induce an anomalous coexistence of cooperators and defectors in the prisoner's dilemma, and an unexpected selection reversal in the hawk-dove game.

  1. Monte Carlo study for the dynamical fluctuations inside a single jet in 2-jet events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Kunshi; Liu Lianshou; Yin Jianwu; Chen Gang; Liu Chao

    2002-01-01

    The dynamical fluctuations inside a single jet in the 2-jet events produced in e + e - collisions at 91.2 GeV have been studied using Monte Carlo method. The results show that, the anisotropy of dynamical fluctuations inside a single jet changes remarkably with the variation of the cut parameter y cut . A transition point (γ p t = γ ψ ≠γ y ) exists, where the dynamical fluctuations are anisotropic in the longitudinal-transverse plan and isotropic in the transverse planes. It indicates that the y cut corresponding to the transition point is a physically reasonable cutting parameter for selecting jets and, meanwhile, the relative transverse momentum k t at the transition point is the scale for the determination of physical jets. This conclusion is in good agreement with the experimental fact that the third jet (gluon jet) was historically first discovered in the energy region 17-30 GeV in e + e - collisions

  2. Fluctuation-Response Relation and modeling in systems with fast and slow dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Lacorata

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available We show how a general formulation of the Fluctuation-Response Relation is able to describe in detail the connection between response properties to external perturbations and spontaneous fluctuations in systems with fast and slow variables. The method is tested by using the 360-variable Lorenz-96 model, where slow and fast variables are coupled to one another with reciprocal feedback, and a simplified low dimensional system. In the Fluctuation-Response context, the influence of the fast dynamics on the slow dynamics relies in a non trivial behavior of a suitable quadratic response function. This has important consequences for the modeling of the slow dynamics in terms of a Langevin equation: beyond a certain intrinsic time interval even the optimal model can give just statistical prediction.

  3. Emergence of dynamic cooperativity in the stochastic kinetics of fluctuating enzymes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Ashutosh; Chatterjee, Sambarta; Nandi, Mintu; Dua, Arti

    2016-01-01

    Dynamic co-operativity in monomeric enzymes is characterized in terms of a non-Michaelis-Menten kinetic behaviour. The latter is believed to be associated with mechanisms that include multiple reaction pathways due to enzymatic conformational fluctuations. Recent advances in single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy have provided new fundamental insights on the possible mechanisms underlying reactions catalyzed by fluctuating enzymes. Here, we present a bottom-up approach to understand enzyme turnover kinetics at physiologically relevant mesoscopic concentrations informed by mechanisms extracted from single-molecule stochastic trajectories. The stochastic approach, presented here, shows the emergence of dynamic co-operativity in terms of a slowing down of the Michaelis-Menten (MM) kinetics resulting in negative co-operativity. For fewer enzymes, dynamic co-operativity emerges due to the combined effects of enzymatic conformational fluctuations and molecular discreteness. The increase in the number of enzymes, however, suppresses the effect of enzymatic conformational fluctuations such that dynamic co-operativity emerges solely due to the discrete changes in the number of reacting species. These results confirm that the turnover kinetics of fluctuating enzyme based on the parallel-pathway MM mechanism switches over to the single-pathway MM mechanism with the increase in the number of enzymes. For large enzyme numbers, convergence to the exact MM equation occurs in the limit of very high substrate concentration as the stochastic kinetics approaches the deterministic behaviour.

  4. Surface and finite size effect on fluctuations dynamics in nanoparticles with long-range order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozovska, A. N.; Eliseev, E. A.

    2010-02-01

    The influence of surface and finite size on the dynamics of the order parameter fluctuations and critical phenomena in the three-dimensional (3D)-confined systems with long-range order was not considered theoretically. In this paper, we study the influence of surface and finite size on the dynamics of the order parameter fluctuations in the particles of arbitrary shape. We consider concrete examples of the spherical and cylindrical ferroic nanoparticles within Landau-Ginzburg-Devonshire phenomenological approach. Allowing for the strong surface energy contribution in micro and nanoparticles, the analytical expressions derived for the Ornstein-Zernike correlator of the long-range order parameter spatial-temporal fluctuations, dynamic generalized susceptibility, relaxation times, and correlation radii discrete spectra are different from those known for bulk systems. Obtained analytical expressions for the correlation function of the order parameter spatial-temporal fluctuations in micro and nanosized systems can be useful for the quantitative analysis of the dynamical structural factors determined from magnetic resonance diffraction and scattering spectra. Besides the practical importance of the correlation function for the analysis of the experimental data, derived expressions for the fluctuations strength determine the fundamental limits of phenomenological theories applicability for 3D-confined systems.

  5. Emergence of dynamic cooperativity in the stochastic kinetics of fluctuating enzymes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Ashutosh; Chatterjee, Sambarta; Nandi, Mintu; Dua, Arti, E-mail: arti@iitm.ac.in [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology, Madras, Chennai 600036 (India)

    2016-08-28

    Dynamic co-operativity in monomeric enzymes is characterized in terms of a non-Michaelis-Menten kinetic behaviour. The latter is believed to be associated with mechanisms that include multiple reaction pathways due to enzymatic conformational fluctuations. Recent advances in single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy have provided new fundamental insights on the possible mechanisms underlying reactions catalyzed by fluctuating enzymes. Here, we present a bottom-up approach to understand enzyme turnover kinetics at physiologically relevant mesoscopic concentrations informed by mechanisms extracted from single-molecule stochastic trajectories. The stochastic approach, presented here, shows the emergence of dynamic co-operativity in terms of a slowing down of the Michaelis-Menten (MM) kinetics resulting in negative co-operativity. For fewer enzymes, dynamic co-operativity emerges due to the combined effects of enzymatic conformational fluctuations and molecular discreteness. The increase in the number of enzymes, however, suppresses the effect of enzymatic conformational fluctuations such that dynamic co-operativity emerges solely due to the discrete changes in the number of reacting species. These results confirm that the turnover kinetics of fluctuating enzyme based on the parallel-pathway MM mechanism switches over to the single-pathway MM mechanism with the increase in the number of enzymes. For large enzyme numbers, convergence to the exact MM equation occurs in the limit of very high substrate concentration as the stochastic kinetics approaches the deterministic behaviour.

  6. Emergence of dynamic cooperativity in the stochastic kinetics of fluctuating enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashutosh; Chatterjee, Sambarta; Nandi, Mintu; Dua, Arti

    2016-08-01

    Dynamic co-operativity in monomeric enzymes is characterized in terms of a non-Michaelis-Menten kinetic behaviour. The latter is believed to be associated with mechanisms that include multiple reaction pathways due to enzymatic conformational fluctuations. Recent advances in single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy have provided new fundamental insights on the possible mechanisms underlying reactions catalyzed by fluctuating enzymes. Here, we present a bottom-up approach to understand enzyme turnover kinetics at physiologically relevant mesoscopic concentrations informed by mechanisms extracted from single-molecule stochastic trajectories. The stochastic approach, presented here, shows the emergence of dynamic co-operativity in terms of a slowing down of the Michaelis-Menten (MM) kinetics resulting in negative co-operativity. For fewer enzymes, dynamic co-operativity emerges due to the combined effects of enzymatic conformational fluctuations and molecular discreteness. The increase in the number of enzymes, however, suppresses the effect of enzymatic conformational fluctuations such that dynamic co-operativity emerges solely due to the discrete changes in the number of reacting species. These results confirm that the turnover kinetics of fluctuating enzyme based on the parallel-pathway MM mechanism switches over to the single-pathway MM mechanism with the increase in the number of enzymes. For large enzyme numbers, convergence to the exact MM equation occurs in the limit of very high substrate concentration as the stochastic kinetics approaches the deterministic behaviour.

  7. Unusual features of long-range density fluctuations in glass-forming organic liquids: A Rayleigh and Rayleigh-Brillouin light scattering study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patkowski, A.; Fischer, E. W.; Steffen, W.; Glaser, H.; Baumann, M.; Ruths, T.; Meier, G.

    2001-01-01

    A new feature of glass-forming liquids, i.e., long-range density fluctuations of the order of 100 nm, has been extensively characterized by means of static light scattering, photon correlation spectroscopy and Rayleigh-Brillouin spectroscopy in orthoterphenyl (OTP) and 1,1-di(4 # prime#-methoxy-5 # prime#methyl-phenyl)-cyclohexane (BMMPC). These long-range density fluctuations result in the following unusual features observed in a light scattering experiment, which are not described by the existing theories: (i) strong q-dependent isotropic excess Rayleigh intensity, (ii) additional slow component in the polarized photon correlation function, and (iii) high Landau-Placzek ratio. These unusual features are equilibrium properties of the glass-forming liquids and depend only on temperature, provided that the sample has been equilibrated long enough. The temperature-dependent equilibration times were measured for BMMPC and are about 11 orders of magnitude longer than the α process. It was found that the glass-forming liquid OTP may occur in two states: with and without long-range density fluctuations ('clusters'). We have characterized the two states by static and dynamic light scattering in the temperature range from T g to T g +200 K. The relaxation times of the α process as well as the parameters of the Brillouin line are identical in both OTP with and without clusters. The α process (density fluctuations) in OTP was characterized by measuring either the polarized (VV) or depolarized (VH) correlation function, which are practically identical and q-independent. This feature, which is commonly observed in glass-forming liquids, is not fully explained by the existing theories

  8. CLIMATIC SIGNALS FROM INTRA-ANNUAL DENSITY FLUCTUATION FREQUENCY IN MEDITERRANEAN PINES AT A REGIONAL SCALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrica eZalloni

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Tree rings provide information about the climatic conditions during the growing season by recording them in different anatomical features, such as Intra-Annual Density Fluctuations (IADFs. IADFs are intra-annual changes of wood density appearing as latewood-like cells within earlywood, or earlywood-like cells within latewood. The occurrence of IADFs is dependent on the age and size of the tree, and it is triggered by climatic drivers. The variations of IADF frequency of different species and their dependence on climate across a wide geographical range have still to be explored. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of age, tree-ring width and climate on IADF formation and frequency at a regional scale across the Mediterranean Basin in Pinus halepensis Mill., Pinus pinaster Ait. and Pinus pinea L. The analyzed tree-ring network was composed of P. pinea trees growing at 11 sites (2 in Italy, 4 in Spain and 4 in Portugal, P. pinaster from 19 sites (2 in Italy, 13 in Spain and 4 in Portugal, and P. halepensis from 38 sites in Spain. The correlations between IADF frequency and monthly minimum, mean and maximum temperatures, as well as between IADF frequency and total precipitation, were analyzed. A significant negative relationship between IADF frequency and tree-ring age was found for the three Mediterranean pines. Moreover, IADFs were more frequent in wider rings than in narrower ones, although the widest rings showed a reduced IADF frequency. Wet conditions during late summer/early autumn triggered the formation of IADFs in the three species. Our results suggest the existence of a common climatic driver for the formation of IADFs in Mediterranean pines, highlighting the potential use of IADF frequency as a proxy for climate reconstructions with geographical resolution.

  9. Climatic Signals from Intra-annual Density Fluctuation Frequency in Mediterranean Pines at a Regional Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalloni, Enrica; de Luis, Martin; Campelo, Filipe; Novak, Klemen; De Micco, Veronica; Di Filippo, Alfredo; Vieira, Joana; Nabais, Cristina; Rozas, Vicente; Battipaglia, Giovanna

    2016-01-01

    Tree rings provide information about the climatic conditions during the growing season by recording them in different anatomical features, such as intra-annual density fluctuations (IADFs). IADFs are intra-annual changes of wood density appearing as latewood-like cells within earlywood, or earlywood-like cells within latewood. The occurrence of IADFs is dependent on the age and size of the tree, and it is triggered by climatic drivers. The variations of IADF frequency of different species and their dependence on climate across a wide geographical range have still to be explored. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of age, tree-ring width and climate on IADF formation and frequency at a regional scale across the Mediterranean Basin in Pinus halepensis Mill., Pinus pinaster Ait., and Pinus pinea L. The analyzed tree-ring network was composed of P. pinea trees growing at 10 sites (2 in Italy, 4 in Spain, and 4 in Portugal), P. pinaster from 19 sites (2 in Italy, 13 in Spain, and 4 in Portugal), and P. halepensis from 38 sites in Spain. The correlations between IADF frequency and monthly minimum, mean and maximum temperatures, as well as between IADF frequency and total precipitation, were analyzed. A significant negative relationship between IADF frequency and tree-ring age was found for the three Mediterranean pines. Moreover, IADFs were more frequent in wider rings than in narrower ones, although the widest rings showed a reduced IADF frequency. Wet conditions during late summer/early autumn triggered the formation of IADFs in the three species. Our results suggest the existence of a common climatic driver for the formation of IADFs in Mediterranean pines, highlighting the potential use of IADF frequency as a proxy for climate reconstructions with geographical resolution. PMID:27200052

  10. Exact fluctuations of nonequilibrium steady states from approximate auxiliary dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Ray, Ushnish; Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic; Limmer, David T.

    2017-01-01

    We describe a framework to significantly reduce the computational effort to evaluate large deviation functions of time integrated observables within nonequilibrium steady states. We do this by incorporating an auxiliary dynamics into trajectory based Monte Carlo calculations, through a transformation of the system's propagator using an approximate guiding function. This procedure importance samples the trajectories that most contribute to the large deviation function, mitigating the exponenti...

  11. Periodic fluctuations in correlation-based connectivity density time series: Application to wind speed-monitoring network in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laib, Mohamed; Telesca, Luciano; Kanevski, Mikhail

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we study the periodic fluctuations of connectivity density time series of a wind speed-monitoring network in Switzerland. By using the correlogram-based robust periodogram annual periodic oscillations were found in the correlation-based network. The intensity of such annual periodic oscillations is larger for lower correlation thresholds and smaller for higher. The annual periodicity in the connectivity density seems reasonably consistent with the seasonal meteo-climatic cycle.

  12. Gravitational clustering of gaussian density fluctuations: The origin of hierarchy correlations, voids and QN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashlinsky, A.

    1990-01-01

    We present here a theory of gravitational clustering based only on: i) The assumption that the primordial density fluctuations (PDF) were Gaussian; and ii) identifying galaxies, and groups and clusters of galaxies with regions of PDF whose turn-around time was less than the age of Universe. It is shown that 1) properties of the hierarchy thus produced depend uniquely on the power spectrum P(k) of PDF; 2) the resultant distribution of galaxies and groups and clusters is non-Gaussian; 3) two-point and higher order correlations depend in a complicated, but unique for a given P(k), way on the mass-scales of groups and clusters and, hence, can be used to constrain P(k) on scales from 1 to (50-100) h -1 Mpc on the basis of the available data; 4) expressions for the dimensionless correlation amplitudes Q N can then be computed for the hierarchy - again they depend uniquely on the mass and P(k); 5) statistics of voids in the distribution of galaxies and clusters of various richness/mass can then be used to constrain P(k). We show that the available data on correlation functions and voids are in better agreement with the n=-1 spectrum than with spectra having n>0 on large scales such as cold-dark-matter models. (orig.)

  13. Reflectometry observations of density fluctuations in Wendelstein VII-AS stellarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, J.; Hartfuss, H.J.; Anabitarte, E.; Navarro, A.P.

    1991-01-01

    In the almost shearless stellarator Wendelstein VII-AS strong correlation between the confinement properties and the rotational transform iota has been found. Reduced confinement was observed for the low order rational values 1/2 and 1/3. In their vicinity best confinement is observed. In general optimum confinement is obtained in the low shear configuration if the 'resonant' iota values can be excluded from the plasma column. The iota profile inside the plasma is affected by toroidal currents and beta effects. Although the global net current can be kept at zero level using a small OH induced current opposed to the gradient driven bootstrap current, the different currents flow at different radial positions affecting the iota profile. Tools for configuration control inside the plasma are besides OH current vertical fields and the currents driven by the NBI and most promising the ECH heating systems. In this context experimental information on the iota profile is highly needed. The localization of rational surfaces by reflectometry seems possible. Radially resolved density fluctuation measurements have been carried out by means of a simple microwave reflectometry system. The method is based on the reflection of microwave radiation in the millimeter range at the plasma cutoff layer. (orig./AH)

  14. Quantification of nanoscale density fluctuations by electron microscopy: probing cellular alterations in early carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradhan, Prabhakar; Damania, Dhwanil; Turzhitsky, Vladimir; Subramanian, Hariharan; Backman, Vadim; Joshi, Hrushikesh M; Dravid, Vinayak P; Roy, Hemant K; Taflove, Allen

    2011-01-01

    Most cancers are curable if they are diagnosed and treated at an early stage. Recent studies suggest that nanoarchitectural changes occur within cells during early carcinogenesis and that such changes precede microscopically evident tissue alterations. It follows that the ability to comprehensively interrogate cell nanoarchitecture (e.g., macromolecular complexes, DNA, RNA, proteins and lipid membranes) could be critical to the diagnosis of early carcinogenesis. We present a study of the nanoscale mass-density fluctuations of biological tissues by quantifying their degree of disorder at the nanoscale. Transmission electron microscopy images of human tissues are used to construct corresponding effective disordered optical lattices. The properties of nanoscale disorder are then studied by statistical analysis of the inverse participation ratio (IPR) of the spatially localized eigenfunctions of these optical lattices at the nanoscale. Our results show an increase in the disorder of human colonic epithelial cells in subjects harboring early stages of colon neoplasia. Furthermore, our findings strongly suggest that increased nanoscale disorder correlates with the degree of tumorigenicity. Therefore, the IPR technique provides a practicable tool for the detection of nanoarchitectural alterations in the earliest stages of carcinogenesis. Potential applications of the technique for early cancer screening and detection are also discussed

  15. Arbitrary-order Hilbert Spectral Analysis and Intermittency in Solar Wind Density Fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Francesco; Sorriso-Valvo, Luca; Alberti, Tommaso; Lepreti, Fabio; Chen, Christopher H. K.; Němeček, Zdenek; Šafránková, Jana

    2018-05-01

    The properties of inertial- and kinetic-range solar wind turbulence have been investigated with the arbitrary-order Hilbert spectral analysis method, applied to high-resolution density measurements. Due to the small sample size and to the presence of strong nonstationary behavior and large-scale structures, the classical analysis in terms of structure functions may prove to be unsuccessful in detecting the power-law behavior in the inertial range, and may underestimate the scaling exponents. However, the Hilbert spectral method provides an optimal estimation of the scaling exponents, which have been found to be close to those for velocity fluctuations in fully developed hydrodynamic turbulence. At smaller scales, below the proton gyroscale, the system loses its intermittent multiscaling properties and converges to a monofractal process. The resulting scaling exponents, obtained at small scales, are in good agreement with those of classical fractional Brownian motion, indicating a long-term memory in the process, and the absence of correlations around the spectral-break scale. These results provide important constraints on models of kinetic-range turbulence in the solar wind.

  16. Density fluctuations measured by ISEE 1-2 in the Earth's magnetosheath and the resultant scattering of radio waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Lacombe

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Radio waves undergo angular scattering when they propagate through a plasma with fluctuating density. We show how the angular scattering coefficient can be calculated as a function of the frequency spectrum of the local density fluctuations. In the Earth's magnetosheath, the ISEE 1-2 propagation experiment measured the spectral power of the density fluctuations for periods in the range 300 to 1 s, which produce most of the scattering. The resultant local angular scattering coefficient can then be calculated for the first time with realistic density fluctuation spectra, which are neither Gaussian nor power laws. We present results on the variation of the local angular scattering coefficient during two crossings of the dayside magnetosheath, from the quasi-perpendicular bow shock to the magnetopause. For a radio wave at twice the local electron plasma frequency, the scattering coefficient in the major part of the magnetosheath is b(2fp ≃ 0.5 – 4 × 10–9 rad2/m. The scattering coefficient is about ten times stronger in a thin sheet (0.1 to1RE just downstream of the shock ramp, and close to the magnetopause.

  17. Drought impact on water use efficiency and intra-annual density fluctuations in Erica arborea on Elba (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battipaglia, Giovanna; DE Micco, Veronica; Brand, Willi A; Saurer, Matthias; Aronne, Giovanna; Linke, Petra; Cherubini, Paolo

    2014-02-01

    Erica arborea (L) is a widespread Mediterranean species, able to cope with water stress and colonize semiarid environments. The eco-physiological plasticity of this species was evaluated by studying plants growing at two sites with different soil moistures on the island of Elba (Italy), through dendrochronological, wood-anatomical analyses and stable isotopes measurements. Intra-annual density fluctuations (IADFs) were abundant in tree rings, and were identified as the key parameter to understand site-specific plant responses to water stress. Our findings showed that the formation of IADFs is mainly related to the high temperature, precipitation patterns and probably to soil water availability, which differs at the selected study sites. The recorded increase in the (13) C-derived intrinsic water use efficiency at the IADFs level was linked to reduced water loss rather than to increasing C assimilation. The variation in vessel size and the different absolute values of δ(18) O among trees growing at the two study sites underlined possible differences in stomatal control of water loss and possible differences in sources of water uptake. This approach not only helped monitor seasonal environmental differences through tree-ring width, but also added valuable information on E. arborea responses to drought and their ecological implications for Mediterranean vegetation dynamics. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Noise-sustained fluctuations in stochastic dynamics with a delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Odorico, Paolo; Laio, Francesco; Ridolfi, Luca

    2012-04-01

    Delayed responses to external drivers are ubiquitous in environmental, social, and biological processes. Delays may induce oscillations, Hopf bifurcations, and instabilities in deterministic systems even in the absence of nonlinearities. Despite recent advances in the study of delayed stochastic differential equations, the interaction of random drivers with delays remains poorly understood. In particular, it is unclear whether noise-induced behaviors may emerge from these interactions. Here we show that noise may enhance and sustain transient periodic oscillations inherent to deterministic delayed systems. We investigate the conditions conducive to the emergence and disappearance of these dynamics in a linear system in the presence of both additive and multiplicative noise.

  19. Coupling a nano-particle with isothermal fluctuating hydrodynamics: Coarse-graining from microscopic to mesoscopic dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Español, Pep [Dept. Física Fundamental, Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia, Aptdo. 60141, E-28080 Madrid (Spain); Donev, Aleksandar [Dept. Física Fundamental, Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia, Aptdo. 60141, E-28080 Madrid (Spain); Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University, 251 Mercer Street, New York, New York 10012 (United States)

    2015-12-21

    We derive a coarse-grained description of the dynamics of a nanoparticle immersed in an isothermal simple fluid by performing a systematic coarse graining of the underlying microscopic dynamics. As coarse-grained or relevant variables, we select the position of the nanoparticle and the total mass and momentum density field of the fluid, which are locally conserved slow variables because they are defined to include the contribution of the nanoparticle. The theory of coarse graining based on the Zwanzing projection operator leads us to a system of stochastic ordinary differential equations that are closed in the relevant variables. We demonstrate that our discrete coarse-grained equations are consistent with a Petrov-Galerkin finite-element discretization of a system of formal stochastic partial differential equations which resemble previously used phenomenological models based on fluctuating hydrodynamics. Key to this connection between our “bottom-up” and previous “top-down” approaches is the use of the same dual orthogonal set of linear basis functions familiar from finite element methods (FEMs), both as a way to coarse-grain the microscopic degrees of freedom and as a way to discretize the equations of fluctuating hydrodynamics. Another key ingredient is the use of a “linear for spiky” weak approximation which replaces microscopic “fields” with a linear FE interpolant inside expectation values. For the irreversible or dissipative dynamics, we approximate the constrained Green-Kubo expressions for the dissipation coefficients with their equilibrium averages. Under suitable approximations, we obtain closed approximations of the coarse-grained dynamics in a manner which gives them a clear physical interpretation and provides explicit microscopic expressions for all of the coefficients appearing in the closure. Our work leads to a model for dilute nanocolloidal suspensions that can be simulated effectively using feasibly short molecular dynamics

  20. Maximal Fluctuations of Confined Actomyosin Gels: Dynamics of the Cell Nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupprecht, J-F; Singh Vishen, A; Shivashankar, G V; Rao, M; Prost, J

    2018-03-02

    We investigate the effect of stress fluctuations on the stochastic dynamics of an inclusion embedded in a viscous gel. We show that, in nonequilibrium systems, stress fluctuations give rise to an effective attraction towards the boundaries of the confining domain, which is reminiscent of an active Casimir effect. We apply this generic result to the dynamics of deformations of the cell nucleus, and we demonstrate the appearance of a fluctuation maximum at a critical level of activity, in agreement with recent experiments [E. Makhija, D. S. Jokhun, and G. V. Shivashankar, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 113, E32 (2016)PNASA60027-842410.1073/pnas.1513189113].

  1. Fluid phonons, protoinflationary dynamics and large-scale gravitational fluctuations

    CERN Document Server

    Giovannini, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    We explore what can be said on the effective temperature and sound speed of a statistical ensemble of fluid phonons present at the onset of a conventional inflationary phase. The phonons are the actual normal modes of the gravitating and irrotational fluid that dominates the protoinflationary dynamics. The bounds on the tensor to scalar ratio result in a class of novel constraints involving the slow roll parameter, the sound speed of the phonons and the temperature of the plasma prior to the onset of inflation. If the current size of the Hubble radius coincides with the inflationary event horizon redshifted down to the present epoch, the sound speed of the phonons can be assessed from independent measurements of the tensor to scalar ratio and of the tensor spectral index.

  2. Long-term competitive dynamics of two cryptic rotifer species: diapause and fluctuating conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Gabaldón

    Full Text Available Life-history traits may have an important role in promoting species coexistence. However, the complexity of certain life cycles makes it difficult to draw conclusions about the conditions for coexistence or exclusion based on the study of short-term competitive dynamics. Brachionus plicatilis and B. manjavacasare two cryptic rotifer species co-occurring in many lakes on the Iberian Peninsula. They have a complex life cycle in which cyclical parthenogenesis occurs with diapausing stages being the result of sexual reproduction. B. plicatilis and B. manjavacasare identical in morphology and size, their biotic niches are broadly overlapping, and they have similar competitive abilities. However, the species differ in life-history traits involving sexual reproduction and diapause, and respond differently to salinity and temperature. As in the case of certain other species that are extremely similar in morphology, a fluctuating environment are considered to be important for their coexistence. We studied the long-term competitive dynamics of B. plicatilis and B. manjavacas under different salinity regimes (constant and fluctuating. Moreover, we focused on the dynamics of the diapausing egg bank to explore how the outcome of the entire life cycle of these rotifers can work to mediate stable coexistence. We demonstrated that these species do not coexist under constant-salinity environment, as the outcome of competition is affected by the level of salinity-at low salinity, B. plicatilis excluded B. manjavacas, and the opposite outcome occurred at high salinity. Competitive dynamics under fluctuating salinity showed that the dominance of one species over the other also tended to fluctuate. The duration of co-occurrence of these species was favoured by salinity fluctuation and perhaps by the existence of a diapausing egg bank. Stable coexistence was not found in our system, which suggests that other factors or other salinity fluctuation patterns might act as

  3. Long-term competitive dynamics of two cryptic rotifer species: diapause and fluctuating conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabaldón, Carmen; Carmona, María José; Montero-Pau, Javier; Serra, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Life-history traits may have an important role in promoting species coexistence. However, the complexity of certain life cycles makes it difficult to draw conclusions about the conditions for coexistence or exclusion based on the study of short-term competitive dynamics. Brachionus plicatilis and B. manjavacasare two cryptic rotifer species co-occurring in many lakes on the Iberian Peninsula. They have a complex life cycle in which cyclical parthenogenesis occurs with diapausing stages being the result of sexual reproduction. B. plicatilis and B. manjavacasare identical in morphology and size, their biotic niches are broadly overlapping, and they have similar competitive abilities. However, the species differ in life-history traits involving sexual reproduction and diapause, and respond differently to salinity and temperature. As in the case of certain other species that are extremely similar in morphology, a fluctuating environment are considered to be important for their coexistence. We studied the long-term competitive dynamics of B. plicatilis and B. manjavacas under different salinity regimes (constant and fluctuating). Moreover, we focused on the dynamics of the diapausing egg bank to explore how the outcome of the entire life cycle of these rotifers can work to mediate stable coexistence. We demonstrated that these species do not coexist under constant-salinity environment, as the outcome of competition is affected by the level of salinity-at low salinity, B. plicatilis excluded B. manjavacas, and the opposite outcome occurred at high salinity. Competitive dynamics under fluctuating salinity showed that the dominance of one species over the other also tended to fluctuate. The duration of co-occurrence of these species was favoured by salinity fluctuation and perhaps by the existence of a diapausing egg bank. Stable coexistence was not found in our system, which suggests that other factors or other salinity fluctuation patterns might act as stabilizing

  4. Effects of dynamic heterogeneity and density scaling of molecular dynamics on the relationship among thermodynamic coefficients at the glass transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koperwas, K.; Grzybowski, A.; Grzybowska, K.; Wojnarowska, Z.; Paluch, M.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we define and experimentally verify thermodynamic characteristics of the liquid-glass transition, taking into account a kinetic origin of the process. Using the density scaling law and the four-point measure of the dynamic heterogeneity of molecular dynamics of glass forming liquids, we investigate contributions of enthalpy, temperature, and density fluctuations to spatially heterogeneous molecular dynamics at the liquid-glass transition, finding an equation for the pressure coefficient of the glass transition temperature, dTg/dp. This equation combined with our previous formula for dTg/dp, derived solely from the density scaling criterion, implies a relationship among thermodynamic coefficients at Tg. Since this relationship and both the equations for dTg/dp are very well validated using experimental data at Tg, they are promising alternatives to the classical Prigogine-Defay ratio and both the Ehrenfest equations in case of the liquid-glass transition

  5. Effects of dynamic heterogeneity and density scaling of molecular dynamics on the relationship among thermodynamic coefficients at the glass transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koperwas, K., E-mail: kkoperwas@us.edu.pl; Grzybowski, A.; Grzybowska, K.; Wojnarowska, Z.; Paluch, M. [Institute of Physics, University of Silesia, Uniwersytecka 4, 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Silesian Center for Education and Interdisciplinary Research, 75 Pulku Piechoty 1A, 41-500 Chorzow (Poland)

    2015-07-14

    In this paper, we define and experimentally verify thermodynamic characteristics of the liquid-glass transition, taking into account a kinetic origin of the process. Using the density scaling law and the four-point measure of the dynamic heterogeneity of molecular dynamics of glass forming liquids, we investigate contributions of enthalpy, temperature, and density fluctuations to spatially heterogeneous molecular dynamics at the liquid-glass transition, finding an equation for the pressure coefficient of the glass transition temperature, dTg/dp. This equation combined with our previous formula for dTg/dp, derived solely from the density scaling criterion, implies a relationship among thermodynamic coefficients at Tg. Since this relationship and both the equations for dTg/dp are very well validated using experimental data at Tg, they are promising alternatives to the classical Prigogine-Defay ratio and both the Ehrenfest equations in case of the liquid-glass transition.

  6. Helical variation of density profiles and fluctuations in the tokamak pedestal with applied 3D fields and implications for confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, R. S.; Rhodes, T. L.; Shafer, M. W.; Sugiyama, L. E.; Ferraro, N. M.; Lyons, B. C.; McKee, G. R.; Paz-Soldan, C.; Wingen, A.; Zeng, L.

    2018-05-01

    Small 3D perturbations to the magnetic field in DIII-D ( δB /B ˜2 ×10-4 ) result in large modulations of density fluctuation amplitudes in the pedestal, which are shown using Doppler backscattering measurements to vary by a factor of 2. Helical perturbations of equilibrium density within flux surfaces have previously been observed in the pedestal of DIII-D plasmas when 3D fields are applied and were correlated with density fluctuation asymmetries in the pedestal. These intra-surface density and pressure variations are shown through two fluid MHD modeling studies using the M3D-C1 code to be due to the misalignment of the density and temperature equilibrium iso-surfaces in the pedestal region. This modeling demonstrates that the phase shift between the two iso-surfaces corresponds to the diamagnetic direction of the two species, with the mass density surfaces shifted in the ion diamagnetic direction relative to the temperature and magnetic flux iso-surfaces. The resulting pedestal density, potential, and turbulence asymmetries within flux surfaces near the separatrix may be at least partially responsible for several poorly understood phenomena that occur with the application of 3D fields in tokamaks, including density pump out and the increase in power required to transition from L- to H-mode.

  7. Interacting gaps model, dynamics of order book, and stock-market fluctuations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svorenčík, A.; Slanina, František

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 57, - (2007), s. 453-462 ISSN 1434-6028 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1P04OCP10.001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : interacting gaps model * dynamics of order book * stock - market fluctuations Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 1.356, year: 2007

  8. Environmental fluctuations restrict eco-evolutionary dynamics in predator-prey system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiltunen, Teppo; Ayan, Gökçe B; Becks, Lutz

    2015-06-07

    Environmental fluctuations, species interactions and rapid evolution are all predicted to affect community structure and their temporal dynamics. Although the effects of the abiotic environment and prey evolution on ecological community dynamics have been studied separately, these factors can also have interactive effects. Here we used bacteria-ciliate microcosm experiments to test for eco-evolutionary dynamics in fluctuating environments. Specifically, we followed population dynamics and a prey defence trait over time when populations were exposed to regular changes of bottom-up or top-down stressors, or combinations of these. We found that the rate of evolution of a defence trait was significantly lower in fluctuating compared with stable environments, and that the defence trait evolved to lower levels when two environmental stressors changed recurrently. The latter suggests that top-down and bottom-up changes can have additive effects constraining evolutionary response within populations. The differences in evolutionary trajectories are explained by fluctuations in population sizes of the prey and the predator, which continuously alter the supply of mutations in the prey and strength of selection through predation. Thus, it may be necessary to adopt an eco-evolutionary perspective on studies concerning the evolution of traits mediating species interactions. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  9. Molecular dynamics simulations of the penetration lengths: application within the fluctuation theory for diffusion coefficients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galliero, Guillaume; Medvedev, Oleg; Shapiro, Alexander

    2005-01-01

    A 322 (2004) 151). In the current study, a fast molecular dynamics scheme has been developed to determine the values of the penetration lengths in Lennard-Jones binary systems. Results deduced from computations provide a new insight into the concept of penetration lengths. It is shown for four different...... fluctuation theory and molecular dynamics scheme exhibit consistent trends and average deviations from experimental data around 10-20%. (c) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  10. Non-Markovian dynamics of dust charge fluctuations in dusty plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgari, H.; Muniandy, S. V.; Ghalee, Amir; Ghalee

    2014-06-01

    Dust charge fluctuates even in steady-state uniform plasma due to the discrete nature of the charge carriers and can be described using standard Langevin equation. In this work, two possible approaches in order to introduce the memory effect in dust charging dynamics are proposed. The first part of the paper provides the generalization form of the fluctuation-dissipation relation for non-Markovian systems based on generalized Langevin equations to determine the amplitudes of the dust charge fluctuations for two different kinds of colored noises under the assumption that the fluctuation-dissipation relation is valid. In the second part of the paper, aiming for dusty plasma system out of equilibrium, the fractionalized Langevin equation is used to derive the temporal two-point correlation function of grain charge fluctuations which is shown to be non-stationary due to the dependence on both times and not the time difference. The correlation function is used to derive the amplitude of fluctuations for early transient time.

  11. Analysis of the Dynamic Evolutionary Behavior of American Heating Oil Spot and Futures Price Fluctuation Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Chen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Heating oil is an extremely important heating fuel to consumers in northeastern United States. This paper studies the fluctuations law and dynamic behavior of heating oil spot and futures prices by setting up their complex network models based on the data of America in recent 30 years. Firstly, modes are defined by the method of coarse graining, the spot price fluctuation network of heating oil (HSPFN and its futures price fluctuation network (HFPFN in different periods are established to analyze the transformation characteristics between the modes. Secondly, several indicators are investigated: average path length, node strength and strength distribution, betweeness, etc. In addition, a function is established to measure and analyze the network similarity. The results show the cumulative time of new nodes appearing in either spot or futures price network is not random but exhibits a growth trend of straight line. Meanwhile, the power law distributions of spot and futures price fluctuations in different periods present regularity and complexity. Moreover, these prices are strongly correlated in stable fluctuation period but weak in the phase of sharp fluctuation. Finally, the time distribution characteristics of important modes in the networks and the evolution results of the topological properties mentioned above are obtained.

  12. Correlation analysis of quantum fluctuations and repulsion effects of classical dynamics in SU(3) model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Shigeyasu; Sakata, Fumihiko

    2003-01-01

    In many quantum systems, random matrix theory has been used to characterize quantum level fluctuations, which is known to be a quantum correspondent to a regular-to-chaos transition in classical systems. We present a new qualitative analysis of quantum and classical fluctuation properties by exploiting correlation coefficients and variances. It is shown that the correlation coefficient of the quantum level density is roughly inversely proportional relation to the variance of consecutive phase-space point spacings on the Poincare section plane. (author)

  13. An edge density fluctuation diagnostic for DIII-D using lithium beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, D.M.

    1991-12-01

    This report covers the research conducted under DOE grant FG03- 90ER54081 during the period August 15, 1990 through November 15, 1991. Progress during the period March 15, 1990 through August 15, 1990 was covered in a previous report. Highlights during this period include the development of a compact neutral lithium accelerator capable of producing several mA at up to 30 kV, measurements of intrinsic beam fluctuation levels, and the design and partial completion of the diagnostic installation on the D3-D tokamak. We also had one journal article describing the system published in Reviews of Scientific Instruments, presented a poster on our recent progress at the APS Plasma Physics conference, and submitted an abstract to the 9th Topical Conference on Plasma Diagnostics. The overall objective of this project is to provide detailed information about the behavior of the electron density in the edge region of D3-D, and in particular to examine the local character of the associated degradation in confinement properties. Measurements should provide important data for testing theories of the L-H transition in tokamaks and should help in assessing the role of various instabilities in anomalous transport. The work on this project may be naturally organized according to the following six subareas: Ion source/beam system, neutralizer system, optical system, data acquisition, data analysis, and machine (D3-D) interface. Progress in each of these areas will be discussed briefly. We also briefly discuss our plans for future work on this program

  14. Chaotic dynamic characteristics of pressure fluctuation signals in hydro-turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Wen Tao; An, Shi [School of Management, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin (China); Li, Xiao Bin; Lan, Chao Feng; Li, Feng Chen [School of Energy Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin (China); Wang, Jian Sheng [Ministry of Education of China, Tianjin (China)

    2016-11-15

    The pressure fluctuation characteristics in a Francis hydro-turbine running at partial flow conditions were studied based on the chaotic dynamic methods. Firstly, the experimental data of pressure fluctuations in the draft tube at various flow conditions was de-noised using lifting wavelet transformation, then, for the de-noised signals, their spectrum distribution on the frequency domain, the energy variation and the energy partition accounting for the total energy was calculated. Hereby, for the flow conditions ranging from no cavitation to severe cavitation, the chaos dynamic features of fluctuation signals were analyzed, including the temporal-frequency distribution, phase trajectory, Lyapunov exponent and Poincaré map etc. It is revealed that, the main energy of pressure fluctuations in the draft tube locates at low-frequency region. As the cavitation grows, the amplitude of power spectrum at frequency domain becomes larger. For all the flow conditions, all the maximal Lyapunov exponents are larger than zero, and they increase with the cavitation level. Therefore, it is believed that there indeed exist the chaotic attractors in the pressure fluctuation signals for a hydro-turbine.

  15. Stochastic and information-thermodynamic structures of population dynamics in a fluctuating environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Tetsuya J.; Sughiyama, Yuki

    2017-07-01

    Adaptation in a fluctuating environment is a process of fueling environmental information to gain fitness. Living systems have gradually developed strategies for adaptation from random and passive diversification of the phenotype to more proactive decision making, in which environmental information is sensed and exploited more actively and effectively. Understanding the fundamental relation between fitness and information is therefore crucial to clarify the limits and universal properties of adaptation. In this work, we elucidate the underlying stochastic and information-thermodynamic structure in this process, by deriving causal fluctuation relations (FRs) of fitness and information. Combined with a duality between phenotypic and environmental dynamics, the FRs reveal the limit of fitness gain, the relation of time reversibility with the achievability of the limit, and the possibility and condition for gaining excess fitness due to environmental fluctuation. The loss of fitness due to causal constraints and the limited capacity of real organisms is shown to be the difference between time-forward and time-backward path probabilities of phenotypic and environmental dynamics. Furthermore, the FRs generalize the concept of the evolutionary stable state (ESS) for fluctuating environment by giving the probability that the optimal strategy on average can be invaded by a suboptimal one owing to rare environmental fluctuation. These results clarify the information-thermodynamic structures in adaptation and evolution.

  16. Planets in other universes: habitability constraints on density fluctuations and galactic structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Fred C.; Coppess, Katherine R. [Physics Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Bloch, Anthony M., E-mail: fca@umich.edu, E-mail: kcoppess@umich.edu, E-mail: abloch@umich.edu [Mathematics Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Motivated by the possibility that different versions of the laws of physics could be realized within other universes, this paper delineates the galactic structure parameters that allow for habitable planets and revisits constraints on the amplitude Q of the primordial density fluctuations. Previous work indicates that large values of Q lead to galaxies so dense that planetary orbits cannot survive long enough for life to develop. Small values of Q lead to delayed star formation, loosely bound galaxies, and compromised heavy element retention. This work generalizes previous treatments in the following directions: [A] We consider models for the internal structure of the galaxies, including a range of stellar densities, and find the fraction of the resulting galactic real estate that allows for stable, long-lived planetary orbits. [B] For high velocity encounters, we perform a large ensemble of numerical simulations to estimate cross sections for the disruption of planetary orbits due to interactions with passing stars. [C] We consider the background radiation fields produced by the galaxies: if a galaxy is too compact, the night sky seen from a potentially habitable planet can provide more power than the host star. [D] One consequence of intense galactic background radiation fields is that some portion of the galaxy, denoted as the Galactic Habitable Zone, will provide the right flux levels to support habitable planets for essentially any planetary orbit including freely floating bodies (but excluding close-in planets). As the value of Q increases, the fraction of stars in a galaxy that allow for (traditional) habitable planets decreases due to both orbital disruption and the intense background radiation. However, the outer parts of the galaxy always allow for habitable planets, so that the value of Q does not have a well-defined upper limit (due to scattering or radiation constraints). Moreover, some Galactic Habitable Zones are large enough to support more

  17. Planets in other universes: habitability constraints on density fluctuations and galactic structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, Fred C.; Coppess, Katherine R.; Bloch, Anthony M.

    2015-01-01

    Motivated by the possibility that different versions of the laws of physics could be realized within other universes, this paper delineates the galactic structure parameters that allow for habitable planets and revisits constraints on the amplitude Q of the primordial density fluctuations. Previous work indicates that large values of Q lead to galaxies so dense that planetary orbits cannot survive long enough for life to develop. Small values of Q lead to delayed star formation, loosely bound galaxies, and compromised heavy element retention. This work generalizes previous treatments in the following directions: [A] We consider models for the internal structure of the galaxies, including a range of stellar densities, and find the fraction of the resulting galactic real estate that allows for stable, long-lived planetary orbits. [B] For high velocity encounters, we perform a large ensemble of numerical simulations to estimate cross sections for the disruption of planetary orbits due to interactions with passing stars. [C] We consider the background radiation fields produced by the galaxies: if a galaxy is too compact, the night sky seen from a potentially habitable planet can provide more power than the host star. [D] One consequence of intense galactic background radiation fields is that some portion of the galaxy, denoted as the Galactic Habitable Zone, will provide the right flux levels to support habitable planets for essentially any planetary orbit including freely floating bodies (but excluding close-in planets). As the value of Q increases, the fraction of stars in a galaxy that allow for (traditional) habitable planets decreases due to both orbital disruption and the intense background radiation. However, the outer parts of the galaxy always allow for habitable planets, so that the value of Q does not have a well-defined upper limit (due to scattering or radiation constraints). Moreover, some Galactic Habitable Zones are large enough to support more

  18. Frontiers in Fluctuation Spectroscopy: Measuring protein dynamics and protein spatio-temporal connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digman, Michelle

    Fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy has evolved from single point detection of molecular diffusion to a family of microscopy imaging correlation tools (i.e. ICS, RICS, STICS, and kICS) useful in deriving spatial-temporal dynamics of proteins in living cells The advantage of the imaging techniques is the simultaneous measurement of all points in an image with a frame rate that is increasingly becoming faster with better sensitivity cameras and new microscopy modalities such as the sheet illumination technique. A new frontier in this area is now emerging towards a high level of mapping diffusion rates and protein dynamics in the 2 and 3 dimensions. In this talk, I will discuss the evolution of fluctuation analysis from the single point source to mapping diffusion in whole cells and the technology behind this technique. In particular, new methods of analysis exploit correlation of molecular fluctuations originating from measurement of fluctuation correlations at distant points (pair correlation analysis) and methods that exploit spatial averaging of fluctuations in small regions (iMSD). For example the pair correlation fluctuation (pCF) analyses done between adjacent pixels in all possible radial directions provide a window into anisotropic molecular diffusion. Similar to the connectivity atlas of neuronal connections from the MRI diffusion tensor imaging these new tools will be used to map the connectome of protein diffusion in living cells. For biological reaction-diffusion systems, live single cell spatial-temporal analysis of protein dynamics provides a mean to observe stochastic biochemical signaling in the context of the intracellular environment which may lead to better understanding of cancer cell invasion, stem cell differentiation and other fundamental biological processes. National Institutes of Health Grant P41-RRO3155.

  19. Critical fluctuations of the proton density in A+A collisions at $158A$ GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Anticic, T.; Bartke, J.; Beck, H.; Betev, L.; Białkowska, H.; Blume, C.; Bogusz, M.; Boimska, B.; Book, J.; Botje, M.; Bunčić, P.; Cetner, T.; Christakoglou, P.; Chvala, O.; Cramer, J.; Eckardt, V.; Fodor, Z.; Foka, P.; Friese, V.; Gaździcki, M.; Grebieszkow, K.; Höhne, C.; Kadija, K.; Karev, A.; Kolesnikov, V.I.; Kowalski, M.; Kresan, D.; Laszlo, A.; Leeuwen, M.; Maćkowiak-Pawłowska, M.; Makariev, M.; Malakhov, A.I.; Mateev, M.; Melkumov, G.L.; Mitrovski, M.; Mrówczyński, St.; Pálla, G.; Panagiotou, A.D.; Peryt, W.; Pluta, J.; Prindle, D.; Pühlhofer, F.; Renfordt, R.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rustamov, A.; Rybczyński, M.; Rybicki, A.; Sandoval, A.; Schmitz, N.; Schuster, T.; Seyboth, P.; Siklér, F.; Skrzypczak, E.; Slodkowski, M.; Stefanek, G.; Stock, R.; Ströbele, H.; Susa, T.; Szuba, M.; Varga, D.; Vassiliou, M.; Veres, G.I.; Vesztergombi, G.; Vranić, D.; Włodarczyk, Z.; Wojtaszek-Szwarć, A.; Antoniou, N.G.; Davis, N.; Diakonos, F.K.

    2015-12-12

    Studies of QCD suggest the existence of a critical point in the phase diagram of strongly interacting matter. Close to this point, according to recent theoretical investigations, the net-proton density carries the critical fluctuations of the chiral order parameter. Using intermittency analysis in the transverse momentum phase space of protons produced around midrapidity in the 12.5% most central C+C, Si+Si and Pb+Pb collisions at the maximum SPS energy of 158$A$ GeV we find evidence of power-law fluctuations for the Si+Si and Pb+Pb data. The fitted power-law exponent approaches the value expected for critical fluctuations. This suggests that the freeze-out states of these two systems are located in the phase diagram in the neighbourhood of the chiral critical point.

  20. Experimental and theoretical investigation of density and potential fluctuations in the scrape-off layer of ASDEX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endler, M; Giannone, L.; Niedermeyer, H; Rudyj, A; Theimer, G [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany)

    1994-12-31

    Electrostatic fluctuations (i.e. the magnetic field is assumed constant) are candidates for the explanation of the anomalous transport of particles and energy in both tokamaks and stellarators. While most theoretical effort has been directed to an explanation of the anomalous transport in the bulk plasma, it is now widely being realized that the anomalous radial transport in the scrape-off layer, determining the width of the power flow channel at limiter or divertor plates, may be equally important to a future reactor experiment. In the divertor tokamak ASDEX density and potential fluctuations in the scrape-off layer were investigated with high temporal and spatial resolution by Langmuir probes and an H{sub {alpha}} diagnostic. Many results of these measurements were reported and are summarized below. Several of these properties of the fluctuations have also been reported from other experiments. (author) 3 refs., 4 figs.

  1. Ordinary mode reflectometry. Modification of the scattering and cut-off responses due to the shape of localized density fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fanack, C.; Boucher, I.; Heuraux, S.; Leclert, G.; Clairet, F.; Zou, X.L.

    1996-01-01

    Ordinary wave reflectometry in a plasma containing a localized density perturbation is studied with a 1-D model. The phase response is studied as a function of the wavenumber and position of the perturbation. It is shown that it strongly depends upon the perturbation shape and size. For a small perturbation wavenumber, the response is due to the oscillation of the cut-off layer. For larger wavenumbers, two regimes are found: for a broad perturbation, the phase response is an image of the perturbation itself; for a narrow perturbation, it is rather an image of the Fourier transform. For tokamak plasmas it turns out that, for the fluctuation spectra usually observed, the phase response comes primarily from those fluctuations that are localized at the cut-off. Results of a 2-D numerical model show that geometry effects are negligible for the scattering by radial fluctuations. (author)

  2. Scattering of lower-hybrid waves by drift-wave density fluctuations: solutions of the radiative transfer equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, P.L.; Perkins, F.W.

    1983-01-01

    The investigation of the scattering of lower-hybrid waves by density fluctuations arising from drift waves in tokamaks is distinguished by the presence in the wave equation of a large, random, derivative-coupling term. The propagation of the lower-hybrid waves is well represented by a radiative transfer equation when the scale size of the density fluctuations is small compared to the overall plasma size. The radiative transfer equation is solved in two limits: first, the forward scattering limit, where the scale size of density fluctuations is large compared to the lower-hybrid perpendicular wavelength, and second, the large-angle scattering limit, where this inequality is reversed. The most important features of these solutions are well represented by analytical formulas derived by simple arguments. Based on conventional estimates for density fluctuations arising from drift waves and a parabolic density profile, the optical depth tau for scattering through a significant angle, is given by tauroughly-equal(2/N 2 /sub parallel/) (#betta#/sub p/i0/#betta#) 2 (m/sub e/c 2 /2T/sub i/)/sup 1/2/ [c/α(Ω/sub i/Ω/sub e/)/sup 1/2/ ], where #betta#/sub p/i0 is the central ion plasma frequency and T/sub i/ denotes the ion temperature near the edge of the plasma. Most of the scattering occurs near the surface. The transmission through the scattering region scales as tau - 1 and the emerging intensity has an angular spectrum proportional to cos theta, where sin theta = k/sub perpendicular/xB/sub p//(k/sub perpendicular/B/sub p/), and B/sub p/ is the poloidal field

  3. Study of the fluctuations in neutrons density in a homogeneous plutonium pile; Etude de la fluctuation de la population de neutrons sur une pile homogene au plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clouet d' Orval, C; Deilgat, E; Labbe, J; Molbert, M; Tachon, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1962-07-01

    The variations in neutron density in the centre of a reactor core are subjected to a statistical fluctuation phenomenon. Because of the correlations existing between the neutrons, their distribution does not follow Poisson's law. It diverges from it by a quantity depending on various parameter such as the lifetime and the effective fraction of the slowed-down neutrons. Experiments have been carried out designed to demonstrate this divergence and also, more particularly, the correlation between unaffected and slowed-down neutrons; these have been carried out with the help of the reactor 'Proserpine', a critical homogeneous plutonium assembly. (author) [French] L'evolution de la population neutronique au sein d'un milieu multiplicateur est soumise a un phenomene de fluctuations statistiques. En raison des correlations qui existent entre les neutrons, leur distribution ne suit pas une loi de Poisson. Elle s'en ecarte d'une quantite qui depend de divers parametres tels que le temps de vie, la proportion effective des neutrons retardes. Des experiences, destinees a mettre en evidence cet ecart, et plus particulierement les correlations entre neutrons prompts et neutrons retardes, ont ete realisees a l'aide de la pile 'Proserpine', experience critique homogene au plutonium. (auteur)

  4. Enhanced Sensitivity to Rapid Input Fluctuations by Nonlinear Threshold Dynamics in Neocortical Pyramidal Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensi, Skander; Hagens, Olivier; Gerstner, Wulfram; Pozzorini, Christian

    2016-02-01

    The way in which single neurons transform input into output spike trains has fundamental consequences for network coding. Theories and modeling studies based on standard Integrate-and-Fire models implicitly assume that, in response to increasingly strong inputs, neurons modify their coding strategy by progressively reducing their selective sensitivity to rapid input fluctuations. Combining mathematical modeling with in vitro experiments, we demonstrate that, in L5 pyramidal neurons, the firing threshold dynamics adaptively adjust the effective timescale of somatic integration in order to preserve sensitivity to rapid signals over a broad range of input statistics. For that, a new Generalized Integrate-and-Fire model featuring nonlinear firing threshold dynamics and conductance-based adaptation is introduced that outperforms state-of-the-art neuron models in predicting the spiking activity of neurons responding to a variety of in vivo-like fluctuating currents. Our model allows for efficient parameter extraction and can be analytically mapped to a Generalized Linear Model in which both the input filter--describing somatic integration--and the spike-history filter--accounting for spike-frequency adaptation--dynamically adapt to the input statistics, as experimentally observed. Overall, our results provide new insights on the computational role of different biophysical processes known to underlie adaptive coding in single neurons and support previous theoretical findings indicating that the nonlinear dynamics of the firing threshold due to Na+-channel inactivation regulate the sensitivity to rapid input fluctuations.

  5. Dynamical interplay between fluctuations, electric fields and transport in fusion plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidalgo, C.; Pedrosa, M.A.; Goncalves, B.

    2003-01-01

    A view of recent experimental results and progress in the characterization of the statistical properties of electrostatic turbulence in magnetically confined devices is given. An empirical similarity in the scaling properties of the probability distribution function (PDF) of turbulent transport has been observed in the plasma edge region in fusion plasmas. The investigation of the dynamical interplay between fluctuation in gradients, turbulent transport and radial electric fields has shows that these parameters are strongly coupled both in tokamak and stellarator plasmas. The bursty behaviour of turbulent transport is linked with a departure from the most probable radial gradient. The dynamical relation between fluctuations in gradients and transport is strongly affected by the presence of sheared poloidal flows which organized themselves near marginal stability. These results emphasize the importance of the statistical description of transport processes in fusion plasmas as an alternative approach to the traditional way to characterize transport based on the computation of effective transport coefficients. (author)

  6. Firm Dynamics and Markup Variations: Implications for Sunspot Equilibria and Endogenous Economic Fluctuation

    OpenAIRE

    Nir Jaimovich

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyzes how the interaction between firms’ entry-and-exit decisions and variations in competition gives rise to self-fulfilling, expectation-driven fluctuations in aggregate economic activity and in measured total factor productivity (TFP). The analysis is based on a dynamic general equilibrium model in which net business formation is endogenously procyclical and leads to endogenous countercyclical variations in markups. This interaction leads to indeterminacy in which economic fl...

  7. Beam-energy and system-size dependence of dynamical net charge fluctuations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Abelev, B. I.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Ahammed, Z.; Anderson, B. D.; Arkhipkin, D.; Averichev, G. S.; Balewski, J.; Barannikova, O.; Barnby, L. S.; Baudot, J.; Baumgart, S.; Beavis, D.R.; Bellwied, R.; Benedosso, F.; Betancourt, M.J.; Betts, R. R.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A.K.; Bichsel, H.; Bielčík, Jaroslav; Bielčíková, Jana; Biritz, B.; Bland, L.C.; Bombara, M.; Bonner, B. E.; Botje, M.; Bouchet, J.; Braidot, E.; Brandin, A. V.; Bruna, E.; Bueltmann, S.; Burton, T. P.; Bysterský, Michal; Cai, X.Z.; Caines, H.; Sanchez, M.C.D.; Catu, O.; Cebra, D.; Cendejas, R.; Cervantes, M.C.; Chajecki, Z.; Chaloupka, Petr; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen, H.F.; Chen, J.H.; Cheng, J.; Cherney, M.; Chikanian, A.; Choi, K.E.; Christie, W.; Clarke, R.F.; Codrington, M.J.M.; Corliss, R.; Cormier, T.M.; Coserea, R. M.; Cramer, J. G.; Crawford, H. J.; Das, D.; Dash, S.; Daugherity, M.; De Silva, L.C.; Dedovich, T. G.; DePhillips, M.; Derevschikov, A.A.; de Souza, R.D.; Didenko, L.; Djawotho, P.; Dunlop, J.C.; Mazumdar, M.R.D.; Edwards, W.R.; Efimov, L.G.; Elhalhuli, E.; Elnimr, M.; Emelianov, V.; Engelage, J.; Eppley, G.; Erazmus, B.; Estienne, M.; Eun, L.; Fachini, P.; Fatemi, R.; Fedorisin, J.; Feng, A.; Filip, P.; Finch, E.; Fine, V.; Fisyak, Y.; Gagliardi, C. A.; Gaillard, L.; Ganti, M. S.; Gangaharan, D.R.; Garcia-Solis, E.J.; Geromitsos, A.; Geurts, F.; Ghazikhanian, V.; Ghosh, P.; Gorbunov, Y.N.; Gordon, A.; Grebenyuk, O.; Grosnick, D.; Grube, B.; Guertin, S.M.; Guimaraes, K.S.F.F.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, N.; Guryn, W.; Haag, B.; Hallman, T.J.; Hamed, A.; Harris, J.W.; He, W.; Heinz, M.; Heppelmann, S.; Hippolyte, B.; Hirsch, A.; Hjort, E.; Hoffman, A.M.; Hoffmann, G.W.; Hofman, D.J.; Hollis, R.S.; Huang, H.Z.; Humanic, T.J.; Igo, G.; Iordanova, A.; Jacobs, P.; Jacobs, W.W.; Jakl, Pavel; Jena, C.; Jin, F.; Jones, C.L.; Jones, P.G.; Joseph, J.; Judd, E.G.; Kabana, S.; Kajimoto, K.; Kang, K.; Kapitán, Jan; Keane, D.; Kechechyan, A.; Kettler, D.; Khodyrev, V.Yu.; Kikola, D.P.; Kiryluk, J.; Kisiel, A.; Klein, S.R.; Knospe, A.G.; Kocoloski, A.; Koetke, D.D.; Kopytine, M.; Korsch, W.; Kotchenda, L.; Kushpil, Vasilij; Kravtsov, P.; Kravtsov, V.I.; Krueger, K.; Krus, M.; Kuhn, C.; Kumar, L.; Kurnadi, P.; Lamont, M.A.C.; Landgraf, J.M.; LaPointe, S.; Lauret, J.; Lebedev, A.; Lednický, Richard; Lee, Ch.; Lee, J.H.; Leight, W.; LeVine, M.J.; Li, N.; Li, C.; Li, Y.; Lin, G.; Lindenbaum, S.J.; Lisa, M.A.; Liu, F.; Liu, J.; Liu, L.; Ljubicic, T.; Llope, W.J.; Longacre, R.S.; Love, W.A.; Lu, Y.; Ludlam, T.; Ma, G.L.; Ma, Y.G.; Mahapatra, D.P.; Majka, R.; Mall, O.I.; Mangotra, L.K.; Manweiler, R.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Matis, H.S.; Matulenko, Yu.A.; McShane, T.S.; Meschanin, A.; Milner, R.; Minaev, N.G.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mischke, A.; Mitchell, J.; Mohanty, B.; Morozov, D.A.; Munhoz, M. G.; Nandi, B.K.; Nattrass, C.; Nayak, T. K.; Nelson, J.M.; Netrakanti, P.K.; Ng, M.J.; Nogach, L.V.; Nurushev, S.B.; Odyniec, G.; Ogawa, A.; Okada, H.; Okorokov, V.; Olson, D.; Pachr, M.; Page, B.S.; Pal, S.K.; Pandit, Y.; Panebratsev, Y.; Panitkin, S.Y.; Pawlak, T.; Peitzmann, T.; Perevoztchikov, V.; Perkins, C.; Peryt, W.; Phatak, S.C.; Poljak, N.; Poskanzer, A.M.; Potukuchi, B.V.K.S.; Prindle, D.; Pruneau, C.; Pruthi, N.K.; Putschke, J.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Ray, R.L.; Redwine, R.; Reed, R.; Ridiger, A.; Ritter, H.G.; Roberts, J.B.; Rogachevskiy, O.V.; Romero, J.L.; Rose, A.; Roy, C.; Ruan, L.; Russcher, M.J.; Sahoo, R.; Sakrejda, I.; Sakuma, T.; Salur, S.; Sandweiss, J.; Sarsour, M.; Schambach, J.; Scharenberg, R.P.; Schmitz, N.; Seger, J.; Selyuzhenkov, I.; Seyboth, P.; Shabetai, A.; Shahaliev, E.; Shao, M.; Sharma, M.; Shi, S.S.; Shi, X.H.; Sichtermann, E.P.; Simon, F.; Singaraju, R.N.; Skoby, M.J.; Smirnov, N.; Snellings, R.; Sorensen, P.; Sowinski, J.; Spinka, H.M.; Srivastava, B.; Stadnik, A.; Stanislaus, T.D.S.; Staszak, D.; Strikhanov, M.; Stringfellow, B.; Suaide, A.A.P.; Suarez, M.C.; Subba, N.L.; Šumbera, Michal; Sun, X.M.; Sun, Y.; Sun, Z.; Surrow, B.; Symons, T.J.M.; de Toledo, A. S.; Takahashi, J.; Tang, A.H.; Tang, Z.; Tarnowsky, T.; Thein, D.; Thomas, J.H.; Tian, J.; Timmins, A.R.; Timoshenko, S.; Tokarev, M. V.; Trainor, T.A.; Tram, V.N.; Trattner, A.L.; Trentalange, S.; Tribble, R. E.; Tsai, O.D.; Ulery, J.; Ullrich, T.; Underwood, D.G.; Van Buren, G.; van Leeuwen, M.; Vander Molen, A.M.; Vanfossen, J.A.; Varma, R.; Vasconcelos, G.S.M.; Vasilevski, I.M.; Vasiliev, A. N.; Videbaek, F.; Vigdor, S.E.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Vokal, S.; Voloshin, S.A.; Wada, M.; Walker, M.; Wang, F.; Wang, G.; Wang, J.S.; Wang, Q.; Wang, X.; Wang, X.L.; Wang, Y.; Webb, G.; Webb, J.C.; Westfall, G.D.; Whitten, C.; Wieman, H.; Wissink, S.W.; Witt, R.; Wu, Y.; Tlustý, David; Xie, W.; Xu, N.; Xu, Q.H.; Xu, Y.; Xu, Z.; Yang, P.; Yepes, P.; Yip, K.; Yoo, I.K.; Yue, Q.; Zawisza, M.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zhan, W.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, W.M.; Zhang, X.P.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, Y.; Zhong, C.; Zhou, J.; Zoulkarneev, R.; Zoulkarneeva, Y.; Zuo, J.X.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 79, č. 2 (2009), 024906/1-024906/14 ISSN 0556-2813 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/07/0079; GA MŠk LC07048 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505; CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : NET CHARGE * DYNAMICAL FLUCTUATIONS * HEAVY-ION COLLISIONS Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 3.477, year: 2009

  8. Detrended fluctuation analysis of cerebral venous dynamics in newborn mice with intracranial hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, A. N.; Semyachkina-Glushkovskaya, O. V.; Bibikova, O. A.; Pavlova, O. N.; Mohammad, Y. K.; Huang, Q.; Zhu, D.; Li, P.; Tuchin, V. V.; Luo, Q.

    2015-03-01

    We study pathological changes in cerebral venous dynamics in newborn mice using the laser speckle contrast imaging and the detrended fluctuation analysis with a special attention to the latent stage of the development of the intracranial hemorrhage. We show that this stage is characterized by a high responsiveness of the sagittal sinus to pharmacological stimulations of adrenorelated dilation. We conclude that this effect can be considered as an important mechanism underlying the development of ICH in newborns.

  9. A density tensor hierarchy for open system dynamics: retrieving the noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, Stephen L

    2007-01-01

    We develop a density tensor hierarchy for open system dynamics that recovers information about fluctuations (or 'noise') lost in passing to the reduced density matrix. For the case of fluctuations arising from a classical probability distribution, the hierarchy is formed from expectations of products of pure state density matrix elements and can be compactly summarized by a simple generating function. For the case of quantum fluctuations arising when a quantum system interacts with a quantum environment in an overall pure state, the corresponding hierarchy is defined as the environmental trace of products of system matrix elements of the full density matrix. Whereas all members of the classical noise hierarchy are system observables, only the lowest member of the quantum noise hierarchy is directly experimentally measurable. The unit trace and idempotence properties of the pure state density matrix imply descent relations for the tensor hierarchies, that relate the order n tensor, under contraction of appropriate pairs of tensor indices, to the order n - 1 tensor. As examples to illustrate the classical probability distribution formalism, we consider a spatially isotropic ensemble of spin-1/2 pure states, a quantum system evolving by an Ito stochastic Schroedinger equation and a quantum system evolving by a jump process Schroedinger equation. As examples to illustrate the corresponding trace formalism in the quantum fluctuation case, we consider the tensor hierarchies for collisional Brownian motion of an infinite mass Brownian particle and for the weak coupling Born-Markov master equation. In different specializations, the latter gives the hierarchies generalizing the quantum optical master equation and the Caldeira-Leggett master equation. As a further application of the density tensor, we contrast stochastic Schroedinger equations that reduce and that do not reduce the state vector, and discuss why a quantum system coupled to a quantum environment behaves like

  10. Effects of density gradients and fluctuations at the plasma edge on ECEI measurements at ASDEX Upgrade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanovac, B.; Wolfrum, E.; Denk, S. S.; Mink, F.; Laggner, F. M.; Birkenmeier, G.; Willensdorfer, M.; Viezzer, E.; Hoelzl, M.; Freethy, S. J.; Dunne, M. G.; Lessig, A.; Luhmann, N. C.; ASDEX Upgrade team,; EUROfusion MST1 Team,

    2018-01-01

    Electron cyclotron emission imaging (ECEI) provides measurements of electron temperature (T-e) and its fluctuations (delta T-e). However, when measuring at the plasma edge, in the steep gradient region, radiation transport effects must be taken into account. It is shown that due to these effects,

  11. Effect of thermal fluctuations in spin-torque driven magnetization dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonin, R.; Bertotti, G.; Serpico, C.; Mayergoyz, I.D.; D'Aquino, M.

    2007-01-01

    Nanomagnets with uniaxial symmetry driven by an external field and spin-polarized currents are considered. Anisotropy, applied field, and spin polarization are all aligned along the symmetry axis. Thermal fluctuations are described by adding a Gaussian white noise stochastic term to the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation for the deterministic dynamics. The corresponding Fokker-Planck equation is derived. It is shown that deterministic dynamics, thermal relaxation, and transition rate between stable states are governed by an effective potential including the effect of current injection

  12. Effect of thermal fluctuations in spin-torque driven magnetization dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonin, R. [INRiM, I-10135 Turin (Italy)]. E-mail: bonin@inrim.it; Bertotti, G. [INRiM, I-10135 Turin (Italy); Serpico, C. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Elettrica, Universita di Napoli ' Federico II' I-80125 Naples (Italy); Mayergoyz, I.D. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); D' Aquino, M. [Dipartimento per le Tecnologie, Universita di Napoli ' Parthenope' , I-80133 Naples (Italy)

    2007-09-15

    Nanomagnets with uniaxial symmetry driven by an external field and spin-polarized currents are considered. Anisotropy, applied field, and spin polarization are all aligned along the symmetry axis. Thermal fluctuations are described by adding a Gaussian white noise stochastic term to the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation for the deterministic dynamics. The corresponding Fokker-Planck equation is derived. It is shown that deterministic dynamics, thermal relaxation, and transition rate between stable states are governed by an effective potential including the effect of current injection.

  13. Edge electron density profiles and fluctuations measured by two-dimensional beam emission spectroscopy in the KSTAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Y. U., E-mail: yunam@nfri.re.kr; Wi, H. M. [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Zoletnik, S.; Lampert, M. [Wigner RCP Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, Budapest (Hungary); Kovácsik, Ákos [Institute of Nuclear Techniques, Budapest Technical University, Budapest (Hungary)

    2014-11-15

    Beam emission spectroscopy (BES) system in Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) has recently been upgraded. The background intensity was reduced from 30% to 2% by suppressing the stray lights. This allows acquisition of the relative electron density profiles on the plasma edge without background subtraction from the beam power modulation signals. The KSTAR BES system has its spatial resolution of 1 cm, the temporal resolution of 2 MHz, and a total 32 channel (8 radial × 4 poloidal) avalanche photo diode array. Most measurements were done on the plasma edge, r/a ∼ 0.9, with 8 cm radial measurement width that covers the pedestal range. High speed density profile measurements reveal temporal behaviors of fast transient events, such as the precursors of edge localized modes and the transitions between confinement modes. Low background level also allows analysis of the edge density fluctuation patterns with reduced background fluctuations. Propagation of the density structures can be investigated by comparing the phase delays between the spatially distributed channels.

  14. Automatic identification of mobile and rigid substructures in molecular dynamics simulations and fractional structural fluctuation analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Martínez

    Full Text Available The analysis of structural mobility in molecular dynamics plays a key role in data interpretation, particularly in the simulation of biomolecules. The most common mobility measures computed from simulations are the Root Mean Square Deviation (RMSD and Root Mean Square Fluctuations (RMSF of the structures. These are computed after the alignment of atomic coordinates in each trajectory step to a reference structure. This rigid-body alignment is not robust, in the sense that if a small portion of the structure is highly mobile, the RMSD and RMSF increase for all atoms, resulting possibly in poor quantification of the structural fluctuations and, often, to overlooking important fluctuations associated to biological function. The motivation of this work is to provide a robust measure of structural mobility that is practical, and easy to interpret. We propose a Low-Order-Value-Optimization (LOVO strategy for the robust alignment of the least mobile substructures in a simulation. These substructures are automatically identified by the method. The algorithm consists of the iterative superposition of the fraction of structure displaying the smallest displacements. Therefore, the least mobile substructures are identified, providing a clearer picture of the overall structural fluctuations. Examples are given to illustrate the interpretative advantages of this strategy. The software for performing the alignments was named MDLovoFit and it is available as free-software at: http://leandro.iqm.unicamp.br/mdlovofit.

  15. Chiral dynamics and peripheral transverse densities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granados, Carlos G. [Uppsala University (Sweden); Weiss, Christian [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States)

    2014-01-01

    In the partonic (or light-front) description of relativistic systems the electromagnetic form factors are expressed in terms of frame-independent charge and magnetization densities in transverse space. This formulation allows one to identify the chiral components of nucleon structure as the peripheral densities at transverse distances b = O(M{sub {pi}}{sup -1}) and compute them in a parametrically controlled manner. A dispersion relation connects the large-distance behavior of the transverse charge and magnetization densities to the spectral functions of the Dirac and Pauli form factors near the two--pion threshold at timelike t = 4 M{ sub {pi}}{sup 2}, which can be computed in relativistic chiral effective field theory. Using the leading-order approximation we (a) derive the asymptotic behavior (Yukawa tail) of the isovector transverse densities in the "chiral" region b = O(M{sub {pi}}{sup -1}) and the "molecular" region b = O(M{sub N}{sup 2}/M{sub {pi}}{sup 3}); (b) perform the heavy-baryon expansion of the transverse densities; (c) explain the relative magnitude of the peripheral charge and magnetization densities in a simple mechanical picture; (d) include Delta isobar intermediate states and study the peripheral transverse densities in the large-N{ sub c} limit of QCD; (e) quantify the region of transverse distances where the chiral components of the densities are numerically dominant; (f) calculate the chiral divergences of the b{sup 2}-weighted moments of the isovector transverse densities (charge and anomalous magnetic radii) in the limit M{sub {pi}} -> 0 and determine their spatial support. Our approach provides a concise formulation of the spatial structure of the nucleon's chiral component and offers new insights into basic properties of the chiral expansion. It relates the information extracted from low-t elastic form factors to the generalized parton distributions probed in peripheral high-energy scattering processes.

  16. Characterization of the up-down asymmetry of density fluctuations induced by a lower modular limiter in Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenzi, C.; Devynck, P.; Garbet, X.; Antar, G.; Capes, H.; Laviron, C.; Truc, A.; Gervais, F.; Hennequin, P.; Quemeneur, A.

    1999-01-01

    In magnetic fusion devices, the effect of plasma facing components on plasma turbulence is a key issue for several reasons. Firstly, the edge turbulence controls the power deposition on plasma facing components. Secondly, the possible influence of the edge parameters on the core fluctuations is a central question, since the core turbulent transport is responsible for the confinement degradation. It is in practice difficult to determine whether the plasma core influences the edge, or the opposite. We show here that spatial edge asymmetries of density fluctuations, and particularly up-down asymmetries, provide a powerful tool to investigate this problem. In TORE SUPRA, previous scaling analyses with various plasma parameters have emphasized that a very clear effect on the asymmetry level appears when the plasma leans on the lower modular limiter located close to the measurement chord. We present here recent measurement results concerning that specific case. They tend to show that the limiter configuration has some effect on the core turbulence. (authors)

  17. Dynamics of dimer and z spin component fluctuations in spin-1/2 XY chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.Hlushak

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available One-dimensional quantum spin-1/2 XY models admit the rigorous analysis not only of their static properties (i.e. the thermodynamic quantities and the equal-time spin correlation functions but also of their dynamic properties (i.e. the different-time spin correlation functions, the dynamic susceptibilities, the dynamic structure factors. This becomes possible after exploiting the Jordan-Wigner transformation which reduces the spin model to a model of spinless noninteracting fermions. A number of dynamic quantities (e.g. related to transverse spin operator or dimer operator fluctuations are entirely determined by two-fermion excitations and can be examined in much detail.

  18. Short-Range Electron Transfer in Reduced Flavodoxin: Ultrafast Nonequilibrium Dynamics Coupled with Protein Fluctuations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Mainak; He, Ting-Fang; Lu, Yangyi; Wang, Lijuan; Zhong, Dongping

    2018-05-03

    Short-range electron transfer (ET) in proteins is an ultrafast process on the similar timescales as local protein-solvent fluctuations thus the two dynamics are coupled. Here, we use semiquinone flavodoxin and systematically characterized the photoinduced redox cycle with eleven mutations of different aromatic electron donors (tryptophan and tyrosine) and local residues to change redox properties. We observed the forward and backward ET dynamics in a few picoseconds, strongly following a stretched behavior resulting from a coupling between local environment relaxations and these ET processes. We further observed the hot vibrational-state formation through charge recombination and the subsequent cooling dynamics also in a few picoseconds. Combined with the ET studies in oxidized flavodoxin, these results coherently reveal the evolution of the ET dynamics from single to stretched exponential behaviors and thus elucidate critical timescales for the coupling. The observed hot vibration-state formation is robust and should be considered in all photoinduced back ET processes in flavoproteins.

  19. Thermal Fluctuations in Smooth Dissipative Particle Dynamics simulation of mesoscopic thermal systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatsonis, Nikolaos; Yang, Jun

    2013-11-01

    The SDPD-DV is implemented in our work for arbitrary 3D wall bounded geometries. The particle position and momentum equations are integrated with a velocity-Verlet algorithm and the entropy equation is integrated with a Runge-Kutta algorithm. Simulations of nitrogen gas are performed to evaluate the effects of timestep and particle scale on temperature, self-diffusion coefficient and shear viscosity. The hydrodynamic fluctuations in temperature, density, pressure and velocity from the SDPD-DV simulations are evaluated and compared with theoretical predictions. Steady planar thermal Couette flows are simulated and compared with analytical solutions. Simulations cover the hydrodynamic and mesocopic regime and show thermal fluctuations and their dependence on particle size.

  20. A Langevin model for fluctuating contact angle behaviour parametrised using molecular dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, E R; Müller, E A; Craster, R V; Matar, O K

    2016-12-06

    Molecular dynamics simulations are employed to develop a theoretical model to predict the fluid-solid contact angle as a function of wall-sliding speed incorporating thermal fluctuations. A liquid bridge between counter-sliding walls is studied, with liquid-vapour interface-tracking, to explore the impact of wall-sliding speed on contact angle. The behaviour of the macroscopic contact angle varies linearly over a range of capillary numbers beyond which the liquid bridge pinches off, a behaviour supported by experimental results. Nonetheless, the liquid bridge provides an ideal test case to study molecular scale thermal fluctuations, which are shown to be well described by Gaussian distributions. A Langevin model for contact angle is parametrised to incorporate the mean, fluctuation and auto-correlations over a range of sliding speeds and temperatures. The resulting equations can be used as a proxy for the fully-detailed molecular dynamics simulation allowing them to be integrated within a continuum-scale solver.

  1. Effect of river flow fluctuations on riparian vegetation dynamics: Processes and models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesipa, Riccardo; Camporeale, Carlo; Ridolfi, Luca

    2017-12-01

    Several decades of field observations, laboratory experiments and mathematical modelings have demonstrated that the riparian environment is a disturbance-driven ecosystem, and that the main source of disturbance is river flow fluctuations. The focus of the present work has been on the key role that flow fluctuations play in determining the abundance, zonation and species composition of patches of riparian vegetation. To this aim, the scientific literature on the subject, over the last 20 years, has been reviewed. First, the most relevant ecological, morphological and chemical mechanisms induced by river flow fluctuations are described from a process-based perspective. The role of flow variability is discussed for the processes that affect the recruitment of vegetation, the vegetation during its adult life, and the morphological and nutrient dynamics occurring in the riparian habitat. Particular emphasis has been given to studies that were aimed at quantifying the effect of these processes on vegetation, and at linking them to the statistical characteristics of the river hydrology. Second, the advances made, from a modeling point of view, have been considered and discussed. The main models that have been developed to describe the dynamics of riparian vegetation have been presented. Different modeling approaches have been compared, and the corresponding advantages and drawbacks have been pointed out. Finally, attention has been paid to identifying the processes considered by the models, and these processes have been compared with those that have actually been observed or measured in field/laboratory studies.

  2. Bose-Einstein condensate collapse and dynamical squeezing of vacuum fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calzetta, E.A.; Hu, B.L.

    2003-01-01

    We analyze the phenomena of condensate collapse, as described by Donley et al. [Nature 412, 295 (2001)] and N. Claussen [Ph. D thesis, University of Colorado, 2003 (unpublished)] by focusing on the behavior of excitations or fluctuations above the condensate, as driven by the dynamics of the condensate, rather than the dynamics of the condensate alone or the kinetics of the atoms. The dynamics of the condensate squeezes and amplifies the quantum excitations, mixing the positive and negative frequency components of their wave functions thereby creating particles that appear as bursts and jets. By analyzing the changing amplitude and particle content of these excitations, our simple physical picture explains well the overall features of the collapse phenomena and provides excellent quantitative fits with experimental data on several aspects, such as the scaling behavior of the collapse time and the number of particles in the jet. The prediction of the bursts at this level of approximation is less than satisfactory but may be improved by including the backreaction of the excitations on the condensate. The mechanism behind the dominant effect--parametric amplification of vacuum fluctuations and freezing of modes outside of horizon--is similar to that of cosmological particle creation and structure formation in a rapid quench (which is fundamentally different from Hawking radiation in black holes). This shows that Bose-Einstein condensate dynamics is a promising venue for doing 'laboratory cosmology'

  3. Molecular kinetics. Ras activation by SOS: allosteric regulation by altered fluctuation dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iversen, Lars; Tu, Hsiung-Lin; Lin, Wan-Chen; Christensen, Sune M; Abel, Steven M; Iwig, Jeff; Wu, Hung-Jen; Gureasko, Jodi; Rhodes, Christopher; Petit, Rebecca S; Hansen, Scott D; Thill, Peter; Yu, Cheng-Han; Stamou, Dimitrios; Chakraborty, Arup K; Kuriyan, John; Groves, Jay T

    2014-07-04

    Activation of the small guanosine triphosphatase H-Ras by the exchange factor Son of Sevenless (SOS) is an important hub for signal transduction. Multiple layers of regulation, through protein and membrane interactions, govern activity of SOS. We characterized the specific activity of individual SOS molecules catalyzing nucleotide exchange in H-Ras. Single-molecule kinetic traces revealed that SOS samples a broad distribution of turnover rates through stochastic fluctuations between distinct, long-lived (more than 100 seconds), functional states. The expected allosteric activation of SOS by Ras-guanosine triphosphate (GTP) was conspicuously absent in the mean rate. However, fluctuations into highly active states were modulated by Ras-GTP. This reveals a mechanism in which functional output may be determined by the dynamical spectrum of rates sampled by a small number of enzymes, rather than the ensemble average. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  4. Effects of rf power on electron density and temperature, neutral temperature, and Te fluctuations in an inductively coupled plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camparo, James; Fathi, Gilda

    2009-01-01

    Atomic clocks that fly on global-navigation satellites such as global positioning system (GPS) and Galileo employ light from low-temperature, inductively coupled plasmas (ICPs) for atomic signal generation and detection (i.e., alkali/noble-gas rf-discharge lamps). In this application, the performance of the atomic clock and the capabilities of the navigation system depend sensitively on the stability of the ICP's optical emission. In order to better understand the mechanisms that might lead to instability in these rf-discharge lamps, and hence the satellite atomic clocks, we studied the optical emission from a Rb/Xe ICP as a function of the rf power driving the plasma. Surprisingly, we found that the electron density in the plasma was essentially independent of increases in rf power above its nominal value (i.e., 'rf-power gain') and that the electron temperature was only a slowly varying function of rf-power gain. The primary effect of rf power was to increase the temperature of the neutrals in the plasma, which was manifested by an increase in Rb vapor density. Interestingly, we also found evidence for electron temperature fluctuations (i.e., fluctuations in the plasma's high-energy electron content). The variance of these fluctuations scaled inversely with the plasma's mean electron temperature and was consistent with a simple model that assumed that the total electron density in the discharge was independent of rf power. Taken as a whole, our results indicate that the electrons in alkali/noble-gas ICPs are little affected by slight changes in rf power and that the primary effect of such changes is to heat the plasma's neutral species.

  5. Calculation of the intrinsic spectral density of current fluctuations in nanometric Schottky-barrier diodes at terahertz frequencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahi, F.Z. [Science and Technology Institute, University of Bechar, 08000 Bechar (Algeria)], E-mail: fati_zo_mahi2002@yahoo.fr; Helmaoui, A. [Science and Technology Institute, University of Bechar, 08000 Bechar (Algeria); Varani, L. [Institut d' Electronique du Sud (CNRS UMR 5214), Universite Montpellier II, 34095 Montpellier (France); Shiktorov, P.; Starikov, E.; Gruzhinskis, V. [Semiconductor Physics Institute, 01108 Vilnius (Lithuania)

    2008-10-01

    An analytical model for the noise spectrum of nanometric Schottky-barrier diodes (SBD) is developed. The calculated frequency dependence of the spectral density of current fluctuations exhibits resonances in the terahertz domain which are discussed and analyzed as functions of the length of the diode, free carrier concentration, length of the depletion region and applied voltage. A good agreement obtained with direct Monte Carlo simulations of GaAs SBDs operating from barrier-limited to flat-band conditions fully validates the proposed approach.

  6. Non-classical radiation transport in random media with fluctuating densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyuldya, S.V.; Bratchenko, M.I.

    2012-01-01

    The ensemble averaged propagation kernels of the non-classical radiation transport are studied by means of the proposed application of the stochastic differential equation random medium generators. It is shown that the non-classical transport is favored in long-correlated weakly fluctuating media. The developed kernel models have been implemented in GEANT4 and validated against the d ouble Monte Carlo m odeling of absorptions curves of disperse neutron absorbers and γ-albedos from a scatterer/absorber random mix

  7. Density fluctuations and the structure of a nonuniform hard sphere fluid

    OpenAIRE

    Katsov, Kirill; Weeks, John D.

    2000-01-01

    We derive an exact equation for density changes induced by a general external field that corrects the hydrostatic approximation where the local value of the field is adsorbed into a modified chemical potential. Using linear response theory to relate density changes self-consistently in different regions of space, we arrive at an integral equation for a hard sphere fluid that is exact in the limit of a slowly varying field or at low density and reduces to the accurate Percus-Yevick equation fo...

  8. Dynamic fluctuations provide the basis of a conformational switch mechanism in apo cyclic AMP receptor protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcu Aykaç Fas

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli cyclic AMP Receptor Protein (CRP undergoes conformational changes with cAMP binding and allosterically promotes CRP to bind specifically to the DNA. In that, the structural and dynamic properties of apo CRP prior to cAMP binding are of interest for the comprehension of the activation mechanism. Here, the dynamics of apo CRP monomer/dimer and holo CRP dimer were studied by Molecular Dynamics (MD simulations and Gaussian Network Model (GNM. The interplay of the inter-domain hinge with the cAMP and DNA binding domains are pre-disposed in the apo state as a conformational switch in the CRP's allosteric communication mechanism. The hinge at L134-D138 displaying intra- and inter-subunit coupled fluctuations with the cAMP and DNA binding domains leads to the emergence of stronger coupled fluctuations between the two domains and describes an on state. The flexible regions at K52-E58, P154/D155 and I175 maintain the dynamic coupling of the two domains. With a shift in the inter-domain hinge position towards the N terminus, nevertheless, the latter correlations between the domains loosen and become disordered; L134-D138 dynamically interacts only with the cAMP and DNA binding domains of its own subunit, and an off state is assumed. We present a mechanistic view on how the structural dynamic units are hierarchically built for the allosteric functional mechanism; from apo CRP monomer to apo-to-holo CRP dimers.

  9. On the dynamical fluctuations in the multiparticle final states of e+e- collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Fuming; Liu Feng; Liu Lianshou

    1999-01-01

    The scaling property of factorial moments in the multiparticle final-states of e + e - collisions is studied in both the laboratory and the thrust-axis coordinate systems by using the Jetset generator. It turns out that in both of the two cases, the 3-dimensional lnF 2 -lnM are approximately straight lines when the phase space are divided isotropically in different directions, showing that the dynamical fluctuations in the multiparticle final-state of e + e - collisions are approximately isotropic. In the lab system, the three γ parameters obtained by fitting F 2 -M of p x , p y , p z to Ochs formula respectively are approximately equal. In the thrust system, the three γ values obtained by fitting F 2 (y)-M, F 2 (p t )-M and F 2 (φ)-M are also close to each other provided the starting point in fitting F 2 (φ)-M is chosen appropriately. All of these provide further evidence for the above assertion. The results show that the essential feature, i.e. anisotropy of approximate) isotropy, of the dynamical fluctuations in soft and hard processes can be revealed by studying the scaling property of factorial moments in the collisions. Therefore, further investigation of the scaling properties of factorial moments in various kinds of collisions processes is significant for the understanding of the essential characteristics of collision dynamics

  10. Nonequilibrium Langevin dynamics: A demonstration study of shear flow fluctuations in a simple fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belousov, Roman; Cohen, E. G. D.; Rondoni, Lamberto

    2017-08-01

    The present paper is based on a recent success of the second-order stochastic fluctuation theory in describing time autocorrelations of equilibrium and nonequilibrium physical systems. In particular, it was shown to yield values of the related deterministic parameters of the Langevin equation for a Couette flow in a microscopic molecular dynamics model of a simple fluid. In this paper we find all the remaining constants of the stochastic dynamics, which then is simulated numerically and compared directly with the original physical system. By using these data, we study in detail the accuracy and precision of a second-order Langevin model for nonequilibrium physical systems theoretically and computationally. We find an intriguing relation between an applied external force and cumulants of the resulting flow fluctuations. This is characterized by a linear dependence of an athermal cumulant ratio, an apposite quantity introduced here. In addition, we discuss how the order of a given Langevin dynamics can be raised systematically by introducing colored noise.

  11. Density dependence of relaxation dynamics in glass formers, and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anshul D S Parmar

    formers, we study the variation of relaxation dynamics with density, rather than temperature, as a control ... stronger behaviour, the use of scaled variables involving temperature and ... of the temperature dependence of B as written defines.

  12. Cell-substrate impedance fluctuations of single amoeboid cells encode cell-shape and adhesion dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, Helmar; Gerhardt, Matthias; Höppner, Nadine; Krüger, Kirsten; Tarantola, Marco; Beta, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    We show systematic electrical impedance measurements of single motile cells on microelectrodes. Wild-type cells and mutant strains were studied that differ in their cell-substrate adhesion strength. We recorded the projected cell area by time-lapse microscopy and observed irregular oscillations of the cell shape. These oscillations were correlated with long-term variations in the impedance signal. Superposed to these long-term trends, we observed fluctuations in the impedance signal. Their magnitude clearly correlated with the adhesion strength, suggesting that strongly adherent cells display more dynamic cell-substrate interactions.

  13. Cell-substrate impedance fluctuations of single amoeboid cells encode cell-shape and adhesion dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, Helmar; Gerhardt, Matthias; Höppner, Nadine; Krüger, Kirsten; Tarantola, Marco; Beta, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    We show systematic electrical impedance measurements of single motile cells on microelectrodes. Wild-type cells and mutant strains were studied that differ in their cell-substrate adhesion strength. We recorded the projected cell area by time-lapse microscopy and observed irregular oscillations of the cell shape. These oscillations were correlated with long-term variations in the impedance signal. Superposed to these long-term trends, we observed fluctuations in the impedance signal. Their magnitude clearly correlated with the adhesion strength, suggesting that strongly adherent cells display more dynamic cell-substrate interactions.

  14. Stochastic dynamics of resistive switching: fluctuations lead to optimal particle number

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radtke, Paul K; Schimansky-Geier, Lutz; Hazel, Andrew L; Straube, Arthur V

    2017-01-01

    Resistive switching (RS) is one of the foremost candidates for building novel types of non-volatile random access memories. Any practical implementation of such a memory cell calls for a strong miniaturization, at which point fluctuations start playing a role that cannot be neglected. A detailed understanding of switching mechanisms and reliability is essential. For this reason, we formulate a particle model based on the stochastic motion of oxygen vacancies. It allows us to investigate fluctuations in the resistance states of a switch with two active zones. The vacancies’ dynamics are governed by a master equation. Upon the application of a voltage pulse, the vacancies travel collectively through the switch. By deriving a generalized Burgers equation we can interpret this collective motion as nonlinear traveling waves, and numerically verify this result. Further, we define binary logical states by means of the underlying vacancy distributions, and establish a framework of writing and reading such memory element with voltage pulses. Considerations about the discriminability of these operations under fluctuations together with the markedness of the RS effect itself lead to the conclusion, that an intermediate vacancy number is optimal for performance. (paper)

  15. Stochastic dynamics of resistive switching: fluctuations lead to optimal particle number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, Paul K.; Hazel, Andrew L.; Straube, Arthur V.; Schimansky-Geier, Lutz

    2017-09-01

    Resistive switching (RS) is one of the foremost candidates for building novel types of non-volatile random access memories. Any practical implementation of such a memory cell calls for a strong miniaturization, at which point fluctuations start playing a role that cannot be neglected. A detailed understanding of switching mechanisms and reliability is essential. For this reason, we formulate a particle model based on the stochastic motion of oxygen vacancies. It allows us to investigate fluctuations in the resistance states of a switch with two active zones. The vacancies’ dynamics are governed by a master equation. Upon the application of a voltage pulse, the vacancies travel collectively through the switch. By deriving a generalized Burgers equation we can interpret this collective motion as nonlinear traveling waves, and numerically verify this result. Further, we define binary logical states by means of the underlying vacancy distributions, and establish a framework of writing and reading such memory element with voltage pulses. Considerations about the discriminability of these operations under fluctuations together with the markedness of the RS effect itself lead to the conclusion, that an intermediate vacancy number is optimal for performance.

  16. Fluctuating dynamics of nematic liquid crystals using the stochastic method of lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, A. K.; Menon, Gautam I.; Adhikari, R.

    2010-07-01

    We construct Langevin equations describing the fluctuations of the tensor order parameter Qαβ in nematic liquid crystals by adding noise terms to time-dependent variational equations that follow from the Ginzburg-Landau-de Gennes free energy. The noise is required to preserve the symmetry and tracelessness of the tensor order parameter and must satisfy a fluctuation-dissipation relation at thermal equilibrium. We construct a noise with these properties in a basis of symmetric traceless matrices and show that the Langevin equations can be solved numerically in this basis using a stochastic version of the method of lines. The numerical method is validated by comparing equilibrium probability distributions, structure factors, and dynamic correlations obtained from these numerical solutions with analytic predictions. We demonstrate excellent agreement between numerics and theory. This methodology can be applied to the study of phenomena where fluctuations in both the magnitude and direction of nematic order are important, as for instance, in the nematic swarms which produce enhanced opalescence near the isotropic-nematic transition or the problem of nucleation of the nematic from the isotropic phase.

  17. CO2 laser imaging heterodyne and phase contrast interferometer for density profile and fluctuation measurements in LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, K.; Michael, C.; Akiyama, T.; Kawahata, K.; Ito, Y.; Vyacheslavov, L.N.; Sanin, A.L.; Okajima, S.

    2007-01-01

    A CO 2 laser heterodyne imaging interferometer (CO 2 HI) and a CO 2 laser phase contrast imaging interferometer (CO 2 PCI) were installed in LHD. The purpose of CO 2 HI is to measure electron density profile at high density (>1x10 20 m -3 ), where the existing far infrared laser (wavelength 118.9 μm) interferometer suffers from fringe jump due to the reduction of signal intensity caused by refraction. In the beginning of 10th LHD experimental campaign (2006-2007), sixty three three of CO 2 HI with 10 channels of YAG HI for vibration compensation, and in the later of 10th LHD experimental campaign. Eighty one channels CO 2 HI and 15 channels YAG HI became available. The purpose of CO 2 PCI is to measure turbulent fluctuation, which can contribute to the energy and particle transport. In order to get local fluctuation information, magnetic shear technique was applied with use of 48 (6 by 8) channel two dimensional detector. (author)

  18. Neutron spin-echo studies on dynamic and static fluctuations in two types of poly(vinyl alcohol) gels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanaya, T.; Takahashi, N.; Nishida, K.; Seto, H.; Nagao, M.; Takeda, T.

    2005-01-01

    We report neutron spin-echo measurements on two types of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) gels. The first is PVA gel in a mixture of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and water with volume ratio 60/40, and the second is PVA gel in an aqueous borax solution. The observed normalized intermediate scattering functions I(Q,t)/I(Q,0) are very different between them. The former I(Q,t)/I(Q,0) shows a nondecaying component in addition to a fast decay, but the latter does not have the nondecaying one. This clearly indicates that the fluctuations in the former PVA gel consist of static and dynamic fluctuations whereas the latter PVA gel does include only the dynamic fluctuations. The dynamic fluctuations of the former and latter gels have been analyzed in terms of a restricted motion in the network and Zimm motion, respectively, and the origins of these motions will be discussed

  19. Effects of demographic structure on key properties of stochastic density-independent population dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vindenes, Yngvild; Sæther, Bernt-Erik; Engen, Steinar

    2012-12-01

    The development of stochastic demography has largely been based on age structured populations, although other types of demographic structure, especially permanent and dynamic heterogeneity, are likely common in natural populations. The combination of stochasticity and demographic structure is a challenge for analyses of population dynamics and extinction risk, because the population structure will fluctuate around the stable structure and the population size shows transient fluctuations. However, by using a diffusion approximation for the total reproductive value, density-independent dynamics of structured populations can be described with only three population parameters: the expected population growth rate, the environmental variance and the demographic variance. These parameters depend on population structure via the state-specific vital rates and transition rates. Once they are found, the diffusion approximation represents a substantial reduction in model complexity. Here, we review and compare the key population parameters across a wide range of demographic structure, from the case of no structure to the most general case of dynamic heterogeneity, and for both discrete and continuous types. We focus on the demographic variance, but also show how environmental stochasticity can be included. This study brings together results from recent models, each considering a specific type of population structure, and places them in a general framework for structured populations. Comparison across different types of demographic structure reveals that the reproductive value is an essential concept for understanding how population structure affects stochastic dynamics and extinction risk. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Nonuniversal critical behaviour in a model for charge density wave dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritala, R.K.; Hertz, J.A.

    1986-02-01

    We have studied short range fluctuations around the infinite-range model of charge density wave (CDW) dynamics. We find that the inhomogeneity of the local field, which is neglected in the infinite-range approximation has a dramatic effect on the transition. In the Bethe approximation the critical behaviour is nonuniversal. In particular, the current exponent is ζ = 3/2 log(z-1)/[log(z)]+log(1+f/J)], where z is the number of neighbors, f the pinning strength, and J the elastic coupling. (orig.)

  1. Cosmological Inflation with Multiple Fields and the Theory of Density Fluctuations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tent, B.J.W. van

    2002-01-01

    Inflation is a stage of extremely rapid expansion in the very early universe. It was proposed to solve a number of problems in the standard Big Bang theory. In particular it others an explanation for the origin of structures like (clusters of) galaxies on the one hand (by generating small density

  2. Quantifying protein densities on cell membranes using super-resolution optical fluctuation imaging

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lukeš, T.; Glatzová, Daniela; Kvíčalová, Zuzana; Levet, F.; Benda, Aleš; Letschert, S.; Sauer, M.; Brdička, Tomáš; Lasser, T.; Cebecauer, Marek

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 1 (2017), č. článku 1731. ISSN 2041-1723 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-06989S Institutional support: RVO:61388955 ; RVO:68378050 Keywords : quantifying protein densities * membranes * single-molecule localization microscopy Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology Impact factor: 12.124, year: 2016

  3. Charged domain-wall dynamics in doped antiferromagnets and spin fluctuations in cuprate superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaanen, J.; Horbach, M.L.; van Saarloos, W.

    1996-01-01

    Evidence is accumulating that the electron liquid in the cuprate superconductors is characterized by many-hole correlations of the charged magnetic domain-wall type. Here we focus on the strong-coupling limit where all holes are bound to domain walls. We assert that at high temperatures a classical domain-wall fluid is realized and show that the dynamics of such a fluid is characterized by spatial and temporal crossover scales set by temperature itself. The fundamental parameters of this fluid are such that the domain-wall motions dominate the low-frequency spin fluctuations and we derive predictions for the behavior of the dynamical magnetic susceptibility. We argue that a crossover occurs from a high-temperature classical to a low-temperature quantum regime, in direct analogy with helium. We discuss some general characteristics of the domain-wall quantum liquid, realized at low temperatures. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  4. How input fluctuations reshape the dynamics of a biological switching system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bo; Kessler, David A.; Rappel, Wouter-Jan; Levine, Herbert

    2012-12-01

    An important task in quantitative biology is to understand the role of stochasticity in biochemical regulation. Here, as an extension of our recent work [Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.107.148101 107, 148101 (2011)], we study how input fluctuations affect the stochastic dynamics of a simple biological switch. In our model, the on transition rate of the switch is directly regulated by a noisy input signal, which is described as a non-negative mean-reverting diffusion process. This continuous process can be a good approximation of the discrete birth-death process and is much more analytically tractable. Within this setup, we apply the Feynman-Kac theorem to investigate the statistical features of the output switching dynamics. Consistent with our previous findings, the input noise is found to effectively suppress the input-dependent transitions. We show analytically that this effect becomes significant when the input signal fluctuates greatly in amplitude and reverts slowly to its mean.

  5. Dynamical density functional theory for dense atomic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archer, A J

    2006-01-01

    Starting from Newton's equations of motion, we derive a dynamical density functional theory (DDFT) applicable to atomic liquids. The theory has the feature that it requires as input the Helmholtz free energy functional from equilibrium density functional theory. This means that, given a reliable equilibrium free energy functional, the correct equilibrium fluid density profile is guaranteed. We show that when the isothermal compressibility is small, the DDFT generates the correct value for the speed of sound in a dense liquid. We also interpret the theory as a dynamical equation for a coarse grained fluid density and show that the theory can be used (making further approximations) to derive the standard mode coupling theory that is used to describe the glass transition. The present theory should provide a useful starting point for describing the dynamics of inhomogeneous atomic fluids

  6. Non-primordial origin of the cosmic background radiation and pregalactic density fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froehlich, H.E.; Mueller, V.; Oleak, H.

    1984-01-01

    Assumptions of a tepid Universe and a smaller primordial contribution to the 3 K background are made to show that Pop III stars may be responsible for the 3 K background and cosmic ray entropy. The 3 K background would be caused by thermalized stellar radiation produced by metallized intergalactic dust formed in first generation stars. A range of mass scales and amplification factors of density perturbations in the early Universe is examined below the Jeans mass for gravitational instabilities. The density perturbations that could have been present at small enough mass scales could have survived and generated sonic modes that propagated through the plasma era and, when combined with additional gravitationally unstable entropy disturbances after recombination, triggered the formation of Pop III stars. 13 references

  7. Endogenous and exogenous dynamics in the fluctuations of capital fluxes. An empirical analysis of the Chinese stock market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Z.-Q.; Guo, L.; Zhou, W.-X.

    2007-06-01

    A phenomenological investigation of the endogenous and exogenous dynamics in the fluctuations of capital fluxes is carried out on the Chinese stock market using mean-variance analysis, fluctuation analysis, and their generalizations to higher orders. Non-universal dynamics have been found not only in the scaling exponent α, which is different from the universal values 1/2 and 1, but also in the distributions of the ratio η= σexo / σendo of individual stocks. Both the scaling exponent α of fluctuations and the Hurst exponent Hi increase in logarithmic form with the time scale Δt and the mean traded value per minute , respectively. We find that the scaling exponent αendo of the endogenous fluctuations is independent of the time scale. Multiscaling and multifractal features are observed in the data as well. However, the inhomogeneous impact model is not verified.

  8. Computer experiments on dynamical cloud and space time fluctuations in one-dimensional meta-equilibrium plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouet, J.L.; Feix, M.R.

    1996-01-01

    The test particle picture is a central theory of weakly correlated plasma. While experiments and computer experiments have confirmed the validity of this theory at thermal equilibrium, the extension to meta-equilibrium distributions presents interesting and intriguing points connected to the under or over-population of the tail of these distributions (high velocity) which have not yet been tested. Moreover, the general dynamical Debye cloud (which is a generalization of the static Debye cloud supposing a plasma at thermal equilibrium and a test particle of zero velocity) for any test particle velocity and three typical velocity distributions (equilibrium plus two meta-equilibriums) are presented. The simulations deal with a one-dimensional two-component plasma and, moreover, the relevance of the check for real three-dimensional plasma is outlined. Two kinds of results are presented: the dynamical cloud itself and the more usual density (or energy) fluctuation spectrums. Special attention is paid to the behavior of long wavelengths which needs long systems with very small graininess effects and, consequently, sizable computation efforts. Finally, the divergence or absence of energy in the small wave numbers connected to the excess or lack of fast particles of the two above mentioned meta-equilibrium is exhibited. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  9. Validation of gyrokinetic simulations with measurements of electron temperature fluctuations and density-temperature phase angles on ASDEX Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freethy, S. J.; Görler, T.; Creely, A. J.; Conway, G. D.; Denk, S. S.; Happel, T.; Koenen, C.; Hennequin, P.; White, A. E.; ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2018-05-01

    Measurements of turbulent electron temperature fluctuation amplitudes, δTe ⊥/Te , frequency spectra, and radial correlation lengths, Lr(Te ⊥) , have been performed at ASDEX Upgrade using a newly upgraded Correlation ECE diagnostic in the range of scales k⊥scale non-linear gyrokinetic turbulence simulations of the outer core (ρtor = 0.75) of a low density, electron heated L-mode plasma, performed using the gyrokinetic simulation code, GENE. The ion and electron temperature gradients were scanned within uncertainties. It is found that gyrokinetic simulations are able to match simultaneously the electron and ion heat flux at this radius within the experimental uncertainties. The simulations were performed based on a reference discharge for which δTe ⊥/Te measurements were available, and Lr(Te ⊥) and αnT were then predicted using synthetic diagnostics prior to measurements in a repeat discharge. While temperature fluctuation amplitudes are overestimated by >50% for all simulations within the sensitivity scans performed, good quantitative agreement is found for Lr(Te ⊥) and αnT. A validation metric is used to quantify the level of agreement of individual simulations with experimental measurements, and the best agreement is found close to the experimental gradient values.

  10. 1 μs broadband frequency sweeping reflectometry for plasma density and fluctuation profile measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clairet, F.; Bottereau, C.; Medvedeva, A.; Molina, D.; Conway, G. D.; Silva, A.; Stroth, U.; ASDEX Upgrade Team; Tore Supra Team; Eurofusion Mst1 Team

    2017-11-01

    Frequency swept reflectometry has reached the symbolic value of 1 μs sweeping time; this performance has been made possible, thanks to an improved control of the ramp voltage driving the frequency source. In parallel, the memory depth of the acquisition system has been upgraded and can provide up to 200 000 signals during a plasma discharge. Additional improvements regarding the trigger delay determination of the acquisition and the voltage ramp linearity required by this ultra-fast technique have been set. While this diagnostic is traditionally dedicated to the plasma electron density profile measurement, such a fast sweeping rate can provide the study of fast plasma events and turbulence with unprecedented time and radial resolution from the edge to the core. Experimental results obtained on ASDEX Upgrade plasmas are presented to demonstrate the performances of the diagnostic.

  11. Molecular dynamics study of CO2 hydrate dissociation: Fluctuation-dissipation and non-equilibrium analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Niall J; Clarke, Elaine T

    2013-09-07

    Equilibrium and non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have been performed to investigate thermal-driven break-up of planar CO2 hydrate interfaces in liquid water at 300-320 K. Different guest compositions, at 85%, 95%, and 100% of maximum theoretical occupation, led to statistically-significant differences in the observed initial dissociation rates. The melting temperatures of each interface were estimated, and dissociation rates were observed to be strongly dependent on temperature, with higher dissociation rates at larger over-temperatures vis-à-vis melting. A simple coupled mass and heat transfer model developed previously was applied to fit the observed dissociation profiles, and this helps to identify clearly two distinct régimes of break-up; a second well-defined region is essentially independent of composition and temperature, in which the remaining nanoscale, de facto two-dimensional system's lattice framework is intrinsically unstable. From equilibrium MD of the two-phase systems at their melting point, the relaxation times of the auto-correlation functions of fluctuations in number of enclathrated guest molecules were used as a basis for comparison of the variation in the underlying, non-equilibrium, thermal-driven dissociation rates via Onsager's hypothesis, and statistically significant differences were found, confirming the value of a fluctuation-dissipation approach in this case.

  12. Dynamics of entropic uncertainty for atoms immersed in thermal fluctuating massless scalar field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhiming

    2018-04-01

    In this article, the dynamics of quantum memory-assisted entropic uncertainty relation for two atoms immersed in a thermal bath of fluctuating massless scalar field is investigated. The master equation that governs the system evolution process is derived. It is found that the mixedness is closely associated with entropic uncertainty. For equilibrium state, the tightness of uncertainty vanishes. For the initial maximum entangled state, the tightness of uncertainty undergoes a slight increase and then declines to zero with evolution time. It is found that temperature can increase the uncertainty, but two-atom separation does not always increase the uncertainty. The uncertainty evolves to different relatively stable values for different temperatures and converges to a fixed value for different two-atom distances with evolution time. Furthermore, weak measurement reversal is employed to control the entropic uncertainty.

  13. Benzene dynamics and biodegradation in alluvial aquifers affected by river fluctuations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batlle-Aguilar, J; Morasch, B; Hunkeler, D; Brouyère, S

    2014-01-01

    The spatial distribution and temporal dynamics of a benzene plume in an alluvial aquifer strongly affected by river fluctuations was studied. Benzene concentrations, aquifer geochemistry datasets, past river morphology, and benzene degradation rates estimated in situ using stable carbon isotope enrichment were analyzed in concert with aquifer heterogeneity and river fluctuations. Geochemistry data demonstrated that benzene biodegradation was on-going under sulfate reducing conditions. Long-term monitoring of hydraulic heads and characterization of the alluvial aquifer formed the basis of a detailed modeled image of aquifer heterogeneity. Hydraulic conductivity was found to strongly correlate with benzene degradation, indicating that low hydraulic conductivity areas are capable of sustaining benzene anaerobic biodegradation provided the electron acceptor (SO4 (2-) ) does not become rate limiting. Modeling results demonstrated that the groundwater flux direction is reversed on annual basis when the river level rises up to 2 m, thereby forcing the infiltration of oxygenated surface water into the aquifer. The mobilization state of metal trace elements such as Zn, Cd, and As present in the aquifer predominantly depended on the strong potential gradient within the plume. However, infiltration of oxygenated water was found to trigger a change from strongly reducing to oxic conditions near the river, causing mobilization of previously immobile metal species and vice versa. MNA appears to be an appropriate remediation strategy in this type of dynamic environment provided that aquifer characterization and targeted monitoring of redox conditions are adequate and electron acceptors remain available until concentrations of toxic compounds reduce to acceptable levels. © 2013, National Ground Water Association.

  14. Self-consistent description of local density dynamics in simple liquids. The case of molten lithium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokshin, A V; Galimzyanov, B N

    2018-02-28

    The dynamic structure factor is the quantity, which can be measured by means of Brillouin light-scattering as well as by means of inelastic scattering of neutrons and x-rays. The spectral (or frequency) moments of the dynamic structure factor define directly the sum rules of the scattering law. The theoretical scheme formulated in this study allows one to describe the dynamics of local density fluctuations in simple liquids and to obtain the expression of the dynamic structure factor in terms of the spectral moments. The theory satisfies all the sum rules, and the obtained expression for the dynamic structure factor yields correct extrapolations into the hydrodynamic limit as well as into the free-particle dynamics limit. We discuss correspondence of this theory with the generalized hydrodynamics and with the viscoelastic models, which are commonly used to analyze the data of inelastic neutron and x-ray scattering in liquids. In particular, we reveal that the postulated condition of the viscoelastic model for the memory function can be directly obtained within the presented theory. The dynamic structure factor of liquid lithium is computed on the basis of the presented theory, and various features of the scattering spectra are evaluated. It is found that the theoretical results are in agreement with inelastic x-ray scattering data.

  15. Self-consistent description of local density dynamics in simple liquids. The case of molten lithium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokshin, A. V.; Galimzyanov, B. N.

    2018-02-01

    The dynamic structure factor is the quantity, which can be measured by means of Brillouin light-scattering as well as by means of inelastic scattering of neutrons and x-rays. The spectral (or frequency) moments of the dynamic structure factor define directly the sum rules of the scattering law. The theoretical scheme formulated in this study allows one to describe the dynamics of local density fluctuations in simple liquids and to obtain the expression of the dynamic structure factor in terms of the spectral moments. The theory satisfies all the sum rules, and the obtained expression for the dynamic structure factor yields correct extrapolations into the hydrodynamic limit as well as into the free-particle dynamics limit. We discuss correspondence of this theory with the generalized hydrodynamics and with the viscoelastic models, which are commonly used to analyze the data of inelastic neutron and x-ray scattering in liquids. In particular, we reveal that the postulated condition of the viscoelastic model for the memory function can be directly obtained within the presented theory. The dynamic structure factor of liquid lithium is computed on the basis of the presented theory, and various features of the scattering spectra are evaluated. It is found that the theoretical results are in agreement with inelastic x-ray scattering data.

  16. Galaxy dynamics and the mass density of the universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, V C

    1993-06-01

    Dynamical evidence accumulated over the past 20 years has convinced astronomers that luminous matter in a spiral galaxy constitutes no more than 10% of the mass of a galaxy. An additional 90% is inferred by its gravitational effect on luminous material. Here I review recent observations concerning the distribution of luminous and nonluminous matter in the Milky Way, in galaxies, and in galaxy clusters. Observations of neutral hydrogen disks, some extending in radius several times the optical disk, confirm that a massive dark halo is a major component of virtually every spiral. A recent surprise has been the discovery that stellar and gas motions in ellipticals are enormously complex. To date, only for a few spheroidal galaxies do the velocities extend far enough to probe the outer mass distribution. But the diverse kinematics of inner cores, peripheral to deducing the overall mass distribution, offer additional evidence that ellipticals have acquired gas-rich systems after initial formation. Dynamical results are consistent with a low-density universe, in which the required dark matter could be baryonic. On smallest scales of galaxies [10 kiloparsec (kpc); Ho = 50 km.sec-1.megaparsec-1] the luminous matter constitutes only 1% of the closure density. On scales greater than binary galaxies (i.e., >/=100 kpc) all systems indicate a density approximately 10% of the closure density, a density consistent with the low baryon density in the universe. If large-scale motions in the universe require a higher mass density, these motions would constitute the first dynamical evidence for nonbaryonic matter in a universe of higher density.

  17. The effect of electron cyclotron heating on density fluctuations at ion and electron scales in ITER baseline scenario discharges on the DIII-D tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinoni, A.; Pinsker, R. I.; Porkolab, M.; Rost, J. C.; Davis, E. M.; Burrell, K. H.; Candy, J.; Staebler, G. M.; Grierson, B. A.; McKee, G. R.; Rhodes, T. L.; The DIII-D Team

    2017-12-01

    Experiments simulating the ITER baseline scenario on the DIII-D tokamak show that torque-free pure electron heating, when coupled to plasmas subject to a net co-current beam torque, affects density fluctuations at electron scales on a sub-confinement time scale, whereas fluctuations at ion scales change only after profiles have evolved to a new stationary state. Modifications to the density fluctuations measured by the phase contrast imaging diagnostic (PCI) are assessed by analyzing the time evolution following the switch-off of electron cyclotron heating (ECH), thus going from mixed beam/ECH to pure neutral beam heating at fixed βN . Within 20 ms after turning off ECH, the intensity of fluctuations is observed to increase at frequencies higher than 200 kHz in contrast, fluctuations at lower frequency are seen to decrease in intensity on a longer time scale, after other equilibrium quantities have evolved. Non-linear gyro-kinetic modeling at ion and electron scales scales suggest that, while the low frequency response of the diagnostic is consistent with the dominant ITG modes being weakened by the slow-time increase in flow shear, the high frequency response is due to prompt changes to the electron temperature profile that enhance electron modes and generate a larger heat flux and an inward particle pinch. These results suggest that electron heated regimes in ITER will feature multi-scale fluctuations that might affect fusion performance via modifications to profiles.

  18. The Dynamic Density Bottle: A Make-and-Take, Guided Inquiry Activity on Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntzleman, Thomas S.

    2015-01-01

    An activity is described wherein students observe dynamic floating and sinking behavior of plastic pieces in various liquids. The liquids and solids are all contained within a plastic bottle; the entire assembly is called a "density bottle". After completing a series of experiments that guides students to think about the relative…

  19. Dynamic density functional theory of solid tumor growth: Preliminary models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Chauviere

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a disease that can be seen as a complex system whose dynamics and growth result from nonlinear processes coupled across wide ranges of spatio-temporal scales. The current mathematical modeling literature addresses issues at various scales but the development of theoretical methodologies capable of bridging gaps across scales needs further study. We present a new theoretical framework based on Dynamic Density Functional Theory (DDFT extended, for the first time, to the dynamics of living tissues by accounting for cell density correlations, different cell types, phenotypes and cell birth/death processes, in order to provide a biophysically consistent description of processes across the scales. We present an application of this approach to tumor growth.

  20. Scaling of the mean and variance of population dynamics under fluctuating regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pertoldi, Cino; Faurby, S; Reed, D H; Knape, J; Björklund, M; Lundberg, P; Kaitala, V; Loeschcke, V; Bach, L A

    2014-12-01

    Theoretical ecologists have long sought to understand how the persistence of populations depends on the interactions between exogenous (biotic and abiotic) and endogenous (e.g., demographic and genetic) drivers of population dynamics. Recent work focuses on the autocorrelation structure of environmental perturbations and its effects on the persistence of populations. Accurate estimation of extinction times and especially determination of the mechanisms affecting extinction times is important for biodiversity conservation. Here we examine the interaction between environmental fluctuations and the scaling effect of the mean population size with its variance. We investigate how interactions between environmental and demographic stochasticity can affect the mean time to extinction, change optimal patch size dynamics, and how it can alter the often-assumed linear relationship between the census size and the effective population size. The importance of the correlation between environmental and demographic variation depends on the relative importance of the two types of variation. We found the correlation to be important when the two types of variation were approximately equal; however, the importance of the correlation diminishes as one source of variation dominates. The implications of these findings are discussed from a conservation and eco-evolutionary point of view.

  1. In search of invariants for viscous liquids in the density scaling regime: investigations of dynamic and thermodynamic moduli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedrzejowska, Agnieszka; Grzybowski, Andrzej; Paluch, Marian

    2017-07-19

    In this paper, we report the nontrivial results of our investigations of dynamic and thermodynamic moduli in search of invariants for viscous liquids in the density scaling regime by using selected supercooled van der Waals liquids as representative materials. Previously, the dynamic modulus M p-T (defined in the pressure-temperature representation by the ratio of isobaric activation energy and activation volume) as well as the ratio B T /M p-T (where B T is the thermodynamic modulus defined as the inverse isothermal compressibility) have been suggested as some kinds of material constants. We have established that they are not valid in the explored wide range of temperatures T over a dozen decades of structural relaxation times τ. The temperature dependences of M p-T and B T /M p-T have been elucidated by comparison with the well-known measure of the relative contribution of temperature and density fluctuations to molecular dynamics near the glass transition, i.e., the ratio of isochoric and isobaric activation energies. Then, we have implemented an idea to transform the definition of the dynamic modulus M p-T from the p-T representation to the V-T one. This idea relied on the disentanglement of combined temperature and density fluctuations involved in isobaric parameters and has resulted in finding an invariant for viscous liquids in the density scaling regime, which is the ratio of thermodynamic and dynamic moduli, B T /M V-T . In this way, we have constituted a characteristic of thermodynamics and molecular dynamics, which remains unchanged in the supercooled liquid state for a given material, the molecular dynamics of which obeys the power density scaling law.

  2. Universal Inverse Power-Law Distribution for Fractal Fluctuations in Dynamical Systems: Applications for Predictability of Inter-Annual Variability of Indian and USA Region Rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvam, A. M.

    2017-01-01

    Dynamical systems in nature exhibit self-similar fractal space-time fluctuations on all scales indicating long-range correlations and, therefore, the statistical normal distribution with implicit assumption of independence, fixed mean and standard deviation cannot be used for description and quantification of fractal data sets. The author has developed a general systems theory based on classical statistical physics for fractal fluctuations which predicts the following. (1) The fractal fluctuations signify an underlying eddy continuum, the larger eddies being the integrated mean of enclosed smaller-scale fluctuations. (2) The probability distribution of eddy amplitudes and the variance (square of eddy amplitude) spectrum of fractal fluctuations follow the universal Boltzmann inverse power law expressed as a function of the golden mean. (3) Fractal fluctuations are signatures of quantum-like chaos since the additive amplitudes of eddies when squared represent probability densities analogous to the sub-atomic dynamics of quantum systems such as the photon or electron. (4) The model predicted distribution is very close to statistical normal distribution for moderate events within two standard deviations from the mean but exhibits a fat long tail that are associated with hazardous extreme events. Continuous periodogram power spectral analyses of available GHCN annual total rainfall time series for the period 1900-2008 for Indian and USA stations show that the power spectra and the corresponding probability distributions follow model predicted universal inverse power law form signifying an eddy continuum structure underlying the observed inter-annual variability of rainfall. On a global scale, man-made greenhouse gas related atmospheric warming would result in intensification of natural climate variability, seen immediately in high frequency fluctuations such as QBO and ENSO and even shorter timescales. Model concepts and results of analyses are discussed with reference

  3. Nonequilibrium statistical physics of small systems: fluctuation relations and beyond (annual reviews of nonlinear dynamics and complexity (vch))

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    This book offers a comprehensive picture of nonequilibrium phenomena in nanoscale systems. Written by internationally recognized experts in the field, this book strikes a balance between theory and experiment, and includes in-depth introductions to nonequilibrium fluctuation relations, nonlinear dynamics and transport, single molecule experiments, and molecular diffusion in nanopores. The authors explore the application of these concepts to nano- and biosystems by cross-linking key methods and ideas from nonequilibrium statistical physics, thermodynamics, stochastic theory, and dynamical s

  4. Estimation of the two-dimensional power spectral density of spatial fluctuation in terrestrial gamma-ray dose rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minato, Susumu

    2000-01-01

    The multiple regression analysis done for 50 sets of data of natural terrestrial gamma-ray dose rates collected from different sites of the world led to an empirical formula for the variance of the data as a function of mean value and area. The mean values and areas studied in this paper range from 10 to 100 (nGy/h) and from 10 -3 to 10 7 (km 2 ), respectively. For an isotropic field of fluctuation, a two-dimensional power spectral density (2D PSD) was derived theoretically from the above mentioned empirical formula in a form of S(k)=0.952 x 10 -3 m 2.02 k -2.36 , where k (cycles/km) and m (nGy/h) are the wave number and the mean, respectively. The validity of the estimated 2D PSD was confirmed by comparing with PSDs obtained by the following two methods. One is the spatial auto-correlation analysis for several sets of randomly distributed 2D data consisting of more than 170 samples taken through ground surveys. The other is the direct 2D Fourier transform for two sets of 100 x 100 data matrix picked up from a dose rate map produced through airborne surveys. (author)

  5. Non-linear quantum critical dynamics and fluctuation-dissipation ratios far from equilibrium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamani, Farzaneh [Max Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems, Nöthnitzer Str. 38, 01187 Dresden (Germany); Max Planck Institute for Chemical Physics of Solids, Nöthnitzer Str. 40, 01187 Dresden (Germany); Ribeiro, Pedro [CeFEMA, Instituto Superior Tcnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Russian Quantum Center, Novaya Street 100 A, Skolkovo, Moscow Area, 143025 (Russian Federation); Kirchner, Stefan, E-mail: stefan.kirchner@correlated-matter.com [Center for Correlated Matter, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310058 (China)

    2016-02-15

    Non-thermal correlations of strongly correlated electron systems and the far-from-equilibrium properties of phases of condensed matter have become a topical research area. Here, an overview of the non-linear dynamics found near continuous zero-temperature phase transitions within the context of effective temperatures is presented. In particular, we focus on models of critical Kondo destruction. Such a quantum critical state, where Kondo screening is destroyed in a critical fashion, is realized in a number of rare earth intermetallics. This raises the possibility of experimentally testing for the existence of fluctuation-dissipation relations far from equilibrium in terms of effective temperatures. Finally, we present an analysis of a non-interacting, critical reference system, the pseudogap resonant level model, in terms of effective temperatures and contrast these results with those obtained near interacting quantum critical points. - Highlights: • Critical Kondo destruction explains the unusual properties of quantum critical heavy fermion compounds. • We review the concept of effective temperatures in models of critical Kondo destruction. • We compare effective temperatures found near non-interacting and fully interacting fixed points. • A comparison with non-interacting quantum impurity models is presented.

  6. Seasonal migrations, body temperature fluctuations, and infection dynamics in adult amphibians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Daversa

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Risks of parasitism vary over time, with infection prevalence often fluctuating with seasonal changes in the annual cycle. Identifying the biological mechanisms underlying seasonality in infection can enable better prediction and prevention of future infection peaks. Obtaining longitudinal data on individual infections and traits across seasons throughout the annual cycle is perhaps the most effective means of achieving this aim, yet few studies have obtained such information for wildlife. Here, we tracked spiny common toads (Bufo spinosus within and across annual cycles to assess seasonal variation in movement, body temperatures and infection from the fungal parasite, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd. Across annual cycles, toads did not consistently sustain infections but instead gained and lost infections from year to year. Radio-tracking showed that infected toads lose infections during post-breeding migrations, and no toads contracted infection following migration, which may be one explanation for the inter-annual variability in Bd infections. We also found pronounced seasonal variation in toad body temperatures. Body temperatures approached 0 °C during winter hibernation but remained largely within the thermal tolerance range of Bd. These findings provide direct documentation of migratory recovery (i.e., loss of infection during migration and escape in a wild population. The body temperature reductions that we observed during hibernation warrant further consideration into the role that this period plays in seasonal Bd dynamics.

  7. On the dynamical fluctuations in the multiparticle final states of $e^{+}e^{-}$ collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, F; Liu, L

    1999-01-01

    The scaling property of factorial moments in the multiparticle final- states of e/sup +/e/sup -/ collisions is studied in both the laboratory and the thrust-axis coordinate systems by using the Jetset generator. It turns out that in both of the two cases, the 3- dimensional lnF/sub 2/~lnM are approximately straight lines when the phase space are divided isotropically in different directions, showing that the dynamical fluctuations in the multiparticle final- state of e/sup +/e/sup $/collisions are approximately isotropic. In the lab system, the three gamma parameters obtained by fitting F/sub 2/~M of p/sub x/, p/sub y/, p/sub z/ to Ochs formula respectively are approximately equal. In the thrust system, the three gamma values obtained by fitting F/sub 2/(y)~M, F/sub 2/(p/sub t/)~M and F/sub 2/( phi )~M are also close to each other provided the starting point in fitting F/sub 2/( phi )~M is chosen appropriately. All of these provide further evidence for the above assertion. Our results show that the essential ...

  8. Performance comparison of dynamical decoupling sequences for a qubit in a rapidly fluctuating spin bath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, Gonzalo A.; Suter, Dieter; Ajoy, Ashok; Peng Xinhua

    2010-01-01

    Avoiding the loss of coherence of quantum mechanical states is an important prerequisite for quantum information processing. Dynamical decoupling (DD) is one of the most effective experimental methods for maintaining coherence, especially when one can access only the qubit system and not its environment (bath). It involves the application of pulses to the system whose net effect is a reversal of the system-environment interaction. In any real system, however, the environment is not static, and therefore the reversal of the system-environment interaction becomes imperfect if the spacing between refocusing pulses becomes comparable to or longer than the correlation time of the environment. The efficiency of the refocusing improves therefore if the spacing between the pulses is reduced. Here, we quantify the efficiency of different DD sequences in preserving different quantum states. We use 13 C nuclear spins as qubits and an environment of 1 H nuclear spins as the environment, which couples to the qubit via magnetic dipole-dipole couplings. Strong dipole-dipole couplings between the proton spins result in a rapidly fluctuating environment with a correlation time of the order of 100 μs. Our experimental results show that short delays between the pulses yield better performance if they are compared with the bath correlation time. However, as the pulse spacing becomes shorter than the bath correlation time, an optimum is reached. For even shorter delays, the pulse imperfections dominate over the decoherence losses and cause the quantum state to decay.

  9. Effects of Pleistocene sea-level fluctuations on mangrove population dynamics: a lesson from Sonneratia alba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuchen; Li, Jianfang; Yang, Shuhuan; Li, Xinnian; Fang, Lu; Zhong, Cairong; Duke, Norman C; Zhou, Renchao; Shi, Suhua

    2017-01-18

    A large-scale systematical investigation of the influence of Pleistocene climate oscillation on mangrove population dynamics could enrich our knowledge about the evolutionary history during times of historical climate change, which in turn may provide important information for their conservation. In this study, phylogeography of a mangrove tree Sonneratia alba was studied by sequencing three chloroplast fragments and seven nuclear genes. A low level of genetic diversity at the population level was detected across its range, especially at the range margins, which was mainly attributed to the steep sea-level drop and associated climate fluctuations during the Pleistocene glacial periods. Extremely small effective population size (Ne) was inferred in populations from both eastern and western Malay Peninsula (44 and 396, respectively), mirroring the fragility of mangrove plants and their paucity of robustness against future climate perturbations and human activity. Two major genetic lineages of high divergence were identified in the two mangrove biodiversity centres: the Indo-Malesia and Australasia regions. The estimated splitting time between these two lineages was 3.153 million year ago (MYA), suggesting a role for pre-Pleistocene events in shaping the major diversity patterns of mangrove species. Within the Indo-Malesia region, a subdivision was implicated between the South China Sea (SCS) and the remaining area with a divergence time of 1.874 MYA, corresponding to glacial vicariance when the emerged Sunda Shelf halted genetic exchange between the western and eastern coasts of the Malay Peninsula during Pleistocene sea-level drops. Notably, genetic admixture was observed in populations at the boundary regions, especially in the two populations near the Malacca Strait, indicating secondary contact between divergent lineages during interglacial periods. These interregional genetic exchanges provided ample opportunity for the re-use of standing genetic variation

  10. Prediction of power fluctuation classes for photovoltaic installations and potential benefits of dynamic reserve allocation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhuis, M.; Rawn, B.G.; Gibescu, M.

    2014-01-01

    During partly cloudy conditions, the power delivered by a photovoltaic array can easily fluctuate by three quarters of its rated power in 10 s. Fluctuations from photovoltaics of this size and on this time scale may necessitate adding an additional component to power system secondary and primary

  11. Effects of vole fluctuations on the population dynamics of the barn owl Tyto alba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klok, T.C.; Roos, A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Many predator species feed on prey that fluctuates in abundance from year to year. Birds of prey can face large fluctuations in food abundance i.e. small mammals, especially voles. These annual changes in prey abundance strongly affect the reproductive success and mortality of the individual

  12. Photoinduced Coherent Spin Fluctuation in Primary Dynamics of Insulator to Metal Transition in Perovskite Cobalt Oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arima T.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Coherent spin fluctuation was detected in the photoinduced Mott insulator-metal transition in perovskite cobalt oxide by using 3 optical-cycle infrared pulse. Such coherent spin fluctuation is driven by the perovskite distortion changing orbital gap.

  13. Electron density and plasma dynamics of a colliding plasma experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiechula, J., E-mail: wiechula@physik.uni-frankfurt.de; Schönlein, A.; Iberler, M.; Hock, C.; Manegold, T.; Bohlender, B.; Jacoby, J. [Plasma Physics Group, Institute of Applied Physics, Goethe University, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2016-07-15

    We present experimental results of two head-on colliding plasma sheaths accelerated by pulsed-power-driven coaxial plasma accelerators. The measurements have been performed in a small vacuum chamber with a neutral-gas prefill of ArH{sub 2} at gas pressures between 17 Pa and 400 Pa and load voltages between 4 kV and 9 kV. As the plasma sheaths collide, the electron density is significantly increased. The electron density reaches maximum values of ≈8 ⋅ 10{sup 15} cm{sup −3} for a single accelerated plasma and a maximum value of ≈2.6 ⋅ 10{sup 16} cm{sup −3} for the plasma collision. Overall a raise of the plasma density by a factor of 1.3 to 3.8 has been achieved. A scaling behavior has been derived from the values of the electron density which shows a disproportionately high increase of the electron density of the collisional case for higher applied voltages in comparison to a single accelerated plasma. Sequences of the plasma collision have been taken, using a fast framing camera to study the plasma dynamics. These sequences indicate a maximum collision velocity of 34 km/s.

  14. Local density inhomogeneities and dynamics in supercritical water: A molecular dynamics simulation approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarmoutsos, Ioannis; Samios, Jannis

    2006-11-02

    Molecular dynamics atomistic simulations in the canonical ensemble (NVT-MD) have been used to investigate the "Local Density Inhomogeneities and their Dynamics" in pure supercritical water. The simulations were carried out along a near-critical isotherm (Tr = T/Tc = 1.03) and for a wide range of densities below and above the critical one (0.2 rho(c) - 2.0 rho(c)). The results obtained reveal the existence of significant local density augmentation effects, which are found to be sufficiently larger in comparison to those reported for nonassociated fluids. The time evolution of the local density distribution around each molecule was studied in terms of the appropriate time correlation functions C(Delta)rhol(t). It is found that the shape of these functions changes significantly by increasing the density of the fluid. Finally, the local density reorganization times for the first and second coordination shell derived from these correlations exhibit a decreasing behavior by increasing the density of the system, signifying the density effect upon the dynamics of the local environment around each molecule.

  15. Using intra annual density fluctuations and d13C to assess the impact of summer drought on Mediterranean ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battipaglia, G.; Brand, W. A.; Linke, P.; Schaefer, I.; Noetzli, M.; Cherubini, P.

    2009-04-01

    Tree- ring growth and wood density have been used extensively as indicators of climate change, and tree-ring has been commonly applied as a proxy estimate for seasonal integration of temperatures and precipitation with annual resolution (Hughes 2002). While these relationships have been well established in temperate ecosystems (Fritts, 1976; Schweingruber, 1988, Briffa et al., 1998, 2004), in Mediterranean region dendrochronological studies are still scarce (Cherubini et al, 2003). In Mediterranean environment, trees may form intra-annual density fluctuations, also called "false rings" or "double rings" (Tingley 1937; Schulman 1938). They are usually induced by sudden drought events, occurring during the vegetative period, and, allowing intra-annual resolution, they may provide detailed information at a seasonal level, as well as species-specific sensitivity to drought. We investigated the variability of tree- ring width and carbon stable isotopes of a Mediterranean species, Arbutus unedo L., sampled on Elba island, (Tuscany, Italy). The samples were taken at two different sites, one characterized by wet and one by dry conditions. d13C was measured using Laser- Ablation- Combustion -GC-IRMS. Here, we present first results showing the impact of drought on tree growth and on false ring formation at the different sites and we underline the importance of using Laser Ablation to infer drought impact at the intra -annual level. Briffa KR, Schweingruber FH, Jones PD, Osborn TJ, Harris IC, Shiyatov SG, Vaganov EA, Grudd H (1998) Trees tell of past climates: but are they speaking less clearly today? Phil Transact Royal Soc London 353:65-73 Briffa KR, Osborn TJ, Schweingruber FH (2004) Large-scale temperature inferences from tree rings: a review. Glob Panet Change 40:11-26 Cherubini, P., B.L. Gartner, R. Tognetti, O.U. Bräker, W. Schoch & J.L. Innes. 2003. Identification, measurement and interpretation of tree rings in woody species from Mediterranean climates. Biol. Rev

  16. Online traffic flow model applying dynamic flow-density relation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y.

    2002-01-01

    This dissertation describes a new approach of the online traffic flow modelling based on the hydrodynamic traffic flow model and an online process to adapt the flow-density relation dynamically. The new modelling approach was tested based on the real traffic situations in various homogeneous motorway sections and a motorway section with ramps and gave encouraging simulation results. This work is composed of two parts: first the analysis of traffic flow characteristics and second the development of a new online traffic flow model applying these characteristics. For homogeneous motorway sections traffic flow is classified into six different traffic states with different characteristics. Delimitation criteria were developed to separate these states. The hysteresis phenomena were analysed during the transitions between these traffic states. The traffic states and the transitions are represented on a states diagram with the flow axis and the density axis. For motorway sections with ramps the complicated traffic flow is simplified and classified into three traffic states depending on the propagation of congestion. The traffic states are represented on a phase diagram with the upstream demand axis and the interaction strength axis which was defined in this research. The states diagram and the phase diagram provide a basis for the development of the dynamic flow-density relation. The first-order hydrodynamic traffic flow model was programmed according to the cell-transmission scheme extended by the modification of flow dependent sending/receiving functions, the classification of cells and the determination strategy for the flow-density relation in the cells. The unreasonable results of macroscopic traffic flow models, which may occur in the first and last cells in certain conditions are alleviated by applying buffer cells between the traffic data and the model. The sending/receiving functions of the cells are determined dynamically based on the classification of the

  17. Critical fluctuations of the proton density in A+A collisions at 158A GeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anticic, T.; Kadija, K.; Susa, T. [Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Zagreb (Croatia); Baatar, B.; Kolesnikov, V.I.; Malakhov, A.I.; Melkumov, G.L. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Bartke, J.; Kowalski, M.; Rybicki, A. [Polish Academy of Science, H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland); Beck, H.; Blume, C.; Book, J.; Mitrovski, M.; Renfordt, R.; Rustamov, A.; Schuster, T.; Stock, R.; Stroebele, H. [Fachbereich Physik der Universitaet, Frankfurt (Germany); Betev, L.; Buncic, P.; Karev, A. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Bialkowska, H.; Boimska, B. [National Center for Nuclear Research, Warsaw (Poland); Bogusz, M.; Cetner, T.; Grebieszkow, K.; Mackowiak-Pawlowska, M.; Peryt, W.; Pluta, J.; Slodkowski, M.; Szuba, M. [Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Physics, Warsaw (Poland); Botje, M.; Christakoglou, P.; Leeuwen, M. van [NIKHEF, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Chvala, O. [Charles University, Institute of Particle and Nuclear Physics, Prague (Czech Republic); Cramer, J.; Prindle, D. [University of Washington, Nuclear Physics Laboratory, Seattle, WA (United States); Eckardt, V.; Schmitz, N.; Seyboth, P. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Munich (Germany); Fodor, Z.; Laszlo, A.; Palla, G.; Sikler, F.; Veres, G.I.; Vesztergombi, G. [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Wigner Research Center for Physics, Budapest (Hungary); Foka, P.; Friese, V.; Hoehne, C.; Kresan, D.; Sandoval, A.; Vranic, D. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Gazdzicki, M. [Fachbereich Physik der Universitaet, Frankfurt (Germany); Jan Kochanowski University, Institute of Physics, Kielce (Poland); Makariev, M. [BAS, Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Sofia (Bulgaria); Mateev, M. [Sofia University St. Kliment Ohridski, Atomic Physics Department, Sofia (Bulgaria); Mrowczynski, S.; Rybczynski, M.; Stefanek, G.; Wlodarczyk, Z.; Wojtaszek-Szwarc, A. [Jan Kochanowski University, Institute of Physics, Kielce (Poland); Panagiotou, A.D.; Vassiliou, M.; Antoniou, N.G.; Davis, N.; Diakonos, F.K. [University of Athens, Department of Physics, Athens (Greece); Puehlhofer, F. [Fachbereich Physik der Universitaet, Marburg (Germany); Roland, C.; Roland, G. [MIT, Cambridge, MA (United States); Skrzypczak, E. [University of Warsaw, Institute for Experimental Physics, Warsaw (Poland); Varga, D. [Eoetvoes Lorant University, Budapest (Hungary); Collaboration: (NA49 Collaboration)

    2015-12-15

    We look for fluctuations expected for the QCD critical point using an intermittency analysis in the transverse momentum phase space of protons produced around midrapidity in the 12.5 % most central C+C, Si+Si and Pb+Pb collisions at the maximum SPS energy of 158A GeV. We find evidence of power-law fluctuations for the Si+Si data. The fitted power-law exponent φ{sub 2} = 0.96{sub -0.25}{sup +0.38}(stat.)±0.16(syst.) is consistent with the value expected for critical fluctuations. Power-law fluctuations had previously also been observed in low-mass π{sup +}π{sup -} pairs in the same Si+Si collisions. (orig.)

  18. The simultaneous measurements of core and outer core density fluctuations in L-H transition using CO2 laser collective scattering diagnostic in the EAST superconducting tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, G.M.; Li, Y.D.; Zhang, X.D.; Sun, P.J.; Hu, L.Q.; Li, J.G.; Wu, G.J.

    2013-01-01

    The H-mode is the projected basic operation scenario for the ITER tokamak. The turbulence de-correlation by the synergistic effect of zonal flow and equilibrium ExB flow shear is believed to be the reason for L-H transition, however, the detailed physical mechanism has not been identified so far. Tangential multi-channel CO 2 laser collective scattering diagnostic system (mainly k r measurement) was first installed to investigate electron density fluctuations on EAST tokamak. The measurements in a spontaneous dithering L-H transition show that in core plasma (0 < r/a < 0.5) the low-frequency fluctuations strengthen greatly before L-H transition; meanwhile in outer core plasma (0.2 < r/a < 1) the low-frequency fluctuations strengthen slightly. Bispectral analysis reveals that the coupling strength between low- and high-frequency fluctuations in both core and outer core plasma strengthens greatly before the transition, but the latter is greater than the former. The results indicate that the low-frequency fluctuations of the core and outer core plasma play active, but different, roles in the spontaneous L-H transition. (author)

  19. Simulation of climate-tick-host-landscape interactions: Effects of shifts in the seasonality of host population fluctuations on tick densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsiao-Hsuan; Grant, W E; Teel, P D; Hamer, S A

    2015-12-01

    Tick vector systems are comprised of complex climate-tick-host-landscape interactions that are difficult to identify and estimate from empirical observations alone. We developed a spatially-explicit, individual-based model, parameterized to represent ecological conditions typical of the south-central United States, to examine effects of shifts in the seasonal occurrence of fluctuations of host densities on tick densities. Simulated shifts in the seasonal occurrence of periods of high and low host densities affected both the magnitude of unfed tick densities and the seasonality of tick development. When shifting the seasonal densities of all size classes of hosts (small, medium, and large) synchronously, densities of nymphs were affected more by smaller shifts away from the baseline host seasonality than were densities of larval and adult life stages. When shifting the seasonal densities of only a single size-class of hosts while holding other size classes at their baseline levels, densities of larval, nymph, and adult life stages responded differently. Shifting seasonal densities of any single host-class earlier resulted in a greater increase in adult tick density than when seasonal densities of all host classes were shifted earlier simultaneously. The mean densities of tick life stages associated with shifts in host densities resulted from system-level interactions of host availability with tick phenology. For example, shifting the seasonality of all hosts ten weeks earlier resulted in an approximately 30% increase in the relative degree of temporal co-occurrence of actively host-seeking ticks and hosts compared to baseline, whereas shifting the seasonality of all hosts ten weeks later resulted in an approximately 70% decrease compared to baseline. Differences among scenarios in the overall presence of active host-seeking ticks in the system were due primarily to the degree of co-occurrence of periods of high densities of unfed ticks and periods of high densities

  20. Dynamic scaling for the growth of non-equilibrium fluctuations during thermophoretic diffusion in microgravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerbino, Roberto; Sun, Yifei; Donev, Aleksandar; Vailati, Alberto

    2015-09-30

    Diffusion processes are widespread in biological and chemical systems, where they play a fundamental role in the exchange of substances at the cellular level and in determining the rate of chemical reactions. Recently, the classical picture that portrays diffusion as random uncorrelated motion of molecules has been revised, when it was shown that giant non-equilibrium fluctuations develop during diffusion processes. Under microgravity conditions and at steady-state, non-equilibrium fluctuations exhibit scale invariance and their size is only limited by the boundaries of the system. In this work, we investigate the onset of non-equilibrium concentration fluctuations induced by thermophoretic diffusion in microgravity, a regime not accessible to analytical calculations but of great relevance for the understanding of several natural and technological processes. A combination of state of the art simulations and experiments allows us to attain a fully quantitative description of the development of fluctuations during transient diffusion in microgravity. Both experiments and simulations show that during the onset the fluctuations exhibit scale invariance at large wave vectors. In a broader range of wave vectors simulations predict a spinodal-like growth of fluctuations, where the amplitude and length-scale of the dominant mode are determined by the thickness of the diffuse layer.

  1. The density functional theory and the charged fluid molecular dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, J.P.; Zerah, G.

    1993-01-01

    Car and Parrinello had the idea of combining the density functional theory (Hohenberg, Kohn and Sham) to the 'molecular dynamics' numerical modelling method, in order to simulate metallic or co-valent solids and liquids from the first principles. The objective of this paper is to present a simplified version of this method ab initio, applicable to classical and quantal charged systems. The method is illustrated with recent results on charged colloidal suspensions and highly correlated electron-proton plasmas. 1 fig., 21 refs

  2. Study of density fluctuations during MHD activity, soft landing discharges and major disruptions in TEXTOR using CO2 laser collective scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boileau, A.; Van Andel, H.W.H.; Hellermann, M. von; Rogister, A.

    1987-01-01

    A modulation of microturbulence is observed in TEXTOR during low mode number MHD activity using CO 2 laser collective scattering. This is accomplished by a strong enhancement of density fluctuations near ka s approx. = 3 at the end of soft landing discharges and a displacement of the frequency spectrum towards lower frequencies. The increase is most significant for rapid rampdown of the plasma current accompanied by strong MHD activity but also occurs when the latter is not detected. The evolution of microturbulence is also studied during major plasma disruptions. It was found that disruptions without MHD precursor oscillations are characterized by a rapid increase in the density fluctuations starting approx. 100 ms before plasma disruption. (author)

  3. Dynamics of quantum correlation and coherence for two atoms coupled with a bath of fluctuating massless scalar field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Zhiming, E-mail: 465609785@qq.com [School of Economics and Management, Wuyi University, Jiangmen 529020 (China); Situ, Haozhen, E-mail: situhaozhen@gmail.com [College of Mathematics and Informatics, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642 (China)

    2017-02-15

    In this article, the dynamics of quantum correlation and coherence for two atoms interacting with a bath of fluctuating massless scalar field in the Minkowski vacuum is investigated. We firstly derive the master equation that describes the system evolution with initial Bell-diagonal state. Then we discuss the system evolution for three cases of different initial states: non-zero correlation separable state, maximally entangled state and zero correlation state. For non-zero correlation initial separable state, quantum correlation and coherence can be protected from vacuum fluctuations during long time evolution when the separation between the two atoms is relatively small. For maximally entangled initial state, quantum correlation and coherence overall decrease with evolution time. However, for the zero correlation initial state, quantum correlation and coherence are firstly generated and then drop with evolution time; when separation is sufficiently small, they can survive from vacuum fluctuations. For three cases, quantum correlation and coherence first undergo decline and then fluctuate to relatively stable values with the increasing distance between the two atoms. Specially, for the case of zero correlation initial state, quantum correlation and coherence occur periodically revival at fixed zero points and revival amplitude declines gradually with increasing separation of two atoms.

  4. Effect of magnetic fluctuations on the confinement and dynamics of runaway electrons in the HT-7 tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, R.J.; Hu, L.Q.; Li, E.Z.; Xu, M.; Zhong, G.Q.; Xu, L.Q.; Lin, S.Y.

    2013-01-01

    Experimental results in the HT-7 tokamak indicated significant losses of runaway electrons due to magnetic fluctuations, but the loss processes did not only rely on the fluctuation amplitude. Efficient radial runaway transport required that there were no more than small regions of the plasma volume in which there was very low transport of runaways. A radial runaway diffusion coefficient of D_r ≈ 10 m"2s"-"1 was derived for the loss processes, and diffusion coefficient near the resonant magnetic surfaces and shielding factor ϒ = 0.8 were deduced. Test particle equations were used to analyze the effect of magnetic fluctuations on runaway dynamics. It was found that the maximum energy that runaways can gain is very sensitive to the value of a_s. a_s = (0.28 - 0.33) was found for the loss processes in the experiment, and maximum runaway energy could be controlled in the range of E = (4 MeV - 6 MeV) in this case. Additionally, to control the maximum runaway energy below 5 MeV, the normalized electric field needed to be under a critical value D_a = 6.8, and the amplitude normalized magnetic fluctuations b tilde needed to be at least of the order of b tilde ≈ 3 x 10"-"5. (author)

  5. Dynamics of quantum correlation and coherence for two atoms coupled with a bath of fluctuating massless scalar field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Zhiming; Situ, Haozhen

    2017-01-01

    In this article, the dynamics of quantum correlation and coherence for two atoms interacting with a bath of fluctuating massless scalar field in the Minkowski vacuum is investigated. We firstly derive the master equation that describes the system evolution with initial Bell-diagonal state. Then we discuss the system evolution for three cases of different initial states: non-zero correlation separable state, maximally entangled state and zero correlation state. For non-zero correlation initial separable state, quantum correlation and coherence can be protected from vacuum fluctuations during long time evolution when the separation between the two atoms is relatively small. For maximally entangled initial state, quantum correlation and coherence overall decrease with evolution time. However, for the zero correlation initial state, quantum correlation and coherence are firstly generated and then drop with evolution time; when separation is sufficiently small, they can survive from vacuum fluctuations. For three cases, quantum correlation and coherence first undergo decline and then fluctuate to relatively stable values with the increasing distance between the two atoms. Specially, for the case of zero correlation initial state, quantum correlation and coherence occur periodically revival at fixed zero points and revival amplitude declines gradually with increasing separation of two atoms.

  6. Fractional Spin Fluctuations as a Precursor of Quantum Spin Liquids: Majorana Dynamical Mean-Field Study for the Kitaev Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshitake, Junki; Nasu, Joji; Motome, Yukitoshi

    2016-10-07

    Experimental identification of quantum spin liquids remains a challenge, as the pristine nature is to be seen in asymptotically low temperatures. We here theoretically show that the precursor of quantum spin liquids appears in the spin dynamics in the paramagnetic state over a wide temperature range. Using the cluster dynamical mean-field theory and the continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo method, which are newly developed in the Majorana fermion representation, we calculate the dynamical spin structure factor, relaxation rate in nuclear magnetic resonance, and magnetic susceptibility for the honeycomb Kitaev model whose ground state is a canonical example of the quantum spin liquid. We find that dynamical spin correlations show peculiar temperature and frequency dependence even below the temperature where static correlations saturate. The results provide the experimentally accessible symptoms of the fluctuating fractionalized spins evincing the quantum spin liquids.

  7. Origin of structure: statistical characterization of the primordial density fluctuations and the collapse of the wave function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    León, Gabriel [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria - Pab. I, Buenos Aires 1428 (Argentina); Sudarsky, Daniel, E-mail: gleon@df.uba.ar, E-mail: sudarsky@nucleares.unam.mx [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México D.F. 04510, México (Mexico)

    2015-06-01

    The statistical properties of the primordial density perturbations has been considered in the past decade as a powerful probe of the physical processes taking place in the early universe. Within the inflationary paradigm, the properties of the bispectrum are one of the keys that serves to discriminate among competing scenarios concerning the details of the origin of cosmological perturbations. However, all of the scenarios, based on the conventional approach to the so-called ''quantum-to-classical transition'' during inflation, lack the ability to point out the precise physical mechanism responsible for generating the inhomogeneity and anisotropy of our universe starting from and exactly homogeneous and isotropic vacuum state associated with the early inflationary regime. In past works, we have shown that the proposals involving a spontaneous dynamical reduction of the quantum state provide plausible explanations for the birth of said primordial inhomogeneities and anisotropies. In the present manuscript we show that, when considering within the context of such proposals, the characterization of the spectrum and bispectrum turn out to be quite different from those found in the traditional approach, and in particular, some of the statistical features, must be treated in a different way leading to some rather different conclusions.

  8. Density fluctuation in a screened Coulombic colloid dispersion: comparison of the liquid and cubic phases of lipid A-diphosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Helen; Ross, D. Keith; Paradies, Henrich H.

    2004-01-01

    Light-, small-angle X-ray and neutron scattering measurements of the dynamic structure factor S(Q,t) of strong interacting dispersions of lipid A-diphosphate were recorded and analysed applying existing models of liquid state theory. Lipid A-diphosphate ordering was observed at low volume fractions (phi=2.2x10 -4 ) and at very low ionic strength (I=10 -5 M). Upon increasing the particle number density of lipid A-diphosphate a transformation of the lattices of the colloidal crystals from a BCC lattice (a=36.20 nm) to a FCC lattice (a=57.30 nm) occurred. This strongly suggests a similarity in the preformed liquid structure and the cubic colloidal phase. The fit of both S eff (Q) and the principle peak I p (Q) with the effective particle charge supports of the main conclusions drawn from the SANS experiments and the liquid state theory indicating the presence of long-range order for the dispersions of lipid A-diphosphate

  9. Fluctuation, thermal impurity depinning and commensurate-incommensurate transition of charge density waves on the (100) face of W

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chui, S.T.

    1979-01-01

    Recent experiments on the (100) face of W with and without H are interpreted. The significance of large thermal fluctuations in low dimensionality situation and their observation in the present system is pointed out. A thermal impurity depinning transition is discussed. The existence of a commensurate-incommensurate transition as hydrogen coverage is changed is speculated. (author)

  10. Ball lightning dynamics and stability at moderate ion densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrow, R

    2017-01-01

    A general mechanism is presented for the dynamics and structure of ball lightning and for the maintenance of the ball lightning structure for several seconds. Results are obtained using a spherical geometry for air at atmospheric pressure, by solving the continuity equations for electrons, positive ions and negative ions coupled with Poisson’s equation. A lightning strike can generate conditions in the lightning channel with a majority of positive nitrogen ions, and a minority of negative oxygen ions and electrons. The calculations are initiated with electrons included; however, at the moderate ion densities chosen the electrons are rapidly lost to form negative ions, and after 1 µ s their influence on the ion dynamics is negligible. Further development after 1 µ s is followed using a simpler set of equations involving only positive ions and negative ions, but including ion diffusion. The space-charge electric field generated by the majority positive ions drives them from the centre of the distribution and drives the minority negative ions and electrons towards the centre of the distribution. In the central region the positive and negative ion distributions eventually overlap exactly and their space-charge fields cancel resulting in zero electric field, and the plasma ball formed is quite stable for a number of seconds. The formation of such plasma balls is not critically dependent on the initial diameter of the ion distributions, or the initial density of minority negative ions. The ion densities decrease relatively slowly due to mutual neutralization of positive and negative ions. The radiation from this neutralization process involving positive nitrogen ions and negative oxygen ions is not sufficient to account for the reported luminosity of ball lightning and some other source of luminosity is shown to be required; the plasma ball model used could readily incorporate other ions in order to account for the luminosity and range of colours reported for ball

  11. Ekpyrosis and inflationary dynamics in heavy ion collisions: the role of quantum fluctuations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dusling, K.; Venugopalan, R.; Gelis, F.

    2011-05-23

    We summarize recent significant progress in the development of a first-principles formalism to describe the formation and evolution of matter in very high energy heavy ion collisions. The key role of quantum fluctuations both before and after a collision is emphasized. Systematic computations are now feasible to address early time isotropization, flow, parton energy loss and the Chiral Magnetic Effect.

  12. Folding-retraction of chaotic dynamical manifold and the VAK of vacuum fluctuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Ghoul, M.; El-Ahmady, A.E.; Rafat, H.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we introduce the retraction of chaos dynamical manifold. Some properties of chaos dynamical manifold will be deduced. Theorems governing the relation between the folding and retraction of chaos dynamical manifold will be discussed. Some applications of chaos dynamical manifolds and their retractions are achieved in particular high energy particle physics

  13. Charge density glass dynamics - Soft potentials and soft modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biljakovic, K., E-mail: katica@ifs.hr [Institute of Physics, HR-10001, Zagreb, P.O. Box 304 (Croatia); Staresinic, D., E-mail: damirs@ifs.hr [Institute of Physics, HR-10001, Zagreb, P.O. Box 304 (Croatia); Lasjaunias, J.C., E-mail: jean-claude.lasjaunias@pop3.grenoble.cnrs.fr [Institut Neel, CNRS, BP 166, F-38042, Grenoble, Cedex 9 (France); Remenyi, G., E-mail: Gyorgy.Remenyi@grenoble.cnrs.fr [Institut Neel, CNRS, BP 166, F-38042, Grenoble, Cedex 9 (France); Melin, R., E-mail: Regis.Melin@grenoble.cnrs.fr [Institut Neel, CNRS, BP 166, F-38042, Grenoble, Cedex 9 (France); Monceau, P., E-mail: pierre.monceau@grenoble.cnrs.fr [Institut Neel, CNRS, BP 166, F-38042, Grenoble, Cedex 9 (France); Sahling, S., E-mail: sven.olaf@gmail.com [Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Universitaet Dresden, D-01062, Dresden (Germany)

    2012-06-01

    An universal fingerprint of glasses has been found in low-temperature thermodynamic properties of charge/spin density wave (C/SDW) systems. Deviations from the well-known Debye, elastic continuum prediction for specific heat (flat C{sub p}/T{sup 3} plot) appear as two anomalies; the upturn below 1 K and a broad bump at T{approx}10 K (named Boson peak in glasses). The first one, inherent of localized two level systems within the shalow corrugated phase space, exhibits slow relaxation with the complex dynamics. The second one, 'Boson peak-like peak' was attributed to the pinned mode and incomplete softening of CDW superstructural mode. We discuss similar C{sub p}(T) features found also in incommensurate dielectrics with well documented soft-mode anomalies.

  14. Quadrupole collective dynamics from energy density functionals: Collective Hamiltonian and the interacting boson model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, K.; Vretenar, D.; Niksic, T.; Otsuka, T.; Shimizu, N.

    2011-01-01

    Microscopic energy density functionals have become a standard tool for nuclear structure calculations, providing an accurate global description of nuclear ground states and collective excitations. For spectroscopic applications, this framework has to be extended to account for collective correlations related to restoration of symmetries broken by the static mean field, and for fluctuations of collective variables. In this paper, we compare two approaches to five-dimensional quadrupole dynamics: the collective Hamiltonian for quadrupole vibrations and rotations and the interacting boson model (IBM). The two models are compared in a study of the evolution of nonaxial shapes in Pt isotopes. Starting from the binding energy surfaces of 192,194,196 Pt, calculated with a microscopic energy density functional, we analyze the resulting low-energy collective spectra obtained from the collective Hamiltonian, and the corresponding IBM Hamiltonian. The calculated excitation spectra and transition probabilities for the ground-state bands and the γ-vibration bands are compared to the corresponding sequences of experimental states.

  15. Models for microtubule cargo transport coupling the Langevin equation to stochastic stepping motor dynamics: Caring about fluctuations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzat, Sebastián

    2016-01-01

    One-dimensional models coupling a Langevin equation for the cargo position to stochastic stepping dynamics for the motors constitute a relevant framework for analyzing multiple-motor microtubule transport. In this work we explore the consistence of these models focusing on the effects of the thermal noise. We study how to define consistent stepping and detachment rates for the motors as functions of the local forces acting on them in such a way that the cargo velocity and run-time match previously specified functions of the external load, which are set on the base of experimental results. We show that due to the influence of the thermal fluctuations this is not a trivial problem, even for the single-motor case. As a solution, we propose a motor stepping dynamics which considers memory on the motor force. This model leads to better results for single-motor transport than the approaches previously considered in the literature. Moreover, it gives a much better prediction for the stall force of the two-motor case, highly compatible with the experimental findings. We also analyze the fast fluctuations of the cargo position and the influence of the viscosity, comparing the proposed model to the standard one, and we show how the differences on the single-motor dynamics propagate to the multiple motor situations. Finally, we find that the one-dimensional character of the models impede an appropriate description of the fast fluctuations of the cargo position at small loads. We show how this problem can be solved by considering two-dimensional models.

  16. Aggregate fluctuations and the cross-sectional dynamics of firm growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holly, Sean; Petrella, Ivan; Santoro, Emiliano

    2013-01-01

    The paper explores time variation in the distribution of firm level growth of total sales. Three novel results are reported. First, firms on the left-hand side of the distribution, i.e. firms that are growing more slowly or declining, are typically more responsive to aggregate shocks than those...... fluctuations. Financial frictions emerge as a mechanism that is capable of accounting for these facts....

  17. Non-equilibrium dynamics of open systems and fluctuation-dissipation theorems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Špička, Václav; Velický, B.; Kalvová, Anděla

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 65, 6-8 (2017), s. 1-23, č. článku 1700032. ISSN 0015-8208 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : non-equilibrium * fluctuation-dissipation theorems * non-equilibrium Greens function * transient and steady state magnetic current * molecular bridge Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics OBOR OECD: Atomic, molecular and chemical physics ( physics of atoms and molecules including collision, interaction with radiation, magnetic resonances, Mössbauer effect) Impact factor: 2.434, year: 2016

  18. The role of nonlinear self-interaction in the dynamics of planetary-scale atmospheric fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saffioti, C; Malguzzi, P; Speranza, A

    2016-01-01

    A central role in the general circulation of the atmosphere is played by planetary-scale inertial fluctuations with zonal wavenumber in the range k  = 1–4. Geopotential variance in this range is markedly non-gaussian and a great fraction of it is non-propagating, in contrast with the normal distribution of amplitudes and the basically propagating character of fluctuations in the baroclinic range (3 <  k  < 15). While a wave dispersion relationship can be identified in the baroclinic range, no clear relationship between time and space scales emerges in the ultra-long regime ( k  < 5, period >10 days). We investigate the hypothesis that nonlinear self-interaction of planetary waves influences the mobility (and, therefore, the dispersion) of ultra-long planetary fluctuations. By means of a perturbation expansion of the barotropic vorticity equation we derive a minimal analytic description of the impact of self-nonlinearity on mobility and we show that this is responsible for a correction term to phase speed, with the prevalent effect of slowing down the propagation of waves. The intensity of nonlinear self-interaction is shown to increase with the complexity of the flow, depending on both its zonal and meridional modulations. Reanalysis data of geopotential height and zonal wind are analysed in order to test the effect of self-nonlinearity on observed planetary flows. (paper)

  19. Stability of the atomic magnetic moments in La2-xSrxCuO4 and effect of their fluctuations on the electronic density of states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hocquet, T.; Jardin, J.P.; Germain, P.; Labbe, J.

    1994-01-01

    We calculate the band structure of the antiferromagnetic phase of La 2-x Sr x CuO 4 in a bidimensional itinerant electron model. Then, we discuss the stability of the antiferromagnetic phase and we calculate the size of the atomic magnetic moments with respect to the temperature and the doping ratio x. We show that the antiferromagnetic solution is in any case much more stable than the ferromagnetic one. Finally, we give a description of the antiferromagnetic fluctuations from which merges an explicit physical meaning of the pseudo-gap found in the electronic density of states. Implications for superconductivity are proposed. (orig.)

  20. Investigations on the density fluctuations of deuterium in niobium and tantalum by means of energy resolving neutron small-angle scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muenzing, W.

    1978-01-01

    Density fluctuations of solved deuterium were measured by means of small angle scattering ob subthermal neutrons at deuterated niobium and tantalum single crystals between temperatures of 340 and 640 K. The concentrations were varied at the NbD between c = 0.10 and c = 0.53 (atomic ratio D-atom / Nb-atom). The center point was at the critical concentration of c = 0.31. In TaD there was only one concentration c = 0.14 (D-atoms / Ta-atoms) measured. At the critical point of Tsub(c) approx. 455 K no diverging critical scattering intensity was observed. (orig./HSI) [de

  1. Fluctuations and Photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Sourendu

    2007-01-01

    In this talk I discuss measures of fluctuations, especially those leading to the proof that the quark gluon plasma indeed contains quarks. I discuss the quark mass dependence of the critical end point of QCD. Then I discuss probes of the QCD critical point. Non-gaussian behaviour of event-to-event fluctuations of conserved quantum numbers is one such probe. Another is due to the coupling of fluctuations in baryon number and electrical charge, giving rise to long range random fluctuations of local charge density which relax slowly. These fluctuations can scatter photons, giving rise to critical opalescence

  2. Fluctuations and Photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sourendu

    2007-02-01

    In this talk I discuss measures of fluctuations, especially those leading to the proof that the quark gluon plasma indeed contains quarks. I discuss the quark mass dependence of the critical end point of QCD. Then I discuss probes of the QCD critical point. Non-gaussian behaviour of event-to-event fluctuations of conserved quantum numbers is one such probe. Another is due to the coupling of fluctuations in baryon number and electrical charge, giving rise to long range random fluctuations of local charge density which relax slowly. These fluctuations can scatter photons, giving rise to critical opalescence.

  3. Fluctuations and Photons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Sourendu [Department of Theoretical Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400005 (India)

    2007-02-15

    In this talk I discuss measures of fluctuations, especially those leading to the proof that the quark gluon plasma indeed contains quarks. I discuss the quark mass dependence of the critical end point of QCD. Then I discuss probes of the QCD critical point. Non-gaussian behaviour of event-to-event fluctuations of conserved quantum numbers is one such probe. Another is due to the coupling of fluctuations in baryon number and electrical charge, giving rise to long range random fluctuations of local charge density which relax slowly. These fluctuations can scatter photons, giving rise to critical opalescence.

  4. Dynamic and static correlation functions in the inhomogeneous Hartree-Fock-state approach with random-phase-approximation fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenzana, J.; Grynberg, M.D.; Yu, L.; Yonemitsu, K.; Bishop, A.R.

    1992-11-01

    The ground state energy, and static and dynamic correlation functions are investigated in the inhomogeneous Hartree-Fock (HF) plus random phase approximation (RPA) approach applied to a one-dimensional spinless fermion model showing self-trapped doping states at the mean field level. Results are compared with homogeneous HF and exact diagonalization. RPA fluctuations added to the generally inhomogeneous HF ground state allows the computation of dynamical correlation functions that compare well with exact diagonalization results. The RPA correction to the ground state energy agrees well with the exact results at strong and weak coupling limits. We also compare it with a related quasi-boson approach. The instability towards self-trapped behaviour is signaled by a RPA mode with frequency approaching zero. (author). 21 refs, 10 figs

  5. Fast pulsing dynamics of a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser operating in the low-frequency fluctuation regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sciamanna, M.; Rogister, F.; Megret, P.; Blondel, M.; Masoller, C.; Abraham, N. B.

    2003-01-01

    We analyze the dynamics of a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with optical feedback operating in the low-frequency fluctuation regime. By focusing on the fast pulsing dynamics, we show that the two linearly polarized modes of the laser exhibit two qualitatively different behaviors: they emit pulses in phase just after a power dropout and they emit pulses out of phase after the recovery process of the output power. As a consequence, two distinct statistical distributions of the fast pulsating total intensity are observed, either monotonically decaying from the noise level or peaked around the mean intensity value. We further show that gain self-saturation of the lasing transition strongly modifies the shape of the intensity distribution

  6. arXiv Describing dynamical fluctuations and genuine correlations by Weibull regularity

    CERN Document Server

    Nayak, Ranjit K.; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, Edward K.; Tasevsky, Marek

    The Weibull parametrization of the multiplicity distribution is used to describe the multidimensional local fluctuations and genuine multiparticle correlations measured by OPAL in the large statistics $e^{+}e^{-} \\to Z^{0} \\to hadrons$ sample. The data are found to be well reproduced by the Weibull model up to higher orders. The Weibull predictions are compared to the predictions by the two other models, namely by the negative binomial and modified negative binomial distributions which mostly failed to fit the data. The Weibull regularity, which is found to reproduce the multiplicity distributions along with the genuine correlations, looks to be the optimal model to describe the multiparticle production process.

  7. Kac limit and thermodynamic characterization of stochastic dynamics driven by Poisson-Kac fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giona, Massimiliano; Brasiello, Antonio; Crescitelli, Silvestro

    2017-07-01

    We analyze the thermodynamic properties of stochastic differential equations driven by smooth Poisson-Kac fluctuations, and their convergence, in the Kac limit, towards Wiener-driven Langevin equations. Using a Markovian embedding of the stochastic work variable, it is proved that the Kac-limit convergence implies a Stratonovich formulation of the limit Langevin equations, in accordance with the Wong-Zakai theorem. Exact moment analysis applied to the case of a purely frictional system shows the occurrence of different regimes and crossover phenomena in the parameter space.

  8. Fluctuations and confinement in ATF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isler, R.C.; Harris, J.H.; Murakami, M.

    1993-01-01

    In the period immediately prior to the suspension of ATF operation in November, 1991, a great deal of emphasis was palced on investigations of the fundamental mechanisms controlling confinement in this device. At that time, measurements of the density fluctuations throughout the plasma volume indicated the existence of theoretically predicted dissipative trapped electron and resistive interchange instabilities. These identifications were supported by results of dynamic configuration scans of the magnetic fields during which the extent of the magnetic well, shear, and fraction of confined trapped particles were changed continuously. Interpretation of the data from these experiments has been an ongoing exercise. Most recently, analysis of discharges employing strong gas puffing to change density gradients and fluctuation levels have strengthened the view that dissipative trapped electron modes may be present but do not play a significant direct role in energy transport. The present paper summarizes the current understanding concerning the identification of instabilities and their relationship to confinement in ATF

  9. A mechanistic analysis of density dependence in algal population dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian eBorlestean

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Population density regulation is a fundamental principle in ecology, but the specific process underlying functional expression of density dependence remains to be fully elucidated. One view contends that patterns of density dependence are largely fixed across a species irrespective of environmental conditions, whereas another is that the strength and expression of density dependence are fundamentally variable depending on the nature of exogenous or endogenous constraints acting on the population. We conducted a study investigating the expression of density dependence in Chlamydomonas spp. grown under a gradient from low to high nutrient density. We predicted that the relationship between per capita growth rate (pgr and population density would vary from concave up to concave down as nutrient density became less limiting and populations experienced weaker density regulation. Contrary to prediction, we found that the relationship between pgr and density became increasingly concave-up as nutrient levels increased. We also found that variation in pgr increased, and pgr levels reached higher maxima in nutrient-limited environments. Most likely, these results are attributable to population growth suppression in environments with high intraspecific competition due to limited nutrient resources. Our results suggest that density regulation is strongly variable depending on exogenous and endogenous processes acting on the population, implying that expression of density dependence depends extensively on local conditions. Additional experimental work should reveal the mechanisms influencing how the expression of density dependence varies across populations through space and time.

  10. Deep bore well water level fluctuations in the Koyna region, India: the presence of a low order dynamical system in a seismically active environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Ramana

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Water level fluctuations in deep bore wells in the vicinity of seismically active Koyna region in western India provides an opportunity to understand the causative mechanism underlying reservoir-triggered earthquakes. As the crustal porous rocks behave nonlinearly, their characteristics can be obtained by analysing water level fluctuations, which reflect an integrated response of the medium. A Fractal dimension is one such measure of nonlinear characteristics of porous rock as observed in water level data from the Koyna region. It is inferred in our study that a low nonlinear dynamical system with three variables can predict the water level fluctuations in bore wells.

  11. Single-molecule diffusion and conformational dynamics by spatial integration of temporal fluctuations

    KAUST Repository

    Serag, Maged F.

    2014-10-06

    Single-molecule localization and tracking has been used to translate spatiotemporal information of individual molecules to map their diffusion behaviours. However, accurate analysis of diffusion behaviours and including other parameters, such as the conformation and size of molecules, remain as limitations to the method. Here, we report a method that addresses the limitations of existing single-molecular localization methods. The method is based on temporal tracking of the cumulative area occupied by molecules. These temporal fluctuations are tied to molecular size, rates of diffusion and conformational changes. By analysing fluorescent nanospheres and double-stranded DNA molecules of different lengths and topological forms, we demonstrate that our cumulative-area method surpasses the conventional single-molecule localization method in terms of the accuracy of determined diffusion coefficients. Furthermore, the cumulative-area method provides conformational relaxation times of structurally flexible chains along with diffusion coefficients, which together are relevant to work in a wide spectrum of scientific fields.

  12. Single-molecule diffusion and conformational dynamics by spatial integration of temporal fluctuations

    KAUST Repository

    Serag, Maged F.; Abadi, Maram; Habuchi, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    Single-molecule localization and tracking has been used to translate spatiotemporal information of individual molecules to map their diffusion behaviours. However, accurate analysis of diffusion behaviours and including other parameters, such as the conformation and size of molecules, remain as limitations to the method. Here, we report a method that addresses the limitations of existing single-molecular localization methods. The method is based on temporal tracking of the cumulative area occupied by molecules. These temporal fluctuations are tied to molecular size, rates of diffusion and conformational changes. By analysing fluorescent nanospheres and double-stranded DNA molecules of different lengths and topological forms, we demonstrate that our cumulative-area method surpasses the conventional single-molecule localization method in terms of the accuracy of determined diffusion coefficients. Furthermore, the cumulative-area method provides conformational relaxation times of structurally flexible chains along with diffusion coefficients, which together are relevant to work in a wide spectrum of scientific fields.

  13. Correlations and fluctuations in static and dynamic mean-field approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balian, R.; Veneroni, M.

    1991-01-01

    Let the state of a many-body system at an initial time be specified, completely or partly; find the expectation values, correlations and fluctuations of single-particle observables at a later time. The characteristic function of these observables is optimized within a general variational scheme. The expansion of the optimal characteristic function provides the same results as the conventional mean-field approaches for the thermodynamic potentials and the expectation values: for fermions the best initial state is then the Hartree-Fock (HF) solution and the evolution is described by the time-dependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF) equation. Two special cases are investigated as preliminary steps. The first case deals with the evaluation of correlations for static problems, where the initial and final times coincide. In the second special case, the exact initial state is assumed to be an independent-particle one. (K.A.) 23 refs.; 1 fig

  14. Fluctuating nonlinear hydrodynamics of flocking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Sunil Kumar; Das, Shankar P.

    2018-03-01

    Starting from a microscopic model, the continuum field theoretic description of the dynamics of a system of active ingredients or "particles" is presented. The equations of motion for the respective collective densities of mass and momentum follow exactly from that of a single element in the flock. The single-particle dynamics has noise and anomalous momentum dependence in its frictional terms. The equations for the collective densities are averaged over a local equilibrium distribution to obtain the corresponding coarse grained equations of fluctuating nonlinear hydrodynamics (FNH). The latter are the equations used frequently for describing active systems on the basis of intuitive arguments. The transport coefficients which appear in the macroscopic FNH equations are determined in terms of the parameters of the microscopic dynamics.

  15. Water-level fluctuations and metapopulation dynamics as drivers of genetic diversity in populations of three Tanganyikan cichlid fish species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevado, B; Mautner, S; Sturmbauer, C; Verheyen, E

    2013-08-01

    Understanding how genetic variation is generated and maintained in natural populations, and how this process unfolds in a changing environment, remains a central issue in biological research. In this work, we analysed patterns of genetic diversity from several populations of three cichlid species from Lake Tanganyika in parallel, using the mitochondrial DNA control region. We sampled populations inhabiting the littoral rocky habitats in both very deep and very shallow areas of the lake. We hypothesized that the former would constitute relatively older, more stable and genetically more diverse populations, because they should have been less severely affected by the well-documented episodes of dramatic water-level fluctuations. In agreement with our predictions, populations of all three species sampled in very shallow shorelines showed traces of stronger population growth than populations of the same species inhabiting deep shorelines. However, contrary to our working hypothesis, we found a significant trend towards increased genetic diversity in the younger, demographically less stable populations inhabiting shallow areas, in comparison with the older and more stable populations inhabiting the deep shorelines. We interpret this finding as the result of the establishment of metapopulation dynamics in the former shorelines, by the frequent perturbation and reshuffling of individuals between populations due to the lake-level fluctuations. The repeated succession of periods of allopatric separation and secondary contact is likely to have further increased the rapid pace of speciation in lacustrine cichlids. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Dynamics of Viral Abundance and Diversity in a Sphagnum-Dominated Peatland: Temporal Fluctuations Prevail Over Habitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballaud, Flore; Dufresne, Alexis; Francez, André-Jean; Colombet, Jonathan; Sime-Ngando, Télesphore; Quaiser, Achim

    2015-01-01

    Viruses impact microbial activity and carbon cycling in various environments, but their diversity and ecological importance in Sphagnum-peatlands are unknown. Abundances of viral particles and prokaryotes were monitored bi-monthly at a fen and a bog at two different layers of the peat surface. Viral particle abundance ranged from 1.7 x 10(6) to 5.6 x 10(8) particles mL(-1), and did not differ between fen and bog but showed seasonal fluctuations. These fluctuations were positively correlated with prokaryote abundance and dissolved organic carbon, and negatively correlated with water-table height and dissolved oxygen. Using shotgun metagenomics we observed a shift in viral diversity between winter/spring and summer/autumn, indicating a seasonal succession of viral communities, mainly driven by weather-related environmental changes. Based on the seasonal asynchrony between viral and microbial diversity, we hypothesize a seasonal shift in the active microbial communities associated with a shift from lysogenic to lytic lifestyles. Our results suggest that temporal variations of environmental conditions rather than current habitat differences control the dynamics of virus-host interactions in Sphagnum-dominated peatlands.

  17. Housing demand or money supply? A new Keynesian dynamic stochastic general equilibrium model on China's housing market fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xing-Chun; He, Ling-Yun

    2015-08-01

    There is a bitter controversy over what drives the housing price in China in the existing literature. In this paper, we investigate the underlying driving force behind housing price fluctuations in China, especially focusing on the role of housing demand shock with that of money supply shock in explaining housing price movements, by a new Keynesian dynamic stochastic general equilibrium model. Empirical results suggest that it is housing demand, instead of money supply, that mainly drives China's housing price movements. Relevant policy implication is further discussed, namely, whether to consider the housing price fluctuations in the conduct of monetary policy. By means of the policy simulations, we find that a real house price-augmented money supply rule is a better monetary policy for China's economy stabilization. 1. Investment refers to fixed capital investment. 2. Housing price refers to national average housing price. Quarterly data on housing price during the period of our work are not directly available. However, monthly data of the value of sales on housing and sale volume on housing can be directly obtained from National Bureau of Statistics of China. We add up the monthly data and calculate one quarter's housing price by dividing the value of housing sales by its sale volume in one quarter. 3. M2 means the broad money supply in China.

  18. On the fluctuations of density and temperature in outer space atmosphere obtained from orbital shift of TAIYO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Yoshio; Onishi, Nobuto; Shimizu, Osamu; Enmi, Sachiko; Hirao, Kunio.

    1976-01-01

    The temperature and density in outer space atmosphere were obtained from the change of the orbital period of the artificial satellite TAIYO which was launched on February 24, 1975, from Kagoshima. An equation to calculate atmospheric density with the characteristic values of the satellite is presented in the first part together with the observed variation of the orbital elements of TAIYO. The weekly changes of temperature and density in outer space atmosphere at the altitude of 250 km, which is the perigee of the satellite, from April 1975 to May 1976 were obtained. The relations between outer space temperature and sigma KP, F10.7, and the position of the perigee were also obtained. The outer space temperature as a function of local time is presented, and it is observed that the temperature change in relation to the local time agrees with the atmospheric model, and that the ratio of maximum or minimum temperature within a day becomes nearly 1.3. It is commented that more data will be available for the further detailed analysis because TAIYO is still orbiting normally. (Aoki, K.)

  19. How well do growing season dynamics of photosynthetic capacity correlate with leaf biochemistry and climate fluctuations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Way, Danielle A; Stinziano, Joseph R; Berghoff, Henry; Oren, Ram

    2017-07-01

    Accurate values of photosynthetic capacity are needed in Earth System Models to predict gross primary productivity. Seasonal changes in photosynthetic capacity in these models are primarily driven by temperature, but recent work has suggested that photoperiod may be a better predictor of seasonal photosynthetic capacity. Using field-grown kudzu (Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi), a nitrogen-fixing vine species, we took weekly measurements of photosynthetic capacity, leaf nitrogen, and pigment and photosynthetic protein concentrations and correlated these with temperature, irradiance and photoperiod over the growing season. Photosynthetic capacity was more strongly correlated with photoperiod than with temperature or daily irradiance, while the growing season pattern in photosynthetic capacity was uncoupled from changes in leaf nitrogen, chlorophyll and Rubisco. Daily estimates of the maximum carboxylation rate of Rubisco (Vcmax) based on either photoperiod or temperature were correlated in a non-linear manner, but Vcmax estimates from both approaches that also accounted for diurnal temperature fluctuations were similar, indicating that differences between these models depend on the relevant time step. We advocate for considering photoperiod, and not just temperature, when estimating photosynthetic capacity across the year, particularly as climate change alters temperatures but not photoperiod. We also caution that the use of leaf biochemical traits as proxies for estimating photosynthetic capacity may be unreliable when the underlying relationships between proxy leaf traits and photosynthetic capacity are established outside of a seasonal framework. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Climate fluctuations of tropical coupled systems — The role of ocean dynamics

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chang, P.; Yamagata, T.; Schopf, P.; Behera, S.K.; Carton, J.; Kessler, W.S.; Meyers, G.; Qu, T.; Schott, F.; Shetye, S.R.; Xie, S.P.

    on the active role of ocean dynamics in a seasonally locked east-west internal mode of variability, known as the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD). We discuss influences of the IOD on climatic conditions in Asia, Australia, East Africa and Europe. While the attempt...

  1. Relationship between Aortic Compliance and Impact of Cerebral Blood Flow Fluctuation to Dynamic Orthostatic Challenge in Endurance Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomoto, Tsubasa; Imai, Tomoko; Ogoh, Shigehiko; Maeda, Seiji; Sugawara, Jun

    2018-01-01

    Aorta effectively buffers cardiac pulsatile fluctuation generated from the left ventricular (LV) which could be a mechanical force to high blood flow and low-resistance end-organs such as the brain. A dynamic orthostatic challenge may evoke substantial cardiac pulsatile fluctuation via the transient increases in venous return and stroke volume (SV). Particularly, this response may be greater in endurance-trained athletes (ET) who exhibit LV eccentric remodeling. The aim of this study was to determine the contribution of aortic compliance to the response of cerebral blood flow fluctuation to dynamic orthostatic challenge in ET and age-matched sedentary (SED) young healthy men. ET ( n = 10) and SED ( n = 10) underwent lower body negative pressure (LBNP) (-30 mmHg for 4 min) stimulation and release the pressure that initiates a rapid regain of limited venous return and consequent increase in SV. The recovery responses of central and middle cerebral arterial (MCA) hemodynamics from the release of LBNP (~15 s) were evaluated. SV (via Modeflow method) and pulsatile and systolic MCA (via transcranial Doppler) normalized by mean MCA velocity (MCAv) significantly increased after the cessation of LBNP in both groups. ET exhibited the higher ratio of SV to aortic pulse pressure (SV/ Ao PP), an index of aortic compliance, at the baseline compared with SED ( P < 0.01). Following the LBNP release, SV was significantly increased in SED by 14 ± 7% (mean ± SD) and more in ET by 30 ± 15%; nevertheless, normalized pulsatile, systolic, and diastolic MCAv remained constant in both groups. These results might be attributed to the concomitant with the increase in aortic compliance assessed by SV/ Ao PP. Importantly, the increase in SV/ Ao PP following the LBNP release was greater in ET than in SED ( P < 0.01), and significantly correlated with the baseline SV/ Ao PP ( r = 0.636, P < 0.01). These results suggest that the aortic compliance in the endurance athletes is able to

  2. Simulation of density fluctuations before the L-H transition for Hydrogen and Deuterium plasmas in the DIII-D tokamak using the BOUT++ code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y. M.; Xu, X. Q.; Yan, Z.; Mckee, G. R.; Grierson, B. A.; Xia, T. Y.; Gao, X.

    2018-02-01

    A six-field two-fluid model has been used to simulate density fluctuations. The equilibrium is generated by experimental measurements for both Deuterium (D) and Hydrogen (H) plasmas at the lowest densities of DIII-D low to high confinement (L-H) transition experiments. In linear simulations, the unstable modes are found to be resistive ballooning modes with the most unstable mode number n  =  30 or k_θρ_i˜0.12 . The ion diamagnetic drift and E× B convection flow are balanced when the radial electric field (E r ) is calculated from the pressure profile without net flow. The curvature drift plays an important role in this stage. Two poloidally counter propagating modes are found in the nonlinear simulation of the D plasma at electron density n_e˜1.5×1019 m-3 near the separatrix while a single ion mode is found in the H plasma at the similar lower density, which are consistent with the experimental results measured by the beam emission spectroscopy (BES) diagnostic on the DIII-D tokamak. The frequency of the electron modes and the ion modes are about 40 kHz and 10 kHz respectively. The poloidal wave number k_θ is about 0.2 cm -1 (k_θρ_i˜0.05 ) for both ion and electron modes. The particle flux, ion and electron heat fluxes are  ˜3.5-6 times larger for the H plasma than the D plasma, which makes it harder to achieve H-mode for the same heating power. The change of the atomic mass number A from 2 to 1 using D plasma equilibrium make little difference on the flux. Increase the electric field will suppress the density fluctuation. The electric field scan and ion mass scan results show that the dual-mode results primarily from differences in the profiles rather than the ion mass.

  3. Generalized Models from Beta(p, 2) Densities with Strong Allee Effect: Dynamical Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Aleixo, Sandra M.; Rocha, J. Leonel

    2012-01-01

    A dynamical approach to study the behaviour of generalized populational growth models from Beta(p, 2) densities, with strong Allee effect, is presented. The dynamical analysis of the respective unimodal maps is performed using symbolic dynamics techniques. The complexity of the correspondent discrete dynamical systems is measured in terms of topological entropy. Different populational dynamics regimes are obtained when the intrinsic growth rates are modified: extinction, bistability, chaotic ...

  4. Renal blood flow regulation and arterial pressure fluctuations: a case study in nonlinear dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Marsh, D J

    1994-01-01

    in which the kidney is obliged to operate. Were it not for renal blood flow autoregulation, it would be difficult to regulate renal excretory processes so as to maintain whole body variables within narrow bounds. Autoregulation is the noise filter on which other renal processes depend for maintaining...... a relatively noise-free environment in which to work. Because of the time-varying nature of the blood pressure, we have concentrated in this review on the now substantial body of work on the dynamics of renal blood flow regulation and the underlying mechanisms. Renal vascular control mechanisms are not simply....... The significance of deterministic chaos in the context of renal blood flow regulation is that the system regulating blood flow undergoes a physical change to a different dynamical state, and because the change is deterministic, there is every expectation that the critical change will yield itself to experimental...

  5. Inertial-particle dynamics in turbulent flows: caustics, concentration fluctuations and random uncorrelated motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustavsson, K; Mehlig, B; Meneguz, E; Reeks, M

    2012-01-01

    We have performed numerical simulations of inertial particles in random model flows in the white-noise limit (at zero Kubo number, Ku = 0) and at finite Kubo numbers. Our results for the moments of relative inertial-particle velocities are in good agreement with recent theoretical results (Gustavsson and Mehlig 2011a) based on the formation of phase-space singularities in the inertial-particle dynamics (caustics). We discuss the relation between three recent approaches describing the dynamics and spatial distribution of inertial particles suspended in turbulent flows: caustic formation, real-space singularities of the deformation tensor and random uncorrelated motion. We discuss how the phase- and real-space singularities are related. Their formation is well understood in terms of a local theory. We summarise the implications for random uncorrelated motion. (paper)

  6. Thermal ignition revisited with two-dimensional molecular dynamics: role of fluctuations in activated collisions

    OpenAIRE

    Sirmas, Nick; Radulescu, Matei I.

    2016-01-01

    The problem of thermal ignition in a homogeneous gas is revisited from a molecular dynamics perspective. A two-dimensional model is adopted, which assumes reactive disks of type A and B in a fixed area that react to form type C products if an activation threshold for impact is surpassed. Such a reaction liberates kinetic energy to the product particles, representative of the heat release. The results for the ignition delay are compared with those obtained from the continuum description assumi...

  7. Rightfulness of Summation Cut-Offs in the Albedo Problem with Gaussian Fluctuations of the Density of Scatterers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selim, M. M.; Bezák, V.

    2003-06-01

    The one-dimensional version of the radiative transfer problem (i.e. the so-called rod model) is analysed with a Gaussian random extinction function (x). Then the optical length X = 0 Ldx(x) is a Gaussian random variable. The transmission and reflection coefficients, T(X) and R(X), are taken as infinite series. When these series (and also when the series representing T 2(X), T 2(X), R(X)T(X), etc.) are averaged, term by term, according to the Gaussian statistics, the series become divergent after averaging. As it was shown in a former paper by the authors (in Acta Physica Slovaca (2003)), a rectification can be managed when a `modified' Gaussian probability density function is used, equal to zero for X > 0 and proportional to the standard Gaussian probability density for X > 0. In the present paper, the authors put forward an alternative, showing that if the m.s.r. of X is sufficiently small in comparison with & $bar X$ ; , the standard Gaussian averaging is well functional provided that the summation in the series representing the variable T m-j (X)R j (X) (m = 1,2,..., j = 1,...,m) is truncated at a well-chosen finite term. The authors exemplify their analysis by some numerical calculations.

  8. Density profile evolution during dynamic processes in ASDEX Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunes, I.; Santos, J.; Salzedas, F.; Manso, M.; Serra, F.; Conway, G.D.; Horton, L.D.; Neuhauser, J.; Suttrop, W.

    2005-01-01

    The current understanding of edge localized modes (ELMs) and the trigger of major disruptions is largely based on phenomenology. The need to better understand the processes underlying these phenomena requires high temporal and spatial resolution diagnostics. Fast diagnostics for the temperature measurements exist, such as the ECE radiometer but, for the plasma density, the existing diagnostics such as Lithium Beam and Thomson Scattering do not have the required high temporal resolution for a period long enough to characterize the entire ELM event. The microwave reflectometry system on ASDEX Upgrade has the capability to measure electron density profiles simultaneously at the low-field and high-field sides, in broadband swept ultrafast (35μs) operation with a spatial resolution of 5mm. In this paper we report on recent results on the effects of type I ELMs on density profiles and on the density pedestal width and ELM affected depth. During the ELM event, three phases are identified: precursor, collapse and recovery. The density pedestal width is found to be approximately constant for all the ELMy H-mode discharges analyzed here, except for high input power discharges, where an increase of the density pedestal width is observed. Major disruptions limit the range of parameters used in the operation of a tokamak, especially density limit disruptions, that limit the maximum usable density. Very abrupt increases of density are observed before the onset of the electron temperature profile erosion, supporting the hypothesis that this erosion is due to convection of the magnetic field. In ITER, during the long steady state flat-top phase of the discharges magnetic measurements may accumulate significant drifts. Plasma position and shape control using reflectometry is being assessed in ASDEX Upgrade for ITER like scenarios with successful results, where it is shown that position measurements from reflectometry compared to magnetic data satisfy the ITER requirements

  9. Fluctuations of cytoskeleton-bound microbeads-the effect of bead-receptor binding dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metzner, C; Raupach, C; Mierke, C T; Fabry, B

    2010-01-01

    The cytoskeleton (CSK) of living cells is a crosslinked fiber network, subject to ongoing biochemical remodeling processes that can be visualized by tracking the spontaneous motion of CSK-bound microbeads. The bead motion is characterized by anomalous diffusion with a power-law time evolution of the mean square displacement (MSD), and can be described as a stochastic transport process with apparent diffusivity D and power-law exponent β: MSD ∼ D (t/t 0 ) β . Here we studied whether D and β change with the time that has passed after the initial bead-cell contact, and whether they are sensitive to bead coating (fibronectin, integrin antibodies, poly-L-lysine, albumin) and bead size (0.5-4.5 μm). The measurements are interpreted in the framework of a simple model that describes the bead as an overdamped particle coupled to the fluctuating CSK network by an elastic spring. The viscous damping coefficient characterizes the degree of bead internalization into the cell, and the spring constant characterizes the strength of the binding of the bead to the CSK. The model predicts distinctive signatures of the MSD that change with time as the bead couples more tightly to the CSK and becomes internalized. Experimental data show that the transition from the unbound to the tightly bound state occurs in an all-or-nothing manner. The time point of this transition shows considerable variability between individual cells (2-30 min) and depends on the bead size and bead coating. On average, this transition occurs later for smaller beads and beads coated with ligands that trigger the formation of adhesion complexes (fibronectin, integrin antibodies). Once the bead is linked to the CSK, however, the ligand type and bead size have little effect on the MSD. On longer timescales of several hours after bead addition, smaller beads are internalized into the cell more readily, leading to characteristic changes in the MSD that are consistent with increased viscous damping by the

  10. Studies of Fluctuation Processes in Nuclear Collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayik, Sakir [Tennessee Technological Univ., Cookeville, TN (United States). Dept. of Physics

    2016-04-14

    The standard one-body transport approaches have been extensively applied to investigate heavy-ion collision dynamics at low and intermediate energies. At low energies the approach is the mean-field description of the time-dependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF) theory. At intermediate energies the approach is extended by including a collision term, and its application has been carried out mostly in the semi-classical framework of the Boltzmann-Uhling-Uhlenbeck (BUU) model. The standard transport models provide a good understanding of the average properties of the collision dynamics in terms of the effective interactions in both low and intermediate energies. However, the standard models are inadequate for describing the fluctuation dynamics of collective motion at low energies and disassembling of the nuclear system into fragments at intermediate energies resulting from the growth of density fluctuations in the spinodal region. Our tasks have been to improve the standard transport approaches by incorporating fluctuation mechanisms into the description. There are mainly two different mechanisms for fluctuations: (i) Collisional fluctuations generated by binary nucleon collisions, which provide the dominant mechanism at intermediate energies, and (ii) One-body mechanism or mean-field fluctuations, which is the dominant mechanism at low energies. In the first part of our project, the PI extended the standard transport model at intermediate energies by incorporating collisional mechanism according to the “Generalized Langevin Description” of Mori formalism. The PI and his collaborators carried out a number of applications for describing dynamical mechanism of nuclear multi fragmentations, and nuclear collective response in the semi-classical framework of the approach, which is known as the Boltzmann-Langevin model. In the second part of the project, we considered dynamical description at low energies. Because of the effective Pauli blocking, the collisional dissipation and

  11. Dynamic analysis of electron density in the course of the internal motion of molecular system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachibana, A.; Hori, K.; Asai, Y.; Yamabe, T.

    1984-01-01

    The general dynamic aspect of electron density of a molecular system is studied on the basis of the general equation of the electron orbital which is formulated for the dynamic study of electronic motion. The newly defined electron orbital incorporates the dynamics of molecular vibration into the electronic structures. In this scheme, the change of electron distribution caused by excitation of vibrational state is defined as the ''dynamic electron transfer.'' The dynamic electron density is found to have the remarkable ''additive'' property. The time-dependent aspect of the dynamic electron redistribution is also analyzed on the basis of the ''coherent state.'' The new method relates the classical vibrational amplitude to the quantum number of the vibrational state. As a preliminary application of the present treatment, the dynamic electron densities of H 2 , HD, HT, HF, and HCl molecules are calculated by use of ab initio molecular orbital method

  12. Molecular-dynamics study of propane-hydrate dissociation: Fluctuation-dissipation and non-equilibrium analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaani, Mohammad Reza; English, Niall J

    2018-03-21

    Equilibrium and non-equilibrium molecular-dynamics (MD) simulations have been performed to investigate thermal-driven break-up of planar propane-hydrate interfaces in contact with liquid water over the 260-320 K range. Two types of hydrate-surface water-lattice molecular termination were adopted, at the hydrate edge with water, for comparison: a 001-direct surface cleavage and one with completed cages. Statistically significant differences in melting temperatures and initial break-up rates were observed between both interface types. Dissociation rates were observed to be strongly dependent on temperature, with higher rates at larger over-temperatures vis-à-vis melting. A simple coupled mass and heat transfer model, developed previously, was applied to fit the observed dissociation profiles, and this helps us to identify clearly two distinct hydrate-decomposition régimes; following a highly temperature-dependent break-up phase, a second well-defined stage is essentially independent of temperature, in which the remaining nanoscale, de facto two-dimensional system's lattice framework is intrinsically unstable. Further equilibrium MD-analysis of the two-phase systems at their melting point, with consideration of the relaxation times gleaned from the auto-correlation functions of fluctuations in a number of enclathrated guest molecules, led to statistically significant differences between the two surface-termination cases; a consistent correlation emerged in both cases between the underlying, non-equilibrium, thermal-driven dissociation rates sampled directly from melting with that from an equilibrium-MD fluctuation-dissipation approach.

  13. Role of density modulation in the spatially resolved dynamics of strongly confined liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saw, Shibu; Dasgupta, Chandan

    2016-08-07

    Confinement by walls usually produces a strong modulation in the density of dense liquids near the walls. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we examine the effects of the density modulation on the spatially resolved dynamics of a liquid confined between two parallel walls, using a resolution of a fraction of the interparticle distance in the liquid. The local dynamics is quantified by the relaxation time associated with the temporal autocorrelation function of the local density. We find that this local relaxation time varies in phase with the density modulation. The amplitude of the spatial modulation of the relaxation time can be quite large, depending on the characteristics of the wall and thermodynamic parameters of the liquid. To disentangle the effects of confinement and density modulation on the spatially resolved dynamics, we compare the dynamics of a confined liquid with that of an unconfined one in which a similar density modulation is induced by an external potential. We find several differences indicating that density modulation alone cannot account for all the features seen in the spatially resolved dynamics of confined liquids. We also examine how the dynamics near a wall depends on the separation between the two walls and show that the features seen in our simulations persist in the limit of large wall separation.

  14. Dissipative neutrino oscillations in randomly fluctuating matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benatti, F.; Floreanini, R.

    2005-01-01

    The generalized dynamics describing the propagation of neutrinos in randomly fluctuating media is analyzed: It takes into account matter-induced, decoherence phenomena that go beyond the standard Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effect. A widely adopted density fluctuation pattern is found to be physically untenable: A more general model needs to be instead considered, leading to flavor changing effective neutrino-matter interactions. They induce new, dissipative effects that modify the neutrino oscillation pattern in a way amenable to a direct experimental analysis

  15. Dissipative neutrino oscillations in randomly fluctuating matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benatti, F.; Floreanini, R.

    2005-01-01

    The generalized dynamics describing the propagation of neutrinos in randomly fluctuating media is analyzed: It takes into account matter-induced, decoherence phenomena that go beyond the standard Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effect. A widely adopted density fluctuation pattern is found to be physically untenable: A more general model needs to be instead considered, leading to flavor changing effective neutrino-matter interactions. They induce new, dissipative effects that modify the neutrino oscillation pattern in a way amenable to a direct experimental analysis.

  16. Nucleosome Assembly Dynamics Involve Spontaneous Fluctuations in the Handedness of Tetrasomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rifka Vlijm

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available DNA wrapping around histone octamers generates nucleosomes, the basic compaction unit of eukaryotic chromatin. Nucleosome stability is carefully tuned to maintain DNA accessibility in transcription, replication, and repair. Using freely orbiting magnetic tweezers, which measure the twist and length of single DNA molecules, we monitor the real-time loading of tetramers or complete histone octamers onto DNA by Nucleosome Assembly Protein-1 (NAP1. Remarkably, we find that tetrasomes exhibit spontaneous flipping between a preferentially occupied left-handed state (ΔLk = −0.73 and a right-handed state (ΔLk = +1.0, separated by a free energy difference of 2.3 kBT (1.5 kcal/mol. This flipping occurs without concomitant changes in DNA end-to-end length. The application of weak positive torque converts left-handed tetrasomes into right-handed tetrasomes, whereas nucleosomes display more gradual conformational changes. Our findings reveal unexpected dynamical rearrangements of the nucleosomal structure, suggesting that chromatin can serve as a “twist reservoir,” offering a mechanistic explanation for the regulation of DNA supercoiling in chromatin.

  17. Fluctuations and Anharmonicity in Lead Iodide Perovskites from Molecular Dynamics Supercell Simulationss

    KAUST Repository

    Carignano, Marcelo Andrés

    2017-09-05

    We present a systematic study based on first principles molecular dynamics simulations of lead iodide perovskites with three different cations, including methylammonium (MA), formamidinium (FA) and cesium. Using the high temperature perovskite structure as a reference, we investigate the instabilities that develop as the material is cooled down to 370 K. All three perovskites display anharmonicity in the motion of the iodine atoms, with the stronger effect observed for the MAPbI$_3$ and CsPbI$_3$. At high temperature, this behavior can be traced back to the reduced effective size of the Cs$^+$ and MA$^+$ cations. MAPbI$_3$ undergoes a spontaneous phase transition within our simulation model driven by the dipolar interaction between neighboring MA cations as the temperature is decreased from 450 K. The reverse transformation from tetragonal to cubic is also monitored through the large distribution of the octahedral tilting angles accompanied by an increase in the anharmonicity of the iodine atoms motion. Both MA and FA hybrid perovskites show a strong coupling between the molecular orientations and the local lattice deformations, suggesting mixed order-disorder/displacive characters of the high temperature phase transitions.

  18. Dynamic Spin-Lattice Coupling and Nematic Fluctuations in NaFeAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Li

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available We use inelastic neutron scattering to study acoustic phonons and spin excitations in single crystals of NaFeAs, a parent compound of iron-pnictide superconductors. NaFeAs exhibits a tetragonal-to-orthorhombic structural transition at T_{s}≈58  K and a collinear antiferromagnetic order at T_{N}≈45  K. While longitudinal and out-of-plane transverse acoustic phonons behave as expected, the in-plane transverse acoustic phonons reveal considerable softening on cooling to T_{s} and then harden on approaching T_{N} before saturating below T_{N}. In addition, we find that spin-spin correlation lengths of low-energy magnetic excitations within the FeAs layer and along the c axis increase dramatically below T_{s} and show a weak anomaly across T_{N}. These results suggest that the electronic nematic phase present in the paramagnetic tetragonal phase is closely associated with dynamic spin-lattice coupling, possibly arising from the one-phonon–two-magnon mechanism.

  19. Fluctuations in non-ideal pion gas with dynamically fixed particle number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolomeitsev, E. E.; Voskresensky, D. N.

    2018-05-01

    We consider a non-ideal hot pion gas with the dynamically fixed number of particles in the model with the λϕ4 interaction. The effective Lagrangian for the description of such a system is obtained after dropping the terms responsible for the change of the total particle number. Reactions π+π- ↔π0π0, which determine the isospin balance of the medium, are permitted. Within the self-consistent Hartree approximation we compute the effective pion mass, thermodynamic characteristics of the system and the variance of the particle number at temperatures above the critical point of the induced Bose-Einstein condensation when the pion chemical potential reaches the value of the effective pion mass. We analyze conditions for the condensate formation in the process of thermalization of an initially non-equilibrium pion gas. The normalized variance of the particle number increases with a temperature decrease but remains finite in the critical point of the Bose-Einstein condensation. This is due to the non-perturbative account of the interaction and is in contrast to the ideal-gas case. In the kinetic regime of the condensate formation the variance is shown to stay finite also.

  20. Spatially heterogeneous dynamics investigated via a time-dependent four-point density correlation function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lacevic, N.; Starr, F. W.; Schrøder, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    correlation function g4(r,t) and corresponding "structure factor" S4(q,t) which measure the spatial correlations between the local liquid density at two points in space, each at two different times, and so are sensitive to dynamical heterogeneity. We study g4(r,t) and S4(q,t) via molecular dynamics......Relaxation in supercooled liquids above their glass transition and below the onset temperature of "slow" dynamics involves the correlated motion of neighboring particles. This correlated motion results in the appearance of spatially heterogeneous dynamics or "dynamical heterogeneity." Traditional...... two-point time-dependent density correlation functions, while providing information about the transient "caging" of particles on cooling, are unable to provide sufficiently detailed information about correlated motion and dynamical heterogeneity. Here, we study a four-point, time-dependent density...

  1. A Modified Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar Approach for Mimicking Dynamic Oscillatory Stress Fluctuations During Earthquake Rupture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braunagel, M. J.; Griffith, W. A.

    2017-12-01

    Past experimental work has demonstrated that rock failure at high strain rates occurs by fragmentation rather than discrete fracture and is accompanied by a dramatic increase in rock strength. However, these observations are difficult to reconcile with the assertion that pulverized rocks in fault zones are the product of impulsive stresses during the passage of earthquake ruptures, as the distance from the principal slip zones of some pulverized rock is too great to exceed fragmentation transition. One potential explanation to this paradox that has been suggested is that repeated loading over the course of multiple earthquake ruptures may gradually reduce the pulverization threshold, in terms of both strain rate and strength. We propose that oscillatory loading during a single earthquake rupture may further lower these pulverization thresholds, and that traditional dynamic experimental approaches, such as the Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB) wherein load is applied as a single, smooth, sinusoidal compressive wave, may not reflect natural loading conditions. To investigate the effects of oscillatory compressive loading expected during earthquake rupture propagation, we develop a controlled cyclic loading model on a SHPB apparatus utilizing two striker bars connected by an elastic spring. Unlike traditional SHPB experiments that utilize a gas gun to fire a projectile bar and generate a single compressive wave on impact with the incident bar, our modified striker bar assembly oscillates while moving down the gun barrel and generates two separate compressive pulses separated by a lag time. By modeling the modified assembly as a mass-spring-mass assembly accelerating due to the force of the released gas, we can predict the compression time of the spring upon impact and therefore the time delay between the generation of the first and second compressive waves. This allows us to predictably control load cycles with durations of only a few hundred microseconds. Initial

  2. Phase dynamics of low critical current density YBCO Josephson junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massarotti, D., E-mail: dmassarotti@na.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Via Cinthia, 80126 Napoli (Italy); CNR-SPIN UOS Napoli, Complesso Universitario di Monte Sant’Angelo, Via Cinthia, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Stornaiuolo, D. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Via Cinthia, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Rotoli, G. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale e dell’Informazione, Seconda Università di Napoli, Via Roma 29, 81031 Aversa (CE) (Italy); Carillo, F. [Nest, Scuola Normale Superiore, Piazza San Silvestro 12, 56126 Pisa (Italy); Galletti, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Via Cinthia, 80126 Napoli (Italy); CNR-SPIN UOS Napoli, Complesso Universitario di Monte Sant’Angelo, Via Cinthia, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Longobardi, L. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale e dell’Informazione, Seconda Università di Napoli, Via Roma 29, 81031 Aversa (CE) (Italy); American Physical Society, 1 Research Road, Ridge, NY 11961 (United States); Beltram, F. [Nest, Scuola Normale Superiore, Piazza San Silvestro 12, 56126 Pisa (Italy); Tafuri, F. [CNR-SPIN UOS Napoli, Complesso Universitario di Monte Sant’Angelo, Via Cinthia, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale e dell’Informazione, Seconda Università di Napoli, Via Roma 29, 81031 Aversa (CE) (Italy)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • We study the phase dynamics of YBaCuO Josephson junctions using various tools. • We derive information on the dissipation in a wide range of transport parameters. • Dissipation in such devices can be described by a frequency dependent damping model. • The use of different substrates allows us to tune the shell circuit. - Abstract: High critical temperature superconductors (HTS) based devices can have impact in the study of the phase dynamics of Josephson junctions (JJs) thanks to the wide range of junction parameters they offer and to their unconventional properties. Measurements of current–voltage characteristics and of switching current distributions constitute a direct way to classify different regimes of the phase dynamics and of the transport, also in nontrivial case of the moderately damped regime (MDR). MDR is going to be more and more common in JJs with advances in nanopatterning superconductors and synthesizing novel hybrid systems. Distinctive signatures of macroscopic quantum tunneling and of thermal activation in presence of different tunable levels of dissipation have been detected in YBCO grain boundary JJs. Experimental data are supported by Monte Carlo simulations of the phase dynamics, in a wide range of temperatures and dissipation levels. This allows us to quantify dissipation in the MDR and partially reconstruct a phase diagram as guideline for a wide range of moderately damped systems.

  3. Genetic and Dynamic Analyses of Murine Peak Bone Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-10-01

    bone density in mice. Femurs from young adult B6, C3H, and CAST females at 4 months of age were measured by pQCT (XCT-960M, Norland Med Sys., Ft...progenitor strains - B6, C3H, and CAST - showed that adult skeletal peak BMD was established at 4 months. Therefore, F2 mice were necropsied at 4...calcium depletion causes hypocalcemia , which leads to secondary hyperparathyroidism, subsequently resulting in increased bone resorption. Conversely

  4. Influence of plasma density and plasma sheath dynamics on the ion implantation by plasma immersion technique

    OpenAIRE

    Ensinger, Wolfgang

    1996-01-01

    Influence of plasma density and plasma sheath dynamics on the ion implantation by plasma immersion technique / B. Rauschenbach ... - In: Nuclear instruments and methods in physics research. B. 113. 1996. S. 266-269

  5. A strongly coupled open system with a non-linear bath: fluctuation-dissipation and Langevin dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadra, Chitrak

    2018-03-01

    The study of Langevin dynamics and fluctuation-dissipation relation (FDR) for a generic probe system (represented by a mass M ), bilinearly coupled to a bath of harmonic oscillators, has been a standard paradigm for the microscopic theory of stochastic processes for several decades. The question that we probe in this paper is, how robust the structure of the classical FDR is, when one replaces the harmonic bath by an anharmonic one in the limit of strong system-bath coupling? Such a picture carries the signature of the probe system in the zeroth order through a nonlocal time kernel. We observe that the two-time noise correlations hold a rich structure from which the usual FDR emerges only in the leading order of perturbation. Beyond this order, multiple time scales and nontrivial dependence on the temperature starts to manifest. These new aspects conspire to break the time-translational invariance of the noise-correlations. Several other interesting features show up and we discuss them methodically through rigorous calculations order-by-order in perturbation. This formalistic derivation along with a specific example of non-linearity can be easily applied to a huge range of processes and statistical observables that fall under the purview of a system-reservoir theory.

  6. Equatorial dynamics observed by rocket, radar, and satellite during the CADRE/MALTED campaign 1. Programmatics and small-scale fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Richard A.; Lehmacher, Gerald A.; Schmidlin, Frank J.; Fritts, David C.; Mitchell, J. D.; Croskey, C. L.; Friedrich, M.; Swartz, W. E.

    1997-11-01

    -MHz radar (Cornell University) provided local sounding of the electrojet region. A description of the campaign logistics and the measurements performed with the Nike-Orion instrumentation and their implications for turbulence due to gravity waves and tidal instability in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) are presented here. From a study of electron density fluctuations measured by rocket probes, we have found evidence for equatorial mesospheric neutral-atmospheric turbulence between 85 and 90 km. Furthermore, falling-sphere data imply that gravity wave breaking was a source for this turbulence. Mean motions and the various planetary, tidal, and gravity wave structures and their coherence and variability are the subjects of a companion paper.

  7. Equatorial Dynamics Observed by Rocket, Radar, and Satellite During the CADRE/MALTED Campaign. 1; Programmatics and small-scale fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Richard A.; Lehmacher, Gerald A.; Schmidlin, Frank J.; Fritts, David C.; Mitchell, J. D.; Croskey, C. L.; Friedrich, M.; Swartz, W. E.

    1997-01-01

    CUPRI 50-MHz radar (Cornell University) provided local sounding of the electrojet region. A description of the campaign logistics and the measurements performed with the Nike-Orion instrumentation and their implications for turbulence due to gravity waves and tidal instability in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) are presented here. From a study of electron density fluctuations measured by rocket probes, we have found evidence for equatorial mesospheric neutral-atmospheric turbulence between 85 and 90 km. Furthermore, falling-sphere data imply that gravity wave breaking was a source for this turbulence. Mean motions and the various planetary, tidal, and gravity wave structures and their coherence and variability are the subjects of a companion paper.

  8. Interaction of the fluctuation of the population density of sweet potato pests with changes in farming practices, climate and physical environments: A 11-year preliminary observation from South-Kivu Province, Eastern DRCongo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munyuli Théodore

    2017-10-01

    spp. or as vectors of diseases (Bemisi tabaci, Aphis spp.. The results indicated a high fluctuation in the population density of different pests. The change in the population dynamics were characterized by gradual increase in the populations during rainy seasons followed by decline during dry seasons (hot months of the year. Significant (P<0.05 differences were observed in the population dynamics between sole sweetpotato and mixed sweetpotato intercropping. There was a synchronization of multiple pest generations (biannual, multiannual cycles of reproduction built up with early rains. The results indicate that rainfall and maximum temperature were critical to the survival and population built up of the pest population. High rainfall in the previous months caused increases in the population density in the subsequent months within a year. The population dynamic (seasonal occurrence over months and years was likely to coincide with favorable feeding and breeding conditions available within sweetpotato biotopes when temperatures were sufficiently high or after heavy rainfall. For some species, maximum temperature and dry seasons were associated with declines in the pest populations whereas for other species, heavy rainfall was associated with subsequent outbreaks (high populations in the following months of the years. It is likely that perturbations in temperature/ rainfall patterns may cause serious changes in the pest population, therefore favoring the build-up of multiple generations within a year, thus. Rainfall and maximum temperatures were reliable predictors of key pest species. In fact, regressions analyses indicated that there were significant relationships (P<0.01 between the fluctuation of the population density of different pest species and the variability of climatic factors (mean monthly maximum/ minimum temperature, average rainfall. The population density of different insect pest species varied according to cropping system and to altitude. For example, a

  9. Molecular Dynamics Simulation of High Density DNA Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Podgornik

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Densely packed DNA arrays exhibit hexagonal and orthorhombic local packings, as well as a weakly first order transition between them. While we have some understanding of the interactions between DNA molecules in aqueous ionic solutions, the structural details of its ordered phases and the mechanism governing the respective phase transitions between them remains less well understood. Since at high DNA densities, i.e., small interaxial spacings, one can neither neglect the atomic details of the interacting macromolecular surfaces nor the atomic details of the intervening ionic solution, the atomistic resolution is a sine qua non to properly describe and analyze the interactions between DNA molecules. In fact, in order to properly understand the details of the observed osmotic equation of state, one needs to implement multiple levels of organization, spanning the range from the molecular order of DNA itself, the possible ordering of counterions, and then all the way to the induced molecular ordering of the aqueous solvent, all coupled together by electrostatic, steric, thermal and direct hydrogen-bonding interactions. Multiscale simulations therefore appear as singularly suited to connect the microscopic details of this system with its macroscopic thermodynamic behavior. We review the details of the simulation of dense atomistically resolved DNA arrays with different packing symmetries and the ensuing osmotic equation of state obtained by enclosing a DNA array in a monovalent salt and multivalent (spermidine counterions within a solvent permeable membrane, mimicking the behavior of DNA arrays subjected to external osmotic stress. By varying the DNA density, the local packing symmetry, and the counterion type, we are able to analyze the osmotic equation of state together with the full structural characterization of the DNA subphase, the counterion distribution and the solvent structural order in terms of its different order parameters and

  10. Density matrix renormalization group with efficient dynamical electron correlation through range separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegård, Erik D.; Knecht, Stefan; Kielberg, Jesper Skau

    2015-01-01

    We present a new hybrid multiconfigurational method based on the concept of range-separation that combines the density matrix renormalization group approach with density functional theory. This new method is designed for the simultaneous description of dynamical and static electroncorrelation...... effects in multiconfigurational electronic structure problems....

  11. Molecular dynamics simulation for the baryon-quark phase transition at finite baryon density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akimura, Y.; Maruyama, T.; Chiba, S.; Yoshinaga, N.

    2005-01-01

    We study the baryon-quark phase transition in the molecular dynamics (MD) of the quark degrees of freedom at finite baryon density. The baryon state at low baryon density, and the deconfined quark state at high baryon density are reproduced. We investigate the equations of state of matters with different u-d-s compositions. It is found that the baryon-quark transition is sensitive to the quark width. (orig.)

  12. Big Bang or vacuum fluctuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zel'dovich, Ya.B.

    1980-01-01

    Some general properties of vacuum fluctuations in quantum field theory are described. The connection between the ''energy dominance'' of the energy density of vacuum fluctuations in curved space-time and the presence of singularity is discussed. It is pointed out that a de-Sitter space-time (with the energy density of the vacuum fluctuations in the Einstein equations) that matches the expanding Friedman solution may describe the history of the Universe before the Big Bang. (P.L.)

  13. Meta-orbital transition in heavy-fermion systems. Analysis by dynamical mean field theory and self-consistent renormalization theory of orbital fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, Kazumasa

    2010-01-01

    We investigate a two-orbital Anderson lattice model with Ising orbital intersite exchange interactions on the basis of a dynamical mean field theory combined with the static mean field approximation of intersite orbital interactions. Focusing on Ce-based heavy-fermion compounds, we examine the orbital crossover between two orbital states, when the total f-electron number per site n f is ∼1. We show that a 'meta-orbital' transition, at which the occupancy of two orbitals changes steeply, occurs when the hybridization between the ground-state f-electron orbital and conduction electrons is smaller than that between the excited f-electron orbital and conduction electrons at low pressures. Near the meta-orbital critical end point, orbital fluctuations are enhanced and couple with charge fluctuations. A critical theory of meta-orbital fluctuations is also developed by applying the self-consistent renormalization theory of itinerant electron magnetism to orbital fluctuations. The critical end point, first-order transition, and crossover are described within Gaussian approximations of orbital fluctuations. We discuss the relevance of our results to CeAl 2 , CeCu 2 Si 2 , CeCu 2 Ge 2 , and related compounds, which all have low-lying crystalline-electric-field excited states. (author)

  14. Predicting critical transitions in dynamical systems from time series using nonstationary probability density modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwasniok, Frank

    2013-11-01

    A time series analysis method for predicting the probability density of a dynamical system is proposed. A nonstationary parametric model of the probability density is estimated from data within a maximum likelihood framework and then extrapolated to forecast the future probability density and explore the system for critical transitions or tipping points. A full systematic account of parameter uncertainty is taken. The technique is generic, independent of the underlying dynamics of the system. The method is verified on simulated data and then applied to prediction of Arctic sea-ice extent.

  15. Relation of decorrelated transionospheric GPS signal fluctuations from two stations in the northern anomaly crest region with equatorial ionospheric dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, K. S.; Paul, A.

    2017-05-01

    The ionosphere around the northern crest of the equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) and beyond exhibits rapid temporal as well as spatial development of ionization density irregularities during postsunset hours. A GPS campaign was conducted during September 2012 and April 2013 from the Institute of Radio Physics and Electronics, Calcutta (22.58°N, 88.38°E geographic; magnetic dip: 32°N), and North Bengal University (NBU), Siliguri (26.72°N, 88.39°E geographic, magnetic dip: 39.49°N) in India in order to assess and quantify differences, if any, in the nature of carrier to noise ratio (C/N0) fluctuations observed on the same satellite link around the same time interval from these stations. Significant decorrelation of the received signals was found when tracking the same satellite vehicle (SV) link from these stations during periods of scintillations. Low values of correlation coefficient of C/N0 at L1 frequency recorded on the same SV link at these two stations were found to correspond with high irregularity characteristic velocities. North-south spatial displacement rates of the impact of ionospheric irregularities were calculated based on coordinated GPS observations which followed an increasing trend with irregularity characteristic velocities measured at VHF. Values of characteristic velocities in excess of 36 m/s were also found to result in large receiver position deviations 3.5-4.0 m during periods of scintillations. Information related to time lag associated with occurrence of scintillations on the same SV link observed from two stations could be useful for improving performance of transionospheric satellite-based position determination techniques.

  16. Dynamics of a low-density tiger population in Southeast Asia in the context of improved law enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duangchantrasiri, Somphot; Umponjan, Mayuree; Simcharoen, Saksit; Pattanavibool, Anak; Chaiwattana, Soontorn; Maneerat, Sompoch; Kumar, N Samba; Jathanna, Devcharan; Srivathsa, Arjun; Karanth, K Ullas

    2016-06-01

    Recovering small populations of threatened species is an important global conservation strategy. Monitoring the anticipated recovery, however, often relies on uncertain abundance indices rather than on rigorous demographic estimates. To counter the severe threat from poaching of wild tigers (Panthera tigris), the Government of Thailand established an intensive patrolling system in 2005 to protect and recover its largest source population in Huai Kha Khaeng Wildlife Sanctuary. Concurrently, we assessed the dynamics of this tiger population over the next 8 years with rigorous photographic capture-recapture methods. From 2006 to 2012, we sampled across 624-1026 km(2) with 137-200 camera traps. Cameras deployed for 21,359 trap days yielded photographic records of 90 distinct individuals. We used closed model Bayesian spatial capture-recapture methods to estimate tiger abundances annually. Abundance estimates were integrated with likelihood-based open model analyses to estimate rates of annual and overall rates of survival, recruitment, and changes in abundance. Estimates of demographic parameters fluctuated widely: annual density ranged from 1.25 to 2.01 tigers/100 km(2) , abundance from 35 to 58 tigers, survival from 79.6% to 95.5%, and annual recruitment from 0 to 25 tigers. The number of distinct individuals photographed demonstrates the value of photographic capture-recapture methods for assessments of population dynamics in rare and elusive species that are identifiable from natural markings. Possibly because of poaching pressure, overall tiger densities at Huai Kha Khaeng were 82-90% lower than in ecologically comparable sites in India. However, intensified patrolling after 2006 appeared to reduce poaching and was correlated with marginal improvement in tiger survival and recruitment. Our results suggest that population recovery of low-density tiger populations may be slower than anticipated by current global strategies aimed at doubling the number of wild tigers

  17. The demography of climate-driven and density-regulated population dynamics in a perennial plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlgren, Johan; Bengstsson, Karin; Ehrlén, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Identifying the internal and external drivers of population dynamics is a key objective in ecology, currently accentuated by the need to forecast the effects of climate change on species distributions and abundances. The interplay between environmental and density effects is one particularly...... important aspect of such forecasts. We examined the simultaneous impact of climate and intraspecific density on vital rates of the dwarf shrub Fumana procumbens over 20 yr, using generalized additive mixed models. We then analyzed effects on population dynamics using integral projection models...... to be driven solely by the environment can overestimate extinction risks if there is density dependence. We conclude that density regulation can dampen effects of climate change on Fumana population size, and discuss the need to quantify density dependence in predictions of population responses...

  18. Efficient estimation of dynamic density functions with an application to outlier detection

    KAUST Repository

    Qahtan, Abdulhakim Ali Ali; Zhang, Xiangliang; Wang, Suojin

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new method to estimate the dynamic density over data streams, named KDE-Track as it is based on a conventional and widely used Kernel Density Estimation (KDE) method. KDE-Track can efficiently estimate the density with linear complexity by using interpolation on a kernel model, which is incrementally updated upon the arrival of streaming data. Both theoretical analysis and experimental validation show that KDE-Track outperforms traditional KDE and a baseline method Cluster-Kernels on estimation accuracy of the complex density structures in data streams, computing time and memory usage. KDE-Track is also demonstrated on timely catching the dynamic density of synthetic and real-world data. In addition, KDE-Track is used to accurately detect outliers in sensor data and compared with two existing methods developed for detecting outliers and cleaning sensor data. © 2012 ACM.

  19. Interference effects in the nonlinear charge density wave dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jelcic, D.; Batistic, I.; Bjelis, A.

    1987-12-01

    The main features of the nonlinear charge density wave transport in the external dc-ac field are shown to be the natural consequences of resonant phase slip diffusion. This process is treated numerically within the time dependent Landau-Ginzburg model, developed by Gor'kov. The resonances in the ac field are manifested as Shapiro steps in I-V characteristics, present at all rational ratios of internal frequency of current oscillations and external ac frequency. The origin of Shapiro steps, as well as their forms and heights, are cosidered in detail. In particular, it is shown that close to resonances the phase slip voltage acquires a highly nonsinusoidal modulation which leads to the appearance of low frequency and satellite peaks in the Fourier spectrum. Taking into account the interference of adjacent phase slips and the segment or domain structure of physical samples, we interpret the finite width of steps, side wings, synchronization, incomplete and complete mode locking and some other effects observed in numerous experiments on NbSe 3 and other CDW materials. (author). 36 refs, 12 figs

  20. Effects of Reduced pH on Macoma balthica Larvae from a System with Naturally Fluctuating pH-Dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Jansson

    Full Text Available Ocean acidification is causing severe changes in the inorganic carbon balance of the oceans. The pH conditions predicted for the future oceans are, however, already regularly occurring in the Baltic Sea, and the system might thus work as an analogue for future ocean acidification scenarios. The characteristics of the Baltic Sea with low buffering capacity and large natural pH fluctuations, in combination with multiple other stressors, suggest that OA effects may be severe, but remain largely unexplored. A calcifying species potentially affected by low pH conditions is the bivalve Macoma balthica (L.. We investigated larval survival and development of M. balthica by exposing the larvae to a range of pH levels: 7.2, 7.4, 7.7 and 8.1 during 20 days in order to learn what the effects of reduced pH are on the larval biology and thus also potentially for the population dynamics of this key species. We found that even a slight pH decrease causes significant negative changes during the larval phase, both by slowing growth and by decreasing survival. The growth was slower in all reduced pH treatments compared to the control treatment. The size of 250 µm that is considered indicative to imminent settling in our system was reached by 22% of the larvae grown in control conditions after 20 days, whereas in all reduced pH treatments the size of 250 µm was reached by only 7-14%. The strong impact of ocean acidification on larvae is alarming as slowly growing individuals are exposed to higher predation risk in response to the longer time they are required to spend in the plankton, further decreasing the ecological competence of the species.

  1. Interferometric characterization of density dynamics of an ultradense Z-pinch plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackenhusen, J.G.; Bach, D.R.

    1979-01-01

    We have measured the spatially and temporally resolved density in a Z-pinch plasma by holographic interferometry. The high electron density (4 x 10 19 e/cm 3 ), short density scale length (100 μm), and low temperature (about 20 eV) make the plasma source suitable for simulation of laser-pellet interaction experiments at 10.6-μm laser wavelengths. A cinema of density evolution, indicating plasma pinching and subsequent relaxation, provides an experimental view of plasma dynamics which is then compared to simple theoretical models

  2. Static and dynamic spin fluctuations in the spin glass doping regime in La2-xSrxCuO4+y

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birgeneau, R.J.; Belk, N.; Kastner, M.A.; Keimer, B.; Shirane, G.

    1991-01-01

    We review the results of neutron scattering studies of the static and dynamic spin fluctuations crystals of La 2-x Sr x CuO 4+δ in the doping regime intermediate between the Neel and superconducting regions. In this regime the in-plane resistance is linear in temperature down to ∼80 K with a crossover due to logarithmic conductance effects at lower temperatures. The static spin correlations are well-described by a simple model in which the inverse correlation length κ(x,T) =κ(x,0) + κ(0,T). The most dramatic new result is the discovery by Keimer et al. that the dynamic spin fluctuations exhibit a temperature dependence which is a simple function of ω/T for temperatures 10 K≤T≤500 K for a wide range of energies. This scaling leads to a natural explanation of a variety of normal state properties of the copper oxides. 21 refs., 4 figs

  3. Dynamical Scaling Implications of Ferrari, Prähofer, and Spohn's Remarkable Spatial Scaling Results for Facet-Edge Fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einstein, T. L.; Pimpinelli, Alberto

    2014-06-01

    Spurred by theoretical predictions from Ferrari et al. (Phys Rev E 69:035102(R), 2004), we rederived and extended their result heuristically. With experimental colleagues we used STM line scans to corroborate their prediction that the fluctuations of the step bounding a facet exhibit scaling properties distinct from those of isolated steps or steps on vicinal surfaces. The correlation functions was shown to go as , decidedly different from the behavior for fluctuations of isolated steps.

  4. Deterministic Role of Collision Cascade Density in Radiation Defect Dynamics in Si

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, J. B.; Aji, L. B. Bayu; Shao, L.; Kucheyev, S. O.

    2018-05-01

    The formation of stable radiation damage in solids often proceeds via complex dynamic annealing (DA) processes, involving point defect migration and interaction. The dependence of DA on irradiation conditions remains poorly understood even for Si. Here, we use a pulsed ion beam method to study defect interaction dynamics in Si bombarded in the temperature range from ˜-30 ° C to 210 °C with ions in a wide range of masses, from Ne to Xe, creating collision cascades with different densities. We demonstrate that the complexity of the influence of irradiation conditions on defect dynamics can be reduced to a deterministic effect of a single parameter, the average cascade density, calculated by taking into account the fractal nature of collision cascades. For each ion species, the DA rate exhibits two well-defined Arrhenius regions where different DA mechanisms dominate. These two regions intersect at a critical temperature, which depends linearly on the cascade density. The low-temperature DA regime is characterized by an activation energy of ˜0.1 eV , independent of the cascade density. The high-temperature regime, however, exhibits a change in the dominant DA process for cascade densities above ˜0.04 at.%, evidenced by an increase in the activation energy. These results clearly demonstrate a crucial role of the collision cascade density and can be used to predict radiation defect dynamics in Si.

  5. A New Calculation Method of Dynamic Kill Fluid Density Variation during Deep Water Drilling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honghai Fan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There are plenty of uncertainties and enormous challenges in deep water drilling due to complicated shallow flow and deep strata of high temperature and pressure. This paper investigates density of dynamic kill fluid and optimum density during the kill operation process in which dynamic kill process can be divided into two stages, that is, dynamic stable stage and static stable stage. The dynamic kill fluid consists of a single liquid phase and different solid phases. In addition, liquid phase is a mixture of water and oil. Therefore, a new method in calculating the temperature and pressure field of deep water wellbore is proposed. The paper calculates the changing trend of kill fluid density under different temperature and pressure by means of superposition method, nonlinear regression, and segment processing technique. By employing the improved model of kill fluid density, deep water kill operation in a well is investigated. By comparison, the calculated density results are in line with the field data. The model proposed in this paper proves to be satisfactory in optimizing dynamic kill operations to ensure the safety in deep water.

  6. Out-of-equilibrium dynamics of repulsive Fermi gases in quasiperiodic potentials: A density functional theory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancilotto, Francesco; Rossini, Davide; Pilati, Sebastiano

    2018-04-01

    The dynamics of a one-dimensional two-component Fermi gas in the presence of a quasiperiodic optical lattice (OL) is investigated by means of a density functional theory approach. Inspired by the protocol implemented in recent cold-atom experiments—designed to identify the many-body localization transition—we analyze the relaxation of an initially prepared imbalance between the occupation number of odd and of even sites. For quasidisorder strength beyond the Anderson localization transition, the imbalance survives for long times, indicating the inability of the system to reach local equilibrium. The late-time value of the imbalance diminishes for increasing interaction strength. Close to the critical quasidisorder strength corresponding to the noninteracting (Anderson) transition, the interacting system displays an extremely slow relaxation dynamics, consistent with subdiffusive behavior. The amplitude of the imbalance fluctuations around its running average is found to decrease with time, and such damping is more effective with increasing interaction strengths. While our study addresses the setup with two equally intense OLs, very similar effects due to interactions have been observed also in recent cold-atom experiments performed in the tight-binding regime, i.e., where one of the two OLs is very deep and the other is much weaker.

  7. Dynamical study of the radial structure of the fluctuations measured by a reciprocating Langmuir probe in Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devynck, P.; Antar, G.; Wang, G.; Garbet, X.; Gunn, J.; Pascal, J.Y.

    1999-01-01

    The fluctuations in the Scrape Off Layer (S.O.L.) of Tore Supra are studied with a movable Langmuir probe biased to ion saturation current. The probe system consists of three probes separated poloidally (0.68 cm between two nearby probes). The probe has no magnetic connection to the mid plane limiter on which the plasma is leaning, but the radial profile of the ion saturation current fluctuations displays a dip at the limiter position. At the same location the ion saturation current displays a dip at the limiter position. At the same location the ion saturation current displays an inflexion point. A correlation analysis technique is developed to study the radial behaviour of the fluctuations. It reveals that this dip is associated with a reduction of the poloidal velocity of the fluctuations with no sign reversal. In the dip the mean poloidal correlation length of the fluctuations is also reduced. These observations are consistent with a reduction of the fluctuations by a shear of the radial electric field created at the limiter surface. The autocorrelation time is also calculated. It increases slightly in the dip and is found to be sensitive to both the convection time and lifetime of the turbulent structures, because these quantities are of the same order. (authors)

  8. Nonadiabatic Dynamics in Single-Electron Tunneling Devices with Time-Dependent Density-Functional Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittmann, Niklas; Splettstoesser, Janine; Helbig, Nicole

    2018-04-01

    We simulate the dynamics of a single-electron source, modeled as a quantum dot with on-site Coulomb interaction and tunnel coupling to an adjacent lead in time-dependent density-functional theory. Based on this system, we develop a time-nonlocal exchange-correlation potential by exploiting analogies with quantum-transport theory. The time nonlocality manifests itself in a dynamical potential step. We explicitly link the time evolution of the dynamical step to physical relaxation timescales of the electron dynamics. Finally, we discuss prospects for simulations of larger mesoscopic systems.

  9. Density functional theory and dynamical mean-field theory. A way to model strongly correlated systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Backes, Steffen

    2017-04-01

    The study of the electronic properties of correlated systems is a very diverse field and has lead to valuable insight into the physics of real materials. In these systems, the decisive factor that governs the physical properties is the ratio between the electronic kinetic energy, which promotes delocalization over the lattice, and the Coulomb interaction, which instead favours localized electronic states. Due to this competition, correlated electronic systems can show unique and interesting properties like the Metal-Insulator transition, diverse phase diagrams, strong temperature dependence and in general a high sensitivity to the environmental conditions. A theoretical description of these systems is not an easy task, since perturbative approaches that do not preserve the competition between the kinetic and interaction terms can only be applied in special limiting cases. One of the most famous approaches to obtain the electronic properties of a real material is the ab initio density functional theory (DFT) method. It allows one to obtain the ground state density of the system under investigation by mapping onto an effective non-interacting system that has to be found self-consistently. While being an exact theory, in practical implementations certain approximations have to be made to the exchange-correlation potential. The local density approximation (LDA), which approximates the exchange-correlation contribution to the total energy by that of a homogeneous electron gas with the corresponding density, has proven quite successful in many cases. Though, this approximation in general leads to an underestimation of electronic correlations and is not able to describe a metal-insulator transition due to electronic localization in the presence of strong Coulomb interaction. A different approach to the interacting electronic problem is the dynamical mean-field theory (DMFT), which is non-perturbative in the kinetic and interaction term but neglects all non

  10. Density functional theory and dynamical mean-field theory. A way to model strongly correlated systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backes, Steffen

    2017-04-15

    The study of the electronic properties of correlated systems is a very diverse field and has lead to valuable insight into the physics of real materials. In these systems, the decisive factor that governs the physical properties is the ratio between the electronic kinetic energy, which promotes delocalization over the lattice, and the Coulomb interaction, which instead favours localized electronic states. Due to this competition, correlated electronic systems can show unique and interesting properties like the Metal-Insulator transition, diverse phase diagrams, strong temperature dependence and in general a high sensitivity to the environmental conditions. A theoretical description of these systems is not an easy task, since perturbative approaches that do not preserve the competition between the kinetic and interaction terms can only be applied in special limiting cases. One of the most famous approaches to obtain the electronic properties of a real material is the ab initio density functional theory (DFT) method. It allows one to obtain the ground state density of the system under investigation by mapping onto an effective non-interacting system that has to be found self-consistently. While being an exact theory, in practical implementations certain approximations have to be made to the exchange-correlation potential. The local density approximation (LDA), which approximates the exchange-correlation contribution to the total energy by that of a homogeneous electron gas with the corresponding density, has proven quite successful in many cases. Though, this approximation in general leads to an underestimation of electronic correlations and is not able to describe a metal-insulator transition due to electronic localization in the presence of strong Coulomb interaction. A different approach to the interacting electronic problem is the dynamical mean-field theory (DMFT), which is non-perturbative in the kinetic and interaction term but neglects all non

  11. Extended Lagrangian Density Functional Tight-Binding Molecular Dynamics for Molecules and Solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aradi, Balint; Frauenheim, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    A computationally fast quantum mechanical molecular dynamics scheme using an extended Lagrangian density functional tight-binding formulation has been developed and implemented in the DFTB+ electronic structure program package for simulations of solids and molecular systems. The scheme combines the computational speed of self-consistent density functional tight-binding theory with the efficiency and long-term accuracy of extended Lagrangian Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics. Furthermore, for systems without self-consistent charge instabilities, only a single diagonalization or construction of the single-particle density matrix is required in each time step. The molecular dynamics simulation scheme can also be applied to a broad range of problems in materials science, chemistry, and biology

  12. Extended Lagrangian Density Functional Tight-Binding Molecular Dynamics for Molecules and Solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aradi, Bálint; Niklasson, Anders M N; Frauenheim, Thomas

    2015-07-14

    A computationally fast quantum mechanical molecular dynamics scheme using an extended Lagrangian density functional tight-binding formulation has been developed and implemented in the DFTB+ electronic structure program package for simulations of solids and molecular systems. The scheme combines the computational speed of self-consistent density functional tight-binding theory with the efficiency and long-term accuracy of extended Lagrangian Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics. For systems without self-consistent charge instabilities, only a single diagonalization or construction of the single-particle density matrix is required in each time step. The molecular dynamics simulation scheme can be applied to a broad range of problems in materials science, chemistry, and biology.

  13. Dispersal, density dependence, and population dynamics of a fungal microbe on leaf surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woody, Scott T; Ives, Anthony R; Nordheim, Erik V; Andrews, John H

    2007-06-01

    Despite the ubiquity and importance of microbes in nature, little is known about their natural population dynamics, especially for those that occupy terrestrial habitats. Here we investigate the dynamics of the yeast-like fungus Aureobasidium pullulans (Ap) on apple leaves in an orchard. We asked three questions. (1) Is variation in fungal population density among leaves caused by variation in leaf carrying capacities and strong density-dependent population growth that maintains densities near carrying capacity? (2) Do resident populations have competitive advantages over immigrant cells? (3) Do Ap dynamics differ at different times during the growing season? To address these questions, we performed two experiments at different times in the growing season. Both experiments used a 2 x 2 factorial design: treatment 1 removed fungal cells from leaves to reveal density-dependent population growth, and treatment 2 inoculated leaves with an Ap strain engineered to express green fluorescent protein (GFP), which made it possible to track the fate of immigrant cells. The experiments showed that natural populations of Ap vary greatly in density due to sustained differences in carrying capacities among leaves. The maintenance of populations close to carrying capacities indicates strong density-dependent processes. Furthermore, resident populations are strongly competitive against immigrants, while immigrants have little impact on residents. Finally, statistical models showed high population growth rates of resident cells in one experiment but not in the other, suggesting that Ap experiences relatively "good" and "bad" periods for population growth. This picture of Ap dynamics conforms to commonly held, but rarely demonstrated, expectations of microbe dynamics in nature. It also highlights the importance of local processes, as opposed to immigration, in determining the abundance and dynamics of microbes on surfaces in terrestrial systems.

  14. The anisotropy of the cosmic background radiation from local dynamic density perturbations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyer, C.C.; Ip, P.S.S.

    1988-01-01

    Contrary to the usual assumption, it is shown here that the anisotropy of the cosmic background radiation need not be dominated by perturbations at the last scattering surface. The results of computer simulations are shown in which local dynamic density perturbations, in the form of Swiss cheese holes with finite, uniform density central lumps, are the main source of anisotropy of the cosmic background radiation. (author)

  15. Density, dynamic viscosity, and electrical conductivity of pyridinium-based hydrophobic ionic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Qing-Shan; Li, Pei-Pei; Welz-Biermann, Urs; Chen, Jian; Liu, Xiao-Xia

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Targets of this research are hydrophobic series ionic liquids. • Density, dynamic viscosity and electrical conductivity were determined. • Influences of methylene to properties were discussed. • Influences of methyl group on pyridinium ring position to properties were discussed. • Relationship of ρ, η and σ were described systematically. -- Abstract: Air and water stable hydrophobic ionic liquids (ILs) were synthesized: N-propyl-3-methylpyridinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide [C 3 3mpy][NTf 2 ], N-hexyl-3-methylpyridinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide [C 6 3mpy][NTf 2 ], and N-hexyl-4-methylpyridinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide [C 6 4mpy][NTf 2 ]. Density, dynamic viscosity, and electrical conductivity of ILs were determined at atmospheric pressure in the temperature range of (278 to 353) K. The effects of methylene and methyl groups to density, dynamic viscosity, and electrical conductivity, respectively, were discussed. The thermal expansion coefficient, molecular volume, standard molar entropy, and lattice energy of the samples were estimated in terms of empirical and semi-empirical equations based on the density values. The temperature dependence on dynamic viscosity and electrical conductivity values of the ILs were discussed by Vogel–Fulcher–Tamman (VFT) and Arrhenius equations. The molar conductivities were calculated by density and electrical conductivity values

  16. Strain fluctuations and elastic constants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parrinello, M.; Rahman, A.

    1982-03-01

    It is shown that the elastic strain fluctuations are a direct measure of elastic compliances in a general anisotropic medium; depending on the ensemble in which the fluctuation is measured either the isothermal or the adiabatic compliances are obtained. These fluctuations can now be calculated in a constant enthalpy and pressure, and hence, constant entropy, ensemble due to recent develpments in the molecular dynamics techniques. A calculation for a Ni single crystal under uniform uniaxial 100 tensile or compressive load is presented as an illustration of the relationships derived between various strain fluctuations and the elastic modulii. The Born stability criteria and the behavior of strain fluctuations are shown to be related.

  17. Probing heterogeneous dynamics from spatial density correlation in glass-forming liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan-Wei; Zhu, You-Liang; Sun, Zhao-Yan

    2016-12-01

    We numerically investigate the connection between spatial density correlation and dynamical heterogeneity in glass-forming liquids. We demonstrate that the cluster size defined by the spatial aggregation of densely packed particles (DPPs) can better capture the difference between the dynamics of the Lennard-Jones glass model and the Weeks-Chandler-Andersen truncation model than the commonly used pair correlation functions. More interestingly, we compare the mobility of DPPs and loosely packed particles, and we find that high local density correlates well with slow dynamics in systems with relatively hard repulsive interactions but links to mobile ones in the system with soft repulsive interactions at one relaxation time scale. Our results show clear evidence that the above model dependence behavior stems from the hopping motion of DPPs at the end of the caging stage due to the compressive nature of soft repulsive spheres, which activates the dynamics of DPPs in the α relaxation stage.

  18. A consumer-resource approach to the density-dependent population dynamics of mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, J Nathaniel; DeAngelis, Donald L

    2010-05-01

    Like predation and competition, mutualism is now recognized as a consumer-resource (C-R) interaction, including, in particular, bi-directional (e.g., coral, plant-mycorrhizae) and uni-directional (e.g., ant-plant defense, plant-pollinator) C-R mutualisms. Here, we develop general theory for the density-dependent population dynamics of mutualism based on the C-R mechanism of interspecific interaction. To test the influence of C-R interactions on the dynamics and stability of bi- and uni-directional C-R mutualisms, we developed simple models that link consumer functional response of one mutualistic species with the resources supplied by another. Phase-plane analyses show that the ecological dynamics of C-R mutualisms are stable in general. Most transient behavior leads to an equilibrium of mutualistic coexistence, at which both species densities are greater than in the absence of interactions. However, due to the basic nature of C-R interactions, certain density-dependent conditions can lead to C-R dynamics characteristic of predator-prey interactions, in which one species overexploits and causes the other to go extinct. Consistent with empirical phenomena, these results suggest that the C-R interaction can provide a broad mechanism for understanding density-dependent population dynamics of mutualism. By unifying predation, competition, and mutualism under the common ecological framework of consumer-resource theory, we may also gain a better understanding of the universal features of interspecific interactions in general.

  19. A consumer-resource approach to the density-dependent population dynamics of mutualism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, J. Nathaniel; DeAngelis, Donald L.

    2010-01-01

    Like predation and competition, mutualism is now recognized as a consumer resource (C-R) interaction, including, in particular, bi-directional (e.g., coral, plant- mycorrhizae) and uni-directional (e.g., ant-plant defense, plant-pollinator) C-R mutualisms. Here, we develop general theory for the density-dependent population dynamics of mutualism based on the C-R mechanism of interspecific interaction. To test the influence of C-R interactions on the dynamics and stability of bi- and uni-directional C-R mutualisms, we developed simple models that link consumer functional response of one mutualistic species with the resources supplied by another. Phase-plane analyses show that the ecological dynamics of C-R mutualisms are stable in general. Most transient behavior leads to an equilibrium of mutualistic coexistence, at which both species densities are greater than in the absence of interactions. However, due to the basic nature of C-R interactions, certain density-dependent conditions can lead to C-R dynamics characteristic of predator-prey interactions, in which one species overexploits and causes the other to go extinct. Consistent with empirical phenomena, these results suggest that the C-R interaction can provide a broad mechanism for understanding density-dependent population dynamics of mutualism. By unifying predation, competition, and mutualism under the common ecological framework of consumer-resource theory, we may also gain a better understanding of the universal features of interspecific interactions in general.

  20. Analysis of density fluctuations in the Tore Supra tokamak. Up-down asymmetries and limiter effect on plasma turbulence; Etude des fluctuations de density dans les plasmas du tokamak Tore Supra. Asymetries haut-bas et effet du limiteur sur la turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenzi, Ch

    1999-10-29

    In magnetic fusion devices, the optimisation of the power deposition profile on plasma facing components crucially depends on the heat diffusivity across the magnetic field fines, which is determined by the plasma edge turbulence. In this regard, spatial asymmetries of plasma edge turbulence are of great interest. In this work, we interest in up-down asymmetries of density fluctuations which are usually observed in Tore Supra, using a coherent light scattering experiment. It is shown that these asymmetries are correlated to the plasma edge geometrical configuration (plasma facing components, limiters). In fact, the plasma-limiter interaction induces locally in the plasma edge and the SOL (r/a > 0.9) an additional turbulence with short correlation length along the magnetic field fines, which spreads in the plasma core (0.9 {>=} r/a {>=} 0.5). The resultant up-down asymmetry weakly depends on density, increases with the edge safety factor, and inverts when the plasma current direction is reversed. Such up-down asymmetry observations bring strong impact on edge turbulence and transport models, which usually predict a ballooning of the turbulence in the high-field side but not an up-down asymmetry. A possible model is proposed here, based on the Kelvin Helmholtz instability. (author)

  1. Layered interfaces between immiscible liquids studied by density-functional theory and molecular-dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geysermans, P; Elyeznasni, N; Russier, V

    2005-11-22

    We present a study of the structure in the interface between two immiscible liquids by density-functional theory and molecular-dynamics calculations. The liquids are modeled by Lennard-Jones potentials, which achieve immiscibility by suppressing the attractive interaction between unlike particles. The density profiles of the liquids display oscillations only in a limited part of the simple liquid-phase diagram (rho,T). When approaching the liquid-vapor coexistence, a significant depletion appears while the layering behavior of the density profile vanishes. By analogy with the liquid-vapor interface and the analysis of the adsorption this behavior is suggested to be strongly related to the drying transition.

  2. Fully Quantum Fluctuation Theorems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Åberg, Johan

    2018-02-01

    Systems that are driven out of thermal equilibrium typically dissipate random quantities of energy on microscopic scales. Crooks fluctuation theorem relates the distribution of these random work costs to the corresponding distribution for the reverse process. By an analysis that explicitly incorporates the energy reservoir that donates the energy and the control system that implements the dynamic, we obtain a quantum generalization of Crooks theorem that not only includes the energy changes in the reservoir but also the full description of its evolution, including coherences. Moreover, this approach opens up the possibility for generalizations of the concept of fluctuation relations. Here, we introduce "conditional" fluctuation relations that are applicable to nonequilibrium systems, as well as approximate fluctuation relations that allow for the analysis of autonomous evolution generated by global time-independent Hamiltonians. We furthermore extend these notions to Markovian master equations, implicitly modeling the influence of the heat bath.

  3. Active Brownian particles with velocity-alignment and active fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Großmann, R; Schimansky-Geier, L; Romanczuk, P

    2012-01-01

    We consider a model of active Brownian particles (ABPs) with velocity alignment in two spatial dimensions with passive and active fluctuations. Here, active fluctuations refers to purely non-equilibrium stochastic forces correlated with the heading of an individual active particle. In the simplest case studied here, they are assumed to be independent stochastic forces parallel (speed noise) and perpendicular (angular noise) to the velocity of the particle. On the other hand, passive fluctuations are defined by a noise vector independent of the direction of motion of a particle, and may account, for example, for thermal fluctuations. We derive a macroscopic description of the ABP gas with velocity-alignment interaction. Here, we start from the individual-based description in terms of stochastic differential equations (Langevin equations) and derive equations of motion for the coarse-grained kinetic variables (density, velocity and temperature) via a moment expansion of the corresponding probability density function. We focus here on the different impact of active and passive fluctuations on onset of collective motion and show how active fluctuations in the active Brownian dynamics can change the phase-transition behaviour of the system. In particular, we show that active angular fluctuations lead to an earlier breakdown of collective motion and to the emergence of a new bistable regime in the mean-field case. (paper)

  4. Dynamic pathways to mediate reactions buried in thermal fluctuations. I. Time-dependent normal form theory for multidimensional Langevin equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Shinnosuke; Komatsuzaki, Tamiki

    2009-12-14

    We present a novel theory which enables us to explore the mechanism of reaction selectivity and robust functions in complex systems persisting under thermal fluctuation. The theory constructs a nonlinear coordinate transformation so that the equation of motion for the new reaction coordinate is independent of the other nonreactive coordinates in the presence of thermal fluctuation. In this article we suppose that reacting systems subject to thermal noise are described by a multidimensional Langevin equation without a priori assumption for the form of potential. The reaction coordinate is composed not only of all the coordinates and velocities associated with the system (solute) but also of the random force exerted by the environment (solvent) with friction constants. The sign of the reaction coordinate at any instantaneous moment in the region of a saddle determines the fate of the reaction, i.e., whether the reaction will proceed through to the products or go back to the reactants. By assuming the statistical properties of the random force, one can know a priori a well-defined boundary of the reaction which separates the full position-velocity space in the saddle region into mainly reactive and mainly nonreactive regions even under thermal fluctuation. The analytical expression of the reaction coordinate provides the firm foundation on the mechanism of how and why reaction proceeds in thermal fluctuating environments.

  5. Effect of quantum fluctuations of synchrotron radiation on the dynamics of particles in high-energy microtrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bessonov, E.G.

    1987-01-01

    Crosbie has demonstrated numerically that the effect of quantum fluctuation of synchrotron radiation on the beam emittance becomes significant in microtrons for an energy of more than 1 GeV. In this paper the authors give analytic expressions that describe this phenomenon and analyze these expressions

  6. Effective spectral densities for system-environment dynamics at conical intersections: S{sub 2}-S{sub 1} conical intersection in pyrazine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinazzo, Rocco [Department of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, University of Milan, Via Golgi 19, 20122 Milan (Italy); Hughes, Keith H. [School of Chemistry, Bangor University, Bangor, Gwynedd LL57 2UW (United Kingdom); Martelli, Fausto [Department of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, University of Milan, Via Golgi 19, 20122 Milan (Italy); Departement de Chimie, Ecole Normale Superieure, 24 rue Lhomond, F-75231 Paris cedex 05 (France); Burghardt, Irene, E-mail: irene.burghardt@ens.fr [Departement de Chimie, Ecole Normale Superieure, 24 rue Lhomond, F-75231 Paris cedex 05 (France)

    2010-11-25

    Graphical abstract: The effect of high-dimensional environments on conical intersections can be described by hierarchies of approximate spectral densities, which translate to truncated effective-mode chains in the time domain. Abstract: A recently developed effective-mode representation is employed to characterize the influence of a multi-dimensional environment on the S{sub 2}-S{sub 1} conical intersection in pyrazine, taken as a paradigm case of high-dimensional dynamics at a conical intersection. We consider a simplified model by which four modes are strongly coupled to the electronic subsystem while a number of weakly coupled tuning modes, inducing energy gap fluctuations, are sampled from a spectral density. The latter is approximated by a series of simplified spectral densities which can be cast into a continued-fraction form, as previously demonstrated in Hughes et al. (K.H. Hughes, C.D. Christ, I. Burghardt, J. Chem. Phys. 131 (2009) 124108). In the time domain, the hierarchy of spectral densities translates to truncated effective-mode chains with a Markovian or quasi-Markovian (Rubin type) closure. A sequential deconvolution procedure is employed to generate this chain representation. The implications for the ultrafast dynamics and its representation in terms of reduced-dimensional models are discussed.

  7. Forest production dynamics along a wood density spectrum in eastern US forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.W. Woodall; M.B. Russell; B.F. Walters; A.W. D' Amato; K. Zhu; S.S. Saatchi

    2015-01-01

    Emerging plant economics spectrum theories were confirmed across temperate forest systems of the eastern US where the use of a forest stand's mean wood density elucidated forest volume and biomass production dynamics integrating aspects of climate, tree mortality/growth, and rates of site occupancy.

  8. Dynamic Graphics in Excel for Teaching Statistics: Understanding the Probability Density Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coll-Serrano, Vicente; Blasco-Blasco, Olga; Alvarez-Jareno, Jose A.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we show a dynamic graphic in Excel that is used to introduce an important concept in our subject, Statistics I: the probability density function. This interactive graphic seeks to facilitate conceptual understanding of the main aspects analysed by the learners.

  9. TREATMENT OF NONADIABATIC TRANSITIONS BY DENSITY-MATRIX EVOLUTION AND MOLECULAR-DYNAMICS SIMULATIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MAVRI, J; BERENDSEN, HJC

    1994-01-01

    A density matrix evolution (DME) method (H.J.C. Berendsen and J. Mavri, J. Phys. Chem., 97 (1993) 13469) to simulate the dynamics of quantum systems embedded in a classical environment is presented. The DME method allows treatment of nonadiabatic transitions. As numerical examples the collinear

  10. Exploring the Relationship of Exit Flow and Jam Density in Panic Scenarios Using Animal Dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sobhani, A.; Sarvi, M.; Duives, D.C.; Ejtemai, O.; Aghabayk, K.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.

    2014-01-01

    There are few studies investigating crowd dynamics in panic situations. They used measures such as exit flow rate to explore the exit performance in evacuation scenarios. However, there is limited research exploring the relationship of exit flow rate and density behind the exit for panic scenarios.

  11. On wall pressure fluctuations and their coupling with vortex dynamics in a separated–reattached turbulent flow over a blunt flat plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tenaud, C.; Podvin, B.; Fraigneau, Y.; Daru, V.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Study devoted to the compressible LES of the separated/reattached turbulent flow over a blunt flat plate with a right-angled leading edge. • Original contribution using a compressible approach to analyze main coherent structure features and their relation to the unsteady pressure field in the separated/reattached turbulent flow. • The present study provides a well resolved LES reference data-basis that is compared to incompressible results for validation. • It contributes to a better understanding of the coupling between the vortex dynamics and the wall pressure fluctuations, especially in connection with either the vortex shedding or the low frequency shear-layer flapping. - Abstract: This study deals with the numerical predictions through Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) of the separated–reattached turbulent flow over a blunt flat plate for analyzing main coherent structure features and their relation to the unsteady pressure field. A compressible approach that inherently includes acoustic propagation is here followed to describe the relationship between pressure fluctuations and vortex dynamics around the separation bubble. The objective of the present work is then to contribute to a better understanding of the coupling between the vortex dynamics and the wall pressure fluctuations. The filtered compressible Navier–Stokes equations are then solved with a numerical method that follows a Lax–Wendroff approach to recover a high accuracy in both time and space. For validations, the present numerical results are compared to experimental measurements, coming from both the Pprime laboratory (Sicot el al., 2012) and the literature (Cherry et al., 1984; Kiya and Sasaki, 1985; Tafti and Vanka,1991; Sicot et al., 2012). Our numerical results very well predict mean and fluctuating pressure and velocity fields. Flapping, shedding as well as Kelvin–Helmholtz characteristic frequencies educed by present simulations are in very good agreement with the

  12. Fluctuating Thermodynamics for Biological Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Sihyun

    Because biomolecular processes are largely under thermodynamic control, dynamic extension of thermodynamics is necessary to uncover the mechanisms and driving factors of fluctuating processes. The fluctuating thermodynamics technology presented in this talk offers a practical means for the thermodynamic characterization of conformational dynamics in biomolecules. The use of fluctuating thermodynamics has the potential to provide a comprehensive picture of fluctuating phenomena in diverse biological processes. Through the application of fluctuating thermodynamics, we provide a thermodynamic perspective on the misfolding and aggregation of the various proteins associated with human diseases. In this talk, I will present the detailed concepts and applications of the fluctuating thermodynamics technology for elucidating biological processes. This work was supported by Samsung Science and Technology Foundation under Project Number SSTF-BA1401-13.

  13. Diffusive dynamics during the high-to-low density transition in amorphous ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perakis, Fivos; Amann-Winkel, Katrin; Lehmkühler, Felix; Sprung, Michael; Mariedahl, Daniel; Sellberg, Jonas A.; Pathak, Harshad; Späh, Alexander; Cavalca, Filippo; Schlesinger, Daniel; Ricci, Alessandro; Jain, Avni; Massani, Bernhard; Aubree, Flora; Benmore, Chris J.; Loerting, Thomas; Grübel, Gerhard; Pettersson, Lars G. M.; Nilsson, Anders

    2017-08-01

    Water exists in high- and low-density amorphous ice forms (HDA and LDA), which could correspond to the glassy states of high- (HDL) and low-density liquid (LDL) in the metastable part of the phase diagram. However, the nature of both the glass transition and the high-to-low-density transition are debated and new experimental evidence is needed. Here we combine wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) with X-ray photon-correlation spectroscopy (XPCS) in the small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) geometry to probe both the structural and dynamical properties during the high-to-low-density transition in amorphous ice at 1 bar. By analyzing the structure factor and the radial distribution function, the coexistence of two structurally distinct domains is observed at T = 125 K. XPCS probes the dynamics in momentum space, which in the SAXS geometry reflects structural relaxation on the nanometer length scale. The dynamics of HDA are characterized by a slow component with a large time constant, arising from viscoelastic relaxation and stress release from nanometer-sized heterogeneities. Above 110 K a faster, strongly temperature-dependent component appears, with momentum transfer dependence pointing toward nanoscale diffusion. This dynamical component slows down after transition into the low-density form at 130 K, but remains diffusive. The diffusive character of both the high- and low-density forms is discussed among different interpretations and the results are most consistent with the hypothesis of a liquid-liquid transition in the ultraviscous regime.

  14. The Effect of the Density Ratio on the Nonlinear Dynamics of the Unstable Fluid Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abarzhi, S. I.

    2003-01-01

    Here we report multiple harmonic theoretical solutions for a complete system of conservation laws, which describe the large-scale coherent dynamics in RTI and RMI for fluids with a finite density ratio in the general three-dimensional case. The analysis yields new properties of the bubble front dynamics. In either RTI or RMI, the obtained dependencies of the bubble velocity and curvature on the density ratio differ qualitatively and quantitatively from those suggested by the models of Sharp (1984), Oron et al. (2001), and Goncharov (2002). We show explicitly that these models violate the conservation laws. For the first time, our theory reveals an important qualitative distinction between the dynamics of the RT and RM bubbles.

  15. Dynamical critical scaling of electric field fluctuations in the greater cusp and magnetotail implied by HF radar observations of F-region Doppler velocity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Parkinson

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Akasofu's solar wind ε parameter describes the coupling of solar wind energy to the magnetosphere and ionosphere. Analysis of fluctuations in ε using model independent scaling techniques including the peaks of probability density functions (PDFs and generalised structure function (GSF analysis show the fluctuations were self-affine (mono-fractal, single exponent scaling over 9 octaves of time scale from ~46 s to ~9.1 h. However, the peak scaling exponent α0 was a function of the fluctuation bin size, so caution is required when comparing the exponents for different data sets sampled in different ways. The same generic scaling techniques revealed the organisation and functional form of concurrent fluctuations in azimuthal magnetospheric electric fields implied by SuperDARN HF radar measurements of line-of-sight Doppler velocity, vLOS, made in the high-latitude austral ionosphere. The PDFs of vLOS fluctuation were calculated for time scales between 1 min and 256 min, and were sorted into noon sector results obtained with the Halley radar, and midnight sector results obtained with the TIGER radar. The PDFs were further sorted according to the orientation of the interplanetary magnetic field, as well as ionospheric regions of high and low Doppler spectral width. High spectral widths tend to occur at higher latitude, mostly on open field lines but also on closed field lines just equatorward of the open-closed boundary, whereas low spectral widths are concentrated on closed field lines deeper inside the magnetosphere. The vLOS fluctuations were most self-affine (i.e. like the solar wind ε parameter on the high spectral width field lines in the noon sector ionosphere (i.e. the greater cusp, but suggested multi-fractal behaviour on closed field lines in the midnight sector (i.e. the central plasma sheet. Long tails in the PDFs imply that "microbursts" in ionospheric convection

  16. Dynamical critical scaling of electric field fluctuations in the greater cusp and magnetotail implied by HF radar observations of F-region Doppler velocity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Parkinson

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Akasofu's solar wind ε parameter describes the coupling of solar wind energy to the magnetosphere and ionosphere. Analysis of fluctuations in ε using model independent scaling techniques including the peaks of probability density functions (PDFs and generalised structure function (GSF analysis show the fluctuations were self-affine (mono-fractal, single exponent scaling over 9 octaves of time scale from ~46 s to ~9.1 h. However, the peak scaling exponent α0 was a function of the fluctuation bin size, so caution is required when comparing the exponents for different data sets sampled in different ways. The same generic scaling techniques revealed the organisation and functional form of concurrent fluctuations in azimuthal magnetospheric electric fields implied by SuperDARN HF radar measurements of line-of-sight Doppler velocity, vLOS, made in the high-latitude austral ionosphere. The PDFs of vLOS fluctuation were calculated for time scales between 1 min and 256 min, and were sorted into noon sector results obtained with the Halley radar, and midnight sector results obtained with the TIGER radar. The PDFs were further sorted according to the orientation of the interplanetary magnetic field, as well as ionospheric regions of high and low Doppler spectral width. High spectral widths tend to occur at higher latitude, mostly on open field lines but also on closed field lines just equatorward of the open-closed boundary, whereas low spectral widths are concentrated on closed field lines deeper inside the magnetosphere. The vLOS fluctuations were most self-affine (i.e. like the solar wind ε parameter on the high spectral width field lines in the noon sector ionosphere (i.e. the greater cusp, but suggested multi-fractal behaviour on closed field lines in the midnight sector (i.e. the central plasma sheet. Long tails in the PDFs imply that "microbursts" in ionospheric convection occur far more frequently, especially on open field lines, than can be

  17. Chaotic dynamics dependence on doping density in weakly coupled GaAs/AlAs superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Gui; Zhang Fengying; Li Yuanhong; Li Yuqi

    2012-01-01

    A discrete sequential tunneling model is used for studying the influence of the doping density on the dynamical behaviors in weakly coupled GaAs/AlAs superlattices. Driven by the DC bias, the system exhibits self-sustained current oscillations induced by the period motion of the unstable electric field domain, and an electrical hysteresis in the loop of current density voltage curve is deduced. It is found that the hysteresis range strongly depends on the doping density, and the width of the hysteresis loop increases with increasing the doping density. By adding an external driving ac voltage, more complicated nonlinear behaviors are observed including quasiperiodicity, period-3, and the route of an inverse period-doubling to chaos when the driving frequency changes. (semiconductor physics)

  18. The fluctuating gap model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Xiaobin

    2011-01-15

    The quasi-one-dimensional systems exhibit some unusual phenomenon, such as the Peierls instability, the pseudogap phenomena and the absence of a Fermi-Dirac distribution function line shape in the photoemission spectroscopy. Ever since the discovery of materials with highly anisotropic properties, it has been recognized that fluctuations play an important role above the three-dimensional phase transition. This regime where the precursor fluctuations are presented can be described by the so called fluctuating gap model (FGM) which was derived from the Froehlich Hamiltonian to study the low energy physics of the one-dimensional electron-phonon system. Not only is the FGM of great interest in the context of quasi-one-dimensional materials, liquid metal and spin waves above T{sub c} in ferromagnets, but also in the semiclassical approximation of superconductivity, it is possible to replace the original three-dimensional problem by a directional average over effectively one-dimensional problem which in the weak coupling limit is described by the FGM. In this work, we investigate the FGM in a wide temperature range with different statistics of the order parameter fluctuations. We derive a formally exact solution to this problem and calculate the density of states, the spectral function and the optical conductivity. In our calculation, we show that a Dyson singularity appears in the low energy density of states for Gaussian fluctuations in the commensurate case. In the incommensurate case, there is no such kind of singularity, and the zero frequency density of states varies differently as a function of the correlation lengths for different statistics of the order parameter fluctuations. Using the density of states we calculated with non-Gaussian order parameter fluctuations, we are able to calculate the static spin susceptibility which agrees with the experimental data very well. In the calculation of the spectral functions, we show that as the correlation increases, the

  19. The fluctuating gap model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Xiaobin

    2011-01-01

    The quasi-one-dimensional systems exhibit some unusual phenomenon, such as the Peierls instability, the pseudogap phenomena and the absence of a Fermi-Dirac distribution function line shape in the photoemission spectroscopy. Ever since the discovery of materials with highly anisotropic properties, it has been recognized that fluctuations play an important role above the three-dimensional phase transition. This regime where the precursor fluctuations are presented can be described by the so called fluctuating gap model (FGM) which was derived from the Froehlich Hamiltonian to study the low energy physics of the one-dimensional electron-phonon system. Not only is the FGM of great interest in the context of quasi-one-dimensional materials, liquid metal and spin waves above T c in ferromagnets, but also in the semiclassical approximation of superconductivity, it is possible to replace the original three-dimensional problem by a directional average over effectively one-dimensional problem which in the weak coupling limit is described by the FGM. In this work, we investigate the FGM in a wide temperature range with different statistics of the order parameter fluctuations. We derive a formally exact solution to this problem and calculate the density of states, the spectral function and the optical conductivity. In our calculation, we show that a Dyson singularity appears in the low energy density of states for Gaussian fluctuations in the commensurate case. In the incommensurate case, there is no such kind of singularity, and the zero frequency density of states varies differently as a function of the correlation lengths for different statistics of the order parameter fluctuations. Using the density of states we calculated with non-Gaussian order parameter fluctuations, we are able to calculate the static spin susceptibility which agrees with the experimental data very well. In the calculation of the spectral functions, we show that as the correlation increases, the quasi

  20. Usefulness of multi-plane dynamic subtraction CT (MPDS-CT) for intracranial high density lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takagi, Ryo; Kumazaki, Tatsuo [Nippon Medical School, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-02-01

    We present a new CT technique using the high speed CT scanner in detection and evaluation of temporal and spatial contrast enhancement of intracranial high density lesions. A multi-plane dynamic subtraction CT (MPDS-CT) was performed in 21 patients with intracranial high density lesions. These lesions consisted of 10 brain tumors, 7 intracerebral hemorrhages and 4 vascular malformations (2 untreated, 2 post-embolization). Baseline study was first performed, and 5 sequential planes of covering total high density lesions were selected. After obtaining the 5 sequential CT images as mask images, three series of multi-plane dynamic CT were performed for the same 5 planes with an intravenous bolus injection of contrast medium. MPDS-CT images were reconstructed by subtracting dynamic CT images from the mask ones. MPDS-CT were compared with conventional contrast-enhanced CT. MPDS-CT images showed the definite contrast enhancement of high density brain tumors and vascular malformations which were not clearly identified on conventional contrast-enhanced CT images because of calcified or hemorrhagic lesions and embolic materials, enabling us to eliminate enhanced abnormalities with non-enhanced areas such as unusual intracerebral hemorrhages. MPDS-CT will provide us further accurate and objective information and will be greatly helpful for interpreting pathophysiologic condition. (author).

  1. Nuclear energy density functional from chiral pion-nucleon dynamics revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, N.; Weise, W.

    2010-05-01

    We use a recently improved density-matrix expansion to calculate the nuclear energy density functional in the framework of in-medium chiral perturbation theory. Our calculation treats systematically the effects from 1 π-exchange, iterated 1 π-exchange, and irreducible 2 π-exchange with intermediate Δ-isobar excitations, including Pauli-blocking corrections up to three-loop order. We find that the effective nucleon mass M(ρ) entering the energy density functional is identical to the one of Fermi-liquid theory when employing the improved density-matrix expansion. The strength F(ρ) of the ( surface-term as provided by the pion-exchange dynamics is in good agreement with that of phenomenological Skyrme forces in the density region ρ/2short-range spin-orbit interaction. The strength function F(ρ) multiplying the square of the spin-orbit density comes out much larger than in phenomenological Skyrme forces and it has a pronounced density dependence.

  2. Spatial and temporal variation in the relative contribution of density dependence, climate variation and migration to fluctuations in the size of great tit populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grøtan, V.; Sæther, B-E.; Engen, S.; van Balen, J.H.; Perdeck, A.C.; Visser, M.E.

    2009-01-01

    1. The aim of the present study is to model the stochastic variation in the size of five populations of great tit Parus major in the Netherlands, using a combination of individual-based demographic data and time series of population fluctuations. We will examine relative contribution of

  3. Fluids density functional theory and initializing molecular dynamics simulations of block copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jonathan R.; Seo, Youngmi; Maula, Tiara Ann D.; Hall, Lisa M.

    2016-03-01

    Classical, fluids density functional theory (fDFT), which can predict the equilibrium density profiles of polymeric systems, and coarse-grained molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, which are often used to show both structure and dynamics of soft materials, can be implemented using very similar bead-based polymer models. We aim to use fDFT and MD in tandem to examine the same system from these two points of view and take advantage of the different features of each methodology. Additionally, the density profiles resulting from fDFT calculations can be used to initialize the MD simulations in a close to equilibrated structure, speeding up the simulations. Here, we show how this method can be applied to study microphase separated states of both typical diblock and tapered diblock copolymers in which there is a region with a gradient in composition placed between the pure blocks. Both methods, applied at constant pressure, predict a decrease in total density as segregation strength or the length of the tapered region is increased. The predictions for the density profiles from fDFT and MD are similar across materials with a wide range of interfacial widths.

  4. Charge Fluctuations in Nanoscale Capacitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Limmer, D.T.; Merlet, C.; Salanne, M.; Chandler, D.; Madden, P.A.; van Roij, R.H.H.G.; Rotenberg, B.

    2013-01-01

    The fluctuations of the charge on an electrode contain information on the microscopic correlations within the adjacent fluid and their effect on the electronic properties of the interface. We investigate these fluctuations using molecular dynamics simulations in a constant-potential ensemble with

  5. Melting slope of MgO from molecular dynamics and density functional theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangney, Paul; Scandolo, Sandro

    2009-09-01

    We combine density functional theory (DFT) with molecular dynamics simulations based on an accurate atomistic force field to calculate the pressure derivative of the melting temperature of magnesium oxide at ambient pressure—a quantity for which a serious disagreement between theory and experiment has existed for almost 15 years. We find reasonable agreement with previous DFT results and with a very recent experimental determination of the slope. We pay particular attention to areas of possible weakness in theoretical calculations and conclude that the long-standing discrepancy with experiment could only be explained by a dramatic failure of existing density functionals or by flaws in the original experiment.

  6. Phase slip process and charge density wave dynamics in a one dimensional conductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habiballah, N.; Zouadi, M.; Arbaoui, A.; Qjani, M.; Dumas, J.

    In this paper, we study the phase slip effect on the charge density wave (CDW) dynamics in a one-dimensional conductor in the weak pinning limit. A considerable enhancement of JCDW is observed in the presence of phase slips. In addition, a spatial dependence of the CDW current density JCDW is also studied showing that a decrease of JCDW with distance from the current contact occurs. The results are discussed in terms the relationship between additional phase slips and the mobility of phase dislocations nucleated at electrical contacts.

  7. Critical current densities and vortex dynamics in FeTexSe1-x single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taen, T.; Tsuchiya, Y.; Nakajima, Y.; Tamegai, T.

    2010-01-01

    The critical current density and the normalized relaxation rate are reported in FeTe 0.59 Se 0.41 single crystal. Critical current density is of order of 10 5 A/cm 2 , which is comparable to that in Co-doped BaFe 2 As 2 . In low temperature and low field region, the vortex dynamics of this system is well defined by the collective creep theory, which is quite similar to Co-doped BaFe 2 As 2 reported before. We also discuss the origin of the anomaly in the field dependence of the relaxation rate.

  8. Multiformity of inherent randomicity and visitation density in n symbolic dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yagang; Wang Changjiang

    2007-01-01

    The multiformity of inherent randomicity and visitation density in n symbolic dynamics will be clarified in this paper. These stochastic symbolic sequences bear three features. The distribution of frequency, inter-occurrence times and the alignment of two random sequences are amplified in detail. The features of visitation density in surjective maps presents catholicity and the catholicity in n letters randomicity has the same measure foundation. We hope to offer a symbolic platform that satisfies these stochastic properties and to attempt to study certain properties of DNA base sequences, 20 amino acids symbolic sequences of proteid structure, and the time series that can be symbolic in finance market et al

  9. Quantum fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynaud, S.; Giacobino, S.; Zinn-Justin, J.

    1997-01-01

    This course is dedicated to present in a pedagogical manner the recent developments in peculiar fields concerned by quantum fluctuations: quantum noise in optics, light propagation through dielectric media, sub-Poissonian light generated by lasers and masers, quantum non-demolition measurements, quantum electrodynamics applied to cavities and electrical circuits involving superconducting tunnel junctions. (A.C.)

  10. Density Structures, Dynamics, and Seasonal and Solar Cycle Modulations of Saturn's Inner Plasma Disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmberg, M. K. G.; Shebanits, O.; Wahlund, J.-E.; Morooka, M. W.; Vigren, E.; André, N.; Garnier, P.; Persoon, A. M.; Génot, V.; Gilbert, L. K.

    2017-12-01

    We present statistical results from the Cassini Radio and Plasma Wave Science (RPWS) Langmuir probe measurements recorded during the time interval from orbit 3 (1 February 2005) to 237 (29 June 2016). A new and improved data analysis method to obtain ion density from the Cassini LP measurements is used to study the asymmetries and modulations found in the inner plasma disk of Saturn, between 2.5 and 12 Saturn radii (1 RS=60,268 km). The structure of Saturn's plasma disk is mapped, and the plasma density peak, nmax, is shown to be located at ˜4.6 RS and not at the main neutral source region at 3.95 RS. The shift in the location of nmax is due to that the hot electron impact ionization rate peaks at ˜4.6 RS. Cassini RPWS plasma disk measurements show a solar cycle modulation. However, estimates of the change in ion density due to varying EUV flux is not large enough to describe the detected dependency, which implies that an additional mechanism, still unknown, is also affecting the plasma density in the studied region. We also present a dayside/nightside ion density asymmetry, with nightside densities up to a factor of 2 larger than on the dayside. The largest density difference is found in the radial region 4 to 5 RS. The dynamic variation in ion density increases toward Saturn, indicating an internal origin of the large density variability in the plasma disk rather than being caused by an external source origin in the outer magnetosphere.

  11. Engineering science research issues in high power density transmission dynamics for aerospace applications. [rotorcraft geared rotors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajendra; Houser, Donald R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses analytical and experimental approaches that will be needed to understand dynamic, vibro-acoustic and design characteristics of high power density rotorcraft transmissions. Complexities associated with mathematical modeling of such systems will be discussed. An overview of research work planned during the next several years will be presented, with emphasis on engineering science issues such as gear contact mechanics, multi-mesh drive dynamics, parameter uncertainties, vibration transmission through bearings, and vibro-acoustic characteristics of geared rotor systems and housing-mount structures. A few examples of work in progress are cited.

  12. Fragment production in central heavy-ion collisions: reconciling the dominance of dynamics with observed phase transition signals through universal fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frankland, J.D.; Chbihi, A.; Hudan, S.

    2002-01-01

    Fragment production in central collisions of Xe+Sn has been systematically studied with the INDRA multidetector from 25 to 150 AMeV. The predominant role of collision dynamics is evidenced in multiple intermediate mass fragment production even at the lowest energies, around the so-called multifragmentation threshold. For beam energies 50 AMeV and above, a promising agreement with suitably modified Anti-symmetrized Molecular Dynamics calculations has been achieved. Intriguingly the same reactions have recently been interpreted as evidence for a liquid-gas phase transition in thermodynamically equilibrated systems. The universal fluctuation theory, thanks to its lack of any equilibrium hypothesis, shows clearly that in all but a tiny minority of carefully-selected central collisions fragment production is incompatible with either critical or phase coexistence behaviour. On the other hand, it does not exclude some similarity with aggregation scenarios such as the lattice-gas or Fisher droplet models. (authors)

  13. Effects of thermal fluctuations and fluid compressibility on hydrodynamic synchronization of microrotors at finite oscillatory Reynolds number: a multiparticle collision dynamics simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theers, Mario; Winkler, Roland G

    2014-08-28

    We investigate the emergent dynamical behavior of hydrodynamically coupled microrotors by means of multiparticle collision dynamics (MPC) simulations. The two rotors are confined in a plane and move along circles driven by active forces. Comparing simulations to theoretical results based on linearized hydrodynamics, we demonstrate that time-dependent hydrodynamic interactions lead to synchronization of the rotational motion. Thermal noise implies large fluctuations of the phase-angle difference between the rotors, but synchronization prevails and the ensemble-averaged time dependence of the phase-angle difference agrees well with analytical predictions. Moreover, we demonstrate that compressibility effects lead to longer synchronization times. In addition, the relevance of the inertia terms of the Navier-Stokes equation are discussed, specifically the linear unsteady acceleration term characterized by the oscillatory Reynolds number ReT. We illustrate the continuous breakdown of synchronization with the Reynolds number ReT, in analogy to the continuous breakdown of the scallop theorem with decreasing Reynolds number.

  14. Fragment production in central heavy-ion collisions: reconciling the dominance of dynamics with observed phase transition signals through universal fluctuations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frankland, J.D.; Chbihi, A.; Hudan, S. [and others

    2002-07-01

    Fragment production in central collisions of Xe+Sn has been systematically studied with the INDRA multidetector from 25 to 150 AMeV. The predominant role of collision dynamics is evidenced in multiple intermediate mass fragment production even at the lowest energies, around the so-called multifragmentation threshold. For beam energies 50 AMeV and above, a promising agreement with suitably modified Anti-symmetrized Molecular Dynamics calculations has been achieved. Intriguingly the same reactions have recently been interpreted as evidence for a liquid-gas phase transition in thermodynamically equilibrated systems. The universal fluctuation theory, thanks to its lack of any equilibrium hypothesis, shows clearly that in all but a tiny minority of carefully-selected central collisions fragment production is incompatible with either critical or phase coexistence behaviour. On the other hand, it does not exclude some similarity with aggregation scenarios such as the lattice-gas or Fisher droplet models. (authors)

  15. Response and reliability analysis of nonlinear uncertain dynamical structures by the probability density evolution method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren R. K.; Peng, Yongbo; Sichani, Mahdi Teimouri

    2016-01-01

    The paper deals with the response and reliability analysis of hysteretic or geometric nonlinear uncertain dynamical systems of arbitrary dimensionality driven by stochastic processes. The approach is based on the probability density evolution method proposed by Li and Chen (Stochastic dynamics...... of structures, 1st edn. Wiley, London, 2009; Probab Eng Mech 20(1):33–44, 2005), which circumvents the dimensional curse of traditional methods for the determination of non-stationary probability densities based on Markov process assumptions and the numerical solution of the related Fokker–Planck and Kolmogorov......–Feller equations. The main obstacle of the method is that a multi-dimensional convolution integral needs to be carried out over the sample space of a set of basic random variables, for which reason the number of these need to be relatively low. In order to handle this problem an approach is suggested, which...

  16. Disentangling the effects of climate, density dependence, and harvest on an iconic large herbivore's population dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koons, David; Colchero, Fernando; Hersey, Kent

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the relative effects of climate, harvest, and density dependence on population dynamics is critical for guiding sound population management, especially for ungulates in arid and semi-arid environments experiencing climate change. To address these issues for bison in southern Utah, we...... than precipitation and other temperature-related variables (model weight > 3 times more than that for other climate variables). Although we hypothesized that harvest is the primary driving force of bison population dynamics in southern Utah, our elasticity analysis indicated that changes in early...... spring temperature could have a greater ‘relative effect’ on equilibrium abundance than either harvest or the strength of density dependence. Our findings highlight the utility of incorporating elasticity analyses into state-space population models, and the need to include climatic processes in wildlife...

  17. Dynamic crushing of uniform and density graded cellular structures based on the circle arc model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjun Zhang

    Full Text Available AbstractA new circle-arc model was established to present the cellular structure. Dynamic response of models with density gradients under constant velocities is investigated by employing Ls-dyna 971. Compared with the uniform models, the quasi-static plateau stress of different layers seems a significant parameter correlated with the deformation mode except for inertia effect when the density gradient is introduced. The impact velocity becomes much more vital on the deformation of the unit cell than the density gradient. The stress at both the impact and stationary sides is investigated in details. Furthermore, the stress-strain curve is compared with the modified shock wave theory. The density gradient does have some remarkable influence on the energy absorption capability, and a certain density gradient is not always beneficial to the energy absorption. Irrespective of the impact velocity, there seems always a critical strain where the energy absorbed by all these specimens could approximate to nearly the same value. So the critical strain-velocity curve is plotted and gives the beneficial area for energy absorption pertinent to density gradients and impact velocity.

  18. StreamMap: Smooth Dynamic Visualization of High-Density Streaming Points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chenhui; Baciu, George; Han, Yu

    2018-03-01

    Interactive visualization of streaming points for real-time scatterplots and linear blending of correlation patterns is increasingly becoming the dominant mode of visual analytics for both big data and streaming data from active sensors and broadcasting media. To better visualize and interact with inter-stream patterns, it is generally necessary to smooth out gaps or distortions in the streaming data. Previous approaches either animate the points directly or present a sampled static heat-map. We propose a new approach, called StreamMap, to smoothly blend high-density streaming points and create a visual flow that emphasizes the density pattern distributions. In essence, we present three new contributions for the visualization of high-density streaming points. The first contribution is a density-based method called super kernel density estimation that aggregates streaming points using an adaptive kernel to solve the overlapping problem. The second contribution is a robust density morphing algorithm that generates several smooth intermediate frames for a given pair of frames. The third contribution is a trend representation design that can help convey the flow directions of the streaming points. The experimental results on three datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of StreamMap when dynamic visualization and visual analysis of trend patterns on streaming points are required.

  19. KDE-Track: An Efficient Dynamic Density Estimator for Data Streams

    KAUST Repository

    Qahtan, Abdulhakim Ali Ali; Wang, Suojin; Zhang, Xiangliang

    2016-01-01

    Recent developments in sensors, global positioning system devices and smart phones have increased the availability of spatiotemporal data streams. Developing models for mining such streams is challenged by the huge amount of data that cannot be stored in the memory, the high arrival speed and the dynamic changes in the data distribution. Density estimation is an important technique in stream mining for a wide variety of applications. The construction of kernel density estimators is well studied and documented. However, existing techniques are either expensive or inaccurate and unable to capture the changes in the data distribution. In this paper, we present a method called KDE-Track to estimate the density of spatiotemporal data streams. KDE-Track can efficiently estimate the density function with linear time complexity using interpolation on a kernel model, which is incrementally updated upon the arrival of new samples from the stream. We also propose an accurate and efficient method for selecting the bandwidth value for the kernel density estimator, which increases its accuracy significantly. Both theoretical analysis and experimental validation show that KDE-Track outperforms a set of baseline methods on the estimation accuracy and computing time of complex density structures in data streams.

  20. KDE-Track: An Efficient Dynamic Density Estimator for Data Streams

    KAUST Repository

    Qahtan, Abdulhakim Ali Ali

    2016-11-08

    Recent developments in sensors, global positioning system devices and smart phones have increased the availability of spatiotemporal data streams. Developing models for mining such streams is challenged by the huge amount of data that cannot be stored in the memory, the high arrival speed and the dynamic changes in the data distribution. Density estimation is an important technique in stream mining for a wide variety of applications. The construction of kernel density estimators is well studied and documented. However, existing techniques are either expensive or inaccurate and unable to capture the changes in the data distribution. In this paper, we present a method called KDE-Track to estimate the density of spatiotemporal data streams. KDE-Track can efficiently estimate the density function with linear time complexity using interpolation on a kernel model, which is incrementally updated upon the arrival of new samples from the stream. We also propose an accurate and efficient method for selecting the bandwidth value for the kernel density estimator, which increases its accuracy significantly. Both theoretical analysis and experimental validation show that KDE-Track outperforms a set of baseline methods on the estimation accuracy and computing time of complex density structures in data streams.

  1. On the numerical simulation of population dynamics with density-dependent migrations and the Allee effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweilam, H N; Khader, M M; Al-Bar, F R

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the variational iteration method (VIM) and the Adomian decomposition method (ADM) are presented for the numerical simulation of the population dynamics model with density-dependent migrations and the Allee effects. The convergence of ADM is proved for the model problem. The results obtained by these methods are compared to the exact solution. It is found that these methods are always converges to the right solutions with high accuracy. Furthermore, VIM needs relative less computational work than ADM

  2. Dynamics of the nuclear one-body density: small amplitude regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemes, M.C.; Toledo Piza, A.F.R. de.

    1984-01-01

    A microscopic treatment for the small amplitude limite of the equations of motion for the nuclear one-body density is presented. These were derived previously by means of projection techniques, and allow for the explicit separation of mean-field and collision effects which result from the dynamics of many-body correlations. The form of the nuclear response in the presence of collision effects is derived. An illustrative application to a soluble model is discussed. (Author) [pt

  3. Landau-Placzek ratio for heat density dynamics and its application to heat capacity of liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryk, Taras; Ruocco, Giancarlo; Scopigno, Tullio

    2013-01-21

    Exact relation for contributions to heat capacity of liquids is obtained from hydrodynamic theory. It is shown from analysis of the long-wavelength limit of heat density autocorrelation functions that the heat capacity of simple liquids is represented as a sum of two contributions due to "phonon-like" collective excitations and heat relaxation. The ratio of both contributions being the analogy of Landau-Placzek ratio for heat processes depends on the specific heats ratio. The theory of heat density autocorrelation functions in liquids is verified by computer simulations. Molecular dynamics simulations for six liquids having the ratio of specific heats γ in the range 1.1-2.3, were used for evaluation of the heat density autocorrelation functions and predicted Landau-Placzek ratio for heat processes. The dependence of contributions from collective excitations and heat relaxation process to specific heat on γ is shown to be in excellent agreement with the theory.

  4. Experimental test of an eco-evolutionary dynamic feedback loop between evolution and population density in the green peach aphid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcotte, Martin M; Reznick, David N; Daniel Hare, J

    2013-05-01

    An eco-evolutionary feedback loop is defined as the reciprocal impacts of ecology on evolutionary dynamics and evolution on ecological dynamics on contemporary timescales. We experimentally tested for an eco-evolutionary feedback loop in the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae, by manipulating initial densities and evolution. We found strong evidence that initial aphid density alters the rate and direction of evolution, as measured by changes in genotype frequencies through time. We also found that evolution of aphids within only 16 days, or approximately three generations, alters the rate of population growth and predicts density compared to nonevolving controls. The impact of evolution on population dynamics also depended on density. In one evolution treatment, evolution accelerated population growth by up to 10.3% at high initial density or reduced it by up to 6.4% at low initial density. The impact of evolution on population growth was as strong as or stronger than that caused by a threefold change in intraspecific density. We found that, taken together, ecological condition, here intraspecific density, alters evolutionary dynamics, which in turn alter concurrent population growth rate (ecological dynamics) in an eco-evolutionary feedback loop. Our results suggest that ignoring evolution in studies predicting population dynamics might lead us to over- or underestimate population density and that we cannot predict the evolutionary outcome within aphid populations without considering population size.

  5. Inverse scattering problem in turbulent magnetic fluctuations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Treumann

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We apply a particular form of the inverse scattering theory to turbulent magnetic fluctuations in a plasma. In the present note we develop the theory, formulate the magnetic fluctuation problem in terms of its electrodynamic turbulent response function, and reduce it to the solution of a special form of the famous Gelfand–Levitan–Marchenko equation of quantum mechanical scattering theory. The last of these applies to transmission and reflection in an active medium. The theory of turbulent magnetic fluctuations does not refer to such quantities. It requires a somewhat different formulation. We reduce the theory to the measurement of the low-frequency electromagnetic fluctuation spectrum, which is not the turbulent spectral energy density. The inverse theory in this form enables obtaining information about the turbulent response function of the medium. The dynamic causes of the electromagnetic fluctuations are implicit to it. Thus, it is of vital interest in low-frequency magnetic turbulence. The theory is developed until presentation of the equations in applicable form to observations of turbulent electromagnetic fluctuations as input from measurements. Solution of the final integral equation should be done by standard numerical methods based on iteration. We point to the possibility of treating power law fluctuation spectra as an example. Formulation of the problem to include observations of spectral power densities in turbulence is not attempted. This leads to severe mathematical problems and requires a reformulation of inverse scattering theory. One particular aspect of the present inverse theory of turbulent fluctuations is that its structure naturally leads to spatial information which is obtained from the temporal information that is inherent to the observation of time series. The Taylor assumption is not needed here. This is a consequence of Maxwell's equations, which couple space and time evolution. The inversion procedure takes

  6. Dynamics of two-phase interfaces and surface tensions: A density-functional theory perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatsyshin, Petr; Sibley, David N.; Duran-Olivencia, Miguel A.; Kalliadasis, Serafim

    2016-11-01

    Classical density functional theory (DFT) is a statistical mechanical framework for the description of fluids at the nanoscale, where the inhomogeneity of the fluid structure needs to be carefully accounted for. By expressing the grand free-energy of the fluid as a functional of the one-body density, DFT offers a theoretically consistent and computationally accessible way to obtain two-phase interfaces and respective interfacial tensions in a ternary solid-liquid-gas system. The dynamic version of DFT (DDFT) can be rigorously derived from the Smoluchowsky picture of the dynamics of colloidal particles in a solvent. It is generally agreed that DDFT can capture the diffusion-driven evolution of many soft-matter systems. In this context, we use DDFT to investigate the dynamic behaviour of two-phase interfaces in both equilibrium and dynamic wetting and discuss the possibility of defining a time-dependent surface tension, which still remains in debate. We acknowledge financial support from the European Research Council via Advanced Grant No. 247031 and from the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council of the UK via Grants No. EP/L027186 and EP/L020564.

  7. Calculation and analysis of thermal–hydraulics fluctuations in pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malmir, Hessam; Vosoughi, Naser

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Single-phase thermal–hydraulics noise equations are originally derived in the frequency domain. • The fluctuations of all the coolant parameters are calculated, without any simplifying assumptions. • The radial distribution of the temperature fluctuations in the fuel, gap and cladding are taken into account. • The closed-loop calculations are performed by means of the point kinetics noise theory. • Both the space- and frequency-dependence of the thermal–hydraulics fluctuations are analyzed. - Abstract: Analysis of thermal–hydraulics fluctuations in pressurized water reactors (e.g., local and global temperature or density fluctuations, as well as primary and charging pumps fluctuations) has various applications in calculation or measurement of the core dynamical parameters (temperature or density reactivity coefficients) in addition to thermal–hydraulics surveillance and diagnostics. In this paper, the thermal–hydraulics fluctuations in PWRs are investigated. At first, the single-phase thermal–hydraulics noise equations (in the frequency domain) are originally derived, without any simplifying assumptions. The fluctuations of all the coolant parameters, as well as the radial distribution of the temperature fluctuations in the fuel, gap and cladding are taken into account. Then, the derived governing equations are discretized using the finite volume method (FVM). Based on the discretized equations and the proposed algorithm of solving, a single heated channel noise calculation code (SHC-Noise) is developed, by which the steady-state and fluctuating parameters of PWR fuel assemblies can be calculated. The noise sources include the inlet coolant temperature and velocity fluctuations, in addition to the power density noises. The developed SHC-Noise code is benchmarked in different cases and scenarios. Furthermore, to show the effects of the power feedbacks, the closed-loop calculations are performed by means of the point kinetics noise

  8. Topological defect and quasi-particle dynamics in charge density waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Masahiko; Ebisawa, Hiromichi

    2010-01-01

    The dynamics of topological defects (dislocations) in charge density waves (CDW's) is largely affected by the quasi-particle dynamics in the cores of the dislocations. The dislocations mediate the conversion of the electron number between condensate and quasi-particle sub-systems. This is especially important in the sliding conduction of CDW. In this work we propose a simple model, which is obtained by extending the Ginzburg-Landau theory partially taking into account the quasi-particle dynamics in the sense of two-fluid model. We perform the numerical simulation of sliding conduction of CDW based on our model. Using this model we may clarify the detailed process of dislocation nucleation and annihilation near the contacts.

  9. Fluctuations of wavefunctions about their classical average

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benet, L; Flores, J; Hernandez-Saldana, H; Izrailev, F M; Leyvraz, F; Seligman, T H

    2003-01-01

    Quantum-classical correspondence for the average shape of eigenfunctions and the local spectral density of states are well-known facts. In this paper, the fluctuations of the quantum wavefunctions around the classical value are discussed. A simple random matrix model leads to a Gaussian distribution of the amplitudes whose width is determined by the classical shape of the eigenfunction. To compare this prediction with numerical calculations in chaotic models of coupled quartic oscillators, we develop a rescaling method for the components. The expectations are broadly confirmed, but deviations due to scars are observed. This effect is much reduced when both Hamiltonians have chaotic dynamics

  10. Density profiles in the Scrape-Off Layer interpreted through filament dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Militello, Fulvio

    2017-10-01

    We developed a new theoretical framework to clarify the relation between radial Scrape-Off Layer density profiles and the fluctuations that generate them. The framework provides an interpretation of the experimental features of the profiles and of the turbulence statistics on the basis of simple properties of the filaments, such as their radial motion and their draining towards the divertor. L-mode and inter-ELM filaments are described as a Poisson process in which each event is independent and modelled with a wave function of amplitude and width statistically distributed according to experimental observations and evolving according to fluid equations. We will rigorously show that radially accelerating filaments, less efficient parallel exhaust and also a statistical distribution of their radial velocity can contribute to induce flatter profiles in the far SOL and therefore enhance plasma-wall interactions. A quite general result of our analysis is the resiliency of this non-exponential nature of the profiles and the increase of the relative fluctuation amplitude towards the wall, as experimentally observed. According to the framework, profile broadening at high fueling rates can be caused by interactions with neutrals (e.g. charge exchange) in the divertor or by a significant radial acceleration of the filaments. The framework assumptions were tested with 3D numerical simulations of seeded SOL filaments based on a two fluid model. In particular, filaments interact through the electrostatic field they generate only when they are in close proximity (separation comparable to their width in the drift plane), thus justifying our independence hypothesis. In addition, we will discuss how isolated filament motion responds to variations in the plasma conditions, and specifically divertor conditions. Finally, using the theoretical framework we will reproduce and interpret experimental results obtained on JET, MAST and HL-2A.

  11. Rapidity densities and their fluctuations in central 200 A GeV 32S interactions with Au and Ag, Br nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamovich, M.I.; Alexandrov, Y.A.; Chernyavsky, M.M.; Gerassimov, S.G.; Kharlamov, S.P.; Larionova, V.G.; Orlova, G.I.; Peresadko, N.G.; Salmanova, N.A.; Tretyakova, M.I.; Andreeva, N.P.; Anson, Z.V.; Ameeva, Z.V.; Bubnov, V.I.; Chasnicov, I.Y.; Eremenko, L.E.; Eligbaeva, G.Z.; Gaitinov, A.S.; Kalyachkina, G.S.; Kanygina, E.K.; Shakhova, T.I.; Azimov, S.A.; Chernova, L.P.; Gadzhieva, S.I.; Gulamov, K.G.; Kadyrov, F.G.; Lukicheva, N.S.; Navotny, V.S.; Svechnikova, L.N.; Bhasin, A.; Kachroo, S.; Kaul, G.L.; Mangotra, L.K.; Rao, N.K.; Burnett, T.H.; Grote, J.; Koss, T.; Lord, J.; Skelding, D.; Strausz, S.; Wilkes, R.J.; Cai, X.; Liu, L.S.; Maslennikova, N.V.; Qian, W.Y.; Wang, H.Q.; Zhou, D.C.; Zhou, J.C.; Dressel, B.; Ganssauge, E.R.; Hackel, S.; Kallies, H.; Mueller, C.; Rhee, J.T.; Schultz, W.; Garpman, S.; Otterlund, I.; Persson, S.; Soderstrom, K.; Stenlund, E.; Judek, B.; Storey, R.S.; Xu, G.F.; Zheng, P.Y.; Zhang, D.H.

    1989-01-01

    The pseudo-rapidity density distributions of shower particles (n s ) are measured in central inelastic S+Au and S+Ag, Br interactions. The extracted maximum energy densities, while being higher for Au than for Ag,Br interactions, were found to be similar to those obtained for oxygen emulsion interactions. The correlation between rapidity density and shower particle multiplicity shows a small deviation from the Lund Model Fritiof for the highest energy densities in S+Au interactions, whereas the bulk of the data yields satisfactory agreement. (orig.)

  12. Synchronization, non-linear dynamics and low-frequency fluctuations: Analogy between spontaneous brain activity and networked single-transistor chaotic oscillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minati, Ludovico, E-mail: lminati@ieee.org, E-mail: ludovico.minati@unitn.it, E-mail: lminati@istituto-besta.it [Scientific Department, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Neurologico Carlo Besta, Milan (Italy); Center for Mind/Brain Sciences, University of Trento, Trento (Italy); Chiesa, Pietro; Tabarelli, Davide; Jovicich, Jorge [Center for Mind/Brain Sciences, University of Trento, Trento (Italy); D' Incerti, Ludovico [Neuroradiology Unit, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Neurologico Carlo Besta, Milan (Italy)

    2015-03-15

    In this paper, the topographical relationship between functional connectivity (intended as inter-regional synchronization), spectral and non-linear dynamical properties across cortical areas of the healthy human brain is considered. Based upon functional MRI acquisitions of spontaneous activity during wakeful idleness, node degree maps are determined by thresholding the temporal correlation coefficient among all voxel pairs. In addition, for individual voxel time-series, the relative amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations and the correlation dimension (D{sub 2}), determined with respect to Fourier amplitude and value distribution matched surrogate data, are measured. Across cortical areas, high node degree is associated with a shift towards lower frequency activity and, compared to surrogate data, clearer saturation to a lower correlation dimension, suggesting presence of non-linear structure. An attempt to recapitulate this relationship in a network of single-transistor oscillators is made, based on a diffusive ring (n = 90) with added long-distance links defining four extended hub regions. Similarly to the brain data, it is found that oscillators in the hub regions generate signals with larger low-frequency cycle amplitude fluctuations and clearer saturation to a lower correlation dimension compared to surrogates. The effect emerges more markedly close to criticality. The homology observed between the two systems despite profound differences in scale, coupling mechanism and dynamics appears noteworthy. These experimental results motivate further investigation into the heterogeneity of cortical non-linear dynamics in relation to connectivity and underline the ability for small networks of single-transistor oscillators to recreate collective phenomena arising in much more complex biological systems, potentially representing a future platform for modelling disease-related changes.

  13. Synchronization, non-linear dynamics and low-frequency fluctuations: Analogy between spontaneous brain activity and networked single-transistor chaotic oscillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minati, Ludovico; Chiesa, Pietro; Tabarelli, Davide; Jovicich, Jorge; D'Incerti, Ludovico

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the topographical relationship between functional connectivity (intended as inter-regional synchronization), spectral and non-linear dynamical properties across cortical areas of the healthy human brain is considered. Based upon functional MRI acquisitions of spontaneous activity during wakeful idleness, node degree maps are determined by thresholding the temporal correlation coefficient among all voxel pairs. In addition, for individual voxel time-series, the relative amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations and the correlation dimension (D 2 ), determined with respect to Fourier amplitude and value distribution matched surrogate data, are measured. Across cortical areas, high node degree is associated with a shift towards lower frequency activity and, compared to surrogate data, clearer saturation to a lower correlation dimension, suggesting presence of non-linear structure. An attempt to recapitulate this relationship in a network of single-transistor oscillators is made, based on a diffusive ring (n = 90) with added long-distance links defining four extended hub regions. Similarly to the brain data, it is found that oscillators in the hub regions generate signals with larger low-frequency cycle amplitude fluctuations and clearer saturation to a lower correlation dimension compared to surrogates. The effect emerges more markedly close to criticality. The homology observed between the two systems despite profound differences in scale, coupling mechanism and dynamics appears noteworthy. These experimental results motivate further investigation into the heterogeneity of cortical non-linear dynamics in relation to connectivity and underline the ability for small networks of single-transistor oscillators to recreate collective phenomena arising in much more complex biological systems, potentially representing a future platform for modelling disease-related changes

  14. Daily dynamics of bacterial numbers, CO2 emissions from soil and relationships between their wavelike fluctuations and succession of the microbial community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenov, A. M.; Bubnov, I. A.; Semenov, V. M.; Semenova, E. V.; Zelenev, V. V.; Semenova, N. A.

    2013-08-01

    The daily dynamics of the number of copiotrophic and oligotrophic bacteria (in colony-forming units) and CO2 emissions from cultivated soils after short- and long-term disturbances were studied for 25-27 days in a microfield experiment. The relationship of the wavelike fluctuations of the bacterial number and CO2 emission with the succession of the soil microbial community was determined by the polymerase chain reaction method—denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). Short-term disturbances involved the application of organic or mineral fertilizers, pesticides, and plant residues to the soils of different plots. The long-term effect was a result of using biological and intensive farming systems for three years. The short-term disturbances resulted in increased peaks of the bacterial number, the significance of which was confirmed by harmonics analysis. The daily dynamics of the structure of the soil microbial community, which was studied for 27 days by the DGGE method, also had an oscillatory pattern. Statistical processing of the data (principal components analysis, harmonics and cross-correlation analyses) has revealed significant fluctuations in the structure of microbial communities coinciding with those of the bacterial populations. The structure of the microbial community changed within each peak of the dynamics of the bacterial number (but not from peak to peak), pointing to the cyclical character of the short-term succession. The long-term effects resulted in a less intense response of the microbiota—a lower rate of CO2 emission from the soil cultivated according to the organic farming system.

  15. Silicate melts density, buoyancy relations and the dynamics of magmatic processes in the upper mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Valle, Carmen; Malfait, Wim J.

    2016-04-01

    Although silicate melts comprise only a minor volume fraction of the present day Earth, they play a critical role on the Earth's geochemical and geodynamical evolution. Their physical properties, namely the density, are a key control on many magmatic processes, including magma chamber dynamics and volcanic eruptions, melt extraction from residual rocks during partial melting, as well as crystal settling and melt migration. However, the quantitative modeling of these processes has been long limited by the scarcity of data on the density and compressibility of volatile-bearing silicate melts at relevant pressure and temperature conditions. In the last decade, new experimental designs namely combining large volume presses and synchrotron-based techniques have opened the possibility for determining in situ the density of a wide range of dry and volatile-bearing (H2O and CO2) silicate melt compositions at high pressure-high temperature conditions. In this contribution we will illustrate some of these progresses with focus on recent results on the density of dry and hydrous felsic and intermediate melt compositions (rhyolite, phonolite and andesite melts) at crustal and upper mantle conditions (up to 4 GPa and 2000 K). The new data on felsic-intermediate melts has been combined with in situ data on (ultra)mafic systems and ambient pressure dilatometry and sound velocity data to calibrate a continuous, predictive density model for hydrous and CO2-bearing silicate melts with applications to magmatic processes down to the conditions of the mantle transition zone (up to 2773 K and 22 GPa). The calibration dataset consist of more than 370 density measurements on high-pressure and/or water-and CO2-bearing melts and it is formulated in terms of the partial molar properties of the oxide components. The model predicts the density of volatile-bearing liquids to within 42 kg/m3 in the calibration interval and the model extrapolations up to 3000 K and 100 GPa are in good agreement

  16. Thermodynamic theory of equilibrium fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishin, Y.

    2015-01-01

    The postulational basis of classical thermodynamics has been expanded to incorporate equilibrium fluctuations. The main additional elements of the proposed thermodynamic theory are the concept of quasi-equilibrium states, a definition of non-equilibrium entropy, a fundamental equation of state in the entropy representation, and a fluctuation postulate describing the probability distribution of macroscopic parameters of an isolated system. Although these elements introduce a statistical component that does not exist in classical thermodynamics, the logical structure of the theory is different from that of statistical mechanics and represents an expanded version of thermodynamics. Based on this theory, we present a regular procedure for calculations of equilibrium fluctuations of extensive parameters, intensive parameters and densities in systems with any number of fluctuating parameters. The proposed fluctuation formalism is demonstrated by four applications: (1) derivation of the complete set of fluctuation relations for a simple fluid in three different ensembles; (2) fluctuations in finite-reservoir systems interpolating between the canonical and micro-canonical ensembles; (3) derivation of fluctuation relations for excess properties of grain boundaries in binary solid solutions, and (4) derivation of the grain boundary width distribution for pre-melted grain boundaries in alloys. The last two applications offer an efficient fluctuation-based approach to calculations of interface excess properties and extraction of the disjoining potential in pre-melted grain boundaries. Possible future extensions of the theory are outlined.

  17. The role of riparian vegetation density, channel orientation and water velocity in determining river temperature dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Grace; Malcolm, Iain A.; Sadler, Jonathan P.; Hannah, David M.

    2017-10-01

    A simulation experiment was used to understand the importance of riparian vegetation density, channel orientation and flow velocity for stream energy budgets and river temperature dynamics. Water temperature and meteorological observations were obtained in addition to hemispherical photographs along a ∼1 km reach of the Girnock Burn, a tributary of the Aberdeenshire Dee, Scotland. Data from nine hemispherical images (representing different uniform canopy density scenarios) were used to parameterise a deterministic net radiation model and simulate radiative fluxes. For each vegetation scenario, the effects of eight channel orientations were investigated by changing the position of north at 45° intervals in each hemispheric image. Simulated radiative fluxes and observed turbulent fluxes drove a high-resolution water temperature model of the reach. Simulations were performed under low and high water velocity scenarios. Both velocity scenarios yielded decreases in mean (≥1.6 °C) and maximum (≥3.0 °C) temperature as canopy density increased. Slow-flowing water resided longer within the reach, which enhanced heat accumulation and dissipation, and drove higher maximum and lower minimum temperatures. Intermediate levels of shade produced highly variable energy flux and water temperature dynamics depending on the channel orientation and thus the time of day when the channel was shaded. We demonstrate that in many reaches relatively sparse but strategically located vegetation could produce substantial reductions in maximum temperature and suggest that these criteria are used to inform future river management.

  18. Numerical simulation of the nonlinear dynamics of packets of spiral density waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korchagin, V.I.

    1987-01-01

    In a numerical experiment, the behavior of nonlinear packets of spiral density waves in a gas disk has been investigated for different initial wave amplitudes. If the amplitude of the density perturbations is small (<5%), the wave packet is drawn toward the center or toward the periphery of the disk in accordance with the linear theory. The behavior of linear packets of waves with wavelength comparable to the disk radius (R/sub d//lambda = 4) exhibits good agreement with the conclusions of the linear theory of tightly wound spiral waves. The dynamics of wave packets with initial density amplitudes 16, 30, 50% demonstrates the nonlinear nature of the behavior. THe behavior is governed by whether or not the nonlinear effects of higher than third order in the wave amplitude play a part. If the wave packet dynamics is determined by the cubic nonlinearity, the results of the numerical experiment are in qualitative and quantitative agreement with the nonlinear theory of short waves, although the characteristic scale of the packet and the wavelength are of the order of the disk radius. In the cases when the nonlinear effects of higher orders in the amplitude play an important part, the behavior of a packet does not differ qualitatively from the behavior predicted by the theory of cubic nonlinearity, but the nonlinear spreading of the packet takes place more rapidly

  19. Estimation of Nanodiamond Surface Charge Density from Zeta Potential and Molecular Dynamics Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Zhenpeng; Wang, Yi

    2017-04-20

    Molecular dynamics simulations of nanoparticles (NPs) are increasingly used to study their interactions with various biological macromolecules. Such simulations generally require detailed knowledge of the surface composition of the NP under investigation. Even for some well-characterized nanoparticles, however, this knowledge is not always available. An example is nanodiamond, a nanoscale diamond particle with surface dominated by oxygen-containing functional groups. In this work, we explore using the harmonic restraint method developed by Venable et al., to estimate the surface charge density (σ) of nanodiamonds. Based on the Gouy-Chapman theory, we convert the experimentally determined zeta potential of a nanodiamond to an effective charge density (σ eff ), and then use the latter to estimate σ via molecular dynamics simulations. Through scanning a series of nanodiamond models, we show that the above method provides a straightforward protocol to determine the surface charge density of relatively large (> ∼100 nm) NPs. Overall, our results suggest that despite certain limitation, the above protocol can be readily employed to guide the model construction for MD simulations, which is particularly useful when only limited experimental information on the NP surface composition is available to a modeler.

  20. Modeling and Density Estimation of an Urban Freeway Network Based on Dynamic Graph Hybrid Automata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yangzhou; Guo, Yuqi; Wang, Ying

    2017-03-29

    In this paper, in order to describe complex network systems, we firstly propose a general modeling framework by combining a dynamic graph with hybrid automata and thus name it Dynamic Graph Hybrid Automata (DGHA). Then we apply this framework to model traffic flow over an urban freeway network by embedding the Cell Transmission Model (CTM) into the DGHA. With a modeling procedure, we adopt a dual digraph of road network structure to describe the road topology, use linear hybrid automata to describe multi-modes of dynamic densities in road segments and transform the nonlinear expressions of the transmitted traffic flow between two road segments into piecewise linear functions in terms of multi-mode switchings. This modeling procedure is modularized and rule-based, and thus is easily-extensible with the help of a combination algorithm for the dynamics of traffic flow. It can describe the dynamics of traffic flow over an urban freeway network with arbitrary topology structures and sizes. Next we analyze mode types and number in the model of the whole freeway network, and deduce a Piecewise Affine Linear System (PWALS) model. Furthermore, based on the PWALS model, a multi-mode switched state observer is designed to estimate the traffic densities of the freeway network, where a set of observer gain matrices are computed by using the Lyapunov function approach. As an example, we utilize the PWALS model and the corresponding switched state observer to traffic flow over Beijing third ring road. In order to clearly interpret the principle of the proposed method and avoid computational complexity, we adopt a simplified version of Beijing third ring road. Practical application for a large-scale road network will be implemented by decentralized modeling approach and distributed observer designing in the future research.

  1. Analysis of Fluctuations of Electron Density in the D-region During the 2017 Solar Eclipse using a Very Low Frequency Receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, E.; Mathur, S.; Fenton, A.; Behrend, C. C.; Bering, E., III

    2017-12-01

    As part of the Undergraduate Student Instrumentation Project (USIP) at the University of Houston, multiple Very Low Frequency (VLF) Radio Receivers will be set up during the 2017 solar eclipse. They will be taking data from Omaha, Nebraska and Casper, Wyoming. The receiver, using an air loop antenna, will record magnetic field fluctuations caused by VLF waves. The purpose of this experiment is to study the effects of the sudden change in electromagnetic radiation from the sun on the D-region of the ionosphere. VLF waves were chosen for measurement because naturally occurring VLF waves propagate through the Earth-ionosphere waveguide, which can be used to remotely observe the ionosphere. The D-region reduces the energy in propagating waves due to absorption. This means that any fluctuations in the D-region are inversely correlated to the strength of VLF waves being received. The experiment will focus on receiving waves transmitted from specific stations that are on the other side of totality. The amplitude and phase of the received waves will be measured and analyzed. It is hoped that this experiment will help us gain a better understanding of VLFs from the D-region during the solar eclipse, as well as increasing the overall data available for use by the community.

  2. NMR investigation of charge fluctuations in the charge-density-wave (CDW) system Rb_0.3MoO_3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, K. B.; Vonlanthen, P.; Clark, W. G.; Kriza, G.; Moulton, W. G.; Kuhns, P.; Reyes, A. P.

    2001-03-01

    We report measurements of the spin-lattice relaxation rate (T_1-1), the spin-spin relaxation rate (T_2-1), and NMR spectra of ^85Rb and ^87Rb in Rb_0.3MoO3 for the temperature (T) range 5-300 K at 9 T and 23 T. The ratio of T_1-1 for ^85Rb and ^87Rb shows that for all T, the dominant coupling for T_1-1 is quadrupolar; i.e., it is driven by charge fluctuations. Prior work assumed that in the metallic phase above 182 K, the relaxation was via magnetic coupling to conduction electrons. Another surprising result is the absence of a strong variation of T_1-1 across the CDW-broadened spectrum. Such a variation is expected for relaxation by thermal CDW phason fluctuations. Our high field measurements also show very little frequency dependence for T_1-1. The observed T-variation of T_1-1 displays five different regimes, which will be presented and discussed. The UCLA part of the work was supported by NSF Grants DMR-9705369 and DMR-0072524.

  3. Novel changes in discoidal high density lipoprotein morphology: a molecular dynamics study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catte, Andrea; Patterson, James C; Jones, Martin K; Jerome, W Gray; Bashtovyy, Denys; Su, Zhengchang; Gu, Feifei; Chen, Jianguo; Aliste, Marcela P; Harvey, Stephen C; Li, Ling; Weinstein, Gilbert; Segrest, Jere P

    2006-06-15

    ApoA-I is a uniquely flexible lipid-scavenging protein capable of incorporating phospholipids into stable particles. Here we report molecular dynamics simulations on a series of progressively smaller discoidal high density lipoprotein particles produced by incremental removal of palmitoyloleoylphosphatidylcholine via four different pathways. The starting model contained 160 palmitoyloleoylphosphatidylcholines and a belt of two antiparallel amphipathic helical lipid-associating domains of apolipoprotein (apo) A-I. The results are particularly compelling. After a few nanoseconds of molecular dynamics simulation, independent of the starting particle and method of size reduction, all simulated double belts of the four lipidated apoA-I particles have helical domains that impressively approximate the x-ray crystal structure of lipid-free apoA-I, particularly between residues 88 and 186. These results provide atomic resolution models for two of the particles produced by in vitro reconstitution of nascent high density lipoprotein particles. These particles, measuring 95 angstroms and 78 angstroms by nondenaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, correspond in composition and in size/shape (by negative stain electron microscopy) to the simulated particles with molar ratios of 100:2 and 50:2, respectively. The lipids of the 100:2 particle family form minimal surfaces at their monolayer-monolayer interface, whereas the 50:2 particle family displays a lipid pocket capable of binding a dynamic range of phospholipid molecules.

  4. Dark-dark-soliton dynamics in two density-coupled Bose-Einstein condensates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morera, I.; Mateo, A. Muñoz; Polls, A.; Juliá-Díaz, B.

    2018-04-01

    We study the one-dimensional dynamics of dark-dark solitons in the miscible regime of two density-coupled Bose-Einstein condensates having repulsive interparticle interactions within each condensate (g >0 ). By using an adiabatic perturbation theory in the parameter g12/g , we show that, contrary to the case of two solitons in scalar condensates, the interactions between solitons are attractive when the interparticle interactions between condensates are repulsive g12>0 . As a result, the relative motion of dark solitons with equal chemical potential μ is well approximated by harmonic oscillations of angular frequency wr=(μ /ℏ ) √{(8 /15 ) g12/g } . We also show that, in finite systems, the resonance of this anomalous excitation mode with the spin-density mode of lowest energy gives rise to alternating dynamical instability and stability fringes as a function of the perturbative parameter. In the presence of harmonic trapping (with angular frequency Ω ) the solitons are driven by the superposition of two harmonic motions at a frequency given by w2=(Ω/√{2 }) 2+wr2 . When g12<0 , these two oscillators compete to give rise to an overall effective potential that can be either single well or double well through a pitchfork bifurcation. All our theoretical results are compared with numerical solutions of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation for the dynamics and the Bogoliubov equations for the linear stability. A good agreement is found between them.

  5. Quantum Optimal Control of Single Harmonic Oscillator under Quadratic Controls together with Linear Dipole Polarizability: A Fluctuation Free Expectation Value Dynamical Perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayvaz, Muzaffer; Demiralp, Metin

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the optimal control equations for one dimensional quantum harmonic oscillator under the quadratic control operators together with linear dipole polarizability effects are constructed in the sense of Heisenberg equation of motion. A numerical technique based on the approximation to the non-commuting quantum mechanical operators from the fluctuation free expectation value dynamics perspective in the classical limit is also proposed for the solution of optimal control equations which are ODEs with accompanying boundary conditions. The dipole interaction of the system is considered to be linear, and the observable whose expectation value will be suppressed during the control process is considered to be quadratic in terms of position operator x. The objective term operator is also assumed to be quadratic.

  6. Annual dynamics of wild bee densities: attractiveness and productivity effects of oilseed rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedinger, Verena; Mitesser, Oliver; Hovestadt, Thomas; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Holzschuh, Andrea

    2015-05-01

    Mass-flowering crops may affect long-term population dynamics, but effects on pollinators have never been studied across several years. We monitored wild bees in oilseed rape fields in 16 landscapes in Germany in two consecutive years. Effects on bee densities of landscape oilseed rape cover in the years of monitoring and in the previous years were evaluated with landscape data from three consecutive years. We fit empirical data to a mechanistic model to provide estimates for oilseed rape attractiveness and its effect on bee productivity in comparison to the rest of the landscape, and we evaluated consequences for pollinator densities in consecutive years. Our results show that high oilseed rape cover in the previous year enhances current densities of wild bees (except for bumble bees). Moreover, we show a strong attractiveness of and dilution on (i.e., decreasing bee densities with increasing landscape oilseed rape cover) oilseed rape for bees during flowering in the current year, modifying the effect of the previous year's oilseed rape cover in the case of wild bees (excluding Bombus). As long as other factors such as nesting sites or natural enemies do not limit bee reproduction, our findings suggest long-term positive effects of mass-flowering crops on bee populations, at least for non-Bombus generalists, which possibly help to maintain crop pollination services even when crop area increases. Similar effects are conceivable for other organisms providing ecosystem services in annual crops and should be considered in future studies.

  7. Structure of solvent-free grafted nanoparticles: Molecular dynamics and density-functional theory

    KAUST Repository

    Chremos, Alexandros

    2011-01-01

    The structure of solvent-free oligomer-grafted nanoparticles has been investigated using molecular dynamics simulations and density-functional theory. At low temperatures and moderate to high oligomer lengths, the qualitative features of the core particle pair probability, structure factor, and the oligomer brush configuration obtained from the simulations can be explained by a density-functional theory that incorporates the configurational entropy of the space-filling oligomers. In particular, the structure factor at small wave numbers attains a value much smaller than the corresponding hard-sphere suspension, the first peak of the pair distribution function is enhanced due to entropic attractions among the particles, and the oligomer brush expands with decreasing particle volume fraction to fill the interstitial space. At higher temperatures, the simulations reveal effects that differ from the theory and are likely caused by steric repulsions of the expanded corona chains. © 2011 American Institute of Physics.

  8. Nonequilibrium fluctuations in a resistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier, N; Ciliberto, S

    2005-06-01

    In small systems where relevant energies are comparable to thermal agitation, fluctuations are of the order of average values. In systems in thermodynamical equilibrium, the variance of these fluctuations can be related to the dissipation constant in the system, exploiting the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. In nonequilibrium steady systems, fluctuations theorems (FT) additionally describe symmetry properties of the probability density functions (PDFs) of the fluctuations of injected and dissipated energies. We experimentally probe a model system: an electrical dipole driven out of equilibrium by a small constant current I, and show that FT are experimentally accessible and valid. Furthermore, we stress that FT can be used to measure the dissipated power P = R I2 in the system by just studying the PDFs' symmetries.

  9. Correlated electron dynamics and memory in time-dependent density functional theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiele, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) is an exact reformulation of the time-dependent many-electron Schroedinger equation, where the problem of many interacting electrons is mapped onto the Kohn-Sham system of noninteracting particles which reproduces the exact electronic density. In the Kohn-Sham system all non-classical many-body effects are incorporated in the exchange-correlation potential which is in general unknown and needs to be approximated. It is the goal of this thesis to investigate the connection between memory effects and correlated electron dynamics in strong and weak fields. To this end one-dimensional two-electron singlet systems are studied. At the same time these systems include the onedimensional helium atom model, which is an established system to investigate the crucial effects of correlated electron dynamics in external fields. The studies presented in this thesis show that memory effects are negligible for typical strong field processes. Here the approximation of the spatial nonlocality is of primary importance. For the photoabsorption spectra on the other hand the neglect of memory effects leads to qualitative and quantitative errors, which are shown to be connected to transitions of double excitation character. To develop a better understanding of the conditions under which memory effects become important quantum fluid dynamics has been found to be especially suitable. It represents a further exact reformulation of the quantum mechanic many-body problem which is based on hydrodynamic quantities such as density and velocity. Memory effects are shown to be important whenever the velocity field develops strong gradients and dissipative effects contribute. (orig.)

  10. Correlated electron dynamics and memory in time-dependent density functional theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiele, Mark

    2009-07-28

    Time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) is an exact reformulation of the time-dependent many-electron Schroedinger equation, where the problem of many interacting electrons is mapped onto the Kohn-Sham system of noninteracting particles which reproduces the exact electronic density. In the Kohn-Sham system all non-classical many-body effects are incorporated in the exchange-correlation potential which is in general unknown and needs to be approximated. It is the goal of this thesis to investigate the connection between memory effects and correlated electron dynamics in strong and weak fields. To this end one-dimensional two-electron singlet systems are studied. At the same time these systems include the onedimensional helium atom model, which is an established system to investigate the crucial effects of correlated electron dynamics in external fields. The studies presented in this thesis show that memory effects are negligible for typical strong field processes. Here the approximation of the spatial nonlocality is of primary importance. For the photoabsorption spectra on the other hand the neglect of memory effects leads to qualitative and quantitative errors, which are shown to be connected to transitions of double excitation character. To develop a better understanding of the conditions under which memory effects become important quantum fluid dynamics has been found to be especially suitable. It represents a further exact reformulation of the quantum mechanic many-body problem which is based on hydrodynamic quantities such as density and velocity. Memory effects are shown to be important whenever the velocity field develops strong gradients and dissipative effects contribute. (orig.)

  11. State conditions transferability of vapor-liquid equilibria via fluctuation solution theory with correlation function integrals from molecular dynamics simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Steen; Peters, Günther H.J.; Hansen, Flemming Yssing

    2007-01-01

    on isobaric–isothermal molecular dynamics (NPT-MD) simulations, using force field parameters published in the literature and fitted CHARMM force field parameters. Systems studied previously [S. Christensen, G.H. Peters, F.Y. Hansen, J.P. O’Connell, J. Abildskov, Molecular Simulation 33 (2007) 449...

  12. Dynamics of low density coronal plasma in low current x-pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, D; Bott, S C; Vikhrev, V; Eshaq, Y; Ueda, U; Zhang, T; Baranova, E; Krasheninnikov, S I; Beg, F N

    2007-01-01

    Experiments were performed on an x-pinch using a pulsed power current generator capable of producing an 80 kA current with a rise time of 50 ns. Molybdenum wires with and without gold coating were employed to study the effect of high z coating on the low-density ( 18 cm -3 ) coronal plasma dynamics. A comparison of images from XUV frames and optical probing shows that the low density coronal plasma from the wires initially converges at the mid-plane immediately above and below the cross-point. A central jet is formed which moves with a velocity of 6 x 10 4 ms -1 towards both electrodes forming a z-pinch column before the current maximum. A marked change in the low density coronal plasma dynamics was observed when molybdenum wires coated with ∼ 0.09 μm of gold were used. The processes forming the jet structure were delayed relative to bare Mo x-pinches, and the time-resolved x-ray emission also showed differences. An m = 0 instability was observed in the coronal plasma along the x-pinch legs, which were consistent with x-ray PIN diode signals in which x-ray pulses were observed before x-ray spot formation. These early time x-ray pulses were not observed with pure molybdenum x-pinches. These observations indicate that a thin layer of gold coating significantly changes the coronal plasma behaviour. Two dimensional MHD simulations were performed and qualitatively agree with experimental observations of low density coronal plasma

  13. Non-integrable dynamics of matter-wave solitons in a density-dependent gauge theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingwall, R. J.; Edmonds, M. J.; Helm, J. L.; Malomed, B. A.; Öhberg, P.

    2018-04-01

    We study interactions between bright matter-wave solitons which acquire chiral transport dynamics due to an optically-induced density-dependent gauge potential. Through numerical simulations, we find that the collision dynamics feature several non-integrable phenomena, from inelastic collisions including population transfer and radiation losses to the formation of short-lived bound states and soliton fission. An effective quasi-particle model for the interaction between the solitons is derived by means of a variational approximation, which demonstrates that the inelastic nature of the collision arises from a coupling of the gauge field to velocities of the solitons. In addition, we derive a set of interaction potentials which show that the influence of the gauge field appears as a short-range potential, that can give rise to both attractive and repulsive interactions.

  14. Efficient Estimation of Dynamic Density Functions with Applications in Streaming Data

    KAUST Repository

    Qahtan, Abdulhakim

    2016-05-11

    Recent advances in computing technology allow for collecting vast amount of data that arrive continuously in the form of streams. Mining data streams is challenged by the speed and volume of the arriving data. Furthermore, the underlying distribution of the data changes over the time in unpredicted scenarios. To reduce the computational cost, data streams are often studied in forms of condensed representation, e.g., Probability Density Function (PDF). This thesis aims at developing an online density estimator that builds a model called KDE-Track for characterizing the dynamic density of the data streams. KDE-Track estimates the PDF of the stream at a set of resampling points and uses interpolation to estimate the density at any given point. To reduce the interpolation error and computational complexity, we introduce adaptive resampling where more/less resampling points are used in high/low curved regions of the PDF. The PDF values at the resampling points are updated online to provide up-to-date model of the data stream. Comparing with other existing online density estimators, KDE-Track is often more accurate (as reflected by smaller error values) and more computationally efficient (as reflected by shorter running time). The anytime available PDF estimated by KDE-Track can be applied for visualizing the dynamic density of data streams, outlier detection and change detection in data streams. In this thesis work, the first application is to visualize the taxi traffic volume in New York city. Utilizing KDE-Track allows for visualizing and monitoring the traffic flow on real time without extra overhead and provides insight analysis of the pick up demand that can be utilized by service providers to improve service availability. The second application is to detect outliers in data streams from sensor networks based on the estimated PDF. The method detects outliers accurately and outperforms baseline methods designed for detecting and cleaning outliers in sensor data. The

  15. Fluctuations in transverse energy and mulitplicity, energy densities, and neutral pion spectra in nucleus-nucleus collisions at 200 GeV/nucleon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The main goal of the CERN heavy-ion experiments is the search for an indication that the predicted state of deconfined quarks and gluons, the quark-gluon plasma (QGP), has been produced. The quantity most crucial to the probability of QGP formation is the thermalized energy density attained during the heavy-ion reaction. The amount of energy radiated transverse to the beam direction is the experimental quantity which is believed to be a measure of the amount of energy deposition in the reaction, and hence to reflect the energy density attained. In this presentation we consider the systematics of transverse energy production at CERN SPS energies, and we use the results to make estimates, under various assumptions, of attained energy densities

  16. Dynamics of births and juvenile recruitment in Mara-Serengeti ungulates in relation to climatic and land use changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ogutu, Joseph O.; Piepho, Hans-Peter; Dublin, Holly T.; Bhola, Nina; Reid, Robin S.

    Natality and recruitment govern animal population dynamics, but their responses to fluctuating resources, competition, predation, shifting habitat conditions, density feedback and diseases are poorly understood. To understand the influences of climatic and land use changes on population dynamics, we

  17. Dynamics of a recovering Arctic bird population: the importance of climate, density dependence, and site quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruggeman, Jason E.; Swem, Ted; Andersen, David E.; Kennedy, Patricia L.; Nigro, Debora A.

    2015-01-01

    Intrinsic and extrinsic factors affect vital rates and population-level processes, and understanding these factors is paramount to devising successful management plans for wildlife species. For example, birds time migration in response, in part, to local and broadscale climate fluctuations to initiate breeding upon arrival to nesting territories, and prolonged inclement weather early in the breeding season can inhibit egg-laying and reduce productivity. Also, density-dependent regulation occurs in raptor populations, as territory size is related to resource availability. Arctic Peregrine Falcons (Falco peregrinus tundrius; hereafter Arctic peregrine) have a limited and northern breeding distribution, including the Colville River Special Area (CRSA) in the National Petroleum Reserve–Alaska, USA. We quantified influences of climate, topography, nest productivity, prey habitat, density dependence, and interspecific competition affecting Arctic peregrines in the CRSA by applying the Dail-Madsen model to estimate abundance and vital rates of adults on nesting cliffs from 1981 through 2002. Arctic peregrine abundance increased throughout the 1980s, which spanned the population's recovery from DDT-induced reproductive failure, until exhibiting a stationary trend in the 1990s. Apparent survival rate (i.e., emigration; death) was negatively correlated with the number of adult Arctic peregrines on the cliff the previous year, suggesting effects of density-dependent population regulation. Apparent survival and arrival rates (i.e., immigration; recruitment) were higher during years with earlier snowmelt and milder winters, and apparent survival was positively correlated with nesting season maximum daily temperature. Arrival rate was positively correlated with average Arctic peregrine productivity along a cliff segment from the previous year and initial abundance was positively correlated with cliff height. Higher cliffs with documented higher productivity (presumably

  18. Dynamics of the density of quantized vortex lines in counterflow turbulence: Experimental investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, E.; Skrbek, L.

    2018-02-01

    Recently the interest in thermal counterflow of superfluid 4He, the most extensively studied form of quantum turbulence, has been renewed. Particularly, an intense theoretical debate has arisen about what form, if any, of the so-called Vinen equation accurately captures the dynamics of vortex line density, L . We address this problem experimentally, in a 21 cm long channel of square 7 ×7 mm2 cross section. Based on large statistics of second-sound data measured in nonequilibrium square-wave modulated thermally induced counterflow we investigate the phase portrait of the general form of the governing dynamical equation and conclude that for sparse tangles (L ≲105cm-2) all proposed forms of this equation based on the concept of a homogeneous random tangle of quantized vortices provide equally adequate descriptions of the growth of L , while for dense tangles (L >105cm-2) none of them is satisfactory or able to account for the significant slow-down in tangle growth rate as the steady state is approached. We claim, however, that agreement with theory is recovered if the geometrical parameter c2 introduced in numerical studies by K. W. Schwarz [Phys. Rev. B 38, 2398 (1988), 10.1103/PhysRevB.38.2398] is allowed to vary with vortex line density which also greatly improves the prediction of the observed early decay rate.

  19. Effects of Density and Moisture Variation on Dynamic Deformation Properties of Compacted Lateritic Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weizheng Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of repeated load triaxial tests were conducted in this study to investigate the influences of compaction density and postcompaction moisture variation on the dynamic elastic modulus (Ed and plastic permanent strain (PPS of compacted lateritic soil. Specimens were compacted at optimum moisture content (OMC and three degrees of compaction (90%, 93%, and 96%. Then the specimens were dried or wetted to different moisture contents (OMC, OMC±3%, OMC±6%, and OMC+9% prior to testing for Ed and PPS. Results show that moisture content has greater influence on the Ed and PSS than compaction degree, and the increase in moisture content leads to a decrease of Ed and an increase of PPS. Furthermore, an empirical relationship between Ed and applied cyclic stress (σd is developed that incorporates density and moisture variations. Three different evolution types of PPS with number of load cycles, plastic stable, plastic creep, and incremental collapse, are identified as the increase of moisture content. In addition, the critical dynamic stress (σdc separating stable and unstable deformation is determined based on the shakedown concept. The envelope curves of σdc-moisture of lateritic soil with different degrees of compaction are also determined to provide reference for the pavement design.

  20. Density functional theory based molecular dynamics study of hydration and electronic properties of aqueous La(3+).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrier, Cyril; Vitorge, Pierre; Gaigeot, Marie-Pierre; Spezia, Riccardo; Vuilleumier, Rodolphe

    2010-07-28

    Structural and electronic properties of La(3+) immersed in bulk water have been assessed by means of density functional theory (DFT)-based Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics (CPMD) simulations. Correct structural properties, i.e., La(III)-water distances and La(III) coordination number, can be obtained within the framework of Car-Parrinello simulations providing that both the La pseudopotential and conditions of the dynamics (fictitious mass and time step) are carefully set up. DFT-MD explicitly treats electronic densities and is shown here to provide a theoretical justification to the necessity of including polarization when studying highly charged cations such as lanthanoids(III) with classical MD. La(3+) was found to strongly polarize the water molecules located in the first shell, giving rise to dipole moments about 0.5 D larger than those of bulk water molecules. Finally, analyzing Kohn-Sham orbitals, we found La(3+) empty 4f orbitals extremely compact and to a great extent uncoupled from the water conduction band, while the 5d empty orbitals exhibit mixing with unoccupied states of water.