Housner, J. M.; Anderson, M.; Belvin, W.; Horner, G.
1985-01-01
Dynamic analysis of large space antenna systems must treat the deployment as well as vibration and control of the deployed antenna. Candidate computer programs for deployment dynamics, and issues and needs for future program developments are reviewed. Some results for mast and hoop deployment are also presented. Modeling of complex antenna geometry with conventional finite element methods and with repetitive exact elements is considered. Analytical comparisons with experimental results for a 15 meter hoop/column antenna revealed the importance of accurate structural properties including nonlinear joints. Slackening of cables in this antenna is also a consideration. The technology of designing actively damped structures through analytical optimization is discussed and results are presented.
Dynamic analysis and design of offshore structures
Chandrasekaran, Srinivasan
2015-01-01
This book attempts to provide readers with an overall idea of various types of offshore platform geometries. It covers the various environmental loads encountered by these structures, a detailed description of the fundamentals of structural dynamics in a class-room style, estimate of damping in offshore structures and their applications in the preliminary analysis and design. Basic concepts of structural dynamics are emphasized through simple illustrative examples and exercises. Design methodologies and guidelines, which are FORM based concepts are explained through a few applied example structures. Each chapter also has tutorials and exercises for self-learning. A dedicated chapter on stochastic dynamics will help the students to extend the basic concepts of structural dynamics to this advanced domain of research. Hydrodynamic response of offshore structures with perforated members is one of the recent research applications, which is found to be one of the effective manner of retrofitting offshore structur...
Dynamic Analysis of Structures Using Neural Networks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N. Ahmadi
2008-01-01
Full Text Available In the recent years, neural networks are considered as the best candidate for fast approximation with arbitrary accuracy in the time consuming problems. Dynamic analysis of structures against earthquake has the time consuming process. We employed two kinds of neural networks: Generalized Regression neural network (GR and Back-Propagation Wavenet neural network (BPW, for approximating of dynamic time history response of frame structures. GR is a traditional radial basis function neural network while BPW categorized as a wavelet neural network. In BPW, sigmoid activation functions of hidden layer neurons are substituted with wavelets and weights training are achieved using Scaled Conjugate Gradient (SCG algorithm. Comparison the results of BPW with those of GR in the dynamic analysis of eight story steel frame indicates that accuracy of the properly trained BPW was better than that of GR and therefore, BPW can be efficiently used for approximate dynamic analysis of structures.
Structural Dynamics and Data Analysis
Luthman, Briana L.
2013-01-01
This project consists of two parts, the first will be the post-flight analysis of data from a Delta IV launch vehicle, and the second will be a Finite Element Analysis of a CubeSat. Shock and vibration data was collected on WGS-5 (Wideband Global SATCOM- 5) which was launched on a Delta IV launch vehicle. Using CAM (CAlculation with Matrices) software, the data is to be plotted into Time History, Shock Response Spectrum, and SPL (Sound Pressure Level) curves. In this format the data is to be reviewed and compared to flight instrumentation data from previous flights of the same launch vehicle. This is done to ensure the current mission environments, such as shock, random vibration, and acoustics, are not out of family with existing flight experience. In family means the peaks on the SRS curve for WGS-5 are similar to the peaks from the previous flights and there are no major outliers. The curves from the data will then be compiled into a useful format so that is can be peer reviewed then presented before an engineering review board if required. Also, the reviewed data will be uploaded to the Engineering Review Board Information System (ERBIS) to archive. The second part of this project is conducting Finite Element Analysis of a CubeSat. In 2010, Merritt Island High School partnered with NASA to design, build and launch a CubeSat. The team is now called StangSat in honor of their mascot, the mustang. Over the past few years, the StangSat team has built a satellite and has now been manifested for flight on a SpaceX Falcon 9 launch in 2014. To prepare for the final launch, a test flight was conducted in Mojave, California. StangSat was launched on a Prospector 18D, a high altitude rocket made by Garvey Spacecraft Corporation, along with their sister satellite CP9 built by California Polytechnic University. However, StangSat was damaged during an off nominal landing and this project will give beneficial insights into what loads the CubeSat experienced during the crash
A Dynamic Model for Energy Structure Analysis
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2006-01-01
Energy structure is a complicated system concerning economic development, natural resources, technological innovation, ecological balance, social progress and many other elements. It is not easy to explain clearly the developmental mechanism of an energy system and the mutual relations between the energy system and its related environments by the traditional methods. It is necessary to develop a suitable dynamic model, which can reflect the dynamic characteristics and the mutual relations of the energy system and its related environments. In this paper, the historical development of China's energy structure was analyzed. A new quantitative analysis model was developed based on system dynamics principles through analysis of energy resources, and the production and consumption of energy in China and comparison with the world. Finally, this model was used to predict China's future energy structures under different conditions.
Structural dynamic analysis of composite beams
Suresh, J. K.; Venkatesan, C.; Ramamurti, V.
1990-12-01
In the treatment of the structural dynamic problem of composite materials, two alternate types of formulations, based on the elastic modulus and compliance quantities, exist in the literature. The definitions of the various rigidities are observed to differ in these two approaches. Following these two types of formulation, the structural dynamic characteristics of a composite beam are analyzed. The results of the analysis are compared with those available in the literature. Based on the comparison, the influence of the warping function in defining the coupling terms in the modulus approach and also on the natural frequencies of the beam has been identified. It is found from the analysis that, in certain cases, the difference between the results of the two approaches is appreciable. These differences may be attributed to the constraints imposed on the deformation and flexibility of the beam by the choice of the description of the warping behaviour. Finally, the influence of material properties on the structural dynamic characteristics of the beam is studied for different composites for various angles of orthotropy.
Finite Element Vibration and Dynamic Response Analysis of Engineering Structures
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jaroslav Mackerle
2000-01-01
Full Text Available This bibliography lists references to papers, conference proceedings, and theses/dissertations dealing with finite element vibration and dynamic response analysis of engineering structures that were published from 1994 to 1998. It contains 539 citations. The following types of structures are included: basic structural systems; ground structures; ocean and coastal structures; mobile structures; and containment structures.
Wheat yield dynamics: a structural econometric analysis.
Sahin, Afsin; Akdi, Yilmaz; Arslan, Fahrettin
2007-10-15
In this study we initially have tried to explore the wheat situation in Turkey, which has a small-open economy and in the member countries of European Union (EU). We have observed that increasing the wheat yield is fundamental to obtain comparative advantage among countries by depressing domestic prices. Also the changing structure of supporting schemes in Turkey makes it necessary to increase its wheat yield level. For this purpose, we have used available data to determine the dynamics of wheat yield by Ordinary Least Square Regression methods. In order to find out whether there is a linear relationship among these series we have checked each series whether they are integrated at the same order or not. Consequently, we have pointed out that fertilizer usage and precipitation level are substantial inputs for producing high wheat yield. Furthermore, in respect for our model, fertilizer usage affects wheat yield more than precipitation level.
Unascertained Factor Method of Dynamic Characteristic Analysis for Antenna Structures
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHU Zeng-qing; LIANG Zhen-tao; CHEN Jian-jun
2008-01-01
The dynamic characteristic analysis model of antenna structures is built, in which the structural physical parameters and geometrical dimensions are all considered as unascertained variables, And a structure dynamic characteristic analysis method based on the unascertained factor method is given. The computational expression of structural characteristic is developed by the mathematics expression of unascertained factor and the principles of unascertained rational numbers arithmetic. An example is given, in which the possible values and confidence degrees of the unascertained structure characteristics are obtained. The calculated results show that the method is feasible and effective.
Dynamic Analysis of Composite Structural System for Looms Industry
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jigar K. Sevalia
2014-02-01
Full Text Available All the structures subjected to any kind of loads or displacement tends to behave dynamically. Thus the structures are always under continuous loading. The industrial buildings have to support the machineries in motion which are under high degree of vibrations. And so the design of base and the foundations of such structures under vibrations are very important and need to be stable. Problems of dynamics of bases and foundations are to be studied carefully, so as to understand the response characteristics of the power loom industry structure. This is very important from the economic point of view as well as to secure the stability and safety of the structure; dynamic analysis was carried out for Ground + One storey industry load bearing structure using STAAD.Pro software. In this paper, an attempt has been made to study the dynamic analysis of the structure under vibrations caused by reciprocating type machines. This paper makes attempt to study the effects of various structural parameters like Beam Size, Column Size and Storey Height and Wall Thickness variation on Frequency and Displacement of the industrial building which in future will serve as guidelines to the structural engineers and the industry people.
Nonlinear dynamic analysis of quasi-symmetric anisotropic structures
Noor, Ahmed K.; Peters, Jeanne M.
1987-01-01
An efficient computational method for the nonlinear dynamic analysis of quasi-symmetric anisotropic structures is proposed. The application of mixed models simplifies the analytical development and improves the accuracy of the response predictions, and operator splitting allows the reduction of the analysis model of the quasi-symmetric structure to that of the corresponding symmetric structure. The preconditoned conjugate gradient provides a stable and effective technique for generating the unsymmetric response of the structure as the sum of a symmetrized response plus correction modes. The effectiveness of the strategy is demonstrated with the example of a laminated anisotropic shallow shell of quadrilateral planform subjected to uniform normal loading.
Dynamic Analysis of Wind Turbines Including Soil-Structure Interaction
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Harte, M.; Basu, B.; Nielsen, Søren R.K.
2012-01-01
This paper investigates the along-wind forced vibration response of an onshore wind turbine. The study includes the dynamic interaction effects between the foundation and the underlying soil, as softer soils can influence the dynamic response of wind turbines. A Multi-Degree-of-Freedom (MDOF...... rotational speed (3P effects). The effect of dynamic soil-structure interaction on the rotation of the foundation has also been investigated.......) horizontal axes onshore wind turbine model is developed for dynamic analysis using an Euler–Lagrangian approach. The model is comprised of a rotor blade system, a nacelle and a flexible tower connected to a foundation system using a substructuring approach. The rotor blade system consists of three rotating...
Structural and Symmetry Analysis of Discrete Dynamical Systems
Kornyak, Vladimir V
2010-01-01
To study discrete dynamical systems of different types --- deterministic, statistical and quantum --- we develope various approaches. We introduce the concept of a system of discrete relations on an abstract simplicial complex and develope algorithms for analysis of compatibility and construction of canonical decompositions of such systems. To illustrate these techniques we describe their application to some cellular automata. Much attention is paid to study symmetries of the systems. In the case of deterministic systems we reveale some important relations between symmetries and dynamics. We demonstrate that moving soliton-like structures arise inevitably in deterministic dynamical system whose symmetry group splits the set of states into finite number of group orbits. We develope algorithms and programs exploiting discrete symmetries to study microcanonical ensembles and search phase transitions in mesoscopic lattice models. We propose an approach to quantization of discrete systems based on introduction of ...
Analysis of Asteroid (216) Kleopatra Using Dynamical and Structural Constraints
Hirabayashi, Masatoshi; Scheeres, Daniel J.
2014-01-01
This paper evaluates a dynamically and structurally stable size for Asteroid (216) Kleopatra. In particular, we investigate two different failure modes: material shedding from the surface and structural failure of the internal body. We construct zero-velocity curves in the vicinity of this asteroid to determine surface shedding, while we utilize a limit analysis to calculate the lower and upper bounds of structural failure under the zero-cohesion assumption. Surface shedding does not occur at the current spin period (5.385 hr) and cannot directly initiate the formation of the satellites. On the other hand, this body may be close to structural failure; in particular, the neck may be situated near a plastic state. In addition, the neck's sensitivity to structural failure changes as the body size varies. We conclude that plastic deformation has probably occurred around the neck part in the past. If the true size of this body is established through additional measurements, this method will provide strong constraints on the current friction angle for the body.
Analysis of Asteroid (216) Kleopatra using dynamical and structural constraints
Hirabayashi, Masatoshi
2013-01-01
Given the spin state by Magnusson (1990), the shape model by Ostro et al. (2000), and the mass by Descamps et al. (2011), this paper evaluates a dynamically and structurally stable size of Asteroid (216) Kleopatra. In particular, we investigate two different failure modes: material shedding from the surface and structural failure of the internal body. We construct zero-velocity curves in the vicinity of this asteroid to determine surface shedding, while we utilize a limit analysis to calculate the lower and upper bounds of structural failure under the zero-cohesion assumption. Surface shedding does not occur at the current spin period (5.385 hr) and cannot directly initiate the formation of the satellites. On the other hand, this body may be close to structural failure; in particular, the neck may be situated near a plastic state. In addition, the neck's sensitivity to structural failure changes as the body size varies. We conclude that plastic deformation has probably occurred around the neck part in the pas...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sanaz Mahmoudpour
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Analysis and design of structures subjected to arbitrary dynamic loadings especially earthquakes have been studied during past decades. In practice, the effects of soil-structure interaction on the dynamic response of structures are usually neglected. In this study, the effect of soil-structure interaction on the dynamic response of structures has been examined. The substructure method using dynamic stiffness of soil is used to analyze soil-structure system. A coupled model based on finite element method and scaled boundary finite element method is applied. Finite element method is used to analyze the structure, and scaled boundary finite element method is applied in the analysis of unbounded soil region. Due to analytical solution in the radial direction, the radiation condition is satisfied exactly. The material behavior of soil and structure is assumed to be linear. The soil region is considered as a homogeneous half-space. The analysis is performed in time domain. A computer program is prepared to analyze the soil-structure system. Comparing the results with those in literature shows the exactness and competency of the proposed method.
Dynamic Analysis of Structural Columns Subjected to Impulsive Loading
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
GONG Shunfeng; LU Yong; GAO Feng; JIN Weiliang
2006-01-01
For a building structure subjected to impulsive loading,particularly shock and impact loading,the response of the critical columns is crucial to the behaviour of the entire system during and after the blast loading phase.Therefore,an appropriate evaluation of the column response and damage under short-duration impulsive loading is important in a comprehensive assessment of the performance of a building system.This paper reports a dynamic analysis approach for the response of RC columns subjected to impulsive loading.Considering that the dynamic response of a column in a frame structure can also be affected by the floor movement which relates to the global vibration of the frame system,a generic column-mass model is used,in which a concentrated mass is attached to the column top to simulate the effect of a global vibration.To take into account the high shear effect under impulsive load,the model is formulated using Timoshenko beam theory,and three main nonlinear mechanisms are considered.Two typical scenarios,one under a direct air blast loading,and another under a blast-induced ground excitation,are analyzed and the primary response features are highlighted.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pan Dan-guang
2015-01-01
Full Text Available For realizing the variation of structural dynamic characteristics due to neighbor structure in buildings group, the surface structure is idealized as an equivalent single degree of freedom system with rigid base whose site consists of a single homogeneous layer. Based on the model, a equivalent method on the equivalent seismic excitation is proposed. Then, the differences of seismic response and equivalent seismic input between soil - structure interaction (SSI system and structure -soil-structure interaction (SSSI system are investigated by harmonic analysis. The numerical results show that dynamic responses would be underestimated in SSSI system when the forcing frequencies are close to the Natural frequency if the effects of neighborhood structure were ignored. Neighborhood structure would make the translational displacement increase and rocking vibration decrease. When establishing an effective seismic input, it is necessary to consider the impact of inertia interaction.
Structural dynamic analysis with generalized damping models analysis
Adhikari , Sondipon
2013-01-01
Since Lord Rayleigh introduced the idea of viscous damping in his classic work ""The Theory of Sound"" in 1877, it has become standard practice to use this approach in dynamics, covering a wide range of applications from aerospace to civil engineering. However, in the majority of practical cases this approach is adopted more for mathematical convenience than for modeling the physics of vibration damping. Over the past decade, extensive research has been undertaken on more general ""non-viscous"" damping models and vibration of non-viscously damped systems. This book, along with a related book
Fundamentals of structural dynamics
Craig, Roy R
2006-01-01
From theory and fundamentals to the latest advances in computational and experimental modal analysis, this is the definitive, updated reference on structural dynamics.This edition updates Professor Craig's classic introduction to structural dynamics, which has been an invaluable resource for practicing engineers and a textbook for undergraduate and graduate courses in vibrations and/or structural dynamics. Along with comprehensive coverage of structural dynamics fundamentals, finite-element-based computational methods, and dynamic testing methods, this Second Edition includes new and e
On the use of Stockwell transform in structural dynamic analysis
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
H Serdar Kuyuk
2015-02-01
Time-frequency analysis of earthquake records using Fourier transform is a fundamental, reliable and useful tool in earthquake engineering and engineering seismology. It will be however no longer functional if the frequency variation is analysed in time domain. Short time Fourier transform is utilized for the same purpose but this has also its own limitations and restrictions. In this research, Stockwell transform (S-transform), is evaluated in investigating frequency content of signal in time domain. First, the effectiveness of S-transform was tested by a non-stationary synthetic signal series with a sum of various instantaneous time varying frequency functions. Then, transform was employed to three different earthquake waveforms of Iwate-Miyagi Nairiku earthquake (Mw 6.9, 2008); recorded in near, moderate and far sites. Finally, an application was demonstrated for determining dynamic response of three-story frame structure by using El Centro earthquake compiled with harmonic motion. Unlike widely used continuous wavelet transform, which provides temporal and spectral information simultaneously, S-transform is very straightforward and easy to manipulate for interpretations. All cases considered in this research showed that Stransform can be implemented for further research activities related with frequencydependent strong motion analysis by practitioners and engineers. S-transform can distinguish abrupt frequency changes in structures effectively and accurately.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Javanpour
2017-02-01
Full Text Available Prediction of existing buildings’ vulnerability by future earthquakes is one of the most essential topics in structural engineering. Modeling steel structures is a giant step in determining the damage caused by the earthquake, as such structures are increasingly being used in constructions. Hence, two same-order steel structures with two types of structural systems were selected (coaxial moment frames and moment frame. In most cases, a specific structure needs to satisfy several functional levels. For this purpose, a method is required to determine the input request to the structures under possible earthquakes. Therefore, the Incremental Dynamic Analysis (IDA was preferred to the Push-Over non-linear static method for the analysis and design of the considered steel structures, due its accuracy and effect of higher modes at the same time intervals. OpenSees software was used to perform accurate nonlinear analysis of the steel structure. Two parameters (spectral acceleration and maximum ground acceleration were introduced to the modeled frames to compare the numerical correlations of seismic vulnerability obtained by two statistical methods based on the "log-normal distribution" and "logistics distribution", and finally, the parameters of displacement and drift were assessed after analysis.
Model Reduction in Dynamic Finite Element Analysis of Lightweight Structures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Flodén, Ola; Persson, Kent; Sjöström, Anders
2012-01-01
The application of wood as a construction material when building multi-storey buildings has many advantages, e.g., light weight, sustainability and low energy consumption during the construction and lifecycle of the building. However, compared to heavy structures, it is a greater challenge to build...... lightweight structures without noise and disturbing vibrations between storeys and rooms. The dynamic response of floor and wall structures may be investigated using finite element models with three-dimensional solid elements [1]. In order to analyse the global response of complete buildings, finite element...
Strømmen, Einar N
2014-01-01
This book introduces to the theory of structural dynamics, with focus on civil engineering structures that may be described by line-like beam or beam-column type of systems, or by a system of rectangular plates. Throughout this book the mathematical presentation contains a classical analytical description as well as a description in a discrete finite element format, covering the mathematical development from basic assumptions to the final equations ready for practical dynamic response predictions. Solutions are presented in time domain as well as in frequency domain. Structural Dynamics starts off at a basic level and step by step brings the reader up to a level where the necessary safety considerations to wind or horizontal ground motion induced dynamic design problems can be performed. The special theory of the tuned mass damper has been given a comprehensive treatment, as this is a theory not fully covered elsewhere. For the same reason a chapter on the problem of moving loads on beams has been included.
SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS BASED ON LANCZOS ALGORITHM IN STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李书; 王波; 胡继忠
2003-01-01
The sensitivity calculating formulas in structural dynamics was developed byutilizing the mathematical theorem and new definitions of sensitivities. So the singularityproblem of sensitivity with repeated eigenvalues is solved completely. To improve thecomputational efficiency, the reduction system is obtained based on Lanczos vectors. Afterincorporating the mathematical theory with the Lanczos algorithm, the approximatesensitivity solution can be obtained. A numerical example is presented to illustrate theperformance of the method.
DYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF UNDERGROUND COMPOSITE STRUCTURES UNDER EXPLOSION LOADING
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
赵晓兵; 薛大为; 赵玉祥
2004-01-01
In selecting rational types of underground structures resisting explosion, in order to improve stress states of the structural section and make full use of material strength of each part of the section, the research method of composite structures is presented. Adopting the analysis method of micro-section free body, equilibrium equations, constraint equations and deformation coordination equations are given. Making use of the concept of generalized work and directly introducing Lagrange multiplier specific in physical meaning, the validity of the constructed generalized functional is proved by using variation method. The rational rigidity matching relationship of composite structure section is presented through example calculations.
Accuracy of Dynamic and Acoustic Analysis of Lightweight Panel Structures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Dickow, Kristoffer Ahrens; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard
2012-01-01
in such buildings is important. In the lowfrequency range, prediction of sound and vibration in building structures may be achieved by finite-element analysis (FEA). The aim of this paper is to compare the two commercial codes ABAQUS and ANSYS for FEA of an acoustic-structural coupling in a timber lightweight panel...... structure. For this purpose, modal analyses are carried out employing a fully coupled model of sound waves within an acoustic medium and vibrations in the structural part. The study concerns the frequency range 50–250 Hz....
Structural Dynamics Verification of Rotorcraft Comprehensive Analysis System (RCAS)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bir, G. S.
2005-02-01
The Rotorcraft Comprehensive Analysis System (RCAS) was acquired and evaluated as part of an ongoing effort by the U.S Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to provide state-of-the-art wind turbine modeling and analysis technology for Government and industry. RCAS is an interdisciplinary tool offering aeroelastic modeling and analysis options not supported by current codes. RCAS was developed during a 4-year joint effort among the U.S. Army's Aeroflightdynamics Directorate, Advanced Rotorcraft Technology Inc., and the helicopter industry. The code draws heavily from its predecessor 2GCHAS (Second Generation Comprehensive Helicopter Analysis System), which required an additional 14 years to develop. Though developed for the rotorcraft industry, its general-purpose features allow it to model or analyze a general dynamic system. Its key feature is a specialized finite element that can model spinning flexible parts. The code, therefore, appears particularly suited for wind turbines whose dynamics is dominated by massive flexible spinning rotors. In addition to the simulation capability of the existing codes, RCAS [1-3] offers a range of unique capabilities, including aeroelastic stability analysis, trim, state-space modeling, operating modes, modal reduction, multi-blade coordinate transformation, periodic-system-specific analysis, choice of aerodynamic models, and a controls design/implementation graphical interface.
Model Reduction in Dynamic Finite Element Analysis of Lightweight Structures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Flodén, Ola; Persson, Kent; Sjöström, Anders
2012-01-01
. The objective of the analyses presented in this paper is to evaluate methods for model reduction of detailed finite element models of floor and wall structures and to investigate the influence of reducing the number of degrees of freedom and computational cost on the dynamic response of the models in terms....... The drawback of component mode synthesis compared to modelling with structural elements is the increased computational cost, although the number of degrees of freedom is small in comparison, as a result of the large bandwidth of the system matrices.......The application of wood as a construction material when building multi-storey buildings has many advantages, e.g., light weight, sustainability and low energy consumption during the construction and lifecycle of the building. However, compared to heavy structures, it is a greater challenge to build...
Bayesian analysis of the dynamic structure in China's economic growth
Kyo, Koki; Noda, Hideo
2008-11-01
To analyze the dynamic structure in China's economic growth during the period 1952-1998, we introduce a model of the aggregate production function for the Chinese economy that considers total factor productivity (TFP) and output elasticities as time-varying parameters. Specifically, this paper is concerned with the relationship between the rate of economic growth in China and the trend in TFP. Here, we consider the time-varying parameters as random variables and introduce smoothness priors to construct a set of Bayesian linear models for parameter estimation. The results of the estimation are in agreement with the movements in China's social economy, thus illustrating the validity of the proposed methods.
Structural parameter identifiability analysis for dynamic reaction networks
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Davidescu, Florin Paul; Jørgensen, Sten Bay
2008-01-01
. The proposed analysis is performed in two phases. The first phase determines the structurally identifiable reaction rates based on reaction network stoichiometry. The second phase assesses the structural parameter identifiability of the specific kinetic rate expressions using a generating series expansion...... method based on Lie derivatives. The proposed systematic two phase methodology is illustrated on a mass action based model for an enzymatically catalyzed reaction pathway network where only a limited set of variables is measured. The methodology clearly pinpoints the structurally identifiable parameters...
Analysis of Nonlinear Structural Dynamics and Resonance in Trees
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H. Doumiri Ganji
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Wind and gravity both impact trees in storms, but wind loads greatly exceed gravity loads in most situations. Complex behavior of trees in windstorms is gradually turning into a controversial concern among ecological engineers. To better understand the effects of nonlinear behavior of trees, the dynamic forces on tree structures during periods of high winds have been examined as a mass-spring system. In fact, the simulated dynamic forces created by strong winds are studied in order to determine the responses of the trees to such dynamic loads. Many of such nonlinear differential equations are complicated to solve. Therefore, this paper focuses on an accurate and simple solution, Differential Transformation Method (DTM, to solve the derived equation. In this regard, the concept of differential transformation is briefly introduced. The approximate solution to this equation is calculated in the form of a series with easily computable terms. Then, the method has been employed to achieve an acceptable solution to the presented nonlinear differential equation. To verify the accuracy of the proposed method, the obtained results from DTM are compared with those from the numerical solution. The results reveal that this method gives successive approximations of high accuracy solution.
Structural Modeling and Analysis on Dynamic Characteristics of Antenna Pedestal in Airborne SAR
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
He Li-ping
2012-06-01
Full Text Available Finite element modeling and structural dynamic characteristics of antenna pedestal in airborne SAR were studied in this paper. The Finite element model of antenna pedestal in airborne SAR was set up on the basis of structural dynamic theory, then, the key technologies of dynamic simulation were pointed out, and the modal analysis and transient analysis were carried out. Simulation results show that the dynamic characteristics of antenna pedestal in airborne SAR can meet the requirements of servo bandwidth and structural strength. The fast finite element modeling and simulation method proposed in this paper are of great significance to the weight reducing design of antenna pedestal in airborne SAR.
Jung, Kwanghee; Takane, Yoshio; Hwang, Heungsun; Woodward, Todd S.
2012-01-01
We propose a new method of structural equation modeling (SEM) for longitudinal and time series data, named Dynamic GSCA (Generalized Structured Component Analysis). The proposed method extends the original GSCA by incorporating a multivariate autoregressive model to account for the dynamic nature of data taken over time. Dynamic GSCA also…
Dynamic Error Analysis Method for Vibration Shape Reconstruction of Smart FBG Plate Structure
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hesheng Zhang
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Shape reconstruction of aerospace plate structure is an important issue for safe operation of aerospace vehicles. One way to achieve such reconstruction is by constructing smart fiber Bragg grating (FBG plate structure with discrete distributed FBG sensor arrays using reconstruction algorithms in which error analysis of reconstruction algorithm is a key link. Considering that traditional error analysis methods can only deal with static data, a new dynamic data error analysis method are proposed based on LMS algorithm for shape reconstruction of smart FBG plate structure. Firstly, smart FBG structure and orthogonal curved network based reconstruction method is introduced. Then, a dynamic error analysis model is proposed for dynamic reconstruction error analysis. Thirdly, the parameter identification is done for the proposed dynamic error analysis model based on least mean square (LMS algorithm. Finally, an experimental verification platform is constructed and experimental dynamic reconstruction analysis is done. Experimental results show that the dynamic characteristics of the reconstruction performance for plate structure can be obtained accurately based on the proposed dynamic error analysis method. The proposed method can also be used for other data acquisition systems and data processing systems as a general error analysis method.
A time stepping method in analysis of nonlinear structural dynamics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gholampour A. A.
2011-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper a new method is proposed for the direct time integration method for structural dynamics problems. The proposed method assumes second order variations of the acceleration at each time step. Therefore more terms in the Taylor series expansion were used compared to other methods. Because of the increase in order of variations of acceleration, this method has higher accuracy than classical methods. The displacement function is a polynomial with five constants and they are calculated using: two equations for initial conditions (from the end of previous time step, two equations for satisfying the equilibrium at both ends of the time step, and one equation for the weighted residual integration. Proposed method has higher stability and order of accuracy than the other methods.
Nonlinear analysis and dynamic structure in the energy market
Aghababa, Hajar
This research assesses the dynamic structure of the energy sector of the aggregate economy in the context of nonlinear mechanisms. Earlier studies have focused mainly on the price of the energy products when detecting nonlinearities in time series data of the energy market, and there is little mention of the production side of the market. Moreover, there is a lack of exploration about the implication of high dimensionality and time aggregation when analyzing the market's fundamentals. This research will address these gaps by including the quantity side of the market in addition to the price and by systematically incorporating various frequencies for sample sizes in three essays. The goal of this research is to provide an inclusive and exhaustive examination of the dynamics in the energy markets. The first essay begins with the application of statistical techniques, and it incorporates the most well-known univariate tests for nonlinearity with distinct power functions over alternatives and tests different null hypotheses. It utilizes the daily spot price observations on five major products in the energy market. The results suggest that the time series daily spot prices of the energy products are highly nonlinear in their nature. They demonstrate apparent evidence of general nonlinear serial dependence in each individual series, as well as nonlinearity in the first, second, and third moments of the series. The second essay examines the underlying mechanism of crude oil production and identifies the nonlinear structure of the production market by utilizing various monthly time series observations of crude oil production: the U.S. field, Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), non-OPEC, and the world production of crude oil. The finding implies that the time series data of the U.S. field, OPEC, and the world production of crude oil exhibit deep nonlinearity in their structure and are generated by nonlinear mechanisms. However, the dynamics of the non
Analysis of Dynamic Properties of Piezoelectric Structure under Impact Load
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Taotao Zhang
2015-10-01
Full Text Available An analytical model of the dynamic properties is established for a piezoelectric structure under impact load, without considering noise and perturbations in this paper. Based on the general theory of piezo-elasticity and impact mechanics, the theoretical solutions of the mechanical and electrical fields of the smart structure are obtained with the standing and traveling wave methods, respectively. The comparisons between the two methods have shown that the standing wave method is better for studying long-time response after an impact load. In addition, good agreements are found between the theoretical and the numerical results. To simulate the impact load, both triangle and step pulse loads are used and comparisons are given. Furthermore, the influence of several parameters is discussed so as to provide some advices for practical use. It can be seen that the proposed analytical model would benefit, to some extent, the design and application (especially the airport runway of the related smart devices by taking into account their impact load performance.
DYNAMICS ANALYSIS OF SPECIAL STRUCTURE OF MILLING-HEAD MACHINE TOOL
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2008-01-01
The milling-bead machine tool is a sophisticated and high-quality machine tool of which the spindle system is made up of special multi-element structure. Two special mechanical configurations make the cutting performance of the machine tool decline. One is the milling head spindle supported on two sets of complex bearings. The mechanical dynamic rigidity of milling head structure is researched on designed digital prototype with finite element analysis(FEA) and modal synthesis analysis (MSA) for identifying the weak structures. The other is the ram structure hanging on milling head. The structure is researched to get dynamic performance on cutting at different ram extending positions. The analysis results on spindle and ram are used to improve the mechanical configurations and structure in design. The machine tool is built up with modified structure and gets better dynamic rigidity than it was before.
THE DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF VIBRATION STRUCTURE OF VERTICAL DYNAMIC BALANCING MACHINE
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LiDinggen; CaoJiguang; WangJtmwen; ChenChuanyao
2004-01-01
A new type of vibration structure (i.e. supporting system, called swing frame customarily) of vertical dynamic balancing machine has been designed, which is based on an analysis for the swing frame of a traditional double-plane vertical dynamic balancing machine. The static unbalance and couple unbalance can be effectively separated by using the new dynamic balancing machine with the new swing frame. By building the dynamics model, the advantages of the new structure are discussed in detail. The modal and harmonic response are analyzed by using the ANSYS7.0. By comparing the finite element modal analysis with the experimental modal analysis, the natural frequencies and vibration modes are found. There are many spring boards in the new swing frame. Their stiffnesses are different and assorted with each other. Furthermore, there are three sensors on the measuring points. Therefore, the new dynamic balancing machine can measure static unbalance and coupling unbalance directly, and the interaction between them is faint. The result shows that the new vertical dynamic balancing machine is suitable for inertial measurement of flying objects, and can overcome the shortcomings of traditional double-plane vertical dynamic balancing machines, which the effect of plane-separation is inferior. The vertical dynamic balancing machine with the new vibration structure can find wide application in the future. The modelling and analysis of the new vibration structure will provide theoretical basis and practical experience for designing new-type vertical dynamic balancing machines.
Tene, Yair; Tene, Noam; Tene, G.
1993-08-01
An interactive data fusion methodology of video, audio, and nonlinear structural dynamic analysis for potential application in forensic engineering is presented. The methodology was developed and successfully demonstrated in the analysis of heavy transportable bridge collapse during preparation for testing. Multiple bridge elements failures were identified after the collapse, including fracture, cracks and rupture of high performance structural materials. Videotape recording by hand held camcorder was the only source of information about the collapse sequence. The interactive data fusion methodology resulted in extracting relevant information form the videotape and from dynamic nonlinear structural analysis, leading to full account of the sequence of events during the bridge collapse.
Martin, David; Boyle, Fergal
2015-09-01
Several clinical studies have identified a strong correlation between neointimal hyperplasia following coronary stent deployment and both stent-induced arterial injury and altered vessel hemodynamics. As such, the sequential structural and fluid dynamics analysis of balloon-expandable stent deployment should provide a comprehensive indication of stent performance. Despite this observation, very few numerical studies of balloon-expandable coronary stents have considered both the mechanical and hemodynamic impact of stent deployment. Furthermore, in the few studies that have considered both phenomena, only a small number of stents have been considered. In this study, a sequential structural and fluid dynamics analysis methodology was employed to compare both the mechanical and hemodynamic impact of six balloon-expandable coronary stents. To investigate the relationship between stent design and performance, several common stent design properties were then identified and the dependence between these properties and both the mechanical and hemodynamic variables of interest was evaluated using statistical measures of correlation. Following the completion of the numerical analyses, stent strut thickness was identified as the only common design property that demonstrated a strong dependence with either the mean equivalent stress predicted in the artery wall or the mean relative residence time predicted on the luminal surface of the artery. These results corroborate the findings of the large-scale ISAR-STEREO clinical studies and highlight the crucial role of strut thickness in coronary stent design. The sequential structural and fluid dynamics analysis methodology and the multivariable statistical treatment of the results described in this study should prove useful in the design of future balloon-expandable coronary stents.
Dynamic Structural Modeling and Its Applications: An Analysis of Anxiety Structure
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Keita Kinjo
2012-11-01
Full Text Available This study aims at investigating and analyzing the changes of consciousness structure. The method is already known and is referred to as structural modeling; to investigate and analyze the change of consciousness structure. However, there have been only a few studies conducted to analyze the change of consciousness structure. We have therefore proposed the dynamic structural modeling as an outline to investigate and analyze the change of consciousness structure. As an example, we have applied the principle to the data about the structural change of human anxiety at the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake and the result gives us useful information.
The Analysis of the Development Dynamics and Structural Balance of Solar Energy in the World
Brand, A. E.; Chekardovskiy, S. M.; Akulov, K. A.
2017-01-01
The paper presents data the analysis of the development dynamics and structural balance of solar energy in the world. In the article presents information about total installed production capacity of solar energy, the world solar energy production capacity distribution and the European Union energy market structure in 2000 and 2015 years.
Finite element analysis of dynamic response and structure borne noise of gearbox
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIU Wen; LIN Teng-jiao; LI Run-fang; DU Xue-song
2007-01-01
A dynamic finite element method combined with finite element mixed formula for contact problem is used to analyze the dynamic characteristics of gear system. Considering the stiffness excitation, error excitation and meshing shock excitation, the dynamic finite element model is established for the entire gear system which includes gears, shafts, bearings and gearbox housing. By the software of I-DEAS, the natural frequency, normal mode, dynamic time-domain response, frequency-domain response and one-third octave velocity grade structure borne noise of gear system are studied by the method of theoretical modal analysis and dynamic response analysis. The maximum values of vibration and structure borne noise are occurred at the mesh frequency of output grade gearing.
Numerical Analysis of the Dynamics of Nonlinear Solids and Structures
2008-08-01
of the conservation/ dissipation properties in time for the elastoplastic case 64 11.6. Concluding remarks 70 References 71 li...development of stable time-stepping algorithms for nonlinear dynamics. The focus was on inelastic solids, including finite strain elastoplastic and...set of plas- tic/ damage evolution equations (usually of a unilaterally constrained character due to the presence of the so-called yield/ damage
Modified precise time step integration method of structural dynamic analysis
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wang Mengfu; Zhou Xiyuan
2005-01-01
The precise time step integration method proposed for linear time-invariant homogeneous dynamic systems can provide precise numerical results that approach an exact solution at the integration points. However, difficulty arises when the algorithm is used for non-homogeneous dynamic systems, due to the inverse matrix calculation and the simulation accuracy of the applied loading. By combining the Gaussian quadrature method and state space theory with the calculation technique of matrix exponential function in the precise time step integration method, a new modified precise time step integration method (e.g., an algorithm with an arbitrary order of accuracy) is proposed. In the new method, no inverse matrix calculation or simulation of the applied loading is needed, and the computing efficiency is improved. In particular, the proposed method is independent of the quality of the matrix H. If the matrix H is singular or nearly singular, the advantage of the method is remarkable. The numerical stability of the proposed algorithm is discussed and a numerical example is given to demonstrate the validity and efficiency of the algorithm.
COMPUTERIZED KINEMATIC AND DYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF LARGE DEPLOYABLE STRUCTURES
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
胡其彪; 关富玲; 侯鹏飞
2001-01-01
As Huston's form of Kane's equation cannot be easily applied to large deployable structures, what is needed is further development of Kane's equation as described in this paper. Fully-Cartesian-coordinate (FCC) method uses Cartesian coordinates of points and Cartesian components of unitary vectors as generalized coordinates to describe three-dimension mechanisms. This FCC method avoids the need to consider angular coordinates and the resulting solution is just the space position of the structures. The FCC form of Kane's equation derived in this study is suitable for solution by computer method and is a good base for further simulation research. A numerical example showed that it is effective.
Accuracy of Dynamic and Acoustic Analysis of Lightweight Panel Structures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Dickow, Kristoffer Ahrens; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard
2012-01-01
Currently there is an increasing focus on the transmission of low frequency sound in buildings, as sources such as road and air traffic or even home theatre subwoofers become part of everyday life for many people. Hence, development of efficient and accurate methods for prediction of sound in suc...... structure. For this purpose, modal analyses are carried out employing a fully coupled model of sound waves within an acoustic medium and vibrations in the structural part. The study concerns the frequency range 50–250 Hz....
Chen, Hai-Long; Jin, Feng-Nian; Fan, Hua-Lin
2013-02-01
Due to the wide applications of arches in underground protective structures, dynamic analysis of circular arches including soil-structure interactions is important. In this paper, an exact solution of the forced vibration of circular arches subjected to subsurface denotation forces is obtained. The dynamic soil-structure interaction is considered with the introduction of an interfacial damping between the structure element and the surrounding soil into the equation of motion. By neglecting the influences of shear, rotary inertia and tangential forces and assuming the arch incompressible, the equations of motion of the buried arches were set up. Analytical solutions of the dynamic responses of the protective arches were deduced by means of modal superposition. Arches with different opening angles, acoustic impedances and rise-span ratios were analyzed to discuss their influences on an arch. The theoretical analysis suggests blast loads for elastic designs and predicts the potential failure modes for buried protective arches.
Steenbergen, K G; Gaston, N
2014-02-14
Inspired by methods of remote sensing image analysis, we analyze structural variation in cluster molecular dynamics (MD) simulations through a unique application of the principal component analysis (PCA) and Pearson Correlation Coefficient (PCC). The PCA analysis characterizes the geometric shape of the cluster structure at each time step, yielding a detailed and quantitative measure of structural stability and variation at finite temperature. Our PCC analysis captures bond structure variation in MD, which can be used to both supplement the PCA analysis as well as compare bond patterns between different cluster sizes. Relying only on atomic position data, without requirement for a priori structural input, PCA and PCC can be used to analyze both classical and ab initio MD simulations for any cluster composition or electronic configuration. Taken together, these statistical tools represent powerful new techniques for quantitative structural characterization and isomer identification in cluster MD.
Cryo-electron microscopy for structural analysis of dynamic biological macromolecules.
Murata, Kazuyoshi; Wolf, Matthias
2017-07-27
Since the introduction of what became today's standard for cryo-embedding of biological macromolecules at native conditions more than 30years ago, techniques and equipment have been drastically improved and the structure of biomolecules can now be studied at near atomic resolution by cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) while capturing multiple dynamic states. Here we review the recent progress in cryo-EM for structural studies of dynamic biological macromolecules. We provide an overview of the cryo-EM method and introduce contemporary studies to investigate biomolecular structure and dynamics, including examples from the recent literature. Cryo-EM is a powerful tool for the investigation of biological macromolecular structures including analysis of their dynamics by using advanced image-processing algorithms. The method has become even more widely applicable with present-day single particle analysis and electron tomography. The cryo-EM method can be used to determine the three-dimensional structure of biomacromolecules in near native condition at close to atomic resolution, and has the potential to reveal conformations of dynamic molecular complexes. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Biophysical Exploration of Dynamical Ordering of Biomolecular Systems" edited by Dr. Koichi Kato. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
The ABRAVIBE toolbox for teaching vibration analysis and structural dynamics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brandt, A.
2013-01-01
, a MATLAB toolbox (the ABRAVIBE toolbox) has been developed as an accompanying toolbox for the recent book "Noise and Vibration Analysis" by the author. This free, open software, published under GNU Public License, can be used with GNU Octave, if an entirely free software platform is wanted, with a few...
Ding, Hang
2014-01-01
Structures in recurrence plots (RPs), preserving the rich information of nonlinear invariants and trajectory characteristics, have been increasingly analyzed in dynamic discrimination studies. The conventional analysis of RPs is mainly focused on quantifying the overall diagonal and vertical line structures through a method, called recurrence quantification analysis (RQA). This study extensively explores the information in RPs by quantifying local complex RP structures. To do this, an approach was developed to analyze the combination of three major RQA variables: determinism, laminarity, and recurrence rate (DLR) in a metawindow moving over a RP. It was then evaluated in two experiments discriminating (1) ideal nonlinear dynamic series emulated from the Lorenz system with different control parameters and (2) data sets of human heart rate regulations with normal sinus rhythms (n = 18) and congestive heart failure (n = 29). Finally, the DLR was compared with seven major RQA variables in terms of discriminatory power, measured by standardized mean difference (DSMD). In the two experiments, DLR resulted in the highest discriminatory power with DSMD = 2.53 and 0.98, respectively, which were 7.41 and 2.09 times the best performance from RQA. The study also revealed that the optimal RP structures for the discriminations were neither typical diagonal structures nor vertical structures. These findings indicate that local complex RP structures contain some rich information unexploited by RQA. Therefore, future research to extensively analyze complex RP structures would potentially improve the effectiveness of the RP analysis in dynamic discrimination studies.
Ding, Hang
2014-01-01
Structures in recurrence plots (RPs), preserving the rich information of nonlinear invariants and trajectory characteristics, have been increasingly analyzed in dynamic discrimination studies. The conventional analysis of RPs is mainly focused on quantifying the overall diagonal and vertical line structures through a method, called recurrence quantification analysis (RQA). This study extensively explores the information in RPs by quantifying local complex RP structures. To do this, an approach was developed to analyze the combination of three major RQA variables: determinism, laminarity, and recurrence rate (DLR) in a metawindow moving over a RP. It was then evaluated in two experiments discriminating (1) ideal nonlinear dynamic series emulated from the Lorenz system with different control parameters and (2) data sets of human heart rate regulations with normal sinus rhythms (n = 18) and congestive heart failure (n = 29). Finally, the DLR was compared with seven major RQA variables in terms of discriminatory power, measured by standardized mean difference (DSMD). In the two experiments, DLR resulted in the highest discriminatory power with DSMD = 2.53 and 0.98, respectively, which were 7.41 and 2.09 times the best performance from RQA. The study also revealed that the optimal RP structures for the discriminations were neither typical diagonal structures nor vertical structures. These findings indicate that local complex RP structures contain some rich information unexploited by RQA. Therefore, future research to extensively analyze complex RP structures would potentially improve the effectiveness of the RP analysis in dynamic discrimination studies.
Xu, Yanling; Lin, Qiuhong; Wang, Xingze; Li, Lin; Cong, Qiang; Pan, Bo
2017-01-01
The deployable structure is critical to the overall success of the space mission. This paper introduces a large-scale spatial deployable structure (SDS), which is developed to deploy and support the payload panels in a precise configuration once on the track. And segmental researching in the design, kinematics and dynamics analysis of SDS's prototyping system are presented. Geometric construction method and Bar-groups method are adopted to analysis the dimensions and coordinates of the SDS, which finally construct an well-determined mathematical model to raise the productivity and efficiency during optimization and analysis work. Be reasoned with the large-scale of the truss structures, flexible multibody dynamic simulations are developed, which present much more authentic stress transfer and kinematics behaviors. According to the deployment experiments of SDS's prototyping system, the correctness and validity of the flexible multibody simulation work are well proved.
Zhang, Yiqun; Li, Na; Yang, Guigeng; Ru, Wenrui
2017-02-01
This paper presents a dynamic analysis approach for the composite structure of a deployable truss and cable-net system. An Elastic Catenary Element is adopted to model the slack/tensioned cables. Then, from the energy standpoint, the kinetic energy, elasticity-potential energy and geopotential energy of the cable-net structure and deployable truss are derived. Thus, the flexible multi-body dynamic model of the deployable antenna is built based on the Lagrange equation. The effect of the cable-net tension on the antenna truss is discussed and compared with previous publications and a dynamic deployment analysis is performed. Both the simulation and experimental results verify the validity of the method presented.
Preliminary Dynamic Siol-Structure-Interaction Analysis for the Waste Handling Building
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
G. Wagenblast
2000-05-01
The objective of this analysis package is to document a preliminary dynamic seismic evaluation of a simplified design concept of the Wade Handling Building (WHB). Preliminary seismic ground motions and soil data will be used. Loading criteria of the WHB System Design Description will be used. Detail design of structural members will not be performed.. The results of the analysis will be used to determine preliminary sizes of structural concrete and steel members and to determine whether the seismic response of the structure is within an acceptable level for future License Application design of safety related facilities. In order to complete this preliminary dynamic evaluation to meet the Site Recommendation (SR) schedule, the building configuration was ''frozen in time'' as the conceptual design existed in October 1999. Modular design features and dry or wet waste storage features were intentionally excluded from this preliminary dynamic seismic evaluation. The document was prepared in accordance with the Development Plan for the ''Preliminary/Dynamic Soil Structure Interaction Analysis for the Waste Handling Building'' (CRWMS M&O 2000b), which was completed, in accordance with AP-2.13Q, ''Technical Product Development Planning''.
Structural dynamics teaching example: A linear test analysis case using open software
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sturesson, P. O.; Brandt, A.; Ristinmaa, M.
2013-01-01
availability of computers many engineering problems in practice are evaluated by means of numerical methods. The teaching task within the field of structural dynamics thus has to include analytical models in order to create a theoretical basis but also has to include computational techniques with its......Teaching the topic of structural dynamics in any engineering field is a true challenge due to the wide span of the underlying subjects like mathematics, mechanics (both rigid body and continuum mechanics), numerical analysis, random data analysis and physical understanding.With the increased...... approximations, and knowledge about their limitations. Equally important is for students to have knowledge of the experimental verification of the obtained models. This paper describes a teaching example where a simple plate structure is modeled by shell elements, followed by a model calibration using...
Stone, John E; McGreevy, Ryan; Isralewitz, Barry; Schulten, Klaus
2014-01-01
Hybrid structure fitting methods combine data from cryo-electron microscopy and X-ray crystallography with molecular dynamics simulations for the determination of all-atom structures of large biomolecular complexes. Evaluating the quality-of-fit obtained from hybrid fitting is computationally demanding, particularly in the context of a multiplicity of structural conformations that must be evaluated. Existing tools for quality-of-fit analysis and visualization have previously targeted small structures and are too slow to be used interactively for large biomolecular complexes of particular interest today such as viruses or for long molecular dynamics trajectories as they arise in protein folding. We present new data-parallel and GPU-accelerated algorithms for rapid interactive computation of quality-of-fit metrics linking all-atom structures and molecular dynamics trajectories to experimentally-determined density maps obtained from cryo-electron microscopy or X-ray crystallography. We evaluate the performance and accuracy of the new quality-of-fit analysis algorithms vis-à-vis existing tools, examine algorithm performance on GPU-accelerated desktop workstations and supercomputers, and describe new visualization techniques for results of hybrid structure fitting methods.
Dynamic response analysis of structure under time-variant interval process model
Xia, Baizhan; Qin, Yuan; Yu, Dejie; Jiang, Chao
2016-10-01
Due to the aggressiveness of the environmental factor, the variation of the dynamic load, the degeneration of the material property and the wear of the machine surface, parameters related with the structure are distinctly time-variant. Typical model for time-variant uncertainties is the random process model which is constructed on the basis of a large number of samples. In this work, we propose a time-variant interval process model which can be effectively used to deal with time-variant uncertainties with limit information. And then two methods are presented for the dynamic response analysis of the structure under the time-variant interval process model. The first one is the direct Monte Carlo method (DMCM) whose computational burden is relative high. The second one is the Monte Carlo method based on the Chebyshev polynomial expansion (MCM-CPE) whose computational efficiency is high. In MCM-CPE, the dynamic response of the structure is approximated by the Chebyshev polynomials which can be efficiently calculated, and then the variational range of the dynamic response is estimated according to the samples yielded by the Monte Carlo method. To solve the dependency phenomenon of the interval operation, the affine arithmetic is integrated into the Chebyshev polynomial expansion. The computational effectiveness and efficiency of MCM-CPE is verified by two numerical examples, including a spring-mass-damper system and a shell structure.
Fang, Jing; Nevin, Philip; Kairys, Visvaldas; Venclovas, Ceslovas; Engen, John R; Beuning, Penny J
2014-04-08
The relationship between protein sequence, structure, and dynamics has been elusive. Here, we report a comprehensive analysis using an in-solution experimental approach to study how the conservation of tertiary structure correlates with protein dynamics. Hydrogen exchange measurements of eight processivity clamp proteins from different species revealed that, despite highly similar three-dimensional structures, clamp proteins display a wide range of dynamic behavior. Differences were apparent both for structurally similar domains within proteins and for corresponding domains of different proteins. Several of the clamps contained regions that underwent local unfolding with different half-lives. We also observed a conserved pattern of alternating dynamics of the α helices lining the inner pore of the clamps as well as a correlation between dynamics and the number of salt bridges in these α helices. Our observations reveal that tertiary structure and dynamics are not directly correlated and that primary structure plays an important role in dynamics.
Factor analysis of dynamic structures (FADS) in the diagnosis of the renal disease
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Macleod, M.A.; Houston, A.S.
1989-09-01
Factor analysis of dynamic structures (FADS) has been used in the interpretation of dynamic scintigraphic studies since the technique was described by Bazin et al. (1980). This study was designed to analyse to what extent, if any, does physiological factor analysis of dynamic renal data really help the clinician and by how much the method improves the diagnostic accuracy when compared to deconvolution analysis and parenchymal transit time (PTT) measurements. One hundred and fifty patients who were clinically, biochemically and radiologically investigated for renal disease were included in the study. Fifty of these were found to have no clinical evidence of renal disease, 50 were diagnosed as having non obstructive kidney disease and 50 had evidence of renal obstruction. Data obtained from /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA renography were processed using deconvolution (with PTTs) and physiological factor analysis and the results compared by ROC analysis. Clinically the information gained from factor analysis was superior to that obtained from deconvolution with PTT measurements in that a more accurate differentiation between an obstructive nephropathy and an obstructive uropathy was obtained. It is considered that physiological factor analysis enhances the clinical information obtained from renography, increases diagnostic accuracy and obviates the need for diuresis renography. (orig.).
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Hai-Long Chen; Feng-Nian Jin; Hua-Lin Fan
2013-01-01
Due to the wide applications of arches in underground protective structures,dynamic analysis of circular arches including soil-structure interactions is important.In this paper,an exact solution of the forced vibration of circular arches subjected to subsurface denotation forces is obtained.The dynamic soil-structure interaction is considered with the introduction of an interfacial damping between the structure element and the surrounding soil into the equation of motion.By neglecting the influences of shear,rotary inertia and tangential forces and assuming the arch incompressible,the equations of motion of the buried arches were set up.Analytical solutions of the dynamic responses of the protective arches were deduced by means of modal superposition.Arches with different opening angles,acoustic impedances and rise-span ratios were analyzed to discuss their influences on an arch.The theoretical analysis suggests blast loads for elastic designs and predicts the potential failure modes for buried protective arches.
Dynamical Structure of Baryons
Aleksejevs, A
2013-01-01
Compton scattering offers a unique opportunity to study the dynamical structure of hadrons over a wide kinematic range, with polarizabilities characterizing the hadron active internal degrees of freedom. We present calculations and detailed analysis of electric and magnetic and the spin-dependent dynamical polarizabilities for the lowest in mass SU(3) octet of baryons. These extensive calculations are made possible by the recent implementation of semi-automatized calculations in chiral perturbation theory which allows evaluating polarizabilities from Compton scattering up to next-to-the-leading order. The dependencies for the range of photon energies covering the majority of the meson photoproduction channels are analyzed.
Dynamic response analysis of an aircraft structure under thermal-acoustic loads
Cheng, H.; Li, H. B.; Zhang, W.; Wu, Z. Q.; Liu, B. R.
2016-09-01
Future hypersonic aircraft will be exposed to extreme combined environments includes large magnitude thermal and acoustic loads. It presents a significant challenge for the integrity of these vehicles. Thermal-acoustic test is used to test structures for dynamic response and sonic fatigue due to combined loads. In this research, the numerical simulation process for the thermal acoustic test is presented, and the effects of thermal loads on vibro-acoustic response are investigated. To simulate the radiation heating system, Monte Carlo theory and thermal network theory was used to calculate the temperature distribution. Considering the thermal stress, the high temperature modal parameters are obtained with structural finite element methods. Based on acoustic finite element, modal-based vibro-acoustic analysis is carried out to compute structural responses. These researches are very vital to optimum thermal-acoustic test and structure designs for future hypersonic vehicles structure
Saether, Erik; Hochhalter, Jacob D.; Glaessgen, Edward H.; Mishin, Yuri
2014-01-01
A multiscale modeling methodology is developed for structurally-graded material microstructures. Molecular dynamic (MD) simulations are performed at the nanoscale to determine fundamental failure mechanisms and quantify material constitutive parameters. These parameters are used to calibrate material processes at the mesoscale using discrete dislocation dynamics (DD). Different grain boundary interactions with dislocations are analyzed using DD to predict grain-size dependent stress-strain behavior. These relationships are mapped into crystal plasticity (CP) parameters to develop a computationally efficient finite element-based DD/CP model for continuum-level simulations and complete the multiscale analysis by predicting the behavior of macroscopic physical specimens. The present analysis is focused on simulating the behavior of a graded microstructure in which grain sizes are on the order of nanometers in the exterior region and transition to larger, multi-micron size in the interior domain. This microstructural configuration has been shown to offer improved mechanical properties over homogeneous coarse-grained materials by increasing yield stress while maintaining ductility. Various mesoscopic polycrystal models of structurally-graded microstructures are generated, analyzed and used as a benchmark for comparison between multiscale DD/CP model and DD predictions. A final series of simulations utilize the DD/CP analysis method exclusively to study macroscopic models that cannot be analyzed by MD or DD methods alone due to the model size.
Shen, Ji Yao; Abu-Saba, Elias G.; Mcginley, William M.; Sharpe, Lonnie, Jr.; Taylor, Lawrence W., Jr.
1992-01-01
Distributed parameter modeling offers a viable alternative to the finite element approach for modeling large flexible space structures. The introduction of the transfer matrix method into the continuum modeling process provides a very useful tool to facilitate the distributed parameter model applied to some more complex configurations. A uniform Timoshenko beam model for the estimation of the dynamic properties of beam-like structures has given comparable results. But many aeronautical and aerospace structures are comprised of non-uniform sections or sectional properties, such as aircraft wings and satellite antennas. This paper proposes a piecewise continuous Timoshenko beam model which is used for the dynamic analysis of tapered beam-like structures. A tapered beam is divided into several segments of uniform beam elements. Instead of arbitrarily assumed shape functions used in finite element analysis, the closed-form solution of the Timoshenko beam equation is used. Application of the transfer matrix method relates all the elements as a whole. By corresponding boundary conditions and compatible conditions a characteristic equation for the global tapered beam has been developed, from which natural frequencies can be derived. A computer simulation is shown in this paper, and compared with the results obtained from the finite element analysis. While piecewise continuous Timoshenko beam model decreases the number of elements significantly; comparable results to the finite element method are obtained.
The effect of glycosylation on the transferrin structure: A molecular dynamic simulation analysis.
Ghanbari, Z; Housaindokht, M R; Bozorgmehr, M R; Izadyar, M
2016-09-07
Transferrins have been defined by the highly cooperative binding of iron and a carbonate anion to form a Fe-CO3-Tf ternary complex. As such, the layout of the binding site residues affects transferrin function significantly; In contrast to N-lobe, C-lobe binding site of the transferrin structure has been less characterized and little research which surveyed the interaction of carbonate with transferrin in the C-lobe binding site has been found. In the present work, molecular dynamic simulation was employed to gain access into the molecular level understanding of carbonate binding site and their interactions in each lobe. Residues responsible for carbonate binding of transferrin structure were pointed out. In addition, native human transferrin is a glycoprotein that two N-linked complex glycan chains located in the C-lobe. Usually, in the molecular dynamic simulation for simplifying, glycan is removed from the protein structure. Here, we explore the effect of glycosylation on the transferrin structure. Glycosylation appears to have an effect on the layout of the binding site residue and transferrin structure. On the other hand, sometimes the entire transferrin formed by separated lobes that it allows the results to be interpreted in a straightforward manner rather than more parameters required for full length protein. But, it should be noted that there are differences between the separated lobe and full length transferrin, hence, a comparative analysis by the molecular dynamic simulation was performed to investigate such structural variations. Results revealed that separation in C-lobe caused a significant structural variation in comparison to N-lobe. Consequently, the separated lobes and the full length one are different, showing the importance of the interlobe communication and the impact of the lobes on each other in the transferrin structure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sreekantamurthy, Tham; Gaspar, James L.; Mann, Troy; Behun, Vaughn; Pearson, James C., Jr.; Scarborough, Stephen
2007-01-01
Ultra-light weight and ultra-thin membrane inflatable antenna concepts are fast evolving to become the state-of-the-art antenna concepts for deep-space applications. NASA Langley Research Center has been involved in the structural dynamics research on antenna structures. One of the goals of the research is to develop structural analysis methodology for prediction of the static and dynamic response characteristics of the inflatable antenna concepts. This research is focused on the computational studies to use nonlinear large deformation finite element analysis to characterize the ultra-thin membrane responses of the antennas. Recently, structural analyses have been performed on a few parabolic reflector antennas of varying size and shape, which are referred in the paper as 0.3 meters subscale, 2 meters half-scale, and 4 meters full-scale antenna. The various aspects studied included nonlinear analysis methodology and solution techniques, ways to speed convergence in iterative methods, the sensitivities of responses with respect to structural loads, such as inflation pressure, gravity, and pretension loads in the ground and in-space conditions, and the ultra-thin membrane wrinkling characteristics. Several such intrinsic aspects studied have provided valuable insight into evaluation of structural characteristics of such antennas. While analyzing these structural characteristics, a quick study was also made to assess the applicability of dynamics scaling of the half-scale antenna. This paper presents the details of the nonlinear structural analysis results, and discusses the insight gained from the studies on the various intrinsic aspects of the analysis methodology. The predicted reflector surface characteristics of the three inflatable ultra-thin membrane parabolic reflector antenna concepts are presented as easily observable displacement fringe patterns with associated maximum values, and normal mode shapes and associated frequencies. Wrinkling patterns are
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fuchert, Golo
2013-12-13
The safe and reliable satisfaction of the world's increasing energy demand at affordable costs is one of the major challenges of our century. Nuclear fusion power plants following the magnetic confinement approach may play an essential role in solving this issue. The energy loss of the fusion plasma due to plasma turbulence reduces the efficiency and poses a threat to the first wall of a fusion reactor. Close to the wall, in the scrape-off layer, this transport is dominated by blobs or filaments: Localized structures of increased pressure, which transport energy and particles towards the wall by propagating radially outwards. Their contribution to the transport depends on their size, propagation velocity and generation rate. An analytical model for the evolution of blobs predicts their velocity and size, but not the generation rate. Experiments indicate that edge turbulence in the vicinity of the last closed flux surface (the boundary between the confined plasma and the scrape-off layer) is involved in the blob generation process and should influence the generation rate. The present thesis aims at answering two main questions: How well do the blob properties predicted from the simple model compare to experimental observations in more complex magnetic field configurations of actual fusion experiments and does the edge turbulence influence the blob properties during the generation process. A fast camera was used to measure blob properties in two devices, TJ-K and ASDEX Upgrade. In TJ-K, blob sizes and velocities were determined together with the generation rate. An overall agreement with the predictions from the simple model is found. For the first time a clear influence of the edge dynamics on the analyzed blob properties is demonstrated. These measurements include the first systematic comparison of the structure-size scaling inside and outside of the last closed flux surface. Furthermore, measurements with a multi-probe array are used to reconstruct the blob
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Luiza Fabrino Favato
2015-04-01
Full Text Available This article presents a study of a testing bench structure for Rocket Engines, which is under development by the PUC-Minas Aerospace Research Group. The Bench is being built for civilian’s liquid bipropellant rocket engines up to 5 kN of thrust. The purpose of this article is to evaluate the bench structure using the Finite Element Method (FEM, by structural linear static and dynamic analysis. Performed to predict the behavior of the structure to the requests of the tests. The virtual simulations were performed using a CAE software with the Nastran solver. The structure is 979 x 1638 mm by 2629 mm, consisting of folded-plates (¼ "x 3¼" x 8" and plates of 1/4" and 1/2 ", both SAE 1020 Steel .The rocket engine is fixed on the structure through a set called engine mount. It was included in the analysis clearances or misalignments that may occur during tests. As well as, the load applied was evaluated with components in varying orientations and directions. It was considered the maximum size of the engine mount and the maximum inclination angle of load. At the end of this article it was observed that the worst stress and displacement values obtained were for the hypothesis with the inclination of five-degrees with load components in the positive directions of the axes defined and it was also obtained the first twenty frequency modes of the structure.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Leandro Martínez
Full Text Available The analysis of structural mobility in molecular dynamics plays a key role in data interpretation, particularly in the simulation of biomolecules. The most common mobility measures computed from simulations are the Root Mean Square Deviation (RMSD and Root Mean Square Fluctuations (RMSF of the structures. These are computed after the alignment of atomic coordinates in each trajectory step to a reference structure. This rigid-body alignment is not robust, in the sense that if a small portion of the structure is highly mobile, the RMSD and RMSF increase for all atoms, resulting possibly in poor quantification of the structural fluctuations and, often, to overlooking important fluctuations associated to biological function. The motivation of this work is to provide a robust measure of structural mobility that is practical, and easy to interpret. We propose a Low-Order-Value-Optimization (LOVO strategy for the robust alignment of the least mobile substructures in a simulation. These substructures are automatically identified by the method. The algorithm consists of the iterative superposition of the fraction of structure displaying the smallest displacements. Therefore, the least mobile substructures are identified, providing a clearer picture of the overall structural fluctuations. Examples are given to illustrate the interpretative advantages of this strategy. The software for performing the alignments was named MDLovoFit and it is available as free-software at: http://leandro.iqm.unicamp.br/mdlovofit.
A hybrid analysis method for linear dynamic soil-structure interaction in time and frequency domain
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
丁海平; 廖振鹏
2001-01-01
A hybrid analysis method in time and frequency domains for linear soil-structure interaction is presented. First, the time domain solution of the system with Rayleigh damping excited by a short time impulse is obtained by the decoupling numerical simulation technique of near-field wave motion. Then, the corresponding frequency domain solution can be got by Fourier transform. According to the relationship between damping value and dynamic re-sponse of a system, the solution of the system with complex damping can be got by Taylor expansion. The hybrid method makes the best of decoupling and explicit algorithm in time domain, and increases the calculation efficien-cy for linear soil-structure interaction analysis.
2007-11-02
This ONR grant was to facilitate the meeting of an international group of researchers to examine the future of structural dynamics . A group of about...promptly dismissed it as an intellectual pursuit not useful in structural dynamics . In reflecting back over his career, he now views this as a mistake...smart materials, mechatronics, etc.) and determining the appropriate interaction between these new advances and structural dynamics was one of the
A work softening joint element used in dynamic analysis of soil-structure
Toki, Kenzo; Yongen, Cai; Zhendong, Zhao
1989-11-01
This paper introduces an elasto-plastic joint element characterised by strain hardening and softening in the analysis of dynamic soil-structure interaction. The phenomena of separation and sliding on the contact surface between soil and structure can be better simulated and the process can also be described. The interaction problems in a typical soil-structure system are analyzed in terms of elasto-plastic joint element as well as elastic ones. The results show that the elasto-plastic joint element is much better than the elastic one in modelling, especially in that the relative displacements accross the joint element can be much greater than that of the elastic case. Separation and sliding are not only related to the coefficient of friction and cohesion but also to their changes with plastic volumetric strain.
Dynamic Characteristics Analysis and Structure Optimization Study of Glaze Spraying Manipulator
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Feng Hao
2016-01-01
Full Text Available A new type of glaze spray manipulator is studied with a three-dimensional entity modal. The dynamic characteristics of its structure have been analysis by finite element method. The first ten other modes of vibration and their natural frequencies were obtained. It is found out that the frequency peak appears at 10Hz and the max deformation occurs in sixth order vibration mode by the observation of the end of spray gun on the manipulator. Furthermore, an improvement structure is provided to reinforce the stiffness and the thickness of rotation support at the manipulator’s wrist (the end joint. By test verification, it is proved that the max deformation is reduced after structure improvements.
Application of the Probabilistic Dynamic Synthesis Method to the Analysis of a Realistic Structure
Brown, Andrew M.; Ferri, Aldo A.
1998-01-01
The Probabilistic Dynamic Synthesis method is a new technique for obtaining the statistics of a desired response engineering quantity for a structure with non-deterministic parameters. The method uses measured data from modal testing of the structure as the input random variables, rather than more "primitive" quantities like geometry or material variation. This modal information is much more comprehensive and easily measured than the "primitive" information. The probabilistic analysis is carried out using either response surface reliability methods or Monte Carlo simulation. A previous work verified the feasibility of the PDS method on a simple seven degree-of-freedom spring-mass system. In this paper, extensive issues involved with applying the method to a realistic three-substructure system are examined, and free and forced response analyses are performed. The results from using the method are promising, especially when the lack of alternatives for obtaining quantitative output for probabilistic structures is considered.
Romo, Tod D; Leioatts, Nicholas; Grossfield, Alan
2014-12-15
LOOS (Lightweight Object Oriented Structure-analysis) is a C++ library designed to facilitate making novel tools for analyzing molecular dynamics simulations by abstracting out the repetitive tasks, allowing developers to focus on the scientifically relevant part of the problem. LOOS supports input using the native file formats of most common biomolecular simulation packages, including CHARMM, NAMD, Amber, Tinker, and Gromacs. A dynamic atom selection language based on the C expression syntax is included and is easily accessible to the tool-writer. In addition, LOOS is bundled with over 140 prebuilt tools, including suites of tools for analyzing simulation convergence, three-dimensional histograms, and elastic network models. Through modern C++ design, LOOS is both simple to develop with (requiring knowledge of only four core classes and a few utility functions) and is easily extensible. A python interface to the core classes is also provided, further facilitating tool development.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Søren R. K.; Peng, Yongbo; Sichani, Mahdi Teimouri
2016-01-01
The paper deals with the response and reliability analysis of hysteretic or geometric nonlinear uncertain dynamical systems of arbitrary dimensionality driven by stochastic processes. The approach is based on the probability density evolution method proposed by Li and Chen (Stochastic dynamics...... of structures, 1st edn. Wiley, London, 2009; Probab Eng Mech 20(1):33–44, 2005), which circumvents the dimensional curse of traditional methods for the determination of non-stationary probability densities based on Markov process assumptions and the numerical solution of the related Fokker–Planck and Kolmogorov......–Feller equations. The main obstacle of the method is that a multi-dimensional convolution integral needs to be carried out over the sample space of a set of basic random variables, for which reason the number of these need to be relatively low. In order to handle this problem an approach is suggested, which...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HUANG Hu; ZHANG She-rong
2011-01-01
Tension leg platform(TLP)for offshore wind turbine support is a new type structure in wind energy utilization.The strong-interaction method is used in analyzing the coupled model,and the dynamic characteristics of the TLP for offshore wind turbine support are recognized.As shown by the calculated results:for the lower modes,the shapes are water's vibration,and the vibration of water induces the structure's swing;the mode shapes of the structure are complex,and can largely change among different members;the mode shapes of the platform are related to the tower's.The frequencies of the structure do not change much after adjusting the length of the tension cables and the depth of the platform;the TLP has good adaptability for the water depths and the environment loads.The change of the size and parameters of TLP can improve the dynamic characteristics,which can reduce the vibration of the TLP caused by the loads.Through the vibration analysis,the natural vibration frequencies of TLP can be distinguished from the frequencies of condition loads,and thus the resonance vibration can be avoided,therefore the offshore wind turbine can work normally in the complex conditions.
Quantitative Analysis of the Nanopore Translocation Dynamics of Simple Structured Polynucleotides
Schink, Severin; Renner, Stephan; Alim, Karen; Arnaut, Vera; Simmel, Friedrich C.; Gerland, Ulrich
2012-01-01
Nanopore translocation experiments are increasingly applied to probe the secondary structures of RNA and DNA molecules. Here, we report two vital steps toward establishing nanopore translocation as a tool for the systematic and quantitative analysis of polynucleotide folding: 1), Using α-hemolysin pores and a diverse set of different DNA hairpins, we demonstrate that backward nanopore force spectroscopy is particularly well suited for quantitative analysis. In contrast to forward translocation from the vestibule side of the pore, backward translocation times do not appear to be significantly affected by pore-DNA interactions. 2), We develop and verify experimentally a versatile mesoscopic theoretical framework for the quantitative analysis of translocation experiments with structured polynucleotides. The underlying model is based on sequence-dependent free energy landscapes constructed using the known thermodynamic parameters for polynucleotide basepairing. This approach limits the adjustable parameters to a small set of sequence-independent parameters. After parameter calibration, the theoretical model predicts the translocation dynamics of new sequences. These predictions can be leveraged to generate a baseline expectation even for more complicated structures where the assumptions underlying the one-dimensional free energy landscape may no longer be satisfied. Taken together, backward translocation through α-hemolysin pores combined with mesoscopic theoretical modeling is a promising approach for label-free single-molecule analysis of DNA and RNA folding. PMID:22225801
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YANG Ning; WU Zhigang; YANG Chao
2011-01-01
The flutter characteristics of an actuator-fin system are investigated with structural nonlinearity and dynamic stiffness of the electric motor.The component mode substitution method is used to establish the nonlinear governing equations in time domain and frequency domain based on the fundamental dynamic equations of the electric motor and decelerator.The existing describing function method and a proposed iterative method are used to obtain the flutter characteristics containing preload freeplay nonlinearity when the control command is zero.A comparison between the results of frequency domain and those of time domain is studied.Simulations are carried out when the control command is not zero and further analysis is conducted when the freeplay angle is changed.The results show that structural nonlinearity and dynamic stiffness have a significant influence on the flutter characteristics.Limit cycle oscillations(LCOs)are observed within linear flutter boundary.The response of the actuator-fin system is related to the initial disturbance.In the nonlinear condition,the amplitude of the control command has an influence on the flutter characteristics.
Structural Dynamics Laboratory (SDL)
Federal Laboratory Consortium — Structural dynamic testing is performed to verify the survivability of a component or assembly when exposed to vibration stress screening, or a controlled simulation...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
MA Juan; CHEN Jian-jun; XU Ya-lan; JIANG Tao
2006-01-01
A new fuzzy stochastic finite element method based on the fuzzy factor method and random factor method is given and the analysis of structural dynamic characteristic for fuzzy stochastic truss structures is presented. Considering the fuzzy randomness of the structural physical parameters and geometric dimensions simultaneously, the structural stiffness and mass matrices are constructed based on the fuzzy factor method and random factor method; from the Rayleigh's quotient of structural vibration, the structural fuzzy random dynamic characteristic is obtained by means of the interval arithmetic;the fuzzy numeric characteristics of dynamic characteristic are then derived by using the random variable's moment function method and algebra synthesis method. Two examples are used to illustrate the validity and rationality of the method given. The advantage of this method is that the effect of the fuzzy randomness of one of the structural parameters on the fuzzy randomness of the dynamic characteristic can be reflected expediently and objectively.
Brown, A. M.
1998-01-01
Accounting for the statistical geometric and material variability of structures in analysis has been a topic of considerable research for the last 30 years. The determination of quantifiable measures of statistical probability of a desired response variable, such as natural frequency, maximum displacement, or stress, to replace experience-based "safety factors" has been a primary goal of these studies. There are, however, several problems associated with their satisfactory application to realistic structures, such as bladed disks in turbomachinery. These include the accurate definition of the input random variables (rv's), the large size of the finite element models frequently used to simulate these structures, which makes even a single deterministic analysis expensive, and accurate generation of the cumulative distribution function (CDF) necessary to obtain the probability of the desired response variables. The research presented here applies a methodology called probabilistic dynamic synthesis (PDS) to solve these problems. The PDS method uses dynamic characteristics of substructures measured from modal test as the input rv's, rather than "primitive" rv's such as material or geometric uncertainties. These dynamic characteristics, which are the free-free eigenvalues, eigenvectors, and residual flexibility (RF), are readily measured and for many substructures, a reasonable sample set of these measurements can be obtained. The statistics for these rv's accurately account for the entire random character of the substructure. Using the RF method of component mode synthesis, these dynamic characteristics are used to generate reduced-size sample models of the substructures, which are then coupled to form system models. These sample models are used to obtain the CDF of the response variable by either applying Monte Carlo simulation or by generating data points for use in the response surface reliability method, which can perform the probabilistic analysis with an order of
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
James Lua
2004-01-01
Full Text Available Marine composite materials typically exhibit significant rate dependent response characteristics when subjected to extreme dynamic loading conditions. In this work, a strain-rate dependent continuum damage model is incorporated with multicontinuum technology (MCT to predict damage and failure progression for composite material structures. MCT treats the constituents of a woven fabric composite as separate but linked continua, thereby allowing a designer to extract constituent stress/strain information in a structural analysis. The MCT algorithm and material damage model are numerically implemented with the explicit finite element code LS-DYNA3D via a user-defined material model (umat. The effects of the strain-rate hardening model are demonstrated through both simple single element analyses for woven fabric composites and also structural level impact simulations of a composite panel subjected to various impact conditions. Progressive damage at the constituent level is monitored throughout the loading. The results qualitatively illustrate the value of rate dependent material models for marine composite materials under extreme dynamic loading conditions.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yang, Tae-Ho; Hong, Jin-Tae; Ahn, Sung-Ho; Joung, Chang-Young; Heo, Sung-Ho; Jang, Seo-Yun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2015-10-15
1-way fluid-structure coupled analysis is used to estimate the dynamic characteristic of the fuel test rig. the motion at the bottom of the test rig is confirmed. The maximum deformation of the test rig is 0.11 mm. The structural integrity of the test rig is performed by using the comparison with the Von-mises stress of the analysis and yield stress of the material. It is evaluated that the motion at the bottom of the test rig is able to cause other structural problem. Using the 2-way fluid-structural coupled analysis, the structural integrity of the test rig will be performed in further paper. The cooling water with specific flow rate was flowed in the nuclear fuel test rig. The structural integrity of the test rig was affected by the vibration. The fluid-induced vibration test had to be performed to obtain the amplitude of the vibration on the structure. Various test systems was developed. Flow-induced vibration and pressure drop experimental tester was developed in Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute. The vibration test with high fluid flow rate was difficult by the tester. To generate the nuclear fuel test environment, coolant flow simulation system was developed. The scaled nuclear fuel test was able to be performed by the simulation system. The mock-up model of the test rig was used in the simulation system. The mock-up model in the simulation system was manufactured with scaled down full model. In this paper, the fluid induced vibration characteristic of the full model in the nuclear fuel test is studied. The hydraulic pressure on the velocity of the fluid was calculated. The static structure analysis was performed by using the pressure. The structural integrity was assessed using the results of the analysis.
Anderson, James C
2012-01-01
A concise introduction to structural dynamics and earthquake engineering Basic Structural Dynamics serves as a fundamental introduction to the topic of structural dynamics. Covering single and multiple-degree-of-freedom systems while providing an introduction to earthquake engineering, the book keeps the coverage succinct and on topic at a level that is appropriate for undergraduate and graduate students. Through dozens of worked examples based on actual structures, it also introduces readers to MATLAB, a powerful software for solving both simple and complex structural d
Analysis of Dynamic Model of a Structure with Nonlinear Damped Behavior
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G. Domairry
2010-04-01
Full Text Available In this work, it has been attempted to analytically treat the nonlinear behavior of structures. Since analysing nonlinear problems is of great difficulty, different numerical methods and software are advised to treat such problems. Despite the increasing expenses of building structures to maintain their linear behavior, nonlinearity has been inevitable, and therefore, nonlinear analysis has beenof great importance to the scientists in the field. As structures confront lateral forces and intense earthquakes especially near fault regions, a part of the structure remains linear, but some part of itbehaves nonlinearly for example dampers, columns and beams. This is simulated by a damped in nonlinear oscillator. In this paper, the nonlinear equation of oscillator with damping which has nonlinear behavior is representative of the dynamic behavior of a structure has been solved analytically. In the end, the obtained results are compared with numerical ones and shown in graphs and in tables;analytical solutions are in good agreement with those of the numerical method.
Nonlinear dynamics of structures
Oller, Sergio
2014-01-01
This book lays the foundation of knowledge that will allow a better understanding of nonlinear phenomena that occur in structural dynamics. This work is intended for graduate engineering students who want to expand their knowledge on the dynamic behavior of structures, specifically in the nonlinear field, by presenting the basis of dynamic balance in non‐linear behavior structures due to the material and kinematics mechanical effects. Particularly, this publication shows the solution of the equation of dynamic equilibrium for structure with nonlinear time‐independent materials (plasticity, damage and frequencies evolution), as well as those time dependent non‐linear behavior materials (viscoelasticity and viscoplasticity). The convergence conditions for the non‐linear dynamic structure solution are studied, and the theoretical concepts and its programming algorithms are presented.
Nishiyama, Katsuhiko
2010-07-01
The binding of 10GLY to dynamic structures of papain was investigated by molecular dynamics and docking simulations. The binding free energies and sites were greatly fluctuated depending on the time and the binding was more stable and existed at the near site of active center when the structural changes in the highly flexible residues in papain were larger. Binding stability and sites would be significantly influenced by the highly flexible residues. Analysis of such residues would provide an important guideline for clarification of enzymatic activities and modification of structural dynamics of such residues would allow us to control enzymatic activities.
Analysis of structural dynamic characteristics of a high speed light special catamaran
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2006-01-01
In this paper,structural dynamic characteristics of a high-speed light special catamaran-wave piercing catamaran are analyzed using the FEA software MSC-NASTRAN.The dynamic reduction method is introduced to eliminate the local vibration modes in order to obtain the whole ship's mode shapes.In the post-processor,a lot of accessorial methods are adopted to eliminate the local vibrations,so that the whole ship's mode shapes can be identified.The modal analysis indicates that the dynamic reduction method fits for mode shapes identifying.In the end,the test results of a catamaran named Frederick G.Greed are used for reference to validate the obtained results.The comparison process shows that the results are credible.A special mode shape,which is quite different with that of conventional monohull ship,is also pointed out.The obtained results provide a valuable reference for the coming computation of catamaran's vibration characteristics.
Mathematical analysis of an age-structured model for malaria transmission dynamics.
Forouzannia, Farinaz; Gumel, Abba B
2014-01-01
A new deterministic model for assessing the role of age-structure on the transmission dynamics of malaria in a community is designed. Rigorous qualitative analysis of the model reveals that it undergoes the phenomenon of backward bifurcation, where the stable disease-free equilibrium of the model co-exists with a stable endemic equilibrium when the associated reproduction number (denoted by R0) is less than unity. It is shown that the backward bifurcation phenomenon is caused by the malaria-induced mortality in humans. A special case of the model is shown to have a unique endemic equilibrium whenever the associated reproduction threshold exceeds unity. Further analyses reveal that adding age-structure to a basic model for malaria transmission in a community does not alter the qualitative dynamics of the basic model, with respect to the existence and asymptotic stability of the associated equilibria and the backward bifurcation property of the model. Numerical simulations of the model show that the cumulative number of new cases of infection and malaria-induced mortality increase with increasing average lifespan and birth rate of mosquitoes.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HU Yu-jia; ZHU Yuan-yuan; CHENG Chang-jun
2008-01-01
A nonlinear mathematical model for the analysis of large deformation of frame structures with discontinuity conditions and initial displacements,subject to dynamic loads is formulated with arc-coordinates.The differential quadrature element method (DQEM)is then applied to discretize the nonlinear mathematical model in the spatial domain.An effective method is presented to deal with discontinuity conditions of multivariables in the application of DQEM.A set of DQEM discretization equations are obtained,which are a set of nonlinear differential-algebraic equations with singularity in the time domain.This paper also presents a method to solve nonlinear differential-algebra equations.As application,static and dynamical analyses of large deformation of frames and combined frame structures,subjected to concentrated and distributed forces,are presented.The obtained results are compared with those in the literatares.Numerical results show that the proposed method is general,and effective in dealing with discontinuity conditions of multi-variables and solving difierential-algebraic equations.It requires only a small number of nodes and has low computation complexity with high precision and a good convergence property.
Kandasamy, Ramkumar; Cui, Fangsen
2016-04-01
In the traditional layered piezoelectric structures, high stress concentrations could cause the structural failure in interlayer surfaces due to repeated strain reversals. To overcome the performance limitations of these structures, the concept of Functionally Graded Materials (FGMs) has been introduced to improve the lifetime, integrity, and reliability of these structures. In this paper, the free and forced vibration of radially polarized Functionally Graded Piezoelectric (FGP) cylinders under different sets of loading are studied. Material properties such as piezoelectric, elastic and permittivity are assumed to change along its thickness, based on a specific gradation function. Four-parameter power law distribution is used to grade the volume fraction of the constituents comprising of PZT-5A and PZT-5H. Material property is assumed to be temperature dependent for a few numerical studies. The present modeling approach is validated by comparing the free and forced vibration of radially polarized Functionally Graded Piezoelectric (FGP) cylinders with those reported in the literature. The effects of material composition, loading and boundary conditions on the dynamic behavior of FGP cylinder are described. Since the modeling of functionally graded piezoelectric systems is challenging, the present study can help in the design and analysis of FGP cylinders.
Structural Dynamics of the Potassium Channel Blocker ShK: SRLS Analysis of (15)N Relaxation.
Meirovitch, Eva; Tchaicheeyan, Oren; Sher, Inbal; Norton, Raymond S; Chill, Jordan H
2015-12-10
The 35-residue ShK peptide binds with high affinity to voltage-gated potassium channels. The dynamics of the binding surface was studied recently with (microsecond to millisecond) (15)N relaxation dispersion and (picosecond to nanosecond) (15)N spin relaxation of the N-H bonds. Relaxation dispersion revealed microsecond conformational-exchange-mediated exposure of the functionally important Y23 side chain to the peptide surface. The spin relaxation parameters acquired at 14.1 and 16.45 T have been subjected to model-free (MF) analysis, which yielded a squared generalized order parameter, S(2), of approximately 0.85 for virtually all of the N-H bonds. Only a "rigid backbone" evaluation could be inferred. We ascribe this limited information to the simplicity of MF in the context of challenging data. To improve the analysis, we apply the slowly relaxing local structure (SRLS) approach, which is a generalization of MF. SRLS describes N-H bond dynamics in ShK in terms of a local potential, u, ranging from 10 to 18.5 kBT, and a local diffusion rate, D2, ranging from 4.2 × 10(8) to 2.4 × 10(10) s(-1). This analysis shows that u is outstandingly strong for Y23 and relatively weak for K22, whereas D2 is slow for Y23 and fast for K22. These observations are relevant functionally because of the key role of the K22-Y23 dyad in ShK binding to potassium channels. The disulfide-bond network exhibits a medium-strength potential and an alternating wave-like D2 pattern. This is indicative of moderate structural restraints and motional plasticity, in support of, although not directly correlated with, the microsecond binding-related conformational exchange process detected previously. Thus, new information on functionally important residues in ShK and its overall conformational stability emerged from the SRLS analysis, as compared with the previous MF-based estimate of backbone dynamics as backbone rigidity.
Dynamic Soil-Structure-Soil-Interaction Analysis of Structures in Dense Urban Environments
Jones, Katherine Carys
2013-01-01
Urban centers are increasingly becoming the locus of enterprise, innovation, and population. This pull toward the center of cities has steadily elevated the importance of these areas. Growth has necessarily spawned new construction. Consequently, modern buildings are often constructed alongside legacy structures, new deep basements are constructed alongside existing shallow foundations, and city blocks composed of a variety of building types result. The underlying soil, foundation, and super...
The structure and dynamics of cities urban data analysis and theoretical modeling
Barthelemy, Marc
2016-01-01
With over half of the world's population now living in urban areas, the ability to model and understand the structure and dynamics of cities is becoming increasingly valuable. Combining new data with tools and concepts from statistical physics and urban economics, this book presents a modern and interdisciplinary perspective on cities and urban systems. Both empirical observations and theoretical approaches are critically reviewed, with particular emphasis placed on derivations of classical models and results, along with analysis of their limits and validity. Key aspects of cities are thoroughly analyzed, including mobility patterns, the impact of multimodality, the coupling between different transportation modes, the evolution of infrastructure networks, spatial and social organisation, and interactions between cities. Drawing upon knowledge and methods from areas of mathematics, physics, economics and geography, the resulting quantitative description of cities will be of interest to all those studying and r...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mas, J.; Younes, R.B.; Bellaton, B.; Bidet, R. (Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Jean Minjoz, 25 - Besancon (France). Lab. de Biophysique et de Medecine Nucleaire); Hannequin, P. (Centre d' Imagerie Nucleaire, 74 -Annecy (France))
1990-11-01
A new approach to Compton scatter correction based on factor analysis of dynamic structures (FADS) is presented in this study. The innovation is the use of a constrained photopeak factor. This novel algorithm is evaluated both on planar imaging and SPECT data using Monte Carlo simulations and real phantoms. A comparison with the modified method of Jaszczak is also presented. Different parameters are significantly improved with the authors' recombination method in SPECT studies; particularly after attenuation compensation by the iterative method of Chang. Compared with the subtraction method the contrast is increased by 1.5 for planar Monte Carlo simulations and the scatter fraction is reduced four times with the recombination method. (author).
Graph visualization for the analysis of the structure and dynamics of extreme-scale supercomputers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Berkbigler, K. P. (Kathryn P.); Bush, B. W. (Brian W.); Davis, Kei,; Hoisie, A. (Adolfy); Smith, S. A. (Steve A.)
2002-01-01
We are exploring the development and application of information visualization techniques for the analysis of new extreme-scale supercomputer architectures. Modern supercomputers typically comprise very large clusters of commodity SMPs interconnected by possibly dense and often nonstandard networks. The scale, complexity, and inherent nonlocality of the structure and dynamics of this hardware, and the systems and applications distributed over it, challenge traditional analysis methods. As part of the a la carte team at Los Alamos National Laboratory, who are simulating these advanced architectures, we are exploring advanced visualization techniques and creating tools to provide intuitive exploration, discovery, and analysis of these simulations. This work complements existing and emerging algorithmic analysis tools. Here we gives background on the problem domain, a description of a prototypical computer architecture of interest (on the order of 10,000 processors connected by a quaternary fat-tree network), and presentations of several visualizations of the simulation data that make clear the flow of data in the interconnection network.
Sensitivity analysis of asphalt-pavement structure dynamic responses under heavy load
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
ZHANG Lijuan
2015-04-01
Full Text Available With the 3-Dimensional finite-element dynamic model,the influence of axis-load,axis-speed,and pavement structure parameters on dynamic performance of pavement structure is studied.The results show that with the increase in load,the dynamic response of pavement is nearly proportional to axis-load and increases noticeably;Axis-speed influences the dynamic response to some extent.With the increase of axis-speed,dynamic response of pavement structure increases firstly.With axis-speed further increasing,dynamic response of pavement structure then decreases gradually.For fatigue failure,the influence of heavy-load with common moving speed is much greater than that of static load.Among the pavement structure parameters,thickness of surface-layer has a significant effect on shear stress and the compression stress at road surface.Subgrade modulus has a significant effect on road surface deflection,tensile stress at the bottom of subbase,and compression-strain at the top of subgrade.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yang Yang
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Based on the characteristics of the dynamic interaction between an underground powerhouse concrete structure and its surrounding rock in a hydropower plant, an algorithm of dynamic contact force was proposed. This algorithm enables the simulation of three states of contact surface under dynamic loads, namely, cohesive contact, sliding contact, and separation. It is suitable for the numerical analysis of the dynamic response of the large and complex contact system consisting of underground powerhouse concrete structure and the surrounding rock. This algorithm and a 3D plastic-damage model were implemented in a dynamic computing platform, SUCED, to analyze the dynamic characteristics of the underground powerhouse structure of Yingxiuwan Hydropower Plant. By comparing the numerical results and postearthquake investigations, it was concluded that the amplitude and duration of seismic waves were the external factors causing seismic damage of the underground powerhouse structure, and the spatial variations in structural properties were the internal factors. The existence of rock mass surrounding the underground powerhouse was vital to the seismic stability of the structure. This work provides the theoretical basis for the anti-seismic design of underground powerhouse structures.
Structural dynamic modification using additive damping
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
B C Nakra
2000-06-01
In order to control dynamic response in structures and machines, modofications using additive viscoelastic damping materials are highlighted. The techniques described for analysis include analytical methods for structural elements, FEM and perturbation methods for reanalysis or structural dynamic modifications for complex structures. Optimisation techniques are used for damping effectiveness include multi-parameter optimisatoin techniques and a technique using dynamic sensitivity analysis and structural dynamic modification. These have been applied for optimum dynamic design of structures incorporating viscoelastic damping. Some current trends for vibraton control are also discussed.
Structural Modeling and Analysis of a Wave Energy Converter Applying Dynamical Substructuring Method
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zurkinden, Andrew Stephen; Damkilde, Lars; Gao, Zhen
2013-01-01
This paper deals with structural modeling and analysis of a wave energy converter. The device, called Wavestar, is a bottom fixed structure, located in a shallow water environment at the Danish Northwest coast. The analysis is concentrated on a single float and its structural arm which connects...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andreasen, Martin Møller; Meldrum, Andrew
This paper studies whether dynamic term structure models for US nominal bond yields should enforce the zero lower bound by a quadratic policy rate or a shadow rate specification. We address the question by estimating quadratic term structure models (QTSMs) and shadow rate models with at most four...
Dynamic analysis of offshore structures with non-zero initial conditions in the frequency domain
Liu, Fushun; Lu, Hongchao; Li, Huajun
2016-03-01
The state of non-zero conditions is typically treated as fact when considering the dynamic analysis of offshore structures. This article extends a newly proposed method [1] to manage the non-zero initial conditions of offshore structures in the frequency domain, including new studies on original environmental loads reconstruction, response comparisons with the commercial software ANSYS, and a demonstration using an experimental cantilever beam. The original environmental loads, such as waves, currents, and winds, that act on a structure are decomposed into multiple complex exponential components are represented by a series of poles and corresponding residues. Counter to the traditional frequency-domain method, the non-zero initial conditions of offshore structures could be solved in the frequency domain. Compared with reference [1], an improvement reported in this article is that practical issues, including the choice of model order and central-processing-unit (CPU) time consumption, are further studied when applying this new method to offshore structures. To investigate the feasibility of the representation of initial environmental loads by their poles and corresponding residues, a measured random wave force collected from a column experiment at the Lab of Ocean University of China is used, decomposed, reconstructed and then compared with the original wave force; then, a numerical offshore platform is used to study the performance of the proposed method in detail. The numerical results of this study indicate that (1) a short duration of environmental loads are required to obtain their constitutive poles and residues, which implies good computational efficiency; and (2) the proposed method has a similar computational efficiency to traditional methods due to the use of the inverse Fourier transform technique. To better understand the performance, of time consumption and accuracy of the proposed method, the commercial software ANSYS is used to determine responses
Structure and dynamics of liquid Zn: an analysis of ab-initio simulations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
del Rio B. G.
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The static and dynamic properties of liquid Zn have been studied using an ab initio molecular dynamics method. Results are reported for the thermodynamic states at 723K near which inelastic neutron and x-ray scattering data are available. The calculated static structure shows very good agreement with experimental measurements, including an asymmetric main peak. The dynamic structure reveals the existence of propagating density fluctuations, and the associated dispersion relation has also been calculated. The possible coupling between longitudinal and transverse excitation modes has been investigated by looking at specific signatures in two wavevector regions: the first one is located around the position of the main peak of the structure factor, qp, as suggested by the recently reported appearance of high frequency transverse waves in several liquid metals under high pressures; the second region is around qp/2, as suggested by inelastic scattering experiments for liquid Zn and other metals.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ahn, Chang Kee; Shim, Joo Sup [Shinwa Technology Information, Seoul (Korea)
2001-04-01
The objective of this study is to deduce the dynamic correlation between the fuel assembly and the reactor structure. Dynamic characteristics analyses for reactor structure related with vibration of HANARO fuel assembly have been performed For the dynamic characteristic analysis, the in-air models of the round and hexagonal flow tubes, 18-element and 36-element fuel assemblies, and reactor structure were developed. By calculating the hydrodynamic mass and distributing it on the in-air models, the in-water models of the flow tubes, the fuel assemblies, and the reactor structure were developed. Then, modal analyses for developed in-air and in-water models have been performed. Especially, two 18-element fuel assemblies and three 36-element fuel assemblies were included in the in-water reactor models. For the verification of the modal analysis results, the natural frequencies and the mode shapes of the fuel assembly were compared with those obtained from the experiment. Finally the analysis results of the reactor structure were compared with them performed by AECL Based on the reactor model without PCS piping, the in-water reactor model including the fuel assemblies was developed, and its modal analysis was performed. The analysis results demonstrate that there are no resonance between the fuel assembly and the reactor structures. 26 refs., 419 figs., 85 tabs. (Author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Joshua Rodewald
2016-10-01
Full Text Available Supply networks existing today in many industries can behave as complex adaptive systems making them more difficult to analyze and assess. Being able to fully understand both the complex static and dynamic structures of a complex adaptive supply network (CASN are key to being able to make more informed management decisions and prioritize resources and production throughout the network. Previous efforts to model and analyze CASN have been impeded by the complex, dynamic nature of the systems. However, drawing from other complex adaptive systems sciences, information theory provides a model-free methodology removing many of those barriers, especially concerning complex network structure and dynamics. With minimal information about the network nodes, transfer entropy can be used to reverse engineer the network structure while local transfer entropy can be used to analyze the network structure’s dynamics. Both simulated and real-world networks were analyzed using this methodology. Applying the methodology to CASNs allows the practitioner to capitalize on observations from the highly multidisciplinary field of information theory which provides insights into CASN’s self-organization, emergence, stability/instability, and distributed computation. This not only provides managers with a more thorough understanding of a system’s structure and dynamics for management purposes, but also opens up research opportunities into eventual strategies to monitor and manage emergence and adaption within the environment.
Perino, Scott; Bayandor, Javid; Siddens, Aaron
2012-01-01
The anticipated NASA Mars Sample Return Mission (MSR) requires a simple and reliable method in which to return collected Martian samples back to earth for scientific analysis. The Multi-Mission Earth Entry Vehicle (MMEEV) is NASA's proposed solution to this MSR requirement. Key aspects of the MMEEV are its reliable and passive operation, energy absorbing foam-composite structure, and modular impact sphere (IS) design. To aid in the development of an EEV design that can be modified for various missions requirements, two fully parametric finite element models were developed. The first model was developed in an explicit finite element code and was designed to evaluate the impact response of the vehicle and payload during the final stage of the vehicle's return to earth. The second model was developed in an explicit code and was designed to evaluate the static and dynamic structural response of the vehicle during launch and reentry. In contrast to most other FE models, built through a Graphical User Interface (GUI) pre-processor, the current model was developed using a coding technique that allows the analyst to quickly change nearly all aspects of the model including: geometric dimensions, material properties, load and boundary conditions, mesh properties, and analysis controls. Using the developed design tool, a full range of proposed designs can quickly be analyzed numerically and thus the design trade space for the EEV can be fully understood. An engineer can then quickly reach the best design for a specific mission and also adapt and optimize the general design for different missions.
Dynamics in Epistasis Analysis.
Awdeh, Aseel; Phenix, Hilary; Kaern, Mads; Perkins, Theodore
2017-01-16
Finding regulatory relationships between genes, including the direction and nature of influence between them, is a fundamental challenge in the field of molecular genetics. One classical approach to this problem is epistasis analysis. Broadly speaking, epistasis analysis infers the regulatory relationships between a pair of genes in a genetic pathway by considering the patterns of change in an observable trait resulting from single and double deletion of genes. While classical epistasis analysis has yielded deep insights on numerous genetic pathways, it is not without limitations. Here, we explore the possibility of dynamic epistasis analysis, in which, in addition to performing genetic perturbations of a pathway, we drive the pathway by a time-varying upstream signal. We explore the theoretical power of dynamical epistasis analysis by conducting an identifiability analysis of Boolean models of genetic pathways, comparing static and dynamic approaches. We find that even relatively simple input dynamics greatly increases the power of epistasis analysis to discriminate alternative network structures. Further, we explore the question of experiment design, and show that a subset of short time-varying signals, which we call dynamic primitives, allow maximum discriminative power with a reduced number of experiments.
Dynamic analysis of a rotating rigid-flexible coupled smart structure with large deformations
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2007-01-01
Based on Hamilton's principle, a new kind of fully coupled nonlinear dynamic model for a rotating rigid-flexible smart structure with a tip mass is proposed. The geometrically nonlinear effects of the axial, transverse displacement and rotation angle are considered by means of the first-order approximation coupling (FOAC) model theory, in which large deformations and the centrifugal stiffening effects are considered. Three kinds of systems are established respectively, which are a structure without piezoelectric layer, with piezoelectric layer in open circuit and closed circuit. Several simulations based on simplified models are presented to show the differences in characteristics between structures with and without the tip mass, between smart beams in closed and open circuit, and between the centrifugal effects in high speed rotating state or not. The last simulation calculates the dynamic response of the structure subjected to external electrical loading.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tsakalidis, Konstantinos
We study dynamic data structures for diﬀerent variants of orthogonal range reporting query problems. In particular, we consider (1) the planar orthogonal 3-sided range reporting problem: given a set of points in the plane, report the points that lie within a given 3-sided rectangle with one....... Dynamic problems like the above arise in various applications of network optimization, VLSI layout design, computer graphics and distributed computing. For the ﬁrst problem, we present dynamic data structures for internal and external memory that support planar orthogonal 3-sided range reporting queries......, and insertions and deletions of points eﬃciently over an average case sequence of update operations. The external memory data structures ﬁnd applications in constraint and temporal databases. In particular, we assume that the coordinates of the points are drawn from diﬀerent probabilistic distributions...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Lin Jiang; Ruolin Wu∗and Zhichao Zhu
2015-01-01
The dynamic characteristics of hydraulic self servo swing cylinder were analyzed according to the hydraulic system natural frequency formula. Based on that, a method of the hydraulic self servo swing cylinder structure optimization based on genetic algorithm was proposed in this paper. By analyzing the four parameters that affect the dynamic characteristics, we had to optimize the structure to obtain as larger the Dm ( displacement) as possible under the condition with the purpose of improving the dynamic characteristics of hydraulic self servo swing cylinder. So three state equations were established in this paper. The paper analyzed the effect of the four parameters in hydraulic self servo swing cylinder natural frequency equation and used the genetic algorithm to obtain the optimal solution of structure parameters. The model was simulated by substituting the parameters and initial value to the simulink model. Simulation results show that: using self servo hydraulic swing cylinder natural frequency equation to study its dynamic response characteristics is very effective. Compared with no optimization, the overall system dynamic response speed is significantly improved.
Senkel, Luise
2016-01-01
This edited book aims at presenting current research activities in the field of robust variable-structure systems. The scope equally comprises highlighting novel methodological aspects as well as presenting the use of variable-structure techniques in industrial applications including their efficient implementation on hardware for real-time control. The target audience primarily comprises research experts in the field of control theory and nonlinear dynamics but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.
Dynamic Stresses in a Francis Turbine Runner Based on Fluid-Structure Interaction Analysis
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
XIAO Ruofu; WANG Zhengwei; LUO Yongyao
2008-01-01
Fatigue and cracks have occurred in many large hydraulic turbines after they were put into production.The cracks are thought to be due to dynamic stresses in the runner caused by hydraulic forces.Computational fluid dynamics(CFD)simulations that included the spiral case,stay vane,guide vane,runner vane.and draft tube were run at various operating points to analyze the pressure distribution on the runner surface and the stress characteristics in the runner due to the fluid-structure interactions(FSl).The dynamic stresses in the Francis turbine runner at the most dangerous operating point were then analyzed.The results show that the dynamic stresses caused by the hydraulic forces during off-design operating points are one of the main reasons for the fatigue and cracks in the runner blade.The results can be used to optimize the runner and to analyze other critical components in the hydraulic turbine.
Paultre, Patrick
2013-01-01
This book covers structural dynamics from a theoretical and algorithmic approach. It covers systems with both single and multiple degrees-of-freedom. Numerous case studies are given to provide the reader with a deeper insight into the practicalities of the area, and the solutions to these case studies are given in terms of real-time and frequency in both geometric and modal spaces. Emphasis is also given to the subject of seismic loading. The text is based on many lectures on the subject of structural dynamics given at numerous institutions and thus will be an accessible and practical aid to
1983-12-01
D. E., Deformation of Concrete Structures, McGraw-Hill Book Co, New York, NY, 1977 . 5. Coltharp, D. A., Analysis of One-Quarter-Scale Model Test...Results, Unpublished Report from USA Waterways Experiment Station, Structures Laboratory, Structure Mechanics Division, Vicksburg, MS. 6. Mindess , S
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chanjo Woo
2017-07-01
Full Text Available The present study numerically analyzed the dynamic behavior of 3D framed structures subject to impulsive slamming forces by violent breaking waves. The structures were modeled using multiple lumped masses for the vertical projections of each member, and the slamming forces from the breaking waves were concentrated on these lumped masses. A numerical algorithm was developed to properly incorporate the slamming forces into a dynamic analysis to numerically determine the structural responses. Then, the validity of the numerical analysis was verified using the results of an existing hydraulic experiment. The numerical and experimental results for various model structures were generally in good agreement. The uncertainties concerning the properties of the breaking waves used in the verification are also discussed here.
Tang, Z. B.; Deng, Y. D.; Su, C. Q.; Yuan, X. H.
2015-06-01
In this study, a numerical model has been employed to analyze the internal flow field distribution in a heat exchanger applied for an automotive thermoelectric generator based on computational fluid dynamics. The model simulates the influence of factors relevant to the heat exchanger, including the automotive waste heat mass flow velocity, temperature, internal fins, and back pressure. The result is in good agreement with experimental test data. Sensitivity analysis of the inlet parameters shows that increase of the exhaust velocity, compared with the inlet temperature, makes little contribution (0.1 versus 0.19) to the heat transfer but results in a detrimental back pressure increase (0.69 versus 0.21). A configuration equipped with internal fins is proved to offer better thermal performance compared with that without fins. Finally, based on an attempt to improve the internal flow field, a more rational structure is obtained, offering a more homogeneous temperature distribution, higher average heat transfer coefficient, and lower back pressure.
Structure Analysis of Jungle-Gym-Type Gels by Brownian Dynamics Simulation
Ohta, Noriyoshi; Ono, Kohki; Takasu, Masako; Furukawa, Hidemitsu
2008-02-01
We investigated the structure and the formation process of two kinds of gels by Brownian dynamics simulation. The effect of flexibility of main chain oligomer was studied. From our results, hard gel with rigid main chain forms more homogeneous network structure than soft gel with flexible main chain. In soft gel, many small loops are formed, and clusters tend to shrink. This heterogeneous network structure may be caused by microgels. In the low density case, soft gel shows more heterogeneity than the high density case.
Lin, Hejie
A variety of engineering structures are composed of linear structural components connected by elastomers. The components are commonly analyzed using large-scale finite element models. Examples include engine crankshafts with torsional dampers, engine structures with an elastomeric gasket between the head and the block, engine-vehicle structures using elastomeric engine mounts, etc. An analytical method is presented in this research for the dynamic analysis of large-scale structures with elastomers. The dissertation has two major parts. In the first part, a computationally efficient substructuring method is developed for substructures with non-matched interface meshes. The method is based on the conventional fixed-interface, Craig-Bampton component mode synthesis (CMS) method. However, its computational efficiency is greatly enhanced with the introduction of interface modes. Kriging interpolation at the interfaces between substructures ensures compatibility of deformation. In the second part, a series of dynamic measurements of mechanical properties of elastomers is presented. Dynamic stiffness as a function of frequency under controlled temperature and vibrational amplitude is measured. Also, the strain and stress relaxation behavior is tested to investigate the linearity and histeresis of an elastomer. The linearity of dynamic stiffness is studied and discussed in detail through the strain and stress relaxation test. The dynamic stiffness of elastomers is measured at different conditions such as temperature, frequency, and amplitude. The relationships between dynamic stiffness and temperature, and frequency and amplitude are discussed. After the dynamic properties of an elastomer are measured, a mathematical model is presented for characterizing the frequency and temperature-dependent properties of elastomers from the fundamental features of the molecular chains forming them. Experimental observations are used in the model development to greatly enhance the
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tsakalidis, Konstantinos
We study dynamic data structures for diﬀerent variants of orthogonal range reporting query problems. In particular, we consider (1) the planar orthogonal 3-sided range reporting problem: given a set of points in the plane, report the points that lie within a given 3-sided rectangle with one....... Dynamic problems like the above arise in various applications of network optimization, VLSI layout design, computer graphics and distributed computing. For the ﬁrst problem, we present dynamic data structures for internal and external memory that support planar orthogonal 3-sided range reporting queries...... unbounded side, (2) the planar orthogonal range maxima reporting problem: given a set of points in the plane, report the points that lie within a given orthogonal range and are not dominated by any other point in the range, and (3) the problem of designing fully persistent B-trees for external memory...
Dynamic Soil-Structure-Interaction
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kellezi, Lindita
1998-01-01
The aim of this thesis is to investigate and develop alternative methods of analyzing problems in dynamic soil-structure-interaction. The main focus is the major difficulty posed by such an analysis - the phenomenon of waves which radiate outward from the excited structures towards infinity...... transmitting boundary at the edges of the computational mesh. To start with, an investigation of the main effects of the interaction phenomena is carried out employing a widely used model, considering dynamic stiffness of the unbounded soil as frequency independent. Then a complete description...... represents an attempt to construct a local stiffness for the unbounded soil domain....
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2011-01-01
By using the dynamic shift-share analysis, the industrial structure and competitive strength of 31 provincial districts except Taiwan, Hong Kong and Macau are studied by taking the GDP of the three industries as the research entrance and the whole nation as the reference district. The industrial structure and competitive strength of each provincial district is measured. Through the analysis of pertinence, the correlation degree of industrial structure and industrial competitive strength to economic growth is analyzed. The results show that the industrial competitive strength is closely related to the economic growth of the 31 provincial districts, but the contribution made by the industrial structure to economic growth is insufficient and the effect of industrial structure does not match with that of industrial competitive strength. According to industrial competitiveness and industrial structure effect, 31 provincial districts of the whole nation are divided into 4 types and the relevant countermeasures of the four types are put forward.
Panopoulou, A.; Fransen, S.; Gomez-Molinero, V.; Kostopoulos, V.
2013-09-01
The objective of this work is to develop a new structural health monitoring system for composite aerospace structures based on dynamic response strain measurements and experimental modal analysis techniques. Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) optical sensors were used for monitoring the dynamic response of the composite structure. The structural dynamic behavior has been numerically simulated and experimentally verified by means of vibration testing. The hypothesis of all vibration tests was that actual damage in composites reduces their stiffness and produces an eigenfrequency shifting to lower values in the same sense as mass increase produces. Thus, damage was simulated by slightly varying locally the mass of the structure at different zones. The correlation between the simulated damage and the loss of stiffness was analytically defined. Experimental modal analysis based on the strain responses was conducted and the extracted strain mode shapes were the input for the damage detection expert system. A feed-forward back propagation neural network was the core of the damage detection system. The features-input to the neural network consisted of the strain mode shapes, extracted from the experimental modal analysis. Dedicated training and validation activities were carried out based on the experimental results. The system showed high reliability, confirmed by the ability of the neural network to recognize the size and the position of damage on the structure. The experiments were performed on a real structure i.e. a lightweight antenna sub-reflector, manufactured and tested at EADS CASA ESPACIO. An integrated FBG sensor network, based on the advantage of multiplexing, was mounted on the structure with optimum topology. Numerical simulation was used as a support tool at all the steps of the work. Potential applications for the proposed system are during ground qualification extensive tests of space structures and during the mission as modal analysis tool on board, being able
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kejlberg-Rasmussen, Casper
to a given key? The updates we can do are: inserting a new key or deleting a given key. Our dictionary has the working set property, which means that the running time of a query depends on the query distribution. Specifically the time to search for a key depends on when we last searched for it. Our data...... statements about our data structure, which are based on the structure of the underlying problem, that we are trying to solve. We can rely on the properties of the invariants when performing queries, and in return we need to ensure that the invariants remain true after we perform updates. When designing data......In this thesis I will address three dynamic data structure problems using the concept of invariants. The first problem is maintaining a dynamically changing set of keys – a dictionary – where the queries we can ask are: does it contain a given key? and what is the preceding (or succeeding) key...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kejlberg-Rasmussen, Casper
statements about our data structure, which are based on the structure of the underlying problem, that we are trying to solve. We can rely on the properties of the invariants when performing queries, and in return we need to ensure that the invariants remain true after we perform updates. When designing data......In this thesis I will address three dynamic data structure problems using the concept of invariants. The first problem is maintaining a dynamically changing set of keys – a dictionary – where the queries we can ask are: does it contain a given key? and what is the preceding (or succeeding) key...... to a given key? The updates we can do are: inserting a new key or deleting a given key. Our dictionary has the working set property, which means that the running time of a query depends on the query distribution. Specifically the time to search for a key depends on when we last searched for it. Our data...
Rasolofo, Eric Andriamahery; St-Gelais, Daniel; LaPointe, Gisele; Roy, Denis
2010-03-31
Spoilage bacteria in milk are controlled by treatments such as thermization, microfiltration and addition of carbon dioxide. However, little information is known about the changes in microbial communities during subsequent cold storage of treated milk. Culture-dependent methods and a direct molecular approach combining 16S rRNA gene clone libraries and quantitative PCR (Q-PCR) were applied to obtain a better overview of the structure and the dynamics of milk microbiota. Raw milk samples were treated by the addition of carbon dioxide (CO(2)), thermization (TH) or microfiltration (MF) and stored at 4 degrees C or 8 degrees C up to 7d. Untreated milk (UT) was used as a control. Psychrotrophic and staphylococci bacteria were enumerated in the milk samples by culture methods. For the molecular approach, DNA was extracted from milk samples and 16S rRNA gene was amplified by PCR with universal primers prior to cloning. The Q-PCR method was used to evaluate the dynamics of dominant bacterial species revealed by clone library analysis of 16S rRNA gene. Comparison of the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that the two most abundant operational taxonomic units (OTU), determined at 97% identity, belonged to the class Gammaproteobacteria (40.3% of the 1415 sequences) and Bacilli (40%). Dominant bacterial species in UT, CO(2) and TH milk samples at day 3 were affiliated with Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Clostridia, Aerococcus, Facklamia, Corynebacterium, Acinetobacter and Trichococcus. Dominant bacterial species detected in MF milk were Stenotrophomonas, Pseudomonas and Delftia, while Pseudomonas species dominated the bacterial population of UT, CO(2) and MF milk samples at day 7. Staphylococcus and Delftia were the dominant bacterial species in thermized milk. Q-PCR results showed that populations of S. aureus, A. viridans, A. calcoaceticus, C. variabile and S. uberis were stable during 7d of storage at 4 degrees C. Populations of P. fluorescens, S. uberis and total bacteria
Strong nonlocal coupling stabilizes localized structures: an analysis based on front dynamics.
Fernandez-Oto, C; Clerc, M G; Escaff, D; Tlidi, M
2013-04-26
We investigate the effect of strong nonlocal coupling in bistable spatially extended systems by using a Lorentzian-like kernel. This effect through front interaction drastically alters the space-time dynamics of bistable systems by stabilizing localized structures in one and two dimensions, and by affecting the kinetics law governing their behavior with respect to weak nonlocal and local coupling. We derive an analytical formula for the front interaction law and show that the kinetics governing the formation of localized structures obeys a law inversely proportional to their size to some power. To illustrate this mechanism, we consider two systems, the Nagumo model describing population dynamics and nonlinear optics model describing a ring cavity filled with a left-handed material. Numerical solutions of the governing equations are in close agreement with analytical predictions.
Kenigsberg, I. J.; Dean, M. W.; Malatino, R.
1974-01-01
The correlation achieved with each program provides the material for a discussion of modeling techniques developed for general application to finite-element dynamic analyses of helicopter airframes. Included are the selection of static and dynamic degrees of freedom, cockpit structural modeling, and the extent of flexible-frame modeling in the transmission support region and in the vicinity of large cut-outs. The sensitivity of predicted results to these modeling assumptions are discussed. Both the Sikorsky Finite-Element Airframe Vibration analysis Program (FRAN/Vibration Analysis) and the NASA Structural Analysis Program (NASTRAN) have been correlated with data taken in full-scale vibration tests of a modified CH-53A helicopter.
Kobayashi, Fumiharu
2015-01-01
We extend the method of antisymmetrized molecular dynamics to investigate dineutron correlation. We apply this method to $^{10}$Be as an example and investigate the motion of two neutrons around a largely deformed $^8$Be core by analyzing the two-neutron overlap function around the core. We show that the core structure plays an important role in dineutron formation and expansion from the core and that the present framework is effective for the studies of dineutron correlation.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YuyingWu; XijunHe
2004-01-01
"Three Issues" about farmers, agriculture and rural areas are complex. The interdependence among co-related subsystems in the large-scale system is relatively complex.On the other hand, it is interrelated to economic development, national policy and industry structure. It is difficult to get the best solution to the problem about farmers, agriculture and rural areas, because it is the complex system with controllable and uncontrollable elements. We analyze the structure of the large-scale system by dynamics, and we try to find the most important factors among the complex interaction and give countermeasures about the problem.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J.G. Santos da Silva
2016-11-01
Full Text Available The main objective of this investigation is to present the finite element modelling of the dynamic behaviour of a steel-concrete composite footbridge, when subjected to human walking vibrations. The investigated structural system was based on a tubular steel-concrete composite footbridge, spanning 82.5 m. The structural model consists of tubular steel sections and a concrete slab. This investigation is carried out based on correlations between the experimental results related to the footbridge dynamic response and those obtained with finite element modelling. The soil-structure interaction effect was considered in the dynamic analysis based on the use of Winkler’s theory. The finite element model enabled a complete dynamic evaluation of the tubular footbridge in terms of human comfort and its associated vibration serviceability limit states. The peak accelerations found in this analysis indicated that the investigated footbridge presented problems related with human comfort and it was detected that the structural system can reach vibration levels that compromise the footbridge user’s comfort.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sigrist, Jean-Francois [DCNS Propulsion-DI/STS, 44620 La Montagne (France)], E-mail: jean-francois.sigrist@dcn.fr; Broc, Daniel [CEA Saclay-DEMT/EMSI, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)
2008-09-15
The present paper deals with the dynamic analysis of a steam generator tube bundle with fluid-structure interaction modelling. As the coupled fluid-structure problem involves a huge number of degrees of freedom to account for the tube displacements and the fluid pressure evolutions, classical coupled method cannot be applied for industrial studies. In the present case, the three-dimensional fluid-structure problem is solved with an homogenisation method, which has been previously exposed and successfully validated for FSI modelling in a nuclear reactor [Sigrist, J.F., Broc, D., 2007a. Homogenisation method for the modal analysis of a nuclear reactor with internal structures modelling and fluid-structure interaction coupling. Nuclear Engineering and Design 237, 431-440]. Formulation of the homogenisation method for general two- and three-dimensional cases is exposed in the paper. Application to a simplified, however representative, model of an actual industrial nuclear component (steam generator) is proposed. The problem modelling, which includes tube bundle, primary and secondary fluids and pressure vessel, is performed with an engineering finite element code in which the homogenisation technique has been implemented. From the practical point of view, the analysis highlights the major fluid-structure interaction effects on the dynamic behaviour of the steam generator; from the theoretical point of view, the study demonstrates the efficiency of the homogenisation method for periodic fluid-structure problems modelling in industrial configurations.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zheng-hong Guo; Zheng-ping Fang
2009-01-01
Dynamic rheological analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (P'TIR) were used to study the effects of thermo-oxidation on the viscoelasticity and microstructure of polyolefin elastomers (POE).It was found that dynamic storage modulus (G') and dynamic loss modulus (G') at low frequency region can sensitively reflect the change of microstructure of POE,which can be seen through the "second plateau" appeared in G' versus co plots at low frequencies.The frequency dependence of loss tangent (tanδ) measured under different frequency sweeps showed that the thermo-oxidative behaviors of POE relied on the holding time.The dynamic rheology test was found to be a sensitive technique for analyzing the structural changes during thermo-oxidation of polymers.
Structural system identification: Structural dynamics model validation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Red-Horse, J.R.
1997-04-01
Structural system identification is concerned with the development of systematic procedures and tools for developing predictive analytical models based on a physical structure`s dynamic response characteristics. It is a multidisciplinary process that involves the ability (1) to define high fidelity physics-based analysis models, (2) to acquire accurate test-derived information for physical specimens using diagnostic experiments, (3) to validate the numerical simulation model by reconciling differences that inevitably exist between the analysis model and the experimental data, and (4) to quantify uncertainties in the final system models and subsequent numerical simulations. The goal of this project was to develop structural system identification techniques and software suitable for both research and production applications in code and model validation.
On the Accuracy of Dynamic and Acoustic Analysis of Lightweight Panel Structures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard; Dickow, Kristoffer Ahrens
2012-01-01
in such buildings is important. In the low-frequency range, prediction of sound and vibration in building structures may be achieved by finite-element analysis (FEA). The aim of this paper is to compare the two commercial codes ABAQUS and ANSYS for FEA of an acoustic-structural coupling in a timber, lightweight...... panel structure. For this purpose, modal analyses are carried out employing a fully coupled model of sound waves within an acoustic medium and vibrations in the structural part. The study concerns the frequency range 50–250 Hz....
Dynamic Weighted Data Structures.
1982-06-01
and Bonnie Hampton, who taught me much more than how to play the cello . Finally, for hours of artistic satisfaction, I thank Johannes Brahms, Ludwig...van "j Beethoven, Igor Stravinsky, Glan-Carlo Menotti, and Johann Sebastian Bach . Dynamic Weighted Data Structures Samuel W. Bent This thesis discusses...34I find It a matter of some difficulty to arrange these cards In a manner suited to my needs.’ I glanced at the cards and noticed each was labelled
Structural dynamic modification
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
A Sestieri
2000-06-01
Vibration and acoustic requirements are becoming increasingly important in the design of mechanical structures, but they are not usually of primary concern in the design process. So the need to vary the structural behaviour to solve noise and vibration problems often occurs at the prototype stage, giving rise to the so-called structural modification problem. In this paper, the direct problem of determing the new response of a system, after some modifications are introduced into the sestem, is analysed using two different databases: the modal database and the frequency response function database. The limitaions of the modal database are discussed. Structural modifications that can be accounted for are lumped masses, springs, dampers and dynamic absorbers.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jianxiong Ye
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Glycerol can be biologically converted to 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PD by Klebsiella pneumoniae. In the synthesis pathway of 1,3-PD, the accumulation of an intermediary metabolite 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde (3-HPA would cause an irreversible cessation of the dynamic system. Genetic manipulation on the key enzymes which control the formation rate and consumption rate of 3-HPA would decrease the accumulation of 3-HPA, resulting in nonlinear regulation on the dynamic system. The interest of this work is to focus on analyzing the influence of 3-HPA inhibition on the stability of the dynamic system. Due to the lack of intracellular knowledge, structural kinetic modelling is applied. On the basis of statistical account of the dynamical capabilities of the system in the parameter space, we conclude that, under weak or no inhibition to the reaction of 3-HPA consumption, the system is much easier to obtain a stable state, whereas strong inhibition to its formation is in favor of stabilizing the system. In addition, the existence of Hopf bifurcation in this system is also verified. The obtained results are helpful for deeply understanding the metabolic and genetic regulations of glycerol fermentation by Klebsiella pneumoniae.
An Improved Finite Difference Type Numerical Method for Structural Dynamic Analysis
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Sung-Hoon Kim
1994-01-01
Full Text Available An improved finite difference type numerical method to solve partial differential equations for one-dimensional (1-D structure is proposed. This numerical scheme is a kind of a single-step, second-order accurate and implicit method. The stability, consistency, and convergence are examined analytically with a second-order hyperbolic partial differential equation. Since the proposed numerical scheme automatically satisfies the natural boundary conditions and at the same time, all the partial differential terms at boundary points are directly interpretable to their physical meanings, the proposed numerical scheme has merits in computing 1-D structural dynamic motion over the existing finite difference numeric methods. Using a numerical example, the suggested method was proven to be more accurate and effective than the well-known central difference method. The only limitation of this method is that it is applicable to only 1-D structure.
Kawahara, Kazuaki; Shirasawa, Tetsuroh; Lin, Chun-Liang; Nagao, Ryo; Tsukahara, Noriyuki; Takahashi, Toshio; Arafune, Ryuichi; Kawai, Maki; Takagi, Noriaki
2016-09-01
We have investigated the atomic structure of the "multilayer silicene" grown on the Ag(111) single crystal surface by using low energy electron diffraction (LEED) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). We measured the intensity of the LEED spot as a function of the incident electron energy (I-V curve) and analyzed the I-V curve using a dynamical LEED theory. We have found that the Si(111)(√{ 3} ×√{ 3})-Ag model well reproduces the I-V curve whereas the models consisting of the honeycomb structure of Si do not. The bias dependence of the STM image of multilayer silicene agrees with that of the Si(111)(√{ 3} ×√{ 3})-Ag reconstructed surface. Consequently, we have concluded that the multilayer silicene grown on Ag(111) is identical to the Si(111)(√{ 3} ×√{ 3})-Ag reconstructed structure.
McGhee, David S.; Peck, Jeff A.; McDonald, Emmett J.
2012-01-01
This paper examines Probabilistic Sensitivity Analysis (PSA) methods and tools in an effort to understand their utility in vehicle loads and dynamic analysis. Specifically, this study addresses how these methods may be used to establish limits on payload mass and cg location and requirements on adaptor stiffnesses while maintaining vehicle loads and frequencies within established bounds. To this end, PSA methods and tools are applied to a realistic, but manageable, integrated launch vehicle analysis where payload and payload adaptor parameters are modeled as random variables. This analysis is used to study both Regional Response PSA (RRPSA) and Global Response PSA (GRPSA) methods, with a primary focus on sampling based techniques. For contrast, some MPP based approaches are also examined.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aidan G.C. Wright
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Psychiatric diagnostic covariation suggests that the underlying structure of psychopathology is not one of circumscribed disorders. Quantitative modeling of individual differences in diagnostic patterns has uncovered several broad domains of mental disorder liability, of which the Internalizing and Externalizing spectra have garnered the greatest support. These dimensions have generally been estimated from lifetime or past-year comorbidity patters, which are distal from the covariation of symptoms and maladaptive behavior that ebb and flow in daily life. In this study, structural models are applied to daily diary data (Median = 94 days of maladaptive behaviors collected from a sample (N = 101 of individuals diagnosed with personality disorders. Using multilevel and unified structural equation modeling, between-person, within-person, and person-specific structures were estimated from 16 behaviors that are encompassed by the Internalizing and Externalizing spectra. At the between-person level (i.e., individual differences in average endorsement across days we found support for a two-factor Internalizing-Externalizing model, which exhibits significant associations with corresponding diagnostic spectra. At the within-person level (i.e., dynamic covariation among daily behavior pooled across individuals we found support for a more differentiated, four-factor, Negative Affect-Detachment-Hostility-Impulsivity structure. Finally, we demonstrate that the person-specific structures of associations between these four domains are highly idiosyncratic.
Complex dynamics analysis of impulsively coupled Duffing oscillators with ring structure
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
姜海波; 张丽萍; 于建江
2015-01-01
Impulsively coupled systems are high-dimensional non-smooth systems that can exhibit rich and complex dynamics. This paper studies the complex dynamics of a non-smooth system which is unidirectionally impulsively coupled by three Duffing oscillators in a ring structure. By constructing a proper Poincar ´e map of the non-smooth system, an analytical expression of the Jacobian matrix of Poincar´e map is given. Two-parameter Hopf bifurcation sets are obtained by combining the shooting method and the Runge–Kutta method. When the period is fixed and the coupling strength changes, the system undergoes stable, periodic, quasi-periodic, and hyper-chaotic solutions, etc. The Floquet theory is used to study the stability of the periodic solutions of the system and their bifurcations.
Finite element analysis of dynamic stability of skeletal structures under periodic loading
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
THANA Hemantha Kumar; AMEEN Mohammed
2007-01-01
This paper addresses the dynamic stability problem of columns and frames subjected to axially applied periodic loads. Such a structure can become unstable under certain combinations of amplitudes and frequencies of the imposed load acting on its columns/beams. These are usually shown in the form of plots which describe regions of instability. The finite element method (FEM) is used in this work to analyse dynamic stability problems of columns. Two-noded beam elements are used for this purpose.The periodic loading is decomposed into various harmonics using Fourier series expansion. Computer codes in C++ using object oriented concepts are developed to determine the stability regions of columns subjected to periodic loading. A number of numerical examples are presented to illustrate the working of the program. The direct integration of the equations of motions of the discretised system is carried out using Newmark's method to verify the results.
3DEM Loupe: Analysis of macromolecular dynamics using structures from electron microscopy.
Nogales-Cadenas, R; Jonic, S; Tama, F; Arteni, A A; Tabas-Madrid, D; Vázquez, M; Pascual-Montano, A; Sorzano, C O S
2013-07-01
Electron microscopy (EM) provides access to structural information of macromolecular complexes in the 3-20 Å resolution range. Normal mode analysis has been extensively used with atomic resolution structures and successfully applied to EM structures. The major application of normal modes is the identification of possible conformational changes in proteins. The analysis can throw light on the mechanism following ligand binding, protein-protein interactions, channel opening and other functional macromolecular movements. In this article, we present a new web server, 3DEM Loupe, which allows normal mode analysis of any uploaded EM volume using a user-friendly interface and an intuitive workflow. Results can be fully explored in 3D through animations and movies generated by the server. The application is freely available at http://3demloupe.cnb.csic.es.
Confinement Vessel Dynamic Analysis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
R. Robert Stevens; Stephen P. Rojas
1999-08-01
A series of hydrodynamic and structural analyses of a spherical confinement vessel has been performed. The analyses used a hydrodynamic code to estimate the dynamic blast pressures at the vessel's internal surfaces caused by the detonation of a mass of high explosive, then used those blast pressures as applied loads in an explicit finite element model to simulate the vessel's structural response. Numerous load cases were considered. Particular attention was paid to the bolted port connections and the O-ring pressure seals. The analysis methods and results are discussed, and comparisons to experimental results are made.
Structural Dynamic Analysis of Semi-Submersible Floating Vertical Axis Wind Turbines
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Jeremiah Ishie
2016-12-01
Full Text Available The strong and stable wind at offshore locations and the increasing demand for energy have made the application of wind turbines in deeper water surge. A novel concept of a 5 MW baseline Floating Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (FVAWT and a 5 MW optimised FVAWT with the DeepWind Darrieus rotor and the optimised DeepWind Darrieus rotor, respectively, were studied extensively. The structural responses, fatigue damages, platform global motions and mooring line dynamics of the FVAWTs were investigated comprehensively during normal operating conditions under steady wind and turbulent wind conditions, using a coupled non-linear aero-hydro-servo-elastic code (the Simo-Riflex-DMS code which was developed by Wang et al. for modeling FVAWTs. This coupled code incorporates the models for the turbulent wind field, aerodynamics, hydrodynamics, structural dynamics, and generator controller. The simulation is performed in a fully coupled manner in time domain. The comparison of responses under different wind conditions were used to demonstrate the effect of turbulence on both FVAWTs dynamic responses. The turbulent wind condition has the advantage of reducing the 2P effects. Furthermore, comparative studies of the FVAWTs responses were undertaken to explore the advantages of adopting the optimised 5 MW DeepWind Darrieus rotor over the baseline model. The results identified the 5 MW optimised FVAWT to having: lower Fore-Aft (FA but higher lower Side-Side (SS bending moments of structural components; lower motions amplitude; lower short-term fatigue equivalent loads and a further reduced 2P effects.
A Dynamic Analysis of Capital Structure Determinants. Empirical Results for Romanian Capital Market
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Mihaela Dragota
2008-04-01
Full Text Available The analysis of capital structure and its determinants represents an useful approach for the Romanian and foreign investors and for the companies, at the same time. The main conclusion for capital structure analysis was that Romanian listed companies sustained their assets, in this order, on equity, commercial debt and, finally, on financial debt. The four variables used in the regression model are significant. The pecking order theory seemed to be more appropriate for the Romanian capital market, but the signalling theory was not entirely rejected.
New implicit method for analysis of problems in nonlinear structural dynamics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gholampour A. A.
2011-06-01
Full Text Available In this paper a new method is proposed for direct time integration of nonlinear structural dynamics problems. In the proposed method the order of time integration scheme is higher than the conventional Newmark’s family of methods. This method assumes second order variation of the acceleration at each time step. Two variable parameters are used to increase the stability and accuracy of the method. The result obtained from this new higher order method is compared with two implicit methods; namely the Wilson-θ and the Newmark’s average acceleration methods.
Effects of Structural Damage on Dynamic Behavior at Sandwich Composite Beams – Part II- FEM Analysis
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Marius Tufoi
2014-07-01
Full Text Available This paper presents results obtained by modal analysis on composite beam like structures in healthy and damaged state. The aim is to obtain damage “signatures” for all possible damage scenarios and to use these data to assess transversal cracks based on vibration techniques, by involving natural frequency shifts. The analysis was performed in SolidWorks software for a five-layer composite, 20 vibration modes being obtained by numerical simulation.
Fein, Howard
1999-03-01
Holographic Interferometry has been successfully employed to characterize the materials and behavior of diverse types of structures under stress. Specialized variations of this technology have also been applied to define dynamic and vibration related structural behavior. Such applications of holographic technique offer some of the most effective methods of modal and dynamic analysis available. Real-time dynamic testing of the modal and mechanical behavior of aerodynamic control and airfoil structures for advanced aircraft has always required advanced instrumentation for data collection in either actual flight test or wind-tunnel simulations. Advanced optical holography techniques are alternate methods which result in actual full-field behavioral data on the ground in a noninvasive environment. These methods offer significant insight in both the development and subsequent operational test and modeling of advanced exotic metal control structures and their integration with total vehicle system dynamics. Structures and materials can be analyzed with very low amplitude excitation and the resultant data can be used to adjust the accuracy mathematically derived structural and behavioral models. Holographic Interferometry offers a powerful tool to aid in the developmental engineering of exotic metal structures for high stress applications. Advanced Titanium alloy is a significant example of these sorts of materials which has found continually increased use in advanced aerodynamic, undersea, and other highly mobil platforms. Aircraft applications in particular must consider environments where extremes in vibration and impulsive mechanical stress can affect both operation and structural stability. These considerations present ideal requisites for analysis using advanced holographic methods in the initial design and test of structures made with such advanced materials. Holographic techniques are nondestructive, real- time, and definitive in allowing the identification of
Krishnamurthy, T.; Tsai, Frank J.
2008-01-01
A process to generate an equivalent plate based on an optimization approach to predict the static and dynamic response of flight vehicle wing structures is proposed. Geometric-scale and frequency-scale factors are defined to construct an equivalent plate with any desired scale to use in simulation and wind tunnel experiments. It is shown that the stiffness and the displacements are scaled linearly with the geometric-scale factor, whereas the load is scaled as the square of the geometric-scale factor. The scaled stiffness of the reference flight vehicle is matched first to construct the equivalent plate. Then the frequency-scale factor is defined to scale the flight vehicle frequencies. The scaled flight vehicle frequencies are matched by placing arbitrary point masses along the equivalent plate geometry. Two simple stiffened-plate examples, one with damage and another without damage, were used to demonstrate the accuracy of the optimization procedure proposed. Geometric-scale factors ranging from 0.2 to 1.0 were used in the analyses. In both examples, the static and dynamic response of the reference stiffened-panel solution is matched accurately. The scaled equivalent plate predicted the first five frequencies of the stiffened panel very accurately. Finally, the proposed equivalent plate procedure was demonstrated in a more realistic typical aircraft wing structure. Two scale equivalent plate models were generated using the geometric-scale factors 1.0 and 0.2. Both equivalent plate models predicted the static response of the wing structure accurately. The equivalent plate models reproduced the first five frequencies of the wing structure accurately.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Panos C. Tsopelas; Panayiotis C. Roussis; Michael C. Constantinou
2009-01-01
The complexity of modern seismically isolated structures requires the analysis of the structural system and the isolation system in its entirety and the ability to capture potential discontinuous phenomena such as isolator uplift and their effects on the superstructures and the isolation hardware. In this paper, an analytical model is developed and a computational algorithm is formulated to analyze complex seismically isolated superstructures even when undergoing highly-nonlinear phenomena such as uplift. The computational model has the capability of modeling various types of isolation devices with strong nonlinearities, analyzing multiple superstructures (up to five separate superstructures) on multiple bases (up to five bases), and capturing the effects of lateral loads on bearing axial forces, including bearing uplift. The model developed herein has been utilized to form the software platform 3D-BASIS-ME-MB, which provides the practicing engineering community with a versatile tool for analysis and design of complex structures with modem isolation systems.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Shuai Wu; Hai-yi Zhan; Hong-ming Wang; Yan Ju
2012-01-01
The secondary structure of different Ⅰβ cellulose was analyzed by a molecular dynamics simulation with MARTINI coarse-grained force field,where each chain of the cellulose includes 40 D-glucoses units.Calculation gives a satisfied description about the secondary structure of the cellulose.As the chain number increasing,the cellulose becomes the form of a helix,with the diameter of screw growing and spiral rising.Interestingly,the celluloses with chain number N of 4,6,24 and 36 do show right-hand twisting.On the contrast,the celluloses with N of 8,12,16 chains are left-hand twisting.These simulations indicate that the cellulose with chain number larger than 36 will break down to two parts.Besides,the result indicates that 36-chains cellulose model is the most stable among all models.Furthermore,the Lennard-Jones potential determines the secondary structure.In addition,an equation was set up to analyze the twisting structure.
Resolution of structural heterogeneity in dynamic crystallography.
Ren, Zhong; Chan, Peter W Y; Moffat, Keith; Pai, Emil F; Royer, William E; Šrajer, Vukica; Yang, Xiaojing
2013-06-01
Dynamic behavior of proteins is critical to their function. X-ray crystallography, a powerful yet mostly static technique, faces inherent challenges in acquiring dynamic information despite decades of effort. Dynamic `structural changes' are often indirectly inferred from `structural differences' by comparing related static structures. In contrast, the direct observation of dynamic structural changes requires the initiation of a biochemical reaction or process in a crystal. Both the direct and the indirect approaches share a common challenge in analysis: how to interpret the structural heterogeneity intrinsic to all dynamic processes. This paper presents a real-space approach to this challenge, in which a suite of analytical methods and tools to identify and refine the mixed structural species present in multiple crystallographic data sets have been developed. These methods have been applied to representative scenarios in dynamic crystallography, and reveal structural information that is otherwise difficult to interpret or inaccessible using conventional methods.
On the convergence and causality of a frequency domain method for dynamic structural analysis
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Kuifu Chen; Senwen Zhang
2006-01-01
Venanico-Filho et al.developed an elegant matrix formulation for dynamic analysis by frequency domain (FD),but the convergence,causality and extended period need further refining.In the present Paper,it was argued that:(1) under reasonable assumptions (approximating the frequency response function by the discrete Fourier transform of the discretized unitary impulse response function),the matrix formulation by FD is equivalent to a circular convolution;(2) to avoid the wraparound Interference,the excitation vector and impulse response must be padded with enough zeros:(3) provided that the zero padding requirement satisfied,the convergence and accuracy of direct time domain analysis,which is equivalent to that by FD,are guaranteed by the numerical integration scheme;(4) the imaginary part of the computational response approaching zero is due to the continuity of the impulse response functions.
Structural dynamic modifications via models
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
T K Kundra
2000-06-01
Structural dynamic modification techniques attempt to reduce dynamic design time and can be implemented beginning with spatial models of structures, dynamic test data or updated models. The models assumed in this discussion are mathematical models, namely mass, stiffness, and damping matrices of the equations of motion of a structure. These models are identified/extracted from dynamic test data viz. frequency response functions (FRFs). Alternatively these models could have been obtained by adjusting or updating the finite element model of the structure in the light of the test data. The methods of structural modification for getting desired dynamic characteristics by using modifiers namely mass, beams and tuned absorbers are discussed.
Analysis of Tropical Forest Structural Dynamics Using Medium-footprint Lidar
Sheldon, S. L.; Dubayah, R. O.; Clark, D. B.; Hofton, M. A.; Blair, J. B.
2007-12-01
As a forest canopy recovers from a disturbance event, the vertical structure passes through various stages of biomass distribution until reaching an age at which it approximates the vertical structure of old-growth forest. Quantifying and mapping rates of biomass accumulation and distribution in the forest canopy has important implications for understanding carbon stocks and fluxes.The La Selva Biological Station in Costa Rica contains numerous sections of secondary forest at different stages of recovery from disturbance. We explore the vertical canopy structure of these forests at two different years and the progression of biomass distribution in the canopy over time using canopy information collected by the Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS). LVIS, a medium- footprint airborne scanning lidar, collected vegetation data over La Selva in March of 1998 and March of 2005. Waveforms and waveform-derived metrics are used to obtain canopy heights and vertical biomass distribution patterns and dynamics. We assess the potential of using medium-footprint lidar to determine successional status. The ability to remotely detect and map successional status can greatly improve carbon modeling and management.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nicholas J Savill
2009-06-01
Full Text Available Mathematical modelling has proven an important tool in elucidating and quantifying mechanisms that govern the age structure and population dynamics of red blood cells (RBCs. Here we synthesise ideas from previous experimental data and the mathematical modelling literature with new data in order to test hypotheses and generate new predictions about these mechanisms. The result is a set of competing hypotheses about three intrinsic mechanisms: the feedback from circulating RBC concentration to production rate of immature RBCs (reticulocytes in bone marrow, the release of reticulocytes from bone marrow into the circulation, and their subsequent ageing and clearance. In addition we examine two mechanisms specific to our experimental system: the effect of phenylhydrazine (PHZ and blood sampling on RBC dynamics. We performed a set of experiments to quantify the dynamics of reticulocyte proportion, RBC concentration, and erythropoietin concentration in PHZ-induced anaemic mice. By quantifying experimental error we are able to fit and assess each hypothesis against our data and recover parameter estimates using Markov chain Monte Carlo based Bayesian inference. We find that, under normal conditions, about 3% of reticulocytes are released early from bone marrow and upon maturation all cells are released immediately. In the circulation, RBCs undergo random clearance but have a maximum lifespan of about 50 days. Under anaemic conditions reticulocyte production rate is linearly correlated with the difference between normal and anaemic RBC concentrations, and their release rate is exponentially correlated with the same. PHZ appears to age rather than kill RBCs, and younger RBCs are affected more than older RBCs. Blood sampling caused short aperiodic spikes in the proportion of reticulocytes which appear to have a different developmental pathway than normal reticulocytes. We also provide evidence of large diurnal oscillations in serum erythropoietin levels
A finite element approach for the dynamic analysis of joint-dominated structures
Chang, Che-Wei; Wu, Shih-Chin
1991-01-01
A finite element method to model dynamic structural systems undergoing large rotations is presented. The dynamic systems are composed of rigid joint bodies and flexible beam elements. The configurations of these systems are subject to change due to the relative motion in the joints among interconnected elastic beams. A body fixed reference is defined for each joint body to describe the joint body's displacements. Using the finite element method and the kinematic relations between each flexible element and its corotational reference, the total displacement field of an element, which contains gross rigid as well as elastic effects, can be derived in terms of the translational and rotational displacements of the two end nodes. If one end of an element is hinged to a joint body, the joint body's displacements and the hinge degree of freedom at the end are used to represent the nodal displacements. This results in a highly coupled system of differential equations written in terms of hinge degrees of freedom as well as the rotational and translational displacements of joint bodies and element nodes.
Tang, H.; Huang, C.; Dubayah, R.
2011-12-01
Forest often recovers after a disturbance event until it reaches an equilibrium stage. This process can be observed through examining several geophysical parameters (e.g. biomass, canopy height and LAI). Quantifying these parameters at fine scale is important for understanding carbon stocks and fluxes. The La Selva Biological Station in Costa Rica is a good example for studying secondary forest regrowth from disturbance. Since Lidar can provide the most accurate estimate of biomass compared to other remote sensing methods and Landsat has produced the longest imagery record of forest, we will explore the dynamics of tropical forest with both medium footprint lidar and landsat images. LVIS, a medium footprint airborne scanning lidar, has surveyed this area in March of 1998 and 2005. A highly automated algorithm, vegetation change tracker (VCT) has been developed for reconstructing recent forest disturbance history starting from 1984 using Landsat time series stacks (LTSS).Need to discuss what you will do, what are the expected results and their significances. We will try to establish empirical relationship between Lidar and landsat images to analysis tropical forest dynamics from 1984 to 2005.
Building evacuation: Principles for the analysis of basic structures through dynamic flow networks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Salvador Casadesús-Pursals
2013-09-01
Full Text Available Purpose: The main purpose of this paper is to perform an analysis of the factors determining the architectural configuration of buildings for the mobility of people, using dynamic flow networks and considering group formation in the evacuation process.Design/methodology/approach: For a long time it has been considered that once an evacuation begins, movement on the evacuation route mainly obeys mechanical factors; people occupy the free spaces which lead to evacuation more or less automatically. However, recent research has emphasized the need to consider people’s behavior; one of the aspects considered in this work is group formation, with its significant influence on the evacuation process. In positions of convergence and their branches things become considerably more complicated; as well as occupants’ behavioral aspects other relevant factors such as the geometry of the premises are critical in this process. Authors propose models, in which nodes are strategically placed, besides taking into consideration aspects of behavior. Several cases are analyzed.Findings: The solution proposed in this paper is to analyze the problem through dynamic flow networks, using a macroscopic model in a deterministic environment in which the evolution of the quantities characterizing the problem at regular intervals is represented, obtaining a reasonably accurate and reliable understanding of the development of the evacuation.Originality/value: A precise model of evacuation routes, convergence points and branches which includes a consideration of occupants’ behavior is obtained using stochastic models with microscopic analysis, in which people’s behavior is considered individually, this solution is complex, difficult to apply with many occupants and in large enclosures, and also, this way does not lead to optimal solutions.
Asgarian, Behrouz; Shokrgozar, Hamed R.; Talarposhti, Ali Shakeri
2008-07-01
Of great interest in Performance-Based Earthquake Engineering (PBEE) is the accurate estimation of the seismic performance of structures. A performance prediction and evaluation procedure is based on nonlinear dynamics and reliability theory. In this method, a full integration over the three key stochastic models is as follow: ground motion hazard curve, nonlinear dynamic displacement demand, and displacement capacity. Further, both epistemic and aleatory uncertainties are evaluated and carried through the analysis. In this paper, jacket and soil-pile system have been modeled using Finite Element program (OpenSees) and the incremental dynamic analysis (IDA) are performed to investigate nonlinear behavior of offshore platforms. The system demand is determined by performing time history response analyses of the jacket under a suite of FEMA/SAC uniform hazard ground motions. The system capacity in terms of the drift ratio against incipient collapse is generally difficult to predict since the structural response goes into nonlinear range before collapse. All the analyses are performed in two directions and the results are compared with each others. The confidence level of a jacket in each direction for a given hazard level is calculated using the procedure described.
The Structure and Dynamics of Co-Citation Clusters: A Multiple-Perspective Co-Citation Analysis
Chen, Chaomei; Hou, Jianhua
2010-01-01
A multiple-perspective co-citation analysis method is introduced for characterizing and interpreting the structure and dynamics of co-citation clusters. The method facilitates analytic and sense making tasks by integrating network visualization, spectral clustering, automatic cluster labeling, and text summarization. Co-citation networks are decomposed into co-citation clusters. The interpretation of these clusters is augmented by automatic cluster labeling and summarization. The method focuses on the interrelations between a co-citation cluster's members and their citers. The generic method is applied to a three-part analysis of the field of Information Science as defined by 12 journals published between 1996 and 2008: 1) a comparative author co-citation analysis (ACA), 2) a progressive ACA of a time series of co-citation networks, and 3) a progressive document co-citation analysis (DCA). Results show that the multiple-perspective method increases the interpretability and accountability of both ACA and DCA n...
Temporal analysis of genetic structure to assess population dynamics of reintroduced swift foxes.
Cullingham, Catherine I; Moehrenschlager, Axel
2013-12-01
Reintroductions are increasingly used to reestablish species, but a paucity of long-term postrelease monitoring has limited understanding of whether and when viable populations subsequently persist. We conducted temporal genetic analyses of reintroduced populations of swift foxes (Vulpes velox) in Canada (Alberta and Saskatchewan) and the United States (Montana). We used samples collected 4 years apart, 17 years from the initiation of the reintroduction, and 3 years after the conclusion of releases. To assess program success, we genotyped 304 hair samples, subsampled from the known range in 2000 and 2001, and 2005 and 2006, at 7 microsatellite loci. We compared diversity, effective population size, and genetic connectivity over time in each population. Diversity remained stable over time and there was evidence of increasing effective population size. We determined population structure in both periods after correcting for differences in sample sizes. The geographic distribution of these populations roughly corresponded with the original release locations, which suggests the release sites had residual effects on the population structure. However, given that both reintroduction sites had similar source populations, habitat fragmentation, due to cropland, may be associated with the population structure we found. Although our results indicate growing, stable populations, future connectivity analyses are warranted to ensure both populations are not subject to negative small-population effects. Our results demonstrate the importance of multiple sampling years to fully capture population dynamics of reintroduced populations. Análisis Temporal de la Estructura Genética para Evaluar la Dinámica Poblacional de Zorros (Vulpes velox) Reintroducidos.
Li, Xing; Qiu, Tian; Chen, Guang; Zhong, Li-Xin; Wu, Xiao-Run
2017-04-01
Partial correlation analysis is employed to study the market impact on the Chinese stock market from both the native and external markets. Whereas the native market index is observed to have a great impact on the market correlations for both the Shanghai and Shenzhen stock markets, some external stock indices of the United States, European and Asian stock markets show a slight influence on the Chinese market. The individual stock can be affected by different economic sectors, but the dominant influence is from the sector the stock itself belongs to or closely related to, and the finance and insurance sector shows a weaker correlation with other economic sectors. Moreover, the market structure similarity exhibits a negative correlation with the price return in most time, and the structure similarity decays with the time interval.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lambri, O.A., E-mail: olambri@fceia.unr.edu.a [Instituto de Fisica Rosario - CONICET, Avda. 27 de Febrero 210 bis, 2000 Rosario (Argentina); Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Ingenieria y Agrimensura, Universidad Nacional de Rosario, Laboratorio de Materiales, Escuela de Ingenieria Electrica, Avda. Pellegrini 250, 2000 Rosario (Argentina); Plazaola, F.; Axpe, E. [Elektrizitatea eta Elektronika Saila, Zientzia eta Teknologia Fakultatea, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, P.K. 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Mocellini, R.R.; Zelada-Lambri, G.I. [Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Ingenieria y Agrimensura, Universidad Nacional de Rosario, Laboratorio de Materiales, Escuela de Ingenieria Electrica, Avda. Pellegrini 250, 2000 Rosario (Argentina); Garcia, J.A. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada II, Facultad de Ciencias y Tecnologia, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Apdo. 644, 48080 Bilbao, Pais Vasco (Spain); Matteo, C.L.; Sorichetti, P.A. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Avda. Paseo Colon 850, 1063 Buenos Aires (Argentina)
2011-02-01
This article focuses on the study of the mesoscopic structure in neutron irradiated EPDM both from experimental and theoretical points of view. In this work we reveal completely the modification of the mesostructure of the EPDM due to neutron irradiation, resolving volume fraction, size and distribution of the crystalline zones as a function of the irradiation dose. Positron annihilation spectroscopy and dynamic mechanical analysis techniques are applied and the results are discussed by means of new theoretical results for describing the interaction process between the crystals and amorphous zones in EPDM.
Dynamic molecular graphs: "hopping" structures.
Cortés-Guzmán, Fernando; Rocha-Rinza, Tomas; Guevara-Vela, José Manuel; Cuevas, Gabriel; Gómez, Rosa María
2014-05-05
This work aims to contribute to the discussion about the suitability of bond paths and bond-critical points as indicators of chemical bonding defined within the theoretical framework of the quantum theory of atoms in molecules. For this purpose, we consider the temporal evolution of the molecular structure of [Fe{C(CH2 )3 }(CO)3 ] throughout Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics (BOMD), which illustrates the changing behaviour of the molecular graph (MG) of an electronic system. Several MGs with significant lifespans are observed across the BOMD simulations. The bond paths between the trimethylenemethane and the metallic core are uninterruptedly formed and broken. This situation is reminiscent of a "hopping" ligand over the iron atom. The molecular graph wherein the bonding between trimethylenemethane and the iron atom takes place only by means of the tertiary carbon atom has the longest lifespan of all the considered structures, which is consistent with the MG found by X-ray diffraction experiments and quantum chemical calculations. In contrast, the η(4) complex predicted by molecular-orbital theory has an extremely brief lifetime. The lifespan of different molecular structures is related to bond descriptors on the basis of the topology of the electron density such as the ellipticities at the FeCH2 bond-critical points and electron delocalisation indices. This work also proposes the concept of a dynamic molecular graph composed of the different structures found throughout the BOMD trajectories in analogy to a resonance hybrid of Lewis structures. It is our hope that the notion of dynamic molecular graphs will prove useful in the discussion of electronic systems, in particular for those in which analysis on the basis of static structures leads to controversial conclusions. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Feng, S. D.; Jiao, W.; Jing, Q.; Qi, L.; Pan, S. P.; Li, G.; Ma, M. Z.; Wang, W. H.; Liu, R. P.
2016-11-01
Structural evolution in nanoscale Cu50Zr50 metallic glasses during high-pressure torsion is investigated using molecular dynamics simulations. Results show that the strong cooperation of shear transformations can be realized by high-pressure torsion in nanoscale Cu50Zr50 metallic glasses at room temperature. It is further shown that high-pressure torsion could prompt atoms to possess lower five-fold symmetries and higher potential energies, making them more likely to participate in shear transformations. Meanwhile, a higher torsion period leads to a greater degree of forced cooperative flow. And the pronounced forced cooperative flow at room temperature under high-pressure torsion permits the study of the shear transformation, its activation and characteristics, and its relationship to the deformations behaviors. This research not only provides an important platform for probing the atomic-level understanding of the fundamental mechanisms of high-pressure torsion in metallic glasses, but also leads to higher stresses and homogeneous flow near lower temperatures which is impossible previously.
Sierra Structural Dynamics Theory Manual
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Reese, Garth M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
2015-10-19
Sierra/SD provides a massively parallel implementation of structural dynamics finite element analysis, required for high fidelity, validated models used in modal, vibration, static and shock analysis of structural systems. This manual describes the theory behind many of the constructs in Sierra/SD. For a more detailed description of how to use Sierra/SD , we refer the reader to Sierra/SD, User's Notes . Many of the constructs in Sierra/SD are pulled directly from published material. Where possible, these materials are referenced herein. However, certain functions in Sierra/SD are specific to our implementation. We try to be far more complete in those areas. The theory manual was developed from several sources including general notes, a programmer notes manual, the user's notes and of course the material in the open literature. This page intentionally left blank.
Structural Dynamics of Maneuvering Aircraft.
1987-09-01
AD-RI92 376 STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS OF MANEUVERING RIRCRAFT(U) CONRAD I TECHNOLOGIES INC KING OF PRUSSIA PR M M REDDI SEP 97 CTI-8601 NRDC-88014-69...REPORT NO. NADC-8014-60 STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS OF MANEUVERING AIRCRAFT M. Mahadeva Reddi .4 Conrad Technologies, Inc. 650 S. Henderson Rd. D T IQ King of...NO A0 CCESSION NO. R02303001 107601 11. TITLE (Include Security Classfication) (u) STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS OF MANEUVERING AIRCRAFT 12. PERSONAL AUTHORS) M
2000-12-01
for the ALE problem, but for the so-called hypoelastic models of elastoplasticity in rate form. The interest in this work, however, lies in the...34 Algorithms in Nonlinear Dynamics . 103 III.1. Introduction ................. ........................... ... 104 111.2. Model Problem I: a Nonlinear Elastic...Representative numerical simulations ...... ............. .. 123 111.3. Model Problem II: a Simplified Model of Thin Beams ... ......... ... 127 III
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hua Jian
2015-09-01
Full Text Available A statically designed derrick of deep oil well drilling rig may have poor dynamic characteristics, which can cause earlier structure failure of the drilling rig and harsh working condition. One such designed derrick is found to vibrate severely in operation while the rotation speed of rotary table is about 120 r/min with the working frequency of 2.0 Hz. To solve this problem, an experimental modal test of the derrick is conducted and the modal frequencies and vibration shapes are obtained. Through comparison of modal frequencies with that of exciting devices, it is found that the severe vibration of the drilling rig is caused by the resonance of second modal frequency (1.96 Hz and the working frequency of rotary table. Based on principles of sensitivity analysis and structural dynamics modification method, the frequency sensitivities of all nodes on the derrick are calculated and compared, and then seven nodes with high-frequency sensitivity are selected on which corresponding mass are added to vary the modal frequency. Result shows that the second modal frequency of the derrick is reduced to 1.42 Hz and is out of the normal working frequency range of rotary table, which demonstrates that the dynamic characteristics of the derrick is improved and severe vibration can be avoided.
Analysis of the Nonlinear Static and Dynamic Behavior of Offshore Structures
Alfosail, Feras
2015-07-01
Understanding static and dynamic nonlinear behavior of pipes and risers is crucial for the design aspects in offshore engineering fields. In this work, we examine two nonlinear problems in offshore engineering field: vortex Induced vibration of straight horizontal pipes, and boundary layer static solution of inclined risers. In the first study, we analyze the effect of the internal velocity of straight horizontal pipe and obtain the vortex induced vibration forces via coupling the pipe equation of motion with the recently modified Van Der Pol oscillator governing the lift coefficient. Our numerical results are obtained for two different pipe configurations: hinged-hinged, and clamped- clamped. The results show that the internal velocity reduces the vibration and the oscillation amplitudes. Also, it is shown that the clamped-clamped pipe configuration offers a wider range of internal velocities before buckling instability occurs. The results also demonstrate the effect of the end condition on the amplitudes of vibration. In the second study, we develop a boundary layer perturbation static solution to govern and simulate the static behavior of inclined risers. In the boundary layer analysis, we take in consideration the effects of the axial stretch, applied tension, and internal velocity. Our numerical simulation results show good agreement with the exact solutions for special cases. In addition, our developed method overcomes the mathematical and numerical limitations of the previous methods used before.
Dynamic Responses Analysis of a Building Structure Subjected to Ground Shock from a Tunnel Explosion
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
TIAN Li; LI Zhongxian; HAO Hong
2006-01-01
Dynamic responses of a multi-storey building without or with a sliding base-isolation device for ground shock induced by an in-tunnel explosion are numerically analyzed.The effect of an adjacent tunnel in between the building and the explosion tunnel,which affects ground shock propagation,is considered in the analysis.Different modeling methods,such as the eight-node equal-parametric finite element and mass-lumped system,are used to establish the coupling model consisting of the two adjacent tunnels,the surrounding soil medium with the Lysmer viscous boundary condition,and the multi-storey building with or without the sliding base-isolation device.In numerical calculations,a continuous friction model,which is different from the traditional Coulomb friction model,is adopted to improve the computational efficiency and reduce the accumulated errors.Some example analyses are subsequently performed to study the response characteristics of the building and the sliding base-isolation device to ground shock.The effect of the adjacent tunnel in between the building and the explosion tunnel on the ground shock wave propagation is also investigated.The final conclusions based on the numerical results will provide some guidance in engineering practice.
Olkhov, A.; Kucherenko, E.; Pantyukhov, P.; Zykova, A.; Karpova, S.; Iordanskii, A.
2017-02-01
Creation of polymer matrix systems for targeted drug delivery into a living organism is a challenging problem of modern treatment of various diseases and injuries. Poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) is commonly used for development of therapeutic systems. The aim of this article is to examine the changes in structure and morphology of fibers in presence of dipyridamole (DPD) as model drug for controlled release. It was found that addition of dipyridamole led to disappearance of spindle-shaped nodules on fibers of PHB in comparison with pure PHB. The research of thermophysical parameters showed that specific melting enthalpy (and the degree of crystallinity) of PHB fibers increased with the addition of DPD. With the increasing of DPD content in PHB fibers, more perfect and equilibrium crystal structure was formed. According to analysis of intercrystalline regions of PHB fibers, it was found that as the crystallinity of PHB in intergranular regions rose, the corresponding decrease of radical rotation speed was observed. It was concluded that fibers of PHB can be used for creating therapeutic systems for targeted and prolonged drug delivery.
Analysis of dynamical flow structure in a square arrayed rod bundle
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ikeno, Tsutomu, E-mail: t-ikeno@nfi.co.j [Nuclear Fuel Industries, Ltd., 950, Asashiro Nishi 1-Chome, Kumatori-Cho, Sennan-Gun, Osaka 590-0481 (Japan); Kajishima, Takeo, E-mail: kajisima@mech.eng.osaka-u.ac.j [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Osaka University (Japan)
2010-02-15
Large eddy simulation (LES) of turbulent flow in a bare rod bundle was performed, and a new concept about the flow structure that enhances heat transport between subchannels was proposed. To investigate the geometrical effect, the LES was performed for three different values of rod diameter over pitch ratio (D/P = 0.7, 0.8, 0.9). The computational domain containing 4 subchannels was large enough to capture large-scale structures wide across subchannels. Lateral flow obtained was unconfined in a subchannel, and some flows indicated a pulsation through the rod gap between subchannels. The gap flow became strong as D/P increased, as existing experimental studies had reported. Turbulence intensity profile in the rod gap suggested that the pulsation was caused by the turbulence energy transferred from the main flow to the wall-tangential direction. This implied that the flow pulsation was an unsteady mode of the secondary flow and arose from the same geometrical effect of turbulence. This implication was supported by the analysis results: two-points correlation functions of fluctuating velocities indicated two length-scales, P-D and D, respectively of cross-sectional and longitudinal motions; turbulence stress in the cross-sectional mean flow contained a non-potential component, which represented energy injection through the unsteady longitudinal fluid motion.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Swati Kaushik
Full Text Available Prolyl oligopeptidase (POP is considered as an important pharmaceutical target for the treatment of numerous diseases. Despite enormous studies on various aspects of POPs structure and function still some of the questions are intriguing like conformational dynamics of the protein and interplay between ligand entry/egress. Here, we have used molecular modeling and docking based approaches to unravel questions like differences in ligand binding affinities in three POP species (porcine, human and A. thaliana. Despite high sequence and structural similarity, they possess different affinities for the ligands. Interestingly, human POP was found to be more specific, selective and incapable of binding to a few planar ligands which showed extrapolation of porcine POP in human context is more complicated. Possible routes for substrate entry and product egress were also investigated by detailed analyses of molecular dynamics (MD simulations for the three proteins. Trajectory analysis of bound and unbound forms of three species showed differences in conformational dynamics, especially variations in β-propeller pore size, which was found to be hidden by five lysine residues present on blades one and seven. During simulation, β-propeller pore size was increased by ∼2 Å in porcine ligand-bound form which might act as a passage for smaller product movement as free energy barrier was reduced, while there were no significant changes in human and A. thaliana POPs. We also suggest that these differences in pore size could lead to fundamental differences in mode of product egress among three species. This analysis also showed some functionally important residues which can be used further for in vitro mutagenesis and inhibitor design. This study can help us in better understanding of the etiology of POPs in several neurodegenerative diseases.
Rigid Finite Element Method in Analysis of Dynamics of Offshore Structures
Wittbrodt, Edmund; Maczyński, Andrzej; Wojciech, Stanisław
2013-01-01
This book describes new methods developed for modelling dynamics of machines commonly used in the offshore industry. These methods are based both on the rigid finite element method, used for the description of link deformations, and on homogeneous transformations and joint coordinates, which is applied to the modelling of multibody system dynamics. In this monograph, the bases of the rigid finite element method and homogeneous transformations are introduced. Selected models for modelling dynamics of offshore devices are then verified both by using commercial software, based on the finite element method, as well as by using additional methods. Examples of mathematical models of offshore machines, such as a gantry crane for Blowout-Preventer (BOP) valve block transportation, a pedestal crane with shock absorber, and pipe laying machinery are presented. Selected problems of control in offshore machinery as well as dynamic optimization in device control are also discussed. Additionally, numerical simulations of...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Charles R. Steele
1995-01-01
Full Text Available Shell structures are indispensable in virtually every industry. However, in the design, analysis, fabrication, and maintenance of such structures, there are many pitfalls leading to various forms of disaster. The experience gained by engineers over some 200 years of disasters and brushes with disaster is expressed in the extensive archival literature, national codes, and procedural documentation found in larger companies. However, the advantage of the richness in the behavior of shells is that the way is always open for innovation. In this survey, we present a broad overview of the dynamic response of shell structures. The intention is to provide an understanding of the basic themes behind the detailed codes and stimulate, not restrict, positive innovation. Such understanding is also crucial for the correct computation of shell structures by any computer code. The physics dictates that the thin shell structure offers a challenge for analysis and computation. Shell response can be generally categorized by states of extension, inextensional bending, edge bending, and edge transverse shear. Simple estimates for the magnitudes of stress, deformation, and resonance in the extensional and inextensional states are provided by ring response. Several shell examples demonstrate the different states and combinations. For excitation frequency above the extensional resonance, such as in impact and acoustic excitation, a fine mesh is needed over the entire shell surface. For this range, modal and implicit methods are of limited value. The example of a sphere impacting a rigid surface shows that plastic unloading occurs continuously. Thus, there are no short cuts; the complete material behavior must be included.
Mass Spectrometry-Based Proteomics for the Analysis of Chromatin Structure and Dynamics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Monica Soldi
2013-03-01
Full Text Available Chromatin is a highly structured nucleoprotein complex made of histone proteins and DNA that controls nearly all DNA-dependent processes. Chromatin plasticity is regulated by different associated proteins, post-translational modifications on histones (hPTMs and DNA methylation, which act in a concerted manner to enforce a specific “chromatin landscape”, with a regulatory effect on gene expression. Mass Spectrometry (MS has emerged as a powerful analytical strategy to detect histone PTMs, revealing interplays between neighbouring PTMs and enabling screens for their readers in a comprehensive and quantitative fashion. Here we provide an overview of the recent achievements of state-of-the-art mass spectrometry-based proteomics for the detailed qualitative and quantitative characterization of histone post-translational modifications, histone variants, and global interactomes at specific chromatin regions. This synopsis emphasizes how the advances in high resolution MS, from “Bottom Up” to “Top Down” analysis, together with the uptake of quantitative proteomics methods by chromatin biologists, have made MS a well-established method in the epigenetics field, enabling the acquisition of original information, highly complementary to that offered by more conventional, antibody-based, assays.
Valiente, Pedro A; Batista, Paulo R; Pupo, Amaury; Pons, Tirso; Valencia, Alfonso; Pascutti, Pedro G
2008-11-01
Plasmepsins are aspartic proteases involved in the initial steps of the hemoglobin degradation pathway, a critical stage in the Plasmodium falciparum life cycle during human infection. Thus, they are attractive targets for novel therapeutic compounds to treat malaria, which remains one of the world's biggest health problems. The three-dimensional structures available for P. falciparum plasmepsins II and IV make structure-based drug design of antimalarial compounds that focus on inhibiting plasmepsins possible. However, the structural flexibility of the plasmepsin active site cavity combined with insufficient knowledge of the functional residues and of those determining the specificity of parasitic enzymes is a drawback when designing specific inhibitors. In this study, we have combined a sequence and structural analysis with molecular dynamics simulations to predict the functional residues in P. falciparum plasmepsins. The careful analysis of X-ray structures and 3D models carried out here suggests that residues Y17, V105, T108, L191, L242, Q275, and T298 are important for plasmepsin function. These seven amino acids are conserved across the malarial strains but not in human aspartic proteases. Residues V105 and T108 are localized in a flap of an interior pocket and they only establish contacts with a specific non-peptide achiral inhibitor. We also observed a rapid conformational change in the L3 region of plasmepsins that closes the active site of the enzyme, which explains earlier experimental findings. These results shed light on the role of V105 and T108 residues in plasmepsin specificities, and they should be useful in structure-based design of novel, selective inhibitors that may serve as antimalarial drugs.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Arych Mykhaylo I.
2014-02-01
Full Text Available The article studies dynamics and structure of financial and economic results of dairy industry enterprises during 2008 – 2012, which gives a possibility to reveal main tendencies of changes and character of development of this industry. Dynamics of financial and economic results of five Ukrainian dairy enterprises selected for the study is positive in growth of their absolute values, however, if we speak about relative indicators of profitability (unprofitableness the situation here is opposite. Analysis of general tendencies of the economic result – income (receipts from sales of products showed positive dynamics of increase of this indicator practically in all subjects of the dairy industry during 2008 – 2012. The final financial result in the form of net profit (loss changed not so positively, which resulted in formation of indicators of unprofitableness and low values of profitability. Moreover, we should note availability of a quite positive tendency of increase of qualitative and quantitative compositions of results of production activity of individual enterprises.
Analysis of High Temperature Deformed Structure and Dynamic Precipitation in W9Mo3Cr4V Steel
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2001-01-01
With TEM、SEM, various high-temperature deformed structures inW9Mo3Cr4V steel were investigated. The sub-structures，recrystallized nuclei, as well as the dynamic precipitation were also studied and analyzed. The relationship between recrystallized structures and dynamic precipitation was discussed. The results showed that the deformed structures in W9Mo3Cr4V steel are more complicated than those in low alloy steels. Because W9Mo3Cr4V steel is a high-speed steel, there are a large number of residual carbides on the matrix. Also, much dynamic precipitating carbides will precipitate during deformation at high temperature.
Dynamic testing of cable structures
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Caetano Elsa
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The paper discusses the role of dynamic testing in the study of cable structures. In this context, the identification of cable force based on vibration measurements is discussed. Vibration and damping assessment are then introduced as the focus of dynamic monitoring systems, and particular aspects of the structural behaviour under environmental loads are analysed. Diverse application results are presented to support the discussion centred on cable-stayed bridges, roof structures, a guyed mast and a transmission line.
Nonlinear dynamic analysis of a structure with a friction-based seismic base isolation system
Suy, H.M.R.; Fey, R.H.B.; Galanti, F.M.B.; Nijmeijer, H.
2007-01-01
Many dynamical systems are subject to some form of non-smooth or discontinuous nonlinearity. One eminent example of such a nonlinearity is friction. This is caused by the fact that friction always opposes the direction of movement, thus changing sign when the sliding velocity changes sign. In this p
Structural Dynamics of Electronic Systems
Suhir, E.
2013-03-01
The published work on analytical ("mathematical") and computer-aided, primarily finite-element-analysis (FEA) based, predictive modeling of the dynamic response of electronic systems to shocks and vibrations is reviewed. While understanding the physics of and the ability to predict the response of an electronic structure to dynamic loading has been always of significant importance in military, avionic, aeronautic, automotive and maritime electronics, during the last decade this problem has become especially important also in commercial, and, particularly, in portable electronics in connection with accelerated testing of various surface mount technology (SMT) systems on the board level. The emphasis of the review is on the nonlinear shock-excited vibrations of flexible printed circuit boards (PCBs) experiencing shock loading applied to their support contours during drop tests. At the end of the review we provide, as a suitable and useful illustration, the exact solution to a highly nonlinear problem of the dynamic response of a "flexible-and-heavy" PCB to an impact load applied to its support contour during drop testing.
Structural Equation Modeling of Travel Choice Dynamics
Golob, Thomas F.
1988-01-01
This research has two objectives. The first objective is to explore the use of the modeling tool called "latent structural equations" (structural equations with latent variables) in the general field of travel behavior analysis and the more specific field of dynamic analysis of travel behavior. The second objective is to apply a latent structural equation model in order to determine the causal relationships between income, car ownership, and mobility. Many transportation researchers ...
Na, Insung; DeForte, Shelly; Stojanovski, Bosko M; Ferreira, Gloria C; Uversky, Vladimir N
2017-01-09
Heme biosynthesis, a complex, multistage, and tightly controlled process, starts with 5-aminolevulinate (ALA) production, which, in metazoa and certain bacteria, is a reaction catalyzed by 5-aminolevulinate synthase (ALAS), a pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzyme. Functional aberrations in ALAS are associated with several human diseases. ALAS can adopt open and closed conformations, with segmental rearrangements of a C-terminal, 16-amino acid loop and an α-helix regulating accessibility to the ALAS active site. Of the murine erythroid ALAS (mALAS2) forms previously engineered to assess the role of the flexible C-terminal loop versus mALAS2 function one stood out due to its impressive gain in catalytic power. To elucidate how the simultaneously introduced seven mutations of this activity-enhanced variant affected structural and dynamic properties of mALAS2, we conducted extensive molecular dynamics simulation analysis of the dimeric forms of wild-type mALAS2, hepta-variant and Rhodobacter capsulatus ALAS (aka R. capsulatus HemA). This analysis revealed that the seven simultaneous mutations in the C-terminal loop, which extends over the active site of the enzyme, caused the bacterial and murine proteins to adopt different conformations. Specifically, a new β-strand in the mutated 'loop' led to interaction with two preexisting β-strands and formation of an anti-parallel three-stranded β-sheet, which likely endowed the murine hepta-variant a more 'stable' open conformation than that of wild-type mALAS2, consistent with a kinetic mechanism involving a faster closed-to-open conformation transition and product release for the mutated than wild-type enzyme. Further, the dynamic behavior of the mALAS2 protomers was strikingly different in the two dimeric forms.
Zhang, Zi-Long; Chen, Xing-Peng; Yang, Jing; Xue, Bing; Li, Yong-Jin
2010-02-01
Based on the ideology of macro environmental economics, a function of environmental pressure represented by pollutant emission was built, and the relative importance of the driving factors in the dynamic changes of the relationships between economic growth and environmental pressure in Gansu Province in 1990 - 2005 was analyzed by using structural decomposition analysis (SDA) model combining with 'refined Laspeyres' method. In the study period, the environmental pressure in the Province was mainly caused by the emission of waste gases and solids in the process of economic growth, and showed a rapid increasing trend at the late stage of the period. Population factor had less impact on the increase of this environmental pressure, while economic growth factor had obvious impact on it. Technological progress did mitigate, but could not offset the impact of economic growth factor, and the impacts of economic growth and technological factors on the environmental pressure differed with the kinds of pollutants.
Thorp, Scott A.
1992-01-01
This presentation will discuss the development of a NASA Geometry Exchange Specification for transferring aerodynamic surface geometry between LeRC systems and grid generation software used for computational fluid dynamics research. The proposed specification is based on a subset of the Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES). The presentation will include discussion of how the NASA-IGES standard will accommodate improved computer aided design inspection methods and reverse engineering techniques currently being developed. The presentation is in viewgraph format.
A 100-kW wind turbine blade dynamics analysis, weight-balance, and structural test results
Anderson, W. D.
1975-01-01
The results of dynamic analyses, weight and balance tests, static stiffness tests, and structural vibration tests on the 60-foot-long metal blades for the ERDA-NASA 100-kW wind turbine are presented. The metal blades are shown to be free from structural or dynamic resonance at the wind turbine design speed. Aeroelastic instabilities are unlikely to occur within the normal operating range of the wind turbine.
Mahmoudi, S.; Trivaudey, F.; Bouhaddi, N.
2015-07-01
The aim of this study is the prediction of the dynamic response of damaged laminated composite structures in the context of component mode synthesis. Hence, a method of damage localization of complex structures is proposed. The dynamic behavior of transversely isotropic layers is expressed through elasticity coupled with damage based on an existing macro model for cracked structures. The damage is located only in some regions of the whole structure, which is decomposed on substructures. The incremental linear dynamic governing equations are obtained by using the classical linear Kirchhoff-Love theory of plates. Then, considering the damage-induced nonlinearity, the obtained nonlinear dynamic equations are solved in time domain. However, a detailed finite element modelling of such structure on the scale of localized damage would generate very high computational costs. To reduce this cost, Component Mode Synthesis method (CMS) is used for modelling a nonlinear fine-scale substructure damaged, connected to linear dynamic models of the remaining substructures, which can be condensed and not updated at each iteration. Numerical results show that the mechanical properties of the structure highly change when damage is taken into account. Under an impact load, damage increases and reaches its highest value with the maximum of the applied load and then remains unchanged. Besides, the eigenfrequencies of the damaged structure decrease comparing with those of an undamaged one. This methodology can be used for monitoring strategies and lifetime estimations of hybrid complex structures due to the damage state is known in space and time.
Damping mechanisms and models in structural dynamics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Krenk, Steen
2002-01-01
Several aspects of damping models for dynamic analysis of structures are investigated. First the causality condition for structural response is used to identify rules for the use of complex-valued frequency dependent material models, illustrated by the shortcomings of the elastic hysteretic model...
Thomas, James R.; Gedeon, Patrick C.; Madura, Jeffry D.
2014-01-01
The bacterial leucine transporter LeuT retains significant secondary structure similarities to the human monoamine transporters (MAT) such as the dopamine and serotonin reuptake proteins. The primary method of computational study of the MATs has been through the use of the crystallized LeuT structure. Different conformations of LeuT can give insight into mechanistic details of the MAT family. A conformational sampling performed through accelerated molecular dynamics (aMD) simulations testing different combinations of the leucine substrate and bound sodium ions revealed seven distinct conformational clusters. Further analysis has been performed to target salt-bridge residues R30–D404, Y108–F253, and R5–D369 and transmembrane domains on both the seven isolated structures and the total trajectories. In addition, solvent accessibility of LeuT and its substrate binding pockets has been analyzed using a program for calculating channel radii. Occupation of the Na2 site stabilizes the outward conformation and should bind to the open outward conformation before the leucine and Na1 sodium while two possible pathways were found to be available for intracellular transport. PMID:24753369
Thomas, James R; Gedeon, Patrick C; Madura, Jeffry D
2014-10-01
The bacterial leucine transporter LeuT retains significant secondary structure similarities to the human monoamine transporters (MAT) such as the dopamine and serotonin reuptake proteins. The primary method of computational study of the MATs has been through the use of the crystallized LeuT structure. Different conformations of LeuT can give insight into mechanistic details of the MAT family. A conformational sampling performed through accelerated molecular dynamics simulations testing different combinations of the leucine substrate and bound sodium ions revealed seven distinct conformational clusters. Further analysis has been performed to target salt-bridge residues R30-D404, Y108-F253, and R5-D369 and transmembrane domains on both the seven isolated structures and the total trajectories. In addition, solvent accessibility of LeuT and its substrate binding pockets has been analyzed using a program for calculating channel radii. Occupation of the Na2 site stabilizes the outward conformation and should bind to the open outward conformation before the leucine and Na1 sodium while two possible pathways were found to be available for intracellular transport.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bart Peeters
2007-01-01
Full Text Available During a football game, the ambient vibrations at the roof of a football stadium were recorded. A very large data set consisting of 4 hours of data, sampled at 80 Hz, is available. By a data reduction procedure, the complete data set could be analysed at once in a very short time. The data set was also split in shorter segments corresponding to certain events before, during and after the game to investigate the influence of varying operational conditions on the dynamic properties.
Structural dynamics in rotating systems
Kiraly, Louis J.
1993-01-01
Major issues and recent advances in the structural dynamics of rotating systems are summarized. The objectives and benefits of such systems are briefly discussed. Directions for future research are suggested.
Static Analysis for Dynamic XML
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christensen, Aske Simon; Møller, Anders; Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff
2002-01-01
We describe the summary graph lattice for dataflow analysis of programs that dynamically construct XML documents. Summary graphs have successfully been used to provide static guarantees in the JWIG language for programming interactive Web services. In particular, the JWIG compiler is able to check...... validity of dynamically generated XHTML documents and to type check dynamic form data. In this paper we present summary graphs and indicate their applicability for various scenarios. We also show that the expressive power of summary graphs is similar to that of the regular expression types from XDuce......, but that the extra structure in summary graphs makes them more suitable for certain program analyses....
Structural and Dynamic Analysis on IDPs by Modified AWSEM-MD
Wu, Hao; Papoian, Garegin; Papoian Theoretical Biophysics Group Team
Unlike globular proteins, intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) lack both secondary and tertiary structures and can play key roles in various biological processes, including transcriptional regulation, molecular recognition and cellular signaling. These functions can be potentially elucidated by structural heterogeneity of IDPs. Because of their flexibility and disordered nature, it has been difficult to investigate IDPs both computationally and experimentally. In particular, it is desirable to develop coarse-grained, yet accurate models of IDPs, such that simulations exploring sufficient conformational ensembles could be carried out within feasible times. To achieve this goal, we modified the associative memory, water mediated, structure and energy model (AWSEM-MD), which is typically used for folding of globular proteins or binding studies. We tested modified AWSEM-MD on several well-studied IDPs and found the transient secondary structure propensity is consistent with NMR experimental results. The rugged free energy landscapes obtained also show structural heterogeneity of these IDPs. Our proposed extension of AWSEM-MD may allow simulating a wider range of IDPs with high accuracy and computational efficiency.
Coupled fluid-dynamical and structural analysis of a mono-axial mems accelerometer
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A Cammarata
2016-09-01
Full Text Available This study is aimed to numerically investigate the elastodynamics of a mono-axial MEMS accelerometer. The vibrating part of the device is dipped into a fluid micro-channel and made of a proof mass connected to the frame by two flexible legs. The adopted mathematical model lies on a linearized motion equations system, where the mass matrix is obtained by means of both lumped and distributed approach. The stiffness matrix is otherwise derived through FEA, in which the proof mass and the compliant legs are modeled as rigid and flexible bodies, respectively. The squeezed-film damping effect is evaluated by a fluid-dynamical FE model based on a modified Reynolds formulation. The ensuing analyses are carried-out for three pressure levels of the narrow gas film surrounding the device, by applying the logarithmic decrement method for evaluating the damping ratio. Numerical results, in terms of acceleration, frequency range and noise disturbance, are successfully compared to analytical and experimental ones previously published in literature. Our model characterizes the accelerometer dynamics in space, allowing, in addition, to assess translational motion errors along directions apart the working one.
Hysteresis in structural dynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ivanyi, A., E-mail: aivanyi@morpheus.pte.hu [Pollack Mihaly Faculty of Engineering, University of Pecs, Boszorkany u. 2, H-7624 Pecs (Hungary); Ivanyi, P., E-mail: peteri@morpheus.pte.hu [Pollack Mihaly Faculty of Engineering, University of Pecs, Boszorkany u. 2, H-7624 Pecs (Hungary); Ivanyi, M.M., E-mail: ivanyi@uvaterv.hu [Pollack Mihaly Faculty of Engineering, University of Pecs, Boszorkany u. 2, H-7624 Pecs (Hungary); UVATERV Ltd, Budapest, 1117, Dombovari ut 17, Budapest (Hungary); Ivanyi, M., E-mail: drivanyi@pmmk.pte.hu [Pollack Mihaly Faculty of Engineering, University of Pecs, Boszorkany u. 2, H-7624 Pecs (Hungary)
2012-05-01
In this paper the Preisach hysteresis model is applied to determine the dynamic behavior of a steel column with mass on the top and loaded by an impulse force. The column is considered as a rigid element, while the fixed end of the column is modeled with a rotational spring of hysterestic characteristic. In the solution of the non-linear dynamical equation of motion the fix-point technique is inserted to the time marching iteration. In the investigation the non-linearity of the rotation spring is modeled with the Preisach hysteresis model. The variation of amplitude and the action time interval of force are changing. The results are plotted in figures.
Essentials of applied dynamic analysis
Jia, Junbo
2014-01-01
This book presents up-to-date knowledge of dynamic analysis in engineering world. To facilitate the understanding of the topics by readers with various backgrounds, general principles are linked to their applications from different angles. Special interesting topics such as statistics of motions and loading, damping modeling and measurement, nonlinear dynamics, fatigue assessment, vibration and buckling under axial loading, structural health monitoring, human body vibrations, and vehicle-structure interactions etc., are also presented. The target readers include industry professionals in civil, marine and mechanical engineering, as well as researchers and students in this area.
31st IMAC Conference on Structural Dynamics
Adams, Douglas; Carrella, Alex; Mayes, Randy; Rixen, Daniel; Allen, Matt; Cunha, Alvaro; Catbas, Fikret; Pakzad, Shamim; Racic, Vitomir; Pavic, Aleksandar; Reynolds, Paul; Simmermacher, Todd; Cogan, Scott; Moaveni, Babak; Papadimitriou, Costas; Allemang, Randall; Clerck, James; Niezrecki, Christopher; Wicks, Alfred
2013-01-01
Topics in Nonlinear Dynamics, Volume 1: Proceedings of the 31st IMAC, A Conference and Exposition on Structural Dynamics, 2013, the first volume of seven from the Conference, brings together contributions to this important area of research and engineering. The collection presents early findings and case studies on fundamental and applied aspects of Structural Dynamics, including papers on: Nonlinear Oscillations Nonlinearities In Practice Nonlinear System Identification: Methods Nonlinear System Identification: Friction & Contact Nonlinear Modal Analysis Nonlinear Modeling & Simulation Nonlinear Vibration Absorbers Constructive Utilization of Nonlinearity.
DYNAMIC CHARACTERISTIC ANALYSIS OF A 3-D SEMI-SUBMERGED BODY AS A FLUID-STRUCTURE INTERACTION SYSTEM
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
徐刚; 任文敏
2004-01-01
An Arnoldi's method with new iteration pattern, which was designed for solving a large unsymmetric eigenvalue problem introduced by displacement-pressure FE (Finite Element) pattern of a fluid-structure interaction system, was adopted here to get the dynamic characteristics of the semi-submerged body. The new iteration pattern could be used efficiently to obtain the Arnoldi's vectors in the shift-frequency technique, which was used for the zero-frequency problem. Numerical example showed that the fluid-structure interaction is one of the important factors to the dynamic characteristics of large semi-submerged thin-walled structures.
Estrada, Ernesto
2016-01-01
We propose a new model to account for the main structural characteristics of rock fracture networks (RFNs). The model is based on a generalization of the random neighborhood graphs to consider fractures embedded into rectangular spaces. We study a series of 29 real-world RFNs and find the best fit with the random rectangular neighborhood graphs (RRNGs) proposed here. We show that this model captures most of the structural characteristics of the RFNs and allows a distinction between small and more spherical rocks and large and more elongated ones. We use a diffusion equation on the graphs in order to model diffusive processes taking place through the channels of the RFNs. We find a small set of structural parameters that highly correlates with the average diffusion time in the RFNs. In particular, the second smallest eigenvalue of the Laplacian matrix is a good predictor of the average diffusion time on RFNs, showing a Pearson correlation coefficient larger than $0.99$ with the average diffusion time on RFNs. ...
Structural dynamics teaching example: A linear test analysis case using open software
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sturesson, P. O.; Brandt, A.; Ristinmaa, M.
2013-01-01
experimental modal analysis data. By using open software, based on MATLAB®1 as a basis for the example, the applied numerical methods are made transparent to the student. The example is built on a combination of the free CALFEM®2 and ABRAVIBE toolboxes, and thus all code used in this paper is publically...
PRONTO3D users` instructions: A transient dynamic code for nonlinear structural analysis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Attaway, S.W.; Mello, F.J.; Heinstein, M.W.; Swegle, J.W.; Ratner, J.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Zadoks, R.I. [Univ. of Texas, El Paso, TX (United States)
1998-06-01
This report provides an updated set of users` instructions for PRONTO3D. PRONTO3D is a three-dimensional, transient, solid dynamics code for analyzing large deformations of highly nonlinear materials subjected to extremely high strain rates. This Lagrangian finite element program uses an explicit time integration operator to integrate the equations of motion. Eight-node, uniform strain, hexahedral elements and four-node, quadrilateral, uniform strain shells are used in the finite element formulation. An adaptive time step control algorithm is used to improve stability and performance in plasticity problems. Hourglass distortions can be eliminated without disturbing the finite element solution using either the Flanagan-Belytschko hourglass control scheme or an assumed strain hourglass control scheme. All constitutive models in PRONTO3D are cast in an unrotated configuration defined using the rotation determined from the polar decomposition of the deformation gradient. A robust contact algorithm allows for the impact and interaction of deforming contact surfaces of quite general geometry. The Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics method has been embedded into PRONTO3D using the contact algorithm to couple it with the finite element method.
Moreno de las Heras, Mariano; Diaz-Sierra, Ruben; Turnbull, Laura; Wainwright, John
2015-04-01
Shrub encroachment is perceived as a symptom of land degradation in the American Southwest, where large areas of grasslands dominated by black and blue grama have transitioned over the last 150 years to shrublands dominated by woody species (mainly creosotebush and mesquite), accompanied by accelerated water and wind erosion. In this study, simulations of plant biomass dynamics indicate that herbaceous and shrub vegetation in drylands have different responses to antecedent precipitation due to functional differences in plant growth and water-use patterns, and therefore shrub encroachment may be reflected in the analysis of landscape-scale vegetation-rainfall relationships. We analyze the structure and dynamics of vegetation at an 18-km2 grassland-shrubland ecotone in the northern edge of the Chihuahuan Desert (Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge, New Mexico, USA) by investigating the relationship between 2000-13 records of remotely sensed MODIS NDVI and precipitation. Spatial analysis of NDVI-rainfall relationships at the studied ecotone indicates that herbaceous vegetation shows quick growth pulses associated with short-term (previous 2 months) precipitation, while shrubs show a slow response to medium-term (previous 5 months) precipitation. We use these relationships to (a) classify landscape types as a function of the spatial distribution of dominant vegetation, and (b) decompose the NDVI signal into partial primary production components for herbaceous vegetation and shrubs across the study site. We further apply remote-sensed annual net primary production (ANPP) estimations and landscape-type classification to explore the influence of inter-annual variations in seasonal precipitation on the production of herbaceous and shrub vegetation. Our results suggest that changes in the amount and temporal pattern of precipitation comprising reductions in monsoonal summer rainfall and/or increases in winter precipitation may enhance the shrub-encroachment process in the
Robinson, J. C.
1982-01-01
A systematic finite-element model modification technique has been applied to two small problems and a model of the main wing box of a research drone aircraft. The procedure determines the sensitivity of the eigenvalues and eigenvector components to specific structural changes, calculates the required changes and modifies the finite-element model. Good results were obtained where large stiffness modifications were required to satisfy large eigenvalue changes. Sensitivity matrix conditioning problems required the development of techniques to insure existence of a solution and accelerate its convergence. A method is proposed to assist the analyst in selecting stiffness parameters for modification.
Dynamical stability analysis of delayed recurrent neural networks with ring structure
Zhang, Huaguang; Huang, Yujiao; Cai, Tiaoyang; Wang, Zhanshan
2014-04-01
In this paper, multistability is discussed for delayed recurrent neural networks with ring structure and multi-step piecewise linear activation functions. Sufficient criteria are obtained to check the existence of multiple equilibria. A lemma is proposed to explore the number and the cross-direction of purely imaginary roots for the characteristic equation, which corresponds to the neural network model. Stability of all of equilibria is investigated. The work improves and extends the existing stability results in the literature. Finally, two examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the obtained results.
Gargiulo, Gaetano; Levy, Samuel; Bucci, Gabriele; Romanenghi, Mauro; Fornasari, Lorenzo; Beeson, Karen Y; Goldberg, Susanne M; Cesaroni, Matteo; Ballarini, Marco; Santoro, Fabio; Bezman, Natalie; Frigè, Gianmaria; Gregory, Philip D; Holmes, Michael C; Strausberg, Robert L; Pelicci, Pier Giuseppe; Urnov, Fyodor D; Minucci, Saverio
2009-03-01
It is well established that epigenetic modulation of genome accessibility in chromatin occurs during biological processes. Here we describe a method based on restriction enzymes and next-generation sequencing for identifying accessible DNA elements using a small amount of starting material, and use it to examine myeloid differentiation of primary human CD34+ cells. The accessibility of several classes of cis-regulatory elements was a predictive marker of in vivo DNA binding by transcription factors, and was associated with distinct patterns of histone posttranslational modifications. We also mapped large chromosomal domains with differential accessibility in progenitors and maturing cells. Accessibility became restricted during differentiation, correlating with a decreased number of expressed genes and loss of regulatory potential. Our data suggest that a permissive chromatin structure in multipotent cells is progressively and selectively closed during differentiation, and illustrate the use of our method for the identification of functional cis-regulatory elements.
Dynamic Study of Bicycle Frame Structure
Sani, M. S. M.; Nazri, N. A.; Zahari, S. N.; Abdullah, N. A. Z.; Priyandoko, G.
2016-11-01
Bicycle frames have to bear variety of loads and it is needed to ensure the frame can withstand dynamic loads to move. This paper focusing on dynamic study for bicycle frame structure with a purpose to avoid the problem regarding loads on the structure and to ensure the structure is safe when multiple loads are applied on it. The main objectives of dynamic study are to find the modal properties using two method; finite element analysis (FEA) and experimental modal analysis (EMA). The correlation between two studies will be obtained using percentage error. Firstly, 3D model of mountain bike frame structure has been draw using computer-aided design (CAD) software and normal mode analysis using MSC Nastran Patran was executed for numerical method meanwhile modal testing using impact hammer was performed for experimental counterpart. From the correlation result, it show that percentage error between FEA and EMA were below 10% due to noise, imperfect experiment setup during perform EMA and imperfect modeling of mountain bike frame structure in CAD software. Small percentage error differences makes both of the method can be applied to obtain the dynamic characteristic of structure. It is essential to determine whether the structure is safe or not. In conclusion, model updating method is required to reduce more percentage error between two results.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard; Nakshatrala, Praveen B.; Tortorelli, Daniel A.
2014-01-01
Gradient-based topology optimization typically involves thousands or millions of design variables. This makes efficient sensitivity analysis essential and for this the adjoint variable method (AVM) is indispensable. For transient problems it has been observed that the traditional AVM, based...... on a differentiate-then-discretize approach, may lead to inconsistent sensitivities. Herein this effect is explicitly demonstrated for a single dof system and the source of inconsistency is identified. Additionally, we outline an alternative discretize-then-differentiate AVM that inherently produces consistent...
Lymphotactin structural dynamics
Volkman, Brian F.; Liu, Tina Y.; Peterson, Francis C.
2009-01-01
Lymphotactin/XCL1, the defining member of the C class of chemokines, undergoes a conformational change that involves the complete restructuring of all stabilizing interactions. Other chemokines are restricted to a single conformation by a pair of conserved disulfide crosslinks, one of which is absent in lymphotactin. This structural interconversion is entirely reversible, and the two-state equilibrium is sensitive to changes in temperature and ionic strength. One species adopts the conserved ...
Cantat, Isabelle; Graner, François; Pitois, Olivier; Höhler, Reinard; Elias, Florence; Saint-Jalmes, Arnaud; Rouyer, Florence
2013-01-01
This book is the first to provide a thorough description of all aspects of the physico-chemical properties of foams. It sets out what is known about their structure, their stability, and their rheology. Engineers, researchers and students will find descriptions of all the key concepts, illustrated by numerous applications, as well as experiments and exercises for the reader. A solutions manual for lecturers is available via the publisher's web site.
30th IMAC, A Conference on Structural Dynamics
Catbas, FN; Mayes, R; Rixen, D; Griffith, DT; Allemang, R; Clerck, J; Klerk, D; Simmermacher, T; Cogan, S; Chauhan, S; Cunha, A; Racic, V; Reynolds, P; Salyards, K; Adams, D; Kerschen, G; Carrella, A; Voormeeren, SN; Allen, MS; Horta, LG; Barthorpe, R; Niezrecki, C; Blough, JR; Vol.1 Topics on the Dynamics of Civil Structures; Vol.2 Topics in Experimental Dynamics Substructuring and Wind Turbine Dynamics; Vol.3 Topics in Nonlinear Dynamics; Vol.4 Topics in Model Validation and Uncertainty Quantification; Vol.5 Topics in Modal Analysis I; Vol.6 Topics in Modal Analysis II
2012-01-01
Topics on the Dynamics of Civil Structures, Volume 1, Proceedings of the 30th IMAC, A Conference and Exposition on Structural Dynamics, 2012, the first volume of six from the Conference, brings together 45 contributions to this important area of research and engineering. The collection presents early findings and case studies on fundamental and applied aspects of Structural Dynamics, including papers on: Human Induced Vibrations Bridge Dynamics Operational Modal Analysis Experimental Techniques and Modeling for Civil Structures System Identification for Civil Structures Method and Technologies for Bridge Monitoring Damage Detection for Civil Structures Structural Modeling Vibration Control Method and Approaches for Civil Structures Modal Testing of Civil Structures.
Structural Mechanics and Dynamics Branch
Stefko, George
2003-01-01
The 2002 annual report of the Structural Mechanics and Dynamics Branch reflects the majority of the work performed by the branch staff during the 2002 calendar year. Its purpose is to give a brief review of the branch s technical accomplishments. The Structural Mechanics and Dynamics Branch develops innovative computational tools, benchmark experimental data, and solutions to long-term barrier problems in the areas of propulsion aeroelasticity, active and passive damping, engine vibration control, rotor dynamics, magnetic suspension, structural mechanics, probabilistics, smart structures, engine system dynamics, and engine containment. Furthermore, the branch is developing a compact, nonpolluting, bearingless electric machine with electric power supplied by fuel cells for future "more electric" aircraft. An ultra-high-power-density machine that can generate projected power densities of 50 hp/lb or more, in comparison to conventional electric machines, which generate usually 0.2 hp/lb, is under development for application to electric drives for propulsive fans or propellers. In the future, propulsion and power systems will need to be lighter, to operate at higher temperatures, and to be more reliable in order to achieve higher performance and economic viability. The Structural Mechanics and Dynamics Branch is working to achieve these complex, challenging goals.
Judson, Richard S.; Rabitz, Herschel
1987-04-01
The relationship between structure in the potential surface and classical mechanical observables is examined by means of functional sensitivity analysis. Functional sensitivities provide maps of the potential surface, highlighting those regions that play the greatest role in determining the behavior of observables. A set of differential equations for the sensitivities of the trajectory components are derived. These are then solved using a Green's function method. It is found that the sensitivities become singular at the trajectory turning points with the singularities going as η-3/2, with η being the distance from the nearest turning point. The sensitivities are zero outside of the energetically and dynamically allowed region of phase space. A second set of equations is derived from which the sensitivities of observables can be directly calculated. An adjoint Green's function technique is employed, providing an efficient method for numerically calculating these quantities. Sensitivity maps are presented for a simple collinear atom-diatom inelastic scattering problem and for two Henon-Heiles type Hamiltonians modeling intramolecular processes. It is found that the positions of the trajectory caustics in the bound state problem determine regions of the highest potential surface sensitivities. In the scattering problem (which is impulsive, so that ``sticky'' collisions did not occur), the positions of the turning points of the individual trajectory components determine the regions of high sensitivity. In both cases, these lines of singularities are superimposed on a rich background structure. Most interesting is the appearance of classical interference effects. The interference features in the sensitivity maps occur most noticeably where two or more lines of turning points cross. The important practical motivation for calculating the sensitivities derives from the fact that the potential is a function, implying that any direct attempt to understand how local
Karunanayaka, Prasanna; Eslinger, Paul J; Wang, Jian-Li; Weitekamp, Christopher W; Molitoris, Sarah; Gates, Kathleen M; Molenaar, Peter C M; Yang, Qing X
2014-05-01
The study of human olfaction is complicated by the myriad of processing demands in conscious perceptual and emotional experiences of odors. Combining functional magnetic resonance imaging with convergent multivariate network analyses, we examined the spatiotemporal behavior of olfactory-generated blood-oxygenated-level-dependent signal in healthy adults. The experimental functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) paradigm was found to offset the limitations of olfactory habituation effects and permitted the identification of five functional networks. Analysis delineated separable neuronal circuits that were spatially centered in the primary olfactory cortex, striatum, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, rostral prefrontal cortex/anterior cingulate, and parietal-occipital junction. We hypothesize that these functional networks subserve primary perceptual, affective/motivational, and higher order olfactory-related cognitive processes. Results provided direct evidence for the existence of parallel networks with top-down modulation for olfactory processing and clearly distinguished brain activations that were sniffing-related versus odor-related. A comprehensive neurocognitive model for olfaction is presented that may be applied to broader translational studies of olfactory function, aging, and neurological disease.
Brown, Andrew M.
2014-01-01
Numerical and Analytical methods developed to determine damage accumulation in specific engine components when speed variation included. Dither Life Ratio shown to be well over factor of 2 for specific example. Steady-State assumption shown to be accurate for most turbopump cases, allowing rapid calculation of DLR. If hot-fire speed data unknown, Monte Carlo method developed that uses speed statistics for similar engines. Application of techniques allow analyst to reduce both uncertainty and excess conservatism. High values of DLR could allow previously unacceptable part to pass HCF criteria without redesign. Given benefit and ease of implementation, recommend that any finite life turbomachine component analysis adopt these techniques. Probability Values calculated, compared, and evaluated for several industry-proposed methods for combining random and harmonic loads. Two new excel macros written to calculate combined load for any specific probability level. Closed form Curve fits generated for widely used 3(sigma) and 2(sigma) probability levels. For design of lightweight aerospace components, obtaining accurate, reproducible, statistically meaningful answer critical.
Alexandru, Andrei; Draper, Terrence; Horvath, Ivan; Streuer, Thomas
2010-01-01
We propose a framework for quantitative evaluation of dynamical tendency for polarization in arbitrary random variable that can be decomposed into a pair of orthogonal subspaces. The method uses measures based on comparisons of given dynamics to its counterpart with statistically independent components. The formalism of previously considered X-distributions is used to express the aforementioned comparisons, in effect putting the former approach on solid footing. Our analysis leads to definiti...
Midfrequency band dynamics of large space structures
Coppolino, Robert N.; Adams, Douglas S.; Levine, Marie B.
2004-09-01
High and low intensity dynamic environments experienced by a spacecraft during launch and on-orbit operations, respectively, induce structural loads and motions, which are difficult to reliably predict. Structural dynamics in low- and mid-frequency bands are sensitive to component interface uncertainty and non-linearity as evidenced in laboratory testing and flight operations. Analytical tools for prediction of linear system response are not necessarily adequate for reliable prediction of mid-frequency band dynamics and analysis of measured laboratory and flight data. A new MATLAB toolbox, designed to address the key challenges of mid-frequency band dynamics, is introduced in this paper. Finite-element models of major subassemblies are defined following rational frequency-wavelength guidelines. For computational efficiency, these subassemblies are described as linear, component mode models. The complete structural system model is composed of component mode subassemblies and linear or non-linear joint descriptions. Computation and display of structural dynamic responses are accomplished employing well-established, stable numerical methods, modern signal processing procedures and descriptive graphical tools. Parametric sensitivity and Monte-Carlo based system identification tools are used to reconcile models with experimental data and investigate the effects of uncertainties. Models and dynamic responses are exported for employment in applications, such as detailed structural integrity and mechanical-optical-control performance analyses.
Relating structure and dynamics in organisation models
Jonkers, C.M.; Treur, J.
To understand how an organisational structure relates to dynamics is an interesting fundamental challenge in the area of social modelling. Specifications of organisational structure usually have a diagrammatic form that abstracts from more detailed dynamics. Dynamic properties of agent systems,
Dynamical analysis of highly excited molecular spectra
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kellman, M.E. [Univ. of Oregon, Eugene (United States)
1993-12-01
The goal of this program is new methods for analysis of spectra and dynamics of highly excited vibrational states of molecules. In these systems, strong mode coupling and anharmonicity give rise to complicated classical dynamics, and make the simple normal modes analysis unsatisfactory. New methods of spectral analysis, pattern recognition, and assignment are sought using techniques of nonlinear dynamics including bifurcation theory, phase space classification, and quantization of phase space structures. The emphasis is chaotic systems and systems with many degrees of freedom.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
DuBois Debra C
2010-10-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Comprehensively understanding corticosteroid pharmacogenomic effects is an essential step towards an insight into the underlying molecular mechanisms for both beneficial and detrimental clinical effects. Nevertheless, even in a single tissue different methods of corticosteroid administration can induce different patterns of expression and regulatory control structures. Therefore, rich in vivo datasets of pharmacological time-series with two dosing regimens sampled from rat liver are examined for temporal patterns of changes in gene expression and their regulatory commonalities. Results The study addresses two issues, including (1 identifying significant transcriptional modules coupled with dynamic expression patterns and (2 predicting relevant common transcriptional controls to better understand the underlying mechanisms of corticosteroid adverse effects. Following the orientation of meta-analysis, an extended computational approach that explores the concept of agreement matrix from consensus clustering has been proposed with the aims of identifying gene clusters that share common expression patterns across multiple dosing regimens as well as handling challenges in the analysis of microarray data from heterogeneous sources, e.g. different platforms and time-grids in this study. Six significant transcriptional modules coupled with typical patterns of expression have been identified. Functional analysis reveals that virtually all enriched functions (gene ontologies, pathways in these modules are shown to be related to metabolic processes, implying the importance of these modules in adverse effects under the administration of corticosteroids. Relevant putative transcriptional regulators (e.g. RXRF, FKHD, SP1F are also predicted to provide another source of information towards better understanding the complexities of expression patterns and the underlying regulatory mechanisms of those modules. Conclusions We have proposed a
Algebraic Structure of Dynamical Systems
2017-05-22
Scholar project report; no. 461 (2017) ALGEBRAIC STRUCTURE OF DYNAMICAL SYSTEMS by MIDN 1/C James P. Talisse United States Naval Academy Annapolis, MD...based on the structure of algebraic objects associated with it. In this project we study two algebraic objects, centralizers and topological full groups...group completely defines the system up to time reversal. We apply numerical estimates to draw conclusions about the algebraic properties of this group
Namazi, Hamidreza; Kulish, Vladimir V.; Akrami, Amin
2016-01-01
One of the major challenges in vision research is to analyze the effect of visual stimuli on human vision. However, no relationship has been yet discovered between the structure of the visual stimulus, and the structure of fixational eye movements. This study reveals the plasticity of human fixational eye movements in relation to the ‘complex’ visual stimulus. We demonstrated that the fractal temporal structure of visual dynamics shifts towards the fractal dynamics of the visual stimulus (image). The results showed that images with higher complexity (higher fractality) cause fixational eye movements with lower fractality. Considering the brain, as the main part of nervous system that is engaged in eye movements, we analyzed the governed Electroencephalogram (EEG) signal during fixation. We have found out that there is a coupling between fractality of image, EEG and fixational eye movements. The capability observed in this research can be further investigated and applied for treatment of different vision disorders. PMID:27217194
Namazi, Hamidreza; Kulish, Vladimir V.; Akrami, Amin
2016-05-01
One of the major challenges in vision research is to analyze the effect of visual stimuli on human vision. However, no relationship has been yet discovered between the structure of the visual stimulus, and the structure of fixational eye movements. This study reveals the plasticity of human fixational eye movements in relation to the ‘complex’ visual stimulus. We demonstrated that the fractal temporal structure of visual dynamics shifts towards the fractal dynamics of the visual stimulus (image). The results showed that images with higher complexity (higher fractality) cause fixational eye movements with lower fractality. Considering the brain, as the main part of nervous system that is engaged in eye movements, we analyzed the governed Electroencephalogram (EEG) signal during fixation. We have found out that there is a coupling between fractality of image, EEG and fixational eye movements. The capability observed in this research can be further investigated and applied for treatment of different vision disorders.
Distributed Dynamic Condition Response Structures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hildebrandt, Thomas; Mukkamala, Raghava Rao
We present distributed dynamic condition response structures as a declarative process model inspired by the workflow language employed by our industrial partner and conservatively generalizing labelled event structures. The model adds to event structures the possibility to 1) finitely specify...... repeated, possibly infinite behavior, 2) finitely specify fine-grained acceptance conditions for (possibly infinite) runs based on the notion of responses and 3) distribute events via roles. We give a graphical notation inspired by related work by van der Aalst et al and formalize the execution semantics...
Dynamic Contingency Analysis Tool
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
2016-01-14
The Dynamic Contingency Analysis Tool (DCAT) is an open-platform and publicly available methodology to help develop applications that aim to improve the capabilities of power system planning engineers to assess the impact and likelihood of extreme contingencies and potential cascading events across their systems and interconnections. Outputs from the DCAT will help find mitigation solutions to reduce the risk of cascading outages in technically sound and effective ways. The current prototype DCAT implementation has been developed as a Python code that accesses the simulation functions of the Siemens PSS�E planning tool (PSS/E). It has the following features: It uses a hybrid dynamic and steady-state approach to simulating the cascading outage sequences that includes fast dynamic and slower steady-state events. It integrates dynamic models with protection scheme models for generation, transmission, and load. It models special protection systems (SPSs)/remedial action schemes (RASs) and automatic and manual corrective actions. Overall, the DCAT attempts to bridge multiple gaps in cascading-outage analysis in a single, unique prototype tool capable of automatically simulating and analyzing cascading sequences in real systems using multiprocessor computers.While the DCAT has been implemented using PSS/E in Phase I of the study, other commercial software packages with similar capabilities can be used within the DCAT framework.
Dynamic Contingency Analysis Tool
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
2016-01-14
The Dynamic Contingency Analysis Tool (DCAT) is an open-platform and publicly available methodology to help develop applications that aim to improve the capabilities of power system planning engineers to assess the impact and likelihood of extreme contingencies and potential cascading events across their systems and interconnections. Outputs from the DCAT will help find mitigation solutions to reduce the risk of cascading outages in technically sound and effective ways. The current prototype DCAT implementation has been developed as a Python code that accesses the simulation functions of the Siemens PSS/E planning tool (PSS/E). It has the following features: It uses a hybrid dynamic and steady-state approach to simulating the cascading outage sequences that includes fast dynamic and slower steady-state events. It integrates dynamic models with protection scheme models for generation, transmission, and load. It models special protection systems (SPSs)/remedial action schemes (RASs) and automatic and manual corrective actions. Overall, the DCAT attempts to bridge multiple gaps in cascading-outage analysis in a single, unique prototype tool capable of automatically simulating and analyzing cascading sequences in real systems using multiprocessor computers.While the DCAT has been implemented using PSS/E in Phase I of the study, other commercial software packages with similar capabilities can be used within the DCAT framework.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J.G. Santos da Silva
2016-11-01
Full Text Available This work aims the development of an analysis methodology to investigate the dynamic behaviour of steelconcrete composite footbridges. The composite footbridge dynamic response is analysed based on two different strategies. Firstly, the traditional simulation of human walking, without consideration of the pedestrianfootbridge dynamic interaction effect is considered. On the other hand, the effect of the dynamics of the pedestrians while crossing footbridges in crowd situations is analysed and the pedestrian-footbridge dynamic interaction, based on the use of biodynamic models is investigated using a second strategy. The investigated structural system corresponds to an existing pedestrian footbridge built on Ayrton Senna Av. in the city of Rio de Janeiro/RJ, Brazil, with a central span of 68.6m. The footbridge dynamic response was obtained and compared to the limiting values proposed by several authors and design standards. The results indicate that the biodynamic loading models lead to peak accelerations values lower than those produced by the traditional methods. These results provided evidence that the pedestrian-structure dynamic interaction effect should be considered when composite footbridges are subjected to flow of pedestrians.
Structural Dynamics of the Ribosome
Korostelev, Andrei; Ermolenko, Dmitri N.; Noller, Harry F.
2008-01-01
Protein synthesis is inherently a dynamic process, requiring both small- and large-scale movements of tRNA and mRNA. It has long been suspected that these movements might be coupled to conformational changes in the ribosome, and in its RNA moieties in particular. Recently, the nature of ribosome structural dynamics has begun to emerge from a combination of approaches, most notably cryo-EM, X-ray crystallography and FRET. Ribosome movement occurs both on a grand scale, as in the intersubunit r...
Separdar, L.; Davatolhagh, S.
2016-12-01
Molecular dynamics simulations at constant (N , V , T) are used to study the mutual effects of gold nanoparticles on the structure and dynamics of Kob-Andersen binary Lennard-Jones (BLJ) liquid within the framework of mode coupling theory of dynamic glass transition in the reciprocal space. The results show the 'softening' effect of the gold nanoparticles on the liquid dynamics in terms of (i) reducing the mode coupling crossover temperature Tc with respect to that of the bulk BLJ (i.e. BLJ without nanoparticles), (ii) decreasing the time interval of β-relaxation, and (iii) decreasing the exponent γ characterizing the power-law behavior of the α-relaxation time. This softening effect is explained in terms of the van der Waals attraction between the gold atoms comprising the nanoparticle and the BLJ host atoms, such that adsorption of host atoms onto the nanoparticle surface creates more space or free-volume for the other atoms to diffuse. By the same token interactions of purely excluded-volume-type are expected to result in the opposite effect. It is also noted that, much unlike BLJ host particles, the dynamics of gold nanoparticles is much less dependent on the wave-vector and that it exhibits a nearly exponential behavior in the α-relaxation regime.
Zhang, Yue; Zheng, Yan; Liu, Xi; Zhang, Qingling; Li, Aihua
2016-11-01
This study considers a class of differential algebraic stage-structured bio-economic models with stochastic fluctuations. The stochastic bio-economic model is simplified to an Itô equation using the stochastic averaging method. The stochastic stability, Hopf bifurcation, and P-bifurcation are discussed based on the singular boundary theory of the diffusion process for the system and the invariant measure theory of dynamic systems. Numerical simulations are presented to illustrate our main results.
Alexandru, Andrei; Horvath, Ivan; Streuer, Thomas
2010-01-01
We propose a framework for quantitative evaluation of dynamical tendency for polarization in arbitrary random variable that can be decomposed into a pair of orthogonal subspaces. The method uses measures based on comparisons of given dynamics to its counterpart with statistically independent components. The formalism of previously considered X-distributions is used to express the aforementioned comparisons, in effect putting the former approach on solid footing. Our analysis leads to definition of a suitable correlation coefficient with clear statistical meaning. We apply the method to the dynamics induced by pure-glue lattice QCD in local left-right components of overlap Dirac eigenmodes. It is found that, in finite physical volume, there is a non-zero physical scale in the spectrum of eigenvalues such that eigenmodes at larger (fixed) eigenvalues exhibit concave X-distribution (negative correlation), while at smaller eigenvalues the distribution is convex (positive correlation). This chiral polarization sca...
Kobayashi, Kazuya; Liang, Yunfeng; Amano, Ken-ichi; Murata, Sumihiko; Matsuoka, Toshifumi; Takahashi, Satoru; Nishi, Naoya; Sakka, Tetsuo
2016-04-19
With the development of atomic force microscopy (AFM), it is now possible to detect the buried liquid-solid interfacial structure in three dimensions at the atomic scale. One of the model surfaces used for AFM is the muscovite surface because it is atomically flat after cleavage along the basal plane. Although it is considered that force profiles obtained by AFM reflect the interfacial structures (e.g., muscovite surface and water structure), the force profiles are not straightforward because of the lack of a quantitative relationship between the force and the interfacial structure. In the present study, molecular dynamics simulations were performed to investigate the relationship between the muscovite-water interfacial structure and the measured AFM force using a capped carbon nanotube (CNT) AFM tip. We provide divided force profiles, where the force contributions from each water layer at the interface are shown. They reveal that the first hydration layer is dominant in the total force from water even after destruction of the layer. Moreover, the lateral structure of the first hydration layer transcribes the muscovite surface structure. It resembles the experimentally resolved surface structure of muscovite in previous AFM studies. The local density profile of water between the tip and the surface provides further insight into the relationship between the water structure and the detected force structure. The detected force structure reflects the basic features of the atomic structure for the local hydration layers. However, details including the peak-peak distance in the force profile (force-distance curve) differ from those in the density profile (density-distance curve) because of disturbance by the tip.
Primary structural dynamics in graphite
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schaefer, Sascha; Liang Wenxi; Zewail, Ahmed H, E-mail: zewail@caltech.edu [Physical Biology Center for Ultrafast Science and Technology, Arthur Amos Noyes Laboratory of Chemical Physics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)
2011-06-15
The structural dynamics of graphite and graphene are unique, because of the selective coupling between electron and lattice motions and hence the limit on electric and electro-optic properties. Here, we report on the femtosecond probing of graphite films (1-3 nm) using ultrafast electron crystallography in the transmission mode. Two time scales are observed for the dynamics: a 700 fs initial decrease in diffraction intensity due to lattice phonons in optically dark regions of the Brillouin zone, followed by a 12 ps decrease due to phonon thermalization near the {Gamma} and K regions. These results indicate the non-equilibrium distortion of the unit cells at early time and the subsequent role of long-wavelength atomic motions in the thermalization process. Theory and experiment are now in agreement regarding the nature of nuclear motions, but the results suggest that potential change plays a role in the lateral dynamics of the lattice.
Structurally Dynamic Spin Market Networks
Horváth, Denis; Kuscsik, Zoltán
The agent-based model of stock price dynamics on a directed evolving complex network is suggested and studied by direct simulation. The stationary regime is maintained as a result of the balance between the extremal dynamics, adaptivity of strategic variables and reconnection rules. The inherent structure of node agent "brain" is modeled by a recursive neural network with local and global inputs and feedback connections. For specific parametric combination the complex network displays small-world phenomenon combined with scale-free behavior. The identification of a local leader (network hub, agent whose strategies are frequently adapted by its neighbors) is carried out by repeated random walk process through network. The simulations show empirically relevant dynamics of price returns and volatility clustering. The additional emerging aspects of stylized market statistics are Zipfian distributions of fitness.
PARAMETRIC ANALYSIS OF THE DYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
static and dynamic analysis of structures [2, 3,4]. ... than by the expected complexity of their behavior. This fact has been .... The computational cost of extracting the vibration modes can be reduced by applying one of the condensation.
Dynamic Range Majority Data Structures
Elmasry, Amr; HE, MENG; Munro, J. Ian; Nicholson, Patrick K.
2011-01-01
Given a set $P$ of coloured points on the real line, we study the problem of answering range $\\alpha$-majority (or "heavy hitter") queries on $P$. More specifically, for a query range $Q$, we want to return each colour that is assigned to more than an $\\alpha$-fraction of the points contained in $Q$. We present a new data structure for answering range $\\alpha$-majority queries on a dynamic set of points, where $\\alpha \\in (0,1)$. Our data structure uses O(n) space, supports queries in $O((\\lg...
Goldgruber, Markus; Shahriari, Shervin; Zenz, Gerald
2015-11-01
To reduce the natural hazard risks—due to, e.g., earthquake excitation—seismic safety assessments are carried out. Especially under severe loading, due to maximum credible or the so-called safety evaluation earthquake, critical infrastructure, as these are high dams, must not fail. However, under high loading local failure might be allowed as long as the entire structure does not collapse. Hence, for a dam, the loss of sliding stability during a short time period might be acceptable if the cumulative displacements after an event are below an acceptable value. This performance is not only valid for gravity dams but also for rock blocks as sliding is even more imminent in zones with higher seismic activity. Sliding modes cannot only occur in the dam-foundation contact, but also in sliding planes formed due to geological conditions. This work compares the qualitative possible and critical displacements for two methods, the well-known Newmark's sliding block analysis and a Fluid-Foundation-Structure Interaction simulation with the finite elements method. The results comparison of the maximum displacements at the end of the seismic event of the two methods depicts that for high friction angles, they are fairly close. For low friction angles, the results are differing more. The conclusion is that the commonly used Newmark's sliding block analysis and the finite elements simulation are only comparable for high friction angles, where this factor dominates the behaviour of the structure. Worth to mention is that the proposed simulation methods are also applicable to dynamic rock wedge problems and not only to dams.
Dynamic Range Majority Data Structures
He, Meng; Nicholson, Patrick K
2011-01-01
Given a set $P$ of coloured points on the real line, we study the problem of answering range $\\alpha$-majority (or "heavy hitter") queries on $P$. More specifically, for a query range $Q$, we want to return each colour that is assigned to more than an $\\alpha$-fraction of the points contained in $Q$. We present a new data structure for answering range $\\alpha$-majority queries on a dynamic set of points, where $\\alpha \\in (0,1)$. Our data structure uses O(n) space, supports queries in $O((\\lg n) / \\alpha)$ time, and updates in $O((\\lg n) / \\alpha)$ amortized time. If the coordinates of the points are integers, then the query time can be improved to $O(\\lg n / (\\alpha \\lg \\lg n) + (\\lg(1/\\alpha))/\\alpha))$. For constant values of $\\alpha$, this improved query time matches an existing lower bound, for any data structure with polylogarithmic update time. We also generalize our data structure to handle sets of points in d-dimensions, for $d \\ge 2$, as well as dynamic arrays, in which each entry is a colour.
Alexandru, Andrei; Draper, Terrence; Horváth, Ivan; Streuer, Thomas
2011-08-01
We propose a framework for quantitative evaluation of dynamical tendency for polarization in an arbitrary random variable that can be decomposed into a pair of orthogonal subspaces. The method uses measures based on comparisons of given dynamics to its counterpart with statistically independent components. The formalism of previously considered X-distributions is used to express the aforementioned comparisons, in effect putting the former approach on solid footing. Our analysis leads to the definition of a suitable correlation coefficient with clear statistical meaning. We apply the method to the dynamics induced by pure-glue lattice QCD in local left-right components of overlap Dirac eigenmodes. It is found that, in finite physical volume, there exists a non-zero physical scale in the spectrum of eigenvalues such that eigenmodes at smaller (fixed) eigenvalues exhibit convex X-distribution (positive correlation), while at larger eigenvalues the distribution is concave (negative correlation). This chiral polarization scale thus separates a regime where dynamics enhances chirality relative to statistical independence from a regime where it suppresses it, and gives an objective definition to the notion of "low" and "high" Dirac eigenmode. We propose to investigate whether the polarization scale remains non-zero in the infinite volume limit, in which case it would represent a new kind of low energy scale in QCD.
Rahneshin, Vahid; Chierichetti, Maria
2016-09-01
In this paper, a combined numerical and experimental method, called Extended Load Confluence Algorithm, is presented to accurately predict the dynamic response of non-periodic structures when little or no information about the applied loads is available. This approach, which falls into the category of Shape Sensing methods, inputs limited experimental information acquired from sensors to a mapping algorithm that predicts the response at unmeasured locations. The proposed algorithm consists of three major cores: an experimental core for data acquisition, a numerical core based on Finite Element Method for modeling the structure, and a mapping algorithm that improves the numerical model based on a modal approach in the frequency domain. The robustness and precision of the proposed algorithm are verified through numerical and experimental examples. The results of this paper demonstrate that without a precise knowledge of the loads acting on the structure, the dynamic behavior of the system can be predicted in an effective and precise manner after just a few iterations.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Abdullah N.A.Z.
2017-01-01
Full Text Available In order to determine the reliability of data gathered using computational version of finite element analysis, experimental data is often used for validation. In case of finite element analysis, it can sometimes be considered as inaccurate especially when subjected to complex and large structure such as body-in-shite. This is due to difficulties that might occur in modelling of joints, boundary conditions and damping of the structure. In this study, a process of comparison and validation of model based test design with modal testing results was conducted. Modal properties (natural frequencies, mode shapes, and damping ratio of a body-in-white (BIW structure were determined using both experimental modal analysis (EMA and finite element analysis (FEA. Correlation of both sets of data was performed for validation. It appeared that there was significant value of error between those two sets of data. The discrepancies that appear after correlation was then reduced by performing model updating procedure. The results presented here may demonstrate the effectiveness of model updating technique on improving the complex structure such as BIW structure.
Soliton structure dynamics in inhomogeneous media
Guerrero, L E; González, J A
1998-01-01
We show that soliton interaction with finite-width inhomogeneities can activate a great number of soliton internal modes. We obtain the exact stationary soliton solution in the presence of inhomogeneities and solve exactly the stability problem. We present a Karhunen-Loeve analysis of the soliton structure dynamics as a time-dependent force pumps energy into the traslational mode of the kink. We show the importance of the internal modes of the soliton as they can generate shape chaos for the soliton as well as cases in which the first shape mode leads the dynamics.
Twelve lectures on structural dynamics
Preumont, André
2013-01-01
This text addresses the modeling of vibrating systems with the perspective of finding the model of minimum complexity which accounts for the physics of the phenomena at play. The first half of the book (Ch.1-6) deals with the dynamics of discrete and continuous mechanical systems; the classical approach emphasizes the use of Lagrange's equations. The second half of the book (Ch.7-12) deals with more advanced topics, rarely encountered in the existing literature: seismic excitation, random vibration (including fatigue), rotor dynamics, vibration isolation and dynamic vibration absorbers; the final chapter is an introduction to active control of vibrations. The first part of this text may be used as a one semester course for 3rd year students in Mechanical, Aerospace or Civil Engineering. The second part of the text is intended for graduate classes. A set of problems is provided at the end of every chapter. The author has a 35 years experience in various aspects of Structural dynamics, both in industry (nuclea...
RESEARCH ON NONLINEAR PROBLEMS IN STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS.
Research on nonlinear problems structural dynamics is briefly summarized. Panel flutter was investigated to make a critical comparison between theory...panel flutter in aerospace vehicles, plausible simplifying assumptions are examined in the light of experimental results. Structural dynamics research
Alvarez-Lacalle, E; Eckmann, Jean-Pierre; Moses, E
2005-01-01
Understanding texts requires memory: the reader has to keep in mind enough words to create meaning. This calls for a relation between the memory of the reader and the structure of the text. To investigate this interaction, we first identify a connectivity matrix defined by co-occurrence of words in the text. A vector space of words characterizing the text is spanned by the principal directions of this matrix. It is useful to think of these weighted combinations of words as representing ``concepts''. As the reader follows the text, the set of words in her window of attention follows a dynamical motion among these concepts. We observe long range power law correlations in this trajectory. By explicitly constructing surrogate hierarchical texts, we demonstrate that the power law originates from structural organization of texts into subunits such as chapters and paragraphs.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG; Xiaoguang; JIANG; Tingting; LI; Xiaoyu
2010-01-01
Co-word networks are constructed with author-provided keywords in academic publications and their relations of co-occurrence.As special form of scientific knowledge networks,they represent the cognitive structure of scientific literature.This paper analyzes the complex structure of a co-word network based on 8,190 author-provided keywords extracted from 3,651 papers in five Chinese core journals in the field of management science.Small-world and scale-free phenomena are found in this network.A large-scale co-word network graph,which consists of one major giant component and many small isolated components,has been generated with the GUESS software.The dynamic growth of keywords and keyword co-occurrence relationships are described with four new informetrics measures.The results indicate that existing concepts always serve as the intellectual base of new ideas as represented by keywords.
Nicolas, Yves; Paques, Marcel; Knaebel, Alexandra; Steyer, Alain; Munch, Jean-Pierre; Blijdenstein, Theo B. J.; van Aken, George A.
2003-08-01
An oscillatory shear configuration was developed to improve understanding of structural evolution during deformation. It combines an inverted confocal scanning laser microscope (CSLM) and a special sample holder that can apply to the sample specific deformation: oscillatory shear or steady strain. In this configuration, a zero-velocity plane is created in the sample by moving two plates in opposite directions, thereby providing stable observation conditions of the structural behavior under deformation. The configuration also includes diffusion wave spectroscopy (DWS) to monitor the network properties via particle mobility under static and dynamic conditions. CSLM and DWS can be performed simultaneously and three-dimensional images can be obtained under static conditions. This configuration is mainly used to study mechanistic phenomena like particle interaction, aggregation, gelation and network disintegration, interactions at interfaces under static and dynamic conditions in semisolid food materials (desserts, dressings, sauces, dairy products) and in nonfood materials (mineral emulsions, etc.). Preliminary data obtained with this new oscillatory shear configuration are described that demonstrate their capabilities and the potential contribution to other areas of application also.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hakala, M. [Saanio and Riekkola Consulting Engineers, Helsinki (Finland); Karjunen, T. [Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, Helsinki (Finland)
1996-08-01
The report presents results from a study concerning the ability of the containment to withstand the loads caused by steams explosions which are possible during a severe accident at TVO plant (BWR). In the first phase, the suitability of the engineering mechanics code (FLAC) for modelling the dynamic response of damaging steel-concrete structures was tested by post-calculating a small scale test. As a result, a new dynamic material model taking account the fracture orientation was developed. In containment calculations both the developed and the best generally accepted material model were used. The loads against the containment were obtained from a simple model for steam explosions, which allowed the impulse of the pressure load to be fixed by tuning a few parameters. The ability of the containment to withstand the pressure pulses was analysed with loads of 5, 1 0, 20, 40, 60, and 80 kPa s impulse. As a results, the area and magnitude of permanent damage together with time histories of displacement and stress at critical points are presented. The estimations on the consequences of the observed structural damages as far as the containment leak tightness and stability are concerned and presented as conclusions. (9 refs.).
Structure and dynamics of solutions
Ohtaki, H
2013-01-01
Recent advances in the study of structural and dynamic properties of solutions have provided a molecular picture of solute-solvent interactions. Although the study of thermodynamic as well as electronic properties of solutions have played a role in the development of research on the rate and mechanism of chemical reactions, such macroscopic and microscopic properties are insufficient for a deeper understanding of fast chemical and biological reactions. In order to fill the gap between the two extremes, it is necessary to know how molecules are arranged in solution and how they change their pos
Dynamic range majority data structures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Elmasry, Amr Ahmed Abd Elmoneim; He, Meng; Munro, J. Ian
2011-01-01
Given a set P of n coloured points on the real line, we study the problem of answering range α-majority (or "heavy hitter") queries on P. More specifically, for a query range Q, we want to return each colour that is assigned to more than an α-fraction of the points contained in Q. We present a new...... data structure for answering range α-majority queries on a dynamic set of points, where α ε (0,1). Our data structure uses O(n) space, supports queries in O((lg n)/α) time, and updates in O((lg n)/α) amortized time. If the coordinates of the points are integers, then the query time can be improved to O...
PROGRESS OF TIME INTEGRATION METHODS IN STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS ANALYSIS%结构动力分析中时间积分方法进展
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
赵丽滨; 王寿梅
2001-01-01
A comprehensive survey of time integration methods in structural dynamics analysis is given. The basic principle of those time integration schemes and the properties of several representative time integration methods in structural dynamic analysis are discussed. According to the principle, the time integration methods are classified in four groups in this paper. Group Ⅰ: finite difference expression, Group Ⅱ: linear acceleration assumption, Group Ⅲ: order reduction by matrix transformation and Group Ⅳ: series expansion. Several new time integration methods are discussed with their respective principles. Numerical solution methods presented here will be of use to engineers working in the area of dynamics of structures.%叙述了结构动力分析中时间积分方法的最新发展情况，对这一领域的基本原理和思想进行了总结，重点介绍一些新型计算方法的基本性质，为时间积分方法的进一步研究奠定基础.
Comparative analysis of the quasi-similar structures on the dynamic spectra of the Sun and Jupiter
Litvinenko, G.; Konovalenko, A.; Zakharenko, V.; Vinogradov, V.; Dorovsky, V.; Melnik, V.; Brazhenko, A.; Shaposhnikov, V.; Rucker, H. O.; Zarka, Ph.
2014-04-01
In many literary sources planet Jupiter called the Sun, which is not fully developed. It should be partially confirmed by the experimental fact that the quasisimilar in shape features appear in the dynamic spectra both in the Sun and the Jovian radio emission. The comparative analysis of the similar properties in the emission spectra of Jupiter and the Sun and analogy between the plasma processes in the solar corona and magnetosphere of Jupiter can allow also define the similar features in the radiation mechanisms of these cosmic objects. One of the promising approaches to investigating features of the Jovian DAM emission and the decameter solar radiation is application of novel experimental techniques with a further detailed analysis of the obtained data.
Dynamic active earth pressure on retaining structures
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Deepankar Choudhury; Santiram Chatterjee
2006-12-01
Earth-retaining structures constitute an important topic of research in civil engineering, more so under earthquake conditions. For the analysis and design of retaining walls in earthquake-prone zones, accurate estimation of dynamic earth pressures is very important. Conventional methods either use pseudo-static approaches of analysis even for dynamic cases or a simple single-degree of freedom model for the retaining wall–soil system. In this paper, a simpliﬁed two-degree of freedom mass–spring–dashpot (2-DOF) dynamic model has been proposed to estimate the active earth pressure at the back of the retaining walls for translation modes of wall movement under seismic conditions. The horizontal zone of inﬂuence on dynamic earth force on the wall is estimated. Results in terms of displacement, velocity and acceleration-time history are presented for some typical cases, which show the ﬁnal movement of the wall in terms of wall height, which is required for the design. The non-dimensional design chart proposed in the present study can be used to compute the total dynamic earth force on the wall under different input ground motion and backﬁll conditions. Finally, the results obtained have been compared with those of the available Scott model and the merits of the present results have been discussed.
Lesch, Volker; Montes-Campos, Hadrián; Méndez-Morales, Trinidad; Gallego, Luis Javier; Heuer, Andreas; Schröder, Christian; Varela, Luis M
2016-11-28
We report a molecular dynamics study on the effect of electronic polarization on the structure and single-particle dynamics of mixtures of the aprotic ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis-(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)-imide ([EMIM][TFSI]) doped with a lithium salt with the same anion at 298 K and 1 bar. In particular, we analyze the effect of electron density fluctuations on radial distribution functions, velocity autocorrelation functions, cage correlation functions, mean-squared displacements, and vibrational densities of states, comparing the predictions of the quantum-chemistry-based Atomistic Polarizable Potential for Liquids, Electrolytes, & Polymers (APPLE&P) with those of its nonpolarizable version and those of the standard non-polarizable Optimized Potentials for Liquid Simulations-All Atom (OPLS-AA). We found that the structure of the mixture is scarcely modified by the fluctuations in electron charge of their constituents, but their transport properties are indeed quite drastically changed, with larger mobilities being predicted for the different species in the bulk mixtures with the polarizable force field. Specifically, the mean-squared displacements are larger for the polarizable potentials at identical time intervals and the intermediate subdiffusive plateaus are greatly reduced, so the transition to the diffusive regime takes place much earlier than in the non-polarizable media. Moreover, the correlations of the added cations inside their cages are weakened out earlier and their vibrational densities of states are slightly red-shifted, reflecting the weakening effect of the electronic polarization on the Coulomb coupling in these dense ionic media. The comparison of OPLS-AA with non-polarizable APPLE&P indicates that adding polarization to OPLS-AA is not sufficient to achieve results close to experiments.
Lesch, Volker; Montes-Campos, Hadrián; Méndez-Morales, Trinidad; Gallego, Luis Javier; Heuer, Andreas; Schröder, Christian; Varela, Luis M.
2016-11-01
We report a molecular dynamics study on the effect of electronic polarization on the structure and single-particle dynamics of mixtures of the aprotic ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis-(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)-imide ([EMIM][TFSI]) doped with a lithium salt with the same anion at 298 K and 1 bar. In particular, we analyze the effect of electron density fluctuations on radial distribution functions, velocity autocorrelation functions, cage correlation functions, mean-squared displacements, and vibrational densities of states, comparing the predictions of the quantum-chemistry-based Atomistic Polarizable Potential for Liquids, Electrolytes, & Polymers (APPLE&P) with those of its nonpolarizable version and those of the standard non-polarizable Optimized Potentials for Liquid Simulations-All Atom (OPLS-AA). We found that the structure of the mixture is scarcely modified by the fluctuations in electron charge of their constituents, but their transport properties are indeed quite drastically changed, with larger mobilities being predicted for the different species in the bulk mixtures with the polarizable force field. Specifically, the mean-squared displacements are larger for the polarizable potentials at identical time intervals and the intermediate subdiffusive plateaus are greatly reduced, so the transition to the diffusive regime takes place much earlier than in the non-polarizable media. Moreover, the correlations of the added cations inside their cages are weakened out earlier and their vibrational densities of states are slightly red-shifted, reflecting the weakening effect of the electronic polarization on the Coulomb coupling in these dense ionic media. The comparison of OPLS-AA with non-polarizable APPLE&P indicates that adding polarization to OPLS-AA is not sufficient to achieve results close to experiments.
DYNAMIC DESIGN OF INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE BLOCK STRUCTURE
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
1998-01-01
Several main steps of internal combustion engine block structure dynamic design,such as model set-up,structure dynamic response analysis,optimizing design and vibration and noise control,are discussed for the type of EQ6100 gasoline engine block.
Vázquez Vicente, Enrique; Sánchez Sánchez, José; Rodríguez León, María Teresa
2015-01-01
Congreso celebrado en la Escuela de Arquitectura de la Universidad de Sevilla desde el 24 hasta el 26 de junio de 2015. The modal analysis of a building, performed by finite element method, is usually made in a building isolated model. In the case of traditional buildings with masonry structure, this simplification can be very unrealistic, particularly in the case of buildings with shared party walls. The influence of the adjacent buildings, in the modal results of domestic masonry buildin...
Structural dynamics of turbo-machines
Rangwala, AS
2009-01-01
The book presents a detailed and comprehensive treatment of structural vibration evaluation of turbo-machines. Starting with the fundamentals of the theory of vibration as related to various aspects of rotating machines, the dynamic analysis procedures of a broad spectrum of turbo-machines is covered. An in-depth procedure for analyzing the torsional and flexural oscillations of the components and of the rotor-bearing system is presented. The latest trends in design and analysis are presented, chief among them: Blade and coupled disk-blade mod
Dynamics and structure of stretched flames
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Law, C.K. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)
1993-12-01
This program aims to gain fundamental understanding on the structure, geometry, and dynamics of laminar premixed flames, and relate these understanding to the practical issues of flame extinction and stabilization. The underlying fundamental interest here is the recent recognition that the response of premixed flames can be profoundly affected by flame stretch, as manifested by flow nonuniformity, flame curvature, and flame/flow unsteadiness. As such, many of the existing understanding on the behavior of premixed flames need to be qualitatively revised. The research program consists of three major thrusts: (1) detailed experimental and computational mapping of the structure of aerodynamically-strained planar flames, with emphasis on the effects of heat loss, nonequidiffusion, and finite residence time on the flame thickness, extent of incomplete reaction, and the state of extinction. (2) Analytical study of the geometry and dynamics of stretch-affected wrinkled flame sheets in simple configurations, as exemplified by the Bunsen flame and the spatially-periodic flame, with emphasis on the effects of nonlinear stretch, the phenomena of flame cusping, smoothing, and tip opening, and their implications on the structure and burning rate of turbulent flames. (3) Stabilization and blowoff of two-dimensional inverted premixed and stabilization and determining the criteria governing flame blowoff. The research is synergistically conducted through the use of laser-based diagnostics, computational simulation of the flame structure with detailed chemistry and transport, and mathematical analysis of the flame dynamics.
Dynamic Response Analysis of Motorized Spindle System
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG Li; LUO Yi-chao; XU Juan; XIAO Ru-feng; LI Xian-hui
2013-01-01
As to motorized spindle system, this paper builds a simplified 3D model of spindle and bearing, performs structure modal analysis, reveals its dynamic characteristics under the free model;furthermore, modifies bearing radial stiffness and number of model, and studies the change of modal parameters. On this basis, through the harmonic response analysis of the finite element model, dy-namic response characteristic caused by imbalance of monitored spindle system and law of vibration response to different amount of unbalance is analyzed.
Global Analysis of Nonlinear Dynamics
Luo, Albert
2012-01-01
Global Analysis of Nonlinear Dynamics collects chapters on recent developments in global analysis of non-linear dynamical systems with a particular emphasis on cell mapping methods developed by Professor C.S. Hsu of the University of California, Berkeley. This collection of contributions prepared by a diverse group of internationally recognized researchers is intended to stimulate interests in global analysis of complex and high-dimensional nonlinear dynamical systems, whose global properties are largely unexplored at this time. This book also: Presents recent developments in global analysis of non-linear dynamical systems Provides in-depth considerations and extensions of cell mapping methods Adopts an inclusive style accessible to non-specialists and graduate students Global Analysis of Nonlinear Dynamics is an ideal reference for the community of nonlinear dynamics in different disciplines including engineering, applied mathematics, meteorology, life science, computational science, and medicine.
Feng, Jianjun; Li, Chengzhe; Wu, Zhi
2017-08-01
As an important part of the valve opening and closing controller in engine, camshaft has high machining accuracy requirement in designing. Taking the high-speed camshaft grinder spindle system as the research object and the spindle system performance as the optimizing target, this paper firstly uses Solidworks to establish the three-dimensional finite element model (FEM) of spindle system, then conducts static analysis and the modal analysis by applying the established FEM in ANSYS Workbench, and finally uses the design optimization function of the ANSYS Workbench to optimize the structure parameter in the spindle system. The study results prove that the design of the spindle system fully meets the production requirements, and the performance of the optimized spindle system is promoted. Besides, this paper provides an analysis and optimization method for other grinder spindle systems.
Relating structure and dynamics in organisation models
Jonkers, C.M.; Treur, J.
2008-01-01
To understand how an organisational structure relates to dynamics is an interesting fundamental challenge in the area of social modelling. Specifications of organisational structure usually have a diagrammatic form that abstracts from more detailed dynamics. Dynamic properties of agent systems, on t
On Dynamics of Spinning Structures
Gupta, K. K.; Ibrahim, A.
2012-01-01
This paper provides details of developments pertaining to vibration analysis of gyroscopic systems, that involves a finite element structural discretization followed by the solution of the resulting matrix eigenvalue problem by a progressive, accelerated simultaneous iteration technique. Thus Coriolis, centrifugal and geometrical stiffness matrices are derived for shell and line elements, followed by the eigensolution details as well as solution of representative problems that demonstrates the efficacy of the currently developed numerical procedures and tools.
2010-08-18
annual progress in this effort in four research areas: (1) structural health monitoring, (2) experimental structural dynamics , (3) spectral modeling of wave propagation, and (4) wavelet analysis for damage detection.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhigang Zhang
2015-01-01
Full Text Available A two-node spatial beam element with the Euler-Bernoulli assumption is developed for the nonlinear dynamic analysis of slender beams undergoing arbitrary rigid motions and large deformations. During the analysis, the global displacement and rotation vectors with six degrees of freedom are selected as the nodal coordinates. In addition, the “shear locking” problem is avoided successfully since the beam cross-sections are always perpendicular to the current neutral axes by employing a special coupled interpolation of the centroid position and the cross-section orientation. Then a scheme is presented where the original transient strains representing the nodal forces are replaced by proposed average strains over a small time interval. Thus all the high frequencies can be filtered out and a corresponding equivalent internal damping will be produced in this new formulation, which can improve the computation performance of the proposed element for solving the stiff problem and evaluate the governing equations even by using the nonstiff ordinary differential equation solver. Finally, several numerical examples are carried out to verify the validation and efficiency of this proposed formulation by comparison with the analytical solutions and other research works.
Handbook on dynamics of jointed structures.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ames, Nicoli M.; Lauffer, James P.; Jew, Michael D.; Segalman, Daniel Joseph; Gregory, Danny Lynn; Starr, Michael James; Resor, Brian Ray
2009-07-01
The problem of understanding and modeling the complicated physics underlying the action and response of the interfaces in typical structures under dynamic loading conditions has occupied researchers for many decades. This handbook presents an integrated approach to the goal of dynamic modeling of typical jointed structures, beginning with a mathematical assessment of experimental or simulation data, development of constitutive models to account for load histories to deformation, establishment of kinematic models coupling to the continuum models, and application of finite element analysis leading to dynamic structural simulation. In addition, formulations are discussed to mitigate the very short simulation time steps that appear to be required in numerical simulation for problems such as this. This handbook satisfies the commitment to DOE that Sandia will develop the technical content and write a Joints Handbook. The content will include: (1) Methods for characterizing the nonlinear stiffness and energy dissipation for typical joints used in mechanical systems and components. (2) The methodology will include practical guidance on experiments, and reduced order models that can be used to characterize joint behavior. (3) Examples for typical bolted and screw joints will be provided.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Almomania, Belal; Kang, Hyun Gook [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sanghoon [Keimyung Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of)
2015-10-15
Several numerical methods and tests have been carried out to measure the capability of storage cask to withstand extreme impact loads. Testing methods are often constrained by cost, and difficulty in preparation for several impact conditions with different applied loads, and areas of impact. Instead, analytic method is an acceptable process that can easily apply different impact conditions for the evaluation of cask integrity. The aircraft engine impact is considered as one of the most critical impact accidents on the storage cask that significantly affects onto the lid closure system and may cause a considerable release of radioactive materials. This paper presents a method for evaluating the dynamic responses of one upper metal cask lid closure without impact limiters subjected to lateral impact of an aircraft engine with respect to variation of the impact velocity. An assessment method to predict damage response due to the lateral engine impact onto metal storage cask has been studied by using computer code LS-DYNA. The dynamic behavior of the lid movements was successfully calculated by utilizing a simplified finite element cask model, which showed a good agreement with the previous research. The simulation analyses results showed that no significant plastic deformation for bolts, lid, and the cask body. In this study, the lid opening and sliding displacements are considered as the major factors in initiating the leakage path. This analysis may be useful for evaluating the instantaneous leakage rates in a connection with the sliding and opening displacements between the lid and the flange to ensure that the radiological consequences caused by an aircraft engine crash accident during the storage phase are within the permissible level.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WU Cai-qin; HUA Cheng; YANG Lin; DAI Pei-dong; ZHANG Tian-yu; WANG Ke-qiang
2011-01-01
The semicircular canals,composed of lateral,anterior and posterior canals in the inner ear,are the sensors of equilibrium during head rotation movements in the three-dimensional space.Semicircular canals are filled with endolymph confined by the cupula.The study of the relationship between endolymph flow and cupular deformation is important in revealing the semicircular canals biomechanical behavior.To date,there are few studies focusing on the transient endolymph flow and cupular deformation in response to a head rotation motion.The lateral semicircular canal is mainly responsible for the sense of the horizontal rotation movement.In order to figure out the intricate dynamics in the lateral semicircular canal during the head rotation motion,the time evolutions of both endolymph flow and cupular deformation are analyzed in this article by using a fully coupled fluid-structure interaction model.It is shown that the cupular deformation provides cues for understanding the physiology of sensing the head rotation.
Dynamics of Correlation Structure in Stock Market
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Maman Abdurachman Djauhari
2014-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper a correction factor for Jennrich’s statistic is introduced in order to be able not only to test the stability of correlation structure, but also to identify the time windows where the instability occurs. If Jennrich’s statistic is only to test the stability of correlation structure along predetermined non-overlapping time windows, the corrected statistic provides us with the history of correlation structure dynamics from time window to time window. A graphical representation will be provided to visualize that history. This information is necessary to make further analysis about, for example, the change of topological properties of minimal spanning tree. An example using NYSE data will illustrate its advantages.
Recent Progress in Heliogyro Solar Sail Structural Dynamics
Wilkie, W.; Warren, J.; Horta, L.; Juang, J.; Gibbs, S.; Dowell, E.; Guerrant, D.; Lawrence, D.
2014-06-01
Results from recent National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) research on the structural dynamics and control characteristics of heliogyro solar sails are summarized. Specific areas under investigation include coupled nonlinear finite element analysis of heliogyro membrane blade with solar radiation pressure effects, system identification of spinning membrane structures, solarelastic stability analysis of heliogyro solar sails, including stability during blade deployment, and results from small-scale in vacuo dynamics experiments with spinning high-aspect ratio membranes. A low-cost, rideshare payload heliogyro technology demonstration mission concept, used as a mission context for these heliogyro structural dynamics and solarelasticity investigations, is also described.
Recent Progress in Heliogyro Solar Sail Structural Dynamics
Wilkie, William K.; Warren, Jerry E.; Horta, Lucas G.; Juang, Jer-Nan; Gibbs, Samuel C.; Dowell, E.; Guerrant, Daniel; Lawrence Dale
2014-01-01
Results from recent National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) research on the structural dynamics and control characteristics of heliogyro solar sails are summarized. Specific areas under investigation include coupled nonlinear finite element analysis of heliogyro membrane blade with solar radiation pressure effects, system identification of spinning membrane structures, solarelastic stability analysis of heliogyro solar sails, including stability during blade deployment, and results from small-scale in vacuo dynamics experiments with spinning high-aspect ratio membranes. A low-cost, rideshare payload heliogyro technology demonstration mission concept, used as a mission context for these heliogyro structural dynamics and solarelasticity investigations, is also described.
The Dynamical Analysis of a Prey-Predator Model with a Refuge-Stage Structure Prey Population
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Raid Kamel Naji
2016-01-01
Full Text Available We proposed and analyzed a mathematical model dealing with two species of prey-predator system. It is assumed that the prey is a stage structure population consisting of two compartments known as immature prey and mature prey. It has a refuge capability as a defensive property against the predation. The existence, uniqueness, and boundedness of the solution of the proposed model are discussed. All the feasible equilibrium points are determined. The local and global stability analysis of them are investigated. The occurrence of local bifurcation (such as saddle node, transcritical, and pitchfork near each of the equilibrium points is studied. Finally, numerical simulations are given to support the analytic results.
Imaeva, L. P.; Koz'min, B. M.; Imaev, V. S.; Mackey, K. G.
2015-04-01
The paper presents the results of analysis of tectonics, modern relief morphology, active faults, and types of Cenozoic deformations in the epicentral area of the Ilin-Tas (Ms = 6.9) earthquake, one of the strongest events registered at the boundary of the Eurasian and North American lithospheric plates in northeast Russia. Geological, tectonic, and geophysical characteristics of the Yana-Indigirka segment of the Chersky seismotectonic zone are studied. The methods of investigation were elaborated at the Institute of the Earth's Physics, RAS (Moscow), and were adapted to conducting seismotectonic work on the territory of northeast Russia. The results of instrumental observations are summarized, and manifestations of strong seismic events are discussed. Description is given of the structural-tectonic setting in which the Andrei-Tas seismic maximum developed. It originated under the effect of the Kolyma-Omolon terrane (indentor) which "intruded" into the Chersky seismotectonic zone on the side of the North American plate, thus leading to the formation of major seismoactive structures in the frontal Ilin-Tas folded zone. The indentor moved in NE-SW direction, which is consistent with the orientation of the major axis of isoseism ellipses (azimuth 50-85°) constructed from observation of macroseismic effects of the Uyandina (Ms = 5.6), Andrei-Tas (Ms = 6.1), and Ilin-Tas (Ms = 6.9) earthquakes.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yonghui Xie
2014-01-01
Full Text Available A three-dimensional fluid-thermal-structural coupled analysis for a radial inflow micro gas turbine is conducted. First, a fluid-thermal coupled analysis of the flow and temperature fields of the nozzle passage and the blade passage is performed by using computational fluid dynamics (CFD. The flow and heat transfer characteristics of different sections are analyzed in detail. The thermal load and the aerodynamic load are then obtained from the temperature field and the pressure distribution. The stress distributions of the blade are finally studied by using computational solid mechanics (CSM considering three cases of loads: thermal load, aerodynamics load combined with centrifugal load, and all the three types of loads. The detailed parameters of the flow, temperature, and the stress are obtained and analyzed. The numerical results obtained provide a useful knowledge base for further exploration of radial gas turbine design.
Transforming Static Data Structures to Dynamic Structures.
1979-09-03
2C*(N))) f?, (Ps(N)) n (N). The last two Inequalities both follow from the fact that PS grows at least linearly. QED. Maurer and Ottmann [1979...Maurer, H. A. and T. Ottmann C1979]. "Dynamic solutions of decomposable searching problems," Report 33, Institut fur Informationsverabeltung
Avitable, Daniele; Wedgwood, Kyle C A
2017-02-01
We study coarse pattern formation in a cellular automaton modelling a spatially-extended stochastic neural network. The model, originally proposed by Gong and Robinson (Phys Rev E 85(5):055,101(R), 2012), is known to support stationary and travelling bumps of localised activity. We pose the model on a ring and study the existence and stability of these patterns in various limits using a combination of analytical and numerical techniques. In a purely deterministic version of the model, posed on a continuum, we construct bumps and travelling waves analytically using standard interface methods from neural field theory. In a stochastic version with Heaviside firing rate, we construct approximate analytical probability mass functions associated with bumps and travelling waves. In the full stochastic model posed on a discrete lattice, where a coarse analytic description is unavailable, we compute patterns and their linear stability using equation-free methods. The lifting procedure used in the coarse time-stepper is informed by the analysis in the deterministic and stochastic limits. In all settings, we identify the synaptic profile as a mesoscopic variable, and the width of the corresponding activity set as a macroscopic variable. Stationary and travelling bumps have similar meso- and macroscopic profiles, but different microscopic structure, hence we propose lifting operators which use microscopic motifs to disambiguate them. We provide numerical evidence that waves are supported by a combination of high synaptic gain and long refractory times, while meandering bumps are elicited by short refractory times.
Dynamic response analysis model for an ecological compound wall structure%生态复合墙结构动力反应分析模型研究
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
黄炜; 王斌; 张程华; 张荫; 赵冬; 侯莉娜
2012-01-01
An ecological compound wall structure is a unique structure composed of many kinds of materials. It is complicated to calculate the dynamic performance of the structure so a simplified dynamic calculation model is required. Based on the previous study and the relevant theories,a simplified model for dynamic response analysis of an ecological composite wall structure in elastic stage. The partial differential equations for the distributed parameter systems of each floor of the wall were derived to calculate their modes and frequencies. In addition,the displacements of the top of each ' floor were taken as the support excitation of the above floor,and the vibration shape superposition method was adopted to analyze the damping dynamic response of each floor of the wall. The dynamic response analysis of the whole wall was conducted and the results were compared with the preliminary shake table test ones. Theoretic and experimental results showed that the frequency of the 1 st mode and the acceleration response curves of each floor agrees well with the experimental data,so the model has certain calculation precision and practicability,it provides a better simplified and practical calculation method for dynamic response of an ecological compound wall structure in elastic stage.%独特构造及多种材料的使用与嵌套,使生态复合墙结构的动力特性计算异常复杂,故需提出其简化动力计算模型.结合课题组前期研究成果及相关理论,提出生态复合墙结构在弹性阶段简化的动力反应分析模型；建立每层复合墙体分布参数体系的运动偏微分方程,计算其振型和频率；把每层顶点位移作为上一层支座激励,利用振型叠加法对每层复合墙体进行有阻尼动力反应分析；对整体复合墙体进行动力反应分析,并与前期振动台试验结果进行对比分析.理论与试验结果表明:该简化模型计算求得的各层加速度时程反应值与试验值吻合较好,
The effects of bolted joints on dynamic response of structures
Zaman, I.; Khalid, A.; Manshoor, B.; Araby, S.; Ghazali, M. I.
2013-12-01
Joint is an universal fastening technology for structural members; in particular bolted joints are extensively used in mechanical structures due to their simple maintenance and low cost. However, the components of bolted joints are imperative because failure could be catastrophic and endanger lives. Hence, in this study, the effects of bolted joints on vibrating structures are investigated by determining the structural dynamic properties, such as mode shapes, damping ratios and natural frequencies, and these are compared with the monolithic structures (welding). Two approaches of experimental rigs are developed: a beam and a frame where both are subjected to dynamic loading. The analysis reveals the importance of bolted joints in increasing the damping properties and minimizing the vibration magnitude of structures, this indicates the significant influence of bolted joints on the dynamic behaviour of assembled structures. The outcome of this study provides a good model for predicting the experimental variable response in different types of structural joints.
Predicting protein dynamics from structural ensembles
Copperman, J
2015-01-01
The biological properties of proteins are uniquely determined by their structure and dynamics. A protein in solution populates a structural ensemble of metastable configurations around the global fold. From overall rotation to local fluctuations, the dynamics of proteins can cover several orders of magnitude in time scales. We propose a simulation-free coarse-grained approach which utilizes knowledge of the important metastable folded states of the protein to predict the protein dynamics. This approach is based upon the Langevin Equation for Protein Dynamics (LE4PD), a Langevin formalism in the coordinates of the protein backbone. The linear modes of this Langevin formalism organize the fluctuations of the protein, so that more extended dynamical cooperativity relates to increasing energy barriers to mode diffusion. The accuracy of the LE4PD is verified by analyzing the predicted dynamics across a set of seven different proteins for which both relaxation data and NMR solution structures are available. Using e...
Wang, Xiang-qiu; Zhang, Huojun; Xie, Wen-xi
2017-08-01
Based on the similar material model test of full tunnel, the theory of elastic wave propagation and the testing technology of intelligent ultrasonic wave had been used to research the dynamic accumulative damage characteristics of tunnel’s lining structure under the dynamic loads of high speed train. For the more, the dynamic damage variable of lining structure of high speed railway’s tunnel was obtained. The results shown that the dynamic cumulative damage of lining structure increases nonlinearly with the times of cumulative vibration, the weakest part of dynamic cumulative damage is the arch foot of tunnel. Much more attention should be paid to the design and operation management of high speed railway’s tunnel.
Structural Dynamics Model of a Cartesian Robot
1985-10-01
34 D FILE COPY AD-A198 053 *.CC Technical Report 1009 Structural Dynamics Model of a Cartesian Robot "DTIC SELEC T E 0 Alfonso Garcia Reynoso MIT...COVERED Structural Dynamics Model of a Cartesian Robot technical report G. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUM9ER 7. AUTHO0R(@) S. CONTRACT On GRANT NUMSER...8217 %S S Structural Dynamics Model of a Cartesian Robot by Alfonso Garcia Reynoso BSME Instituto Tecnol6gico de Veracruz (1967) MSME Instituto Tecnol6gico
Structurally dynamic spin market networks
Horváth, D
2007-01-01
The agent-based model of price dynamics on a directed evolving complex network is suggested and studied by direct simulation. The resulting stationary regime is maintained as a result of the balance between the extremal dynamics, adaptivity of strategic variables and reconnection rules. For some properly selected parametric combination the network displays small-world phenomenon with high mean clustering coefficient and power-law node degree distribution. The mechanism of repeated random walk through network combined with a fitness recognition is proposed and tested to generate modular multi-leader market. The simulations suggest that dynamics of fitness is the slowest process that manifests itself in the volatility clustering of the log-price returns.
Enabling dynamics in face analysis
Dibeklioğlu, H.
2014-01-01
Most of the approaches in automatic face analysis rely solely on static appearance. However, temporal analysis of expressions reveals interesting patterns. For a better understanding of the human face, this thesis focuses on temporal changes in the face, and dynamic patterns of expressions. In addit
Tong, Z.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Z.; Hua, H.
2007-01-01
A direct-BEM/Fem method was proposed to analyze the vibration and acoustic radiation characteristics of a submerged structure. Model parameters of the structure and the fluid-structure interaction due to surrounding water were analyzed by using FEM and direct BEM. Vibration velocity of the outer hull surface and underwater sound pressure were computed through modal superposition technique. The direct-BEM/FEM method was first validated by analyzing a submerged cylindrical shell, then was used to analyze the vibro-acoustic behavior of a submarine stern structure. The results have demonstrated the direct-BEM/FEM method is more effective than FEM in computing the underwater sound radiation of the stern structure.
Dynamic analysis of process reactors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shadle, L.J.; Lawson, L.O.; Noel, S.D.
1995-06-01
The approach and methodology of conducting a dynamic analysis is presented in this poster session in order to describe how this type of analysis can be used to evaluate the operation and control of process reactors. Dynamic analysis of the PyGas{trademark} gasification process is used to illustrate the utility of this approach. PyGas{trademark} is the gasifier being developed for the Gasification Product Improvement Facility (GPIF) by Jacobs-Siffine Engineering and Riley Stoker. In the first step of the analysis, process models are used to calculate the steady-state conditions and associated sensitivities for the process. For the PyGas{trademark} gasifier, the process models are non-linear mechanistic models of the jetting fluidized-bed pyrolyzer and the fixed-bed gasifier. These process sensitivities are key input, in the form of gain parameters or transfer functions, to the dynamic engineering models.
Static Analysis for Dynamic XML
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christensen, Aske Simon; Møller, Anders; Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff
2002-01-01
We describe the summary graph lattice for dataflow analysis of programs that dynamically construct XML documents. Summary graphs have successfully been used to provide static guarantees in the JWIG language for programming interactive Web services. In particular, the JWIG compiler is able to check...... validity of dynamically generated XHTML documents and to type check dynamic form data. In this paper we present summary graphs and indicate their applicability for various scenarios. We also show that the expressive power of summary graphs is similar to that of the regular expression types from XDuce...
Visualizing structural dynamics of thylakoid membranes
Iwai, Masakazu; Yokono, Makio; Nakano, Akihiko
2014-01-01
To optimize photosynthesis, light-harvesting antenna proteins regulate light energy dissipation and redistribution in chloroplast thylakoid membranes, which involve dynamic protein reorganization of photosystems I and II. However, direct evidence for such protein reorganization has not been visualized in live cells. Here we demonstrate structural dynamics of thylakoid membranes by live cell imaging in combination with deconvolution. We observed chlorophyll fluorescence in the antibiotics-induced macrochloroplast in the moss Physcomitrella patens. The three-dimensional reconstruction uncovered the fine thylakoid membrane structure in live cells. The time-lapse imaging shows that the entire thylakoid membrane network is structurally stable, but the individual thylakoid membrane structure is flexible in vivo. Our observation indicates that grana serve as a framework to maintain structural integrity of the entire thylakoid membrane network. Both the structural stability and flexibility of thylakoid membranes would be essential for dynamic protein reorganization under fluctuating light environments. PMID:24442007
A Structural Dynamics Approach to the Simulation of Spacecraft Control/Structure Interaction
Young, J. W.
1985-01-01
A relatively simple approach to the analysis of linear spacecraft control/structure interaction problems is presented. The approach uses a commercially available structural system dynamic analysis package for both controller and plant dynamics, thus obviating the need to transfer data between separate programs. The unilateral coupling between components in the control system block diagram is simulated using sparse matrix stiffness and damping elements available in the structural dynamic code. The approach is illustrated with a series of simple tutorial examples of a rigid spacecraft core with flexible appendages.
Simultaneous determination of protein structure and dynamics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lindorff-Larsen, Kresten; Best, Robert B.; DePristo, M. A.
2005-01-01
We present a protocol for the experimental determination of ensembles of protein conformations that represent simultaneously the native structure and its associated dynamics. The procedure combines the strengths of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy-for obtaining experimental information at ...
Design and analysis of heliostat support structure
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zang Chuncheng; Wang Zhifeng [Inst. of Electrical Engineering, CAS, BJ (China); Liu Xiaobing; Zhang Xiliang [Himin Solar Energy Group Co. Ltd, Dezhou, SD (China); Wang Yanzhong [Beijing Univ. of Aeronautics and Astronautics, BJ (China)
2008-07-01
The design method of the heliostat support structure with the aim of reducing the cost maximally is described in this paper. In order to guarantee the strength, stiffness and stability of the structure, dynamic performance and static performance including internal stress and distortion are analyzed by means of VSAP (Visual Structural Analysis Program) finite element computational software. Then the support structure is optimized on the basis of the analysis. (orig.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. Sarsri
2016-03-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a methodological approach to compute the stochastic eigenmodes of large FE models with parameter uncertainties based on coupling of second order perturbation method and component mode synthesis methods. Various component mode synthesis methods are used to optimally reduce the size of the model. The statistical first two moments of dynamic response of the reduced system are obtained by the second order perturbation method. Numerical results illustrating the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed coupled methodological procedures for large FE models with uncertain parameters are presented.
Dynamic structural correlation via nonlinear programming techniques
Ting, T.; Ojalvo, I. U.
1988-01-01
A solution to the correlation between structural dynamic test results and finite element analyses of the same components is presented in this paper. Basically, the method can be categorized as a Levenberg-Marquardt type Gauss-Newton method which requires only the differences between FE modal analyses and test results and their first derivatives with respect to preassigned design variables. With proper variable normalization and equation scaling, the method has been made numerically better-conditioned and the inclusion of the Levenberg-Marquardt technique overcomes any remaining difficulty encountered in inverting singular or near-singular matrices. An important feature is that each iteration requires only one function evaluation along with the associated design sensitivity analysis and so the procedure is computationally efficient.
Understanding Microbial Communities: Function, Structure and Dynamics
2015-02-11
microbial communities: Function, structure and dynamics’, at the Isaac Newton Institute, University of Cambridge, United Kingdom, from August to...dynamics’, at the Isaac Newton Institute, University of Cambridge, United Kingdom, from August to December 2014. The programme involved over 150...Communities: Function, Structure and Dynamics’, at the Isaac Newton Institute, Cambridge University, UK, from 19th August 2014 – 19th December 2014
Structural Dynamic Behavior of Wind Turbines
Thresher, Robert W.; Mirandy, Louis P.; Carne, Thomas G.; Lobitz, Donald W.; James, George H. III
2009-01-01
The structural dynamicist s areas of responsibility require interaction with most other members of the wind turbine project team. These responsibilities are to predict structural loads and deflections that will occur over the lifetime of the machine, ensure favorable dynamic responses through appropriate design and operational procedures, evaluate potential design improvements for their impact on dynamic loads and stability, and correlate load and control test data with design predictions. Load prediction has been a major concern in wind turbine designs to date, and it is perhaps the single most important task faced by the structural dynamics engineer. However, even if we were able to predict all loads perfectly, this in itself would not lead to an economic system. Reduction of dynamic loads, not merely a "design to loads" policy, is required to achieve a cost-effective design. The two processes of load prediction and structural design are highly interactive: loads and deflections must be known before designers and stress analysts can perform structural sizing, which in turn influences the loads through changes in stiffness and mass. Structural design identifies "hot spots" (local areas of high stress) that would benefit most from dynamic load alleviation. Convergence of this cycle leads to a turbine structure that is neither under-designed (which may result in structural failure), nor over-designed (which will lead to excessive weight and cost).
Dynamic Response of Embedded Structures.
1991-07-15
1 (202) 767-6963 AFOSR/Nh 00 FORM 1473, 83 APR EDITION OF I JAN 73 IS OBSOLETE. Uwc A ____________ SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE...4. Baker W. E., Westine P. S., Dodge F. T., "Similarity Methods in Engineering Dynamics", Hayden Book Company, Inc., New Jerset, 1978. 5. Bazant , Z...P., "Size Effect in Blunt Fracture: Concrete, Rock, Metal", ASCE, Journal of Engineering Mechanics, Vol. 110, No. 4, April 1984. 6. Bazant , Z. P
基于结构动力学方法的气动弹性分析%Aeroelastic analysis based on computational structural dynamic method
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
周文博; 陈力奋; 杨琼梁; 唐国安
2011-01-01
对于气动与弹性的耦合模型,给出气动力的频域公式,并表示成有理多项式,通过等价的变换,能够推导出与结构动力学方程完全相似的、关于求解变量的二阶常微分方程组.于是,可以在计算结构动力学框架下实现气动弹性问题的分析和计算.此方法将通用计算结构动力学程序的功能与试验或数值分析得到的气动力模型相结合,简化了气动弹性的耦合分析、提高计算效率.%To simplify aeroelastic analysis utilizing the general CSD program, an approach to transform an aerodynamic model to the desired formation was presented here. For a flow-flexible structure coupled model, the aerodynamic force was given in the frequency-domain, and then could be expressed as rational polynomials. Through the equivalent transformation, the aerodynamic model could be deduced to a second order ordinary differential equation.Then, aeroelastic analysis could be achieved under the framework of computational structural dynamics. This approach combined the general CSD program with an aerodynamic model derived from numerical analysis or tests to simplify the aeroelastic analysis and improve computational efficiency.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Miller, Susan M.
2005-05-18
This report summarizes the activities and findings of our structure/function studies of the bacterial detoxification enzyme mercuric ion reductase. The objectives of the work were to obtain crystal structure information for the catalytic core of this enzyme, use the information to investigate the importance of specific parts of the enzyme to its function, and investigate the role of one domain of the enzyme in its function within cells. We describe the accomplishments towards these goals including many structures of the wild type and mutant forms of the enzyme that highlight its interactions with its Hg(II) substrate, elucidation of the role of the N-terminal domain in vitro and in vivo, and elucidation of the roles of at two conserved residues in the core in the mechanism of catalysis.
2008-01-01
The elastic properties (stretching and bending moduli) of myosin are expected to play an important role in its function. Of particular interest is the extended α-helical coiled-coil portion of the molecule. Since there is no high resolution structure for the entire coiled-coil, a study is made of the scallop myosin II S2 subdomain for which an x-ray structure is available (Protein Data Bank 1nkn). We estimate the stretching and bending moduli of the S2 subdomain with an atomic level model by ...
Money-center structures in dynamic banking systems
Li, Shouwei; Zhang, Minghui
2016-10-01
In this paper, we propose a dynamic model for banking systems based on the description of balance sheets. It generates some features identified through empirical analysis. Through simulation analysis of the model, we find that banking systems have the feature of money-center structures, that bank asset distributions are power-law distributions, and that contract size distributions are log-normal distributions.
NEW TYPE OF VIBRATION STRUCTURE OF VERTICAL DYNAMIC BALANCING MACHINE
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Li Dinggen; Cao Jiguang; Chen Chuanyao; Wang Junwen
2004-01-01
A new type of vibration structure of vertical dynamic balancing machine is designed, which is based on the analysis for swing frame of a traditional vertical dynamic balancing machine. The static unbalance and couple unbalance can be separated effectively by using the new machine with the new swing frame. By building the dynamics model, the advantages of the new structure are discussed in detail. The modal and harmonic response are analyzed by using the ANSYS7.0. By comparing the finite element modal analysis with the experimental modal analysis, the natural frequencies and vibration modes are found out. There are many spring boards in the new swing frame. Their stiffness is different and assort with each other. Furthermore, there are three sensors on the measurement points. Therefore, the new dynamic balancing machine can measure the static unbalance and couple unbalance directly, and the influence between them is faint. The new structure has the function of belt-strain compensation to improve the measurement precision. The practical result indicates that the new vertical dynamic balancing machine is suitable for inertial measurement of flying objects, and can overcome the shortcomings of traditional double-plane vertical dynamic balancing machines. The vertical dynamic balancing machine with the new vibration structure can be widely used in the future applications. The modeling and analysis of the new vibration structure provide theoretic instruction and practical experience for designing new type of vertical dynamic balancing machines. Based on the design principles such as stiffness-matching, frequency-adjacence and strain-compensation and so on, various new type of vibration structures can be designed.
Structural and dynamical properties of complex networks
Ghoshal, Gourab
Recent years have witnessed a substantial amount of interest within the physics community in the properties of networks. Techniques from statistical physics coupled with the widespread availability of computing resources have facilitated studies ranging from large scale empirical analysis of the worldwide web, social networks, biological systems, to the development of theoretical models and tools to explore the various properties of these systems. Following these developments, in this dissertation, we present and solve for a diverse set of new problems, investigating the structural and dynamical properties of both model and real world networks. We start by defining a new metric to measure the stability of network structure to disruptions, and then using a combination of theory and simulation study its properties in detail on artificially generated networks; we then compare our results to a selection of networks from the real world and find good agreement in most cases. In the following chapter, we propose a mathematical model that mimics the structure of popular file-sharing websites such as Flickr and CiteULike and demonstrate that many of its properties can solved exactly in the limit of large network size. The remaining part of the dissertation primarily focuses on the dynamical properties of networks. We first formulate a model of a network that evolves under the addition and deletion of vertices and edges, and solve for the equilibrium degree distribution for a variety of cases of interest. We then consider networks whose structure can be manipulated by adjusting the rules by which vertices enter and leave the network. We focus in particular on degree distributions and show that, with some mild constraints, it is possible by a suitable choice of rules to arrange for the network to have any degree distribution we desire. In addition we define a simple local algorithm by which appropriate rules can be implemented in practice. Finally, we conclude our
Nicolas, Y.; Paques, M.; Knaebel, A.; Steyer, A.; Munch, J.P.; Blijdenstein, T.B.J.; Aken, van G.A.
2003-01-01
An oscillatory shear configuration was developed to improve understanding of structural evolution during deformation. It combines an inverted confocal scanning laser microscope (CSLM) and a special sample holder that can apply to the sample specific deformation: oscillatory shear or steady strain. I
Rotor dynamic analysis of main coolant pump
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Chong Won; Seo, Jeong Hwan; Kim, Choong Hwan; Shin, Jae Chul; Wang, Lei Tian [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea)
1999-03-01
A rotor dynamic analysis program DARBS/MCP, for the main coolant pump of the integral reactor, has been developed. The dynamic analysis model of the main coolant pump includes a vertical shaft, three grooved radial journal bearings and gaps that represent the structure-fluid interaction effects between the rotor and the lubricant fluid. The electromagnetic force from the motor and the hydro-dynamic force induced by impeller are the major sources of vibration that may affect the rotor system stability. DARBS/MCP is a software that is developed to effectively analyze the dynamics of MCP rotor systems effectively by applying powerful numerical algorithms such as FEM with modal truncation and {lambda}-matrix method for harmonic analysis. Main design control parameters, that have much influence to the dynamic stability, have been found by Taguchi's sensitivity analysis method. Design suggestions to improve the stability of MCP rotor system have been documented. The dynamic bearing parameters of the journal bearings used for main coolant pump have been determined by directly solving the Reynolds equation using FDM method. Fluid-structure interaction effect that occurs at the small gaps between the rotor and the stator were modeled as equivalent seals, the electromagnetic force effect was regarded as a linear negative radial spring and the impeller was modeled as a rigid disk with hydrodynamic and static radial force. Although there exist critical speeds in the range of operational speeds for type I and II rotor systems, the amplitude of vibration appears to be less than the vibration limit set by the API standards. Further more, it has been verified that the main design parameters such as the clearance and length of journal bearings, and the static radial force of impeller should be properly adjusted, in order to the improve dynamic stability of the rotor system. (author). 39 refs., 81 figs., 17 tabs.
Structural analysis for Diagnosis
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh; Blanke, M.
2001-01-01
Aiming at design of algorithms for fault diagnosis, structural analysis of systems offers concise yet easy overall analysis. Graph-based matching, which is the essential technique to obtain redundant information for diagnosis, is re-considered in this paper. Matching is re-formulated as a problem...
Structural analysis for diagnosis
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh; Blanke, M.
2002-01-01
Aiming at design of algorithms for fault diagnosis, structural analysis of systems offers concise yet easy overall analysis. Graph-based matching, which is the essential tech-nique to obtain redundant information for diagnosis, is reconsidered in this paper. Matching is reformulated as a problem...
2016-07-01
The user assigns a fixed ERDC/ITL TR-16-1 243 damping ratio and Impact_Deck estimates the natural frequencies and calculate the coefficients...for a similar structure. ERDC/ITL TR-16-1 244 I.4 Flexible Wall frequency estimates For the flexible wall problem specified in Appendix C...Impact_Deck example problem . .......................... 39 Table 2.4 Extreme forces/moments for the Impact_Deck example problem
Cubic spline symplectic algorithm for dynamic analysis of space truss structure%网架结构动力分析的三次样条辛算法
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李纬华; 王堉; 罗恩
2013-01-01
According to the basic idea of dual-complementarity,the unconventional Hamilton-type variational principle in phase space for dynamic analysis of space truss structure was introduced,which can fully characterize this kind of dynamic initial-boundary-value problems.In addition,its Euler equation is of symplectic structure character.Based on this vairiational principle,a symplectic algorithm was presented,combining the finite element method in space domain with the time subdomain method,in which the cubic spline interpolation was applied as approximation.The results of numerical examples show that the method is a highly efficient method with better computational performance and superior ability of stability compared with Wilson-θ and Newmark-β methods.%根据对偶互补的思想,建立了网架结构动力学的相空间非传统Hamilton型变分原理.这种变分原理不仅能反映这种动力学初值-边值问题的全部特征,而且它的欧拉方程具有辛结构.基于该变分原理,空间域采用有限元法与时间子域采用三次样条函数插值的时间子域法相结合,构造了求解网架结构动力响应的一种辛算法,给出了逐步递推计算格式.数值算例结果表明,这种新方法的稳定性、计算精度和效率都明显高于Wilson-θ法和Newmark-β法.
35th IMAC, A Conference and Exposition on Structural Dynamics 2017
Niezrecki, Christopher; Maio, Dario; Castellini, Paolo; Mains, Michael; Blough, JR
2017-01-01
Special Topics in Structural Dynamics, Volume 6: Proceedings of the 35th IMAC, A Conference and Exposition on Structural Dynamics, 2017, the sixth volume of ten from the Conference brings together contributions to this important area of research and engineering. The collection presents early findings and case studies on fundamental and applied aspects of Structural Dynamics, including papers on: Experimental Methods Analytical Methods General Dynamics & Modal Analysis General Dynamics & System Identification Damage Detection .
Static Analysis of Dynamic Languages
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Madsen, Magnus
on the behaviour of these languages. A common theme is the reliance on static program analysis to over-approximate the behaviour of programs written in these languages. Specifically, the use of whole-program dataflow analysis. The research challenge of this line of work is the adaption of existing- and invention......Dynamic programming languages are highly popular and widely used. Java- Script is often called the lingua franca of the web and it is the de facto standard for client-side web programming. On the server-side the PHP, Python and Ruby languages are prevalent. What these languages have in common...... is an expressive power which is not easily captured by any static type system. These, and similar dynamic languages, are often praised for their ease-of-use and flexibility. Unfortunately, this dynamism comes at a great cost: The lack of a type system implies that most errors are not discovered until run...
Bye, Jordan W; Freeman, Colin L; Howard, John D; Herz, Gregor; McGregor, James; Falconer, Robert J
2017-01-01
In this paper we demonstrate the application of pressure perturbation calorimetry (PPC) to the characterization of 2-propanol/water mixtures. PPC of different 2-propanol/water mixtures provides two useful measurements: (i) the change in heat (ΔQ); and (ii) the [Formula: see text] value. The results demonstrate that the ΔQ values of the mixtures deviate from that expected for a random mixture, with a maximum at ~20-25 mol% 2-propanol. This coincides with the concentration at which molecular dynamics (MD) simulations show a maximum deviation from random distribution, and also the point at which alcohol-alcohol hydrogen bonds become dominant over alcohol-water hydrogen bonds. Furthermore, the [Formula: see text] value showed transitions at 2.5 mol% 2-propanol and at approximately 14 mol% 2-propanol. Below 2.5 mol% 2-propanol the values of [Formula: see text] are negative; this is indicative of the presence of isolated 2-propanol molecules surrounded by water molecules. Above 2.5 mol% 2-propanol [Formula: see text] rises, reaching a maximum at ~14 mol% corresponding to a point where mixed alcohol-water networks are thought to dominate. The values and trends identified by PPC show excellent agreement not only with those obtained from MD simulations but also with results in the literature derived using viscometry, THz spectroscopy, NMR and neutron diffraction.
Miller, G.; Heimann, Paula J.; Scheiman, Daniel A.; Duffy, Kirsten P.; Johnston, J. Chris; Roberts, Gary D.
2013-01-01
Vibration mitigation in composite structures has been demonstrated through widely varying methods which include both active and passive damping. Recently, nanomaterials have been investigated as a viable approach to composite vibration damping due to the large surface available to generate energy dissipation through friction. This work evaluates the influence of dispersed nanoparticles on the damping ratio of an epoxy matrix. Limited benefit was observed through dispersion methods, however nanoparticle application as a coating resulting in up to a three-fold increase in damping.
Analysis of truck platoon dynamics
Verhoeff, L.; Zuurbier, J.; Lupker, H.A.
1999-01-01
This paper presents the analysis of truck platoon dynamics using a simulation environment. In this case the platoon consists of a number of trucks following each other using driver algorithms. MADYMO (a multibody and FE software package) and MATLAB/SIMULINK are coupled to allow for these driver algo
The Structure and Dynamics of GRB Jets
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Granot, Jonathan; /KIPAC, Menlo Park
2006-10-25
There are several lines of evidence which suggest that the relativistic outflows in gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are collimated into narrow jets. The jet structure has important implications for the true energy release and the event rate of GRBs, and can constrain the mechanism responsible for the acceleration and collimation of the jet. Nevertheless, the jet structure and its dynamics as it sweeps up the external medium and decelerates, are not well understood. In this review I discuss our current understanding of GRB jets, stressing their structure and dynamics.
Probabilistic Structural Analysis Program
Pai, Shantaram S.; Chamis, Christos C.; Murthy, Pappu L. N.; Stefko, George L.; Riha, David S.; Thacker, Ben H.; Nagpal, Vinod K.; Mital, Subodh K.
2010-01-01
NASA/NESSUS 6.2c is a general-purpose, probabilistic analysis program that computes probability of failure and probabilistic sensitivity measures of engineered systems. Because NASA/NESSUS uses highly computationally efficient and accurate analysis techniques, probabilistic solutions can be obtained even for extremely large and complex models. Once the probabilistic response is quantified, the results can be used to support risk-informed decisions regarding reliability for safety-critical and one-of-a-kind systems, as well as for maintaining a level of quality while reducing manufacturing costs for larger-quantity products. NASA/NESSUS has been successfully applied to a diverse range of problems in aerospace, gas turbine engines, biomechanics, pipelines, defense, weaponry, and infrastructure. This program combines state-of-the-art probabilistic algorithms with general-purpose structural analysis and lifting methods to compute the probabilistic response and reliability of engineered structures. Uncertainties in load, material properties, geometry, boundary conditions, and initial conditions can be simulated. The structural analysis methods include non-linear finite-element methods, heat-transfer analysis, polymer/ceramic matrix composite analysis, monolithic (conventional metallic) materials life-prediction methodologies, boundary element methods, and user-written subroutines. Several probabilistic algorithms are available such as the advanced mean value method and the adaptive importance sampling method. NASA/NESSUS 6.2c is structured in a modular format with 15 elements.
Multiscale Dynamics of Solar Magnetic Structures
Uritsky, Vadim M.; Davila, Joseph M.
2012-01-01
Multiscale topological complexity of the solar magnetic field is among the primary factors controlling energy release in the corona, including associated processes in the photospheric and chromospheric boundaries.We present a new approach for analyzing multiscale behavior of the photospheric magnetic flux underlying these dynamics as depicted by a sequence of high-resolution solar magnetograms. The approach involves two basic processing steps: (1) identification of timing and location of magnetic flux origin and demise events (as defined by DeForest et al.) by tracking spatiotemporal evolution of unipolar and bipolar photospheric regions, and (2) analysis of collective behavior of the detected magnetic events using a generalized version of the Grassberger-Procaccia correlation integral algorithm. The scale-free nature of the developed algorithms makes it possible to characterize the dynamics of the photospheric network across a wide range of distances and relaxation times. Three types of photospheric conditions are considered to test the method: a quiet photosphere, a solar active region (NOAA 10365) in a quiescent non-flaring state, and the same active region during a period of M-class flares. The results obtained show (1) the presence of a topologically complex asymmetrically fragmented magnetic network in the quiet photosphere driven by meso- and supergranulation, (2) the formation of non-potential magnetic structures with complex polarity separation lines inside the active region, and (3) statistical signatures of canceling bipolar magnetic structures coinciding with flaring activity in the active region. Each of these effects can represent an unstable magnetic configuration acting as an energy source for coronal dissipation and heating.
1984-08-10
34Elastodynamic Analysis of Cracks by Finite Element Method Using Singular Element", Int. J. Fracture, 14, pp 59-68, 1978. [4] Bazant , Z. 0., Glazik, J. L., Jr...tions of the bilinear stress-strain relation. DD FORM I JAN 73 1473 EDITION OF 1 NOV 65 IS OBSOLETE S/N 0102- LF- 014-6601 Unclassified...unloading region can be obtained from the work of Achenbach and Bazant (1975). In the elastic region the displacement rate must satisfy for plane strain
Structural dynamics of liganded myoglobin.
Frauenfelder, H; Petsko, G A
1980-01-01
X-ray crystallography can reveal the magnitudes and principal directions of the mean-square displacements of every atom in a protein. This structural information is complementary to the temporal information obtainable by spectroscopic techniques such as nuclear magnetic resonance. Determination of the temperature dependence of the mean-square displacements makes it possible to separate large conformational motions from simple thermal vibrations. The contribution of crystal lattice disorder to...
DYNAMIC OPTIMIZATION FOR UNCERTAIN STRUCTURES USING INTERVAL METHOD
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ChertSub-A-; WuJie; LiuChun
2003-01-01
An interval optimization method for the dynamic response of structures with interval parameters is presented. The matrices of structures with interval parameters are given. Combining the interval extension with the perturbation, the method for interval dynamic response analysis is derived. The interval optimization problem is transformed into a corresponding deterministic one. Because the mean values and the uncertainties of the interval parameters can be elected design variables, more information of the optimization results can be obtained by the present method than that obtained by the deterministic one. The present method is implemented for a truss structure. The numerical results show that the method is effective.
Selective {sup 2}H and {sup 13}C labeling in NMR analysis of solution protein structure and dynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
LeMaster, D.M. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)
1994-12-01
Preparation of samples bearing combined isotope enrichment patterns has played a central role in the recent advances in NMR analysis of proteins in solution. In particular, uniform {sup 13}C, {sup 15}N enrichment has made it possible to apply heteronuclear multidimensional correlation experiments for the mainchain assignments of proteins larger than 30 KDa. In contrast, selective labeling approaches can offer advantages in terms of the directedness of the information provided, such as chirality and residue type assignments, as well as through enhancements in resolution and sensitivity that result from editing the spectral complexity, the relaxation pathways and the scalar coupling networks. In addition, the combination of selective {sup 13}C and {sup 2}H enrichment can greatly facilitate the determination of heteronuclear relaxation behavior.
Opinion dynamics on a group structured adaptive network
Gargiulo, F
2009-01-01
Many models have been proposed to analyze the evolution of opinion structure due to the interaction of individuals in their social environment. Such models analyze the spreading of ideas both in completely interacting backgrounds and on social networks, where each person has a finite set of interlocutors.Moreover also the investigation on the topological structure of social networks has been object of several analysis, both from the theoretical and the empirical point of view. In this framework a particularly important area of study regards the community structure inside social networks.In this paper we analyze the reciprocal feedback between the opinions of the individuals and the structure of the interpersonal relationships at the level of community structures. For this purpose we define a group based random network and we study how this structure co-evolve with opinion dynamics processes. We observe that the adaptive network structure affects the opinion dynamics process helping the consensus formation. Th...
[Oligoglycine surface structures: molecular dynamics simulation].
Gus'kova, O A; Khalatur, P G; Khokhlov, A R; Chinarev, A A; Tsygankova, S V; Bovin, N V
2010-01-01
The full-atomic molecular dynamics (MD) simulation of adsorption mode for diantennary oligoglycines [H-Gly4-NH(CH2)5]2 onto graphite and mica surface is described. The resulting structure of adsorption layers is analyzed. The peptide second structure motives have been studied by both STRIDE (structural identification) and DSSP (dictionary of secondary structure of proteins) methods. The obtained results confirm the possibility of polyglycine II (PGII) structure formation in diantennary oligoglycine (DAOG) monolayers deposited onto graphite surface, which was earlier estimated based on atomic-force microscopy measurements.
Dynamic analysis of the Milad Tower
Wilhelm, Edwin; Ford, Mitchell; Coelho, Darren; Lawler, Lachlan; Ansourian, Peter; Alonso-Marroquin, Fernando; Tahmasebinia, Faham
2016-08-01
This report involves the modelling of the Milad Tower using the finite element analysis program Strand7. A dynamic analysis was performed on the structure in order to understand the deflections and stresses as a result of earthquake and wind loading. In particular, Linear Static as well as Natural Frequency and Spectral Response solvers were used to determine the behaviour of the structure under loading. The findings of the report highlight that the structure was modelled accurately with the outputs representing realistic values. The report suggests that the design of the beams, columns, slabs and all structural members was sufficient enough to support the tower during maximum loading cases. The governing load case was earthquake loading.
Dynamics of localized structures in vector waves
Hernández-García, E; Colet, P; San Miguel, M; Hernandez-Garcia, Emilio; Hoyuelos, Miguel; Colet, Pere; Miguel, Maxi San
1999-01-01
Dynamical properties of topological defects in a twodimensional complex vector field are considered. These objects naturally arise in the study of polarized transverse light waves. Dynamics is modeled by a Vector Complex Ginzburg-Landau Equation with parameter values appropriate for linearly polarized laser emission. Creation and annihilation processes, and selforganization of defects in lattice structures, are described. We find "glassy" configurations dominated by vectorial defects and a melting process associated to topological-charge unbinding.
Spin Dynamics in Confined Magnetic Structures III
Hillebrands, Burkard
2006-01-01
This third volume of Spin Dynamics in Confined Magnetic Structures addresses central aspects of spin-dynamic phenomena, including recent new developments, on a tutorial level. Researchers will find a comprehensive compilation of the current work in the field. Introductory chapters help newcomers to understand the basic concepts. The more advanced chapters give the current state of the art of spin dynamic issues ranging from the femtosecond to the microsecond regime. This volume concentrates on new experimental techniques such as ferromagnetic-resonance-force microscopy and two-photon photoemission, as well as on aspects of precessional switching, spin-wave excitation, vortex dynamics, spin relaxation, domain-wall dynamics in nanowires and their applications to magnetic logic devices. An important chapter is devoted to the presently very hot subject of the spin-transfer torque, combining the physics of electronic transport and micromagnetics. The comprehensive presentation of these developments makes this volu...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Linsen Xu
2013-10-01
Full Text Available A kinematics analysis of a biologically-inspired biped robot is carried out, and the trajectory of the robot foot is understood. For calculating the pressure distribution across a robot foot before touching the surface of water, the compression flow of air and the depression motion of the water surface are considered. The pressure model after touching the water surface has been built according to the theory of rigid body planar motion. The multi-material ALE algorithm is applied to emulate the course of the foot slapping water. The simulation results indicate that the model of the bionic robot can satisfy the water-running function. The real prototype of the robot is manufactured to test its function of running on water. When the biped robot is running on water, the average force generated by the propulsion mechanism is about 1.3N. The experimental results show that the propulsion system can satisfy the requirement of biped robot running on water.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Linsen Xu
2013-10-01
Full Text Available A kinematics analysis of a biologically-inspired biped robot is carried out, and the trajectory of the robot foot is understood. For calculating the pressure distribution across a robot foot before touching the surface of water, the compression flow of air and the depression motion of the water surface are considered. The pressure model after touching the water surface has been built according to the theory of rigid body planar motion. The multi-material ALE algorithm is applied to emulate the course of the foot slapping water. The simulation results indicate that the model of the bionic robot can satisfy the water-running function. The real prototype of the robot is manufactured to test its function of running on water. When the biped robot is running on water, the average force generated by the propulsion mechanism is about 1.3N. The experimental results show that the propulsion system can satisfy the requirement of biped robot running on water.
Strength of concrete structures under dynamic loading
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kumpyak, O. G., E-mail: ogkumpyak@yandex.ru; Galyautdinov, Z. R., E-mail: gazr@yandex.ru; Kokorin, D. N., E-mail: kokorindenn@yandex.ru [Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building, 2, Solyanaya Sq., 634003, Tomsk (Russian Federation)
2016-01-15
The use of elastic supports is one the efficient methods of decreasing the dynamic loading. The paper describes the influence of elastic supports on the stress-strain state of steel concrete structures exposed to one-time dynamic loading resulting in failure. Oblique bending beams on elastic supports and their elastic, elastoplastic, and elastoplastic consolidation behavior are considered in this paper. For numerical calculations the developed computer program is used based on the finite element method. Research findings prove high efficiency of elastic supports under dynamic loading conditions. The most effective behavior of elastic supports is demonstrated at the elastoplastic stage. A good agreement is observed between the theoretical and experimental results.
Nonlinear Dynamics of Structures with Material Degradation
Soltani, P.; Wagg, D. J.; Pinna, C.; Whear, R.; Briody, C.
2016-09-01
Structures usually experience deterioration during their working life. Oxidation, corrosion, UV exposure, and thermo-mechanical fatigue are some of the most well-known mechanisms that cause degradation. The phenomenon gradually changes structural properties and dynamic behaviour over their lifetime, and can be more problematic and challenging in the presence of nonlinearity. In this paper, we study how the dynamic behaviour of a nonlinear system changes as the thermal environment causes certain parameters to vary. To this end, a nonlinear lumped mass modal model is considered and defined under harmonic external force. Temperature dependent material functions, formulated from empirical test data, are added into the model. Using these functions, bifurcation parameters are defined and the corresponding nonlinear responses are observed by numerical continuation. A comparison between the results gives a preliminary insight into how temperature induced properties affects the dynamic response and highlights changes in stability conditions of the structure.
Simultaneous determination of protein structure and dynamics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lindorff-Larsen, Kresten; Best, Robert B.; DePristo, M. A.
2005-01-01
We present a protocol for the experimental determination of ensembles of protein conformations that represent simultaneously the native structure and its associated dynamics. The procedure combines the strengths of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy-for obtaining experimental information...... at the atomic level about the structural and dynamical features of proteins-with the ability of molecular dynamics simulations to explore a wide range of protein conformations. We illustrate the method for human ubiquitin in solution and find that there is considerable conformational heterogeneity throughout...... the protein structure. The interior atoms of the protein are tightly packed in each individual conformation that contributes to the ensemble but their overall behaviour can be described as having a significant degree of liquid-like character. The protocol is completely general and should lead to significant...
Unifying dynamical and structural stability of equilibria
Arnoldi, Jean-François; Haegeman, Bart
2016-09-01
We exhibit a fundamental relationship between measures of dynamical and structural stability of linear dynamical systems-e.g. linearized models in the vicinity of equilibria. We show that dynamical stability, quantified via the response to external perturbations (i.e. perturbation of dynamical variables), coincides with the minimal internal perturbation (i.e. perturbations of interactions between variables) able to render the system unstable. First, by reformulating a result of control theory, we explain that harmonic external perturbations reflect the spectral sensitivity of the Jacobian matrix at the equilibrium, with respect to constant changes of its coefficients. However, for this equivalence to hold, imaginary changes of the Jacobian's coefficients have to be allowed. The connection with dynamical stability is thus lost for real dynamical systems. We show that this issue can be avoided, thus recovering the fundamental link between dynamical and structural stability, by considering stochastic noise as external and internal perturbations. More precisely, we demonstrate that a linear system's response to white-noise perturbations directly reflects the intensity of internal white-noise disturbance that it can accommodate before becoming stochastically unstable.
Liberman, Joseph A; Suddala, Krishna C; Aytenfisu, Asaminew; Chan, Dalen; Belashov, Ivan A; Salim, Mohammad; Mathews, David H; Spitale, Robert C; Walter, Nils G; Wedekind, Joseph E
2015-07-07
PreQ1-III riboswitches are newly identified RNA elements that control bacterial genes in response to preQ1 (7-aminomethyl-7-deazaguanine), a precursor to the essential hypermodified tRNA base queuosine. Although numerous riboswitches fold as H-type or HLout-type pseudoknots that integrate ligand-binding and regulatory sequences within a single folded domain, the preQ1-III riboswitch aptamer forms a HLout-type pseudoknot that does not appear to incorporate its ribosome-binding site (RBS). To understand how this unusual organization confers function, we determined the crystal structure of the class III preQ1 riboswitch from Faecalibacterium prausnitzii at 2.75 Å resolution. PreQ1 binds tightly (KD,app 6.5 ± 0.5 nM) between helices P1 and P2 of a three-way helical junction wherein the third helix, P4, projects orthogonally from the ligand-binding pocket, exposing its stem-loop to base pair with the 3' RBS. Biochemical analysis, computational modeling, and single-molecule FRET imaging demonstrated that preQ1 enhances P4 reorientation toward P1-P2, promoting a partially nested, H-type pseudoknot in which the RBS undergoes rapid docking (kdock ∼ 0.6 s(-1)) and undocking (kundock ∼ 1.1 s(-1)). Discovery of such dynamic conformational switching provides insight into how a riboswitch with bipartite architecture uses dynamics to modulate expression platform accessibility, thus expanding the known repertoire of gene control strategies used by regulatory RNAs.
Dynamic Analysis of a Pendulum Dynamic Automatic Balancer
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jin-Seung Sohn
2007-01-01
Full Text Available The automatic dynamic balancer is a device to reduce the vibration from unbalanced mass of rotors. Instead of considering prevailing ball automatic dynamic balancer, pendulum automatic dynamic balancer is analyzed. For the analysis of dynamic stability and behavior, the nonlinear equations of motion for a system are derived with respect to polar coordinates by the Lagrange's equations. The perturbation method is applied to investigate the dynamic behavior of the system around the equilibrium position. Based on the linearized equations, the dynamic stability of the system around the equilibrium positions is investigated by the eigenvalue analysis.
Structural dynamics of electronic and photonic systems
Suhir, Ephraim; Steinberg, David S
2011-01-01
The proposed book will offer comprehensive and versatile methodologies and recommendations on how to determine dynamic characteristics of typical micro- and opto-electronic structural elements (printed circuit boards, solder joints, heavy devices, etc.) and how to design a viable and reliable structure that would be able to withstand high-level dynamic loading. Particular attention will be given to portable devices and systems designed for operation in harsh environments (such as automotive, aerospace, military, etc.) In-depth discussion from a mechanical engineer's viewpoint will be conducte
一种剪式可展结构设计与动力学分析%Design and dynamic analysis of a scissor deployable structure
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘树青; 王兴松; 朱正龙
2011-01-01
针对机器人、空间结构等领域的应用,给出了一种三棱柱剪式可展结构的构型设计、传动方案设计及零部件详细设计.建立了考虑节点5个自由度的剪式铰单元有限元模型,对其刚度矩阵和质量矩阵进行了有效缩聚,减少了计算量；把剪式铰单元作为重复的子结构,建立了三棱柱剪式可展结构的有限元模型及其振动方程；在此基础上进行模态分析和仿真,得到前8阶固有频率及相应的振型曲线；并给出了三棱柱剪式可展结构的1阶固有频率随展开角的变化关系,为三棱柱剪式可展结构的优化设计和控制提供了依据.%The configuration design, transmission scheme design and detail design of a triangular prism deployable scissor structure are presented for application in the fields as robot, space structure and etc. The finite element model of scissor hinge unit that takes five dimensions of freedom of each node into consideration is established. The stiffness matrix and mass matrix of scissor hinge u-nit is minimized effectively and the amount of calculation is reduced. By taking the scissor hinge unit as a repetitive substructure, the finite element model and vibration equation of triangular prism scissor deployable structure are constructed. Based on this, the eight step natural frequencies and respective vibration mode curves are obtained after the dynamic analysis and simulated. The relationship between the first step natural frequency and deploy angle of triangular prism scissor deployable structure is provided. The present work has laid a foundation for the design and control of triangular prism scissor deployable structure.
Development of numerical procedures for analysis of complex structures
Gupta, K. K.
1984-01-01
The paper is concerned with the development of novel numerical procedures for the solution of static, stability, free vibration and dynamic response analysis of large, complex practical structures. Thus, details of numerical algorithms evolved for dynamic analysis of usual non-rotating and also rotating structures as well as finite dynamic elements are presented in the paper. Furthermore, the article provides some description of a general-purpose computer program STARS specifically developed for efficient analysis of complex practical structures.
Theoretical and software considerations for nonlinear dynamic analysis
Schmidt, R. J.; Dodds, R. H., Jr.
1983-01-01
In the finite element method for structural analysis, it is generally necessary to discretize the structural model into a very large number of elements to accurately evaluate displacements, strains, and stresses. As the complexity of the model increases, the number of degrees of freedom can easily exceed the capacity of present-day software system. Improvements of structural analysis software including more efficient use of existing hardware and improved structural modeling techniques are discussed. One modeling technique that is used successfully in static linear and nonlinear analysis is multilevel substructuring. This research extends the use of multilevel substructure modeling to include dynamic analysis and defines the requirements for a general purpose software system capable of efficient nonlinear dynamic analysis. The multilevel substructuring technique is presented, the analytical formulations and computational procedures for dynamic analysis and nonlinear mechanics are reviewed, and an approach to the design and implementation of a general purpose structural software system is presented.
Variable Dynamic Testbed Vehicle: Dynamics Analysis
Lee, A. Y.; Le, N. T.; Marriott, A. T.
1997-01-01
The Variable Dynamic Testbed Vehicle (VDTV) concept has been proposed as a tool to evaluate collision avoidance systems and to perform driving-related human factors research. The goal of this study is to analytically investigate to what extent a VDTV with adjustable front and rear anti-roll bar stiffnesses, programmable damping rates, and four-wheel-steering can emulate the lateral dynamics of a broad range of passenger vehicles.
Chemical structure and dynamics: Annual report 1993
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Colson, S.D.
1994-07-01
The Chemical Structure and Dynamics program responds to the need for a fundamental, molecular-level understanding of chemistry at the wide variety of environmentally-important interfaces. The research program is built around the established relationship between structure, thermodynamics, and kinetics. This research effort continues to evolve into a program of rigorous studies of fundamental molecular processes in model systems (e.g., well-characterized surfaces, single-component solutions, clusters, and biological molecules), and studies of complex systems found in the environment. Experimental studies of molecular and supramolecular structures and thermodynamics are key to understanding the nature of matter, and lead to direct comparison with computational results. Kinetic and mechanistic measurements, combined with real-time dynamics measurements of atomic and molecular motions during chemical reactions, provide for a molecular-level description of chemical reactions. The anticipated results of this work are the achievement of a quantitative understanding of chemical processes at complex interfaces, the development of new techniques for the detection and measurement of species at such interfaces, and the interpretation and extrapolation of the observations in terms of models of interfacial chemistry. The Chemical Structure and Dynamics research program includes five areas described in detail in this report: Reaction mechanisms at solid interfaces; Solution and solution interfaces; Structure and dynamics of biological systems; Analytical methods development; and atmospheric chemistry. Extended abstracts are presented for 23 studies.
Multiscale structure in eco-evolutionary dynamics
Stacey, Blake C.
In a complex system, the individual components are neither so tightly coupled or correlated that they can all be treated as a single unit, nor so uncorrelated that they can be approximated as independent entities. Instead, patterns of interdependency lead to structure at multiple scales of organization. Evolution excels at producing such complex structures. In turn, the existence of these complex interrelationships within a biological system affects the evolutionary dynamics of that system. I present a mathematical formalism for multiscale structure, grounded in information theory, which makes these intuitions quantitative, and I show how dynamics defined in terms of population genetics or evolutionary game theory can lead to multiscale organization. For complex systems, "more is different," and I address this from several perspectives. Spatial host--consumer models demonstrate the importance of the structures which can arise due to dynamical pattern formation. Evolutionary game theory reveals the novel effects which can result from multiplayer games, nonlinear payoffs and ecological stochasticity. Replicator dynamics in an environment with mesoscale structure relates to generalized conditionalization rules in probability theory. The idea of natural selection "acting at multiple levels" has been mathematized in a variety of ways, not all of which are equivalent. We will face down the confusion, using the experience developed over the course of this thesis to clarify the situation.
Analysis of structural dynamic characteristics of armature in electrodynamic shaker%电动振动台动圈的结构动态特性分析
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
崔志磊; 王金娥; 夏天凉
2012-01-01
In order to improve the performances of the electrodynamic shaker armature, the finite element model of the armature was established and the boundary conditions were defined. By means of computing the armature modes of different orders, its dynamic characteristics. With the aid of the modals analysis, the first axial modal of the armature were obtained, and the validity were analyzed, so that its first-order axial resonance frequency was obtained and verified by test. The result showed that the structure and material of the armature would decide the magnitude of that resonance frequency, and the larger the specific rigidity of the armature material. This could be done by adding reinforcing ribs to the armature.%为了提高电动振动台的工作性能,建立电动振动台动圈的有限元模型,确立其边界条件,通过计算动圈的各阶模态,分柝其动态特性,获得动圈的一阶轴向共振频率并进行实验验证.结果表明,动圈的结构及材料决定动圈一阶轴向共振频率的高低,动圈所选材料的比刚度越大越好;加强筋可以增强动圈的刚性.
Ergodic Theory, Open Dynamics, and Coherent Structures
Bose, Christopher; Froyland, Gary
2014-01-01
This book is comprised of selected research articles developed from a workshop on Ergodic Theory, Probabilistic Methods and Applications, held in April 2012 at the Banff International Research Station. It contains contributions from world leading experts in ergodic theory, dynamical systems, numerical analysis, fluid dynamics, and networks. The volume will serve as a valuable reference for mathematicians, physicists, engineers, physical oceanographers, atmospheric scientists, biologists, and climate scientists, who currently use, or wish to learn how to use, probabilistic techniques to cope with dynamical models that display open, coherent, or non-equilibrium behavior.
Dynamic behaviors of pretensioned cable AERORail structure
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李方元; 吴培峰
2015-01-01
The AERORail, a new aerial transport platform, was chosen as the object of this work. Following a review of the literature on static behaviors, model tests on the basic dynamic mechanical characteristics were conducted. A series of 90 tests were completed with different factors, including tension force, vehicle load and vehicle speed. With regard to the proper tension and vehicle load, at a certain speed range, the tension increments of the rail’s cable were proved relatively small. It can be assumed that the change of tension is small and can be reasonably ignored when the tension of an entire span is under a dynamic load. When the tension reaches a certain range, the calculation of the cable track structure using classical cable theory is acceptable. The tests prove that the average maximum dynamic amplification factor of the deflection is small, generally no more than 1.2. However, when the vehicle speed reaches a certain value, the amplified factor will reach 2.0. If the moving loads increase, the dynamic amplification factor of dynamic deflection will also increase. The tension will change the rigidity of the structure and the vibration frequency; furthermore, the resonance speed will change at a certain tension. The vibration is noticeable when vehicles pass through at the resonance speed, and this negative impact on driving comfort requires the right velocity to avoid the resonance. The results demonstrate that more design details are required for the AERORail structure.
Structural Dynamics of Tropical Moist Forest Gaps
Hunter, Maria O.; Michael Keller; Douglas Morton; Bruce Cook; Michael Lefsky; Mark Ducey; Scott Saleska; Raimundo Cosme de Oliveira; Juliana Schietti
2015-01-01
Gap phase dynamics are the dominant mode of forest turnover in tropical forests. However, gap processes are infrequently studied at the landscape scale. Airborne lidar data offer detailed information on three-dimensional forest structure, providing a means to characterize fine-scale (1 m) processes in tropical forests over large areas. Lidar-based estimates of forest structure (top down) differ from traditional field measurements (bottom up), and necessitate clear-cut definitions unencumbered...
Protein Secondary Structure Prediction Using Dynamic Programming
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Jing ZHAO; Pei-Ming SONG; Qing FANG; Jian-Hua LUO
2005-01-01
In the present paper, we describe how a directed graph was constructed and then searched for the optimum path using a dynamic programming approach, based on the secondary structure propensity of the protein short sequence derived from a training data set. The protein secondary structure was thus predicted in this way. The average three-state accuracy of the algorithm used was 76.70%.
Identifying Community Structures in Dynamic Networks
Alvari, Hamidreza; Sukthankar, Gita; Lakkaraju, Kiran
2016-01-01
Most real-world social networks are inherently dynamic, composed of communities that are constantly changing in membership. To track these evolving communities, we need dynamic community detection techniques. This article evaluates the performance of a set of game theoretic approaches for identifying communities in dynamic networks. Our method, D-GT (Dynamic Game Theoretic community detection), models each network node as a rational agent who periodically plays a community membership game with its neighbors. During game play, nodes seek to maximize their local utility by joining or leaving the communities of network neighbors. The community structure emerges after the game reaches a Nash equilibrium. Compared to the benchmark community detection methods, D-GT more accurately predicts the number of communities and finds community assignments with a higher normalized mutual information, while retaining a good modularity.
Ultrafast structural dynamics of perovskite superlattices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Woerner, M.; Korff Schmising, C. von; Zhavoronkov, N.; Elsaesser, T. [Max-Born-Institut fuer Nichtlineare Optik und Kurzzeitspektroskopie, Berlin (Germany); Bargheer, M. [Universitaet Potsdam, Institut fuer Physik und Astronomie, Potsdam (Germany); Vrejoiu, I.; Hesse, D.; Alexe, M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Mikrostrukturphysik, Halle (Germany)
2009-07-15
Femtosecond X-ray diffraction provides direct insight into the ultrafast reversible lattice dynamics of materials with a perovskite structure. Superlattice (SL) structures consisting of a sequence of nanometer-thick layer pairs allow for optically inducing a tailored stress profile that drives the lattice motions and for limiting the influence of strain propagation on the observed dynamics. We demonstrate this concept in a series of diffraction experiments with femtosecond time resolution, giving detailed information on the ultrafast lattice dynamics of ferroelectric and ferromagnetic superlattices. Anharmonically coupled lattice motions in a SrRuO{sub 3}/PbZr{sub 0.2}Ti{sub 0.8}O{sub 3} (SRO/PZT) SL lead to a switch-off of the electric polarizations on a time scale of the order of 1 ps. Ultrafast magnetostriction of photoexcited SRO layers is demonstrated in a SRO/SrTiO{sub 3} (STO) SL. (orig.)
Structure and dynamics of the solar chromosphere
Krijger, Johannes Mattheus
2002-01-01
The thesis "Structure and dynamics of the solar chromosphere" of J.M. Krijger is a study on the behavior of the solar chromosphere, the thin layer just above the solar surface (photosphere) visible in purple red light during a total solar eclipse. The most important result of this thesis is that the
Structure and dynamics of the solar chromosphere
Krijger, Johannes Mattheus
2003-01-01
The thesis "Structure and dynamics of the solar chromosphere" of J.M. Krijger is a study on the behavior of the solar chromosphere, the thin layer just above the solar surface (photosphere) visible in purple red light during a total solar eclipse. The most important result of this thesis is that the
Structure and Dynamics of Dinucleosomes Assessed by Atomic Force Microscopy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nina A. Filenko
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Dynamics of nucleosomes and their interactions are important for understanding the mechanism of chromatin assembly. Internucleosomal interaction is required for the formation of higher-order chromatin structures. Although H1 histone is critically involved in the process of chromatin assembly, direct internucleosomal interactions contribute to this process as well. To characterize the interactions of nucleosomes within the nucleosome array, we designed a dinucleosome and performed direct AFM imaging. The analysis of the AFM data showed dinucleosomes are very dynamic systems, enabling the nucleosomes to move in a broad range along the DNA template. Di-nucleosomes in close proximity were observed, but their population was low. The use of the zwitterionic detergent, CHAPS, increased the dynamic range of the di-nucleosome, facilitating the formation of tight di-nucleosomes. The role of CHAPS and similar natural products in chromatin structure and dynamics is also discussed.
Dynamic energy absorption characteristics of hollow microlattice structures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liu, YL; Schaedler, TA; Chen, X
2014-10-01
Hollow microlattice structures are promising candidates for advanced energy absorption and their characteristics under dynamic crushing are explored. The energy absorption can be significantly enhanced by inertial stabilization, shock wave effect and strain rate hardening effect. In this paper we combine theoretical analysis and comprehensive finite element method simulation to decouple the three effects, and then obtain a simple model to predict the overall dynamic effects of hollow microlattice structures. Inertial stabilization originates from the suppression of sudden crushing of the microlattice and its contribution scales with the crushing speed, v. Shock wave effect comes from the discontinuity across the plastic shock wave front during dynamic loading and its contribution scales with e. The strain rate effect increases the effective yield strength upon dynamic deformation and increases the energy absorption density. A mechanism map is established that illustrates the dominance of these three dynamic effects at a range of crushing speeds. Compared with quasi-static loading, the energy absorption capacity a dynamic loading of 250 m/s can be enhanced by an order of magnitude. The study may shed useful insight on designing and optimizing the energy absorption performance of hollow microlattice structures under various dynamic loads. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Proteins with Novel Structure, Function and Dynamics
Pohorille, Andrew
2014-01-01
Recently, a small enzyme that ligates two RNA fragments with the rate of 10(exp 6) above background was evolved in vitro (Seelig and Szostak, Nature 448:828-831, 2007). This enzyme does not resemble any contemporary protein (Chao et al., Nature Chem. Biol. 9:81-83, 2013). It consists of a dynamic, catalytic loop, a small, rigid core containing two zinc ions coordinated by neighboring amino acids, and two highly flexible tails that might be unimportant for protein function. In contrast to other proteins, this enzyme does not contain ordered secondary structure elements, such as alpha-helix or beta-sheet. The loop is kept together by just two interactions of a charged residue and a histidine with a zinc ion, which they coordinate on the opposite side of the loop. Such structure appears to be very fragile. Surprisingly, computer simulations indicate otherwise. As the coordinating, charged residue is mutated to alanine, another, nearby charged residue takes its place, thus keeping the structure nearly intact. If this residue is also substituted by alanine a salt bridge involving two other, charged residues on the opposite sides of the loop keeps the loop in place. These adjustments are facilitated by high flexibility of the protein. Computational predictions have been confirmed experimentally, as both mutants retain full activity and overall structure. These results challenge our notions about what is required for protein activity and about the relationship between protein dynamics, stability and robustness. We hypothesize that small, highly dynamic proteins could be both active and fault tolerant in ways that many other proteins are not, i.e. they can adjust to retain their structure and activity even if subjected to mutations in structurally critical regions. This opens the doors for designing proteins with novel functions, structures and dynamics that have not been yet considered.
32nd IMAC Conference and Exposition on Structural Dynamics
Mayes, Randy; Rixen, Daniel; Catbas, Fikret; Atamturktur, H; Moaveni, Babak; Papadimitriou, Costas; Schoenherr, Tyler; Foss, Gary; Niezrecki, Christopher; Allemang, Randall; Kerschen, Gaetan
2014-01-01
This critical collection examines a range of topics in modal analysis, from experimental techniques to acoustics to biodynamics, as presented in early findings and case studies from the Proceedings of the 32nd IMAC, A Conference and Exposition on Structural Dynamics, 2014. The collection includes papers in the following general technical research areas: Experimental Techniques, Processing Modal Data, Rotating Machinery, Acoustics, Adaptive Structures, Biodynamics, Damping
Formal analysis of design process dynamics
Bosse, T.; Jonker, C.M.; Treur, J.
2010-01-01
This paper presents a formal analysis of design process dynamics. Such a formal analysis is a prerequisite to come to a formal theory of design and for the development of automated support for the dynamics of design processes. The analysis was geared toward the identification of dynamic design
Formal analysis of design process dynamics
Bosse, T.; Jonker, C.M.; Treur, J.
2010-01-01
This paper presents a formal analysis of design process dynamics. Such a formal analysis is a prerequisite to come to a formal theory of design and for the development of automated support for the dynamics of design processes. The analysis was geared toward the identification of dynamic design prope
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
牛帅; 朱佳宁
2012-01-01
the main powerhouse belongs to frame-bent structure style, is of irregular shape, complicated force paths. In strong earthquake, it easily deforms and even collapses to cause much damage. Therefore, the seismic capability must be known. According to incremental dynamical analysis method, 10 earthquake waves are chosen in nonlinear time-history a-nalysis of frame-bent structure. Through statistical analysis of IDA curves obtained, the IDA curve based on the probability of each floor and the whole structure can be obtained to make a judgment for the performance. Seismic capability of main powerhouse is more than demand, but its coal scuttle beam is vulnerable, strengthening is needed in design process.%基于逐步增量弹塑性时程方法,选择了10条地震波对火电厂主厂房框排架结构进行非线性时程分析,得到了相关指标的IDA曲线簇,并进行统计分析,最终得到了以概率为基础的框排架各层以及整体IDA曲线,以此对抗震性能进行评价.主厂房框排架结构抗震能力具有较大的富余度,但煤斗大梁处是结构的薄弱环节,设计时应注意加强.
Substitution dynamical systems spectral analysis
Queffélec, Martine
2010-01-01
This volume mainly deals with the dynamics of finitely valued sequences, and more specifically, of sequences generated by substitutions and automata. Those sequences demonstrate fairly simple combinatorical and arithmetical properties and naturally appear in various domains. As the title suggests, the aim of the initial version of this book was the spectral study of the associated dynamical systems: the first chapters consisted in a detailed introduction to the mathematical notions involved, and the description of the spectral invariants followed in the closing chapters. This approach, combined with new material added to the new edition, results in a nearly self-contained book on the subject. New tools - which have also proven helpful in other contexts - had to be developed for this study. Moreover, its findings can be concretely applied, the method providing an algorithm to exhibit the spectral measures and the spectral multiplicity, as is demonstrated in several examples. Beyond this advanced analysis, many...
Dynamic object management for distributed data structures
Totty, Brian K.; Reed, Daniel A.
1992-01-01
In distributed-memory multiprocessors, remote memory accesses incur larger delays than local accesses. Hence, insightful allocation and access of distributed data can yield substantial performance gains. The authors argue for the use of dynamic data management policies encapsulated within individual distributed data structures. Distributed data structures offer performance, flexibility, abstraction, and system independence. This approach is supported by data from a trace-driven simulation study of parallel scientific benchmarks. Experimental data on memory locality, message count, message volume, and communication delay suggest that data-structure-specific data management is superior to a single, system-imposed policy.
望远镜次镜钢索支撑结构动力学分析%Dynamics analysis of telescope third mirror wire support structure
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
安其昌; 张景旭; 张丽敏
2013-01-01
In order to increase the large aperture telescope third mirror supporting structure first order natural frequency, eight pre-stressing cables was used to replace the four wing beams structure. Firstly, according to the Bernoulli-Euler beam theory, the mirror supporting structure was simplified as a model composed of quality point and beam and the system natural frequency expressions was got as well as the first order natural frequency. Then, in 1.23 m telescope, with pre-stressing force at 20 000 N, the first order natural frequency comes to 18.9 Hz, comparing with the finite element software ANSYS, 17.8 Hz, with error of 6%. Finally, through the analysis of the condition that the second mirror room quality maintain invariable, relations for pre-stressing force under different primary mirror diameter and secondary mirror supporting structure of the first order modal was got. For 1.23 m telescope, pre-stressing force of 70 000 N can make the first order modal frequency reached 34 Hz. For 2 m & 4 m telescope, by adjusting the pre-stressing force, the first frequency can be controlled in more than 20 Hz. The method can be used for similar structure dynamics calculation. Meanwhile, this structure can have high torsional rigidity, and can effectively reduce the weight of the secondary mirror supporting structure, the design of the optical system in the large diameter has very good guidance.%为了增加大口径望远镜次镜支撑结构第一阶固有频率，采用施加有预紧力的八根钢索取代原有的四翼梁结构。文中首先根据Euler-Bernoulli梁理论将此次镜支撑结构简化为一个由质量点和梁组成的简化模型并使用变分法得出系统固有频率表达式以及系统第一阶固有频率；然后以1.23 m望远镜为例，计算得出预紧力为20000 N 时系统第一阶固有频率为18.9 Hz 与有限元仿真软件ANSYS得出的17.8 Hz相比误差为6%，证明了简化的可行性与理论的正确性。最后通过分
Exploiting Dynamically Propositional Logic Structures in SAT
Chen, Jingchao
2011-01-01
The 32-bit hwb (hwb-n32 for short) problem is from equivalence checking that arises in combining two circuits computing the hidden weighted bit function. Since 2002, it remains still unsolvable in every SAT competition. This paper focuses on solving problems such as hwb-n32. Generally speaking, modern solvers can detect only XOR, AND, OR and ITE gates. Other non-clausal formulas (propositional logic structures) cannot be detected. To solve the hwb-n32 problem, we extract dynamically some special propositional logic structures, and then use a variant of DPLL-based solvers to solve the subproblem simplified by the extracted structure information. Using the dynamic extraction technique, we solved efficiently the hwb-n32 problem, even some of which were solved within 3000 seconds.
Correlation Measure Equivalence in Dynamic Causal Structures
Gyongyosi, Laszlo
2016-01-01
We prove an equivalence transformation between the correlation measure functions of the causally-unbiased quantum gravity space and the causally-biased standard space. The theory of quantum gravity fuses the dynamic (nonfixed) causal structure of general relativity and the quantum uncertainty of quantum mechanics. In a quantum gravity space, the events are causally nonseparable and all time bias vanishes, which makes it no possible to use the standard causally-biased entropy and the correlation measure functions. Since a corrected causally-unbiased entropy function leads to an undefined, obscure mathematical structure, in our approach the correction is made in the data representation of the causally-unbiased space. We prove that the standard causally-biased entropy function with a data correction can be used to identify correlations in dynamic causal structures. As a corollary, all mathematical properties of the causally-biased correlation measure functions are preserved in the causally-unbiased space. The eq...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sievers, Juergen; Bahr, Ludwig; Arndt, Jens; Heckoetter, Christian; Grebner, Hans
2014-11-15
Within the framework of project RS1197, analysis methods have been further developed and tested for the determination of the structural dynamic loading and the maximum load-bearing capacity of containment structures with a focus on the quantification of safety margins against failures due to loads resulting from selected internal and external hazards. The analyses comprised a model containment structure of prestressed reinforced concrete under internal pressure loading until reaching failure pressure, an outer containment structure made of reinforced concrete under local impact loads that may occur during a targeted aircraft crash, and a steel containment under local peak loads from internal pressure and temperature loads due to core melt scenarios with a local hydrogen combustion. GRS participated in the international ''Standard Problem Exercise 3'' on the issue ''Performance of Containment Vessel under Severe Accident Conditions''. Together with the cooperation partners, aspects of the global containment behaviour were considered based on the example of the Sandia 1:4 model containment of prestressed concrete, which was loaded by rising internal pressure until failure. Complex analysis models were developed, calculating the behaviour of the prestressing tendons under consideration of the frictional contact with the cladding tubes. Compared with corresponding measurement values, the analysis results show that the stresses near the tensioning device and the deformation of the inner surface can be realistically modelled as a function of the internal pressure. In the experiment, global structural failure of the containment model was caused by tendon rupture at about 3.64 times the design pressure. With the developed analysis models of a generic structure of an outer reinforced concrete containment, simulations were carried out for various aircraft crash scenarios as contact problems with explicit impactor simulation. For this
色木槭次生林种群结构动态分析%Analysis on Structure Dynamics of Population of the Secondary Acer mono Forest
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
殷东生; 张凤海; 山永清; 侯培军; 丁永平; 葛文志; 沈海龙
2011-01-01
The static life table of Acer mono populations was compiled based on the population life table and theory of survival analysis using the age class structure represented by the size-class structure. The survival rate curve, the mortality rate curve, vanishing rate curve and survival function curve were determined, and population dynamics were analyzed by spectral analysis. The results show that the number of young individuals was larger than that of middle aged and old individuals. The population had two peak of mortality in size class Ⅲ and Ⅷ. The survival curve of the population appeared to be of the Deevey-Ⅱ type. The population was rise type. The tending management should be actualized to increase the timber utilization quotiety when DBH growth of Acer mono individual reached to 15cm and 40cm in natural conditions.%以种群生命表及生存分析理论为基础，将林木依胸径大小分级，以林木径级结构代表年龄结构，编制了色木槭种群的特定时间生命表，绘制了存活曲线、死亡率曲线、损失度曲线和生存函数曲线，分析种群数量特征。结果表明：色木槭种群幼年个体丰富，中老年个体较少，种群在第Ⅲ和第Ⅷ径级出现死亡高峰，种群存活曲线属于Deevey-Ⅱ型，色木槭种群1／1前表现为增长型种群。在自然条件下，当色木槭胸径达到15cm和40cm前时，应对其进行抚育管理以提高木材利用率。
Yen, N. V.; Lan, M. T.; Vinh, L. T.; Hong, N. V.
2017-02-01
Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and visualizations were explored to investigate the changes in structure of liquid aluminosilicates. The models were constructed for four compositions with varying Al2O3/SiO2 ratio. The local structure and network topology was analyzed through the pair of radial distribution functions, bond angle, bond length and coordination number distributions. The results showed that the structure of aluminosilicates mainly consists of the basic structural units TOy (T is Al or Si; y = 3, 4, 5). Two adjacent units TOy are linked to each other through common oxygen atoms and form continuous random network of basic structural units TOy. The bond statistics (corner-, edge- and face- sharing) between two adjacent TOy units are investigated in detail. The self-diffusion coefficients for three atomic types are affected by the degree of polymerization (DOP) of network characterized by the proportions of nonbridging oxygen (NBO) and Qn species in the system. It was found that Q4 and Q3 tetrahedral species (tetrahedron with four and three bridging oxygens, respectively) decreases, while Q0 (with four nonbridging oxygen) increase with increasing Al2O3/SiO2 molar ratio, suggesting that a less polymerized network was formed. The structural and dynamical heterogeneities, micro-phase separation and liquid-liquid phase transition are also discussed in this work.
Information diversity in structure and dynamics of simulated neuronal networks.
Mäki-Marttunen, Tuomo; Aćimović, Jugoslava; Nykter, Matti; Kesseli, Juha; Ruohonen, Keijo; Yli-Harja, Olli; Linne, Marja-Leena
2011-01-01
Neuronal networks exhibit a wide diversity of structures, which contributes to the diversity of the dynamics therein. The presented work applies an information theoretic framework to simultaneously analyze structure and dynamics in neuronal networks. Information diversity within the structure and dynamics of a neuronal network is studied using the normalized compression distance. To describe the structure, a scheme for generating distance-dependent networks with identical in-degree distribution but variable strength of dependence on distance is presented. The resulting network structure classes possess differing path length and clustering coefficient distributions. In parallel, comparable realistic neuronal networks are generated with NETMORPH simulator and similar analysis is done on them. To describe the dynamics, network spike trains are simulated using different network structures and their bursting behaviors are analyzed. For the simulation of the network activity the Izhikevich model of spiking neurons is used together with the Tsodyks model of dynamical synapses. We show that the structure of the simulated neuronal networks affects the spontaneous bursting activity when measured with bursting frequency and a set of intraburst measures: the more locally connected networks produce more and longer bursts than the more random networks. The information diversity of the structure of a network is greatest in the most locally connected networks, smallest in random networks, and somewhere in between in the networks between order and disorder. As for the dynamics, the most locally connected networks and some of the in-between networks produce the most complex intraburst spike trains. The same result also holds for sparser of the two considered network densities in the case of full spike trains.
In situ structure and dynamics of DNA origami determined through molecular dynamics simulations.
Yoo, Jejoong; Aksimentiev, Aleksei
2013-12-10
The DNA origami method permits folding of long single-stranded DNA into complex 3D structures with subnanometer precision. Transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and recently cryo-EM tomography have been used to characterize the properties of such DNA origami objects, however their microscopic structures and dynamics have remained unknown. Here, we report the results of all-atom molecular dynamics simulations that characterized the structural and mechanical properties of DNA origami objects in unprecedented microscopic detail. When simulated in an aqueous environment, the structures of DNA origami objects depart from their idealized targets as a result of steric, electrostatic, and solvent-mediated forces. Whereas the global structural features of such relaxed conformations conform to the target designs, local deformations are abundant and vary in magnitude along the structures. In contrast to their free-solution conformation, the Holliday junctions in the DNA origami structures adopt a left-handed antiparallel conformation. We find the DNA origami structures undergo considerable temporal fluctuations on both local and global scales. Analysis of such structural fluctuations reveals the local mechanical properties of the DNA origami objects. The lattice type of the structures considerably affects global mechanical properties such as bending rigidity. Our study demonstrates the potential of all-atom molecular dynamics simulations to play a considerable role in future development of the DNA origami field by providing accurate, quantitative assessment of local and global structural and mechanical properties of DNA origami objects.
The fundamental structures of dynamic social networks
Sekara, Vedran; Lehmann, Sune
2015-01-01
Networks provide a powerful mathematical framework for analyzing the structure and dynamics of complex systems (1-3). The study of group behavior has deep roots in the social science literature (4,5) and community detection is a central part of modern network science. Network communities have been found to be highly overlapping and organized in a hierarchical structure (6-9). Recent technological advances have provided a toolset for measuring the detailed social dynamics at scale (10,11). In spite of great progress, a quantitative description of the complex temporal behavior of social groups-with dynamics spanning from minute-by-minute changes to patterns expressed on the timescale of years-is still absent. Here we uncover a class of fundamental structures embedded within highly dynamic social networks. On the shortest time-scale, we find that social gatherings are fluid, with members coming and going, but organized via a stable core of individuals. We show that cores represent social contexts (9), with recur...
Yaw control for active damping of structural dynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ekelund, T. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Control Engineering Lab.
1996-12-01
Yaw torque control for reduction of structural dynamic loads in a two-bladed wind turbine is investigated. The models are obtained using rigid-body mechanics. Linear quadratic control theory is utilized for design and analysis. The analysis of two simple examples, where the teeter angle and the tower lateral bending motion are regarded, shows that a time-varying controller has some advantages compared with a time-invariant controller. 6 refs, 9 figs
Sierra Structural Dynamics User's Notes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Reese, Garth M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
2015-10-19
Sierra/SD provides a massively parallel implementation of structural dynamics finite element analysis, required for high fidelity, validated models used in modal, vibration, static and shock analysis of weapons systems. This document provides a users guide to the input for Sierra/SD. Details of input specifications for the different solution types, output options, element types and parameters are included. The appendices contain detailed examples, and instructions for running the software on parallel platforms.
Structural Analysis Made 'NESSUSary'
2005-01-01
Everywhere you look, chances are something that was designed and tested by a computer will be in plain view. Computers are now utilized to design and test just about everything imaginable, from automobiles and airplanes to bridges and boats, and elevators and escalators to streets and skyscrapers. Computer-design engineering first emerged in the 1970s, in the automobile and aerospace industries. Since computers were in their infancy, however, architects and engineers during the time were limited to producing only designs similar to hand-drafted drawings. (At the end of 1970s, a typical computer-aided design system was a 16-bit minicomputer with a price tag of $125,000.) Eventually, computers became more affordable and related software became more sophisticated, offering designers the "bells and whistles" to go beyond the limits of basic drafting and rendering, and venture into more skillful applications. One of the major advancements was the ability to test the objects being designed for the probability of failure. This advancement was especially important for the aerospace industry, where complicated and expensive structures are designed. The ability to perform reliability and risk assessment without using extensive hardware testing is critical to design and certification. In 1984, NASA initiated the Probabilistic Structural Analysis Methods (PSAM) project at Glenn Research Center to develop analysis methods and computer programs for the probabilistic structural analysis of select engine components for current Space Shuttle and future space propulsion systems. NASA envisioned that these methods and computational tools would play a critical role in establishing increased system performance and durability, and assist in structural system qualification and certification. Not only was the PSAM project beneficial to aerospace, it paved the way for a commercial risk- probability tool that is evaluating risks in diverse, down- to-Earth application
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
周斌; 吕广庆; 江满华
2013-01-01
Inverse sub-structure dynamic analysis of structural dynamics is a technical theory and analysis method recently developed,but it requires large amounts of data for analysis and calculation.In order to analysis efficiently,here comes the development of a indirect inverse sub-structure dynamic quality detection software.Calculated based on the the indirect inverse sub-structure theory,based on the indirect inverse sub the discretization packaging coupled dynamic stiffness structural analysis calculation method and mode shapes combined method.Using Matlab graphical user interface (GUI),data importing,processing,mapping and other operations can be easily implemented,while the use of Matlab powerful matrix computing power to quickly calculate the required results for professionals to analyze.%逆子结构动态分析是结构动力学的新近发展的一项技术理论和分析方法,但逆子结构动态分析需要对大量的数据进行分析计算.为了更有效率地分析,开发了间接逆子结构动态质量检测技术软件.基于间接逆子结构理论,依据离散化包装耦合体动刚度的间接逆子结构分析计算方法和振型组合方法进行计算.利用Matlab的图形用户界面(GUI),可以方便地实现对数据的导入、处理、作图等操作,同时利用Matlab强大的矩阵运算能力,快速地计算出所需要的结果以供专业人员分析使用.
Dynamic soil-structure interaction of monopod and polypod foundations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard
2016-01-01
The paper concerns the importance of through–soil coupling for structures having foundations with more footings. First, a model for dynamic analysis of polypod footings is established in the frequency domain, employing Green’s function for wave propagation in a layered half-space. To allow analysis...... manner. As a computational example, the dynamic response of a plane frame structure with two footings is compared for two cases: one with and one without the cross coupling. Homogeneous as well as layered soil is considered....... within the time domain, frequency-independent lumped-parameter models are developed. The paper proposes a decision criterion for determination of which components must be included within a lumped-parameter model in order to account for the structure–soil–structure interaction in an adequate and efficient...
AGENT based structural static and dynamic collaborative optimization
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2001-01-01
A static and dynamic collaborative optimization mode for complex machine system and itsontology project relationship are put forward, on which an agent-based structural static and dynamiccollaborative optimization system is constructed as two agent colonies: optimization agent colony andfinite element analysis colony. And a two-level solving strategy as well as the necessity and possibilityfor handing with finite element analysis model in multi-level mode is discussed. Furthermore, the coop-eration of all FEA agents for optimal design of complicated structural is studied in detail. Structural stat-ic and dynamic collaborative optimization of hydraulic excavator working equimpent is taken as an ex-ample to show that the system is reliable.
Dynamic soil-structure interaction of monopod and polypod foundations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard
2016-01-01
within the time domain, frequency-independent lumped-parameter models are developed. The paper proposes a decision criterion for determination of which components must be included within a lumped-parameter model in order to account for the structure–soil–structure interaction in an adequate and efficient......The paper concerns the importance of through–soil coupling for structures having foundations with more footings. First, a model for dynamic analysis of polypod footings is established in the frequency domain, employing Green’s function for wave propagation in a layered half-space. To allow analysis...... manner. As a computational example, the dynamic response of a plane frame structure with two footings is compared for two cases: one with and one without the cross coupling. Homogeneous as well as layered soil is considered....
Seismic analysis of nuclear power plant structures
Go, J. C.
1973-01-01
Primary structures for nuclear power plants are designed to resist expected earthquakes of the site. Two intensities are referred to as Operating Basis Earthquake and Design Basis Earthquake. These structures are required to accommodate these seismic loadings without loss of their functional integrity. Thus, no plastic yield is allowed. The application of NASTRAN in analyzing some of these seismic induced structural dynamic problems is described. NASTRAN, with some modifications, can be used to analyze most structures that are subjected to seismic loads. A brief review of the formulation of seismic-induced structural dynamics is also presented. Two typical structural problems were selected to illustrate the application of the various methods of seismic structural analysis by the NASTRAN system.
Time Collocation Method for Structural Dynamic Problems
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
TANG Chen; LUO Tao; YAN Haiqing; GU Xiaohui
2005-01-01
In order to achieve highly accurate and efficient numerical calculations of structural dynamics, time collocation method is presented. For a given time interval, the numerical solution of the method is approximated by a polynomial. The polynomial coefficients are evaluated by solving algebraic equation. Once the polynomial coefficients are evaluated, the numerical solutions at any time in the interval can be easily calculated. New formulae are derived for the polynomial coefficients,which are more practical and succinct than those previously given. Two structural dynamic equations are calculated by the proposed method. The numerical solutions are compared with the traditional fourth-order Runge-Kutta method. The results show that the method proposed is highly accurate and computationally efficient. In addition, an important advantage of the method is the simplicity in software programming.
Chemical structure and dynamics. Annual report 1995
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Colson, S.D.; McDowell, R.S.
1996-05-01
The Chemical Structure and Dynamics program is a major component of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory`s Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL), providing a state-of-the-art collaborative facility for studies of chemical structure and dynamics. We respond to the need for a fundamental, molecular-level understanding of chemistry at a wide variety of environmentally important interfaces by (1) extending the experimental characterization and theoretical description of chemical reactions to encompass the effects of condensed media and interfaces; (2) developing a multidisciplinary capability for describing interfacial chemical processes within which the new knowledge generated can be brought to bear on complex phenomena in environmental chemistry and in nuclear waste processing and storage; and (3) developing state-of-the-art analytical methods for the characterization of waste tanks and pollutant distributions, and for detection and monitoring of trace atmospheric species.
Chemical structure and dynamics: Annual report 1996
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Colson, S.D.; McDowell, R.S.
1997-03-01
The Chemical Structure and Dynamics (CS&D) program is a major component of the William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL) developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to provide a state-of-the-art collaborative facility for studies of chemical structure and dynamics. We respond to the need for a fundamental, molecular-level understanding of chemistry at a wide variety of environmentally important interfaces by (1) extending the experimental characterization and theoretical description of chemical reactions to encompass the effects of condensed media and interfaces; (2) developing a multidisciplinary capability for describing interfacial chemical processes within which the new knowledge generated can be brought to bear on complex phenomena in environmental chemistry and in nuclear waste processing and storage; and (3) developing state-of-the-art analytical methods for characterizing waste tanks and pollutant distributions, and for detecting and monitoring trace atmospheric species.
Annual Report 2000. Chemical Structure and Dynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Colson, Steven D.; McDowell, Robin S.
2001-04-15
This annual report describes the research and accomplishments of the Chemical Structure and Dynamics Program in the year 2000, one of six research programs at the William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL) - a multidisciplinary, national scientific user facility and research organization. The Chemical Structure and Dynamics (CS&D) program is meeting the need for a fundamental, molecular-level understanding by 1) extending the experimental characterization and theoretical description of chemical reactions to encompass the effects of condensed media and interfaces; 2) developing a multidisciplinary capability for describing interfacial chemical processes relevant to environmental chemistry; and 3) developing state-of-the-art research and analytical methods for characterizing complex materials of the types found in natural and contaminated systems.
运载火箭结构动力分析的一些新技术 第一部分：模态综合技术%Some New Techniques for Structural Dynamic Analysis of Launch Vehicle
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
邱吉宝; 王建民; 谭志勇
2001-01-01
The structural dynamic research of launch vehicle is summarized, and some new techniques for structural dynamic analysis are introduced. The synthetic techniques for substructure test model and substructure test modal and some synthetic methods for exact modal are proposed. These techniques have been used to analyse the dynamic characteristics of large strap-on launch vehicle.%总结了运载火箭结构动力学的研究，简要地介绍结构动力分析技术的一些新技术，提出子结构试验模型综合技术、子结构试验模态综合技术和几种精确模态综合法，这些技术已用于分析大型捆绑式火箭动力学特性。
On R factors for dynamic structure crystallography
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Coppens, Philip; Kaminski, Radoslaw; Schmøkel, Mette Stokkebro
2010-01-01
In studies of dynamic changes in crystals in which induced metastable species may have lifetimes of microseconds or less, refinements are most sensitive if based on the changes induced in the measured intensities. Agreement factors appropriate for such refinements, based on the ratios of the inte...... of the intensities before and after the external perturbation is applied, are discussed and compared with R factors commonly applied in static structure crystallography....
Dynamical Structure of Nuclear Excitation in Continuum
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG Chun-Lei; ZHANG Huan-Qiao; ZHANG Xi-Zhen
2005-01-01
@@ Dynamical structures of collective excitation in continuum are studied by calculating the isoscalar and isovector strength as well as transition density of nuclei near the drip-line such as 28O and 34Ca. It is found that for some excited states in continuum the proton and neutron transition density calculated from isoscalar and isovector excitation at some given energies may be different, which will affect the calculation of the polarization for nuclei with N ≠ Z.
Nonlinear Dynamics and Control of Flexible Structures
1991-03-01
Freedom," Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, Cornell University, in preparation. 5I I URI Reorts Islam , Saiful and Mircea...Theoretical and Applied Mechanics I S. Islam Civil and Environmental Engineering I 2! I 3 URI Accomplishments 3 -Nonlinear Dynamics and Chaos in Flexible...Structures with Symmetry," 31 (1991) 265-285. Islam , S. and M. Grigoriu, "Nonlinear Random Vibration of Pin-Jointed Trusses with Imperfections," in
Flexible joints in structural and multibody dynamics
O. A. Bauchau; Han, S.
2013-01-01
Flexible joints, sometimes called bushing elements or force elements, are found in all structural and multibody dynamics codes. In their simplest form, flexible joints simply consist of sets of three linear and three torsional springs placed between two nodes of the model. For infinitesimal deformations, the selection of the lumped spring constants is an easy task, which can be based on a numerical simulation of the joint or on experimental measurements. If the joint undergoes finite deformat...
Feature Extraction for Structural Dynamics Model Validation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Farrar, Charles [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nishio, Mayuko [Yokohama University; Hemez, Francois [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stull, Chris [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Park, Gyuhae [Chonnam Univesity; Cornwell, Phil [Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology; Figueiredo, Eloi [Universidade Lusófona; Luscher, D. J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Worden, Keith [University of Sheffield
2016-01-13
As structural dynamics becomes increasingly non-modal, stochastic and nonlinear, finite element model-updating technology must adopt the broader notions of model validation and uncertainty quantification. For example, particular re-sampling procedures must be implemented to propagate uncertainty through a forward calculation, and non-modal features must be defined to analyze nonlinear data sets. The latter topic is the focus of this report, but first, some more general comments regarding the concept of model validation will be discussed.
Modal interactions in dynamical and structural systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nayfeh, A.H.; Balachandran, B. (Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Univ., Blacksburg (USA))
1989-11-01
The authors review theoretical and experimental studies of the influence of modal interactions on the nonlinear response of harmonically excited structural and dynamical systems. In particular, they discuss the response of pendulums, ships, rings, shells, arches, beam structures, surface waves, and the similarities in the qualitative behavior of these systems. The systems are characterized by quadratic nonlinearities which may lead to two-to-one and combination autoparametric resonances. These resonances give rise to a coupling between the modes involved in the resonance leading to nonlinear periodic, quasi-periodic, and chaotic motions.
Some Modern Problems in Structural Engineering Dynamics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
I. Elishakoff
2010-01-01
Full Text Available This review paper deals with two problems in structural engineering dynamics; one is deterministic, the other is of stochastic nature. One problem is linear, the other is nonlinear. Authors have a biased preferential view on these problems because of their active involvement in the discussed research topics. Still, these two problems reflect, at least in a small manner, some developments in this vast and fascinating field. The first part deals with deterministic linear vibrations of double-walled carbon nanotubes either in classical or refined setting; the second part is devoted to the nonlinear random vibrations of structures.
Dynamic ice loads on conical structures
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2011-01-01
Two series of model tests were performed to observe the dynamic ice loads on conical structures.The variable testing parameters include the water line diameter of the model cone and ice parameters.During small water line diameter tests,two-time breaking is found to be the typical failure of ice on steep conical structure,and also be controlled by other factors,such as ice speed and the cone angle.During big water line diameter tests,the ice sheet failed nonsimultaneously around the cone.Several independe...
Simplified Dynamic Analysis of Grinders Spindle Node
Demec, Peter
2014-12-01
The contribution deals with the simplified dynamic analysis of surface grinding machine spindle node. Dynamic analysis is based on the use of the transfer matrix method, which is essentially a matrix form of method of initial parameters. The advantage of the described method, despite the seemingly complex mathematical apparatus, is primarily, that it does not require for solve the problem of costly commercial software using finite element method. All calculations can be made for example in MS Excel, which is advantageous especially in the initial stages of constructing of spindle node for the rapid assessment of the suitability its design. After detailing the entire structure of spindle node is then also necessary to perform the refined dynamic analysis in the environment of FEM, which it requires the necessary skills and experience and it is therefore economically difficult. This work was developed within grant project KEGA No. 023TUKE-4/2012 Creation of a comprehensive educational - teaching material for the article Production technique using a combination of traditional and modern information technology and e-learning.
Feature extraction for structural dynamics model validation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hemez, Francois [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Farrar, Charles [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Park, Gyuhae [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nishio, Mayuko [UNIV OF TOKYO; Worden, Keith [UNIV OF SHEFFIELD; Takeda, Nobuo [UNIV OF TOKYO
2010-11-08
This study focuses on defining and comparing response features that can be used for structural dynamics model validation studies. Features extracted from dynamic responses obtained analytically or experimentally, such as basic signal statistics, frequency spectra, and estimated time-series models, can be used to compare characteristics of structural system dynamics. By comparing those response features extracted from experimental data and numerical outputs, validation and uncertainty quantification of numerical model containing uncertain parameters can be realized. In this study, the applicability of some response features to model validation is first discussed using measured data from a simple test-bed structure and the associated numerical simulations of these experiments. issues that must be considered were sensitivity, dimensionality, type of response, and presence or absence of measurement noise in the response. Furthermore, we illustrate a comparison method of multivariate feature vectors for statistical model validation. Results show that the outlier detection technique using the Mahalanobis distance metric can be used as an effective and quantifiable technique for selecting appropriate model parameters. However, in this process, one must not only consider the sensitivity of the features being used, but also correlation of the parameters being compared.
Murthy, P. Krishna; Sheena Mary, Y.; Shyma Mary, Y.; Panicker, C. Yohannan; Suneetha, V.; Armaković, Stevan; Armaković, Sanja J.; Van Alsenoy, C.; Suchetan, P. A.
2017-04-01
4-benzyl-5-oxomorpholine-3-carbamide has been synthesized; single crystals were grown by slow evaporation solution growth technique at room temperature and characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction, FT-IR, FT-Raman and 1H-NMR. The compound crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P21/n. The molecular geometry of the compound was optimized by using Density Functional Theory (DFT/B3LYP) method with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set in the ground state and geometric parameters are in agreement with the X-ray analysis results of the structure. The experimental vibrational spectra were compared with the calculated spectra and each vibrational wave number was assigned on the basis of potential energy distribution (PED). The electronic and charge transfer properties have been explained on the basis of highest occupied molecular orbital's (HOMOs) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital's (LUMOs). Besides molecular electrostatic potential (MEP), frontier molecular orbital's (FMOs), some global reactivity descriptors, thermodynamic properties, non-linear optical (NLO) behavior and Mullikan charge analysis of the title compound were computed with the same method in gas phase, theoretically. Potential reactive sites of the title compound have been identified by average local ionization energy and Fukui functions, both mapped to the electron density surface. Bond dissociation energies for all single acyclic bonds have been calculated in order to investigate autoxidation and degradation properties of the title compound. Atoms with pronounced interactions with water molecules have been detected by calculations of radial distribution functions after molecular dynamics simulations. The experimental results are compared with the theoretical calculations using DFT methods for the fortification of the paper. Further the docking studies revealed that the title compound as a docked ligand forms a stable complex with pyrrole inhibitor with a binding affinity value of -7.5 kcal/mol. This
Structural analysis of biodiversity.
Sirovich, Lawrence; Stoeckle, Mark Y; Zhang, Yu
2010-02-24
Large, recently-available genomic databases cover a wide range of life forms, suggesting opportunity for insights into genetic structure of biodiversity. In this study we refine our recently-described technique using indicator vectors to analyze and visualize nucleotide sequences. The indicator vector approach generates correlation matrices, dubbed Klee diagrams, which represent a novel way of assembling and viewing large genomic datasets. To explore its potential utility, here we apply the improved algorithm to a collection of almost 17,000 DNA barcode sequences covering 12 widely-separated animal taxa, demonstrating that indicator vectors for classification gave correct assignment in all 11,000 test cases. Indicator vector analysis revealed discontinuities corresponding to species- and higher-level taxonomic divisions, suggesting an efficient approach to classification of organisms from poorly-studied groups. As compared to standard distance metrics, indicator vectors preserve diagnostic character probabilities, enable automated classification of test sequences, and generate high-information density single-page displays. These results support application of indicator vectors for comparative analysis of large nucleotide data sets and raise prospect of gaining insight into broad-scale patterns in the genetic structure of biodiversity.
Controlling Proton Delivery through Catalyst Structural Dynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cardenas, Allan Jay P. [Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, K2-57 Richland WA 99352 USA; 221 Science Center, State University of New York at Fredonia, Fredonia NY 14063 USA; Ginovska, Bojana [Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, K2-57 Richland WA 99352 USA; Kumar, Neeraj [Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, K2-57 Richland WA 99352 USA; Hou, Jianbo [Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, K2-57 Richland WA 99352 USA; Raugei, Simone [Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, K2-57 Richland WA 99352 USA; Helm, Monte L. [Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, K2-57 Richland WA 99352 USA; Appel, Aaron M. [Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, K2-57 Richland WA 99352 USA; Bullock, R. Morris [Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, K2-57 Richland WA 99352 USA; O' Hagan, Molly [Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, K2-57 Richland WA 99352 USA
2016-09-27
The fastest synthetic molecular catalysts for production and oxidation of H2 emulate components of the active site of natural hydrogenases. The role of controlled structural dynamics is recognized as a critical component in the catalytic performance of many enzymes, including hydrogenases, but is largely neglected in the design of synthetic molecular cata-lysts. In this work, the impact of controlling structural dynamics on the rate of production of H2 was studied for a series of [Ni(PPh2NC6H4-R2)2]2+ catalysts including R = n-hexyl, n-decyl, n-tetradecyl, n-octadecyl, phenyl, or cyclohexyl. A strong correlation was observed between the ligand structural dynamics and the rates of electrocatalytic hydrogen production in acetonitrile, acetonitrile-water, and protic ionic liquid-water mixtures. Specifically, the turnover frequencies correlate inversely with the rates of ring inversion of the amine-containing ligand, as this dynamic process dictates the positioning of the proton relay in the second coordination sphere and therefore governs protonation at either catalytically productive or non-productive sites. This study demonstrates that the dynamic processes involved in proton delivery can be controlled through modifications of the outer coordination sphere of the catalyst, similar to the role of the protein architecture in many enzymes. The present work provides new mechanistic insight into the large rate enhancements observed in aqueous protic ionic liquid media for the [Ni(PPh2NR2)]2+ family of catalysts. The incorporation of controlled structural dynamics as a design parameter to modulate proton delivery in molecular catalysts has enabled H2 production rates that are up to three orders of magnitude faster than the [Ni(PPh2NPh2)]2+complex. The observed turnover frequencies are up to 106 s-1 in acetonitrile-water, and over 107 s-1 in protic ionic liquid-water mixtures, with a minimal increase in overpotential. This material is based upon work supported as part of
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jennifer Scheidel
2015-12-01
Full Text Available The insulin-dependent activation and recycling of the insulin receptor play an essential role in the regulation of the energy metabolism, leading to a special interest for pharmaceutical applications. Thus, the recycling of the insulin receptor has been intensively investigated, experimentally as well as theoretically. We developed a time-resolved, discrete model to describe stochastic dynamics and study the approximation of non-linear dynamics in the context of timed Petri nets. Additionally, using a graph-theoretical approach, we analyzed the structure of the regulatory system and demonstrated the close interrelation of structural network properties with the kinetic behavior. The transition invariants decomposed the model into overlapping subnetworks of various sizes, which represent basic functional modules. Moreover, we computed the quasi-steady states of these subnetworks and demonstrated that they are fundamental to understand the dynamic behavior of the system. The Petri net approach confirms the experimental results of insulin-stimulated degradation of the insulin receptor, which represents a common feature of insulin-resistant, hyperinsulinaemic states.
A structural perspective on the dynamics of kinesin motors
Hyeon, Changbong
2011-01-01
Despite significant fluctuation under thermal noise, biological machines in cells perform their tasks with exquisite precision. Using molecular simulation of a coarse-grained model and theoretical arguments we envisaged how kinesin, a prototype of biological machines, generates force and regulates its dynamics to sustain persistent motor action. A structure based model, which can be versatile in adapting its structure to external stresses while maintaining its native fold, was employed to account for several features of kinesin dynamics along the biochemical cycle. This analysis complements our current understandings of kinesin dynamics and connections to experiments. We propose a thermodynamic cycle for kinesin that emphasizes the mechanical and regulatory role of the neck-linker and clarify issues related the motor directionality, and the difference between the external stalling force and the internal tension responsible for the head-head coordination. The comparison between the thermodynamic cycle of kines...
Dynamically Multivalued Self-Organisation and Probabilistic Structure Formation Processes
Kirilyuk, A P
2004-01-01
The unreduced, universally nonperturbative analysis of arbitrary many-body interaction process reveals the irreducible, purely dynamic source of randomness. It leads to the universal definition of real system complexity (physics/9806002), where the internally chaotic self-organisation emerges as a limiting case of complex interaction dynamics (physics/0211071). It extends also the concept of "self-organised criticality" and corresponds to formation of distinct enough (but always internally chaotic) structures occurring if the system is far from characteristic frequency resonances. Transition to the opposite limiting regime of multivalued interaction dynamics, that of uniform (global) chaos, takes place around the main frequency resonance(s), which provides the absolutely universal criterion of global chaos onset, applicable to any kind of system, as well as the new, extended interpretation of the phenomenon of resonance itself. As a result, one obtains the causally complete description of world structure emer...
Static and dynamic buckling of thin-walled plate structures
Kubiak, Tomasz
2013-01-01
This monograph deals with buckling and postbuckling behavior of thin plates and thin-walled structures with flat wall subjected to static and dynamic load. The investigations are carried out in elastic range. The basic assumption here is the thin plate theory. This method is used to determination the buckling load and postbuckling analysis of thin-walled structures subjected to static and dynamic load. The book introduces two methods for static and dynamic buckling investigation which allow for a wider understanding of the phenomenon. Two different methods also can allow uncoupling of the phenomena occurring at the same time and attempt to estimate their impact on the final result. A general mathematical model, adopted in proposed analytical-numerical method, enables the consideration of all types of stability loss i.e.local, global and interactive forms of buckling. The applied numerical-numerical method includes adjacent of walls, shear-lag phenomenon and a deplanation of cross-sections.
DYNAMIC CINEMATIC TO A STRUCTURE 2R
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Florian Ion Tiberiu Petrescu
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Flat structures 2R can solve all the problems posed by all the robotic anthropomorphic structures. The study of the anthropomorphic robots by the use of a flat structure 2R is a much easier method than classical used spatial methods. The paper outlines a method for the determination of dynamic to a robotic structure 2R balanced. 2R plane structures are used in practice only in the form balanced, for which in this paper will be made, initial, the total balance, and then the study cinematico-dynamic will only develop on the model already balanced. Dynamic relations presented then briefly without deduction will be explained and discussed with regard to their application. On the basis of the model presented and following calculations performed can be chosen correctly the two electric motors in the actuator. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}
Dynamic network structure of interhemispheric coordination.
Doron, Karl W; Bassett, Danielle S; Gazzaniga, Michael S
2012-11-13
Fifty years ago Gazzaniga and coworkers published a seminal article that discussed the separate roles of the cerebral hemispheres in humans. Today, the study of interhemispheric communication is facilitated by a battery of novel data analysis techniques drawn from across disciplinary boundaries, including dynamic systems theory and network theory. These techniques enable the characterization of dynamic changes in the brain's functional connectivity, thereby providing an unprecedented means of decoding interhemispheric communication. Here, we illustrate the use of these techniques to examine interhemispheric coordination in healthy human participants performing a split visual field experiment in which they process lexical stimuli. We find that interhemispheric coordination is greater when lexical information is introduced to the right hemisphere and must subsequently be transferred to the left hemisphere for language processing than when it is directly introduced to the language-dominant (left) hemisphere. Further, we find that putative functional modules defined by coherent interhemispheric coordination come online in a transient manner, highlighting the underlying dynamic nature of brain communication. Our work illustrates that recently developed dynamic, network-based analysis techniques can provide novel and previously unapproachable insights into the role of interhemispheric coordination in cognition.
Hayasi, Ryoei; Masuda, Yoshiharu; Hashimoto, Shozo; Kuriyama, Shinhou
2008-06-01
Experimental studies have been conducted using the dynamic photoelastic technique combined with a strain gauge to investigate geometric effects on stress wave propagation in axially impacted epoxy resins of plate-like structure. Dynamic photoelasticity provides a means of visualizing the stress wave field inside a solid. A device that triggers the generation of stress waves by direct projectile impact is used to conduct high-speed photoelasticity and strain gauge measurements. This triggering is achieved by an electrical connection between projectile and sample. The geometric effects of the width-to-wavelength ratio on the propagation speed and attenuation coefficient of stress waves were analyzed for isotropic rectangular rods of different width-to-thickness ratios, the thickness being the same in each case. The experimental results for stress wave speed as a function of width-to-wavelength ratio are in reasonable agreement with theoretical predictions based on a modified Love's equation involving the geometric effects due to lateral inertia.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Buffarini, Giacomo; Clemente, Paolo; Rinaldis, Dario [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente
1997-07-01
The research work leading to this report is the result of a joint effort between the National Agency for New Technologies and the Environments and the Emilia Romagna regional council, that involved the Environmental Department of the National Agency for New Technologies and the Environments in the experimental analysis of the dynamic structural behaviour of the Hospital of Pievepelago (Modena). A strengthening design has been performed on behalf of the Pievepelago town council, and the Emilia Romagna regional council asked the National Agency for New Technologies and the Environments to study the effectiveness of the intervention by carrying out the analysis of the dynamic behaviour of the structure both before and after the works. The results of the first phase are shown in a previous report. This report is relative to the experimental study on the strengthened building.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Buffarini, Giacomo; Clemente, Paolo; Rinaldis, Dario [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente
1997-07-01
The research work leading to this report is the result of a joint effort between the National Agency for New Technologies and the Environments and the Emilia Romagna regional council, that involved the Environmental Department of the National Agency for New Technologies and the Environments in the experimental analysis of the dynamic structural behaviour of the Hospital of Pievepelago (Modena). A strengthening design has been performed on behalf of the Pievepelago town council, and the Emilia Romagna regional council asked the National Agency for New Technologies and the Environments to study the effectiveness of the intervention by carrying out the analysis of the dynamic behaviour of the structure both before and after the works. The results of the first phase are shown in a previous report. This report is relative to the experimental study on the strengthened building.
Metamodel for nonlinear dynamic response analysis of damaged laminated composites
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mahmoudi S.
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Damage affects negatively the safety of the structure and can lead to failure. Thus, it is recommended to use structural health monitoring techniques in order to detect, localize and quantify damage. The main aim of the current work is the development of a numerical metamodel to investigate the dynamic behavior of damaged composite structures. Hence, a metamodelling for damage prediction and dynamic behavior analysis of laminate composite structures is proposed, wherein the stress state in the structure is used as indicative parameters and artificial neural networks as a learning tool.
Dynamic Failure of Composite and Sandwich Structures
Abrate, Serge; Rajapakse, Yapa D S
2013-01-01
This book presents a broad view of the current state of the art regarding the dynamic response of composite and sandwich structures subjected to impacts and explosions. Each chapter combines a thorough assessment of the literature with original contributions made by the authors. The first section deals with fluid-structure interactions in marine structures. The first chapter focuses on hull slamming and particularly cases in which the deformation of the structure affects the motion of the fluid during the water entry of flexible hulls. Chapter 2 presents an extensive series of tests underwater and in the air to determine the effects of explosions on composite and sandwich structures. Full-scale structures were subjected to significant explosive charges, and such results are extremely rare in the open literature. Chapter 3 describes a simple geometrical theory of diffraction for describing the interaction of an underwater blast wave with submerged structures. The second section addresses the problem of...
Solid Launcher Dynamical Analysis and Autopilot Design
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ping Sun
2011-02-01
Full Text Available The dynamics of a small solid launch vehicle has been investigated. This launcher consists of a liquid upper stage and three fundamental solid rocket boosters aligned in series. During the ascent flight phase, lateral jets and grid fins are adopted by the flight control system to stable the attitude of the launcher. The launcher is a slender and aerodynamically unstable vehicle with sloshing tanks. A complete set of six-degrees-of-freedom dynamic models of the launcher, incorporation its rigid body, aerodynamics, gravity, sloshing, mass change, actuator, and elastic body, is developed. Dynamic analysis results of the structural modes and the bifurcation locus are calculated on the basis of the presented models. This complete set of dynamic models is used in flight control system design. A methodology for employing numerical optimization to develop the attitude filters is presented. The design objectives include attitude tracking accuracy and robust stability with respect to rigid body dynamics, propellant slosh, and flex. Later a control approach is presented for flight control system of the launcher using both State Dependent Riccati Equation (SDRE method and Fast Output Sampling (FOS technique. The dynamics and kinematics for attitude stable problem are of typical nonlinear character. SDRE technique has been well applied to this kind of highly nonlinear control problems. But in practice the system states needed in the SDRE method are sometimes difficult to obtain. FOS method, which makes use of only the output samples, is combined with SDRE to accommodate the incomplete system state information. Thus, the control approach is more practical and easy to implement. The resulting autopilot can provide stable control systems for the vehicle.
Structural optimization for nonlinear dynamic response
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dou, Suguang; Strachan, B. Scott; Shaw, Steven W.
2015-01-01
condition, thereby providing a means for tailoring its nonlinear response. The method is applied to the fundamental nonlinear resonance of a clamped–clamped beam and to the coupled mode response of a frame structure, and the results show that one can modify essential normal form coefficients by an order...... resonant behaviour is being used for a variety of applications in sensing and signal conditioning. In this work, we describe a computational method that provides a systematic means for manipulating and optimizing features of nonlinear resonant responses of mechanical structures that are described...... by a single vibrating mode, or by a pair of internally resonant modes. The approach combines techniques from nonlinear dynamics, computational mechanics and optimization, and it allows one to relate the geometric and material properties of structural elements to terms in the normal form for a given resonance...
The structural dynamics of social class.
Kraus, Michael W; Park, Jun Won
2017-08-01
Individual agency accounts of social class persist in society and even in psychological science despite clear evidence for the role of social structures. This article argues that social class is defined by the structural dynamics of society. Specifically, access to powerful networks, groups, and institutions, and inequalities in wealth and other economic resources shape proximal social environments that influence how individuals express their internal states and motivations. An account of social class that highlights the means by which structures shape and are shaped by individuals guides our understanding of how people move up or down in the social class hierarchy, and provides a framework for interpreting neuroscience studies, experimental paradigms, and approaches that attempt to intervene on social class disparities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dynamic sign structures in visual art and music
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zeller, Jörg
2006-01-01
Seemingly static meaning carriers in visual art are considered as aspects of holistic dynamical sign structures.......Seemingly static meaning carriers in visual art are considered as aspects of holistic dynamical sign structures....
Dynamic sign structures in visual art and music
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zeller, Jörg
2006-01-01
Seemingly static meaning carriers in visual art are considered as aspects of holistic dynamical sign structures.......Seemingly static meaning carriers in visual art are considered as aspects of holistic dynamical sign structures....
Trinh, Hung-Cuong; Le, Duc-Hau; Kwon, Yung-Keun
2014-01-01
It has been a challenge in systems biology to unravel relationships between structural properties and dynamic behaviors of biological networks. A Cytoscape plugin named NetDS was recently proposed to analyze the robustness-related dynamics and feed-forward/feedback loop structures of biological networks. Despite such a useful function, limitations on the network size that can be analyzed exist due to high computational costs. In addition, the plugin cannot verify an intrinsic property which can be induced by an observed result because it has no function to simulate the observation on a large number of random networks. To overcome these limitations, we have developed a novel software tool, PANET. First, the time-consuming parts of NetDS were redesigned to be processed in parallel using the OpenCL library. This approach utilizes the full computing power of multi-core central processing units and graphics processing units. Eventually, this made it possible to investigate a large-scale network such as a human signaling network with 1,609 nodes and 5,063 links. We also developed a new function to perform a batch-mode simulation where it generates a lot of random networks and conducts robustness calculations and feed-forward/feedback loop examinations of them. This helps us to determine if the findings in real biological networks are valid in arbitrary random networks or not. We tested our plugin in two case studies based on two large-scale signaling networks and found interesting results regarding relationships between coherently coupled feed-forward/feedback loops and robustness. In addition, we verified whether or not those findings are consistently conserved in random networks through batch-mode simulations. Taken together, our plugin is expected to effectively investigate various relationships between dynamics and structural properties in large-scale networks. Our software tool, user manual and example datasets are freely available at http://panet-csc.sourceforge.net/.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hung-Cuong Trinh
Full Text Available It has been a challenge in systems biology to unravel relationships between structural properties and dynamic behaviors of biological networks. A Cytoscape plugin named NetDS was recently proposed to analyze the robustness-related dynamics and feed-forward/feedback loop structures of biological networks. Despite such a useful function, limitations on the network size that can be analyzed exist due to high computational costs. In addition, the plugin cannot verify an intrinsic property which can be induced by an observed result because it has no function to simulate the observation on a large number of random networks. To overcome these limitations, we have developed a novel software tool, PANET. First, the time-consuming parts of NetDS were redesigned to be processed in parallel using the OpenCL library. This approach utilizes the full computing power of multi-core central processing units and graphics processing units. Eventually, this made it possible to investigate a large-scale network such as a human signaling network with 1,609 nodes and 5,063 links. We also developed a new function to perform a batch-mode simulation where it generates a lot of random networks and conducts robustness calculations and feed-forward/feedback loop examinations of them. This helps us to determine if the findings in real biological networks are valid in arbitrary random networks or not. We tested our plugin in two case studies based on two large-scale signaling networks and found interesting results regarding relationships between coherently coupled feed-forward/feedback loops and robustness. In addition, we verified whether or not those findings are consistently conserved in random networks through batch-mode simulations. Taken together, our plugin is expected to effectively investigate various relationships between dynamics and structural properties in large-scale networks. Our software tool, user manual and example datasets are freely available at http://panet-csc.sourceforge.net/.
Analysis of the dynamic hysteresis characteristic of finger seal
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LEI Yanni; CHEN Guoding
2007-01-01
The research about hysteresis characteristic of finger seal (FS), which was carried out based on the model with static loads, could not reflect the dynamics behavior of FS system when the rotor runs at high speed. To solve this problem, the relations between the dynamics parameters, structure parameters as well as working parameters in the system were given out through the analysis of finite element analysis result. A mass-spring-damper dynamics model of FS system was proposed and the hysteresis characteristic of the FS system was analyzed. This work shows that the dynamics characteristic analysis of the FS is necessary and the dynamics model proposed in this paper is valid. This dynamics model is the basis for the optimization design of FS system.
Dynamic structure of dense krypton gas
Egelstaff, P. A.; Salacuse, J. J.; Schommers, W.; Ram, J.
1984-07-01
We have made molecular-dynamics computer simulations of dense krypton gas (10.6×1027 atoms/m3 and 296 K) using reasonably realistic pair potentials. Comparisons are made with the recent experimental data[P. A. Egelstaff et al., Phys. Rev. A 27, 1106 (1983)] for the dynamic structure factor S(q,ω) over the range 0.4
Fundamental structures of dynamic social networks.
Sekara, Vedran; Stopczynski, Arkadiusz; Lehmann, Sune
2016-09-06
Social systems are in a constant state of flux, with dynamics spanning from minute-by-minute changes to patterns present on the timescale of years. Accurate models of social dynamics are important for understanding the spreading of influence or diseases, formation of friendships, and the productivity of teams. Although there has been much progress on understanding complex networks over the past decade, little is known about the regularities governing the microdynamics of social networks. Here, we explore the dynamic social network of a densely-connected population of ∼1,000 individuals and their interactions in the network of real-world person-to-person proximity measured via Bluetooth, as well as their telecommunication networks, online social media contacts, geolocation, and demographic data. These high-resolution data allow us to observe social groups directly, rendering community detection unnecessary. Starting from 5-min time slices, we uncover dynamic social structures expressed on multiple timescales. On the hourly timescale, we find that gatherings are fluid, with members coming and going, but organized via a stable core of individuals. Each core represents a social context. Cores exhibit a pattern of recurring meetings across weeks and months, each with varying degrees of regularity. Taken together, these findings provide a powerful simplification of the social network, where cores represent fundamental structures expressed with strong temporal and spatial regularity. Using this framework, we explore the complex interplay between social and geospatial behavior, documenting how the formation of cores is preceded by coordination behavior in the communication networks and demonstrating that social behavior can be predicted with high precision.
The Hierarchical Structure and Dynamics of Voids
Aragon-Calvo, M A
2012-01-01
Contrary to the common view voids have very complex internal structure and dynamics. Here we show how the hierarchy of structures in the density field inside voids is reflected by a similar hierarchy of structures in the velocity field. Voids defined by dense filaments and clusters can de described as simple expanding domains with coherent flows everywhere except at their boundaries. At scales smaller that the void radius the velocity field breaks into expanding sub-domains corresponding to sub- voids. These sub-domains break into even smaller sub-sub domains at smaller scales resulting in a nesting hierarchy of locally expanding domains. The ratio between the magnitude of the velocity field responsible for the expansion of the void and the velocity field defining the sub voids is approximately one order of magnitude. The small-scale components of the velocity field play a minor role in the shaping of the voids but they define the local dynamics directly affecting the processes of galaxy formation and evoluti...
Structural Dynamics of Tropical Moist Forest Gaps
Hunter, Maria O.; Keller, Michael; Morton, Douglas; Cook, Bruce; Lefsky, Michael; Ducey, Mark; Saleska, Scott; de Oliveira, Raimundo Cosme; Schietti, Juliana
2015-01-01
Gap phase dynamics are the dominant mode of forest turnover in tropical forests. However, gap processes are infrequently studied at the landscape scale. Airborne lidar data offer detailed information on three-dimensional forest structure, providing a means to characterize fine-scale (1 m) processes in tropical forests over large areas. Lidar-based estimates of forest structure (top down) differ from traditional field measurements (bottom up), and necessitate clear-cut definitions unencumbered by the wisdom of a field observer. We offer a new definition of a forest gap that is driven by forest dynamics and consistent with precise ranging measurements from airborne lidar data and tall, multi-layered tropical forest structure. We used 1000 ha of multi-temporal lidar data (2008, 2012) at two sites, the Tapajos National Forest and Ducke Reserve, to study gap dynamics in the Brazilian Amazon. Here, we identified dynamic gaps as contiguous areas of significant growth, that correspond to areas > 10 m2, with height <10 m. Applying the dynamic definition at both sites, we found over twice as much area in gap at Tapajos National Forest (4.8 %) as compared to Ducke Reserve (2.0 %). On average, gaps were smaller at Ducke Reserve and closed slightly more rapidly, with estimated height gains of 1.2 m y-1 versus 1.1 m y-1 at Tapajos. At the Tapajos site, height growth in gap centers was greater than the average height gain in gaps (1.3 m y-1 versus 1.1 m y-1). Rates of height growth between lidar acquisitions reflect the interplay between gap edge mortality, horizontal ingrowth and gap size at the two sites. We estimated that approximately 10 % of gap area closed via horizontal ingrowth at Ducke Reserve as opposed to 6 % at Tapajos National Forest. Height loss (interpreted as repeat damage and/or mortality) and horizontal ingrowth accounted for similar proportions of gap area at Ducke Reserve (13 % and 10 %, respectively). At Tapajos, height loss had a much stronger signal (23
Structural Dynamics of Tropical Moist Forest Gaps.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Maria O Hunter
Full Text Available Gap phase dynamics are the dominant mode of forest turnover in tropical forests. However, gap processes are infrequently studied at the landscape scale. Airborne lidar data offer detailed information on three-dimensional forest structure, providing a means to characterize fine-scale (1 m processes in tropical forests over large areas. Lidar-based estimates of forest structure (top down differ from traditional field measurements (bottom up, and necessitate clear-cut definitions unencumbered by the wisdom of a field observer. We offer a new definition of a forest gap that is driven by forest dynamics and consistent with precise ranging measurements from airborne lidar data and tall, multi-layered tropical forest structure. We used 1000 ha of multi-temporal lidar data (2008, 2012 at two sites, the Tapajos National Forest and Ducke Reserve, to study gap dynamics in the Brazilian Amazon. Here, we identified dynamic gaps as contiguous areas of significant growth, that correspond to areas > 10 m2, with height <10 m. Applying the dynamic definition at both sites, we found over twice as much area in gap at Tapajos National Forest (4.8% as compared to Ducke Reserve (2.0%. On average, gaps were smaller at Ducke Reserve and closed slightly more rapidly, with estimated height gains of 1.2 m y-1 versus 1.1 m y-1 at Tapajos. At the Tapajos site, height growth in gap centers was greater than the average height gain in gaps (1.3 m y-1 versus 1.1 m y-1. Rates of height growth between lidar acquisitions reflect the interplay between gap edge mortality, horizontal ingrowth and gap size at the two sites. We estimated that approximately 10% of gap area closed via horizontal ingrowth at Ducke Reserve as opposed to 6% at Tapajos National Forest. Height loss (interpreted as repeat damage and/or mortality and horizontal ingrowth accounted for similar proportions of gap area at Ducke Reserve (13% and 10%, respectively. At Tapajos, height loss had a much stronger signal
Structural Dynamics of Tropical Moist Forest Gaps.
Hunter, Maria O; Keller, Michael; Morton, Douglas; Cook, Bruce; Lefsky, Michael; Ducey, Mark; Saleska, Scott; de Oliveira, Raimundo Cosme; Schietti, Juliana
2015-01-01
Gap phase dynamics are the dominant mode of forest turnover in tropical forests. However, gap processes are infrequently studied at the landscape scale. Airborne lidar data offer detailed information on three-dimensional forest structure, providing a means to characterize fine-scale (1 m) processes in tropical forests over large areas. Lidar-based estimates of forest structure (top down) differ from traditional field measurements (bottom up), and necessitate clear-cut definitions unencumbered by the wisdom of a field observer. We offer a new definition of a forest gap that is driven by forest dynamics and consistent with precise ranging measurements from airborne lidar data and tall, multi-layered tropical forest structure. We used 1000 ha of multi-temporal lidar data (2008, 2012) at two sites, the Tapajos National Forest and Ducke Reserve, to study gap dynamics in the Brazilian Amazon. Here, we identified dynamic gaps as contiguous areas of significant growth, that correspond to areas > 10 m2, with height <10 m. Applying the dynamic definition at both sites, we found over twice as much area in gap at Tapajos National Forest (4.8%) as compared to Ducke Reserve (2.0%). On average, gaps were smaller at Ducke Reserve and closed slightly more rapidly, with estimated height gains of 1.2 m y-1 versus 1.1 m y-1 at Tapajos. At the Tapajos site, height growth in gap centers was greater than the average height gain in gaps (1.3 m y-1 versus 1.1 m y-1). Rates of height growth between lidar acquisitions reflect the interplay between gap edge mortality, horizontal ingrowth and gap size at the two sites. We estimated that approximately 10% of gap area closed via horizontal ingrowth at Ducke Reserve as opposed to 6% at Tapajos National Forest. Height loss (interpreted as repeat damage and/or mortality) and horizontal ingrowth accounted for similar proportions of gap area at Ducke Reserve (13% and 10%, respectively). At Tapajos, height loss had a much stronger signal (23% versus 6
Development of methodology for horizontal axis wind turbine dynamic analysis
Dugundji, J.
1982-01-01
Horizontal axis wind turbine dynamics were studied. The following findings are summarized: (1) review of the MOSTAS computer programs for dynamic analysis of horizontal axis wind turbines; (2) review of various analysis methods for rotating systems with periodic coefficients; (3) review of structural dynamics analysis tools for large wind turbine; (4) experiments for yaw characteristics of a rotating rotor; (5) development of a finite element model for rotors; (6) development of simple models for aeroelastics; and (7) development of simple models for stability and response of wind turbines on flexible towers.
The chemical bond structure and dynamics
Zewail, Ahmed
1992-01-01
This inspired book by some of the most influential scientists of our time--including six Nobel laureates--chronicles our emerging understanding of the chemical bond through the last nine decades and into the future. From Pauling's early structural work using x-ray and electron diffraction to Zewail's femtosecond lasers that probe molecular dynamics in real time; from Crick's molecular biology to Rich's molecular recognition, this book explores a rich tradition of scientific heritage and accomplishment. The perspectives given by Pauling, Perutz, Rich, Crick, Porter, Polanyi, Herschbach, Zewail,
Inverse Eigenvalue Problem in Structural Dynamics Design
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Huiqing Xie; Hua Dai
2006-01-01
A kind of inverse eigenvalue problem in structural dynamics design is considered. The problem is formulated as an optimization problem. The properties of this problem are analyzed, and the existence of the optimum solution is proved. The directional derivative of the objective function is obtained and a necessary condition for a point to be a local minimum point is given. Then a numerical algorithm for solving the problem is presented and a plane-truss problem is discussed to show the applications of the theories and the algorithm.
Dynamics Analysis of Wind Energy Production Development
Berg, V. I.; Zakirzakov, A. G.; Gordievskaya, E. F.
2017-01-01
The paper presents the analysis of the introduction experience and dynamics development of the world wind energy production. Calculated the amount of wind energy sources investments and the production capacity growth dynamics of the wind turbines. The studies have shown that the introduction dynamics of new wind energy sources is higher than any other energy source.
Jellyfish modulate bacterial dynamic and community structure.
Tinta, Tinkara; Kogovšek, Tjaša; Malej, Alenka; Turk, Valentina
2012-01-01
Jellyfish blooms have increased in coastal areas around the world and the outbreaks have become longer and more frequent over the past few decades. The Mediterranean Sea is among the heavily affected regions and the common bloom-forming taxa are scyphozoans Aurelia aurita s.l., Pelagia noctiluca, and Rhizostoma pulmo. Jellyfish have few natural predators, therefore their carcasses at the termination of a bloom represent an organic-rich substrate that supports rapid bacterial growth, and may have a large impact on the surrounding environment. The focus of this study was to explore whether jellyfish substrate have an impact on bacterial community phylotype selection. We conducted in situ jellyfish-enrichment experiment with three different jellyfish species. Bacterial dynamic together with nutrients were monitored to assess decaying jellyfish-bacteria dynamics. Our results show that jellyfish biomass is characterized by protein rich organic matter, which is highly bioavailable to 'jellyfish-associated' and 'free-living' bacteria, and triggers rapid shifts in bacterial population dynamics and composition. Based on 16S rRNA clone libraries and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis, we observed a rapid shift in community composition from unculturable Alphaproteobacteria to culturable species of Gammaproteobacteria and Flavobacteria. The results of sequence analyses of bacterial isolates and of total bacterial community determined by culture independent genetic analysis showed the dominance of the Pseudoalteromonadaceae and the Vibrionaceae families. Elevated levels of dissolved proteins, dissolved organic and inorganic nutrient release, bacterial abundance and carbon production as well as ammonium concentrations characterized the degradation process. The biochemical composition of jellyfish species may influence changes in the amount of accumulated dissolved organic and inorganic nutrients. Our results can contribute insights into possible changes in
Jellyfish modulate bacterial dynamic and community structure.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tinkara Tinta
Full Text Available Jellyfish blooms have increased in coastal areas around the world and the outbreaks have become longer and more frequent over the past few decades. The Mediterranean Sea is among the heavily affected regions and the common bloom-forming taxa are scyphozoans Aurelia aurita s.l., Pelagia noctiluca, and Rhizostoma pulmo. Jellyfish have few natural predators, therefore their carcasses at the termination of a bloom represent an organic-rich substrate that supports rapid bacterial growth, and may have a large impact on the surrounding environment. The focus of this study was to explore whether jellyfish substrate have an impact on bacterial community phylotype selection. We conducted in situ jellyfish-enrichment experiment with three different jellyfish species. Bacterial dynamic together with nutrients were monitored to assess decaying jellyfish-bacteria dynamics. Our results show that jellyfish biomass is characterized by protein rich organic matter, which is highly bioavailable to 'jellyfish-associated' and 'free-living' bacteria, and triggers rapid shifts in bacterial population dynamics and composition. Based on 16S rRNA clone libraries and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE analysis, we observed a rapid shift in community composition from unculturable Alphaproteobacteria to culturable species of Gammaproteobacteria and Flavobacteria. The results of sequence analyses of bacterial isolates and of total bacterial community determined by culture independent genetic analysis showed the dominance of the Pseudoalteromonadaceae and the Vibrionaceae families. Elevated levels of dissolved proteins, dissolved organic and inorganic nutrient release, bacterial abundance and carbon production as well as ammonium concentrations characterized the degradation process. The biochemical composition of jellyfish species may influence changes in the amount of accumulated dissolved organic and inorganic nutrients. Our results can contribute insights into
Molten uranium dioxide structure and dynamics.
Skinner, L B; Benmore, C J; Weber, J K R; Williamson, M A; Tamalonis, A; Hebden, A; Wiencek, T; Alderman, O L G; Guthrie, M; Leibowitz, L; Parise, J B
2014-11-21
Uranium dioxide (UO2) is the major nuclear fuel component of fission power reactors. A key concern during severe accidents is the melting and leakage of radioactive UO2 as it corrodes through its zirconium cladding and steel containment. Yet, the very high temperatures (>3140 kelvin) and chemical reactivity of molten UO2 have prevented structural studies. In this work, we combine laser heating, sample levitation, and synchrotron x-rays to obtain pair distribution function measurements of hot solid and molten UO2. The hot solid shows a substantial increase in oxygen disorder around the lambda transition (2670 K) but negligible U-O coordination change. On melting, the average U-O coordination drops from 8 to 6.7 ± 0.5. Molecular dynamics models refined to this structure predict higher U-U mobility than 8-coordinated melts.
Membrane proteins structure and dynamics by nuclear magnetic resonance.
Maltsev, Sergey; Lorigan, Gary A
2011-10-01
Membrane proteins represent a challenging class of biological systems to study. They are extremely difficult to crystallize and in most cases they retain their structure and functions only in membrane environments. Therefore, commonly used diffraction methods fail to give detailed molecular structure and other approaches have to be utilized to obtain biologically relevant information. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, however, can provide powerful structural and dynamical constraints on these complicated systems. Solution- and solid-state NMR are powerful methods for investigating membrane proteins studies. In this work, we briefly review both solution and solid-state NMR techniques for membrane protein studies and illustrate the applications of these methods to elucidate proteins structure, conformation, topology, dynamics, and function. Recent advances in electronics, biological sample preparation, and spectral processing provided opportunities for complex biological systems, such as membrane proteins inside lipid vesicles, to be studied faster and with outstanding quality. New analysis methods therefore have emerged, that benefit from the combination of sample preparation and corresponding specific high-end NMR techniques, which give access to more structural and dynamic information.
Molecular structures and intramolecular dynamics of pentahalides
Ischenko, A. A.
2017-03-01
This paper reviews advances of modern gas electron diffraction (GED) method combined with high-resolution spectroscopy and quantum chemical calculations in studies of the impact of intramolecular dynamics in free molecules of pentahalides. Some recently developed approaches to the electron diffraction data interpretation, based on direct incorporation of the adiabatic potential energy surface parameters to the diffraction intensity are described. In this way, complementary data of different experimental and computational methods can be directly combined for solving problems of the molecular structure and its dynamics. The possibility to evaluate some important parameters of the adiabatic potential energy surface - barriers to pseudorotation and saddle point of intermediate configuration from diffraction intensities in solving the inverse GED problem is demonstrated on several examples. With increasing accuracy of the electron diffraction intensities and the development of the theoretical background of electron scattering and data interpretation, it has become possible to investigate complex nuclear dynamics in fluxional systems by the GED method. Results of other research groups are also included in the discussion.
Hybrid Dynamic Network Data Envelopment Analysis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ling Li
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Conventional DEA models make no hypothesis concerning the internal operations in a static situation. To open the “black box” and work with dynamic assessment issues synchronously, we put forward a hybrid model for evaluating the relative efficiencies of a set of DMUs over an observed time period with a composite of network DEA and dynamic DEA. We vertically deal with intermediate products between divisions with assignable inputs in the network structure and, horizontally, we extend network structure by means of a dynamic pattern with unrelated activities between two succeeding periods. The hybrid dynamic network DEA model proposed in this paper enables us to (i pry into the internal operations of DEA by another network structure, (ii obtain dynamic change of period efficiency, and (iii gain the overall dynamic efficiency of DMUs over the entire observed periods. We finally illustrate the calculation procedure of the proposed approach by a numerical example.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Markwick, Phineus R. L. [CNRS/CEA/UJF, Protein Dynamics and Flexibility, Institut de Biologie Structurale Jean-Pierre Ebel UMR 5075 (France); Showalter, Scott A. [Florida State University, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, NHMFL (United States); Bouvignies, Guillaume [CNRS/CEA/UJF, Protein Dynamics and Flexibility, Institut de Biologie Structurale Jean-Pierre Ebel UMR 5075 (France); Brueschweiler, Rafael [Florida State University, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, NHMFL (United States)], E-mail: bruschweiler@magnet.fsu.edu; Blackledge, Martin [CNRS/CEA/UJF, Protein Dynamics and Flexibility, Institut de Biologie Structurale Jean-Pierre Ebel UMR 5075 (France)], E-mail: martin.blackledge@ibs.fr
2009-09-15
{sup 3}J scalar couplings report on the conformational averaging of backbone {phi} angles in peptides and proteins, and therefore represent a potentially powerful tool for studying the details of both structure and dynamics in solution. We have compared an extensive experimental dataset with J-couplings predicted from unrestrained molecular dynamics simulation using enhanced sampling available from accelerated molecular dynamics or using long timescale trajectories (200 ns). The dynamic fluctuations predicted to be present along the backbone, in agreement with residual dipolar coupling analysis, are compatible with the experimental {sup 3}J scalar couplings providing a slightly better reproduction of these experimental parameters than a high-resolution static structure.
Chemical Structure and Dynamics annual report 1997
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Colson, S.D.; McDowell, R.S.
1998-03-01
The Chemical Structure and Dynamics (CS and D) program is a major component of the William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL), developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to provide a state-of-the-art collaborative facility for studies of chemical structure and dynamics. The authors respond to the need for a fundamental, molecular level understanding of chemistry at a wide variety of environmentally important interfaces by: (1) extending the experimental characterization and theoretical description of chemical reactions to encompass the effects of condensed media and interfaces; (2) developing a multidisciplinary capability for describing interfacial chemical processes within which the new knowledge generated can be brought to bear on complex phenomena in environmental chemistry and in nuclear waste processing and storage; and (3) developing state-of-the-art analytical methods for characterizing complex materials of the types found in stored wastes and contaminated soils, and for detecting and monitoring trace atmospheric species. The focus of the research is defined primarily by DOE`s environmental problems: fate and transport of contaminants in the subsurface environment, processing and storage of waste materials, cellular effects of chemical and radiological insult, and atmospheric chemistry as it relates to air quality and global change. Twenty-seven projects are described under the following topical sections: Reaction mechanisms at interfaces; High-energy processes at environmental interfaces; Cluster models of the condensed phase; and Miscellaneous.
Structure-Preserving Algorithms for a Class of Dynamical Systems
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Ling-shu Wang; Guang-hui Feng
2007-01-01
In this paper, we study structure-preserving algorithms for dynamical systems defined by ordinary differential equations in Rn. The equations are assumed to be of the form y = A(y) + D(y) + R(y), where A(y)of damping and expanding; R(y) reflects strange phenomenon of the system. It is shown that the numerical approximations to the exact ones, and these methods can describe the structural properties of the quadratic energy for these systems. Some numerical experiments and backward error analysis also show that these methods are better than other methods including the general algebraically stable Runge-Kutta(RK)methods.
Structure and Dynamics of Water at Carbon-Based Interfaces
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jordi Martí
2017-03-01
Full Text Available Water structure and dynamics are affected by the presence of a nearby interface. Here, first we review recent results by molecular dynamics simulations about the effect of different carbon-based materials, including armchair carbon nanotubes and a variety of graphene sheets—flat and with corrugation—on water structure and dynamics. We discuss the calculations of binding energies, hydrogen bond distributions, water’s diffusion coefficients and their relation with surface’s geometries at different thermodynamical conditions. Next, we present new results of the crystallization and dynamics of water in a rigid graphene sieve. In particular, we show that the diffusion of water confined between parallel walls depends on the plate distance in a non-monotonic way and is related to the water structuring, crystallization, re-melting and evaporation for decreasing inter-plate distance. Our results could be relevant in those applications where water is in contact with nanostructured carbon materials at ambient or cryogenic temperatures, as in man-made superhydrophobic materials or filtration membranes, or in techniques that take advantage of hydrated graphene interfaces, as in aqueous electron cryomicroscopy for the analysis of proteins adsorbed on graphene.
Structural optimization for nonlinear dynamic response.
Dou, Suguang; Strachan, B Scott; Shaw, Steven W; Jensen, Jakob S
2015-09-28
Much is known about the nonlinear resonant response of mechanical systems, but methods for the systematic design of structures that optimize aspects of these responses have received little attention. Progress in this area is particularly important in the area of micro-systems, where nonlinear resonant behaviour is being used for a variety of applications in sensing and signal conditioning. In this work, we describe a computational method that provides a systematic means for manipulating and optimizing features of nonlinear resonant responses of mechanical structures that are described by a single vibrating mode, or by a pair of internally resonant modes. The approach combines techniques from nonlinear dynamics, computational mechanics and optimization, and it allows one to relate the geometric and material properties of structural elements to terms in the normal form for a given resonance condition, thereby providing a means for tailoring its nonlinear response. The method is applied to the fundamental nonlinear resonance of a clamped-clamped beam and to the coupled mode response of a frame structure, and the results show that one can modify essential normal form coefficients by an order of magnitude by relatively simple changes in the shape of these elements. We expect the proposed approach, and its extensions, to be useful for the design of systems used for fundamental studies of nonlinear behaviour as well as for the development of commercial devices that exploit nonlinear behaviour.
Dynamic Hurricane Data Analysis Tool
Knosp, Brian W.; Li, Peggy; Vu, Quoc A.
2009-01-01
A dynamic hurricane data analysis tool allows users of the JPL Tropical Cyclone Information System (TCIS) to analyze data over a Web medium. The TCIS software is described in the previous article, Tropical Cyclone Information System (TCIS) (NPO-45748). This tool interfaces with the TCIS database to pull in data from several different atmospheric and oceanic data sets, both observed by instruments. Users can use this information to generate histograms, maps, and profile plots for specific storms. The tool also displays statistical values for the user-selected parameter for the mean, standard deviation, median, minimum, and maximum values. There is little wait time, allowing for fast data plots over date and spatial ranges. Users may also zoom-in for a closer look at a particular spatial range. This is version 1 of the software. Researchers will use the data and tools on the TCIS to understand hurricane processes, improve hurricane forecast models and identify what types of measurements the next generation of instruments will need to collect.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Le, Rosemary K. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Harris, Bradley J. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Iwuchukwu, Ifeyinwa J. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Bruce, Barry D. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Cheng, Xiaolin [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Qian, Shuo [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Heller, William T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); O’Neill, Hugh [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Frymier, Paul D. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)
2014-05-01
Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation were used to investigate the structure of trimeric photosystem I (PSI) from Thermosynechococcus elongatus (T. elongatus) stabilized in n-dodecyl-β-d-maltoside (DDM) detergent solution. Scattering curves of detergent and protein–detergent complexes were measured at 18% D2O, the contrast match point for the detergent, and 100% D2O, allowing observation of the structures of protein/detergent complexes. It was determined that the maximum dimension of the PSI–DDM complex was consistent with the presence of a monolayer belt of detergent around the periphery of PSI. A dummy-atom reconstruction of the shape of the complex from the SANS data indicates that the detergent envelope has an irregular shape around the hydrophobic periphery of the PSI trimer rather than a uniform, toroidal belt around the complex. A 50 ns MD simulation model (a DDM ring surrounding the PSI complex with extra interstitial DDM) of the PSI–DDM complex was developed for comparison with the SANS data. The results suggest that DDM undergoes additional structuring around the membrane-spanning surface of the complex instead of a simple, relatively uniform belt, as is generally assumed for studies that use detergents to solubilize membrane proteins.
Taylor, Lawrence W., Jr.; Rajiyah, H.
1991-01-01
Partial differential equations for modeling the structural dynamics and control systems of flexible spacecraft are applied here in order to facilitate systems analysis and optimization of these spacecraft. Example applications are given, including the structural dynamics of SCOLE, the Solar Array Flight Experiment, the Mini-MAST truss, and the LACE satellite. The development of related software is briefly addressed.
Taylor, Lawrence W., Jr.; Rajiyah, H.
Partial differential equations for modeling the structural dynamics and control systems of flexible spacecraft are applied here in order to facilitate systems analysis and optimization of these spacecraft. Example applications are given, including the structural dynamics of SCOLE, the Solar Array Flight Experiment, the Mini-MAST truss, and the LACE satellite. The development of related software is briefly addressed.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kumpf, C.; Müller, A.; Weigand, W.;
2003-01-01
The atomic structure and lattice dynamics of epitaxial BeTe(001) thin films are derived from surface x-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. On the Te-rich BeTe(001) surface [1 (1) over bar0]-oriented Te dimers are identified. They cause a (2 X 1) superstructure and induce a pronounced buckling...... in the underlying Te layer. The Be-rich surface exhibits a (4 X 1) periodicity with alternating Te dimers and Te-Be-Te trimers. A vibration eigenfrequency of 165 cm(-1) is observed for the Te-rich surface, while eigenmodes at 157 and 188 cm(-1) are found for the Be-rich surface. The experimentally derived atomic...... geometry and the vibration modes are in very good agreement with the results of density functional theory calculations....
Dynamic time warping for temperature compensation in structural health monitoring
Douglass, Alexander; Harley, Joel B.
2017-02-01
Guided wave structural health monitoring uses ultrasonic waves to identify changes in structures. To identify these changes, most guided wave methods require a pristine baseline measurement with which other measurements are compared. Damage signatures arise when there is a deviation between the baseline and the recorded measurement. However, temperature significantly complicates this analysis by creating misalignment between the baseline and measurements. This leads to false alarms of damage and significantly reduces the reliability of these systems. Several methods have been created to account for these temperature perturbations. Yet, most of these compensation methods fail in harsh, highly variable temperature conditions or require a prohibitive amount of prior data. In this paper, we use an algorithm known as dynamic time warping to compensate for temperature in these harsh conditions. We demonstrate that dynamic time warping is able to account for temperature variations whereas the more traditional baseline signal stretch method is unable to resolve damage under high temperature fluctuations.
Kinematics, Dynamics, and the Structure of Physical Theory
Curiel, Erik
2016-01-01
Every physical theory has (at least) two different forms of mathematical equations to represent its target systems: the dynamical (equations of motion) and the kinematical (kinematical constraints). Kinematical constraints are differentiated from equations of motion by the fact that their particular form is fixed once and for all, irrespective of the interactions the system enters into. By contrast, the particular form of a system's equations of motion depends essentially on the particular interaction the system enters into. All contemporary accounts of the structure and semantics of physical theory treat dynamics, i.e., the equations of motion, as the most important feature of a theory for the purposes of its philosophical analysis. I argue to the contrary that it is the kinematical constraints that determine the structure and empirical content of a physical theory in the most important ways: they function as necessary preconditions for the appropriate application of the theory; they differentiate types of p...
Nonparametric inference of network structure and dynamics
Peixoto, Tiago P.
The network structure of complex systems determine their function and serve as evidence for the evolutionary mechanisms that lie behind them. Despite considerable effort in recent years, it remains an open challenge to formulate general descriptions of the large-scale structure of network systems, and how to reliably extract such information from data. Although many approaches have been proposed, few methods attempt to gauge the statistical significance of the uncovered structures, and hence the majority cannot reliably separate actual structure from stochastic fluctuations. Due to the sheer size and high-dimensionality of many networks, this represents a major limitation that prevents meaningful interpretations of the results obtained with such nonstatistical methods. In this talk, I will show how these issues can be tackled in a principled and efficient fashion by formulating appropriate generative models of network structure that can have their parameters inferred from data. By employing a Bayesian description of such models, the inference can be performed in a nonparametric fashion, that does not require any a priori knowledge or ad hoc assumptions about the data. I will show how this approach can be used to perform model comparison, and how hierarchical models yield the most appropriate trade-off between model complexity and quality of fit based on the statistical evidence present in the data. I will also show how this general approach can be elegantly extended to networks with edge attributes, that are embedded in latent spaces, and that change in time. The latter is obtained via a fully dynamic generative network model, based on arbitrary-order Markov chains, that can also be inferred in a nonparametric fashion. Throughout the talk I will illustrate the application of the methods with many empirical networks such as the internet at the autonomous systems level, the global airport network, the network of actors and films, social networks, citations among
FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF STRUCTURES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
PECINGINA OLIMPIA-MIOARA
2015-05-01
Full Text Available The application of finite element method is analytical when solutions can not be applied for deeper study analyzes static, dynamic or other types of requirements in different points of the structures .In practice it is necessary to know the behavior of the structure or certain parts components of the machine under the influence of certain factors static and dynamic . The application of finite element in the optimization of components leads to economic growth , to increase reliability and durability organs studied, thus the machine itself.
Improving the Dynamic Characteristics of Body-in-White Structure Using Structural Optimization
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aizzat S. Yahaya Rashid
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The dynamic behavior of a body-in-white (BIW structure has significant influence on the noise, vibration, and harshness (NVH and crashworthiness of a car. Therefore, by improving the dynamic characteristics of BIW, problems and failures associated with resonance and fatigue can be prevented. The design objectives attempt to improve the existing torsion and bending modes by using structural optimization subjected to dynamic load without compromising other factors such as mass and stiffness of the structure. The natural frequency of the design was modified by identifying and reinforcing the structure at critical locations. These crucial points are first identified by topology optimization using mass and natural frequencies as the design variables. The individual components obtained from the analysis go through a size optimization step to find their target thickness of the structure. The thickness of affected regions of the components will be modified according to the analysis. The results of both optimization steps suggest several design modifications to achieve the target vibration specifications without compromising the stiffness of the structure. A method of combining both optimization approaches is proposed to improve the design modification process.
From Dynamic Condition Response Structures to Büchi Automata
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mukkamala, Raghava Rao; Hildebrandt, Thomas
2010-01-01
Recently we have presented distributed dynamic condition response structures (DCR structures) as a declarative process model conservatively generalizing labelled event structures to allow for finite specifications of repeated, possibly infinite behavior. The key ideas are to split the causality r...
三杆张拉整体折展过程动力学分析%Dynamic analysis of the three-bar tensegrity deployable structure
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
罗阿妮; 李旭; 李全贺; 程建军; 刘贺平
2016-01-01
The string drive method is used to deploy the three⁃bar tensegrity structure. Based on the matrixes analy⁃sis, the mathematical model is built up with the generalized node coordinates and connectivity matrixes expressed positions and arrangements of members. The lengths of strings are adjusted with the bars'length constant to deploy the structure. Based on the flexible of the members, shortening the level strings to make the structure fold towards its'axis, it is analyzed that the dynamics of the structure. The simulation proved this deployable method is feasible. The changings of the lengths and inner forces of the members are given. The results show that adjusting the strings lengths could make the structure deployment. This method can be used in the three⁃bar tensegrity deployable struc⁃ture and other structures which build up with the three⁃bar basic units.%本文针对三杆张拉整体结构的折展问题，提出一种索驱动的方法。利用矩阵法分析，使用节点广义坐标和连接矩阵描述结构中各构件的位置和空间分布，建立结构数学模型；通过索构件长度协调变化，杆构件长度不变来分析结构的折展过程。在考虑构件弹性的情况下，对水平索为主动构件实现结构向轴线方向折叠的运动过程进行了动力学分析。通过仿真分析验证了此折叠方案的可行性。并对折展过程中构件的长度和内力的变化进行了分析，分析结果表明：张拉整体结构通过构件长度协调变化可实现折展功能，此方法可使用于三杆张拉整体单元以及以三杆张拉整体单元为基础的复杂张拉整体结构。
Improving transient analysis technology for aircraft structures
Melosh, R. J.; Chargin, Mladen
1989-01-01
Aircraft dynamic analyses are demanding of computer simulation capabilities. The modeling complexities of semi-monocoque construction, irregular geometry, high-performance materials, and high-accuracy analysis are present. At issue are the safety of the passengers and the integrity of the structure for a wide variety of flight-operating and emergency conditions. The technology which supports engineering of aircraft structures using computer simulation is examined. Available computer support is briefly described and improvement of accuracy and efficiency are recommended. Improved accuracy of simulation will lead to a more economical structure. Improved efficiency will result in lowering development time and expense.
Lagrangian coherent structures and inertial particle dynamics
Sudharsan, M; Riley, James J
2015-01-01
In this work we investigate the dynamics of inertial particles using finite-time Lyapunov exponents (FTLE). In particular, we characterize the attractor and repeller structures underlying preferential concentration of inertial particles in terms of FTLE fields of the underlying carrier fluid. Inertial particles that are heavier than the ambient fluid (aerosols) attract onto ridges of the negative-time fluid FTLE. This negative-time FTLE ridge becomes a repeller for particles that are lighter than the carrier fluid (bubbles). We also examine the inertial FTLE (iFTLE) determined by the trajectories of inertial particles evolved using the Maxey-Riley equations with non-zero Stokes number and density ratio. Finally, we explore the low-pass filtering effect of Stokes number. These ideas are demonstrated on two-dimensional numerical simulations of the unsteady double gyre flow.
Dynamic structure of active nematic shells
Zhang, Rui; Zhou, Ye; Rahimi, Mohammad; de Pablo, Juan J.
2016-11-01
When a thin film of active, nematic microtubules and kinesin motor clusters is confined on the surface of a vesicle, four +1/2 topological defects oscillate in a periodic manner between tetrahedral and planar arrangements. Here a theoretical description of nematics, coupled to the relevant hydrodynamic equations, is presented here to explain the dynamics of active nematic shells. In extensile microtubule systems, the defects repel each other due to elasticity, and their collective motion leads to closed trajectories along the edges of a cube. That motion is accompanied by oscillations of their velocities, and the emergence and annihilation of vortices. When the activity increases, the system enters a chaotic regime. In contrast, for contractile systems, which are representative of some bacterial suspensions, a hitherto unknown static structure is predicted, where pairs of defects attract each other and flows arise spontaneously.
Structure and dynamics of interphase chromosomes.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Angelo Rosa
Full Text Available During interphase chromosomes decondense, but fluorescent in situ hybridization experiments reveal the existence of distinct territories occupied by individual chromosomes inside the nuclei of most eukaryotic cells. We use computer simulations to show that the existence and stability of territories is a kinetic effect that can be explained without invoking an underlying nuclear scaffold or protein-mediated interactions between DNA sequences. In particular, we show that the experimentally observed territory shapes and spatial distances between marked chromosome sites for human, Drosophila, and budding yeast chromosomes can be reproduced by a parameter-free minimal model of decondensing chromosomes. Our results suggest that the observed interphase structure and dynamics are due to generic polymer effects: confined Brownian motion conserving the local topological state of long chain molecules and segregation of mutually unentangled chains due to topological constraints.
Molecular dynamics study of ice structural evolution
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wang Yan; Dong Shun-Le
2008-01-01
Molecular dynamics simulation is employed to study the structural evolution of low density amorphous ice during its compression from one atmosphere to 2.5 GPa. Calculated results show that high density amorphous ice is formed at an intermediate pressure of～1.0GPa; the O-O-O bond angle ranges from 83° to 113°, and the O-H...O bond is bent from 112° to 160°. Very high density amorphous ice is obtained by quenching to 80K and decompressing the ice to ambient pressure from 160 K/1.3 GPa or 160 K/1.7 GPa; and the next-nearest O-O length is found to be 0.310 nm, just 0.035 nm beyond the nearest O-O distance of 0.275 nm.
Ruback, Eduardo; Lobo, Leandro Araujo; França, Tanos Celmar Costa; Pascutti, Pedro Geraldo
2013-01-01
Yersinia pestis protein Pla is a plasmid-coded outer membrane protein with aspartic-protease activity. Pla exhibits a plasminogen (Plg) activator activity (PAA) that promotes the cleavage of Plg to the active serine-protease form called plasmin. Exactly how Pla activates Plg into plasmin remains unclear. To investigate this event, we performed the interactions between the predicted Plg and Pla protein structures by rigid-body docking with the HEX program and evaluated the complex stability by molecular dynamics (MD) using the GROMACS package programs. The predicted docked complex of Plg-Pla shows the same interaction site predicted by experimental site-direct mutagenesis in other studies. After a total of 8 ns of MD simulation, we observed the relaxation of the beta-barrel structure of Pla and the progressive approximation and stabilization between the cleavage site of Plg into the extracellular loops of Pla, followed by the increase in the number of H bonds. We also report here the aminoacids that participate in the active site and the sub sites of interaction. The total understanding of these interactions can be an important tool for drug design against bacterial proteases.
Loads and Structural Dynamics Requirements for Spaceflight Hardware
Schultz, Kenneth P.
2011-01-01
The purpose of this document is to establish requirements relating to the loads and structural dynamics technical discipline for NASA and commercial spaceflight launch vehicle and spacecraft hardware. Requirements are defined for the development of structural design loads and recommendations regarding methodologies and practices for the conduct of load analyses are provided. As such, this document represents an implementation of NASA STD-5002. Requirements are also defined for structural mathematical model development and verification to ensure sufficient accuracy of predicted responses. Finally, requirements for model/data delivery and exchange are specified to facilitate interactions between Launch Vehicle Providers (LVPs), Spacecraft Providers (SCPs), and the NASA Technical Authority (TA) providing insight/oversight and serving in the Independent Verification and Validation role. In addition to the analysis-related requirements described above, a set of requirements are established concerning coupling phenomena or other interaction between structural dynamics and aerodynamic environments or control or propulsion system elements. Such requirements may reasonably be considered structure or control system design criteria, since good engineering practice dictates consideration of and/or elimination of the identified conditions in the development of those subsystems. The requirements are included here, however, to ensure that such considerations are captured in the design space for launch vehicles (LV), spacecraft (SC) and the Launch Abort Vehicle (LAV). The requirements in this document are focused on analyses to be performed to develop data needed to support structural verification. As described in JSC 65828, Structural Design Requirements and Factors of Safety for Spaceflight Hardware, implementation of the structural verification requirements is expected to be described in a Structural Verification Plan (SVP), which should describe the verification of each
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stuart, J.G.; Wright, A.D.; Butterfield, C.P.
1996-10-01
Mitigating the effects of damaging wind turbine loads and responses extends the lifetime of the turbine and, consequently, reduces the associated Cost of Energy (COE). Active control of aerodynamic devices is one option for achieving wind turbine load mitigation. Generally speaking, control system design and analysis requires a reasonable dynamic model of {open_quotes}plant,{close_quotes} (i.e., the system being controlled). This paper extends the wind turbine aileron control research, previously conducted at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC), by presenting a more detailed development of the wind turbine dynamic model. In prior research, active aileron control designs were implemented in an existing wind turbine structural dynamics code, FAST (Fatigue, Aerodynamics, Structures, and Turbulence). In this paper, the FAST code is used, in conjunction with system identification, to generate a wind turbine dynamic model for use in active aileron control system design. The FAST code is described and an overview of the system identification technique is presented. An aileron control case study is used to demonstrate this modeling technique. The results of the case study are then used to propose ideas for generalizing this technique for creating dynamic models for other wind turbine control applications.
Finite Dynamic Elements and Modal Analysis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N.J. Fergusson
1993-01-01
Full Text Available A general modal analysis scheme is derived for forced response that makes use of high accuracy modes computed by the dynamic element method. The new procedure differs from the usual modal analysis in that the modes are obtained from a power series expansion for the dynamic stiffness matrix that includes an extra dynamic correction term in addition to the static stiffness matrix and the consistent mass matrix based on static displacement. A cantilevered beam example is used to demonstrate the relative accuracies of the dynamic element and the traditional finite element methods.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
吕高常
2014-01-01
This paper briefly describes the concept of sensitivity and its role in the inverse problem of structural dynamic modification,and then combined with FEAM technology,conducts in-depth analysis of the inverse problem of structural dynamic modification in banana screen based on sensitivity analysis,and finally takes crossbeam of large banana screen BVB3661 for example,modifies the natural frequency of the crossbeam to improve its dynamic characteristics.%本文简单介绍了灵敏度的概念及其在结构动力修改逆问题中的作用，然后结合有限元分析技术对基于灵敏度分析的方法在香蕉筛筛结构动力修改逆问题中的应用进行了深入的分析，最后，以大型香蕉筛BVB3661横梁为例，对横梁固有频率进行了修改，改善了横梁的动态特性。
Chemical structure and dynamics. Annual report 1994
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Colson, S.D.
1995-07-01
The Chemical Structure and Dynamics program was organized as a major component of Pacific Northwest Laboratory`s Environmental and Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL), a state-of-the-art collaborative facility for studies of chemical structure and dynamics. Our program responds to the need for a fundamental, molecular-level understanding of chemistry at the wide variety of environmentally important interfaces by (1) extending the experimental characterization and theoretical description of chemical reactions to encompass the effects of condensed media and interfaces, and (2) developing a multidisciplinary capability for describing interfacial chemical processes within which the new knowledge generated can be brought to bear on complex phenomena in environmental chemistry and in nuclear waste processing and storage. This research effort was initiated in 1989 and will continue to evolve over the next few years into a program of rigorous studies of fundamental molecular processes in model systems, such as well-characterized surfaces, single-component solutions, clusters, and biological molecules; and studies of complex systems found in the environment (multispecies, multiphase solutions; solid/liquid, liquid/liquid, and gas/surface interfaces; colloidal dispersions; ultrafine aerosols; and functioning biological systems). The success of this program will result in the achievement of a quantitative understanding of chemical reactions at interfaces, and more generally in condensed media, that is comparable to that currently available for gas-phase reactions. This understanding will form the basis for the development of a priori theories for predictions of macroscopic chemical behavior in condensed and heterogeneous media, adding significantly to the value of field-scale environmental models, the prediction of short- and long-term nuclear waste storage stabilities, and other problems related to the primary missions of the DOE.
Annual Report 1998: Chemical Structure and Dynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
SD Colson; RS McDowell
1999-05-10
The Chemical Structure and Dynamics (CS&D) program is a major component of the William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Labo- ratory (EMSL), developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to provide a state-of- the-art collaborative facility for studies of chemical structure and dynamics. We respond to the need for a fundamental, molecular-level understanding of chemistry at a wide variety of environmentally important interfaces by (1) extending the experimental characterization and theoretical description of chemical reactions to encompass the effects of condensed media and interfaces; (2) developing a multidisciplinary capability for describing interracial chemical processes within which the new knowledge generated can be brought to bear on complex phenomena in envi- ronmental chemistry and in nuclear waste proc- essing and storage; and (3) developing state-of- the-art analytical methods for characterizing com- plex materials of the types found in stored wastes and contaminated soils, and for detecting and monitoring trace atmospheric species. Our program aims at achieving a quantitative understanding of chemical reactions at interfaces and, more generally, in condensed media, compa- rable to that currently available for gas-phase reactions. This understanding will form the basis for the development of a priori theories for pre- dicting macroscopic chemical behavior in con- densed and heterogeneous media, which will add significantly to the value of field-scale envi- ronmental models, predictions of short- and long- term nuclear waste storage stabilities, and other areas related to the primary missions of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE).
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anastassia N. Rissanou
2015-02-01
Full Text Available Detailed atomistic (united atoms molecular dynamics simulations of several graphene based polymer (polyethylene, PE nanocomposite systems have been performed. Systems with graphene sheets of different sizes have been simulated at the same graphene concentration (~3%. In addition, a periodic graphene layer (“infinite sheet” has been studied. Results concerning structural and dynamical properties of PE chains are presented for the various systems and compared to data from a corresponding bulk system. The final properties of the material are the result of a complex effect of the graphene’s sheet size, mobility and fluctuations. A detailed investigation of density, structure and dynamics of the hybrid systems has been conducted. Particular emphasis has been given in spatial heterogeneities due to the PE/graphene interfaces, which were studied through a detailed analysis based on radial distances form the graphene’s center-of-mass. Chain segmental dynamics is found to be slower, compared to the bulk one, at the PE/graphene interface by a factor of 5 to 10. Furthermore, an analysis on the graphene sheets characteristics is presented in terms of conformational properties (i.e., wrinkling and mobility.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
戚蓝; 刘国威; 王海军
2012-01-01
In order to research the seismic dynamic response of the structure for ogshore wind turbine with bucket foundation, the sail-structure interaction(SSI) is considered with the equivalent linear dynamic constitutive model that can reflect the non-linearity and hysteresis of soil on the basis of the subroutine UMAT provided by ABAQUS, and then a finite element and infinite element coupling model for analysis on the rotor blade, tower, bucket foundation and soil is established for a domestic offshore wind power generation system; furthermore, the dynamic response analysis is made with the lime domain analysis based on i static analysis. The study shows that the natural frequency of the structure can be reduced by SSi eSect Lnder the seismic dynamic effect, the maximum horizontal acceleration response gf the tower structure of the wind turbine occurs near 1/3 height of it, while the vertical acceleration response keeps increasing all along the tower height and its amplification effect is stronger than that of the horizontal one.%为研究近海风电筒型基础风机结构的地震动力响应,基于ABAQUS软件的UMAT平台嵌入了能够反映土体非线性与滞后性的等效线性动本构模型,考虑土—结构相互作用( soil-structure interaction,SSI),针对国内某近海风力发电系统构建“桨叶—塔架—筒型基础—土体”的有限元—无限元耦合分析模型,在静力分析的基础上采用时域分析法对其进行动力响应分析.研究表明,SSI效应会降低结构的自振频率;在地震动作用下,该风机高塔结构水平向加速度响应在塔架2/3高度附近处最大,竖向加速度响应则沿塔架高程一直增大,且其放大效应强于水平向.
Fractal Analysis on Human Behaviors Dynamics
Fan, Chao; Zha, Yi-Long
2010-01-01
The study of human dynamics has attracted much interest from many fields recently. In this paper, the fractal characteristic of human behaviors is investigated from the perspective of time series constructed with the amount of library loans. The Hurst exponents and length of non-periodic cycles calculated through Rescaled Range Analysis indicate that the time series of human behaviors is fractal with long-range correlation. Then the time series are converted to complex networks by visibility graph algorithm. The topological properties of the networks, such as scale-free property, small-world effect and hierarchical structure imply that close relationships exist between the amounts of repetitious actions performed by people during certain periods of time, especially for some important days. Finally, the networks obtained are verified to be not fractal and self-similar using box-counting method. Our work implies the intrinsic regularity shown in human collective repetitious behaviors.
A new computational structure for real-time dynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Izaguirre, A. (New Jersey Inst. of Tech., Newark (United States)); Hashimoto, Minoru (Univ. of Electrocommunications, Tokyo (Japan))
1992-08-01
The authors present an efficient structure for the computation of robot dynamics in real time. The fundamental characteristic of this structure is the division of the computation into a high-priority synchronous task and low-priority background tasks, possibly sharing the resources of a conventional computing unit based on commercial microprocessors. The background tasks compute the inertial and gravitational coefficients as well as the forces due to the velocities of the joints. In each control sample period, the high-priority synchronous task computes the product of the inertial coefficients by the accelerations of the joints and performs the summation of the torques due to the velocities and gravitational forces. Kircanski et al. (1986) have shown that the bandwidth of the variation of joint angles and of their velocities is an order of magnitude less than the variation of joint accelerations. This result agrees with the experiments the authors have carried out using a PUMA 260 robot. Two main strategies contribute to reduce the computational burden associated with the evaluation of the dynamic equations. The first involves the use of efficient algorithms for the evaluation of the equations. The second is aimed at reducing the number of dynamic parameters by identifying beforehand the linear dependencies among these parameters, as well as carrying out a significance analysis of the parameters' contribution to the final joint torques. The actual code used to evaluate this dynamic model is entirely computer generated from experimental data, requiring no other manual intervention than performing a campaign of measurements.
Fuchs, Maurice Bernard
2016-01-01
Addressing structures, this book presents a classic discipline in a modern setting by combining illustrated examples with insights into the solutions. It is the fruit of the author’s many years of teaching the subject and of just as many years of research into the design of optimal structures. Although intended for an advanced level of instruction it has an undergraduate course at its core. Further, the book was written with the advantage of having massive computer power in the background, an aspect which changes the entire approach to many engineering disciplines and in particular to structures. This paradigm shift has dislodged the force (flexibility) method from its former prominence and paved the way for the displacement (stiffness) method, despite the multitude of linear equations it spawns. In this book, however, both methods are taught: the force method offers a perfect vehicle for understanding structural behavior, bearing in mind that it is the displacement method which does the heavy number crunch...
Ab initio lattice dynamics of complex structures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Voss, Johannes
2008-01-01
systems in particular. A more detailed analysis of the phonon spectrum has been performed for the compound Mg(BH4)2, where several crystal symmetries have been proposed theoretically and experimentally. By means of an analysis of the instabilities of these structures, a new, stable phase has been......In this thesis, density functional theory is applied in a study of thermodynamic properties of so-called complex metal hydrides, which are promising materials for hydrogen storage applications. Since the unit cells of these crystals can be relatively large with many symmetrically inequivalent...... determined. Aiming at finding scaling relationships between alloy stabilities and computationally inexpensive properties, the stabilities of cation-alloyed metal aluminum hexahydrides have been studied. The analysis shows that charge density symmetries are correlated to the stability. In addition...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Michael Holm
1999-01-01
that require a modelling technique for the analysis, development, re-engineering, integration, or acquisition of information systems; and incorporate a systems or enterprise modelling technique into a business process analysis or software engineering methodology.This note is a summary of the Standard...
Dynamics of Subauroral Polarization Stream (SAPS) Structures
Sazykin, S. Y.; Coster, A. J.; Huba, J.; Ridley, A. J.; Erickson, P. J.; Foster, J. C.; Baker, J. B. H.; Wolf, R.
2015-12-01
The Subauroral Polarization Stream (SAPS) flow structures are narrow ionospheric channels of fast (in excess of 100 m/s) westward drift just outside the equatorward edge of the diffuse aurora in the dusk-to-midnight local time sector. Other terms for this phenomenon include subauroral Ion Drift (SAID) events and Polarization Jets. SAPS structures represent a striking departure from the commonly-used two-cell convection pattern. They are thought to arise from the displacement of the downward region-2 Birkeland currents on the dusk side equatorward of the low-latitude boundary of the auroral oval during times of changing high-latitude convection. In this paper, we will use several event simulations with the SAMI3-RCM numerical model (a self-consistent ionosphere-inner magnetosphere model) and RCM-GITM (a self-consistent model of the ionosphere-thermosphere-inner magnetosphere) to analyze the relative roles of changes in the IMF Bz component, ionospheric electron density depletions, and thermospheric modifications in controlling the dynamics of SAPS. Simulation results will be compared to multi-instrument ionospheric observations.
Dynamic Blowout Risk Analysis Using Loss Functions.
Abimbola, Majeed; Khan, Faisal
2017-08-11
Most risk analysis approaches are static; failing to capture evolving conditions. Blowout, the most feared accident during a drilling operation, is a complex and dynamic event. The traditional risk analysis methods are useful in the early design stage of drilling operation while falling short during evolving operational decision making. A new dynamic risk analysis approach is presented to capture evolving situations through dynamic probability and consequence models. The dynamic consequence models, the focus of this study, are developed in terms of loss functions. These models are subsequently integrated with the probability to estimate operational risk, providing a real-time risk analysis. The real-time evolving situation is considered dependent on the changing bottom-hole pressure as drilling progresses. The application of the methodology and models are demonstrated with a case study of an offshore drilling operation evolving to a blowout. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.
Electronic structure and dynamics of nitrosyl porphyrins.
Scheidt, W Robert; Barabanschikov, Alexander; Pavlik, Jeffrey W; Silvernail, Nathan J; Sage, J Timothy
2010-07-19
Nitric oxide (NO) is a signaling molecule employed to regulate essential physiological processes. Thus, there is great interest in understanding the interaction of NO with heme, which is found at the active site of many proteins that recognize NO, as well as those involved in its creation and elimination. We summarize what we have learned from investigations of the structure, vibrational properties, and conformational dynamics of NO complexes with ferrous porphyrins, as well as computational investigations in support of these experimental studies. Multitemperature crystallographic data reveal variations in the orientational disorder of the nitrosyl ligand. In some cases, equilibria among NO orientations can be analyzed using the van't Hoff relationship and the free energy and enthalpy of the solid-state transitions evaluated experimentally. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations predict that intrinsic barriers to torsional rotation are smaller than thermal energies at physiological temperatures, and the coincidence of observed NO orientations with minima in molecular mechanics potentials indicates that nonbonded interactions with other chemical groups control the conformational freedom of the bound NO. In favorable cases, reduced disorder at low temperatures exposes subtle structural features including off-axis tilting of the Fe-NO bond and anisotropy of the equatorial Fe-N bonds. We also present the results of nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy measurements on oriented single crystals of [Fe(TPP)(NO)] and [Fe(TPP)(1-MeIm)(NO)]. These describe the anisotropic vibrational motion of iron in five- and six-coordinate heme-NO complexes and reveal vibrations of all Fe-ligand bonds as well as low-frequency molecular distortions associated with the doming of the heme upon ligand binding. A quantitative comparison with predicted frequencies, amplitudes, and directions facilitates identification of the vibrational modes but also suggests that commonly used DFT
Dynamic Analysis of Foundation Supporting Rotary Machine
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Utkarsh S. Patel
2015-08-01
Full Text Available With the advancement of technology in the field of industry, high speed machinery has been developed. As the speed of machinery has increased, vibrations also increased. Machines transmit vibrations to the structure supporting them. Hence, it is important to design and develop such structure which sustains the vibrations of machinery. Hence, in this study it has been aimed to execute the study on foundations supporting rotary type of machine like blower. In this paper, the most important parameters like frequency and amplitude are considered while execution of analysis of machine foundation supporting blower type machine. This paper shows, better interface between foundation designer and machine manufacturer for better performance of machine. The design aids/approaches for foundation design is also described in this paper and an attempt has been made to study the dynamic behaviour of a foundation structure for blower type machine subjected to forces due to operation of blower machine. Two different types of foundations for Rotary type Machine that is Blower have been studied in this paper
Recombination Dynamics in Quantum Well Semiconductor Structures
Fouquet, Julie Elizabeth
Time-resolved and time-integrated photoluminescence as a function of excitation energy density have been observed in order to study recombination dynamics in GaAs/Al(,x)Ga(,1 -x)As quantum well structures. The study of room temperature photoluminescence from the molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) -grown multiple quantum well structure and photoluminescence peak energy as a function of tem- perature shows that room temperature recombination at excitation densities above the low 10('16) cm('-3) level is due to free carriers, not excitons. This is the first study of time-resolved photoluminescence of impurities in quantum wells; data taken at different emission wave- lengths at low temperatures shows that the impurity-related states at photon energies lower than the free exciton peaks luminesce much more slowly than the free exciton states. Results from a similar structure grown by metal -organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) are explained by saturation of traps. An unusual increase in decay rate observed tens of nanoseconds after excitation is probably due to carriers falling out of the trap states. Since this is the first study of time-resolved photoluminescence of MOCVD-grown quantum well structures, this unusual behavior may be realted to the MOCVD growth process. Further investigations indi- cate that the traps are not active at low temperatures; they become active at approximately 150 K. The traps are probably associated with the (hetero)interfaces rather than the bulk Al(,x)Ga(,1-x)As material. The 34 K photoluminescence spectrum of this sample revealed a peak shifted down by approximately 36 meV from the main peak. Time-resolved and time-integrated photoluminescence results here show that this peak is not a stimulated phonon emission sideband, but rather is an due to an acceptor impurity, probably carbon. Photo- luminescence for excitation above and below the barrier bandgap shows that carriers are efficiently collected in the wells in both single and multiple
Structure-preserving integrators in nonlinear structural dynamics and flexible multibody dynamics
2016-01-01
This book focuses on structure-preserving numerical methods for flexible multibody dynamics, including nonlinear elastodynamics and geometrically exact models for beams and shells. It also deals with the newly emerging class of variational integrators as well as Lie-group integrators. It discusses two alternative approaches to the discretization in space of nonlinear beams and shells. Firstly, geometrically exact formulations, which are typically used in the finite element community and, secondly, the absolute nodal coordinate formulation, which is popular in the multibody dynamics community. Concerning the discretization in time, the energy-momentum method and its energy-decaying variants are discussed. It also addresses a number of issues that have arisen in the wake of the structure-preserving discretization in space. Among them are the parameterization of finite rotations, the incorporation of algebraic constraints and the computer implementation of the various numerical methods. The practical application...
A Formal Framework for P Systems with Dynamic Structure
Freund, Rudolf; Pérez Hurtado de Mendoza, Ignacio; Riscos Núñez, Agustín; Verlan, Sergey
2012-01-01
This article introduces a formalism/framework able to describe different variants of P systems having a dynamic structure. This framework can be useful for the definition of new variants of P systems with dynamic structure, for the comparison of existing definitions as well as for their extension. We give a precise definition of the formalism and show how existing variants of P systems with dynamic structure can be translated to it.
Introducing fluid dynamics using dimensional analysis
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Jens Højgaard
2013-01-01
Many aspects of fluid dynamics can be introduced using dimensional analysis, combined with some basic physical principles. This approach is concise and allows exploration of both the laminar and turbulent limits—including important phenomena that are not normally dealt with when fluid dynamics...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Xu Long; Fei Ge; Lei Wang; Youshi Hong
2009-01-01
This paper investigates the effects of structure parameters on dynamic responses of submerged floating tunnel (SFT) under hydrodynamic loads. The structure parameters includes buoyancy-weight ratio (BWR), stiffness coefficients of the cable systems, tunnel net buoyancy and tunnel length. First, the importance of structural damp in relation to the dynamic responses of SFT is demonstrated and the mechanism of structural damp effect is discussed. Thereafter, the fundamental structure parameters are investi-gated through the analysis of SFT dynamic responses under hydrodynamic loads. The results indicate that the BWR of SFT is a key structure parameter. When BWR is 1.2, there is a remarkable trend change in the vertical dynamic response of SFT under hydrodynamic loads. The results also indicate that the ratio of the tunnel net buoyancy to the cable stiffness coefficient is not a characteristic factor affecting the dynamic responses of SFT under hydrodynamic loads.
NGC 1300 Dynamics: III. Orbital analysis
Patsis, P A; Grosbol, P
2010-01-01
We present the orbital analysis of four response models, that succeed in reproducing morphological features of NGC 1300. Two of them assume a planar (2D) geometry with $\\Omega_p$=22 and 16 \\ksk respectively. The two others assume a cylindrical (thick) disc and rotate with the same pattern speeds as the 2D models. These response models reproduce most successfully main morphological features of NGC 1300 among a large number of models, as became evident in a previous study. Our main result is the discovery of three new dynamical mechanisms that can support structures in a barred-spiral grand design system. These mechanisms are presented in characteristic cases, where these dynamical phenomena take place. They refer firstly to the support of a strong bar, of ansae type, almost solely by chaotic orbits, then to the support of spirals by chaotic orbits that for a certain number of pat tern revolutions follow an n:1 (n=7,8) morphology, and finally to the support of spiral arms by a combination of orbits trapped arou...
Computational and theoretical aspects of biomolecular structure and dynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Garcia, A.E.; Berendzen, J.; Catasti, P., Chen, X. [and others
1996-09-01
This is the final report for a project that sought to evaluate and develop theoretical, and computational bases for designing, performing, and analyzing experimental studies in structural biology. Simulations of large biomolecular systems in solution, hydrophobic interactions, and quantum chemical calculations for large systems have been performed. We have developed a code that implements the Fast Multipole Algorithm (FMA) that scales linearly in the number of particles simulated in a large system. New methods have been developed for the analysis of multidimensional NMR data in order to obtain high resolution atomic structures. These methods have been applied to the study of DNA sequences in the human centromere, sequences linked to genetic diseases, and the dynamics and structure of myoglobin.
Application of the Probabilistic Dynamic Synthesis Method to Realistic Structures
Brown, Andrew M.; Ferri, Aldo A.
1998-01-01
The Probabilistic Dynamic Synthesis method is a technique for obtaining the statistics of a desired response engineering quantity for a structure with non-deterministic parameters. The method uses measured data from modal testing of the structure as the input random variables, rather than more "primitive" quantities like geometry or material variation. This modal information is much more comprehensive and easily measured than the "primitive" information. The probabilistic analysis is carried out using either response surface reliability methods or Monte Carlo simulation. In previous work, the feasibility of the PDS method applied to a simple seven degree-of-freedom spring-mass system was verified. In this paper, extensive issues involved with applying the method to a realistic three-substructure system are examined, and free and forced response analyses are performed. The results from using the method are promising, especially when the lack of alternatives for obtaining quantitative output for probabilistic structures is considered.
Automatic anatomical structures location based on dynamic shape measurement
Witkowski, Marcin; Rapp, Walter; Sitnik, Robert; Kujawinska, Malgorzata; Vander Sloten, Jos; Haex, Bart; Bogaert, Nico; Heitmann, Kjell
2005-09-01
New image processing methods and active photonics apparatus have made possible the development of relatively inexpensive optical systems for complex shape and object measurements. We present dynamic 360° scanning method for analysis of human lower body biomechanics, with an emphasis on the analysis of the knee joint. The anatomical structure (of high medical interest) that is possible to scan and analyze, is patella. Tracking of patella position and orientation under dynamic conditions may lead to detect pathological patella movements and help in knee joint disease diagnosis. The processed data is obtained from a dynamic laser triangulation surface measurement system, able to capture slow to normal movements with a scan frequency between 15 and 30 Hz. These frequency rates are enough to capture controlled movements used e.g. for medical examination purposes. The purpose of the work presented is to develop surface analysis methods that may be used as support of diagnosis of motoric abilities of lower limbs. The paper presents algorithms used to process acquired lower limbs surface data in order to find the position and orientation of patella. The algorithms implemented include input data preparation, curvature description methods, knee region discrimination and patella assumed position/orientation calculation. Additionally, a method of 4D (3D + time) medical data visualization is proposed. Also some exemplary results are presented.
Ultrafast Structural Dynamics in Combustion Relevant Model Systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Weber, Peter M. [Brown University
2014-03-31
The research project explored the time resolved structural dynamics of important model reaction system using an array of novel methods that were developed specifically for this purpose. They include time resolved electron diffraction, time resolved relativistic electron diffraction, and time resolved Rydberg fingerprint spectroscopy. Toward the end of the funding period, we also developed time-resolved x-ray diffraction, which uses ultrafast x-ray pulses at LCLS. Those experiments are just now blossoming, as the funding period expired. In the following, the time resolved Rydberg Fingerprint Spectroscopy is discussed in some detail, as it has been a very productive method. The binding energy of an electron in a Rydberg state, that is, the energy difference between the Rydberg level and the ground state of the molecular ion, has been found to be a uniquely powerful tool to characterize the molecular structure. To rationalize the structure sensitivity we invoke a picture from electron diffraction: when it passes the molecular ion core, the Rydberg electron experiences a phase shift compared to an electron in a hydrogen atom. This phase shift requires an adjustment of the binding energy of the electron, which is measurable. As in electron diffraction, the phase shift depends on the molecular, geometrical structure, so that a measurement of the electron binding energy can be interpreted as a measurement of the molecule’s structure. Building on this insight, we have developed a structurally sensitive spectroscopy: the molecule is first elevated to the Rydberg state, and the binding energy is then measured using photoelectron spectroscopy. The molecule’s structure is read out as the binding energy spectrum. Since the photoionization can be done with ultrafast laser pulses, the technique is inherently capable of a time resolution in the femtosecond regime. For the purpose of identifying the structures of molecules during chemical reactions, and for the analysis of
含刚性体可展开结构的展开过程动力学分析方法%Dynamic analysis of deployable structures with rigid bodies
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
吴明儿; 项平
2011-01-01
在可展结构中设置刚性体可以有效提高展开效率，保证形状精度，因此含刚性体可展结构具有较高的实用价值。刚性体按需要可为刚性曲板等，一般形状复杂且形式多样，含任意形状刚性体可展结构的展开过程动力学分析比较困难。本文以笛卡尔坐标系下节点坐标及位移为变量，利用广义逆矩阵建立了一种通用的刚性体动力学方程，给出了利用Newmark—β法进行展开过程动力学分析的数值计算方法。通过算例分析及与ADAMS软件结果进行对比，验证了本文方法的正确性。与传统的多体系统动力学方法相比，该分析方法的优点是数学描述简洁明快，包含的未知量少，能够有效地分析含任意形状刚性体的可展开结构动力学问题。%Deployable structures with internal rigid bodies can improve both the deploying efficiency and the deploying precision. Thus, this kind of hybrid deployable structures is of high practical value. The surface of rigid bodies can be curved panels or other shapes. There is no efficient method to analyze the deploying dynamic process of this kind of deployable structure by now because it is difficult to describe the rigid surface in analysis. In this paper, the dynamic equation of rigid body using nodal coordinates and displacements as variables was established at first. Then, the dynamic equation was introduced to the deploying process analysis through using Moore-Penrose generalized inverse matrix method and Newmark numerical integration. In the end, a numerical example was given and the validity of the method was investigated compared with the calculation results of soft package ADAMS. Compared with multi-body system dynamics,the method suggested in this paper is easy in formulation and can be used to analyze the dynamic problems of deployable structures consisting of rigid bodies with arbitrary shapes.
A Comparative Study on Optimal Structural Dynamics Using Wavelet Functions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Seyed Hossein Mahdavi
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Wavelet solution techniques have become the focus of interest among researchers in different disciplines of science and technology. In this paper, implementation of two different wavelet basis functions has been comparatively considered for dynamic analysis of structures. For this aim, computational technique is developed by using free scale of simple Haar wavelet, initially. Later, complex and continuous Chebyshev wavelet basis functions are presented to improve the time history analysis of structures. Free-scaled Chebyshev coefficient matrix and operation of integration are derived to directly approximate displacements of the corresponding system. In addition, stability of responses has been investigated for the proposed algorithm of discrete Haar wavelet compared against continuous Chebyshev wavelet. To demonstrate the validity of the wavelet-based algorithms, aforesaid schemes have been extended to the linear and nonlinear structural dynamics. The effectiveness of free-scaled Chebyshev wavelet has been compared with simple Haar wavelet and two common integration methods. It is deduced that either indirect method proposed for discrete Haar wavelet or direct approach for continuous Chebyshev wavelet is unconditionally stable. Finally, it is concluded that numerical solution is highly benefited by the least computation time involved and high accuracy of response, particularly using low scale of complex Chebyshev wavelet.
Universal structural estimator and dynamics approximator for complex networks
Chen, Yu-Zhong
2016-01-01
Revealing the structure and dynamics of complex networked systems from observed data is of fundamental importance to science, engineering, and society. Is it possible to develop a universal, completely data driven framework to decipher the network structure and different types of dynamical processes on complex networks, regardless of their details? We develop a Markov network based model, sparse dynamical Boltzmann machine (SDBM), as a universal network structural estimator and dynamics approximator. The SDBM attains its topology according to that of the original system and is capable of simulating the original dynamical process. We develop a fully automated method based on compressive sensing and machine learning to find the SDBM. We demonstrate, for a large variety of representative dynamical processes on model and real world complex networks, that the equivalent SDBM can recover the network structure of the original system and predicts its dynamical behavior with high precision.
Stability Analysis of MEMS Gyroscope Dynamic Systems
M. Naser-Moghadasi; S. A. Olamaei; F. Setoudeh
2013-01-01
In this paper, the existence of a common quadratic Lyapunov function for stability analysis of MEMS Gyroscope dynamic systems has been studied then a new method based on stochastic stability of MEMS Gyroscope system has been proposed.
Dynamic Wireless Power Transfer - Grid Impacts Analysis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Markel, Tony; Meintz, Andrew; Gonder, Jeff
2015-12-04
This presentation discusses the current status of analysis of the electricity grid impacts of a dynamic wireless power transfer system deployed to the Atlanta region on select high traffic roadway segments.
Papaleo, Elena
2015-01-01
In the last years, we have been observing remarkable improvements in the field of protein dynamics. Indeed, we can now study protein dynamics in atomistic details over several timescales with a rich portfolio of experimental and computational techniques. On one side, this provides us with the possibility to validate simulation methods and physical models against a broad range of experimental observables. On the other side, it also allows a complementary and comprehensive view on protein structure and dynamics. What is needed now is a better understanding of the link between the dynamic properties that we observe and the functional properties of these important cellular machines. To make progresses in this direction, we need to improve the physical models used to describe proteins and solvent in molecular dynamics, as well as to strengthen the integration of experiments and simulations to overcome their own limitations. Moreover, now that we have the means to study protein dynamics in great details, we need new tools to understand the information embedded in the protein ensembles and in their dynamic signature. With this aim in mind, we should enrich the current tools for analysis of biomolecular simulations with attention to the effects that can be propagated over long distances and are often associated to important biological functions. In this context, approaches inspired by network analysis can make an important contribution to the analysis of molecular dynamics simulations.
Chaotic dynamics and fractal structures in experiments with cold atoms
Daza, Alvar; Georgeot, Bertrand; Guéry-Odelin, David; Wagemakers, Alexandre; Sanjuán, Miguel A. F.
2017-01-01
We use tools from nonlinear dynamics for the detailed analysis of cold-atom experiments. A powerful example is provided by the recent concept of basin entropy, which allows us to quantify the final-state unpredictability that results from the complexity of the phase-space geometry. We show here that this enables one to reliably infer the presence of fractal structures in phase space from direct measurements. We illustrate the method with numerical simulations in an experimental configuration made of two crossing laser guides that can be used as a matter-wave splitter.
Structural Dynamics of the MecA-ClpC Complex
Liu, Jing; Mei, Ziqing; Li, Ningning; Qi, Yutao; Xu, Yanji; Shi, Yigong; Wang, Feng; Lei, Jianlin; Gao, Ning
2013-01-01
The MecA-ClpC complex is a bacterial type II AAA+ molecular machine responsible for regulated unfolding of substrates, such as transcription factors ComK and ComS, and targeting them to ClpP for degradation. The six subunits of the MecA-ClpC complex form a closed barrel-like structure, featured with three stacked rings and a hollow passage, where substrates are threaded and translocated through successive pores. Although the general concepts of how polypeptides are unfolded and translocated by internal pore loops of AAA+ proteins have long been conceived, the detailed mechanistic model remains elusive. With cryoelectron microscopy, we captured four different structures of the MecA-ClpC complexes. These complexes differ in the nucleotide binding states of the two AAA+ rings and therefore might presumably reflect distinctive, representative snapshots from a dynamic unfolding cycle of this hexameric complex. Structural analysis reveals that nucleotide binding and hydrolysis modulate the hexameric complex in a number of ways, including the opening of the N-terminal ring, the axial and radial positions of pore loops, the compactness of the C-terminal ring, as well as the relative rotation between the two nucleotide-binding domain rings. More importantly, our structural and biochemical data indicate there is an active allosteric communication between the two AAA+ rings and suggest that concerted actions of the two AAA+ rings are required for the efficiency of the substrate unfolding and translocation. These findings provide important mechanistic insights into the dynamic cycle of the MecA-ClpC unfoldase and especially lay a foundation toward the complete understanding of the structural dynamics of the general type II AAA+ hexamers. PMID:23595989
射孔作业过程管柱结构动态响应分析%Dynamic Response Analysis of String Structure during Perforating Process
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
蔡履忠; 赵烜; 薛世峰; 杨宗芝
2015-01-01
The impact load produced by the perforation can make the downhole string generate strong vibration,resulting in string bending and even fracture accidents.Considering the annulus between tubing and casing,using the spatial beam element and spring element to solve nonlinear contact problems between oil jacket,the string structural dynamic model was established.Extrac-ting the monitoring data of downhole perforated pressure wave,using the finite element software ANSYS,and writing APDL language,the dynamic response of the tubing string was analyzed.It easily gets the curve of the radial displacement,the contact reaction force,the friction resistance, the axial force changing with the depth of the well,as well as the displacement,velocity time his-tory curve.Therefore,it is feasible to handle the nonlinear contact problems between oil jacket with spring element.%射孔产生的冲击载荷会使井下管柱发生强烈振动，导致管柱发生弯曲断裂等事故。考虑油套间隙，采用空间梁单元与弹簧单元求解油套之间非线性接触问题，建立了管柱结构动力模型。提取井下射孔压力波监测数据，应用 ANSYS 软件，编写 APDL 语言，分析射孔爆轰波作用下油管柱的动态响应，得到了管柱径向位移、接触反力、摩擦阻力、轴力等随井深的变化曲线，以及位移、速度时间历程曲线。由此证明采用弹簧单元来处理油套之间的非线性接触问题的方法是可行的。
Dynamic Approach of Capital Structure of European Shipping Companies
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stavros H. Arvanitis
2012-12-01
Full Text Available The issue of capital structure of companies is one of the most debated problems of financialmanagement. According to economic theory, capital structure determines the stock market valueof firms and therefore their viability, while one of the most negative result of the crash of 2008 andthe persisting crisis (excess supply in markets of labor and money is their ongoing steep declineof lending by credit institutions and other sources. In this paper, considering the importanceof the issue and motivated by the conflicting results of previous empirical studies, we attemptthe analysis of capital structure of the European Maritime Enterprises (oceanic shipping.We focus on shipping companies, because of the large volume of funding that demands theirmain operation, due to the intensity of the assets held. The objectives of this research are firstlythe identification of factors that affect the capital structure of European oceanic shipping andsecondly to search for the existence of an ideal - target capital structure ratio. The determinantsof capital structure are examined through static (fixed effect method and FGLS and dynamic(GMM Methods econometric models, using data from the financial statements of 32 listedEuropean shipping companies for the period 2005-2010. The results suggest the prevalence ofpecking order theory in our case, while a positive relationship arises between tangible assets andtax benefits (arising from sources other than borrowing against leverage. Moreover, we observea negative relationship between size or profitability and debt. Our findings contribute to a deeperunderstanding of the decisions taken by European shipping on their capital structure.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
魏晓东; 刘清友; 王国荣
2011-01-01
Based on the coal bed methane drilling conditions,the dynamic seal structure of rotary control heads was designed.The model was established by simplifying the sealing structure.Aiming at its contact pressure and friction torque,the numerical simulation was researched by using the finite element analysis software（ABAQUS）.On this basis,the analysis and the rule of the seal wear were studied,and the results were verified by wear test.Finally,the rotary control head with this structure was applied to the field.The result indicates that the dynamic seal structure is reasonable,the time of non-drilling time is reduced and the efficiency of drilling operation is improved.It can be seen that the structure meets the needs of coal bed methane under-balanced drilling.%依据煤层气钻井工况,对旋转控制头动密封结构进行了设计.通过简化密封结构建立分析模型,应用有限元分析软件（ABAQUS）对其接触压力、摩擦扭矩进行了数值模拟研究.在此基础上进行了密封件磨损分析及规律研究,通过磨损试验验证了研究结果的正确性,并将具有该结构的旋转控制头应用于现场,结果表明所设计动密封结构合理,能够有效减少非钻时时间,提高钻井作业效率,满足煤层气欠平衡钻井的需要.
Dynamic Gust Load Analysis for Rotors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yuting Dai
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Dynamic load of helicopter rotors due to gust directly affects the structural stress and flight performance for helicopters. Based on a large deflection beam theory, an aeroelastic model for isolated helicopter rotors in the time domain is constructed. The dynamic response and structural load for a rotor under the impulse gust and slope-shape gust are calculated, respectively. First, a nonlinear Euler beam model with 36 degrees-of-freedoms per element is applied to depict the structural dynamics for an isolated rotor. The generalized dynamic wake model and Leishman-Beddoes dynamic stall model are applied to calculate the nonlinear unsteady aerodynamic forces on rotors. Then, we transformed the differential aeroelastic governing equation to an algebraic one. Hence, the widely used Newton-Raphson iteration algorithm is employed to simulate the dynamic gust load. An isolated helicopter rotor with four blades is studied to validate the structural model and the aeroelastic model. The modal frequencies based on the Euler beam model agree well with published ones by CAMRAD. The flap deflection due to impulse gust with the speed of 2m/s increases twice to the one without gust. In this numerical example, results indicate that the bending moment at the blade root is alleviated due to elastic effect.