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Sample records for dynamic routing based

  1. Trust-Based Route Selection in Dynamic Source Routin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian D.; Connell, Paul O

    2006-01-01

    Unlike traditional mobile wireless networks, ad hoc networks do not rely on any fixed infrastructure. Nodes rely on each other to route packets to other mobile nodes or toward stationary nodes that may act as a gateway to a fixed network. Mobile nodes are generally assumed to participate as routers......, which selects the route based on a local evaluation of the trustworthiness of all known intermediary nodes (routers) on the route to the destination. We have implemented this mechanism in an existing ad hoc routing protocol, and we show how trust can be built from previous experience and how trust can...

  2. Trust-Based Route Selection in Dynamic Source Routin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian D.; Connell, Paul O

    2006-01-01

    Unlike traditional mobile wireless networks, ad hoc networks do not rely on any fixed infrastructure. Nodes rely on each other to route packets to other mobile nodes or toward stationary nodes that may act as a gateway to a fixed network. Mobile nodes are generally assumed to participate as routers......, which selects the route based on a local evaluation of the trustworthiness of all known intermediary nodes (routers) on the route to the destination. We have implemented this mechanism in an existing ad hoc routing protocol, and we show how trust can be built from previous experience and how trust can...

  3. Dynamic Routing of IP Traffic Based on QOS Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Kriška

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The article looks into the current state of the art of dynamic routing protocols with respect to their possibilities to react to changes in the Quality of Service when selecting the best route towards a destination network. New options that could leverage information about the ever changing QoS parameters for data communication are analysed and a Cisco Performance Routing solution is described more in detail. The practical part of this work focuses on a design and implementation of a test bed that provides ascalable laboratory architecture to manipulate QoS parameters of different data communications flowing through it. The test bed is used in various use cases that were used to evaluate Cisco Performance Routing optimization capabilities in different scenarios.

  4. NOC: QOS Metrics Modelling And Analysis Based On Dynamic Routing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelkader SAADAOUI

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Increasing heterogeneous software and hardware blocks constitute complex ICs known as System on Chip (SoC. These blocks are conceived as intellectual property (IP cores. Designers are developing SoCs by using IP cores reuse, which include interconnection architecture and interface to peripheral devices.Because of the SoC growing complexity, some researchers tend to concentrate more on the communication rather than the computation aspect. This area of research has leading to the Network on Chip (NoC Concepts.The research domain of NoC has many applications needing high communication performances. Therefore NoC offers attractive solutions to these applications.One of the goals of NoC technology is to maintain a required Quality of Service (QoS, defined in terms of acceptable parameters values.This paper proposes a presentation of QoS metrics model based on QoS parameters such as Endto-End Delays (EED and throughputs (Thp, for different applications. This study is based on dynamic routing simulation of a 4x4 mesh NoC behaviour under three communications processes namely TCP, VBR and CBR.

  5. Trusted Routing Based on Dynamic Trust Mechanism in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Sancheng; Jia, Weijia; Wang, Guojun; Wu, Jie; Guo, Minyi

    Due to the distributed nature, mobile ad-hoc networks (MANETs) are vulnerable to various attacks, resulting in distrusted communications. To achieve trusted communications, it is important to build trusted routes in routing algorithms in a self-organizing and decentralized fashion. This paper proposes a trusted routing to locate and to preserve trusted routes in MANETs. Instead of using a hard security mechanism, we employ a new dynamic trust mechanism based on multiple constraints and collaborative filtering. The dynamic trust mechanism can effectively evaluate the trust and obtain the precise trust value among nodes, and can also be integrated into existing routing protocols for MANETs, such as ad hoc on-demand distance vector routing (AODV) and dynamic source routing (DSR). As an example, we present a trusted routing protocol, based on dynamic trust mechanism, by extending DSR, in which a node makes a routing decision based on the trust values on its neighboring nodes, and finally, establish a trusted route through the trust values of the nodes along the route in MANETs. The effectiveness of our approach is validated through extensive simulations.

  6. Dynamic autonomous routing technology for IP-based satellite ad hoc networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaofei; Deng, Jing; Kostas, Theresa; Rajappan, Gowri

    2014-06-01

    IP-based routing for military LEO/MEO satellite ad hoc networks is very challenging due to network and traffic heterogeneity, network topology and traffic dynamics. In this paper, we describe a traffic priority-aware routing scheme for such networks, namely Dynamic Autonomous Routing Technology (DART) for satellite ad hoc networks. DART has a cross-layer design, and conducts routing and resource reservation concurrently for optimal performance in the fluid but predictable satellite ad hoc networks. DART ensures end-to-end data delivery with QoS assurances by only choosing routing paths that have sufficient resources, supporting different packet priority levels. In order to do so, DART incorporates several resource management and innovative routing mechanisms, which dynamically adapt to best fit the prevailing conditions. In particular, DART integrates a resource reservation mechanism to reserve network bandwidth resources; a proactive routing mechanism to set up non-overlapping spanning trees to segregate high priority traffic flows from lower priority flows so that the high priority flows do not face contention from low priority flows; a reactive routing mechanism to arbitrate resources between various traffic priorities when needed; a predictive routing mechanism to set up routes for scheduled missions and for anticipated topology changes for QoS assurance. We present simulation results showing the performance of DART. We have conducted these simulations using the Iridium constellation and trajectories as well as realistic military communications scenarios. The simulation results demonstrate DART's ability to discriminate between high-priority and low-priority traffic flows and ensure disparate QoS requirements of these traffic flows.

  7. DRMR:Dynamic-Ring-Based Multicast Routing Protocol for Ad Hoc Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Zhoux; Guang-Sheng Li; Yong-Zhao Zhan; Qi-Rong Mao; Yi-Bin Hou

    2004-01-01

    Recently a number of multicast routing protocols for ad hoc networks have been proposed, however, most of them do not provide proper tradeoffs between effectiveness, efficiency and scalability. In this paper, a novel multicast routing protocol is presented for ad hoc networks. The protocol, termed as dynamic-ring-based multicast routing protocol (DRMR), uses the concept of dynamic ring whose radius can be adjusted dynamically and DRMR configures this type of ring for all group member nodes. According to the principle of zone routing, two nodes whose rings overlap can create route to each other, thus, when the ring graph composed of all rings is connected, each member node has one or more routes to others. DRMR uses the method of expanding ring search (ERS) to maintain the connected ring graph, and also can decrease the radius of the ring to reduce the overhead. The performances of DRMR were simulated and evaluated with NS2, and results show that DRMR has a high data packet delivery ratio, low control overhead and good scalability.

  8. Google Earth-based dynamic visualization system for storm surge flood routing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Donghai; Wang Qian; Zuo Wentao

    2013-01-01

    To describe the dynamic process of flood routing intuitively and realistically when storm surge disaster occurs,a method for ArcGIS data and Google Earth (GE) data integration is proposed,which realizes the impor-ting and integrating of basic geographic information into GE. Based on SketchUp and AutoCAD software,three-dimension (3D) visualization of seawall and other tidal defense structures is achieved. By employing Microsoft Foundation Class Library (MFC),the related system modules and storm surge flood routing dynamic visualization system are developed. Therefore,dynamic visualization of flood routing process and interactive query of sub-merged area and inundated depth are implemented. A practical application case study of Tianjin Binhai New Area provides decision-making support for coastal seawall planning and storm surge disaster prevention and reduction.

  9. A Dynamic Optimization Method of Indoor Fire Evacuation Route Based on Real-time Situation Awareness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DING Yulin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available How to provide safe and effective evacuation routes is an important safeguard to correctly guide evacuation and reduce the casualties during the fire situation rapidly evolving in complex indoor environment. The traditional static path finding method is difficult to adjust the path adaptively according to the changing fire situation, which lead to the evacuation decision-making blindness and hysteresis. This paper proposes a dynamic method which can dynamically optimize the indoor evacuation routes based on the real-time situation awareness. According to the real-time perception of fire situation parameters and the changing indoor environment information, the evacuation route is optimized dynamically. The integrated representation of multisource indoor fire monitoring sensor observations oriented fire emergency evacuation is presented at first, real-time fire threat situation information inside building is then extracted from the observation data of multi-source sensors, which is used to constrain the dynamical optimization of the topology of the evacuation route. Finally, the simulation experiments prove that this method can improve the accuracy and efficiency of indoor evacuation routing.

  10. New dynamic routing algorithm based on MANET in LEO/MEO satellite network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhe; LI Dong-ni; WANG Guang-xing

    2006-01-01

    The features of low earth orbit/medium earth orbit (LEO/MEO) satellite networks routing algorithm based on inter-satellite link are analyzed and the similarities between satellite networks and mobile Ad Hoc network (MANET) are pointed out.The similar parts in MANET routing protocol are used in the satellite network for reference.A new dynamic routing algorithm based on MANET in LEO/MEO satellite networks,which fits for the LEO/MEO satellite communication system,is proposed.At the same time,the model of the algorithm is simulated and features are analyzed.It is shown that the algorithm has strong adaptability.It can give the network high autonomy,perfect function,low system overhead and great compatibility.

  11. Dynamic Weather Routes Architecture Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslami, Hassan; Eshow, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic Weather Routes Architecture Overview, presents the high level software architecture of DWR, based on the CTAS software framework and the Direct-To automation tool. The document also covers external and internal data flows, required dataset, changes to the Direct-To software for DWR, collection of software statistics, and the code structure.

  12. Dynamic UAV-based traffic monitoring under uncertainty as a stochastic arc-inventory routing policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Y.J. Chow

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Given the rapid advances in unmanned aerial vehicles, or drones, and increasing need to monitor at a city level, one of the current research gaps is how to systematically deploy drones over multiple periods. We propose a real-time data-driven approach: we formulate the first deterministic arc-inventory routing problem and derive its stochastic dynamic policy. The policy is expected to be of greatest value in scenarios where uncertainty is highest and costliest, such as city monitoring during major events. The Bellman equation for an approximation of the proposed inventory routing policy is formulated as a selective vehicle routing problem. We propose an approximate dynamic programming algorithm based on Least Squares Monte Carlo simulation to find that policy. The algorithm has been modified so that the least squares dependent variable is defined to be the “expected stock out cost upon the next replenishment”. The new algorithm is tested on 30 simulated instances of real time trajectories over 5 time periods of the selective vehicle routing problem to evaluate the proposed policy and algorithm. Computational results on the selected instances show that the algorithm on average outperforms the myopic policy by 23–28%, depending on the parametric design. Further tests are conducted on classic benchmark arc routing problem instances. The 11-link instance gdb19 (Golden et al., 1983 is expanded into a sequential 15-period stochastic dynamic example and used to demonstrate why a naïve static multi-period deployment plan would not be effective in real networks.

  13. Effective local dynamic routing strategy for air route networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Wenjun; Zhao Lingxi

    2015-01-01

    With the rapid development of air transportation, network service ability has attracted a lot of attention in academe. Aiming to improve the throughput of the air route network (ARN), we propose an effective local dynamic routing strategy in this paper. Several factors, such as the rout-ing distance, the geographical distance and the real-time local traffic, are taken into consideration. When the ARN is in the normal free-flow state, the proposed strategy can recover the shortest path routing (SPR) strategy. When the ARN undergoes congestion, the proposed strategy changes the paths of flights based on the real-time local traffic information. The throughput of the Chinese air route network (CARN) is evaluated. Results confirm that the proposed strategy can significantly improve the throughput of CARN. Meanwhile, the increase in the average flying distance and time is tiny. Results also indicate the importance of the distance related factors in a routing strategy designed for the ARN.

  14. Dynamic Routing Algorithm Based on the Channel Quality Control for Farmland Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongfeng Xu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article reports a Dynamic Routing Algorithm for Farmland Sensor Networks (DRA-FSN based on channel quality control to improve energy efficiency, which combines the distance and communication characteristics of farmland wireless sensor network. The functional architecture of the DRA-FSN algorithm, routing establish the mechanisms, the communication transmission mechanism, the global routing beacon return mechanism, abnormal node handling mechanism and sensor networks timing control mechanisms were designed in detail in this article. This article also evaluates and simulated the performance of DRA-FSN algorithm in different conditions from energy efficiency, packet energy consumption and packet distribution balance by comparing DRA-FSN algorithm with DSDV, EAP algorithm. Simulations showed that the DRA-FSN was more energy efficient than EAP and DSDV, the DRA-FSN algorithm overcame the shortcoming that capacity and bandwidth of the routing table correspondingly increase as more and more nodes joining the network. It has better performance in scalability and network loading balance

  15. A Time and Space-based Dynamic IP Routing in Broadband Satellite Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The topology architecture, characteristics and routing technologies of broadband satellite networks are studied in this paper. The authors propose the routing scheme of satellite networks and design a time and space-based distributed routing algorithm whose complexity is O(1). Simulation results aiming at satellite mobility show that the new algorithm can determine the minimum propagation delay paths effectively.

  16. Partially dynamic vehicle routing - models and algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Allan; Madsen, Oli B.G.; Solomon, M.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we propose a framework for dynamic routing systems based on their degree of dynamism. Next, we consider its impact on solution methodology and quality. Specifically, we introduce the Partially Dynamic Travelling Repairman Problem and describe several dynamic policies to minimize rou...

  17. A New Route Maintenance in Dynamic Source Routing Protocol

    CERN Document Server

    Shukla, Ashish

    2010-01-01

    Mobile ad-hoc network (MANET) is infrastructureless, self-organizable, multi hop packet switched network. A number of routing protocols for MANETs have been proposed in recent years. Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) protocol is one of the most popular routing protocol for ad hoc networks. This paper presents a novel method to enhance route maintenance part of DSR protocol. Our proposed route maintenance significantly increases the efficiency of the protocol at the time of route failures.

  18. Multiobjective Dynamic Vehicle Routing Problem and Time Seed Based Solution Using Particle Swarm Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omprakash Kaiwartya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A multiobjective dynamic vehicle routing problem (M-DVRP has been identified and a time seed based solution using particle swarm optimization (TS-PSO for M-DVRP has been proposed. M-DVRP considers five objectives, namely, geographical ranking of the request, customer ranking, service time, expected reachability time, and satisfaction level of the customers. The multiobjective function of M-DVRP has four components, namely, number of vehicles, expected reachability time, and profit and satisfaction level. Three constraints of the objective function are vehicle, capacity, and reachability. In TS-PSO, first of all, the problem is partitioned into smaller size DVRPs. Secondly, the time horizon of each smaller size DVRP is divided into time seeds and the problem is solved in each time seed using particle swarm optimization. The proposed solution has been simulated in ns-2 considering real road network of New Delhi, India, and results are compared with those obtained from genetic algorithm (GA simulations. The comparison confirms that TS-PSO optimizes the multiobjective function of the identified problem better than what is offered by GA solution.

  19. Nonlinear relative-proportion-based route adjustment process for day-to-day traffic dynamics: modeling, equilibrium and stability analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenlong; Ma, Shoufeng; Tian, Junfang; Li, Geng

    2016-11-01

    Travelers' route adjustment behaviors in a congested road traffic network are acknowledged as a dynamic game process between them. Existing Proportional-Switch Adjustment Process (PSAP) models have been extensively investigated to characterize travelers' route choice behaviors; PSAP has concise structure and intuitive behavior rule. Unfortunately most of which have some limitations, i.e., the flow over adjustment problem for the discrete PSAP model, the absolute cost differences route adjustment problem, etc. This paper proposes a relative-Proportion-based Route Adjustment Process (rePRAP) maintains the advantages of PSAP and overcomes these limitations. The rePRAP describes the situation that travelers on higher cost route switch to those with lower cost at the rate that is unilaterally depended on the relative cost differences between higher cost route and its alternatives. It is verified to be consistent with the principle of the rational behavior adjustment process. The equivalence among user equilibrium, stationary path flow pattern and stationary link flow pattern is established, which can be applied to judge whether a given network traffic flow has reached UE or not by detecting the stationary or non-stationary state of link flow pattern. The stability theorem is proved by the Lyapunov function approach. A simple example is tested to demonstrate the effectiveness of the rePRAP model.

  20. Dynamic Routing during Disaster Events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fitrianie , S.; Rothkrantz , L.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Innovations in mobile technology allow people to request route information on their smartphone to reach safe areas during emergency and disaster evacuations. In return, the affected people in the field can send their observation reports, e.g. using a dedicated icon-based disaster language. However,

  1. Dynamic cellular manufacturing system design considering alternative routing and part operation tradeoff using simulated annealing based genetic algorithm

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    KAMAL DEEP; PARDEEP K SINGH

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, an integrated mathematical model of multi-period cell formation and part operation tradeoff in a dynamic cellular manufacturing system is proposed in consideration with multiple part process route. This paper puts emphasize on the production flexibility (production/subcontracting part operation) to satisfy the product demand requirement in different period segments of planning horizon considering production capacity shortage and/or sudden machine breakdown. The proposed model simultaneously generates machine cells and part families and selects the optimum process route instead of the user specifying predetermined routes. Conventional optimization method for the optimal cell formation problem requires substantial amount of time and memory space. Hence a simulated annealing based genetic algorithm is proposed to explore the solution regions efficiently and to expedite the solution search space. To evaluate the computability of the proposed algorithm, different problem scenarios are adopted from literature. The results approve the effectiveness of theproposed approach in designing the manufacturing cell and minimization of the overall cost, considering various manufacturing aspects such as production volume, multiple process route, production capacity, machine duplication, system reconfiguration, material handling and subcontracting part operation.

  2. Classification of Dynamic Vehicle Routing Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Allan; Madsen, Oli B.G.; Solomon, Marius M.

    2007-01-01

    to classify dynamic vehicle routing systems. Methods for evaluation of the performance of algorithms that solve on-line routing problems are discussed and we list some of the most important issues to include in the system objective. Finally, we provide a three-echelon classification of dynamic vehicle routing...

  3. Mutation Ant Colony Algorithm of Milk-Run Vehicle Routing Problem with Fastest Completion Time Based on Dynamic Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Ma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of vehicle routing problem is usually to minimize the total traveling distance or cost. But in practice, there are a lot of problems needed to minimize the fastest completion time. The milk-run vehicle routing problem (MRVRP is widely used in milk-run distribution. The mutation ACO is given to solve MRVRP with fastest completion time in this paper. The milk-run VRP with fastest completion time is introduced first, and then the customer division method based on dynamic optimization and split algorithm is given to transform this problem into finding the optimal customer order. At last the mutation ACO is given and the numerical examples verify the effectiveness of the algorithm.

  4. Dynamic information routing in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirst, Christoph; Timme, Marc; Battaglia, Demian

    2016-01-01

    Flexible information routing fundamentally underlies the function of many biological and artificial networks. Yet, how such systems may specifically communicate and dynamically route information is not well understood. Here we identify a generic mechanism to route information on top of collective dynamical reference states in complex networks. Switching between collective dynamics induces flexible reorganization of information sharing and routing patterns, as quantified by delayed mutual information and transfer entropy measures between activities of a network's units. We demonstrate the power of this mechanism specifically for oscillatory dynamics and analyse how individual unit properties, the network topology and external inputs co-act to systematically organize information routing. For multi-scale, modular architectures, we resolve routing patterns at all levels. Interestingly, local interventions within one sub-network may remotely determine nonlocal network-wide communication. These results help understanding and designing information routing patterns across systems where collective dynamics co-occurs with a communication function. PMID:27067257

  5. Dynamic information routing in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirst, Christoph; Timme, Marc; Battaglia, Demian

    2016-04-01

    Flexible information routing fundamentally underlies the function of many biological and artificial networks. Yet, how such systems may specifically communicate and dynamically route information is not well understood. Here we identify a generic mechanism to route information on top of collective dynamical reference states in complex networks. Switching between collective dynamics induces flexible reorganization of information sharing and routing patterns, as quantified by delayed mutual information and transfer entropy measures between activities of a network's units. We demonstrate the power of this mechanism specifically for oscillatory dynamics and analyse how individual unit properties, the network topology and external inputs co-act to systematically organize information routing. For multi-scale, modular architectures, we resolve routing patterns at all levels. Interestingly, local interventions within one sub-network may remotely determine nonlocal network-wide communication. These results help understanding and designing information routing patterns across systems where collective dynamics co-occurs with a communication function.

  6. Dynamic route guidance algorithm based algorithm based on artificial immune system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    To improve the performance of the K-shortest paths search in intelligent traffic guidance systems,this paper proposes an optimal search algorithm based on the intelligent optimization search theory and the memphor mechanism of vertebrate immune systems.This algorithm,applied to the urban traffic network model established by the node-expanding method,can expediently realize K-shortest paths search in the urban traffic guidance systems.Because of the immune memory and global parallel search ability from artificial immune systems,K shortest paths can be found without any repeat,which indicates evidently the superiority of the algorithm to the conventional ones.Not only does it perform a better parallelism,the algorithm also prevents premature phenomenon that often occurs in genetic algorithms.Thus,it is especially suitable for real-time requirement of the traffic guidance system and other engineering optimal applications.A case study verifies the efficiency and the practicability of the algorithm aforementioned.

  7. Automated Flight Routing Using Stochastic Dynamic Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Hok K.; Morando, Alex; Grabbe, Shon

    2010-01-01

    Airspace capacity reduction due to convective weather impedes air traffic flows and causes traffic congestion. This study presents an algorithm that reroutes flights in the presence of winds, enroute convective weather, and congested airspace based on stochastic dynamic programming. A stochastic disturbance model incorporates into the reroute design process the capacity uncertainty. A trajectory-based airspace demand model is employed for calculating current and future airspace demand. The optimal routes minimize the total expected traveling time, weather incursion, and induced congestion costs. They are compared to weather-avoidance routes calculated using deterministic dynamic programming. The stochastic reroutes have smaller deviation probability than the deterministic counterpart when both reroutes have similar total flight distance. The stochastic rerouting algorithm takes into account all convective weather fields with all severity levels while the deterministic algorithm only accounts for convective weather systems exceeding a specified level of severity. When the stochastic reroutes are compared to the actual flight routes, they have similar total flight time, and both have about 1% of travel time crossing congested enroute sectors on average. The actual flight routes induce slightly less traffic congestion than the stochastic reroutes but intercept more severe convective weather.

  8. Improving Operational Acceptability of Dynamic Weather Routes Through Analysis of Commonly Use Routings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Antony D.; Sridhar, Banavar; McNally, David

    2016-01-01

    The Dynamic Weather Routes (DWR) tool is a ground-based trajectory automation system that continuously and automatically analyzes active in-flight aircraft in en route airspace to find simple modifications to flight plan routes that can save significant flying time, while avoiding weather and considering traffic conflicts, airspace sector congestion, special use airspace, and FAA routing restrictions. Trials of the DWR system have shown that significant delay savings are possible. However, some DWR advised routes are also rejected by dispatchers or modified before being accepted. Similarly, of those sent by dispatchers to flight crews as proposed route change requests, many are not accepted by air traffic control, or are modified before implementation as Center route amendments. Such actions suggest that the operational acceptability of DWR advised route corrections could be improved, which may reduce workload and increase delay savings. This paper analyzes the historical usage of different flight routings, varying from simple waypoint pairs to lengthy strings of waypoints incorporating jet routes, in order to improve DWR route acceptability. An approach is developed that can be incorporated into DWR, advising routings with high historical usage and savings potential similar to that of the nominal DWR advisory. It is hypothesized that modifying a nominal DWR routing to one that is commonly used, and nearby, will result in more actual savings since common routings are generally familiar and operationally acceptable to air traffic control. The approach allows routing segments with high historical usage to be concatenated to form routes that meet all DWR constraints. The relevance of a route's historical usage to its acceptance by dispatchers and air traffic control is quantified by analyzing historical DWR data. Results indicate that while historical usage may be less of a concern to flight dispatchers accepting or rejecting DWR advised route corrections, it may be

  9. Dynamic information routing in complex networks

    CERN Document Server

    Kirst, Christoph; Battaglia, Demian

    2015-01-01

    Flexible information routing fundamentally underlies the function of many biological and artificial networks. Yet, how such systems may specifically communicate and dynamically route information is not well understood. Here we identify a generic mechanism to route information on top of collective dynamical reference states in complex networks. Switching between collective dynamics induces flexible reorganization of information sharing and routing patterns, as quantified by delayed mutual information and transfer entropy measures between activities of a network's units. We demonstrate the power of this generic mechanism specifically for oscillatory dynamics and analyze how individual unit properties, the network topology and external inputs coact to systematically organize information routing. For multi-scale, modular architectures, we resolve routing patterns at all levels. Interestingly, local interventions within one sub-network may remotely determine non-local network-wide communication. These results help...

  10. Node Sensing & Dynamic Discovering Routes for Wireless Sensor Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Nanda, Arabinda; Rout, Saroj Kumar

    2010-01-01

    The applications of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) contain a wide variety of scenarios. In most of them, the network is composed of a significant number of nodes deployed in an extensive area in which not all nodes are directly connected. Then, the data exchange is supported by multihop communications. Routing protocols are in charge of discovering and maintaining the routes in the network. However, the correctness of a particular routing protocol mainly depends on the capabilities of the nodes and on the application requirements. This paper presents a dynamic discover routing method for communication between sensor nodes and a base station in WSN. This method tolerates failures of arbitrary individual nodes in the network (node failure) or a small part of the network (area failure). Each node in the network does only local routing preservation, needs to record only its neighbor nodes' information, and incurs no extra routing overhead during failure free periods. It dynamically discovers new routes when an in...

  11. QoS-Based Dynamic Multicast Routing Design Using Genetic Algorithms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUANYouwei; YANLamei

    2004-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of determining minimum cost paths to nodes in a Multicast group satisfying delay bounds and delay variation bounds. This study explores the use of Genetic algorithms (GAs) for solving the multicast routing problems when multiple Quality of services (QoS) requirements are presented. Our simulation results indicate that it is critical to select a suitable representation method and a set of appropriate parameters in order to obtain good performance. For a medium network, the probability from 0.02 to 0.2 seems to work better than those of too small or too large. As compared with the other optimal algorithm, the proposed algorithm gives better performance in terms of the success rate, the tree cost, the number of exchanged messages and the convergence time.

  12. Inventory routing for dynamic waste collection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mes, Martijn R.K.; Schutten, Johannes M.J.; Perez Rivera, Arturo Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    We consider the problem of collecting waste from sensor equipped underground containers. These sensors enable the use of a dynamic collection policy. The problem, which is known as a reverse inventory routing problem, involves decisions regarding routing and container selection. In more dense

  13. Inventory routing for dynamic waste collection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mes, Martijn R.K.; Schutten, Johannes M.J.; Perez Rivera, Arturo Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    We consider the problem of collecting waste from sensor equipped underground containers. These sensors enable the use of a dynamic collection policy. The problem, which is known as a reverse inventory routing problem, involves decisions regarding routing and container selection. In more dense

  14. Dynamic Routing Protocol for Computer Networks with Clustering Topology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a hierarchical dynamic routing protocol (HDRP) based on the discrete dynamic programming principle. The proposed protocol can adapt to the dynamic and large computer networks (DLCN) with clustering topology. The procedures for realizing routing update and decision are presented in this paper. The proof of correctness and complexity analysis of the protocol are also made. The performance measures of the HDRP including throughput and average message delay are evaluated by using of simulation. The study shows that the HDRP provides a new available approach to the routing decision for DLCN or high speed networks with clustering topology.

  15. Coherent Route Cache In Dynamic Source Routing For Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofiane Boukli Hacene

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Ad hoc network is a set of nodes that are able to move and can be connected in an arbitrary manner. Each node acts as a router and communicates using a multi-hop wireless links. Nodes within ad hoc networks need efficient dynamic routing protocols to facilitate communication. An Efficient routing protocol can provide significant benefits to mobile ad hoc networks, in terms of both performance and reliability. Several routing protocols exist allowing and facilitating communication between mobile nodes. One of the promising routing protocols is DSR (Dynamic Source Routing. This protocol presents some problems. The major problem in DSR is that the route cache contains some inconsistence routing information; this is due to node mobility. This problem generates longer delays for data packets. In order to reduce the delays we propose a technique based on cleaning route caches for nodes within an active route. Our approach has been implemented and tested in the well known network simulator GLOMOSIM and the simulation results show that protocol performance have been enhanced.

  16. Pheromone based alternative route planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangbing Feng

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we propose an improved alternative route calculation based on alternative figures, which is suitable for practical environments. The improvement is based on the fact that the main traffic route is the road network skeleton in a city. Our approach using nodes may generate a higher possibility of overlapping. We employ a bidirectional Dijkstra algorithm to search the route. To measure the quality of an Alternative Figures (AG, three quotas are proposed. The experiment results indicate that the improved algorithm proposed in this paper is more effective than others.

  17. TBRF: Trust Based Routing Framework for WSNs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kushal Gulaskar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The multi-hop routing in wireless sensor networks (WSNs offers little protection against identity deception through replaying routing information. An adversary can exploit this defect to launch various harmful or even devastating attacks against the routing protocols, including sinkhole attacks, wormhole attacks and Sybil attacks. The situation is further aggravated by mobile and harsh network conditions. Traditional cryptographic techniques or efforts at developing trust-aware routing protocols do not effectively address this severe problem. To secure the WSNs against adversaries misdirecting the multi-hop routing, we have designed and implemented TBRF, a robust trust-aware routing framework for dynamic WSNs. Without tight time synchronization or known geographic information, TBRF provides trustworthy and energy-efficient route. Most importantly, TBRF proves effective against those harmful attacks developed out of identity deception; the resilience of TBRF is verified through extensive evaluation with both simulation and empirical experiments on large-scale WSNs under various scenarios including mobile and RF-shielding network conditions. Further, we have implemented a low-overhead TBRF module in TinyOS; as demonstrated, this implementation can be incorporated into existing routing protocols with the least effort. Based on TBRF, we also demonstrated a proof-of-concept mobile target detection application that functions well against an anti-detection mechanism

  18. ACO based routing for MANETs

    CERN Document Server

    Arif, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a collection of wireless mobile nodes. It dynamically forms a temporary network without using any pre existing network infrastructure or centralized administration i.e. with minimal prior planning. All nodes have routing capabilities and forward data packets to other nodes in multi-hop fashion. As the network is dynamic, the network topology continuously experiences alterations during deployment. The biggest challenge in MANETs is to find a path between communicating nodes. The considerations of the MANET environment and the nature of the mobile nodes create further complications which results in the need to develop special routing algorithms to meet these challenges. Swarm intelligence, a bio-inspired technique, which has proven to be very adaptable in other problem domains, has been applied to the MANET routing problem as it forms a good fit to the problem. In ant societies the activities of the individuals are not regulated by any explicit form of centralized control but ar...

  19. Phone Routing using the Dynamic Memory Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Claus Nicolaj; Krink, Thiemo

    2002-01-01

    In earlier studies a genetic algorithm (GA) extended with the dynamic memory model has shown remarkable performance on real-world-like problems. In this paper we experiment with routing in communication networks and show that the dynamic memory GA performs remarkable well compared to ant colony o...

  20. Equilibria in Dynamic Selfish Routing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anshelevich, Elliot; Ukkusuri, Satish

    In both transportation and communication networks we are faced with “selfish flows”, where every agent sending flow over the network desires to get it to its destination as soon as possible. Such flows have been well studied in time-invariant networks in the last few years. A key observation that must be taken into account in defining and studying selfish flow, however, is that a flow can take a non-negligible amount of time to travel across the network from the source to destination, and that network states like traffic load and congestion can vary during this period. Such flows are called dynamic flows (a.k.a. flows over time). This variation in network state as the flow progresses through the network results in the fundamentally different and significantly more complex nature of dynamic flow equilibria, as compared to those defined in static network settings.

  1. Escape probability based routing for ad hoc networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xuanping; Qin Zheng; Li Xin

    2006-01-01

    Routes in an ad hoc network may fail frequently because of node mobility. Stability therefore can be an important element in the design of routing protocols. The node escape probability is introduced to estimate the lifetime and stability of link between neighboring nodes and the escape probability based routing (EPBR) scheme to discover stable routes is proposed. Simulation results show that the EPBR can discover stable routes to reduce the number of route rediscovery, and is applicable for the situation that has highly dynamic network topology with broad area of communication.

  2. Benefits Analysis of Multi-Center Dynamic Weather Routes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheth, Kapil; McNally, David; Morando, Alexander; Clymer, Alexis; Lock, Jennifer; Petersen, Julien

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic weather routes are flight plan corrections that can provide airborne flights more than user-specified minutes of flying-time savings, compared to their current flight plan. These routes are computed from the aircraft's current location to a flight plan fix downstream (within a predefined limit region), while avoiding forecasted convective weather regions. The Dynamic Weather Routes automation has been continuously running with live air traffic data for a field evaluation at the American Airlines Integrated Operations Center in Fort Worth, TX since July 31, 2012, where flights within the Fort Worth Air Route Traffic Control Center are evaluated for time savings. This paper extends the methodology to all Centers in United States and presents benefits analysis of Dynamic Weather Routes automation, if it was implemented in multiple airspace Centers individually and concurrently. The current computation of dynamic weather routes requires a limit rectangle so that a downstream capture fix can be selected, preventing very large route changes spanning several Centers. In this paper, first, a method of computing a limit polygon (as opposed to a rectangle used for Fort Worth Center) is described for each of the 20 Centers in the National Airspace System. The Future ATM Concepts Evaluation Tool, a nationwide simulation and analysis tool, is used for this purpose. After a comparison of results with the Center-based Dynamic Weather Routes automation in Fort Worth Center, results are presented for 11 Centers in the contiguous United States. These Centers are generally most impacted by convective weather. A breakdown of individual Center and airline savings is presented and the results indicate an overall average savings of about 10 minutes of flying time are obtained per flight.

  3. Energy-Aware Routing Optimization in Dynamic GMPLS Controlled Optical Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jiayuan; Ricciardi, Sergio; Fagertun, Anna Manolova;

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, routing optimizations based on energy sources are proposed in dynamic GMPLS controlled optical networks. The influences of re-routing and load balancing factors on the algorithm are evaluated, with a focus on different re-routing thresholds. Results from dynamic network simulations...... show that re-routing strategies can lower CO2 emissions compared to the basic energy source routing scheme, and a lower re-routing threshold achieves more savings. The increased blocking probability brought by using re-routing schemes can be compensated by applying load balancing criteria. A trade...

  4. Dynamic Routing in Translucent WDM Optical Networks: The Intradomain Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xi; Ramamurthy, Byrav

    2005-03-01

    Translucent wavelength-division multiplexing optical networks use sparse placement of regenerators to overcome physical impairments and wavelength contention introduced by fully transparent networks, and achieve a performance close to fully opaque networks at a much less cost. In previous studies, we addressed the placement of regenerators based on static schemes,allowing for only a limited number of regenerators at fixed locations. This paper furthers those studies by proposing a dynamic resource allocation and dynamic routing scheme to operate translucent networks. This scheme is realized through dynamically sharing regeneration resources, including transmitters,receivers, and electronic interfaces, between regeneration and access functions under a multidomain hierarchical translucent network model. An intradomain routing algorithm, which takes into consideration optical-layer constraints as well as dynamic allocation of regeneration resources, is developed to address the problem of translucent dynamic routing in a single routing domain. Network performance in terms of blocking probability, resource utilization, and running times under different resource allocation and routing schemes is measured through simulation experiments.

  5. Adaptive swarm-based routing in communication networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕勇; 赵光宙; 苏凡军; 历小润

    2004-01-01

    Swarm intelligence inspired by the social behavior of ants boasts a number of attractive features, including adaptation, robustness and distributed, decentralized nature, which are well suited for routing in modern communication networks. This paper describes an adaptive swarm-based routing algorithm that increases convergence speed, reduces routing instabilities and oscillations by using a novel variation of reinforcement learning and a technique called momentum.Experiment on the dynamic network showed that adaptive swarm-based routing learns the optimum routing in terms of convergence speed and average packet latency.

  6. Adaptive swarm-based routing in communication networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕勇; 赵光宙; 苏凡军; 历小润

    2004-01-01

    Swarm intelligence inspired by the social behavior of ants boasts a number of attractive features,including adaptation,robustness and distributed,decentralized nature,which are well suited for routing in modern communication networks.This paper describes an adaptive swarm-based routing algorithm that increases convergence speed,reduces routing instabilities and oscillations by using a novel variation of reinforcement learning and a technique called momentum.Experiment on the dynamic network showed that adaptive swarm-based routing learns the optimum routing in terms of convergence speed and average packet latency.

  7. Real Time Route for Dynamic Road Congestions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Riad

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Minimizing service delivery and travel time during rush hours downtown is strategic target for several organizations, especially the emergency organizations. This paper presents an On-line and Real-time Dynamic Route System (ORDRS which benefits from the advantages and integration between information system and communications technology. It utilizes Global Positioning System (GPS, Geographical Information Systems (GIS, and Global System for Mobile communications (GSM; for producing the real time routes for vehicles. GPS-Tracker is the main input device for ORDRS. It is fixated in a vehicle, sends vehicle's movement data (Geo-info to the control center wirelessly through either Short Message Service (SMS or General Packet Radio Service (GPRS. Geo-info includes time, date, longitude, latitude, speed, and etc., these data is classified over time during weekdays into interval time slices, each slice is 30 minutes. Speeds are treated by GIS tools to determine historical and real time speeds for each street segment in the road network which is being used for calculating time impedance (cost matrix for each street segment dynamically. ORDRS uses a cost matrix of the current time slice for determining the best route to each vehicle in duty attached. Several algorithms was used to calculate the shortest route, a comparison between Dijekstra and Yen algorithms was studied.

  8. 基于路由机制的时变路网κ近邻算法%κ-Nearest Neighbor Algorithm in Dynamic Road Network Based on Routing Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张栋良; 唐俊

    2013-01-01

    针对现实生活中动态路网的地理信息查询问题,提出了一种基于路由机制的动态路网中k近邻查询的算法.其主导思想是利用空间换时间,用路由表保存历史查询结果,用查询路由表的方法代替传统的最短路径计算,通过历史数据减少系统重复计算并对车辆行驶路径进行规划,用更新路由表的方法适应路况的变化.围绕路由表这一核心,改进相应的k近邻算法的过滤、精炼过程.通过路由表对动态路网进行少量的预处理,减少系统在k近邻搜索中的候选点数量,缩小查询范围,提高搜索效率.%Aiming at the issue of geography information query, a new κ-Nearest Neighbor algorithm for dynamic road network was proposed based on routing mechanism. With the idea of "space for time", we saved history query results in routing tables, and substituted the traditional method by requiring tables. We updated the route tables to adapt the time varying road status. With the kernel of routing table, we improved the filtering and refining procedure of kNN algorithm. By preprocess of dynamic road network using routing table, the amount of candidate points in κ-NN computing is reduced,and the rang of query and the searching efficiency are promoted.

  9. Dynamic Route Guidance Using Improved Genetic Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanke Yu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an improved genetic algorithm (IGA for dynamic route guidance algorithm. The proposed IGA design a vicinity crossover technique and a greedy backward mutation technique to increase the population diversity and strengthen local search ability. The steady-state reproduction is introduced to protect the optimized genetic individuals. Furthermore the junction delay is introduced to the fitness function. The simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  10. A Space-Time Network-Based Modeling Framework for Dynamic Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Routing in Traffic Incident Monitoring Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jisheng; Jia, Limin; Niu, Shuyun; Zhang, Fan; Tong, Lu; Zhou, Xuesong

    2015-06-12

    It is essential for transportation management centers to equip and manage a network of fixed and mobile sensors in order to quickly detect traffic incidents and further monitor the related impact areas, especially for high-impact accidents with dramatic traffic congestion propagation. As emerging small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) start to have a more flexible regulation environment, it is critically important to fully explore the potential for of using UAVs for monitoring recurring and non-recurring traffic conditions and special events on transportation networks. This paper presents a space-time network- based modeling framework for integrated fixed and mobile sensor networks, in order to provide a rapid and systematic road traffic monitoring mechanism. By constructing a discretized space-time network to characterize not only the speed for UAVs but also the time-sensitive impact areas of traffic congestion, we formulate the problem as a linear integer programming model to minimize the detection delay cost and operational cost, subject to feasible flying route constraints. A Lagrangian relaxation solution framework is developed to decompose the original complex problem into a series of computationally efficient time-dependent and least cost path finding sub-problems. Several examples are used to demonstrate the results of proposed models in UAVs' route planning for small and medium-scale networks.

  11. A Space-Time Network-Based Modeling Framework for Dynamic Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Routing in Traffic Incident Monitoring Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jisheng Zhang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available It is essential for transportation management centers to equip and manage a network of fixed and mobile sensors in order to quickly detect traffic incidents and further monitor the related impact areas, especially for high-impact accidents with dramatic traffic congestion propagation. As emerging small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs start to have a more flexible regulation environment, it is critically important to fully explore the potential for of using UAVs for monitoring recurring and non-recurring traffic conditions and special events on transportation networks. This paper presents a space-time network- based modeling framework for integrated fixed and mobile sensor networks, in order to provide a rapid and systematic road traffic monitoring mechanism. By constructing a discretized space-time network to characterize not only the speed for UAVs but also the time-sensitive impact areas of traffic congestion, we formulate the problem as a linear integer programming model to minimize the detection delay cost and operational cost, subject to feasible flying route constraints. A Lagrangian relaxation solution framework is developed to decompose the original complex problem into a series of computationally efficient time-dependent and least cost path finding sub-problems. Several examples are used to demonstrate the results of proposed models in UAVs’ route planning for small and medium-scale networks.

  12. A Space-Time Network-Based Modeling Framework for Dynamic Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Routing in Traffic Incident Monitoring Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jisheng; Jia, Limin; Niu, Shuyun; Zhang, Fan; Tong, Lu; Zhou, Xuesong

    2015-01-01

    It is essential for transportation management centers to equip and manage a network of fixed and mobile sensors in order to quickly detect traffic incidents and further monitor the related impact areas, especially for high-impact accidents with dramatic traffic congestion propagation. As emerging small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) start to have a more flexible regulation environment, it is critically important to fully explore the potential for of using UAVs for monitoring recurring and non-recurring traffic conditions and special events on transportation networks. This paper presents a space-time network- based modeling framework for integrated fixed and mobile sensor networks, in order to provide a rapid and systematic road traffic monitoring mechanism. By constructing a discretized space-time network to characterize not only the speed for UAVs but also the time-sensitive impact areas of traffic congestion, we formulate the problem as a linear integer programming model to minimize the detection delay cost and operational cost, subject to feasible flying route constraints. A Lagrangian relaxation solution framework is developed to decompose the original complex problem into a series of computationally efficient time-dependent and least cost path finding sub-problems. Several examples are used to demonstrate the results of proposed models in UAVs’ route planning for small and medium-scale networks. PMID:26076404

  13. Inventory routing for dynamic waste collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mes, Martijn; Schutten, Marco; Rivera, Arturo Pérez

    2014-09-01

    We consider the problem of collecting waste from sensor equipped underground containers. These sensors enable the use of a dynamic collection policy. The problem, which is known as a reverse inventory routing problem, involves decisions regarding routing and container selection. In more dense networks, the latter becomes more important. To cope with uncertainty in deposit volumes and with fluctuations due to daily and seasonal effects, we need an anticipatory policy that balances the workload over time. We propose a relatively simple heuristic consisting of several tunable parameters depending on the day of the week. We tune the parameters of this policy using optimal learning techniques combined with simulation. We illustrate our approach using a real life problem instance of a waste collection company, located in The Netherlands, and perform experiments on several other instances. For our case study, we show that costs savings up to 40% are possible by optimizing the parameters. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Congested Link Inference Algorithms in Dynamic Routing IP Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance descending of current congested link inference algorithms is obviously in dynamic routing IP network, such as the most classical algorithm CLINK. To overcome this problem, based on the assumptions of Markov property and time homogeneity, we build a kind of Variable Structure Discrete Dynamic Bayesian (VSDDB network simplified model of dynamic routing IP network. Under the simplified VSDDB model, based on the Bayesian Maximum A Posteriori (BMAP and Rest Bayesian Network Model (RBNM, we proposed an Improved CLINK (ICLINK algorithm. Considering the concurrent phenomenon of multiple link congestion usually happens, we also proposed algorithm CLILRS (Congested Link Inference algorithm based on Lagrangian Relaxation Subgradient to infer the set of congested links. We validated our results by the experiments of analogy, simulation, and actual Internet.

  15. A Hybrid Routing Algorithm Based on Ant Colony and ZHLS Routing Protocol for MANET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafsanjani, Marjan Kuchaki; Asadinia, Sanaz; Pakzad, Farzaneh

    Mobile Ad hoc networks (MANETs) require dynamic routing schemes for adequate performance. This paper, presents a new routing algorithm for MANETs, which combines the idea of ant colony optimization with Zone-based Hierarchical Link State (ZHLS) protocol. Ant colony optimization (ACO) is a class of Swarm Intelligence (SI) algorithms. SI is the local interaction of many simple agents to achieve a global goal. SI is based on social insect for solving different types of problems. ACO algorithm uses mobile agents called ants to explore network. Ants help to find paths between two nodes in the network. Our algorithm is based on ants jump from one zone to the next zones which contains of the proactive routing within a zone and reactive routing between the zones. Our proposed algorithm improves the performance of the network such as delay, packet delivery ratio and overhead than traditional routing algorithms.

  16. Dynamic Equilibrium Assignment Convergence by En-route Flow Smoothing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pel, A.J.; Bliemer, M.C.J.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.

    2010-01-01

    An essential feature in many dynamic traffic assignment (DTA) models used for planning purposes is to compute the (dynamic) equilibrium assignment, where travellers follow user-optimal routes, leading to minimal experienced route travel times. To compute these time-varying route flows in the equilib

  17. QDSR: QoS-aware Dynamic Source Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHIMinghong; YAOYinxiong; BAIYingcai

    2004-01-01

    QoS routing in wireless ad hoc networks faces many technical challenges due to time varying link and random mobility of nodes in these dynamic networks.In this paper, we design a QoS-aware dynamic source routing protocol (QDSR), based on DSR . QDSR uses minimum cost as the constraint, modifies route discovery, route reply and route maintenance mechanisms in DSR, adds the capability of path testing and initial resource reservation.The results of robustness and stability and performances imulations demonstrate that it suits the fluctuation of dynamic environment very well.

  18. Scoped Bellman-Ford Geographic Routing for Large Dynamic Wireless Sensor Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue Zhang; Jue Hong; Sang-Lu Lu; Li Xie; Jian-Nong Cao

    2008-01-01

    Routing is a fundamental problem in wireless sensor networks. Most previous routing protocols are challenged when used in large dynamic networks as they suffer from either poor scalability or the void problem. In this paper, we propose a new geographic routing protocol, SBFR (Scoped Bellman-Ford Routing), for large dynamic wireless sensor networks. The basic idea is that each node keeps a view scope of the network by computing distance vectors using the distributed BellmanFord method, and maintains a cost for routing to the sink. When forwarding a packet, a node picks the node with minimum cost in its routing table as a temporary landmark. While achieving good scalability, it also solves the void problem in an efficient manner through the combination of Bellman-Ford routing and cost-based geographic routing. Analytical and simulation results show that SBFR outperforms other routing protocols not only because of its robustness and scaiability but also its practicality and simplicity.

  19. Dynamic vehicle routing with time windows in theory and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhiwei; van Osta, Jan-Paul; van Veen, Barry; van Krevelen, Rick; van Klaveren, Richard; Stam, Andries; Kok, Joost; Bäck, Thomas; Emmerich, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The vehicle routing problem is a classical combinatorial optimization problem. This work is about a variant of the vehicle routing problem with dynamically changing orders and time windows. In real-world applications often the demands change during operation time. New orders occur and others are canceled. In this case new schedules need to be generated on-the-fly. Online optimization algorithms for dynamical vehicle routing address this problem but so far they do not consider time windows. Moreover, to match the scenarios found in real-world problems adaptations of benchmarks are required. In this paper, a practical problem is modeled based on the procedure of daily routing of a delivery company. New orders by customers are introduced dynamically during the working day and need to be integrated into the schedule. A multiple ant colony algorithm combined with powerful local search procedures is proposed to solve the dynamic vehicle routing problem with time windows. The performance is tested on a new benchmark based on simulations of a working day. The problems are taken from Solomon's benchmarks but a certain percentage of the orders are only revealed to the algorithm during operation time. Different versions of the MACS algorithm are tested and a high performing variant is identified. Finally, the algorithm is tested in situ: In a field study, the algorithm schedules a fleet of cars for a surveillance company. We compare the performance of the algorithm to that of the procedure used by the company and we summarize insights gained from the implementation of the real-world study. The results show that the multiple ant colony algorithm can get a much better solution on the academic benchmark problem and also can be integrated in a real-world environment.

  20. Dynamic Air Route Open-Close Problem for Airspace Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Dynamic airspace management plans and assigns airspace resources to airspace users on demand to increase airspace capacity. Although many studies of air traffic flow management (ATFM) have sought to optimally allocate air traffic to get the best use of given airspace resources, few studies have focused on how to build an efficient air traffic network or how to adjust the current network in real time. This paper presents an integer program model named the dynamic air route open-close problem (DROP). DROP has a cost-based objective function which takes into account constraints such as the shortest occupancy time of routes, which are not considered in ATFM models. The aim of DROP is to determine which routes will be opened to a certain user during a given time period. Simulation results show that DROP can facilitate utilization of air routes. DROP, a simplified version of an air traffic network constructing problem, is the first step towards realizing dynamic airspace management. The combination of ATFM and DROP can facilitate decisions toward more reasonable, efficient use of limited airspace resources.

  1. Decentralized Control of Dynamic Routing with a Neural Network Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A state-dependent routing algorithm based on the neural network model, which takes advantage of other dynamic routing algorithm for circuit-switched network, is given in [1]. But, the Algorithm in [1] is a centralized control model with complex O (N7), therefore, is difficult to realize by hardware. A simplified algorithm is put forward in this paper, in which routing can be controlled decentralizedly, and its complexity is reduced to O (10N3). Computer simulations are made in a fully connected test network with eight nodes. The results show that the centralized control model has very effective performance that can match RTNR, and the centralized control model is not as good as the centralized one but better than DAR-1.

  2. Dynamic Route Shortening and Route Repairing Mechanism for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. R. Rangaswamy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Ad hoc Networks are wireless networks without any fixed infrastructure. The network topology changes frequently and unpredictably due to the random movement of the nodes. The ad hoc on Demand Distant Vector Routing (AODV protocol works in a dynamic fashion, by establishing a route on demand and continues that route until it breaks. Due to the changing network topology of ad hoc networks, if other routes with less hop count become available, the network topology is not able to adapt until the route break occurs. Hence in the route shortening scheme is some redundant nodes in the active route is replaced with a node that is not on the active route. When there is any link failure between any two nodes, the alternative route with optimum route to be constructed and not sending RRER message to the source node to initiate the route discovery process again. Approach: This study proposes a new routing protocol called, Dynamic Route Shortening and Repairing mechanism (DRSR. The route shortening is incorporated with route repairing mechanism, to improve the performance of the AODV. The route shortening scheme works by replacing some redundant nodes in the active route, with a node that is not on the active route. If there is a link failure between the two nodes, the route repairing mechanism repairs the route, by using the nodes that are close enough to the route to overhear the message. Whenever the links go down, the DRSR replaces the failed links with the optimum route that is adjacent to the main route and not sending and RRER message to the source node to initiate the route discovery process again. The alternative route construction process could be initiated at any time, not just when a route has failed. The dynamically constructed alternative route’s information is passed on to the upstream nodes, which then determine by themselves when to direct their packets to the Normal 0 false false false EN-US X

  3. Dynamic Routing of Short Transfer Baggage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Tommy; Pisinger, David

    of dispatch. Computational results are presented for real-life passenger data with stochastic bag arrival times and travel times. The results indicate that the algorithm is able to dispatch the baggage considerably better than the manual delivery plans reported in the case study, and due to its fast running...... times, the algorithm is suitable for dynamic dispatching. Investigations on the impact of uncertainty and fleet size make it possible to support a trade-off between fleet size and expected service level.......We consider a variant of the Vehicle Routing Problem that arises in airports when transporting baggage for passengers with connecting flights. Each bag can be delivered in two locations with disjunctive time windows. The task is to define multiple trips for the vehicles in order to deliver bags...

  4. Pheromone-Based Ant Routing System for IP Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张林; 任勇; 山秀明

    2004-01-01

    The pheromone-based ant routing algorithm is a distributed routing algorithm with good scalability and robustness. A 2-D cellular automata (CA) model of the computer network was presented to analyze the algorithm. The results show that the procedure of establishing a stable route is self-organized towards the attractive peculiar state, and the duration of time for the routing establishment is power-law distributed. A practical ant routing protocol over an IP network was also presented, and two simulations were done to compare the performance dynamic and the load balancing performance between this protocol and the open shortest path first (OSPF) protocol. The results show that the ant routing protocol out-performs OSPF in these aspects.

  5. Gossip Based Ad-Hoc Routing

    OpenAIRE

    Haas, Zygmunt; Halpern, Joseph Y.; Li, Erran L.

    2002-01-01

    Many ad hoc routing protocols are based on some variant of flooding. Despite various optimizations, many routing messages are propagated unnecessarily. We propose a gossiping-based approach, where each node forwards a message with some probability, to reduce the overhead of the routing protocols. Gossiping exhibits bimodal behavior in sufficiently large networks: in some executions, the gossip dies out quickly and hardly any node gets the message; in the remaining executions, a substantial fr...

  6. 基于信号灯配时的动态路径诱导模型%Dynamic Route Guidance Model Based on Signal Lamp Time Assignment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高淑萍; 赵会宾; 张玲; 王进鑫

    2011-01-01

    针对城市交通流量变化产生的问题,在交叉口信号灯配时方案改进的基础上建立了动态路径诱导的双层优化模型,上层模型以行驶时间为目标函数,下层模型以总交叉口延误最小为目标函数.利用改进蚁群算法来求解优化模型,从而获得多准最优路径.以实际交叉口为例,将信号灯配时改进前、后的模型计算结果进行比较.结果表明:应用信号灯配时改进后的模型获得的路径更省时,交叉口等待通行时间更短.%Aimed at the problem due to changes of the urban traffic flow, based on the improvement of the project of intersections signal lamp, bi-level optimal model of dynamic route guidance was established. In the upper level model, the minimization of travel time was used as the objective function; in the lower level model, the minimization of intersection delay was used as the objective function. Improved ant colony system algorithm (IACA) was applied to solution and improvement of the model, and multi-strip quasi-optimal routes were obtained. Taking practical intersections as example, calculated results of model before and after improvement of signal lamp time assignment were compared. Results show that the model after improvement of signal lamp time assignment can find more time-saving route and less waiting time of intersections.

  7. Dynamic Routing Algorithm for Satellite Network Based on Ant Colony Algorithm%基于蚁群算法的卫星网动态路由算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马海滨; 王汝传; 饶元

    2011-01-01

    卫星网络路由应当具有使用较小的通信开销和处理能力计算出最优路径,并能够适应卫星网络拓扑结构动态变化等特点,这与蚁群算法的特征相匹配,能很好地解决这一问题.以此为背景,提出了一种新型的基于蚁群算法的卫星网动态路由算法(DRAS-ACA),并在NS2网络仿真平台上实现了该路由算法,使用gnuplot分析了仿真结果.%Satellite network routing should have the use of smaller capacity and communication overhead to calculate the optimal path, and be able to adapt to the satellite network topology changes, and other characteristics. The Ant Colony Algorithm should be a good appraach to solve this problem. In this paper, a dynamic routing algorithm for satellite network based on ant colony algorithm (DRAS-ACA) was presented and simulated on NS2 platform,and we also analyzed the simulation results with gnuplot.

  8. EXTENDED DYNAMIC SOURCE ROUTING PROTOCOL FOR AD HOC NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puja Kumari Sharma

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available MANET is a collection of self-configurable mobile nodes. Several routing protocols are proposed for ad hoc network among which DSR and AODV On demand routing protocols are mostly used. Existing Dynamic source routing protocol is not suitable for large network because packet size gets increased according to the number of nodes travelled by route discovery packet. In this paper, extended DSR routing protocol is proposed to eliminate the above limitation of existing DSR. Proposed protocol will be suitable for small and large both types of networks.

  9. Hierarchical Routing over Dynamic Wireless Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Tschopp, Dominique; Grossglauser, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    Wireless network topologies change over time and maintaining routes requires frequent updates. Updates are costly in terms of consuming throughput available for data transmission, which is precious in wireless networks. In this paper, we ask whether there exist low-overhead schemes that produce low-stretch routes. This is studied by using the underlying geometric properties of the connectivity graph in wireless networks.

  10. Finding optimal solutions for vehicle routing problem with pickup and delivery services with time windows: A dynamic programming approach based on state-space-time network representations

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Optimization of on-demand transportation systems and ride-sharing services involves solving a class of complex vehicle routing problems with pickup and delivery with time windows (VRPPDTW). This paper first proposes a new time-discretized multi-commodity network flow model for the VRPPDTW based on the integration of vehicles carrying states within space-time transportation networks, so as to allow a joint optimization of passenger-to-vehicle assignment and turn-by-turn routing in congested tr...

  11. Traffic optimization in transport networks based on local routing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scellato, S.; Fortuna, L.; Frasca, M.; Gómez-Gardeñes, J.; Latora, V.

    2010-01-01

    Congestion in transport networks is a topic of theoretical interest and practical importance. In this paper we study the flow of vehicles in urban street networks. In particular, we use a cellular automata model on a complex network to simulate the motion of vehicles along streets, coupled with a congestion-aware routing at street crossings. Such routing makes use of the knowledge of agents about traffic in nearby roads and allows the vehicles to dynamically update the routes towards their destinations. By implementing the model in real urban street patterns of various cities, we show that it is possible to achieve a global traffic optimization based on local agent decisions.

  12. Analysis of Enhanced Associativity Based Routing Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said A. Shaar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This study introduces an analysis to the performance of the Enhanced Associativity Based Routing protocol (EABR based on two factors; Operation complexity (OC and Communication Complexity (CC. OC can be defined as the number of steps required in performing a protocol operation, while CC can be defined as the number of messages exchanged in performing a protocol operation[1]. The values represent the worst-case analysis. The EABR has been analyzed based on CC and OC and the results have been compared with another routing technique called ABR. The results have shown that EABR can perform better than ABR in many circumstances during the route reconstruction.

  13. Dynamic vehicle routing with time windows in theory and practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Z.; Osta, van J.P.; Veen, van B.; Krevelen, van R.; Stam, A.; Kok, J.N.; Bäck, T.H.W.; Michael, Emmerich T. M.

    2016-01-01

    The vehicle routing problem is a classical combinatorial optimization problem. This work is about a variant of the vehicle routing problem with dynamically changing orders and time windows. In real-world applications often the demands change during operation time. New orders occur and others are

  14. Dynamic vehicle routing with time windows in theory and practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Z.; Osta, van J.P.; Veen, van B.; Krevelen, van R.; Stam, A.; Kok, J.N.; Bäck, T.H.W.; Michael, Emmerich T. M.

    2016-01-01

    The vehicle routing problem is a classical combinatorial optimization problem. This work is about a variant of the vehicle routing problem with dynamically changing orders and time windows. In real-world applications often the demands change during operation time. New orders occur and others are can

  15. Integration of Predictive Routing Information with Dynamic Traffic Signal Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-01

    vehicles without the on-board guidance aid (Harris, S., Rabone , A., et.al., 1992). The simulation developed was called ROute GUidance Simulation (ROGUS...Florida. Harris, S., Rabone , A., et.al. 1992. ROGUS: A Simulation of Dynamic Route Guidance Systems. Traffic Engineering and Control(33)327-329

  16. Fuzzy Controllers Based Multipath Routing Algorithm in MANET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pi, Shangchao; Sun, Baolin

    Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) consist of a collection of wireless mobile nodes which dynamically exchange data among themselves without the reliance on a fixed base station or a wired backbone network. Due to the limited transmission range of wireless network nodes, multiple hops are usually needed for a node to exchange information with any other node in the network. Multipath routing allows the establishment of multiple paths between a single source and single destination node. The multipath routing in mobile ad hoc networks is difficult because the network topology may change constantly, and the available alternative path is inherently unreliable. This paper introduces a fuzzy controllers based multipath routing algorithm in MANET (FMRM). The key idea of FMRM algorithm is to construct the fuzzy controllers with the help to reduce reconstructions in the ad hoc network. The simulation results show that the proposed approach is effective and efficient in applications to the MANETs. It is an available approach to multipath routing decision.

  17. Routing in Highly Dynamic Ad Hoc Networks: Issues and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun G Menon

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research paper is to analyze the various issues and challenges involved in routing of data packets in highly mobile ad hoc networks. Routing in ad hoc networks has always been a challenging and tough task due to the dynamic topology and error prone wireless channel. There are a number of issues like lack of centralized control, constantly moving nodes etc that has to be considered while routing a data packet from the source to the destination in the ad hoc network. Routing of data packets becomes much more difficult with increased mobility of nodes. This paper analyses the various issues in routing of data packets from the source to the destination node and also lists down the parameters that has to be considered while designing and selecting a routing protocol for highly mobile ad hoc networks.

  18. Developing a chaotic pattern of dynamic Hazmat routing problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Mahmoudabadi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The present paper proposes an iterative procedure based on chaos theory on dynamic risk definition to determine the best route for transporting hazardous materials (Hazmat. In the case of possible natural disasters, the safety of roads may be seriously affected. So the main objective of this paper is to simultaneously improve the travel time and risk to satisfy the local and national authorities in the transportation network. Based on the proposed procedure, four important risk components including accident information, population, environment, and infrastructure aspects have been presented under linguistic variables. Furthermore, the extent analysis method was utilized to convert them to crisp values. To apply the proposed procedure, a road network that consists of fifty nine nodes and eighty two-way edges with a pre-specified affected area has been considered. The results indicate that applying the dynamic risk is more appropriate than having a constant risk. The application of the proposed model indicates that, while chaotic variables depend on the initial conditions, the most frequent path will remain independent. The points that would help authorities to come to the better decision when they are dealing with Hazmat transportation route selection.

  19. Routing problems based on hils system platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Adamski

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The logistic systems are very complex socio-technical systems. In this paper the proposal of application of the hierarchical multi-layers system platform HILS approach for the solution of the complex vehicle routing problems is presented. The interactive system functional structure was proposed which by intelligent dedicated inter-layers interactions enables the professional solutions of these practical problems. To illustrate these capabilities the complex example of the real-time VRP-SPD-TW routing problem was presented in which upper layers offers the context-related real-time updating network specifications that stimulates the adequate routing parameters and specifications updating for problem solution in optimization layer. At the bottom dispatching control layer the DISCON (Dispatching CONtrol method from public transport was adopted to logistics applications in which the actual routing is treated as obligatory reference schedule to be stabilized. The intelligence aspects are related among others to HILS based decomposition, context-related trade-offs between routing modifications and corrective dispatching control capabilities e.g. priority or route guidance actions. Methods: Decomposition of the vehicle routing problem for the HILS layers tasks creating the ILS system hierarchical structure. Dedicated solution method for the VRP-SPD-TW routing problem. The recognition of the control preferences structure by AHP-Entropy methods. DISCON and PIACON multi-criteria interacting control methods. Results: Original formulation and solution of the vehicle routing problem by system-wide approach with essential practical advantages: consistency, lack of redundancy, essential reduction of dimension, dedicated formulation, multi-criteria approach, exploration of the integration and intelligence features supported by the intelligent PIACON-DISCON methods control activities Conclusions: The presented proposal creates the professional

  20. 基于动态规划法的物流配送路径的随机选择%RANDOM SELECTION OF LOGISTICS DISTRIBUTION ROUTE BASED ON DYNAMIC PROGRAMMING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵慧娟; 汤兵勇; 张云

    2013-01-01

    Logistics distribution is the important part of E-Business, the selection of distribution route plays an important role for logistics enterprises in improving their efficiency. The dynamic programming adapting to multi-phase decision making is analysed. Based on essential dynamic programming algorithm and in combination with route selection issue in logistics distribution, the traffic jam factor in distribution route is imported for randomly modifying the corresponding weight of the distribution route and dynamically adjusting the distribution route selection. In conjunction with specific example, we analyse the effectiveness and feasibility of this method, it achieves the dynamic route selection in logistics distribution process.%物流配送是电子商务的重要环节,配送路径的选择对于提高物流企业的效率十分重要.分析适用于多阶段决策的动态规划法,在基本的动态规划算法基础上,结合物流配送的路径选择问题,引入配送途中道路的拥堵因子,随机修正配送路径的相应权值,动态调整选择配送路径.结合具体的实例,分析证明了该方法的有效性和可行性,实现物流配送过程中路径的动态选择.

  1. A Sweep Coverage Scheme Based on Vehicle Routing Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Shu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available As an emerging coverage problem in wireless sensor networks, sweep coverage which introducing mobile sensors to cover points of interest within certain time interval can satisfy monitoring request in some particular application scenarios with less number of nodes than the conventional static coverage approach. In this work, aiming to support dynamical POI coverage and data delivery simultaneously, a novel sweep coverage scheme, named VRPSC(Vehicle Routing Problem based Sweep Coverage, is proposed by modeling the minimum number of required sensors problem in sweep coverage as a Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP. In VRPSC, an insertion algorithm is first introduced to create the initial scanning routes for POIs, and then the Simulated Annealing is employed to optimize these routes. The simulation results show that the VRPSC scheme achieves better performance than existing schemes. 

  2. The Route Analysis Based On Flight Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feriyanto, Nur; Saleh, Chairul; Fauzi, Achmad; Rachman Dzakiyullah, Nur; Riza Iwaputra, Kahfi

    2016-02-01

    Economic development effects use of air transportation since the business process in every aspect was increased. Many people these days was prefer using airplane because it can save time and money. This situation also effects flight routes, many airlines offer new routes to deal with competition. Managing flight routes is one of the problems that must be faced in order to find the efficient and effective routes. This paper investigates the best routes based on flight performance by determining the amount of block fuel for the Jakarta-Denpasar flight route. Moreover, in this work compares a two kinds of aircraft and tracks by calculating flight distance, flight time and block fuel. The result shows Jakarta-Denpasar in the Track II has effective and efficient block fuel that can be performed by Airbus 320-200 aircraft. This study can contribute to practice in making an effective decision, especially helping executive management of company due to selecting appropriate aircraft and the track in the flight plan based on the block fuel consumption for business operation.

  3. A dynamic routing strategy with limited buffer on scale-free network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yufei; Liu, Feng

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we propose an integrated routing strategy based on global static topology information and local dynamic data packet queue lengths to improve the transmission efficiency of scale-free networks. The proposed routing strategy is a combination of a global static routing strategy (based on the shortest path algorithm) and local dynamic queue length management, in which, instead of using an infinite buffer, the queue length of each node i in the proposed routing strategy is limited by a critical queue length Qic. When the network traffic is lower and the queue length of each node i is shorter than its critical queue length Qic, it forwards packets according to the global routing table. With increasing network traffic, when the buffers of the nodes with higher degree are full, they do not receive packets due to their limited buffers and the packets have to be delivered to the nodes with lower degree. The global static routing strategy can shorten the transmission time that it takes a packet to reach its destination, and the local limited queue length can balance the network traffic. The optimal critical queue lengths of nodes have been analysed. Simulation results show that the proposed routing strategy can get better performance than that of the global static strategy based on topology, and almost the same performance as that of the global dynamic routing strategy with less complexity.

  4. Dynamic route guidance strategy in a two-route pedestrian-vehicle mixed traffic flow system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mianfang; Xiong, Shengwu; Li, Bixiang

    2016-05-01

    With the rapid development of transportation, traffic questions have become the major issue for social, economic and environmental aspects. Especially, during serious emergencies, it is very important to alleviate road traffic congestion and improve the efficiency of evacuation to reduce casualties, and addressing these problems has been a major task for the agencies responsible in recent decades. Advanced road guidance strategies have been developed for homogeneous traffic flows, or to reduce traffic congestion and enhance the road capacity in a symmetric two-route scenario. However, feedback strategies have rarely been considered for pedestrian-vehicle mixed traffic flows with variable velocities and sizes in an asymmetric multi-route traffic system, which is a common phenomenon in many developing countries. In this study, we propose a weighted road occupancy feedback strategy (WROFS) for pedestrian-vehicle mixed traffic flows, which considers the system equilibrium to ease traffic congestion. In order to more realistic simulating the behavior of mixed traffic objects, the paper adopted a refined and dynamic cellular automaton model (RDPV_CA model) as the update mechanism for pedestrian-vehicle mixed traffic flow. Moreover, a bounded rational threshold control was introduced into the feedback strategy to avoid some negative effect of delayed information and reduce. Based on comparisons with the two previously proposed strategies, the simulation results obtained in a pedestrian-vehicle traffic flow scenario demonstrated that the proposed strategy with a bounded rational threshold was more effective and system equilibrium, system stability were reached.

  5. Dynamic Routing of Short Transfer Baggage

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    We consider a variant of the Vehicle Routing Problem that arises in airports when transporting baggage for passengers with connecting flights. Each bag can be delivered in two locations with disjunctive time windows. The task is to define multiple trips for the vehicles in order to deliver bags that arrive continuously during the day. We present an IP model of the problem and describe the problem as a case study from a real life setting. We present a weighted greedy algorithm for dispatching ...

  6. Region Based Route Planning: Multi-Abstraction Route Planning Based On Intermediate Level Vision Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doshi, Rajkumar S.; Lam, Raymond; White, James E.

    1989-01-01

    The Region Based Route Planner performs intermediate-level and high-level processing on vision data to organize the image into more meaningful higher-level topological representations. A variety of representations are employed at appropriate stages in the route plan-ning process. A variety of abstractions are used for the purposes of problem reduction and application of multiple criteria at different phases during the navigation planning process. The Region Based Route Planner operates in terrain scenarios where some or most of the terrain is occluded. The Region Based Route Planner operates without any priori maps. The route planner uses two dimensional representations and utilizes gradient and roughness information. The implementation described here is being tested on the JPL Robotic Vehicle. The Region Based Route Planner operates in two phases. In the first phase, the terrain map is segmented to derive global information about various features in it. The next phase is the actual route planning phase. The route is planned with increasing amounts of detail by successive refinement. This phase has three abstrac-tions. In the first abstraction, the planner analyses high level information and so a coarse, region-to-region plan is produced. The second abstraction produces a list of pairs of entry and exit waypoints for only these selected regions. In the last abstraction, for every pair of these waypoints, a local route planner is invoked. This planner finds a detailed point-to-point path by searching only within the boundaries of these relatively small regions.

  7. Operational Evaluatioin of Dynamic Weather Routes at American Airlines

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, David; Sheth, Kapil; Gong, Chester; Borchers, Paul; Osborne, Jeff; Keany, Desmond; Scott, Brennan; Smith, Steve; Sahlman, Scott; Lee, Chuhan; hide

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic Weather Routes (DWR) is a search engine that continuously and automatically analyzes inflight aircraft in en route airspace and proposes simple route amendments for more efficient routes around convective weather while considering sector congestion, traffic conflicts, and active Special Use Airspace. NASA and American Airlines (AA) are conducting an operational trial of DWR at the AA System Operations Center in Fort Worth, TX. The trial includes only AA flights in Fort Worth Center airspace. Over the period from July 31, 2012 through August 31, 2012, 45% of routes proposed by DWR and evaluated by AA users - air traffic control coordinators and flight dispatchers - were rated as acceptable as proposed or with some modifications. The wind-corrected potential flying time savings for these acceptable routes totals 470 flying min, and results suggest another 1,500 min of potential savings for flights not evaluated due to staffing limitations. A sector congestion analysis shows that in only two out of 83 DWR routes rated acceptable by AA staff were the flights predicted to fly through a congested sector inside of 30 min downstream of present position. This shows that users considered sector congestion data provided by DWR automation and in nearly all cases did not accept routes through over-capacity sectors. It is estimated that 12 AA flights were given reroute clearances as a direct result of DWR for a total savings of 67 flying min.

  8. Trust Based Routing in Ad Hoc Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talati, Mikita V.; Valiveti, Sharada; Kotecha, K.

    Ad Hoc network often termed as an infrastructure-less, self- organized or spontaneous network.The execution and survival of an ad-hoc network is solely dependent upon the cooperative and trusting nature of its nodes. However, this naive dependency on intermediate nodes makes the ad-hoc network vulnerable to passive and active attacks by malicious nodes and cause inflict severe damage. A number of protocols have been developed to secure ad-hoc networks using cryptographic schemes, but all rely on the presence of trust authority. Due to mobility of nodes and limitation of resources in wireless network one interesting research area in MANET is routing. This paper offers various trust models and trust based routing protocols to improve the trustworthiness of the neighborhood.Thus it helps in selecting the most secure and trustworthy route from the available ones for the data transfer.

  9. Predication-Based Intelligence Routing on Telecommunications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONGJun; HEJifeng; PANYunhe

    2004-01-01

    The routingtelecommunication networksbeing one of key issues of management influences the switch rate and load balance directly, and becomes more and more important as the telecommunication traffic increases at full speed. It was said that raising one percent of switch rate of current Chinese telecommunication networks would result in revenue about one billion Yuan RMB. On the basis of demerit-analysis of routing scheme being used, a new intelligent routing strategy based on multi-agent systems and recurrent neural network predication is presented, including routing strategy, Calls generating and agent~ recurrent neural network computation, simulation software design, results and discussion. The results show that the new one is better by virtue of its upstanding distribution and intelligence characters, and provides excellent solution to increase network switch rate and balance network load. Meanwhile, its applications will go beyond the scope of telecommunication networks. But whether the strategy will be perfect depends on the cooperation among operator, manufacturer and researchers.

  10. Multi-constraint quality of service routing algorithm for dynamic topology networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    An adaptive multi-QoS routing algorithm called AMQRA is proposed for dynamic topology networks,such as satellite networks and Ad-hoc networks.The AMQRA is a distributed and mobile-agents-based routing algorithm,which combines ant quantity system (AQS) with ant colony optimization (ACO) that is used in AntNet routing algorithm.In dynamic topology networks,the AMQRA achieves timely optimization for concave metric QoS constraint and fast convergence.The proposed routing algorithm is simulated in Iridium satellite constellation on OPNET.The results show that AMQRA not only outperforms the AntNet in convergence rate in dynamic topology networks but also can optimize concave metric QoS constraint and reasonably allot bandwidth to the load to avoid networks congestion.

  11. Dynamic Routing Algorithm for Increasing Robustness in Satellite Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Dong-ni; ZHANG Da-kun

    2008-01-01

    In low earth orbit(LEO)and medium earth orbit(MEO)satellite networks,the network topology changes rapidly because of the high relative speed movement of satellites.When some inter-satellite links (ISLs)fail,they can not be repaired in a short time.In order to increase the robustness for LEO/MEO satellite networks,an effective dynamic routing algorithm is proposed.All the routes to a certain node are found by constructing a destination oriented acyclic directed graph(DOADG)with the node as the destination.In this algorithm,multiple routes are provided,loop-free is guaranteed,and as long as the DOADG maintains,it is not necessary to reroute even if some ISLs fail.Simulation results show that comparing to the conventional routing algorithms,it is more efficient and reliable,costs less transmission overhead and converges faster.

  12. Condensation-Based Routing in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Palmieri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The provision of efficient broadcast containment schemes that can dynamically cope with frequent topology changes and limited shared channel bandwidth, is one of the most challenging research topics in MANETs, and is crucial to the basic operations of networks serving fully mobile devices within areas having no fixed communication infrastructure. This problem particularly impacts the design of dynamic routing protocol that can efficiently establish routes to deliver data packets among mobile nodes with minimum communication overhead, and at the same time, ensure high throughput and low end-to-end delay. Accordingly, this work exploits and analyzes an adaptive probabilistic broadcast containment technique based on a particular condensation phenomenon borrowed from Quantum Mechanics and transposed in self-organizing random networks, that has the potential to effectively drive the on-demand route discovery process. Simulation-based performance analysis has shown that the proposed technique can introduce significant benefits on the general performance of broadcast-based reactive routing protocols in MANETs.

  13. A Monarch Butterfly Optimization for the Dynamic Vehicle Routing Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shifeng Chen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic vehicle routing problem (DVRP is a variant of the Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP in which customers appear dynamically. The objective is to determine a set of routes that minimizes the total travel distance. In this paper, we propose a monarch butterfly optimization (MBO algorithm to solve DVRPs, utilizing a greedy strategy. Both migration operation and the butterfly adjusting operator only accept the offspring of butterfly individuals that have better fitness than their parents. To improve performance, a later perturbation procedure is implemented, to maintain a balance between global diversification and local intensification. The computational results indicate that the proposed technique outperforms the existing approaches in the literature for average performance by at least 9.38%. In addition, 12 new best solutions were found. This shows that this proposed technique consistently produces high-quality solutions and outperforms other published heuristics for the DVRP.

  14. Location-based route self-recovery for mobile ad hoc networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medidi, Sirisha; Wang, Jiong

    2007-04-01

    Mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a radio packet network without dedicated infrastructures. In recent years it has received tremendous attention because of its self-configuration and self-maintenance capabilities. However, because of node mobility and shared wireless links, its routing protocol design presents nontrivial challenges such as broadcast storm, stale route and delay. This paper proposes a location-based route self-recovery technique for source-initiated routing protocols. The purpose of route self-recovery is to reduce overhead and delay during route maintenance as well as allowing continuous packet forwarding for fault resilience. The ns-2 based simulation shows throughput and overhead improvements of source-initiated routing with route self-recovery and in the case of highly dynamic environments and heavy traffic loads, it is more robust and scalable than other protocols.

  15. Dynamic multicast routing scheme in WDM optical network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yonghua; Dong, Zhiling; Yao, Hong; Yang, Jianyong; Liu, Yibin

    2007-11-01

    During the information era, the Internet and the service of World Wide Web develop rapidly. Therefore, the wider and wider bandwidth is required with the lower and lower cost. The demand of operation turns out to be diversified. Data, images, videos and other special transmission demands share the challenge and opportunity with the service providers. Simultaneously, the electrical equipment has approached their limit. So the optical communication based on the wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) and the optical cross-connects (OXCs) shows great potentials and brilliant future to build an optical network based on the unique technical advantage and multi-wavelength characteristic. In this paper, we propose a multi-layered graph model with inter-path between layers to solve the problem of multicast routing wavelength assignment (RWA) contemporarily by employing an efficient graph theoretic formulation. And at the same time, an efficient dynamic multicast algorithm named Distributed Message Copying Multicast (DMCM) mechanism is also proposed. The multicast tree with minimum hops can be constructed dynamically according to this proposed scheme.

  16. Multicast Routing Based on Hybrid Genetic Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Yuan-da; CAI Gui

    2005-01-01

    A new multicast routing algorithm based on the hybrid genetic algorithm (HGA) is proposed. The coding pattern based on the number of routing paths is used. A fitness function that is computed easily and makes algorithm quickly convergent is proposed. A new approach that defines the HGA's parameters is provided. The simulation shows that the approach can increase largely the convergent ratio, and the fitting values of the parameters of this algorithm are different from that of the original algorithms. The optimal mutation probability of HGA equals 0.50 in HGA in the experiment, but that equals 0.07 in SGA. It has been concluded that the population size has a significant influence on the HGA's convergent ratio when it's mutation probability is bigger. The algorithm with a small population size has a high average convergent rate. The population size has little influence on HGA with the lower mutation probability.

  17. FLOOD ROUTING BASED ON NETWORK CODING (NCF)

    OpenAIRE

    HOSSEIN BALOOCHIAN; MOZAFAR BAGMOHAMMADI

    2010-01-01

    Most of the energy in a sensor network is used for transmission of data packets. For this reason, optimization of energy consumption is of utmost importance in these networks. This paper presents NCF, a flood routing protocol based on network coding. Simulations show that in addition to eliminating the drawbacks of traditional flooding methods, like the explosion phenomenon, NCF increases the lifetime of the network by at least 20% and decreases the number of packet transmissions. Another adv...

  18. Link reliability based hybrid routing for tactical mobile ad hoc network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie Xiaochuan; Wei Gang; Wu Keping; Wang Gang; Jia Shilou

    2008-01-01

    Tactical mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a collection of mobile nodes forming a temporary network,without the aid of pre-established network infrastructure. The routing protocol has a crucial impact on the networkperformance in battlefields. Link reliability based hybrid routing (LRHR) is proposed, which is a novel hybrid routing protocol, for tactical MANET. Contrary to the traditional single path routing strategy, multiple paths are established between a pair of source-destination nodes. In the hybrid routing strategy, the rate of topological change provides a natural mechanism for switching dynamically between table-driven and on-demand routing. The simulation results indicate that the performances of the protocol in packet delivery ratio, routing overhead, and average end-to-end delay are better than the conventional routing protocol.

  19. Dynamic Vehicle Routing for Robotic Networks: Models, Fundamental Limitations and Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-16

    partitions. SIAM Review, January 2010. Submitted Francesco Bullo (UCSB) Dynamic Vehicle Routing 16apr10 @ ARL 31 / 34 Gossip partitioning policy: sample...Control Conference, Hollywood, CA, October 2009 Francesco Bullo (UCSB) Dynamic Vehicle Routing 16apr10 @ ARL 32 / 34 Gossip partitioning policy: analysis...Dynamic Vehicle Routing for Robotic Networks: Models, Fundamental Limitations and Algorithms Francesco Bullo Center for Control, Dynamical Systems

  20. Performance Improvements and Congestion Reduction for Routing-based Synthesis for Digital Microfluidic Biochips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Windh, Skyler; Phung, Calvin; Grissom, Daniel T.

    2017-01-01

    Routing-based synthesis for digital microfluidic biochips yields faster assay execution times compared to module-based synthesis. We show that routing-based synthesis can lead to deadlocks and livelocks in specific cases, and that dynamically detecting them and adjusting the probabilities...... associated with different droplet movements can alleviate the situation. We also introduce methods to improve the efficiency of wash droplet routing during routing-based synthesis, and to support non-reconfigurable modules, such as integrated heaters and detectors. We obtain increases in success rates when...

  1. Priority and Random Selection for Dynamic Window Secured Implicit Geographic Routing in Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zurina M. Hanapi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Sensor nodes are easily exposed to many attacks since it were deployed in unattended adversarial environment with no global addressing and used for critical applications such as battlefield surveillance and emergency response. While the sensor also needs to act as a router to relay a message to a required recipient, then this increased the vulnerabilities to a network layer. However, existing security mechanisms are not permissible to be fitted directly into any sensor network due to constraints on energy and computational capabilities of sensor node itself that require on the modification on the protocols that associated with the sensor node itself in order to provide the security. Approach: In this study, a Dynamic Window Secured Implicit Geographic Forwarding (DWIGF routing protocol was presented which based on an approach of lazy binding technique and dynamic time on collection window and inherits a geographical routing techniques. Results: The DWIGF was intelligent to minimize a Clear To Send (CTS rushing attack and robust against black hole and selective forwarding attacks with high packet delivery ratios because of selection of a failed node and an attacker was minimized respectively. Moreover, few routing attacks were eliminated since the routing technique used was classified as geographic routing. Conclusion: This novel routing protocol was promising a secured routing without inserting any existing security mechanism inside.

  2. IMPULSE RADIO ULTRA WIDE BAND BASED MOBILE ADHOC NETWORK ROUTING PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sreedhar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents with the routing overhead analysis of impulse radio - Ultra Wide Band based wireless networks which Employs Dynamic Nature Routing (EDNR method for determining and selecting the stable route in Mobile Adhoc Network (MANET. This method requires only two sample packets and uses piggyback information on Route-Request (RREQ and Route-Reply (RREP packets during a route-discovery procedure. Conventional ENDR results in better routing overhead and packet delivery ratio characteristics with higher energy consumption. The proposed method explores the characteristics of UWB nature of routing based on Node lifetime and Link lifetime prediction for reducing the required bandwidth while maintaining higher packet delivery and lower routing overhead. Simulation results illustrate the improvement of packet delivery ratio by 5% and reduction of routing overhead by 4.8% of the proposed UWB EDNR method over the conventional EDNR method. For higher packet delivery ratio and reduced routing overhead with efficient bandwidth utilization can be achieved by applying UWB based EDNR routing that is desired for real time data communications.

  3. An Efficient Agent-Based AODV Routing Protocol in MANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Bhati,

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A MANET (Mobile Adhoc Network consists of a collection of mobile nodes communicating with each other without any fixed infrastructure such as access points or base stations. MANETS are self organizing or self restoring. Network topology in MANETS is subject to continuous and precipitous (unpredictable change. The limited bandwidth availability, energy constraints and highly dynamic topology make the routing process as exigent. The routing process in MANET relies (based on the cooperation of individual nodes which constitute the network. In this paper, we have tried to remove the existence of misbehaving nodes that may paralyze or slows down the routing operation in MANET. This increases the efficiency of a network. Efficiency can be calculated by the parameters or factors such astransmission capacity, battery power and scalability. Here we are considering the most crucial factor named as transmission capacity of a node. In MANET, as the network size increases complexity of anetwork also increases. To overcome this we make network as modular. So the network becomes task specific which refer to a particular work only. This is the reason of infusing the concept of agents in anefficient network. This proposed protocol provides the most efficient and reliable route which may or may not be minimum hop count.

  4. Robust On-Demand Multipath Routing with Dynamic Path Upgrade for Delay-Sensitive Data over Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Node mobility in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs causes frequent route breakages and intermittent link stability. In this paper, we introduce a robust routing scheme, known as ad hoc on-demand multipath distance vector with dynamic path update (AOMDV-DPU, for delay-sensitive data transmission over MANET. The proposed scheme improves the AOMDV scheme by incorporating the following features: (i a routing metric based on the combination of minimum hops and received signal strength indicator (RSSI for discovery of reliable routes; (ii a local path update mechanism which strengthens the route, reduces the route breakage frequency, and increases the route longevity; (iii a keep alive mechanism for secondary route maintenance which enables smooth switching between routes and reduces the route discovery frequency; (iv a packet salvaging scheme to improve packet delivery in the event of a route breakage; and (v low HELLO packet overhead. The simulations are carried out in ns-2 for varying node speeds, number of sources, and traffic load conditions. Our AOMDV-DPU scheme achieves significantly higher throughput, lower delay, routing overhead, and route discovery frequency and latency compared to AOMDV. For H.264 compressed video traffic, AOMDV-DPU scheme achieves 3 dB or higher PSNR gain over AOMDV at both low and high node speeds.

  5. Dynamic vehicle routing problems: Three decades and counting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Psaraftis, Harilaos N.; Wen, Min; Kontovas, Christos A.

    2016-01-01

    Since the late 70s, much research activity has taken place on the class of dynamic vehicle routing problems (DVRP), with the time period after year 2000 witnessing areal explosion in related papers. Our paper sheds more light into work in this area over more than 3 decades by developing a taxonomy...... linkages of methodology to technological advances and analysis of worst case or average case performance of heuristics....

  6. Location Based Opportunistic Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jubin Sebastian E

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available : Most existing ad hoc routing protocols are susceptible to node mobility, especially for large-scale networks. This paper proposes a Location Based Opportunistic Routing Protocol (LOR to addresses the problem of delivering data packets for highly dynamic mobile ad hoc networks in a reliable and timely manner.This protocol takes advantage of the stateless property of geographic routing and the broadcast nature of wireless medium. When a data packet is sent out, some of the neighbor nodes that have overheard the transmission will serve as forwarding candidates, and take turn to forward the packet if it is not relayed by the specific best forwarder within a certain period of time. By utilizing such in-the-air backup, communication is maintained without being interrupted. The additional latency incurred by local route recovery is greatly reduced and the duplicate relaying caused by packet reroute is also decreased. Simulation results on NS2 verified the effectiveness of the proposed protocol with improvement in throughput by 28%.

  7. Dynamic vehicle routing problems: Three decades and counting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Psaraftis, Harilaos N.; Wen, Min; Kontovas, Christos A.

    2016-01-01

    Since the late 70s, much research activity has taken place on the class of dynamic vehicle routing problems (DVRP), with the time period after year 2000 witnessing a real explosion in related papers. Our paper sheds more light into work in this area over more than 3 decades by developing a taxonomy...... of DVRP papers according to 11 criteria. These are (1) type of problem, (2) logistical context, (3) transportation mode, (4) objective function, (5) fleet size, (6) time constraints, (7) vehicle capacity constraints, (8) the ability to reject customers, (9) the nature of the dynamic element, (10...

  8. Pseudo-Cycle-Based Multicast Routing in Wormhole-Routed Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG JianPing (宋建平); HOU ZiFeng (侯紫峰); XU Ming (许铭)

    2003-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of fault-tolerant multicast routing in wormholerouted multicomputers. A new pseudo-cycle-based routing method is presented for constructing deadlock-free multicast routing algorithms. With at most two virtual channels this technique can be applied to any connected networks with arbitrary topologies. Simulation results show that this technique results in negligible performance degradation even in the presence of a large number of faulty nodes.

  9. Fuzzy Logic QoS Dynamic Source Routing for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xu; CHENG Sheng; FENG Mei-yu; DING Wei

    2004-01-01

    Considering the characters of dynamic topology and the imprecise state information in mobile ad hoc network,we propose a Fuzzy Logic QoS Dynamic Source Routing (FLQDSR) algorithm based on Dynamic Source Routing (DSR)protocol while adopting fuzzy logic to select the appropriate QoS routing in multiple paths which are searched in parallel.This scheme considers not only the bandwidth and end-to-end delay of routing, but also the cost of the path. On the other hand the merit of using fuzzy logic is that it can be implemented by hardware. This makes the realization of the scheme easier and faster. However our algorithm is based on DSR, the maximal hop count should be less than 10, i.e., the scale of mobile ad hoc network should not be very large. Simulation results show that FLQDSR can tolerate a high degree of information imprecision by adding the fuzzy logic module which integrates the QoS requirements of application and the routing QoS parameters to determine the most qualified one in every node.

  10. Ants-Based On-Demand Routing Algorithm for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    An ants-based on-demand routing algorithm (AORA) specialized for mobile ad hoc networks is proposed. AORA measures the network's traffic information including delivery time,route energy etc. by the continuous delivery of data packets,then calculates the compositive parameter for each route which can be seen as the stigmity and uses it to choose the comparatively optimal route in real time.To adjust the weight of each traffic information,the algorithm can meet the different demand of the network's user. Multipath source self repair routing (MSSRR) algorithm and dynamic source routing (DSR) can be seen as the special samples of AORA. The routing overhead is not increased in this algorithm. By using simulation, it can be seen that the performance of AORA is better than that of DSR in all scenarios obviously,especially the delivery fraction is increased by more than 100%.

  11. Optimal Route Selection Method Based on Vague Sets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Rui; DU Li min; WANG Chun

    2015-01-01

    Optimal route selection is an important function of vehicle trac flow guidance system. Its core is to determine the index weight for measuring the route merits and to determine the evaluation method for selecting route. In this paper, subjective weighting method which relies on driver preference is used to determine the weight and the paper proposes the multi-criteria weighted decision method based on vague sets for selecting the optimal route. Examples show that, the usage of vague sets to describe route index value can provide more decision-making information for route selection.

  12. Novel Routing Protocol Based on Periodic Route Discovery for Mobile Adhoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.Jai KumarAssociate

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A group of mobile devices called as nodes, without any centralized network, communicates with each other over multi-hop links is called as an Ad-hoc Network (MANET. The military battle-field scenarios, Post-disaster rescue efforts, sensor networks, and entrepreneurs in a conference are some of the examples of mobile ad-hoc networks. Since there is no infrastructure in the network, the routing should be handled at every node. To improve the life time of network different routing protocols are consider. In present routing protocols of ad hoc networks, routing is an act of moving information from a source to destination in an internetwork. Route is selected in the route discovery phase until all the packets are sent out. Due to the continuous flow of packets in a selected route leads to the route failure. In order to reduce this problem we consider PRD-based MMBCR and considering the percentage of the optimum value for periodic route discovery. In our research we are going to analyze the performance of different routing protocols like DSR, MMBCR to get maximum optimum value using Network Simulator Software.

  13. An improved AODV routing protocol based on tower structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yong Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposed a new routing protocol(IAODV based on tower structure in the Ad Hoc network for the problem which Location Routing Protocol need hardware and Complex algorithm. By the simulation, The complexity of the new routing protocol is reduced without reducing the performance of the network.

  14. Genetic based optimization for multicast routing algorithm for MANET

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C Rajan; N Shanthi

    2015-12-01

    Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET) is established for a limited period, for special extemporaneous services related to mobile applications. This ad hoc network is set up for a limited period, in environments that change with the application. While in Internet the TCP/IP protocol suite supports a wide range of application, in MANETs protocols are tuned to specific customer/application. Multicasting is emerging as a popular communication format where the same packet is sent to multiple nodes in a network. Routing in multicasting involves maintaining routes and finding new node locations in a group and is NP-complete due to the dynamic nature of the network. In this paper, a Hybrid Genetic Based Optimization for Multicast Routing algorithm is proposed. The proposed algorithm uses the best features of Genetic Algorithm (GA) and particle swarm optimization (PSO) to improve the solution. Simulations were conducted by varying number of mobile nodes and results compared with Multicast AODV (MAODV) protocol, PSO based and GA based solution. The proposed optimization improves jitter, end to end delay and Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR) with faster convergence.

  15. Link Perdurability Based Routing for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Xuebin; Zhou Zheng

    2003-01-01

    Ad Hoc networks are prone to link failures due to mobility. In this letter, a link perdurability based routing scheme is proposed to try dealing with this problem. This scheme uses signal strength measurements to estimate the route life time and hence chooses a stable route, and is implemented in two typical ad hoc routing protocols to evaluate its performance. The simulation results have shown that this scheme can improve these protocols' packet delivery ratio in cases where there are frequent link failures.

  16. Tour Route Multiobjective Optimization Design Based on the Tourist Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Han

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The question prompted is how to design the tour route to make the tourists get the maximum satisfactions considering the tourists’ demand. The influence factors of the tour route choices of tourists were analyzed and tourists’ behavior characteristics and psychological preferences were regarded as the important influence factors based on the tourist behavioral theories. A questionnaire of tourists’ tour route information and satisfaction degree was carried out. Some information about the scene spot and tourists demand and tour behaviors characteristic such as visit frequency, number of attractions visited was obtained and analyzed. Based on the convey datum, tour routes multiobjective optimization functions were prompted for the tour route design regarding the maximum satisfaction and the minimum tour distance as the optimal objective. The available routes are listed and categorized. Based on the particle swarm optimization model, the priorities of the tour route are calculated and finally the suggestion depth tour route and quick route tour routes are given considering the different tour demands of tourists. The results can offer constructive suggestions on how to design tour routes on the part of tourism enterprises and how to choose a proper tour route on the part of tourists.

  17. Does consideration of water routing affect simulated water and carbon dynamics in terrestrial ecosystems?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Tang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The cycling of carbon in terrestrial ecosystems is closely coupled with the cycling of water. An important mechanism connecting ecological and hydrological processes in terrestrial ecosystems is lateral flow of water along landscapes. Few studies, however, have examined explicitly how consideration of water routing affects simulated water and carbon dynamics in terrestrial ecosystems. The objective of this study is to explore how consideration of water routing in a process-based hydroecological model affects simulated water and carbon dynamics. To achieve that end, we rasterized the regional hydroecological simulation systems (RHESSys and employed the rasterized RHESSys (R-RHESSys in a forested watershed. We performed and compared two contrasting simulations, one with and another without water routing. We found that R-RHESSys is able to correctly simulate major hydrological and ecological variables regardless of whether water routing is considered. When water routing was neglected, however, soil water table depth and saturation deficit were simulated to be smaller and spatially more homogeneous. As a result, evaporation, forest productivity and soil heterotrophic respiration also were simulated to be spatially more homogeneous compared to simulation with water routing. When averaged for the entire watershed, however, differences in simulated water and carbon fluxes are not significant between the two simulations. Overall, the study demonstrated that consideration of water routing enabled R-RHESSys to better capture our preconception of the spatial patterns of water table depth and saturation deficit across the watershed. Because the spatial pattern of soil moisture is fundamental to water efflux from land to the atmosphere, forest productivity and soil microbial activity, ecosystem and carbon cycle models, therefore, need to explicitly represent water routing in order to accurately quantify the magnitudes and patterns of water and carbon fluxes

  18. A Layered Zone Routing Algorithm in Ad Hoc Network Based on Matrix of Adjacency Connection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Guang-wei; LI Feng; SHI Xiu-jin; HUO Jia-zhen

    2007-01-01

    The hybrid routing protocol has received more attention recently than the proactive and the reactive, especially for large-scale and highly dynamic connection, in mobile ad hoc network. A crucial reason is that zone-layered is being utilized in the complex systems. A hybrid routing algorithm which is layered zone based on adjacency connection(LZBAC) is put forward under the background of a few members in network with steady position and link. The algorithm modifies storage structure of nodes and improves routing mechanism. The theoretical analysis and simulation testing testify that the algorithm costs shorter time of route finding and less delay than others.

  19. Great Ellipse Route Planning Based on Space Vector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIU Wenchao

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at the problem of navigation error caused by unified earth model in great circle route planning using sphere model and modern navigation equipment using ellipsoid mode, a method of great ellipse route planning based on space vector is studied. By using space vector algebra method, the vertex of great ellipse is solved directly, and description of great ellipse based on major-axis vector and minor-axis vector is presented. Then calculation formulas of great ellipse azimuth and distance are deduced using two basic vectors. Finally, algorithms of great ellipse route planning are studied, especially equal distance route planning algorithm based on Newton-Raphson(N-R method. Comparative examples show that the difference of route planning between great circle and great ellipse is significant, using algorithms of great ellipse route planning can eliminate the navigation error caused by the great circle route planning, and effectively improve the accuracy of navigation calculation.

  20. Performance Evaluation of Ant-Based Routing Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adamu Murtala Zungeru

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available High efficient routing is an important issue in the design of limited energy resource Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs. Due to the characteristic of the environment at which the sensor node is to operate, coupled with severe resources; on-board energy, transmission power, processing capability, and storage limitations, prompt for careful resource management and new routing protocol so as to counteract the differences and challenges. To this end, we present an Improved Energy-Efficient Ant-Based Routing (IEEABR Algorithm in wireless sensor networks. Compared to the state-of-the-art Ant-Based routing protocols; Basic Ant-Based Routing (BABR Algorithm, Sensor-driven and Cost-aware ant routing (SC, Flooded Forward ant routing (FF, Flooded Piggybacked ant routing (FP, and Energy-Efficient Ant-Based Routing (EEABR, the proposed IEEABR approach has advantages in terms of reduced energy usage which can effectively balance the WSN node€™s power consumption, and high energy efficiency. The performance evaluations for the algorithms on a real application are conducted in a well known WSN MATLAB-based simulator (RMASE using both static and dynamic scenario.

  1. COSR: A Reputation-Based Secure Route Protocol in MANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang LaurenceT

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Now, the route protocols defined in the Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET are constructed in a common assumption which all nodes contained in such networks are trustworthy and cooperative. Once malicious or selfish nodes exist, all route paths built by these protocols must be broken immediately. According to the secure problems within MANET, this paper proposes Cooperative On-demand Secure Route (COSR, a novel secure source route protocol, against malicious and selfish behaviors. COSR measures node reputation (NR and route reputation (RR by contribution, Capability of Forwarding (CoF and recommendation upon Dynamic Source Route (DSR and uses RR to balance load to avoid hotpoint. Furthermore, COSR defines path collection algorithm by NR to enhance efficiency of protocol. At last, we verify COSR through GloMoSim. Results show that COSR is secure and stable.

  2. Energy Optimization for Wireless Sensor Networks using a Novel Dynamic Multicast Routing Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sundar Raj

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Minimization of energy consumption has always been the predominant factor deciding the acceptability of a routing protocol for wireless ad-hoc networks. In this study we have proposed a novel efficient multicast routing protocols in wireless mobile ad hoc networks is proposed. Due to the high mobility of nodes and highly dynamic topology, performing efficient and robust multicast in a Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET is a challenging task. Most of existing multicast protocols in MANETs discover the routing path by flooding message over the whole network, which result in considerable cost for routing discovery and maintenance. Moreover, the reliability of the discovered path cannot be guaranteed, since the stabilities of nodes along such path are unpredictable. Here an attempt is made to devise an algorithm combining the features of both energy efficient and low latency algorithms. The new algorithm is intended to do well in real-world scenarios where the energy capacities of the nodes are not uniform. It employs a mobility prediction based election process to construct a reliable backbone structure performing packet transmission, message flooding, routing discovery and maintenance. Several virtual architectures are used in the protocol without need of maintaining state information for more robust and scalable membership management and packet forwarding in the presence of high network dynamics due to unstable wireless channels and node movements.

  3. The Dynamic Multi-Period Vehicle Routing Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wen, Min; Cordeau, Jean-Francois; Laporte, Gilbert

    This paper considers the Dynamic Multi-Period Vehicle Routing Problem which deals with the distribution of orders from a depot to a set of customers over a multi-period time horizon. Customer orders and their feasible service periods are dynamically revealed over time. The objectives...... are to minimize total travel costs and customer waiting, and to balance the daily workload over the planning horizon. This problem originates from a large distributor operating in Sweden. It is modeled as a mixed integer linear program, and solved by means of a three-phase heuristic that works over a rolling...... planning horizon. The multi-objective aspect of the problem is handled through a scalar technique approach. Computational results show that our solutions improve upon those of the Swedish distributor....

  4. Dynamic Vehicle Routing for Data Gathering in Wireless Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Çelik, Güner D

    2010-01-01

    We consider a dynamic vehicle routing problem in wireless networks where messages arriving randomly in time and space are collected by a mobile receiver (vehicle or a collector). The collector is responsible for receiving these messages via wireless communication by dynamically adjusting its position in the network. Our goal is to utilize a combination of wireless transmission and controlled mobility to improve the delay performance in such networks. We show that the necessary and sufficient condition for the stability of such a system (in the bounded average number of messages sense) is given by {\\rho}<1 where {\\rho} is the average system load. We derive fundamental lower bounds for the delay in the system and develop policies that are stable for all loads {\\rho}<1 and that have asymptotically optimal delay scaling. Furthermore, we extend our analysis to the case of multiple collectors in the network. We show that the combination of mobility and wireless transmission results in a delay scaling of {\\The...

  5. The dynamic multi-period vehicle routing problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wen, Min; Cordeau, Jean-Francois; Laporte, Gilbert

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers the Dynamic Multi-Period Vehicle Routing Problem which deals with the distribution of orders from a depot to a set of customers over a multi-period time horizon. Customer orders and their feasible service periods are dynamically revealed over time. The objectives...... planning horizon. The multi-objective aspect of the problem is handled through a scalar technique approach. Computational results show that the proposed approach can yield high quality solutions within reasonable running times....... are to minimize total travel costs and customer waiting, and to balance the daily workload over the planning horizon. This problem originates from a large distributor operating in Sweden. It is modeled as a mixed integer linear program, and solved by means of a three-phase heuristic that works over a rolling...

  6. Route Challenging Scheme Using Friend Based Rating in MANETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Shantha Meena

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Security and Route identification are the major challenges in MANETs. Existing neighbour based routing algorithms provide route based on the quantity of data transferred [1] which may result in congestion. This is because the route having higher amount of transaction is preferred every time. In this paper we propose a Friend Based Routing algorithm [FBRA] for solving this problem. Here, the appropriate route is found not only based on the quantity of data transferred but also considers RSS and RTT. For providing re-authentication to the nodes in the network, FBRA uses Zero-Knowledge Protocol. The main advantage of this method is providing enhanced security and distinguishes the malicious nodes from the trusted nodes in the network.

  7. Gossip Based Routing Protocol Design for Ad Hoc Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Toqeer Mahmood; Tabbassam Nawaz; Rehan Ashraf; Syed M. Adnan Shah

    2012-01-01

    A spontaneously mannered decentralized network with no formal infrastructure and limited in temporal and spatial extent where each node communicate with each other over a wireless channel and is willing to forward data for other nodes is called as Wireless Ad Hoc network. In this research study, we proposed a routing strategy based on gossip based routing approach that follows the proactive routing with some treatment for wireless Ad Hoc network. The analytical verification of our proposed id...

  8. Gossip Based Routing Protocol Design for Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toqeer Mahmood

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A spontaneously mannered decentralized network with no formal infrastructure and limited in temporal and spatial extent where each node communicate with each other over a wireless channel and is willing to forward data for other nodes is called as Wireless Ad Hoc network. In this research study, we proposed a routing strategy based on gossip based routing approach that follows the proactive routing with some treatment for wireless Ad Hoc network. The analytical verification of our proposed idea shows that it is a better approach based on gossip routing.

  9. Dynamic Bus Travel Time Prediction Models on Road with Multiple Bus Routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Cong; Peng, Zhong-Ren; Lu, Qing-Chang; Sun, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Accurate and real-time travel time information for buses can help passengers better plan their trips and minimize waiting times. A dynamic travel time prediction model for buses addressing the cases on road with multiple bus routes is proposed in this paper, based on support vector machines (SVMs) and Kalman filtering-based algorithm. In the proposed model, the well-trained SVM model predicts the baseline bus travel times from the historical bus trip data; the Kalman filtering-based dynamic algorithm can adjust bus travel times with the latest bus operation information and the estimated baseline travel times. The performance of the proposed dynamic model is validated with the real-world data on road with multiple bus routes in Shenzhen, China. The results show that the proposed dynamic model is feasible and applicable for bus travel time prediction and has the best prediction performance among all the five models proposed in the study in terms of prediction accuracy on road with multiple bus routes.

  10. Gateway Node-Based Greedy Routing Algorithm for Efficient Packet Forwarding in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Abbas A,

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, vehicular communications are one of the hottest research topics. It has also gained much attention in industry as well as academia. Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs are advances of the wireless communication technologies. Routing is one of the key research issues in VANETs as long as it plays an important role in public safety and commercial applications. In VANET, routing of data is a challenging task due to high speed of nodes (i.e., vehicles movement and rapidly changing topology. Recent research showedthat existing routing algorithm solutions for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs are not able to meet the unique requirements of vehicular networks. In this paper, we propose Gateway Node-Based Greedy Routing(GNGR, a reliable greedy position-based routing approach algorithm. In GNGR, we forward the packets to any of the nodes in the corner of the transmission range of source/forwarding node as most suitable next hop. With this consideration, the nodes move towards the direction of the destination. We propose Dynamic TransitionMobility Model (DTMM to evaluate our routing technique. This paper gives a complete description of our packet forwarding approach and simulation results. The simulation results are carried out based on Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR. Our routing technique is compared with other routing techniques; the PDR is improved significantly compared with other routing techniques of VANET.

  11. Dynamic Routing for Delay-Tolerant Networking in Space Flight Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burleigh, Scott C.

    2008-01-01

    Contact Graph Routing (CGR) is a dynamic routing system that computes routes through a time-varying topology composed of scheduled, bounded communication contacts in a network built on the Delay-Tolerant Networking (DTN) architecture. It is designed to support operations in a space network based on DTN, but it also could be used in terrestrial applications where operation according to a predefined schedule is preferable to opportunistic communication, as in a low-power sensor network. This paper will describe the operation of the CGR system and explain how it can enable data delivery over scheduled transmission opportunities, fully utilizing the available transmission capacity, without knowing the current state of any bundle protocol node (other than the local node itself) and without exhausting processing resources at any bundle router.

  12. Dynamic Routing for Delay-Tolerant Networking in Space Flight Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burleigh, Scott C.

    2008-01-01

    Contact Graph Routing (CGR) is a dynamic routing system that computes routes through a time-varying topology composed of scheduled, bounded communication contacts in a network built on the Delay-Tolerant Networking (DTN) architecture. It is designed to support operations in a space network based on DTN, but it also could be used in terrestrial applications where operation according to a predefined schedule is preferable to opportunistic communication, as in a low-power sensor network. This paper will describe the operation of the CGR system and explain how it can enable data delivery over scheduled transmission opportunities, fully utilizing the available transmission capacity, without knowing the current state of any bundle protocol node (other than the local node itself) and without exhausting processing resources at any bundle router.

  13. ACO Agent Based Routing in AOMDV Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaur Amanpreet

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET is a group of moving nodes which can communicate with each other without the help of any central stationary node. All the nodes in the MANET act as router for forwarding data packets. The nodes in the network also move randomly and there exists no fixed infrastructure. So, path breaks are the frequent problem in MANET. The routing protocol faces a lot of problem due these path breaks. Therefore, the routing protocol which is multipath in nature is more reliable than a unipath routing protocol. Ant colony optimization is a relatively new technique which is suitable for the optimization problems. AOMDV is a multipath routing protocol. Thus, if there happens to be path break, the packets can start following the new path which has already been selected. In this paper, we are trying to add ant’s agents into AOMDV behavior. In this way, the new protocol will be benefited by the dual properties i.e. of ant’s nature and multipath nature of AOMDV. The modified concept is simulated and the outcomes are compared with AOMDV, AODV and DSR routing protocols for few performance parameters. Results obtained are encouraging; the new algorithm performs better than traditional unipath and multipath routing protocols.

  14. The Secure Dynamic Source Routing Protocol in MANET using MD5 Hash Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radha S. Savankar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic Source Routing (DSR is a routing protocol designed specifically for use in mobile ad hoc networks. The protocol allows nodes to dynamically discover a source route across multiple network hops to any destination in the ad hoc network. The protocol is composed of the two mechanisms of Route Discovery and Route Maintenance, which work together to allow nodes to discover and maintain source routes to arbitrary destinations in the ad hoc network. When using source routing, each packet to be routed carries in its header the complete, ordered list of nodes through which the packet must pass. A key advantage of source routing is that intermediate hops do not need to maintain routing information in order to route the packets they receive, since the packets themselves already contain all of the necessary routing information. This, coupled with the dynamic, on-demand nature of Route Discovery, completely eliminates the need for periodic router advertisements and link status packets, reducing the overhead of DSR, especially during periods when the network topology is stable and these packets serve only as keep-alives

  15. Design and Evaluation of a Dynamic Programming Flight Routing Algorithm Using the Convective Weather Avoidance Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Hok K.; Grabbe, Shon; Mukherjee, Avijit

    2010-01-01

    The optimization of traffic flows in congested airspace with varying convective weather is a challenging problem. One approach is to generate shortest routes between origins and destinations while meeting airspace capacity constraint in the presence of uncertainties, such as weather and airspace demand. This study focuses on development of an optimal flight path search algorithm that optimizes national airspace system throughput and efficiency in the presence of uncertainties. The algorithm is based on dynamic programming and utilizes the predicted probability that an aircraft will deviate around convective weather. It is shown that the running time of the algorithm increases linearly with the total number of links between all stages. The optimal routes minimize a combination of fuel cost and expected cost of route deviation due to convective weather. They are considered as alternatives to the set of coded departure routes which are predefined by FAA to reroute pre-departure flights around weather or air traffic constraints. A formula, which calculates predicted probability of deviation from a given flight path, is also derived. The predicted probability of deviation is calculated for all path candidates. Routes with the best probability are selected as optimal. The predicted probability of deviation serves as a computable measure of reliability in pre-departure rerouting. The algorithm can also be extended to automatically adjust its design parameters to satisfy the desired level of reliability.

  16. Research on routing algorithm based on the VANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AN Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For the characteristics of high speed mobility of nodes, frequent changes of dynamic topology and frequent interrupts of the communication links in the VANET, this paper analyzed the defect of the current mobile ad-hoc network routing protocol, and carried on the simulation analysis on the adaptability of AODV, DSR and DSDV routing protocols in VANET applications in the VANET. Through the above research, this paper obtained the conclusion that the AODV routing protocol is more suitable for vehicular ad hoc network environment

  17. Dynamic Air-Route Adjustments - Model,Algorithm,and Sensitivity Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GENG Rui; CHENG Peng; CUI Deguang

    2009-01-01

    Dynamic airspace management (DAM) is an important approach to extend limited air space resources by using them more efficiently and flexibly.This paper analyzes the use of the dynamic air-route adjustment (DARA) method as a core procedure in DAM systems.DARA method makes dynamic decisions on when and how to adjust the current air-route network with the minimum cost.This model differs from the air traffic flow management (ATFM) problem because it considers dynamic opening and closing of air-route segments instead of only arranging flights on a given air traffic network and it takes into account several new constraints,such as the shortest opening time constraint.The DARA problem is solved using a two-step heuristic algorithm.The sensitivities of important coefficients in the model are analyzed to determine proper values for these coefficients.The computational results based on practical data from the Beijing ATC region show that the two-step heuristic algorithm gives as good results as the CPLEX in less or equal time in most cases.

  18. Issues of Simulation-Based Route Assignment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagel, K.; Rickert, M.

    1999-07-20

    The authors use an iterative re-planning scheme with simulation feedback to generate a self-consistent route-set for a given street network and origin-destination matrix. The iteration process is defined by three parameters. They found that they have influence on the speed of the relaxation, but not necessarily on its final state.

  19. A Hop Count Based Heuristic Routing Protocol for Mobile Delay Tolerant Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Changjiang; Dai, Chenqu; Xu, Jixing; Hu, Lejuan

    2014-01-01

    Routing in delay tolerant networks (DTNs) is a challenge since it must handle network partitioning, long delays, and dynamic topology. Meanwhile, routing protocols of the traditional mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) cannot work well due to the failure of its assumption that most network connections are available. In this paper, we propose a hop count based heuristic routing protocol by utilizing the information carried by the peripatetic packets in the network. A heuristic function is defined to help in making the routing decision. We formally define a custom operation for square matrices so as to transform the heuristic value calculation into matrix manipulation. Finally, the performance of our proposed algorithm is evaluated by the simulation results, which show the advantage of such self-adaptive routing protocol in the diverse circumstance of DTNs. PMID:25110736

  20. DBLAR: A DISTANCE-BASED LOCATION-AIDED ROUTING FOR MANET

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Kun; Wu Meng

    2009-01-01

    In location-aided routing of Mobile Ad hoc NETworks (MANET), nodes mobility and the inaccuracy of location information may result in constant flooding, which will reduce the network performance. In this paper, a Distance-Based Location-Aided Routing (DBLAR) for MANET has been proposed. By tracing the location information of destination nodes and referring to distance change between nodes to adjust route discovery dynamically, the proposed routing algorithm can avoid flooding in the whole networks. Besides, Distance Update Threshold (DUT) is set up to reach the balance between real-time ability and update overhead of location information of nodes, meanwhile, the detection of relative distance vector can achieve the goal of adjusting forwarding condition. Simulation results reveal that DBLAR performs better than LAR1 in terms of packet successful delivery ratio, average end-to-end delay and routing-load, and the set of DUT and relative distance vector has a significant impact on this algorithm.

  1. A Socially Aware Routing Based on Local Contact Information in Delay-Tolerant Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan-Myung Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In delay-tolerant networks, network topology changes dynamically and there is no guarantee of continuous connectivity between any two nodes. These features make DTN routing one of important research issues, and the application of social network metrics has led to the design of recent DTN routing schemes. In this paper, we propose an efficient routing scheme by using a node’s local contact history and social network metrics. Each node first chooses a proper relay node based on the closeness to the destination node. A locally computed betweenness centrality is additionally utilized to enhance the routing efficiency. Through intensive simulation, we finally demonstrate that our algorithm performs efficiently compared to the existing epidemic or friendship routing scheme.

  2. A Hop Count Based Heuristic Routing Protocol for Mobile Delay Tolerant Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei You

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Routing in delay tolerant networks (DTNs is a challenge since it must handle network partitioning, long delays, and dynamic topology. Meanwhile, routing protocols of the traditional mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs cannot work well due to the failure of its assumption that most network connections are available. In this paper, we propose a hop count based heuristic routing protocol by utilizing the information carried by the peripatetic packets in the network. A heuristic function is defined to help in making the routing decision. We formally define a custom operation for square matrices so as to transform the heuristic value calculation into matrix manipulation. Finally, the performance of our proposed algorithm is evaluated by the simulation results, which show the advantage of such self-adaptive routing protocol in the diverse circumstance of DTNs.

  3. Method and apparatus for routing data in an inter-nodal communications lattice of a massively parallel computer system by dynamically adjusting local routing strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Charles Jens; Musselman, Roy Glenn; Peters, Amanda; Pinnow, Kurt Walter; Swartz, Brent Allen; Wallenfelt, Brian Paul

    2010-03-16

    A massively parallel computer system contains an inter-nodal communications network of node-to-node links. Each node implements a respective routing strategy for routing data through the network, the routing strategies not necessarily being the same in every node. The routing strategies implemented in the nodes are dynamically adjusted during application execution to shift network workload as required. Preferably, adjustment of routing policies in selective nodes is performed at synchronization points. The network may be dynamically monitored, and routing strategies adjusted according to detected network conditions.

  4. Power and Mobility-Aware Adaptive Dynamic Source Routing in Mobile Ad Hoc Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XULi; ZHENGBaoyu; YANGZhen

    2005-01-01

    MANET (Mobile ad hoc network) is characterized by a highly dynamic network topology. This makes routing discovery and maintenance challenging for routing protocol design. On the other hand, energy efficient routing may be another important design criterion for MANET since most of nodes are usually powered by battery with limited capacity. With optimization of DSR (Dynamic source routing) protocol, this paper proposes Power and mobility-aware adaptive dynamic source routing (PMADSR). The new routing protocol can be aware of the mobility and remaining battery capacity of nodes. Performance simulation results show that the proposed PMADSR protocol can dynamically balance the traffic load inside the whole network, so as to prolong the network lifetime, as well as achieve higher throughput.

  5. A New Dynamic Route Discovery Mechanism for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humaira Nishat

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Nodes in a mobile ad hoc network have limited battery power for their operation. Energy efficient routing protocol such as Min-Max Battery Cost Routing (MMBCR selects a path with nodes having maximum battery capacity for transmission of data packets from source to destination. Though MMBCR considers individual node battery power during route discovery process, the route selected does not change unless any node in that route is exhausted completely resulting in link failure. This paper proposes a new dynamic route discovery mechanism which adapts a new route periodically resulting in decreasing the probability of link failure and increasing the lifetime of the network. The proposed routing protocol is named Dynamic Route Discovery (DRD protocol. In this DRD protocol, the energy and cost function of each node is computed periodically by initializing route discovery process at regular intervals. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm not only increases the lifetime of the network but also gives better throughput, packet delivery ratio and delay performance at the cost of increased routing overhead and normalized routing load compared to the existing MMBCR protocol.

  6. An improved global dynamic routing strategy for scale-free network with tunable clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lina; Huang, Ning; Zhang, Yue; Bai, Yannan

    2016-08-01

    An efficient routing strategy can deliver packets quickly to improve the network capacity. Node congestion and transmission path length are inevitable real-time factors for a good routing strategy. Existing dynamic global routing strategies only consider the congestion of neighbor nodes and the shortest path, which ignores other key nodes’ congestion on the path. With the development of detection methods and techniques, global traffic information is readily available and important for the routing choice. Reasonable use of this information can effectively improve the network routing. So, an improved global dynamic routing strategy is proposed, which considers the congestion of all nodes on the shortest path and incorporates the waiting time of the most congested node into the path. We investigate the effectiveness of the proposed routing for scale-free network with different clustering coefficients. The shortest path routing strategy and the traffic awareness routing strategy only considering the waiting time of neighbor node are analyzed comparatively. Simulation results show that network capacity is greatly enhanced compared with the shortest path; congestion state increase is relatively slow compared with the traffic awareness routing strategy. Clustering coefficient increase will not only reduce the network throughput, but also result in transmission average path length increase for scale-free network with tunable clustering. The proposed routing is favorable to ease network congestion and network routing strategy design.

  7. Energy Efficiency Performance Improvements for Ant-Based Routing Algorithm in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adamu Murtala Zungeru

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main problem for event gathering in wireless sensor networks (WSNs is the restricted communication range for each node. Due to the restricted communication range and high network density, event forwarding in WSNs is very challenging and requires multihop data forwarding. Currently, the energy-efficient ant based routing (EEABR algorithm, based on the ant colony optimization (ACO metaheuristic, is one of the state-of-the-art energy-aware routing protocols. In this paper, we propose three improvements to the EEABR algorithm to further improve its energy efficiency. The improvements to the original EEABR are based on the following: (1 a new scheme to intelligently initialize the routing tables giving priority to neighboring nodes that simultaneously could be the destination, (2 intelligent update of routing tables in case of a node or link failure, and (3 reducing the flooding ability of ants for congestion control. The energy efficiency improvements are significant particularly for dynamic routing environments. Experimental results using the RMASE simulation environment show that the proposed method increases the energy efficiency by up to 9% and 64% in converge-cast and target-tracking scenarios, respectively, over the original EEABR without incurring a significant increase in complexity. The method is also compared and found to also outperform other swarm-based routing protocols such as sensor-driven and cost-aware ant routing (SC and Beesensor.

  8. Reformative multicast routing protocol based on Ad Hoc

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨喜旺; 王华; 焦国太

    2008-01-01

    Mobile Ad Hoc networks has been widely applied to military field, emergency management, public service and so on. Because it is uncertain on network and communication, a great deal of energy will be consumed with nodes increasing and creating routing each other. The reformative on-demand multicast routing protocol was putted forward by researching the energy consuming of multicast routing protocol in Ad Hoc. It will decrease consumption in a big multicast flooding through studying the relaying group net structure based on map or wormhole. The energy consumption is reduced 30% by creating the two kinds of routing principles: minimization of energy consumption and minimization of maximum nodes energy consumption. The simulation result indicates that the reformative RODMRP is effective to reduce the energy consuming while routing protocol built.

  9. Express company’s vehicle routing optimization by multiple-dynamic saving algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junchao Liu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: According to the disorder in circulation commuting and crossover commuting of SF company which is the China’s largest private express delivery service provider, the study uses the Saving Algorithm to make the vehicle routing and resources optimized, on this basis, proposes innovative improvements with Saving Algorithm and then applies it in every distribution center of SF forming a "multi-dynamic" type of Saving Algorithm to ensure both cost savings and timeliness. This method can be generalized for all express company to get the vehicle routing optimized.Design/methodology/approach: As the special transportation requirements of express companies, this study optimizes the vehicle route based on Saving Algorithm, uses multiple-dynamic Saving Algorithm, and considers the timeliness requirements of the express company to achieve a balance of cost and timeliness.Findings: The main finding is that a new method proposed which there can be a balance improvement for both cost and timeliness to optimize the vehicle route of express company. Calculation example validates the effectiveness of the model established and solving method.Practical implications: It is a widespread practice that by setting up model and parameters for the objectives, express company can maintain the balances between cost and timeliness and achieve the optimized vehicle route.Originality/value: It proposes innovative improvements, takes SF express company as an example, with Saving Algorithm which can be applied in every distribution center of express company to ensure the balance improvement for both cost and timeliness, and has a great practical significance to the transportation network and path optimization of express companies.

  10. An efficient method for DEM-based overland flow routing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Pin-Chun; Lee, Kwan Tun

    2013-05-01

    The digital elevation model (DEM) is frequently used to represent watershed topographic features based on a raster or a vector data format. It has been widely linked with flow routing equations for watershed runoff simulation. In this study, a recursive formulation was encoded into the conventional kinematic- and diffusion-wave routing algorithms to permit a larger time increment, despite the Courant-Friedrich-Lewy condition having been violated. To meet the requirement of recursive formulation, a novel routing sequence was developed to determine the cell-to-cell computational procedure for the DEM database. The routing sequence can be set either according to the grid elevation in descending order for the kinematic-wave routing or according to the water stage of the grid in descending order for the diffusion-wave routing. The recursive formulation for 1D runoff routing was first applied to a conceptual overland plane to demonstrate the precision of the formulation using an analytical solution for verification. The proposed novel routing sequence with the recursive formulation was then applied to two mountain watersheds for 2D runoff simulations. The results showed that the efficiency of the proposed method was significantly superior to that of the conventional algorithm, especially when applied to a steep watershed.

  11. QOS-BASED MULTICAST ROUTING OPTIMIZATION ALGORITHMS FOR INTERNET

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Most of the multimedia applications require strict Quality-of-Service (QoS) guarantee during the communication between a single source and multiple destinations. The paper mainly presents a QoS Multicast Routing algorithms based on Genetic Algorithm (QMRGA). Simulation results demonstrate that the algorithm is capable of discovering a set of QoS-based near optimized, non-dominated multicast routes within a few iterations, even for the networks environment with uncertain parameters.

  12. 动态路由机制下无线传感器网络的拓扑控制方法%Topology Control Method for WSN Based on Dynamic Routing Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王亚聪; 赵柏秦; 吴南健; 李贵柯

    2016-01-01

    By analyzing the power model of sensor node and transmission model of wireless channel,the importance of node power consumption control and how to determine the optimal transmission power was illustrated in theory. The paper gived a de-tailed introduction about topology control method based on dynamic routing and channel assessment.Firstly,it constructed the to-pology of the network through dynamic routing protocol.After topology was established,the index of RSSI and LQI were used to es-timate the channel and adjust transmit power of sensor node based on assessment results.Finally,WSN was needed to maintain its topology to ensure the connectivity and reliability of the network.The experiment results show that the topology control is an essen-tial approach to improve the stability of WSN and prolong the network span.%通过分析传感器节点的功耗模型和无线信道的传输模型,从理论上说明节点功耗控制的重要性以及如何确定最优的发射功率。文中介绍了基于动态路由协议和信道评估的网络拓扑控制方法的实现。首先通过动态路由建立树型拓扑,其次根据RSSI和LQI指标对信道进行评估后调整传感器节点的发射功率,最后阐述了网络拓扑结构的维护,保证网络的连通性和可靠性。实验结果表明,基于功率控制的拓扑控制算法可以提高系统的稳定性,延长网络的生命周期。

  13. A dynamic continental runoff routing model applied to the last Northern Hemisphere deglaciation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Goelzer

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We describe and evaluate a dynamical continental runoff routing model for the Northern Hemisphere that calculates the runoff pathways in response to topographic modifications due to changes in ice thickness and isostatic adjustment. The algorithm is based on the steepest gradient method and takes as simplifying assumption that depressions are filled at all times and water drains through the lowest outlet points. It also considers changes in water storage and lake drainage that become important in the presence of large ice dammed proglacial lakes. Although applicable to other scenarios as well, the model was conceived to study the routing of freshwater fluxes during the last Northern Hemisphere deglaciation. For that specific application we simulated the Northern Hemisphere ice sheets with an existing 3-D thermomechanical ice sheet model, which calculates changes in topography due to changes in ice cover and isostatic adjustment, as well as the evolution of freshwater fluxes resulting from surface ablation, iceberg calving and basal melt. The continental runoff model takes this input, calculates the drainage pathways and routes the freshwater fluxes to the surface grid points of an existing ocean model. This results in a chronology of temporally and spatially varying freshwater fluxes from the Last Glacial Maximum to the present day. We analyse the dependence of the runoff routing to grid resolution and parameters of the isostatic adjustment module of the ice sheet model.

  14. A dynamic continental runoff routing model applied to the last Northern Hemisphere deglaciation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Goelzer

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available We describe and evaluate a dynamical continental runoff routing model for the Northern Hemisphere that calculates the runoff pathways in response to topographic modifications due to changes in ice thickness and isostatic adjustment. The algorithm is based on the steepest gradient method and takes as simplifying assumption that depressions are filled at all times and water drains through the lowest outlet points. It also considers changes in water storage and lake drainage in post-processing mode that become important in the presence of large ice dammed proglacial lakes. Although applicable to other scenarios as well, the model was conceived to study the routing of freshwater fluxes during the last Northern Hemisphere deglaciation. For that specific application we simulated the Northern Hemisphere ice sheets with an existing 3-D thermomechanical ice sheet model, which calculates changes in topography due to changes in ice cover and isostatic adjustment, as well as the evolution of freshwater fluxes resulting from surface ablation, iceberg calving and basal melt. The continental runoff model takes this input, calculates the drainage pathways and routes the freshwater fluxes to the surface grid points of an existing ocean model. This results in a chronology of temporally and spatially varying freshwater fluxes from the Last Glacial Maximum to the present day. We analyse the dependence of the runoff routing to grid resolution and parameters of the isostatic adjustment module of the ice sheet model.

  15. Mitigating Malicious Attacks Using Trust Based Secure-BEFORE Routing Strategy in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutuja Shah

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Mobile ad hoc Networks (MANET, being infrastructureless and dynamic in nature, are predominantly susceptible to attacks such as black hole, worm hole, cunning gray hole attack at source or destination. Various solutions have been put forth so far in literature in order to mitigate the effects of these attacks on the network performance and to improve the reliability of the network. However, these attacks are still prominently a serious threat in MANET. Hence, a trust based routing strategy termed Secure-BEFORE routing (Best FOrwarding Route Estimation is proposed to ensure optimal route estimation in computing the trust value and hop counts using the dummy packets inside the network at 1-hop level. It is observed that the overall performance of the network is improved in providing one-hop level security by maintaining the packet equivalence ratio. Malicious and suspicious nodes are isolated and eliminated from the network, based on their behavior.

  16. Application layer multicast routing solution based on genetic algorithms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng CHENG; Qiufeng WU; Qionghai DAI

    2009-01-01

    Application layer multicast routing is a multi-objective optimization problem.Three routing con-straints,tree's cost,tree's balance and network layer load distribution are analyzed in this paper.The three fitness functions are used to evaluate a multicast tree on the three indexes respectively and one general fitness function is generated.A novel approach based on genetic algorithms is proposed.Numerical simulations show that,compared with geometrical routing rules,the proposed algorithm improve all three indexes,especially on cost and network layer load distribution indexes.

  17. Enhanced Route Re-Construction Method for Associativity Based Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad hoc NETworks (MANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fawaz A.M. Masoud

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A mobile Ad-hoc NETwork (MANET is wireless network composed of mobile nodes that are dynamically and randomly located in such a manner that the interconnections between nodes are capable of changing on a continual basis. In order to facilitate communication within the network, a routing protocol is used to discover routes between nodes. The primary goal of such an ad-hoc network routing protocol is correct and efficient route establishment between a pair of nodes so that messages may be delivered in a timely manner. Route construction and maintenance should be done with a minimum of overhead and bandwidth consumption. The ABR is a source-initiated protocol and is working on the assumption of stable route from the source to the destination node. Maintenance for the route when the destination node moves will be performed in backtracking scheme starting from the immediate upstream node from the destination. If this process results in backtracking more than halfway to the source, it will discontinue and a new route request will be initiated from the source. In the case if the Source Node moves, then the Source Node will invoke a route reconstruction because the ABR is source-initiated protocol. This study presents an enhanced method for the route re-construction in case the source, the intermediate, or the destination node changes its location by giving more active role to the moving node in maintaining the established route.

  18. Multicast Routing Problem Using Tree-Based Cuckoo Optimization Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Sardarpour

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The problem of QoS multicast routing is to find a multicast tree with the least expense/cost which would meet the limitations such as band width, delay and loss rate. This is a NP-Complete problem. To solve the problem of multicast routing, the entire routes from the source node to every destination node are often recognized. Then the routes are integrated and changed into a single multicast tree. But they are slow and complicated methods. The present paper introduces a new tree-based optimization method to overcome such weaknesses. The recommended method directly optimizes the multicast tree. Therefore a tree-based typology including several spanning trees is created which combines the trees two by two. For this purpose, the Cuckoo Algorithm is used which is proved to be well converged and makes quick calculations. The simulation conducted on different types of network typologies proved that it is a practical and influential algorithm.

  19. Energy Efficiency Analysis for Dynamic Routing in Optical Transport Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vizcaíno, Jorge López; Ye, Yabin; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    2012-01-01

    The energy efficiency in telecommunication networks is gaining more relevance as the Internet traffic is growing. The introduction of OFDM and dynamic operation opens new horizons in the operation of optical networks, improving the network flexibility and its efficiency. In this paper, we compare...... the performance in terms of energy efficiency of a flexible-grid OFDM-based solution with a fixed-grid WDM network in a dynamic scenario with time-varying connections. We highlight the benefits that the bandwidth elasticity and the flexibility of selecting different modulation formats can offer compared...

  20. Energy Aware Cluster Based Routing Scheme For Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Sohini

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Network (WSN has emerged as an important supplement to the modern wireless communication systems due to its wide range of applications. The recent researches are facing the various challenges of the sensor network more gracefully. However, energy efficiency has still remained a matter of concern for the researches. Meeting the countless security needs, timely data delivery and taking a quick action, efficient route selection and multi-path routing etc. can only be achieved at the cost of energy. Hierarchical routing is more useful in this regard. The proposed algorithm Energy Aware Cluster Based Routing Scheme (EACBRS aims at conserving energy with the help of hierarchical routing by calculating the optimum number of cluster heads for the network, selecting energy-efficient route to the sink and by offering congestion control. Simulation results prove that EACBRS performs better than existing hierarchical routing algorithms like Distributed Energy-Efficient Clustering (DEEC algorithm for heterogeneous wireless sensor networks and Energy Efficient Heterogeneous Clustered scheme for Wireless Sensor Network (EEHC.

  1. Robust multi-path routing for dynamic topology in wireless sensor networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Ping; TIAN Hui; ZHANG Ming; ZHANG Ping

    2007-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks are being widely researched and are expected to be used in several scenarios. On the leading edge of treads, on-demand, high-reliability, and low-latency routing protocol is desitable for indoor environment applications.This article proposes a routing scheme called robust multi-path routing that establishes and uses multiple node-disjoint routes.Providing multiple routes helps to reduce the route recovery process and control the message overhead. The performance comparison of this protocol with dynamic source routing (DSR) by OPNET simulations shows that this protocol is able to achieve a remarkable improvement in the packet delivery ratio and average end-to-end delay.

  2. Routing Optimization Based on Taboo Search Algorithm for Logistic Distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Hongxue Yang; Lingling Xuan

    2014-01-01

    Along with the widespread application of the electronic commerce in the modern business, the logistic distribution has become increasingly important. More and more enterprises recognize that the logistic distribution plays an important role in the process of production and sales. A good routing for logistic distribution can cut down transport cost and improve efficiency. In order to cut down transport cost and improve efficiency, a routing optimization based on taboo search for logistic distr...

  3. Improvement Of Aodv Routing Protocol Based On Wireless Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Baria Vanrajkumar Dineshkumar

    2012-01-01

    For wireless networks has no support infrastructure and shows a highly dynamic feature, routing becomes a key problem to be solved. Data packets are transmitted on a path that had least hops in AODV protocol. It couldn't consider the path stability. When the node of wireless networks moved quickly and the path had short lifetime, the path recovery and routing again is caused. It is a lot of network resource. For network performance, AODV_V that improvement of AODV protocol in the paper. Opnet...

  4. A Network Coding Based Routing Protocol for Underwater Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Guan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to the particularities of the underwater environment, some negative factors will seriously interfere with data transmission rates, reliability of data communication, communication range, and network throughput and energy consumption of underwater sensor networks (UWSNs. Thus, full consideration of node energy savings, while maintaining a quick, correct and effective data transmission, extending the network life cycle are essential when routing protocols for underwater sensor networks are studied. In this paper, we have proposed a novel routing algorithm for UWSNs. To increase energy consumption efficiency and extend network lifetime, we propose a time-slot based routing algorithm (TSR.We designed a probability balanced mechanism and applied it to TSR. The theory of network coding is introduced to TSBR to meet the requirement of further reducing node energy consumption and extending network lifetime. Hence, time-slot based balanced network coding (TSBNC comes into being. We evaluated the proposed time-slot based balancing routing algorithm and compared it with other classical underwater routing protocols. The simulation results show that the proposed protocol can reduce the probability of node conflicts, shorten the process of routing construction, balance energy consumption of each node and effectively prolong the network lifetime.

  5. Indoor 3D Route Modeling Based On Estate Spatial Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H.; Wen, Y.; Jiang, J.; Huang, W.

    2014-04-01

    Indoor three-dimensional route model is essential for space intelligence navigation and emergency evacuation. This paper is motivated by the need of constructing indoor route model automatically and as far as possible. By comparing existing building data sources, this paper firstly explained the reason why the estate spatial management data is chosen as the data source. Then, an applicable method of construction three-dimensional route model in a building is introduced by establishing the mapping relationship between geographic entities and their topological expression. This data model is a weighted graph consist of "node" and "path" to express the spatial relationship and topological structure of a building components. The whole process of modelling internal space of a building is addressed by two key steps: (1) each single floor route model is constructed, including path extraction of corridor using Delaunay triangulation algorithm with constrained edge, fusion of room nodes into the path; (2) the single floor route model is connected with stairs and elevators and the multi-floor route model is eventually generated. In order to validate the method in this paper, a shopping mall called "Longjiang New City Plaza" in Nanjing is chosen as a case of study. And the whole building space is constructed according to the modelling method above. By integrating of existing path finding algorithm, the usability of this modelling method is verified, which shows the indoor three-dimensional route modelling method based on estate spatial data in this paper can support indoor route planning and evacuation route design very well.

  6. Reliable routing mechanism based on neighbor stability for MANET

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Da-peng; WU Mu-qing; ZHEN Yan

    2009-01-01

    One critical issue for routing in mobile Ad-hoc networks (MANETs) is how to select a reliable path that can last longer because mobility may cause frequent breakdown in radio links. A novel routing mechanism based on link lifetime estimation is proposed in this article. In this mechanism, the node's received signal strength is obtained continuously by using Newton interpolation polynomial, and by method of middle value and interception, the reference points are selected to estimate the link lifetime. With the constraint of link lifetime and hop counts, the source nodes set up the route hop by hop. The simulations show that link lifetime can be predicted regardless of mobility pattern. Moreover, the route discovery times and packet drop ratio can be reduced by the proposed mechanism, and thus improving the performance of MANETs.

  7. Routing Optimization Based on Taboo Search Algorithm for Logistic Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxue Yang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Along with the widespread application of the electronic commerce in the modern business, the logistic distribution has become increasingly important. More and more enterprises recognize that the logistic distribution plays an important role in the process of production and sales. A good routing for logistic distribution can cut down transport cost and improve efficiency. In order to cut down transport cost and improve efficiency, a routing optimization based on taboo search for logistic distribution is proposed in this paper. Taboo search is a metaheuristic search method to perform local search used for logistic optimization. The taboo search is employed to accelerate convergence and the aspiration criterion is combined with the heuristics algorithm to solve routing optimization. Simulation experimental results demonstrate that the optimal routing in the logistic distribution can be quickly obtained by the taboo search algorithm

  8. Improving AODV Performance using Dynamic Density Driven Route Request Forwarding

    CERN Document Server

    Kanakaris, Venetis; Ovaliadis, Kyriakos

    2011-01-01

    Ad-hoc routing protocols use a number of algorithms for route discovery. Some use flooding in which a route request packet (RREQ) is broadcasted from a source node to other nodes in the network. This often leads to unnecessary retransmissions, causing congestion and packet collisions in the network, a phenomenon called a broadcast storm. This paper presents a RREQ message forwarding scheme for AODV that reduces routing overheads. This has been called AODV_EXT. Its performance is compared to that of AODV, DSDV, DSR and OLSR protocols. Simulation results show that AODV_EXT achieves 3% energy efficiency, 19.5% improvement in data throughput and 69.5% reduction in the number of dropped packets for a network of 50 nodes. Greater efficiency is achieved in high density network and marginal improvement in networks with a small number of nodes.

  9. Metric-Based Cooperative Routing in Multihop Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin He

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cooperative communication fully leverages the broadcast nature of wireless channels and exploits time/spatial diversity in a distributed manner, thereby achieving significant improvements in system capacity and transmission reliability. Cooperative diversity has been well studied from the physical layer perspective. Thereafter, cooperative MAC design has also drawn much attention recently. However, very little work has addressed cooperation at the routing layer. In this paper, we propose a simple yet efficient scheme for cooperative routing by using cooperative metrics including packet delivery ratio, throughput, and energy consumption efficiency. To make a routing decision based on our scheme, a node needs to first determine whether cooperation on each link is necessary or not, and if necessary, select the optimal cooperative scheme as well as the optimal relay. To do so, we calculate and compare cooperative routing metric values for each potential relay for each different cooperative MAC scheme (C-ARQ and CoopMAC in this study, and further choose the best value and compare it with the noncooperative link metric. Using the final optimal metric value instead of the traditional metric value at the routing layer, new optimal paths are set up in multihop ad hoc networks, by taking into account the cooperative benefits from the MAC layer. The network performance of the cooperative routing solution is demonstrated using a simple network topology.

  10. SDN-enabled dynamic WDM networks to address routing information inaccuracy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ravhuanzwo, Lusani

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available International Conference on Advances in Computing, Communication, & Engineering (ICACCE-2016), Coastlands Umhlanga Hotel & Resorts, Durban, 28-29 November 2016 SDN-enabled dynamic WDM networks to address routing information inaccuracy L. Ravhuanzwo, A...

  11. POWER CONTROL BASED COOPERATIVE OPPORTUNISTIC ROUTING IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Haifeng; Zhu Qi

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes an approach called PC-CORP (Power Control based Cooperative Opportunistic Routing Protocol) for WSN (Wireless Sensor Networks), providing robustness to the random variations in network connectivity while ensuring better data forwarding efficiency in an energy efficient manner. Based on the realistic radio model, we combine the region-based routing, rendezvous scheme, sleep discipline and cooperative communication together to model data forwarding by cross layer design in WSN. At the same time, a lightweight transmission power control algorithm called PC-AIMD (Power Control Additive Increase Multiplicative Decrease) is introduced to utilize the cooperation of relay nodes to improve the forwarding efficiency performance and increase the robustness of the routing protocol. In the simulation, the performance of PC-COPR is investigated in terms of the adaptation of variations in network connectivity and satisfying the QoS requirements of application.

  12. Dynamic routing based on call quality

    CERN Document Server

    Hammami, Oussama; Gabrielyan, Emin

    2009-01-01

    The telephony over IP (ToIP) is becoming a new trend in technology widely used nowadays in almost all business sectors. Its concepts rely on transiting the telephone communications through the IP network. Today, this technology is deployed increasingly what the cause of emergence of companies is offering this service as Switzernet. For several highly demanded destinations, recently fake vendors appeared in the market offering voice termination but providing only false answer supervision. The answered signal is returned immediately and calls are being charged without being connected. Different techniques are used to keep the calling party on the line. One of these techniques is to play a record of a ring back tone (while the call is already being charged). Another, more sophisticated technique is to play a human voice randomly picked up from a set of records containing contents similar to: hello, hello, I cannot hear you Apart the fact that the fallaciously established calls are charged at rates of real calls,...

  13. A Novel Highly Dynamic Choice Routing Scheme for Mobile Adhoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Varghese

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to improve the performance of the traditional routing protocol for MANET such as DSR and AODV in terms of delay and overhead. The proposed routing scheme is called as Highly Dynamic Choice Routing (HDCR which adopts with the highly dynamic environment of MANET. The link residual life is estimated to reduce the link failure before forwarding data through a node. The velocity of the moving mode is considered while choosing the next forwarder node. This enables the HDCR to decrease the delay in the network. The proposed routing scheme reduces routing overhead and reduces the delay. This scheme reduces the link failure too. The performance is evaluated by using the simulation results obtained by using NS2 simulator.

  14. DataBus-based hybrid routing approach for orbit access networks in lunar exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Hui; Meng, Ke; Deng, Julia

    2012-06-01

    One of the major challenges for lunar exploration missions is how to achieve dynamic and robust routing. To reduce the development cost, it is desirable to leverage existing technologies, such as routing in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) and delay tolerant networks (DTN). However, these technologies are developed for the Earth environment and hence need further investigation for the lunar environment. To support robust access and dynamic mission operations, we propose a DataBus-based Hybrid Routing (DBHR) approach that combines MANET reactive routing protocol (such as AODV) and DTN-based bundle delivery. Our DBHR approach is designed for a tiered architecture where remote nodes communicate with upper-tier gateways through data carriers (DataBus) using short-range radio interfaces. Our scheme explores the (non)availability of the end-to-end path between two peers using MANET routing and provides diverse route options based upon different parameters. This interaction between hop-by-hop DTN technologies and end-to-end MANET protocol will result in a reliable and robust routing protocol for orbit access and improve the overall communication capabilities. To evaluate its performance, we implemented our proposed scheme on commercial-off-theshelf (COTS) routers with the custom OpenWRT and tailored IBR-DTN bundle protocol distribution. The on-demand service request and grant mechanisms are also developed in our implementation to allow certain DTN nodes to reserve the future access opportunities. Finally, we demonstrate the achieved capabilities and performance gains through experiments on a hardware test bed that consists of several COTS routers with our implementation.

  15. Location Based Throughput Maximization Routing in Energy Constrained Mobile Ad-hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Sumathy

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In wireless Ad-hoc network, power consumption becomes an important issue due to limited battery power. One of the reasons for energy expenditure in this network is irregularly distributed node pattern, which impose large interference range in certain area. To maximize the lifetime of ad-hoc mobile network, the power consumption rate of each node must be evenly distributed and the over all transmission range of each node must be minimized. Our protocol, Location based throughput maximization routing in energy constrained Ad-hoc network finds routing paths, which maximize the lifetime of individual nodes and minimize the total transmission energy consumption. The life of the entire network is increased and the network throughput is also increased. The reliability of the path is also increased. Location based energy constrained routing finds the distance between the nodes. Based on the distance the transmission power required is calculated and dynamically reduces the total transmission energy.

  16. Adaptive Reliable Routing Based on Cluster Hierarchy for Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Min

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available As a multimedia information acquisition and processing method, wireless multimedia sensor network(WMSN has great application potential in military and civilian areas. Compared with traditional wireless sensor network, the routing design of WMSN should obtain more attention on the quality of transmission. This paper proposes an adaptive reliable routing based on clustering hierarchy named ARCH, which includes energy prediction and power allocation mechanism. To obtain a better performance, the cluster structure is formed based on cellular topology. The introduced prediction mechanism makes the sensor nodes predict the remaining energy of other nodes, which dramatically reduces the overall information needed for energy balancing. ARCH can dynamically balance the energy consumption of nodes based on the predicted results provided by power allocation. The simulation results prove the efficiency of the proposed ARCH routing.

  17. Relative Distance Based Routing for Delay Tolerant Mobile Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieyan Liu

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Delay Tolerant Mobile Sensor Network (DTMSN is the network for pervasive information gathering. Traditional static routing approaches may not fit for DTMSN due to its intermittent connectivity. This paper proposes an relative distance based routing (RDBR strategy for DTMSN, in which nodes delivery probabilities are calculated and updated according to the latest relative distance from themselves to the sink node, and data are delivered according to nodes’ delivery probabilities. RDBR also introduces a redundant copies controlling technique based on the message priority. Simulation results show that RDBR achieves a well tradeoff between the data delivery ratio/delay and the delivery overhead.

  18. Trust Based Certificate Revocation for Secure Routing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    xmw970, xmw970

    2016-01-01

    propose to develop a CA distribution and a Trust based threshold revocation method. Initially the trust value is computed from the direct and indirect trust values. And the certificate authorities distributes the secret key to al the nodes. Followed by this a trust based threshold revocation method...

  19. RELIABLE DYNAMIC SOURCE ROUTING PROTOCOL (RDSRP FOR ENERGY HARVESTING WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Narasimhan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks (WSNs carry noteworthy pros over traditional communication. Though, unkind and composite environments fake great challenges in the reliability of WSN communications. It is more vital to develop a reliable unipath dynamic source routing protocol (RDSRPl for WSN to provide better quality of service (QoS in energy harvesting wireless sensor networks (EH-WSN. This paper proposes a dynamic source routing approach for attaining the most reliable route in EH-WSNs. Performance evaluation is carried out using NS-2 and throughput and packet delivery ratio are chosen as the metrics.

  20. Route Assessment for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Based on Cloud Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xixia Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An integrated route assessment approach based on cloud model is proposed in this paper, where various sources of uncertainties are well kept and modeled by cloud theory. Firstly, a systemic criteria framework incorporating models for scoring subcriteria is developed. Then, the cloud model is introduced to represent linguistic variables, and survivability probability histogram of each route is converted into normal clouds by cloud transformation, enabling both randomness and fuzziness in the assessment environment to be managed simultaneously. Finally, a new way to measure the similarity between two normal clouds satisfying reflexivity, symmetry, transitivity, and overlapping is proposed. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed route assessment approach outperforms fuzzy logic based assessment approach with regard to feasibility, reliability, and consistency with human thinking.

  1. A native Bayesian classifier based routing protocol for VANETS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Zhenshan; Zhou, Keqin; Zhang, Wenbo; Gong, Xiaolei

    2016-12-01

    Geographic routing protocols are one of the most hot research areas in VANET (Vehicular Ad-hoc Network). However, there are few routing protocols can take both the transmission efficient and the usage of ratio into account. As we have noticed, different messages in VANET may ask different quality of service. So we raised a Native Bayesian Classifier based routing protocol (Naive Bayesian Classifier-Greedy, NBC-Greedy), which can classify and transmit different messages by its emergency degree. As a result, we can balance the transmission efficient and the usage of ratio with this protocol. Based on Matlab simulation, we can draw a conclusion that NBC-Greedy is more efficient and stable than LR-Greedy and GPSR.

  2. A Network- Based VPN Architecture Using Virtual Routing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Bao-liang; HU Han-ping; WU Xiao-gang; KONG Tao

    2005-01-01

    A network-based Virtual Private Network (VPN) architecture by using fundamental routing mechanism is proposed. This network is a virtual overlay network based on the relay of IP-in-IP tunneling of virtual routing modules.The packet format employs the encapsulation of IPSec ESP (Encapsulating Security Payload), an impact path code and an extended DS (Differentiated Services) code to support multi-path routing and QoS. Comparing with other models of VPN, this network system can be deployed in the current network with little investment, and it is easy to implement.The simulation result shows its performance is better than the traditional VPN system of black box mode.

  3. CRPCG—Clustering Routing Protocol based on Connected Graph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Li

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to balance the load between cluster head, save the energy consumption of the inter-cluster routing, enhance reliability and flexibility of data transmission, the paper proposes a new clustering routing protocol based on connected graph (CRPCG. The protocol optimizes and innovates in three aspects: cluster head election, clusters formation and clusters routing. Eventually, a connected graph is constituted by the based station and all cluster heads, using the excellent algorithm of the graph theory, to guarantee the network connectivity and reliability, improve the link quality, balance node energy and prolong the network life cycle. The results of simulation show that, the protocol significantly prolong the network life cycle, balance the energy of network nodes, especially in the phase of inter-cluster data transmission, improving the reliability and efficiency of data transmission.

  4. Effective ANT based Routing Algorithm for Data Replication in MANETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.J. Nithya Nandhini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In mobile ad hoc network, the nodes often move and keep on change its topology. Data packets can be forwarded from one node to another on demand. To increase the data accessibility data are replicated at nodes and made as sharable to other nodes. Assuming that all mobile host cooperative to share their memory and allow forwarding the data packets. But in reality, all nodes do not share the resources for the benefits of others. These nodes may act selfishly to share memory and to forward the data packets. This paper focuses on selfishness of mobile nodes in replica allocation and routing protocol based on Ant colony algorithm to improve the efficiency. The Ant colony algorithm is used to reduce the overhead in the mobile network, so that it is more efficient to access the data than with other routing protocols. This result shows the efficiency of ant based routing algorithm in the replication allocation.

  5. Priority-Based Routing Resource Assignment Considering Crosstalk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-Ci Cai; Bin Liu; Yan Xiong; Qiang Zhou; Xian-Long Hong

    2006-01-01

    Crosstalk has become one of the most critical concerns in very deep sub-micron era. This paper deals with the problem of crosstalk mitigation at both methodological and algorithmic levels. Noting that intermediate operations between global routing and detailed routing are very effective in crosstalk estimation and reduction, the authors propose to incorporate several intermediate steps that are separated in traditional design flow into an integrated routing resource assignment stage,so that the operations could easily cooperate to fully exert their power on crosstalk reduction. An efficient priority-based heuristic algorithm is developed, which works slice by slice. Crosstalk avoidance, and many other aspects that are critical in routing practice including congestion, vias, layer preference, etc., are taken into account. A track reservation strategy is adopted in the algorithm framework to compensate the undesired effects caused by sequential routing. Experimental results on a series of ISPD98 and industrial benchmarks show that the proposed approach is able to reduce capacitive crosstalk by about 70% on average without compromising completion ratio compared with a previously reported graph based algorithm,demonstrating the advantages of the approach.

  6. Link Reliability based Detection and Predecessor base Route Establishment for Prevention of Wormhole Attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nansi Jain

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET is consists of mobile hosts or sensor nodes proficient of functioning in absence of infrastructure. Such networks should be capable of self forming, self organizing, self managing, self recovering, and able to operate under dynamic conditions. The multi-hop communication phenomenon is used to sending information to receiver. To attain this, each mobile node depends on its neighbor or range node to forward the data packet to the destination. In fact, most of previous studies on MANET have implicitly assumed that nodes are cooperative such as node cooperation becomes a very important issue in MANET. The attacker in dynamic network are easily affected the routing performance and data receiving ratio is affected as compared to normal performance of network as well as dropping of data is enhanced. The packets percentage is degrades is the confirmation of attacker misbehavior. The characteristics of wormhole attack is to making the tunnel and reply the positive acknowledgement of destination at time of route request and drop all the data deliver through tunnel. The attacker is identified by the past and current data receiving and forwarding in MANET. The proposed IPS (Intrusion Detection and Prevention System provides the security on the basis of link reliability. In this work, we proposed new link reliability based security through Predecessor based Route Establishment of detecting routing misbehavior of wormhole attack for prevention in MANET. The attacker is blocked through the broadcasting scheme used by proposed prevention scheme from their actual identification to neighbors. The security provider nodes are blocking the communication of attacker and provide the secure communication among the mobile nodes. The performance of proposed scheme is evaluated through performance metrics like PDR and throughput

  7. POWER-AWARE ROUTING BASED ON DSR FOR MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Jingbo; Hong Peilin; Li Jinsheng

    2007-01-01

    Energy consumption is a crucial design concern in Mobile Ad hoc NETworks (MANETs)since nodes are powered by batteries with limited energy, whereas Dynamic Source Routing (DSR)protocol does not take the energy limitation of MANET nodes into account. This paper proposes an energy-saving routing algorithm based on DSR: Power Aware Routing protocol based on DSR (PAR-DSR). The design objective of PAR-DSR is to select energy-efficient paths. The main features of PAR-DSR are: (1) Nodes use the Signal Attenuation Rate (SAR) to conduct power control operations;(2) Minimum path cost as metric to balance the traffic and energy consumption of wireless nodes. The simulation results show that PAR-DSR can greatly reduce the energy consumption of MANET nodes.The average node lifetime of PAR-DSR is 50%-77% longer than that of DSR.

  8. Fuzzy Logic Based Trusted Candidate Selection for Stable Multipath Routing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujata V. Mallapur

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs, providing reliable and stable communication paths between wireless devices is critical. This paper presents a fuzzy logic stablebackbone-based multipath routing protocol (FLSBMRP for MANET that provides a high-quality path for communication between nodes. The proposed protocol has two main phases. The first phase is the selection of candidate nodes using a fuzzy logic technique. The second phase is the construction of a routing backbone that establishes multiple paths between nodes through the candidate nodes, thus forming a routing backbone. If any candidate node in the path fails due to a lack of bandwidth, residual energy or link quality, an alternate path through another candidate node is selected for communication before the route breaks, because a candidate node failure may lead to a broken link between the nodes. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed protocol performs better in terms of the packet delivery ratio, overhead, delay and packet drop ratio than the major existing ad hoc routing protocols.

  9. The Prohibitive Link between Position-based Routing and Planarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Cairns

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Position-based routing is touted as an ideal routing strategy for resource-constrained wireless networks. One persistent barrier to adoption is due to its recovery phase, where messages are forwarded according to leftor right-hand rule (LHR. This is often referred to as face-routing. In this paper we investigate the limits of LHR with respect to planarity.We show that the gap between non-planarity and successful delivery is a single link within a single configuration. Our work begins with an analysis to enumerate all node configurations that cause intersections in the unit-disc graph. We find that left-hand rule is able to recover from all but a single case, the ‘umbrella’ configuration so named for its appearance. We use this information to propose the Prohibitive Link Detection Protocol (PLDP that can guarantee delivery over non-planar graphs using standard face-routing techniques. As the name implies, the protocol detects and circumvents the ‘bad’ links that hamper LHR. The goal of this work is to maintain routing guarantees while disturbing the network graph as little as possible. In doing so, a new starting point emerges from which to build rich distributed protocols in the spirit of CLDP and GDSTR.

  10. FAST UPDATE ALGORITHM FOR TCAM-BASED ROUTING LOOKUPS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志恒; 叶强; 白英彩

    2002-01-01

    Routing technology has been forced to evolve towards higher capacity and per-port packet processing speed. The ability to achieve high forwarding speed is due to either software or hardware technology. TCAM (Ternary Content Addressable Memory) provides a performance advantage over other software or hardware search algorithms, often resulting in an order-of-magnitude reduction of search time. But slow updates may affect the performance of TCAM-based routing lookup. So the key is to design a table management algorithm, which supports high-speed updates in TCAMs. This paper presented three table management algorithms, and then compared their performance. Finally, the optimal one after comparing was given.

  11. A Wire-speed Routing Lookup Algorithm Based on TCAM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小勇; 王志恒; 白英彩; 刘刚

    2004-01-01

    An internal structure of Ternary Content Addressable Memory (TCAM) is designed and a Sorting Prefix Block (SPB) algorithm is presented, which is a wire-speed routing lookup algorithm based on TCAM. SPB algorithm makes use of the parallelism of TCAM adequately, and improves the utilization of TCAM by optimum partitions. With the aid of effective management algorithm and memory image, SPB separates critical searching from assistant searching, and improves the searching effect. One performance test indicates that this algorithm can work with different TCAM to meet the requirement of wire-speed routing lookup.

  12. SIMULATED ANNEALING BASED POLYNOMIAL TIME QOS ROUTING ALGORITHM FOR MANETS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Lianggui; Feng Guangzeng

    2006-01-01

    Multi-constrained Quality-of-Service (QoS) routing is a big challenge for Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs) where the topology may change constantly. In this paper a novel QoS Routing Algorithm based on Simulated Annealing (SA_RA) is proposed. This algorithm first uses an energy function to translate multiple QoS weights into a single mixed metric and then seeks to find a feasible path by simulated annealing. The paper outlines simulated annealing algorithm and analyzes the problems met when we apply it to Qos Routing (QoSR) in MANETs. Theoretical analysis and experiment results demonstrate that the proposed method is an effective approximation algorithms showing better performance than the other pertinent algorithm in seeking the (approximate) optimal configuration within a period of polynomial time.

  13. A Load Balance Routing Algorithm Based on Uneven Clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Yuan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at the problem of uneven load in clustering Wireless Sensor Network (WSN, a kind of load balance routing algorithm based on uneven clustering is proposed to do uneven clustering and calculate optimal number of clustering. This algorithm prevents the number of common node under some certain cluster head from being too large which leads load to be overweight to death through even node clustering. It constructs evaluation function which can better reflect residual energy distribution of nodes and at the same time constructs routing evaluation function between cluster heads which uses MATLAB to do simulation on the performance of this algorithm. Simulation result shows that the routing established by this algorithm effectively improves network’s energy balance and lengthens the life cycle of network.  

  14. Deflection routing scheme for GMPLS-based OBS networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eid, Arafat; Mahmood, Waqar; Alomar, Anwar

    2010-01-01

    is not applicable in such an integrated solution. This is due to the existence of already established Label Switched Paths (LSPs) between edge nodes in a GMPLS-based OBS network which guide the Data Burst Headers (DBHs) through the network. In this paper we propose a novel deflection routing scheme which can...

  15. Energy Efficient Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks based on Ant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. O. E. OSUAGWU

    2013-09-01

    Sep 1, 2013 ... energy efficient manner. Ant Colony Optimization, a swarm intelligence based optimization ... to WSNs, many routing schemes using end-to-end devices ..... This task is performed by sending ant k back to its source node from ...

  16. Route-Based Control of Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonder, J. D.

    2008-01-01

    Today's hybrid electric vehicle controls cannot always provide maximum fuel savings over all drive cycles. Route-based controls could improve HEV fuel efficiency by 2%-4% and help save nearly 6.5 million gallons of fuel annually.

  17. DYNAMIC K-MEANS ALGORITHM FOR OPTIMIZED ROUTING IN MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Zandieh Shirazi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a dynamic K-means algorithm to improve the routing process in Mobile Ad-Hoc networks (MANETs is presented. Mobile ad-hoc networks are a collocation of mobile wireless nodes that can operate without using focal access points, pre-existing infrastructures, or a centralized management point. In MANETs, the quick motion of nodes modifies the topology of network. This feature of MANETS is lead to various problems in the routing process such as increase of the overhead massages and inefficient routing between nodes of network. A large variety of clustering methods have been developed for establishing an efficient routing process in MANETs. Routing is one of the crucial topics which are having significant impact on MANETs performance. The K-means algorithm is one of the effective clustering methods aimed to reduce routing difficulties related to bandwidth, throughput and power consumption. This paper proposed a new K-means clustering algorithm to find out optimal path from source node to destinations node in MANETs. The main goal of proposed approach which is called the dynamic K-means clustering methods is to solve the limitation of basic K-means method like permanent cluster head and fixed cluster members. The experimental results demonstrate that using dynamic K-means scheme enhance the performance of routing process in Mobile ad-hoc networks.

  18. Integrating network structure and dynamic information for better routing strategy on scale-free networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiao-Gai; Wong, Eric W. M.; Wu, Zhi-Xi

    2009-06-01

    We study information packet routing processes on scale-free networks by mimicking the Internet traffic delivery strategies. We incorporate both the global network structure information and local queuing information in the dynamic processes. We propose several new routing strategies to guide the packet routing. The performance of the routing strategies is measured by the average transit time of the packets as well as their dependence on the traffic amount. We find that the routing strategies which integrate both global network structure information and local dynamic information perform much better than the traditional shortest-path routing protocol which takes into account only the global topological information. Moreover, from comparative studies of these routing strategies, we observe that some of our proposed methods can decrease the average transit time of packets but the performance is closely dependent on the total amount of traffic while some other proposed methods can have good performance independent of the total amount of traffic with hyper-excellent average transit time of packets. Also, numerical results show that our proposed methods integrating network structure information and local dynamic information can work much better than the methods recently proposed in [S. Sreenivasan, R. Cohen, E. López, Z. Toroczkai, H.E. Stanley, Phys. Rev. E 75 (2007) 036105, Zhi-Xi Wu, Gang Peng, Eric W.M. Wong, Kai-Hau Yeung, J. Stat. Mech. (2008) P11002.], which only considered network structure information.

  19. Geo-Based Inter-Domain Routing (GIDR) Protocol for MANETS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    routing protocol such as DSDV, AODV is used. The GIDR inter- domain routing protocol chooses the routing path which is marked by red... routing protocols , the scenarios of Figure 7 and 8 have multiple domains, each of which runs different routing protocols , such as AODV , BELLMANFORD...GEO-BASED INTER-DOMAIN ROUTING (GIDR) PROTOCOL FOR MANETS Biao Zhou*, Abhishek Tiwari+, Konglin Zhu*, You Lu$, Mario Gerla*, Anurag Ganguli+,

  20. Performance Evaluation and Impact of Weighting Factors on an Energy and Delay Aware Dynamic Source Routing Protocol

    CERN Document Server

    Rekik, Jihen Drira; Ghezala, Henda Ben

    2011-01-01

    Typical applications of the mobile ad-hoc network, MANET, are in disaster recovery operations which have to respect time constraint needs. Since MANET is affected by limited resources such as power constraints, it is a challenge to respect the deadline of a real-time data. This paper proposes the Energy and Delay aware based on Dynamic Source Routing protocol, ED-DSR. ED-DSR efficiently utilizes the network resources such as the intermediate mobile nodes energy and load. It ensures both timeliness and energy efficiency by avoiding low-power and overloaded intermediate mobile nodes. Through simulations, we compare our proposed routing protocol with the basic routing protocol Dynamic Source Routing, DSR. Weighting factors are introduced to improve the route selection. Simulation results, using the NS-2 simulator, show that the proposed protocol prolongs the network lifetime (up to 66%), increases the volume of packets delivered while meeting the data flows real-time constraints and shortens the endto- end delay...

  1. QoS Assertion in MANET Routing based on Trusted AODV (ST-AODV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sridhar Subramanian

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Mobile ad hoc network is a standalone network capab le of autonomous operation where nodes communicate with each other without the need of any existing infrastructure. They are self configuring , autonomous, quickly deployable and operate without infrastructure. Mobile ad hoc networks consist of nodes that cooperate to provide connectivity and ar e free to move and organize randomly. Every node is router or an end host, in general autonomous and sh ould be capable of routing traffic as destination nodes sometimes might be out of range. Nodes are mo bile since topology is very dynamic and they have limited energy and computing resources . These nodes are often vulnerable to failure thus m aking mobile ad hoc networks open to threats and attacks. Commun ication in MANET relies on mutual trust between the participating nodes but the features of MANET m ake this hard. Nodes sometimes fail to transmit and start dropping packets during the transmission. Suc h nodes are responsible for untrustworthy routing. A trust based scheme can be used to track these untru stworthy nodes and isolate them from routing, thus provide trustworthiness. In this paper a trusted AO DV (ST-AODV protocol is presented which assigns a trust value for each node. Nodes are allowed to par ticipate in routing based on their trust values. A threshold value is assigned and if the nodes trust value is greater than this value its marked as trustworthy node and allowed to participate in rout ing else the node is marked untrustworthy. The ST- AODV increases PDR and decreases delay thereby enha ncing the QoS metrics and trustworthiness in AODV based MANET routing. The work is implemented a nd simulated on NS-2. The simulation result shows the proposed ST-AODV provides more trustworth y routing compared with general AODV in presence of packet dropping nodes in MANET.

  2. ARBR: Adaptive reinforcement-based routing for DTN

    KAUST Repository

    Elwhishi, Ahmed

    2010-10-01

    This paper introduces a novel routing protocol in Delay Tolerant Networks (DTNs), aiming to solve the online distributed routing problem. By manipulating a collaborative reinforcement learning technique, a group of nodes can cooperate with each other and make a forwarding decision for the stored messages based on a cost function at each contact with another node. The proposed protocol is characterized by not only considering the contact time statistics under a novel contact model, but also looks into the feedback on user behavior and network conditions, such as congestion and buffer occupancy sampled during each previous contact with any other node. Therefore, the proposed protocol can achieve high efficiency via an adaptive and intelligent routing mechanism according to network conditions. Extensive simulation is conducted to verify the proposed protocol, where a comparison is made with a number of existing encounter-based routing protocols in term of the number of transmissions of each message, message delivery delay, and delivery ratio. The results of the simulation demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed technique.

  3. Cooperative Opportunistic Pressure Based Routing for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadeem Javaid

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, three opportunistic pressure based routing techniques for underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs are proposed. The first one is the cooperative opportunistic pressure based routing protocol (Co-Hydrocast, second technique is the improved Hydrocast (improved-Hydrocast, and third one is the cooperative improved Hydrocast (Co-improved Hydrocast. In order to minimize lengthy routing paths between the source and the destination and to avoid void holes at the sparse networks, sensor nodes are deployed at different strategic locations. The deployment of sensor nodes at strategic locations assure the maximum monitoring of the network field. To conserve the energy consumption and minimize the number of hops, greedy algorithm is used to transmit data packets from the source to the destination. Moreover, the opportunistic routing is also exploited to avoid void regions by making backward transmissions to find reliable path towards the destination in the network. The relay cooperation mechanism is used for reliable data packet delivery, when signal to noise ratio (SNR of the received signal is not within the predefined threshold then the maximal ratio combining (MRC is used as a diversity technique to improve the SNR of the received signals at the destination. Extensive simulations validate that our schemes perform better in terms of packet delivery ratio and energy consumption than the existing technique; Hydrocast.

  4. ACO-Based Routing Algorithm for Cognitive Radio Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive Radio Networks (CRNs are an outstanding solution to improve efficiency of spectrum usage. Secondary users in cognitive networks may select from a set of available channels to use provided that the occupancy does not affect the prioritized licensed users. However, CRNs produce unique routing challenges due to the high fluctuation in the available spectrum as well as diverse quality-of-service (QoS requirements. In CRNs, distributed multihop architecture and time varying spectrum availability are some of the key factors in design of routing algorithms. In this paper, we develop an ant-colony-optimization- (ACO- based on-demand cognitive routing algorithm (ACO-OCR, jointly consider path and spectrum scheduling, and take advantage of the availability of multiple channels, to improve the delivery latency and packet loss rate. Then, an analytical framework based on M/G/1 queuing theory is introduced to illustrate the relay node queuing model. The performances of ACO-OCR have been evaluated by means of numerical simulations, and the experimental results confirm its effectiveness. Simulation results show that ACO-OCR outperforms other routing approaches in end-to-end path latency and package loss rate.

  5. Cooperative Opportunistic Pressure Based Routing for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaid, Nadeem; Muhammad; Sher, Arshad; Abdul, Wadood; Niaz, Iftikhar Azim; Almogren, Ahmad; Alamri, Atif

    2017-03-19

    In this paper, three opportunistic pressure based routing techniques for underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs) are proposed. The first one is the cooperative opportunistic pressure based routing protocol (Co-Hydrocast), second technique is the improved Hydrocast (improved-Hydrocast), and third one is the cooperative improved Hydrocast (Co-improved Hydrocast). In order to minimize lengthy routing paths between the source and the destination and to avoid void holes at the sparse networks, sensor nodes are deployed at different strategic locations. The deployment of sensor nodes at strategic locations assure the maximum monitoring of the network field. To conserve the energy consumption and minimize the number of hops, greedy algorithm is used to transmit data packets from the source to the destination. Moreover, the opportunistic routing is also exploited to avoid void regions by making backward transmissions to find reliable path towards the destination in the network. The relay cooperation mechanism is used for reliable data packet delivery, when signal to noise ratio (SNR) of the received signal is not within the predefined threshold then the maximal ratio combining (MRC) is used as a diversity technique to improve the SNR of the received signals at the destination. Extensive simulations validate that our schemes perform better in terms of packet delivery ratio and energy consumption than the existing technique; Hydrocast.

  6. An Efficient Quality of Service Based Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapan Kumar Godder

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Ad-hoc network is set up with multiple wireless devices without any infrastructure. Its employment is favored in many environments. Quality of Service (QoS is one of the main issues for any network and due to bandwidth constraint and dynamic topology of mobile ad hoc networks, supporting Quality of Service (QoS is extremely a challenging task. It is modeled as a multi-layer problem and is considered in both Medium Access Control (MAC and routing layers for ad hoc networks. Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV routing protocol is one of the most used and popular reactive routing protocols in ad-hoc networks. This paper proposed a new protocol QoS based AODV (QAODV which is a modified version of AODV.

  7. Chain Routing: A new routing framework for the Internet based on complete orders

    CERN Document Server

    Arjona-Villicaña, P David; Stepanenko, Alexander S

    2009-01-01

    A new framework to perform routing at the Autonomous System level is proposed in this paper. This mechanism, called Chain Routing, uses complete orders as its main topological unit, which enables a group of Autonomous Systems to define an acyclic structure to route packets to a destination. The employment of complete orders also allows easy identification and avoidance of persistent route oscillations, eliminates the possibility of developing transient loops in paths, and provides a structure that facilitates the implementation of traffic engineering. Moreover, by combining Chain Routing with other mechanisms that implement complete orders in time, we surmise it is possible to design a new routing protocol which could be more reliable and stable than BGP. Although Chain Routing will require an increase of the message overhead and greater coordination between network administrators, the rewards in stability and resilience should more than compensate for this effort.

  8. Dynamic Routing for Delay-Tolerant Networking in Space Flight Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burleigh, Scott

    2008-01-01

    Computational self-sufficiency - the making of communication decisions on the basis of locally available information that is already in place, rather than on the basis of information residing at other entities - is a fundamental principle of Delay-Tolerant Networking. Contact Graph Routing is an attempt to apply this principle to the problem of dynamic routing in an interplanetary DTN. Testing continues, but preliminary results are promising.

  9. Adaptive and Distributed Algorithms for Vehicle Routing in a Stochastic and Dynamic Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-18

    underlying mathematical model is static and fits within the framework of the Vehicle Routing Problem (see [7] for a thorough introduction to the VRP ...iii) the goal is to compute a set of routes that optimizes the cost of servicing (according to some quality of service metric) the demands. The VRP ...occur- rence in practical problems, the VRP is often a static approx- imation to problems that are in reality dynamic, and therefore it fails to be an

  10. Mobile Anonymous Trust Based Routing Using Ant Colony Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kalpana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Ad hoc networks are susceptible to malicious attacks through denial of services, traffic analysis and spoofing. The security of the ad hoc routing protocol depends upon encryption, authentication, anonymity and trust factors. End-to-end security of data is provided by encryption and authentication, topology information of the nodes can be obtained by studying traffic and routing data. This security problem of ad hoc network is addressed by the use of anonymity mechanisms and trust levels. Identification information like traffic flow, network topology, paths from malicious attackers is hidden in anonymous networks. Similarly, trust plays a very important role in the intermediate node selection in ad hoc networks. Trust is essential as selfish and malicious nodes not only pose a security issue but also decreases the Quality of Service. Approach: In this study, a routing to address anonymous routing with a trust which improves the overall security of the ad hoc network was proposed. A new approach for an on demand ad-hoc routing algorithm, which was based on swarm intelligence. Ant colony algorithms were a subset of swarm intelligence and considered the ability of simple ants to solve complex problems by cooperation. The interesting point was, that the ants do not need any direct communication for the solution process, instead they communicate by stigmergy. The notion of stigmergy means the indirect communication of individuals through modifying their environment. Several algorithms which were based on ant colony problems were introduced in recent years to solve different problems, e.g., optimization problems. Results and Conclusion: It is observed that the overall security in the network improves when the trust factor is considered. It is seen that non performing nodes are not considered due to the proposed ACO technique.

  11. Periodic Sweep Coverage Scheme Based on Periodic Vehicle Routing Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Shu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We provide a sweep coverage algorithm for routing mobile sensors that communicate with a central data sink. This algorithm improves on its predecessors by reducing the number of unnecessary scans when different points of interest (POIs have different requirements for the time interval within which they must be scanned (sweep period. Most sweep coverage algorithms seek to minimize the number of sensors required to cover a given collection of POIs. When POIs have different sweep period requirements, existing algorithms will produce solutions in which sensors visit some POIs much more frequently than is necessary. We define this as the POI Over-Coverage problem. In order to address this problem we develop a Periodic Sweep Coverage (PSC scheme based on a well-known solution to the Periodic Vehicle Routing Problem (PVRP. Our algorithm seeks a route for the mobile sensors that minimizes the number of unnecessary visits to each POI. To verify and test the proposed scheme we implemented a C++ simulation and ran scenarios with a variety of POI topologies (number and distribution of the POIs and the speed at which sensors could travel. The simulation results show that the PSC algorithm outperforms other sweep coverage algorithms such as CSweep and Vehicle Routing Problem Sweep Coverage (VRPSC on both the average number of sensors in a solution and in the computational time required to find a solution. Our results also demonstrate that the PSC scheme is more suitable for the sweep coverage scenarios in which higher speed mobile sensors are used.

  12. QoS multicast routing algorithm based on GA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李腊元; 李春林

    2004-01-01

    The multicast routing problem with multiple QoS constraints in networks with uncertain parameters is discussed, and a network model that is suitable to research such QoS multicast routing problem is described. The QMRGA,a multicast routing policy for Internet, mobile network or other high-performance networks is mainly presented, which is based on the genetic algorithm(GA), and can provide QoS-sensitive paths in a scalable and flexible way in the network environment with uncertain parameters. The QMRGA can also optimize the network resources such as bandwidth and delay, and can converge to the optimal or near-optimal solution within few iterations, even for the network environment with uncertain parameters. The incremental rate of computational cost can be close to a polynomial and is less than exponential rate. The performance measures of the QMRGA are evaluated by using simulations. The results show that QMRGA provides an available approach to QoS multicast routing in network environment with uncertain parameters.

  13. Application of Zigbee in Smart Home with Dynamic Routing Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhongqin

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to avoid damaging the walls and bore a hole through the walls., also to save the cost of rewiring , low voltage power line can be used to implement the smart home .However ,several difficult problem must be solved at the same time , the most important are finding a technology method to suppress the noise interference and resist the weaker signal. The  smart home system is introduced in the paper. During the design of Smart Home System adopting power line signal carrier, a dynamic routine algorithm based on the idea of Genetic Algorithm is proposed to cope with the time-varying and random feature of power line channel. Thus the system can find the transmission path in real time and dispatch the signal carrier to transmit among the nodes. With this algorithm, the communication between a certain group-controller and its terminal nodes or between the main-controller and the group-controllers is realized successfully. In the proposed algorithm all nodes but the controller adopt same driver, therefore the plug and play is realized for all nodes.    

  14. An Enhanced Hybrid Social Based Routing Algorithm for MANET-DTN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Matis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A new routing algorithm for mobile ad hoc networks is proposed in this paper: an Enhanced Hybrid Social Based Routing (HSBR algorithm for MANET-DTN as optimal solution for well-connected multihop mobile networks (MANET and/or worse connected MANET with small density of the nodes and/or due to mobility fragmented MANET into two or more subnetworks or islands. This proposed HSBR algorithm is fully decentralized combining main features of both Dynamic Source Routing (DSR and Social Based Opportunistic Routing (SBOR algorithms. The proposed scheme is simulated and evaluated by replaying real life traces which exhibit this highly dynamic topology. Evaluation of new proposed HSBR algorithm was made by comparison with DSR and SBOR. All methods were simulated with different levels of velocity. The results show that HSBR has the highest success of packet delivery, but with higher delay in comparison with DSR, and much lower in comparison with SBOR. Simulation results indicate that HSBR approach can be applicable in networks, where MANET or DTN solutions are separately useless or ineffective. This method provides delivery of the message in every possible situation in areas without infrastructure and can be used as backup method for disaster situation when infrastructure is destroyed.

  15. Enhanced Genetic Algorithm approach for Solving Dynamic Shortest Path Routing Problems using Immigrants and Memory Schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Nair, T R Gopalakrishnan; Yashoda, M B

    2011-01-01

    In Internet Routing, the static shortest path (SP) problem has been addressed using well known intelligent optimization techniques like artificial neural networks, genetic algorithms (GAs) and particle swarm optimization. Advancement in wireless communication lead more and more mobile wireless networks, such as mobile networks [mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs)] and wireless sensor networks. Dynamic nature of the network is the main characteristic of MANET. Therefore, the SP routing problem in MANET turns into dynamic optimization problem (DOP). Here the nodes ae made aware of the environmental condition, thereby making it intelligent, which goes as the input for GA. The implementation then uses GAs with immigrants and memory schemes to solve the dynamic SP routing problem (DSPRP) in MANETS. In our paper, once the network topology changes, the optimal solutions in the new environment can be searched using the new immigrants or the useful information stored in the memory. Results shows GA with new immigrants sho...

  16. Planning of Chain Supermarket Distribution Route Based on Dynamic Planning Algorithm%基于动态规划算法的连锁超市配送路线设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄春兰; 徐莎莎

    2011-01-01

    运用运筹学中的动态规划方法为国内某大型连锁超市设计从其物流配送中心到各门店的路线,为该超市寻找一个最佳配送路线,达到从物流配送角度降低其成本的目的.%Using the dynamic planning method of the operations studies, the paper plans the routes between the distribution centers and the stores of a certain large-scale supermarket of China to strive for reduced distribution cost and in turn the total logistics and operatonal cost.

  17. Aircraft taxiing route planning based on airport hotspots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuan; Zuo, Qinghai

    2017-05-01

    In order to avoid airport surface hotspots, taxiing route planned for aircraft based on surface hotspots is proposed in this paper. Firstly, airport is abstracted into node-link model and aircraft taxiing avoidance mechanism is established. Then, a ground taxiing route optimization model which minimizes total taxiing time is proposed. A simulation is conducted based on a practical setting of 9 flights on runway 02L at a central-south airport. Simulation results indicate that total taxiing time is reduced by 243s after optimization and no taxiing conflict occurs. Meanwhile, the number of flight that taxi through hotspots area is reduced f, which effectively alleviates the risk level of hotspots and improves airport operation safety.

  18. VANET Routing Replay Attack Detection Research Based on SVM

    OpenAIRE

    Fan Qing Gang; Wang Li; Cai Yan Ning; Li Yong Qiang; Chen Jing

    2016-01-01

    In the process of establishing routing in VANET, because of the interference of routing request (RREQ) and routing response (RREP), the nodes in the network are busy with looking for routing or establishing routing. The impact on the network performance is extremely serious, such as increasing a lot of network overhead, consuming valuable bandwidth resources. In this paper, the influence of routing replay attack in VANET is studied. Four typical characteristic are extracted by “cross layer” s...

  19. On a New Route to Chaos in Railway Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    True, Hans; Jensen, Carsten Nordstroem

    1997-01-01

    exist, but only a couple of which are stable. One of them is a chaotic attractor. Cooperrider's bogie model is described in Section 2, and in Section 3 we explain the method of numerical investigation. In Section 4 the results are shown. The main result is that the chaotic attractor is created through...... a period-doubling cascade of the secondary period in an asymptotically stable quasiperiodic oscillation at decreasing speed. Several quasiperiodic windows were found in the chaotic motion. This route to chaos was first described by Franceschini [9], who discovered it in a seven-mode truncation of the plane...... solution is initially unstable, but it gains stability in a saddle-node bifurcation when the branch turns back toward lower speeds. The chaotic attractor disappears abruptly in what is conjectured to be a blue sky catastrophe, when the speed decreases further....

  20. Minimum Expected Delay-Based Routing Protocol (MEDR for Delay Tolerant Mobile Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haigang Gong

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available It is a challenging work to develop efficient routing protocols for Delay Tolerant Mobile Sensor Networks (DTMSNs, which have several unique characteristics such as sensor mobility, intermittent connectivity, energy limit, and delay tolerability. In this paper, we propose a new routing protocol called Minimum Expected Delay-based Routing (MEDR tailored for DTMSNs. MEDR achieves a good routing performance by finding and using the connected paths formed dynamically by mobile sensors. In MEDR, each sensor maintains two important parameters: Minimum Expected Delay (MED and its expiration time. According to MED, messages will be delivered to the sensor that has at least a connected path with their hosting nodes, and has the shortest expected delay to communication directly with the sink node. Because of the changing network topology, the path is fragile and volatile, so we use the expiration time of MED to indicate the valid time of the path, and avoid wrong transmissions. Simulation results show that the proposed MEDR achieves a higher message delivery ratio with lower transmission overhead and data delivery delay than other DTMSN routing approaches.

  1. Algorithm Research of Individualized Travelling Route Recommendation Based on Similarity

    OpenAIRE

    Xue Shan; Liu Song

    2015-01-01

    Although commercial recommendation system has made certain achievement in travelling route development, the recommendation system is facing a series of challenges because of people’s increasing interest in travelling. It is obvious that the core content of the recommendation system is recommendation algorithm. The advantages of recommendation algorithm can bring great effect to the recommendation system. Based on this, this paper applies traditional collaborative filtering algorithm for analy...

  2. A Lightweight Neighbor-Info-Based Routing Protocol for No-Base-Station Taxi-Call System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xudong; Wang, Jinhang; Chen, Yunchao

    2014-01-01

    Since the quick topology change and short connection duration, the VANET has had unstable routing and wireless signal quality. This paper proposes a kind of lightweight routing protocol-LNIB for call system without base station, which is applicable to the urban taxis. LNIB maintains and predicts neighbor information dynamically, thus finding the reliable path between the source and the target. This paper describes the protocol in detail and evaluates the performance of this protocol by simulating under different nodes density and speed. The result of evaluation shows that the performance of LNIB is better than AODV which is a classic protocol in taxi-call scene. PMID:24737984

  3. A lightweight neighbor-info-based routing protocol for no-base-station taxi-call system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xudong; Wang, Jinhang; Chen, Yunchao

    2014-01-01

    Since the quick topology change and short connection duration, the VANET has had unstable routing and wireless signal quality. This paper proposes a kind of lightweight routing protocol-LNIB for call system without base station, which is applicable to the urban taxis. LNIB maintains and predicts neighbor information dynamically, thus finding the reliable path between the source and the target. This paper describes the protocol in detail and evaluates the performance of this protocol by simulating under different nodes density and speed. The result of evaluation shows that the performance of LNIB is better than AODV which is a classic protocol in taxi-call scene.

  4. Research on Innovating, Applying Multiple Paths Routing Technique Based on Fuzzy Logic and Genetic Algorithm for Routing Messages in Service - Oriented Routing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Thanh Long

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available MANET (short for Mobile Ad-Hoc Network consists of a set of mobile network nodes, network configuration changes very fast. In content based routing, data is transferred from source node to request nodes is not based on destination addresses. Therefore, it is very flexible and reliable, because source node does not need to know destination nodes. If We can find multiple paths that satisfies bandwidth requirement, split the original message into multiple smaller messages to transmit concurrently on these paths. On destination nodes, combine separated messages into the original message. Hence it can utilize better network resources, causes data transfer rate to be higher, load balancing, failover. Service Oriented Routing is inherited from the model of content based routing (CBR, combined with several advanced techniques such as Multicast, multiple path routing, Genetic algorithm to increase the data rate, and data encryption to ensure information security. Fuzzy logic is a logical field study evaluating the accuracy of the results based on the approximation of the components involved, make decisions based on many factors relative accuracy based on experimental or mathematical proof. This article presents some techniques to support multiple path routing from one network node to a set of nodes with guaranteed quality of service. By using these techniques can decrease the network load, congestion, use network resources efficiently.

  5. Improvement In MAODV Protocol Using Location Based Routing Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaur Sharnjeet

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy saving is difficult in wireless sensor network (WSN due to limited resources. Each node in WSN is constrained by their limited battery power for their energy. The energy is reduced as the time goes off due to the packet transmission and reception. Energy management techniques are necessary to minimize the total power consumption of all the nodes in the network in order to maximize its life span. Our proposed protocol Location based routing (LBR aimed to find a path which utilizes the minimum energy to transmit the packets between the source and the destination. The required energy for the transmission and reception of data is evaluated in MATLAB. LBR is implemented on Multicast Ad hoc On Demand Distance Vector Routing Protocol (MAODV to manage the energy consumption in the transmission and reception of data. Simulation results of LBR show the energy consumption has been reduced.

  6. Quadrant Based WSN Routing Technique By Shifting Of Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandan Banerji

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A sensor is a miniaturized, low powered (basically battery powered, limited storage device which can sense the natural phenomenon or things and convert it into electrical energy or vice versa using transduction process. A Wireless Sensor Network (WSN is such a wireless network built using sensors. The sensors communicate with each other’s using wireless medium. They can be deployed in such an environment; inaccessible to human or difficult to reach. Basically there is a vast application on automated world such as robotics, avionics, oceanographic study, space, satellites etc. The routing of a packet from a source node to a destination should be efficient in such a way that must be efficient in case of energy, communication overhead, less intermediate hops. The scheme will help to route the packet with a lesser intermediate nodes as the neighbors are being selected based on their Quadrant position.

  7. ACTIVITY-BASED COSTING FOR VEHICLE ROUTING PROBLEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Moolman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT:Activity-based costing (ABC is a costing model that identifies activity costs in an organisation. It assigns the cost of activity resources to generate the actual cost of products in order to eliminateunprofitable products and to lowerthe prices of overpriced ones. The vehicle routing problem (VRP is a combinatorial optimisation and nonlinear programming problem that seeks to service a number of customers with a fleet of vehicles in a cost-effective manner. In this article we propose a new approach to determine costing for vehicle routing type problems. The methodology incorporates the predictive sharing of a resource by clustering producers.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: ‘Activity-based costing’ (ABC is ’n kostemodel wat die aktiwiteitskoste in ’n organisasie identifiseer. Dit allokeer die koste van die bronne sodat die ware koste van die vervaardiging en dienste van die produk bereken kan word om winsgewendheid te bepaal. Die ‘vehicle routing problem’ (VRP is ’n kombinatoriese optimisering en nie-lineêre programmeringsprobleem wat verskeie kliënte met ’n vloot voertuie in die mees koste- effektiewe manier bedien. Die artikel bespreek ’n nuwe metode om die kombinasie van probleme op te los. Die metode maak gebruik van groeperingsalgoritmes om meer akkurate voertuig deling te voorspel.

  8. Hybrid Weighted-based Clustering Routing Protocol for Railway Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianli Xie

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, a hybrid clustering routing strategy is proposed for railway emergency ad hoc network, when GSM-R base stations are destroyed or some terminals (or nodes are far from the signal coverage. In this case, the cluster-head (CH election procedure is invoked on-demand, which takes into consideration the degree difference from the ideal degree, relative clustering stability, the sum of distance between the node and it’s one-hop neighbors, consumed power, node type and node mobility. For the clustering forming, the weights for the CH election parameters are allocated rationally by rough set theory. The hybrid weighted-based clustering routing (HWBCR strategy is designed for railway emergency communication scene, which aims to get a good trade-off between the computation costs and performances. The simulation platform is constructed to evaluate the performance of our strategy in terms of the average end-to-end delay, packet loss ratio, routing overhead and average throughput. The results, by comparing with the railway communication QoS index, reveal that our strategy is suitable for transmitting dispatching voice and data between train and ground, when the train speed is less than 220km/h

  9. Distributed multicast routing algorithm with dynamic performance in multimedia networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Baoping; Zhang Kun

    2009-01-01

    Tbe delay and DVBMT problem is known to be NP-complete. In this paper, an efficient distributed dynamic multicast muting algorithm was proposed to produce muting trees with delay and delay variation constraints. The pro-posed algorithm is fully distributed, and supports the dynamic reorganizing of the muhicast tree in response to changes for the destination. Simulations demonstrate that our algorithm is better in terms of tree delay and muting success ratio as compared with other existing algorithms, and performs excellently in delay variation performance under lower time complexity, which ensures it to support the requirements of real-time multimedia communications more effectively.

  10. Hybrid Packet-Pheromone-Based Probabilistic Routing for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashkouli Nejad, Keyvan; Shawish, Ahmed; Jiang, Xiaohong; Horiguchi, Susumu

    Ad-Hoc networks are collections of mobile nodes communicating using wireless media without any fixed infrastructure. Minimal configuration and quick deployment make Ad-Hoc networks suitable for emergency situations like natural disasters or military conflicts. The current Ad-Hoc networks can only support either high mobility or high transmission rate at a time because they employ static approaches in their routing schemes. However, due to the continuous expansion of the Ad-Hoc network size, node-mobility and transmission rate, the development of new adaptive and dynamic routing schemes has become crucial. In this paper we propose a new routing scheme to support high transmission rates and high node-mobility simultaneously in a big Ad-Hoc network, by combining a new proposed packet-pheromone-based approach with the Hint Based Probabilistic Protocol (HBPP) for congestion avoidance with dynamic path selection in packet forwarding process. Because of using the available feedback information, the proposed algorithm does not introduce any additional overhead. The extensive simulation-based analysis conducted in this paper indicates that the proposed algorithm offers small packet-latency and achieves a significantly higher delivery probability in comparison with the available Hint-Based Probabilistic Protocol (HBPP).

  11. Literature Review of Dynamic Unmanned Aerial System Routing Problems and Proposals For Future Studies of UASs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cihan Ercan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Outwith the technological developments made with Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV; other important issues for the users like effective planning and re-planning; providing the clear, concise and timely information to the decision makers is part of the Network Enabled Capability. Significant improvements to the Communication and Information systems have made it possible to find dynamic solutions for Vehicle Routing Problems. In this context, "Vehicle Routing" applications for UAVs in reconnaissance missions are increasing exponentially. This study investigates the literature in "dynamic route planning", defining the scope and identifying shortcomings for future studies in Unmanned Aerial Systems. Using this approach not only reduces stagnant travel time to target time but increases the usable times spent on targets.

  12. Performance evaluations for dynamic wavelength routed all-optical multifiber networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, Christian

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a study on dynamic wavelength routed all-optical networks by simulating traffic on all-optical networks. A performance study is carried out on dynamic all-optical networks for fixed and free routing. It is explained how multiple fibers correspond to limited wavelength conversion......, and it is explained why the presence of wavelength converters increase the complexity of optical cross connects. We find that both free routing and wavelength conversion lowers the blocking probability significantly. The new contribution is that we determine the gain in blocking probability as function of the number...... of fibers per link and the offered load. We find that multiple fibers reduce the effect of wavelength converters significantly....

  13. Aircraft Route Recovery Based on An Improved GRASP Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang He

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aircrafts maintenance, temporary airport closures are common factors that disrupt normal flight schedule. The aircraft route recovery aims to recover original schedules by some strategies, including flights swaps, and cancellations, which is a NP-hard problem. This paper proposes an improved heuristic procedure based on Greedy Random Adaptive Search Procedure (GRASP to solve this problem. The effectiveness and high global optimization capability of the heuristic is illustrated through experiments based on large-scale problems. Compared to the original one, it is shown that the improved procedure can find feasible flight recovered schedules with lower cost in a short time.

  14. Administrator and Fidelity Based Secure Routing (AFSR Protocol in MANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit Singh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The proliferation of mobile computing and communication devices are driving a revolutionary change in our information society. Among all the applications and services run by mobile devices, network connections and corresponding data services are without doubt the most demanded services by mobile users. A MANET is a continuously self-configuring, infrastructure-less network of mobile devices connected without wires, which makes it ideal for the present scenario. But, due to lack of any centralized infrastructure and access to trusted authorities, the security in MANET poses a huge threat. The prominent routing protocols we know are generally designed for environments where the nodes within a network are non-malicious. Due to the vulnerable nature of the mobile ad hoc network, there are numerous security threats that disturb its development. We propose a protocol for MANETs named “Administrator and Fidelity Based Secure Routing Protocol” (AFSR, which ensures secure routing through the network: by electing an Administrator node on the basis of Willingness and Fidelity, after which a node only communicates to that secure Admin node. This selection of secured admin nodes results in mitigation of various threats. We have evaluated our proposed protocol by simulating and comparing in GloMoSim.

  15. Cooperative Optimization QoS Cloud Routing Protocol Based on Bacterial Opportunistic Foraging and Chemotaxis Perception for Mobile Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shujuan Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to strengthen the mobile Internet mobility management and cloud platform resources utilization, optimizing the cloud routing efficiency is established, based on opportunistic bacterial foraging bionics, and puts forward a chemotaxis perception of collaborative optimization QoS (Quality of Services cloud routing mechanism. The cloud routing mechanism is based on bacterial opportunity to feed and bacterial motility and to establish the data transmission and forwarding of the bacterial population behavior characteristics. This mechanism is based on the characteristics of drug resistance of bacteria and the structure of the field, and through many iterations of the individual behavior and population behavior the bacteria can be spread to the food gathering area with a certain probability. Finally, QoS cloud routing path would be selected and optimized based on bacterial bionic optimization and hedge mapping relationship between mobile Internet node and bacterial population evolution iterations. Experimental results show that, compared with the standard dynamic routing schemes, the proposed scheme has shorter transmission delay, lower packet error ratio, QoS cloud routing loading, and QoS cloud route request overhead.

  16. Tourist activated networks: Implications for dynamic bundling and en-route recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zach, Florian; Gretzel, Ulrike

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses tourist-activated networks as a concept to inform technological applications supporting dynamic bundling and en route recommendations. Empirical data were collected from travelers who visited a regional destination in the US and then analyzed with respect to its network...

  17. A Survey on Position-Based Routing Algorithms in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Ya-Ping

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks (WSN have attracted much attention in recent years for its unique characteristics and wide use in many different applications. Routing protocol is one of key technologies in WSN. In this paper, the position-based routing protocols are surveyed and classified into four categories: flooding-based, curve-based, grid-based and ant algorithm-based intelligent. To each category, the main contribution of related routing protocols is shown including the relationship among the routing protocols. The different routing algorithms in the same category and the different categories are compared based on popular metrics. Moreover, some open research directions in WSN are also discussed.

  18. MANETKit: Supporting the Dynamic Deployment and Reconfiguration of Ad-Hoc Routing Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramdhany, Rajiv; Grace, Paul; Coulson, Geoff; Hutchison, David

    The innate dynamicity and complexity of mobile ad-hoc networks (MANETs) has resulted in numerous ad-hoc routing protocols being proposed. Furthermore, numerous variants and hybrids continue to be reported in the literature. This diversity appears to be inherent to the field-it seems unlikely that there will ever be a 'one-size-fits-all' solution to the ad-hoc routing problem. However, typical deployment environments for ad-hoc routing protocols still force the choice of a single fixed protocol; and the resultant compromise can easily lead to sub-optimal performance, depending on current operating conditions. In this paper we address this problem by exploring a framework approach to the construction and deployment of ad-hoc routing protocols. Our framework supports the simultaneous deployment of multiple protocols so that MANET nodes can switch protocols to optimise to current operating conditions. The framework also supports finer-grained dynamic reconfiguration in terms of protocol variation and hybridisation. We evaluate our framework by using it to construct and (simultaneously) deploy two popular ad-hoc routing protocols (DYMO and OLSR), and also to derive fine-grained variants of these. We measure the performance and resource overhead of these implementations compared to monolithic ones, and find the comparison to be favourable to our approach.

  19. Fuzzy-Based Trust Prediction Model for Routing in WSNs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Anita

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The cooperative nature of multihop wireless sensor networks (WSNs makes it vulnerable to varied types of attacks. The sensitive application environments and resource constraints of WSNs mandate the requirement of lightweight security scheme. The earlier security solutions were based on historical behavior of neighbor but the security can be enhanced by predicting the future behavior of the nodes in the network. In this paper, we proposed a fuzzy-based trust prediction model for routing (FTPR in WSNs with minimal overhead in regard to memory and energy consumption. FTPR incorporates a trust prediction model that predicts the future behavior of the neighbor based on the historical behavior, fluctuations in trust value over a period of time, and recommendation inconsistency. In order to reduce the control overhead, FTPR received recommendations from a subset of neighbors who had maximum number of interactions with the requestor. Theoretical analysis and simulation results of FTPR protocol demonstrate higher packet delivery ratio, higher network lifetime, lower end-to-end delay, and lower memory and energy consumption than the traditional and existing trust-based routing schemes.

  20. Research on network failure handling technology based on deflection routing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao YU; Shanzhi CHEN; Xin LI; Zhen QIN

    2008-01-01

    A new deflection routing scheme is proposed to overcome the drawback of existing deflection routing scheme that cannot handle node failure and suffer from routing loops.A new algorithm for computing the backup shortest path tree(SPT)is proposed and a set of procedures are defined for utilizing the backup SPT in case of node or link failure.The failure can be handled swiftly and the backup routes are guaranteed to be loop-free.Experimental results show that the backup routes calculated by proposed scheme are close to the optimal routes by totally re-computing.

  1. Optimal Route Based Advanced Algorithm using Hot Link Split Multi-Path Routing Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhilesh A. Waoo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Present research work describes advancement in standard routing protocol AODV for mobile ad-hoc networks. Our mechanism sets up multiple optimal paths with the criteria of bandwidth and delay to store multiple optimal paths in the network. At time of link failure, it will switch to next available path. We have used the information that we get in the RREQ packet and also send RREP packet to more than one path, to set up multiple paths, It reduces overhead of local route discovery at the time of link failure and because of this End to End Delay and Drop Ratio decreases. The main feature of our mechanism is its simplicity and improved efficiency. This evaluates through simulations the performance of the AODV routing protocol including our scheme and we compare it with HLSMPRA (Hot Link Split Multi-Path Routing Algorithm Algorithm. Indeed, our scheme reduces routing load of network, end to end delay, packet drop ratio, and route error sent. The simulations have been performed using network simulator OPNET. The network simulator OPNET is discrete event simulation software for network simulations which means it simulates events not only sending and receiving packets but also forwarding and dropping packets. This modified algorithm has improved efficiency, with more reliability than Previous Algorithm.

  2. Dynamic origin-to-destination routing of wirelessly connected, autonomous vehicles on a congested network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, L. C.

    2017-07-01

    Up-to-date information wirelessly communicated among vehicles can be used to select the optimal route between a given origin and destination. To elucidate how to make use of such information, simulations are performed for autonomous vehicles traveling on a square lattice of roads. All the possible routes between the origin and the destination (without backtracking) are of the same length. Congestion is the only determinant of delay. At each intersection, right-of-way is given to the closest vehicle. There are no traffic lights. Trip times of a subject vehicle are recorded for various initial conditions using different routing algorithms. Surprisingly, the simplest algorithm, which is based on the total number of vehicles on a route, is as good as one based on computing travel times from the average velocity of vehicles on each road segment.

  3. Dynamic origin-to-destination routing of wirelessly connected, autonomous vehicles on a congested network

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, L C

    2016-01-01

    Up-to-date information wirelessly communicated among vehicles can be used to select the optimal route between a given origin and destination. To elucidate how to make use of such information, simulations are performed for autonomous vehicles traveling on a square lattice of roads. All the possible routes between the origin and the destination (without backtracking) are of the same length. Congestion is the only determinant of delay. At each intersection, right-of-way is given to the closest vehicle. There are no traffic lights. Trip times of a subject vehicle are recorded for various initial conditions using different routing algorithms. Surprisingly, the simplest algorithm, which is based on the total number of vehicles on a route, is as good as one based on computing travel times from the average velocity of vehicles on each road segment.

  4. A Day-to-Day Route Choice Model Based on Reinforcement Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangfang Wei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Day-to-day traffic dynamics are generated by individual traveler’s route choice and route adjustment behaviors, which are appropriate to be researched by using agent-based model and learning theory. In this paper, we propose a day-to-day route choice model based on reinforcement learning and multiagent simulation. Travelers’ memory, learning rate, and experience cognition are taken into account. Then the model is verified and analyzed. Results show that the network flow can converge to user equilibrium (UE if travelers can remember all the travel time they have experienced, but which is not necessarily the case under limited memory; learning rate can strengthen the flow fluctuation, but memory leads to the contrary side; moreover, high learning rate results in the cyclical oscillation during the process of flow evolution. Finally, both the scenarios of link capacity degradation and random link capacity are used to illustrate the model’s applications. Analyses and applications of our model demonstrate the model is reasonable and useful for studying the day-to-day traffic dynamics.

  5. Key Management Scheme Based on Route Planning of Mobile Sink in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In many wireless sensor network application scenarios the key management scheme with a Mobile Sink (MS should be fully investigated. This paper proposes a key management scheme based on dynamic clustering and optimal-routing choice of MS. The concept of Traveling Salesman Problem with Neighbor areas (TSPN in dynamic clustering for data exchange is proposed, and the selection probability is used in MS route planning. The proposed scheme extends static key management to dynamic key management by considering the dynamic clustering and mobility of MSs, which can effectively balance the total energy consumption during the activities. Considering the different resources available to the member nodes and sink node, the session key between cluster head and MS is established by modified an ECC encryption with Diffie-Hellman key exchange (ECDH algorithm and the session key between member node and cluster head is built with a binary symmetric polynomial. By analyzing the security of data storage, data transfer and the mechanism of dynamic key management, the proposed scheme has more advantages to help improve the resilience of the key management system of the network on the premise of satisfying higher connectivity and storage efficiency.

  6. Efficient Super-Peer-Based Queries Routing: Simulation and Evaluation

    CERN Document Server

    Ismail, Anis; Nachouki, Gilles; Hajjar, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    Peer-to-peer (P2P) Data-sharing systems now generate a significant portion of internet traffic. P2P systems have emerged as a popular way to share huge volumes of data. Requirements for widely distributed information systems supporting virtual organizations have given rise to a new category of P2P systems called schema- based. In such systems each peer is a database management system in itself, ex-posing its own schema. A fundamental problem that confronts peer-to-peer applications is the efficient location of the node that stores a desired data item. In such settings, the main objective is the efficient search across peer databases by processing each incoming query without overly consuming bandwidth. The usability of these systems depends on effective techniques to find and retrieve data; however, efficient and effective routing of content- based queries is an emerging problem in P2P networks. In this paper, we propose an architecture, based on super-peers, and we focus on query routing. Our approach conside...

  7. STUDY ON STRATEGY OF DYNAMIC JOINT ROUTING AND RESOURCE ALLOCATION IN LAYERED OPTICAL TRANSPORT NETWORKS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su Yang; Xu Zhanqi; Zhao Ruiqin; Liu Zengji

    2008-01-01

    A layered network model for optical transport networks is proposed in this paper, which involves Internet Protocol (IP), Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) and Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) layers. The strategy of Dynamic Joint Routing and Resource Allocation (DJRRA) and its algorithm description are also presented for the proposed layered network model. DJRRA optimizes the bandwidth usage of interface links between different layers and the logic links inside all layers. The simulation results show that DJRRA can reduce the blocking probability and increase network throughput effectively, which is in contrast to the classical separate sequential routing and resource allocation solutions.

  8. Implementation of a Locator-Based Route Switching Scheme for Improved Routing in Proxy Mobile IPv6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Okwori

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Proxy Mobile IPv6 (PMIPv6 is a promising IP mobility protocols that is being deployed in emerging wireless technologies. This however has a non-optimal packet route as a result of the triangular routing problem. This creates a bottle neck at the Local Mobility Anchor (LMA thereby increasing packet delays. This paper presents the implementation of a locator-based route switching scheme on OPNET Modeler. The Mobility Access Gateway (MAG and the LMA were enhanced by making them intelligent. This enables them to be able to check the position of the Corresponding Node (CN with respect to the Mobile Node (MN and also determine the available bandwidth on each link. From the checks made, a three-stage decision process is used to switch routing to the most optimal route that guarantees the best QoS. Node Models were developed for the MAG and LMA, network models were deployed and simulation tests were carried out. The results show that the developed scheme switched packets to a more optimal route according to the designed algorithm. The impact of this switching on differences between transmitted throughput at MN and the received throughput at CN was also evaluated. The receiver activity result shows a reduction in the bottleneck at the LMA-MAG link. The end-to-end delay results show over 50 milliseconds drop in packet delay as a result of the switching to a more optimal route. This shows that the packet delays result from the congestion at the LMA-MAG interface due to suboptimal routing.

  9. Performance Evaluation of Mesh based Multicast Reactive Routing Protocol under Black Hole Attack

    CERN Document Server

    Anita, E A Mary

    2009-01-01

    A mobile ad-hoc network is an autonomous system of mobile nodes connected by wireless links in which nodes cooperate by forwarding packets for each other thereby enabling communication beyond direct wireless transmission range. The wireless and dynamic nature of ad-hoc networks makes them vulnerable to attacks especially in routing protocols. Providing security in mobile ad-hoc networks has been a major issue over the recent years. One of the prominent mesh base reactive multicast routing protocols used in ad-hoc networks is On Demand Multicast Routing protocol (ODMRP). The security of ODMRP is compromised by a primary routing attack called black hole attack. In this attack a malicious node advertises itself as having the shortest path to the node whose packets it wants to intercept. This paper discusses the impact of black hole attack on ODMRP under various scenarios. The performance is evaluated using metrics such as packet delivery ratio and end to end delay for various numbers of senders and receivers via...

  10. Self-Organized Hash Based Secure Multicast Routing Over Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Chopra

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Multicast group communication over mobile ad hoc networks has various challenges related to secure data transmission. In order to achieve this goal, there is a need to authenticate the group member as well as it is essential to protect the application data, routing information, and other network resources etc. Multicast-AODV (MAODV is the extension of an AODV protocol, and there are several issues related to each multicast network operation. In the case of dynamic group behavior, it becomes more challenging to protect the resources of a particular group. Researchers have developed different solutions to secure multicast group communication, and their proposed solutions can be used for resource protection at different layers i.e. application layer, physical layer, network layer, etc. Each security solution can guard against a particular security threat. This research paper introduced a self-organized hash based secure routing scheme for multicast ad hoc networks. It uses group Diffie-Hellman method for key distribution. Route authentication and integrity, both are ensured by generating local flag codes and global hash values. In the case of any violation, route log is monitored to identify the malicious activities.

  11. Optimal Differential Routing based on Finite State Machine Theory

    OpenAIRE

    M. S. Krishnamoorthy; Loy, James R.; McDonald, John F.

    1999-01-01

    Noise margins in high speed digital systems continue to erode. Full differential signal routing provides a mechanism for deferring these effects. This paper proposes a three stage routing process for solving the adjacent placement routing problem of differential signal pairs, and proves that it is optimal. The process views differential pairs as logical nets; routes the logical nets; then bifurcates the result to achieve a physical realization. Finite state machine theory provides the critica...

  12. AODV routing overhead analysis based on link failure probability in MANET

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qin-juan; WU Mu-qing; ZHEN Yan; SHANG Cui-li

    2010-01-01

    This article puts forward an Ad-hoc on-demand distance vector routing(AODV)routing overhead analysis method in mobile Ad-hoc network(MANET).Although multiple routing protocols have been proposed to improve the performance,scarcely any paper analyzed the routing overhead caused by routing setup and maintenance processes in mathematical way.Routing overhead consumes part of network resources and limits the supported traffic in the network.For on-demand routing protocols like AODV,the routing overhead depends on the link failure probability to a great extent.This article analyzes the collision probability caused by hidden-node problem and the impact on link failure probability.In chain and rectangle scenarios,it presents a mathematical analysis of the theoretical routing overhead of AODV protocol based on link failure probability.Simulations on OPNET 14.5platform match well with the theoretical derivation which confirms the effectiveness of the analysis method.

  13. Impact of multi-criteria routing on dynamic traffic management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, F.; Chen, Y.; Zhang, J.

    2014-01-01

    Traffic simulation is conventionally based on travel time as input to the cost function. We include vehicle emission into cost function and try to investigate its impact on traffic management as well as network performance. As the emission is the product of vehicle movement, we use a bi-level approa

  14. A Method for Driving Route Predictions Based on Hidden Markov Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Ye

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a driving route prediction method that is based on Hidden Markov Model (HMM. This method can accurately predict a vehicle’s entire route as early in a trip’s lifetime as possible without inputting origins and destinations beforehand. Firstly, we propose the route recommendation system architecture, where route predictions play important role in the system. Secondly, we define a road network model, normalize each of driving routes in the rectangular coordinate system, and build the HMM to make preparation for route predictions using a method of training set extension based on K-means++ and the add-one (Laplace smoothing technique. Thirdly, we present the route prediction algorithm. Finally, the experimental results of the effectiveness of the route predictions that is based on HMM are shown.

  15. Algorithm Research of Individualized Travelling Route Recommendation Based on Similarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Shan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although commercial recommendation system has made certain achievement in travelling route development, the recommendation system is facing a series of challenges because of people’s increasing interest in travelling. It is obvious that the core content of the recommendation system is recommendation algorithm. The advantages of recommendation algorithm can bring great effect to the recommendation system. Based on this, this paper applies traditional collaborative filtering algorithm for analysis. Besides, illustrating the deficiencies of the algorithm, such as the rating unicity and rating matrix sparsity, this paper proposes an improved algorithm combing the multi-similarity algorithm based on user and the element similarity algorithm based on user, so as to compensate for the deficiencies that traditional algorithm has within a controllable range. Experimental results have shown that the improved algorithm has obvious advantages in comparison with the traditional one. The improved algorithm has obvious effect on remedying the rating matrix sparsity and rating unicity.

  16. A Framing Link Based Tabu Search Algorithm for Large-Scale Multidepot Vehicle Routing Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuhao Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A framing link (FL based tabu search algorithm is proposed in this paper for a large-scale multidepot vehicle routing problem (LSMDVRP. Framing links are generated during continuous great optimization of current solutions and then taken as skeletons so as to improve optimal seeking ability, speed up the process of optimization, and obtain better results. Based on the comparison between pre- and postmutation routes in the current solution, different parts are extracted. In the current optimization period, links involved in the optimal solution are regarded as candidates to the FL base. Multiple optimization periods exist in the whole algorithm, and there are several potential FLs in each period. If the update condition is satisfied, the FL base is updated, new FLs are added into the current route, and the next period starts. Through adjusting the borderline of multidepot sharing area with dynamic parameters, the authors define candidate selection principles for three kinds of customer connections, respectively. Link split and the roulette approach are employed to choose FLs. 18 LSMDVRP instances in three groups are studied and new optimal solution values for nine of them are obtained, with higher computation speed and reliability.

  17. Multiple constraints QoS multicast routing optimization algorithm in MANET based on GA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Baolin Sun; Shangchao Pi; Chao Gui; Yue Zeng; Bing Yan; Wenxiang Wang; Qianqing Qin

    2008-01-01

    Usually multiple quality of service (QoS) guarantees are required in most multicast applications. This paper presents a multiple constraints algorithm for multicast traffic engineering in mobile ad hoc networks (MANET). The proposed algorithm is a new version of multiple constraints QoS multicast routing optimization algorithm in MANET based on genetic algorithm (MQMGA). The proposed MQMGA can optimize the maximum link utilization, the cost of the multicast tree, the selection of the long-life path, the average delay and the maximum end-to-end delay. Experimental result shows that the approach is efficient, has promising performance in multicast traffic engineering and for evaluating the route stability in dynamic mobile networks.

  18. Research on Ad Hoc Routing Protocol in High Speed Dynamic Environment%动态高速环境下Ad Hoc路由协议研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈潜; 刘云

    2011-01-01

    针对传统Ad Hoc路由协议在动态高速环境下路由效率较低的现状,基于多路径原理提出了一种新型的动态多路径Ad Hoc路由协议(D-AOMDV).该路由协议是对传统Ad Hoc路由协议的多路径扩展,通过计算多条开环、节点或链路不相交路径,充分利用已有的有效路由信息,达到提高路由效率的目的.实验结果表明:动态高速环境下,该路由协议在分组传递率,平均端到端延时,路由发现频率方面均优于传统Ad Hoc路由协议.%There is a lower routing efficiency for Ad Hoc protocol in dynamic speed environment. Based on multi-path routing principle, a new Ad Hoc routing protocol was proposed. It was a multi-path expansion of traditional Ad Hoc routing protocol. Effective routing messages were sufficiently used by utilizing the backup routing messages. The experimental results showed that the new protocol performed better in terms of packet delivery fraction, average delay and routing discovery frequency in dynamic speed environment.

  19. A Multipath Routing Protocol Based on Clustering and Ant Colony Optimization for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Yang

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available For monitoring burst events in a kind of reactive wireless sensor networks (WSNs, a multipath routing protocol (MRP based on dynamic clustering and ant colony optimization (ACO is proposed.. Such an approach can maximize the network lifetime and reduce the energy consumption. An important attribute of WSNs is their limited power supply, and therefore some metrics (such as energy consumption of communication among nodes, residual energy, path length were considered as very important criteria while designing routing in the MRP. Firstly, a cluster head (CH is selected among nodes located in the event area according to some parameters, such as residual energy. Secondly, an improved ACO algorithm is applied in the search for multiple paths between the CH and sink node. Finally, the CH dynamically chooses a route to transmit data with a probability that depends on many path metrics, such as energy consumption. The simulation results show that MRP can prolong the network lifetime, as well as balance of energy consumption among nodes and reduce the average energy consumption effectively.

  20. A Multipath Routing Protocol Based on Clustering and Ant Colony Optimization for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Yang

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available For monitoring burst events in a kind of reactive wireless sensor networks (WSNs, a multipath routing protocol (MRP based on dynamic clustering and ant colony optimization (ACO is proposed.. Such an approach can maximize the network lifetime and reduce the energy consumption. An important attribute of WSNs is its limited power supply, and therefore in MRP, some metrics (such as energy consumption of communication among nodes, residual energy, path length are considered as very important criteria while designing routing. Firstly, a cluster head (CH is selected among nodes located in the event area according to some parameters, such as residual energy. Secondly, an improved ACO algorithm is applied in search for multiple paths between the CH and sink node. Finally, the CH dynamically chooses a route to transmit data with a probability that depends on many path metrics, such as energy consumption. The simulation results show that MRP can prolong the network lifetime, as well as balance energy consumption among nodes and reduce the average energy consumption effectively.

  1. Route strategy of satellite network in GNSS based on topology evolution law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xianqing Yi; Zhenwei Hou; Tao Zhong; Yaohong Zhang; Zhili Sun

    2014-01-01

    As each type of satel ite network has different link features, its data transmission must be designed based on its link features to improve the efficiency of data transferring. The transmission of navigation integrated services information (NISI) in a global navigation satel ite system (GNSS) with inter-satel ite links (ISLs) is studied by taking the real situation of inter-satel ite communication links into account. An on-demand computing and buffering centralized route strategy is proposed based on dynamic grouping and the topology evolution law of the GNSS network within which the satel ite nodes are operated in the manner of dynamic grouping. Dynamic grouping is based on satel ites spatial relationships and the group role of the satel ite node changes by turns due to its spatial relationships. The route strategy provides significant advantages of high efficiency, low complexity, and flexi-ble configuration, by which the established GNSS can possess the features and capabilities of feasible deployment, efficient trans-mission, convenient management, structural invulnerability and flexible expansion.

  2. A Secure Cluster-Based Multipath Routing Protocol for WMSNs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal N. Al-Karaki

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The new characteristics of Wireless Multimedia Sensor Network (WMSN and its design issues brought by handling different traffic classes of multimedia content (video streams, audio, and still images as well as scalar data over the network, make the proposed routing protocols for typical WSNs not directly applicable for WMSNs. Handling real-time multimedia data requires both energy efficiency and QoS assurance in order to ensure efficient utility of different capabilities of sensor resources and correct delivery of collected information. In this paper, we propose a Secure Cluster-based Multipath Routing protocol for WMSNs, SCMR, to satisfy the requirements of delivering different data types and support high data rate multimedia traffic. SCMR exploits the hierarchical structure of powerful cluster heads and the optimized multiple paths to support timeliness and reliable high data rate multimedia communication with minimum energy dissipation. Also, we present a light-weight distributed security mechanism of key management in order to secure the communication between sensor nodes and protect the network against different types of attacks. Performance evaluation from simulation results demonstrates a significant performance improvement comparing with existing protocols (which do not even provide any kind of security feature in terms of average end-to-end delay, network throughput, packet delivery ratio, and energy consumption.

  3. A secure cluster-based multipath routing protocol for WMSNs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almalkawi, Islam T; Zapata, Manel Guerrero; Al-Karaki, Jamal N

    2011-01-01

    The new characteristics of Wireless Multimedia Sensor Network (WMSN) and its design issues brought by handling different traffic classes of multimedia content (video streams, audio, and still images) as well as scalar data over the network, make the proposed routing protocols for typical WSNs not directly applicable for WMSNs. Handling real-time multimedia data requires both energy efficiency and QoS assurance in order to ensure efficient utility of different capabilities of sensor resources and correct delivery of collected information. In this paper, we propose a Secure Cluster-based Multipath Routing protocol for WMSNs, SCMR, to satisfy the requirements of delivering different data types and support high data rate multimedia traffic. SCMR exploits the hierarchical structure of powerful cluster heads and the optimized multiple paths to support timeliness and reliable high data rate multimedia communication with minimum energy dissipation. Also, we present a light-weight distributed security mechanism of key management in order to secure the communication between sensor nodes and protect the network against different types of attacks. Performance evaluation from simulation results demonstrates a significant performance improvement comparing with existing protocols (which do not even provide any kind of security feature) in terms of average end-to-end delay, network throughput, packet delivery ratio, and energy consumption.

  4. Long-Range Correlations and Memory in the Dynamics of Internet Interdomain Routing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksim Kitsak

    Full Text Available Data transfer is one of the main functions of the Internet. The Internet consists of a large number of interconnected subnetworks or domains, known as Autonomous Systems (ASes. Due to privacy and other reasons the information about what route to use to reach devices within other ASes is not readily available to any given AS. The Border Gateway Protocol (BGP is responsible for discovering and distributing this reachability information to all ASes. Since the topology of the Internet is highly dynamic, all ASes constantly exchange and update this reachability information in small chunks, known as routing control packets or BGP updates. In the view of the quick growth of the Internet there are significant concerns with the scalability of the BGP updates and the efficiency of the BGP routing in general. Motivated by these issues we conduct a systematic time series analysis of BGP update rates. We find that BGP update time series are extremely volatile, exhibit long-term correlations and memory effects, similar to seismic time series, or temperature and stock market price fluctuations. The presented statistical characterization of BGP update dynamics could serve as a basis for validation of existing and developing better models of Internet interdomain routing.

  5. Long-Range Correlations and Memory in the Dynamics of Internet Interdomain Routing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitsak, Maksim; Elmokashfi, Ahmed; Havlin, Shlomo; Krioukov, Dmitri

    2015-01-01

    Data transfer is one of the main functions of the Internet. The Internet consists of a large number of interconnected subnetworks or domains, known as Autonomous Systems (ASes). Due to privacy and other reasons the information about what route to use to reach devices within other ASes is not readily available to any given AS. The Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) is responsible for discovering and distributing this reachability information to all ASes. Since the topology of the Internet is highly dynamic, all ASes constantly exchange and update this reachability information in small chunks, known as routing control packets or BGP updates. In the view of the quick growth of the Internet there are significant concerns with the scalability of the BGP updates and the efficiency of the BGP routing in general. Motivated by these issues we conduct a systematic time series analysis of BGP update rates. We find that BGP update time series are extremely volatile, exhibit long-term correlations and memory effects, similar to seismic time series, or temperature and stock market price fluctuations. The presented statistical characterization of BGP update dynamics could serve as a basis for validation of existing and developing better models of Internet interdomain routing.

  6. Optimization Route of Food Logistics Distribution Based on Genetic and Graph Cluster Scheme Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Chen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study takes the concept of food logistics distribution as the breakthrough point, by means of the aim of optimization of food logistics distribution routes and analysis of the optimization model of food logistics route, as well as the interpretation of the genetic algorithm, it discusses the optimization of food logistics distribution route based on genetic and cluster scheme algorithm.

  7. Capacitated vehicle routing problem with sequence-based pallet loading and axle weight constraints

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce and study the capacitated vehicle routing problem with sequence-based pallet loading and axle weight constraints. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first time that axle weight restrictions are incorporated in a vehicle routing model. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate that incorporating axle weight restrictions in a vehicle routing model is possible and necessary for a feasible route planning. Axle weight limits impose a great challenge for transportatio...

  8. Long-Range Correlations and Memory in the Dynamics of Internet Interdomain Routing

    CERN Document Server

    Kitsak, Maksim; Havlin, Shlomo; Krioukov, Dmitri

    2015-01-01

    Data transfer is one of the main functions of the Internet. The Internet consists of a large number of interconnected subnetworks or domains, known as Autonomous Systems. Due to privacy and other reasons the information about what route to use to reach devices within other Autonomous Systems is not readily available to any given Autonomous System. The Border Gateway Protocol is responsible for discovering and distributing this reachability information to all Autonomous Systems. Since the topology of the Internet is highly dynamic, all Autonomous Systems constantly exchange and update this reachability information in small chunks, known as routing control packets or Border Gateway Protocol updates. Motivated by scalability and predictability issues with the dynamics of these updates in the quickly growing Internet, we conduct a systematic time series analysis of Border Gateway Protocol update rates. We find that Border Gateway Protocol update time series are extremely volatile, exhibit long-term correlations a...

  9. An Improved Location aided Cluster Based Routing Protocol with Intrusion Detection System in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mangai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Routing and security are the main challenges for ad hoc networks due to dynamic topology as well as resource constraints. A designed protocol must provide scalable routing with better security. Lack of any central coordination and shared wireless medium makes them more vulnerable to attacks than wired networks. And also resource constraints such as limited energy and size also play an important role in the protocols designed for security. Approach: In this study, Improved Location aided Cluster based Routing Protocol (ILCRP for GPS enabled MANETs was analysed in MANETs with malicious nodes and an Intrusion Detection System was used to increase the packet delivery ratio. ILCRP makes use of location aided routing in the presence of cluster based routing Protocol. Results: Use of location information with security against attacks results in high packet delivery ratio for the cluster based routing protocol. Simulations are performed using NS2 by varying the number of nodes. Conclusion: The results illustrate ILCRP provides higher delivery ratio with IDS.

  10. VORBrouter: A dynamic data routing system for Real-Time Seismic networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, T.; Vernon, F.; Lindquist, K.; Orcutt, J.

    2004-12-01

    For anyone who has managed a moderately complex buffered real-time data transport system, the need for reliable adaptive data transport is clear. The ROADNet VORBrouter system, an extension to the ROADNet data catalog system [AGU-2003, Dynamic Dataflow Topology Monitoring for Real-time Seismic Networks], allows dynamic routing of real-time seismic data from sensor to end-user. Traditional networks consist of a series of data buffer computers with data transport interconnections configured by hand. This allows for arbitrarily complex data networks, which can often exceed full comprehension by network administrators, sometimes resulting in data loops or accidental data cutoff. In order to manage data transport systems in the event of a network failure, a network administrator must be called upon to change the data transport paths and to recover the missing data. Using VORBrouter, administrators can sleep at night while still providing 7/24 uninterupted data streams at realistic cost. This software package uses information from the ROADNet data catalog system to route packets around failed link outages and to new consumers in real-time. Dynamic data routing protocols operating on top of the Antelope Data buffering layer allow authorized users to request data sets from their local buffer and to have them delivered from anywhere within the network of buffers. The VORBrouter software also allows for dynamic routing around network outages, and the elimination of duplicate data paths within the network, while maintaining the nearly lossless data transport features exhibited by the underlying Antelope system. We present the design of the VORBrouter system, its features, limitations and some future research directions.

  11. Contact Graph Routing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burleigh, Scott C.

    2011-01-01

    Contact Graph Routing (CGR) is a dynamic routing system that computes routes through a time-varying topology of scheduled communication contacts in a network based on the DTN (Delay-Tolerant Networking) architecture. It is designed to enable dynamic selection of data transmission routes in a space network based on DTN. This dynamic responsiveness in route computation should be significantly more effective and less expensive than static routing, increasing total data return while at the same time reducing mission operations cost and risk. The basic strategy of CGR is to take advantage of the fact that, since flight mission communication operations are planned in detail, the communication routes between any pair of bundle agents in a population of nodes that have all been informed of one another's plans can be inferred from those plans rather than discovered via dialogue (which is impractical over long one-way-light-time space links). Messages that convey this planning information are used to construct contact graphs (time-varying models of network connectivity) from which CGR automatically computes efficient routes for bundles. Automatic route selection increases the flexibility and resilience of the space network, simplifying cross-support and reducing mission management costs. Note that there are no routing tables in Contact Graph Routing. The best route for a bundle destined for a given node may routinely be different from the best route for a different bundle destined for the same node, depending on bundle priority, bundle expiration time, and changes in the current lengths of transmission queues for neighboring nodes; routes must be computed individually for each bundle, from the Bundle Protocol agent's current network connectivity model for the bundle s destination node (the contact graph). Clearly this places a premium on optimizing the implementation of the route computation algorithm. The scalability of CGR to very large networks remains a research topic

  12. A new approach to geographic routing for location aided cluster based MANETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamilarasi Angamuthu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Routing has been the main challenge for ad hoc networks due to dynamic topology as well as resource constraints. Completely GPS(Global Positioning System free as well as GPS scarce positioning systems for wireless, mobile, ad-hoc networks has been proposed recently by many authors. High computational overhead and high mobility of the nodes typically require completely GPS enabled MANETs for higher performance. In this article, Improved Location aided Cluster based Routing Protocol (ILCRP for GPS enabled MANETs has been evaluated for performance metrics such as end to end delay, control overhead, and packet delivery ratio. Use of cluster based routing as well as exact location information of the nodes in ILCRP reduces the control overhead resulting in higher packet delivery ratio. GPS utility in nodes reduces the end to end delay even during its high mobility. Simulations are performed using NS2 by varying the mobility (speed of nodes as well as number of the nodes. The results illustrate that ILCRP performs better compared to other protocols.

  13. Optimal Relay Selection using Efficient Beaconless Geographic Contention-Based Routing Protocol in Wireless Adhoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Srimathy

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In Wireless Ad hoc network, cooperation of nodes can be achieved by more interactions at higher protocol layers, particularly the MAC (Medium Access Control and network layers play vital role. MAC facilitates a routing protocol based on position location of nodes at network layer specially known as Beacon-less geographic routing (BLGR using Contention-based selection process. This paper proposes two levels of cross-layer framework -a MAC network cross-layer design for forwarder selection (or routing and a MAC-PHY for relay selection. CoopGeo; the proposed cross-layer protocol provides an efficient, distributed approach to select next hops and optimal relays to form a communication path. Wireless networks suffers huge number of communication at the same time leads to increase in collision and energy consumption; hence focused on new Contention access method that uses a dynamical change of channel access probability which can reduce the number of contention times and collisions. Simulation result demonstrates the best Relay selection and the comparative of direct mode with the cooperative networks. And Performance evaluation of contention probability with Collision avoidance.

  14. Small World Model-Based Polylogarithmic Routing Using Mobile Nodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie Wu; Shu-Hui Yang

    2008-01-01

    The use of mobile nodes to improve network system performance has drawn considerable attention recently.The movement-assisted model considers mobility as a desirable feature, where routing is based on the store-carry-forward paradigm with random or controlled movement of resource rich mobile nodes. The application of such a model has been used in several emerging networks, including mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs), wireless sensor networks (WSNs), and delay tolerant networks (DTNs). It is well known that mobility increases the capacity of MANETs by reducing the number of relays for routing, prolonging the lifespan of WSNs by using mobile nodes in place of bottleneck static sensors, and ensuring network connectivity in DTNs using mobile nodes to connect different parts of a disconnected network. Trajectory planning and the coordination of mobile nodes are two important design issues aiming to optimize or balance several measures,including delay, average number of relays, and moving distance. In this paper, we propose a new controlled mobility model with an expected polylogarithmic number of relays to achieve a good balance among several contradictory goals, including delay, the number of relays, and moving distance. The model is based on the small-world model where each static node has "short" link connections to its nearest neighbors and "long" link connections to other nodes following a certain probability distribution. Short links are regular wireless connections whereas long links are implemented using mobile nodes. Various issues are considered, including trade-offs between delay and average number of relays, selection of the number of mobilenodes, and selection of the number of long links. The effectiveness of the proposed model is evaluated analytically as well as through simulation.

  15. Towards transparent all-optical label-swapped networks: 40 Gbit/s ultra-fast dynamic wavelength routing using integrated devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seoane, Jorge; Holm-Nielsen, Pablo Villanueva; Jeppesen, Palle;

    2006-01-01

    All-optical routing of 40 Gbit/s 1.6 ns packets is demonstrated employing integrated devices based on SOA-MZIs. The scheme allows wavelength transparent operation and sub-nanosecond dynamic wavelength selection for future packet/label switched networks....

  16. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Route Planning in the Presence of a Threat Environment Based on a Virtual Globe Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Route planning is a key technology for an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV to fly reliably and safely in the presence of a threat environment. Existing route planning methods are mainly based on the simulation scene, whereas approaches based on the virtual globe platform have rarely been reported. In this paper, a new planning space for the virtual globe and the planner is proposed and a common threat model is constructed for threats including a no-fly zone, hazardous weather, radar coverage area, missile killing zone and dynamic threats. Additionally, an improved ant colony optimization (ACO algorithm is developed to enhance route planning efficiency and terrain masking ability. Our route planning methods are optimized on the virtual globe platform for practicability. A route planning system and six types of planners were developed and implemented on the virtual globe platform. Finally, our evaluation results demonstrate that our optimum planner has better performance in terms of fuel consumption, terrain masking, and risk avoidance. Experiments also demonstrate that the method and system described in this paper can be used to perform global route planning and mission operations.

  17. A Limited Deflection Routing Algorithm Based on Burst Loss Threshold in OBS Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ru-yan; LONG Ke-ping; WU Wei; YANG Xiao-long; ZHU Wei-le

    2005-01-01

    The deflection routing protocol is an effective contention resolution in Optical Burst Switching network. However, it can worsen loss performance of non-deflected burst on the deflection route. To improve the burst loss performance, a limited deflection routing scheme based on burst loss threshold is proposed to prevent injudicious deflection routing. By using threshold check function, it restrainedly allows the deflected burst to preemptive network resource, consequently, improve the QoS performance of non-deflected burst. Simulation results show that the scheme can efficiently prevent deflected burst contending with non-deflected burst on deflection route, and effectively improve the burst loss performance of entire networks.

  18. Design Method Based on Routing Tree for Topology Update in Ad Hoc Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Zheng-xi; ZHANG Hong; WANG Xiao-ling

    2006-01-01

    A design method based on the tree-model structure for topology update is presented. The routing tree of every node in network is built by defining the data structure and is used to save the topology information of neighbor nodes. The node topology update is accomplished by exchanging their routing trees. For saving the precious wireless bandwidth, the routing tree is sparsely shaped before sending by pruning the redundant routing information. Then, the node topology update is implemented by using algorithms of inserting and deleting routing sub-trees.

  19. Energy-Aware Multipath Routing Scheme Based on Particle Swarm Optimization in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Y Harold; Rajaram, M

    2015-01-01

    Mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a collection of autonomous mobile nodes forming an ad hoc network without fixed infrastructure. Dynamic topology property of MANET may degrade the performance of the network. However, multipath selection is a great challenging task to improve the network lifetime. We proposed an energy-aware multipath routing scheme based on particle swarm optimization (EMPSO) that uses continuous time recurrent neural network (CTRNN) to solve optimization problems. CTRNN finds the optimal loop-free paths to solve link disjoint paths in a MANET. The CTRNN is used as an optimum path selection technique that produces a set of optimal paths between source and destination. In CTRNN, particle swarm optimization (PSO) method is primly used for training the RNN. The proposed scheme uses the reliability measures such as transmission cost, energy factor, and the optimal traffic ratio between source and destination to increase routing performance. In this scheme, optimal loop-free paths can be found using PSO to seek better link quality nodes in route discovery phase. PSO optimizes a problem by iteratively trying to get a better solution with regard to a measure of quality. The proposed scheme discovers multiple loop-free paths by using PSO technique.

  20. Energy-Aware Multipath Routing Scheme Based on Particle Swarm Optimization in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Harold Robinson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile ad hoc network (MANET is a collection of autonomous mobile nodes forming an ad hoc network without fixed infrastructure. Dynamic topology property of MANET may degrade the performance of the network. However, multipath selection is a great challenging task to improve the network lifetime. We proposed an energy-aware multipath routing scheme based on particle swarm optimization (EMPSO that uses continuous time recurrent neural network (CTRNN to solve optimization problems. CTRNN finds the optimal loop-free paths to solve link disjoint paths in a MANET. The CTRNN is used as an optimum path selection technique that produces a set of optimal paths between source and destination. In CTRNN, particle swarm optimization (PSO method is primly used for training the RNN. The proposed scheme uses the reliability measures such as transmission cost, energy factor, and the optimal traffic ratio between source and destination to increase routing performance. In this scheme, optimal loop-free paths can be found using PSO to seek better link quality nodes in route discovery phase. PSO optimizes a problem by iteratively trying to get a better solution with regard to a measure of quality. The proposed scheme discovers multiple loop-free paths by using PSO technique.

  1. A Dynamic Travel Time Estimation Model Based on Connected Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daxin Tian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With advances in connected vehicle technology, dynamic vehicle route guidance models gradually become indispensable equipment for drivers. Traditional route guidance models are designed to direct a vehicle along the shortest path from the origin to the destination without considering the dynamic traffic information. In this paper a dynamic travel time estimation model is presented which can collect and distribute traffic data based on the connected vehicles. To estimate the real-time travel time more accurately, a road link dynamic dividing algorithm is proposed. The efficiency of the model is confirmed by simulations, and the experiment results prove the effectiveness of the travel time estimation method.

  2. Traffic Management Coordinator Evaluation of the Dynamic Weather Routes Concept and System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Chester

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic Weather Routes (DWR) is a weather-avoidance system for airline dispatchers and FAA traffic managers that continually searches for and advises the user of more efficient routes around convective weather. NASA and American Airlines (AA) have been conducting an operational trial of DWR since July 17, 2012. The objective of this evaluation is to assess DWR from a traffic management coordinator (TMC) perspective, using recently retired TMCs and actual DWR reroutes advisories that were rated acceptable by AA during the operational trial. Results from the evaluation showed that the primary reasons for a TMC to modify or reject airline reroute requests were related to airspace configuration. Approximately 80 percent of the reroutes evaluated required some coordination before implementation. Analysis showed TMCs approved 62 percent of the requested DWR reroutes, resulting in 57 percent of the total requested DWR time savings.

  3. ROUTING AND WAVELENGTH ASSIGNMENT ALGORITHMS BASED ON EQUIVALENT NETWORKS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi Xiaogang; Liu Lifang; Lin Sanyang

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, a Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) network model based on the equivalent networks is described, and wavelength-dependent equivalent arc, equivalent networks, equivalent multicast tree and some other terms are presented. Based on this model and relevant Routing and Wavelength Assignment (RWA) strategy, a unicast RWA algorithm and a multicast RWA algorithm are presented. The wavelength-dependent equivalent arc expresses the schedule of local RWA and the equivalent network expresses the whole topology of WDM optical networks, so the two algorithms are of the flexibility in RWA and the optimization of the whole problem. The theoretic analysis and simulation results show the two algorithms are of the stronger capability and the lower complexity than the other existing algorithms for RWA problem, and the complexity of the two algorithms are only related to the scale of the equivalent networks. Finally, we prove the two algorithms' feasibility and the one-by-one corresponding relation between the equivalent multicast tree and original multicast tree, and point out the superiorities and drawbacks of the two algorithms respectively.

  4. A Unified Algebraic and Logic-Based Framework Towards Safe Routing Implementations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-13

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2015-0269 A Unified Algebraic and Logic -Based Framework towards Safe Routing Implementations Boon Loo TRUSTEES OF THE UNIVERSITY OF...2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE "(YIP) A Unified Algebraic & Logic - Based Framework Towards Safe Routing Implementations" 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...training and a list of publications. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Formal methods, networking, logic , routing algebra, software defined networking 16. SECURITY

  5. A Micro- Payment Based Isolation of Misbehavior Secure Routing for Sensor Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hui; WEI Wei; CHEN Ke-fei

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we present a Micro-payment based Isolation of Misbehavior(MIM) secure routing protocol. The protocol contains three parts: micro-payment scheme, routing discovery and malicious nodes detection. The micro-payment scheme proposed in MIM is the first virtual currency system that can be suit for sensor network environment. Based on the micro-payment scheme, we device an en ergy aware routing protocol, which forwards packets by auction. Furthermore, the base station can detect and isolate misbehave or non-cooperate nodes according to the routing information.

  6. Adaptive MANET Multipath Routing Algorithm Based on the Simulated Annealing Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungwook Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile ad hoc network represents a system of wireless mobile nodes that can freely and dynamically self-organize network topologies without any preexisting communication infrastructure. Due to characteristics like temporary topology and absence of centralized authority, routing is one of the major issues in ad hoc networks. In this paper, a new multipath routing scheme is proposed by employing simulated annealing approach. The proposed metaheuristic approach can achieve greater and reciprocal advantages in a hostile dynamic real world network situation. Therefore, the proposed routing scheme is a powerful method for finding an effective solution into the conflict mobile ad hoc network routing problem. Simulation results indicate that the proposed paradigm adapts best to the variation of dynamic network situations. The average remaining energy, network throughput, packet loss probability, and traffic load distribution are improved by about 10%, 10%, 5%, and 10%, respectively, more than the existing schemes.

  7. Adaptive MANET multipath routing algorithm based on the simulated annealing approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sungwook

    2014-01-01

    Mobile ad hoc network represents a system of wireless mobile nodes that can freely and dynamically self-organize network topologies without any preexisting communication infrastructure. Due to characteristics like temporary topology and absence of centralized authority, routing is one of the major issues in ad hoc networks. In this paper, a new multipath routing scheme is proposed by employing simulated annealing approach. The proposed metaheuristic approach can achieve greater and reciprocal advantages in a hostile dynamic real world network situation. Therefore, the proposed routing scheme is a powerful method for finding an effective solution into the conflict mobile ad hoc network routing problem. Simulation results indicate that the proposed paradigm adapts best to the variation of dynamic network situations. The average remaining energy, network throughput, packet loss probability, and traffic load distribution are improved by about 10%, 10%, 5%, and 10%, respectively, more than the existing schemes.

  8. Integrated consensus-based frameworks for unmanned vehicle routing and targeting assignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnawi, Waleed T.

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are increasingly deployed in complex and dynamic environments to perform multiple tasks cooperatively with other UAVs that contribute to overarching mission effectiveness. Studies by the Department of Defense (DoD) indicate future operations may include anti-access/area-denial (A2AD) environments which limit human teleoperator decision-making and control. This research addresses the problem of decentralized vehicle re-routing and task reassignments through consensus-based UAV decision-making. An Integrated Consensus-Based Framework (ICF) is formulated as a solution to the combined single task assignment problem and vehicle routing problem. The multiple assignment and vehicle routing problem is solved with the Integrated Consensus-Based Bundle Framework (ICBF). The frameworks are hierarchically decomposed into two levels. The bottom layer utilizes the renowned Dijkstra's Algorithm. The top layer addresses task assignment with two methods. The single assignment approach is called the Caravan Auction Algorithm (CarA) Algorithm. This technique extends the Consensus-Based Auction Algorithm (CBAA) to provide awareness for task completion by agents and adopt abandoned tasks. The multiple assignment approach called the Caravan Auction Bundle Algorithm (CarAB) extends the Consensus-Based Bundle Algorithm (CBBA) by providing awareness for lost resources, prioritizing remaining tasks, and adopting abandoned tasks. Research questions are investigated regarding the novelty and performance of the proposed frameworks. Conclusions regarding the research questions will be provided through hypothesis testing. Monte Carlo simulations will provide evidence to support conclusions regarding the research hypotheses for the proposed frameworks. The approach provided in this research addresses current and future military operations for unmanned aerial vehicles. However, the general framework implied by the proposed research is adaptable to any unmanned

  9. Population resizing on fitness improvement genetic algorithm to optimize promotion visit route based on android and google maps API

    Science.gov (United States)

    Listyorini, Tri; Muzid, Syafiul

    2017-06-01

    The promotion team of Muria Kudus University (UMK) has done annual promotion visit to several senior high schools in Indonesia. The visits were done to numbers of schools in Kudus, Jepara, Demak, Rembang and Purwodadi. To simplify the visit, each visit round is limited to 15 (fifteen) schools. However, the team frequently faces some obstacles during the visit, particularly in determining the route that they should take toward the targeted school. It is due to the long distance or the difficult route to reach the targeted school that leads to elongated travel duration and inefficient fuel cost. To solve these problems, the development of a certain application using heuristic genetic algorithm method based on the dynamic of population size or Population Resizing on Fitness lmprovement Genetic Algorithm (PRoFIGA), was done. This android-based application was developed to make the visit easier and to determine a shorter route for the team, hence, the visiting period will be effective and efficient. The result of this research was an android-based application to determine the shortest route by combining heuristic method and Google Maps Application Programming lnterface (API) that display the route options for the team.

  10. Microcomputer-based vehicle routing and scheduling: An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, A.J.

    1987-08-01

    Commercially available vehicle-routing and scheduling packages were surveyed to assess capabilities, categorize key characteristics, compare individual packages, and select candidate software for additional testing. Among the key characteristics addressed were backhauling, distance and vehicle travel-time calculation, geocoding, speed zones, natural barriers, time-window constraints, vehicle/stop matching constraints, and other constraints such as vehicle/driver operating costs. The survey included review of vendor literature, telephone interviews, site visits to review software, and the testing of demonstration packages on a set of sample distribution networks. Thirteen packages were reviewed; these were categorized by price and performance as follows; (1) inexpensive packages (costing $2000 or less), which solve the basic vehicle-routing problem but are somewhat limited in their ability to handle large numbers of vehicles and stops; (2) medium-priced systems (from $5000 to $20,000), which offer more capability to handle constraints such as multiple pickup and delivery, time windows, and multiple depots and provide manual intervention capability and enhanced graphics; (3) very expensive systems (from $50,000 to about $150,000), which can handle real-time situations in scheduling last-minute route changes and employ sophisticated graphics tools to change route schedules interactively. Out of the 13 packages, four demonstration vehicle-routing packages were obtained for testing of 4 sample networks; two of the packages were found to be capable of solving most vehicle-routing problem constraints for two versions of 21-city and 30-city networks.

  11. Route Selection Problem Based on Hopfield Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kojic

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Transport network is a key factor of economic, social and every other form of development in the region and the state itself. One of the main conditions for transport network development is the construction of new routes. Often, the construction of regional roads is dominant, since the design and construction in urban areas is quite limited. The process of analysis and planning the new roads is a complex process that depends on many factors (the physical characteristics of the terrain, the economic situation, political decisions, environmental impact, etc. and can take several months. These factors directly or indirectly affect the final solution, and in combination with project limitations and requirements, sometimes can be mutually opposed. In this paper, we present one software solution that aims to find Pareto optimal path for preliminary design of the new roadway. The proposed algorithm is based on many different factors (physical and social with the ability of their increase. This solution is implemented using Hopfield's neural network, as a kind of artificial intelligence, which has shown very good results for solving complex optimization problems.

  12. Hazardous materials transportation: a risk-analysis-based routing methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonelli, P; Bonvicini, S; Spadoni, G

    2000-01-07

    This paper introduces a new methodology based on risk analysis for the selection of the best route for the transport of a hazardous substance. In order to perform this optimisation, the network is considered as a graph composed by nodes and arcs; each arc is assigned a cost per unit vehicle travelling on it and a vehicle capacity. After short discussion about risk measures suitable for linear risk sources, the arc capacities are introduced by comparison between the societal and individual risk measures of each arc with hazardous materials transportation risk criteria; then arc costs are defined in order to take into account both transportation out-of-pocket expenses and risk-related costs. The optimisation problem can thus be formulated as a 'minimum cost flow problem', which consists of determining for a specific hazardous substance the cheapest flow distribution, honouring the arc capacities, from the origin nodes to the destination nodes. The main features of the optimisation procedure, implemented on the computer code OPTIPATH, are presented. Test results about shipments of ammonia are discussed and finally further research developments are proposed.

  13. Mobility based multicast routing in wireless mesh networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Sanjeev; Tripathi, Vijay S.; Tiwari, Sudarshan

    2013-01-01

    There exist two fundamental approaches to multicast routing namely minimum cost trees and shortest path trees. The (MCT's) minimum cost tree is one which connects receiver and sources by providing a minimum number of transmissions (MNTs) the MNTs approach is generally used for energy constraint sensor and mobile ad hoc networks. In this paper we have considered node mobility and try to find out simulation based comparison of the (SPT's) shortest path tree, (MST's) minimum steiner trees and minimum number of transmission trees in wireless mesh networks by using the performance metrics like as an end to end delay, average jitter, throughput and packet delivery ratio, average unicast packet delivery ratio, etc. We have also evaluated multicast performance in the small and large wireless mesh networks. In case of multicast performance in the small networks we have found that when the traffic load is moderate or high the SPTs outperform the MSTs and MNTs in all cases. The SPTs have lowest end to end delay and average jitter in almost all cases. In case of multicast performance in the large network we have seen that the MSTs provide minimum total edge cost and minimum number of transmissions. We have also found that the one drawback of SPTs, when the group size is large and rate of multicast sending is high SPTs causes more packet losses to other flows as MCTs.

  14. Self-Adaptive Intelligent Routing in Dynamic WSN using Natural Inspired Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustary Mr., Nareshkumar R.; Phanikumar, S., Dr.

    2017-08-01

    Mobile Adhoc Networks are designed dynamically without any infrastructure and each node is accountable for routing information amongst them. In MANET’s, the network topology dynamically variations over time to time due to energy preservation or changes in node position. Thus both routing problem turn out to be dynamic optimization problem in MANET’s. Hence it is crucial to design solution for the optimization problem is to quickly adopt to changing environment and produce high quality optimization using Modified Particle Swarm Optimization. The Particle Swarm Optimization is effective in determining optimal solutions in fixed locations, but it suffered from poor performance in locating a changing extreme. It was also necessary to impose a maximum value Vmax to avoiding the particle exploded because of there was no exist a mechanism for controlling the velocity of a particle. PSO searches wide areas effectively, but difficult to search in local precision. Hence, introduced a control parameter called the inertia weight, “w”, to damp the velocities over time, allowing the swarm to converge more accurately and efficiently.

  15. DRO: domain-based route optimization scheme for nested mobile networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuang Ming-Chin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The network mobility (NEMO basic support protocol is designed to support NEMO management, and to ensure communication continuity between nodes in mobile networks. However, in nested mobile networks, NEMO suffers from the pinball routing problem, which results in long packet transmission delays. To solve the problem, we propose a domain-based route optimization (DRO scheme that incorporates a domain-based network architecture and ad hoc routing protocols for route optimization. DRO also improves the intra-domain handoff performance, reduces the convergence time during route optimization, and avoids the out-of-sequence packet problem. A detailed performance analysis and simulations were conducted to evaluate the scheme. The results demonstrate that DRO outperforms existing mechanisms in terms of packet transmission delay (i.e., better route-optimization, intra-domain handoff latency, convergence time, and packet tunneling overhead.

  16. Location-Based Self-Adaptive Routing Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks in Home Automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong SeungHo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of wireless sensor networks in home automation (WSNHA is attractive due to their characteristics of self-organization, high sensing fidelity, low cost, and potential for rapid deployment. Although the AODVjr routing algorithm in IEEE 802.15.4/ZigBee and other routing algorithms have been designed for wireless sensor networks, not all are suitable for WSNHA. In this paper, we propose a location-based self-adaptive routing algorithm for WSNHA called WSNHA-LBAR. It confines route discovery flooding to a cylindrical request zone, which reduces the routing overhead and decreases broadcast storm problems in the MAC layer. It also automatically adjusts the size of the request zone using a self-adaptive algorithm based on Bayes' theorem. This makes WSNHA-LBAR more adaptable to the changes of the network state and easier to implement. Simulation results show improved network reliability as well as reduced routing overhead.

  17. Selective Route Based on SNR with Cross-Layer Scheme in Wireless Ad Hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Istikmal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we developed network and throughput formulation models and proposed new method of the routing protocol algorithm with a cross-layer scheme based on signal-to-noise ratio (SNR. This method is an enhancement of routing protocol ad hoc on-demand distance vector (AODV. This proposed scheme uses selective route based on the SNR threshold in the reverse route mechanism. We developed AODV SNR-selective route (AODV SNR-SR for a mechanism better than AODV SNR, that is, the routing protocol that used average or sum of path SNR, and also better than AODV which is hop-count-based. We also used selective reverse route based on SNR mechanism, replacing the earlier method to avoid routing overhead. The simulation results show that AODV SNR-SR outperforms AODV SNR and AODV in terms of throughput, end-to-end delay, and routing overhead. This proposed method is expected to support Device-to-Device (D2D communications that are concerned with the quality of the channel awareness in the development of the future Fifth Generation (5G.

  18. A Node Routing Problem with Intermediate Facilities: A Managerial Approach Based on a Heuristic Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Nafezi, Nima

    2013-01-01

    In this dissertation, we discussed a type of vehicle routing problem called vehicle routing problem with intermediate facilities with consideration of the impact of adding intermediate facilities to the problem. To study how IFs change the result of the problem, we firstly present a simple model based on clustering algorithm along with finding the shortest route between clusters, implementing Clarke and Wright’s algorithm within each cluster. Then we determine a set of design of experiments w...

  19. FUZZY BASED CLUSTERING AND ENERGY EFFICIENT ROUTING FOR UNDERWATER WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sihem Souiki

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Underwater Wireless Sensor Network (UWSN is a particular kind of sensor networks which is characterized by using acoustic channels for communication. UWSN is challenged by great issues specially the energy supply of sensor node which can be wasted rapidly by several factors. The most proposed routing protocols for terrestrial sensor networks are not adequate for UWSN, thus new design of routing protocols must be adapted to this constrain. In this paper we propose two new clustering algorithms based on Fuzzy C-Means mechanisms. In the first proposition, the cluster head is elected initially based on the closeness to the center of the cluster, then the node having the higher residual energy elects itself as a cluster head. All non-cluster head nodes transmit sensed data to the cluster head. This latter performs data aggregation and transmits the data directly to the base station. The second algorithm uses the same principle in forming clusters and electing cluster heads but operates in multi-hop mode to forward data from cluster heads to the underwater sink (uw-sink. Furthermore the two proposed algorithms are tested for static and dynamic deployment. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms resulting in an extension of the network lifetime.

  20. Address allocation for MANET merge and partition using cluster based routing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sugandha; Rajpal, Navin; Sharma, Ashok

    2014-01-01

    Network merges and partitions occur quite often in MANET wherein address auto-configuration is a critical requirement. There are various approaches for address auto-configuration in MANETs which allocate address to the nodes in a dynamic and distributed manner in which HOST ID and MANET ID are assigned on the basis of their Base value. MANET merges and partitions employing Cluster Based Routing Protocol require a node to be assigned as the Cluster Head (CH). This paper presents the Election Algorithm which assigns a node as the Cluster Head on the basis of its weight. Through simulation using the NS-2, it has been shown that the Election Algorithm improves the packet delivery ratio (PDR) significantly and decreases the packet delay to a great extent in comparison to the existing AODV protocol.

  1. Backpressure-Based Packet-By-Packet Adaptive Routing For Traffic Management in Communication Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Swetha,

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Back pressure-based adaptive routing algorithms where each packet is routed along a possibly different pathhave been extensively studied in the literature. However, suchalgorithms typically result in poor delay performance and involvehigh implementation complexity. In this paper, we develop anew adaptive routing algorithm built upon the widely-studiedback-pressure algorithm. We decouple the routing and schedulingcomponents of the algorithm by designing a probabilistic routingtable which is used to route packets to per-destination queues.The scheduling decisions in the case of wireless networks aremade using counters called shadow queues. The results arealso extended to the case of networks which employ simpleforms of network coding. In that case, our algorithm provides alow-complexity solution to optimally exploit the routing-codingtrade-off.

  2. Queuing Game Theory Based Optimal Routing Scheme for Heterogeneous Users over Space Information Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Guo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An optimal routing scheme in space information networks was presented to balance network loads for heterogeneous users. According to the competition among the nodes, the model was built based on queuing game theory. The virtual routing platform was in charge of resources allocation and route selection. It got user’s gain to decide which node the user joined in. Owning to the existing of heterogeneous users, an optimal admission fee needed to be obtained to avoid congestion. In our model, firstly, the whole welfare of the system was formulated. Then the optimal admission fee was calculated through maximizing the whole welfare. Meanwhile, the average maximum queue length was generated to set the buffer space of the node. At last, a routing factor was introduced into the route algorithm in order that the optimal routing could be selected by heterogeneous users. As a result, the system welfare reaches the maximum.

  3. An Energy- Aware Routing Protocol Based on Effective Transmission in Sensor Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Linfeng; YANG Zongkai; CHENG Wenqing; DU Xu

    2006-01-01

    In order to minimize the energy consumption in the discovery of the routing path, this paper introduces a novel concept of effective transmission (ET) that ensures each forwarding node is not only farther from the source node, but also nearer to the destination node with respect to its sender.An energy-aware routing protocol based on ET is proposed.It enables the energy consumption for each hop to be the least for the transmission. The simulation results show the routing protocol is effective in the performance of energy consumption comparing with some other routing protocols.

  4. A Two-Dimensional CA Traffic Model with Dynamic Route Choices Between Residence and Workplace

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, Jun; Chen, Xi-Qun; Qin, Zheng

    2015-01-01

    The Biham, Middleton and Levine (BML) model is extended to describe dynamic route choices between the residence and workplace in cities. The traffic dynamic in the city with a single workplace is studied from the velocity diagram, arrival time probability distribution, destination arrival rate and convergence time. The city with double workplaces is also investigated to compared with a single workplace within the framework of four modes of urban growth. The transitional region is found in the velocity diagrams where the system undergoes a continuous transition from a moving phase to a completely jamming phase. We perform a finite-size scaling analysis of the critical density from a statistical point of view and the order parameter of this jamming transition is estimated. It is also found that statistical properties of urban traffic are greatly influenced by the urban area, workplace area and urban layout.

  5. Analysis of dynamic wave model for flood routing in natural rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza BARATI

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Flooding is a common natural disaster that causes enormous economic, social, and human losses. Of various flood routing methods, the dynamic wave model is one of the best approaches for the prediction of the characteristics of floods during their propagations in natural rivers because all of the terms of the momentum equation are considered in the model. However, no significant research has been conducted on how the model sensitivity affects the accuracy of the downstream hydrograph. In this study, a comprehensive analysis of the input parameters of the dynamic wave model was performed through field applications in natural rivers and routing experiments in artificial channels using the graphical multi-parametric sensitivity analysis (GMPSA. The results indicate that the effects of input parameter errors on the output results are more significant in special situations, such as lower values of Manning’s roughness coefficient and/or a steeper bed slope on the characteristics of a design hydrograph, larger values of the skewness factor and/or time to peak on the channel characteristics, larger values of Manning’s roughness coefficient and/or the bed slope on the space step, and lower values of Manning’s roughness coefficient and/or a steeper bed slope on the time step and weighting factor.

  6. An Update based Energy-Efficient Reactive Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhirendra Kumar Sharma

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Low cost energy-efficient (power based routing protocols of mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs increase the lifetime of static networks by using received signal strength (RSS and battery power status (PS. They require GPS service to find the exact location of mobile nodes. The GPS devices themselves consume power because they need excessive updates to find the stationary nodes for efficient routing. To overcome this, RSS is being used as a metric, followed by, residual battery power. The recent protocols, based on these concepts, provide energy efficient routes during the route discovery phase only. Topological changes make these routes weak in due course of time. To update routes, HELLO process can be used, which however creates unnecessary overhead, delay and consumes power. Hence, these protocols do not update the routes. We propose an energy-efficient reactive routing protocol that uses the RSS and PS of mobile nodes. Proposed Link Failure Prediction (LFP algorithm uses the link-layer feedback system to update active routes. We use ns2 for simulation of the proposed algorithm. Comparing the results of proposed scheme and existing scheme, in terms of energy consumption, link failure probability, and retransmission of packets, we observe that the proposed scheme outperforms the existing one.

  7. A savings based method for real-life vehicle routing problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Poot; G. Kant; A.P.M. Wagelmans (Albert)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractThis paper describes a Savings Based algorithm for the Extended Vehicle Routing Problem. This algorithm is compared with a Sequential Insertion algorithm on real-life data. Besides the traditional quality measures such as total distance traveled and total workload, we compare the routing

  8. Core-based Shared Tree Multicast Routing Algorithms for LEO Satellite IP Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Lianzhen; Zhang Jun; Liu Kai

    2007-01-01

    A new core-based shared tree algorithm, viz core-cluster combination-based shared tree (CCST) algorithm and the weighted version (i.e. w-CCST algorithm) are proposed in order to resolve the channel resources waste problem in typical source-based multicast routing algorithms in low earth orbit (LEO) satellite IP networks. The CCST algorithm includes the dynamic approximate center (DAC)core selection method and the core-cluster combination multicast route construction scheme. Without complicated onboard computation,the DAC method is uniquely developed for highly dynamic networks of periodical and regular movement. The core-cluster combination method takes core node as the initial core-cluster, and expands it stepwise to construct an entire multicast tree at the lowest tree cost by a shortest path scheme between the newly-generated core-cluster and surplus group members, which results in great bandwidth utilization.Moreover, the w-CCST algorithm is able to strike a balance between performance of tree cost and that of end-to-end propagation delay by adjusting the weighted factor to meet strict end-to-end delay requirements of some real-time multicast services at the expense of a slight increase in tree cost. Finally, performance comparison is conducted between the proposed algorithms and typical algorithms in LEO satellite IP networks. Simulation results show that the CCST algorithm significantly decreases the average tree cost against to the others, and also the average end-to-end propagation delay of w-CCST algorithm is lower than that of the CCST algorithm.

  9. A Comparison of Routing Protocol for WSNs: Redundancy Based Approach A Comparison of Routing Protocol for WSNs: Redundancy Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Prakash

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs with their dynamic applications gained a tremendous attention of researchers. Constant monitoring of critical situations attracted researchers to utilize WSNs at vast platforms. The main focus in WSNs is to enhance network localization as much as one could, for efficient and optimal utilization of resources. Different approaches based upon redundancy are proposed for optimum functionality. Localization is always related with redundancy of sensor nodes deployed at remote areas for constant and fault tolerant monitoring. In this work, we propose a comparison of classic flooding and the gossip protocol for homogenous networks which enhances stability and throughput quiet significantly.  

  10. A Neural Networks-Based Hybrid Routing Protocol for Wireless Mesh Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad Kojić

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The networking infrastructure of wireless mesh networks (WMNs is decentralized and relatively simple, but they can display reliable functioning performance while having good redundancy. WMNs provide Internet access for fixed and mobile wireless devices. Both in urban and rural areas they provide users with high-bandwidth networks over a specific coverage area. The main problems affecting these networks are changes in network topology and link quality. In order to provide regular functioning, the routing protocol has the main influence in WMN implementations. In this paper we suggest a new routing protocol for WMN, based on good results of a proactive and reactive routing protocol, and for that reason it can be classified as a hybrid routing protocol. The proposed solution should avoid flooding and creating the new routing metric. We suggest the use of artificial logic—i.e., neural networks (NNs. This protocol is based on mobile agent technologies controlled by a Hopfield neural network. In addition to this, our new routing metric is based on multicriteria optimization in order to minimize delay and blocking probability (rejected packets or their retransmission. The routing protocol observes real network parameters and real network environments. As a result of artificial logic intelligence, the proposed routing protocol should maximize usage of network resources and optimize network performance.

  11. A Neural Networks-Based Hybrid Routing Protocol for Wireless Mesh Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojić, Nenad; Reljin, Irini; Reljin, Branimir

    2012-01-01

    The networking infrastructure of wireless mesh networks (WMNs) is decentralized and relatively simple, but they can display reliable functioning performance while having good redundancy. WMNs provide Internet access for fixed and mobile wireless devices. Both in urban and rural areas they provide users with high-bandwidth networks over a specific coverage area. The main problems affecting these networks are changes in network topology and link quality. In order to provide regular functioning, the routing protocol has the main influence in WMN implementations. In this paper we suggest a new routing protocol for WMN, based on good results of a proactive and reactive routing protocol, and for that reason it can be classified as a hybrid routing protocol. The proposed solution should avoid flooding and creating the new routing metric. We suggest the use of artificial logic—i.e., neural networks (NNs). This protocol is based on mobile agent technologies controlled by a Hopfield neural network. In addition to this, our new routing metric is based on multicriteria optimization in order to minimize delay and blocking probability (rejected packets or their retransmission). The routing protocol observes real network parameters and real network environments. As a result of artificial logic intelligence, the proposed routing protocol should maximize usage of network resources and optimize network performance. PMID:22969360

  12. A neural networks-based hybrid routing protocol for wireless mesh networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojić, Nenad; Reljin, Irini; Reljin, Branimir

    2012-01-01

    The networking infrastructure of wireless mesh networks (WMNs) is decentralized and relatively simple, but they can display reliable functioning performance while having good redundancy. WMNs provide Internet access for fixed and mobile wireless devices. Both in urban and rural areas they provide users with high-bandwidth networks over a specific coverage area. The main problems affecting these networks are changes in network topology and link quality. In order to provide regular functioning, the routing protocol has the main influence in WMN implementations. In this paper we suggest a new routing protocol for WMN, based on good results of a proactive and reactive routing protocol, and for that reason it can be classified as a hybrid routing protocol. The proposed solution should avoid flooding and creating the new routing metric. We suggest the use of artificial logic-i.e., neural networks (NNs). This protocol is based on mobile agent technologies controlled by a Hopfield neural network. In addition to this, our new routing metric is based on multicriteria optimization in order to minimize delay and blocking probability (rejected packets or their retransmission). The routing protocol observes real network parameters and real network environments. As a result of artificial logic intelligence, the proposed routing protocol should maximize usage of network resources and optimize network performance.

  13. The Optimal Approach of Vehicle Route with Time Window Based on Genetic Algorithm: Dynamic Partition of Demand%基于需求划分的带软时间窗的路径优化方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏俊华; 王安麟; 童毅

    2005-01-01

    针对带有时间窗约束的车辆路径问题(Vehicle Routing Problem With Time Windows,VRPTW)的NP特征,以非完全连通配送网络为研究对象,用带有软时间窗约束的整体配送费用最小为目标,提出了一种基于需求的城市动态划分方法,有效的减少了路径的组合规模,并且用遗传算法将其实现,通过改进的Dijkstra算法求取其基于动态划分的最优配送路径集,最后计算示例验证了本文方法的有效性.

  14. HLAODV - A Cross Layer Routing Protocol for Pervasive Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks Based On Location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmine Norman

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A pervasive network consists of heterogeneous devices with different computing, storage, mobility and connectivity properties working together to solve real-world problems. The emergence of wireless sensor networks has enabled new classes of applications in pervasive world that benefit a large number of fields. Routing in wireless sensor networks is a demanding task. This demand has led to a number of routing protocols which efficiently utilize the limited resources available at the sensor nodes. Most of these protocols either support stationary sensor networks or mobile networks. This paper proposes an energy efficient routing protocol for heterogeneous sensor networks with the goal of finding the nearest base station or sink node. Hence the problem of routing is reduced to finding the nearest base station problem in heterogeneous networks. The protocol HLAODV when compared with popular routing protocols AODV and DSR is energy efficient. Also the mathematical model of the proposed system and its properties are studied.

  15. Performance Evaluation of Stable Weight-Based on Demand Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oon C. Hsi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: A MANET is an autonomous collection of mobile users that communicate over relatively bandwidth constrained wireless links. Since the nodes are mobile, the network topology may change rapidly and unpredictably over time. Approach: A Stable Weight-based On demand Routing Protocol (SWORP that uses the weight-based route strategy to select a stable route was created by Wang. But SWORP only evaluated in a limited setting of simulation, more simulation parameter have to test with SWORP to evaluate how far this protocol can go on. In this project, SWORP was implemented in simulation environment with two other routing protocols, AODV and DSR. Results: These three protocols were implemented in Network Simulator 2 (NS2 and the performance was compare with performance metrics, end-to-end delay, number of packet drop and packet delivery ratio. Conclusion: As expected, SWORP had outperformed AODV and DSR in the overall routing performance.

  16. A multiple channel assignment algorithm and routing protocol base on wireless mesh networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiaochuan; Li, Nan

    2011-10-01

    In this paper, a hybrid routing protocol TOIRP and a distributed channel assignment algorithm CLBCA of WMN in the multi-channel environment are proposed. The tree base protocol and the traditional AODV routing protocol are integrated together to reduce delay in the routing protocol, which is proposed by HWMP. A new routing metric CETTI is used in this routing protocol, which uses a new method to quantify the interference of communication. It divided interference into two parts: inter-flow interference and intra- flow interference, and it integrate the considerations of hop- count and delay. This improves the throughput of WMN. The channel assignment algorithm is divided into two parts: radio- neighbor binding and channel-radio binding. This algorithm is based on the channel load and avoids the channel-dependency problem which is common in the multi-channel environment. In the same time, it increases the utilization of each channel.

  17. Study of network survivability based on multi-path routing mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Song; XU Yong; ZHANG Ling

    2008-01-01

    As an important secure routing mechanism, multi-path routing is one of the major ways to improve network efficiency and to guarantee the network security, which ensures the reliability of data transmission by using backup paths when the pri mary one is unavailable due to local node or link failures. Most current studies on multi-path routing mechanism are based on experiments or simulations. The re sults are usually specific application scenarios oriented heuristic algorithms, lacking universal significance. In this paper, a theoretic analysis is performed on the relationship between the multi-path routing policy, the network efficiency and its survivability. Starting with point-to-point communication network, an impact oriented analysis is made on the network interference under multi-path routing mechanism. Based on the analysis, the upper-limit of network performance under interference impact is also discussed.

  18. Routing-based Synthesis of Digital Microfluidic Biochips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maftei, Elena; Pop, Paul; Madsen, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Microfluidic biochips are replacing the conventional biochemical analyzers, and are able to integrate on-chip all the basic functsions for biochemical analysis. The "digital" microfluidic biochips are manipulating liquids not as a continuous flow, but as discrete droplets on a two-dimensional array...... of electrodes. Basic microfluidic operations, such as mixing and dilution, are performed on the array, by routing the corresponding droplets on a series of electrodes. So far, researchers have assumed that these operations are executed on rectangular virtual devices, formed by grouping several adjacent...... electrodes. One drawback is that all electrodes are considered occupied during the operation execution, although the droplet uses only one electrode at a time. Moreover, the operations can actually execute by routing the droplets on any sequence of electrodes on the array. Hence, in this paper, we eliminate...

  19. Routing-based synthesis of digital microfluidic biochips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maftei, Elena; Pop, Paul; Madsen, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Microfluidic biochips are replacing the conventional biochemical analyzers, and are able to integrate on-chip all the necessary functions for biochemical analysis. The “digital” biochips are manipulating liquids as discrete droplets on a two-dimensional array of electrodes. Basic microfluidic...... operations, such as mixing and dilution, are performed on the array, by routing the corresponding droplets on a series of electrodes. So far, researchers have assumed that these operations are executed on virtual rectangular devices, formed by grouping several adjacent electrodes. One drawback is that all...... electrodes are considered occupied during the operation execution, although the droplet uses only one electrode at a time. Moreover, the operations can actually be performed by routing the droplets on any sequence of electrodes on the microfluidic array. Hence, in this paper, we eliminate the concept...

  20. Verification of Interdomain Routing System Based on Formal Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZANG Zhiyuan; LUO Guiming; YIN Chongyuan

    2009-01-01

    In networks,the stable path problem (SPP) usually results in oscillations in interdomain systems and may cause systems to become unstable.With the rapid development of internet technology,the occurrence of SPPs in interdomain systems has quite recently become a significant focus of research.A framework for checking SPPs is presented in this paper with verification of an interdomain routing system using formal methods and the NuSMV software.Sufficient conditions and necessary conditions for determining SPP occurrence are presented with proof of the method's effectiveness.Linear temporal logic was used to model an interdomain routing system and its properties were analyzed.An example is included to demonstrate the method's reliability.

  1. Green Chemistry Based Benign Routes for Nanoparticle Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parth Malik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Green chemistry has been an eye catching area of interest since the past few years. With the problem of energy crisis looming high and its constraint being particularly vulnerable on the developing economies, the need for giving alternative traditional chemistry a serious consideration as well as adequate room for development has received significant boost through the coveted efforts of multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary scientific fields. Nanoscience has been the right field in this dimension as it opens up the door to multiple opportunities through enabling a number of chemical, biochemical, and biophysical transformations in a significantly easier and reliable manner. The use of nanoparticles has made the fields of catalysis, synthesis, and enzyme immobilizations as well as molecular interactions a lot much easier, rapid and easily controllable. This review article sheds light on the popular alternative synthesis routes being employed for the synthesis of nanoparticles, the pivotal being from microbes, plants, and chemical routes via sonication, microwaving, and many others.

  2. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON ENERGY CONSUMPTION IN DYNAMIC WINDOW SECURED IMPLICIT GEOGRAPHIC FORWARDING ROUTING PROTOCOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abubakar Idris Umar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An Ideal WSNs should operate with the least possible energy required in order to increase the lifetime of the sensor nodes and at the same time, ensure network connectivity. But the Inherent power limitation makes power-awareness a critical requirement for WSN, this calls for the need to manage energy in sensor nodes. Also In order to ensure successful transmission of data from sensor node source to destination, it becomes necessary to maintain network availability. The network must be resilient to individual node failure which can happen due to zero power posses by the node and due to security attacks posed on the node and the network. Dynamic Window Secured Implicit Geographic Forwarding (DWSIGF routing protocol has proven to be robust, efficient and resistant to some security attack which causes failure in network availability. However the extent to which energy is consumed in sensor nodes which deploys DWSIGF as its routing protocol has never been mentioned. In this research, we performed a comparative study on energy consumption in DWSIGF routing protocol. Using the first order radio model, we determined the energy consumed in a network. The protocol (DWSIGF is matched up against its counterpart SIGF as the traffic is increased. Observation shows that DWSIGF due to the variable timing assigned to the CTS collection window, CTS signal fails to reach destination as collection window time expires, thus the need for retransmission. This in turn consumes more energy than the counterpart SIGF which has a fixed CTS collection time. The simulation work was done using Matlab 7.0. Energy consumed in the random variant of both protocols (DWSIGF and SIGF was also observed to be higher than the priority variant of the protocols.

  3. BGP-Based Routing Configuration Management for Multidomain Mobile Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    routers, mostly by hand, knowing peering associations. It is because the BGP uses the TCP protocol in order to reliably carry the routing messages...SSH session [16]. In the second case, when the systems have been already connected via another link, the managers already know the parameters of...thesis, supervisor: J. Krygier, MUT , Warsaw 2010, [14] RFC 2461: Neighbor Discovery for IP Version 6 (IPv6), 1998 [15] RFC 2710: Multicast Listener

  4. Metric-Based Cooperative Routing in Multihop Ad Hoc Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Xin He; Frank Y. Li

    2012-01-01

    Cooperative communication fully leverages the broadcast nature of wireless channels and exploits time/spatial diversity in a distributed manner, thereby achieving significant improvements in system capacity and transmission reliability. Cooperative diversity has been well studied from the physical layer perspective. Thereafter, cooperative MAC design has also drawn much attention recently. However, very little work has addressed cooperation at the routing layer. In this paper, we propose a si...

  5. A BROADCAST BASED ROUTING PROTOCOL FOR INTER-CLUSTER DATA DISSEMINATION IN VEHICULAR COMMUNICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auxeeliya Jesudoss

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vehicular communication is one of the fast growing and promising technologies for a safe and comfortable driving environment. These technologies do not end up with economic and safety ramifications, but also extended with other informational and entertainment oriented services. Data are being propagated multi-hop between source and destination vehicles for many real-life applications. Clustering is one of the effective and scalable solutions for data dissemination in wireless ad hoc networks. Though many cluster-based methods have been proposed for multi-hop data delivery in vehicular ad hoc networks, most of them do not consider the real-time changes in the network topology or imposes large penalties in routing such as unstable clusters, broken links, updating route tables. In order to address these issues, we propose a broadcast based routing protocol for inter-cluster data dissemination in this study that works on real-time vehicle information. Unlike, most existing routing algorithms, it only uses hello messages to obtain routing information without many other control messages. In addition, it alleviates the storage of routing information in every node, which largely reduces the overheads in routing. We performed extensive simulation to demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed routing protocol. Results show that the proposed protocol outperforms other approaches in terms of average delay, average delivery ratio and average number of hops.

  6. A Swarm Intelligent Algorithm Based Route Maintaining Protocol for Mobile Sink Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoming Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that mobile sink can be a solution to solve the problem that energy consumption of sensor nodes is not balanced in wireless sensor networks (WSNs. Caused by the sink mobility, the paths between the sensor nodes and the sink change frequently and have profound influence on the lifetime of WSN. It is necessary to design a protocol that can find efficient routings between the mobile sink and nodes but does not consume too many network resources. In this paper, we propose a swarm intelligent algorithm based route maintaining protocol to resolve this issue. The protocol utilizes the concentric ring mechanism to guide the route researching direction and adopts the optimal routing selection to maintain the data delivery route in mobile sink WSN. Using the immune based artificial bee colony (IABC algorithm to optimize the forwarding path, the routing maintaining protocol could find an alternative routing path quickly and efficiently when the coordinate of sink is changed in WSN. The results of our extensive experiments demonstrate that our proposed route maintaining protocol is able to balance the network traffic load and prolong the network lifetime.

  7. An improved distributed routing algorithm for Benes based optical NoC

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Jing; Yang, Yintang

    2011-01-01

    Integrated optical interconnect is believed to be one of the main technologies to replace electrical wires. Optical Network-on-Chip (ONoC) has attracted more attentions nowadays. Benes topology is a good choice for ONoC for its rearrangeable non-blocking character, multistage feature and easy scalability. Routing algorithm plays an important role in determining the performance of ONoC. But traditional routing algorithms for Benes network are not suitable for ONoC communication, we developed a new distributed routing algorithm for Benes ONoC in this paper. Our algorithm selected the routing path dynamically according to network condition and enables more path choices for the message traveling in the network. We used OPNET to evaluate the performance of our routing algorithm and also compared it with a well-known bit-controlled routing algorithm. ETE delay and throughput were showed under different packet length and network sizes. Simulation results show that our routing algorithm can provide better performance...

  8. Improving the Performance of Dynamic Source Routing Protocol by Optimization of Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Gargi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic Source Routing protocol is one of the most promising among on demand category of protocols for MANETs. Demands of network performance conflict with the demands of mobile networks . To enhance the QoS in a protocol like DSR we used ANN which helps to preserve the resources of the MANET leading to improvement in performance of DSR. While routing the data, If a legitimate node is mistaken as rogue node then also the QoS suffers and if a rogue node is not detected then also it can consume the resources of the network and deteriorate the QoS . In this work a neural network has been further optimized to improve its accuracy by varying the number of layers in it. A typical wireless network scenario of DSR has been simulated in NS2 and then a rogue node has been introduced to mimic attack. The parameters from the trace files have been used to train a neural network simulated in Matlab and its effectiveness has been improved to make the detection of intrusion more accurate. Although previous work has been reported in the area of application of neural networks for intrusion detection but there is a scope of improvement in this technique by varying the number of layers of ANN, making it more effective and improving the QoS of MANET.

  9. Power Management Based Grid Routing Protocol for IEEE 802.11 Based MANET

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Li; ZHENG Bao-yu; YANG Zhen

    2004-01-01

    MANET ( Mobile Ad Hoc Network ) is a collection of wireless mobile nodes forming a temporary communication network without the aid of any established infrastructure or centralized administration. The lifetime of a MANET depends on the battery resources of the mobile nodes. So energy consumption may one of important design criterions for MANET. With changing the idle model to sleep model in the grid environment, this paper proposes a new energy-aware routing protocol. Performance simulation results show that the proposed strategy can dynamic balance the traffic load inside the whole network, extend the lifetime of a MANET, and without decreasing the throughput ratio.

  10. A simulation based QoS review of multipath routing protocols for MANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.Periyasamy

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A MANET is an interconnection of mobile devices by wireless links forming a dynamic topology without much physical network infrastructure such as routers, servers, access points/cables or centralized administration. The multipath routing protocols establish efficient communication within the network by discovering multiple routes between a pair of source and destination in order to have load balancing to satisfy Quality of Service (QoS requirements. In this paper, the QoS comparison of three multipath routing protocols are carried out in terms of five scenario patterns such as RWM, RPGM, MGM, GMM, and PMM in two different traffic patterns such as CBR and TCP using NS2 and Bonn Motion. The multipath routing protocols AOMDV, OLSR and ZRP have been selected for simulation due to their edges over other protocols in various aspects.

  11. Efficient shortest-path-tree computation in network routing based on pulse-coupled neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Hong; Yi, Zhang; Yang, Simon X

    2013-06-01

    Shortest path tree (SPT) computation is a critical issue for routers using link-state routing protocols, such as the most commonly used open shortest path first and intermediate system to intermediate system. Each router needs to recompute a new SPT rooted from itself whenever a change happens in the link state. Most commercial routers do this computation by deleting the current SPT and building a new one using static algorithms such as the Dijkstra algorithm at the beginning. Such recomputation of an entire SPT is inefficient, which may consume a considerable amount of CPU time and result in a time delay in the network. Some dynamic updating methods using the information in the updated SPT have been proposed in recent years. However, there are still many limitations in those dynamic algorithms. In this paper, a new modified model of pulse-coupled neural networks (M-PCNNs) is proposed for the SPT computation. It is rigorously proved that the proposed model is capable of solving some optimization problems, such as the SPT. A static algorithm is proposed based on the M-PCNNs to compute the SPT efficiently for large-scale problems. In addition, a dynamic algorithm that makes use of the structure of the previously computed SPT is proposed, which significantly improves the efficiency of the algorithm. Simulation results demonstrate the effective and efficient performance of the proposed approach.

  12. A Primer of Multicast Routing

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenberg, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Whereas unicast routing determines a path from one source node to one destination node, multicast routing determines a path from one source to many destinations, or from many sources to many destinations. We survey multicast routing methods for when the set of destinations is static, and for when it is dynamic. While most of the methods we review are tree based, some non-tree methods are also discussed. We survey results on the shape of multicast trees, delay constrained multicast routing, aggregation of multicast traffic, inter-domain multicast, and multicast virtual private networks. We focu

  13. Routes, dynamics, and correlates of cochlear inflammation in terminal and recovering experimental meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cayé-Thomasen, Per; Worsøe, Lise; Brandt, Christian Thomas

    2009-01-01

    with inflammatory cells via cochlear aqueduct, whereas the endolymphatic space was infiltrated from the spiral ligament. Rosenthal's canal was infiltrated through osseous spiral lamina canaliculi. In the untreated group, the degree of inflammation correlated with time of death, whereas antibiotic treatment reversed......OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: To examine the routes, dynamics and correlates of cochlear inflammation in meningitis to provide information on the pathogenesis of the associated hearing loss and indications for rational pharmacotherapeutical intervention. STUDY DESIGN: A well-established rat model...... this development. Perilymphatic inflammation correlated significantly with the CSF leukocyte count, whereas endolymphatic inflammation correlated with spiral ligament inflammation. CONCLUSIONS: Meningogenic inflammation of the rat cochlea occurs via the cochlear aqueduct and the spiral ligament capillary bed...

  14. A Novel Solution to the Dynamic Routing and Wavelength Assignment Problem in Transparent Optical Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Bhanja, Urmila; Roy, Rajarshi; 10.5121/ijcnc.2010.2209

    2010-01-01

    We present an evolutionary programming algorithm for solving the dynamic routing and wavelength assignment (DRWA) problem in optical wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) networks under wavelength continuity constraint. We assume an ideal physical channel and therefore neglect the blocking of connection requests due to the physical impairments. The problem formulation includes suitable constraints that enable the algorithm to balance the load among the individuals and thus results in a lower blocking probability and lower mean execution time than the existing bio-inspired algorithms available in the literature for the DRWA problems. Three types of wavelength assignment techniques, such as First fit, Random, and Round Robin wavelength assignment techniques have been investigated here. The ability to guarantee both low blocking probability without any wavelength converters and small delay makes the improved algorithm very attractive for current optical switching networks.

  15. Fidelity Based On Demand Secure(FBOD Routing in Mobile Adhoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himadri Nath Saha

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In mobile ad-hoc network (MANET, secure routing is a challenging issue due to its open nature, infrastructure less property and mobility of nodes. Many mobile ad-hoc network routing schemes have been proposed, but none of them have been designed with security as a goal. We propose security goals for routing in mobile ad-hoc networks, an approach significantly different from the existing ones where data packets are routed, based on a specific criterion of the nodes called “fidelity” The approach will reduce the computational overhead to a lot extent. Our simulation results show how we have reduced the amount of network activity for each node required to route a data packet and how this scheme prevents various attacks which may jeopardize any MANET.

  16. A route-based decomposition for the Multi-Commodity k-splittable Maximum Flow Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamst, Mette

    2012-01-01

    The Multi-Commodity k-splittable Maximum Flow Problem routes flow through a capacitated graph such that each commodity uses at most k paths and such that the total amount of routedflow is maximized. This paper proposes a branch-and-price algorithm based on a route-based Dantzig-Wolfe decomposition......, where a route consists of up to k paths. Computational results show that the new algorithm has best performance on seven benchmark instances and is capable of solving two previously unsolved instances....

  17. A savings based method for real-life vehicle routing problems

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    textabstractThis paper describes a Savings Based algorithm for the Extended Vehicle Routing Problem. This algorithm is compared with a Sequential Insertion algorithm on real-life data. Besides the traditional quality measures such as total distance traveled and total workload, we compare the routing plans of both algorithms according to non-standard quality measures that help to evaluate the "visual attractiveness" of the plan. Computational results show that, in general, the Savings Based al...

  18. A Genetic Algorithms Based Approach for Group Multicast Routing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Sanna Randaccio

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Whereas multicast transmission in one-to-many communications allows the operator to drastically save network resources, it also makes the routing of the traffic flows more complex then in unicast transmissions. A huge amount of possible trees have to be considered and analyzed to find the appropriate routing paths. To address this problem, we propose the use of the genetic algorithms (GA, which considerably reduce the number of solutions to be evaluated. A heuristic procedure is first used to discern a set of possible trees for each multicast session in isolation. Then, the GA are applied to find the appropriate combination of the trees to comply with the bandwidth needs of the group of multicast sessions simultaneously. The goodness of each solution is assessed by means of an expression that weights both network bandwidth allocation and one-way delay. The resulting cost function is guided by few parameters that can be easily tuned during traffic engineering operations; an appropriate setting of these parameters allows the operator to configure the desired balance between network resource utilization and provided quality of service. Simulations have been performed to compare the proposed algorithm with alternative solutions in terms of bandwidth utilization and transmission delay.

  19. A RIVER FLOW ROUTING MODEL BASED ON DIGITAL DRAINAGE NETWORK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Fei; REN Li-liang; YU Zhong-bo; XU Jing

    2005-01-01

    On the basis of Digital Elevation Model (DEM) data, watershed delineation and spatial topological relationship were proposed by the Digital Elevation Drainage Network Model (DEDNM) for the area upstream of the Hanzhong Hydrological Station in the Hanjiang River in China. Then, the Muskingum-Cunge method considering lateral flow into the river was applied to flood routing on the platform of digital basin derived from DEDNM. Because of considering lateral flow into the river, the Muskingum-Cunge method performs better than the Muskingum method in terms of the Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficient and the relative error of flood discharge peak value. With a routing-after-superposition algorithm, the Muskingum-Cunge method performs better than the Muskingum method in terms of the Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficient and the relative error of flood discharge peak value. As a result, the digital basin coupled with the Muskingum-Cunge method provides a better platform for water resources management and flood control.

  20. Opportunity costs calculation in agent-based vehicle routing and scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mes, Martijn R.K.; van der Heijden, Matthijs C.; Schuur, Peter

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we consider a real-time, dynamic pickup and delivery problem with timewindows where orders should be assigned to one of a set of competing transportation companies. Our approach decomposes the problem into a multi-agent structure where vehicle agents are responsible for the routing and

  1. Opportunity costs calculation in agent-based vehicle routing and scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mes, Martijn; Heijden, van der Matthieu; Schuur, Peter

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we consider a real-time, dynamic pickup and delivery problem with timewindows where orders should be assigned to one of a set of competing transportation companies. Our approach decomposes the problem into a multi-agent structure where vehicle agents are responsible for the routing and

  2. Check-in based routing strategy in scale-free networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhong-Yuan; Ma, Jian-Feng; Shen, Yu-Long

    2017-02-01

    In many real complex artificial networks, a navigation route between a pair of source and destination is often desired to pass through at least a specified node called check-in node for doing check-in like services, such as gas fuel supplement for vehicles, GPS recording for express packages and so on. However, currently, there is a lack of routing study for complex networks equipped with check-in nodes. In this work, we first propose a general routing mechanism called check-in based routing (CBR) which can guarantee that every efficient path must include at least one check-in node. With a finite fraction of check-in nodes in the network, it can be observed that the higher the degrees of check-in nodes, the higher the network traffic capacity will be by employing the shortest path routing into CBR (namely CBR-SP). It is a great challenge on routing optimization for a network with a fraction of check-in nodes of the lowest degrees. We then employ the degree-based efficient routing (ER) into the CBR to efficiently redistribute heavy traffic from hub nodes to non-hub nodes. Under the CBR-ER, the traffic capacity can be significantly enhanced at the cost of a little network diameter and average path lengthening. The extensive simulations in scale-free networks can well confirm the effectiveness of CBR-ER.

  3. A DISTRIBUTED QOS ROUTING BASED ON ANT ALGORITHM FOR LEO SATELLITE NETWORK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellites provide short round-trip delays and are becoming increasingly important. One of the challenges in LEO satellite networks is the development of specialized and efficient routing algorithms. To satisfy the QoS requirements of multimedia applications, satellite routing protocols should consider handovers and minimize their effect on the active connections. A distributed QoS routing scheme based on heuristic ant algorithm is proposed for satisfying delay bound and avoiding link congestion. Simulation results show that the call blocking probabilities of this algorithm are less than that of Shortest Path First (SPF) with different delay bound.

  4. A heuristic approach based on Clarke-Wright algorithm for open vehicle routing problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichpibul, Tantikorn; Kawtummachai, Ruengsak

    2013-01-01

    We propose a heuristic approach based on the Clarke-Wright algorithm (CW) to solve the open version of the well-known capacitated vehicle routing problem in which vehicles are not required to return to the depot after completing service. The proposed CW has been presented in four procedures composed of Clarke-Wright formula modification, open-route construction, two-phase selection, and route postimprovement. Computational results show that the proposed CW is competitive and outperforms classical CW in all directions. Moreover, the best known solution is also obtained in 97% of tested instances (60 out of 62).

  5. Design and Simulation of Routing-switching Protocol Based on Optical Switch Array

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Wei; MAO You-ju; LIU Jiang

    2004-01-01

    An optical routing- switching technology based on optical switch array is proposed. The characteristics of the blocking and nonblocking networks are analyzed and compared, odd- even sorting network is used to realize optical routing- switching, relative routing- switching protocol is designed.Simulation test under load shows that it can reduce a blocking effectively and enhance an efficiency of switching. Further, it can transfer the processing and switching within parallel computer from electric domain to optical domain. It can make parallel computer coordinating computing and processing at much more higher speed, storing and transmitting even more efficiently.

  6. QoS Multicast Routing Based on Ant Algorithm in Internet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, based on ant-algorithm, we propose a QoS multicast routing scheme in Internet. We first describe ant-algorithm model and give ant-network model, then present an approach using ant-algorithm to optimize the multicast routes with QoS constaints. Finally, simulations has been made to show the efficiency of the approach in the environment of OPNET simulation software, and the simulation results show that the proposed approach can find the best optimal multicast routes which can satisfy the delay-bounded requirement and avoid congested nodes as soon as possible.

  7. Routing and wavelength assignment based on normalized resource and constraints for all-optical network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Seong-Soon; Nam, Hyun-Soon; Lim, Chang-Kyu

    2003-08-01

    With the rapid growth of the Optical Internet, high capacity pipes is finally destined to support end-to-end IP on the WDM optical network. Newly launched 2D MEMS optical switching module in the market supports that expectations of upcoming a transparent optical cross-connect in the network have encouraged the field applicable research on establishing real all-optical transparent network. To open up a customer-driven bandwidth services, design of the optical transport network becomes more challenging task in terms of optimal network resource usage. This paper presents a practical approach to finding a route and wavelength assignment for wavelength routed all-optical network, which has λ-plane OXC switches and wavelength converters, and supports that optical paths are randomly set up and released by dynamic wavelength provisioning to create bandwidth between end users with timescales on the order of seconds or milliseconds. We suggest three constraints to make the RWA problem become more practical one on deployment for wavelength routed all-optical network in network view: limitation on maximum hop of a route within bearable optical network impairments, limitation on minimum hops to travel before converting a wavelength, and limitation on calculation time to find all routes for connections requested at once. We design the NRCD (Normalized Resource and Constraints for All-Optical Network RWA Design) algorithm for the Tera OXC: network resource for a route is calculated by the number of internal switching paths established in each OXC nodes on the route, and is normalized by ratio of number of paths established and number of paths equipped in a node. We show that it fits for the RWA algorithm of the wavelength routed all-optical network through real experiments on the distributed objects platform.

  8. TSP based Evolutionary optimization approach for the Vehicle Routing Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouki, Zoulel; Chaar, Besma Fayech; Ksouri, Mekki

    2009-03-01

    Vehicle Routing and Flexible Job Shop Scheduling Problems (VRP and FJSSP) are two common hard combinatorial optimization problems that show many similarities in their conceptual level [2, 4]. It was proved for both problems that solving techniques like exact methods fail to provide good quality solutions in a reasonable amount of time when dealing with large scale instances [1, 5, 14]. In order to overcome this weakness, we decide in the favour of meta heuristics and we focalize on evolutionary algorithms that have been successfully used in scheduling problems [1, 5, 9]. In this paper we investigate the common properties of the VRP and the FJSSP in order to provide a new controlled evolutionary approach for the CVRP optimization inspired by the FJSSP evolutionary optimization algorithms introduced in [10].

  9. Performance Evaluation of MANET Routing Protocols Based on Internet Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilal Bello Said,

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The topology of mobile ad hoc network (MANET changes rapidly and unpredictably due to nodes mobility. This makes routing protocols very important to analyze so as to communicate efficiently between the wireless nodes. Another important issue in the MANET is the internet protocols IPv4 and IPV6. The former which have been conventionally in use for long and the latter which is seen as the future standard for network architecture is studied due to its improved protection and huge address space support. In this paper, performance of AODV, DYMO, OLSRv2 and OLSR are analyzed under the IPv4 and IPv6 standards using the Qualnet simulator. Distinct performance metrics viz. Packet delivery ratio, Throughput, Average End-to-End Delay, and Average jitter are selected for the experiment. The results are then analyzed and scrutinized to provide qualitative assessment of their performances.

  10. Optimizing Route for Hazardous Materials Logistics Based on Hybrid Ant Colony Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haixing Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimizing Route for Hazardous Materials Logistics (ORHML belongs to a class of problems referred to as NP-Hard, and a strict constraint of it makes it harder to solve. In order to dealing with ORHML, an improved hybrid ant colony algorithm (HACA was devised. To achieve the purpose of balancing risk and cost for route based on the principle of ACA that used to solve TSP, the improved HACA was designed. Considering the capacity of road network and the maximum expected risk limits, a route optimization model to minimize the total cost is established based on network flow theory. Improvement on route construction rule and pheromone updating rule was adopted on the basis of the former algorithm. An example was analyzed to demonstrate the correctness of the application. It is proved that improved HACA is efficient and feasible in solving ORHML.

  11. P-bRS: A Physarum-Based Routing Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingchuan Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Routing in wireless sensor networks (WSNs is an extremely challenging issue due to the features of WSNs. Inspired by the large and single-celled amoeboid organism, slime mold Physarum polycephalum, we establish a novel selecting next hop model (SNH. Based on this model, we present a novel Physarum-based routing scheme (P-bRS for WSNs to balance routing efficiency and energy equilibrium. In P-bRS, a sensor node can choose the proper next hop by using SNH which comprehensively considers the distance, energy residue, and location of the next hop. The simulation results show how P-bRS can achieve the effective trade-off between routing efficiency and energy equilibrium compared to two famous algorithms.

  12. ACBRAAM: A Content Based Routing Algorithm Using Ant Agents for MANETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramkumar K. R.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A mobile ad hoc network (MANET is a temporary network which is formed by a group of wireless mobile devices without the aid of any centralized infrastructure. In such environments, finding the identity of a mobile device and maintaining the paths between any two nodes are challenging tasks, in real time the limited propagation range of mobile devices restrict its identity only to its neighbors and a new host enters in to a MANET does not know the complete details of that instantaneous MANET. This paper analyses the possibility of content based route discovery and proposes a framework for request based route discovery and path maintenance using ant agents. The ant agents fetch routing information along with content relevancy which will have a major influence on pheromone value. The pheromone value is used to find the probability of goodness. The proposed framework consists of ant structures and algorithms for route discovery and path maintenance.

  13. A routing-based solution to simulating an access point

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, Wayne E.

    1999-01-01

    Military environments require flexible network configurations that must adapt under dynamic and mobile operating conditions. Wireless data networks offer some solutions. A wireless network typically requires an access point to bridge network traffic between wireless and wired media. These devices though are often too inflexible for use in such dynamic conditions. One major problem is that they are dedicated to a single type of wired network, usually Ethernet, which prevents them from being us...

  14. Intelligent QoS routing algorithm based on improved AODV protocol for Ad Hoc networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huibin, Liu; Jun, Zhang

    2016-04-01

    Mobile Ad Hoc Networks were playing an increasingly important part in disaster reliefs, military battlefields and scientific explorations. However, networks routing difficulties are more and more outstanding due to inherent structures. This paper proposed an improved cuckoo searching-based Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector Routing protocol (CSAODV). It elaborately designs the calculation methods of optimal routing algorithm used by protocol and transmission mechanism of communication-package. In calculation of optimal routing algorithm by CS Algorithm, by increasing QoS constraint, the found optimal routing algorithm can conform to the requirements of specified bandwidth and time delay, and a certain balance can be obtained among computation spending, bandwidth and time delay. Take advantage of NS2 simulation software to take performance test on protocol in three circumstances and validate the feasibility and validity of CSAODV protocol. In results, CSAODV routing protocol is more adapt to the change of network topological structure than AODV protocol, which improves package delivery fraction of protocol effectively, reduce the transmission time delay of network, reduce the extra burden to network brought by controlling information, and improve the routing efficiency of network.

  15. Prospect theory based estimation of drivers' risk attitudes in route choice behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lizhen; Zhong, Shiquan; Ma, Shoufeng; Jia, Ning

    2014-12-01

    This paper applied prospect theory (PT) to describe drivers' route choice behavior under Variable Message Sign (VMS), which presented visual traffic information to assist them to make route choice decisions. A quite rich empirical data from questionnaire and field spot was used to estimate parameters of PT. In order to make the parameters more realistic with drivers' attitudes, they were classified into different types by significant factors influencing their behaviors. Based on the travel time distribution of alternative routes and route choice results from questionnaire, the parameterized value function of each category was figured out, which represented drivers' risk attitudes and choice characteristics. The empirical verification showed that the estimates were acceptable and effective. The result showed drivers' risk attitudes and route choice characteristics could be captured by PT under real-time information shown on VMS. For practical application, once drivers' route choice characteristics and parameters were identified, their route choice behavior under different road conditions could be predicted accurately, which was the basis of traffic guidance measures formulation and implementation for targeted traffic management. Moreover, the heterogeneous risk attitudes among drivers should be considered when releasing traffic information and regulating traffic flow.

  16. Design of Logistics Route Planning for Printing Enterprises Based on Baidu Map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da Zhong-Yue

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As traditional printing industry is facing fierce competition in the market and logistics becomes a new sources of growth, the traditional printing enterprises want to build and improve their logistics system. So in this paper, the author has designed the logistics planning system based on the Baidu map development kit. It has the function of route planning and location tracking. This system meet the printing enterprise logistics route planning and tracking demand.

  17. Unequal Density-based Node Deployment and Clustering Routing Protocol in Wireless Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Bencan Gong; Shouzhi Xu

    2012-01-01

    In order to solve the problem of the hot spots in clustering routing protocols, this paper proposes an unequal density-based node deployment and clustering routing protocol (UDNDC). It has following characteristics. (1) In clusters, member nodes transmit data directly to cluster head, and cluster head can fuse all signals into a single signal. But data from different clusters cannot be fused, and multi-hop forwarding is used among clusters to save energy. (2) In order to balance the energy de...

  18. Cluster Based Location-Aided Routing Protocol for Large Scale Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Dong, Liang; Liang, Taotao; Yang, Xinyu; Zhang, Deyun

    Routing algorithms with low overhead, stable link and independence of the total number of nodes in the network are essential for the design and operation of the large-scale wireless mobile ad hoc networks (MANET). In this paper, we develop and analyze the Cluster Based Location-Aided Routing Protocol for MANET (C-LAR), a scalable and effective routing algorithm for MANET. C-LAR runs on top of an adaptive cluster cover of the MANET, which can be created and maintained using, for instance, the weight-based distributed algorithm. This algorithm takes into consideration the node degree, mobility, relative distance, battery power and link stability of mobile nodes. The hierarchical structure stabilizes the end-to-end communication paths and improves the networks' scalability such that the routing overhead does not become tremendous in large scale MANET. The clusterheads form a connected virtual backbone in the network, determine the network's topology and stability, and provide an efficient approach to minimizing the flooding traffic during route discovery and speeding up this process as well. Furthermore, it is fascinating and important to investigate how to control the total number of nodes participating in a routing establishment process so as to improve the network layer performance of MANET. C-LAR is to use geographical location information provided by Global Position System to assist routing. The location information of destination node is used to predict a smaller rectangle, isosceles triangle, or circle request zone, which is selected according to the relative location of the source and the destination, that covers the estimated region in which the destination may be located. Thus, instead of searching the route in the entire network blindly, C-LAR confines the route searching space into a much smaller estimated range. Simulation results have shown that C-LAR outperforms other protocols significantly in route set up time, routing overhead, mean delay and packet

  19. DEADS: Depth and Energy Aware Dominating Set Based Algorithm for Cooperative Routing along with Sink Mobility in Underwater WSNs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amara Umar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Performance enhancement of Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs in terms of throughput maximization, energy conservation and Bit Error Rate (BER minimization is a potential research area. However, limited available bandwidth, high propagation delay, highly dynamic network topology, and high error probability leads to performance degradation in these networks. In this regard, many cooperative communication protocols have been developed that either investigate the physical layer or the Medium Access Control (MAC layer, however, the network layer is still unexplored. More specifically, cooperative routing has not yet been jointly considered with sink mobility. Therefore, this paper aims to enhance the network reliability and efficiency via dominating set based cooperative routing and sink mobility. The proposed work is validated via simulations which show relatively improved performance of our proposed work in terms the selected performance metrics.

  20. Evolutionary Based Type-2 Fuzzy Routing Protocol for Clustered Wireless Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Salehi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Power management is an important issue in wireless sensor network as the sensor nodes are battery-operated devices. For energy efficient data transmission, many routing protocols have been proposed. To achieve energy efficiency in wireless sensor networks, Clustering is an effective approach. In clustering routing protocol, Cluster heads are selected among all nodes within the wireless sensor networkand clusters are formed by assigning each node to the nearest cluster.Energy efficiency, network lifetime and uncertainties are the main drawbacks in clustering routing protocols.In this paper, a new clustering routing protocol named T2FLSBA is introduced to select optimal cluster heads. The proposed protocol is based on type-2 fuzzy logic system. To achieve the best performance based on the application, its parameters are tuned based on bat algorithm.The three important factors- residual energy, the density of neighbour sensor nodes and the distance to sink are taken into consideration as inputs of T2FLSBA protocol to compute the probability of a node to be a candidate cluster head. The simulation results show that the proposed routing protocol outperforms the existing clustering routing protocols in terms of prolonging the network lifetime and energy consumption of sensor nodes.

  1. Identification of Dynamic Routing-Based Faulty Links in LEO/MEO Satellite Communication Networks%LEO/MEO卫星网络基于动态路由策略的链路故障检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵志刚; 拱长青; 王光兴

    2005-01-01

    卫星通信将成为未来个人通信系统的一个重要组成部分.LEO和MEO(low/medium earth orbiting)是卫星个人通信网络(S-PCN)的首选.针对使用星际链路ISL(intersatellite links)的LEO和MEO卫星系统,本文提出一种基于动态路由策略的卫星个人通信网络的链路故障检测方法,该方法适用于面向连接且采用基于ATM路由算法的卫星网络.该算法通过构建离散时间动态虚拓扑图(DT-DVTG)(discrete-time dynamic virtual topology graph)管理卫星能够自主地、实时地检测(identification)出最可能出现故障的链路范围,并通过快速的、自主的测试可精确定位故障链路.通过在卫星网络上的仿真表明,具有实时性、自主性、精确性且可能不占用或只占用很少的额外带宽.

  2. A Comprehensive Survey on Hierarchical-Based Routing Protocols for Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks: Review, Taxonomy, and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabil Sabor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducing mobility to Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs puts new challenges particularly in designing of routing protocols. Mobility can be applied to the sensor nodes and/or the sink node in the network. Many routing protocols have been developed to support the mobility of WSNs. These protocols are divided depending on the routing structure into hierarchical-based, flat-based, and location-based routing protocols. However, the hierarchical-based routing protocols outperform the other routing types in saving energy, scalability, and extending lifetime of Mobile WSNs (MWSNs. Selecting an appropriate hierarchical routing protocol for specific applications is an important and difficult task. Therefore, this paper focuses on reviewing some of the recently hierarchical-based routing protocols that are developed in the last five years for MWSNs. This survey divides the hierarchical-based routing protocols into two broad groups, namely, classical-based and optimized-based routing protocols. Also, we present a detailed classification of the reviewed protocols according to the routing approach, control manner, mobile element, mobility pattern, network architecture, clustering attributes, protocol operation, path establishment, communication paradigm, energy model, protocol objectives, and applications. Moreover, a comparison between the reviewed protocols is investigated in this survey depending on delay, network size, energy-efficiency, and scalability while mentioning the advantages and drawbacks of each protocol. Finally, we summarize and conclude the paper with future directions.

  3. Combination of vehicle routing models and dynamic traffic simulation for city logistics applications

    OpenAIRE

    Grzybwska, Hanna

    2012-01-01

    The urban network is a highly dynamic system. Thus, a modern and efficient fleet management in urban areas should account for dynamics of traffic conditions, variability in travel times, changes in demand and fleet availability. All these factors significantly affect the distribution of goods and the provision of services. As a consequence, the freight operations optimizing approaches should be based on the time-dependent travel time estimates rather than on the average static values commonly...

  4. 基于动态负载均衡的层次性移动 IPv6路由优化方案%DYNAMIC LOAD BALANCING BASED HMIPv6 ROUTE OPTIMIZATION SCHEME

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范祚至; 张曦煌

    2014-01-01

    Aiming at when MBIPv6 network is overload,there is MAP load distribution imbalance problem,the paper proposes a dynamic MAP load scheduling scheme.In the new scheme,through an introduced computing model,MAP takes bandwidth usage situation as parameters to calculate current load.When network load distribution imbalance is detected,it refers to MN mobile trends to schedule loads among MAPs to properly distribute computing resources in the network in order to optimize network performance.Simulation results illustrate that the scheme can effectively improve the network's entire service quality,shorten communication delay and decrease packet loss rate during the communication process.%针对层次性移动 IPv6网络负载过重时存在的 MAP 负载分配失衡的问题,提出一种动态的 MAP 负载调度方案。方案中,MAP 通过提出的计算模型,以带宽使用情况作为参数计算当前的负载。当检测到网络负载分配失衡时,根据 MN 的移动趋向调度 MAP 之间的负载,使网络中的计算资源合理分配,优化网络性能。仿真结果表明,该方案能有效地改善网络的整体服务质量,降低通信时延和减少通信过程中的丢包率。

  5. Microneedle-based drug delivery systems for transdermal route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre, Maria Bernadete Riemma; Rossetti, Fabia Cristina

    2014-03-01

    Transdermal delivery offers an attractive, noninvasive administration route but it is limited by the skin's barrier to penetration. Minimally invasive techniques, such as the use of microneedles (MNs), bypass the stratum corneum (SC) barrier to permit the drug's direct access to the viable epidermis. These novel micro devices have been developed to puncture the skin for the transdermal delivery of hydrophilic drugs and macromolecules, including peptides, DNA and other molecules, that would otherwise have difficulty passing the outermost layer of the skin, the SC. Using the tools of the microelectronics industry, MNs have been fabricated with a range of sizes, shapes and materials. MNs have been shown to be robust enough to penetrate the skin and dramatically increase the skin permeability of several drugs. Moreover, MNs have reduced needle insertion pain and tissue trauma and provided controlled delivery across the skin. This review focuses on the current state of the art in the transdermal delivery of drugs using various types of MNs and developments in the field of microscale devices, as well as examples of their uses and clinical safety.

  6. Optimization for Service Routes of Pallet Service Center Based on the Pallet Pool Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shiwei; Song, Rui

    2016-01-01

    Service routes optimization (SRO) of pallet service center should meet customers' demand firstly and then, through the reasonable method of lines organization, realize the shortest path of vehicle driving. The routes optimization of pallet service center is similar to the distribution problems of vehicle routing problem (VRP) and Chinese postman problem (CPP), but it has its own characteristics. Based on the relevant research results, the conditions of determining the number of vehicles, the one way of the route, the constraints of loading, and time windows are fully considered, and a chance constrained programming model with stochastic constraints is constructed taking the shortest path of all vehicles for a delivering (recycling) operation as an objective. For the characteristics of the model, a hybrid intelligent algorithm including stochastic simulation, neural network, and immune clonal algorithm is designed to solve the model. Finally, the validity and rationality of the optimization model and algorithm are verified by the case. PMID:27528865

  7. Network-based reconfiguration routes for a self-reconfigurable robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU JinGuo; MA ShuGen; WANG YueChao; LI Bin

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a network-based analysis approach for the reconfiguration problem of a self-reconfigurable robot.The self-reconfigurable modular robot named "AMOEBA-Ⅰ" has nine kinds of non-isomorphic configurations that consist of a configuration network.Each configuration of the robot is defined to be a node in the weighted and directed configuration network.The transformation from one configuration to another is represented by a directed path with nonnegative weight.Graph theory is applied in the reconfiguration analysis,where reconfiguration route,reconfigurable matrix and route matrix are defined according to the topological information of these configurations.Algorithms in graph theory have been used in enumerating the available reconfiguration routes and deciding the best reconfiguration route.Numerical analysis and experimental simulation results prove the validity of the approach proposed in this paper.And it is potentially suitable for other self-reconfigurable robots' configuration control and reconfiguration planning.

  8. Optimization for Service Routes of Pallet Service Center Based on the Pallet Pool Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Service routes optimization (SRO of pallet service center should meet customers’ demand firstly and then, through the reasonable method of lines organization, realize the shortest path of vehicle driving. The routes optimization of pallet service center is similar to the distribution problems of vehicle routing problem (VRP and Chinese postman problem (CPP, but it has its own characteristics. Based on the relevant research results, the conditions of determining the number of vehicles, the one way of the route, the constraints of loading, and time windows are fully considered, and a chance constrained programming model with stochastic constraints is constructed taking the shortest path of all vehicles for a delivering (recycling operation as an objective. For the characteristics of the model, a hybrid intelligent algorithm including stochastic simulation, neural network, and immune clonal algorithm is designed to solve the model. Finally, the validity and rationality of the optimization model and algorithm are verified by the case.

  9. Optimization for Service Routes of Pallet Service Center Based on the Pallet Pool Mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Kang; He, Shiwei; Song, Rui

    2016-01-01

    Service routes optimization (SRO) of pallet service center should meet customers' demand firstly and then, through the reasonable method of lines organization, realize the shortest path of vehicle driving. The routes optimization of pallet service center is similar to the distribution problems of vehicle routing problem (VRP) and Chinese postman problem (CPP), but it has its own characteristics. Based on the relevant research results, the conditions of determining the number of vehicles, the one way of the route, the constraints of loading, and time windows are fully considered, and a chance constrained programming model with stochastic constraints is constructed taking the shortest path of all vehicles for a delivering (recycling) operation as an objective. For the characteristics of the model, a hybrid intelligent algorithm including stochastic simulation, neural network, and immune clonal algorithm is designed to solve the model. Finally, the validity and rationality of the optimization model and algorithm are verified by the case.

  10. A LOOP-BASED APPROACH IN CLUSTERING AND ROUTING IN MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yanping; Wang Xin; Xue Xiangyang; C.K. Toh

    2006-01-01

    Although clustering is a convenient framework to enable traffic control and service support in Mobile Ad hoc NETworks (MANETs), it is seldom adopted in practice due to the additional traffic overhead it leads to for the resource limited ad hoc network. In order to address this problem, we proposed a loop-based approach to combine clustering and routing. By employing loop topologies, topology information is disseminated with a loop instead of a single node, which provides better robustness, and the nature of a loop that there are two paths between each pair of nodes within a loop suggests smart route recovery strategy. Our approach is composed of setup procedure, regular procedure and recovery procedure to achieve clustering, routing and emergent route recovering.

  11. Label-based routing for a family of small-world Farey graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Yinhu; Wang, Yinhe

    2016-05-01

    We introduce an informative labelling method for vertices in a family of Farey graphs, and deduce a routing algorithm on all the shortest paths between any two vertices in Farey graphs. The label of a vertex is composed of the precise locating position in graphs and the exact time linking to graphs. All the shortest paths routing between any pair of vertices, which number is exactly the product of two Fibonacci numbers, are determined only by their labels, and the time complexity of the algorithm is O(n). It is the first algorithm to figure out all the shortest paths between any pair of vertices in a kind of deterministic graphs. For Farey networks, the existence of an efficient routing protocol is of interest to design practical communication algorithms in relation to dynamical processes (including synchronization and structural controllability) and also to understand the underlying mechanisms that have shaped their particular structure.

  12. Routing Algorithm Based on Delay Rate in Wireless Cognitive Radio Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gan Yan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available To reduce the end-to-end average delay of algorithm in wireless network, this paper proposes the real-time routing algorithm in spectrum network. It is analyzed that the dynamic changes of the radio network model and routing algorithm in spectrum network. Through using Markov state transition and adjusting the router with scaling factor, the high-quality resources in the network can be obtained and fully utilized, and then these can reduce the transmission time latency rate and timely adjust the route. After that the tendency of spectrum network and specific real-time algorithm are given. Finally, by using the network simulation NS-2, simulation experiments are used to estimate the performance test. Experimental results show that compared with the traditional algorithm, the proposed algorithm can obtain a lower end-to-end average delay and improves network throughput and the steady and reliability of the link connection.

  13. A Multiple-Dimensional Tree Routing Protocol for Multisink Wireless Sensor Networks Based on Ant Colony Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Hui Zhou; Dongliang Qing; Xiaomei Zhang; Honglin Yuan; Chen Xu

    2012-01-01

    Routing protocol is an important topic in the wireless sensor networks. For MultiSink wireless sensor networks, the routing protocol designs and implementations are more difficult due to the structure complexity. The paper deals with the problem of a multiple-dimensional tree routing protocol for multisink wireless sensor networks based on ant colony optimization. The proposed protocol is as follows: (1) listening mechanism is used to establish and maintain multidimensional tree routing topol...

  14. A Contribution to Secure the Routing Protocol "Greedy Perimeter Stateless Routing" Using a Symmetric Signature-Based AES and MD5 Hash

    CERN Document Server

    Erritali, Mohammed; Ouahidi, Bouabid El; 10.5121/ijdps.2011.2509

    2011-01-01

    This work presents a contribution to secure the routing protocol GPSR (Greedy Perimeter Stateless Routing) for vehicular ad hoc networks, we examine the possible attacks against GPSR and security solutions proposed by different research teams working on ad hoc network security. Then, we propose a solution to secure GPSR packet by adding a digital signature based on symmetric cryptography generated using the AES algorithm and the MD5 hash function more suited to a mobile environment.

  15. Dynamic Request Routing for Online Video-on-Demand Service: A Markov Decision Process Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianxiong Wan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the request routing problem in the CDN-based Video-on-Demand system. We model the system as a controlled queueing system including a dispatcher and several edge servers. The system is formulated as a Markov decision process (MDP. Since the MDP formulation suffers from the so-called “the curse of dimensionality” problem, we then develop a greedy heuristic algorithm, which is simple and can be implemented online, to approximately solve the MDP model. However, we do not know how far it deviates from the optimal solution. To address this problem, we further aggregate the state space of the original MDP model and use the bounded-parameter MDP (BMDP to reformulate the system. This allows us to obtain a suboptimal solution with a known performance bound. The effectiveness of two approaches is evaluated in a simulation study.

  16. Routing UAVs to Co-Optimize Mission Effectiveness and Network Performance with Dynamic Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    archetypical source- initiated protocol is Ad Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector ( AODV ) routing . A source attempting to send a packet first broadcasts a...using less bandwidth, and lowering error rates [11]. MANET protocols that vary by adaptive routing or topology control differ to make tradeoffs and...Nodes disseminate messages to each other to announce changes to the topology. Source-initiated MANET protocols require that nodes create routes as

  17. Cost-Effective Encryption-Based Autonomous Routing Protocol for Efficient and Secure Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Kashif; Derhab, Abdelouahid; Orgun, Mehmet A.; Al-Muhtadi, Jalal; Rodrigues, Joel J. P. C.; Khalil, Mohammed Sayim; Ali Ahmed, Adel

    2016-01-01

    The deployment of intelligent remote surveillance systems depends on wireless sensor networks (WSNs) composed of various miniature resource-constrained wireless sensor nodes. The development of routing protocols for WSNs is a major challenge because of their severe resource constraints, ad hoc topology and dynamic nature. Among those proposed routing protocols, the biology-inspired self-organized secure autonomous routing protocol (BIOSARP) involves an artificial immune system (AIS) that requires a certain amount of time to build up knowledge of neighboring nodes. The AIS algorithm uses this knowledge to distinguish between self and non-self neighboring nodes. The knowledge-building phase is a critical period in the WSN lifespan and requires active security measures. This paper proposes an enhanced BIOSARP (E-BIOSARP) that incorporates a random key encryption mechanism in a cost-effective manner to provide active security measures in WSNs. A detailed description of E-BIOSARP is presented, followed by an extensive security and performance analysis to demonstrate its efficiency. A scenario with E-BIOSARP is implemented in network simulator 2 (ns-2) and is populated with malicious nodes for analysis. Furthermore, E-BIOSARP is compared with state-of-the-art secure routing protocols in terms of processing time, delivery ratio, energy consumption, and packet overhead. The findings show that the proposed mechanism can efficiently protect WSNs from selective forwarding, brute-force or exhaustive key search, spoofing, eavesdropping, replaying or altering of routing information, cloning, acknowledgment spoofing, HELLO flood attacks, and Sybil attacks. PMID:27043572

  18. Cost-Effective Encryption-Based Autonomous Routing Protocol for Efficient and Secure Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Kashif; Derhab, Abdelouahid; Orgun, Mehmet A; Al-Muhtadi, Jalal; Rodrigues, Joel J P C; Khalil, Mohammed Sayim; Ali Ahmed, Adel

    2016-03-31

    The deployment of intelligent remote surveillance systems depends on wireless sensor networks (WSNs) composed of various miniature resource-constrained wireless sensor nodes. The development of routing protocols for WSNs is a major challenge because of their severe resource constraints, ad hoc topology and dynamic nature. Among those proposed routing protocols, the biology-inspired self-organized secure autonomous routing protocol (BIOSARP) involves an artificial immune system (AIS) that requires a certain amount of time to build up knowledge of neighboring nodes. The AIS algorithm uses this knowledge to distinguish between self and non-self neighboring nodes. The knowledge-building phase is a critical period in the WSN lifespan and requires active security measures. This paper proposes an enhanced BIOSARP (E-BIOSARP) that incorporates a random key encryption mechanism in a cost-effective manner to provide active security measures in WSNs. A detailed description of E-BIOSARP is presented, followed by an extensive security and performance analysis to demonstrate its efficiency. A scenario with E-BIOSARP is implemented in network simulator 2 (ns-2) and is populated with malicious nodes for analysis. Furthermore, E-BIOSARP is compared with state-of-the-art secure routing protocols in terms of processing time, delivery ratio, energy consumption, and packet overhead. The findings show that the proposed mechanism can efficiently protect WSNs from selective forwarding, brute-force or exhaustive key search, spoofing, eavesdropping, replaying or altering of routing information, cloning, acknowledgment spoofing, HELLO flood attacks, and Sybil attacks.

  19. Dynamic Carpooling in Urban Areas: Design and Experimentation with a Multi-Objective Route Matching Algorith

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Mallus

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on dynamic carpooling services in urban areas to address the needs of mobility in real-time by proposing a two-fold contribution: a solution with novel features with respect to the current state-of-the-art, which is named CLACSOON and is available on the market; the analysis of the carpooling services performance in the urban area of the city of Cagliari through emulations. Two new features characterize the proposed solution: partial ridesharing, according to which the riders can walk to reach the driver along his/her route when driving to the destination; the possibility to share the ride when the driver has already started the ride by modelling the mobility to reach the driver destination. To analyse which features of the population bring better performance to changing the characteristics of the users, we also conducted emulations. When compared with current solutions, CLACSOON allows for achieving a decrease in the waiting time of around 55% and an increase in the driver and passenger success rates of around 4% and 10%,respectively. Additionally, the proposed features allowed for having an increase in the reduction of the CO2 emission by more than 10% with respect to the traditional carpooling service.

  20. SWER: small world-based efficient routing for wireless sensor networks with mobile sinks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuejun LIU; Jihong GUAN; Guangwei BAI; Haiming LU

    2009-01-01

    The interest in small-world network has high-lighted the applicability of both the graph theory and the scaling theory to the analysis of network systems. In this pa-per, we introduce a new routing protocol, small world-based efficient routing (SWER), dedicated to supporting sink mo-bility and small transfers. The method is based on the con-cept of the small worlds where the addition of a small num-ber of long-range links in highly clustered networks results in significant reduction in the average path length. Based on the characteristic of sensor networks, a cluster-based small world network is presented, and an analytical model is de-veloped to analyze the expected path length. SWER adopts a simple and effective routing strategy to forward data to the mobile sink in a small transfer scene and avoid expensive mechanisms to construct a high quality route. We also study the routing scheme and analyze the expected path length in the case where every node is aware of the existence ofp long-range links. In addition, we develop a hierarchical mech-anism in which the mobile sink only transmits its location information to the cluster heads when it enters a new cluster. Thus we also avoid expensive cost to flood the location of the mobile sink to the whole network.

  1. Escape-Route Planning of Underground Coal Mine Based on Improved Ant Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangwei Yan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available When a mine disaster occurs, to lessen disaster losses and improve survival chances of the trapped miners, good escape routes need to be found and used. Based on the improved ant algorithm, we proposed a new escape-route planning method of underground mines. At first, six factors which influence escape difficulty are evaluated and a weight calculation model is built to form a weighted graph of the underground tunnels. Then an improved ant algorithm is designed and used to find good escape routes. We proposed a tunnel network zoning method to improve the searching efficiency of the ant algorithm. We use max-min ant system method to optimize the meeting strategy of ants and improve the performance of the ant algorithm. In addition, when a small part of the mine tunnel network changes, the system may fix the optimal routes and avoid starting a new processing procedure. Experiments show that the proposed method can find good escape routes efficiently and can be used in the escape-route planning of large and medium underground coal mines.

  2. U-Access: a web-based system for routing pedestrians of differing abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobek, Adam D.; Miller, Harvey J.

    2006-09-01

    For most people, traveling through urban and built environments is straightforward. However, for people with physical disabilities, even a short trip can be difficult and perhaps impossible. This paper provides the design and implementation of a web-based system for the routing and prescriptive analysis of pedestrians with different physical abilities within built environments. U-Access, as a routing tool, provides pedestrians with the shortest feasible route with respect to one of three differing ability levels, namely, peripatetic (unaided mobility), aided mobility (mobility with the help of a cane, walker or crutches) and wheelchair users. U-Access is also an analytical tool that can help identify obstacles in built environments that create routing discrepancies among pedestrians with different physical abilities. This paper discusses the system design, including database, algorithm and interface specifications, and technologies for efficiently delivering results through the World Wide Web (WWW). This paper also provides an illustrative example of a routing problem and an analytical evaluation of the existing infrastructure which identifies the obstacles that pose the greatest discrepancies between physical ability levels. U-Access was evaluated by wheelchair users and route experts from the Center for Disability Services at The University of Utah, USA.

  3. Optimizing on multiple constrained QoS multicast routing algorithms based on GA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙宝林; 李腊元

    2004-01-01

    With the rapid development of Internet, mobile networks and high-performance networking technology,multiple constrained QoS multicast routing optimization in networks with uncertain parameters has become a very important research issue in the areas of networks and distributed systems. It is also a challenging and hard problem to the next generation Internet and high-performance networks, and has attracted the interests of many people. This paper discusses the multiple constrained QoS multicast routing problem, which may deal with the delay, delay jitter,bandwidth and packet loss metrics, and describes a network model for researching the routing problem. The paper mainly presents multiple constrained QoS multicast routing algorithm (MCQMRA), a QoS multicast routing policy for Internet,mobile network or other high-performance networks, which is based on the genetic algorithm (GA) and can provide QoS-sensitive paths in a scalable and flexible wayin the network environment with uncertain parameters. The MCQMRA can also optimize the network resources such as bandwidth, delay, packet loss metrics and can converge to the optimal or near-optimal solution within few iterations, even for the network environment with uncertain parameters. Simulation results show that MCQMRA is an available approach to QoS multicast routing decision.

  4. Dynamic Hierarchical Energy-Efficient Method Based on Combinatorial Optimization for Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yuchao; Tang, Hongying; Cheng, Yongbo; Zhao, Qin; Yuan, Baoqing Li andXiaobing

    2017-07-19

    Routing protocols based on topology control are significantly important for improving network longevity in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Traditionally, some WSN routing protocols distribute uneven network traffic load to sensor nodes, which is not optimal for improving network longevity. Differently to conventional WSN routing protocols, we propose a dynamic hierarchical protocol based on combinatorial optimization (DHCO) to balance energy consumption of sensor nodes and to improve WSN longevity. For each sensor node, the DHCO algorithm obtains the optimal route by establishing a feasible routing set instead of selecting the cluster head or the next hop node. The process of obtaining the optimal route can be formulated as a combinatorial optimization problem. Specifically, the DHCO algorithm is carried out by the following procedures. It employs a hierarchy-based connection mechanism to construct a hierarchical network structure in which each sensor node is assigned to a special hierarchical subset; it utilizes the combinatorial optimization theory to establish the feasible routing set for each sensor node, and takes advantage of the maximum-minimum criterion to obtain their optimal routes to the base station. Various results of simulation experiments show effectiveness and superiority of the DHCO algorithm in comparison with state-of-the-art WSN routing algorithms, including low-energy adaptive clustering hierarchy (LEACH), hybrid energy-efficient distributed clustering (HEED), genetic protocol-based self-organizing network clustering (GASONeC), and double cost function-based routing (DCFR) algorithms.

  5. Constraint-Based Routing Models for the Transport of Radioactive Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Steven K [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has a historic programmatic interest in the safe and secure routing, tracking, and transportation risk analysis of radiological materials in the United States. In order to address these program goals, DOE has funded the development of several tools and related systems designed to provide insight to planners and other professionals handling radioactive materials shipments. These systems include the WebTRAGIS (Transportation Routing Analysis Geographic Information System) platform. WebTRAGIS is a browser-based routing application developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) focused primarily on the safe transport of spent nuclear fuel from US nuclear reactors via railway, highway, or waterway. It is also used for the transport planning of low-level radiological waste to depositories such as the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) facility. One particular feature of WebTRAGIS is its coupling with high-resolution population data from ORNL s LandScan project. This allows users to obtain highly accurate population count and density information for use in route planning and risk analysis. To perform the routing and risk analysis WebTRAGIS incorporates a basic routing model methodology, with the additional application of various constraints designed to mimic US Department of Transportation (DOT), DOE, and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations. Aside from the routing models available in WebTRAGIS, the system relies on detailed or specialized modal networks for the route solutions. These include a highly detailed network model of the US railroad system, the inland and coastal waterways, and a specialized highway network that focuses on the US interstate system and the designated hazardous materials and Highway Route Controlled Quantity (HRCQ) -designated roadways. The route constraints in WebTRAGIS rely upon a series of attributes assigned to the various components of the different modal networks. Routes are determined via a

  6. A Method of Vehicle Route Prediction Based on Social Network Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Ye

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A method of vehicle route prediction based on social network analysis is proposed in this paper. The difference from proposed work is that, according to our collected vehicles’ past trips, we build a relationship model between different road segments rather than find the driving regularity of vehicles to predict upcoming routes. In this paper, firstly we depend on graph theory to build an initial road network model and modify related model parameters based on the collected data set. Then we transform the model into a matrix. Secondly, two concepts from social network analysis are introduced to describe the meaning of the matrix and we process it by current software of social network analysis. Thirdly, we design the algorithm of vehicle route prediction based on the above processing results. Finally, we use the leave-one-out approach to verify the efficiency of our algorithm.

  7. Comparison of photovoltaic performance of TiO2 nanoparticles based thin films via different routes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yajun

    2015-11-01

    Well crystallized TiO2 nanoparticles were prepared by hydrothermal and sol-gel routes, respectively. The morphologies, structures, crystallinity and optical properties of resulted TiO2 nanoparticles-based thin films via the two methods were examined by field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and reflectance spectra. In addition, comparison of photovoltaic performance of TiO2 nanoparticles-based thin films by the two methods was performed. It is found that the maximum energy conversion efficiency of 4.06% was achieved based on the obtained electrode via hydrothermal, which is much better than that of the sol-gels route. The uniform film structure with improved dye absorption capability, increased diffused reflectance property and relatively low charge recombination rates for injected electrons are believed to be responsible to the superior photoelectrochemical properties of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) via hydrothermal route.

  8. Analysis and Proposal of Position-Based Routing Protocols for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Hiraku; Takano, Akira; Mase, Kenichi

    One of the most promising applications of a mobile ad hoc network is a vehicular ad hoc network (VANET). Each vehicle is aware of its position information by GPS or other methods, so position-based routing is a useful approach in VANET. The position-based routing protocol can be classified roughly into a next-hop forwarding method and a directed flooding method. We evaluate performance of both methods by analytic approach and compare them in this paper. From the evaluation results, we conclude that it is effective for the position-based routing to choose either the next-hop forwarding method or the directed flooding method according to the environment. Then we propose the hybrid transmission method which can select one of them according to the environment, and clarify that the proposed method can keep the packet delivery ratio at a high level and reduce the delay time.

  9. Dynamic programming algorithm for the vehicle routing problem with time windows and EC social legislation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, A. Leendert; Meyer, C. Manuel; Kopfer, Herbert; Schutten, J. Marco J.

    2009-01-01

    In practice, apart from the problem of vehicle routing, schedulers also face the problem of nding feasible driver schedules complying with complex restrictions on drivers' driving and working hours. To address this complex interdependent problem of vehicle routing and break scheduling, we propose a

  10. A dynamic programming heuristic for the vehicle routing problem with time windows and EC social legislation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, A. Leendert; Meyer, C. Manuel; Kopfer, Herbert; Schutten, J. Marco J.

    2009-01-01

    In practice, apart from the problem of vehicle routing, schedulers also face the problem of finding feasible driver schedules complying with complex restrictions on drivers' driving and working hours. To address this complex interdependent problem of vehicle routing and break scheduling, we propose

  11. 动态车辆路径问题研究综述%Overview on Dynamic Vehicle Routing Problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩娟娟; 李永先

    2015-01-01

    The paper reviewed dynamic vehicle routing problem .DVRP was classified into SVRP and FVRP . The paper introduced research in recent years on models ,algorithms and simulationg of dynamic vehicle rou‐ting problems ,and summarizes characteristics of dynamic vehicle routing problem .Finally ,the paper pros‐pected future research orientations of dynamic vehicle routing problem .%指出了动态车辆路径问题是运筹学和组合优化领域的前沿研究方向,研究动态车辆路径问题具有重要的理论和现实意义。阐述了动态车辆问题(DVRP),根据动态信息的特征将动态车辆路径问题分为随机车辆路径问题(SVRP)和模糊车辆路径问题(FVRP)。从动态车辆路径问题的建模、算法和仿真优化三个方面分析了其研究成果,对现有研究的不足进行了探讨,提出了动态车辆路径问题的进一步研究方向。

  12. A Low Overhead Reachability Guaranteed Dynamic Route Discovery Mechanism for Dense MANETs

    CERN Document Server

    Sankar, Sharmila

    2010-01-01

    A crucial issue for a mobile ad hoc network is the handling of a large number of nodes. As more nodes join the mobile ad hoc network, contention and congestion are more likely. The on demand routing protocols which broadcasts control packets to discover routes to the destination nodes, generate a high number of broadcast packets in a larger networks causing contention and collision. We propose an efficient route discovery protocol, which reduces the number of broadcast packet, using controlled flooding technique. The simulation results show that the proposed probabilistic flooding decreases the number of control packets floating in the network during route discovery phase, without lowering the success ratio of path discoveries. Furthermore, the proposed method adapts to the normal network conditions. The results show that up to 70% of control packet traffic is saved in route discovery phase when the network is denser.

  13. Indoor Pedestrian Navigation Based on Hybrid Route Planning and Location Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schougaard, Kari Rye; Grønbæk, Kaj; Scharling, Tejs

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces methods and services called PerPosNav for development of custom indoor pedestrian navigation applications to be deployed on a variety of platforms. PerPosNav combines symbolic and geometry based modeling of buildings, and in turn combines graph-based and geometric route...

  14. Comparison of the sustainability metrics of the petrochemical and biomass-based routes to methionine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, J.P.M.; Sheldon, R.A.

    2015-01-01

    Sustainability metrics, based on material efficiency, energy input, land use and costs, of three processesfor the manufacture of methionine are compared. The petrochemical process affords dl-methionine whilethe two biomass-based routes afford the l-enantiomer. From the point of view of the major

  15. LMEEC: Layered Multi-Hop Energy Efficient Cluster-based Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Khelifi, Manel

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we propose LMEEC, a cluster-based routing protocol with low energy consumption for wireless sensor networks. Our protocol is based on a strategy which aims to provide a more reasonable exploitation of the selected nodes (cluster-heads) energy. Simulation results show the effectiveness of LMEEC in decreasing the energy consumption, and in prolonging the network lifetime, compared to LEACH.

  16. Cluster-Based Context-Aware Routing Protocol for Mobile Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed. A. A. Gad-ElRab

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile environment has many issues due to mobility, energy limitations and status changing over time. Routing method is an important issue and has a significant impact in mobile networks, whereas selecting the optimum routing path will reduce the wasting in network resources, reduce network overhead and increase network reliability and lifetime. To decide which path will achieve the networks objectives, we need to construct a new routing algorithm that uses context attributes of a mobile device such as available bandwidth, residual energy, connection number and mobility value. In this paper, we propose a new mobile nodes ranking scheme based on the combination of two multi-criteria decision making approaches, the analytic hierarchy process (AHP and the technique for order performance by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS in Fuzzy environments. The Fuzzy AHP is used to analyze the structure of the clusterhead selection problem and to determine weights of the criteria, while the Fuzzy TOPSIS method is used to obtain the final mobile node ranking value. By basing on node ranking, we propose a new cluster based routing algorithm select the optimal clusterheads and the best routing path. Our simulation results show that the proposed method increases the network accuracy and lifetime and reduces network overhead.

  17. EFFECTIVE HEURISTIC ALGORITHM FOR DYNAMIC ROUTING AND BANDWIDTH MANAGEMENT UNDER QUALITY OF SERVICE CONSTRAINTS IN MULTISTAGE INTERCONNECTION NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Deepalakshmi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, Internet of Things (IoT has introduced abundant bandwidth consumption and necessities in multimedia communications from online games to video-conferencing applications with the constraint of QoS requirements from time to time. The expected rapid proliferation of services would require performance unprecedented in the currently available best-effort routing algorithms. In, particular, the present routing mechanisms are based on the best-effort paradigm are unlikely to provide satisfactory end-to-end performance for services required in the real time applications. Thus, there is a definite need for architectures and algorithms that provide bandwidth guaranteed and QoS guarantees beyond those of the currently available ones. The proposed routing algorithm addressed the problem by computing low cost trees with delay bounded within the model wherein the bandwidth can be reserved and guaranteed once reserved on various links of the network there by providing QoS guarantees. This novel tree-pruning algorithm aids the bandwidth measurement tools by applying heuristic approach and the effectiveness of the algorithm is determined by two factors (i the end-to-end delay (ii the cost of routing. The new data structure significantly improves the running time complexity by O (log k for routing procedures under a variety of QoS constraints and checking tree routing runs in O(m+n2.

  18. Performance Analysis of AODV Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Network based Smart Metering

    Science.gov (United States)

    >Hasan Farooq, Low Tang Jung,

    2013-06-01

    Today no one can deny the need for Smart Grid and it is being considered as of utmost importance to upgrade outdated electric infrastructure to cope with the ever increasing electric load demand. Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is considered a promising candidate for internetworking of smart meters with the gateway using mesh topology. This paper investigates the performance of AODV routing protocol for WSN based smart metering deployment. Three case studies are presented to analyze its performance based on four metrics of (i) Packet Delivery Ratio, (ii) Average Energy Consumption of Nodes (iii) Average End-End Delay and (iv) Normalized Routing Load.

  19. Routes to complex dynamics in a ring of unidirectionally coupled systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlikowski, P; Yanchuk, S; Wolfrum, M; Stefanski, A; Mosiolek, P; Kapitaniak, T

    2010-03-01

    We study the dynamics of a ring of unidirectionally coupled autonomous Duffing oscillators. Starting from a situation where the individual oscillator without coupling has only trivial equilibrium dynamics, the coupling induces complicated transitions to periodic, quasiperiodic, chaotic, and hyperchaotic behavior. We study these transitions in detail for small and large numbers of oscillators. Particular attention is paid to the role of unstable periodic solutions for the appearance of chaotic rotating waves, spatiotemporal structures, and the Eckhaus effect for a large number of oscillators. Our analytical and numerical results are confirmed by a simple experiment based on the electronic implementation of coupled Duffing oscillators.

  20. A global reaction route mapping-based kinetic Monte Carlo algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Izaac; Irle, Stephan; Page, Alister J.

    2016-07-01

    We propose a new on-the-fly kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) method that is based on exhaustive potential energy surface searching carried out with the global reaction route mapping (GRRM) algorithm. Starting from any given equilibrium state, this GRRM-KMC algorithm performs a one-step GRRM search to identify all surrounding transition states. Intrinsic reaction coordinate pathways are then calculated to identify potential subsequent equilibrium states. Harmonic transition state theory is used to calculate rate constants for all potential pathways, before a standard KMC accept/reject selection is performed. The selected pathway is then used to propagate the system forward in time, which is calculated on the basis of 1st order kinetics. The GRRM-KMC algorithm is validated here in two challenging contexts: intramolecular proton transfer in malonaldehyde and surface carbon diffusion on an iron nanoparticle. We demonstrate that in both cases the GRRM-KMC method is capable of reproducing the 1st order kinetics observed during independent quantum chemical molecular dynamics simulations using the density-functional tight-binding potential.

  1. A programming environment to control switching networks based on STC104 packet routing chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legrand, I. C.; Schwendicke, U.; Leich, H.; Medinnis, M.; Koehler, A.; Wegner, P.; Sulanke, K.; Dippel, R.; Gellrich, A.

    1997-02-01

    The software environment used to control a large switching architecture based on SGS-Thomson STC104 (an asynchronous 32-way dynamic packet routing chip) is presented. We are evaluating this switching technology for large scale, real-time parallel systems. A Graphical User Interface (GUI) written as a multi-thread application in Java allows to set the switch configuration and to continuously monitor the state of each link. This GUI connects to a multi-thread server via TCP/IP sockets. The server is running on a PC-Linux system and implements the virtual channel protocol in communicating with the STC104 switching units using the Data Strobe link or the VME bus. Linux I/O drivers to control the Data Strobe link parallel adaptor (STC101) were developed. For each client the server creates a new thread and allocates a new socket for communications. The Java code of the GUI may be transferred to any client using the http protocol providing a user friendly interface to the system with real-time monitoring which is also platform independent.

  2. Reduction of CO2 emissions from road transport in cities impact of dynamic route guidance system on greenhouse gas emission

    CERN Document Server

    Markiewicz, Michal

    2017-01-01

    Michal Markiewicz presents the outcomes of his research regarding the influence of dynamic route guidance system on overall emission of carbon dioxide from road transport in rural areas. Sustainable transportation in smart cities is a big challenge of our time, but before electric vehicles replace vehicles that burn fossil fuels we have to think about traffic optimization methods that reduce the amount of greenhouse gas emissions. Contents Comparison of Travel Time Measurements Using Floating Car Data and Intelligent Infrastructure Integration of Cellular Automata Traffic Simulator with CO2 Emission Model Impact of Dynamic Route Guidance System on CO2 Emission Naxos Vehicular Traffic Simulator Target Groups Lecturers and students of computer science, transportation and logistics Traffic engineers The Author Dr. Michal Markiewicz defended his PhD thesis in computer science at the University of Bremen,TZI Technologie-Zentrum Informatik und Informationstechnik, Germany. Currently, he is working on commercializat...

  3. DESIGNING DAILY PATROL ROUTES FOR POLICING BASED ON ANT COLONY ALGORITHM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Chen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we address the problem of planning police patrol routes to regularly cover street segments of high crime density (hotspots with limited police forces. A good patrolling strategy is required to minimise the average time lag between two consecutive visits to hotspots, as well as coordinating multiple patrollers and imparting unpredictability in patrol routes. Previous studies have designed different police patrol strategies for routing police patrol, but these strategies have difficulty in generalising to real patrolling and meeting various requirements. In this research we develop a new police patrolling strategy based on Bayesian method and ant colony algorithm. In this strategy, virtual marker (pheromone is laid to mark the visiting history of each crime hotspot, and patrollers continuously decide which hotspot to patrol next based on pheromone level and other variables. Simulation results using real data testifies the effective, scalable, unpredictable and extensible nature of this strategy.

  4. Designing Daily Patrol Routes for Policing Based on ANT Colony Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H.; Cheng, T.; Wise, S.

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we address the problem of planning police patrol routes to regularly cover street segments of high crime density (hotspots) with limited police forces. A good patrolling strategy is required to minimise the average time lag between two consecutive visits to hotspots, as well as coordinating multiple patrollers and imparting unpredictability in patrol routes. Previous studies have designed different police patrol strategies for routing police patrol, but these strategies have difficulty in generalising to real patrolling and meeting various requirements. In this research we develop a new police patrolling strategy based on Bayesian method and ant colony algorithm. In this strategy, virtual marker (pheromone) is laid to mark the visiting history of each crime hotspot, and patrollers continuously decide which hotspot to patrol next based on pheromone level and other variables. Simulation results using real data testifies the effective, scalable, unpredictable and extensible nature of this strategy.

  5. Research of multi-path routing based on network coding in space information networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Geng

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A multi-path routing algorithm based on network coding is proposed for combating long propagation delay and high bit error rate of space information networks. On the basis of traditional multi-path routing, the algorithm uses a random linear network coding strategy to code data packets. Code number is determined by the next hop link status and the number of current received packets sent by the upstream node together. The algorithm improves retransmission and cache mechanisms through using redundancy caused by network coding. Meanwhile, the algorithm also adopts the flow distribution strategy based on time delay to balance network load. Simulation results show that the proposed routing algorithm can effectively improve packet delivery rate, reduce packet delay, and enhance network performance.

  6. Adding Quality of Service Extensions to the Enhanced Associativity Based Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Murad

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper described how to discover routes that can satisfy QoS service requirements by using extensions to the Enhanced Associativity Bases Routing Protocol (EABR. These extensions were added to the messages used during route discovery. These extensions specify the service requirements, which must be met by nodes re-broadcasting a route request or returning a route reply for a destination. The performance analysis of EABR with QoS support showed that more overhead was incurred when the intermediate node discover that it cannot support the level of the QoS requested.

  7. Fuzzy Based Energy Efficient Multiple Cluster Head Selection Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohel Rana

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Wireless Sensor Network (WSN is made up with small batteries powered sensor devices with lim-ited energy resources within it. These sensor nodes are used to monitor physical or environmental conditions and to pass their data through the wireless network to the main location. One of the crucial issues in wireless sensor network is to create a more energy efficient system. Clustering is one kind of mechanism in Wireless Sensor Networks to prolong the network lifetime and to reduce network energy consumption. In this paper, we propose a new routing protocol called Fuzzy Based Energy Effi-cient Multiple Cluster Head Selection Routing Protocol (FEMCHRP for Wireless Sensor Network. The routing process involves the Clustering of nodes and the selection of Cluster Head (CH nodes of these clusters which sends all the information to the Cluster Head Leader (CHL. After that, the cluster head leaders send aggregated data to the Base Station (BS. The selection of cluster heads and cluster head leaders is performed by using fuzzy logic and the data transmission process is performed by shortest energy path which is selected applying Dijkstra Algorithm. The simulation results of this research are compared with other protocols BCDCP, CELRP and ECHERP to evaluate the performance of the proposed routing protocol. The evaluation concludes that the proposed routing protocol is better in prolonging network lifetime and balancing energy consumption.

  8. Optimal hop position-based minimum energy routing protocol for underwater acoustic sensor networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.S. Geethu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Development of energy-efficient routing protocols is a major concern in the design of underwater acoustic sensor networks (UASNs since UASN nodes are typically powered by batteries, which are difficult to replace or recharge in aquatic environments. This study proposes an optimal hop position-based energy-efficient routing protocol for UASNs. Initially, the authors present an analytical model to compute the total energy consumption in a multi-hop UASN for deep water scenario, taking into account dependence of usable bandwidth on transmission distance and propagation characteristics of underwater acoustic channel. They derive analytical solution for the optimal hop distance that minimises total energy consumption in the network. They then propose an energy-efficient routing protocol that relies on the computation of optimal hop distance. In their routing scheme, selection of forwarding nodes are based on their depth, residual energy and closeness to the computed optimal hop position corresponding to source node. Simulation results show that total energy consumption of the network gets reduced drastically, leading to improvement in network lifetime. Moreover, the proposed routing scheme makes use of courier nodes to handle coverage-hole problem. The efficient movement of courier nodes improves packet delivery ratio and network throughput.

  9. A Low-Jitter Wireless Transmission Based on Buffer Management in Coding-Aware Routing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cunbo Lu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available It is significant to reduce packet jitter for real-time applications in a wireless network. Existing coding-aware routing algorithms use the opportunistic network coding (ONC scheme in a packet coding algorithm. The ONC scheme never delays packets to wait for the arrival of a future coding opportunity. The loss of some potential coding opportunities may degrade the contribution of network coding to jitter performance. In addition, most of the existing coding-aware routing algorithms assume that all flows participating in the network have equal rate. This is unrealistic, since multi-rate environments often appear. To overcome the above problem and expand coding-aware routing to multi-rate scenarios, from the view of data transmission, we present a low-jitter wireless transmission algorithm based on buffer management (BLJCAR, which decides packets in coding node according to the queue-length based threshold policy instead of the regular ONC policy as used in existing coding-aware routing algorithms. BLJCAR is a unified framework to merge the single rate case and multiple rate case. Simulations results show that the BLJCAR algorithm embedded in coding-aware routing outperforms the traditional ONC policy in terms of jitter, packet delivery delay, packet loss ratio and network throughput in network congestion in any traffic rates.

  10. Modeling the Multicommodity Multimodal Routing Problem with Schedule-Based Services and Carbon Dioxide Emission Costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We explore a freight routing problem wherein the aim is to assign optimal routes to move commodities through a multimodal transportation network. This problem belongs to the operational level of service network planning. The following formulation characteristics will be comprehensively considered: (1 multicommodity flow routing; (2 a capacitated multimodal transportation network with schedule-based rail services and time-flexible road services; (3 carbon dioxide emissions consideration; and (4 a generalized costs optimum oriented to customer demands. The specific planning of freight routing is thus defined as a capacitated time-sensitive multicommodity multimodal generalized shortest path problem. To solve this problem systematically, we first establish a node-arc-based mixed integer nonlinear programming model that combines the above formulation characteristics in a comprehensive manner. Then, we develop a linearization method to transform the proposed model into a linear one. Finally, a computational experiment from the Chinese inland container export business is presented to demonstrate the feasibility of the model and linearization method. The computational results indicate that implementing the proposed model and linearization method in the mathematical programming software Lingo can effectively solve the large-scale practical multicommodity multimodal transportation routing problem.

  11. Context sensitive trust based geographic opportunistic routing in mobile ad hoc networks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A RAJESH; N MOHAN KUMAR

    2016-11-01

    Position based opportunistic routing (POR) is a stateless, robust, and reliable geographic routing protocol in Mobile AdHoc NETwork (MANET). The opportunistic routing embraces broadcast property of wireless channels and utilizes it for opportunistic forwarding. Both the malicious node behavior and the backupnodes’ behavior are equally treated as malicious in the existing misbehavior detection mechanisms. Hence, incorporating a general trust model in POR is not combative with routing attacks. It is necessary to determine whether the misbehavior is likely a result of malicious activity or due to the backup scenario of opportunistic forwarding. On the other hand, if context-sensitive trust information is available on every node, it ensures a fair decision making and also supports secured routing in an opportunistic approach. This work investigates the utilization of context attributes along with generic trust model to allow POR for secure and reliable data forwarding. This paper introduces context-sensitive trust for choosing the data forwarding node in POR (CPOR) to assist opportunistic routing in selecting the trusted optimal data forwarding node and to cope with both security and reliability of communications. The proposed work exercises both coarse- and fine-grained trust evaluation to strengthen the trustworthiness. The coarse-grained trust measure includes positive progress per hop and behavioral attribute of the nodes in terms of routing service. The fine-grained trust evaluation differs the opportunistic routing environment from the adverse scenarios and aids the source node such that it builds a highly trusted positive progress set using contextual attributes. The fine-grained trust evaluation deduces the ideal contextual information such as the link quality, battery energy, and the backup service to determine the accurate trust value of nodes. As a result, it involves optimal routes and enables CPOR to maintain the routingperformance equal to the POR even

  12. A multicast dynamic wavelength assignment algorithm based on matching degree

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Qi-wu; ZHOU Xian-wei; WANG Jian-ping; YIN Zhi-hong; ZHANG Long

    2009-01-01

    The wavelength assignment with multiple multicast requests in fixed routing WDM network is studied. A new multicast dynamic wavelength assignment algorithm is presented based on matching degree. First, the wavelength matching degree between available wavelengths and multicast routing trees is introduced into the algorithm. Then, the wavelength assign-ment is translated into the maximum weight matching in bipartite graph, and this matching problem is solved by using an extended Kuhn-Munkres algorithm. The simulation results prove that the overall optimal wavelength assignment scheme is obtained in polynomial time. At the same time, the proposed algorithm can reduce the connecting blocking probability and improve the system resource utilization.

  13. A Dynamic Programming Approach to the Daily Routing of Aeromedical Evacuation System Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-08

    this purpose. Routinj Literature The vehicle routing problem (VRP) is a variant of the traveling salesman problem (TSP). The objective of the TSP is...constrained vehicle routing problem (TCVRP) 12:266). Included in their discussion are computational results. Solomon describes several heuristic algorithms for...Their formulation of the single vehicle routing problem with time constraints is as follows: 2n 2n+1 Min Z= Z E Dij xij (1) i=O J=1 n s.t. Z x0 j

  14. In-route skyline querying for location-based services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xuegang, Huang; Jensen, Kristian S.

    2005-01-01

    With the emergence of an infrastructure for location-aware mobile services, the processing of advanced, location-based queries that are expected to underlie such services is gaining in relevance, While much work has assumed that users move in Euclidean space, this paper assumes that movement is c...

  15. Static Three-Dimensional Fuzzy Routing Based on the Receiving Probability in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohrab Khanmohammadi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A Wireless Sensor Network (WSN is a collection of low-cost, low-power and large-scale wireless sensor nodes. Routing protocols are an important topic in WSN. Every sensor node should use a proper mechanism to transmit the generated packets to its destination, usually a base station. In previous works, routing protocols use the global information of the network that causes the redundant packets to be increased. Moreover, it leads to an increase in the network traffic, to a decrease in the delivery ratio of data packets, and to a reduction in network life. In this paper, we propose a new inferential routing protocol called SFRRP (Static Three-Dimensional Fuzzy Routing based on the Receiving Probability. The proposed protocol solves the above mentioned problems considerably. The data packets are transmitted by hop-to-hop delivery to the base station. It uses a fuzzy procedure to transmit the sensed data or the buffered data packets to one of the neighbors called selected node. In the proposed fuzzy system, the distance and number of neighbors are input variables, while the receiving probability is the output variable. SFRRP just uses the local neighborhood information to forward the packets and is not needed by any redundant packet for route discovery. The proposed protocol has some advantages such as a high delivery ratio, less delay time, high network life, and less network traffic. The performance of the proposed protocol surpasses the performance of the Flooding routing protocol in terms of delivery ratio, delay time and network lifetime.

  16. WEAMR — A Weighted Energy Aware Multipath Reliable Routing Mechanism for Hotline-Based WSNs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tufail, Ali; Qamar, Arslan; Khan, Adil Mehmood; Baig, Waleed Akram; Kim, Ki-Hyung

    2013-01-01

    Reliable source to sink communication is the most important factor for an efficient routing protocol especially in domains of military, healthcare and disaster recovery applications. We present weighted energy aware multipath reliable routing (WEAMR), a novel energy aware multipath routing protocol which utilizes hotline-assisted routing to meet such requirements for mission critical applications. The protocol reduces the number of average hops from source to destination and provides unmatched reliability as compared to well known reactive ad hoc protocols i.e., AODV and AOMDV. Our protocol makes efficient use of network paths based on weighted cost calculation and intelligently selects the best possible paths for data transmissions. The path cost calculation considers end to end number of hops, latency and minimum energy node value in the path. In case of path failure path recalculation is done efficiently with minimum latency and control packets overhead. Our evaluation shows that our proposal provides better end-to-end delivery with less routing overhead and higher packet delivery success ratio compared to AODV and AOMDV. The use of multipath also increases overall life time of WSN network using optimum energy available paths between sender and receiver in WDNs. PMID:23669714

  17. WEAMR-a weighted energy aware multipath reliable routing mechanism for hotline-based WSNs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tufail, Ali; Qamar, Arslan; Khan, Adil Mehmood; Baig, Waleed Akram; Kim, Ki-Hyung

    2013-05-13

    Reliable source to sink communication is the most important factor for an efficient routing protocol especially in domains of military, healthcare and disaster recovery applications. We present weighted energy aware multipath reliable routing (WEAMR), a novel energy aware multipath routing protocol which utilizes hotline-assisted routing to meet such requirements for mission critical applications. The protocol reduces the number of average hops from source to destination and provides unmatched reliability as compared to well known reactive ad hoc protocols i.e., AODV and AOMDV. Our protocol makes efficient use of network paths based on weighted cost calculation and intelligently selects the best possible paths for data transmissions. The path cost calculation considers end to end number of hops, latency and minimum energy node value in the path. In case of path failure path recalculation is done efficiently with minimum latency and control packets overhead. Our evaluation shows that our proposal provides better end-to-end delivery with less routing overhead and higher packet delivery success ratio compared to AODV and AOMDV. The use of multipath also increases overall life time of WSN network using optimum energy available paths between sender and receiver in WDNs.

  18. Receiver-Based Ad Hoc On Demand Multipath Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Nahari, Abdulaziz; Mohamad, Mohd Murtadha

    2016-01-01

    Decreasing the route rediscovery time process in reactive routing protocols is challenging in mobile ad hoc networks. Links between nodes are continuously established and broken because of the characteristics of the network. Finding multiple routes to increase the reliability is also important but requires a fast update, especially in high traffic load and high mobility where paths can be broken as well. The sender node keeps re-establishing path discovery to find new paths, which makes for long time delay. In this paper we propose an improved multipath routing protocol, called Receiver-based ad hoc on demand multipath routing protocol (RB-AOMDV), which takes advantage of the reliability of the state of the art ad hoc on demand multipath distance vector (AOMDV) protocol with less re-established discovery time. The receiver node assumes the role of discovering paths when finding data packets that have not been received after a period of time. Simulation results show the delay and delivery ratio performances are improved compared with AOMDV. PMID:27258013

  19. Receiver-Based Ad Hoc On Demand Multipath Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulaziz Al-Nahari

    Full Text Available Decreasing the route rediscovery time process in reactive routing protocols is challenging in mobile ad hoc networks. Links between nodes are continuously established and broken because of the characteristics of the network. Finding multiple routes to increase the reliability is also important but requires a fast update, especially in high traffic load and high mobility where paths can be broken as well. The sender node keeps re-establishing path discovery to find new paths, which makes for long time delay. In this paper we propose an improved multipath routing protocol, called Receiver-based ad hoc on demand multipath routing protocol (RB-AOMDV, which takes advantage of the reliability of the state of the art ad hoc on demand multipath distance vector (AOMDV protocol with less re-established discovery time. The receiver node assumes the role of discovering paths when finding data packets that have not been received after a period of time. Simulation results show the delay and delivery ratio performances are improved compared with AOMDV.

  20. Receiver-Based Ad Hoc On Demand Multipath Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Nahari, Abdulaziz; Mohamad, Mohd Murtadha

    2016-01-01

    Decreasing the route rediscovery time process in reactive routing protocols is challenging in mobile ad hoc networks. Links between nodes are continuously established and broken because of the characteristics of the network. Finding multiple routes to increase the reliability is also important but requires a fast update, especially in high traffic load and high mobility where paths can be broken as well. The sender node keeps re-establishing path discovery to find new paths, which makes for long time delay. In this paper we propose an improved multipath routing protocol, called Receiver-based ad hoc on demand multipath routing protocol (RB-AOMDV), which takes advantage of the reliability of the state of the art ad hoc on demand multipath distance vector (AOMDV) protocol with less re-established discovery time. The receiver node assumes the role of discovering paths when finding data packets that have not been received after a period of time. Simulation results show the delay and delivery ratio performances are improved compared with AOMDV.

  1. WEAMR — A Weighted Energy Aware Multipath Reliable Routing Mechanism for Hotline-Based WSNs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki-Hyung Kim

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Reliable source to sink communication is the most important factor for an efficient routing protocol especially in domains of military, healthcare and disaster recovery applications. We present weighted energy aware multipath reliable routing (WEAMR, a novel energy aware multipath routing protocol which utilizes hotline-assisted routing to meet such requirements for mission critical applications. The protocol reduces the number of average hops from source to destination and provides unmatched reliability as compared to well known reactive ad hoc protocols i.e., AODV and AOMDV. Our protocol makes efficient use of network paths based on weighted cost calculation and intelligently selects the best possible paths for data transmissions. The path cost calculation considers end to end number of hops, latency and minimum energy node value in the path. In case of path failure path recalculation is done efficiently with minimum latency and control packets overhead. Our evaluation shows that our proposal provides better end-to-end delivery with less routing overhead and higher packet delivery success ratio compared to AODV and AOMDV. The use of multipath also increases overall life time of WSN network using optimum energy available paths between sender and receiver in WDNs.

  2. A Secure Region-Based Geographic Routing Protocol (SRBGR) for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adnan, Ali Idarous; Hanapi, Zurina Mohd; Othman, Mohamed; Zukarnain, Zuriati Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    Due to the lack of dependency for routing initiation and an inadequate allocated sextant on responding messages, the secure geographic routing protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have attracted considerable attention. However, the existing protocols are more likely to drop packets when legitimate nodes fail to respond to the routing initiation messages while attackers in the allocated sextant manage to respond. Furthermore, these protocols are designed with inefficient collection window and inadequate verification criteria which may lead to a high number of attacker selections. To prevent the failure to find an appropriate relay node and undesirable packet retransmission, this paper presents Secure Region-Based Geographic Routing Protocol (SRBGR) to increase the probability of selecting the appropriate relay node. By extending the allocated sextant and applying different message contention priorities more legitimate nodes can be admitted in the routing process. Moreover, the paper also proposed the bound collection window for a sufficient collection time and verification cost for both attacker identification and isolation. Extensive simulation experiments have been performed to evaluate the performance of the proposed protocol in comparison with other existing protocols. The results demonstrate that SRBGR increases network performance in terms of the packet delivery ratio and isolates attacks such as Sybil and Black hole. PMID:28121992

  3. Performance of QoS-based multicast routing algorithms for real-time communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Sanjeev; Pankaj, Rajesh K.; Leon-Garcia, Alberto

    1997-10-01

    In recent years, there has been a lot of interest in providing real-time multimedia services like digital audio and video over packet-switched networks such as Internet and ATM. These services require certain quality of service (QoS) from the network. The routing algorithm should take QoS factor for an application into account while selecting the most suitable route for the application. In this paper, we introduce a new routing metric and use it with two different heuristics to compute the multicast tree for guaranteed QoS applications that need firm end-to-end delay bound. We then compare the performance of our algorithms with the other proposed QoS-based routing algorithms. Simulations were run over a number of random networks to measure the performance of different algorithms. We studied routing algorithms along with resource reservation and admission control to measure the call throughput over a number of random networks. Simulation results show that our algorithms give a much better performance in terms of call throughput over other proposed schemes like QOSPF.

  4. Wireless Mesh Network Routing Under Uncertain Demands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellons, Jonathan; Dai, Liang; Chang, Bin; Xue, Yuan

    Traffic routing plays a critical role in determining the performance of a wireless mesh network. Recent research results usually fall into two ends of the spectrum. On one end are the heuristic routing algorithms, which are highly adaptive to the dynamic environments of wireless networks yet lack the analytical properties of how well the network performs globally. On the other end are the optimal routing algorithms that are derived from the optimization problem formulation of mesh network routing. They can usually claim analytical properties such as resource use optimality and throughput fairness. However, traffic demand is usually implicitly assumed as static and known a priori in these problem formulations. In contrast, recent studies of wireless network traces show that the traffic demand, even being aggregated at access points, is highly dynamic and hard to estimate. Thus, to apply the optimization-based routing solution in practice, one must take into account the dynamic and uncertain nature of wireless traffic demand. There are two basic approaches to address the traffic uncertainty in optimal mesh network routing (1) predictive routing that infers the traffic demand with maximum possibility based in its history and optimizes the routing strategy based on the predicted traffic demand and (2) oblivious routing that considers all the possible traffic demands and selects the routing strategy where the worst-case network performance could be optimized. This chapter provides an overview of the optimal routing strategies for wireless mesh networks with a focus on the above two strategies that explicitly consider the traffic uncertainty. It also identifies the key factors that affect the performance of each routing strategy and provides guidelines towards the strategy selection in mesh network routing under uncertain traffic demands.

  5. Multiple People Picking Assignment and Routing Optimization Based on Genetic Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙慧

    2014-01-01

    In order to improve the picking efficiency, reduce the picking time, this paper take artificial picking operation of a certain distribution center which has double-area warehouse as the studying object. Discuss the picking task allocation and routing problems. Establish the TSP model of order-picking system. Create a heuristic algorithm bases on the Genetic Algorithm (GA) which help to solve the task allocating problem and to get the associated order-picking routes. And achieve the simulation experiment with the Visual 6.0C++platform to prove the rationality of the model and the effectiveness of the arithmetic.

  6. Temporary road transport route optimization based on ArcGIS platform conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baoliang, Zhang; Dahua, Li; Xianfeng, Shao

    2017-04-01

    Based on the ArcGIS software platform, the method of digital elevation model (DEM) is established by using the irregular triangulation (TIN) of the “three links and one leveling” project of the Guquan converter station. The calculation principle and the realization steps are discussed. In the clear fill area, site formation and earth temporary transport route design applications. Research shows that the simulation of ground simulation through ArcGIS can be more rapid and efficient land leveling, design optimization route.

  7. GIS-BASED ROUTE FINDING USING ANT COLONY OPTIMIZATION AND URBAN TRAFFIC DATA FROM DIFFERENT SOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Davoodi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays traffic data is obtained from multiple sources including GPS, Video Vehicle Detectors (VVD, Automatic Number Plate Recognition (ANPR, Floating Car Data (FCD, VANETs, etc. All such data can be used for route finding. This paper proposes a model for finding the optimum route based on the integration of traffic data from different sources. Ant Colony Optimization is applied in this paper because the concept of this method (movement of ants in a network is similar to urban road network and movements of cars. The results indicate that this model is capable of incorporating data from different sources, which may even be inconsistent.

  8. A note on "A LP-based heuristic for a time-constrained routing problem"

    OpenAIRE

    Muter, İbrahim; Muter, Ibrahim; Birbil, Ş. İlker; Birbil, S. Ilker; Bülbül, Kerem; Bulbul, Kerem; Şahin, Güvenç; Sahin, Guvenc

    2012-01-01

    Avella et al. (2006) [Avella, P., D'Auria, B., Salerno, S. (2006). A LP-based heuristic for a time-constrained routing problem. European Journal of Operational Research 173:120-124] investigate a time-constrained routing (TCR) problem. The core of the proposed solution approach is a large-scale linear program (LP) that grows both row- and column-wise when new variables are introduced. Thus, a column-and-row generation algorithm is proposed to solve this LP optimally, and an optimality conditi...

  9. An Ultra-Low-Latency Geo-Routing Scheme for Team-Based Unmanned Vehicular Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Bader, Ahmed

    2016-02-26

    Results and lessons learned from the implementation of a novel ultra low-latency geo-routing scheme are presented in this paper. The geo-routing scheme is intended for team-based mobile systems whereby a cluster of unmanned autonomous vehicles are deployed to accomplish a critical mission under human supervision. The contention-free nature of the developed scheme lends itself to jointly achieve lower latency and higher throughput. Implementation challenges are presented and corresponding resolutions are discussed herewith. © 2015 IEEE.

  10. GEAMS: a Greedy Energy-Aware Multipath Stream-based Routing Protocol for WMSNs

    CERN Document Server

    Medjiah, Samir; Krief, Francine; 10.1109/GIIS.2009.5307078

    2012-01-01

    Because sensor nodes operate on power limited batteries, sensor functionalities have to be designed carefully. In particular, designing energy-efficient packet forwarding is important to maximize the lifetime of the network and to minimize the power usage at each node. This paper presents a Geographic Energy-Aware Multipath Stream-based (GEAMS) routing protocol for WMSNs. GEAMS routing decisions are made online, at each forwarding node in such a way that there is no need to global topology knowledge and maintenance. GEAMS routing protocol performs load-balancing to minimize energy consumption among nodes using twofold policy: (1) smart greedy forwarding and (2) walking back forwarding. Performances evaluations of GEAMS show that it can maximize the network lifetime and guarantee quality of service for video stream transmission in WMSNs.

  11. A Learning Automata Based Algorithm For Solving Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mir Mohammad Alipour

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an approximate algorithm based on distributed learning automata for solving capacitated vehicle routing problem. The vehicle routing problem (VRP is an NP-hard problem and capacitated vehicle routing problem variant (CVRP is considered here. This problem is one of the NP-hard problems and for this reason many approximate algorithms have been designed for solving it. Distributed learning automata that is a general searching tool and is a solving tool for variety of NP-complete problems, is used to solve this problem and tested on fourteen benchmark problems. Our results were compared to the best known results. The results of comparison have shown the efficiency of the proposed algorithm.

  12. An energy-aware routing protocol for query-based applications in wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahvar, Ehsan; Ahvar, Shohreh; Lee, Gyu Myoung; Crespi, Noel

    2014-01-01

    Wireless sensor network (WSN) typically has energy consumption restriction. Designing energy-aware routing protocol can significantly reduce energy consumption in WSNs. Energy-aware routing protocols can be classified into two categories, energy savers and energy balancers. Energy saving protocols are used to minimize the overall energy consumed by a WSN, while energy balancing protocols attempt to efficiently distribute the consumption of energy throughout the network. In general terms, energy saving protocols are not necessarily good at balancing energy consumption and energy balancing protocols are not always good at reducing energy consumption. In this paper, we propose an energy-aware routing protocol (ERP) for query-based applications in WSNs, which offers a good trade-off between traditional energy balancing and energy saving objectives and supports a soft real time packet delivery. This is achieved by means of fuzzy sets and learning automata techniques along with zonal broadcasting to decrease total energy consumption.

  13. A Hybrid Algorithm Based on ACO and PSO for Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yucheng Kao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The vehicle routing problem (VRP is a well-known combinatorial optimization problem. It has been studied for several decades because finding effective vehicle routes is an important issue of logistic management. This paper proposes a new hybrid algorithm based on two main swarm intelligence (SI approaches, ant colony optimization (ACO and particle swarm optimization (PSO, for solving capacitated vehicle routing problems (CVRPs. In the proposed algorithm, each artificial ant, like a particle in PSO, is allowed to memorize the best solution ever found. After solution construction, only elite ants can update pheromone according to their own best-so-far solutions. Moreover, a pheromone disturbance method is embedded into the ACO framework to overcome the problem of pheromone stagnation. Two sets of benchmark problems were selected to test the performance of the proposed algorithm. The computational results show that the proposed algorithm performs well in comparison with existing swarm intelligence approaches.

  14. Genetic and Environmental Bases of Reading and Spelling: A Unified Genetic Dual Route Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Timothy C.; Castles, Anne; Luciano, Michelle; Wright, Margaret J.; Coltheart, Max; Martin, Nicholas G.

    2007-01-01

    We develop and test a dual-route model of genetic effects on reading aloud and spelling, based on irregular and non-word reading and spelling performance assessed in 1382 monozygotic and dizygotic twins. As in earlier research, most of the variance in reading was due to genetic effects. However, there were three more specific conclusions: the…

  15. Determination of Transmission Routing of OXC Nodes Based on AWG Multiplexer by Matrix Transformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Ai-huang; FU Jun-mei

    2004-01-01

    The structures of the space switching and the wavelength switching optical cross connect (OXC)nodes which are based on the arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) multiplexer are analyzed. By the matrix transformation relation between the input and output wavelengths of the AWG multiplexer, the wavelength transmission routings of the space switching and wavelength switching OXC nodes are determined.

  16. Novel routes to liquid-based self-healing polymer systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mookhoek, S.D.

    2010-01-01

    Inspired by the current state-of-the-art and the progressing advancements in the field of self-healing materials, this thesis addresses several novel routes to advance the concept of liquid-based self-healing polymer systems. This thesis presents the concept and characterisation of a one-component s

  17. Novel routes to liquid-based self-healing polymer systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mookhoek, S.D.

    2010-01-01

    Inspired by the current state-of-the-art and the progressing advancements in the field of self-healing materials, this thesis addresses several novel routes to advance the concept of liquid-based self-healing polymer systems. This thesis presents the concept and characterisation of a one-component

  18. Photographer Paths: Sequence Alignment of Geotagged Photos for Exploration-based Route Planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    el Ali, A.; van Sas, S.N.A.; Nack, F.

    2013-01-01

    Urban mobility analysis of geotagged photos can unlock mobility patterns of users who took these photos, which can be used for exploration-based city route planners. Applying sequence alignment techniques on 5 years of geotagged Flickr photos in Amsterdam (The Netherlands) allowed creating walkable

  19. Routing strategy with mobile agent based on hierarchical DSR for vehicular communication network%车载通信网中基于DSR分层机制的移动代理路由策略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马志欣; 赵鼎新; 谢显中; 王昭然

    2011-01-01

    分析了现有动态源路由(dynamic source routing,DSR)协议机制以及在车载通信网路由发现中存在的问题,提出一种基于DSR分层机制的移动代理路由策略(cluster mobile agent-dynamic source routing,CM-DSR),并对设计的算法进行仿真实验.结果表明,所提出的CM-DSR协议与DSR路由协议相比较,较大幅度地降低了端到端的传输延迟,减少了路由请求次数,包的提交率也有一定程度的提高.%In this paper, we analyzed the existing mechanisms of DSR routing protocol and the routing discovery problem especially existed in Vehicle Communication Network. Moreover, we proposed a mobile agent routing strategy( Cluster Mobile agent-Dynamic Source Routing, CM-DSR)based on DSR stratification mechanism, we also conducted a simulation experiment on our algorithm. Extensive simulation results showed that the proposed CM-DSR protocol compared to DSR routing protocol can reduce significantly the end to end transmission delay and routing request times, while improve the packet delivery rate to some extent.

  20. An Efficient Multi-path Routing Algorithm Based on Hybrid Firefly Algorithm for Wireless Mesh Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kumaravel

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Mesh Network (WMN uses the latest technology which helps in providing end users a high quality service referred to as the Internet’s “last mile”. Also considering WMN one of the most important technologies that are employed is multicast communication. Among the several issues routing which is significantly an important issue is addressed by every WMN technologies and this is done during the process of data transmission. The IEEE 802.11s Standard entails and sets procedures which need to be followed to facilitate interconnection and thus be able to devise an appropriate WMN. There has been introduction of several protocols by many authors which are mainly devised on the basis of machine learning and artificial intelligence. Multi-path routing may be considered as one such routing method which facilitates transmission of data over several paths, proving its capabilities as a useful strategy for achieving reliability in WMN. Though, multi-path routing in any manner cannot really guarantee deterministic transmission. As here there are multiple paths available for enabling data transmission from source to destination node. The algorithm that had been employed before in the studies conducted did not take in to consideration routing metrics which include energy aware metrics that are used for path selection during transferring of data. The following study proposes use of the hybrid multipath routing algorithm while taking in to consideration routing metrics which include energy, minimal loss for efficient path selection and transferring of data. Proposed algorithm here has two phases. In the first phase prim’s algorithm has been proposed so that in networks route discovery may be possible. For the second one the Hybrid firefly algorithm which is based on harmony search has been employed for selection of the most suitable and best through proper analysis of metrics which include energy awareness and minimal loss for every path that has

  1. Integrated fleet assignment and aircraft routing based on delay propagation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WAN-MING LIU; XING-HUI ZHU; YAN-LONG QI

    2016-07-01

    Airlines’ expensive resources, especially aircraft, are to be optimally scheduled to cover flights of timetables. However, the irregular flight, due to bad weather, mechanical fault and so on, is inevitable.Moreover, flight delays become more severe with the rapid development of the air transport industry in China and have huge irregular flight cost. In order to alleviate flight delays impact on the flight plan, we present a double objective multi-commodity network flow model of flight delay propagation-based aircraft scheduling and minimize the total delay propagation and airline operation cost as the optimization objective. Branch-and-price solution and column generation algorithm are used to solve the problem. Computational results obtained by using data from a major domestic airline show that our approach can reduce delay propagation significantly, thus improving on-time performance and robustness of aircraft scheduling, and decreasing the total cost simultaneously.

  2. Cost-Effective Encryption-Based Autonomous Routing Protocol for Efficient and Secure Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashif Saleem

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The deployment of intelligent remote surveillance systems depends on wireless sensor networks (WSNs composed of various miniature resource-constrained wireless sensor nodes. The development of routing protocols for WSNs is a major challenge because of their severe resource constraints, ad hoc topology and dynamic nature. Among those proposed routing protocols, the biology-inspired self-organized secure autonomous routing protocol (BIOSARP involves an artificial immune system (AIS that requires a certain amount of time to build up knowledge of neighboring nodes. The AIS algorithm uses this knowledge to distinguish between self and non-self neighboring nodes. The knowledge-building phase is a critical period in the WSN lifespan and requires active security measures. This paper proposes an enhanced BIOSARP (E-BIOSARP that incorporates a random key encryption mechanism in a cost-effective manner to provide active security measures in WSNs. A detailed description of E-BIOSARP is presented, followed by an extensive security and performance analysis to demonstrate its efficiency. A scenario with E-BIOSARP is implemented in network simulator 2 (ns-2 and is populated with malicious nodes for analysis. Furthermore, E-BIOSARP is compared with state-of-the-art secure routing protocols in terms of processing time, delivery ratio, energy consumption, and packet overhead. The findings show that the proposed mechanism can efficiently protect WSNs from selective forwarding, brute-force or exhaustive key search, spoofing, eavesdropping, replaying or altering of routing information, cloning, acknowledgment spoofing, HELLO flood attacks, and Sybil attacks.

  3. Zone Based Routing Protocol for Homogeneous Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Taruna

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Networks, are made of low-cost, low -power, small in size, and multifunctional sensor nodes. The efficient energy utilization is one of t he important performance factors for wireless senso r networks survivability be-cause nodes operate with limited battery power. In this paper we propose and analyze a new approach of zone based clustering hea d selection algorithm for wireless sensor network o f homogeneous nodes. Nodes in the network are uniform ly distributed. In this clustering algorithm, netwo rk performance is improved by selecting cluster heads on the basis of the residual energy of existing clu ster heads, and nearest hop distance of the node. In thi s paper we evaluate various performance metrics lik e energy consumption, network life time, number of ch annel heads metrics in each round and compare these with respect to random algorithm i.e. LEACH. We con clude that proposed protocol effectively extends th e network lifetime without degrading the other critic al overheads and perform-ance metrics.

  4. Management of Energy Consumption on Cluster Based Routing Protocol for MANET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini-Seno, Seyed-Amin; Wan, Tat-Chee; Budiarto, Rahmat; Yamada, Masashi

    The usage of light-weight mobile devices is increasing rapidly, leading to demand for more telecommunication services. Consequently, mobile ad hoc networks and their applications have become feasible with the proliferation of light-weight mobile devices. Many protocols have been developed to handle service discovery and routing in ad hoc networks. However, the majority of them did not consider one critical aspect of this type of network, which is the limited of available energy in each node. Cluster Based Routing Protocol (CBRP) is a robust/scalable routing protocol for Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs) and superior to existing protocols such as Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV) in terms of throughput and overhead. Therefore, based on this strength, methods to increase the efficiency of energy usage are incorporated into CBRP in this work. In order to increase the stability (in term of life-time) of the network and to decrease the energy consumption of inter-cluster gateway nodes, an Enhanced Gateway Cluster Based Routing Protocol (EGCBRP) is proposed. Three methods have been introduced by EGCBRP as enhancements to the CBRP: improving the election of cluster Heads (CHs) in CBRP which is based on the maximum available energy level, implementing load balancing for inter-cluster traffic using multiple gateways, and implementing sleep state for gateway nodes to further save the energy. Furthermore, we propose an Energy Efficient Cluster Based Routing Protocol (EECBRP) which extends the EGCBRP sleep state concept into all idle member nodes, excluding the active nodes in all clusters. The experiment results show that the EGCBRP decreases the overall energy consumption of the gateway nodes up to 10% and the EECBRP reduces the energy consumption of the member nodes up to 60%, both of which in turn contribute to stabilizing the network.

  5. Recovering Individual’s Commute Routes Based on Mobile Phone Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Song

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mining individuals’ commute routes has been a hot spot in recent researches. Besides the significant impact on human mobility analysis, it is quite important in lots of fields, such as traffic flow analysis, urban planning, and path recommendation. Common ways to obtain these pieces of information are mostly based on the questionnaires, which have many disadvantages such as high manpower cost, low accuracy, and low sampling rate. To overcome these problems, we propose a commute routes recovering model to recover individuals’ commute routes based on passively generated mobile phone data. The challenges of the model lie in the low sampling rate of signal records and low precision of location information from mobile phone data. To address these challenges, our model applies two main modules. The first is data preprocessing module, which extracts commute trajectories from raw dataset and formats the road network into a better modality. The second module combines two kinds of information together and generates the commute route with the highest possibility. To evaluate the effectiveness of our method, we evaluate the results in two ways, which are path score evaluation and evaluation based on visualization. Experimental results have shown better performance of our method than the compared method.

  6. Naval Battleforce Networks Composite Routing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    fashion by DHCP), restarts or recontigures the OSPi" daemon, starts advertising the attached subnet in its new wireless subnet, and data transfer starts...Policy Manager. studying extcnsions to PlM or source specific multicast pro,i,,.:als to enable dynamic policy based routing based on DS(’P or other

  7. An Efficient Routing Algorithm in Ad Hoc Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGShuqiao; LIHongyan; LIJiandong

    2005-01-01

    The Dynamic source routing protocol(DSR) is an on-demand routing protocol, designed specifically for use in multi-hop wireless ad hoc networks of mobile nodes. In this paper, some mechanisms such as the route's lifetime prediction, route’s creation time and an adaptive gratuitous route reply mode are introduced into DSR to get an efficient routing algorithm which is refered to E-DSR. The simulation results show that E-DSR can improve the packet delivery rate and reduce the routing overhead compared with hop-based DSR.

  8. 基于动态交通分配的应急路径规划%Emergency Route Planning Through Dynamic Traffic Assignment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马宏亮; 张建平; 李瑞敏

    2012-01-01

    To improve the efficiency of emergency rescue and evacuation, this paper introduces an emergency route planning algorithm based on dynamic traffic assignment. Different from existing static route planning algorithms, the algorithm takes the dynamic and systematic characteristics of the problem into consideration. First, a dynamic traffic assignment model through traffic simulation is given. Then, the steps of the algorithm are explained. Finally, the algorithm is tested by using Beijing road network data. The results prove the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.%为了提高在应急救援与疏散工作中的应急交通效率,针对已有相关算法未考虑交通问题动态性的不足,提出了1个基于动态交通分配的应急路径规划算法.给出了问题的定义,设计了1个基于仿真的动态交通分配模型,给出了基于动态交通分配的算法求解步骤.通过北京市路网数据对算法进行验证,证明了算法的可行性与有效性.

  9. Automatic generalization of metro maps based on dynamic segmentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A metro map is usually optimized for the readability of connections and transportation networks structure.In order to assure good readability and meet aesthetic considerations,a set of principles for good metro map layout are proposed.According to these principles,a new methodology based on dynamic segmentation is presented to produce the metro maps automatically.Firstly,routes are constructed according to the line attribute similarity and geometry continuity.Then a set of cartographic generalization methods about the shape,angle,length,and topology are presented for these routes.This method is validated by Beijing metro plan map.From the experiment results,it can be concluded that this new method is more effective than the static segmentation method to produce metro maps with better readability for route plans.

  10. Probabilistic Routing Based on Two-Hop Information in Delay/Disruption Tolerant Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate an opportunistic routing protocol in delay/disruption tolerant networks (DTNs where the end-to-end path between source and destination nodes may not exist for most of the time. Probabilistic routing protocol using history of encounters and transitivity (PRoPHET is an efficient history-based routing protocol specifically proposed for DTNs, which only utilizes the delivery predictability of one-hop neighbors to make a decision for message forwarding. In order to further improve the message delivery rate and to reduce the average overhead of PRoPHET, in this paper we propose an improved probabilistic routing algorithm (IPRA, where the history information of contacts for the immediate encounter and two-hop neighbors has been jointly used to make an informed decision for message forwarding. Based on the Opportunistic Networking Environment (ONE simulator, the performance of IPRA has been evaluated via extensive simulations. The results show that IPRA can significantly improve the average delivery rate while achieving a better or comparable performance with respect to average overhead, average delay, and total energy consumption compared with the existing algorithms.

  11. Distance-Based Routing Strategy for Traffic Transport in Spatial Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that routing strategies based on global topological information is not a good choice for the enhancement of traffic throughput in large-scale networks due to the heavy communication cost. On the contrary, acquiring spatial information, such as spatial distances among nodes, is more feasible. In this paper, we propose a novel distance-based routing strategy in spatial scale-free networks, called LDistance strategy. The probability of establishing links among nodes obeys the power-law in the spatial network under study. Compared with the LDegree strategy (Wang et al., 2006 and the mixed strategy (a strategy combining both greedy routing strategy and random routing strategy, results show that our proposed LDistance strategy can further enhance traffic capacity. Besides, the LDistance strategy can also achieve a much shorter delivering time than the LDegree strategy. Analyses reveal that the superiority of our strategy is mainly due to the interdependent relationship between topological and spatial characteristics in spatial scale-free networks. Furthermore, along transporting path in the LDistance strategy, the spatial distance to destination decays more rapidly, and the degrees of routers are higher than those in the LDegree strategy.

  12. A Distance-Based Energy Aware Routing Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungyoung Lee

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Energy efficiency and balancing is one of the primary challenges for wireless sensor networks (WSNs since the tiny sensor nodes cannot be easily recharged once they are deployed. Up to now, many energy efficient routing algorithms or protocols have been proposed with techniques like clustering, data aggregation and location tracking etc. However, many of them aim to minimize parameters like total energy consumption, latency etc., which cause hotspot nodes and partitioned network due to the overuse of certain nodes. In this paper, a Distance-based Energy Aware Routing (DEAR algorithm is proposed to ensure energy efficiency and energy balancing based on theoretical analysis of different energy and traffic models. During the routing process, we consider individual distance as the primary parameter in order to adjust and equalize the energy consumption among involved sensors. The residual energy is also considered as a secondary factor. In this way, all the intermediate nodes will consume their energy at similar rate, which maximizes network lifetime. Simulation results show that the DEAR algorithm can reduce and balance the energy consumption for all sensor nodes so network lifetime is greatly prolonged compared to other routing algorithms.

  13. A Distance-based Energy Aware Routing algorithm for wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin; Kim, Jeong-Uk; Shu, Lei; Niu, Yu; Lee, Sungyoung

    2010-01-01

    Energy efficiency and balancing is one of the primary challenges for wireless sensor networks (WSNs) since the tiny sensor nodes cannot be easily recharged once they are deployed. Up to now, many energy efficient routing algorithms or protocols have been proposed with techniques like clustering, data aggregation and location tracking etc. However, many of them aim to minimize parameters like total energy consumption, latency etc., which cause hotspot nodes and partitioned network due to the overuse of certain nodes. In this paper, a Distance-based Energy Aware Routing (DEAR) algorithm is proposed to ensure energy efficiency and energy balancing based on theoretical analysis of different energy and traffic models. During the routing process, we consider individual distance as the primary parameter in order to adjust and equalize the energy consumption among involved sensors. The residual energy is also considered as a secondary factor. In this way, all the intermediate nodes will consume their energy at similar rate, which maximizes network lifetime. Simulation results show that the DEAR algorithm can reduce and balance the energy consumption for all sensor nodes so network lifetime is greatly prolonged compared to other routing algorithms.

  14. Adaptive ant-based routing in wireless sensor networks using Energy Delay metrics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao-feng WEN; Yu-quan CHEN; Min PAN

    2008-01-01

    To find the optimal routing is always an important topic in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Considering a WSN where the nodes have limited energy, we propose a novel Energy*Delay model based on ant algorithms ("E&D ANTS" for short)to minimize the time delay in transferring a fixed number of data packets in an energy-constrained manner in one round. Our goal is not only to maximize the lifetime of the network but also to provide real-time data transmission services. However, because of the tradeoff of energy and delay in wireless network systems, the reinforcement learning (RL) algorithm is introduced to train the model. In this survey, the paradigm of E&D ANTS is explicated and compared to other ant-based routing algorithms like AntNet and AntChain about the issues of routing information, routing overhead and adaptation. Simulation results show that our method performs about seven times better than AntNet and also outperforms AntChain by more than 150% in terms of energy cost and delay per round.

  15. 突发事件下车辆路径问题的动态规划算法%Dynamic Programming Algorithm of Vehicle Routing Problems under Emergencies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧微; 焦丽萍

    2011-01-01

    突发事件下的车辆运输具有紧迫性、动态性和随机不确定性等特点.本文研究了突发事件下动态车辆路径问题的数学模型,构建了一种基于混沌优化的动态规划算法,为此通过路径计算和动态规划两个模块来实现车辆路径的动态规划.为实现从混沌运动空间向问题可行解空间的有效映射,提出了相应的编码方法和操作算子.最后进行仿真,通过对静态环境、道路受损和道路拥塞三种情况的分析,验证了实时修订路经的有效性和实用性,为突发事件提供参考.%The vehicle transportation under emergencies is a kind of emergent, dynamic and random problems. The mathematics model of Dynamic Vehicle Routing Problems (DVRP) under emergencies is proposed, and an ap-proach solving DVRP based on chaos optimization is formulated, in which a route computing module and a dynamic programming module are introduced, and the corresponding coding method and operators are proposed to mapping the chaos space to feasible solution space. Finally, three cases of initial - state, road - damaged and road - congested are analyzed separately to demonstrate the necessary of real - time route adjusting and the efficiency of the proposed algorithm by computer simulations.

  16. 动态车辆路径问题的分区灵活分批TSP策略%Flexible nTSP strategy of dynamic vehicle routing problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊浩

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic vehicle routing problem(DVRP) is emerging topical issue for the vehicle routing problem, but its real-time optimization still needs to be improved. Therefore, the mod nTSP strategy is proposed based on the flexible nTSP strategy. And the competitive analysis of the new strategy shows the reason of the improvement. Finally, the simulation results show that the new strategy can reduce the average distance between the adjacent customers on the routing of vehicle while keeping the other system time constant, and the average customer system time can be reduced.%动态车辆路径问题是当前车辆路径问题的新兴热门问题,但其实时优化策略研究仍然有较大的改进空间。鉴于此,在一般分区分批旅行商问题(TSP)策略的基础上,提出了分区灵活分批TSP策略,并对策略有效性进行了分析。最后进行了实例仿真验证,结果表明,所提出策略能够减少车辆服务顾客的平均行驶距离,从而减少顾客的平均系统时间。

  17. Indoor Pedestrian Navigation Based on Hybrid Route Planning and Location Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schougaard, Kari Rye; Grønbæk, Kaj; Scharling, Tejs

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces methods and services called PerPosNav for development of custom indoor pedestrian navigation applications to be deployed on a variety of platforms. PerPosNav combines symbolic and geometry based modeling of buildings, and in turn combines graph-based and geometric route...... computation. The paper argues why these hybrid approaches are necessary to handle the challenges of in-door pedestrian navigation...

  18. LMEEC: Layered Multi-Hop Energy Efficient Cluster-based Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Khelifi, Manel

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we propose LMEEC, a cluster-based rout- ing protocol with low energy consumption for wireless sensor networks. Our protocol is based on a strategy which aims to provide a more equitable exploitation of the selected nodes (cluster-heads) energy. Simulation results show the effective- ness of LMEEC in decreasing the energy consumption, and in prolonging the network lifetime, compared to LEACH.

  19. A Centralized Energy Efficient Distance Based Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit D. Gawade

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor network (WSN typically consists of a large number of low cost wireless sensor nodes which collect and send various messages to a base station (BS. WSN nodes are small battery powered devices having limited energy resources. Replacement of such energy resources is not easy for thousands of nodes as they are inaccessible to users after their deployment. This generates a requirement of energy efficient routing protocol for increasing network lifetime while minimizing energy consumption. Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH is a widely used classic clustering algorithm in WSNs. In this paper, we propose a Centralized Energy Efficient Distance (CEED based routing protocol to evenly distribute energy dissipation among all sensor nodes. We calculate optimum number of cluster heads based on LEACH’s energy dissipation model. We propose a distributed cluster head selection algorithm based on dissipated energy of a node and its distance to BS. Moreover, we extend our protocol by multihop routing scheme to reduce energy dissipated by nodes located far away from base station. The performance of CEED is compared with other protocols such as LEACH and LEACH with Distance Based Thresholds (LEACH-DT. Simulation results show that CEED is more energy efficient as compared to other protocols. Also it improves the network lifetime and stability period over the other protocols.

  20. a Gis-Based Model for Post-Earthquake Personalized Route Planning Using the Integration of Evolutionary Algorithm and Owa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, M.; Delavar, M. R.; Moradi, A.

    2015-12-01

    Being one of the natural disasters, earthquake can seriously damage buildings, urban facilities and cause road blockage. Post-earthquake route planning is problem that has been addressed in frequent researches. The main aim of this research is to present a route planning model for after earthquake. It is assumed in this research that no damage data is available. The presented model tries to find the optimum route based on a number of contributing factors which mainly indicate the length, width and safety of the road. The safety of the road is represented by a number of criteria such as distance to faults, percentage of non-standard buildings and percentage of high buildings around the route. An integration of genetic algorithm and ordered weighted averaging operator is employed in the model. The former searches the problem space among all alternatives, while the latter aggregates the scores of road segments to compute an overall score for each alternative. Ordered weighted averaging operator enables the users of the system to evaluate the alternative routes based on their decision strategy. Based on the proposed model, an optimistic user tries to find the shortest path between the two points, whereas a pessimistic user tends to pay more attention to safety parameters even if it enforces a longer route. The results depicts that decision strategy can considerably alter the optimum route. Moreover, post-earthquake route planning is a function of not only the length of the route but also the probability of the road blockage.

  1. Asymptotic Delay Analysis for Cross-Layer Delay-Based Routing in Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Jacquet

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the problem of the evaluation of the delay distribution via analytical means in IEEE 802.11 wireless ad hoc networks. We show that the asymptotic delay distribution can be expressed as a power law. Based on the latter result, we present a cross-layer delay estimation protocol and we derive new delay-distribution-based routing algorithms, which are well adapted to the QoS requirements of real-time multimedia applications. In fact, multimedia services are not sensitive to average delays, but rather to the asymptotic delay distributions. Indeed, video streaming applications drop frames when they are received beyond a delay threshold, determined by the buffer size. Although delay-distribution-based routing is an NP-hard problem, we show that it can be solved in polynomial time when the delay threshold is large, because of the asymptotic power law distribution of the link delays.

  2. Wavelength Routing Algorithm of All Optical Network Based on Traffic Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    General multi-protocol label switching(GMPLS) based on traffic engineering is one of the possible methods to implement all-optical network. This method implements the network with IP technique and guarantees the quality of service with traffic engineering. Based on the establishment of selecting schemes of optical path and methods of traffic calculation, the wavelength routing algorithm of all-optical network based on traffic engineering is presented by combining with prior route of shortest path and traffic engineering, the algorithm procedures are given, and the actual examples are introduced as well as the analysis on simulation calculation. This research results have certain significance for the achievement of optical switching technique of all-optical network.

  3. A Handoff-based And Limited Flooding (HALF Routing Protocol in Delay Tolerant Network (DTN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anika Aziz

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In a Delay Tolerant Network (DTN, routing protocols are developed to manage the disconnected mobilenodes. We propose a routing protocol named HALF (Handoff-based And Limited Flooding in DTN thatcan work in both infra-structured and infra-structure less networking environment and hence it canimprove the performance of the network significantly. In this paper, it is shown that HALF givessatisfactory delivery ratio and latency under almost all conditions and different network scenarios whencompared to the other existing DTN routing protocols. As the traffic intensity of the network grows fromlow (.2 to high (.75 values, HALF shows about 5% decrease in the delivery ratio compare to muchlarger values showed by the other routing protocols and on the average takes same time to deliver all themessages to their destinations. As the radio range is increased over the range from 10m Bluetooth rangeto 250m WLAN range, due to the increased connectivity, the delivery ratio and the latency are increasedby 4 times and decreased by 5 times respectively.

  4. Manufacturing of self-passivating tungsten based alloys by different powder metallurgical routes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, A.; Ordás, N.; Iturriza, I.; Pastor, J. Y.; Tejado, E.; Palacios, T.; García-Rosales, C.

    2016-02-01

    Self-passivating tungsten based alloys will provide a major safety advantage compared to pure tungsten when used as first wall armor of future fusion reactors, due to the formation of a protective oxide layer which prevents the formation of volatile and radioactive WO3 in case of a loss of coolant accident with simultaneous air ingress. Bulk WCr10Ti2 alloys were manufactured by two different powder metallurgical routes: (1) mechanical alloying (MA) followed by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) of metallic capsules, and (2) MA, compaction, pressureless sintering in H2 and subsequent HIPing without encapsulation. Both routes resulted in fully dense materials with homogeneous microstructure and grain sizes of 300 nm and 1 μm, respectively. The content of impurities remained unchanged after HIP, but it increased after sintering due to binder residue. It was not possible to produce large samples by route (2) due to difficulties in the uniaxial compaction stage. Flexural strength and fracture toughness measured on samples produced by route (1) revealed a ductile-to-brittle-transition temperature (DBTT) of about 950 °C. The strength increased from room temperature to 800 °C, decreasing significantly in the plastic region. An increase of fracture toughness is observed around the DBTT.

  5. Packet Size Based Routing for Stable Data Delivery in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ashiq; Suzuki, Toshihiro; Kobayashi, Motonari; Takita, Wataru; Yamazaki, Kenichi

    In Mobile AD-hoc Networks (MANET), transportation capability of wireless links' varies according to the size of the packets they transport. This instability, which is more acute in long links, has received little attention in the stabilizing schemes proposed so far for MANET. A lot of research has been carried out to utilize more reliable links in making end-to-end routes to avoid frequent route failures and realize higher packet delivery ratio. However, these approaches mainly consider the availability of a link over time and depend on link history which is difficult to acquire in highly dynamic systems. In this paper, we present an easy-to-implement but efficient method to find suitable end-to-end routes that are capable of transporting different sizes of the application data packets. Our scheme is stateless and does not rely on the underlying data link and physical layers. An extensive simulation shows the validity of our concept and highlights the improvement achieved by our proposal.

  6. Dynamic Route Choice Modelling of the Effects of Travel Information using RP Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Moraes Ramos, G.

    2015-01-01

    Traffic congestion is experienced by a great number of travellers during peak hours and is directly influenced by travel-related decisions, such as route choice decisions. In order to minimize problems that arise from congestion, such as delays, uncertainty and environmental effects, there has been

  7. A dynamic programming heuristic for vehicle routing with time-dependent travel times and required breaks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, A.L.; Hans, E.W.; Schutten, J.M.J.; Zijm, W.H.M.

    2010-01-01

    For the intensively studied vehicle routing problem (VRP), two real-life restrictions have received only minor attention in the VRP-literature: traffic congestion and driving hours regulations. Traffic congestion causes late arrivals at customers and long travel times resulting in large transport co

  8. A dynamic programming heuristic for vehicle routing with time-dependent travel times and required breaks.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, A.L.; Hans, Elias W.; Schutten, Johannes M.J.; Zijm, Willem H.M.

    2010-01-01

    For the intensively studied vehicle routing problem (VRP), two real-life restrictions have received only minor attention in the VRP-literature: traffic congestion and driving hours regulations. Traffic congestion causes late arrivals at customers and long travel times resulting in large transport

  9. A Survey on the Taxonomy of Cluster-Based Routing Protocols for Homogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeimi, Soroush; Ghafghazi, Hamidreza; Chow, Chee-Onn; Ishii, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    The past few years have witnessed increased interest among researchers in cluster-based protocols for homogeneous networks because of their better scalability and higher energy efficiency than other routing protocols. Given the limited capabilities of sensor nodes in terms of energy resources, processing and communication range, the cluster-based protocols should be compatible with these constraints in either the setup state or steady data transmission state. With focus on these constraints, we classify routing protocols according to their objectives and methods towards addressing the shortcomings of clustering process on each stage of cluster head selection, cluster formation, data aggregation and data communication. We summarize the techniques and methods used in these categories, while the weakness and strength of each protocol is pointed out in details. Furthermore, taxonomy of the protocols in each phase is given to provide a deeper understanding of current clustering approaches. Ultimately based on the existing research, a summary of the issues and solutions of the attributes and characteristics of clustering approaches and some open research areas in cluster-based routing protocols that can be further pursued are provided. PMID:22969350

  10. A Survey on the Taxonomy of Cluster-Based Routing Protocols for Homogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Ishii

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The past few years have witnessed increased interest among researchers in cluster-based protocols for homogeneous networks because of their better scalability and higher energy efficiency than other routing protocols. Given the limited capabilities of sensor nodes in terms of energy resources, processing and communication range, the cluster-based protocols should be compatible with these constraints in either the setup state or steady data transmission state. With focus on these constraints, we classify routing protocols according to their objectives and methods towards addressing the shortcomings of clustering process on each stage of cluster head selection, cluster formation, data aggregation and data communication. We summarize the techniques and methods used in these categories, while the weakness and strength of each protocol is pointed out in details. Furthermore, taxonomy of the protocols in each phase is given to provide a deeper understanding of current clustering approaches. Ultimately based on the existing research, a summary of the issues and solutions of the attributes and characteristics of clustering approaches and some open research areas in cluster-based routing protocols that can be further pursued are provided.

  11. Feature Selection for Natural Language Call Routing Based on Self-Adaptive Genetic Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koromyslova, A.; Semenkina, M.; Sergienko, R.

    2017-02-01

    The text classification problem for natural language call routing was considered in the paper. Seven different term weighting methods were applied. As dimensionality reduction methods, the feature selection based on self-adaptive GA is considered. k-NN, linear SVM and ANN were used as classification algorithms. The tasks of the research are the following: perform research of text classification for natural language call routing with different term weighting methods and classification algorithms and investigate the feature selection method based on self-adaptive GA. The numerical results showed that the most effective term weighting is TRR. The most effective classification algorithm is ANN. Feature selection with self-adaptive GA provides improvement of classification effectiveness and significant dimensionality reduction with all term weighting methods and with all classification algorithms.

  12. Evacuation Network Optimization Model with Lane-Based Reversal and Routing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sometimes, the evacuation measure may seem to be the best choice as an emergency response. To enable an efficiency evacuation, a network optimization model which integrates lane-based reversal design and routing with intersection crossing conflict elimination for evacuation is constructed. The proposed bilevel model minimizes the total evacuation time to leave the evacuation zone. A tabu search algorithm is applied to find an optimal lane reversal plan in the upper-level. The lower-level utilizes a simulated annealing algorithm to get two types of “a single arc for an intersection approach” and “multiple arcs for an intersection approach” lane-based route plans with intersection crossing conflict elimination. An experiment of a nine-intersection evacuation zone illustrates the validity of the model and the algorithm. A field case with network topology of Jianye District around the Nanjing Olympics Sports Center is studied to show the applicability of this algorithm.

  13. A variable neighborhood descent based heuristic to solve the capacitated location-routing problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Jabal-Ameli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Location-routing problem (LRP is established as a new research area in the context of location analysis. The primary concern of LRP is on locating facilities and routing of vehicles among established facilities and existing demand points. In this work, we address the capacitated LRP which arises in many practical applications within logistics and supply chain management. The objective is to minimize the overall system costs which include the fixed costs of opening depots and using vehicles at each depot site, and the variable costs associated with delivery activities. A novel heuristic is proposed which is based on variable neighborhood descent (VND algorithm to solve the resulted problem. The computational study indicates that the proposed VND based heuristic is highly competitive with the existing solution algorithms in terms of solution quality.

  14. Fuzzy based Cross Layer Feed Back Mechanism for Mobility Aware Load Balanced Routing in WSN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ravi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs are made up of small nodes which have the ability to sense, compute and communicate wirelessly. Essential design issue in WSN routing is energy awareness as the sensors are energy constrained. Various routing, power management and data dissemination protocols designed for WSNs are available in the literature. Energy awareness and reliable data transmissions are handled in Medium Access Control (MAC and Network layers. Decisions to achieve data reliability and energy efficiency trade-off were considered in layers. This study considers mobility, energy and link qualities to ward off poor link connectivity which reduce retransmissions and prolong WSN life. To achieve this, a fuzzy based cross layer protocol is proposed using an enhanced MAC protocol to provide better contention during mobility of the node and a network layer protocol based on link quality and mobility is proposed. Input to the fuzzy system is link quality and mobility. Output is decision for cluster head selection.

  15. Improved Multispanning Tree Routing Using Efficient and Reliable Routing Algorithm for Irregular Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Keerthana

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A Strategy of Multispanning Tree Zone Ordered Label Based routing is improved with Efficient and Reliable (EAR routing for irregular networks is presented and analyzed in this work. Most existing deadlock free routing methods for irregular topologies impose several limitations on node and channel labeling in an irregular network is based on a pre-defined spanning tree.It is not possible to form a deadlock free zone of three or four channel labels for two spanning tree. So this existing Multispanning Tree Zone Ordered Label Based routing is modified with Efficient and Reliable (EAR routing. EAR is based on four parameters length of the path,distance traversed,transmission of link and energy levels to dynamically determine and maintain the best routes.. The simulation results have shown highest packet delivery ratio, minimum latency, and energy consumption.

  16. The Dynamics of Lateral Gene Transfer in Genus Leishmania - A Route for Adaptation and Species Diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikeved, Elisabet; Backlund, Anders; Alsmark, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    The genome of Leishmania major harbours a comparably high proportion of genes of prokaryote origin, acquired by lateral gene transfer (LGT). Some of these are present in closely related trypanosomatids, while some are detected in Leishmania only. We have evaluated the impact and destiny of LGT in genus Leishmania. To study the dynamics and fate of LGTs we have performed phylogenetic, as well as nucleotide and amino acid composition analyses within orthologous groups of LGTs detected in Leishmania. A set of universal trypanosomatid LGTs was added as a reference group. Both groups of LGTs have, to some extent, ameliorated to resemble the recipient genomes. However, while virtually all of the universal trypanosomatid LGTs are distributed and conserved in the entire genus Leishmania, the LGTs uniquely present in genus Leishmania are more prone to gene loss and display faster rates of evolution. Furthermore, a PCR based approach has been employed to ascertain the presence of a set of twenty LGTs uniquely present in genus Leishmania, and three universal trypanosomatid LGTs, in ten additional strains of Leishmania. Evolutionary rates and predicted expression levels of these LGTs have also been estimated. Ten of the twenty LGTs are distributed and conserved in all species investigated, while the remainder have been subjected to modifications, or undergone pseudogenization, degradation or loss in one or more species. LGTs unique to the genus Leishmania have been acquired after the divergence of Leishmania from the other trypanosomatids, and are evolving faster than their recipient genomes. This implies that LGT in genus Leishmania is a continuous and dynamic process contributing to species differentiation and speciation. This study also highlights the importance of carefully evaluating these dynamic genes, e.g. as LGTs have been suggested as potential drug targets.

  17. A Novel Heuristic Algorithm Based on Clark and Wright Algorithm for Green Vehicle Routing Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Mehdi Alinaghian; Zahra Kaviani; Siyavash Khaledan

    2015-01-01

    A significant portion of Gross Domestic Production (GDP) in any country belongs to the transportation system. Transportation equipment, in the other hand, is supposed to be great consumer of oil products. Many attempts have been assigned to the vehicles to cut down Greenhouse Gas (GHG). In this paper a novel heuristic algorithm based on Clark and Wright Algorithm called Green Clark and Wright (GCW) for Vehicle Routing Problem regarding to fuel consumption is presented. The objective function ...

  18. A Hot-Area-Based Selfish Routing Protocol for Mobile Social Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Haigang Gong; Xiaomin Wang

    2013-01-01

    Data delivery in mobile social network is a challenging task due to the nodal mobility and intermittent connectivity. It is natural to utilize the inherent social properties to assist in making forwarding decisions. However, existing routing schemes seldom consider selfishness of nodes and assume that nodes are willing to forward messages for others. In the real world, most people are selfish and nodes attached to people behave selfishly too. Based on the regularity of human behavior, we prop...

  19. Route Optimization of Stacker in Automatic Warehouse Based on Genetic Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Cui Changqing; Wang Yiqiang

    2013-01-01

    Today, automatic warehouse system gradually replaced manual labor, and played an important role in the production work, especially in the cargo handling work. It was important to research the time-consuming and efficiency of stacker in the automated warehouse system. This paper researched the path of stacker in automated warehouse and calculated the operation time of stacker working path according to actual working condition, and then put forward a route optimization method of stacker based o...

  20. Coefficient of Restitution based Cross Layer Interference Aware Routing Protocol in Wireless Mesh Networks

    OpenAIRE

    V, Sarasvathi; Saha, Snehanshu; N.Ch.S.N.Iyengar; Koti, Mahalaxmi

    2015-01-01

    In Multi-Radio Multi-Channel (MRMC) Wireless Mesh Networks (WMN), Partially Overlapped Channels (POC) has been used to increase the parallel transmission. But adjacent channel interference is very severe in MRMC environment; it decreases the network throughput very badly. In this paper, we propose a Coefficient of Restitution based Cross layer Interference aware Routing protocol (CoRCiaR) to improve TCP performance in Wireless Mesh Networks. This approach comprises of two-steps: Initially, th...

  1. Placement of effective work-in-progress limits in route-specific unit-based pull systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ziengs, N.; Riezebos, J.; Germs, R.

    2012-01-01

    Unit-based pull systems control the throughput time of orders in a production system by limiting the number of orders on the shop floor. In production systems where orders can follow different routings on the shop floor, route-specific pull systems that control the progress of orders on the shop flo

  2. Placement of effective work-in-progress limits in route-specific unit-based pull systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ziengs, N.; Riezebos, J.; Germs, R.

    2012-01-01

    Unit-based pull systems control the throughput time of orders in a production system by limiting the number of orders on the shop floor. In production systems where orders can follow different routings on the shop floor, route-specific pull systems that control the progress of orders on the shop

  3. A dynamic knowledge base based search engine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hui-jin; HU Hua; LI Qing

    2005-01-01

    Search engines have greatly helped us to find thedesired information from the Intemet. Most search engines use keywords matching technique. This paper discusses a Dynamic Knowledge Base based Search Engine (DKBSE), which can expand the user's query using the keywords' concept or meaning. To do this, the DKBSE needs to construct and maintain the knowledge base dynamically via the system's searching results and the user's feedback information. The DKBSE expands the user's initial query using the knowledge base, and returns the searched information after the expanded query.

  4. E-APSAR:Enhanced Anonymous Position Based Security Aware Routing Protocol For Manets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Malgi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the past few years, we have seen a rapid expansion in the field of mobile computing due to the pro- liferation of inexpensive, widely available wireless devices or networks.However, all these networks are conventional wireless networks as they require a fixed network infrastructure with cen- tralised administration for their operation, potentially consuming a lot of time and money for set-up and maintenance.Drawbacks of conventional wireless networks are driving a new alternative way for mobile communication, in which mobile devices form a selfcreating, self-organising and self-administering wireless network, called a mobile ad hoc network.In mobile ad-hoc networking (MANETs, nodes communicate to each other based on public identities. In this paper,for a position based routing[22] an innovative packet forwarding mechanism is proposed in which source node generates route request packet and broadcast packet to other neighbor nodes to locate destination by implementing black hole attack[8]. Proposed E-APSAR (Enhanced Anonymous Position Based security aware routing protocol is implemented on NS-2 and results shown significant improvement over original DSR in terms of various performance metrics. It has been found that on dense network certain numbers of malicious nodes are supportive to reducing communication overhead and because of density negative effect of malicious attacks which is proposed E-APSAR that is able to reduce. Hence result shows proposed E-APSAR will be helpful to decrease communication overhead.

  5. Novel Opportunistic Network Routing Based on Social Rank for Device-to-Device Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been dramatic proliferation of research concerned with fifth-generation (5G mobile communication networks, among which device-to-device (D2D communication is one of the key technologies. Due to the intermittent connection of nodes, the D2D network topology may be disconnected frequently, which will lead to failure in transmission of large data files. In opportunistic networks, in case of encountering nodes which never meet before a flood message blindly to cause tremendous network overhead, a novel opportunistic network routing protocol based on social rank and intermeeting time (SRIT is proposed in this paper. An improved utility approach applied in utility replication based on encounter durations and intermeeting time is put forward to enhance the routing efficiency. Meanwhile, in order to select better candidate nodes in the network, a social graph among people is established when they socially relate to each other in social rank replication. The results under the scenario show an advantage of the proposed opportunistic network routing based on social rank and intermeeting time (SRIT over the compared algorithms in terms of delivery ratio, average delivery latency, and overhead ratio.

  6. Impact of LQI-Based Routing Metrics on the Performance of a One-to-One Routing Protocol for IEEE 802.15.4 Multihop Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boix Antoni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The quality of an IEEE 802.15.4 link can be estimated on the basis of the Link Quality Indication (LQI, which is a parameter offered by the IEEE 802.15.4 physical layer. The LQI has been recommended by organizations such as the ZigBee Alliance and the IETF as an input to routing metrics for IEEE 802.15.4 multihop networks. As these networks evolve, one-to-one communications gain relevance in many application areas. In this paper, we present an in-depth, experimental study on the impact of LQI-based routing metrics on the performance of a one-to-one routing protocol for IEEE 802.15.4 multihop networks. We conducted our experiments in a 60-node testbed. Experiments show the spectrum of performance results that using (or not the LQI may yield. Results also highlight the importance of the additive or multiplicative nature of the routing metrics and its influence on performance.

  7. Using Approximate Dynamic Programming to Solve the Military Inventory Routing Problem with Direct Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-26

    Robbins, PhD Chair LTC Brian J. Lunday, PhD Member AFIT-ENS-MS-15-M-140 Abstract The United States Army uses Vendor Managed Inventory ( VMI ) replenishment...making decisions about vehicle routing and inventory resupply, typically under ven– dor-managed inventory ( VMI ) practices [7]. Traditionally, a...customer alerts a central vendor when resupply at its location is necessary. However, under VMI practices, a central vendor monitors the supply levels of

  8. A SURVEY ON SPECTRUM-MAP BASED ON NORMAL OPPORTUNISTIC ROUTING METHODS FOR COGNITIVE RADIO AD HOC NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesham Mohammed Ali Abdullah

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive Radio (CR technology has significant impacts on upper layer performance in Ad Hoc Networks (AHNs. In recent times, several number of investigation are conducted in CR are mostly focusing on the opportunistic spectrum admission and physical layer transmission throughput. However, CR technology determination also have considerable impacts in mobile Ad Hoc networks (AHNs, which enables wireless devices to dynamically create networks without essentially use of a fixed infrastructure . Nowadays, establishing a cognitive network is such a difficult task. The most important issues is routing in CRAHNs. In this paper, it majorly focuses on the survey of routing and opportunistic routing schema in CRAHN. The most significant scheme behind this concept is to make use of a suitable routing protocol designed for establishing Cognitive Radio Network (CRN. Due to licensing, the accessibility of radio frequency for wireless communication gets reduced day by day. Thus, there is a necessitate to have some other way to use these frequencies in an efficient manner. Routing is efficient method to solve these issues, but the use of geographical concept is also a challenging task in CRN. Since, there is a lack in detailed understanding of these extremely dynamic opportunistic links and a consistent end-to-end transportation mechanism over the network. Here, it focuses on the study of possible routing approaches with the purpose of be able to be employed in CRAHNs. There is a comparison on performance evaluation of various potential routing approaches in terms of table significant reduction and what solution can be found from the routing protocol are also discussed. The routing protocol attains reliable communications for CRAHNs, without usually getting feedback information from nodes in a CRAHN to considerably accumulate the communication overhead.

  9. Route from spontaneous decay to complex multimode dynamics in cavity QED

    CERN Document Server

    Krimer, Dmitry O; Rotter, Stefan; Tureci, Hakan E

    2013-01-01

    We study the non-Markovian quantum dynamics of an emitter inside an open multimode cavity, focusing on the case where the emitter is resonant with high-frequency cavity modes. Based on a Green's function technique suited for open photonic structures, we study the crossovers between three distinct regimes as the coupling strength is gradually increased: (i) overdamped decay with a time scale given by the Purcell modified decay rate, (ii) underdamped oscillations with a time scale given by the effective vacuum Rabi frequency, and (iii) pulsed revivals. The final multimode strong coupling regime (iii) gives rise to quantum revivals of the atomic inversion on a time scale associated with the cavity round-trip time. We show that the crucial parameter to capture the crossovers between these regimes is the nonlinear Lamb shift, accounted for exactly in our formalism.

  10. Two Chaotic Patterns of Dynamic Risk Definition for Solving Hazardous Materials Routing Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Mahmoudabadi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the case of determining routes for hazardous material transportation, risk is considered as a main attribute. Transport risk, which is usually combined with other attributes such as cost or travel time, plays a significant role in determining paths for hazardous materials transportation. Since, risk is chaotically affected by road incidents, decision makers are dealing with selecting a method for defining chaotic risk factors in hazmat transportation. In this paper, transport risk has been defined as a chaotic variable using two different methods of generating chaotic patterns. In an experimental road network, which consists of eighty-nine nodes and one hundred and one two-way links, two different methods of generating chaotic variables have been used for applying the proposed procedure. In addition, results for different amounts of risk and cost have also been analyzed in case study. Results revealed that different cost and risk priorities change the frequencies of selected paths determined for hazmat transportation, but the route convergence of the route to chaos method is better than that of the logistic map equation.

  11. Bi-objective optimization for multi-modal transportation routing planning problem based on Pareto optimality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Sun

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of study is to solve the multi-modal transportation routing planning problem that aims to select an optimal route to move a consignment of goods from its origin to its destination through the multi-modal transportation network. And the optimization is from two viewpoints including cost and time. Design/methodology/approach: In this study, a bi-objective mixed integer linear programming model is proposed to optimize the multi-modal transportation routing planning problem. Minimizing the total transportation cost and the total transportation time are set as the optimization objectives of the model. In order to balance the benefit between the two objectives, Pareto optimality is utilized to solve the model by gaining its Pareto frontier. The Pareto frontier of the model can provide the multi-modal transportation operator (MTO and customers with better decision support and it is gained by the normalized normal constraint method. Then, an experimental case study is designed to verify the feasibility of the model and Pareto optimality by using the mathematical programming software Lingo. Finally, the sensitivity analysis of the demand and supply in the multi-modal transportation organization is performed based on the designed case. Findings: The calculation results indicate that the proposed model and Pareto optimality have good performance in dealing with the bi-objective optimization. The sensitivity analysis also shows the influence of the variation of the demand and supply on the multi-modal transportation organization clearly. Therefore, this method can be further promoted to the practice. Originality/value: A bi-objective mixed integer linear programming model is proposed to optimize the multi-modal transportation routing planning problem. The Pareto frontier based sensitivity analysis of the demand and supply in the multi-modal transportation organization is performed based on the designed case.

  12. Ergodic Dynamics by Design: A Route to Predictable Multi-Robot Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-01

    in a principled fashion. We focus here on inter- robot dynamics , the roles played by those dynam- ics toward task achievement, and their implications...which the robot dynamics are essentially ergodic can be used to produce meaningful behavior, and allow automated synthesis techniques to focus on a small

  13. A QoS Routing Protocol based on Available Bandwidth Estimation for Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Kaaniche, Heni; Frikha, Mounir; Kamoun, Farouk

    2011-01-01

    At the same time as the emergence of multimedia in mobile Ad hoc networks, research for the introduction of the quality of service (QoS) has received much attention. However, when designing a QoS solution, the estimation of the available resources still represents one of the main issues. This paper suggests an approach to estimate available resources on a node. This approach is based on the estimation of the busy ratio of the shared canal. We consider in our estimation the several constraints related to the Ad hoc transmission mode such as Interference phenomena. This approach is implemented on the AODV routing protocol. We call AODVwithQOS our new routing protocol. We also performed a performance evaluation by simulations using NS2 simulator. The results confirm that AODVwithQoS provides QoS support in ad hoc wireless networks with good performance and low overhead.

  14. Map Matching Based on Conditional Random Fields and Route Preference Mining for Uncertain Trajectories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve offline map matching accuracy of uncertain GPS trajectories, a map matching algorithm based on conditional random fields (CRF and route preference mining is proposed. In this algorithm, road offset distance and the temporal-spatial relationship between the sampling points are used as features of GPS trajectory in a CRF model, which integrates the temporal-spatial context information flexibly. The driver route preference is also used to bolster the temporal-spatial context when a low GPS sampling rate impairs the resolving power of temporal-spatial context in CRF, allowing the map matching accuracy of uncertain GPS trajectories to get improved significantly. The experimental results show that our proposed algorithm is more accurate than existing methods, especially in the case of a low-sampling-rate.

  15. On-demand multicast routing protocol based on node classification in MANET

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Xia; SUN Li-min; WANG Jian-xin; LUO Yu-hong; CHEN Jian-er

    2006-01-01

    An improved on-demand multicast routing protocol(ODMRP), node classification on-demand multicast routing protocol(NC-ODMRP), which is based on node classification in mobile ad hoc networks was proposed. NCODMRP classifies nodes into such three categories as ordinary node, forwarding group(FG) node, neighbor node of FG node according to their history forwarding information. The categories are distinguished with different weights by a weight table in the nodes. NC-ODMRP chooses the node with the highest weight as an FG node during the setup of forwarding group, which reduces a lot of redundant FG nodes by sharing more FG nodes between different sender and receiver pairs. The simulation results show that NC-ODMRP can reduce more than 20% FG number of ODMRP, thus enhances nearly 14% data forwarding efficiency and 12% energy consumption efficiency when the number of multicast senders is more than 5.

  16. Service Priority based Reliable Routing Path Select Method in Smart Grid Communication Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaixuan Wang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The new challenges and schemes for the Smart Grid require high reliable transmission technologiesto support various types of electrical services and applications. This paper concentrates the degree of importance of services and tries to allocate more important service to more reliable network routing path to deliver the key instructions in the Smart Grid communication networks. Pareto probability distribution is used to weight the reliability of IP-based router path. In order to definition the relationship of service and reliability of router path, we devise a mapping and optimal function is presented to access. An optimal method is used for adapting to find the appropriate value to match the objective function. Finally, we validate the proposed algorithms by experiments. The simulation results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms the random routing algorithms.

  17. An Energy Efficient Unequal Cluster Based Routing Protocol For WSN With Non-Uniform Node Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhanoop K Dhanpal

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Clustering is an efficient method for increasing the lifetime of wireless sensor network systems. The current clustering algorithms generate clusters of almost equal size. This will cause hot spot problem in multi-hop sensor networks. In this paper an energy efficient varying sized clustering algorithm EEVSCA and routing protocol are introduced for non-uniform node distributed wireless sensor network system. EEVSCA helps for the construction of clusters of varying size at the same time unequal cluster based routing algorithm forces each cluster head to choose node with higher energy as their next hop. The unequal size of clusters can balance the energy consumption among clusters. Theoretical analysis and simulation results show that EECSVA balance energy consumption well among the cluster heads and increase the network lifetime effectively.

  18. Contact modeling and prediction-based routing in sparse mobile networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Yang; QU Yugui; BAI Ronggang; ZHAO Baohua

    2007-01-01

    Mobile ad-hoc networks(MANETs) provide highly robust and self-configuring network capacity required in many critical applications,such as battlefields,disaster relief,and wild life tracking.In this paper,we focus on efficient message forwarding in sparse MANETs,which suffers from frequent and long-duration partitions.Asynchronous contacts become the basic way of communication in such kind of network instead of data links in traditional ad-hoc networks.Current approaches are primarily based on estimation with pure probability calculation.Stochastic forwarding decisions from statistic results can lead to disastrous routing performance when wrong choices are made.This paper introduces a new routing protocol,based on contact modeling and contact prediction,to address the problem.Our contact model focuses on the periodic contact pattern of nodes with actual inter-contact time involved,in order to get an accurate realization of network cooperation and connectivity status.The corresponding contact prediction algorithm makes use of both statistic and time sequence information of contacts and allows choosing the relay that has the earliest contact to the destination,which results in low average latency.Simulation is used to compare the routing performance of our algorithm with three other categories of forwarding algorithm proposed already.The results demonstrate that our scheme is more efficient in both data delivery and energy consumption than previously proposed schemes.

  19. A CROSS-LAYERED PATH STABILITY BASED ROUTING PROTOCOL FOR WiMAX NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Deva Priya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In IEEE 802.16, a Subscriber Station (SS is battery powered with limited capacity. A SS can be made to operate for longer durations by deploying power saving features or by using relay stations. Multi-hop communication conserves power, but finding an optimal path to the destination is monotonous. Path stability indicates how stable a path is and how long it can support communication. Identifying stable paths helps in reducing the control traffic, number of connection disruptions and also in conserving power. In this study, Greedy Perimeter Stateless Routing (GPSR and Link-St Ability and Energy aware Routing (LAER designed for Mobile Ad hoc NET works (MANETs are implemented for WiMAX networks and their performance is evaluated. Further, a novel Cross-layered Path Stability based Routing protocol (CPSR is proposed to find a stable path based on Residual Energy (RE, Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI and Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR. The total energy consumed is minimized, thus maximizing the network lifetime.

  20. An improved, non-functionalized route to plasmonic nanoparticle based cellular probing through osmolyte mediation (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddhanta, Soumik; Barman, Ishan

    2017-02-01

    Engineering nanostructured probes for ultra-sensitive detection of specific molecular species, our research seeks to capture the complex changes in cells and tissues that can predict disease progression in an individual. While such nanoparticle-based platforms are rapidly gaining a foothold in cancer diagnostics, one of the most concerning factors is the vulnerability of cells to the interaction with functional nanoparticles thereby raising the specter of systemic toxicity. The nanoparticles end up damaging the cells and disrupting cellular functions thereby impeding their imaging aim. Furthermore, PEGylation, and similar routes, force a tradeoff between desired nanoparticle properties (recognition, uptake, and reduced toxicity) and sensitivity of plasmon-enhanced spectroscopic sensing methods, such as surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) where the proximal presence of noble metal NP and the organic molecule of interest is key. In this work, we report a trehalose-mediated, non-surface functionalized route for cell-nanoparticle interactions that maintains cell viability while allowing selective interaction of the nanoparticle with the cell surface receptors and subsequent internalization. Through careful electron microscopy of nanoparticle-prostate cancer cells interactions, we elucidated that there exists a dynamic equilibrium between "free" cytosolic diffusion of the nanoparticles and endocytosis through vesicle formation - and trehalose tilts the scale in favor of the latter to mask the toxic effects of the nanoparticles. The precise molecular interpretation of this behavior was further probed through SERS, which directly points towards the protein stabilization properties of trehalose mediation during interaction of the nanoparticles with the plasma membrane components.