WorldWideScience

Sample records for dynamic phase transition

  1. Dynamics of a quantum phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zurek, W.H.

    2005-01-01

    We present two approaches to the non-equilibrium dynamics of a quench-induced phase transition in quantum Ising model. First approach retraces steps of the standard calculation to thermodynamic second order phase transitions in the quantum setting. The second calculation is purely quantum, based on the Landau-Zener formula for transition probabilities in processes that involve avoided level crossings. We show that the two approaches yield compatible results for the scaling of the defect density with the quench rate. We exhibit similarities between them, and comment on the insights they give into dynamics of quantum phase transitions. (author)

  2. Dynamical quantum phase transitions: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyl, Markus

    2018-05-01

    Quantum theory provides an extensive framework for the description of the equilibrium properties of quantum matter. Yet experiments in quantum simulators have now opened up a route towards the generation of quantum states beyond this equilibrium paradigm. While these states promise to show properties not constrained by equilibrium principles, such as the equal a priori probability of the microcanonical ensemble, identifying the general properties of nonequilibrium quantum dynamics remains a major challenge, especially in view of the lack of conventional concepts such as free energies. The theory of dynamical quantum phase transitions attempts to identify such general principles by lifting the concept of phase transitions to coherent quantum real-time evolution. This review provides a pedagogical introduction to this field. Starting from the general setting of nonequilibrium dynamics in closed quantum many-body systems, we give the definition of dynamical quantum phase transitions as phase transitions in time with physical quantities becoming nonanalytic at critical times. We summarize the achieved theoretical advances as well as the first experimental observations, and furthermore provide an outlook to major open questions as well as future directions of research.

  3. Dynamical quantum phase transitions: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyl, Markus

    2018-05-01

    Quantum theory provides an extensive framework for the description of the equilibrium properties of quantum matter. Yet experiments in quantum simulators have now opened up a route towards the generation of quantum states beyond this equilibrium paradigm. While these states promise to show properties not constrained by equilibrium principles, such as the equal a priori probability of the microcanonical ensemble, identifying the general properties of nonequilibrium quantum dynamics remains a major challenge, especially in view of the lack of conventional concepts such as free energies. The theory of dynamical quantum phase transitions attempts to identify such general principles by lifting the concept of phase transitions to coherent quantum real-time evolution. This review provides a pedagogical introduction to this field. Starting from the general setting of nonequilibrium dynamics in closed quantum many-body systems, we give the definition of dynamical quantum phase transitions as phase transitions in time with physical quantities becoming nonanalytic at critical times. We summarize the achieved theoretical advances as well as the first experimental observations, and furthermore provide an outlook to major open questions as well as future directions of research.

  4. Exceptional Points and Dynamical Phase Transitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Rotter

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of non-Hermitian quantum physics, the relation between exceptional points,dynamical phase transitions and the counter intuitive behavior of quantum systems at high level density is considered. The theoretical results obtained for open quantum systems and proven experimentally some years ago on a microwave cavity, may explain environmentally induce deffects (including dynamical phase transitions, which have been observed in various experimental studies. They also agree(qualitatively with the experimental results reported recently in PT symmetric optical lattices.

  5. Dynamic phase transitions and dynamic phase diagrams of the Ising model on the Shastry-Sutherland lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deviren, Şeyma Akkaya, E-mail: sadeviren@nevsehir.edu.tr [Department of Science Education, Education Faculty, Nevsehir Hacı Bektaş Veli University, 50300 Nevşehir (Turkey); Deviren, Bayram [Department of Physics, Nevsehir Hacı Bektaş Veli University, 50300 Nevsehir (Turkey)

    2016-03-15

    The dynamic phase transitions and dynamic phase diagrams are studied, within a mean-field approach, in the kinetic Ising model on the Shastry-Sutherland lattice under the presence of a time varying (sinusoidal) magnetic field by using the Glauber-type stochastic dynamics. The time-dependence behavior of order parameters and the behavior of average order parameters in a period, which is also called the dynamic order parameters, as a function of temperature, are investigated. Temperature dependence of the dynamic magnetizations, hysteresis loop areas and correlations are investigated in order to characterize the nature (first- or second-order) of the dynamic phase transitions as well as to obtain the dynamic phase transition temperatures. We present the dynamic phase diagrams in the magnetic field amplitude and temperature plane. The phase diagrams exhibit a dynamic tricritical point and reentrant phenomena. The phase diagrams also contain paramagnetic (P), Néel (N), Collinear (C) phases, two coexistence or mixed regions, (N+C) and (N+P), which strongly depend on interaction parameters. - Highlights: • Dynamic magnetization properties of spin-1/2 Ising model on SSL are investigated. • Dynamic magnetization, hysteresis loop area, and correlation have been calculated. • The dynamic phase diagrams are constructed in (T/|J|, h/|J|) plane. • The phase diagrams exhibit a dynamic tricritical point and reentrant phenomena.

  6. Dynamical phase transitions in quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotter, Ingrid

    2012-01-01

    1936 Niels Bohr: In the atom and in the nucleus we have indeed to do with two extreme cases of mechanical many-body problems for which a procedure of approximation resting on a combination of one-body problems, so effective in the former case, loses any validity in the latter where we, from the very beginning, have to do with essential collective aspects of the interplay between the constituent particles. 1963: Maria Goeppert-Mayer and J. Hans D. Jensen received the Nobel Prize in Physics for their discoveries concerning nuclear shell structure. State of the art 2011: - The nucleus is an open quantum system described by a non-Hermitian Hamilton operator with complex eigenvalues. The eigenvalues may cross in the complex plane ('exceptional points'), the phases of the eigenfunctions are not rigid in approaching the crossing points and the widths bifurcate. By this, a dynamical phase transition occurs in the many-level system. The dynamical phase transition starts at a critical value of the level density. Hence the properties of he low-lying nuclear states (described well by the shell model) and those of highly excited nuclear states (described by random ensembles) differ fundamentally from one another. The statement of Niels Bohr for compound nucleus states at high level density is not in contradiction to the shell-model description of nuclear (and atomic) states at low level density. Dynamical phase transitions are observed experimentally in different systems, including PT-symmetric ones, by varying one or more parameters

  7. About the dynamics of structural phase transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medeiros, J.T.N.

    1975-01-01

    The dynamics of structural phase transitions with a fourth order interaction between the soft phonon fields is studied in the 1/n approximation, using many body methods at finite temperatures. Two limits are considered: high transition temperature T sub(c) (classical limit) and T sub(c) = 0 (quantum limit). The dynamical contribution to the critical coefficient eta of the correlation function is calculated in these limits. It is found that there is no dynamical contribution to eta in the classical limit, whereas in the quantum limit eta is non-zero only for dimensions of the system d [pt

  8. Dynamic magnetizations and dynamic phase transitions in a transverse cylindrical Ising nanowire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deviren, Bayram; Ertaş, Mehmet; Keskin, Mustafa

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we extend the paper of Kaneyoshi (2010 J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 322 3410-5) to investigate the dynamic magnetizations and dynamic phase transitions of a transverse cylindrical Ising nanowire system by using the effective field theory with correlations and the Glauber-type stochastic dynamics under a time-dependent oscillating external magnetic field. The dynamic effective field equations for the average longitudinal and transverse magnetizations on the surface shell and core are derived by using the Glauber transition rates. Temperature dependences of the dynamic longitudinal magnetizations, the transverse magnetizations and the total magnetizations are investigated in order to characterize the nature (first- or second-order) of the dynamic transitions as well as the dynamic phase transition temperatures and the compensation behaviors. The system is strongly affected by the surface situations. Some characteristic phenomena are found depending on the ratio of the physical parameters in the surface shell and the core. According to the values of Hamiltonian parameters, four different types of compensation behaviors in the Néel classification nomenclature exist in the system. The results are compared with some theoretical works and good overall agreement is observed. (paper)

  9. Dynamical phase transitions in spin models and automata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derrida, B.

    1989-01-01

    Some of the models and methods developed in the study of the dynamics of spin models and automata are described. Special attention is given to the distance method which consists of comparing the time evolution of two configurations. The method is used to obtain the phase boundary between a frozen and a chaotic phase in the case of deterministic models. For stochastic systems the method is used to obtain dynamical phase transitions

  10. Phase transitions, nonequilibrium dynamics, and critical behavior of strongly interacting systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mottola, E.; Bhattacharya, T.; Cooper, F.

    1998-01-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development project at Los Alamos National Laboratory. In this effort, large-scale simulations of strongly interacting systems were performed and a variety of approaches to the nonequilibrium dynamics of phase transitions and critical behavior were investigated. Focus areas included (1) the finite-temperature quantum chromodynamics phase transition and nonequilibrium dynamics of a new phase of matter (the quark-gluon plasma) above the critical temperature, (2) nonequilibrium dynamics of a quantum fields using mean field theory, and (3) stochastic classical field theoretic models with applications to spinodal decomposition and structural phase transitions in a variety of systems, such as spin chains and shape memory alloys

  11. Phase transitions, nonequilibrium dynamics, and critical behavior of strongly interacting systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mottola, E.; Bhattacharya, T.; Cooper, F. [and others

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development project at Los Alamos National Laboratory. In this effort, large-scale simulations of strongly interacting systems were performed and a variety of approaches to the nonequilibrium dynamics of phase transitions and critical behavior were investigated. Focus areas included (1) the finite-temperature quantum chromodynamics phase transition and nonequilibrium dynamics of a new phase of matter (the quark-gluon plasma) above the critical temperature, (2) nonequilibrium dynamics of a quantum fields using mean field theory, and (3) stochastic classical field theoretic models with applications to spinodal decomposition and structural phase transitions in a variety of systems, such as spin chains and shape memory alloys.

  12. Dynamic phase transitions and dynamic phase diagrams of the spin-2 Blume-Capel model under an oscillating magnetic field within the effective-field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ertas, Mehmet [Department of Physics, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey); Institute of Science, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey); Deviren, Bayram [Department of Physics, Nevsehir University, 50300 Nevsehir (Turkey); Keskin, Mustafa, E-mail: keskin@erciyes.edu.tr [Department of Physics, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)

    2012-03-15

    The dynamic phase transitions are studied in the kinetic spin-2 Blume-Capel model under a time-dependent oscillating magnetic field using the effective-field theory with correlations. The effective-field dynamic equation for the average magnetization is derived by employing the Glauber transition rates and the phases in the system are obtained by solving this dynamic equation. The nature (first- or second-order) of the dynamic phase transition is characterized by investigating the thermal behavior of the dynamic magnetization and the dynamic phase transition temperatures are obtained. The dynamic phase diagrams are constructed in the reduced temperature and magnetic field amplitude plane and are of seven fundamental types. Phase diagrams contain the paramagnetic (P), ferromagnetic-2 (F{sub 2}) and three coexistence or mixed phase regions, namely the F{sub 2}+P, F{sub 1}+P and F{sub 2}+F{sub 1}+P, which strongly depend on the crystal-field interaction (D) parameter. The system also exhibits the dynamic tricritical behavior. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dynamic phase transitions are studied in spin-2 BC model using EFT. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dynamic phase diagrams are constructed in (T/zJ, h/zJ) plane. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Seven fundamental types of dynamic phase diagrams are found in the system. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer System exhibits dynamic tricritical behavior.

  13. Phenomena at the QCD phase transition in nonequilibrium chiral fluid dynamics (NχFD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nahrgang, Marlene [Duke University, Department of Physics, Durham, NC (United States); Herold, Christoph [Suranaree University of Technology, School of Physics, Nakhon Ratchasima (Thailand)

    2016-08-15

    Heavy-ion collisions performed in the beam energy range accessible by the NICA collider facility are expected to produce systems of extreme net-baryon densities and can thus reach yet unexplored regions of the QCD phase diagram. Here, one expects the phase transition between the plasma of deconfined quarks and gluons and the hadronic matter to be of first order. A discovery of the first-order phase transition would as well prove the existence of the QCD critical point, a landmark in the phase diagram. In order to understand possible signals of the first-order phase transition in heavy-ion collision experiments it is very important to develop dynamical models of the phase transition. Here, we discuss the opportunities of studying dynamical effects at the QCD first-order phase transition within our model of nonequilibrium chiral fluid dynamics. (orig.)

  14. Scaling and Universality at Dynamical Quantum Phase Transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyl, Markus

    2015-10-02

    Dynamical quantum phase transitions (DQPTs) at critical times appear as nonanalyticities during nonequilibrium quantum real-time evolution. Although there is evidence for a close relationship between DQPTs and equilibrium phase transitions, a major challenge is still to connect to fundamental concepts such as scaling and universality. In this work, renormalization group transformations in complex parameter space are formulated for quantum quenches in Ising models showing that the DQPTs are critical points associated with unstable fixed points of equilibrium Ising models. Therefore, these DQPTs obey scaling and universality. On the basis of numerical simulations, signatures of these DQPTs in the dynamical buildup of spin correlations are found with an associated power-law scaling determined solely by the fixed point's universality class. An outlook is given on how to explore this dynamical scaling experimentally in systems of trapped ions.

  15. Dynamical Symmetries and Causality in Non-Equilibrium Phase Transitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malte Henkel

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Dynamical symmetries are of considerable importance in elucidating the complex behaviour of strongly interacting systems with many degrees of freedom. Paradigmatic examples are cooperative phenomena as they arise in phase transitions, where conformal invariance has led to enormous progress in equilibrium phase transitions, especially in two dimensions. Non-equilibrium phase transitions can arise in much larger portions of the parameter space than equilibrium phase transitions. The state of the art of recent attempts to generalise conformal invariance to a new generic symmetry, taking into account the different scaling behaviour of space and time, will be reviewed. Particular attention will be given to the causality properties as they follow for co-variant n-point functions. These are important for the physical identification of n-point functions as responses or correlators.

  16. Dynamical constraints on phase transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morawetz, K.

    2000-01-01

    The numerical solutions of nonlocal and local Boltzmann kinetic equations for the simulation of central heavy ion reactions are parameterized in terms of time dependent thermodynamical variables in the Fermi liquid sense. This allows to discuss dynamical trajectories in phase space. The nonequilibrium state is characterized by non-isobaric, non-isochoric etc conditions, called iso-nothing conditions. Therefore a combination of thermodynamical observables is constructed which allows to locate instabilities and points of possible phase transition in a dynamical sense. We find two different mechanisms of instability, a short time surface - dominated instability and later a spinodal - dominated volume instability. The latter one occurs only if the incident energies are not exceeding much the Fermi energy and might be attributed to spinodal decomposition. Oppositely the fast surface explosion occurs far outside the spinodal and pertains also in the cases where the system develops too fast for suffering the spinodal decomposition and where the system approaches equilibrium outside the spinodal. (author)

  17. Characterizing Phase Transitions in a Model of Neutral Evolutionary Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Adam; King, Dawn; Bahar, Sonya

    2013-03-01

    An evolutionary model was recently introduced for sympatric, phenotypic evolution over a variable fitness landscape with assortative mating (Dees & Bahar 2010). Organisms in the model are described by coordinates in a two-dimensional phenotype space, born at random coordinates with limited variation from their parents as determined by a mutation parameter, mutability. The model has been extended to include both neutral evolution and asexual reproduction in Scott et al (submitted). It has been demonstrated that a second order, non-equilibrium phase transition occurs for the temporal dynamics as the mutability is varied, for both the original model and for neutral conditions. This transition likely belongs to the directed percolation universality class. In contrast, the spatial dynamics of the model shows characteristics of an ordinary percolation phase transition. Here, we characterize the phase transitions exhibited by this model by determining critical exponents for the relaxation times, characteristic lengths, and cluster (species) mass distributions. Missouri Research Board; J.S. McDonnell Foundation

  18. Invariant molecular-dynamics approach to structural phase transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wentzcovitch, R.M.

    1991-01-01

    Two fictitious Lagrangians to be used in molecular-dynamics simulations with variable cell shape and suitable to study problems like structural phase transitions are introduced. Because they are invariant with respect to the choice of the simulation cell edges and eliminate symmetry breaking associated with the fictitious part of the dynamics, they improve the physical content of numerical simulations that up to now have been done by using Parrinello-Rahman dynamics

  19. Dynamic magnetic hysteresis behavior and dynamic phase transition in the spin-1 Blume-Capel model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deviren, Bayram, E-mail: bayram.deviren@nevsehir.edu.tr [Department of Physics, Nevsehir University, 50300 Nevsehir (Turkey); Keskin, Mustafa [Department of Physics, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)

    2012-03-15

    The nature (time variation) of response magnetization m(wt) of the spin-1 Blume-Capel model in the presence of a periodically varying external magnetic field h(wt) is studied by employing the effective-field theory (EFT) with correlations as well as the Glauber-type stochastic dynamics. We determine the time variations of m(wt) and h(wt) for various temperatures, and investigate the dynamic magnetic hysteresis behavior. We also investigate the temperature dependence of the dynamic magnetization, hysteresis loop area and correlation near the transition point in order to characterize the nature (first- or second-order) of the dynamic transitions as well as obtain the dynamic phase transition temperatures. The hysteresis loops are obtained for different reduced temperatures and we find that the areas of the loops are decreasing with the increasing of the reduced temperatures. We also present the dynamic phase diagrams and compare the results of the EFT with the results of the dynamic mean-field approximation. The phase diagrams exhibit many dynamic critical points, such as tricritical ( Bullet ), zero-temperature critical (Z), triple (TP) and multicritical (A) points. According to values of Hamiltonian parameters, besides the paramagnetic (P), ferromagnetic (F) fundamental phases, one coexistence or mixed phase region, (F+P) and the reentrant behavior exist in the system. The results are in good agreement with some experimental and theoretical results. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Kinetic spin-1 Blume-Capel model is studied using the effective-field theory. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigated the dynamic magnetic hysteresis behavior. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dynamic magnetization, hysteresis loop area and correlation are investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer System exhibits tricritical, zero-temperature, triple and multicritical points. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We present the dynamic phase diagrams and compare the results of the EFT

  20. Dynamical Detection of Topological Phase Transitions in Short-Lived Atomic Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Setiawan, F.; Sengupta, K.; Spielman, I. B.; Sau, Jay D.

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate that dynamical probes provide direct means of detecting the topological phase transition (TPT) between conventional and topological phases, which would otherwise be difficult to access because of loss or heating processes. We propose to avoid such heating by rapidly quenching in and out of the short-lived topological phase across the transition that supports gapless excitations. Following the quench, the distribution of excitations in the final conventional phase carries signat...

  1. Topological phase transition in the quench dynamics of a one-dimensional Fermi gas

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Pei; Yi, Wei; Xianlong, Gao

    2014-01-01

    We study the quench dynamics of a one-dimensional ultracold Fermi gas in an optical lattice potential with synthetic spin-orbit coupling. At equilibrium, the ground state of the system can undergo a topological phase transition and become a topological superfluid with Majorana edge states. As the interaction is quenched near the topological phase boundary, we identify an interesting dynamical phase transition of the quenched state in the long-time limit, characterized by an abrupt change of t...

  2. Dynamic Phase Transitions In The Spin-2 Ising System Under An Oscillating Magnetic Field Within The Effective-Field Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ertas, Mehmet; Keskin, Mustafa; Deviren, Bayram

    2010-01-01

    The dynamic phase transitions are studied in the spin-2 Ising model under a time-dependent oscillating magnetic field by using the effective-field theory with correlations. The effective-field dynamic equation is derived by employing the Glauber transition rates and the phases in the system are obtained by solving this dynamic equation. The nature (first- or second-order) of the dynamic phase transition is characterized by investigating the thermal behavior of the dynamic order parameter and the dynamic phase transition temperatures are obtained. The dynamic phase diagrams are presented in (T/zJ, h/zJ) plane.

  3. Dynamic phase transition in diffusion-limited reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tauber, U.C.

    2002-01-01

    Many non-equilibrium systems display dynamic phase transitions from active to absorbing states, where fluctuations cease entirely. Based on a field theory representation of the master equation, the critical behavior can be analyzed by means of the renormalization group. The resulting universality classes for single-species systems are reviewed here. Generically, the critical exponents are those of directed percolation (Reggeon field theory), with critical dimension d c = 4. Yet local particle number parity conservation in even-offspring branching and annihilating random walks implies an inactive phase (emerging below d c = 4/3) that is characterized by the power laws of the pair annihilation reaction, and leads to different critical exponents at the transition. For local processes without memory, the pair contact process with diffusion represents the only other non-trivial universality class. The consistent treatment of restricted site occupations and quenched random reaction rates are important open issues (Author)

  4. Topological phase transition in the quench dynamics of a one-dimensional Fermi gas with spin–orbit coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Pei; Yi, Wei; Xianlong, Gao

    2015-01-01

    We study the quench dynamics of a one-dimensional ultracold Fermi gas with synthetic spin-orbit coupling. At equilibrium, the ground state of the system can undergo a topological phase transition and become a topological superfluid with Majorana edge states. As the interaction is quenched near the topological phase boundary, we identify an interesting dynamical phase transition of the quenched state in the long-time limit, characterized by an abrupt change of the pairing gap at a critical quenched interaction strength. We further demonstrate the topological nature of this dynamical phase transition from edge-state analysis of the quenched states. Our findings provide interesting clues for the understanding of topological phase transitions in dynamical processes, and can be useful for the dynamical detection of Majorana edge states in corresponding systems. (paper)

  5. Topological phase transition in the quench dynamics of a one-dimensional Fermi gas with spin-orbit coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pei; Yi, Wei; Xianlong, Gao

    2015-01-01

    We study the quench dynamics of a one-dimensional ultracold Fermi gas with synthetic spin-orbit coupling. At equilibrium, the ground state of the system can undergo a topological phase transition and become a topological superfluid with Majorana edge states. As the interaction is quenched near the topological phase boundary, we identify an interesting dynamical phase transition of the quenched state in the long-time limit, characterized by an abrupt change of the pairing gap at a critical quenched interaction strength. We further demonstrate the topological nature of this dynamical phase transition from edge-state analysis of the quenched states. Our findings provide interesting clues for the understanding of topological phase transitions in dynamical processes, and can be useful for the dynamical detection of Majorana edge states in corresponding systems.

  6. Quantum phase transition and quench dynamics in the anisotropic Rabi model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Li-Tuo; Yang, Zhen-Biao; Wu, Huai-Zhi; Zheng, Shi-Biao

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the quantum phase transition (QPT) and quench dynamics in the anisotropic Rabi model when the ratio of the qubit transition frequency to the oscillator frequency approaches infinity. Based on the Schrieffer-Wolff transformation, we find an anti-Hermitian operator that maps the original Hamiltonian into a one-dimensional oscillator Hamiltonian within the spin-down subspace. We analytically derive the eigenenergy and eigenstate of the normal and superradiant phases and demonstrate that the system undergoes a second-order quantum phase transition at a critical border. The critical border is a straight line in a two-dimensional parameter space which essentially extends the dimensionality of QPT in the Rabi model. By combining the Kibble-Zurek mechanism and the adiabatic dynamics method, we find that the residual energy vanishes as the quench time tends to zero, which is a sharp contrast to the universal scaling where the residual energy diverges in the same limit.

  7. Dynamic phase transition in the kinetic spin-3/2 Blume-Emery-Griffiths model in an oscillating field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canko, Osman; Deviren, Bayram; Keskin, Mustafa [Department of Physics, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)

    2006-07-26

    The dynamic phase transitions are studied, within a mean-field approach, in the kinetic Blume-Emery-Griffiths model under the presence of a time varying (sinusoidal) magnetic field by using the Glauber-type stochastic dynamics. The behaviour of the time-dependence of the order parameters and the behaviour of the average order parameters in a period, which is also called the dynamic order parameters, as a function of reduced temperature, are investigated. The nature (continuous and discontinuous) of transition is characterized by studying the average order parameters in a period. The dynamic phase transition points are obtained and the phase diagrams are presented in the reduced magnetic field amplitude and reduced temperature plane. The phase diagrams exhibit one, two, or three dynamic tricritical points and a dynamic double critical end point, and besides a disordered and two ordered phases, seven coexistence phase regions exist, which strongly depend on interaction parameters. We also calculate the Liapunov exponent to verify the stability of solutions and the dynamic phase transition points.

  8. Dynamic phase transition in the kinetic spin-3/2 Blume-Emery-Griffiths model in an oscillating field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canko, Osman; Deviren, Bayram; Keskin, Mustafa

    2006-01-01

    The dynamic phase transitions are studied, within a mean-field approach, in the kinetic Blume-Emery-Griffiths model under the presence of a time varying (sinusoidal) magnetic field by using the Glauber-type stochastic dynamics. The behaviour of the time-dependence of the order parameters and the behaviour of the average order parameters in a period, which is also called the dynamic order parameters, as a function of reduced temperature, are investigated. The nature (continuous and discontinuous) of transition is characterized by studying the average order parameters in a period. The dynamic phase transition points are obtained and the phase diagrams are presented in the reduced magnetic field amplitude and reduced temperature plane. The phase diagrams exhibit one, two, or three dynamic tricritical points and a dynamic double critical end point, and besides a disordered and two ordered phases, seven coexistence phase regions exist, which strongly depend on interaction parameters. We also calculate the Liapunov exponent to verify the stability of solutions and the dynamic phase transition points

  9. Monte Carlo study of dynamic phase transition in Ising metamagnet driven by oscillating magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acharyya, Muktish

    2011-01-01

    The dynamical responses of Ising metamagnet (layered antiferromagnet) in the presence of a sinusoidally oscillating magnetic field are studied by Monte Carlo simulation. The time average staggered magnetisation plays the role of dynamic order parameter. A dynamical phase transition was observed and a phase diagram was plotted in the plane formed by field amplitude and temperature. The dynamical phase boundary is observed to shrink inward as the relative antiferromagnetic strength decreases. The results are compared with that obtained from pure ferromagnetic system. The shape of dynamic phase boundary observed to be qualitatively similar to that obtained from previous meanfield calculations. - Highlights: → The time average staggered magnetisation plays the role of dynamic order parameter. → A dynamical phase transition was observed and a phase diagram was plotted in the plane formed by field amplitude and temperature. → The dynamical phase boundary is observed to shrink inward as the relative antiferromagnetic strength decreases. → The results are compared with that obtained from pure ferromagnetic system. → The shape of dynamic phase boundary observed to be qualitatively similar to that obtained from previous meanfield calculation.

  10. Direct Observation of Dynamical Quantum Phase Transitions in an Interacting Many-Body System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurcevic, P; Shen, H; Hauke, P; Maier, C; Brydges, T; Hempel, C; Lanyon, B P; Heyl, M; Blatt, R; Roos, C F

    2017-08-25

    The theory of phase transitions represents a central concept for the characterization of equilibrium matter. In this work we study experimentally an extension of this theory to the nonequilibrium dynamical regime termed dynamical quantum phase transitions (DQPTs). We investigate and measure DQPTs in a string of ions simulating interacting transverse-field Ising models. During the nonequilibrium dynamics induced by a quantum quench we show for strings of up to 10 ions the direct detection of DQPTs by revealing nonanalytic behavior in time. Moreover, we provide a link between DQPTs and the dynamics of other quantities such as the magnetization, and we establish a connection between DQPTs and entanglement production.

  11. Direct Observation of Dynamical Quantum Phase Transitions in an Interacting Many-Body System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurcevic, P.; Shen, H.; Hauke, P.; Maier, C.; Brydges, T.; Hempel, C.; Lanyon, B. P.; Heyl, M.; Blatt, R.; Roos, C. F.

    2017-08-01

    The theory of phase transitions represents a central concept for the characterization of equilibrium matter. In this work we study experimentally an extension of this theory to the nonequilibrium dynamical regime termed dynamical quantum phase transitions (DQPTs). We investigate and measure DQPTs in a string of ions simulating interacting transverse-field Ising models. During the nonequilibrium dynamics induced by a quantum quench we show for strings of up to 10 ions the direct detection of DQPTs by revealing nonanalytic behavior in time. Moreover, we provide a link between DQPTs and the dynamics of other quantities such as the magnetization, and we establish a connection between DQPTs and entanglement production.

  12. Phase transition dynamics in ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csernai, L.P.; Zabrodin, E.E.; Moscow State Univ.

    1993-01-01

    We investigate various problems related to the dynamics of a first-order phase transition from quarkgluon plasma to hadronic matter in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions. These include nucleation, growth and fusion of hadronic bubbles in either the Bjorken longitudinal hydrodynamic expansion model or the Cooper-Frye-Schonberg spherical hydrodynamic expansion model. With reasonable input parameters the conversion of one phase into the other is relatively close to the idealized adiabatic Maxwell construction, although one can choose parameters such that the conversion is strongly out of equilibrium. (orig.)

  13. Phase transition dynamics in ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csernai, L.P.; Kapusta, J.I.; Kluge, Gy.; Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest; Zabrodin, E.E.; Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ., Moscow

    1992-12-01

    Various problems were investigated concerning the dynamics of a first-order phase transition from quark-gluon plasma to hadronic matter in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions. These include nucleation, growth and fusion of hadronic bubbles in either the Bjorken longitudinal hydrodynamic expansion model or the Cooper-Frye-Schonberg spherical hydrodynamic expansion model. With reasonable input parameters the conversion of one phase into the other is relatively close to the idealized adiabatic Maxwell construction, although one can choose parameters such that the conversion is strongly out of equilibrium. (author) 10 refs.; 7 figs

  14. Phase transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Sole, Ricard V; Solé, Ricard V; Solé, Ricard V; Sol, Ricard V; Solé, Ricard V

    2011-01-01

    Phase transitions--changes between different states of organization in a complex system--have long helped to explain physics concepts, such as why water freezes into a solid or boils to become a gas. How might phase transitions shed light on important problems in biological and ecological complex systems? Exploring the origins and implications of sudden changes in nature and society, Phase Transitions examines different dynamical behaviors in a broad range of complex systems. Using a compelling set of examples, from gene networks and ant colonies to human language and the degradation of diverse ecosystems, the book illustrates the power of simple models to reveal how phase transitions occur. Introductory chapters provide the critical concepts and the simplest mathematical techniques required to study phase transitions. In a series of example-driven chapters, Ricard Solé shows how such concepts and techniques can be applied to the analysis and prediction of complex system behavior, including the origins of ...

  15. Wigner's dynamical transition state theory in phase space : classical and quantum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waalkens, Holger; Schubert, Roman; Wiggins, Stephen

    We develop Wigner's approach to a dynamical transition state theory in phase space in both the classical and quantum mechanical settings. The key to our development is the construction of a normal form for describing the dynamics in the neighbourhood of a specific type of saddle point that governs

  16. Ultrafast dynamics during the photoinduced phase transition in VO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegkamp, Daniel; Stähler, Julia

    2015-12-01

    The phase transition of VO2 from a monoclinic insulator to a rutile metal, which occurs thermally at TC = 340 K, can also be driven by strong photoexcitation. The ultrafast dynamics during this photoinduced phase transition (PIPT) have attracted great scientific attention for decades, as this approach promises to answer the question of whether the insulator-to-metal (IMT) transition is caused by electronic or crystallographic processes through disentanglement of the different contributions in the time domain. We review our recent results achieved by femtosecond time-resolved photoelectron, optical, and coherent phonon spectroscopy and discuss them within the framework of a selection of latest, complementary studies of the ultrafast PIPT in VO2. We show that the population change of electrons and holes caused by photoexcitation launches a highly non-equilibrium plasma phase characterized by enhanced screening due to quasi-free carriers and followed by two branches of non-equilibrium dynamics: (i) an instantaneous (within the time resolution) collapse of the insulating gap that precedes charge carrier relaxation and significant ionic motion and (ii) an instantaneous lattice potential symmetry change that represents the onset of the crystallographic phase transition through ionic motion on longer timescales. We discuss the interconnection between these two non-thermal pathways with particular focus on the meaning of the critical fluence of the PIPT in different types of experiments. Based on this, we conclude that the PIPT threshold identified in optical experiments is most probably determined by the excitation density required to drive the lattice potential change rather than the IMT. These considerations suggest that the IMT can be driven by weaker excitation, predicting a transiently metallic, monoclinic state of VO2 that is not stabilized by the non-thermal structural transition and, thus, decays on ultrafast timescales.

  17. Effective field theory with differential operator technique for dynamic phase transition in ferromagnetic Ising model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, Takehiro; Fujiyama, Shinya; Idogaki, Toshihiro; Tokita, Masahiko

    2009-01-01

    The non-equilibrium phase transition in a ferromagnetic Ising model is investigated by use of a new type of effective field theory (EFT) which correctly accounts for all the single-site kinematic relations by differential operator technique. In the presence of a time dependent oscillating external field, with decrease of the temperature the system undergoes a dynamic phase transition, which is characterized by the period averaged magnetization Q, from a dynamically disordered state Q = 0 to the dynamically ordered state Q ≠ 0. The results of the dynamic phase transition point T c determined from the behavior of the dynamic magnetization and the Liapunov exponent provided by EFT are improved than that of the standard mean field theory (MFT), especially for the one dimensional lattice where the standard MFT gives incorrect result of T c = 0 even in the case of zero external field.

  18. Liquid-gas phase transition in hot nuclei: correlation between dynamical and thermodynamical signals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivet, M.F.; Borderie, B.; Desesquelles, P.; Galichet, E. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, IN2P3-CNRS, 91 - Orsay (France); Bougault, R.; Le Neindre, N. [Caen Univ, LPC, IN2P3-CNRS, ISMRA, 14 - Caen (France); Galichet, E. [Conservatoire National des Arts et Metiers, 75 - Paris (France); Guiot, B.; Wieleczko, J.P. [GANIL, CEA et IN2P3-CNRS, 14 - Caen (France); Parlog, M.; Tabacaru, G. [Nat. Inst. for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania)

    2003-07-01

    The dynamics and thermodynamics of phase transition in hot nuclei are studied through experimental results on multifragmentation of heavy systems (A(projectile) + A(target) > 200) formed in central heavy ion collisions. Different signals such as negative heat capacity and spinodal decomposition, indicative of a phase transition studied in the INDRA collaboration are presented and their consistency is stressed. (authors)

  19. Dynamical quantum phase transitions in extended transverse Ising models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Sourav; Dutta, Amit

    2018-04-01

    We study the dynamical quantum phase transitions (DQPTs) manifested in the subsequent unitary dynamics of an extended Ising model with an additional three spin interactions following a sudden quench. Revisiting the equilibrium phase diagram of the model, where different quantum phases are characterized by different winding numbers, we show that in some situations the winding number may not change across a gap closing point in the energy spectrum. Although, usually there exists a one-to-one correspondence between the change in winding number and the number of critical time scales associated with DQPTs, we show that the extended nature of interactions may lead to unusual situations. Importantly, we show that in the limit of the cluster Ising model, three critical modes associated with DQPTs become degenerate, thereby leading to a single critical time scale for a given sector of Fisher zeros.

  20. Non-equilibrium phase transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Henkel, Malte; Lübeck, Sven

    2009-01-01

    This book describes two main classes of non-equilibrium phase-transitions: (a) static and dynamics of transitions into an absorbing state, and (b) dynamical scaling in far-from-equilibrium relaxation behaviour and ageing. The first volume begins with an introductory chapter which recalls the main concepts of phase-transitions, set for the convenience of the reader in an equilibrium context. The extension to non-equilibrium systems is made by using directed percolation as the main paradigm of absorbing phase transitions and in view of the richness of the known results an entire chapter is devoted to it, including a discussion of recent experimental results. Scaling theories and a large set of both numerical and analytical methods for the study of non-equilibrium phase transitions are thoroughly discussed. The techniques used for directed percolation are then extended to other universality classes and many important results on model parameters are provided for easy reference.

  1. Quantum phase transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sachdev, S.

    1999-01-01

    Phase transitions are normally associated with changes of temperature but a new type of transition - caused by quantum fluctuations near absolute zero - is possible, and can tell us more about the properties of a wide range of systems in condensed-matter physics. Nature abounds with phase transitions. The boiling and freezing of water are everyday examples of phase transitions, as are more exotic processes such as superconductivity and superfluidity. The universe itself is thought to have passed through several phase transitions as the high-temperature plasma formed by the big bang cooled to form the world as we know it today. Phase transitions are traditionally classified as first or second order. In first-order transitions the two phases co-exist at the transition temperature - e.g. ice and water at 0 deg., or water and steam at 100 deg. In second-order transitions the two phases do not co-exist. In the last decade, attention has focused on phase transitions that are qualitatively different from the examples noted above: these are quantum phase transitions and they occur only at the absolute zero of temperature. The transition takes place at the ''quantum critical'' value of some other parameter such as pressure, composition or magnetic field strength. A quantum phase transition takes place when co-operative ordering of the system disappears, but this loss of order is driven solely by the quantum fluctuations demanded by Heisenberg's uncertainty principle. The physical properties of these quantum fluctuations are quite distinct from those of the thermal fluctuations responsible for traditional, finite-temperature phase transitions. In particular, the quantum system is described by a complex-valued wavefunction, and the dynamics of its phase near the quantum critical point requires novel theories that have no analogue in the traditional framework of phase transitions. In this article the author describes the history of quantum phase transitions. (UK)

  2. Phase transition and mechanical properties of tungsten nanomaterials from molecular dynamic simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, L.; Fan, J. L.; Gong, H. R., E-mail: gonghr@csu.edu.cn [Central South University, State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy (China)

    2017-03-15

    Molecular dynamic simulation is used to systematically find out the effects of the size and shape of nanoparticles on phase transition and mechanical properties of W nanomaterials. It is revealed that the body-centered cubic (BCC) to face-centered cubic (FCC) phase transition could only happen in cubic nanoparticles of W, instead of the shapes of sphere, octahedron, and rhombic dodecahedron, and that the critical number to trigger the phase transition is 5374 atoms. Simulation also shows that the FCC nanocrystalline W should be prevented due to its much lower tensile strength than its BCC counterpart and that the octahedral and rhombic dodecahedral nanoparticles of W, rather than the cubic nanoparticles, should be preferred in terms of phase transition and mechanical properties. The derived results are discussed extensively through comparing with available observations in the literature to provide a deep understanding of W nanomaterials.

  3. Trajectory phase transitions and dynamical Lee-Yang zeros of the Glauber-Ising chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, James M; Flindt, Christian; Garrahan, Juan P

    2013-07-01

    We examine the generating function of the time-integrated energy for the one-dimensional Glauber-Ising model. At long times, the generating function takes on a large-deviation form and the associated cumulant generating function has singularities corresponding to continuous trajectory (or "space-time") phase transitions between paramagnetic trajectories and ferromagnetically or antiferromagnetically ordered trajectories. In the thermodynamic limit, the singularities make up a whole curve of critical points in the complex plane of the counting field. We evaluate analytically the generating function by mapping the generator of the biased dynamics to a non-Hermitian Hamiltonian of an associated quantum spin chain. We relate the trajectory phase transitions to the high-order cumulants of the time-integrated energy which we use to extract the dynamical Lee-Yang zeros of the generating function. This approach offers the possibility to detect continuous trajectory phase transitions from the finite-time behavior of measurable quantities.

  4. Decoherence in a dynamical quantum phase transition of the transverse Ising chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostame, Sarah; Schaller, Gernot; Schuetzhold, Ralf

    2007-01-01

    For the prototypical example of the Ising chain in a transverse field, we study the impact of decoherence on the sweep through a second-order quantum phase transition. Apart from the advance in the general understanding of the dynamics of quantum phase transitions, these findings are relevant for adiabatic quantum algorithms due to the similarities between them. It turns out that (in contrast to first-order transitions studied previously) the impact of decoherence caused by a weak coupling to a rather general environment increases with system size (i.e., number of spins or qubits), which might limit the scalability of the system

  5. Dynamic phase transitions and dynamic phase diagrams in the kinetic spin-5/2 Blume–Capel model in an oscillating external magnetic field: Effective-field theory and the Glauber-type stochastic dynamics approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ertaş, Mehmet; Keskin, Mustafa; Deviren, Bayram

    2012-01-01

    Using an effective field theory with correlations, we study a kinetic spin-5/2 Blume–Capel model with bilinear exchange interaction and single-ion crystal field on a square lattice. The effective-field dynamic equation is derived by employing the Glauber transition rates. First, the phases in the kinetic system are obtained by solving this dynamic equation. Then, the thermal behavior of the dynamic magnetization, the hysteresis loop area and correlation are investigated in order to characterize the nature of the dynamic transitions and to obtain dynamic phase transition temperatures. Finally, we present the phase diagrams in two planes, namely (T/zJ, h 0 /zJ) and (T/zJ, D/zJ), where T absolute temperature, h 0 , the amplitude of the oscillating field, D, crystal field interaction or single-ion anisotropy constant and z denotes the nearest-neighbor sites of the central site. The phase diagrams exhibit four fundamental phases and ten mixed phases which are composed of binary, ternary and tetrad combination of fundamental phases, depending on the crystal field interaction parameter. Moreover, the phase diagrams contain a dynamic tricritical point (T), a double critical end point (B), a multicritical point (A) and zero-temperature critical point (Z). - Highlights: ► The effective-field theory is used to study the kinetic spin-5/2 Ising Blume–Capel model. ► Time variations of average order parameter have been studied to find phases in the system. ► The dynamic magnetization, hysteresis loop area and correlation have been calculated. ► The dynamic phase boundaries of the system depend on D/zJ. ► The dynamic phase diagrams are presented in the (T/zJ, h 0 /zJ) and (D/zJ, T/zJ) planes.

  6. Dynamic phase transitions and dynamic phase diagrams in the kinetic spin-5/2 Blume-Capel model in an oscillating external magnetic field: Effective-field theory and the Glauber-type stochastic dynamics approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ertas, Mehmet [Department of Physics, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey); Keskin, Mustafa, E-mail: keskin@erciyes.edu.tr [Department of Physics, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey); Deviren, Bayram [Department of Physics, Nevsehir University, 50300 Nevsehir (Turkey)

    2012-04-15

    Using an effective field theory with correlations, we study a kinetic spin-5/2 Blume-Capel model with bilinear exchange interaction and single-ion crystal field on a square lattice. The effective-field dynamic equation is derived by employing the Glauber transition rates. First, the phases in the kinetic system are obtained by solving this dynamic equation. Then, the thermal behavior of the dynamic magnetization, the hysteresis loop area and correlation are investigated in order to characterize the nature of the dynamic transitions and to obtain dynamic phase transition temperatures. Finally, we present the phase diagrams in two planes, namely (T/zJ, h{sub 0}/zJ) and (T/zJ, D/zJ), where T absolute temperature, h{sub 0}, the amplitude of the oscillating field, D, crystal field interaction or single-ion anisotropy constant and z denotes the nearest-neighbor sites of the central site. The phase diagrams exhibit four fundamental phases and ten mixed phases which are composed of binary, ternary and tetrad combination of fundamental phases, depending on the crystal field interaction parameter. Moreover, the phase diagrams contain a dynamic tricritical point (T), a double critical end point (B), a multicritical point (A) and zero-temperature critical point (Z). - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effective-field theory is used to study the kinetic spin-5/2 Ising Blume-Capel model. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Time variations of average order parameter have been studied to find phases in the system. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The dynamic magnetization, hysteresis loop area and correlation have been calculated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The dynamic phase boundaries of the system depend on D/zJ. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The dynamic phase diagrams are presented in the (T/zJ, h{sub 0}/zJ) and (D/zJ, T/zJ) planes.

  7. The excitonic insulator route through a dynamical phase transition induced by an optical pulse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brazovskii, S., E-mail: brazov@lptms.u-psud.fr [Université Paris-Saclay, LPTMS, CNRS, Univ. Paris-sud (France); Kirova, N. [Université Paris-Saclay, LPS, CNRS, Univ. Paris-sud (France)

    2016-03-15

    We consider a dynamical phase transition induced by a short optical pulse in a system prone to thermodynamical instability. We address the case of pumping to excitons whose density contributes directly to the order parameter. To describe both thermodynamic and dynamic effects on equal footing, we adopt a view of the excitonic insulator for the phase transition and suggest a formation of the Bose condensate for the pumped excitons. The work is motivated by experiments in donor–acceptor organic compounds with a neutral- ionic phase transition coupled to the spontaneous lattice dimerization and to charge transfer excitons. The double nature of the ensemble of excitons leads to an intricate time evolution, in particular, to macroscopic quantum oscillations from the interference between the Bose condensate of excitons and the ground state of the excitonic insulator. The coupling of excitons and the order parameter also leads to self-trapping of their wave function, akin to self-focusing in optics. The locally enhanced density of excitons can surpass a critical value to trigger the phase transformation, even if the mean density is below the required threshold. The system is stratified in domains that evolve through dynamical phase transitions and sequences of merging. The new circumstances in experiments and theory bring to life, once again, some remarkable inventions made by L.V. Keldysh.

  8. Phase transition dynamics in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csernai, L.P.; Kapusta, J.I.; Kluge, G.Y.; Zabrodin, E.E.

    1992-11-01

    The authors investigate various problems related to the dynamics of a first-order phase transition from quark-gluon plasma to hadronic matter in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions. These include nucleation, growth and fusion of hadronic bubbles in either the Bjorken longitudinal hydrodynamic expansion model or the Cooper-Frye-Schonberg spherical hydrodynamic expansion model. With reasonable input parameters the conversion of one phase into the other is relatively close to the idealized adiabatic Maxwell construction, although one can choose parameters such that the conversion is strongly out of equilibrium. 10 refs., 7 figs

  9. Signals for the QCD phase transition and critical point in a Langevin dynamical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herold, Christoph; Bleicher, Marcus; Yan, Yu-Peng

    2013-01-01

    The search for the critical point is one of the central issues that will be investigated in the upcoming FAIR project. For a profound theoretical understanding of the expected signals we go beyond thermodynamic studies and present a fully dynamical model for the chiral and deconfinement phase transition in heavy ion collisions. The corresponding order parameters are propagated by Langevin equations of motions on a thermal background provided by a fluid dynamically expanding plasma of quarks. By that we are able to describe nonequilibrium effects occurring during the rapid expansion of a hot fireball. For an evolution through the phase transition the formation of a supercooled phase and its subsequent decay crucially influence the trajectories in the phase diagram and lead to a significant reheating of the quark medium at highest baryon densities. Furthermore, we find inhomogeneous structures with high density domains along the first order transition line within single events.

  10. Martensitic phase transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petry, W.; Neuhaus, J.

    1996-01-01

    Many elements transform from a high temperature bcc phase to a more dense packed temperature phase. The great majority of these transitions are of 1st order, displacive and reconstructive. The lattice potentials which govern these martensitic transitions can be probed by inelastic neutron scattering, thereby answering fundamental questions like : Will the transition be announced by dynamical or static fluctuations? What are the trajectories for the displacements needed for the transformation? Does the vibrational entropy stabilize the high temperature phase? Are the unusual transport properties in these materials related to their ability to transform? (author) 17 figs., 1 tab., 46 refs

  11. Martensitic phase transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petry, W; Neuhaus, J [Techn. Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department E13, Munich (Germany)

    1996-11-01

    Many elements transform from a high temperature bcc phase to a more dense packed temperature phase. The great majority of these transitions are of 1st order, displacive and reconstructive. The lattice potentials which govern these martensitic transitions can be probed by inelastic neutron scattering, thereby answering fundamental questions like : Will the transition be announced by dynamical or static fluctuations? What are the trajectories for the displacements needed for the transformation? Does the vibrational entropy stabilize the high temperature phase? Are the unusual transport properties in these materials related to their ability to transform? (author) 17 figs., 1 tab., 46 refs.

  12. Dynamical Detection of Topological Phase Transitions in Short-Lived Atomic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiawan, F.; Sengupta, K.; Spielman, I. B.; Sau, Jay D.

    2015-11-01

    We demonstrate that dynamical probes provide direct means of detecting the topological phase transition (TPT) between conventional and topological phases, which would otherwise be difficult to access because of loss or heating processes. We propose to avoid such heating by rapidly quenching in and out of the short-lived topological phase across the transition that supports gapless excitations. Following the quench, the distribution of excitations in the final conventional phase carries signatures of the TPT. We apply this strategy to study the TPT into a Majorana-carrying topological phase predicted in one-dimensional spin-orbit-coupled Fermi gases with attractive interactions. The resulting spin-resolved momentum distribution, computed by self-consistently solving the time-dependent Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations, exhibits Kibble-Zurek scaling and Stückelberg oscillations characteristic of the TPT. We discuss parameter regimes where the TPT is experimentally accessible.

  13. Differential dynamic optical microscopy for the characterization of soft matter: liquid crystal dynamics, volume phase transition of hydrogels, and phase transition of binary mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Beom-Jin; Park, Jung Ok; Srinivasarao, Mohan; Smith, Michael H.; Lyon, L. Andrew

    2011-03-01

    The structure and dynamics of soft matter were studied by differential dynamic optical microscopy. One can retrieve q-space information through image processing and Fourier analysis, even when the feature sizes in real space image are too small to be resolved or even visible in an optical microscope. The temporal sequence of real space images were Fourier transformed, and analyzed for the temporal and spatial fluctuations of power spectrum. Here, we present the results on liquid crystal dynamics and their elastic properties, volume phase transition of hydrogels when their dimensions are sub-micron, and critical opalescence of binary mixtures (water/2,6-lutidine).

  14. Generic dynamical phase transition in one-dimensional bulk-driven lattice gases with exclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarescu, Alexandre

    2017-06-01

    Dynamical phase transitions are crucial features of the fluctuations of statistical systems, corresponding to boundaries between qualitatively different mechanisms of maintaining unlikely values of dynamical observables over long periods of time. They manifest themselves in the form of non-analyticities in the large deviation function of those observables. In this paper, we look at bulk-driven exclusion processes with open boundaries. It is known that the standard asymmetric simple exclusion process exhibits a dynamical phase transition in the large deviations of the current of particles flowing through it. That phase transition has been described thanks to specific calculation methods relying on the model being exactly solvable, but more general methods have also been used to describe the extreme large deviations of that current, far from the phase transition. We extend those methods to a large class of models based on the ASEP, where we add arbitrary spatial inhomogeneities in the rates and short-range potentials between the particles. We show that, as for the regular ASEP, the large deviation function of the current scales differently with the size of the system if one considers very high or very low currents, pointing to the existence of a dynamical phase transition between those two regimes: high current large deviations are extensive in the system size, and the typical states associated to them are Coulomb gases, which are highly correlated; low current large deviations do not depend on the system size, and the typical states associated to them are anti-shocks, consistently with a hydrodynamic behaviour. Finally, we illustrate our results numerically on a simple example, and we interpret the transition in terms of the current pushing beyond its maximal hydrodynamic value, as well as relate it to the appearance of Tracy-Widom distributions in the relaxation statistics of such models. , which features invited work from the best early-career researchers working

  15. Quantum trajectory phase transitions in the micromaser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrahan, Juan P; Armour, Andrew D; Lesanovsky, Igor

    2011-08-01

    We study the dynamics of the single-atom maser, or micromaser, by means of the recently introduced method of thermodynamics of quantum jump trajectories. We find that the dynamics of the micromaser displays multiple space-time phase transitions, i.e., phase transitions in ensembles of quantum jump trajectories. This rich dynamical phase structure becomes apparent when trajectories are classified by dynamical observables that quantify dynamical activity, such as the number of atoms that have changed state while traversing the cavity. The space-time transitions can be either first order or continuous, and are controlled not just by standard parameters of the micromaser but also by nonequilibrium "counting" fields. We discuss how the dynamical phase behavior relates to the better known stationary-state properties of the micromaser.

  16. Dynamic phase transitions of the Blume–Emery–Griffiths model under an oscillating external magnetic field by the path probability method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ertaş, Mehmet, E-mail: mehmetertas@erciyes.edu.tr; Keskin, Mustafa

    2015-03-01

    By using the path probability method (PPM) with point distribution, we study the dynamic phase transitions (DPTs) in the Blume–Emery–Griffiths (BEG) model under an oscillating external magnetic field. The phases in the model are obtained by solving the dynamic equations for the average order parameters and a disordered phase, ordered phase and four mixed phases are found. We also investigate the thermal behavior of the dynamic order parameters to analyze the nature dynamic transitions as well as to obtain the DPT temperatures. The dynamic phase diagrams are presented in three different planes in which exhibit the dynamic tricritical point, double critical end point, critical end point, quadrupole point, triple point as well as the reentrant behavior, strongly depending on the values of the system parameters. We compare and discuss the dynamic phase diagrams with dynamic phase diagrams that were obtained within the Glauber-type stochastic dynamics based on the mean-field theory. - Highlights: • Dynamic magnetic behavior of the Blume–Emery–Griffiths system is investigated by using the path probability method. • The time variations of average magnetizations are studied to find the phases. • The temperature dependence of the dynamic magnetizations is investigated to obtain the dynamic phase transition points. • We compare and discuss the dynamic phase diagrams with dynamic phase diagrams that were obtained within the Glauber-type stochastic dynamics based on the mean-field theory.

  17. Dynamic phase transitions of the Blume–Emery–Griffiths model under an oscillating external magnetic field by the path probability method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ertaş, Mehmet; Keskin, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    By using the path probability method (PPM) with point distribution, we study the dynamic phase transitions (DPTs) in the Blume–Emery–Griffiths (BEG) model under an oscillating external magnetic field. The phases in the model are obtained by solving the dynamic equations for the average order parameters and a disordered phase, ordered phase and four mixed phases are found. We also investigate the thermal behavior of the dynamic order parameters to analyze the nature dynamic transitions as well as to obtain the DPT temperatures. The dynamic phase diagrams are presented in three different planes in which exhibit the dynamic tricritical point, double critical end point, critical end point, quadrupole point, triple point as well as the reentrant behavior, strongly depending on the values of the system parameters. We compare and discuss the dynamic phase diagrams with dynamic phase diagrams that were obtained within the Glauber-type stochastic dynamics based on the mean-field theory. - Highlights: • Dynamic magnetic behavior of the Blume–Emery–Griffiths system is investigated by using the path probability method. • The time variations of average magnetizations are studied to find the phases. • The temperature dependence of the dynamic magnetizations is investigated to obtain the dynamic phase transition points. • We compare and discuss the dynamic phase diagrams with dynamic phase diagrams that were obtained within the Glauber-type stochastic dynamics based on the mean-field theory

  18. Molecular dynamics simulation of the rotational order-disorder phase transition in calcite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawano, Jun; Miyake, Akira; Shimobayashi, Norimasa; Kitamura, Masao

    2009-01-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation of calcite was carried out with the interatomic potential model based on ab initio calculations to elucidate the phase relations for calcite polymorphs and the mechanism of the rotational order-disorder transition of calcite at high temperature at the atomic scale. From runs of MD calculations with increasing temperature within a pressure range of 1 atm and 2 GPa, the transition of calcite with R3-barc symmetry into a high-temperature phase with R3-barm symmetry was reproduced. In the high-temperature R3-barm phase, CO 3 groups vibrate with large amplitudes either around the original positions in the R3-barc structure or around other positions rotated ± 60 deg., and their positions change continuously with time. Moreover, contrary to the suggestion of previous investigators, the motion of CO 3 groups is not two-dimensional. At 1 atm, the transition between R3-barc and R3-barm is first order in character. Upon increasing temperature at high pressure, however, first a first-order isosymmetric phase transition between the R3-barc phases occurs, which corresponds to the start of ± 120 deg. flipping of CO 3 groups. Then, at higher temperatures, the transition of R3-barc to R3-barm phases happens, which can be considered second order. This set of two types of transitions at elevated pressure can be characterized by the appearance of an 'intermediate' R3-barc phase between the stable region of calcite and the high-temperature R3-barm phase, which may correspond to the CaCO 3 -IV phase.

  19. Molecular dynamics simulations of nucleation and phase transitions in molecular clusters of hexafluorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, S.

    1993-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations of nucleation and phase transitions in TeF 6 and SeF 6 clusters containing 100-350 molecules were carried out. Simulations successfully reproduced the crystalline structures observed in electron diffraction studies of large clusters (containing about 10 4 molecules) of the same materials. When the clusters were cooled, they spontaneously underwent the same bcc the monoclinic phase transition in simulations as in experiment, despite the million-fold difference in the time scales involved. Other transitions observed included melting and freezing. Several new techniques based on molecular translation and orientation were introduced to identify different condensed phases, to study nucleation and phase transitions, and to define characteristic temperatures of transitions. The solid-state transition temperatures decreased with cluster size in the same way as did the melting temperature, in that the depression of transition temperature was inversely proportional to the cluster radius. Rotational melting temperatures, as inferred from the rotational diffusion of molecules, coincided with those of the solid-state transition. Nucleation in liquid-solid and bcc-monoclinic transitions started in the interior of clusters on cooling, and at the surface on heating. Transition temperatures on cooling were always lower than those on heating due to the barriers to nucleation. Linear growth rates of nuclei in freezing were an order of magnitude lower than those in the bcc-monoclinic transition. Revealing evidence about the molecular behavior associated with phase changes was found. Simulations showed the formation of the actual transition complexes along the transition pathway, i.e., the critical nuclei of the new phase. These nuclei, consisting of a few dozen molecules, were distinguishable in the midst of the surrounding matter

  20. Dynamics of Mantle Plume Controlled by both Post-spinel and Post-garnet Phase Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H.; Leng, W.

    2017-12-01

    Mineralogical studies indicate that two major phase transitions occur near 660 km depth in the Earth's pyrolitic mantle: the ringwoodite (Rw) to perovskite (Pv) + magnesiowüstite (Mw) and majorite (Mj) to perovskite (Pv) phase transitions. Seismological results also show a complicated phase boundary structure for plume regions at this depth, including broad pulse, double reflections and depressed 660 km discontinuity beneath hot regions etc… These observations have been attributed to the co-existence of these two phase transformations. However, previous geodynamical modeling mainly focused on the effects of Rw-Pv+Mw phase transition on the plume dynamics and largely neglected the effects of Mj-Pv phase transition. Here we develop a 3-D regional spherical geodynamic model to study the influence of the combination of Rw - Pv+Mw and Mj - Pv phase transitions on plume dynamics, including the topography fluctuation of 660 km discontinuity, plume shape and penetration capability of plume. Our results show that (1) a double phase boundary occurs at the hot center area of plume while for other regions with relatively lower temperature the phase boundary is single and flat, which respectively corresponds to the double reflections in the seismic observations and a high velocity prism-like structure at the top of 660 km discontinuity; (2) a large amount of low temperature plume materials could be trapped to form a complex trapezoid overlying the 660 km depth; (3) Mj - Pv phase change strongly enhances the plume penetration capability at 660 km depth, which significantly increases the plume mass flux due to the increased plume radius, but significantly reduces plume heat flux due to the decreased plume temperature in the upper mantle. Our model results provide new enlightenments for better constraining seismic structure and mineral reactions at 660 km phase boundaries.

  1. Phase transitions and dynamic entropy in small two-dimensional systems: Experiment and numerical simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koss, K. G.; Petrov, O. F.; Myasnikov, M. I., E-mail: miasnikovmi@mail.ru; Statsenko, K. B.; Vasiliev, M. M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute for High Temperatures (Russian Federation)

    2016-07-15

    The results of experimental and numerical analysis are presented for phase transitions in strongly nonequilibrium small systems of strongly interacting Brownian particles. The dynamic entropy method is applied to analysis of the state of these systems. Experiments are carried out with kinetic heating of the structures of micron-size particles in a laboratory rf discharge plasma. Three phase states of these small systems are observed: crystalline, liquid, and transient. The mechanism of phase transitions in cluster structures of strongly interacting particles is described.

  2. Dynamic phase transitions in a cylindrical Ising nanowire under a time-dependent oscillating magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deviren, Bayram; Kantar, Ersin; Keskin, Mustafa

    2012-01-01

    The dynamic phase transitions in a cylindrical Ising nanowire system under a time-dependent oscillating external magnetic field for both ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic interactions are investigated within the effective-field theory with correlations and the Glauber-type stochastic dynamics approach. The effective-field dynamic equations for the average longitudinal magnetizations on the surface shell and core are derived by employing the Glauber transition rates. Temperature dependence of the dynamic magnetizations, the dynamic total magnetization, the hysteresis loop areas and the dynamic correlations are investigated in order to characterize the nature (first- or second-order) of the dynamic transitions as well as the dynamic phase transition temperatures and the compensation behaviors. The system strongly affected by the surface situations. Some characteristic phenomena are found depending on the ratio of the physical parameters in the surface shell and the core. According to the values of Hamiltonian parameters, five different types of compensation behaviors in the Néel classification nomenclature exist in the system. The system also exhibits a reentrant behavior. - Highlights: ► The dynamic aspects of a cylindrical Ising nanowire are investigated in detail. ► The dynamic magnetizations, hysteresis loop areas and correlations are calculated. ► We studied both the FM and AFM interactions within the EFT with correlations. ► Some characteristic phenomena are found depending on the interaction parameters. ► We obtained five different types of compensation behaviors and reentrant behavior.

  3. Dynamic phase transitions in a cylindrical Ising nanowire under a time-dependent oscillating magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deviren, Bayram [Department of Physics, Nevsehir University, 50300 Nevsehir (Turkey); Kantar, Ersin [Department of Physics, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey); Keskin, Mustafa, E-mail: keskin@erciyes.edu.tr [Department of Physics, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)

    2012-07-15

    The dynamic phase transitions in a cylindrical Ising nanowire system under a time-dependent oscillating external magnetic field for both ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic interactions are investigated within the effective-field theory with correlations and the Glauber-type stochastic dynamics approach. The effective-field dynamic equations for the average longitudinal magnetizations on the surface shell and core are derived by employing the Glauber transition rates. Temperature dependence of the dynamic magnetizations, the dynamic total magnetization, the hysteresis loop areas and the dynamic correlations are investigated in order to characterize the nature (first- or second-order) of the dynamic transitions as well as the dynamic phase transition temperatures and the compensation behaviors. The system strongly affected by the surface situations. Some characteristic phenomena are found depending on the ratio of the physical parameters in the surface shell and the core. According to the values of Hamiltonian parameters, five different types of compensation behaviors in the Neel classification nomenclature exist in the system. The system also exhibits a reentrant behavior. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The dynamic aspects of a cylindrical Ising nanowire are investigated in detail. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The dynamic magnetizations, hysteresis loop areas and correlations are calculated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We studied both the FM and AFM interactions within the EFT with correlations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Some characteristic phenomena are found depending on the interaction parameters. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We obtained five different types of compensation behaviors and reentrant behavior.

  4. Phase Transitions in Geomorphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, C. P.; Jerolmack, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    Landscapes are patterns in a dynamic steady-state, due to competing processes that smooth or sharpen features over large distances and times. Geomorphic transport laws have been developed to model the mass-flux due to different processes, but are unreasonably effective at recovering the scaling relations of landscape features. Using a continuum approximation to compare experimental landscapes and the observed landscapes of the earth, one finds they share similar morphodynamics despite a breakdown of classical dynamical similarity between the two. We propose the origin of this effectiveness is a different kind of dynamic similarity in the statistics of initiation and cessation of motion of groups of grains, which is common to disordered systems of grains under external driving. We will show how the existing data of sediment transport points to common signatures with dynamical phase transitions between "mobile" and "immobile" phases in other disordered systems, particularly granular materials, colloids, and foams. Viewing landscape evolution from the lens of non-equilibrium statistical physics of disordered systems leads to predictions that the transition of bulk measurements such as particle flux is continuous from one phase to another, that the collective nature of the particle dynamics leads to very slow aging of bulk properties, and that the dynamics are history-dependent. Recent results from sediment transport experiments support these predictions, suggesting that existing geomorphic transport laws may need to be replaced by a new generation of stochastic models with ingredients based on the physics of disordered phase transitions. We discuss possible strategies for extracting the necessary information to develop these models from measurements of geomorphic transport noise by connecting particle-scale collective dynamics and space-time fluctuations over landscape features.

  5. Density Functional Theory for Phase-Ordering Transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Jianzhong [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States)

    2016-03-30

    Colloids display astonishing structural and dynamic properties that can be dramatically altered by modest changes in the solution condition or an external field. This complex behavior stems from a subtle balance of colloidal forces and intriguing mesoscopic and macroscopic phase transitions that are sensitive to the processing conditions and the dispersing environment. Whereas the knowledge on the microscopic structure and phase behavior of colloidal systems at equilibrium is now well-advanced, quantitative predictions of the dynamic properties and the kinetics of phase-ordering transitions in colloids are not always realized. Many important mesoscopic and off-equilibrium colloidal states remain poorly understood. The proposed research aims to develop a new, unifying approach to describe colloidal dynamics and the kinetics of phase-ordering transitions based on accomplishments from previous work for the equilibrium properties of both uniform and inhomogeneous systems and on novel concepts from the state-of-the-art dynamic density functional theory. In addition to theoretical developments, computational research is designed to address a number of fundamental questions on phase-ordering transitions in colloids, in particular those pertinent to a competition of the dynamic pathways leading to various mesoscopic structures, off-equilibrium states, and crystalline phases. By providing a generic theoretical framework to describe equilibrium, metastable as well as non-ergodic phase transitions concurrent with the colloidal self-assembly processes, accomplishments from this work will have major impacts on both fundamental research and technological applications.

  6. Interactions between coherent twin boundaries and phase transition of iron under dynamic loading and unloading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kun; Chen, Jun; Zhang, Xueyang; Zhu, Wenjun

    2017-09-01

    Phase transitions and deformation twins are constantly reported in many BCC metals under high pressure, whose interactions are of fundamental importance to understand the strengthening mechanism of these metals under extreme conditions. However, the interactions between twins and phase transition in BCC metals remain largely unexplored. In this work, interactions between coherent twin boundaries and α ↔ ɛ phase transition of iron are investigated using both non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations and the nudged elastic band method. Mechanisms of both twin-assisted phase transition and reverse phase transition are studied, and orientation relationships between BCC and HCP phases are found to be ⟨"separators="|11 1 ¯ ⟩ B C C||⟨"separators="|1 ¯2 1 ¯ 0 ⟩ H C P and ⟨"separators="|1 1 ¯ 0 ⟩ B C C||⟨"separators="|0001 ⟩ H C P for both cases. The twin boundary corresponds to {"separators="|10 1 ¯ 0 } H C P after the phase transition. It is amazing that the reverse transition seems to be able to "memorize" and recover the initial BCC twins. The memory would be partly lost when plastic slips take place in the HCP phase before the reverse transition. In the recovered initial BCC twins, three major twin spacings are observed, which are well explained in terms of energy barriers of transition from the HCP phase to the BCC twin. Besides, the variant selection rule of the twin assisted phase transition is also discussed. The results of present work could be expected to give some clues for producing ultra-fine grain structures in materials exhibiting martensitic phase transition.

  7. Dynamic phase transition in the kinetic spin-32 Blume-Capel model: Phase diagrams in the temperature and crystal-field interaction plane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keskin, Mustafa; Canko, Osman; Deviren, Bayram

    2007-01-01

    We analyze, within a mean-field approach, the stationary states of the kinetic spin-32 Blume-Capel (BC) model by the Glauber-type stochastic dynamics and subject to a time-dependent oscillating external magnetic field. The dynamic phase transition (DPT) points are obtained by investigating the behavior of the dynamic magnetization as a function of temperature and as well as calculating the Liapunov exponent. Phase diagrams are constructed in the temperature and crystal-field interaction plane. We find five fundamental types of phase diagrams for the different values of the reduced magnetic field amplitude parameter (h) in which they present a disordered, two ordered phases and the coexistences phase regions. The phase diagrams also exhibit a dynamic double-critical end point for 0 5.06

  8. The dynamics of the laser-induced metal-semiconductor phase transition of samarium sulfide (SmS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaempfer, Tino

    2009-01-01

    The present thesis is dedicated to the experimental study of the metal-semiconductor phase transition of samarium sulfide (SmS): Temperature- and time-resolved experiments on the characterization of the phase transition of mixed-valence SmS samples (M-SmS) are presented. The measurement of the dynamics of the laser-induced phase transition pursues via time-resolved ultrashort-time microscopy and by X-ray diffraction with sub-picosecond time resolution. The electronic and structural processes, which follow an excitation of M-SmS with infrared femtosecond laser pulses, are physically interpreted on the base of the results obtained in this thesis and model imaginations. [de

  9. Quantum critical matter. Quantum phase transitions with multiple dynamics and Weyl superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, Tobias

    2012-01-01

    In this PhD thesis, the physics of quantum critical matter and exotic quantum state close to quantum phase transitions is investigated. We will focus on three different examples that highlight some of the interesting phenomena related to quantum phase transitions. Firstly, we discuss the physics of quantum phase transitions in quantum wires as a function of an external gate voltage when new subbands are activated. We find that at these transitions, strong correlations lead to the formation of an impenetrable gas of polarons, and identify criteria for possible instabilities in the spin- and charge sectors of the model. Our analysis is based on the combination of exact resummations, renormalization group techniques and Luttinger liquid approaches. Secondly, we turn to the physics of multiple divergent time scales close to a quantum critical point. Using an appropriately generalized renormalization group approach, we identify that the presence of multiple dynamics at a quantum phase transition can lead to the emergence of new critical scaling exponents and thus to the breakdown of the usual scaling schemes. We calculate the critical behavior of various thermodynamic properties and detail how unusual physics can arise. It is hoped that these results might be helpful for the interpretation of experimental scaling puzzles close to quantum critical points. Thirdly, we turn to the physics of topological transitions, and more precisely the physics of Weyl superconductors. The latter are the superconducting variant of the topologically non-trivial Weyl semimetals, and emerge at the quantum phase transition between a topological superconductor and a normal insulator upon perturbing the transition with a time reversal symmetry breaking perturbation, such as magnetism. We characterize the topological properties of Weyl superconductors and establish a topological phase diagram for a particular realization in heterostructures. We discuss the physics of vortices in Weyl

  10. Effect of water phase transition on dynamic ruptures with thermal pressurization: Numerical simulations with changes in physical properties of water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urata, Yumi; Kuge, Keiko; Kase, Yuko

    2015-02-01

    Phase transitions of pore water have never been considered in dynamic rupture simulations with thermal pressurization (TP), although they may control TP. From numerical simulations of dynamic rupture propagation including TP, in the absence of any water phase transition process, we predict that frictional heating and TP are likely to change liquid pore water into supercritical water for a strike-slip fault under depth-dependent stress. This phase transition causes changes of a few orders of magnitude in viscosity, compressibility, and thermal expansion among physical properties of water, thus affecting the diffusion of pore pressure. Accordingly, we perform numerical simulations of dynamic ruptures with TP, considering physical properties that vary with the pressure and temperature of pore water on a fault. To observe the effects of the phase transition, we assume uniform initial stress and no fault-normal variations in fluid density and viscosity. The results suggest that the varying physical properties decrease the total slip in cases with high stress at depth and small shear zone thickness. When fault-normal variations in fluid density and viscosity are included in the diffusion equation, they activate TP much earlier than the phase transition. As a consequence, the total slip becomes greater than that in the case with constant physical properties, eradicating the phase transition effect. Varying physical properties do not affect the rupture velocity, irrespective of the fault-normal variations. Thus, the phase transition of pore water has little effect on dynamic ruptures. Fault-normal variations in fluid density and viscosity may play a more significant role.

  11. On melting dynamics and the glass transition. II. Glassy dynamics as a melting process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzakala, Florent; Zdeborová, Lenka

    2011-01-21

    There are deep analogies between the melting dynamics in systems with a first-order phase transition and the dynamics from equilibrium in super-cooled liquids. For a class of Ising spin models undergoing a first-order transition--namely p-spin models on the so-called Nishimori line--it can be shown that the melting dynamics can be exactly mapped to the equilibrium dynamics. In this mapping the dynamical--or mode-coupling--glass transition corresponds to the spinodal point, while the Kauzmann transition corresponds to the first-order phase transition itself. Both in mean field and finite dimensional models this mapping provides an exact realization of the random first-order theory scenario for the glass transition. The corresponding glassy phenomenology can then be understood in the framework of a standard first-order phase transition.

  12. Dynamic phase transition in the kinetic spin-1 Blume-Capel model: Phase diagrams in the temperature and crystal-field interaction plane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keskin, M.; Canko, O.; Temizer, U.

    2007-01-01

    Within a mean-field approach, the stationary states of the kinetic spin-1 Blume-Capel model in the presence of a time-dependent oscillating external magnetic field is studied. The Glauber-type stochastic dynamics is used to describe the time evolution of the system and obtain the mean-field dynamic equation of motion. The dynamic phase-transition points are calculated and phase diagrams are presented in the temperature and crystal-field interaction plane. According to the values of the magnetic field amplitude, three fundamental types of phase diagrams are found: One exhibits a dynamic tricritical point, while the other two exhibit a dynamic zero-temperature critical point

  13. Dynamic phase transition in the kinetic spin-32 Blume-Capel model: Phase diagrams in the temperature and crystal-field interaction plane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keskin, Mustafa [Department of Physics, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)]. E-mail: keskin@erciyes.edu.tr; Canko, Osman [Department of Physics, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey); Deviren, Bayram [Department of Physics, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)

    2007-06-15

    We analyze, within a mean-field approach, the stationary states of the kinetic spin-32 Blume-Capel (BC) model by the Glauber-type stochastic dynamics and subject to a time-dependent oscillating external magnetic field. The dynamic phase transition (DPT) points are obtained by investigating the behavior of the dynamic magnetization as a function of temperature and as well as calculating the Liapunov exponent. Phase diagrams are constructed in the temperature and crystal-field interaction plane. We find five fundamental types of phase diagrams for the different values of the reduced magnetic field amplitude parameter (h) in which they present a disordered, two ordered phases and the coexistences phase regions. The phase diagrams also exhibit a dynamic double-critical end point for 0dynamic tricritical point for 1.44dynamic tricritical points for h>5.06.

  14. First-order dynamical phase transition in models of glasses: an approach based on ensembles of histories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrahan, Juan P; Jack, Robert L; Lecomte, Vivien; Duijvendijk, Kristina van; Wijland, Frederic van; Pitard, Estelle

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the dynamics of kinetically constrained models of glass formers by analysing the statistics of trajectories of the dynamics, or histories, using large deviation function methods. We show that, in general, these models exhibit a first-order dynamical transition between active and inactive dynamical phases. We argue that the dynamical heterogeneities displayed by these systems are a manifestation of dynamical first-order phase coexistence. In particular, we calculate dynamical large deviation functions, both analytically and numerically, for the Fredrickson-Andersen model, the East model, and constrained lattice gas models. We also show how large deviation functions can be obtained from a Landau-like theory for dynamical fluctuations. We discuss possibilities for similar dynamical phase-coexistence behaviour in other systems with heterogeneous dynamics

  15. Molecular dynamics simulation for the baryon-quark phase transition at finite baryon density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akimura, Y.; Maruyama, T.; Chiba, S.; Yoshinaga, N.

    2005-01-01

    We study the baryon-quark phase transition in the molecular dynamics (MD) of the quark degrees of freedom at finite baryon density. The baryon state at low baryon density, and the deconfined quark state at high baryon density are reproduced. We investigate the equations of state of matters with different u-d-s compositions. It is found that the baryon-quark transition is sensitive to the quark width. (orig.)

  16. Dynamic Modeling Strategy for Flow Regime Transition in Gas-Liquid Two-Phase Flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Wang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In modeling gas-liquid two-phase flows, the concept of flow regimes has been widely used to characterize the global interfacial structure of the flows. Nearly all constitutive relations that provide closures to the interfacial transfers in two-phase flow models, such as the two-fluid model, are flow regime dependent. Current nuclear reactor safety analysis codes, such as RELAP5, classify flow regimes using flow regime maps or transition criteria that were developed for steady-state, fully-developed flows. As two-phase flows are dynamic in nature, it is important to model the flow regime transitions dynamically to more accurately predict the two-phase flows. The present work aims to develop a dynamic modeling strategy to determine flow regimes in gas-liquid two-phase flows through introduction of interfacial area transport equations (IATEs within the framework of a two-fluid model. The IATE is a transport equation that models the interfacial area concentration by considering the creation of the interfacial area, fluid particle (bubble or liquid droplet disintegration, boiling and evaporation, and the destruction of the interfacial area, fluid particle coalescence and condensation. For flow regimes beyond bubbly flows, a two-group IATE has been proposed, in which bubbles are divided into two groups based on their size and shapes, namely group-1 and group-2 bubbles. A preliminary approach to dynamically identify the flow regimes is discussed, in which discriminators are based on the predicted information, such as the void fraction and interfacial area concentration. The flow regime predicted with this method shows good agreement with the experimental observations.

  17. Blume-Capel ferromagnet driven by propagating and standing magnetic field wave: Dynamical modes and nonequilibrium phase transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acharyya, Muktish, E-mail: muktish.physics@presiuniv.ac.in; Halder, Ajay, E-mail: ajay.rs@presiuniv.ac.in

    2017-03-15

    The dynamical responses of Blume-Capel (S=1) ferromagnet to the plane propagating (with fixed frequency and wavelength) and standing magnetic field waves are studied separately in two dimensions by extensive Monte Carlo simulation. Depending on the values of temperature, amplitude of the propagating magnetic field and the strength of anisotropy, two different dynamical phases are observed. For a fixed value of anisotropy and the amplitude of the propagating magnetic field, the system undergoes a dynamical phase transition from a driven spin wave propagating phase to a pinned or spin frozen state as the system is cooled down. The time averaged magnetisation over a full cycle of the propagating magnetic field plays the role of the dynamic order parameter. A comprehensive phase diagram is plotted in the plane formed by the amplitude of the propagating wave and the temperature of the system. It is found that the phase boundary shrinks inward as the anisotropy increases. The phase boundary, in the plane described by the strength of the anisotropy and temperature, is also drawn. This phase boundary was observed to shrink inward as the field amplitude increases. - Highlights: • The Blume-Capel ferromagnet in propagating and standing magnetic wave. • Monte Carlo single spin flip Metropolis algorithm is employed. • The dynamical modes are observed. • The nonequilibrium phase transitions are studied. • The phase boundaries are drawn.

  18. Signals of a phase transition in nuclear multifragmentation: molecular-dynamics approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiselev, S.M.

    1989-01-01

    The signals of a liquid-gas-like phase transition proposed recently by X.Campi are analyzed for the reactions Ca+Ca at E/A=400, 800MeV, Nb+Nb at E/A=150, 400,650,800MeV, La+La at E/A=800 MeV and Ne+U at E/A=400 MeV simulated on the basis of the molecular-dynamical model. For the symmetrical systems at E/A≥400 MeV the manifestations of a phase transition are conditioned by the peripheral collisions whereas for the reactions Nb+Nb at E/A=150 MeV and Ne+U at E/A=400 MeV the quasicentral events are a main source of the signals. The manifestations depend weakly on the projectile energy and become more pronounced for a more heavy nuclear system. 15 refs.; 3 figs

  19. Discrete dynamics in transitional economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Barkley Rosser, Jr.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper traces the transition from planned command socialism to market capitalism and the accompanying complex non-linear dynamics involved. Long wave chaotic hysteretic investment cycles emerge under socialism leading to crisis and breakdown. Macroeconomic collapse occurs with bifurcations of coordination structures during transition. During recovery, transitional cobweb labor market dynamics exhibit chaos, fractal basin boundaries between coexisting non-chaotic attractors, discontinuous phase transitions, strange attractors, and cascades of infinitely many period-doubling bifurcations.

  20. Plasticity-induced characteristic changes of pattern dynamics and the related phase transitions in small-world neuronal networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Xu-Hui; Hu Gang

    2014-01-01

    Phase transitions widely exist in nature and occur when some control parameters are changed. In neural systems, their macroscopic states are represented by the activity states of neuron populations, and phase transitions between different activity states are closely related to corresponding functions in the brain. In particular, phase transitions to some rhythmic synchronous firing states play significant roles on diverse brain functions and disfunctions, such as encoding rhythmical external stimuli, epileptic seizure, etc. However, in previous studies, phase transitions in neuronal networks are almost driven by network parameters (e.g., external stimuli), and there has been no investigation about the transitions between typical activity states of neuronal networks in a self-organized way by applying plastic connection weights. In this paper, we discuss phase transitions in electrically coupled and lattice-based small-world neuronal networks (LBSW networks) under spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP). By applying STDP on all electrical synapses, various known and novel phase transitions could emerge in LBSW networks, particularly, the phenomenon of self-organized phase transitions (SOPTs): repeated transitions between synchronous and asynchronous firing states. We further explore the mechanics generating SOPTs on the basis of synaptic weight dynamics. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  1. Dynamical phase transition in a fully frustrated Josephson array on a square lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, K. D.; Stroud, D.; Janin, L.

    1999-01-01

    We study dynamical phase transitions at temperature T=0 in a fully frustrated square Josephson junction array subject to a driving current density, which has nonzero components i x , i y parallel to both axes of the lattice. Our numerical results show clear evidence for three dynamical phases: a pinned vortex lattice characterized by zero time-averaged voltages x > t and y > t , a ''plastic'' phase in which both x > t and y > t are nonzero, and a moving lattice phase in which only one of the time-average voltage components is nonzero. The last of these has a finite transverse critical current: if a current is applied in the x direction, a nonzero transverse current density i y is required before y > t becomes nonzero. The voltage traces in the moving lattice phase are periodic in time. By contrast, the voltages in the plastic phase have continuous power spectra that are weakly dependent on frequency. This phase diagram is found numerically to be qualitatively unchanged by the presence of weak disorder. We also describe two simple analytical models that recover some, but not all, the characteristics of the three dynamical phases, and of the phase diagram calculated numerically. (c) 1999 The American Physical Society

  2. Quasi-dynamic pressure and temperature initiated βδ solid phase transitions in HMX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaug, Joseph M.; Farber, Daniel L.; Craig, Ian M.; Blosch, Laura L.; Shuh, David K.; Hansen, Donald W.; Aracne-Ruddle, Chantel M.

    2000-04-01

    The phase transformation of β-HMX (>0.5% RDX) to δ phase has been studied for over twenty years and more recently with an high-contrast optical second harmonic generation technique. Shock studies of the plastic binder composites of HMX have indicated that the transition is perhaps irreversible, a result that concurs with the static pressure results published by F. Goetz et al. [1] in 1978. However, the stability field favors the β polymorph over δ as pressure is increased (up to 5.4 GPa) along any thermodynamically reasonable isotherm. In this experiment, strict control of pressure and temperature is maintained while x-ray and optical diagnostics are applied to monitor the conformational dynamics of HMX. Unlike the temperature induced β→δ transition, the pressure induced is heterogeneous in nature. The 1 bar 25 °C δ→β transition is not immediate, occuring over tens of hours. Transition points and kinetics are path dependent and consequently this paper describes our work in progress.

  3. Symmetry and Phase Transitions in Nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iachello, F.

    2009-01-01

    Phase transitions in nuclei have received considerable attention in recent years, especially after the discovery that, contrary to expectations, systems at the critical point of a phase transition display a simple structure. In this talk, quantum phase transitions (QPT), i.e. phase transitions that occur as a function of a coupling constant that appears in the quantum Hamiltonian, H, describing the system, will be reviewed and experimental evidence for their occurrence in nuclei will be presented. The phase transitions discussed in the talk will be shape phase transitions. Different shapes have different symmetries, classified by the dynamic symmetries of the Interacting Boson Model, U(5), SU(3) and SO(6). Very recently, the concept of Quantum Phase Transitions has been extended to Excited State Quantum Phase Transitions (ESQPT). This extension will be discussed and some evidence for incipient ESQPT in nuclei will be presented. Systems at the critical point of a phase transition are called 'critical systems'. Approximate analytic formulas for energy spectra and other properties of 'critical nuclei', in particular for nuclei at the critical point of the second order U(5)-SO(6) transition, called E(5), and along the line of first order U(5)-SU(3) transitions, called X(5), will be presented. Experimental evidence for 'critical nuclei' will be also shown. Finally, the microscopic derivation of shape phase transitions in nuclei within the framework of density functional methods will be briefly discussed.(author)

  4. Two dimensional kicked quantum Ising model: dynamical phase transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pineda, C; Prosen, T; Villaseñor, E

    2014-01-01

    Using an efficient one and two qubit gate simulator operating on graphical processing units, we investigate ergodic properties of a quantum Ising spin 1/2 model on a two-dimensional lattice, which is periodically driven by a δ-pulsed transverse magnetic field. We consider three different dynamical properties: (i) level density, (ii) level spacing distribution of the Floquet quasienergy spectrum, and (iii) time-averaged autocorrelation function of magnetization components. Varying the parameters of the model, we found transitions between ordered (non-ergodic) and quantum chaotic (ergodic) phases, but the transitions between flat and non-flat spectral density do not correspond to transitions between ergodic and non-ergodic local observables. Even more surprisingly, we found good agreement of level spacing distribution with the Wigner surmise of random matrix theory for almost all values of parameters except where the model is essentially non-interacting, even in regions where local observables are not ergodic or where spectral density is non-flat. These findings question the versatility of the interpretation of level spacing distribution in many-body systems and stress the importance of the concept of locality. (paper)

  5. Gravitational waves from global second order phase transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jr, John T. Giblin [Department of Physics, Kenyon College, 201 North College Rd, Gambier, OH 43022 (United States); Price, Larry R.; Siemens, Xavier; Vlcek, Brian, E-mail: giblinj@kenyon.edu, E-mail: larryp@caltech.edu, E-mail: siemens@gravity.phys.uwm.edu, E-mail: bvlcek@uwm.edu [Center for Gravitation and Cosmology, Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, P.O. Box 413, Milwaukee, WI 53201 (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Global second-order phase transitions are expected to produce scale-invariant gravitational wave spectra. In this manuscript we explore the dynamics of a symmetry-breaking phase transition using lattice simulations. We explicitly calculate the stochastic gravitational wave background produced during the transition and subsequent self-ordering phase. We comment on this signal as it compares to the scale-invariant spectrum produced during inflation.

  6. Deconfinement phase transition in QCD with heavy quarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attig, N.; Petersson, B.; Wolff, M.; Gavai, R.V.

    1988-01-01

    Using the pseudo-fermion method to simulate QCD with dynamical quarks we investigate the effects of heavy dynamical quarks of 2 flavours on the deconfinement phase transition in the quenched QCD. As the mass of the quark is decreased the phase transition weakens as expected. Compared to the earlier results with leading order hopping parameter expansion, however, the weakening is less rapid. Our estimated upper bound on the critical mass where the transition becomes continuous is 1.5-2 times lower than earlier results. (orig.)

  7. Phase transitions in multiplicative competitive processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimazaki, Hideaki; Niebur, Ernst

    2005-01-01

    We introduce a discrete multiplicative process as a generic model of competition. Players with different abilities successively join the game and compete for finite resources. Emergence of dominant players and evolutionary development occur as a phase transition. The competitive dynamics underlying this transition is understood from a formal analogy to statistical mechanics. The theory is applicable to bacterial competition, predicting novel population dynamics near criticality

  8. The Structural Phase Transition in Octaflournaphtalene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackenzie, Gordon A.; Arthur, J. W.; Pawley, G. S.

    1977-01-01

    The phase transition in octafluoronaphthalene has been investigated by Raman scattering and neutron powder diffraction. The weight of the experimental evidence points to a unit cell doubling in the a direction, but with no change in space group symmetry. Lattice dynamics calculations support...... this evidence and indicate that the mechanism of the phase transition may well be the instability of a zone boundary acoustic mode of librational character. The structure of the low-temperature phase has been refined and the Raman spectra of the upper and lower phases are reported....

  9. Quantum phase transitions of strongly correlated electron systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imada, Masatoshi

    1998-01-01

    Interacting electrons in solids undergo various quantum phase transitions driven by quantum fluctuations. The quantum transitions take place at zero temperature by changing a parameter to control quantum fluctuations rather than thermal fluctuations. In contrast to classical phase transitions driven by thermal fluctuations, the quantum transitions have many different features where quantum dynamics introduces a source of intrinsic fluctuations tightly connected with spatial correlations and they have been a subject of recent intensive studies as we see below. Interacting electron systems cannot be fully understood without deep analyses of the quantum phase transitions themselves, because they are widely seen and play essential roles in many phenomena. Typical and important examples of the quantum phase transitions include metal-insulator transitions, (2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9) metal-superconductor transitions, superconductor-insulator transitions, magnetic transitions to antiferromagnetic or ferromagnetic phases in metals as well as in Mott insulators, and charge ordering transitions. Here, we focus on three different types of transitions

  10. Structural phase transition and dynamical properties of PbTiO3 simulated by molecular dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, S C; Pizani, P S; Rino, J P; Borges, D S

    2005-01-01

    The temperature- and pressure-induced structural phase transition in PbTiO 3 is studied with the isoenthalpic-isobaric molecular-dynamics method, using an effective two-body interaction potential. The tetragonal to cubic transformation is successfully reproduced with both temperature and pressure. The behaviour of lattice parameters, vibrational density of states, and phonon anharmonicity with temperature and pressure are in very good agreement with experimental data. Two- and three-body correlations were analysed through pair distribution functions, coordination numbers and bond-angle distributions

  11. Acoustic levitation of liquid drops: Dynamics, manipulation and phase transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Duyang; Yu, Yinkai; Chen, Zhen; Li, Xiaoguang; Wu, Hongjing; Geng, Xingguo

    2017-05-01

    The technique of acoustic levitation normally produces a standing wave and the potential well of the sound field can be used to trap small objects. Since no solid surface is involved it has been widely applied for the study of fluid physics, nucleation, bio/chemical processes, and various forms of soft matter. In this article, we survey the works on drop dynamics in acoustic levitation, focus on how the dynamic behavior is related to the rheological properties and discuss the possibility to develop a novel rheometer based on this technique. We review the methods and applications of acoustic levitation for the manipulation of both liquid and solid samples and emphasize the important progress made in the study of phase transitions and bio-chemical analysis. We also highlight the possible open areas for future research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Dynamical Equilibration Across a Quenched Phase Transition in a Trapped Quantum Gas

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, I. -K.; Donadello, S.; Lamporesi, G.; Ferrari, G.; Gou, S. -C.; Dalfovo, F.; Proukakis, N. P.

    2017-01-01

    The formation of an equilibrium quantum state from an uncorrelated thermal one through the dynamical crossing of a phase transition is a central question of non-equilibrium many-body physics. During such crossing, the system breaks its symmetry by establishing numerous uncorrelated regions separated by spontaneously-generated defects, whose emergence obeys a universal scaling law with the quench duration. Much less is known about the ensuing re-equilibrating or "coarse-graining" stage, which ...

  13. Non-equilibrium phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mottola, E.; Cooper, F.M.; Bishop, A.R.; Habib, S.; Kluger, Y.; Jensen, N.G.

    1998-01-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Non-equilibrium phase transitions play a central role in a very broad range of scientific areas, ranging from nuclear, particle, and astrophysics to condensed matter physics and the material and biological sciences. The aim of this project was to explore the path to a deeper and more fundamental understanding of the common physical principles underlying the complex real time dynamics of phase transitions. The main emphasis was on the development of general theoretical tools to deal with non-equilibrium processes, and of numerical methods robust enough to capture the time-evolving structures that occur in actual experimental situations. Specific applications to Laboratory multidivisional efforts in relativistic heavy-ion physics (transition to a new phase of nuclear matter consisting of a quark-gluon plasma) and layered high-temperature superconductors (critical currents and flux flow at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory) were undertaken

  14. Dynamic phase transition properties for the mixed spin-(1/2, 1) Ising model in an oscillating magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ertaş, Mehmet, E-mail: mehmetertas@erciyes.edu.tr; Keskin, Mustafa

    2015-08-15

    Herein we study the dynamic phase transition properties for the mixed spin-(1/2, 1) Ising model on a square lattice under a time-dependent magnetic field by means of the effective-field theory (EFT) with correlations based on Glauber dynamics. We present the dynamic phase diagrams in the reduced magnetic field amplitude and reduced temperature plane and find that the phase diagrams exhibit dynamic tricitical behavior, multicritical and zero-temperature critical points as well as reentrant behavior. We also investigate the influence of frequency (ω) and observe that for small values of ω the mixed phase disappears, but for high values it appears and the system displays reentrant behavior as well as a critical end point. - Highlights: • Dynamic behaviors of a ferrimagnetic mixed spin (1/2, 1) Ising system are studied. • We examined the effects of the Hamiltonian parameters on the dynamic behaviors. • The phase diagrams are obtained in (T-h) plane. • The dynamic phase diagrams exhibit the dynamic tricritical and reentrant behaviors.

  15. Dynamic phase transition properties for the mixed spin-(1/2, 1) Ising model in an oscillating magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ertaş, Mehmet; Keskin, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Herein we study the dynamic phase transition properties for the mixed spin-(1/2, 1) Ising model on a square lattice under a time-dependent magnetic field by means of the effective-field theory (EFT) with correlations based on Glauber dynamics. We present the dynamic phase diagrams in the reduced magnetic field amplitude and reduced temperature plane and find that the phase diagrams exhibit dynamic tricitical behavior, multicritical and zero-temperature critical points as well as reentrant behavior. We also investigate the influence of frequency (ω) and observe that for small values of ω the mixed phase disappears, but for high values it appears and the system displays reentrant behavior as well as a critical end point. - Highlights: • Dynamic behaviors of a ferrimagnetic mixed spin (1/2, 1) Ising system are studied. • We examined the effects of the Hamiltonian parameters on the dynamic behaviors. • The phase diagrams are obtained in (T-h) plane. • The dynamic phase diagrams exhibit the dynamic tricritical and reentrant behaviors

  16. Mean field theory of dynamic phase transitions in ferromagnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idigoras, O.; Vavassori, P.; Berger, A.

    2012-01-01

    We have studied the second order dynamic phase transition (DPT) of the two-dimensional kinetic Ising model by means of numerical calculations. While it is well established that the order parameter Q of the DPT is the average magnetization per external field oscillation cycle, the possible identity of the conjugate field has been addressed only recently. In this work, we demonstrate that our entire set of numerical data is fully consistent with the applied bias field H b being the conjugate field of order parameter Q. For this purpose, we have analyzed the Q(H b )-dependence and we have found that it follows the expected power law behavior with the same critical exponent as the mean field equilibrium case.

  17. Out-of-equilibrium dynamics driven by localized time-dependent perturbations at quantum phase transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelissetto, Andrea; Rossini, Davide; Vicari, Ettore

    2018-03-01

    We investigate the quantum dynamics of many-body systems subject to local (i.e., restricted to a limited space region) time-dependent perturbations. If the system crosses a quantum phase transition, an off-equilibrium behavior is observed, even for a very slow driving. We show that, close to the transition, time-dependent quantities obey scaling laws. In first-order transitions, the scaling behavior is universal, and some scaling functions can be computed exactly. For continuous transitions, the scaling laws are controlled by the standard critical exponents and by the renormalization-group dimension of the perturbation at the transition. Our protocol can be implemented in existing relatively small quantum simulators, paving the way for a quantitative probe of the universal off-equilibrium scaling behavior, without the need to manipulate systems close to the thermodynamic limit.

  18. Phase transitions and neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirane, G.

    1993-01-01

    A review is given of recent advances in neutron scattering studies of solid state physics. I have selected the study of a structural phase transition as the best example to demonstrate the power of neutron scattering techniques. Since energy analysis is relatively easy, the dynamical aspects of a transition can be elucidated by the neutron probe. I shall discuss in some detail current experiments on the 100 K transition in SrTiO 3 , the crystal which has been the paradigm of neutron studies of phase transitions for many years. This new experiment attempts to clarify the relation between the neutron central peak, observed in energy scans, and the two length scales observed in recent x-ray diffraction studies where only scans in momentum space are possible. (author)

  19. Predicting a new phase (T'') of two-dimensional transition metal di-chalcogenides and strain-controlled topological phase transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Fengxian; Gao, Guoping; Jiao, Yalong; Gu, Yuantong; Bilic, Ante; Zhang, Haijun; Chen, Zhongfang; Du, Aijun

    2016-02-01

    Single layered transition metal dichalcogenides have attracted tremendous research interest due to their structural phase diversities. By using a global optimization approach, we have discovered a new phase of transition metal dichalcogenides (labelled as T''), which is confirmed to be energetically, dynamically and kinetically stable by our first-principles calculations. The new T'' MoS2 phase exhibits an intrinsic quantum spin Hall (QSH) effect with a nontrivial gap as large as 0.42 eV, suggesting that a two-dimensional (2D) topological insulator can be achieved at room temperature. Most interestingly, there is a topological phase transition simply driven by a small tensile strain of up to 2%. Furthermore, all the known MX2 (M = Mo or W; X = S, Se or Te) monolayers in the new T'' phase unambiguously display similar band topologies and strain controlled topological phase transitions. Our findings greatly enrich the 2D families of transition metal dichalcogenides and offer a feasible way to control the electronic states of 2D topological insulators for the fabrication of high-speed spintronics devices.Single layered transition metal dichalcogenides have attracted tremendous research interest due to their structural phase diversities. By using a global optimization approach, we have discovered a new phase of transition metal dichalcogenides (labelled as T''), which is confirmed to be energetically, dynamically and kinetically stable by our first-principles calculations. The new T'' MoS2 phase exhibits an intrinsic quantum spin Hall (QSH) effect with a nontrivial gap as large as 0.42 eV, suggesting that a two-dimensional (2D) topological insulator can be achieved at room temperature. Most interestingly, there is a topological phase transition simply driven by a small tensile strain of up to 2%. Furthermore, all the known MX2 (M = Mo or W; X = S, Se or Te) monolayers in the new T'' phase unambiguously display similar band topologies and strain controlled topological

  20. First-principles study of lattice dynamics, structural phase transition, and thermodynamic properties of barium titanate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Huai-Yong; Zhao, Ying-Qin; Lu, Qing [Sichuan Univ., Chengdu (China). Inst. of Atomic and Molecular Physics; Zeng, Zhao-Yi [Chongqing Normal Univ. (China). College of Physics and Electronic Engineering; Chinese Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang (China). National Key Laboratory for Shock Wave and Detonation Physics Research; Cheng, Yan [Sichuan Univ., Chengdu (China). Inst. of Atomic and Molecular Physics; Sichuan Univ., Chengdu (China). Key Laboratory of High Energy Density Physics and Technology of Ministry of Education

    2016-11-01

    Lattice dynamics, structural phase transition, and the thermodynamic properties of barium titanate (BaTiO{sub 3}) are investigated by using first-principles calculations within the density functional theory (DFT). It is found that the GGA-WC exchange-correlation functional can produce better results. The imaginary frequencies that indicate structural instability are observed for the cubic, tetragonal, and orthorhombic phases of BaTiO{sub 3} and no imaginary frequencies emerge in the rhombohedral phase. By examining the partial phonon density of states (PDOSs), we find that the main contribution to the imaginary frequencies is the distortions of the perovskite cage (Ti-O). On the basis of the site-symmetry consideration and group theory, we give the comparative phonon symmetry analysis in four phases, which is useful to analyze the role of different atomic displacements in the vibrational modes of different symmetry. The calculated optical phonon frequencies at Γ point for the four phases are in good agreement with other theoretical and experimental data. The pressure-induced phase transition of BaTiO{sub 3} among four phases and the thermodynamic properties of BaTiO{sub 3} in rhombohedral phase have been investigated within the quasi-harmonic approximation (QHA). The sequence of the pressure-induced phase transition is rhombohedral → orthorhombic → tetragonal → cubic, and the corresponding transition pressure is 5.17, 5.92, 6.65 GPa, respectively. At zero pressure, the thermal expansion coefficient α{sub V}, heat capacity C{sub V}, Grueneisen parameter γ, and bulk modulus B of the rhombohedral phase BaTiO{sub 3} are estimated from 0 K to 200 K.

  1. Time-delay-induced phase-transition to synchrony in coupled bursting neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Bhim Mani; Prasad, Awadhesh; Dhamala, Mukeshwar

    2011-06-01

    Signal transmission time delays in a network of nonlinear oscillators are known to be responsible for a variety of interesting dynamic behaviors including phase-flip transitions leading to synchrony or out of synchrony. Here, we uncover that phase-flip transitions are general phenomena and can occur in a network of coupled bursting neurons with a variety of coupling types. The transitions are marked by nonlinear changes in both temporal and phase-space characteristics of the coupled system. We demonstrate these phase-transitions with Hindmarsh-Rose and Leech-Heart interneuron models and discuss the implications of these results in understanding collective dynamics of bursting neurons in the brain.

  2. Baryogenesis via leptonic CP-violating phase transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascoli, Silvia; Turner, Jessica; Zhou, Ye-Ling

    2018-05-01

    We propose a new mechanism to generate a lepton asymmetry based on the vacuum CP-violating phase transition (CPPT). This approach differs from classical thermal leptogenesis as a specific seesaw model, and its UV completion, need not be specified. The lepton asymmetry is generated via the dynamically realised coupling of the Weinberg operator during the phase transition. This mechanism provides a connection with low-energy neutrino observables.

  3. Phase Transitions in Algebraic Cluster Models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yepez-Martinez, H.; Cseh, J.; Hess, P.O.

    2006-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Phase transitions in nuclear systems are of utmost interest. An interesting class of phase transitions can be seen in algebraic models of nuclear structure. They are called shapephase transitions due to the following reason. These models have analytically solvable limiting cases, called dynamical symmetries, which are characterized by a chain of nested subgroups. They correspond to well-defined geometrical shape and behaviour, e.g. to rotation of an ellipsoid, or spherical vibration. The general case of the model, which includes interactions described by more than one groupchain, breaks the symmetry, and changing the relative strengths of these interactions, one can go from one shape to the other. In doing so a phase-transition can be seen. A phase transition is defined as a discontinuity of some quantity as a function of the control parameter, which gives the relative strength of the interactions of different symmetries. Real phase transitions can take place only in infinite systems, like in the classical limits of these algebraic models, when the particle number N is very large: N → ∞. For finite N the discontinuities are smoothed out, nevertheless, some indications of the phase-transitions can still be there. A controlled way of breaking the dynamical symmetries may reveal another very interesting phenomenon, i.e. the appearance of a quasidynamical (or effective) symmetry. This rather general symmetry-concept of quantum mechanics corresponds to a situation, in which the symmetry-breaking interactions are so strong that the energy-eigenfunctions are not symmetric, i.e. are not basis states of an irreducible representation of the symmetry group, rather they are linear combinations of these basis states. However, they are very special linear combinations in the sense that their coefficients are (approximately) identical for states with different spin values. When this is the case, then the underlying intrinsic state is the

  4. Control of phase transition dynamics in media with nanoscale nonuniformities by coherence loss spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, Anatol M

    2010-01-01

    The optical nondestructive characterization of chemical transformation dynamics and diffusion kinetics, including phase transitions, in heterogeneous media with a random distribution of nanoparticles (nano-nonuniformities), is of great theoretical and practical importance. Such characterization, with the help of coherence loss spectroscopy, considered in this paper can be applied for the control of a number of industrial processes dynamics, environmental monitoring, and medical diagnostics and therapy. As a specific example, the growth of crystal nuclei (embrions) as a result of the diffusion to them of a substance from the surrounding supersaturated solution is considered

  5. Problem-solving phase transitions during team collaboration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiltshire, Travis; Butner, Jonathan E.; Fiore, Stephen M.

    2018-01-01

    ) with dynamical systems theory suggesting that when a system is undergoing a phase transition it should exhibit a peak in entropy and that entropy levels should also relate to team performance. Communications from 40 teams that collaborated on a complex problem were coded for occurrence of problem......-solving processes. We applied a sliding window entropy technique to each team's communications and specified criteria for (a) identifying data points that qualify as peaks and (b) determining which peaks were robust. We used multilevel modeling, and provide a qualitative example, to evaluate whether phases exhibit...... phases. Peaks in entropy thus corresponded to qualitative shifts in teams’ CPS communications, providing empirical evidence that teams exhibit phase transitions during CPS. Also, lower average levels of entropy at the phase transition points predicted better CPS performance. We specify future directions...

  6. Phase transition of the susceptible-infected-susceptible dynamics on time-varying configuration model networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Onge, Guillaume; Young, Jean-Gabriel; Laurence, Edward; Murphy, Charles; Dubé, Louis J.

    2018-02-01

    We present a degree-based theoretical framework to study the susceptible-infected-susceptible (SIS) dynamics on time-varying (rewired) configuration model networks. Using this framework on a given degree distribution, we provide a detailed analysis of the stationary state using the rewiring rate to explore the whole range of the time variation of the structure relative to that of the SIS process. This analysis is suitable for the characterization of the phase transition and leads to three main contributions: (1) We obtain a self-consistent expression for the absorbing-state threshold, able to capture both collective and hub activation. (2) We recover the predictions of a number of existing approaches as limiting cases of our analysis, providing thereby a unifying point of view for the SIS dynamics on random networks. (3) We obtain bounds for the critical exponents of a number of quantities in the stationary state. This allows us to reinterpret the concept of hub-dominated phase transition. Within our framework, it appears as a heterogeneous critical phenomenon: observables for different degree classes have a different scaling with the infection rate. This phenomenon is followed by the successive activation of the degree classes beyond the epidemic threshold.

  7. Singlet Higgs phenomenology and the electroweak phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Profumo, Stefano; Ramsey-Musolf, Michael J.; Shaughnessy, Gabe

    2007-01-01

    We study the phenomenology of gauge singlet extensions of the Standard Model scalar sector and their implications for the electroweak phase transition. We determine the conditions on the scalar potential parameters that lead to a strong first order phase transition as needed to produce the observed baryon asymmetry of the universe. We analyze the constraints on the potential parameters derived from Higgs boson searches at LEP and electroweak precision observables. For models that satisfy these constraints and that produce a strong first order phase transition, we discuss the prospective signatures in future Higgs studies at the Large Hadron Collider and a Linear Collider. We argue that such studies will provide powerful probes of phase transition dynamics in models with an extended scalar sector

  8. Temperature-Controlled High-Speed AFM: Real-Time Observation of Ripple Phase Transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Hirohide; Miyagi, Atsushi; Redondo-Morata, Lorena; Scheuring, Simon

    2016-11-01

    With nanometer lateral and Angstrom vertical resolution, atomic force microscopy (AFM) has contributed unique data improving the understanding of lipid bilayers. Lipid bilayers are found in several different temperature-dependent states, termed phases; the main phases are solid and fluid phases. The transition temperature between solid and fluid phases is lipid composition specific. Under certain conditions some lipid bilayers adopt a so-called ripple phase, a structure where solid and fluid phase domains alternate with constant periodicity. Because of its narrow regime of existence and heterogeneity ripple phase and its transition dynamics remain poorly understood. Here, a temperature control device to high-speed atomic force microscopy (HS-AFM) to observe dynamics of phase transition from ripple phase to fluid phase reversibly in real time is developed and integrated. Based on HS-AFM imaging, the phase transition processes from ripple phase to fluid phase and from ripple phase to metastable ripple phase to fluid phase could be reversibly, phenomenologically, and quantitatively studied. The results here show phase transition hysteresis in fast cooling and heating processes, while both melting and condensation occur at 24.15 °C in quasi-steady state situation. A second metastable ripple phase with larger periodicity is formed at the ripple phase to fluid phase transition when the buffer contains Ca 2+ . The presented temperature-controlled HS-AFM is a new unique experimental system to observe dynamics of temperature-sensitive processes at the nanoscopic level. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Eigenstate Phase Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bo

    Phase transitions are one of the most exciting physical phenomena ever discovered. The understanding of phase transitions has long been of interest. Recently eigenstate phase transitions have been discovered and studied; they are drastically different from traditional thermal phase transitions. In eigenstate phase transitions, a sharp change is exhibited in properties of the many-body eigenstates of the Hamiltonian of a quantum system, but not the thermal equilibrium properties of the same system. In this thesis, we study two different types of eigenstate phase transitions. The first is the eigenstate phase transition within the ferromagnetic phase of an infinite-range spin model. By studying the interplay of the eigenstate thermalization hypothesis and Ising symmetry breaking, we find two eigenstate phase transitions within the ferromagnetic phase: In the lowest-temperature phase the magnetization can macroscopically oscillate by quantum tunneling between up and down. The relaxation of the magnetization is always overdamped in the remainder of the ferromagnetic phase, which is further divided into phases where the system thermally activates itself over the barrier between the up and down states, and where it quantum tunnels. The second is the many-body localization phase transition. The eigenstates on one side of the transition obey the eigenstate thermalization hypothesis; the eigenstates on the other side are many-body localized, and thus thermal equilibrium need not be achieved for an initial state even after evolving for an arbitrary long time. We study this many-body localization phase transition in the strong disorder renormalization group framework. After setting up a set of coarse-graining rules for a general one dimensional chain, we get a simple "toy model'' and obtain an almost purely analytical solution to the infinite-randomness critical fixed point renormalization group equation. We also get an estimate of the correlation length critical exponent nu

  10. Aging dynamics at the martensitic phase transition of Au-Cd quantified by XPCS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, L.; Waldorf, M.; Klemradt, U. [II. Physik. Inst., RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany); Gutt, C.; Gruebel, G. [HASYLAB, DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Madsen, A. [ESRF, Grenoble (France); Finlayson, T.R. [School of Physics, Univ. of Melbourne (Australia)

    2009-07-01

    Aging phenomena of martensites have been discussed controversially for decades. Although they were successfully associated with defect-related diffusion processes in the low temperature phase (Ren and Otsuka, Nature 389, 579 (1997)), so far no experiments have directly addressed the characteristic time scales associated with nanoscopic structural changes. Using a Au{sub 50.5}Cd{sub 49.5} single crystal X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy (XPCS) measurements in diffraction geometry were carried out at ESRF beamline ID10A. High temperature resolution (0.1 K) and stability ({+-}4 mK) were employed to resolve potential slow dynamics in the vicinity of the phase transition, 2D scattering data close to the (001) Bragg reflection were recorded with a sampling time into the detector of 0.2 s at 1.4 s intervals. For each temperature one-time correlation functions show significant dynamics only near T{sub c}, being fastest at the transition in disagreement with any critical slowing down scenario. Two-time correlation functions reveal a generally non-stationary behavior and also avalanches in the sample. Characteristic timescales were determined as a function of the aging-time by calculating one-time-correlation functions at a specific age. Fits of Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts functions reveal time constants ranging from {approx}400 s to over 6000 s at largest aging-times.

  11. Liquid-gas phase transition and isospin fractionation in intermediate energy heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing Yongzhong; Liu Jianye; Guo Wenjun

    2004-01-01

    The liquid-gas phase transition in the heavy ion collisions and nuclear matter has been an important topic and got achievements, such as, based on the studies by H.Q. Song et al the critical temperature of liquid-gas phase transition enhances with increasing the mass of system and reduces as the increase of the neutron proton ratio of system. As authors know that both the liquid-gas phase transition and the isospin fractionation occur in the spinodal instability region at the nuclear density below the normal nuclear density. In particular, these two dynamical processes lead to the separation of nuclear matter into the liquid phase and gas phase. In this case to compare their dynamical behaviors is interested. The authors investigate the dependence of isospin fractionation degree on the mass and neutron proton ratio of system by using the isospin dependent quantum molecular dynamics model. The authors found that the degree of isospin fractionation (N/Z) n /(N/Z) imf decreases with increasing the mass of the system. This is just similar to the enhance of the critical temperature of liquid-gas phase transition T c as the increase of system mass. Because the enhance of T c is not favorable for the liquid-gas transition taking place, which reduces the isospin fractionation process and leads to decrease of (N/Z) n /(N/Z) imf . However the degree of isospin fractionation enhances with increasing the neutron proton ratio of the system. It is just corresponding to the reduce of T c of the liquid-gas phase transition as the increase of the isospin fractionation of the system. Because the reduce of T c enhances the liquid-gas phase transition process and also prompts the isospin fractionation process leading the increase of the isospin fractionation degree. To sum up, there are very similar dynamical behaviors for the degree of isospin fractionation and the critical temperature of the liquid-gas phase transition. So dynamical properties of the liquid-gas phase transition can

  12. Study of the phase transition dynamics of the L to H transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moyer, R.A.; Rhodes, T.L.; Rettig, C.L.

    1997-12-01

    A highly radiating zone (MARFE) just above the divertor X-point has been used to access the marginal transition regime P sep ∼ P thres to study the existence of a critical point for the L to H transition. Phase transition models predict that at the critical point, the transition duration increases and the plasma parameters vary continuously between L-mode and H-mode. In these experiments, the L to H transition duration increased 50--100 times over fast transitions. However, the evolution of E r shear, edge density gradient, H-mode pedestal, and fluctuations is essentially unchanged from that in fast transitions. The only difference is in the speed with which and the degree to which the fluctuation amplitudes are transiently reduced. This difference is understandable in terms of the time scales for fluctuation amplitude reduction (≤ 100 micros) and edge pressure gradient increase (several ms), provided the edge fluctuations are pressure-gradient driven

  13. Signatures of a dissipative phase transition in photon correlation measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Thomas; Schade, Anne; Höfling, Sven; Schneider, Christian; Imamoglu, Ataç

    2018-04-01

    Understanding and characterizing phase transitions in driven-dissipative systems constitutes a new frontier for many-body physics1-8. A generic feature of dissipative phase transitions is a vanishing gap in the Liouvillian spectrum9, which leads to long-lived deviations from the steady state as the system is driven towards the transition. Here, we show that photon correlation measurements can be used to characterize the corresponding critical slowing down of non-equilibrium dynamics. We focus on the extensively studied phenomenon of optical bistability in GaAs cavity polaritons10,11, which can be described as a first-order dissipative phase transition12-14. Increasing the excitation strength towards the bistable range results in an increasing photon-bunching signal along with a decay time that is prolonged by more than nine orders of magnitude as compared with that of single polaritons. In the limit of strong polariton interactions leading to pronounced quantum fluctuations, the mean-field bistability threshold is washed out. Nevertheless, the functional form with which the Liouvillian gap closes as the thermodynamic limit is approached provides a signature of the emerging dissipative phase transition. Our results establish photon correlation measurements as an invaluable tool for studying dynamical properties of dissipative phase transitions without requiring phase-sensitive interferometric measurements.

  14. Non-equilibrium physics at a holographic chiral phase transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Nick; Kim, Keun-young [Southampton Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Physics and Astronomy; Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics China, Beijing (China); Kalaydzhyan, Tigran; Kirsch, Ingo [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2010-11-15

    The D3/D7 system holographically describes an N=2 gauge theory which spontaneously breaks a chiral symmetry by the formation of a quark condensate in the presence of a magnetic field. At finite temperature it displays a first order phase transition. We study out of equilibrium dynamics associated with this transition by placing probe D7 branes in a geometry describing a boost-invariant expanding or contracting plasma. We use an adiabatic approximation to track the evolution of the quark condensate in a heated system and reproduce the phase structure expected from equilibrium dynamics. We then study solutions of the full partial differential equation that describes the evolution of out of equilibrium configurations to provide a complete description of the phase transition including describing aspects of bubble formation. (orig.)

  15. Traffic jams induce dynamical phase transition in spatial rock-paper-scissors game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatani, Takashi; Ichinose, Genki; Tainaka, Kei-ichi

    2018-02-01

    Spatial and temporal behaviors of the rock-paper-scissors (RPS) game is key to understanding not only biodiversity but also a variety of cyclic systems. It has been demonstrated that, in the stochastic cellular automaton of RPS game, three species cannot survive on one-dimensional (1-d) lattice; only a single species survives. Previous studies have shown that three species are able to coexist if the migration of species is considered. However, their definitions of migration are the swapping of two species or the random walk of species, which rarely occurs in nature. Here, we investigate the effect of migration by using the 1-d lattice traffic model in which species can move rightward if the site ahead is empty. Computer simulations reveal that three species can survive at the same time within the wide range of parameter values. At low densities, all species can coexist. In contrast, the extinction of two species occurs if the density exceeds the critical limit of the jamming transition. This dynamical phase transition between the coexistence and single (non-coexistence) phase clearly separates due to the self-organized pattern: condensation and rarefaction in the stripe-pattern of three species.

  16. Probing phase transitions via energetic nuclear collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukacs, B.; Csernai, L.P.

    1983-07-01

    The possible effects of the nucleon-quark phase transition on the dynamics of heavy ion collisions are discussed. It is shown that the formation of the quark phase can be expected at recent experiments. Nevertheless, the compressibility of the two-phase mixture remains relatively low, thus the quark phase remains limited in both space and time, and the observables are not strongly affected. (author)

  17. Computational advances in transition phase analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, K.; Kondo, S.; Tobita, Y.; Shirakawa, N.; Brear, D.J.; Fischer, E.A.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, historical perspective and recent advances are reviewed on computational technologies to evaluate a transition phase of core disruptive accidents in liquid-metal fast reactors. An analysis of the transition phase requires treatment of multi-phase multi-component thermohydraulics coupled with space- and energy-dependent neutron kinetics. Such a comprehensive modeling effort was initiated when the program of SIMMER-series computer code development was initiated in the late 1970s in the USA. Successful application of the latest SIMMER-II in USA, western Europe and Japan have proved its effectiveness, but, at the same time, several areas that require further research have been identified. Based on the experience and lessons learned during the SIMMER-II application through 1980s, a new project of SIMMER-III development is underway at the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC), Japan. The models and methods of SIMMER-III are briefly described with emphasis on recent advances in multi-phase multi-component fluid dynamics technologies and their expected implication on a future reliable transition phase analysis. (author)

  18. Microgravity Two-Phase Flow Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parang, M.; Chao, D.

    1999-01-01

    Two-phase flows under microgravity condition find a large number of important applications in fluid handling and storage, and spacecraft thermal management. Specifically, under microgravity condition heat transfer between heat exchanger surfaces and fluids depend critically on the distribution and interaction between different fluid phases which are often qualitatively different from the gravity-based systems. Heat transfer and flow analysis in two-phase flows under these conditions require a clear understanding of the flow pattern transition and development of appropriate dimensionless scales for its modeling and prediction. The physics of this flow is however very complex and remains poorly understood. This has led to various inadequacies in flow and heat transfer modeling and has made prediction of flow transition difficult in engineering design of efficient thermal and flow systems. In the present study the available published data for flow transition under microgravity condition are considered for mapping. The transition from slug to annular flow and from bubbly to slug flow are mapped using dimensionless variable combination developed in a previous study by the authors. The result indicate that the new maps describe the flow transitions reasonably well over the range of the data available. The transition maps are examined and the results are discussed in relation to the presumed balance of forces and flow dynamics. It is suggested that further evaluation of the proposed flow and transition mapping will require a wider range of microgravity data expected to be made available in future studies.

  19. A perturbative RS I cosmological phase transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunk, Don [Skidmore College, Department of Physics, Saratoga Springs, NY (United States); Hubisz, Jay [Syracuse University, Department of Physics, Syracuse, NY (United States); Jain, Bithika [Korea Institute for Advanced Study, School of Physics, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2018-01-15

    We identify a class of Randall-Sundrum type models with a successful first order cosmological phase transition during which a 5D dual of approximate conformal symmetry is spontaneously broken. Our focus is on soft-wall models that naturally realize a light radion/dilaton and suppressed dynamical contribution to the cosmological constant. We discuss phenomenology of the phase transition after developing a theoretical and numerical analysis of these models both at zero and finite temperature. We demonstrate a model with a TeV-Planck hierarchy and with a successful cosmological phase transition where the UV value of the curvature corresponds, via AdS/CFT, to an N of 20, where 5D gravity is expected to be firmly in the perturbative regime. (orig.)

  20. Problem-Solving Phase Transitions During Team Collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltshire, Travis J; Butner, Jonathan E; Fiore, Stephen M

    2018-01-01

    Multiple theories of problem-solving hypothesize that there are distinct qualitative phases exhibited during effective problem-solving. However, limited research has attempted to identify when transitions between phases occur. We integrate theory on collaborative problem-solving (CPS) with dynamical systems theory suggesting that when a system is undergoing a phase transition it should exhibit a peak in entropy and that entropy levels should also relate to team performance. Communications from 40 teams that collaborated on a complex problem were coded for occurrence of problem-solving processes. We applied a sliding window entropy technique to each team's communications and specified criteria for (a) identifying data points that qualify as peaks and (b) determining which peaks were robust. We used multilevel modeling, and provide a qualitative example, to evaluate whether phases exhibit distinct distributions of communication processes. We also tested whether there was a relationship between entropy values at transition points and CPS performance. We found that a proportion of entropy peaks was robust and that the relative occurrence of communication codes varied significantly across phases. Peaks in entropy thus corresponded to qualitative shifts in teams' CPS communications, providing empirical evidence that teams exhibit phase transitions during CPS. Also, lower average levels of entropy at the phase transition points predicted better CPS performance. We specify future directions to improve understanding of phase transitions during CPS, and collaborative cognition, more broadly. Copyright © 2017 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  1. The Kibble-Zurek mechanism in phase transitions of non-equilibrium systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Hil F. H.; Patil, Yogesh S.; Date, Aditya G.; Vengalattore, Mukund

    2017-04-01

    We experimentally realize a driven-dissipative phase transition using a mechanical parametric amplifier to demonstrate key signatures of a second order phase transition, including a point where the susceptibilities and relaxation time scales diverge, and where the system exhibits a spontaneous breaking of symmetry. Though reminiscent of conventional equilibrium phase transitions, it is unclear if such driven-dissipative phase transitions are amenable to the conventional Landau-Ginsburg-Wilson paradigm, which relies on concepts of scale invariance and universality, and recent work has shown that such phase transitions can indeed lie beyond such conventional universality classes. By quenching the system past the critical point, we investigate the dynamics of the emergent ordered phase and find that our measurements are in excellent agreement with the Kibble-Zurek mechanism. In addition to verifying the Kibble-Zurek hypothesis in driven-dissipative phase transitions for the first time, we also demonstrate that the measured critical exponents accurately reflect the interplay between intrinsic coherent dynamics and environmental correlations, showing a clear departure from mean field exponents in the case of non-Markovian system-bath interactions. We further discuss how reservoir engineering and the imposition of artificial environmental correlations can result in the stabilization of novel many-body quantum phases and aid in the creation of exotic non-equilibrium states of matter.

  2. Effects of phase transition induced density fluctuations on pulser dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagchi, Partha; Das, Arpan; Srivastava, Ajit M.; Layek, Biswanath

    2016-01-01

    We show that density fluctuations during phase transitions in pulsar cores may have non-trivial effects on pulsar timings, and may also possibly account for glitches and anti-glitches. These density fluctuations invariably lead to non-zero off-diagonal components of the moment of inertia, leading to transient wobbling of star. Thus, accurate measurements of pulsar timing and intensity modulations (from wobbling) may be used to identify the specific pattern of density fluctuations, hence the particular phase transition, occurring inside the pulsar core. Changes in quadrupole moment from rapidly evolving density fluctuations during the transition, with very short time scales, may provide a new source for gravitational waves. (author)

  3. Effects of phase transition induced density fluctuations on pulsar dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partha Bagchi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We show that density fluctuations during phase transitions in pulsar cores may have non-trivial effects on pulsar timings, and may also possibly account for glitches and anti-glitches. These density fluctuations invariably lead to non-zero off-diagonal components of the moment of inertia, leading to transient wobbling of star. Thus, accurate measurements of pulsar timing and intensity modulations (from wobbling may be used to identify the specific pattern of density fluctuations, hence the particular phase transition, occurring inside the pulsar core. Changes in quadrupole moment from rapidly evolving density fluctuations during the transition, with very short time scales, may provide a new source for gravitational waves.

  4. Phase Transition Behavior in a Neutral Evolution Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Dawn; Scott, Adam; Maric, Nevena; Bahar, Sonya

    2014-03-01

    The complexity of interactions among individuals and between individuals and the environment make agent based modeling ideal for studying emergent speciation. This is a dynamically complex problem that can be characterized via the critical behavior of a continuous phase transition. Concomitant with the main tenets of natural selection, we allow organisms to reproduce, mutate, and die within a neutral phenotype space. Previous work has shown phase transition behavior in an assortative mating model with variable fitness landscapes as the maximum mutation size (μ) was varied (Dees and Bahar, 2010). Similarly, this behavior was recently presented in the work of Scott et al. (2013), even on a completely neutral landscape, for bacterial-like fission as well as for assortative mating. Here we present another neutral model to investigate the `critical' phase transition behavior of three mating types - assortative, bacterial, and random - in a phenotype space as a function of the percentage of random death. Results show two types of phase transitions occurring for the parameters of the population size and the number of clusters (an analogue of species), indicating different evolutionary dynamics for system survival and clustering. This research was supported by funding from: University of Missouri Research Board and James S. McDonnell Foundation.

  5. Quantum phase transitions in random XY spin chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunder, J.E.; McKenzie, R.H.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: The XY spin chain in a transverse field is one of the simplest quantum spin models. It is a reasonable model for heavy fermion materials such as CeCu 6-x Au x . It has two quantum phase transitions: the Ising transition and the anisotropic transition. Quantum phase transitions occur at zero temperature. We are investigating what effect the introduction of randomness has on these quantum phase transitions. Disordered systems which undergo quantum phase transitions can exhibit new universality classes. The universality class of a phase transition is defined by the set of critical exponents. In a random system with quantum phase transitions we can observe Griffiths-McCoy singularities. Such singularities are observed in regions which have no long range order, so they are not classified as critical regions, yet they display phenomena normally associated with critical points, such as a diverging susceptibility. Griffiths-McCoy phases are due to rare regions with stronger than! average interactions and may be present far from the quantum critical point. We show how the random XY spin chain may be mapped onto a random Dirac equation. This allows us to calculate the density of states without making any approximations. From the density of states we can describe the conditions which should allow a Griffiths-McCoy phase. We find that for the Ising transition the dynamic critical exponent, z, is not universal. It is proportional to the disorder strength and inversely proportional to the energy gap, hence z becomes infinite at the critical point where the energy gap vanishes

  6. Statistical macrodynamics of large dynamical systems. Case of a phase transition in oscillator communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuramoto, Y.; Nishikawa, I.

    1987-01-01

    A model dynamical system with a great many degrees of freedom is proposed for which the critical condition for the onset of collective oscillations, the evolution of a suitably defined order parameter, and its fluctuations around steady states can be studied analytically. This is a rotator model appropriate for a large population of limit cycle oscillators. It is assumed that the natural frequencies of the oscillators are distributed and that each oscillator interacts with all the others uniformly. An exact self-consistent equation for the stationary amplitude of the collective oscillation is derived and is extended to a dynamical form. This dynamical extension is carried out near the transition point where the characteristic time scales of the order parameter and of the individual oscillators become well separated from each other. The macroscopic evolution equation thus obtained generally involves a fluctuating term whose irregular temporal variation comes from a deterministic torus motion of a subpopulation. The analysis of this equation reveals order parameter behavior qualitatively different from that in thermodynamic phase transitions, especially in that the critical fluctuations in the present system are extremely small

  7. Cosmological phase transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolb, E.W.

    1993-10-01

    If modern ideas about the role of spontaneous symmetry breaking in fundamental physics are correct, then the Universe should have undergone a series of phase transitions early in its history. The study of cosmological phase transitions has become an important aspect of early-Universe cosmology. In this lecture I review some very recent work on three aspects of phase transitions: the electroweak transition, texture, and axions

  8. Avalanche dynamics of structural phase transitions in shape memory alloys by acoustic emission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwig, Benno

    2009-01-01

    In this work the avalanche dynamics of five shape memory samples has been analyzed by acoustic emission spectroscopy. The acoustic emission spectroscopy is particularly suitable for this analysis as it couples with high sensitivity to small structural changes caused by nucleation processes, interface movements, or variant rearrangements [91]. Owing to its high time resolution it provides a statistical approach to describe the jerky and intermittent character of the avalanche dynamics [20]. Rate-dependent cooling and heating runs have been conducted in order to study time-dependent aspects of the transition dynamics of the single crystals Ni 63 Al 37 , Au 50.5 Cd 49.5 , and Fe 68.8 Pd single 31.2 , and the polycrystalline sample Fe 68.8 Pd poly 31.2 . Moreover, a ferromagnetic Ni 52 Mn 23 Ga 25 single crystal has been studied by temperature cycles under an applied magnetic field and additionally by magnetic-field cycles at a constant temperature in the martensitic phase. All samples analyzed in this work show power law behavior in the acoustic emission features amplitude, energy, and duration, which indicates scale-free behavior. The access to these power law spectra allows an investigation of energy barriers separating the metastable states, which give rise to avalanche transition dynamics. By performing rate-dependent experiments the importance of thermal fluctuations and the impact of martensite respectively twin stabilization processes have been examined. In the case of the Ni 52 Mn 23 Ga 25 sample, the magnetic-field-induced variant rearrangement at slow field cycles leads to stronger signals than the rearrangement at quick cycles. This behavior can be explained by twin stabilization processes, which are accompanied by a reduction of the twin boundary mobility. For Ni 63 Al 37 , the combination of relevant thermal fluctuations, different involved time scales, and a high degree of intrinsic disorder leads to a lower acoustic activity and weaker signals under

  9. Avalanche dynamics of structural phase transitions in shape memory alloys by acoustic emission spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwig, Benno

    2009-09-24

    In this work the avalanche dynamics of five shape memory samples has been analyzed by acoustic emission spectroscopy. The acoustic emission spectroscopy is particularly suitable for this analysis as it couples with high sensitivity to small structural changes caused by nucleation processes, interface movements, or variant rearrangements [91]. Owing to its high time resolution it provides a statistical approach to describe the jerky and intermittent character of the avalanche dynamics [20]. Rate-dependent cooling and heating runs have been conducted in order to study time-dependent aspects of the transition dynamics of the single crystals Ni{sub 63}Al{sub 37}, Au{sub 50.5}Cd{sub 49.5}, and Fe{sub 68.8}Pd{sup single}{sub 31.2}, and the polycrystalline sample Fe{sub 68.8}Pd{sup poly}{sub 31.2}. Moreover, a ferromagnetic Ni{sub 52}Mn{sub 23}Ga{sub 25} single crystal has been studied by temperature cycles under an applied magnetic field and additionally by magnetic-field cycles at a constant temperature in the martensitic phase. All samples analyzed in this work show power law behavior in the acoustic emission features amplitude, energy, and duration, which indicates scale-free behavior. The access to these power law spectra allows an investigation of energy barriers separating the metastable states, which give rise to avalanche transition dynamics. By performing rate-dependent experiments the importance of thermal fluctuations and the impact of martensite respectively twin stabilization processes have been examined. In the case of the Ni{sub 52}Mn{sub 23}Ga{sub 25} sample, the magnetic-field-induced variant rearrangement at slow field cycles leads to stronger signals than the rearrangement at quick cycles. This behavior can be explained by twin stabilization processes, which are accompanied by a reduction of the twin boundary mobility. For Ni{sub 63}Al{sub 37}, the combination of relevant thermal fluctuations, different involved time scales, and a high degree of

  10. Phase separation in the nonequilibrium Verwey transition in magnetite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randi, F.; Vergara, I.; Novelli, F.; Esposito, M.; Dell'Angela, M.; Brabers, V. A. M.; Metcalf, P.; Kukreja, R.; Dürr, H. A.; Fausti, D.; Grüninger, M.; Parmigiani, F.

    2016-02-01

    We present equilibrium and out-of-equilibrium studies of the Verwey transition in magnetite. In the equilibrium optical conductivity, we find a steplike change at the phase transition for photon energies below about 2 eV. The possibility of triggering a nonequilibrium transient metallic state in insulating magnetite by photo excitation was recently demonstrated by an x-ray study. Here we report a full characterization of the optical properties in the visible frequency range across the nonequilibrium phase transition. Our analysis of the spectral features is based on a detailed description of the equilibrium properties. The out-of-equilibrium optical data bear the initial electronic response associated to localized photoexcitation, the occurrence of phase separation, and the transition to a transient metallic phase for excitation density larger than a critical value. This allows us to identify the electronic nature of the transient state, to unveil the phase transition dynamics, and to study the consequences of phase separation on the reflectivity, suggesting a spectroscopic feature that may be generally linked to out-of-equilibrium phase separation.

  11. Solid-solid phase transitions in Fe nanowires induced by axial strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandoval, Luis; Urbassek, Herbert M

    2009-01-01

    By means of classical molecular-dynamics simulations we investigate the solid-solid phase transition from a bcc to a close-packed crystal structure in cylindrical iron nanowires, induced by axial strain. The interatomic potential employed has been shown to be capable of describing the martensite-austenite phase transition in iron. We study the stress versus strain curves for different temperatures and show that for a range of temperatures it is possible to induce a solid-solid phase transition by axial strain before the elasticity is lost; these transition temperatures are below the bulk transition temperature. The two phases have different (non-linear) elastic behavior: the bcc phase softens, while the close-packed phase stiffens with temperature. We also consider the reversibility of the transformation in the elastic regimes, and the role of the strain rate on the critical strain necessary for phase transition.

  12. Bubble nucleation and growth in very strong cosmological phase transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mégevand, Ariel, E-mail: megevand@mdp.edu.ar; Ramírez, Santiago

    2017-06-15

    Strongly first-order phase transitions, i.e., those with a large order parameter, are characterized by a considerable supercooling and high velocities of phase transition fronts. A very strong phase transition may have important cosmological consequences due to the departures from equilibrium caused in the plasma. In general, there is a limit to the strength, since the metastability of the old phase may prevent the transition to complete. Near this limit, the bubble nucleation rate achieves a maximum and thus departs from the widely assumed behavior in which it grows exponentially with time. We study the dynamics of this kind of phase transitions. We show that in some cases a gaussian approximation for the nucleation rate is more suitable, and in such a case we solve analytically the evolution of the phase transition. We compare the gaussian and exponential approximations with realistic cases and we determine their ranges of validity. We also discuss the implications for cosmic remnants such as gravitational waves.

  13. Usage of the micropixel detector TimePix for observation of the dynamics of phase transitions in metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Pugach

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The results for the test of a TimePix hybrid detector as a tool for measuring and imaging in real time dynamics of phase transitions in metal alloys under heating or cooling are presented. The X-rays ( ~ 10 keV experimental setup explored for the diffraction studies at the Institute for Problems of Material Science NASU (Kyiv is briefly described. An evolution of the diffraction maxima position (~ 20 μm accuracy of the scattered X-rays was ob-served with exposures from a few dozen to a few hundred milliseconds under heating or cooling of the samples of Armco iron at a rate of 100 to 250 C/s. Data for the phase transitions (alpha-, gamma-phases observed during heating/cooling (20 - 1250 °C using the X-ray diffraction were measured.

  14. Nonequilibrium Phase Transitions in Supercooled Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limmer, David; Chandler, David

    2012-02-01

    We present results of a simulation study of water driven out of equilibrium. Using transition path sampling, we can probe stationary path distributions parameterize by order parameters that are extensive in space and time. We find that by coupling external fields to these parameters, we can drive water through a first order dynamical phase transition into amorphous ice. By varying the initial equilibrium distributions we can probe pathways for the creation of amorphous ices of low and high densities.

  15. Ultrafast photoinduced structure phase transition in antimony single crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fausti, Daniele; Misochko, Oleg V.; van Loosdrecht, Paul H. M.

    2009-01-01

    Picosecond Raman scattering is used to study the photoinduced ultrafast dynamics in Peierls distorted antimony. We find evidence for an ultrafast nonthermal reversible structural phase transition. Most surprisingly, we find evidence that this transition evolves toward a lower symmetry in contrast to

  16. Ultrafast Dynamics in Vanadium Dioxide: Separating Spatially Segregated Mixed Phase Dynamics in the Time-domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, David

    2011-10-01

    In correlated electronic systems, observed electronic and structural behavior results from the complex interplay between multiple, sometimes competing degrees-of- freedom. One such material used to study insulator-to-metal transitions is vanadium dioxide, which undergoes a phase transition from a monoclinic-insulating phase to a rutile-metallic phase when the sample is heated to 340 K. The major open question with this material is the relative influence of this structural phase transition (Peirels transition) and the effects of electronic correlations (Mott transition) on the observed insulator-to-metal transition. Answers to these major questions are complicated by vanadium dioxide's sensitivity to perturbations in the chemical structure in VO2. For example, related VxOy oxides with nearly a 2:1 ratio do not demonstrate the insulator-to- metal transition, while recent work has demonstrated that W:VO2 has demonstrated a tunable transition temperature controllable with tungsten doping. All of these preexisting results suggest that the observed electronic properties are exquisitely sensitive to the sample disorder. Using ultrafast spectroscopic techniques, it is now possible to impulsively excite this transition and investigate the photoinduced counterpart to this thermal phase transition in a strongly nonequilibrium regime. I will discuss our recent results studying the terahertz-frequency conductivity dynamics of this photoinduced phase transition in the poorly understood near threshold temperature range. We find a dramatic softening of the transition near the critical temperature, which results primarily from the mixed phase coexistence near the transition temperature. To directly study this mixed phase behavior, we directly study the nucleation and growth rates of the metallic phase in the parent insulator using non-degenerate optical pump-probe spectroscopy. These experiments measure, in the time- domain, the coexistent phase separation in VO2 (spatially

  17. Absorbing phase transitions in deterministic fixed-energy sandpile models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Su-Chan

    2018-03-01

    We investigate the origin of the difference, which was noticed by Fey et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 145703 (2010), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.104.145703], between the steady state density of an Abelian sandpile model (ASM) and the transition point of its corresponding deterministic fixed-energy sandpile model (DFES). Being deterministic, the configuration space of a DFES can be divided into two disjoint classes such that every configuration in one class should evolve into one of absorbing states, whereas no configurations in the other class can reach an absorbing state. Since the two classes are separated in terms of toppling dynamics, the system can be made to exhibit an absorbing phase transition (APT) at various points that depend on the initial probability distribution of the configurations. Furthermore, we show that in general the transition point also depends on whether an infinite-size limit is taken before or after the infinite-time limit. To demonstrate, we numerically study the two-dimensional DFES with Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld toppling rule (BTW-FES). We confirm that there are indeed many thresholds. Nonetheless, the critical phenomena at various transition points are found to be universal. We furthermore discuss a microscopic absorbing phase transition, or a so-called spreading dynamics, of the BTW-FES, to find that the phase transition in this setting is related to the dynamical isotropic percolation process rather than self-organized criticality. In particular, we argue that choosing recurrent configurations of the corresponding ASM as an initial configuration does not allow for a nontrivial APT in the DFES.

  18. Soft modes and structural phase transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkataraman, G [Reactor Research Centre, Kalpakkam (India)

    1979-12-01

    A survey of soft modes and their relationship to structural phase transitions is presented. After introducing the concept of a soft mode, the origin of softening is considered from a lattice-dynamical point. The Landau theory approach to structural transitions is then discussed, followed by a generalisation of the soft-mode concept through the use of the dynamic order-parameter susceptibility. The relationship of soft modes to broken symmetry is also examined. Experimental results for several classes of crystals are next presented, bringing out various features such as the co-operative Jahn-Teller effect. The survey concludes with a discussion of the central peak, touching upon both the experimental results and the theoretical speculations.

  19. Cosmological phase transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolb, E.W.

    1987-01-01

    If the universe stated from conditions of high temperature and density, there should have been a series of phase transitions associated with spontaneous symmetry breaking. The cosmological phase transitions could have observable consequences in the present Universe. Some of the consequences including the formation of topological defects and cosmological inflation are reviewed here. One of the most important tools in building particle physics models is the use of spontaneous symmetry breaking (SSB). The proposal that there are underlying symmetries of nature that are not manifest in the vacuum is a crucial link in the unification of forces. Of particular interest for cosmology is the expectation that are the high temperatures of the big bang symmetries broken today will be restored, and that there are phase transitions to the broken state. The possibility that topological defects will be produced in the transition is the subject of this section. The possibility that the Universe will undergo inflation in a phase transition will be the subject of the next section. Before discussing the creation of topological defects in the phase transition, some general aspects of high-temperature restoration of symmetry and the development of the phase transition will be reviewed. 29 references, 1 figure, 1 table

  20. Hadronization during quark-gluon plasma phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohanty, A.K.; Kataria, S.K.

    1996-01-01

    The hadron multiplicity distributions and factorial moments are studied in the framework of Landau theory of phase transitions. The factorial moments show a scaling law with a scaling exponent ν which characterizes the intermittency properties of the hadron phase for T c (or T t ) where T c (or T t ) is the transition temperature for second (or first) order transition. The scaling exponent ν is weakly dependent on the free energy parameters as well as on temperature. It is shown that ν remains practically constant in the hadron phase for which T c or T t whether the transition is second order or first order of second kind where the free energy expansion includes cubic term. This universality in the scaling exponent is also maintained above T c over a wide range of temperature even if the transition is strongly first order of first kind where the free energy expansion has only even order coefficients, except around the critical temperature T t where T t approx-gt T c . Therefore, the scaling exponent ν is rather more universal and only indicates the presence of a possible phase transition. It is further shown that the hadron multiplicity distribution is quite sensitive to the free energy parameters. The study of hadron multiplicity distribution at various resolution or bin size reveals more information about the dynamics of the phase transition. The calculated hadron multiplicity distributions are also compared with the negative binomial distribution, often used to explain the experimental multiplicity distributions. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  1. Phase transitions and glass transition in a hyperquenched silica–alumina glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Y.F.; Zhao, D.H.; Yue, Yuanzheng

    2017-01-01

    We investigate phase transitions, glass transition, and dynamic behavior in the hyperquenched 69SiO2–31Al2O3 (mol%) glass (SA glass). Upon reheating, the SA glass exhibits a series of thermal responses. Subsequent to the sub-Tg enthalpy release, the glass undergoes a large jump in isobaric heat...... capacity (ΔCp) during glass transition, implying the fragile nature of the SA glass. The mullite starts to form before the end of glass transition, indicating that the SA glass is extremely unstable against crystallization. After the mullite formation, the remaining glass phase exhibits an increased Tg...... and a suppressed ΔCp. The formation of cristobalite at 1553 K indicates the dominance of silica in the remaining glass matrix. The cristobalite gradually re-melts as the isothermal heat-treatment temperature is raised from 1823 to 1853 K, which is well below the melting point of cristobalite, while the amount...

  2. Wigner's dynamical transition state theory in phase space: classical and quantum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waalkens, Holger; Schubert, Roman; Wiggins, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    We develop Wigner's approach to a dynamical transition state theory in phase space in both the classical and quantum mechanical settings. The key to our development is the construction of a normal form for describing the dynamics in the neighbourhood of a specific type of saddle point that governs the evolution from reactants to products in high dimensional systems. In the classical case this is the standard Poincaré–Birkhoff normal form. In the quantum case we develop a normal form based on the Weyl calculus and an explicit algorithm for computing this quantum normal form. The classical normal form allows us to discover and compute the phase space structures that govern classical reaction dynamics. From this knowledge we are able to provide a direct construction of an energy dependent dividing surface in phase space having the properties that trajectories do not locally 're-cross' the surface and the directional flux across the surface is minimal. Using this, we are able to give a formula for the directional flux through the dividing surface that goes beyond the harmonic approximation. We relate this construction to the flux–flux autocorrelation function which is a standard ingredient in the expression for the reaction rate in the chemistry community. We also give a classical mechanical interpretation of the activated complex as a normally hyperbolic invariant manifold (NHIM), and further describe the structure of the NHIM. The quantum normal form provides us with an efficient algorithm to compute quantum reaction rates and we relate this algorithm to the quantum version of the flux–flux autocorrelation function formalism. The significance of the classical phase space structures for the quantum mechanics of reactions is elucidated by studying the phase space distribution of scattering states. The quantum normal form also provides an efficient way of computing Gamov–Siegert resonances. We relate these resonances to the lifetimes of the quantum activated

  3. Time evolution and dynamical phase transitions at a critical time in a system of one-dimensional bosons after a quantum quench.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Aditi

    2012-12-28

    A renormalization group approach is used to show that a one-dimensional system of bosons subject to a lattice quench exhibits a finite-time dynamical phase transition where an order parameter within a light cone increases as a nonanalytic function of time after a critical time. Such a transition is also found for a simultaneous lattice and interaction quench where the effective scaling dimension of the lattice becomes time dependent, crucially affecting the time evolution of the system. Explicit results are presented for the time evolution of the boson interaction parameter and the order parameter for the dynamical transition as well as for more general quenches.

  4. Explosive transitions to synchronization in networks of phase oscillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyva, I; Navas, A; Sendiña-Nadal, I; Almendral, J A; Buldú, J M; Zanin, M; Papo, D; Boccaletti, S

    2013-01-01

    The emergence of dynamical abrupt transitions in the macroscopic state of a system is currently a subject of the utmost interest. The occurrence of a first-order phase transition to synchronization of an ensemble of networked phase oscillators was reported, so far, for very particular network architectures. Here, we show how a sharp, discontinuous transition can occur, instead, as a generic feature of networks of phase oscillators. Precisely, we set conditions for the transition from unsynchronized to synchronized states to be first-order, and demonstrate how these conditions can be attained in a very wide spectrum of situations. We then show how the occurrence of such transitions is always accompanied by the spontaneous setting of frequency-degree correlation features. Third, we show that the conditions for abrupt transitions can be even softened in several cases. Finally, we discuss, as a possible application, the use of this phenomenon to express magnetic-like states of synchronization.

  5. Euclidean Dynamical Triangulation revisited: is the phase transition really 1st order?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rindlisbacher, Tobias; Forcrand, Philippe de

    2015-01-01

    The transition between the two phases of 4D Euclidean Dynamical Triangulation (http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0370-2693(92)90709-D) was long believed to be of second order until in 1996 first order behavior was found for sufficiently large systems (http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0550-3213(96)00214-3, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0370-2693(96)01277-4). However, one may wonder if this finding was affected by the numerical methods used: to control volume fluctuations, in both studies (http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0550-3213(96)00214-3, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0370-2693(96)01277-4) an artificial harmonic potential was added to the action and in (http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0370-2693(96)01277-4) measurements were taken after a fixed number of accepted instead of attempted moves which introduces an additional error. Finally the simulations suffer from strong critical slowing down which may have been underestimated. In the present work, we address the above weaknesses: we allow the volume to fluctuate freely within a fixed interval; we take measurements after a fixed number of attempted moves; and we overcome critical slowing down by using an optimized parallel tempering algorithm (http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1742-5468/2010/01/P01020). With these improved methods, on systems of size up to N_4=64k 4-simplices, we confirm that the phase transition is 1"s"t order. In addition, we discuss a local criterion to decide whether parts of a triangulation are in the elongated or crumpled state and describe a new correspondence between EDT and the balls in boxes model. The latter gives rise to a modified partition function with an additional, third coupling. Finally, we propose and motivate a class of modified path-integral measures that might remove the metastability of the Markov chain and turn the phase transition into 2"n"d order.

  6. Longitudinal beam dynamics at transition crossing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogacz, S.A.

    1991-11-01

    A brief outline of the longitudinal single particle dynamics at transition is presented in terms of phase-space mappings. Simple quantitative prediction about the phase-space dilution is made. More realistic simulation (ESME) of the transition crossing is carried out (including various collective and single particle effects contributing to the longitudinal emittance blow up). The simulation takes into account the longitudinal space-charge force (bunch length oscillation), the transverse space-charge (the Umstaetter effect) and finally the dispersion of the momentum compaction factor (the Johnsen effect). As a result of this simulation one can separate relative strengths of the above mechanisms and study their individual effects on the longitudinal phase-space evolution, especially filamentation of the bunch and formation of a galaxy-like'' pattern. 7 refs., 2 figs.

  7. Interacting opinion and disease dynamics in multiplex networks: Discontinuous phase transition and nonmonotonic consensus times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velásquez-Rojas, Fátima; Vazquez, Federico

    2017-05-01

    Opinion formation and disease spreading are among the most studied dynamical processes on complex networks. In real societies, it is expected that these two processes depend on and affect each other. However, little is known about the effects of opinion dynamics over disease dynamics and vice versa, since most studies treat them separately. In this work we study the dynamics of the voter model for opinion formation intertwined with that of the contact process for disease spreading, in a population of agents that interact via two types of connections, social and contact. These two interacting dynamics take place on two layers of networks, coupled through a fraction q of links present in both networks. The probability that an agent updates its state depends on both the opinion and disease states of the interacting partner. We find that the opinion dynamics has striking consequences on the statistical properties of disease spreading. The most important is that the smooth (continuous) transition from a healthy to an endemic phase observed in the contact process, as the infection probability increases beyond a threshold, becomes abrupt (discontinuous) in the two-layer system. Therefore, disregarding the effects of social dynamics on epidemics propagation may lead to a misestimation of the real magnitude of the spreading. Also, an endemic-healthy discontinuous transition is found when the coupling q overcomes a threshold value. Furthermore, we show that the disease dynamics delays the opinion consensus, leading to a consensus time that varies nonmonotonically with q in a large range of the model's parameters. A mean-field approach reveals that the coupled dynamics of opinions and disease can be approximately described by the dynamics of the voter model decoupled from that of the contact process, with effective probabilities of opinion and disease transmission.

  8. Extra entropy production due to non-equilibrium phase transitions in relativistic heavy ion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csernai, L.P.; Lukacs, B.

    1984-04-01

    In a fluid-dynamical model the extra entropy production is calculated which arises from a non-equilibrium phase transition from nuclear to quark matter. The dynamics of processes producing extra entropy are treated in linear approximation. It is shown that there is a considerable extra entropy production provided the transition is not too fast. In measuring the entropy at the break-up, an excess entropy might signalize the phase transition to a transient quark-gluon plasma. (D.Gy.)

  9. Neutron and x-ray scattering studies of ferroelectric phase transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolling, G.

    1982-08-01

    The subject of ferroelectric type phase transitions is introduced by means of examples of two main classes (a) displacive transitions, e.g. KNbO 3 , and (b) order-disorder transitions, e.g. NaNO 2 . The significance of crystal structure and crystal dynamics (i.e. the phonon dispersion relations) for ferroelectric behaviour is emphasized. The chief methods for structure determination are x-ray and neutron diffraction, while the most powerful of all techniques for studying phonon properties is that of coherent inelastic neutron scattering. The most useful type of neutron spectrometer for phase transition studies, the triple axis crystal spectrometer, is discussed in detail. The history of the soft mode theory of displacive phase transitions, and its application to the antiferroelectric and 'almost ferroelectric' transitions in SrTiO 3 , provides an introduction to more recent developments in this area, including over-damped soft modes, central peaks and critical scattering, incommensurate phase transitions (e.g. K 2 SeO 4 ), amplitudons, phasons and finally solitions. The treatment throughout is descriptive and introductory, designed for graduate students

  10. The nature and dynamic of phase transitions during cooling - warming of garlic cell sap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. Т. Ходько

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available To identify the type of phase transition during cooling-warming in the garlic cell sap by cryomicroscopy of samples in transmitted light phenomenon of critical opalescence was recorded. Critical state is peculiar only for phase transitions between the isotropic mediums. This fact gives grounds to include phase transition in the investigated system to liquid-liquid type, which proceeds according to spinodal mechanism and nucleus growth mechanism. During rapid cooling cracking of the samples due to high internal stresses (in contrast to the slow cooling was observed. After the phase transition during cooling rouglydispersed system – highly concentrated emulsion-gel was formed. Signs of crystallization in the system under the studied conditions were not found.

  11. Temporal condensation and dynamic λ-transition within the complex network: an application to real-life market evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiliński, Mateusz; Szewczak, Bartłomiej; Gubiec, Tomasz; Kutner, Ryszard; Struzik, Zbigniew R.

    2015-02-01

    We fill a void in merging empirical and phenomenological characterisation of the dynamical phase transitions in complex networks by identifying and thoroughly characterising a triple sequence of such transitions on a real-life financial market. We extract and interpret the empirical, numerical, and analytical evidences for the existence of these dynamical phase transitions, by considering the medium size Frankfurt stock exchange (FSE), as a typical example of a financial market. By using the canonical object for the graph theory, i.e. the minimal spanning tree (MST) network, we observe: (i) the (initial) dynamical phase transition from equilibrium to non-equilibrium nucleation phase of the MST network, occurring at some critical time. Coalescence of edges on the FSE's transient leader (defined by its largest degree) is observed within the nucleation phase; (ii) subsequent acceleration of the process of nucleation and the emergence of the condensation phase (the second dynamical phase transition), forming a logarithmically diverging temporal λ-peak of the leader's degree at the second critical time; (iii) the third dynamical fragmentation phase transition (after passing the second critical time), where the λ-peak logarithmically relaxes over three quarters of the year, resulting in a few loosely connected sub-graphs. This λ-peak (comparable to that of the specific heat vs. temperature forming during the equilibrium continuous phase transition from the normal fluid I 4He to the superfluid II 4He) is considered as a prominent result of a non-equilibrium superstar-like superhub or a dragon-king's abrupt evolution over about two and a half year of market evolution. We capture and meticulously characterise a remarkable phenomenon in which a peripheral company becomes progressively promoted to become the dragon-king strongly dominating the complex network over an exceptionally long period of time containing the crash. Detailed analysis of the complete trio of the

  12. Hysteresis, phase transitions, and dangerous transients in electrical power distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duclut, Charlie; Backhaus, Scott; Chertkov, Michael

    2013-06-01

    The majority of dynamical studies in power systems focus on the high-voltage transmission grids where models consider large generators interacting with crude aggregations of individual small loads. However, new phenomena have been observed indicating that the spatial distribution of collective, nonlinear contribution of these small loads in the low-voltage distribution grid is crucial to the outcome of these dynamical transients. To elucidate the phenomenon, we study the dynamics of voltage and power flows in a spatially extended distribution feeder (circuit) connecting many asynchronous induction motors and discover that this relatively simple 1+1 (space+time) dimensional system exhibits a plethora of nontrivial spatiotemporal effects, some of which may be dangerous for power system stability. Long-range motor-motor interactions mediated by circuit voltage and electrical power flows result in coexistence and segregation of spatially extended phases defined by individual motor states, a "normal" state where the motors' mechanical (rotation) frequency is slightly smaller than the nominal frequency of the basic ac flows and a "stalled" state where the mechanical frequency is small. Transitions between the two states can be initiated by a perturbation of the voltage or base frequency at the head of the distribution feeder. Such behavior is typical of first-order phase transitions in physics, and this 1+1 dimensional model shows many other properties of a first-order phase transition with the spatial distribution of the motors' mechanical frequency playing the role of the order parameter. In particular, we observe (a) propagation of the phase-transition front with the constant speed (in very long feeders) and (b) hysteresis in transitions between the normal and stalled (or partially stalled) phases.

  13. Complex Nonlinearity Chaos, Phase Transitions, Topology Change and Path Integrals

    CERN Document Server

    Ivancevic, Vladimir G

    2008-01-01

    Complex Nonlinearity: Chaos, Phase Transitions, Topology Change and Path Integrals is a book about prediction & control of general nonlinear and chaotic dynamics of high-dimensional complex systems of various physical and non-physical nature and their underpinning geometro-topological change. The book starts with a textbook-like expose on nonlinear dynamics, attractors and chaos, both temporal and spatio-temporal, including modern techniques of chaos–control. Chapter 2 turns to the edge of chaos, in the form of phase transitions (equilibrium and non-equilibrium, oscillatory, fractal and noise-induced), as well as the related field of synergetics. While the natural stage for linear dynamics comprises of flat, Euclidean geometry (with the corresponding calculation tools from linear algebra and analysis), the natural stage for nonlinear dynamics is curved, Riemannian geometry (with the corresponding tools from nonlinear, tensor algebra and analysis). The extreme nonlinearity – chaos – corresponds to th...

  14. Markov transition probability-based network from time series for characterizing experimental two-phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Zhong-Ke; Hu Li-Dan; Jin Ning-De

    2013-01-01

    We generate a directed weighted complex network by a method based on Markov transition probability to represent an experimental two-phase flow. We first systematically carry out gas—liquid two-phase flow experiments for measuring the time series of flow signals. Then we construct directed weighted complex networks from various time series in terms of a network generation method based on Markov transition probability. We find that the generated network inherits the main features of the time series in the network structure. In particular, the networks from time series with different dynamics exhibit distinct topological properties. Finally, we construct two-phase flow directed weighted networks from experimental signals and associate the dynamic behavior of gas-liquid two-phase flow with the topological statistics of the generated networks. The results suggest that the topological statistics of two-phase flow networks allow quantitative characterization of the dynamic flow behavior in the transitions among different gas—liquid flow patterns. (general)

  15. Isotropic–Nematic Phase Transitions in Gravitational Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roupas, Zacharias; Kocsis, Bence [Institute of Physics, Eötvös University, Pázmány P. s. 1/A, Budapest, 1117 (Hungary); Tremaine, Scott [Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States)

    2017-06-20

    We examine dense self-gravitating stellar systems dominated by a central potential, such as nuclear star clusters hosting a central supermassive black hole. Different dynamical properties of these systems evolve on vastly different timescales. In particular, the orbital-plane orientations are typically driven into internal thermodynamic equilibrium by vector resonant relaxation before the orbital eccentricities or semimajor axes relax. We show that the statistical mechanics of such systems exhibit a striking resemblance to liquid crystals, with analogous ordered-nematic and disordered-isotropic phases. The ordered phase consists of bodies orbiting in a disk in both directions, with the disk thickness depending on temperature, while the disordered phase corresponds to a nearly isotropic distribution of the orbit normals. We show that below a critical value of the total angular momentum, the system undergoes a first-order phase transition between the ordered and disordered phases. At a critical point, the phase transition becomes second order, while for higher angular momenta there is a smooth crossover. We also find metastable equilibria containing two identical disks with mutual inclinations between 90° and 180°.

  16. Electroweak phase transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, G.W.

    1991-01-01

    An analytic treatment of the one Higgs doublet, electroweak phase transition is given. The phase transition is first order, occurs by the nucleation of thin walled bubbles and completes at a temperature where the order parameter, left-angle φ right-angle T is significantly smaller than it is when the origin becomes absolutely unstable. The rate of anomalous baryon number violation is an exponentially function of left-angle φ right-angle T . In very minimal extensions of the standard model it is quite easy to increase left-angle φ right-angle T so that anomalous baryon number violation is suppressed after completion of the phase transition. Hence baryogenesis at the electroweak phase transition is tenable in minimal of the standard model. In some cases additional phase transitions are possible. For a light Higgs boson, when the top quark mass is sufficiently large, the state where the Higgs field has a vacuum expectation value left-angle φ right-angle = 246 GeV is not the true minimum of the Higgs potential. When this is the case, and when the top quark mass exceeds some critical value, thermal fluctuations in the early universe would have rendered the state left-angle φ right-angle = 246 GeV unstable. The requirement that the state left-angle φ right-angle = 246 GeV is sufficiently long lived constrains the masses of the Higgs boson and the top quark. Finally, we consider whether local phase transitions can be induced by heavy particles which act as seeds for deformations in the scalar field

  17. Martensitic phase transitions in Co-0.85 at % Fe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prem, M.

    1997-12-01

    Co-0.85at%Fe shows the two martensitic phase transitions hcp-dhcp and dhcp-fcc. The lattice dynamics of Co-0.85at%Fe was investigated by the means of inelastic neutron scattering at a series of temperatures up to 750K in order to understand the two martensitic phase transitions of this system. In all of the measured phonon branches anomalies were neither found near the hcp-dhcp phase transition nor going through the dhcp-fcc transition. Lattice-parameter scans were performed through the whole temperature range. Diffuse neutron scattering revealed a lattice parameter shift between the dhcp and fcc phase of ∼0.4 % measured at the same temperature. This was possible because the system shows a wide temperature hysteresis at the two phase transitions. In the temperature region of coexistence of dhcp and fcc phase diffuse satellites arose near the (111)fcc Bragg peak (which is equivalent to the (00.2)dhcp peak). Their intensity varied in accordance to the volume fraction of the phases but vanished on changing wavelength. The elastic measurements were performed at the Austrian triple axis spectrometer VALSE located at the Laboratoire Leon Brillouin (LLB) in Saclay (F); the inelastic measurements were performed at the spectrometers IN3 and INS of the Institute Laue Langevin (ILL) in Grenoble (F). (author)

  18. Rubberlike Dynamics in Sulphur above the λ-Transition Temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monaco, G.; Crapanzano, L.; Crichton, W.; Mezouar, M.; Verbeni, R.; Bellissent, R.; Fioretto, D.; Scarponi, F.

    2005-01-01

    The high-frequency acoustic dynamics of sulfur across the liquid-liquid, λ transition has been studied using inelastic x-ray scattering. The combination of these high-frequency data with lower frequency, literature data indicates that liquid sulfur develops, in the high-temperature, polymeric solution phase, some characteristic features of a rubber. In particular, entanglement coupling among polymeric chains plays a relevant role in the dynamics of this liquid phase

  19. Ab initio molecular dynamics study of pressure-induced phase transition in ZnS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, Israel; Durandurdu, Murat

    2006-01-01

    The pressure-induced phase transition in zinc sulfide is studied using a constant-pressure ab initio technique. The reversible phase transition from the zinc-blende structure to a rock-salt structure is successfully reproduced through the simulations. The transformation mechanism at the atomistic level is characterized and found to be due to a monoclinic modification of the simulation cell, similar to that obtained in SiC. This observation supports the universal transition state of high-pressure zinc-blende to rock-salt transition in semiconductor compounds. We also study the role of stress deviations on the transformation mechanism and find that the system follows the same transition pathway under nonhydrostatic compressions as well

  20. Structural phase transition and failure of nanographite sheets under high pressure: a molecular dynamics study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Bin; Liang Yongcheng; Sun Huiyu

    2007-01-01

    Nanographite sheets under high compressive stresses at ambient temperature have been investigated through molecular dynamics simulations using the Tersoff-Brenner potential. Nanographite undergoes a soft to hard phase transition at a certain compressive stress, about 15 GPa. With increasing compressions, the bonding structures of nanographite are changed, interlayer sp 3 -bonds are formed, and nanographite transforms into a superhard carbon phase (SCP). Further compressions lead to the instabilities of the SCP. Although the detailed lattice structure of the SCP remains elusive, its compressive strength can approach 150 GPa, comparable to that of diamond. The maximum failure stresses of nanographite sheets are sensitive to the inter-and intra-layer interstices. Our results may explain paradoxical experimental results in the available literature

  1. Phase transitions in nuclear physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moretto, L.G.; Phair, L.; Wozniak, G.J.

    1997-08-01

    A critical overview of the low energy phase transitions in nuclei is presented with particular attention to the 2nd (1st) order pairing phase transitions, and to the 1st order liquid-vapor phase transition. The role of fluctuations in washing out these transitions is discussed and illustrated with examples. A robust indicator of phase coexistence in multifragmentation is presented.

  2. Phase transitions in nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moretto, L.G.; Phair, L.; Wozniak, G.J.

    1997-08-01

    A critical overview of the low energy phase transitions in nuclei is presented with particular attention to the 2nd (1st) order pairing phase transitions, and to the 1st order liquid-vapor phase transition. The role of fluctuations in washing out these transitions is discussed and illustrated with examples. A robust indicator of phase coexistence in multifragmentation is presented

  3. A non-equilibrium phase transition in a dissipative forest model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messer, Joachim A.

    2009-01-01

    The shape of the biostress force for a stressed Lotka-Volterra network is for the first time derived from Lindblad's dissipative dynamics. Numerical solutions for stressed prey-predator systems with limited resources show a threshold. A non-equilibrium phase transition to a phase with ecosystem dying after a few enforced oscillations (waldsterben phase) occurs.

  4. Monte Carlo simulations of phase transitions and lattice dynamics in an atom-phonon model for spin transition compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apetrei, Alin Marian; Enachescu, Cristian; Tanasa, Radu; Stoleriu, Laurentiu; Stancu, Alexandru

    2010-01-01

    We apply here the Monte Carlo Metropolis method to a known atom-phonon coupling model for 1D spin transition compounds (STC). These inorganic molecular systems can switch under thermal or optical excitation, between two states in thermodynamical competition, i.e. high spin (HS) and low spin (LS). In the model, the ST units (molecules) are linked by springs, whose elastic constants depend on the spin states of the neighboring atoms, and can only have three possible values. Several previous analytical papers considered a unique average value for the elastic constants (mean-field approximation) and obtained phase diagrams and thermal hysteresis loops. Recently, Monte Carlo simulation papers, taking into account all three values of the elastic constants, obtained thermal hysteresis loops, but no phase diagrams. Employing Monte Carlo simulation, in this work we obtain the phase diagram at T=0 K, which is fully consistent with earlier analytical work; however it is more complex. The main difference is the existence of two supplementary critical curves that mark a hysteresis zone in the phase diagram. This explains the pressure hysteresis curves at low temperature observed experimentally and predicts a 'chemical' hysteresis in STC at very low temperatures. The formation and the dynamics of the domains are also discussed.

  5. Ordering phase transition in the one-dimensional Axelrod model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilone, D.; Vespignani, A.; Castellano, C.

    2002-12-01

    We study the one-dimensional behavior of a cellular automaton aimed at the description of the formation and evolution of cultural domains. The model exhibits a non-equilibrium transition between a phase with all the system sharing the same culture and a disordered phase of coexisting regions with different cultural features. Depending on the initial distribution of the disorder the transition occurs at different values of the model parameters. This phenomenology is qualitatively captured by a mean-field approach, which maps the dynamics into a multi-species reaction-diffusion problem.

  6. Thermodynamics of phase transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cofta, H.

    1972-01-01

    The phenomenology of the phase transitions has been considered. The definitions of thermodynamic functions and parameters, as well as those of the phase transitions, are given and some of the relations between those quantities are discussed. The phase transitions classification proposed by Ehrenfest has been described. The most important features of phase transitions are discussed using the selected physical examples including the critical behaviour of ferromagnetic materials at the Curie temperature and antiferromagnetic materials at the Neel temperature. Some aspects of the Ehrenfest's equations, that have been derived, for the interfacial lines and surfaces are considered as well as the role the notion of interfaces. (S.B.)

  7. Molecular dynamics insight to phase transition in n-alkanes with carbon nanofillers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monisha Rastogi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The present work aims to investigate the phase transition, dispersion and diffusion behavior of nanocomposites of carbon nanotube (CNT and straight chain alkanes. These materials are potential candidates for organic phase change materials(PCMs and have attracted flurry of research recently. Accurate experimental evaluation of the mass, thermal and transport properties of such composites is both difficult as well as economically taxing. Additionally it is crucial to understand the factors that results in modification or enhancement of their characteristic at atomic or molecular level. Classical molecular dynamics approach has been extended to elucidate the same. Bulk atomistic models have been generated and subjected to rigorous multistage equilibration. To reaffirm the approach, both canonical and constant-temperature, constant- pressure ensembles were employed to simulate the models under consideration. Explicit determination of kinetic, potential, non-bond and total energy assisted in understanding the enhanced thermal and transport property of the nanocomposites from molecular point of view. Crucial parameters including mean square displacement and simulated self diffusion coefficient precisely define the balance of the thermodynamic and hydrodynamic interactions. Radial distribution function also reflected the density variation, strength and mobility of the nanocomposites. It is expected that CNT functionalization could improve the dispersion within n-alkane matrix. This would further ameliorate the mass and thermal properties of the composite. Additionally, the determined density was in good agreement with experimental data. Thus, molecular dynamics can be utilized as a high throughput technique for theoretical investigation of nanocomposites PCMs.

  8. Molecular dynamics insight to phase transition in n-alkanes with carbon nanofillers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rastogi, Monisha [School of Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Mandi, Himachal Pradesh 175 001 (India); Vaish, Rahul, E-mail: rahul@iitmandi.ac.in [School of Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Mandi, Himachal Pradesh 175 001 (India); Materials Research Centre, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012 (India)

    2015-05-15

    The present work aims to investigate the phase transition, dispersion and diffusion behavior of nanocomposites of carbon nanotube (CNT) and straight chain alkanes. These materials are potential candidates for organic phase change materials(PCMs) and have attracted flurry of research recently. Accurate experimental evaluation of the mass, thermal and transport properties of such composites is both difficult as well as economically taxing. Additionally it is crucial to understand the factors that results in modification or enhancement of their characteristic at atomic or molecular level. Classical molecular dynamics approach has been extended to elucidate the same. Bulk atomistic models have been generated and subjected to rigorous multistage equilibration. To reaffirm the approach, both canonical and constant-temperature, constant- pressure ensembles were employed to simulate the models under consideration. Explicit determination of kinetic, potential, non-bond and total energy assisted in understanding the enhanced thermal and transport property of the nanocomposites from molecular point of view. Crucial parameters including mean square displacement and simulated self diffusion coefficient precisely define the balance of the thermodynamic and hydrodynamic interactions. Radial distribution function also reflected the density variation, strength and mobility of the nanocomposites. It is expected that CNT functionalization could improve the dispersion within n-alkane matrix. This would further ameliorate the mass and thermal properties of the composite. Additionally, the determined density was in good agreement with experimental data. Thus, molecular dynamics can be utilized as a high throughput technique for theoretical investigation of nanocomposites PCMs.

  9. Structural phase transitions in boron carbide under stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korotaev, P; Pokatashkin, P; Yanilkin, A

    2016-01-01

    Structural transitions in boron carbide B 4 C under stress were studied by means of first-principles molecular dynamics in the framework of density functional theory. The behavior depends strongly on degree of non-hydrostatic stress. Under hydrostatic stress continuous bending of the three-atom C–B–C chain was observed up to 70 GPa. The presence of non-hydrostatic stress activates abrupt reversible chain bending, which is displacement of the central boron atom in the chain with the formation of weak bonds between this atom and atoms in the nearby icosahedra. Such structural change can describe a possible reversible phase transition in dynamical loading experiments. High non-hydrostatic stress achieved in uniaxial loading leads to disordering of the initial structure. The formation of carbon chains is observed as one possible transition route. (paper)

  10. A phase transition induces chaos in a predator-prey ecosystem with a dynamic fitness landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilpin, William; Feldman, Marcus W

    2017-07-01

    In many ecosystems, natural selection can occur quickly enough to influence the population dynamics and thus future selection. This suggests the importance of extending classical population dynamics models to include such eco-evolutionary processes. Here, we describe a predator-prey model in which the prey population growth depends on a prey density-dependent fitness landscape. We show that this two-species ecosystem is capable of exhibiting chaos even in the absence of external environmental variation or noise, and that the onset of chaotic dynamics is the result of the fitness landscape reversibly alternating between epochs of stabilizing and disruptive selection. We draw an analogy between the fitness function and the free energy in statistical mechanics, allowing us to use the physical theory of first-order phase transitions to understand the onset of rapid cycling in the chaotic predator-prey dynamics. We use quantitative techniques to study the relevance of our model to observational studies of complex ecosystems, finding that the evolution-driven chaotic dynamics confer community stability at the "edge of chaos" while creating a wide distribution of opportunities for speciation during epochs of disruptive selection-a potential observable signature of chaotic eco-evolutionary dynamics in experimental studies.

  11. Phases and phase transitions in the algebraic microscopic shell model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgieva A. I.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We explore the dynamical symmetries of the shell model number conserving algebra, which define three types of pairing and quadrupole phases, with the aim to obtain the prevailing phase or phase transition for the real nuclear systems in a single shell. This is achieved by establishing a correspondence between each of the pairing bases with the Elliott’s SU(3 basis that describes collective rotation of nuclear systems. This allows for a complete classification of the basis states of different number of particles in all the limiting cases. The probability distribution of the SU(3 basis states within theirs corresponding pairing states is also obtained. The relative strengths of dynamically symmetric quadrupole-quadrupole interaction in respect to the isoscalar, isovector and total pairing interactions define a control parameter, which estimates the importance of each term of the Hamiltonian in the correct reproduction of the experimental data for the considered nuclei.

  12. Nuclear matter at high density: Phase transitions, multiquark states, and supernova outbursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivoruchenko, M. I.; Nadyozhin, D. K.; Rasinkova, T. L.; Simonov, Yu. A.; Trusov, M. A.; Yudin, A. V.

    2011-01-01

    Phase transition from hadronic matter to quark-gluon matter is discussed for various regimes of temperature and baryon number density. For small and medium densities, the phase transition is accurately described in the framework of the Field Correlation Method, whereas at high density predictions are less certain and leave room for the phenomenological models. We study formation of multiquark states (MQS) at zero temperature and high density. Relevant MQS components of the nuclear matter can be described using a previously developed formalism of the quark compound bags (QCB). Partialwave analysis of nucleon-nucleon scattering indicates the existence of 6QS which manifest themselves as poles of P matrix. In the framework of the QCB model, we formulate a self-consistent system of coupled equations for the nucleon and 6QS propagators in nuclear matter and the G matrix. The approach provides a link between high-density nuclear matter with the MQS components and the cumulative effect observed in reactions on the nuclei, which requires the admixture of MQS in the wave functions of nuclei kinematically. 6QS determines the natural scale of the density for a possible phase transition into theMQS phase of nuclear matter. Such a phase transition can lead to dynamic instability of newly born protoneutron stars and dramatically affect the dynamics of supernovae. Numerical simulations show that the phase transition may be a good remedy for the triggering supernova explosions in the spherically symmetric supernovamodels. A specific signature of the phase transition is an additional neutrino peak in the neutrino light curve. For a Galactic core-collapse supernova, such a peak could be resolved by the present neutrino detectors. The possibility of extracting the parameters of the phase of transition from observation of the neutrino signal is discussed also.

  13. Nuclear matter at high density: Phase transitions, multiquark states, and supernova outbursts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krivoruchenko, M. I.; Nadyozhin, D. K.; Rasinkova, T. L.; Simonov, Yu. A.; Trusov, M. A., E-mail: trusov@itep.ru; Yudin, A. V. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics (Russian Federation)

    2011-03-15

    Phase transition from hadronic matter to quark-gluon matter is discussed for various regimes of temperature and baryon number density. For small and medium densities, the phase transition is accurately described in the framework of the Field Correlation Method, whereas at high density predictions are less certain and leave room for the phenomenological models. We study formation of multiquark states (MQS) at zero temperature and high density. Relevant MQS components of the nuclear matter can be described using a previously developed formalism of the quark compound bags (QCB). Partialwave analysis of nucleon-nucleon scattering indicates the existence of 6QS which manifest themselves as poles of P matrix. In the framework of the QCB model, we formulate a self-consistent system of coupled equations for the nucleon and 6QS propagators in nuclear matter and the G matrix. The approach provides a link between high-density nuclear matter with the MQS components and the cumulative effect observed in reactions on the nuclei, which requires the admixture of MQS in the wave functions of nuclei kinematically. 6QS determines the natural scale of the density for a possible phase transition into theMQS phase of nuclear matter. Such a phase transition can lead to dynamic instability of newly born protoneutron stars and dramatically affect the dynamics of supernovae. Numerical simulations show that the phase transition may be a good remedy for the triggering supernova explosions in the spherically symmetric supernovamodels. A specific signature of the phase transition is an additional neutrino peak in the neutrino light curve. For a Galactic core-collapse supernova, such a peak could be resolved by the present neutrino detectors. The possibility of extracting the parameters of the phase of transition from observation of the neutrino signal is discussed also.

  14. Phase transitions modern applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gitterman, Moshe

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive review of the theory of phase transitions and its modern applications, based on the five pillars of the modern theory of phase transitions i.e. the Ising model, mean field, scaling, renormalization group and universality. This expanded second edition includes, along with a description of vortices and high temperature superconductivity, a discussion of phase transitions in chemical reaction and moving systems. The book covers a close connection between phase transitions and small world phenomena as well as scale-free systems such as the stock market and the Internet. Readership: Scientists working in different fields of physics, chemistry, biology and economics as well as teaching material for undergraduate and graduate courses.

  15. Electrostatic Effects in Phase Transitions of Biomembranes between Cubic Phases and Lamellar Liquid-Crystalline (Lα) phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masum, Shah Md.; Li, Shu Jie; Tamba, Yukihiro; Yamashita, Yuko; Yamazaki, Masahito

    2004-04-01

    Elucidation of the mechanisms of transitions between cubic phase and liquid-crystalline (Lα) phase, and between different IPMS cubic phases, are essential for understanding of dynamics of biomembranes and topological transformation of lipid membranes. Recently, we found that electrostatic interactions due to surface charges of lipid membranes induce transition between cubic phase and Lα phase, and between different IPMS cubic phases. As electrostatic interactions increase, the most stable phase of a monoolein (MO) membrane changes: Q224 ⇒ Q229 ⇒ Lα. We also found that a de novo designed peptide partitioning into electrically neutral lipid membrane changed the phase stability of the MO membranes. As peptide-1 concentration increased, the most stable phase of a MO membrane changes: Q224 ⇒ Q229 ⇒Lα. In both cases, the increase in the electrostatic repulsive interaction greatly reduced the absolute value of spontaneous curvature of the MO monolayer membrane. We also investigated factors such as poly (L-lysine) and osmotic stress to control structure and phase stability of DOPA/MO membranes. Based on these results, we discuss the mechanism of the effect of electrostatic interactions on the stability of cubic phase.

  16. Phase transition and gravitational wave phenomenology of scalar conformal extensions of the Standard Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marzola, Luca; Racioppi, Antonio; Vaskonen, Ville [National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics, Tallinn (Estonia)

    2017-07-15

    Thermal corrections in classically conformal models typically induce a strong first-order electroweak phase transition, thereby resulting in a stochastic gravitational background that could be detectable at gravitational wave observatories. After reviewing the basics of classically conformal scenarios, in this paper we investigate the phase transition dynamics in a thermal environment and the related gravitational wave phenomenology within the framework of scalar conformal extensions of the Standard Model. We find that minimal extensions involving only one additional scalar field struggle to reproduce the correct phase transition dynamics once thermal corrections are accounted for. Next-to-minimal models, instead, yield the desired electroweak symmetry breaking and typically result in a very strong gravitational wave signal. (orig.)

  17. Phase transitions in surfactant monolayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casson, B.D.

    1998-01-01

    Two-dimensional phase transitions have been studied in surfactant monolayers at the air/water interface by sum-frequency spectroscopy and ellipsometry. In equilibrium monolayers of medium-chain alcohols C n H 2n+1 OH (n = 9-14) a transition from a two-dimensional crystalline phase to a liquid was observed at temperatures above the bulk melting point. The small population of gauche defects in the solid phase increased only slightly at the phase transition. A model of the hydrocarbon chains as freely rotating rigid rods allowed the area per molecule and chain tilt in the liquid phase to be determined. The area per molecule, chain tilt and density of the liquid phase all increased with increasing chain length, but for each chain length the density was higher than in a bulk liquid hydrocarbon. In a monolayer of decanol adsorbed at the air/water interface a transition from a two-dimensional liquid to a gas was observed. A clear discontinuity in the coefficient of ellipticity as a function of temperature showed that the transition is first-order. This result suggests that liquid-gas phase transitions in surfactant monolayers may be more widespread than once thought. A solid-liquid phase transition has also been studied in mixed monolayers of dodecanol with an anionic surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulphate) and with a homologous series of cationic surfactants (alkyltrimethylammonium bromides: C n TABs, n = 12, 14, 16). The composition and structure of the mixed monolayers was studied above and below the phase transition. At low temperatures the mixed monolayers were as densely packed as a monolayer of pure dodecanol in its solid phase. At a fixed temperature the monolayers under-went a first-order phase transition to form a phase that was less dense and more conformationally disordered. The proportion of ionic surfactant in the mixed monolayer was greatest in the high temperature phase. As the chain length of the C n TAB increased the number of conformational defects

  18. Phase transitions and self-organized criticality in networks of stochastic spiking neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brochini, Ludmila; de Andrade Costa, Ariadne; Abadi, Miguel; Roque, Antônio C; Stolfi, Jorge; Kinouchi, Osame

    2016-11-07

    Phase transitions and critical behavior are crucial issues both in theoretical and experimental neuroscience. We report analytic and computational results about phase transitions and self-organized criticality (SOC) in networks with general stochastic neurons. The stochastic neuron has a firing probability given by a smooth monotonic function Φ(V) of the membrane potential V, rather than a sharp firing threshold. We find that such networks can operate in several dynamic regimes (phases) depending on the average synaptic weight and the shape of the firing function Φ. In particular, we encounter both continuous and discontinuous phase transitions to absorbing states. At the continuous transition critical boundary, neuronal avalanches occur whose distributions of size and duration are given by power laws, as observed in biological neural networks. We also propose and test a new mechanism to produce SOC: the use of dynamic neuronal gains - a form of short-term plasticity probably located at the axon initial segment (AIS) - instead of depressing synapses at the dendrites (as previously studied in the literature). The new self-organization mechanism produces a slightly supercritical state, that we called SOSC, in accord to some intuitions of Alan Turing.

  19. Amorphous and crystalline phase interaction during the Brill transition in nylon 66

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A prominent α' process in specifically treated nylon 66 and microcomposite samples is identified by dynamic mechanical analysis and proposed to be an amorphous phase counterpart of the Brill transition identified by synchrotron wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD. It is suggested that this α' process, which marks a critical free volume change and an onset of segmental chain movement in the amorphous phase, precedes and prompts the Brill transition in the crystalline phase.

  20. Li-ion batteries: Phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Peiyu; Zhang Yantao; Zhang Lianqi; Chu Geng; Gao Jian

    2016-01-01

    Progress in the research on phase transitions during Li + extraction/insertion processes in typical battery materials is summarized as examples to illustrate the significance of understanding phase transition phenomena in Li-ion batteries. Physical phenomena such as phase transitions (and resultant phase diagrams) are often observed in Li-ion battery research and already play an important role in promoting Li-ion battery technology. For example, the phase transitions during Li + insertion/extraction are highly relevant to the thermodynamics and kinetics of Li-ion batteries, and even physical characteristics such as specific energy, power density, volume variation, and safety-related properties. (topical review)

  1. Electroweak monopoles and the electroweak phase transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arunasalam, Suntharan; Kobakhidze, Archil [The University of Sydney, ARC Centre of Excellence for Particle Physics at the Terascale, School of Physics, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2017-07-15

    We consider an isolated electroweak monopole solution within the Standard Model with a nonlinear Born-Infeld extension of the hypercharge gauge field. Monopole (and dyon) solutions in such an extension are regular and their masses are predicted to be proportional to the Born-Infeld mass parameter. We argue that cosmological production of electroweak monopoles may delay the electroweak phase transition and make it more strongly first order for monopole masses M >or similar 9.3 . 10{sup 3} TeV, while the nucleosynthesis constraints on the abundance of relic monopoles impose the bound M dynamical generation of the matter-antimatter asymmetry during the electroweak phase transition. (orig.)

  2. Shear-induced structural transitions in Newtonian non-Newtonian two-phase flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristobal, G.; Rouch, J.; Colin, A.; Panizza, P.

    2000-09-01

    We show the existence under shear flow of steady states in a two-phase region of a brine-surfactant system in which lyotropic dilute lamellar (non-Newtonian) and sponge (Newtonian) phases are coexisting. At high shear rates and low sponge phase-volume fractions, we report on the existence of a dynamic transition corresponding to the formation of a colloidal crystal of multilamellar vesicles (or ``onions'') immersed in the sponge matrix. As the sponge phase-volume fraction increases, this transition exhibits a hysteresis loop leading to a structural bistability of the two-phase flow. Contrary to single phase lamellar systems where it is always 100%, the onion volume fraction can be monitored continuously from 0 to 100 %.

  3. Phase transitions in the sdg interacting boson model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Isacker, P.; Bouldjedri, A.; Zerguine, S.

    2010-05-01

    A geometric analysis of the sdg interacting boson model is performed. A coherent state is used in terms of three types of deformation: axial quadrupole ( β), axial hexadecapole ( β) and triaxial ( γ). The phase-transitional structure is established for a schematic sdg Hamiltonian which is intermediate between four dynamical symmetries of U(15), namely the spherical U(5)⊗U(9), the (prolate and oblate) deformed SU(3) and the γ-soft SO(15) limits. For realistic choices of the Hamiltonian parameters the resulting phase diagram has properties close to what is obtained in the sd version of the model and, in particular, no transition towards a stable triaxial shape is found.

  4. Phase transitions in the sdg interacting boson model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Isacker, P.; Bouldjedri, A.; Zerguine, S.

    2010-01-01

    A geometric analysis of the sdg interacting boson model is performed. A coherent state is used in terms of three types of deformation: axial quadrupole (β 2 ), axial hexadecapole (β 4 ) and triaxial (γ 2 ). The phase-transitional structure is established for a schematic sdg Hamiltonian which is intermediate between four dynamical symmetries of U(15), namely the spherical U(5)xU(9), the (prolate and oblate) deformed SU ± (3) and the γ 2 -soft SO(15) limits. For realistic choices of the Hamiltonian parameters the resulting phase diagram has properties close to what is obtained in the sd version of the model and, in particular, no transition towards a stable triaxial shape is found.

  5. Computation at the edge of chaos: Phase transition and emergent computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langton, C.

    1990-01-01

    In order for computation to emerge spontaneously and become an important factor in the dynamics of a system, the material substrate must support the primitive functions required for computation: the transmission, storage, and modification of information. Under what conditions might we expect physical systems to support such computational primitives? This paper presents research on Cellular Automata which suggests that the optimal conditions for the support of information transmission, storage, and modification, are achieved in the vicinity of a phase transition. We observe surprising similarities between the behaviors of computations and systems near phase-transitions, finding analogs of computational complexity classes and the Halting problem within the phenomenology of phase-transitions. We conclude that there is a fundamental connection between computation and phase-transitions, and discuss some of the implications for our understanding of nature if such a connection is borne out. 31 refs., 16 figs

  6. Anelasticity maps for acoustic dissipation associated with phase transitions in minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Michael A.; Zhang, Zhiying

    2011-07-01

    Acoustic dissipation due to structural phase transitions in minerals could give rise to large seismic attenuation effects superimposed on the high temperature background contribution from dislocations and grain boundaries in the Earth. In addition to the possibility of a sharp peak actually at a transition point for both compressional and shear waves, significant attenuation might arise over wider temperature intervals due to the mobility of transformation twins or other defects associated with the transition. Attenuation due to structural phase transitions in quartz, pyroxenes, perovskites, stishovite and hollandite, or to spin state transitions of Fe2+ in magnesiowüstite and perovskite and the hcp/bcc transition in iron-nickel (Fe-Ni) alloy, are reviewed from this perspective. To these can be added possible loss behaviour associated with reconstructive transitions which might occur by a ledge mechanism on topotactic interfaces (orthopyroxene/clinopyroxene, olivine/spinel and perovskite/postperovskite), with impurities (Snoek effect) or with mobility of protons. There are experimental difficulties associated with measuring dissipation effects in situ at simultaneous high pressures and temperatures, so reliance is currently placed on investigation of analogue phases such as LaCoO3 for spin-state behaviour and LaAlO3 for the dynamics of ferroelastic twin walls. Similarly, it is not possible to measure loss dynamics simultaneously at the low stresses and low frequencies that pertain in seismic waves, so reliance must be placed on combining different techniques, such as dynamic mechanical analysis (low frequency, relatively high stress) and resonant ultrasound spectroscopy (high frequency, low stress), to extrapolate acoustic loss behaviour over wide frequency, temperature and stress intervals. In this context 'anelasticity maps' provide a convenient means of representing different loss mechanisms. Contouring of the inverse mechanical quality factor, Q-1, can be

  7. Phase transition in finite systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chomaz, Ph.; Duflot, V.; Duflot, V.; Gulminelli, F.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we present a review of selected aspects of Phase transitions in finite systems applied in particular to the liquid-gas phase transition in nuclei. We show that the problem of the non existence of boundary conditions can be solved by introducing a statistical ensemble with an averaged constrained volume. In such an ensemble the microcanonical heat capacity becomes negative in the transition region. We show that the caloric curve explicitly depends on the considered transformation of the volume with the excitation energy and so does not bear direct informations on the characteristics of the phase transition. Conversely, partial energy fluctuations are demonstrated to be a direct measure of the equation of state. Since the heat capacity has a negative branch in the phase transition region, the presence of abnormally large kinetic energy fluctuations is a signal of the liquid gas phase transition. (author)

  8. STRUCTURAL PHASE TRANSITION OF ALIPHATIC NYLONS VIEWED FROM THE WAXD/SAXS AND VIBRATIONAL SPECTRAL MEASUREMENTS AND MOLECULAR DYNAMICS CALCULATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kohji Tashiro

    2007-01-01

    The crystalline phase transition of aliphatic nylon 10/10 has been investigated on the basis of the simultaneous measurement of wide-angle and small-angle X-ray scatterings, the infrared spectral measurement and the molecular dynamics calculation. An interpretation of infrared spectra taken for a series of nylon samples and the corresponding model compounds was successfully made, allowing us to assign the infrared bands of the planar-zigzag methylene segments reasonably. As a result the methylene segmental parts of molecular chains were found to experience an order-to-disorder transition in the Brill transition region, where the intermolecular hydrogen bonds are kept alive although the bond strength becomes weaker at higher temperature. The small-angle X-ray scattering data revealed a slight change in lamellar stacking mode in the transition region. The crystal structure has been found to change more remarkably in the temperature region immediately below the melting point, where the conformationally disordered chains experienced drastic rotational and translational motions without any constraints by hydrogen bonds, and the lamellar thickness increased largely along the chain axis. These experimental results were reasonably reproduced by the molecular dynamics calculation performed at the various temperatures.

  9. Phase transitions of antibiotic clarithromycin forms I, IV and new form VII crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Masataka; Shiba, Rika; Watanabe, Miteki; Iwao, Yasunori; Itai, Shigeru; Noguchi, Shuji

    2018-06-01

    Metastable crystal form I of the antibiotic clarithromycin has a pharmaceutically valuable characteristic that its crystalline phase transition can be applied for its sustained release from tablets. The phase transition of form I was investigated in detail by single crystal and powder X-ray analyses, dynamic vapor sorption analysis and thermal analysis. The single crystal structure of form I revealed that form I was not an anhydrate crystal but contained a partially occupied water molecule in the channel-like void space. Dynamic vapor sorption (DVS) analysis demonstrated that form I crystals reversibly sorbed water molecules in two steps when the relative humidity (RH) increased and finally transited to hydrate form IV at 95% RH. DVS analysis also showed that when the RH decreased form IV crystals lost water molecules at 40% RH and transited to the newly identified anhydrate crystal form VII. Form VII reversibly transited to form IV at lower RH than form I, suggesting that form I is more suitable for manufacturing a sustained-release tablet of CAM utilizing the crystalline phase transition. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Electroweak Phase Transition and Baryogenesis in the nMSSM

    CERN Document Server

    Huber, S J; Prokopec, T; Schmidt, M G; Huber, Stephan J.; Konstandin, Thomas; Prokopec, Tomislav; Schmidt, Michael G.

    2006-01-01

    We analyze the nMSSM with CP violation in the singlet sector. We study the static and dynamical properties of the electroweak phase transition. We conclude that electroweak baryogenesis in this model is generic in the sense that if the present limits on the mass spectrum are applied, no severe additional tuning is required to obtain a strong first-order phase transition and to generate a sufficient baryon asymmetry. For this we determine the shape of the nucleating bubbles, including the profiles of CP-violating phases. The baryon asymmetry is calculated using the advanced transport theory to first and second order in gradient expansion presented recently. Still, first and second generation sfermions must be heavy to avoid large electric dipole moments.

  11. Phase Transition Effects on the Dynamical Stability of Hybrid Neutron Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Jonas P.; Flores, César V.; Lugones, Germán

    2018-06-01

    We study radial oscillations of hybrid nonrotating neutron stars composed by a quark matter core and hadronic external layers. At first, we physically deduce the junction conditions that should be imposed between the two phases in these systems when perturbations take place. Then we compute the oscillation spectrum focusing on the effects of slow and rapid phase transitions at the quark-hadron interface. We use a generic MIT-bag model for quark matter and a relativistic mean field theory for hadronic matter. In the case of rapid transitions at the interface, we find a general relativistic version of the reaction mode that has similar properties as its classical counterpart. We also show that the usual static stability condition ∂M/∂ρ c ≥ 0, where ρ c is the central density of a star whose total mass is M, always remains true for rapid transitions but breaks down in general for slow transitions. In fact, for slow transitions, we find that the frequency of the fundamental mode can be a real number (indicating stability) even for some branches of stellar models that verify ∂M/∂ρ c ≤ 0. Thus, when secular instabilities are suppressed, as expected below some critical stellar rotation rate, the existance of twin or even triplet stars with the same gravitational mass but different radii, with one of the counterparts having ∂M/∂ρ c ≤ 0, would be possible. We explore some astrophysical consequences of these results.

  12. Dynamic Test Method Based on Strong Electromagnetic Pulse for Electromagnetic Shielding Materials with Field-Induced Insulator-Conductor Phase Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun; Zhao, Min; Wang, Qingguo

    2018-01-01

    In order to measure the pulse shielding performance of materials with the characteristic of field-induced insulator-conductor phase transition when materials are used for electromagnetic shielding, a dynamic test method was proposed based on a coaxial fixture. Experiment system was built by square pulse source, coaxial cable, coaxial fixture, attenuator, and oscilloscope and insulating components. S11 parameter of the test system was obtained, which suggested that the working frequency ranges from 300 KHz to 7.36 GHz. Insulating performance is good enough to avoid discharge between conductors when material samples is exposed in the strong electromagnetic pulse field up to 831 kV/m. This method is suitable for materials with annular shape, certain thickness and the characteristic of field-induced insulator-conductor phase transition to get their shielding performances of strong electromagnetic pulse.

  13. Realization of a topological phase transition in a gyroscopic lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Noah P.; Nash, Lisa M.; Irvine, William T. M.

    2018-03-01

    Topological metamaterials exhibit unusual behaviors at their boundaries, such as unidirectional chiral waves, that are protected by a topological feature of their band structures. The ability to tune such a material through a topological phase transition in real time could enable the use of protected waves for information storage and readout. Here we dynamically tune through a topological phase transition by breaking inversion symmetry in a metamaterial composed of interacting gyroscopes. Through the transition, we track the divergence of the edge modes' localization length and the change in Chern number characterizing the topology of the material's band structure. This Rapid Communication provides a new axis with which to tune the response of mechanical topological metamaterials.

  14. Critical properties of phase transitions in lattices of coupled logistic maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcq, Philippe; Chate, Hugues; Manneville, Paul

    2006-01-01

    We numerically demonstrate that collective bifurcations in two-dimensional lattices of locally coupled logistic maps share most of the defining features of equilibrium second-order phase transitions. Our simulations suggest that these transitions between distinct collective dynamical regimes belong to the universality class of Miller and Huse model with synchronous update. (author)

  15. Dynamic Phases of Vortices in Superconductors with Periodic Pinning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichhardt, C.; Olson, C.; Nori, F.

    1997-01-01

    We present results from extensive simulations of driven vortex lattices interacting with periodic arrays of pinning sites. Changing an applied driving force produces a rich variety of novel dynamical plastic flow phases which are very distinct from those observed in systems with random pinning arrays. Signatures of the transition between these different dynamical phases include sudden jumps in the current-voltage curves as well as marked changes in the vortex trajectories and vortex lattice order. Several dynamical phase diagrams are obtained as a function of commensurability, pinning strength, and spatial order of the pinning sites. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  16. Phase transitions in the sdg interacting boson model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Isacker, P. [Grand Accelerateur National d' Ions Lourds, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, BP 55027, F-14076 Caen Cedex 5 (France)], E-mail: isacker@ganil.fr; Bouldjedri, A.; Zerguine, S. [Department of Physics, PRIMALAB Laboratory, University of Batna, Avenue Boukhelouf M El Hadi, 05000 Batna (Algeria)

    2010-05-15

    A geometric analysis of the sdg interacting boson model is performed. A coherent state is used in terms of three types of deformation: axial quadrupole ({beta}{sub 2}), axial hexadecapole ({beta}{sub 4}) and triaxial ({gamma}{sub 2}). The phase-transitional structure is established for a schematic sdg Hamiltonian which is intermediate between four dynamical symmetries of U(15), namely the spherical U(5)xU(9), the (prolate and oblate) deformed SU{sub {+-}}(3) and the {gamma}{sub 2}-soft SO(15) limits. For realistic choices of the Hamiltonian parameters the resulting phase diagram has properties close to what is obtained in the sd version of the model and, in particular, no transition towards a stable triaxial shape is found.

  17. A symmetry-breaking phase transition in a dynamical decision model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, Gaultier; Chevereau, Guillaume; Bertin, Eric

    2011-01-01

    We consider a simple decision model in which a set of agents randomly choose one of two competing shops selling the same perishable products (typically food). The satisfaction of agents with respect to a given store is related to the freshness of the previously bought products. Agents select with a higher probability the store that they are most satisfied with. Studying the model from a statistical physics perspective, both through numerical simulations and mean-field analytical methods, we find a rich behaviour with continuous and discontinuous phase transitions between a symmetric phase where both stores maintain the same level of activity, and a phase with broken symmetry where one of the two shops attracts more customers than the other

  18. Phase transitions in blends functionalized thermoplastics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigoryeva, O.; Sergeeva, L.; Starostenko, O.; Pissis, P.

    2001-01-01

    Phase transitions, morphology and structure-property relationships in polymer blends based on functionalized thermoplastics, i.e. widely used polyurethanes and styrene-acrylic acid copolymers, were investigated by means of inter-expletive non-destructive methods. Wide and small angle X-ray scattering (WAXS and SAXS), dynamic mechanical thermal analysis, thermally stimulated depolarization currents techniques, dielectric relaxation spectroscopy and several physico-mechanical characterization techniques were used. The results obtained by the various techniques were critically compared to each other. (author)

  19. The nuclear liquid gas phase transition and phase coexistence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chomaz, Ph.

    2001-01-01

    In this talk we will review the different signals of liquid gas phase transition in nuclei. From the theoretical side we will first discuss the foundations of the concept of equilibrium, phase transition and critical behaviors in infinite and finite systems. From the experimental point of view we will first recall the evidences for some strong modification of the behavior of hot nuclei. Then we will review quantitative detailed analysis aiming to evidence phase transition, to define its order and phase diagram. Finally, we will present a critical discussion of the present status of phase transitions in nuclei and we will draw some lines for future development of this field. (author)

  20. The nuclear liquid gas phase transition and phase coexistence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chomaz, Ph

    2001-07-01

    In this talk we will review the different signals of liquid gas phase transition in nuclei. From the theoretical side we will first discuss the foundations of the concept of equilibrium, phase transition and critical behaviors in infinite and finite systems. From the experimental point of view we will first recall the evidences for some strong modification of the behavior of hot nuclei. Then we will review quantitative detailed analysis aiming to evidence phase transition, to define its order and phase diagram. Finally, we will present a critical discussion of the present status of phase transitions in nuclei and we will draw some lines for future development of this field. (author)

  1. Phase transition in anisotropic holographic superfluids with arbitrary dynamical critical exponent z and hyperscaling violation factor α

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Miok [Korea Institute for Advanced Study, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jiwon; Oh, Jae-Hyuk [Hanyang University, Department of Physics, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-11-15

    Einstein-scalar-U(2) gauge field theory is considered in a spacetime characterized by α and z, which are the hyperscaling violation factor and the dynamical critical exponent, respectively. We consider a dual fluid system of such a gravity theory characterized by temperature T and chemical potential μ. It turns out that there is a superfluid phase transition where a vector order parameter appears which breaks SO(3) global rotation symmetry of the dual fluid system when the chemical potential becomes a certain critical value. To study this system for arbitrary z and α, we first apply Sturm-Liouville theory and estimate the upper bounds of the critical values of the chemical potential. We also employ a numerical method in the ranges of 1 ≤ z ≤ 4 and 0 ≤ α ≤ 4 to check if the Sturm-Liouville method correctly estimates the critical values of the chemical potential. It turns out that the two methods are agreed within 10 percent error ranges. Finally, we compute free energy density of the dual fluid by using its gravity dual and check if the system shows phase transition at the critical values of the chemical potential μ{sub c} for the given parameter region of α and z. Interestingly, it is observed that the anisotropic phase is more favored than the isotropic phase for relatively small values of z and α. However, for large values of z and α, the anisotropic phase is not favored. (orig.)

  2. NMR study of distinct phase transitional behaviors in (CnH2n+1NH3)2SnCl6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K. W.; Lee, C. E.; Choi, J. Y.; Kim, J.

    2005-01-01

    Phase transitions in bis-(n-C n H 2n+1 NH 3 ) 2 SnCl 6 , where the hydrocarbon part is analogous to lipid membrane, were investigated by means of 200-MHz 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance. As a result, critical fluctuations and molecular dynamics associated with the phase transitions, an order-disorder and a conformational phase transition, were distinguished in a wide temperature range. The critical dynamics, observed in the long-chain compounds but not in the short-chain compounds by laboratory frame spin-lattice relaxation measurements, is discussed in view of the chain length dependence of molecular dynamics.

  3. Dynamic phase diagrams of the Ising metamagnet in an oscillating magnetic field within the effective-field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deviren, Bayram [Department of Physics, Nevsehir University, 50300 Nevsehir (Turkey); Institute of Science, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey); Keskin, Mustafa, E-mail: keskin@erciyes.edu.t [Department of Physics, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)

    2010-07-12

    Dynamic aspects of a two-sublattice Ising metamagnet on honeycomb, square and hexagonal lattices under the presence of a time-dependent oscillating external magnetic field are studied by using the effective-field theory with correlations. The set of effective-field dynamic equations is derived by employing Glauber transition rates. The phases in the system are obtained by solving these dynamic equations. The thermal behavior of the dynamic staggered magnetization, the hysteresis loop area and correlation are investigated in order to characterize the nature of the dynamic transitions and to obtain dynamic phase transition temperatures. The phase diagrams are constructed in two different planes, and exhibit dynamic tricritical behavior, which strongly depends on interaction parameters. In order to investigate the spin correlation effect on the dynamic phase diagrams of the system, the results are also given within the framework of the dynamic mean-field approximation.

  4. Dynamic phase diagrams of the Ising metamagnet in an oscillating magnetic field within the effective-field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deviren, Bayram; Keskin, Mustafa

    2010-01-01

    Dynamic aspects of a two-sublattice Ising metamagnet on honeycomb, square and hexagonal lattices under the presence of a time-dependent oscillating external magnetic field are studied by using the effective-field theory with correlations. The set of effective-field dynamic equations is derived by employing Glauber transition rates. The phases in the system are obtained by solving these dynamic equations. The thermal behavior of the dynamic staggered magnetization, the hysteresis loop area and correlation are investigated in order to characterize the nature of the dynamic transitions and to obtain dynamic phase transition temperatures. The phase diagrams are constructed in two different planes, and exhibit dynamic tricritical behavior, which strongly depends on interaction parameters. In order to investigate the spin correlation effect on the dynamic phase diagrams of the system, the results are also given within the framework of the dynamic mean-field approximation.

  5. Mixed-order phase transition in a minimal, diffusion-based spin model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fronczak, Agata; Fronczak, Piotr

    2016-07-01

    In this paper we exactly solve, within the grand canonical ensemble, a minimal spin model with the hybrid phase transition. We call the model diffusion based because its Hamiltonian can be recovered from a simple dynamic procedure, which can be seen as an equilibrium statistical mechanics representation of a biased random walk. We outline the derivation of the phase diagram of the model, in which the triple point has the hallmarks of the hybrid transition: discontinuity in the average magnetization and algebraically diverging susceptibilities. At this point, two second-order transition curves meet in equilibrium with the first-order curve, resulting in a prototypical mixed-order behavior.

  6. QCD-Electroweak First-Order Phase Transition in a Supercooled Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iso, Satoshi; Serpico, Pasquale D.; Shimada, Kengo

    2017-10-01

    If the electroweak sector of the standard model is described by classically conformal dynamics, the early Universe evolution can be substantially altered. It is already known that—contrarily to the standard model case—a first-order electroweak phase transition may occur. Here we show that, depending on the model parameters, a dramatically different scenario may happen: A first-order, six massless quark QCD phase transition occurs first, which then triggers the electroweak symmetry breaking. We derive the necessary conditions for this dynamics to occur, using the specific example of the classically conformal B -L model. In particular, relatively light weakly coupled particles are predicted, with implications for collider searches. This scenario is also potentially rich in cosmological consequences, such as renewed possibilities for electroweak baryogenesis, altered dark matter production, and gravitational wave production, as we briefly comment upon.

  7. QCD-Electroweak First-Order Phase Transition in a Supercooled Universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iso, Satoshi; Serpico, Pasquale D; Shimada, Kengo

    2017-10-06

    If the electroweak sector of the standard model is described by classically conformal dynamics, the early Universe evolution can be substantially altered. It is already known that-contrarily to the standard model case-a first-order electroweak phase transition may occur. Here we show that, depending on the model parameters, a dramatically different scenario may happen: A first-order, six massless quark QCD phase transition occurs first, which then triggers the electroweak symmetry breaking. We derive the necessary conditions for this dynamics to occur, using the specific example of the classically conformal B-L model. In particular, relatively light weakly coupled particles are predicted, with implications for collider searches. This scenario is also potentially rich in cosmological consequences, such as renewed possibilities for electroweak baryogenesis, altered dark matter production, and gravitational wave production, as we briefly comment upon.

  8. Pre-inflation: Origin of the Universe from a topological phase transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Bellini

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available I study a model which describes the birth of the universe using a global topological phase transition with a complex manifold where the time, τ, is considered as a complex variable. Before the big bang τ is a purely imaginary variable so that the space can be considered as Euclidean. The phase transition from a pre-inflation to inflation is examined by studying the dynamical rotation of the time on the complex plane. Back-reaction effects are exactly calculated using Relativistic Quantum Geometry.

  9. Characterization of a quantum phase transition in Dirac systems by means of the wave-packet dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Romera

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We study the signatures of phase transitions in the time evolution of wave-packets by analyzing two simple model systems: a graphene quantum dot model in a magnetic field and a Dirac oscillator in a magnetic field. We have characterized the phase transitions using the autocorrelation function. Our work also reveals that the description in terms of Shannon entropy of the autocorrelation function is a clear phase transition indicator.

  10. Magnetic resonance of phase transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Owens, Frank J; Farach, Horacio A

    1979-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance of Phase Transitions shows how the effects of phase transitions are manifested in the magnetic resonance data. The book discusses the basic concepts of structural phase and magnetic resonance; various types of magnetic resonances and their underlying principles; and the radiofrequency methods of nuclear magnetic resonance. The text also describes quadrupole methods; the microwave technique of electron spin resonance; and the Mössbauer effect. Phase transitions in various systems such as fluids, liquid crystals, and crystals, including paramagnets and ferroelectrics, are also

  11. Photo-Induced Phase Transitions to Liquid Crystal Phases: Influence of the Chain Length from C8E4 to C14E4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Techert

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Photo-induced phase transitions are characterized by the transformation from phase A to phase B through the absorption of photons. We have investigated the mechanism of the photo-induced phase transitions of four different ternary systems CiE4/alkane (i with n = 8, 10, 12, 14; cyclohexane/H2O. We were interested in understanding the effect of chain length increase on the dynamics of transformation from the microemulsion phase to the liquid crystal phase. Applying light pump (pulse/x-ray probe (pulse techniques, we could demonstrate that entropy and diffusion control are the driving forces for the kind of phase transition investigated.

  12. Insight into structural phase transitions from the decoupled anharmonic mode approximation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Donat J; Passerone, Daniele

    2016-08-03

    We develop a formalism (decoupled anharmonic mode approximation, DAMA) that allows calculation of the vibrational free energy using density functional theory even for materials which exhibit negative curvature of the potential energy surface with respect to atomic displacements. We investigate vibrational modes beyond the harmonic approximation and approximate the potential energy surface with the superposition of the accurate potential along each normal mode. We show that the free energy can stabilize crystal structures at finite temperatures which appear dynamically unstable at T  =  0. The DAMA formalism is computationally fast because it avoids statistical sampling through molecular dynamics calculations, and is in principle completely ab initio. It is free of statistical uncertainties and independent of model parameters, but can give insight into the mechanism of a structural phase transition. We apply the formalism to the perovskite cryolite, and investigate the temperature-driven phase transition from the P21/n to the Immm space group. We calculate a phase transition temperature between 710 and 950 K, in fair agreement with the experimental value of 885 K. This can be related to the underestimation of the interaction of the vibrational states. We also calculate the main axes of the thermal ellipsoid and can explain the experimentally observed increase of its volume for the fluorine by 200-300% throughout the phase transition. Our calculations suggest the appearance of tunneling states in the high temperature phase. The convergence of the vibrational DOS and of the critical temperature with respect of reciprocal space sampling is investigated using the polarizable-ion model.

  13. Detecting critical state before phase transition of complex biological systems by hidden Markov model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pei; Liu, Rui; Li, Yongjun; Chen, Luonan

    2016-07-15

    Identifying the critical state or pre-transition state just before the occurrence of a phase transition is a challenging task, because the state of the system may show little apparent change before this critical transition during the gradual parameter variations. Such dynamics of phase transition is generally composed of three stages, i.e. before-transition state, pre-transition state and after-transition state, which can be considered as three different Markov processes. By exploring the rich dynamical information provided by high-throughput data, we present a novel computational method, i.e. hidden Markov model (HMM) based approach, to detect the switching point of the two Markov processes from the before-transition state (a stationary Markov process) to the pre-transition state (a time-varying Markov process), thereby identifying the pre-transition state or early-warning signals of the phase transition. To validate the effectiveness, we apply this method to detect the signals of the imminent phase transitions of complex systems based on the simulated datasets, and further identify the pre-transition states as well as their critical modules for three real datasets, i.e. the acute lung injury triggered by phosgene inhalation, MCF-7 human breast cancer caused by heregulin and HCV-induced dysplasia and hepatocellular carcinoma. Both functional and pathway enrichment analyses validate the computational results. The source code and some supporting files are available at https://github.com/rabbitpei/HMM_based-method lnchen@sibs.ac.cn or liyj@scut.edu.cn Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Dynamical quantum phase transitions in the quantum Potts chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karrasch, C.; Schuricht, D.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/369284690

    2017-01-01

    We analyze the dynamics of the return amplitude following a sudden quench in the three-state quantum Potts chain. For quenches crossing the quantum critical point from the paramagnetic to the ferromagnetic phase, the corresponding rate function is non-analytic at critical times and behaves linearly

  15. Phase transition in traffic jam experiment on a circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadaki, Shin-ichi; Kikuchi, Macoto; Fukui, Minoru; Yosida, Taturu; Nakayama, Akihiro; Nishinari, Katsuhiro; Shibata, Akihiro; Sugiyama, Yuki; Yukawa, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    The emergence of a traffic jam is considered to be a dynamical phase transition in a physics point of view; traffic flow becomes unstable and changes phase into a traffic jam when the car density exceeds a critical value. In order to verify this view, we have been performing a series of circuit experiments. In our previous work (2008 New J. Phys. 10 033001), we demonstrated that a traffic jam emerges even in the absence of bottlenecks at a certain high density. In this study, we performed a larger indoor circuit experiment in the Nagoya Dome in which the positions of cars were observed using a high-resolution laser scanner. Over a series of sessions at various values of density, we found that jammed flow occurred at high densities, whereas free flow was conserved at low densities. We also found indications of metastability at an intermediate density. The critical density is estimated by analyzing the fluctuations in speed and the density–flow relation. The value of this critical density is consistent with that observed on real expressways. This experiment provides strong support for physical interpretations of the emergence of traffic jams as a dynamical phase transition. (paper)

  16. Phase transition in traffic jam experiment on a circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadaki, Shin-ichi; Kikuchi, Macoto; Fukui, Minoru; Nakayama, Akihiro; Nishinari, Katsuhiro; Shibata, Akihiro; Sugiyama, Yuki; Yosida, Taturu; Yukawa, Satoshi

    2013-10-01

    The emergence of a traffic jam is considered to be a dynamical phase transition in a physics point of view; traffic flow becomes unstable and changes phase into a traffic jam when the car density exceeds a critical value. In order to verify this view, we have been performing a series of circuit experiments. In our previous work (2008 New J. Phys. 10 033001), we demonstrated that a traffic jam emerges even in the absence of bottlenecks at a certain high density. In this study, we performed a larger indoor circuit experiment in the Nagoya Dome in which the positions of cars were observed using a high-resolution laser scanner. Over a series of sessions at various values of density, we found that jammed flow occurred at high densities, whereas free flow was conserved at low densities. We also found indications of metastability at an intermediate density. The critical density is estimated by analyzing the fluctuations in speed and the density-flow relation. The value of this critical density is consistent with that observed on real expressways. This experiment provides strong support for physical interpretations of the emergence of traffic jams as a dynamical phase transition.

  17. Phase transition universality classes of classical, nonequilibrium systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ódor, G

    2004-01-01

    In the first chapter I summarize the most important critical exponents and relations used in this work. In the second chapter I briefly address the question of scaling behavior at first order phase transitions.In chapter three I review dynamical extensions of basic static classes, show the effect of mixing dynamics and percolation behavior. The main body of this work is given in chapter four where genuine, dynamical universality classes specific to nonequilibrium systems are introduced. In chapter five I continue overviewing such nonequilibrium classes but in coupled, multi-component systems. Most of known transitions in low dimensional systems are between active and absorbing states of reaction-diffusion type systems, but I briefly introduce related classes that appear in interface growth models in chapter six. Some of them are related to critical behavior of coupled, multi-component systems. Finally in chapter seven I summarize families of absorbing state system classes, mean-field classes and the most freq...

  18. CosmoTransitions: Computing cosmological phase transition temperatures and bubble profiles with multiple fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainwright, Carroll L.

    2012-09-01

    I present a numerical package (CosmoTransitions) for analyzing finite-temperature cosmological phase transitions driven by single or multiple scalar fields. The package analyzes the different vacua of a theory to determine their critical temperatures (where the vacuum energy levels are degenerate), their supercooling temperatures, and the bubble wall profiles which separate the phases and describe their tunneling dynamics. I introduce a new method of path deformation to find the profiles of both thin- and thick-walled bubbles. CosmoTransitions is freely available for public use.Program summaryProgram Title: CosmoTransitionsCatalogue identifier: AEML_v1_0Program summary URL: http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEML_v1_0.htmlProgram obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. IrelandLicensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.htmlNo. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 8775No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 621096Distribution format: tar.gzProgramming language: Python.Computer: Developed on a 2009 MacBook Pro. No computer-specific optimization was performed.Operating system: Designed and tested on Mac OS X 10.6.8. Compatible with any OS with Python installed.RAM: Approximately 50 MB, mostly for loading plotting packages.Classification: 1.9, 11.1.External routines: SciPy, NumPy, matplotLibNature of problem: I describe a program to analyze early-Universe finite-temperature phase transitions with multiple scalar fields. The goal is to analyze the phase structure of an input theory, determine the amount of supercooling at each phase transition, and find the bubble-wall profiles of the nucleated bubbles that drive the transitions.Solution method: To find the bubble-wall profile, the program assumes that tunneling happens along a fixed path in field space. This reduces the equations of motion to one dimension, which can then be solved using the overshoot

  19. High pressure phase transition in Zr–Ni binary system: A first principle study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukherjee, Debojyoti, E-mail: debojyoti@barc.gov.in; Sahoo, B.D.; Joshi, K.D.; Gupta, Satish C.

    2015-11-05

    Total energy calculations have been performed on zirconium–nickel (with 50% nickel by atom) binary system to examine its structural stability under high pressure. The evolutionary structure search method in conjunction with density functional theory based projector augmented wave (PAW) method suggested that at zero pressure an orthorhombic phase with space group symmetry Cmcm is the lowest enthalpy structure, in agreement with the experiments. Further, it has been predicted that upon compression at ∼10 GPa, this structure will transform to a lower symmetry triclinic phase (space group P-1) which will remain stable up to ∼50 GPa, the maximum pressure of the present calculations. To support the results of our static lattice calculations, we performed lattice dynamic calculations also on Cmcm and P-1 structures. Lattice dynamic calculations correctly showed that at ambient condition the Cmcm phase is dynamically stable. Further, these calculations carried around the Cmcm to P-1 transition pressure predicted that the Cmcm phase will become unstable dynamically due to failure of acoustic zone boundary phonons, suggesting that the Cmcm to P-1 transition is phonon driven. For P-1 phase our calculations showed that this structure is dynamically stable not only at high pressures but also at ambient condition, indicating that at pressure lower than 10 GPa this phase could be a metastable structure. Further, we have calculated the elastic constants for both the phase at various pressures. - Highlights: • Pressure induced phonon driven orthorhombic to triclinic phase transformations in Zr–Ni binary system at ∼10 GPa. • Elastic and lattice dynamic stability of orthorhombic and triclinic phase. • Exploitation of evolutionary structure searching method to explore high pressure phase of Zr–Ni material.

  20. Critical phase transitions during ablation of atrial fibrillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iravanian, Shahriar; Langberg, Jonathan J.

    2017-09-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia with significant morbidity and mortality. Pharmacological agents are not very effective in the management of AF. Therefore, ablation procedures have become the mainstay of AF management. The irregular and seemingly chaotic atrial activity in AF is caused by one or more meandering spiral waves. Previously, we have shown the presence of sudden rhythm organization during ablation of persistent AF. We hypothesize that the observed transitions from a disorganized to an organized rhythm is a critical phase transition. Here, we explore this hypothesis by simulating ablation in an anatomically-correct 3D AF model. In 722 out of 2160 simulated ablation, at least one sudden transition from AF to an organized rhythm (flutter) was noted (33%). They were marked by a sudden decrease in the cycle length entropy and increase in the mean cycle length. At the same time, the number of reentrant wavelets decreased from 2.99 ± 0.06 in AF to 1.76 ± 0.05 during flutter, and the correlation length scale increased from 13.3 ± 1.0 mm to 196.5 ± 86.6 mm (both P < 0.0001). These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that transitions from AF to an anatomical flutter behave as phase transitions in complex non-equilibrium dynamical systems with flutter acting as an absorbing state. Clinically, the facilitation of phase transition should be considered a novel mechanism of ablation and may help to design effective ablation strategies.

  1. Atomistic simulation of fcc—bcc phase transition in single crystal Al under uniform compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Li; Liang Jiu-Qing; Shao Jian-Li; Duan Su-Qing; Li Yan-Fang

    2012-01-01

    By molecular dynamics simulations employing an embedded atom model potential, we investigate the fcc-to-bcc phase transition in single crystal Al, caused by uniform compression. Results show that the fcc structure is unstable when the pressure is over 250 GPa, in reasonable agreement with the calculated value through the density functional theory. The morphology evolution of the structural transition and the corresponding transition mechanism are analysed in detail. The bcc (011) planes are transited from the fcc (111-bar) plane and the (11-bar1) plane. We suggest that the transition mechanism consists mainly of compression, shear, slid and rotation of the lattice. In addition, our radial distribution function analysis explicitly indicates the phase transition of Al from fcc phase to bcc structure. (condensed matter: structural, mechanical, and thermal properties)

  2. Excited State Dynamics and Semiconductor-to-Metallic Phase Transition of VO2 Thin Film

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liu, Huimin

    2004-01-01

    .... Vanadium dioxide shows an ultrafast, passive phase transition (PT) from a monoclinic semiconductor phase to a metallic tetragonal rutile structure when the sample temperature is above 68 degrees C...

  3. Electronic phase transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Kopaev, YuV

    1992-01-01

    Electronic Phase Transitions deals with topics, which are presently at the forefront of scientific research in modern solid-state theory. Anderson localization, which has fundamental implications in many areas of solid-state physics as well as spin glasses, with its influence on quite different research activities such as neural networks, are two examples that are reviewed in this book. The ab initio statistical mechanics of structural phase transitions is another prime example, where the interplay and connection of two unrelated disciplines of solid-state theory - first principle ele

  4. Prethermalization and persistent order in the absence of a thermal phase transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halimeh, Jad C.; Zauner-Stauber, Valentin; McCulloch, Ian P.; de Vega, Inés; Schollwöck, Ulrich; Kastner, Michael

    2017-01-01

    We numerically study the dynamics after a parameter quench in the one-dimensional transverse-field Ising model with long-range interactions (∝1 /rα with distance r ), for finite chains and also directly in the thermodynamic limit. In nonequilibrium, i.e., before the system settles into a thermal state, we find a long-lived regime that is characterized by a prethermal value of the magnetization, which in general differs from its thermal value. We find that the ferromagnetic phase is stabilized dynamically: as a function of the quench parameter, the prethermal magnetization shows a transition between a symmetry-broken and a symmetric phase, even for those values of α for which no finite-temperature transition occurs in equilibrium. The dynamical critical point is shifted with respect to the equilibrium one, and the shift is found to depend on α as well as on the quench parameters.

  5. Unconventional phase transitions in liquid crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kats, E. I.

    2017-12-01

    According to classical textbooks on thermodynamics or statistical physics, there are only two types of phase transitions: continuous, or second-order, in which the latent heat L is zero, and first-order, in which L ≠ 0. Present-day textbooks and monographs also mention another, stand-alone type—the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless transition, which exists only in two dimensions and shares some features with first- and second-order phase transitions. We discuss examples of non-conventional thermodynamic behavior (i.e., which is inconsistent with the theoretical phase transition paradigm now universally accepted). For phase transitions in smectic liquid crystals, mechanisms for nonconventional behavior are proposed and the predictions they imply are examined.

  6. Chaotic Dynamical Ferromagnetic Phase Induced by Nonequilibrium Quantum Fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerose, Alessio; Marino, Jamir; Žunkovič, Bojan; Gambassi, Andrea; Silva, Alessandro

    2018-03-01

    We investigate the robustness of a dynamical phase transition against quantum fluctuations by studying the impact of a ferromagnetic nearest-neighbor spin interaction in one spatial dimension on the nonequilibrium dynamical phase diagram of the fully connected quantum Ising model. In particular, we focus on the transient dynamics after a quantum quench and study the prethermal state via a combination of analytic time-dependent spin wave theory and numerical methods based on matrix product states. We find that, upon increasing the strength of the quantum fluctuations, the dynamical critical point fans out into a chaotic dynamical phase within which the asymptotic ordering is characterized by strong sensitivity to the parameters and initial conditions. We argue that such a phenomenon is general, as it arises from the impact of quantum fluctuations on the mean-field out of equilibrium dynamics of any system which exhibits a broken discrete symmetry.

  7. The role of upper mantle mineral phase transitions on the current structure of large-scale Earth's mantle convection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoraval, C.

    2017-12-01

    Describing the large-scale structures of mantle convection and quantifying the mass transfer between upper and lower mantle request to account for the role played by mineral phase transitions in the transition zone. We build a density distribution within the Earth mantle from velocity anomalies described by global seismic tomographic models. The density distribution includes thermal anomalies and topographies of the phase transitions at depths of 410 and 660 km. We compute the flow driven by this density distribution using a 3D spherical circulation model, which account for depth-dependent viscosity. The dynamic topographies at the surface and at the CMB and the geoid are calculated as well. Within the range of viscosity profiles allowing for a satisfying restitution of the long wavelength geoid, we perform a parametric study to decipher the role of the characteristics of phase diagrams - mainly the Clapeyron's slopes - and of the kinetics of phase transitions, which may modify phase transition topographies. Indeed, when a phase transition is delayed, the boundary between two mineral phases is both dragged by the flow and interfere with it. The results are compared to recent estimations of surface dynamic topography and to the phase transition topographies as revealed by seismic studies. The consequences are then discussed in terms of structure of mantle flow. Comparisons between various tomographic models allow us to enlighten the most robust features. At last, the role played by the phase transitions on the lateral variations of mass transfer between upper and lower mantle are quantified by comparison to cases with no phase transitions and confronted to regional tomographic models, which reflect the variability of the behaviors of the descending slabs in the transition zone.

  8. Ultrafast Phase Transition in Vanadium Dioxide Driven by Hot-Electron Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasankumar R. P.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel all-optical method of triggering the phase transition in vanadium dioxide by means of ballistic electrons injected across the interface between a mesh of Au nanoparticles coveringd VO2 nanoislands. By performing non-degenerate pump-probe transmission spectroscopy on this hybrid plasmonic/phase-changing nanostructure, structural and electronic dynamics can be retrieved and compared.

  9. [Phase transition in polymer blends and structure of ionomers and copolymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    The main thrust of the program in the past 3 years are summarized: SAXS instrumentation development; structure and dynamics of macro- and supra-molecules, phase transitions in polymer blends and solutions, structure of ionomers, and fractals and anisotropic systems.

  10. Phase transition which exhibits 1/ω-spectrum: a rigorous result

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Y.

    1984-01-01

    A mathematical mechanism in dynamical systems to exhibit the inverse power law in the shape of the power spectrum is presented. The exponent in the power law is proved to be less than or equal to one. The mechanism serves as the basis to interpret various observations in dynamical systems, such as Lorenz and Rossler systems. All the possible exponents are realized by simple 1-dim maps. These examples are ''isomorphic'' to 1-dim lattice gas models in classical statistical mechanics with phase transition. The inverse power law appears at the crisis of the shrinking of gas phases into degenerated solid phases, or equivalently to say, of the divergence of the total mass of absolutely continuous mixing invariant measures for the maps. (author)

  11. Mott-Hubbard transition and Anderson localization: A generalized dynamical mean-field theory approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuchinskii, E. Z.; Nekrasov, I. A.; Sadovskii, M. V.

    2008-01-01

    The DOS, the dynamic (optical) conductivity, and the phase diagram of a strongly correlated and strongly disordered paramagnetic Anderson-Hubbard model are analyzed within the generalized dynamical mean field theory (DMFT + Σ approximation). Strong correlations are taken into account by the DMFT, and disorder is taken into account via an appropriate generalization of the self-consistent theory of localization. The DMFT effective single-impurity problem is solved by a numerical renormalization group (NRG); we consider the three-dimensional system with a semielliptic DOS. The correlated metal, Mott insulator, and correlated Anderson insulator phases are identified via the evolution of the DOS and dynamic conductivity, demonstrating both the Mott-Hubbard and Anderson metal-insulator transition and allowing the construction of the complete zero-temperature phase diagram of the Anderson-Hubbard model. Rather unusual is the possibility of a disorder-induced Mott insulator-to-metal transition

  12. Phase-sensitive atomic dynamics in quantum light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balybin, S. N.; Zakharov, R. V.; Tikhonova, O. V.

    2018-05-01

    Interaction between a quantum electromagnetic field and a model Ry atom with possible transitions to the continuum and to the low-lying resonant state is investigated. Strong sensitivity of atomic dynamics to the phase of applied coherent and squeezed vacuum light is found. Methods to extract the quantum field phase performing the measurements on the atomic system are proposed. In the case of the few-photon coherent state high accuracy of the phase determination is demonstrated, which appears to be much higher in comparison to the usually used quantum-optical methods such as homodyne detection.

  13. Raman scattering study of the ferroelectric phase transition in BaT i2O5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukada, Shinya; Fujii, Yasuhiro; Yoneda, Yasuhiro; Moriwake, Hiroki; Konishi, Ayako; Akishige, Yukikuni

    2018-02-01

    Uniaxial ferroelectric BaT i2O5 with a Curie temperature TC of 743 K was investigated to clarify its paraelectric-ferroelectric phase-transition behavior. The mechanism is discussed on the basis of the structure from short to long ranges determined by synchrotron x-ray diffraction and the lattice dynamics probed by Raman spectroscopy. BaT i2O5 is regarded as a homogeneous system, and the lattice dynamics can be interpreted by the selection rules and tensor properties of the homogeneous structure. Angle-resolved polarized Raman spectroscopy clearly shows that an A -mode-type overdamped phonon plays the key role in the phase transition. Using a combination of experimental results and first-principles calculations, we explain the phase transition as follows: In one of three Ti O6 octahedral units, Ti vibrates along the b axis opposite an oxygen octahedral unit with large damping in the paraelectric phase, whereas this vibration is frozen in the ferroelectric phase, leading to a change in the space group from nonpolar C 2 /m to polar C 2 .

  14. Phase transition and hysteresis in a rechargeable lithium battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreyer, Wolfgang [Weierstrass-Institut fuer Angewandte Analysis und Stochastik (WIAS) im Forschungsverbund Berlin e.V. (Germany); Gaberscek, Miran; Jamnik, Janko [Kemijski Institut Ljubljana Slovenija (Slovenia). L10 Lab. for Materials Electrochemistry

    2007-07-01

    We develop a model which describes the evolution of a phase transition that occurs in some part of a rechargeable lithium battery during the process of charging/discharging. The model is capable to simulate hysteretic behavior of the voltage - charge characteristics. During discharging of the battery, the interstitial lattice sites of a small crystalline host system are filled up with lithium atoms and these are released again during charging. We show within the context of a sharp interface model that two mechanical phenomena go along with a phase transition that appears in the host system during supply and removal of lithium. At first the lithium atoms need more space than it is available by the interstitial lattice sites, which leads to a maximal relative change of the crystal volume of about 6%. Furthermore there is an interface between two adjacent phases that has very large curvature of the order of magnitude 100 m, which evoke here a discontinuity of the normal component of the stress. In order to simulate the dynamics of the phase transitions and in particular the observed hysteresis we establish a new initial and boundary value problem for a nonlinear PDE system that can be reduced in some limiting case to an ODE system. (orig.)

  15. Structural phase transitions and Huang scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Yasusada

    1980-01-01

    The usefulness of the application of the concept of Huang scattering to the understandings of the origin of diffuse scatterings near structural phase transitions are discussed. It is pointed out that in several phase transitions, the observed diffuse scatterings can not be interpreted in terms of critical fluctuations of the order parameters associated with the structural phase transitions, and that they are rather interpreted as Huang scattering due to random distribution of individual order parameter which is 'dressed' by strain fields. Examples to show effective applications of this concept to analyze the experimental X-ray data and whence to understand microscopic mechanisms of structural phase transitions are presented. (author)

  16. Spatiotemporal dynamics of the spin transition in [Fe (HB(tz)3) 2] single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridier, Karl; Rat, Sylvain; Shepherd, Helena J.; Salmon, Lionel; Nicolazzi, William; Molnár, Gábor; Bousseksou, Azzedine

    2017-10-01

    The spatiotemporal dynamics of the spin transition have been thoroughly investigated in single crystals of the mononuclear spin-crossover (SCO) complex [Fe (HB (tz )3)2] (tz = 1 ,2 ,4-triazol-1-yl) by optical microscopy. This compound exhibits an abrupt spin transition centered at 334 K with a narrow thermal hysteresis loop of ˜1 K (first-order transition). Most single crystals of this compound reveal exceptional resilience upon repeated switching (several hundred cycles), which allowed repeatable and quantitative measurements of the spatiotemporal dynamics of the nucleation and growth processes to be carried out. These experiments revealed remarkable properties of the thermally induced spin transition: high stability of the thermal hysteresis loop, unprecedented large velocities of the macroscopic low-spin/high-spin phase boundaries up to 500 µm/s, and no visible dependency on the temperature scan rate. We have also studied the dynamics of the low-spin → high-spin transition induced by a local photothermal excitation generated by a spatially localized (Ø = 2 μ m ) continuous laser beam. Interesting phenomena have been evidenced both in quasistatic and dynamic conditions (e.g., threshold effects and long incubation periods, thermal activation of the phase boundary propagation, stabilization of the crystal in a stationary biphasic state, and thermal cutoff frequency). These measurements demonstrated the importance of thermal effects in the transition dynamics, and they enabled an accurate determination of the thermal properties of the SCO compound in the framework of a simple theoretical model.

  17. Mechanism behind phase transitions in airplane boarding process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, Shengjie; Jia, Bin; Huang, Qingxia; Gao, Ziyou

    2016-02-01

    A simple airplane boarding model is built much like an asymmetric exclusion process (ASEP). The dynamics of the model is constrained by local interference between passengers and global seat assignments for individuals. We perform extensive Monte Carlo simulations by using a parallel update rule to determine quantities like boarding time and sequence correlation. Our results clarify the scaling behavior in boarding process and identify a critical value of arrival time interval for boarding time threshold. Three different phases (steady, intermediate and linear) with respect to the boarding time are distinguished and the mechanism behind phase transition is further discussed.

  18. Concurrence of dynamical phase transitions at finite temperature in the fully connected transverse-field Ising model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Johannes; Frank, Bernhard; Halimeh, Jad C.

    2018-05-01

    We construct the finite-temperature dynamical phase diagram of the fully connected transverse-field Ising model from the vantage point of two disparate concepts of dynamical criticality. An analytical derivation of the classical dynamics and exact diagonalization simulations are used to study the dynamics after a quantum quench in the system prepared in a thermal equilibrium state. The different dynamical phases characterized by the type of nonanalyticities that emerge in an appropriately defined Loschmidt-echo return rate directly correspond to the dynamical phases determined by the spontaneous breaking of Z2 symmetry in the long-time steady state. The dynamical phase diagram is qualitatively different depending on whether the initial thermal state is ferromagnetic or paramagnetic. Whereas the former leads to a dynamical phase diagram that can be directly related to its equilibrium counterpart, the latter gives rise to a divergent dynamical critical temperature at vanishing final transverse-field strength.

  19. Phase transition study in strongly correlated VO{sub 2} based sensing systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simo, A., E-mail: alinesimo.aline@gmail.com [UNESCO-UNISA Africa Chair in Nanoscience’s/Nanotechnology, College of Graduate Studies, University of South Africa, Muckleneuk ridge, P.O. Box 392, Pretoria (South Africa); Nanosciences African Network (NANOAFNET), iThemba LABS-National Research Foundation, 1 Old Faure road, Somerset West 7129, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West, Western Cape Province (South Africa); Kaviyarasu, K. [UNESCO-UNISA Africa Chair in Nanoscience’s/Nanotechnology, College of Graduate Studies, University of South Africa, Muckleneuk ridge, P.O. Box 392, Pretoria (South Africa); Nanosciences African Network (NANOAFNET), iThemba LABS-National Research Foundation, 1 Old Faure road, Somerset West 7129, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West, Western Cape Province (South Africa); Mwakikunga, B. [Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, P.O. Box 395, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa); Madjoe, R. [Physics Department, University of Western Cape, 7535 Belville Cape Town (South Africa); Gibaud, A. [Laboratoire de Physique de l’Etat Condensé, Université du Maine Faculte des sciences, UPRESA 6087, 72085, Le Mans Cedex 9 (France); Maaza, M. [UNESCO-UNISA Africa Chair in Nanoscience’s/Nanotechnology, College of Graduate Studies, University of South Africa, Muckleneuk ridge, P.O. Box 392, Pretoria (South Africa); Nanosciences African Network (NANOAFNET), iThemba LABS-National Research Foundation, 1 Old Faure road, Somerset West 7129, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West, Western Cape Province (South Africa)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • At 230 °C for about 48 h to prepare successfully VO{sub 2} nanobelts. • 1D shows good sensing performance due to the large active surface of the material. • The good selectivity of methanol compared to acetone and isopropanol. • VOC compounds was observed at room temperature. - Abstract: Intermediate phase monoclinic M2 was observed by inducing in situ X-ray thermo diffraction on VO{sub 2} (M) nanoplatelets. The solid-solid phase transition occurs at around 65 °C assisted with the percolative transition metal-insulator. The existence of an intermediate crystalline phase with room temperature insulator phase and high temperature metallic phase across MIT in VO{sub 2} could be of relevance to understand structural contributions to the phase transition dynamics. In addition, pellet of VO{sub 2} nanostructures have shown to present good sensing properties to various alcohols vapors at room temperature and good selectivity of methanol with 5.54% sensitivity and limit detection below 5 ppm, compared to isopropanol 3.2% and acetone 2.4% respectively.

  20. Valleytronics and phase transition in silicene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aftab, Tayyaba, E-mail: tayyaba.agha@gmail.com

    2017-03-11

    Highlights: • Energy shift in the Dirac points depending strongly on proximity exchange term. • Berry curvature is non-zero and valley dependent in silicene. • Orbital magnetic moments are opposite for each valley and tunable. • Charge carriers are polarized depending on valley and spin degree of freedom. • Interplay of electric field and spin orbit interaction causes phase transition. - Abstract: Magnetic and transport properties of silicene in the presence of perpendicular electromagnetic fields and a ferromagnetic material are studied. It is shown that for small exchange field, the magnetic moment associated with each valley is opposite for the other and it gives a shift in band energy, by a Zeeman-like coupling term. Thus opening a new horizon for valley–orbit coupling. Magnetic proximity effect is seen to adjust the spintronics of each valley. Valley polarization is calculated using the semi classical formulation of electron dynamics. It can be modified and measured due to its contribution in Hall conductivity. Quantum phase transitions are observed in silicene, providing a tool to control the topological state experimentally. The strong dependence of the physical properties on valley degree of freedom is an important step towards valleytronics.

  1. Phase transitions in trajectories of a superconducting single-electron transistor coupled to a resonator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genway, Sam; Garrahan, Juan P; Lesanovsky, Igor; Armour, Andrew D

    2012-05-01

    Recent progress in the study of dynamical phase transitions has been made with a large-deviation approach to study trajectories of stochastic jumps using a thermodynamic formalism. We study this method applied to an open quantum system consisting of a superconducting single-electron transistor, near the Josephson quasiparticle resonance, coupled to a resonator. We find that the dynamical behavior shown in rare trajectories can be rich even when the mean dynamical activity is small, and thus the formalism gives insights into the form of fluctuations. The structure of the dynamical phase diagram found from the quantum-jump trajectories of the resonator is studied, and we see that sharp transitions in the dynamical activity may be related to the appearance and disappearance of bistabilities in the state of the resonator as system parameters are changed. We also demonstrate that for a fast resonator, the trajectories of quasiparticles are similar to the resonator trajectories.

  2. Influence of phase transition on pattern formation during catalytic reactions

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade, Roberto Fernandes Silva; Lima, D.; Cunha, F. B.

    2000-01-01

    p.434–445 We investigate the influence of the order of surface phase transitions on pattern formation during chemical reaction on mono-crystal catalysts. We use a model consisting of two partial differential equations, one of which describes the dynamics of the surface state with the help of a Ginzburg–Landau potential. Second- or first-order transitions are described by decreasing or increasing the relative value of the third-order coefficient of the potential. We concentrate on the stabi...

  3. Modern theories of phase transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajaraman, R.

    1979-01-01

    Modern applications of the ideas of phase transitions to nuclear systems and the modern techniques as applied to familiar phase transitions in solid-state physics are discussed with illustrations. The phenomenon of pion condensation in nuclei and neutron stars, is presented as an example of phase transitions in nuclear systems. The central physical ideas behind this subject as well as techniques used to tackle it are broadly summarised. It is pointed out that unlike familiar examples of ferromagnetism or superconductivity, the order parameter here has spatial variation even in the ground state. Possible experimental consequences are discussed. As an example of the second category, the use of renormalisation group techniques in solid state physics is reviewed. The basic idea behind the renormalisation group in the infra-red (thermodynamic) limit is presented. The observed universality and scaling of critical exponents in second order phase transitions is explained in a model-independent way. (auth.)

  4. Spatial heterogeneity in liquid–liquid phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Yun-Rui; Li Tao; Wu Wei-Kang; Li Jie; Zhou Xu-Yan; Liu Si-Da; Li Hui

    2017-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations are performed to investigate the liquid–liquid phase transition (LLPT) and the spatial heterogeneity in Al–Pb monotectic alloys. The results reveal that homogeneous liquid Al–Pb alloy undergoes an LLPT, separating into Al-rich and Pb-rich domains, which is quite different from the isocompositional liquid water with a transition between low-density liquid (LDL) and high-density liquid (HDL). With spatial heterogeneity becoming large, LLPT takes place correspondingly. The relationship between the cooling rate, relaxation temperature and percentage of Al and the spatial heterogeneity is also reported. This study may throw light on the relationship between the structure heterogeneity and LLPT, which provides novel strategies to control the microstructures in the fabrication of the material with high performance. (paper)

  5. Catastrophic regime shifts in model ecological communities are true phase transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capitán, J A; Cuesta, J A

    2010-01-01

    Ecosystems often undergo abrupt regime shifts in response to gradual external changes. These shifts are theoretically understood as a regime switch between alternative stable states of the ecosystem dynamical response to smooth changes in external conditions. Usual models introduce nonlinearities in the macroscopic dynamics of the ecosystem that lead to different stable attractors among which the shift takes place. Here we propose an alternative explanation of catastrophic regime shifts based on a recent model that pictures ecological communities as systems in continuous fluctuation, according to certain transition probabilities, between different micro-states in the phase space of viable communities. We introduce a spontaneous extinction rate that accounts for gradual changes in external conditions, and upon variations on this control parameter the system undergoes a regime shift with similar features to those previously reported. Under our microscopic viewpoint we recover the main results obtained in previous theoretical and empirical work (anomalous variance, hysteresis cycles, trophic cascades). The model predicts a gradual loss of species in trophic levels from bottom to top near the transition. But more importantly, the spectral analysis of the transition probability matrix allows us to rigorously establish that we are observing the fingerprints, in a finite size system, of a true phase transition driven by background extinctions

  6. Fragment production in central heavy-ion collisions: reconciling the dominance of dynamics with observed phase transition signals through universal fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frankland, J.D.; Chbihi, A.; Hudan, S.

    2002-01-01

    Fragment production in central collisions of Xe+Sn has been systematically studied with the INDRA multidetector from 25 to 150 AMeV. The predominant role of collision dynamics is evidenced in multiple intermediate mass fragment production even at the lowest energies, around the so-called multifragmentation threshold. For beam energies 50 AMeV and above, a promising agreement with suitably modified Anti-symmetrized Molecular Dynamics calculations has been achieved. Intriguingly the same reactions have recently been interpreted as evidence for a liquid-gas phase transition in thermodynamically equilibrated systems. The universal fluctuation theory, thanks to its lack of any equilibrium hypothesis, shows clearly that in all but a tiny minority of carefully-selected central collisions fragment production is incompatible with either critical or phase coexistence behaviour. On the other hand, it does not exclude some similarity with aggregation scenarios such as the lattice-gas or Fisher droplet models. (authors)

  7. Fragment production in central heavy-ion collisions: reconciling the dominance of dynamics with observed phase transition signals through universal fluctuations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frankland, J.D.; Chbihi, A.; Hudan, S. [and others

    2002-07-01

    Fragment production in central collisions of Xe+Sn has been systematically studied with the INDRA multidetector from 25 to 150 AMeV. The predominant role of collision dynamics is evidenced in multiple intermediate mass fragment production even at the lowest energies, around the so-called multifragmentation threshold. For beam energies 50 AMeV and above, a promising agreement with suitably modified Anti-symmetrized Molecular Dynamics calculations has been achieved. Intriguingly the same reactions have recently been interpreted as evidence for a liquid-gas phase transition in thermodynamically equilibrated systems. The universal fluctuation theory, thanks to its lack of any equilibrium hypothesis, shows clearly that in all but a tiny minority of carefully-selected central collisions fragment production is incompatible with either critical or phase coexistence behaviour. On the other hand, it does not exclude some similarity with aggregation scenarios such as the lattice-gas or Fisher droplet models. (authors)

  8. Dynamic phase transition in the kinetic spin-2 Blume-Emery-Griffiths model in an oscillating field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ertas, Mehmet; Canko, Osman; Keskin, Mustafa

    2008-01-01

    We extend our recent paper [M. Keskin, O. Canko, M. Ertas, J. Exp. Theor. Phys. (Sov. Phys. JETP) 105 (2007) 1190.] to present a study, within a mean-field approach, the stationary states of the kinetic spin-2 Blume-Emery-Griffiths model in the presence of a time-dependent oscillating magnetic field by using the Glauber-type of stochastic dynamics. We found 20 fundamental types of dynamic phase diagrams where exhibit more complex and richer phase diagrams than our recent paper. Especially, the obtained dynamic phase diagrams show the dynamic triple, quadruple and dynamic double critical end points besides dynamic tricritical points that depending on interaction parameters. The phase diagrams also exhibit a disordered (d) and the ferromagnetic-2 (f 2 ) phases, and the f 2 +d, f 2 +fq, fq+d, f 2 +f 1 +fq and f 2 +fq+d, where f 1 are fq the ferromagnetic-1 and ferroquadrupolar or simply quadrupolar phases respectively, coexistence phase regions that strongly depend on interaction parameters

  9. Dynamic phase transition in the kinetic spin-2 Blume-Emery-Griffiths model in an oscillating field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertaş, Mehmet; Canko, Osman; Keskin, Mustafa

    We extend our recent paper [M. Keskin, O. Canko, M. Ertaş, J. Exp. Theor. Phys. (Sov. Phys. JETP) 105 (2007) 1190.] to present a study, within a mean-field approach, the stationary states of the kinetic spin-2 Blume-Emery-Griffiths model in the presence of a time-dependent oscillating magnetic field by using the Glauber-type of stochastic dynamics. We found 20 fundamental types of dynamic phase diagrams where exhibit more complex and richer phase diagrams than our recent paper. Especially, the obtained dynamic phase diagrams show the dynamic triple, quadruple and dynamic double critical end points besides dynamic tricritical points that depending on interaction parameters. The phase diagrams also exhibit a disordered ( d) and the ferromagnetic-2 ( f2) phases, and the f2+ d, f2+ fq, fq+ d, f2+ f1+ fq and f2+ fq+ d, where f1 are fq the ferromagnetic-1 and ferroquadrupolar or simply quadrupolar phases respectively, coexistence phase regions that strongly depend on interaction parameters.

  10. Prediction of B1 to B10 phase transition in LuN under pressure: An ab-initio investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahoo, B. D., E-mail: bdsahoo@barc.gov.in; Mukherjee, D.; Joshi, K. D.; Kaushik, T. C.; Gupta, Satish C. [Applied Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, India 400085 (India)

    2016-05-23

    Ab-initio total energy calculations have been performed in lutetium nitride (LuN) as a function of hydrostatic compression to understand the high pressure behavior of this compound. Our calculations predict a phase transition from ambient rocksalt type structure (B1 phase) to a tetragonal structure (B10 phase) at ~ 240 GPa. The phase transition has been identified as first order in nature with volume discontinuity of ~ 6%. The predicted high pressure phase has been found to be stable up to at least 400 GPa, the maximum pressure up to which calculations have been performed.Further, to substantiate the results of static lattice calculations analysis of lattice dynamic stability of B1 and B10 phase has been carried out at different pressures. Apart from this, we have analyzed the lattice dynamic stability CsCl type (B2) phase around the 240 GPa, the pressure reported for B1 to B2 transition in previous all-electron calculations by Gupta et al. 2013. We find that the B2 structure is lattice dynamically unstable at this pressure and remains unstable up to ~ 400 GPa, ruling out the possibility of B1 to B2 phase transition at least up to ~ 400 GPa. Further, the theoretically determined equation of state has been utilized to derive various physical quantities such as zero pressure equilibrium volume, bulk modulus, and pressure derivative of bulk modulus of B1 phase at ambient conditions.

  11. Pressure-driven phase transitions in TiOCl and the family (Ca, Sr, Ba)Fe2As2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang YuZhong; Opahle, Ingo; Jeschke, Harald O; ValentI, Roser

    2010-01-01

    Motivated by recent experimental measurements on pressure-driven phase transitions in Mott insulators as well as the new iron pnictide superconductors, we show that first principles Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics calculations are a powerful method to describe the microscopic origin of such transitions. We present results for (i) the pressure-induced insulator to metal phase transition in the prototypical Mott insulator TiOCl as well as (ii) the pressure-induced structural and magnetic phase transitions in the family of correlated metals AFe 2 As 2 (A = Ca, Sr, Ba). Comparison of our predictions with existing experimental results yields very good agreement.

  12. Relaxation theory of spin-3/2 Ising system near phase transition temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canko, Osman; Keskin, Mustafa

    2010-01-01

    Dynamics of a spin-3/2 Ising system Hamiltonian with bilinear and biquadratic nearest-neighbour exchange interactions is studied by a simple method in which the statistical equilibrium theory is combined with the Onsager's theory of irreversible thermodynamics. First, the equilibrium behaviour of the model in the molecular-field approximation is given briefly in order to obtain the phase transition temperatures, i.e. the first- and second-order and the tricritical points. Then, the Onsager theory is applied to the model and the kinetic or rate equations are obtained. By solving these equations three relaxation times are calculated and their behaviours are examined for temperatures near the phase transition points. Moreover, the z dynamic critical exponent is calculated and compared with the z values obtained for different systems experimentally and theoretically, and they are found to be in good agrement. (general)

  13. Dynamic phase transition in the kinetic spin-2 Blume-Emery-Griffiths model in an oscillating field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ertas, Mehmet [Institute of Science, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey); Canko, Osman [Department of Physics, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey); Keskin, Mustafa [Department of Physics, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)], E-mail: keskin@erciyes.edu.tr

    2008-06-15

    We extend our recent paper [M. Keskin, O. Canko, M. Ertas, J. Exp. Theor. Phys. (Sov. Phys. JETP) 105 (2007) 1190.] to present a study, within a mean-field approach, the stationary states of the kinetic spin-2 Blume-Emery-Griffiths model in the presence of a time-dependent oscillating magnetic field by using the Glauber-type of stochastic dynamics. We found 20 fundamental types of dynamic phase diagrams where exhibit more complex and richer phase diagrams than our recent paper. Especially, the obtained dynamic phase diagrams show the dynamic triple, quadruple and dynamic double critical end points besides dynamic tricritical points that depending on interaction parameters. The phase diagrams also exhibit a disordered (d) and the ferromagnetic-2 (f{sub 2}) phases, and the f{sub 2}+d, f{sub 2}+fq, fq+d, f{sub 2}+f{sub 1}+fq and f{sub 2}+fq+d, where f{sub 1} are fq the ferromagnetic-1 and ferroquadrupolar or simply quadrupolar phases respectively, coexistence phase regions that strongly depend on interaction parameters.

  14. Indication of liquid-liquid phase transition in CuZr-based melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, C.; Hu, L.N.; Sun, Q.J.

    2013-01-01

    We study the dynamic behavior of CuZr-based melts well above the liquidus temperature. The results show a discontinuous change in viscosity during cooling, which is attributed to an underlying liquid-liquid phase transition (LLPT) in these melts. The LLPT is further verified by thermodynamic...

  15. Hydrodynamic effects on phase transition in active matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidituri, Harinadha; Akella, V. S.; Panchagnula, Mahesh; Vedantam, Srikanth; Multiphase flow physics lab Team

    2017-11-01

    Organized motion of active (self-propelled) objects are ubiquitous in nature. The objective of this study to investigate the effect of hydrodynamics on the coherent structures in active and passive particle mixtures. We use a mesoscopic method Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD). The system shows three different states viz. meso-turbulent (disordered state), polar flock and vortical (ordered state) for different values of activity and volume fraction of active particles. From our numerical simulations we construct a phase diagram between activity co-efficient, volume fraction and viscosity of the passive fluid. Transition from vortical to polar is triggered by increasing the viscosity of passive fluid which causes strong short-range hydrodynamic interactions. However, as the viscosity of the fluid decreases, both vortical and meso-turbulent states transition to polar flock phase. We also calculated the diffusion co-efficients via mean square displacement (MSD) for passive and active particles. We observe ballistic and diffusive regimes in the present system.

  16. Phase transitions in finite systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chomaz, Ph. [Grand Accelerateur National d' Ions Lourds (GANIL), DSM-CEA / IN2P3-CNRS, 14 - Caen (France); Gulminelli, F. [Caen Univ., 14 (France). Lab. de Physique Corpusculaire

    2002-07-01

    In this series of lectures we will first review the general theory of phase transition in the framework of information theory and briefly address some of the well known mean field solutions of three dimensional problems. The theory of phase transitions in finite systems will then be discussed, with a special emphasis to the conceptual problems linked to a thermodynamical description for small, short-lived, open systems as metal clusters and data samples coming from nuclear collisions. The concept of negative heat capacity developed in the early seventies in the context of self-gravitating systems will be reinterpreted in the general framework of convexity anomalies of thermo-statistical potentials. The connection with the distribution of the order parameter will lead us to a definition of first order phase transitions in finite systems based on topology anomalies of the event distribution in the space of observations. Finally a careful study of the thermodynamical limit will provide a bridge with the standard theory of phase transitions and show that in a wide class of physical situations the different statistical ensembles are irreducibly inequivalent. (authors)

  17. Phase transitions in finite systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chomaz, Ph.; Gulminelli, F.

    2002-01-01

    In this series of lectures we will first review the general theory of phase transition in the framework of information theory and briefly address some of the well known mean field solutions of three dimensional problems. The theory of phase transitions in finite systems will then be discussed, with a special emphasis to the conceptual problems linked to a thermodynamical description for small, short-lived, open systems as metal clusters and data samples coming from nuclear collisions. The concept of negative heat capacity developed in the early seventies in the context of self-gravitating systems will be reinterpreted in the general framework of convexity anomalies of thermo-statistical potentials. The connection with the distribution of the order parameter will lead us to a definition of first order phase transitions in finite systems based on topology anomalies of the event distribution in the space of observations. Finally a careful study of the thermodynamical limit will provide a bridge with the standard theory of phase transitions and show that in a wide class of physical situations the different statistical ensembles are irreducibly inequivalent. (authors)

  18. Signatures of a quantum dynamical phase transition in a three-spin system in presence of a spin environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, Gonzalo A.; Levstein, Patricia R.; Pastawski, Horacio M.

    2007-01-01

    We have observed an environmentally induced quantum dynamical phase transition in the dynamics of a two-spin experimental swapping gate [G.A. Alvarez, E.P. Danieli, P.R. Levstein, H.M. Pastawski, J. Chem. Phys. 124 (2006) 194507]. There, the exchange of the coupled states vertical bar ↑,↓> and vertical bar ↓,↑> gives an oscillation with a Rabi frequency b/ℎ (the spin-spin coupling). The interaction, ℎ/τ SE with a spin-bath degrades the oscillation with a characteristic decoherence time. We showed that the swapping regime is restricted only to bτ SE > or approx. ℎ. However, beyond a critical interaction with the environment the swapping freezes and the system enters to a Quantum Zeno dynamical phase where relaxation decreases as coupling with the environment increases. Here, we solve the quantum dynamics of a two-spin system coupled to a spin-bath within a Liouville-von Neumann quantum master equation and we compare the results with our previous work within the Keldysh formalism. Then, we extend the model to a three interacting spin system where only one is coupled to the environment. Beyond a critical interaction the two spins not coupled to the environment oscillate with the bare Rabi frequency and relax more slowly. This effect is more pronounced when the anisotropy of the system-environment (SE) interaction goes from a purely XY to an Ising interaction form

  19. Phase Transitions in Aluminum Under Shockless Compression at the Z Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jean-Paul; Brown, Justin; Shulenburger, Luke; Knudson, Marcus

    2017-06-01

    Aluminum 6061 alloy has been used extensively as an electrode material in shockless ramp-wave experiments at the Z Machine. Previous theoretical work suggests that the principal quasi-isentrope in aluminum should pass through two phase transitions at multi-megabar pressures, first from the ambient fcc phase to hcp at around 200 GPa, then to bcc at around 320 GPa. Previous static measurements in a diamond-anvil cell have detected the hcp phase above 200 GPa along the room-temperature isentherm. Recent laser-based dynamic compression experiments have observed both the hcp and bcc phases using X-ray diffraction. Here we present high-accuracy velocity waveform data taken on pure and alloy aluminum materials at the Z Machine under shockless compression with 200-ns rise-time to 400 GPa using copper electrodes and lithium-fluoride windows. These are compared to recent EOS tables developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory, to our own results from diffusion quantum Monte-Carlo calculations, and to multi-phase EOS models with phase-transition kinetics. We find clear evidence of a fast transition around 200 GPa as expected, and a possible suggestion of a slower transition at higher pressure. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE AC04-94AL85000.

  20. Quark–hadron phase transition in massive gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atazadeh, K., E-mail: atazadeh@azaruniv.ac.ir

    2016-11-15

    We study the quark–hadron phase transition in the framework of massive gravity. We show that the modification of the FRW cosmological equations leads to the quark–hadron phase transition in the early massive Universe. Using numerical analysis, we consider that a phase transition based on the chiral symmetry breaking after the electroweak transition, occurred at approximately 10 μs after the Big Bang to convert a plasma of free quarks and gluons into hadrons.

  1. Five-dimensional visualization of phase transition in BiNiO3 under high pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yijin; Wang, Junyue; Yang, Wenge; Azuma, Masaki; Mao, Wendy L.

    2014-01-01

    Colossal negative thermal expansion was recently discovered in BiNiO 3 associated with a low density to high density phase transition under high pressure. The varying proportion of co-existing phases plays a key role in the macroscopic behavior of this material. Here, we utilize a recently developed X-ray Absorption Near Edge Spectroscopy Tomography method and resolve the mixture of high/low pressure phases as a function of pressure at tens of nanometer resolution taking advantage of the charge transfer during the transition. This five-dimensional (X, Y, Z, energy, and pressure) visualization of the phase boundary provides a high resolution method to study the interface dynamics of high/low pressure phase

  2. First order electroweak phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchmueller, W.; Fodor, Z.

    1993-01-01

    In this work, the authors have studied the phase transition in the SU(2)gauge theory at finite temperature. The authors' improved perturbative approach does not suffer from the infrared problems appearing in the ordinary loop expansion. The authors have calculated the effective potential up to cubic terms in the couplings. The higher order terms suggest that the method is reliable for Higgs masses smaller than 80 GeV. The authors have obtained a non-vanishing magnetic mass which further weakens the transitions. By use of Langer's theory of metastability, the authors have calculated the nucleation rate for critical bubbles and have discussed some cosmological consequences. For m H <80 GeV the phase transition is first order and proceeds via bubble nucleation and growth. The thin wall approximation is only marginally applicable. Since the phase transition is quite weak SM baryogenesis is unlikely. 8 refs., 5 figs

  3. How to quantify the transition phase during golf swing performance: Torsional load affects low back complaints during the transition phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Taeyong; Choi, Ahnryul; Lee, Soeun; Mun, Joung Hwan

    2017-10-01

    The transition phase of a golf swing is considered to be a decisive instant required for a powerful swing. However, at the same time, the low back torsional loads during this phase can have a considerable effect on golf-related low back pain (LBP). Previous efforts to quantify the transition phase were hampered by problems with accuracy due to methodological limitations. In this study, vector-coding technique (VCT) method was proposed as a comprehensive methodology to quantify the precise transition phase and examine low back torsional load. Towards this end, transition phases were assessed using three different methods (VCT, lead hand speed and X-factor stretch) and compared; then, low back torsional load during the transition phase was examined. As a result, the importance of accurate transition phase quantification has been documented. The largest torsional loads were observed in healthy professional golfers (10.23 ± 1.69 N · kg -1 ), followed by professional golfers with a history of LBP (7.93 ± 1.79 N · kg -1 ), healthy amateur golfers (1.79 ± 1.05 N · kg -1 ) and amateur golfers with a history of LBP (0.99 ± 0.87 N · kg -1 ), which order was equal to that of the transition phase magnitudes of each group. These results indicate the relationship between the transition phase and LBP history and the dependency of the torsional load magnitude on the transition phase.

  4. Analysis of phase dynamics in two-phase flow using latticegas automata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohashi, H.; Hashimoto, Y.; Tsumaya, A.; Chen, Y.; Akiyama, M.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, we describe lattice gas automaton models appropriate for two-phase flow simulation and their applications to study various phase dynamics of two-fluid mixtures. Several algorithms are added to the original immiscible Lattice Gas model to adjust surface tension and to introduce density difference between two fluids. Surface tension is controlled by the collision rules an difference in density is due to nonlocal forces between automaton particles. We simulate the relative motion of the dispersed phase in another continuous fluid. Deformation and disintegration of rising drops are reproduced. The interaction between multiple drops is also observed in calculations. Furutre, we obtain the transition of the two-phase flow pattern from bubbly, slug to annular flow. Density difference of two phase is one of the key ingredients to generate the annular flow pattern

  5. Dynamics of the α-β phase transitions in quartz and cristobalite as observed by in-situ high temperature 29Si and 17O NMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spearing, Dane R.; Farnan, Ian; Stebbins, Jonathan F.

    1992-12-01

    Relaxation times (T1) and lineshapes were examined as a function of temperature through the α-β transition for 29Si in a single crystal of amethyst, and for 29Si and 17O in cristobalite powders. For single crystal quartz, the three 29Si peaks observed at room temperature, representing each of the three differently oriented SiO4 tetrahedra in the unit cell, coalesce with increasing temperature such that at the α-β transition only one peak is observed. 29Si T1's decrease with increasing temperature up to the transition, above which they remain constant. Although these results are not uniquely interpretable, hopping between the Dauphiné twin related configurations, α1 and α2, may be the fluctuations responsible for both effects. This exchange becomes observable up to 150° C below the transition, and persists above the transition, resulting in β-quartz being a time and space average of α1 and α2. 29Si T1's for isotopically enriched powdered cristobalite show much the same behavior as observed for quartz. In addition, 17O T1's decrease slowly up to the α-β transition at which point there is an abrupt 1.5 order of magnitude drop. Fitting of static powder 17O spectra for cristobalite gives an asymmetry parameter (η) of 0.125 at room T, which decreases to <0.040 at the transition temperature. The electric field gradient (EFG) and chemical shift anisotropy (CSA), however, remain the same, suggesting that the decrease in η is caused by a dynamical rotation of the tetrahedra below the transition. Thus, the mechanisms of the α-β phase transitions in quartz and cristobalite are similar: there appears to be some fluctuation of the tetrahedra between twin-related orientations below the transition temperature, and the β-phase is characterized by a dynamical average of the twin domains on a unit cell scale.

  6. Nonequilibriun Dynamic Phases of Driven Vortex Lattices in Superconductors with Periodic Pinning Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichhardt, C.; Olson, C. J.; Nori, F.

    1998-03-01

    We present results from extensive simulations of driven vortex lattices interacting with periodic pinning arrays. Changing an applied driving force produces an exceptionally rich variety of distinct dynamic phases which include over a dozen well defined plastic flow phases. Transitions between different dynamical phases are marked by sharp jumps in the V(I) curves that coincide with distinct changes in the vortex trajectories and vortex lattice order. A series of dynamical phase diagrams are presented which outline the onset of the different dynamical phases (C. Reichhardt, C.J. Olson, and F. Nori, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78), 2648 (1997); and to be published. Videos are avaliable at http://www-personal.engin.umich.edu/ñori/. Using force balance arguments, several of the phase boundaries can be derived analyticaly.

  7. Phase transitions and molecular motions in [Ni(ND3)6](ClO4)2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migdal-Mikuli, Anna; Mikuli, Edward; Gorska, Natalia; Kowalska, Aneta; Ulanski, Jacek

    2004-01-01

    [Ni(ND 3 ) 6 ](ClO 4 ) 2 has three solid phases between 100 and 300 K. The phase transitions temperatures at heating (T C1 h =164.1 K and T C2 h =145.1 K) are shifted, as compared to the non-deuterated compound, towards the lower temperature of ca. 8 and 5 K, respectively. The ClO 4 - anions perform fast, picosecond, isotropic reorientation with the activation energy of 6.6 kJ mol -1 , which abruptly slow down at T C1 c phase transition, during sample cooling. The ND 3 ligands perform fast uniaxial reorientation around the Ni-N bond in all three detected phases, with the effective activation energy of 2.9 kJ mol -1 . The reorientational motion of ND 3 is only slightly distorted at the T C1 phase transition due to the dynamical orientational order-disorder process of anions. The low value of the activation energy for the ND 3 reorientation suggests that this reorientation undergoes the translation-rotation coupling, which makes the barrier to the rotation of the ammonia ligands not constant but fluctuating. The phase polymorphism and the dynamics of the molecular reorientations of the title compound are similar but not quite identical with these of the [Ni(NH 3 ) 6 ](ClO 4 ) 2

  8. Chimera at the phase-flip transition of an ensemble of identical nonlinear oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopal, R.; Chandrasekar, V. K.; Senthilkumar, D. V.; Venkatesan, A.; Lakshmanan, M.

    2018-06-01

    A complex collective emerging behavior characterized by coexisting coherent and incoherent domains is termed as a chimera state. We bring out the existence of a new type of chimera in a nonlocally coupled ensemble of identical oscillators driven by a common dynamic environment. The latter facilitates the onset of phase-flip bifurcation/transitions among the coupled oscillators of the ensemble, while the nonlocal coupling induces a partial asynchronization among the out-of-phase synchronized oscillators at this onset. This leads to the manifestation of coexisting out-of-phase synchronized coherent domains interspersed by asynchronous incoherent domains elucidating the existence of a different type of chimera state. In addition to this, a rich variety of other collective behaviors such as clusters with phase-flip transition, conventional chimera, solitary state and complete synchronized state which have been reported using different coupling architectures are found to be induced by the employed couplings for appropriate coupling strengths. The robustness of the resulting dynamics is demonstrated in ensembles of two paradigmatic models, namely Rössler oscillators and Stuart-Landau oscillators.

  9. Theoretical potential for low energy consumption phase change memory utilizing electrostatically-induced structural phase transitions in 2D materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehn, Daniel A.; Li, Yao; Pop, Eric; Reed, Evan J.

    2018-01-01

    Structural phase-change materials are of great importance for applications in information storage devices. Thermally driven structural phase transitions are employed in phase-change memory to achieve lower programming voltages and potentially lower energy consumption than mainstream nonvolatile memory technologies. However, the waste heat generated by such thermal mechanisms is often not optimized, and could present a limiting factor to widespread use. The potential for electrostatically driven structural phase transitions has recently been predicted and subsequently reported in some two-dimensional materials, providing an athermal mechanism to dynamically control properties of these materials in a nonvolatile fashion while achieving potentially lower energy consumption. In this work, we employ DFT-based calculations to make theoretical comparisons of the energy required to drive electrostatically-induced and thermally-induced phase transitions. Determining theoretical limits in monolayer MoTe2 and thin films of Ge2Sb2Te5, we find that the energy consumption per unit volume of the electrostatically driven phase transition in monolayer MoTe2 at room temperature is 9% of the adiabatic lower limit of the thermally driven phase transition in Ge2Sb2Te5. Furthermore, experimentally reported phase change energy consumption of Ge2Sb2Te5 is 100-10,000 times larger than the adiabatic lower limit due to waste heat flow out of the material, leaving the possibility for energy consumption in monolayer MoTe2-based devices to be orders of magnitude smaller than Ge2Sb2Te5-based devices.

  10. Phase transitions in the $sdg$ interacting boson model

    OpenAIRE

    Van Isacker, P.; Bouldjedri, A.; Zerguine, S.

    2009-01-01

    19 pages, 5 figures, submitted to Nuclear Physics A; A geometric analysis of the $sdg$ interacting boson model is performed. A coherent-state is used in terms of three types of deformation: axial quadrupole ($\\beta_2$), axial hexadecapole ($\\beta_4$) and triaxial ($\\gamma_2$). The phase-transitional structure is established for a schematic $sdg$ hamiltonian which is intermediate between four dynamical symmetries of U(15), namely the spherical ${\\rm U}(5)\\otimes{\\rm U}(9)$, the (prolate and ob...

  11. Comments on the electroweak phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dine, M.; Leigh, R.G.; Huet, P.; Linde, A.; Linde, D.

    1992-01-01

    We report on an investigation of various problems related to the theory of the electroweak phase transition. This includes a determination of the nature of the phase transition, a discussion of the possible role of higher order radiative corrections and the theory of the formation and evolution of the bubbles of the new phase. We find in particular that no dangerous linear terms appear in the effective potential. However, the strength of the first-order phase transition is 2/3 times less than what follows from the one-loop approximation. This rules out baryogenesis in the minimal version of the electroweak theory with light Higgs bosons. (orig.)

  12. Effect of hyperons on nuclear phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, P.; Mallik, S.; Chaudhuri, G.

    2016-01-01

    Phase transition of nuclear system in heavy ion-collisions at intermediate energy has been studied well for many years and it has also been extended to strange nuclear matter. Recently, using the Canonical Thermodynamical Model (CTM), detailed work on multiplicity distribution of fragments produced from fragmentation of hypernuclear system shows the existence of phase transition or phase coexistence in strange system with Λ-hyperons. In present work we want to continue the investigation on phase transition with respect to some other thermodynamic observables like free energy, specific heat etc. in order to be confirmed about the nature of the transition

  13. Nonequilibrium phase transition in directed small-world-Voronoi-Delaunay random lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, F.W.S.

    2016-01-01

    On directed small-world-Voronoi-Delaunay random lattices in two dimensions with quenched connectivity disorder we study the critical properties of the dynamics evolution of public opinion in social influence networks using a simple spin-like model. The system is treated by applying Monte Carlo simulations. We show that directed links on these random lattices may lead to phase diagram with first- and second-order social phase transitions out of equilibrium. (paper)

  14. Generalized definitions of phase transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chomaz, Ph.; Gulminelli, F.

    2001-09-01

    We define a first order phase transition as a bimodality of the event distribution in the space of observations and we show that this is equivalent to a curvature anomaly of the thermodynamical potential and that it implies the Yang Lee behavior of the zeros of the partition sum. Moreover, it allows to study phase transitions out of equilibrium. (authors)

  15. Quantum phase transition with dissipative frustration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maile, D.; Andergassen, S.; Belzig, W.; Rastelli, G.

    2018-04-01

    We study the quantum phase transition of the one-dimensional phase model in the presence of dissipative frustration, provided by an interaction of the system with the environment through two noncommuting operators. Such a model can be realized in Josephson junction chains with shunt resistances and resistances between the chain and the ground. Using a self-consistent harmonic approximation, we determine the phase diagram at zero temperature which exhibits a quantum phase transition between an ordered phase, corresponding to the superconducting state, and a disordered phase, corresponding to the insulating state with localized superconducting charge. Interestingly, we find that the critical line separating the two phases has a nonmonotonic behavior as a function of the dissipative coupling strength. This result is a consequence of the frustration between (i) one dissipative coupling that quenches the quantum phase fluctuations favoring the ordered phase and (ii) one that quenches the quantum momentum (charge) fluctuations leading to a vanishing phase coherence. Moreover, within the self-consistent harmonic approximation, we analyze the dissipation induced crossover between a first and second order phase transition, showing that quantum frustration increases the range in which the phase transition is second order. The nonmonotonic behavior is reflected also in the purity of the system that quantifies the degree of correlation between the system and the environment, and in the logarithmic negativity as an entanglement measure that encodes the internal quantum correlations in the chain.

  16. Nonequilibrium phase transitions, fluctuations and correlations in an active contractile polar fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowrishankar, Kripa; Rao, Madan

    2016-02-21

    We study the patterning, fluctuations and correlations of an active polar fluid consisting of contractile polar filaments on a two-dimensional substrate, using a hydrodynamic description. The steady states generically consist of arrays of inward pointing asters and show a continuous transition from a moving lamellar phase, a moving aster street, to a stationary aster lattice with no net polar order. We next study the effect of spatio-temporal athermal noise, parametrized by an active temperature TA, on the stability of the ordered phases. In contrast to its equilibrium counterpart, we find that the active crystal shows true long range order at low TA. On increasing TA, the asters dynamically remodel, concomitantly we find novel phase transitions characterized by bond-orientational and polar order upon "heating".

  17. Complex network analysis of phase dynamics underlying oil-water two-phase flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhong-Ke; Zhang, Shan-Shan; Cai, Qing; Yang, Yu-Xuan; Jin, Ning-De

    2016-01-01

    Characterizing the complicated flow behaviors arising from high water cut and low velocity oil-water flows is an important problem of significant challenge. We design a high-speed cycle motivation conductance sensor and carry out experiments for measuring the local flow information from different oil-in-water flow patterns. We first use multivariate time-frequency analysis to probe the typical features of three flow patterns from the perspective of energy and frequency. Then we infer complex networks from multi-channel measurements in terms of phase lag index, aiming to uncovering the phase dynamics governing the transition and evolution of different oil-in-water flow patterns. In particular, we employ spectral radius and weighted clustering coefficient entropy to characterize the derived unweighted and weighted networks and the results indicate that our approach yields quantitative insights into the phase dynamics underlying the high water cut and low velocity oil-water flows. PMID:27306101

  18. Phase Transitions in a Social Impact Model for Opinion Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordogna, Clelia M.; Albano, Ezequiel V.

    A model for opinion formation in a social group, based on the Theory of Social Impact developed by Latané, is studied by means of numerical simulations. Interactions among the members of the group, as well as with a strong leader competing with the mass media, are considered. The model exhibits first-order transitions between two different states of opinion, which are supported by the leader and the mass media, respectively. The social inertia of the group becomes evident when the opinion of the leader changes periodically. In this case two dynamic states are identified: for long periods of time, the group follows the changes of the leader but, decreasing the period, the opinion of the group remains unchanged. This scenery is suitable for the ocurrence of dynamic phase transitions.

  19. Macroscopic self-trapping in Bose-Einstein condensates: Analysis of a dynamical quantum phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Julia-Diaz, B.; Dagnino, D.; Martorell, J.; Polls, A.; Lewenstein, M.

    2010-01-01

    We consider a Bose-Einstein condensate in a double-well potential undergoing a dynamical transition from the regime of Josephson oscillations to the regime of self-trapping. We analyze the statistical properties of the ground state (or the highest excited state) of the Hamiltonian in these two regimes for attractive (repulsive) interactions. We demonstrate that it is impossible to describe the transition within the mean-field theory. In contrast, the transition proceeds through a strongly correlated delocalized state, with large quantum fluctuations, and spontaneous breaking of the symmetry.

  20. Relation between quantum phase transitions and classical instability points in the pairing model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reis, Mauricio; Terra Cunha, M.O.; Oliveira, Adelcio C.; Nemes, M.C.

    2005-01-01

    A quantum phase transition, characterized by an accumulation of energy levels in the espectrum of the model, is associated with a qualitative change in the corresponding classical dynamic obtained upon generalized coherent states of angular momentum

  1. The Theory of Dynamic Public Transit Priority with Dynamic Stochastic Park and Ride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengming Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Public transit priority is very important for relieving traffic congestion. The connotation of dynamic public transit priority and dynamic stochastic park and ride is presented. Based on the point that the travel cost of public transit is not higher than the travel cost of car, how to determine the level of dynamic public transit priority is discussed. The traffic organization method of dynamic public transit priority is introduced. For dynamic stochastic park and ride, layout principle, scale, and charging standard are discussed. Traveler acceptability is high through the analysis of questionnaire survey. Dynamic public transit priority with dynamic stochastic park and ride has application feasibility.

  2. Energy barriers between metastable states in first-order quantum phase transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wald, Sascha; Timpanaro, André M.; Cormick, Cecilia; Landi, Gabriel T.

    2018-02-01

    A system of neutral atoms trapped in an optical lattice and dispersively coupled to the field of an optical cavity can realize a variation of the Bose-Hubbard model with infinite-range interactions. This model exhibits a first-order quantum phase transition between a Mott insulator and a charge density wave, with spontaneous symmetry breaking between even and odd sites, as was recently observed experimentally [Landig et al., Nature (London) 532, 476 (2016), 10.1038/nature17409]. In the present paper, we approach the analysis of this transition using a variational model which allows us to establish the notion of an energy barrier separating the two phases. Using a discrete WKB method, we then show that the local tunneling of atoms between adjacent sites lowers this energy barrier and hence facilitates the transition. Within our simplified description, we are thus able to augment the phase diagram of the model with information concerning the height of the barrier separating the metastable minima from the global minimum in each phase, which is an essential aspect for the understanding of the reconfiguration dynamics induced by a quench across a quantum critical point.

  3. Extinction transition in stochastic population dynamics in a random, convective environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juhász, Róbert

    2013-01-01

    Motivated by modeling the dynamics of a population living in a flowing medium where the environmental factors are random in space, we have studied an asymmetric variant of the one-dimensional contact process, where the quenched random reproduction rates are systematically greater in one direction than in the opposite one. The spatial disorder turns out to be a relevant perturbation but, according to results of Monte Carlo simulations, the behavior of the model at the extinction transition is different from the (infinite-randomness) critical behavior of the disordered symmetric contact process. Depending on the strength a of the asymmetry, the critical population drifts either with a finite velocity or with an asymptotically vanishing velocity as x(t) ∼ t μ(a) , where μ(a) < 1. Dynamical quantities are non-self-averaging at the extinction transition; the survival probability, for instance, shows multiscaling, i.e. it is characterized by a broad spectrum of effective exponents. For a sufficiently weak asymmetry, a Griffiths phase appears below the extinction transition, where the survival probability decays as a non-universal power of the time while, above the transition, another extended phase emerges, where the front of the population advances anomalously with a diffusion exponent continuously varying with the control parameter. (paper)

  4. Quantum critical phase and Lifshitz transition in an extended periodic Anderson model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laad, M S; Koley, S; Taraphder, A

    2012-01-01

    We study the quantum phase transition in f-electron systems as a quantum Lifshitz transition driven by selective-Mott localization in a realistic extended Anderson lattice model. Using dynamical mean-field theory (DMFT), we find that a quantum critical phase with anomalous ω/T scaling separates a heavy Landau-Fermi liquid from ordered phase(s). This non-Fermi liquid state arises from a lattice orthogonality catastrophe originating from orbital-selective Mott localization. Fermi surface reconstruction occurs via the interplay between and penetration of the Green function zeros to the poles, leading to violation of Luttinger’s theorem in the strange metal. We show how this naturally leads to scale-invariant responses in transport. Thus, our work represents a specific DMFT realization of the hidden-FL and FL* theories, and holds promise for the study of ‘strange’ metal phases in quantum matter. (fast track communication)

  5. Pressure-driven insulator-metal transition in cubic phase UO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Li; Wang, Yilin; Werner, Philipp

    2017-09-01

    Understanding the electronic properties of actinide oxides under pressure poses a great challenge for experimental and theoretical studies. Here, we investigate the electronic structure of cubic phase uranium dioxide at different volumes using a combination of density functional theory and dynamical mean-field theory. The ab initio calculations predict an orbital-selective insulator-metal transition at a moderate pressure of ∼45 GPa. At this pressure the uranium's 5f 5/2 state becomes metallic, while the 5f 7/2 state remains insulating up to about 60 GPa. In the metallic state, we observe a rapid decrease of the 5f occupation and total angular momentum with pressure. Simultaneously, the so-called “Zhang-Rice state”, which is of predominantly 5f 5/2 character, quickly disappears after the transition into the metallic phase.

  6. Tuning the presence of dynamical phase transitions in a generalized XY spin chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divakaran, Uma; Sharma, Shraddha; Dutta, Amit

    2016-05-01

    We study an integrable spin chain with three spin interactions and the staggered field (λ) while the latter is quenched either slowly [in a linear fashion in time (t) as t/τ, where t goes from a large negative value to a large positive value and τ is the inverse rate of quenching] or suddenly. In the process, the system crosses quantum critical points and gapless phases. We address the question whether there exist nonanalyticities [known as dynamical phase transitions (DPTs)] in the subsequent real-time evolution of the state (reached following the quench) governed by the final time-independent Hamiltonian. In the case of sufficiently slow quenching (when τ exceeds a critical value τ_{1}), we show that DPTs, of the form similar to those occurring for quenching across an isolated critical point, can occur even when the system is slowly driven across more than one critical point and gapless phases. More interestingly, in the anisotropic situation we show that DPTs can completely disappear for some values of the anisotropy term (γ) and τ, thereby establishing the existence of boundaries in the (γ-τ) plane between the DPT and no-DPT regions in both isotropic and anisotropic cases. Our study therefore leads to a unique situation when DPTs may not occur even when an integrable model is slowly ramped across a QCP. On the other hand, considering sudden quenches from an initial value λ_{i} to a final value λ_{f}, we show that the condition for the presence of DPTs is governed by relations involving λ_{i},λ_{f}, and γ, and the spin chain must be swept across λ=0 for DPTs to occur.

  7. Microscopic origin of black hole reentrant phase transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zangeneh, M. Kord; Dehyadegari, A.; Sheykhi, A.; Mann, R. B.

    2018-04-01

    Understanding the microscopic behavior of the black hole ingredients has been one of the important challenges in black hole physics during the past decades. In order to shed some light on the microscopic structure of black holes, in this paper, we explore a recently observed phenomenon for black holes namely reentrant phase transition, by employing the Ruppeiner geometry. Interestingly enough, we observe two properties for the phase behavior of small black holes that leads to reentrant phase transition. They are correlated and they are of the interaction type. For the range of pressure in which the system underlies reentrant phase transition, it transits from the large black holes phase to the small one which possesses higher correlation than the other ranges of pressures. On the other hand, the type of interaction between small black holes near the large/small transition line differs for usual and reentrant phase transitions. Indeed, for the usual case, the dominant interaction is repulsive whereas for the reentrant case we encounter an attractive interaction. We show that in the reentrant phase transition case, the small black holes behave like a bosonic gas whereas in the usual phase transition case, they behave like a quantum anyon gas.

  8. Simulating the phosphorus fluid-liquid phase transition up to the critical point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghiringhelli, Luca M; Meijer, Evert Jan

    2007-01-01

    We report a Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics study of the temperature dependence of the fluid-liquid phase transition in phosphorous, involving the transformation of a molecular fluid phase into a network-like phase. We employed density-functional theory (DFT) with a gradient-corrected functional (B-LYP) to describe the electronic structure and interatomic interactions and performed simulations in a constant pressure ensemble. We spanned a temperature interval ranging from 2500 to 3500 K. With increasing temperature, we found that the structural conversion from the molecular P 4 fluid into the network liquid occurs at decreasing pressures, consistent with experimental observations. At lower temperatures the transition is characterized by a sudden increase of density in the sample. The magnitude of the density change decreases with increasing temperature and vanishes at 3500 K. In the temperature range 3100-3500 K we found signals of near- and super-criticality. We identified local structural changes that serve as seeds triggering the overall structural transition

  9. Observing the amorphous-to-crystalline phase transition in Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} non-volatile memory materials from ab initio molecular-dynamics simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, T.H.; Elliott, S.R. [Department of Chemistry, University of Cambridge, Lensfield Road, CB2 1EW Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2012-10-15

    Phase-change memory is a promising candidate for the next generation of non-volatile memory devices. This technology utilizes reversible phase transitions between amorphous and crystalline phases of a recording material, and has been successfully used in rewritable optical data storage, revealing its feasibility. In spite of the importance of understanding the nucleation and growth processes that play a critical role in the phase transition, this understanding is still incomplete. Here, we present observations of the early stages of crystallization in Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} materials through ab initio molecular-dynamics simulations. Planar structures, including fourfold rings and planes, play an important role in the formation and growth of crystalline clusters in the amorphous matrix. At the same time, vacancies facilitate crystallization by providing space at the glass-crystalline interface for atomic diffusion, which results in fast crystal growth, as observed in simulations and experiments. The microscopic mechanism of crystallization presented here may deepen our understanding of the phase transition occurring in real devices, providing an opportunity to optimize the memory performance of phase-change materials. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. Laser-induced microscopic phase-transition on an ionic liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iguchi, Natsuki; Datta, Alokmay; Yoshikawa, Kenichi; Ma Yue

    2009-01-01

    Nematic-isotropic transition is induced in a 5 μm 'droplet' within an oriented bulk of a mixture of a liquid crystalline material with a room-temperature ionic liquid, by a laser working at 532 nm with an output power of 200 mW and a beam diameter of 1 μm. No microscopic phase transition is observed either in absence of the ionic liquid or at the other wavelength of 1064 nm, available to the Nd-YAG laser. This indicates the essential role on a resonant transfer of energy to the ionic liquid from the laser radiation, which is subsequently transferred to the liquid crystal. Spectroscopy of the pure liquid crystal and ionic liquid samples confirms this concept. Spatio-temporal image of the droplet growth shows, however, that the phase transition remains confined within the microscopic domain for the first 50 s, and then spreads out rapidly. Since resonant, quantum transitions between molecular levels takes place in less than microseconds, the about seven orders of magnitude slowing down of energy transfer observed here suggests unique hierarchical dynamics including the coupling between the intra-molecular motions in the ionic liquid and the inter-molecular forces between ionic liquid and liquid crystal.

  11. Measurement of the dynamic behavior of thin poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) hydrogels and their phase transition temperatures measured using reflectometric interference spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, Fuminori [Konica Minolta, INC. (Japan); Akiyama, Yoshikatsu, E-mail: akiyama.yoshikatsu@twmu.ac.jp, E-mail: akiyama.yoshikatsu@abmes.twmu.ac.jp; Kobayashi, Jun [Tokyo Women’s Medical University (TWIns), Institute of Advanced Biomedical Engineering and Science (Japan); Ninomiya, Hidetaka [Konica Minolta, INC. (Japan); Kanazawa, Hideko [Keio University, Faculty of Pharmacy (Japan); Yamato, Masayuki; Okano, Teruo [Tokyo Women’s Medical University (TWIns), Institute of Advanced Biomedical Engineering and Science (Japan)

    2015-03-15

    Temperature-responsive cell culture surfaces prepared by modifying tissue-culture polystyrene with nanoscale poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PIPAAm) hydrogels are widely used as intelligent surfaces for the fabrication of various cell sheets that change with temperature. In this work, the characteristics of nanoscale PIPAAm hydrogels were phenomenologically elucidated on the basis of time-dependent surface evaluations under conditions of changing temperature. Because the dynamic characteristics of the nanoscale hydrogel did not exhibit good performance, the nanoscale PIPAAm hydrogel was analyzed by monitoring its temperature-dependent dynamic swelling/deswelling changes using reflectometric interference spectroscopy (RIfS) on an instrument equipped with a microfluidic system. RIfS measurements under ambient atmosphere provided the precise physical thickness of the dry PIPAAm hydrogel (6.7 nm), which agreed with the atomic force microscopy results (6.6 nm). Simulations of the reflectance spectra revealed that changes in the wavelength of the minimum reflectance (Δλ) were attributable to the changes in the refractive index of the thin PIPAAm hydrogel induced by a temperature-dependent volume phase transition. The temperature-dependent Δλ change was used to monitor the swelling/deswelling behavior of the nanoscale PIPAAm hydrogel. In addition, the phase transition temperature of the thin PIPAAm hydrogel under aqueous conditions was also determined to be the inflection point of the plot of the change in Δλ as a function of temperature. The dynamic behavior of a thin PIPAAm hydrogel chemically deposited on a surface was readily analyzed using a new analytical system with RIfS and microfluidic devices.

  12. Structure, Dynamics, and Phase Behavior of DOPC/DSPC Mixture Membrane Systems: Molecular Dynamics Simulation Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seonghan; Chang, Rakwoo [Kwangwoon University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-15

    Full atomistic molecular dynamics simulations have been performed for model mixture bilayer membrane systems consisting of 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) and 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DSPC) phospholipids to understand the effects of two essential parameters such as lipid composition and temperature on the structural, dynamical, and phase behavior of mixture membrane systems. Although pure DSPC membranes are in the gel-like (L{sub β}' or P{sub β}') phase at 323 K, raising the temperature by only 10 K or replacing 20% of DSPC lipids by DOPC lipids can change the gel-like phase into the completely liquid-crystalline phase (L{sub α}). This phase change is accompanied by dramatic change in both structural properties such as area per lipid, membrane thickness, deuterium order parameter, and tail angle distribution, and dynamics properties such as mobility map. We also observe that the full width at half-maximum (FWHM) data of tail angle distribution as well as area per lipid (or membrane thickness)can be used as order parameters for the membrane phase transition.

  13. Structure, Dynamics, and Phase Behavior of DOPC/DSPC Mixture Membrane Systems: Molecular Dynamics Simulation Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seonghan; Chang, Rakwoo

    2016-01-01

    Full atomistic molecular dynamics simulations have been performed for model mixture bilayer membrane systems consisting of 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) and 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DSPC) phospholipids to understand the effects of two essential parameters such as lipid composition and temperature on the structural, dynamical, and phase behavior of mixture membrane systems. Although pure DSPC membranes are in the gel-like (L_β' or P_β') phase at 323 K, raising the temperature by only 10 K or replacing 20% of DSPC lipids by DOPC lipids can change the gel-like phase into the completely liquid-crystalline phase (L_α). This phase change is accompanied by dramatic change in both structural properties such as area per lipid, membrane thickness, deuterium order parameter, and tail angle distribution, and dynamics properties such as mobility map. We also observe that the full width at half-maximum (FWHM) data of tail angle distribution as well as area per lipid (or membrane thickness)can be used as order parameters for the membrane phase transition.

  14. The Theory of Dynamic Public Transit Priority with Dynamic Stochastic Park and Ride

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Chengming; Chen, Yanyan; Ma, Changxi

    2014-01-01

    Public transit priority is very important for relieving traffic congestion. The connotation of dynamic public transit priority and dynamic stochastic park and ride is presented. Based on the point that the travel cost of public transit is not higher than the travel cost of car, how to determine the level of dynamic public transit priority is discussed. The traffic organization method of dynamic public transit priority is introduced. For dynamic stochastic park and ride, layout principle, scal...

  15. Gravitational waves from the electroweak phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leitao, Leonardo; Mégevand, Ariel; Sánchez, Alejandro D.

    2012-01-01

    We study the generation of gravitational waves in the electroweak phase transition. We consider a few extensions of the Standard Model, namely, the addition of scalar singlets, the minimal supersymmetric extension, and the addition of TeV fermions. For each model we consider the complete dynamics of the phase transition. In particular, we estimate the friction force acting on bubble walls, and we take into account the fact that they can propagate either as detonations or as deflagrations preceded by shock fronts, or they can run away. We compute the peak frequency and peak intensity of the gravitational radiation generated by bubble collisions and turbulence. We discuss the detectability by proposed spaceborne detectors. For the models we considered, runaway walls require significant fine tuning of the parameters, and the gravitational wave signal from bubble collisions is generally much weaker than that from turbulence. Although the predicted signal is in most cases rather low for the sensitivity of LISA, models with strongly coupled extra scalars reach this sensitivity for frequencies f ∼ 10 −4 Hz, and give intensities as high as h 2 Ω GW ∼ 10 −8

  16. The quantum phase-transitions of water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillaux, François

    2017-08-01

    It is shown that hexagonal ices and steam are macroscopically quantum condensates, with continuous spacetime-translation symmetry, whereas liquid water is a quantum fluid with broken time-translation symmetry. Fusion and vaporization are quantum phase-transitions. The heat capacities, the latent heats, the phase-transition temperatures, the critical temperature, the molar volume expansion of ice relative to water, as well as neutron scattering data and dielectric measurements are explained. The phase-transition mechanisms along with the key role of quantum interferences and that of Hartley-Shannon's entropy are enlightened. The notions of chemical bond and force-field are questioned.

  17. Phase transition in SO(3) gauge theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, Saumen; Gavai, Rajiv V.

    1998-01-01

    The phase transition in SO(3) lattice gauge theory is investigated by Monte Carlo techniques with a view (i) to understand the relationship between the bulk transition and the deconfinement transition, and (ii) to resolve the current ambiguity about the nature of the high temperature phase. By introduction of a magnetic field, it was shown that the +ve and -ve values of a > correspond to the same phase. Studies on different sized lattices lead to the conclusion that in SO(3), there is only one transition, which is deconfining in nature. (author)

  18. Liquid-solid phase transition of Ge-Sb-Te alloy observed by in-situ transmission electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berlin, Katja, E-mail: katja.berlin@pdi-berlin.de; Trampert, Achim

    2017-07-15

    Melting and crystallization dynamics of the multi-component Ge-Sb-Te alloy have been investigated by in-situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Starting point of the phase transition study is an ordered hexagonal Ge{sub 1}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 4} thin film on Si(111) where the crystal structure and the chemical composition are verified by scanning TEM and electron energy-loss spectroscopy, respectively. The in-situ observation of the liquid phase at 600°C including the liquid-solid and liquid-vacuum interfaces and their movements was made possible due to an encapsulation of the TEM sample. The solid-liquid interface during melting displays a broad and diffuse transition zone characterized by a vacancy induced disordered state. Although the velocities of interface movements are measured to be in the nanometer per second scale, both, for crystallization and solidification, the underlying dynamic processes are considerably different. Melting reveals linear dependence on time, whereas crystallization exhibits a non-linear time-dependency featuring a superimposed start-stop motion. Our results may provide valuable insight into the atomic mechanisms at interfaces during the liquid-solid phase transition of Ge-Sb-Te alloys. - Highlights: • In-situ TEM observation of liquid Ge-Sb-Te phase transition due to encapsulation. • During melting: Observation of non-ordered interface transition due to premelting. • During solidification: Observation of non-linear time-dependent crystallization.

  19. Liquid-solid phase transition of Ge-Sb-Te alloy observed by in-situ transmission electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berlin, Katja; Trampert, Achim

    2017-01-01

    Melting and crystallization dynamics of the multi-component Ge-Sb-Te alloy have been investigated by in-situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Starting point of the phase transition study is an ordered hexagonal Ge 1 Sb 2 Te 4 thin film on Si(111) where the crystal structure and the chemical composition are verified by scanning TEM and electron energy-loss spectroscopy, respectively. The in-situ observation of the liquid phase at 600°C including the liquid-solid and liquid-vacuum interfaces and their movements was made possible due to an encapsulation of the TEM sample. The solid-liquid interface during melting displays a broad and diffuse transition zone characterized by a vacancy induced disordered state. Although the velocities of interface movements are measured to be in the nanometer per second scale, both, for crystallization and solidification, the underlying dynamic processes are considerably different. Melting reveals linear dependence on time, whereas crystallization exhibits a non-linear time-dependency featuring a superimposed start-stop motion. Our results may provide valuable insight into the atomic mechanisms at interfaces during the liquid-solid phase transition of Ge-Sb-Te alloys. - Highlights: • In-situ TEM observation of liquid Ge-Sb-Te phase transition due to encapsulation. • During melting: Observation of non-ordered interface transition due to premelting. • During solidification: Observation of non-linear time-dependent crystallization.

  20. What's new with the electroweak phase transition?

    CERN Document Server

    Laine, M.

    1999-01-01

    We review the status of non-perturbative lattice studies of the electroweak phase transition. In the Standard Model, the complete phase diagram has been reliably determined, and the conclusion is that there is no phase transition at all for the experimentally allowed Higgs masses. In the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM), in contrast, there can be a strong first order transition allowing for baryogenesis. Finally, we point out possibilities for future simulations, such as the problem of CP-violation at the MSSM electroweak phase boundary.

  1. Out of equilibrium phase transitions and a toy model for disoriented chiral condensates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedaque, P.F.; Das, A.

    1993-07-01

    We study the dynamics of a second order phase transition in a situation that mimics a sudden quench to a temperature below the critical temperature in a model with dynamical symmetry breaking. In particular we show that the domains of correlated values of the condensate grow as √t and that this result seems to be largely model independent. (author). 9 refs

  2. Wilson loop's phase transition probed by non-local observable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Ling Li

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to give further insights into the holographic Van der Waals phase transition, it would be of great interest to investigate the behavior of Wilson loop across the holographic phase transition for a higher dimensional hairy black hole. We offer a possibility to proceed with a numerical calculation in order to discussion on the hairy black hole's phase transition, and show that Wilson loop can serve as a probe to detect a phase structure of the black hole. Furthermore, for a first order phase transition, we calculate numerically the Maxwell's equal area construction; and for a second order phase transition, we also study the critical exponent in order to characterize the Wilson loop's phase transition.

  3. Indirect phase transition of TiC, ZrC, and HfC crystal structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abavare, Eric K.K.; Dodoo, Samuel N.A. [Department of Physics, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi (Ghana); Uchida, Kazuyuki; Oshiyama, Atsushi [Department of Applied Physics, The University of Tokyo, Hongo, Tokyo (Japan); Nkurumah-Buandoh, George K.; Yaya, Abu [Department of Physics, University of Ghana, Legon (Ghana)

    2016-06-15

    We have performed first-principles calculations to analyze the electronic structures, static, and dynamical structural stabilities of the pressure-induced phase transformation of refractory compounds (transition-metal carbides) from NaCl-type (B1) to CsCl-type (B2) via zinc-blende phase using the plane-wave pseudopotential approach in the framework of the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) for the exchange and correlation functional. The ground-state properties, equilibrium lattice constant, bulk moduli, and band structures are determined for the stoichiometry of the compounds and compared with known experimental and theoretical values. We find that the phase-transition pressure for the indirect phase transition from B1→B2 via zinc-blende structure is about 17-fold for TiC, 12-fold for both ZrC and HfC, respectively, when compared with the direct phase transition. Calculated phonon instability exists for the CsCl-B2 phase, which can prevent the structures from forming and contrary to the zinc-blende and the NaCl-B1 phases. The band dispersion and electronic density of states for B1 and B2 crystal phases were explored and found to indicate metallic character in contrast with the zinc-blende phase, which has a pseudogap opening in the bandgap region suggesting a semiconducting property and also a frequency gap in the phonon spectrum. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  4. Late-time cosmological phase transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schramm, D.N.

    1990-11-01

    It is shown that the potential galaxy formation and large-scale structure problems of objects existing at high redshifts (Z approx-gt 5), structures existing on scales of 100M pc as well as velocity flows on such scales, and minimal microwave anisotropies (ΔT/T) approx-lt 10 -5 can be solved if the seeds needed to generate structure form in a vacuum phase transition after decoupling. It is argued that the basic physics of such a phase transition is no more exotic than that utilized in the more traditional GUT scale phase transitions, and that, just as in the GUT case, significant random gaussian fluctuations and/or topological defects can form. Scale lengths of ∼100M pc for large-scale structure as well as ∼1 M pc for galaxy formation occur naturally. Possible support for new physics that might be associated with such a late-time transition comes from the preliminary results of the SAGE solar neutrino experiment, implying neutrino flavor mixing with values similar to those required for a late-time transition. It is also noted that a see-saw model for the neutrino masses might also imply a tau neutrino mass that is an ideal hot dark matter candidate. However, in general either hot or cold dark matter can be consistent with a late-time transition. 47 refs., 2 figs

  5. Phase transitions and Heisenberg limited metrology in an Ising chain interacting with a single-mode cavity field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelmark, Søren; Mølmer, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the thermodynamics of a combined Dicke and Ising model that exhibits a rich phenomenology arising from the second-order and quantum phase transitions from the respective models. The partition function is calculated using mean-field theory, and the free energy is analyzed in detail...... to determine the complete phase diagram of the system. The analysis reveals both first- and second-order Dicke phase transitions into a super-radiant state, and the cavity mean field in this regime acts as an effective magnetic field, which restricts the Ising chain dynamics to parameter ranges away from...... the Ising phase transition. Physical systems with first-order phase transitions are natural candidates for metrology and calibration purposes, and we apply filter theory to show that the sensitivity of the physical system to temperature and external fields reaches the 1/N Heisenberg limit....

  6. Transitions and transition management. The case of an emission-low energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotmans, J.; Van Asselt, M.; Molendijk, K.; Kemp, R.; Geels, F.; Verbong, G.

    2000-12-01

    Transitions are societal transformation processes that occur in at least one generation (i.e. 25 years). Transitions are structural changes of the society or a complex part of that society. Transitions show technological, economical, ecological, socio-cultural and institutional developments on different levels. A transition is the result of slow changes (developments in supplies) and fast dynamics (flows). In general, four transition phases can be distinguished: (1) a pre-development phase of dynamic equilibrium in which the status quo does not change much; (2) a take-off phase in which the process of change is started; (3) an acceleration phase in which structural changes occur, resulting in collective learning processes, diffusion and processes of implementation; (4) a stabilization phase in which the speed of societal changes decreases and a new dynamic equilibrium exists. Within the framework of the preparatory process of the Fourth Dutch National Environmental Plan (NMP4) a study has been carried out to explore the transition concept, focusing on an emission-low energy supply in the Netherlands. 49 refs

  7. Phase transition phenomenon: A compound measure analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Bo Soo; Park, Chanhi; Ryu, Doojin; Song, Wonho

    2015-06-01

    This study investigates the well-documented phenomenon of phase transition in financial markets using combined information from both return and volume changes within short time intervals. We suggest a new measure for the phase transition behaviour of markets, calculated as a return distribution conditional on local variance in volume imbalance, and show that this measure successfully captures phase transition behaviour under various conditions. We analyse the intraday trade and quote dataset from the KOSPI 200 index futures, which includes detailed information on the original order size and the type of each initiating investor. We find that among these two competing factors, the submitted order size yields more explanatory power on the phenomenon of market phase transition than the investor type.

  8. Behavior of the antiferromagnetic phase transition near the fermion condensation quantum phase transition in YbRh{sub 2}Si{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaginyan, V.R., E-mail: vrshag@thd.pnpi.spb.r [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, RAS, Gatchina 188300 (Russian Federation); Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Amusia, M.Ya. [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Popov, K.G. [Komi Science Center, Ural Division, RAS, Syktyvkar 167982 (Russian Federation)

    2010-01-11

    Low-temperature specific-heat measurements on YbRh{sub 2}Si{sub 2} at the second order antiferromagnetic (AF) phase transition reveal a sharp peak at T{sub N}=72 mK. The corresponding critical exponent alpha turns out to be alpha=0.38, which differs significantly from that obtained within the framework of the fluctuation theory of second order phase transitions based on the scale invariance, where alphaapprox =0.1. We show that under the application of magnetic field the curve of the second order AF phase transitions passes into a curve of the first order ones at the tricritical point leading to a violation of the critical universality of the fluctuation theory. This change of the phase transition is generated by the fermion condensation quantum phase transition. Near the tricritical point the Landau theory of second order phase transitions is applicable and gives alphaapprox =1/2. We demonstrate that this value of alpha is in good agreement with the specific-heat measurements.

  9. Structural Phase Transition Nomenclature, Report of an IUCr Working Group on Phase Transition Nomenclature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toleddano, J.C.; Glazer, A.M.; Hahn, Th.; Parthe, E.; Roth, R.S.; Berry, R.S.; Metselaar, R.; Abrahams, S.C.

    1998-01-01

    A compact and intuitive nomenclature is recommended for naming each phase formed by a given material in a sequence of phase transitions as a function of temperature and/or pressure. The most commonly used label for each phase in a sequence, such as [alpha], [beta], ..., I, II, ... etc., is included

  10. Scale invariance from phase transitions to turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Lesne, Annick

    2012-01-01

    During a century, from the Van der Waals mean field description (1874) of gases to the introduction of renormalization group (RG techniques 1970), thermodynamics and statistical physics were just unable to account for the incredible universality which was observed in numerous critical phenomena. The great success of RG techniques is not only to solve perfectly this challenge of critical behaviour in thermal transitions but to introduce extremely useful tools in a wide field of daily situations where a system exhibits scale invariance. The introduction of scaling, scale invariance and universality concepts has been a significant turn in modern physics and more generally in natural sciences. Since then, a new "physics of scaling laws and critical exponents", rooted in scaling approaches, allows quantitative descriptions of numerous phenomena, ranging from phase transitions to earthquakes, polymer conformations, heartbeat rhythm, diffusion, interface growth and roughening, DNA sequence, dynamical systems, chaos ...

  11. Phases and phase transitions of S=1 bosons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    smukerjee

    Quantum phases and phase transitions of bosons. Subroto Mukerjee. Dept. of Physics & Centre for Quantum. Information and Quantum Computing (CQIQC). Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. 77th annual meeting of the IAS, Nov. 20 2011, PRL Ahmedabad ...

  12. Unconventional phase transitions in a constrained single polymer chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klushin, L I; Skvortsov, A M

    2011-01-01

    Phase transitions were recognized among the most fascinating phenomena in physics. Exactly solved models are especially important in the theory of phase transitions. A number of exactly solved models of phase transitions in a single polymer chain are discussed in this review. These are three models demonstrating the second order phase transitions with some unusual features: two-dimensional model of β-structure formation, the model of coil–globule transition and adsorption of a polymer chain grafted on the solid surface. We also discuss models with first order phase transitions in a single macromolecule which admit not only exact analytical solutions for the partition function with explicit finite-size effects but also the non-equilibrium free energy as a function of the order parameter (Landau function) in closed analytical form. One of them is a model of mechanical desorption of a macromolecule, which demonstrates an unusual first order phase transition with phase coexistence within a single chain. Features of first and second order transitions become mixed here due to phase coexistence which is not accompanied by additional interfacial free energy. Apart from that, there exist several single-chain models belonging to the same class (adsorption of a polymer chain tethered near the solid surface or liquid–liquid interface, and escape transition upon compressing a polymer between small pistons) that represent examples of a highly unconventional first order phase transition with several inter-related unusual features: no simultaneous phase coexistence, and hence no phase boundary, non-concave thermodynamic potential and non-equivalence of conjugate ensembles. An analysis of complex zeros of partition functions upon approaching the thermodynamic limit is presented for models with and without phase coexistence. (topical review)

  13. Concurrency-Induced Transitions in Epidemic Dynamics on Temporal Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onaga, Tomokatsu; Gleeson, James P; Masuda, Naoki

    2017-09-08

    Social contact networks underlying epidemic processes in humans and animals are highly dynamic. The spreading of infections on such temporal networks can differ dramatically from spreading on static networks. We theoretically investigate the effects of concurrency, the number of neighbors that a node has at a given time point, on the epidemic threshold in the stochastic susceptible-infected-susceptible dynamics on temporal network models. We show that network dynamics can suppress epidemics (i.e., yield a higher epidemic threshold) when the node's concurrency is low, but can also enhance epidemics when the concurrency is high. We analytically determine different phases of this concurrency-induced transition, and confirm our results with numerical simulations.

  14. Concurrency-Induced Transitions in Epidemic Dynamics on Temporal Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onaga, Tomokatsu; Gleeson, James P.; Masuda, Naoki

    2017-09-01

    Social contact networks underlying epidemic processes in humans and animals are highly dynamic. The spreading of infections on such temporal networks can differ dramatically from spreading on static networks. We theoretically investigate the effects of concurrency, the number of neighbors that a node has at a given time point, on the epidemic threshold in the stochastic susceptible-infected-susceptible dynamics on temporal network models. We show that network dynamics can suppress epidemics (i.e., yield a higher epidemic threshold) when the node's concurrency is low, but can also enhance epidemics when the concurrency is high. We analytically determine different phases of this concurrency-induced transition, and confirm our results with numerical simulations.

  15. Phase transitions and baryogenesis from decays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuve, Brian; Tamarit, Carlos

    2017-10-01

    We study scenarios in which the baryon asymmetry is generated from the decay of a particle whose mass originates from the spontaneous breakdown of a symmetry. This is realized in many models, including low-scale leptogenesis and theories with classical scale invariance. Symmetry breaking in the early universe proceeds through a phase transition that gives the parent particle a time-dependent mass, which provides an additional departure from thermal equilibrium that could modify the efficiency of baryogenesis from out-of-equilibrium decays. We characterize the effects of various types of phase transitions and show that an enhancement in the baryon asymmetry from decays is possible if the phase transition is of the second order, although such models are typically fine-tuned. We also stress the role of new annihilation modes that deplete the parent particle abundance in models realizing such a phase transition, reducing the efficacy of baryogenesis. A proper treatment of baryogenesis in such models therefore requires the inclusion of the effects we study in this paper.

  16. Real-time observation of fluctuations in a driven-dissipative quantum many-body system undergoing a phase transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donner, Tobias

    2015-03-01

    A Bose-Einstein condensate whose motional degrees of freedom are coupled to a high-finesse optical cavity via a transverse pump beam constitutes a dissipative quantum many-body system with long range interactions. These interactions can induce a structural phase transition from a flat to a density-modulated state. The transverse pump field simultaneously represents a probe of the atomic density via cavity- enhanced Bragg scattering. By spectrally analyzing the light field leaking out of the cavity, we measure non-destructively the dynamic structure factor of the fluctuating atomic density while the system undergoes the phase transition. An observed asymmetry in the dynamic structure factor is attributed to the coupling to dissipative baths. Critical exponents for both sides of the phase transition can be extracted from the data. We further discuss our progress in adding strong short-range interactions to this system, in order to explore Bose-Hubbard physics with cavity-mediated long-range interactions and self-organization in lower dimensions.

  17. Using trading strategies to detect phase transitions in financial markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forró, Z; Woodard, R; Sornette, D

    2015-04-01

    We show that the log-periodic power law singularity model (LPPLS), a mathematical embodiment of positive feedbacks between agents and of their hierarchical dynamical organization, has a significant predictive power in financial markets. We find that LPPLS-based strategies significantly outperform the randomized ones and that they are robust with respect to a large selection of assets and time periods. The dynamics of prices thus markedly deviate from randomness in certain pockets of predictability that can be associated with bubble market regimes. Our hybrid approach, marrying finance with the trading strategies, and critical phenomena with LPPLS, demonstrates that targeting information related to phase transitions enables the forecast of financial bubbles and crashes punctuating the dynamics of prices.

  18. Using trading strategies to detect phase transitions in financial markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forró, Z.; Woodard, R.; Sornette, D.

    2015-04-01

    We show that the log-periodic power law singularity model (LPPLS), a mathematical embodiment of positive feedbacks between agents and of their hierarchical dynamical organization, has a significant predictive power in financial markets. We find that LPPLS-based strategies significantly outperform the randomized ones and that they are robust with respect to a large selection of assets and time periods. The dynamics of prices thus markedly deviate from randomness in certain pockets of predictability that can be associated with bubble market regimes. Our hybrid approach, marrying finance with the trading strategies, and critical phenomena with LPPLS, demonstrates that targeting information related to phase transitions enables the forecast of financial bubbles and crashes punctuating the dynamics of prices.

  19. Sound speed during the QCD phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagasawa, Michiyasu; Yokoyama, Jun'ichi

    1998-01-01

    The Jeans scale is estimated during the coexistence epoch of quark-gluon and hadron phases in the first-order QCD phase transition. It is shown that, contrary to previous claims, reduction of the sound speed is so little that the phase transition does not affect evolution of cosmological density fluctuations appreciably. (author)

  20. Phase transitions, scaling and renormalisation in nonequilibrium systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanney, T.E.

    2002-01-01

    Nonequilibrium phase transitions and critical phenomena in simple lattice-based interacting particle models are considered. Specific models of interest are exclusion models in low dimensions, with particular reference to the asymmetric simple exclusion process (ASEP) which provides a testbed for many of the calculations. The aim of the thesis is to devise approximate scaling techniques for such models which account for fluctuations and which are more widely applicable than methods pursuing an exact solution. Scaling techniques which have been applied to models described by a linear equation of motion are extended to the case where the equation of motion is nonlinear. These methods capture the dynamic transition in the ASEP but fail to properly account for the nonlinearity in their predictions for the dynamic exponent, z. A new and widely applicable real space renormalisation group procedure is developed. It provides a direct and transparent scaling method to extract universal and non-universal properties of the steady state and dynamic critical behaviour in the boundary-driven ASEP in one dimension. In particular, we obtain a flow diagram for the problem from which we can interpret all the qualitative features of the (exactly known) steady state phase diagram and which predicts the exact value for the critical point. Further, the dynamic scaling is consistent with a crossover between diflusive behaviour near the zero current fixed point and z = 3/2 dynamics at the critical fixed point. Extensions to include disorder, to higher dimensions, and to other models are all possible using the method. Using the mapping between the Master equation and the Schroedinger equation in imaginary time, this scaling procedure is rephrased as a new blocking for quantum-spin systems. Existing methods of real space renormalisation for quantum-spin systems are applied to a variety of previously unconsidered exclusion models. In particular, it is shown how such techniques can be applied

  1. Vacancy enhanced formation and phase transition of Cu-rich precipitates in α - iron under neutron irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lv, G. C. [Basic Experimental Center of Natural Science, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing, 100083 (China); Corrosion and Protection Center, Key Laboratory of Environmental Fracture (MOE), University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing, 100083 (China); Zhang, H. [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada, T6G2V4 (Canada); He, X. F.; Yang, W. [China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing, 102413 (China); Su, Y. J., E-mail: yjsu@ustb.edu.cn [Corrosion and Protection Center, Key Laboratory of Environmental Fracture (MOE), University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing, 100083 (China)

    2016-04-15

    In this paper, we employed both molecular statics and molecular dynamics simulation methods to investigate the role of vacancies in the formation and phase transition of Cu-rich precipitates in α-iron. The results indicated that vacancies promoted the diffusion of Cu atoms to form Cu-rich precipitates. After Cu-rich precipitates formed, they further trapped vacancies. The supersaturated vacancy concentration in the Cu-rich precipitate induced a shear strain, which triggered the phase transition from bcc to fcc structure by transforming the initial bcc (110) plane into fcc (111) plane. In addition, the formation of the fcc-twin structure and the stacking fault structure in the Cu-rich precipitates was observed in dynamics simulations.

  2. Non-equilibrium phase transitions in complex plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suetterlin, K R; Raeth, C; Ivlev, A V; Thomas, H M; Khrapak, S; Zhdanov, S; Rubin-Zuzic, M; Morfill, G E; Wysocki, A; Loewen, H; Goedheer, W J; Fortov, V E; Lipaev, A M; Molotkov, V I; Petrov, O F

    2010-01-01

    Complex plasma being the 'plasma state of soft matter' is especially suitable for investigations of non-equilibrium phase transitions. Non-equilibrium phase transitions can manifest in dissipative structures or self-organization. Two specific examples are lane formation and phase separation. Using the permanent microgravity laboratory PK-3 Plus, operating onboard the International Space Station, we performed unique experiments with binary mixtures of complex plasmas that showed both lane formation and phase separation. These observations have been augmented by comprehensive numerical and theoretical studies. In this paper we present an overview of our most important results. In addition we put our results in context with research of complex plasmas, binary systems and non-equilibrium phase transitions. Necessary and promising future complex plasma experiments on phase separation and lane formation are briefly discussed.

  3. Ferroelastic Phase Transition in Pb_3(PO_4)_2 Studied by Computer Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parlinski, K.; Kawazoe, Y.

    1997-01-01

    A model of lead phosphate which describes its rhombohedral-monoclinic improper ferroelastic phase transition is proposed. It contains a reduced number of degrees of freedom but it is constructed consistently with symmetry changes at the phase transition. Potential parameters of the model are derived from available experimental data. The crystallites of 25× 25× 25 and 121× 121 × 25 unit cells have been simulated by the molecular-dynamics technique. The results determine the phase transition at the L point of reciprocal space, the order parameter, and the temperature behavior of monoclinic lattice parameters. In the rhombohedral phase the calculated dynamical structure factor shows inelastic peaks from which a soft branch of underdamped phonons has been established. The model has been used to calculate a diffuse scattering function which shows above T_c a maximum at an incommensurate wave vector located along the L F line of the Brillouin zone. The mentioned line is parallel to the ternary symmetry axis. On the basis of the above results we were able to vizualize the nature of the dynamical monoclinic microdomains persisting in the high-temperature rhombohedral phase. It has been shown that above T_c the fluctuations can be treated as temporary orientational monoclinic microdomains. Each type of microdomains always contains an irregular sequence of antiphase domains. Un modèle permettant de décrire la transition de phase ferroélastique impropre, rhomboédrique-monoclinique, du phosphate de plomb est proposé ci-dessous. Il est construit à partir d'un nombre réduit de degrés de liberté, tout en tenant compte des changements de symétrie caractéristique de la transition de phase. Les paramètres du modèle sont déduits quantitativement des résultats expérimentaux disponibles. La technique de dynamique moléculaire a permis de simuler le comportement des cristallites comportant 25× 25× 25 et 121× 121 × 25 mailles. Les résultats permettent de d

  4. Phase transition of aragonite in abalone nacre

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Yuanlin; Liu, Zhiming; Wu, Wenjian

    2013-04-01

    Nacre is composed of about 95 vol.% aragonite and 5 vol.% biopolymer and famous for its "brick and mortar" microstructure. The phase transition temperature of aragonite in nacre is lower than the pure aragonite. In situ XRD was used to identify the phase transition temperature from aragonite to calcite in nacre, based on the analysis of TG-DSC of fresh nacre and demineralized nacre. The results indicate that the microstructure and biopolymer are the two main factors that influence the phase transition temperature of aragonite in nacre.

  5. Low temperature vibrational spectra, lattice dynamics, and phase transitions in some potassium hexahalometallates: K2[XY6] with X=Sn or Te and Y=Cl or Br

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chodos, Steven L.; Berg, Rolf W.

    1979-01-01

    This paper deals with the observation and identification of phonon frequencies resulting from the low temperature phase transitions in K2XY6 crystals. By means of a simple lattice dynamical model, the vibrational Raman and IR data available in the literature and obtained here have been analyzed. ...

  6. Mixed-order phase transition in a colloidal crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alert, Ricard; Tierno, Pietro; Casademunt, Jaume

    2017-12-01

    Mixed-order phase transitions display a discontinuity in the order parameter like first-order transitions yet feature critical behavior like second-order transitions. Such transitions have been predicted for a broad range of equilibrium and nonequilibrium systems, but their experimental observation has remained elusive. Here, we analytically predict and experimentally realize a mixed-order equilibrium phase transition. Specifically, a discontinuous solid-solid transition in a 2D crystal of paramagnetic colloidal particles is induced by a magnetic field H. At the transition field Hs, the energy landscape of the system becomes completely flat, which causes diverging fluctuations and correlation length ξ∝|H2-Hs2|-1/2. Mean-field critical exponents are predicted, since the upper critical dimension of the transition is du=2. Our colloidal system provides an experimental test bed to probe the unconventional properties of mixed-order phase transitions.

  7. Mixed-order phase transition in a colloidal crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alert, Ricard; Tierno, Pietro; Casademunt, Jaume

    2017-12-05

    Mixed-order phase transitions display a discontinuity in the order parameter like first-order transitions yet feature critical behavior like second-order transitions. Such transitions have been predicted for a broad range of equilibrium and nonequilibrium systems, but their experimental observation has remained elusive. Here, we analytically predict and experimentally realize a mixed-order equilibrium phase transition. Specifically, a discontinuous solid-solid transition in a 2D crystal of paramagnetic colloidal particles is induced by a magnetic field [Formula: see text] At the transition field [Formula: see text], the energy landscape of the system becomes completely flat, which causes diverging fluctuations and correlation length [Formula: see text] Mean-field critical exponents are predicted, since the upper critical dimension of the transition is [Formula: see text] Our colloidal system provides an experimental test bed to probe the unconventional properties of mixed-order phase transitions.

  8. Ultrafast optically induced ferromagnetic/anti-ferromagnetic phase transition in GdTiO3 from first principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalsa, Guru; Benedek, Nicole A.

    2018-03-01

    Epitaxial strain and chemical substitution have been the workhorses of functional materials design. These static techniques have shown immense success in controlling properties in complex oxides through the tuning of subtle structural distortions. Recently, an approach based on the excitation of an infrared active phonon with intense midinfrared light has created an opportunity for dynamical control of structure through special nonlinear coupling to Raman phonons. We use first-principles techniques to show that this approach can dynamically induce a magnetic phase transition from the ferromagnetic ground state to a hidden antiferromagnetic phase in the rare earth titanate GdTiO3 for realistic experimental parameters. We show that a combination of a Jahn-Teller distortion, Gd displacement, and infrared phonon motion dominate this phase transition with little effect from the octahedral rotations, contrary to conventional wisdom.

  9. Discontinuity in Fast Dynamics at the Glass Transition of ortho-Terphenyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, David J; Fayer, Michael D

    2017-11-16

    The dynamics of the molecular glass former ortho-terphenyl through the glass transition were observed with two-dimensional infrared vibrational spectroscopy measurements of spectral diffusion using the small probe molecule phenylselenocyanate. Although the slow diffusive motions were not visible on the experimental time scale, a picosecond-scale exponential relaxation was observed at temperatures from above to well below the glass transition temperature. The characteristic time scale has a smooth temperature dependence from the liquid into the glass phase, but the range of vibrational frequencies the probe samples displayed a discontinuity at the glass transition temperature. Complementary pump-probe experiments associate the observed motion with density fluctuations. The key features of the dynamics are reproduced with a simple corrugated well potential energy surface model. In addition, the temperature dependence of the homogeneous vibrational dephasing was found to have a T 2 functional form, where T is the absolute temperature.

  10. High temperature phase transitions without infrared divergences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tetradis, N.; Wetterich, C.

    1993-09-01

    The most commonly used method for the study of high temperature phase transitions is based on the perturbative evaluation of the temperature dependent effective potential. This method becomes unreliable in the case of a second order or weakly first order phase transition, due to the appearance of infrared divergences. These divergences can be controlled through the method of the effective average action which employs renormalization group ideas. We report on the study of the high temperature phase transition for the N-component φ 4 theory. A detailed quantitative picture of the second order phase transition is presented, including the critical exponents for the behaviour in the vicinity of the critical temperature. An independent check of the results is obtained in the large N limit, and contact with the perturbative approach is established through the study of the Schwinger-Dyson equations. (orig.)

  11. Phase Behavior of Diblock Copolymer–Homopolymer Ternary Blends: Congruent First-Order Lamellar–Disorder Transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hickey, Robert J.; Gillard, Timothy M.; Irwin, Matthew T.; Morse, David C.; Lodge, Timothy P.; Bates, Frank S. (UMM)

    2016-10-13

    We have established the existence of a line of congruent first-order lamellar-to-disorder (LAM–DIS) transitions when appropriate amounts of poly(cyclohexylethylene) (C) and poly(ethylene) (E) homopolymers are mixed with a corresponding compositionally symmetric CE diblock copolymer. The line of congruent transitions, or the congruent isopleth, terminates at the bicontinuous microemulsion (BμE) channel, and its trajectory appears to be influenced by the critical composition of the C/E binary homopolymer blend. Blends satisfying congruency undergo a direct LAM–DIS transition without passing through a two-phase region. We present complementary optical transmission, small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and dynamic mechanical spectroscopy (DMS) results that establish the phase behavior at constant copolymer volume fraction and varying C/E homopolymer volume ratios. Adjacent to the congruent composition at constant copolymer volume fraction, the lamellar and disordered phases are separated by two-phase coexistence windows, which converge, along with the line of congruent transitions, at an overall composition in the phase prism coincident with the BμE channel. Hexagonal and cubic (double gyroid) phases occur at higher diblock copolymer concentrations for asymmetric amounts of C and E homopolymers. These results establish a quantitative method for identifying the detailed phase behavior of ternary diblock copolymer–homopolymer blends, especially in the vicinity of the BμE.

  12. Probabilistic physical characteristics of phase transitions at highway bottlenecks: incommensurability of three-phase and two-phase traffic-flow theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerner, Boris S; Klenov, Sergey L; Schreckenberg, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Physical features of induced phase transitions in a metastable free flow at an on-ramp bottleneck in three-phase and two-phase cellular automaton (CA) traffic-flow models have been revealed. It turns out that at given flow rates at the bottleneck, to induce a moving jam (F → J transition) in the metastable free flow through the application of a time-limited on-ramp inflow impulse, in both two-phase and three-phase CA models the same critical amplitude of the impulse is required. If a smaller impulse than this critical one is applied, neither F → J transition nor other phase transitions can occur in the two-phase CA model. We have found that in contrast with the two-phase CA model, in the three-phase CA model, if the same smaller impulse is applied, then a phase transition from free flow to synchronized flow (F → S transition) can be induced at the bottleneck. This explains why rather than the F → J transition, in the three-phase theory traffic breakdown at a highway bottleneck is governed by an F → S transition, as observed in real measured traffic data. None of two-phase traffic-flow theories incorporates an F → S transition in a metastable free flow at the bottleneck that is the main feature of the three-phase theory. On the one hand, this shows the incommensurability of three-phase and two-phase traffic-flow theories. On the other hand, this clarifies why none of the two-phase traffic-flow theories can explain the set of fundamental empirical features of traffic breakdown at highway bottlenecks.

  13. Propagating stress-pulses and wiggling transition revealed in string dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Zhenwei

    2018-02-01

    Understanding string dynamics yields insights into the intricate dynamic behaviors of various filamentary thin structures in nature and industry covering multiple length scales. In this work, we investigate the planar dynamics of a flexible string where one end is free and the other end is subject to transverse and longitudinal motions. Under transverse harmonic motion, we reveal the propagating pulse structure in the stress profile over the string, and analyze its role in bringing the system into a chaotic state. For a string where one end is under longitudinal uniform acceleration, we identify the wiggling transition, derive the analytical wiggling solution from the string equations, and present the phase diagram.

  14. Chiral and color-superconducting phase transitions with vector interaction in a simple model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitazawa, Masakiyo; Koide, Tomoi; Kunihiro, Teiji; Nemoto, Yukio

    2002-01-01

    We investigate effects of the vector interaction on chiral and color superconducting (CSC) phase transitions at finite density and temperature in a simple Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. It is shown that the repulsive density-density interaction coming from the vector term, which is present in the effective chiral models but has been omitted, enhances the competition between the chiral symmetry breaking (χSB) and CSC phase transition, and thereby makes the thermodynamic potential have a shallow minimum over a wide range of values of the correlated chiral and CSC order parameters. We find that when the vector coupling is increased, the first order transition between the χSB and CSC phases becomes weaker, and the coexisting phase in which both the chiral and color-gauge symmetry are dynamically broken comes to exist over a wider range of the density and temperature. We also show that there can exist two endpoints, which are tricritical points in the chiral limit, along the critical line of the first order transition in some range of values of the vector coupling. Although our analysis is based on a simple model, the nontrivial interplay between the χSB and CSC phases induced by the vector interaction is expected to be a universal phenomenon and might give a clue to understanding results obtained with two-color QCD on the lattice. (author)

  15. Structural transitions and hysteresis in clump- and stripe-forming systems under dynamic compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDermott, Danielle; Reichhardt, Charles

    2016-01-01

    In using numerical simulations, we study the dynamical evolution of particles interacting via competing long-range repulsion and short-range attraction in two dimensions. The particles are compressed using a time-dependent quasi-one dimensional trough potential that controls the local density, causing the system to undergo a series of structural phase transitions from a low density clump lattice to stripes, voids, and a high density uniform state. The compression proceeds via slow elastic motion that is interrupted with avalanche-like bursts of activity as the system collapses to progressively higher densities via plastic rearrangements. The plastic events vary in magnitude from small rearrangements of particles, including the formation of quadrupole-like defects, to large-scale vorticity and structural phase transitions. In the dense uniform phase, the system compresses through row reduction transitions mediated by a disorder-order process. We also characterize the rearrangement events by measuring changes in the potential energy, the fraction of sixfold coordinated particles, the local density, and the velocity distribution. At high confinements, we find power law scaling of the velocity distribution during row reduction transitions. We observe hysteresis under a reversal of the compression when relatively few plastic rearrangements occur. The decompressing system exhibits distinct phase morphologies, and the phase transitions occur at lower compression forces as the system expands compared to when it is compressed.

  16. Renormalization group approach to QCD phase transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Midorikawa, S.; Yoshimoto, S.; So, H.

    1987-01-01

    Effective scalar theories for QCD are proposed to investigate the deconfining and chiral phase transitions. The orders of the phase transitions are determined by infrared stabilities of the fixed points. It is found that the transitions in SU(3) gauge theories are of 1st order for any number of massless flavors. The cases of SU(2) and SU(4) gauge theories are also discussed. (orig.)

  17. Phase transitions in nonequilibrium traffic theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, H.M.

    2000-02-01

    This paper uses the center difference scheme of Lax-Friedrichs to numerically solve a newly developed continuum traffic flow theory and the kinematic theory of Lighthill and Whitham, and Richards, and it studies the flow-concentration phase transitions in flow containing both shock and rarefaction waves. A homogeneous road with finite length was modeled by both theories. Numerical simulations show that both theories yield nearly identical results for two representative Riemann problems--one has a shock solution and the other a rarefaction wave solution. Their phase transition curves, however, are different: those derived from the new theory have two branches--one for acceleration flow and one for deceleration flow, whereas those derived from the LWR theory comprise a single curve--the equilibrium curve. The phase transition curves in the shock case agree well with certain experimental observations but disagree with others. This disagreement may be resolved by studying transitions among nonequilibrium states, which awaits further development of a more accurate finite difference approximation of the nonequilibrium theory.

  18. Social climber attachment in forming networks produces a phase transition in a measure of connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Dane; Larremore, Daniel B.

    2012-09-01

    The formation and fragmentation of networks are typically studied using percolation theory, but most previous research has been restricted to studying a phase transition in cluster size, examining the emergence of a giant component. This approach does not study the effects of evolving network structure on dynamics that occur at the nodes, such as the synchronization of oscillators and the spread of information, epidemics, and neuronal excitations. We introduce and analyze an alternative link-formation rule, called social climber (SC) attachment, that may be combined with arbitrary percolation models to produce a phase transition using the largest eigenvalue of the network adjacency matrix as the order parameter. This eigenvalue is significant in the analyses of many network-coupled dynamical systems in which it measures the quality of global coupling and is hence a natural measure of connectivity. We highlight the important self-organized properties of SC attachment and discuss implications for controlling dynamics on networks.

  19. Kinetics of the chiral phase transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hees, Hendrik van [Johann-Wolfgang-Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Frankfurt (Germany); Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies (FIAS), Frankfurt (Germany); Wesp, Christian; Meistrenko, Alex; Greiner, Carsten [Johann-Wolfgang-Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Frankfurt (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    We simulate the kinetics of the chiral phase transition in hot and dense strongly interacting matter within a novel kinetic-theory approach. Employing an effective linear σ model for quarks, σ mesons, and pions we treat the quarks within a test-particle ansatz for solving the Boltzmann transport equation and the mesons in terms of classical fields. The decay-recombination processes like σ <-> anti q+q are treated using a kind of wave-particle dualism using the exact conservation of energy and momentum. After demonstrating the correct thermodynamic limit for particles and fields in a ''box calculation'' we apply the simulation to the dynamics of an expanding fireball similar to the medium created in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions.

  20. Demonstration of the Kibble-Zurek mechanism in a non-equilibrium phase transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Yogesh S.; Cheung, Hil F. H.; Date, Aditya G.; Vengalattore, Mukund

    2017-04-01

    We describe the experimental realization of a driven-dissipative phase transition (DPT) in a mechanical parametric amplifier and demonstrate key signatures of a critical point in the system, where the susceptibilities and relaxation time scales diverge and coincide with the spontaneous breaking of symmetry and the emergence of macroscopic order. While these observations are reminiscent of equilibrium phase transitions, it is presently an open question whether such DPTs are amenable to the conventional Landau-Ginsburg-Wilson paradigm that relies on concepts of scale invariance and universality - Indeed, recent theoretical work has predicted that DPTs can exhibit phenomenology that departs from these conventional paradigms. By quenching the system past the critical point, we measure the dynamics of the emergent ordered phase and its departure from adiabaticity, and find that our measurements are in excellent agreement with the Kibble-Zurek hypothesis. In addition to validating the KZ mechanism in a DPT for the first time, we also uniquely show that the measured critical exponents accurately reflect the interplay between the intrinsic coherent dynamics and the environmental correlations, with a clear departure from mean field exponents in the case of non-Markovian system-bath interactions. We also discuss how the techniques of reservoir engineering and the imposition of artificial environmental correlations can result in the stabilization of novel many-body quantum phases and exotic non-equilibrium states of matter.

  1. Dynamic freeze-in: impact of thermal masses and cosmological phase transitions on dark matter production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Michael J.; Breitbach, Moritz; Kopp, Joachim; Mittnacht, Lukas

    2018-03-01

    The cosmological abundance of dark matter can be significantly influenced by the temperature dependence of particle masses and vacuum expectation values. We illustrate this point in three simple freeze-in models. The first one, which we call kinematically induced freeze-in, is based on the observation that the effective mass of a scalar temporarily becomes very small as the scalar potential undergoes a second order phase transition. This opens dark matter production channels that are otherwise forbidden. The second model we consider, dubbed vev-induced freeze-in, is a fermionic Higgs portal scenario. Its scalar sector is augmented compared to the Standard Model by an additional scalar singlet, S, which couples to dark matter and temporarily acquires a vacuum expectation value (a two-step phase transition or "vev flip-flop"). While ≠ 0, the modified coupling structure in the scalar sector implies that dark matter production is significantly enhanced compared to the = 0 phases realised at very early times and again today. The third model, which we call mixing-induced freeze-in, is similar in spirit, but here it is the mixing of dark sector fermions, induced by non-zero , that temporarily boosts the dark matter production rate. For all three scenarios, we carefully dissect the evolution of the dark sector in the early Universe. We compute the DM relic abundance as a function of the model parameters, emphasising the importance of thermal corrections and the proper treatment of phase transitions in the calculation.

  2. Critical Line of the Deconfinement Phase Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorenstein, Mark I.

    Phase diagram of strongly interacting matter is discussed within the exactly solvable statistical model of the quark-gluon bags. The model predicts two phases of matter: the hadron gas at a low temperature T and baryonic chemical potential μ B , and the quark-gluon gas at a high T and/or μ B . The nature of the phase transition depends on a form of the bag massvolume spectrum (its pre-exponential factor), which is expected to change with the μ B /T ratio. It is therefore likely that the line of the 1 st order transition at a high μ B/T ratio is followed by the line of the 2 nd order phase transition at an intermediate μ B/T, and then by the lines of "higher order transitions" at a low μ B /T. This talk is based on a recent paper (Gorenstein, Gaździcki, and Greiner, 2005).

  3. The MSSM Electroweak Phase Transition on the Lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Laine, Mikko

    1998-01-01

    We study the MSSM finite temperature electroweak phase transition with lattice Monte Carlo simulations, for a large Higgs mass (m_H ~ 95 GeV) and light stop masses (m_tR ~ 150...160 GeV). We employ a 3d effective field theory approach, where the degrees of freedom appearing in the action are the SU(2) and SU(3) gauge fields, the weakly interacting Higgs doublet, and the strongly interacting stop triplet. We determine the phase diagram, the critical temperatures, the scalar field expectation values, the latent heat, the interface tension and the correlation lengths at the phase transition points. Extrapolating the results to the infinite volume and continuum limits, we find that the transition is stronger than indicated by 2-loop perturbation theory, guaranteeing that the MSSM phase transition is strong enough for baryogenesis in this regime. We also study the possibility of a two-stage phase transition, in which the stop field gets an expectation value in an intermediate phase. We find that a two-stage transi...

  4. The effect of point defects on ferroelastic phase transition of lanthanum-doped calcium titanate ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni, Yan; Zhang, Zhen; Wang, Dong; Wang, Yu; Ren, Xiaobing

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The effect of point defects on phase transitions in Ca (1−x) La 2x/3 TiO 3 was studied. ► When x = 0.45, normal ferroelastic phase transition happens. ► When x = 0.7, a “glassy-like” frozen process appears. ► Point defects weaken the thermodynamic stability of ferroelastic phase. ► Point defects induce a “glassy-like” frozen process. -- Abstract: In the present paper, La-doped CaTiO 3 is studied to investigate the effect of point defects on ferroelastic phase transition of the ceramics. The dynamic mechanical measurements show that the transition temperature of the orthorhombic to tetragonal phase transition of Ca (1−x) La 2x/3 TiO 3 decreases with increasing dopant (La) concentration x. The samples with the dopant content of x = 0.45 and 0.7 exhibit different structure evolution features during their transition processes as revealed by in situ powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurement. Moreover, when x = 0.7, the storage modulus shows a frequency-dependent minimum at T g , which can be well fitted with the Vogel–Fulcher relation, and the corresponding internal friction also exhibits a frequency-dependent peak within the same temperature regime. These results thus indicate that doping La suppresses ferroelastic phase transition in CaTiO 3 and induces a “glassy-like” behavior in Ca (1−x) La 2x/3 TiO 3 , which is similar to “strain glass” in Ni-doped Ti 50−x Ni 50+x

  5. Dynamic Phases in Driven Vortex Lattices in Superconductors with Periodic Pinning Arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichhardt, C.; Olson, C. J.; Nori, F.

    1997-03-01

    In an extensive series of simulations of driven vortices interacting with periodic pinning arrays, an extremely rich variety of novel plastic flow phases, very distinct from those observed in random arrays, are found as a function of applied driving force. We show that signatures of the transitions between these different dynamical phases appear as pronounced jumps and dips in the I-V curves, coinciding with marked changes in the microscopic structure and flow behavior of the vortex lattice. When the number of vortices is greater than the number of pinning sites, we observe up to six distinct dynamical phases, including a pinned phase, a flow of interstitial vortices between pinned vortices, a disordered flow, a 1D flow along the pinning rows, and a homogeneous flow. By varying a wide range of microscopic pinning parameters, including pinning strength, size, density, and degree of ordering, as well as varying temperature and commensurability, we obtain a series of dynamic phase diagrams. nori>A short video will also be presented to highlight these different dynamic phases.

  6. Entropy, free energy and phase transitions in the lattice Lotka-Volterra model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chichigina, O. A.; Tsekouras, G. A.; Provata, A.

    2006-01-01

    A thermodynamic approach is developed for reactive dynamic models restricted to substrates of arbitrary dimensions, including fractal substrates. The thermodynamic formalism is successfully applied to the lattice Lotka-Volterra (LLV) model of autocatalytic reactions on various lattice substrates. Different regimes of reactions described as phases, and phase transitions, are obtained using this approach. The predictions of thermodynamic theory confirm extensive numerical kinetic Monte Carlo simulations on square and fractal lattices. Extensions of the formalism to multispecies LLV models are also presented

  7. Phase transitions of sodium niobate powder and ceramics, prepared by solid state synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koruza, J.; Tellier, J.; Malič, B.; Bobnar, V.; Kosec, M.

    2010-12-01

    Phase transitions of sodium niobate, prepared by the solid state synthesis method, were examined using dielectric measurements, differential scanning calorimetry, and high temperature x-ray diffraction, in order to contribute to the clarification of its structural behavior below 400 °C. Four phase transitions were detected in the ceramic sample using dielectric measurements and differential scanning calorimetry and the obtained temperatures were in a good agreement with previous reports for the transitions of the P polymorph. The anomaly observed by dielectric measurements in the vicinity of 150 °C was frequency dependent and could be related to the dynamics of the ferroelectric nanoregions. The phase transitions of the as-synthesized NaNbO3 powder were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry and high temperature x-ray diffraction. The results show the existence of the Q polymorph at room temperature, not previously reported for the powder, which undergoes a transition to the R polymorph upon heating through a temperature region between 265 and 326.5 °C. This transition is mainly related to the displacement of Na into a more symmetric position and a minor change in the tilting system. The structures at room temperature, 250, 300, and 420 °C were refined by the Rietveld method and the evolution of the tilting system of the octahedral network and cationic displacement are reported.

  8. Phase transitions of sodium niobate powder and ceramics, prepared by solid state synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koruza, J.; Tellier, J.; Malic, B.; Bobnar, V.; Kosec, M.

    2010-01-01

    Phase transitions of sodium niobate, prepared by the solid state synthesis method, were examined using dielectric measurements, differential scanning calorimetry, and high temperature x-ray diffraction, in order to contribute to the clarification of its structural behavior below 400 deg. C. Four phase transitions were detected in the ceramic sample using dielectric measurements and differential scanning calorimetry and the obtained temperatures were in a good agreement with previous reports for the transitions of the P polymorph. The anomaly observed by dielectric measurements in the vicinity of 150 deg. C was frequency dependent and could be related to the dynamics of the ferroelectric nanoregions. The phase transitions of the as-synthesized NaNbO 3 powder were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry and high temperature x-ray diffraction. The results show the existence of the Q polymorph at room temperature, not previously reported for the powder, which undergoes a transition to the R polymorph upon heating through a temperature region between 265 and 326.5 deg. C. This transition is mainly related to the displacement of Na into a more symmetric position and a minor change in the tilting system. The structures at room temperature, 250, 300, and 420 deg. C were refined by the Rietveld method and the evolution of the tilting system of the octahedral network and cationic displacement are reported.

  9. Two kinds of phase transitions in a voting model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisakado, M.; Mori, S.

    2012-08-01

    In this paper, we discuss a voting model with two candidates, C0 and C1. We consider two types of voters—herders and independents. The voting of independents is based on their fundamental values, while the voting of herders is based on the number of previous votes. We can identify two kinds of phase transitions. One is an information cascade transition similar to a phase transition seen in the Ising model. The other is a transition of super and normal diffusions. These phase transitions coexist. We compared our results to the conclusions of experiments and identified the phase transitions in the upper limit of the time t by using the analysis of human behavior obtained from experiments.

  10. Quarks-bags phase transition in quantum chromodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorenshtejn, M.I.

    1981-01-01

    Phase transitions in the quark-gluon plasma are considered at finite temperatures and chemical potentials. A phenomenological account for a complicated structure of the QCD vacuum results in the necessity to use the formalism of isobaric ensembles to describe the system. The phase transition curve separating the regions of the quark-gluon plasma and the hadronic bag phase in the μT plane is calculated [ru

  11. Unconventional transformation of spin Dirac phase across a topological quantum phase transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Su-Yang; Neupane, Madhab; Belopolski, Ilya; Liu, Chang; Alidoust, Nasser; Bian, Guang; Jia, Shuang; Landolt, Gabriel; Slomski, Batosz; Dil, J. Hugo; Shibayev, Pavel P.; Basak, Susmita; Chang, Tay-Rong; Jeng, Horng-Tay; Cava, Robert J.; Lin, Hsin; Bansil, Arun; Hasan, M. Zahid

    2015-01-01

    The topology of a topological material can be encoded in its surface states. These surface states can only be removed by a bulk topological quantum phase transition into a trivial phase. Here we use photoemission spectroscopy to image the formation of protected surface states in a topological insulator as we chemically tune the system through a topological transition. Surprisingly, we discover an exotic spin-momentum locked, gapped surface state in the trivial phase that shares many important properties with the actual topological surface state in anticipation of the change of topology. Using a spin-resolved measurement, we show that apart from a surface bandgap these states develop spin textures similar to the topological surface states well before the transition. Our results offer a general paradigm for understanding how surface states in topological phases arise from a quantum phase transition and are suggestive for the future realization of Weyl arcs, condensed matter supersymmetry and other fascinating phenomena in the vicinity of a quantum criticality. PMID:25882717

  12. Phase transition in a spatial Lotka-Volterra model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabo, Gyorgy; Czaran, Tamas

    2001-01-01

    Spatial evolution is investigated in a simulated system of nine competing and mutating bacterium strains, which mimics the biochemical war among bacteria capable of producing two different bacteriocins (toxins) at most. Random sequential dynamics on a square lattice is governed by very symmetrical transition rules for neighborhood invasions of sensitive strains by killers, killers by resistants, and resistants by sensitives. The community of the nine possible toxicity/resistance types undergoes a critical phase transition as the uniform transmutation rates between the types decreases below a critical value P c above that all the nine types of strains coexist with equal frequencies. Passing the critical mutation rate from above, the system collapses into one of three topologically identical (degenerated) states, each consisting of three strain types. Of the three possible final states each accrues with equal probability and all three maintain themselves in a self-organizing polydomain structure via cyclic invasions. Our Monte Carlo simulations support that this symmetry-breaking transition belongs to the universality class of the three-state Potts model

  13. Echoes of inflationary first-order phase transitions in the CMB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Hongliang, E-mail: hjiangag@connect.ust.hk [Department of Physics, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (Hong Kong); Liu, Tao, E-mail: taoliu@ust.hk [Department of Physics, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (Hong Kong); Sun, Sichun, E-mail: sichun@uw.edu [Jockey Club Institute for Advanced Study, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (Hong Kong); Wang, Yi, E-mail: phyw@ust.hk [Department of Physics, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (Hong Kong)

    2017-02-10

    Cosmological phase transitions (CPTs), such as the Grand Unified Theory (GUT) and the electroweak (EW) ones, play a significant role in both particle physics and cosmology. In this letter, we propose to probe the first-order CPTs, by detecting gravitational waves (GWs) which are generated during the phase transitions through the cosmic microwave background (CMB). If happened around the inflation era, the first-order CPTs may yield low-frequency GWs due to bubble dynamics, leaving imprints on the CMB. In contrast to the nearly scale-invariant primordial GWs caused by vacuum fluctuation, these bubble-generated GWs are scale dependent and have non-trivial B-mode spectra. If decoupled from inflaton, the EWPT during inflation may serve as a probe for the one after reheating where the baryon asymmetry could be generated via EW baryogenesis (EWBG). The CMB thus provides a potential way to test the feasibility of the EWBG, complementary to the collider measurements of Higgs potential and the direct detection of GWs generated during EWPT.

  14. Probing emergent geometry through phase transitions in free vector and matrix models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amado, Irene; Sundborg, Bo [The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmoparticle Physics, Department of Physics, Stockholm University,AlbaNova, 106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Thorlacius, Larus [The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmoparticle Physics, Department of Physics, Stockholm University,AlbaNova, 106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Science Institute, University of Iceland, Dunhaga 3, 107 Reykjavik (Iceland); Wintergerst, Nico [The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmoparticle Physics, Department of Physics, Stockholm University,AlbaNova, 106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2017-02-01

    Boundary correlation functions provide insight into the emergence of an effective geometry in higher spin gravity duals of O(N) or U(N) symmetric field theories. On a compact manifold, the singlet constraint leads to nontrivial dynamics at finite temperature and large N phase transitions even at vanishing ’t Hooft coupling. At low temperature, the leading behavior of boundary two-point functions is consistent with propagation through a bulk thermal anti de Sitter space. Above the phase transition, the two-point function shows significant departure from thermal AdS space and the emergence of localized black hole like objects in the bulk. In adjoint models, these objects appear at length scales of order of the AdS radius, consistent with a Hawking-Page transition, but in vector models they are parametrically larger than the AdS scale. In low dimensions, we find another crossover at large distances beyond which the correlation function again takes a thermal AdS form, albeit with a temperature dependent normalization factor.

  15. Phase transitions in single macromolecules: Loop-stretch transition versus loop adsorption transition in end-grafted polymer chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuangshuang; Qi, Shuanhu; Klushin, Leonid I.; Skvortsov, Alexander M.; Yan, Dadong; Schmid, Friederike

    2018-01-01

    We use Brownian dynamics simulations and analytical theory to compare two prominent types of single molecule transitions. One is the adsorption transition of a loop (a chain with two ends bound to an attractive substrate) driven by an attraction parameter ɛ and the other is the loop-stretch transition in a chain with one end attached to a repulsive substrate, driven by an external end-force F applied to the free end. Specifically, we compare the behavior of the respective order parameters of the transitions, i.e., the mean number of surface contacts in the case of the adsorption transition and the mean position of the chain end in the case of the loop-stretch transition. Close to the transition points, both the static behavior and the dynamic behavior of chains with different length N are very well described by a scaling ansatz with the scaling parameters (ɛ - ɛ*)Nϕ (adsorption transition) and (F - F*)Nν (loop-stretch transition), respectively, where ϕ is the crossover exponent of the adsorption transition and ν is the Flory exponent. We show that both the loop-stretch and the loop adsorption transitions provide an exceptional opportunity to construct explicit analytical expressions for the crossover functions which perfectly describe all simulation results on static properties in the finite-size scaling regime. Explicit crossover functions are based on the ansatz for the analytical form of the order parameter distributions at the respective transition points. In contrast to the close similarity in equilibrium static behavior, the dynamic relaxation at the two transitions shows qualitative differences, especially in the strongly ordered regimes. This is attributed to the fact that the surface contact dynamics in a strongly adsorbed chain is governed by local processes, whereas the end height relaxation of a strongly stretched chain involves the full spectrum of Rouse modes.

  16. Diffusive dynamics during the high-to-low density transition in amorphous ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perakis, Fivos; Amann-Winkel, Katrin; Lehmkühler, Felix; Sprung, Michael; Mariedahl, Daniel; Sellberg, Jonas A.; Pathak, Harshad; Späh, Alexander; Cavalca, Filippo; Schlesinger, Daniel; Ricci, Alessandro; Jain, Avni; Massani, Bernhard; Aubree, Flora; Benmore, Chris J.; Loerting, Thomas; Grübel, Gerhard; Pettersson, Lars G. M.; Nilsson, Anders

    2017-08-01

    Water exists in high- and low-density amorphous ice forms (HDA and LDA), which could correspond to the glassy states of high- (HDL) and low-density liquid (LDL) in the metastable part of the phase diagram. However, the nature of both the glass transition and the high-to-low-density transition are debated and new experimental evidence is needed. Here we combine wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) with X-ray photon-correlation spectroscopy (XPCS) in the small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) geometry to probe both the structural and dynamical properties during the high-to-low-density transition in amorphous ice at 1 bar. By analyzing the structure factor and the radial distribution function, the coexistence of two structurally distinct domains is observed at T = 125 K. XPCS probes the dynamics in momentum space, which in the SAXS geometry reflects structural relaxation on the nanometer length scale. The dynamics of HDA are characterized by a slow component with a large time constant, arising from viscoelastic relaxation and stress release from nanometer-sized heterogeneities. Above 110 K a faster, strongly temperature-dependent component appears, with momentum transfer dependence pointing toward nanoscale diffusion. This dynamical component slows down after transition into the low-density form at 130 K, but remains diffusive. The diffusive character of both the high- and low-density forms is discussed among different interpretations and the results are most consistent with the hypothesis of a liquid-liquid transition in the ultraviscous regime.

  17. An absorbing phase transition from a structured active particle phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, Cristobal [Instituto Mediterraneo de Estudios Avanzados IMEDEA (CSIC-UIB), Campus de la Universidad de las Islas Baleares, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Ramos, Francisco [Departamento de Electromagnetismo y Fisica de la Materia and Instituto de Fisica Teorica y Computacional Carlos I, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Granada, 18071 Granada (Spain); Hernandez-GarcIa, Emilio [Instituto Mediterraneo de Estudios Avanzados IMEDEA (CSIC-UIB), Campus de la Universidad de las Islas Baleares, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain)

    2007-02-14

    In this work we study the absorbing state phase transition of a recently introduced model for interacting particles with neighbourhood-dependent reproduction rates. The novelty of the transition is that as soon as the active phase is reached by increasing a control parameter a periodically arranged structure of particle clusters appears. A numerical study in one and two dimensions shows that the system falls into the directed percolation universality class.

  18. Cubic-to-Tetragonal Phase Transitions in Ag-Cu Nano rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delogu, F.; Mascia, M.

    2012-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations have been used to investigate the structural behavior of nano rods with square cross section. The nano rods consist of pure Ag and Cu phases or of three Ag and Cu domains in the sequence Ag-Cu-Ag or Cu-Ag-Cu. Ag and Cu domains are separated by coherent interfaces. Depending on the side length and the size of individual domains, Ag and Cu can undergo a transition from the usual face-centered cubic structure to a body-centered tetragonal one. Such transition can involve the whole nano rod, or only the Ag domains. In the latter case, the transition is accompanied by a loss of coherency at the Ag-Cu interfaces, with a consequent release of elastic energy. The observed behaviors are connected with the stresses developed at the nano rod surfaces.

  19. Modeling mechanical properties of a shear thickening fluid damper based on phase transition theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Minghai; Lin, Kun; Guo, Qian

    2018-03-01

    Shear thickening fluids (STFs) are highly concentrated colloidal suspensions consisting of monodisperse nano-particles suspended in a carrying fluid, and have the capacity to display both flowable and rigid behaviors, when subjected to sudden stimuli. In that process, the external energy that acts on an STF can be dissipated quickly. The aim of this study is to present a dynamic model of a damper filled with STF that can be directly used in control engineering fields. To this end, shear stress during phase transition of the STF material is chosen as an internal variable. A non-convex function with bifurcation behavior is used to describe the phase transitioning of STF by determining the relationship between the behavioral characteristics of the microscopic phase and macroscopic damping force. This model is able to predict force-velocity and force-displacement relationships as functions of the loading frequency. Efficacy of the model is demonstrated via comparison with experimental results from previous studies. In addition, the results confirm the hypothesis regarding the occurrence of STF phase transitioning when subject to shear stress.

  20. Systems Biology Approach and Mathematical Modeling for Analyzing Phase-Space Switch During Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeoni, Chiara; Dinicola, Simona; Cucina, Alessandra; Mascia, Corrado; Bizzarri, Mariano

    2018-01-01

    In this report, we aim at presenting a viable strategy for the study of Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) and its opposite Mesenchymal-Epithelial Transition (MET) by means of a Systems Biology approach combined with a suitable Mathematical Modeling analysis. Precisely, it is shown how the presence of a metastable state, that is identified at a mesoscopic level of description, is crucial for making possible the appearance of a phase transition mechanism in the framework of fast-slow dynamics for Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs).

  1. Liquid-liquid phase transition in Stillinger-Weber silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaucage, Philippe; Mousseau, Normand

    2005-01-01

    It was recently demonstrated that Stillinger-Weber silicon undergoes a liquid-liquid first-order phase transition deep into the supercooled region (Sastry and Angell 2003 Nat. Mater. 2 739). Here we study the effects of perturbations on this phase transition. We show that the order of the liquid-liquid transition changes with negative pressure. We also find that the liquid-liquid transition disappears when the three-body term of the potential is strengthened by as little as 5%. This implies that the details of the potential could affect strongly the nature and even the existence of the liquid-liquid phase

  2. paraelectric phase transition

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The ferroelectric phase transition is diffuse in nature and broadening of the peak increases with La content. Keywords. PLZT ... Marssi et al (1998) concluded the PLZTs x/65/35 as a model. ∗ ... by analysing field cooled (FC) and zero field cooled (ZFC) dielectric ... material are fitted with universal dielectric behaviour within.

  3. Dynamic critical behaviour and scaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oezoguz, B.E.

    2001-01-01

    Traditionally the scaling is the property of dynamical systems at thermal equilibrium. In second order phase transitions scaling behaviour is due to the infinite correlation length around the critical point. In first order phase transitions however, the correlation length remains finite and a different type of scaling can be observed. For first order phase transitions all singularities are governed by the volume of the system. Recently, a different type of scaling, namely dynamic scaling has attracted attention in second order phase transitions. In dynamic scaling, when a system prepared at high temperature is quenched to the critical temperature, it exhibits scaling behaviour. Dynamic scaling has been applied to various spin systems and the validity of the arguments are shown. Firstly, in this thesis project the dynamic scaling is applied to 4-dimensional using spin system which exhibits second order phase transition with mean-field critical indices. Secondly, it is shown that although the dynamic is quite different, first order phase transitions also has a different type of dynamic scaling

  4. Quantum Mechanics in the Gaussian wave-packet phase space representation: Dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizrahi, S.S.

    1985-01-01

    The Heisenberg and Liouville dynamical equations are mapped using the Wave-Packet Phase Space Representation. A semiclassical perturbative expansion is introduced - the Quasi-Causal Approximation - for the Green function and an expression for transition probabilities is derived up to the first order. (Author) [pt

  5. Phase-transition-like behaviour of quantum games

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Jiangfeng; Li Hui; Xu Xiaodong; Zhou Xianyi; Han Rongdian

    2003-01-01

    The discontinuous dependence of the properties of a quantum game on its entanglement has been shown to be very much like phase transitions viewed in the entanglement-payoff diagram (J Du et al 2002 Phys. Rev. Lett. 88 137902). In this paper we investigate such phase-transition-like behaviour of quantum games, by suggesting a method which would help to illuminate the origin of such a kind of behaviour. For the particular case of the generalized Prisoners' Dilemma, we find that, for different settings of the numerical values in the payoff table, even though the classical game behaves the same, the quantum game exhibits different and interesting phase-transition-like behaviour

  6. Phase-transition-like behaviour of quantum games

    CERN Document Server

    Du Jiang Feng; Xu Xiao Dong; Zhou Xian Yi; Han Rong Dian

    2003-01-01

    The discontinuous dependence of the properties of a quantum game on its entanglement has been shown to be very much like phase transitions viewed in the entanglement-payoff diagram (J Du et al 2002 Phys. Rev. Lett. 88 137902). In this paper we investigate such phase-transition-like behaviour of quantum games, by suggesting a method which would help to illuminate the origin of such a kind of behaviour. For the particular case of the generalized Prisoners' Dilemma, we find that, for different settings of the numerical values in the payoff table, even though the classical game behaves the same, the quantum game exhibits different and interesting phase-transition-like behaviour.

  7. Characterisation of phase transition in adsorbed monolayers at the air/water interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollhardt, D; Fainerman, V B

    2010-02-26

    Recent work has provided experimental and theoretical evidence that a first order fluid/condensed (LE/LC) phase transition can occur in adsorbed monolayers of amphiphiles and surfactants which are dissolved in aqueous solution. Similar to Langmuir monolayers, also in the case of adsorbed monolayers, the existence of a G/LE phase transition, as assumed by several authors, is a matter of question. Representative studies, at first performed with a tailored amphiphile and later with numerous other amphiphiles, also with n-dodecanol, provide insight into the main characteristics of the adsorbed monolayer during the adsorption kinetics. The general conditions necessary for the formation of a two-phase coexistence in adsorbed monolayers can be optimally studied using dynamic surface pressure measurements, Brewster angle microscopy (BAM) and synchrotron X-ray diffraction at grazing incidence (GIXD). A characteristic break point in the time dependence of the adsorption kinetics curves indicates the phase transition which is largely affected by the concentration of the amphiphile in the aqueous solution and on the temperature. Formation and growth of condensed phase domains after the phase transition point are visualised by BAM. As demonstrated by a tailored amphiphile, various types of morphological textures of the condensed phase can occur in different temperature regions. Lattice structure and tilt angle of the alkyl chains in the condensed phase of the adsorbed monolayer are determined using GIXD. The main growth directions of the condensed phase textures are correlated with the two-dimensional lattice structure. The results, obtained for the characteristics of the condensed phase after a first order main transition, are supported by experimental bridging to the Langmuir monolayers. Phase transition of adsorbing trace impurities in model surfactants can strongly affect the characteristics of the main component. Dodecanol present as minor component in aqueous sodium

  8. Observation of the Photon-Blockade Breakdown Phase Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Fink

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonequilibrium phase transitions exist in damped-driven open quantum systems when the continuous tuning of an external parameter leads to a transition between two robust steady states. In second-order transitions this change is abrupt at a critical point, whereas in first-order transitions the two phases can coexist in a critical hysteresis domain. Here, we report the observation of a first-order dissipative quantum phase transition in a driven circuit quantum electrodynamics system. It takes place when the photon blockade of the driven cavity-atom system is broken by increasing the drive power. The observed experimental signature is a bimodal phase space distribution with varying weights controlled by the drive strength. Our measurements show an improved stabilization of the classical attractors up to the millisecond range when the size of the quantum system is increased from one to three artificial atoms. The formation of such robust pointer states could be used for new quantum measurement schemes or to investigate multiphoton phases of finite-size, nonlinear, open quantum systems.

  9. Multicritical dynamical phase diagrams of the kinetic Blume-Emery-Griffiths model with repulsive biquadratic coupling in an oscillating field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Temizer, Umuet [Department of Physics, Bozok University, 66100 Yozgat (Turkey); Kantar, Ersin [Institute of Science, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey); Keskin, Mustafa [Department of Physics, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)], E-mail: keskin@erciyes.edu.tr; Canko, Osman [Department of Physics, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)

    2008-06-15

    We study, within a mean-field approach, the stationary states of the kinetic Blume-Emery-Griffiths model with repulsive biquadratic coupling under the presence of a time-varying (sinusoidal) magnetic field. We employ the Glauber-type stochastic dynamics to construct set of dynamic equations of motion. The behavior of the time dependence of the order parameters and the behavior of the average order parameters in a period, which is also called the dynamic order parameters, as functions of the reduced temperature are investigated. The dynamic phase transition points are calculated and phase diagrams are presented in the reduced magnetic field amplitude and reduced temperature plane. The dynamical transition from one regime to the other can be of first- or second order depending on the region in the phase diagram. According to the values of the crystal field interaction or single-ion anisotropy constant and biquadratic exchange constant, we find 20 fundamental types of phase diagrams which exhibit many dynamic critical points, such as tricritical points, zero-temperature critical points, double critical end points, critical end point, triple point and multicritical point. Moreover, besides a disordered and ordered phases, seven coexistence phase regions exist in the system.

  10. Nonequilibrium thermodynamic fluctuations and phase transition in black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, R.; Cai, R.; Yu, P.K.N.

    1994-01-01

    Landau nonequilibrium fluctuation and phase transition theory is applied to the discussion of the phase transition of black holes. Some second moments of relevant thermodynamical quantities for Kerr-Newman black holes are estimated. A theorem governing the divergence of some second moments and the occurrence of the phase transition in black holes is given

  11. Phase transitions and critical behaviour for charged black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlip, S; Vaidya, S

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the thermodynamics of a four-dimensional charged black hole in a finite cavity in asymptotically flat and asymptotically de Sitter spaces. In each case, we find a Hawking-Page-like phase transition between a black hole and a thermal gas very much like the known transition in asymptotically anti-de Sitter space. For a 'supercooled' black hole - a thermodynamically unstable black hole below the critical temperature for the Hawking-Page phase transition - the phase diagram has a line of first-order phase transitions that terminates in a second-order point. For the asymptotically flat case, we calculate the critical exponents at the second-order phase transition and find that they exactly match the known results for a charged black hole in anti-de Sitter space. We find strong evidence for similar phase transitions for the de Sitter black hole as well. Thus many of the thermodynamic features of charged anti-de Sitter black holes do not really depend on asymptotically anti-de Sitter boundary conditions; the thermodynamics of charged black holes is surprisingly universal

  12. Dynamic shape transitions in the sdg boson model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuyucak, S.

    The dynamic evolution of shapes in the sdg interacting boson model is investigated using the angular momentum projected mean field theory. Deformed nuclei are found to be quite stable against shape changes but transitional nuclei could exhibit dynamic shape transitions in the region L = 10-20. Conditions of existence and experimental signatures for dynamic shape transitions are discussed together with a likely candidate, 192Os.

  13. Dynamic shape transitions in the sdg boson model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuyucak, S. (Melbourne Univ., Parkville (Australia). School of Physics)

    1992-01-01

    The dynamic evolution of shapes in the sdg interacting bosun model is investigated using the angular momentum projected mean field theory. Deformed nuclei are found to be quite stable against shape changes but transitional nuclei could exhibit dynamic shape transitions in the region L = 10-20. Conditions of existence and experimental signatures for dynamic shape transitions are discussed together with a likely candidate, {sup 192}Os. (author).

  14. A grain boundary phase transition in Si–Au

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Shuailei; Meshinchi Asl, Kaveh; Tansarawiput, Chookiat; Cantwell, Patrick R.; Qi, Minghao; Harmer, Martin P.; Luo, Jian

    2012-01-01

    A grain boundary transition from a bilayer to an intrinsic (nominally clean) boundary is observed in Si–Au. An atomically abrupt transition between the two complexions (grain boundary stabilized phases) implies the occurrence of a first-order interfacial phase transition associated with a discontinuity in the interfacial excess. This observation supports a grain-boundary complexion theory with broad applications. This transition is atypical in that the monolayer complexion is absent. A model is proposed to explain the bilayer stabilization and the origin of this complexion transition.

  15. Thermal study of monovalent-divalent phase transition in npBifc-F1TCNQ System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Michiko; Nishio, Yutaka; Kajita, Koji; Mochida, Tomoyuki

    2009-01-01

    In a new molecular solid composed of di-neopentyl-biferrocene (npBifc) and fluorotetracyanoquinodimethane (F 1 TCNQ) 3 , Mochida reported the discovery of a reversible valence transfer that can be regarded as an 'ionic(I)-ionic(II)' phase transfer between the monovalent state (D + A - ) and the divalent state (D 2+ A 2- ). We have studied thermo-dynamical properties of this transformation for this complex using the differential thermal analyses (DTA). We observed a broad excess specific heat with multi-peaks attributed to micro-domain structure over the corresponding temperature range (100-150K) accompanied by temperature hysteresis of 7K. The transition entropy (ΔS) was determined to be 22 ± 2 J/mol-K and almost satisfied a Clausius-Clapeyron relation. These experimental results provide an experimental confirmation of the first order phase transition for the monovalent-divalent transfer. At the transition, we observe that the electronic degrees of freedom remained constant values, while large entropy absorbed crossing from low temperature phase to high temperature one is contributed by the lattice one. We finally estimated the internal energy and concluded that delicate energy valance between Madelung, ionization and affinity energies enable this system to exhibit a temperature induce monovalent-divalent phase transition.

  16. Three-dimensional nanomechanical mapping of amorphous and crystalline phase transitions in phase-change materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grishin, Ilja; Huey, Bryan D; Kolosov, Oleg V

    2013-11-13

    The nanostructure of micrometer-sized domains (bits) in phase-change materials (PCM) that undergo switching between amorphous and crystalline phases plays a key role in the performance of optical PCM-based memories. Here, we explore the dynamics of such phase transitions by mapping PCM nanostructures in three dimensions with nanoscale resolution by combining precision Ar ion beam cross-sectional polishing and nanomechanical ultrasonic force microscopy (UFM) mapping. Surface and bulk phase changes of laser written submicrometer to micrometer sized amorphous-to-crystalline (SET) and crystalline-to-amorphous (RESET) bits in chalcogenide Ge2Sb2Te5 PCM are observed with 10-20 nm lateral and 4 nm depth resolution. UFM mapping shows that the Young's moduli of crystalline SET bits exceed the moduli of amorphous areas by 11 ± 2%, with crystalline content extending from a few nanometers to 50 nm in depth depending on the energy of the switching pulses. The RESET bits written with 50 ps pulses reveal shallower depth penetration and show 30-50 nm lateral and few nanometer vertical wavelike topography that is anticorrelated with the elastic modulus distribution. Reverse switching of amorphous RESET bits results in the full recovery of subsurface nanomechanical properties accompanied with only partial topography recovery, resulting in surface corrugations attributed to quenching. This precision sectioning and nanomechanical mapping approach could be applicable to a wide range of amorphous, nanocrystalline, and glass-forming materials for 3D nanomechanical mapping of amorphous-crystalline transitions.

  17. Phase transitions in solids under high pressure

    CERN Document Server

    Blank, Vladimir Davydovich

    2013-01-01

    Phase equilibria and kinetics of phase transformations under high pressureEquipment and methods for the study of phase transformations in solids at high pressuresPhase transformations of carbon and boron nitride at high pressure and deformation under pressurePhase transitions in Si and Ge at high pressure and deformation under pressurePolymorphic α-ω transformation in titanium, zirconium and zirconium-titanium alloys Phase transformations in iron and its alloys at high pressure Phase transformations in gallium and ceriumOn the possible polymorphic transformations in transition metals under pressurePressure-induced polymorphic transformations in АIBVII compoundsPhase transformations in AIIBVI and AIIIBV semiconductor compoundsEffect of pressure on the kinetics of phase transformations in iron alloysTransformations during deformation at high pressure Effects due to phase transformations at high pressureKinetics and hysteresis in high-temperature polymorphic transformations under pressureHysteresis and kineti...

  18. Late time phase transition as dark energy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We show that the dark energy field can naturally be described by the scalar condensates of a non-abelian gauge group. This gauge group is unified with the standard model gauge groups and it has a late time phase transition. The small phase transition explains why the positive acceleration of the universe is ...

  19. Dynamic Transition and Pattern Formation in Taylor Problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian MA; Shouhong WANG

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of this article is to study both dynamic and structural transitions of the Taylor-Couette flow,by using the dynamic transition theory and geometric theory of incompressible flows developed recently by the authors.In particular,it is shown that as the Taylor number crosses the critical number,the system undergoes either a continuous or a jump dynamic transition,dictated by the sign of a computable,nondimensional parameter R.In addition,it is also shown that the new transition states have the Taylor vortex type of flow structure,which is structurally stable.

  20. Exploration of Doubly Thermal Phase Transition Process of PDEGA-b-PDMA-b-PVCL in Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zhangxin; Li, Youcheng; An, Zesheng; Wu, Peiyi

    2016-07-05

    Understanding of phase transition mechanism of thermoresponsive polymers is the basis for the rational design of smart materials with predictable properties. Linear ABC triblock terpolymer poly(di(ethylene glycol)ethyl ether acrylate)-b-poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide)-b-poly(N-vinylcaprolactam) (PDEGA-b-PDMA-b-PVCL) was synthesized by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization. The doubly thermal phase transition of PDEGA-b-PDMA-b-PVCL in aqueous solution was investigated by a combination of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), turbidimetry, and dynamic light scattering (DLS). The terpolymer self-assembles into micelles with PDEGA being the core-forming block during the first lower critical solution temperature (LCST) transition corresponding to PDEGA, which is followed by a second LCST transition corresponding to PVCL, resulting in the formation of micellar aggregates. The PDMA middle segment plays an important role as an isolation zone to prevent cooperative dehydration of the PDEGA and PVCL segments, and therefore, two independent LCST transitions corresponding to PDEGA and PVCL were observed. Furthermore, FT-IR with perturbation correlation moving window (PCMW) and two-dimensional spectroscopy (2DCOS) was applied to elucidate the two-step phase transition mechanism of this terpolymer. It was observed that the CH, ester carbonyl, and ether groups of PDEGA change prior to the CH and amide carbonyl groups of PVCL, further supporting that the two phase transitions corresponding to PDEGA and PVCL indeed occur without mutual interferences.

  1. Dynamic shape transitions in the sdg boson model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuyucak, S.

    1992-01-01

    The dynamic evolution of shapes in the sdg interacting boson model is investigated using the angular momentum projected mean field theory. Deformed nuclei are found to be quite stable against shape changes but transitional nuclei could exhibit dynamic shape transitions in the region L = 10-20. Conditions of existence and experimental signatures for dynamic shape transitions are discussed together with a likely candidate, 192 Os. 13 refs., 3 figs

  2. Propagation dynamics and X-pulse formation in phase-mismatched second-harmonic generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valiulis, G.; Jukna, V.; Jedrkiewicz, O.; Clerici, M.; Rubino, E.; DiTrapani, P.

    2011-01-01

    This paper concerns the theoretical, numerical, and experimental study of the second-harmonic-generation (SHG) process under conditions of phase and group-velocity mismatch and aims to demonstrate the dimensionality transition of the SHG process caused by the change of the fundamental wave diameter. We show that SHG from a narrow fundamental beam leads to the spontaneous self-phase-matching process with, in addition, the appearance of angular dispersion for the off-axis frequency components generated. The angular dispersion sustains the formation of the short X pulse in the second harmonic (SH) and is recognized as three-dimensional (3D) dynamics. On the contrary, the large-diameter fundamental beam reduces the number of the degrees of freedom, does not allow the generation of the angular dispersion, and maintains the so-called one-dimensional (1D) SHG dynamics, where the self-phase-matching appears just for axial components and is accompanied by the shrinking of the SH temporal bandwidth, and sustains a long SH pulse formation. The transition from long SH pulse generation typical of the 1D dynamics to the short 3D X pulse is illustrated numerically and experimentally by changing the conditions from the self-defocusing to the self-focusing regime by simply tuning the phase mismatch. The numerical and experimental verification of the analytical results are also presented.

  3. Structure and phase transitions of monolayers of intermediate-length n-alkanes on graphite studied by neutron diffraction and molecular dynamics simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diama, A.; Matthies, B.; Herwig, K. W.; Hansen, F. Y.; Criswell, L.; Mo, H.; Bai, M.; Taub, H.

    2009-08-01

    We present evidence from neutron diffraction measurements and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of three different monolayer phases of the intermediate-length alkanes tetracosane (n-C24H50 denoted as C24) and dotriacontane (n-C32H66 denoted as C32) adsorbed on a graphite basal-plane surface. Our measurements indicate that the two monolayer films differ principally in the transition temperatures between phases. At the lowest temperatures, both C24 and C32 form a crystalline monolayer phase with a rectangular-centered (RC) structure. The two sublattices of the RC structure each consists of parallel rows of molecules in their all-trans conformation aligned with their long axis parallel to the surface and forming so-called lamellas of width approximately equal to the all-trans length of the molecule. The RC structure is uniaxially commensurate with the graphite surface in its [110] direction such that the distance between molecular rows in a lamella is 4.26 Å=√3 ag, where ag=2.46 Å is the lattice constant of the graphite basal plane. Molecules in adjacent rows of a lamella alternate in orientation between the carbon skeletal plane being parallel and perpendicular to the graphite surface. Upon heating, the crystalline monolayers transform to a "smectic" phase in which the inter-row spacing within a lamella expands by ˜10% and the molecules are predominantly oriented with the carbon skeletal plane parallel to the graphite surface. In the smectic phase, the MD simulations show evidence of broadening of the lamella boundaries as a result of molecules diffusing parallel to their long axis. At still higher temperatures, they indicate that the introduction of gauche defects into the alkane chains drives a melting transition to a monolayer fluid phase as reported previously.

  4. Liquid-liquid phase transition and glass transition in a monoatomic model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Limei; Buldyrev, Sergey V; Giovambattista, Nicolas; Stanley, H Eugene

    2010-01-01

    We review our recent study on the polyamorphism of the liquid and glass states in a monatomic system, a two-scale spherical-symmetric Jagla model with both attractive and repulsive interactions. This potential with a parametrization for which crystallization can be avoided and both the glass transition and the liquid-liquid phase transition are clearly separated, displays water-like anomalies as well as polyamorphism in both liquid and glassy states, providing a unique opportunity to study the interplay between the liquid-liquid phase transition and the glass transition. Our study on a simple model may be useful in understanding recent studies of polyamorphism in metallic glasses.

  5. Liquid-Liquid Phase Transition and Glass Transition in a Monoatomic Model System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Giovambattista

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We review our recent study on the polyamorphism of the liquid and glass states in a monatomic system, a two-scale spherical-symmetric Jagla model with both attractive and repulsive interactions. This potential with a parametrization for which crystallization can be avoided and both the glass transition and the liquid-liquid phase transition are clearly separated, displays water-like anomalies as well as polyamorphism in both liquid and glassy states, providing a unique opportunity to study the interplay between the liquid-liquid phase transition and the glass transition. Our study on a simple model may be useful in understanding recent studies of polyamorphism in metallic glasses.

  6. Lattice dynamics, phase transition, and tunable fundamental band gap of photovoltaic (K,Ba)(Ni,Nb)O3 -δ ceramics from spectral measurements and first-principles calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuanqian; Wang, Fang; Sun, Yuyun; Jiang, Kai; Gong, Shijing; Hu, Zhigao; Zhou, Zhiyong; Dong, Xianlin; Chu, Junhao

    2018-03-01

    Ferroelectrics have long been recognized as one of the candidate class of materials for applications in photovoltaic devices. Recently, ferroelectric perovskite (K,Ba) (Ni,Nb) O3 -δ has been successfully synthesized and demonstrated to have a near-optimal band gap (1.39 eV), exhibiting good photovoltaic performance. However, the connection between the structural order-disorder transformation, electronic structure, bulk photovoltaic, and photocatalytic properties remains not well understood. Here, we investigate the phase transition evolutions of lead-free [KNbO3]1-x[BaNi1/2Nb1/2O3 -δ] x (KBNNO x , x =0 -0.5 ) ceramics via x-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman scattering, and computational evidences. The lattice dynamics and the origin of the successive rhombohedral→orthorhombic→tetragonal→cubic phase transitions have been systemically explored based on temperature-dependent XRD peak positions and phonon modes under different geometries. Moreover, the differences in the phase transition temperature and interior structure between the solid solution x =0.2 and the end member x =0 highlight local and nonlocal characteristics, which are helpful for understanding the photovoltaic mechanisms. Additionally, the robust photocatalytic decoloration effect on methylene blue can further confirm the photon-generated carrier behavior in the partly structural disordered orthorhombic phase. This identification of structural phases, combined with the ability to perform photocatalytic decoloration, give some insights on promising oxide applications as semiconducting ferroelectric absorbers and carrier-separating layers in photocatalytic or photovoltaic devices.

  7. Towards the theory of the electroweak phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dine, M.; Leigh, R.G.; Huet, P.; Linde, A.; Linde, D.

    1992-01-01

    We investigate various problems related to the theory of the electroweak phase transition. This includes determination of the nature of the phase transition, discussion of the possible role of the higher-order radiative corrections, and the theory of the formation and evolution of bubbles of the new phase. We show, in particular, that no dangerous linear terms in the scalar field φ appear in the expression for the effective potential. We have found that, for the Higgs-boson mass smaller than the masses of W and Z bosons, the phase transition is of the first order. However, its strength is approximately 2/3 times less than what follows from the one-loop approximation. The phase transition occurs due to production and expansion of critical bubbles. Subcritical bubbles may be important only if the phase transition is very weakly first order. A general analytic expression for the probability of the bubble formation is obtained, which may be used for study of tunneling in a wide class of theories. The bubble-wall velocity depends on many factors, including the ratio of the mean free path of the particles to the thickness of the wall. Thin walls in the electroweak theory have a nonrelativistic velocity, whereas thick walls may be relativistic. A decrease of the cubic term by the factor 2/3 rules our baryogenesis in the minimal version of the electroweak theory. Even though we concentrate in this paper on the phase transition in this theory, most of our results can be applied to more general models as well, where baryogenesis is possible

  8. Evidence for plasma phase transition in high pressure hydrogen from ab-initio simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales, M; Pierleoni, C; Schwegler, E; Ceperley, D

    2010-02-08

    We have performed a detailed study of molecular dissociation in liquid hydrogen using both Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics with Density Functional Theory and Coupled Electron-Ion Monte Carlo simulations. We observe a range of densities where (dP/d{rho}){sub T} = 0 that coincides with sharp discontinuities in the electronic conductivity, which is clear evidence of the plasma phase transition for temperatures 600K {le} T {le} 1500K. Both levels of theory exhibit the transition, although Quantum Monte Carlo predicts higher transition pressures. Based on the temperature dependence of the discontinuity in the electronic conductivity, we estimate the critical point of the transition at temperatures slightly below 2000 K. We examine the influence of proton zero point motion by using Path Integral Molecular Dynamics with Density Functional Theory; the main effect is to shift the transition to lower pressures. Furthermore, we calculate the melting curve of molecular hydrogen up to pressures of 200 GPa, finding a reentrant melting line in good agreement with previous calculations. The melting line crosses the metalization line at 700 K and 220 GPa using density functional energetics and at 550 K and 290 GPa using Quantum Monte Carlo energetics.

  9. Surface phase transitions in cu-based solid solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhevnenko, S. N.; Chernyshikhin, S. V.

    2017-11-01

    We have measured surface energy in two-component Cu-based systems in H2 + Ar gas atmosphere. The experiments on solid Cu [Ag] and Cu [Co] solutions show presence of phase transitions on the surfaces. Isotherms of the surface energy have singularities (the minimum in the case of copper solid solutions with silver and the maximum in the case of solid solutions with cobalt). In both cases, the surface phase transitions cause deficiency of surface miscibility: formation of a monolayer (multilayer) (Cu-Ag) or of nanoscale particles (Cu-Co). At the same time, according to the volume phase diagrams, the concentration and temperature of the surface phase transitions correspond to the solid solution within the volume. The method permits determining the rate of diffusional creep in addition to the surface energy. The temperature and concentration dependence of the solid solutions' viscosity coefficient supports the fact of the surface phase transitions and provides insights into the diffusion properties of the transforming surfaces.

  10. The infinite limit as an eliminable approximation for phase transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardourel, Vincent

    2018-05-01

    It is generally claimed that infinite idealizations are required for explaining phase transitions within statistical mechanics (e.g. Batterman 2011). Nevertheless, Menon and Callender (2013) have outlined theoretical approaches that describe phase transitions without using the infinite limit. This paper closely investigates one of these approaches, which consists of studying the complex zeros of the partition function (Borrmann et al., 2000). Based on this theory, I argue for the plausibility for eliminating the infinite limit for studying phase transitions. I offer a new account for phase transitions in finite systems, and I argue for the use of the infinite limit as an approximation for studying phase transitions in large systems.

  11. Phase transitions in field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, C.A.A. de; Bollini, C.G.; Giambiagi, J.J.

    1984-01-01

    By means of an example for which the effective potential is explicitly calculable (up to the one loop approximation), it is discussed how a phase transition takes place as the temperature is increased and pass from spontaneously broken symmetry to a phase in which the symmetry is restored. (Author) [pt

  12. Sensing of phase transition in medium with terahertz pulsed spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaytsev, Kirill I; Fokina, Irina N; Fedorov, Aleksey K; Yurchenko, Stanislav O

    2014-01-01

    Phase state identification and phase transition registration in condensed matter are significant applications of terahertz spectroscopy. A set of fundamental and applied problems are associated with the phase state problem. Our report is devoted to the experimental analysis of the spectral characteristics of water and water solution during the phase transition from the solid state to the liquid state via the method of terahertz pulsed spectroscopy. In this work transformation of the sample spectral characteristics during the phase transition were observed and discussed. Possible application of terahertz pulsed spectroscopy as an effective instrument for phase transition sensing was considered

  13. Phase transition to QGP matter : confined vs deconfined matter

    CERN Multimedia

    Maire, Antonin

    2015-01-01

    Simplified phase diagram of the nuclear phase transition, from the regular hadronic matter to the QGP phase. The sketch is meant to describe the transition foreseen along the temperature axis, at low baryochemical potential, µB.

  14. Dynamical Conductivity across the Disorder-Tuned Superconductor-Insulator Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mason Swanson

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We calculate the dynamical conductivity σ(ω and the bosonic (pair spectral function P(ω from quantum Monte Carlo simulations across clean and disorder-driven superconductor-insulator transitions (SITs. We identify characteristic energy scales in the superconducting and insulating phases that vanish at the transition due to enhanced quantum fluctuations, despite the persistence of a robust fermionic gap across the SIT. Disorder leads to enhanced absorption in σ(ω at low frequencies compared to the SIT in a clean system. Disorder also expands the quantum critical region, due to a change in the universality class, with an underlying T=0 critical point with a universal low-frequency conductivity σ^{*}≃0.5(4e^{2}/h.

  15. Two kinds of Phase transitions in a Voting model

    OpenAIRE

    Hisakado, Masato; Mori, Shintaro

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss a voting model with two candidates, C_0 and C_1. We consider two types of voters--herders and independents. The voting of independents is based on their fundamental values; on the other hand, the voting of herders is based on the number of previous votes. We can identify two kinds of phase transitions. One is an information cascade transition similar to a phase transition seen in Ising model. The other is a transition of super and normal diffusions. These phase trans...

  16. Friction forces on phase transition fronts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mégevand, Ariel

    2013-01-01

    In cosmological first-order phase transitions, the microscopic interaction of the phase transition fronts with non-equilibrium plasma particles manifests itself macroscopically as friction forces. In general, it is a nontrivial problem to compute these forces, and only two limits have been studied, namely, that of very slow walls and, more recently, ultra-relativistic walls which run away. In this paper we consider ultra-relativistic velocities and show that stationary solutions still exist when the parameters allow the existence of runaway walls. Hence, we discuss the necessary and sufficient conditions for the fronts to actually run away. We also propose a phenomenological model for the friction, which interpolates between the non-relativistic and ultra-relativistic values. Thus, the friction depends on two friction coefficients which can be calculated for specific models. We then study the velocity of phase transition fronts as a function of the friction parameters, the thermodynamic parameters, and the amount of supercooling

  17. Scaling theory and the classification of phase transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilfer, R.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, the recent classification theory for phase transitions and its relation with the foundations of statistical physics is reviewed. First it is outlined how Ehrenfests classification scheme can be generalized into a general thermodynamic classification theory for phase transitions. The classification theory implies scaling and multiscaling thereby eliminating the need to postulate the scaling hypothesis as a fourth law of thermodynamics. The new classification has also led to the discovery and distinction of nonequilibrium transitions within equilibrium statistical physics. Nonequilibrium phase transitions are distinguished from equilibrium transitions by orders less than unity and by the fact the equilibrium thermodynamics and statistical mechanics become inapplicable at the critical point. The latter fact requires a change in the Gibbs assumption underlying the canonical and grandcanonical ensembles in order to recover the thermodynamic description in the critical limit

  18. Dynamic phase transition and multicritical dynamic phase diagrams of the kinetic spin-3/2 Blume Emery Griffiths model with repulsive biquadratic coupling under a time-dependent oscillating external field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deviren, Bayram; Keskin, Mustafa; Canko, Osman

    2008-03-01

    We extend our recent paper [O. Canko, B. Deviren, M. Keskin, J. Phys.: Condens. Mater 118 (2006) 6635] to present a study, within a mean-field approach, the stationary states of the kinetic spin-3/2 Blume-Emery-Griffiths model with repulsive biquadratic interaction under the presence of a time varying (sinusoidal) magnetic field. We found that the dynamic phase diagrams of the present work exhibit more complex, richer and more topological different types of phase diagrams than our recent paper. Especially, the obtained dynamic phase diagrams show the ferrimagnetic ( i) phase in addition to the ferromagnetic ±3/2 ( f), ferromagnetic ±1/2 ( f), antiquadrupolar or staggered ( a) and disordered ( d) phases, and the f+i, f+d, i+d, f+i+d, a+d and/or f+i+a coexistence regions in addition to the f+f, f+d, f+a, f+d and/or f+a+d coexistence regions, depending on interaction parameters. Moreover, the phase diagrams exhibit dynamic zero-temperature critical, critical end, double critical end, multicritical, and/or pentacritical special points in addition to the dynamic tricritical, double critical end point, triple, quadruple and/or tetracritical special points that depending on the interaction parameters.

  19. Diffusion and the dynamics of displacive phase transitions in cryolite (Na3AlF6) and chiolite (Na5Al3F14): Multi-nuclear NMR studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spearing, Dane R.; Stebbins, Jonathan F.; Farnan, Ian

    1994-10-01

    Cryolite is a mixed-cation perovskite (Na2(NaAl)F6) which undergoes a monoclinic to orthorhombic displacive phase transition at ˜550° C. Chiolite (Na5Al3F14) is associated with cryolite in natural deposits, and consists of sheets of corner sharing [AlF6] octahedra interlayered with edge-sharing [NaF6] octahedra. Multi-nuclear NMR line shape and relaxation time (T1) studies were performed on cryolite and chiolite in order to gain a better understanding of the atomic motions associated with the phase transition in cryolite, and Na diffusion in cryolite and chiolite. 27Al, 23Na, and 19F static NMR spectra and T1's in cryolite suggest that oscillatory motions of the [AlF6] octahedra among four micro-twin and anti-phase domains in α-cryolite begin at least 150° C below the transition temperature and persist above it. Variable temperature 23Na MAS NMR further indicates diffusional exchange at a rate of at least 13 kHz between the Na sites by the time the transition temperature is reached. 27Al and 23Na T1's show the same behavior with increasing temperature, indicating the same relaxation mechanisms are responsible for both. The first order nature of the cryolite transition is apparent as a jump in the 23Na and 27Al T1's. Above the transition temperature, the T1's decrease slightly indicating that the motions responsible for the drop in T1, are still present above the transition, further supporting the dynamic nature of the high temperature phase of cryolite. Chiolite 23Na static spectra decrease in linewidth with increasing temperature, indicating increased Na diffusion, which is interpreted as occurring within the [NaF6] sheets in the chiolite structure, but not between the two different Na sites. 27Al and 23Na T1's show similar behavior as in cryolite, but there is no discontinuity due to a phase transition. 19F T1's are constant from room temperature to 150° C indicating no oscillatory motion of the [AlF6] octahedra in chiolite.

  20. First-principles study of doping effect on the phase transition of zinc oxide with transition metal doped

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Liang; Hou, Tingjun; Wang, Yi; Zhao, Yanfei; Guo, Zhenyu; Li, Youyong; Lee, Shuit-Tong

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We study the doping effect on B4, B1 structures and phase transition of ZnO. ► We calculate the phase transition barrier and phase transition path of doped ZnO. ► The transition metal doping decreases the bulk modulus and phase transition pressure. ► The magnetic properties are influenced by the phase transition process. - Abstract: Zinc oxide (ZnO) is a promising material for its wide application in solid-state devices. With the pressure raised from an ambient condition, ZnO transforms from fourfold wurtzite (B4) to sixfold coordinated rocksalt (B1) structure. Doping is an efficient approach to improve the structures and properties of materials. Here we use density-functional theory (DFT) to study doped ZnO and find that the transition pressure from B4 phase to B1 phase of ZnO always decreases with different types of transition metal (V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, or Ni) doped, but the phase transition path is not affected by doping. This is consistent with the available experimental results for Mn-doped ZnO and Co-doped ZnO. Doping in ZnO causes the lattice distortion, which leads to the decrease of the bulk modulus and accelerates the phase transition. Mn-doped ZnO shows the strongest magnetic moment due to its half filled d orbital. For V-doped ZnO and Cr-doped ZnO, the magnetism is enhanced by phase transition from B4 to B1. But for Mn-doped ZnO, Fe-doped ZnO, Co-doped ZnO, and Ni-doped ZnO, B1 phase shows weaker magnetic moment than B4 phase. These results can be explained by the amount of charge transferred from the doped atom to O atom. Our results provide a theoretical basis for the doping approach to change the structures and properties of ZnO.

  1. Dynamics of the phase transitions in the system of nonequilibrium charge carriers in quantum-dimensional Si{sub 1−x}Ge{sub x}/Si structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagaev, V. S.; Krivobok, V. S., E-mail: krivobok@lebedev.ru; Nikolaev, S. N.; Onishchenko, E. E.; Pruchkina, A. A.; Aminev, D. F.; Skorikov, M. L. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation); Lobanov, D. N.; Novikov, A. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Physics of Microstructures (Russian Federation)

    2013-11-15

    The dynamics of the phase transition from an electron-hole plasma to an exciton gas is studied during pulsed excitation of heterostructures with Si{sub 1−x}Ge{sub x}/Si quantum wells. The scenario of the phase transition is shown to depend radically on the germanium content in the Si{sub 1−x}Ge{sub x} layer. The electron-hole system decomposes into a rarefied exciton and a dense plasma phases for quantum wells with a germanium content x = 3.5% in the time range 100–500 ns after an excitation pulse. In this case, the electron-hole plasma existing in quantum wells has all signs of an electron-hole liquid. A qualitatively different picture of the phase transition is observed for quantum wells with x = 9.5%, where no separation into phases with different electronic spectra is detected. The carrier recombination in the electron-hole plasma leads a gradual weakening of screening and the appearance of exciton states. For a germanium content of 5–7%, the scenario of the phase transition is complex: 20–250 ns after an excitation pulse, the properties of the electron-hole system are described in terms of a homogeneous electron-hole plasma, whereas its separation into an electron-hole liquid and an exciton gas is detected after 350 ns. It is shown that, for the electron-hole liquid to exist in quantum wells with x = 5–7% Ge, the exciton gas should have a substantially higher density than in quantum wells with x = 3.5% Ge. This finding agrees with a decrease in the depth of the local minimum of the electron-hole plasma energy with increasing germanium concentration in the SiGe layer. An increase in the density of the exciton gas coexisting with the electron-hole liquid is shown to enhance the role of multiparticle states, which are likely to be represented by trions T{sup +} and biexcitons, in the exciton gas.

  2. A Bayesian Interpretation of First-Order Phase Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Sergio; Peralta, Joaquín; Navarrete, Yasmín; González, Diego; Gutiérrez, Gonzalo

    2016-03-01

    In this work we review the formalism used in describing the thermodynamics of first-order phase transitions from the point of view of maximum entropy inference. We present the concepts of transition temperature, latent heat and entropy difference between phases as emergent from the more fundamental concept of internal energy, after a statistical inference analysis. We explicitly demonstrate this point of view by making inferences on a simple game, resulting in the same formalism as in thermodynamical phase transitions. We show that analogous quantities will inevitably arise in any problem of inferring the result of a yes/no question, given two different states of knowledge and information in the form of expectation values. This exposition may help to clarify the role of these thermodynamical quantities in the context of different first-order phase transitions such as the case of magnetic Hamiltonians (e.g. the Potts model).

  3. Echoes of inflationary first-order phase transitions in the CMB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongliang Jiang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Cosmological phase transitions (CPTs, such as the Grand Unified Theory (GUT and the electroweak (EW ones, play a significant role in both particle physics and cosmology. In this letter, we propose to probe the first-order CPTs, by detecting gravitational waves (GWs which are generated during the phase transitions through the cosmic microwave background (CMB. If happened around the inflation era, the first-order CPTs may yield low-frequency GWs due to bubble dynamics, leaving imprints on the CMB. In contrast to the nearly scale-invariant primordial GWs caused by vacuum fluctuation, these bubble-generated GWs are scale dependent and have non-trivial B-mode spectra. If decoupled from inflaton, the EWPT during inflation may serve as a probe for the one after reheating where the baryon asymmetry could be generated via EW baryogenesis (EWBG. The CMB thus provides a potential way to test the feasibility of the EWBG, complementary to the collider measurements of Higgs potential and the direct detection of GWs generated during EWPT.

  4. Reconstructive structural phase transitions in dense Mg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Yansun; Klug, Dennis D

    2012-01-01

    The question raised recently about whether the high-pressure phase transitions of Mg follow a hexagonal close-packed (hcp) → body centered cubic (bcc) or hcp → double hexagonal close-packed (dhcp) → bcc sequence at room temperature is examined by the use of first principles density functional methods. Enthalpy calculations show that the bcc structure replaces the hcp structure to become the most stable structure near 48 GPa, whereas the dhcp structure is never the most stable structure in the pressure range of interest. The characterized phase-transition mechanisms indicate that the hcp → dhcp transition is also associated with a higher enthalpy barrier. At room temperature, the structural sequence hcp → bcc is therefore more energetically favorable for Mg. The same conclusion is also reached from the simulations of the phase transitions using metadynamics methods. At room temperature, the metadynamics simulations predict the onset of a hcp → bcc transition at 40 GPa and the transition becomes more prominent upon further compression. At high temperatures, the metadynamics simulations reveal a structural fluctuation among the hcp, dhcp, and bcc structures at 15 GPa. With increasing pressure, the structural evolution at high temperatures becomes more unambiguous and eventually settles to a bcc structure once sufficient pressure is applied. (paper)

  5. Eikonal theory of the transition to phase incoherence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufman, A.N.; Rosengaus, E.

    1983-02-01

    When a monochromatic electromagnetic wave propagates through a nonuniform plasma (of n dimensions), its refraction may be studied in terms of its family of rays in 2n-dimensional phase space (k,x). These rays generate and n-dimensional surface. Imbedded in the phase space. The wave amplitude and phase are defined on this surface. As the rays twist and separate (from the dynamics of the ray Hamiltonian), the surface develops pleats and becomes convoluted. Projection of the surface onto x-space then yields a multivalued k(x). The local spectral density, as a function of k for given x, exhibits sharp spikes at these k(x), in the ray-optics limit. The next correction yields a finite width to these spikes. As the surface becomes more and more pppleated, these spectral peaks overlap; the spectrum changes qualitatively from a line spectrum to a continuous spectrum. Correspondingly, the two-point spatial correlation function loses its long-range order, as the correlation volume contracts. This phenomenon is what we call the transition to incoherence

  6. A Solvable Model for Nuclear Shape Phase Transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levai, G.; Arias, J. M.

    2009-01-01

    There has been considerable interest recently in phase transitions that occur between some well-defined nuclear shapes, e.g. the spherical vibrator, the axially deformed rotor and the γ-unstable rotor, which are assigned to the U(5), SU(3) and 0(6) symmetries. These shape phase transitions occur through critical points of the IBM phase diagram and correspond to rapid structural changes. The first transition of this type describes transition form the spherical to the γ-unstable phase and has been associated with an E(5) symmetry. Later further critical point symmetries e.g. X(5) and Y(5) have also been proposed for transitions between other nuclear shape phases. In another application the chain of even Ru isotopes was considered from A 98 to 112 [2]. The parameters were extracted from a fit to the low-lying energy spectrum of each nucleus and were used to plot the corresponding potential. It was found that up to A =102 the potential is essentially an harmonic oscillator, while at A =104 a rather flat potential was seen, in accordance with the expected phase transition and E(5) symmetry there. With increasing A then the minimum got increasingly deeper and moved away from β = 0. We discuss the possibility of generalizing the formalism in two ways: first by including dependence on the 7 variable allowing for the approximate description of nuclei close to the X(5) symmetry, and second, including higher-lying energy levels in the quasi-exactly solvable formalism

  7. Quantum Phase Transition and Entanglement in Topological Quantum Wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jaeyoon; Kim, Kun Woo

    2017-06-05

    We investigate the quantum phase transition of the Su-Schrieffer-Heeger (SSH) model by inspecting the two-site entanglements in the ground state. It is shown that the topological phase transition of the SSH model is signified by a nonanalyticity of local entanglement, which becomes discontinuous for finite even system sizes, and that this nonanalyticity has a topological origin. Such a peculiar singularity has a universal nature in one-dimensional topological phase transitions of noninteracting fermions. We make this clearer by pointing out that an analogous quantity in the Kitaev chain exhibiting the identical nonanalyticity is the local electron density. As a byproduct, we show that there exists a different type of phase transition, whereby the pattern of the two-site entanglements undergoes a sudden change. This transition is characterised solely by quantum information theory and does not accompany the closure of the spectral gap. We analyse the scaling behaviours of the entanglement in the vicinities of the transition points.

  8. High-pressure phase transition of alkali metal-transition metal deuteride Li2PdD2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yansun; Stavrou, Elissaios; Goncharov, Alexander F.; Majumdar, Arnab; Wang, Hui; Prakapenka, Vitali B.; Epshteyn, Albert; Purdy, Andrew P.

    2017-06-01

    A combined theoretical and experimental study of lithium palladium deuteride (Li2PdD2) subjected to pressures up to 50 GPa reveals one structural phase transition near 10 GPa, detected by synchrotron powder x-ray diffraction, and metadynamics simulations. The ambient-pressure tetragonal phase of Li2PdD2 transforms into a monoclinic C2/m phase that is distinct from all known structures of alkali metal-transition metal hydrides/deuterides. The structure of the high-pressure phase was characterized using ab initio computational techniques and from refinement of the powder x-ray diffraction data. In the high-pressure phase, the PdD2 complexes lose molecular integrity and are fused to extended [PdD2]∞ chains. The discovered phase transition and new structure are relevant to the possible hydrogen storage application of Li2PdD2 and alkali metal-transition metal hydrides in general.

  9. Phenomenology of cosmic phase transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaempfer, B.; Lukacs, B.; Paal, G.

    1989-11-01

    The evolution of the cosmic matter from Planck temperature to the atomic combination temperature is considered from a phenomenological point of view. Particular emphasis is devoted to the sequence of cosmic phase transitions. The inflationary era at the temperature of the order of the grand unification energy scale and the quantum chromodynamic confinement transition are dealt with in detail. (author) 131 refs.; 26 figs

  10. Notes on Phase Transition of Nonsingular Black Hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Meng-Sen; Zhao Ren

    2015-01-01

    On the belief that a black hole is a thermodynamic system, we study the phase transition of nonsingular black holes. If the black hole entropy takes the form of the Bekenstein—Hawking area law, the black hole mass M is no longer the internal energy of the black hole thermodynamic system. Using the thermodynamic quantities, we calculate the heat capacity, thermodynamic curvature and free energy. It is shown that there will be a larger black hole/smaller black hole phase transition for the nonsingular black hole. At the critical point, the second-order phase transition appears. (paper)

  11. Novel phase transitions in B-site doped manganites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popovic, Z.V.; Cantarero, A.; Thijssen, W.H.A.; Paunovic, N.; Dohcevic-Mitrovic, Z.; Sapina, F.

    2005-01-01

    We have examined the infrared reflectivity and the electrical resistivity of La 1- x [Sr(Ba)] x Mn 1- z [Cu(Zn)] z O 3 samples in ferromagnetic metallic and insulator regime. Several phase transitions are observed, the most obvious being the transition from a ferromagnetic metallic to a ferromagnetic insulator phase that is related to the formation of short-range orbitally ordered domains. The temperature T 1 of the phase transition is dependent on doping concentration and for optimally doped samples (∼32% of Mn 4+ ions) we have found T 1 ∼0.93 T C

  12. Dynamics of a quantum phase transition in the Bose-Hubbard model: Kibble-Zurek mechanism and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Keita; Kuno, Yoshihito; Hirano, Takahiro; Ichinose, Ikuo

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we study the dynamics of the Bose-Hubbard model by using time-dependent Gutzwiller methods. In particular, we vary the parameters in the Hamiltonian as a function of time, and investigate the temporal behavior of the system from the Mott insulator to the superfluid (SF) crossing a second-order phase transition. We first solve a time-dependent Schrödinger equation for the experimental setup recently done by Braun et al. [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 112, 3641 (2015)] and show that the numerical and experimental results are in fairly good agreement. However, these results disagree with the Kibble-Zurek scaling. From our numerical study, we reveal a possible source of the discrepancy. Next, we calculate the critical exponents of the correlation length and vortex density in addition to the SF order parameter for a Kibble-Zurek protocol. We show that beside the "freeze" time t ̂, there exists another important time, teq, at which an oscillating behavior of the SF amplitude starts. From calculations of the exponents of the correlation length and vortex density with respect to a quench time τQ, we obtain a physical picture of a coarsening process. Finally, we study how the system evolves after the quench. We give a global picture of dynamics of the Bose-Hubbard model.

  13. High-pressure phase transitions - Examples of classical predictability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celebonovic, Vladan

    1992-09-01

    The applicability of the Savic and Kasanin (1962-1967) classical theory of dense matter to laboratory experiments requiring estimates of high-pressure phase transitions was examined by determining phase transition pressures for a set of 19 chemical substances (including elements, hydrocarbons, metal oxides, and salts) for which experimental data were available. A comparison between experimental and transition points and those predicted by the Savic-Kasanin theory showed that the theory can be used for estimating values of transition pressures. The results also support conclusions obtained in previous astronomical applications of the Savic-Kasanin theory.

  14. Phase transitions in K-doped MoO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, L. M. S., E-mail: leandro-fisico@hotmail.com; Lima, B. S. de; Santos, C. A. M. dos [Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais, Escola de Engenharia de Lorena-USP, Lorena, São Paulo 12602-810 (Brazil); Rebello, A.; Masunaga, S. H.; Neumeier, J. J. [Department of Physics, Montana State University, P.O. Box 173840, Bozeman, Montana 59717-3840 (United States); Leão, J. B. [NIST Center for Neutron Research, National Institute of Standards and Technology, 100 Bureau Dr. MS 6102, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899-6102 (United States)

    2014-05-28

    K{sub 0.05}MoO{sub 2} has been studied by x-ray and neutron diffractometry, electrical resistivity, magnetization, heat capacity, and thermal expansion measurements. The compound displays two phase transitions, a first-order phase transition near room temperature and a second-order transition near 54 K. Below the transition at 54 K, a weak magnetic anomaly is observed and the electrical resistivity is well described by a power-law temperature dependence with exponent near 0.5. The phase transitions in the K-doped MoO{sub 2} compound have been discussed for the first time using neutron diffraction, high resolution thermal expansion, and heat capacity measurements as a function of temperature.

  15. Gravitational radiation from first-order phase transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Child, Hillary L.; Giblin, John T. Jr.

    2012-01-01

    It is believed that first-order phase transitions at or around the GUT scale will produce high-frequency gravitational radiation. This radiation is a consequence of the collisions and coalescence of multiple bubbles during the transition. We employ high-resolution lattice simulations to numerically evolve a system of bubbles using only scalar fields, track the anisotropic stress during the process and evolve the metric perturbations associated with gravitational radiation. Although the radiation produced during the bubble collisions has previously been estimated, we find that the coalescence phase enhances this radiation even in the absence of a coupled fluid or turbulence. We comment on how these simulations scale and propose that the same enhancement should be found at the Electroweak scale; this modification should make direct detection of a first-order electroweak phase transition easier

  16. Gravitational radiation from first-order phase transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Child, Hillary L.; Giblin, John T. Jr., E-mail: childh@kenyon.edu, E-mail: giblinj@kenyon.edu [Department of Physics, Kenyon College, 201 North College Road, Gambier, OH 43022 (United States)

    2012-10-01

    It is believed that first-order phase transitions at or around the GUT scale will produce high-frequency gravitational radiation. This radiation is a consequence of the collisions and coalescence of multiple bubbles during the transition. We employ high-resolution lattice simulations to numerically evolve a system of bubbles using only scalar fields, track the anisotropic stress during the process and evolve the metric perturbations associated with gravitational radiation. Although the radiation produced during the bubble collisions has previously been estimated, we find that the coalescence phase enhances this radiation even in the absence of a coupled fluid or turbulence. We comment on how these simulations scale and propose that the same enhancement should be found at the Electroweak scale; this modification should make direct detection of a first-order electroweak phase transition easier.

  17. Phase transition signals of finite systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duflot-Flandrois, Veronique

    2001-01-01

    Phase transitions are universal properties of interacting matter. They are well described if the considered system is infinite, by using standard thermodynamics. But in the case of small systems like atomic nuclei, this formalism cannot be applied anymore. Our aim is to propose a statistical mechanics approach in order to define the thermodynamical features of small open systems subject to non-saturating forces. We concentrate in particular on the definition and characterization for such systems of phase transitions belonging to the liquid gas universality class. Theoretical and experimental observables are defined to signal the occurrence and the order of this transition without any ambiguity. One of the most relevant and experimentally accessible observables consists in the study of kinetic energy fluctuations for a fixed value of the total deposited energy. In a first order phase transition such fluctuations become anomaly high and at the same time the size distribution appears to behave critically. All our results are obtained within numerical simulations of the lattice gas model with a nearest neighbors attractive interaction. Finally we check the influence of non-saturating forces, developing the specific example of the Coulomb interaction in the nucleus. Future improvements and perspectives at this work consist in the analysis of specific effects occurring in nuclei: isospin and quantum mechanics. (author) [fr

  18. Polarons and Mobile Impurities Near a Quantum Phase Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadkhoo, Shahriar

    This dissertation aims at improving the current understanding of the physics of mobile impurities in highly correlated liquid-like phases of matter. Impurity problems pose challenging and intricate questions in different realms of many-body physics. For instance, the problem of ''solvation'' of charged solutes in polar solvents, has been the subject of longstanding debates among chemical physicists. The significant role of quantum fluctuations of the solvent, as well as the break down of linear response theory, render the ordinary treatments intractable. Inspired by this complicated problem, we first attempt to understand the role of non-specific quantum fluctuations in the solvation process. To this end, we calculate the dynamic structure factor of a model polar liquid, using the classical Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations. We verify the failure of linear response approximation in the vicinity of a hydrated electron, by comparing the outcomes of MD simulations with the predictions of linear response theory. This nonlinear behavior is associated with the pronounced peaks of the structure factor, which reflect the strong fluctuations of the local modes. A cavity picture is constructed based on heuristic arguments, which suggests that the electron, along with the surrounding polarization cloud, behave like a frozen sphere, for which the linear response theory is broken inside and valid outside. The inverse radius of the spherical region serves as a UV momentum cutoff for the linear response approximation to be applicable. The problem of mobile impurities in polar liquids can be also addressed in the framework of the ''polaron'' problem. Polaron is a quasiparticle that typically acquires an extended state at weak couplings, and crossovers to a self-trapped state at strong couplings. Using the analytical fits to the numerically obtained charge-charge structure factor, a phenomenological approach is proposed within the Leggett's influence functional formalism, which

  19. Thermal study of monovalent-divalent phase transition in npBifc-F{sub 1}TCNQ System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Michiko; Nishio, Yutaka; Kajita, Koji [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Toho University, Miyama 2-2-1, Funabashi, Chiba, 274-8510 (Japan); Mochida, Tomoyuki, E-mail: nishio@ph.sci.toho-u.ac.j [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Kobe University, Rokkodai, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan)

    2009-03-01

    In a new molecular solid composed of di-neopentyl-biferrocene (npBifc) and fluorotetracyanoquinodimethane (F{sub 1}TCNQ){sub 3}, Mochida reported the discovery of a reversible valence transfer that can be regarded as an 'ionic(I)-ionic(II)' phase transfer between the monovalent state (D{sup +}A{sup -}) and the divalent state (D{sup 2+}A{sup 2-}). We have studied thermo-dynamical properties of this transformation for this complex using the differential thermal analyses (DTA). We observed a broad excess specific heat with multi-peaks attributed to micro-domain structure over the corresponding temperature range (100-150K) accompanied by temperature hysteresis of 7K. The transition entropy (DELTAS) was determined to be 22 +- 2 J/mol-K and almost satisfied a Clausius-Clapeyron relation. These experimental results provide an experimental confirmation of the first order phase transition for the monovalent-divalent transfer. At the transition, we observe that the electronic degrees of freedom remained constant values, while large entropy absorbed crossing from low temperature phase to high temperature one is contributed by the lattice one. We finally estimated the internal energy and concluded that delicate energy valance between Madelung, ionization and affinity energies enable this system to exhibit a temperature induce monovalent-divalent phase transition.

  20. Analyzing phase diagrams and phase transitions in networked competing populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Y.-C.; Yin, H. P.; Xu, C.; Hui, P. M.

    2011-03-01

    Phase diagrams exhibiting the extent of cooperation in an evolutionary snowdrift game implemented in different networks are studied in detail. We invoke two independent payoff parameters, unlike a single payoff often used in most previous works that restricts the two payoffs to vary in a correlated way. In addition to the phase transition points when a single payoff parameter is used, phase boundaries separating homogeneous phases consisting of agents using the same strategy and a mixed phase consisting of agents using different strategies are found. Analytic expressions of the phase boundaries are obtained by invoking the ideas of the last surviving patterns and the relative alignments of the spectra of payoff values to agents using different strategies. In a Watts-Strogatz regular network, there exists a re-entrant phenomenon in which the system goes from a homogeneous phase into a mixed phase and re-enters the homogeneous phase as one of the two payoff parameters is varied. The non-trivial phase diagram accompanying this re-entrant phenomenon is quantitatively analyzed. The effects of noise and cooperation in randomly rewired Watts-Strogatz networks are also studied. The transition between a mixed phase and a homogeneous phase is identify to belong to the directed percolation universality class. The methods used in the present work are applicable to a wide range of problems in competing populations of networked agents.

  1. Solvation Dynamics in Different Phases of the Lyotropic Liquid Crystalline System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Bibhisan; Satpathi, Sagar; Gavvala, Krishna; Koninti, Raj Kumar; Hazra, Partha

    2015-09-03

    Reverse hexagonal (HII) liquid crystalline material based on glycerol monooleate (GMO) is considered as a potential carrier for drugs and other important biomolecules due to its thermotropic phase change and excellent morphology. In this work, the dynamics of encapsulated water, which plays important role in stabilization and formation of reverse hexagonal mesophase, has been investigated by time dependent Stokes shift method using Coumarin-343 as a solvation probe. The formation of the reverse hexagonal mesophase (HII) and transformation to the L2 phase have been monitored using small-angle X-ray scattering and polarized light microscopy experiments. REES studies suggest the existence of different polar regions in both HII and L2 systems. The solvation dynamics study inside the reverse hexagonal (HII) phase reveals the existence of two different types of water molecules exhibiting dynamics on a 120-900 ps time scale. The estimated diffusion coefficients of both types of water molecules obtained from the observed dynamics are in good agreement with the measured diffusion coefficient collected from the NMR study. The calculated activation energy is found to be 2.05 kcal/mol, which is associated with coupled rotational-translational water relaxation dynamics upon the transition from "bound" to "quasi-free" state. The observed ∼2 ns faster dynamics of the L2 phase compared to the HII phase may be associated with both the phase transformation as well as thermotropic effect on the relaxation process. Microviscosities calculated from time-resolved anisotropy studies infer that the interface is almost ∼22 times higher viscous than the central part of the cylinder. Overall, our results reveal the unique dynamical features of water inside the cylinder of reverse hexagonal and inverse micellar phases.

  2. Diffusionless phase transitions and related structures in oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulesteix, C.

    1992-01-01

    The relative importance of oxides in the field of materials science has been spectacularly increasing during the last twenty years. First the study of ferroelectrics kept the attention of scientists. Nevertheless this domain is far from being worked out and a lot of new results and of new fields of interest were recently discovered. Other ferroic oxides, especially ferroelastics, have also been the subject of a very great number of new results. In these cases the properties of oxides are at room temperature very tightly related to the phase transition that is generally occurring a few hundred of degrees above this room temperature. In many other cases also properties of oxides can be related to the existence of a phase transition or to a rather similar phenomenon. This book has been specially devoted to the study of the properties of oxides which are in some way related to the existence of a phase transition. The first chapters are focussed on general considerations: the first one is devoted to a general study of phase transitions, the second one to the twinning phenomenon which is of special interest for many oxides. Chapters 3 and 4 are focussed on ferroelectric and ferroelastic materials. These four chapters consitute the first part of the book. Chapters 5 to 8 are devoted to the study of oxides of special interest which have some of their properties related to a phase transition or to a rather similar phenomenon: rare earth oxides, oxides with a diffuse phase transition, zirconia and alumina systems, tungsten oxides and their relatives. These four chapters constitute the second part of the book. (orig.)

  3. Discontinuous structural phase transition of liquid metal and alloys (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Li; Liu, Jiantong

    2004-01-01

    The diameter (d f ) of diffusion fluid cluster before and after phase transition has been calculated in terms of the paper ''Discontinuous structural phase transition of liquid metal and alloy (1)'' Physics Letters. A 326 (2004) 429-435, to verify quantitatively the discontinuity of structural phase transition; the phenomena of thermal contraction and thermal expansion during the phase transition, together with the evolution model of discontinuous structural phase transition are also discussed in this Letter to explore further the nature of structural transition; In addition, based on the viscosity experimental result mentioned in paper [Y. Waseda, The Structure of Non-Crystalline Materials--Liquids and Amorphous Solids, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1980], we present an approach to draw an embryo of the liquid-liquid (L-L) phase diagram for binary alloys above liquidus in the paper, expecting to guide metallurgy process so as to improve the properties of alloys. The idea that controls amorphous structure and its properties by means of the L-L phase diagram for alloys and by the rapid cooling technique to form the amorphous alloy has been brought forward in the end

  4. Dimension changing phase transitions in instanton crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplunovsky, Vadim; Sonnenschein, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    We investigate lattices of instantons and the dimension-changing transitions between them. Our ultimate goal is the 3D→4D transition, which is holographically dual to the phase transition between the baryonic and the quarkyonic phases of cold nuclear matter. However, in this paper (just as in http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP11(2012)047) we focus on lower dimensions — the 1D lattice of instantons in a harmonic potential V∝M 2 2 x 2 2 +M 3 2 x 2 2 +M 4 2 x 4 2 , and the zigzag-shaped lattice as a first stage of the 1D→2D transition. We prove that in the low- and moderate-density regimes, interactions between the instantons are dominated by two-body forces. This drastically simplifies finding the ground state of the instantons’ orientations, so we made a numeric scan of the whole orientation space instead of assuming any particular ansatz. We find that depending on the M 2 /M 3 /M 4 ratios, the ground state of instanton orientations can follow a wide variety of patterns. For the straight 1D lattices, we found orientations periodically running over elements of a ℤ 2 , Klein, prismatic, or dihedral subgroup of the SU(2)/ℤ 2 , as well as irrational but link-periodic patterns. For the zigzag-shaped lattices, we detected 4 distinct orientation phases — the anti-ferromagnet, another abelian phase, and two non-abelian phases. Allowing the zigzag amplitude to vary as a function of increasing compression force, we obtained the phase diagrams for the straight and zigzag-shaped lattices in the (force,M 3 /M 4 ), (chemical potential,M 3 /M 4 ), and (density,M 3 /M 4 ) planes. Some of the transitions between these phases are second-order while others are first-order. Our techniques can be applied to other types of non-abelian crystals

  5. Novel phase transitions in B-site doped manganites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popovic, Z.V. [Institute of Physics, P.O. Box 68, 11080 Belgrade/Zemun (Serbia and Montenegro)]. E-mail: zoran.popovic@phy.bg.ac.yu; Cantarero, A. [Materials Science Institute, University of Valencia, P.O. Box 22085, 46071 Valencia (Spain); Thijssen, W.H.A. [Kamerlingh Onnes Laboratorium, Leiden University, Postbus 9504, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Paunovic, N. [Institute of Physics, P.O. Box 68, 11080 Belgrade/Zemun (Serbia and Montenegro); Dohcevic-Mitrovic, Z. [Institute of Physics, P.O. Box 68, 11080 Belgrade/Zemun (Serbia and Montenegro); Sapina, F. [Materials Science Institute, University of Valencia, P.O. Box 22085, 46071 Valencia (Spain)

    2005-04-30

    We have examined the infrared reflectivity and the electrical resistivity of La{sub 1-} {sub x} [Sr(Ba)] {sub x} Mn{sub 1-} {sub z} [Cu(Zn)] {sub z} O{sub 3} samples in ferromagnetic metallic and insulator regime. Several phase transitions are observed, the most obvious being the transition from a ferromagnetic metallic to a ferromagnetic insulator phase that is related to the formation of short-range orbitally ordered domains. The temperature T {sub 1} of the phase transition is dependent on doping concentration and for optimally doped samples ({approx}32% of Mn{sup 4+} ions) we have found T {sub 1}{approx}0.93 T {sub C}.

  6. Baryon inhomogeneity from the cosmic quark-hadron phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurki-Suonio, H.

    1991-01-01

    We discuss the generation of inhomogeneity in the baryon-number density during the cosmic quark-hadron phase transition. We use a simple model with thin-wall phase boundaries and ideal-gas equations of state. The nucleation of the phase transition introduces a new distance scale into the universe which will be the scale of the generated inhomogeneity. We review the estimate of this scale. During the transition baryon number is likely to collect onto a layer at the phase boundary. These layers may in the end be deposited as small regions of very high baryon density. 21 refs., 1 fig

  7. Pressure induced phase transitions in ceramic compounds containing tetragonal zirconia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparks, R.G.; Pfeiffer, G.; Paesler, M.A.

    1988-12-01

    Stabilized tetragonal zirconia compounds exhibit a transformation toughening process in which stress applied to the material induces a crystallographic phase transition. The phase transition is accompanied by a volume expansion in the stressed region thereby dissipating stress and increasing the fracture strength of the material. The hydrostatic component of the stress required to induce the phase transition can be investigated by the use of a high pressure technique in combination with Micro-Raman spectroscopy. The intensity of Raman lines characteristic for the crystallographic phases can be used to calculate the amount of material that has undergone the transition as a function of pressure. It was found that pressures on the order of 2-5 kBar were sufficient to produce an almost complete transition from the original tetragonal to the less dense monoclinic phase; while a further increase in pressure caused a gradual reversal of the transition back to the original tetragonal structure.

  8. Dynamical replica analysis of processes on finitely connected random graphs: II. Dynamics in the Griffiths phase of the diluted Ising ferromagnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mozeika, A; Coolen, A C C

    2009-01-01

    We study the Glauber dynamics of Ising spin models with random bonds, on finitely connected random graphs. We generalize a recent dynamical replica theory with which to predict the evolution of the joint spin-field distribution, to include random graphs with arbitrary degree distributions. The theory is applied to Ising ferromagnets on randomly diluted Bethe lattices, where we study the evolution of the magnetization and the internal energy. It predicts a prominent slowing down of the flow in the Griffiths phase, it suggests a further dynamical transition at lower temperatures within the Griffiths phase, and it is verified quantitatively by the results of Monte Carlo simulations

  9. Phase transitions in liquids with directed intermolecular bonding

    OpenAIRE

    Son, L.; Ryltcev, R.

    2005-01-01

    Liquids with quasi - chemical bonding between molecules are described in terms of vertex model. It is shown that this bonding results in liquid - liquid phase transition, which occurs between phases with different mean density of intermolecular bonds. The transition may be suggested to be a universal phenomena for those liquids.

  10. Energy transition and phasing out nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laponche, Bernard

    2013-05-01

    In the first part of this report, the author outlines and comments the need of an energy transition in the world: overview of world challenges (world energy consumption and its constraints, a necessary energy transition, new actors and new responsibilities), and describes the German example of an energy transition policy. In the second part, he presents and discusses the main reasons for phasing out nuclear: description of a nuclear plant operation (fission and chain reaction, heat production, production of radioactive elements, how to stop a nuclear reactor), safety and risk issues (protection arrangements, risk and consequence of a nuclear accident), issue of radioactive wastes, relationship between civil techniques and proliferation of nuclear weapons. In a third part, the author proposes an overview of the energy issue in France: final energy consumption, electricity production and consumption, primary energy consumption, characteristics of the French energy system (oil dependency, electricity consumption, and high share of nuclear energy in electricity production). In a last part, the author addresses the issue of energy transition in a perspective of phasing out nuclear: presentation of the Negawatt scenario, assessments made by Global Chance, main programmes of energy transition

  11. Heat capacity characterization at phase transition temperature of Agl superionic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widowati, Arie

    2000-01-01

    The phase transition of Agl superionic conductor was investigated by calorometric. A single phase transition was found at (153±5) o C which corresponds to the α - β transition. Calorimetric measurement showed an anomalously high heat capacity with a large discontinues change in the Arrhenius plot, was found above the transition temperature of β - α phase. The maximum heat capacity was found to be ±19.7 cal/gmol. Key words : superionic conductor, thermal capacity

  12. Sudden transitions in coupled opinion and epidemic dynamics with vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Marcelo A.; Oestereich, André L.; Crokidakis, Nuno

    2018-05-01

    This work consists of an epidemic model with vaccination coupled with an opinion dynamics. Our objective was to study how disease risk perception can influence opinions about vaccination and therefore the spreading of the disease. Differently from previous works we have considered continuous opinions. The epidemic spreading is governed by an SIS-like model with an extra vaccinated state. In our model individuals vaccinate with a probability proportional to their opinions. The opinions change due to peer influence in pairwise interactions. The epidemic feedback to the opinion dynamics acts as an external field increasing the vaccination probability. We performed Monte Carlo simulations in fully-connected populations. Interestingly we observed the emergence of a first-order phase transition, besides the usual active-absorbing phase transition presented in the SIS model. Our simulations also show that with a certain combination of parameters, an increment in the initial fraction of the population that is pro-vaccine has a twofold effect: it can lead to smaller epidemic outbreaks in the short term, but it also contributes to the survival of the chain of infections in the long term. Our results also suggest that it is possible that more effective vaccines can decrease the long-term vaccine coverage. This is a counterintuitive outcome, but it is in line with empirical observations that vaccines can become a victim of their own success.

  13. Generalized transport model for phase transition with memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Chi; Ciucci, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    A general model for phenomenological transport in phase transition is derived, which extends Jäckle and Frisch model of phase transition with memory and the Cahn–Hilliard model. In addition to including interfacial energy to account for the presence of interfaces, we introduce viscosity and relaxation contributions, which result from incorporating memory effect into the driving potential. Our simulation results show that even without interfacial energy term, the viscous term can lead to transient diffuse interfaces. From the phase transition induced hysteresis, we discover different energy dissipation mechanism for the interfacial energy and the viscosity effect. In addition, by combining viscosity and interfacial energy, we find that if the former dominates, then the concentration difference across the phase boundary is reduced; conversely, if the interfacial energy is greater then this difference is enlarged.

  14. Thermodynamic phase transition of a black hole in rainbow gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong-Wen Feng

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this letter, using the rainbow functions that were proposed by Magueijo and Smolin, we investigate the thermodynamics and the phase transition of rainbow Schwarzschild black hole. First, we calculate the rainbow gravity corrected Hawking temperature. From this modification, we then derive the local temperature, free energy, and other thermodynamic quantities in an isothermal cavity. Finally, we analyze the critical behavior, thermodynamic stability, and phase transition of the rainbow Schwarzschild black hole. The results show that the rainbow gravity can stop the Hawking radiation in the final stages of black holes' evolution and lead to the remnants of black holes. Furthermore, one can observe that the rainbow Schwarzschild black hole has one first-order phase transition, two second-order phase transitions, and three Hawking–Page-type phase transitions in the framework of rainbow gravity theory.

  15. Group theoretical arguments on the Landau theory of second-order phase transitions applied to the phase transitions in some liquid crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosciszewski, K.

    1979-01-01

    The phase transitions between liquids and several of the simplest liquid crystalline phases (nematic, cholesteric, and the simplest types of smectic A and smectic C) were studied from the point of view of the group-theoretical arguments of Landau theory. It was shown that the only possible candidates for second-order phase transitions are those between nematic and smectic A, between centrosymmetric nematic and smectic C and between centrosymmetric smectic A and smectic C. Simple types of density functions for liquid crystalline phases are proposed. (author)

  16. Fermion condensation quantum phase transition versus conventional quantum phase transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaginyan, V.R.; Han, J.G.; Lee, J.

    2004-01-01

    The main features of fermion condensation quantum phase transition (FCQPT), which are distinctive in several aspects from that of conventional quantum phase transition (CQPT), are considered. We show that in contrast to CQPT, whose physics in quantum critical region is dominated by thermal and quantum fluctuations and characterized by the absence of quasiparticles, the physics of a Fermi system near FCQPT or undergone FCQPT is controlled by the system of quasiparticles resembling the Landau quasiparticles. Contrary to the Landau quasiparticles, the effective mass of these quasiparticles strongly depends on the temperature, magnetic fields, density, etc. This system of quasiparticles having general properties determines the universal behavior of the Fermi system in question. As a result, the universal behavior persists up to relatively high temperatures comparatively to the case when such a behavior is determined by CQPT. We analyze striking recent measurements of specific heat, charge and heat transport used to study the nature of magnetic field-induced QCP in heavy-fermion metal CeCoIn 5 and show that the observed facts are in good agreement with our scenario based on FCQPT and certainly seem to rule out the critical fluctuations related with CQPT. Our general consideration suggests that FCQPT and the emergence of novel quasiparticles near and behind FCQPT and resembling the Landau quasiparticles are distinctive features intrinsic to strongly correlated substances

  17. Universal phase transition in community detectability under a stochastic block model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pin-Yu; Hero, Alfred O

    2015-03-01

    We prove the existence of an asymptotic phase-transition threshold on community detectability for the spectral modularity method [M. E. J. Newman, Phys. Rev. E 74, 036104 (2006) and Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (USA) 103, 8577 (2006)] under a stochastic block model. The phase transition on community detectability occurs as the intercommunity edge connection probability p grows. This phase transition separates a subcritical regime of small p, where modularity-based community detection successfully identifies the communities, from a supercritical regime of large p where successful community detection is impossible. We show that, as the community sizes become large, the asymptotic phase-transition threshold p* is equal to √[p1p2], where pi(i=1,2) is the within-community edge connection probability. Thus the phase-transition threshold is universal in the sense that it does not depend on the ratio of community sizes. The universal phase-transition phenomenon is validated by simulations for moderately sized communities. Using the derived expression for the phase-transition threshold, we propose an empirical method for estimating this threshold from real-world data.

  18. Multipartite entanglement characterization of a quantum phase transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantini, G.; Facchi, P.; Florio, G.; Pascazio, S.

    2007-07-01

    A probability density characterization of multipartite entanglement is tested on the one-dimensional quantum Ising model in a transverse field. The average and second moment of the probability distribution are numerically shown to be good indicators of the quantum phase transition. We comment on multipartite entanglement generation at a quantum phase transition.

  19. Multipartite entanglement characterization of a quantum phase transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costantini, G [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Facchi, P [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Florio, G [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Pascazio, S [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy)

    2007-07-13

    A probability density characterization of multipartite entanglement is tested on the one-dimensional quantum Ising model in a transverse field. The average and second moment of the probability distribution are numerically shown to be good indicators of the quantum phase transition. We comment on multipartite entanglement generation at a quantum phase transition.

  20. Effect of Parametric Dichotomic Markov Noise on the Properties of Chaotic Transitions in Dynamical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gac, J. M.; Żebrowski, J. J.

    A chaotic transition occurs when a continuous change of one of the parameters of the system causes a discontinuous change in the properties of the chaotic attractor of the system. Such phenomena are present in many dynamical systems, in which a chaotic behavior occurs. The best known of these transitions are: the period-doubling bifurcation cascade, intermittency and crises. The effect of dichotomous Markov noise (DMN) on the properties of systems with chaotic transitions is discussed. DMN is a very simple two-valued stochastic process, with constant transition rates between the two states. In spite of its simplicity, this kind of noise is a very powerful tool to describe various phenomena present in many physical, chemical or biological systems. Many interesting phenomena induced by DMN are known. However, there is no research on the effect of this kind of noise on intermittency or crises. We present the change of the mean laminar phase length and of laminar phase length distribution caused by DMN modulating the parameters of a system with intermittency and the modification of the mean life time on the pre-crisis attractor in the case of a boundary crisis. The results obtained analytically are compared with numerical simulations for several simple dynamical systems.

  1. Phase transition and frustration in nuclear physics and astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasnaoui, K.

    2008-10-01

    The thermodynamics of nuclear matter which constitutes the crust of proto-neutron stars and neutron stars is studied in this thesis. Obtaining information on the star matter thermodynamics will enhance the understanding of physical phenomena involved in the cooling of proto-neutron stars, and in the formation of type II supernovae. One of the main goals is to extract the star-matter phase diagram in order to determine if instabilities and/or critical points are present. The work is divided into two parts: in the first one classical approaches are developed, while the second one presents a quantum approach. The classical approaches are based on the Ising model and on the renormalisation group. They give us qualitative information on the phenomenology of phase transitions for star matter, and allow a discussion on the properties of the phase diagram under the generic phenomenon of Coulomb frustration. The quantum approach is based on a fermionic molecular dynamics model that we have developed from the density functional formalism, and numerically implemented using Skyrme forces optimized on neutron rich nuclei and neutron matter. This thesis work shows some first applications to the study the thermodynamics of finite nuclear systems, as well as nuclear structure calculations for light nuclei. A new formalism based on the molecular dynamics model is sketched which will ultimately allow treating the numerical quantum problem for the infinite star matter. (author)

  2. Calorimetric Study of Phase Transitions Involving Twist-Grain-Boundary TGB{A} and TGB{C} Phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navailles, L.; Garland, C. W.; Nguyen, H. T.

    1996-09-01

    High-resolution calorimetry has been used to determine the heat capacity and latent heat associated with phase transitions in the homologous series of chiral liquid crystals nF_2BTFO_1M_7 [ 3-fluoro-4(1-methylheptyloxy)4'-(4''-alkoxy-2'', 3''-difluorobenzoyloxy)tolane] . These compounds exhibit smectic-C^* (SmC^*), twist-grain-boundary (TGBA for n=10, TGBC for n=11, 12) and cholesteric (N^*) phases. All the phase transitions are first order with small to moderate latent heats. There is a large rounded excess heat capacity peak in the N^* phase that is consistent with the predicted appearance of short-range TGB order (chiral line liquid character). This is analogous to the development of an Abrikosov flux vortex liquid in type-II superconductors. Both the n=11 and 12 homologs exhibit two closely spaced transitions in the region where a single TGBC - N^* transition was expected. This suggests the existence of two thermodynamically distinct TGBC phases. Des exprériences de calorimétrie haute résolution ont été réalisées pour déterminer les chaleurs spécifiques et les chaleurs latentes associées aux transitions de phase des homologues de la série crystal liquide nF_2BTFO_1M_7: 3-fluoro-4[1-methyl-heptyloxy]4'-(4''-alcoxy-2'', 3''-difluorobenzoyloxy)tolanes. Ces produits présentent la phase smectique C^* (SmC^*), les phases à torsion par joint de grain (TGBA pour n=10 et TGBC pour n=11, 12) et la phase cholestérique (N^*). Toutes les transitions de phase sont du premier ordre. La chaleur latente associée à ces transitions est faibles ou modérée. Nous observons, dans la phase N^*, un grand pic arrondi qui est en accord avec les prédictions de l'apparition d'un ordre TGB à courte distance (liquide de ligne de dislocation). Ce phénomène est l'analogue du liquide de vortex dans les supraconducteurs de type II. Les composés n=11 et 12 présentent, dans la région où nous attendions une transition TGBC - N^* unique, deux transitions sur un très faible

  3. The problem of phase transitions in statistical mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martynov, Georgii A

    1999-01-01

    The first part of this review deals with the single-phase approach to the statistical theory of phase transitions. This approach is based on the assumption that a first-order phase transition is due to the loss of stability of the parent phase. We demonstrate that it is practically impossible to find the coordinates of the transition points using this criterion in the framework of the global Gibbs theory which describes the state of the entire macroscopic system. On the basis of the Ornstein-Zernike equation we formulate a local approach that analyzes the state of matter inside the correlation sphere of radius R c ∼ 10 A. This approach is proved to be as rigorous as the Gibbs theory. In the context of the local approach we formulate a criterion that allows finding the transition points without calculating the chemical potential and the pressure of the second conjugate phase. In the second part of the review we consider second-order phase transitions (critical phenomena). The Kadanoff-Wilson theory of critical phenomena is analyzed, based on the global Gibbs approach. Again we use the Ornstein-Zernike equation to formulate a local theory of critical phenomena. With regard to experimentally established quantities this theory yields precisely the same results as the Kadanoff-Wilson theory; secondly, the local approach allows the prediction of many previously unknown details of critical phenomena, and thirdly, the local approach paves the way for constructing a unified theory of liquids that will describe the behavior of matter not only in the regular domain of the phase diagram, but also at the critical point and in its vicinity. (reviews of topical problems)

  4. The B-L phase transition. Implications for cosmology and neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitz, Kai

    2012-07-01

    We investigate the possibility that the hot thermal phase of the early universe is ignited in consequence of the B-L phase transition, which represents the cosmological realization of the spontaneous breaking of the Abelian gauge symmetry associated with B-L, the difference between baryon number B and lepton number L. Prior to the B-L phase transition, the universe experiences a stage of hybrid inflation. Towards the end of inflation, the false vacuum of unbroken B-L symmetry decays, which entails tachyonic preheating as well as the production of cosmic strings. Observational constraints on this scenario require the B-L phase transition to take place at the scale of grand unification. The dynamics of the B-L breaking Higgs field and the B-L gauge degrees of freedom, in combination with thermal processes, generate an abundance of heavy (s)neutrinos. These (s)neutrinos decay into radiation, thereby reheating the universe, generating the baryon asymmetry of the universe and setting the stage for the thermal production of gravitinos. The B-L phase transition along with the (s)neutrino-driven reheating process hence represents an intriguing and testable mechanism to generate the initial conditions of the hot early universe. We study the B-L phase transition in the full supersymmetric Abelian Higgs model, for which we derive and discuss the Lagrangian in arbitrary and unitary gauge. As for the subsequent reheating process, we formulate the complete set of Boltzmann equations, the solutions of which enable us to give a detailed and time-resolved description of the evolution of all particle abundances during reheating. Assuming the gravitino to be the lightest superparticle (LSP), the requirement of consistency between hybrid inflation, leptogenesis and gravitino dark matter implies relations between neutrino parameters and superparticle masses, in particular a lower bound on the gravitino mass of 10GeV. As an alternative to gravitino dark matter, we consider the case of

  5. The B-L phase transition. Implications for cosmology and neutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitz, Kai

    2012-07-15

    We investigate the possibility that the hot thermal phase of the early universe is ignited in consequence of the B-L phase transition, which represents the cosmological realization of the spontaneous breaking of the Abelian gauge symmetry associated with B-L, the difference between baryon number B and lepton number L. Prior to the B-L phase transition, the universe experiences a stage of hybrid inflation. Towards the end of inflation, the false vacuum of unbroken B-L symmetry decays, which entails tachyonic preheating as well as the production of cosmic strings. Observational constraints on this scenario require the B-L phase transition to take place at the scale of grand unification. The dynamics of the B-L breaking Higgs field and the B-L gauge degrees of freedom, in combination with thermal processes, generate an abundance of heavy (s)neutrinos. These (s)neutrinos decay into radiation, thereby reheating the universe, generating the baryon asymmetry of the universe and setting the stage for the thermal production of gravitinos. The B-L phase transition along with the (s)neutrino-driven reheating process hence represents an intriguing and testable mechanism to generate the initial conditions of the hot early universe. We study the B-L phase transition in the full supersymmetric Abelian Higgs model, for which we derive and discuss the Lagrangian in arbitrary and unitary gauge. As for the subsequent reheating process, we formulate the complete set of Boltzmann equations, the solutions of which enable us to give a detailed and time-resolved description of the evolution of all particle abundances during reheating. Assuming the gravitino to be the lightest superparticle (LSP), the requirement of consistency between hybrid inflation, leptogenesis and gravitino dark matter implies relations between neutrino parameters and superparticle masses, in particular a lower bound on the gravitino mass of 10GeV. As an alternative to gravitino dark matter, we consider the case of

  6. A first-principles study of phase transitions in ultrathin films of BaTiO 3

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We determine the effects of film thickness, epitaxial strain and the nature of electrodes on ferroelectric phase transitions in ultrathin films of BaTiO3 using a first-principles effective Hamiltonian in classical molecular dynamics simulations. We present results for polarization and dielectric properties as a function of temperature ...

  7. Phase transition and intramolecular hydrogen bonding in nitro derivatives of ortho-hydroxy acetophenones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filarowski, A.; Kochel, A.; Koll, A.; Bator, G.; Mukherjee, S.

    2006-03-01

    The crystal structures of two ortho-hydroxy aryl ketones (5-chloro-3-nitro-2-hydroxyacetophenone, 5-methyl-3-nitro-2-hydroxyacetophenone and the complex 5-chloro-3-nitro-2-hydroxyacetophenone with 2-aminobenzoic acid (anthranilic acid)) were determined by X-ray diffraction. The existence of an intramolecular hydrogen bond of enol character between the hydroxyl and acetyl groups was found by the X-ray method. The enol character was also confirmed by DFT (B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p)) calculations. A phase transition was found at 138 K in 5-chloro-3-nitro-2-hydroxyacetophenone. This phase transition was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), dilatometry, and the dielectric method. A study of the nitro-group dynamics in the ortho-hydroxy acetophenones was carried out with DFT (B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p)) calculations.

  8. Phase transition in finite systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chomaz, Ph.; Duflot, V. [Grand Accelerateur National d' Ions Lourds (GANIL), 14 - Caen (France); Duflot, V.; Gulminelli, F. [Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire, LPC-ISMRa, CNRS-IN2P3, 14 - Caen (France)

    2000-07-01

    The general problem of the definition of a phase transition without employing the thermodynamical limit is addressed. Different necessary conditions are considered and illustrated with examples from different nuclear and general physics phenomenologies. (authors)

  9. Phase transition in finite systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chomaz, Ph.; Duflot, V.; Duflot, V.; Gulminelli, F.

    2000-01-01

    The general problem of the definition of a phase transition without employing the thermodynamical limit is addressed. Different necessary conditions are considered and illustrated with examples from different nuclear and general physics phenomenologies. (authors)

  10. Time resolved reflectivity measurements of the amorphous-to-gamma and gamma-to-alpha phase transitions in ion-implanted Al2O3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCallum, J.C.; Simpson, T.W.; Mitchell, I.V.

    1994-01-01

    Time resolved optical reflectivity (TRR) has been used to measure the growth kinetics associated with the amorphous-to-gamma and gamma-to-alpha phase transitions in ion-beam amorphised c-axis oriented α-Al 2 O 3 . The optical reflectivity technique allows the recrystallisation behaviour to be monitored dynamically during regrowth so that the growth kinetics associated with the two phase transitions can be measured simply and accurately from a relatively small number of samples. The amorphous-to-gamma and gamma-to-alpha phase transitions were studied over the temperature ranges of 670-770 C and 900-1070 C, respectively. The growth kinetics obtained for the two transitions are compared to previous work. ((orig.))

  11. Signatures of topological phase transitions in mesoscopic superconducting rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pientka, Falko; Romito, Alessandro; Duckheim, Mathias; Oppen, Felix von; Oreg, Yuval

    2013-01-01

    We investigate Josephson currents in mesoscopic rings with a weak link which are in or near a topological superconducting phase. As a paradigmatic example, we consider the Kitaev model of a spinless p-wave superconductor in one dimension, emphasizing how this model emerges from more realistic settings based on semiconductor nanowires. We show that the flux periodicity of the Josephson current provides signatures of the topological phase transition and the emergence of Majorana fermions (MF) situated on both sides of the weak link even when fermion parity is not a good quantum number. In large rings, the MF hybridize only across the weak link. In this case, the Josephson current is h/e periodic in the flux threading the loop when fermion parity is a good quantum number but reverts to the more conventional h/2e periodicity in the presence of fermion-parity changing relaxation processes. In mesoscopic rings, the MF also hybridize through their overlap in the interior of the superconducting ring. We find that in the topological superconducting phase, this gives rise to an h/e-periodic contribution even when fermion parity is not conserved and that this contribution exhibits a peak near the topological phase transition. This signature of the topological phase transition is robust to the effects of disorder. As a byproduct, we find that close to the topological phase transition, disorder drives the system deeper into the topological phase. This is in stark contrast to the known behavior far from the phase transition, where disorder tends to suppress the topological phase. (paper)

  12. Geometric and dynamic perspectives on phase-coherent and noncoherent chaos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yong; Donner, Reik V; Kurths, Jürgen

    2012-03-01

    Statistically distinguishing between phase-coherent and noncoherent chaotic dynamics from time series is a contemporary problem in nonlinear sciences. In this work, we propose different measures based on recurrence properties of recorded trajectories, which characterize the underlying systems from both geometric and dynamic viewpoints. The potentials of the individual measures for discriminating phase-coherent and noncoherent chaotic oscillations are discussed. A detailed numerical analysis is performed for the chaotic Rössler system, which displays both types of chaos as one control parameter is varied, and the Mackey-Glass system as an example of a time-delay system with noncoherent chaos. Our results demonstrate that especially geometric measures from recurrence network analysis are well suited for tracing transitions between spiral- and screw-type chaos, a common route from phase-coherent to noncoherent chaos also found in other nonlinear oscillators. A detailed explanation of the observed behavior in terms of attractor geometry is given.

  13. Shear induced phase transitions induced in edible fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzanti, Gianfranco; Welch, Sarah E.; Marangoni, Alejandro G.; Sirota, Eric B.; Idziak, Stefan H. J.

    2003-03-01

    The food industry crystallizes fats under different conditions of temperature and shear to obtain products with desired crystalline phases. Milk fat, palm oil, cocoa butter and chocolate were crystallized from the melt in a temperature controlled Couette cell. Synchrotron x-ray diffraction studies were conducted to examine the role of shear on the phase transitions seen in edible fats. The shear forces on the crystals induced acceleration of the alpha to beta-prime phase transition with increasing shear rate in milk fat and palm oil. The increase was slow at low shear rates and became very strong above 360 s-1. In cocoa butter the acceleration between beta-prime-III and beta-V phase transition increased until a maximum of at 360 s-1, and then decreased, showing competition between enhanced heat transfer and viscous heat generation.

  14. Structural phase transition in monolayer MoTe2 driven by electrostatic doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Xiao, Jun; Zhu, Hanyu; Li, Yao; Alsaid, Yousif; Fong, King Yan; Zhou, Yao; Wang, Siqi; Shi, Wu; Wang, Yuan; Zettl, Alex; Reed, Evan J.; Zhang, Xiang

    2017-10-01

    Monolayers of transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) exhibit numerous crystal phases with distinct structures, symmetries and physical properties. Exploring the physics of transitions between these different structural phases in two dimensions may provide a means of switching material properties, with implications for potential applications. Structural phase transitions in TMDs have so far been induced by thermal or chemical means; purely electrostatic control over crystal phases through electrostatic doping was recently proposed as a theoretical possibility, but has not yet been realized. Here we report the experimental demonstration of an electrostatic-doping-driven phase transition between the hexagonal and monoclinic phases of monolayer molybdenum ditelluride (MoTe2). We find that the phase transition shows a hysteretic loop in Raman spectra, and can be reversed by increasing or decreasing the gate voltage. We also combine second-harmonic generation spectroscopy with polarization-resolved Raman spectroscopy to show that the induced monoclinic phase preserves the crystal orientation of the original hexagonal phase. Moreover, this structural phase transition occurs simultaneously across the whole sample. This electrostatic-doping control of structural phase transition opens up new possibilities for developing phase-change devices based on atomically thin membranes.

  15. Model for pairing phase transition in atomic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiller, A.; Guttormsen, M.; Hjorth-Jensen, M.; Rekstad, J.; Siem, S.

    2002-01-01

    A model is developed which allows the investigation and classification of the pairing phase transition in atomic nuclei. The regions of the parameter space are discussed for which a pairing phase transition can be observed. The model parameters include number of particles, attenuation of pairing correlations with increasing seniority, single-particle level spacing, and pairing gap parameter

  16. Dynamics of the two-dimensional directed Ising model in the paramagnetic phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godrèche, C.; Pleimling, M.

    2014-05-01

    We consider the nonconserved dynamics of the Ising model on the two-dimensional square lattice, where each spin is influenced preferentially by its east and north neighbours. The single-spin flip rates are such that the stationary state is Gibbsian with respect to the usual ferromagnetic Ising Hamiltonian. We show the existence, in the paramagnetic phase, of a dynamical transition between two regimes of violation of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem in the nonequilibrium stationary state: a regime of weak violation where the stationary fluctuation-dissipation ratio is finite, when the asymmetry parameter is less than a threshold value, and a regime of strong violation where this ratio vanishes asymptotically above the threshold. This study suggests that this novel kind of dynamical transition in nonequilibrium stationary states, already found for the directed Ising chain and the spherical model with asymmetric dynamics, might be quite general. In contrast with the latter models, the equal-time correlation function for the two-dimensional directed Ising model depends on the asymmetry.

  17. Phase transition in a modified square Josephson-junction array

    CERN Document Server

    Han, J

    1999-01-01

    We study the phase transition in a modified square proximity-coupled Josephson-junction array with small superconducting islands at the center of each plaquette. We find that the modified square array undergoes a Kosterlitz-Thouless-Berezinskii-like phase transition, but at a lower temperature than the simple square array with the same single-junction critical current. The IV characteristics, as well as the phase transition, resemble qualitatively those of a disordered simple square array. The effects of the presence of the center islands in the modified square array are discussed.

  18. Critical parameters of Quark-Hadron phase transition with interacting and massive quarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, C.P.; Patra, B.K.

    1994-06-01

    Current techniques to simulate the dynamical behaviour of Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP) reveal that the order of the phase transition as well as the values of the critical parameters depend on the number of quark flavours as well as on the quark-masses included in the simulation. We attempt to show here the effects of the number of quark flavours and quark-masses on critical parameters by using the perturbative, finite temperature field theory to g 3 s order in the strong coupling g s . We treat the hadrons as particles with finite size and its implications on the equation of state for hadron gas are studied. We find that the critical temperature T c is lowered by 9 MeV as we move from two to three quark flavours. The nature of the phase transition always remains as first order. However, the inclusion of quark-masses in our calculation does not affect the result much. (author). 14 refs, 3 figs

  19. Gravitationally self-induced phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novello, M.; Duque, S.L.S.

    1990-01-01

    We propose a new mechanism by means of which a phase transition can be stimulated by self-gravitating matter. We suggest that this model could be used to explain the observed isotropy of the Universe. (orig.)

  20. Phase transitions in diglyceride monolayers studied by computer simulations, pressure-area isotherms and x-ray diffraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Günther H.J.; Toxværd, S.; Larsen, N.B.

    1994-01-01

    1,2-sn-diglyceride monolayers exhibit unique and complex phase transitions as a function of surface pressure. The dynamical response of the layer on expanding the film has been investigated by computer simulations, (π-A) isotherms and grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction. Good agreement is found b...

  1. Quantum phase transitions between a class of symmetry protected topological states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsui, Lokman; Jiang, Hong-Chen; Lu, Yuan-Ming; Lee, Dung-Hai

    2015-07-01

    The subject of this paper is the phase transition between symmetry protected topological states (SPTs). We consider spatial dimension d and symmetry group G so that the cohomology group, Hd+1(G,U(1)), contains at least one Z2n or Z factor. We show that the phase transition between the trivial SPT and the root states that generate the Z2n or Z groups can be induced on the boundary of a (d+1)-dimensional View the MathML source-symmetric SPT by a View the MathML source symmetry breaking field. Moreover we show these boundary phase transitions can be “transplanted” to d dimensions and realized in lattice models as a function of a tuning parameter. The price one pays is for the critical value of the tuning parameter there is an extra non-local (duality-like) symmetry. In the case where the phase transition is continuous, our theory predicts the presence of unusual (sometimes fractionalized) excitations corresponding to delocalized boundary excitations of the non-trivial SPT on one side of the transition. This theory also predicts other phase transition scenarios including first order transition and transition via an intermediate symmetry breaking phase.

  2. Superconducting phase transition in STM tips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eltschka, Matthias; Jaeck, Berthold; Assig, Maximilian; Etzkorn, Markus; Ast, Christian R. [Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, Stuttgart (Germany); Kern, Klaus [Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, Stuttgart (Germany); Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2015-07-01

    The superconducting properties of systems with dimensions comparable to the London penetration depth considerably differ from macroscopic systems. We have studied the superconducting phase transition of vanadium STM tips in external magnetic fields. Employing Maki's theory we extract the superconducting parameters such as the gap or the Zeeman splitting from differential conductance spectra. While the Zeeman splitting follows the theoretical description of a system with s=1/2 and g=2, the superconducting gaps as well as the critical fields depend on the specific tip. For a better understanding of the experimental results, we solve a one dimensional Usadel equation modeling the superconducting tip as a cone with the opening angle α in an external magnetic field. We find that only a small region at the apex of the tip is superconducting in high magnetic fields and that the order of the phase transition is directly determined by α. Further, the spectral broadening increases with α indicating an intrinsic broadening mechanism due to the conical shape of the tip. Comparing these calculations to our experimental results reveals the order of the superconducting phase transition of the STM tips.

  3. High-pressure phase transition and phase diagram of gallium arsenide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besson, J. M.; Itié, J. P.; Polian, A.; Weill, G.; Mansot, J. L.; Gonzalez, J.

    1991-09-01

    Under hydrostatic pressure, cubic GaAs-I undergoes phase transitions to at least two orthorhombic structures. The initial phase transition to GaAs-II has been investigated by optical-transmittance measurements, Raman scattering, and x-ray absorption. The structure of pressurized samples, which are retrieved at ambient, has been studied by x-ray diffraction and high-resolution diffraction microscopy. Various criteria that define the domain of stability of GaAs-I are examined, such as the occurrence of crystalline defects, the local variation in atomic coordination number, or the actual change in crystal structure. These are shown not to occur at the same pressure at 300 K, the latter being observable only several GPa above the actual thermodynamic instability pressure of GaAs-I. Comparison of the evolution of these parameters on increasing and decreasing pressure locates the thermodynamic transition region GaAs-I-->GaAs-II at 12+/-1.5 GPa and at 300 K that is lower than generally reported. The use of thermodynamic relations around the triple point, and of regularities in the properties of isoelectronic and isostructural III-V compounds, yields a phase diagram for GaAs which is consistent with this value.

  4. Van der Waals phase transition in the framework of holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, Xiao-Xiong; Li, Li-Fang

    2017-01-01

    Phase structure of the quintessence Reissner–Nordström–AdS black hole is probed by the nonlocal observables such as holographic entanglement entropy and two point correlation function. Our result shows that, as the case of the thermal entropy, both the observables exhibit the Van der Waals-like phase transition. To reinforce this conclusion, we further check the equal area law for the first order phase transition and critical exponent of the heat capacity for the second order phase transition. We also discuss the effect of the state parameter on the phase structure of the nonlocal observables.

  5. Van der Waals phase transition in the framework of holography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Xiao-Xiong, E-mail: xxzeng@itp.ac.cn [State School of Material Science and Engineering, Chongqing Jiaotong University, Chongqing 400074 (China); Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Li, Li-Fang, E-mail: lilf@itp.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Space Weather, National Space Science Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2017-01-10

    Phase structure of the quintessence Reissner–Nordström–AdS black hole is probed by the nonlocal observables such as holographic entanglement entropy and two point correlation function. Our result shows that, as the case of the thermal entropy, both the observables exhibit the Van der Waals-like phase transition. To reinforce this conclusion, we further check the equal area law for the first order phase transition and critical exponent of the heat capacity for the second order phase transition. We also discuss the effect of the state parameter on the phase structure of the nonlocal observables.

  6. Van der Waals phase transition in the framework of holography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Xiong Zeng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Phase structure of the quintessence Reissner–Nordström–AdS black hole is probed by the nonlocal observables such as holographic entanglement entropy and two point correlation function. Our result shows that, as the case of the thermal entropy, both the observables exhibit the Van der Waals-like phase transition. To reinforce this conclusion, we further check the equal area law for the first order phase transition and critical exponent of the heat capacity for the second order phase transition. We also discuss the effect of the state parameter on the phase structure of the nonlocal observables.

  7. Moessbauer study of phase transitions under high hydrostatic pressures. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapitanov, E.V.; Yakovlev, E.N.

    1979-01-01

    Experimental results of the hydrostatic pressure influence on Moessbauer spectrum parameters are obtained over the pressure range including the area of structural phase transition. A linear increase of the Moessbauer effect probability (recoilless fraction) is accompanied by a linear decrease of the electron density at tin nuclei within the pressure range foregoing the phase transition. The electric resistance and the recoilless fraction of the new phase of Mg 2 Sn are lower, but the electron density at tin nuclei is greater than the initial phase ones. Hydrostatic conditions allow to fix clearly the diphasic transition area and to determine the influence of the pressure on the Moessbauer line position and on the recoilless fraction of the high pressure phase. The phase transition heat Q = 415 cal mol -1 is calculated using recoilless fractions of the high and low pressure phases at 25 kbar. The present results are qualitatively and quantitatively different from the results, obtained at nonhydrostatic conditions. (author)

  8. X-ray diffraction and molecular-dynamics studies: Structural analysis of phases in diglyceride monolayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Günther H.J.; Larsen, Niels Bent; Bjørnholm, T.

    1998-01-01

    We report a detailed structural analysis of the phases of 1,2-sn-dipalmitoylglycerol Langmuir monolayers at room temperature. Pressure-induced transitions have been investigated by combination of molecular-dynamics simulations and grazing-incidence x-ray diffraction (XRD). The diglyceride film...... undergoes two phase transitions occurring at 38.3 and 39.8 Angstrom(2)/molecule. Simulation indicates that the first transition involves a reorientation of the headgroups while simulation and XRD show that in the second transition the order parameter is the tilt angle of the alkyl chains. A methodology......; At the lowest pressure the tilt angle reaches approximate to 14 degrees in a direction close to a nearest neighbor direction. Both arrangements of the alkyl chains are confirmed by XRD. For higher order and fractional order Bragg peaks, simulations predict higher intensities than observed with XRD. This may...

  9. Continuous Easy-Plane Deconfined Phase Transition on the Kagome Lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xue-Feng; He, Yin-Chen; Eggert, Sebastian; Moessner, Roderich; Pollmann, Frank

    2018-03-01

    We use large scale quantum Monte Carlo simulations to study an extended Hubbard model of hard core bosons on the kagome lattice. In the limit of strong nearest-neighbor interactions at 1 /3 filling, the interplay between frustration and quantum fluctuations leads to a valence bond solid ground state. The system undergoes a quantum phase transition to a superfluid phase as the interaction strength is decreased. It is still under debate whether the transition is weakly first order or represents an unconventional continuous phase transition. We present a theory in terms of an easy plane noncompact C P1 gauge theory describing the phase transition at 1 /3 filling. Utilizing large scale quantum Monte Carlo simulations with parallel tempering in the canonical ensemble up to 15552 spins, we provide evidence that the phase transition is continuous at exactly 1 /3 filling. A careful finite size scaling analysis reveals an unconventional scaling behavior hinting at deconfined quantum criticality.

  10. Photoinduced charge transfer phase transition in cesium manganese hexacyanoferrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Tomoyuki; Tokoro, Hiroko; Hashimoto, Kazuhito; Ohkoshi, Shin-ichi

    2007-01-01

    Cesium manganese hexacyanoferrate, Cs 1.51 Mn[Fe(CN) 6 ], shows a thermal phase transition between Mn II -NC-Fe III [high-temperature (HT) phase] and Mn III -NC-Fe II [low-temperature (LT) phase] with phase transition temperatures of 170 K (HT→LT) and 230 K (LT→HT). The LT phase shows ferromagnetism with Curie temperature of 7 K and coercive field of 60 Oe. Irradiating with 532 nm laser light converts the LT phase into the photoinduced (PI) phase, which does not have spontaneous magnetization. The electronic state of the PI phase corresponds to that of the HT phase and the relaxation temperature from the PI to the LT phase is observed at 90 K

  11. Dual-comb spectroscopy of molecular electronic transitions in condensed phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Byungmoon; Yoon, Tai Hyun; Cho, Minhaeng

    2018-03-01

    Dual-comb spectroscopy (DCS) utilizes two phase-locked optical frequency combs to allow scanless acquisition of spectra using only a single point detector. Although recent DCS measurements demonstrate rapid acquisition of absolutely calibrated spectral lines with unprecedented precision and accuracy, complex phase-locking schemes and multiple coherent averaging present significant challenges for widespread adoption of DCS. Here, we demonstrate Global Positioning System (GPS) disciplined DCS of a molecular electronic transition in solution at around 800 nm, where the absorption spectrum is recovered by using a single time-domain interferogram. We anticipate that this simplified dual-comb technique with absolute time interval measurement and ultrabroad bandwidth will allow adoption of DCS to tackle molecular dynamics investigation through its implementation in time-resolved nonlinear spectroscopic studies and coherent multidimensional spectroscopy of coupled chromophore systems.

  12. The Physics of Structural Phase Transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Fujimoto, Minoru

    2005-01-01

    Phase transitions in which crystalline solids undergo structural changes present an interesting problem in the interplay between the crystal structure and the ordering process that is typically nonlinear. Intended for readers with prior knowledge of basic condensed-matter physics, this book emphasizes the physics behind spontaneous structural changes in crystals. Starting with the relevant thermodynamic principles, the text discusses the nature of order variables in collective motion in structural phase transitions, where a singularity in such a collective mode is responsible for lattice instability as revealed by soft phonons. In this book, critical anomalies at second-order structural transitions are first analyzed with the condensate model. Discussions on the nonlinear ordering mechanism are followed with the soliton theory, thereby interpreting the role of long-range order. Relevant details for nonlinear mathematics are therefore given for minimum necessity. The text also discusses experimental methods fo...

  13. Temperature-dependent Raman and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy studies on phase transition behavior of VO{sub 2} films with M1 and M2 phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okimura, Kunio, E-mail: okifn@keyaki.cc.u-tokai.ac.jp; Hanis Azhan, Nurul [Graduate School of Engineering, Tokai University, Hiratsuka 259-1292 (Japan); Hajiri, Tetsuya [UVSOR Facility, Institute for Molecular Science, Okazaki 444-8585 (Japan); Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Kimura, Shin-ichi [UVSOR Facility, Institute for Molecular Science, Okazaki 444-8585 (Japan); Graduate School of Frontier Biosciences, Osaka University, Suita 565-0871 (Japan); Zaghrioui, Mustapha; Sakai, Joe [GREMAN, UMR 7347 CNRS, Université François Rabelais de Tours, Parc de Grandmont, 37200 Tours (France)

    2014-04-21

    Structural and electronic phase transitions behavior of two polycrystalline VO{sub 2} films, one with pure M1 phase and the other with pure M2 phase at room temperature, were investigated by temperature-controlled Raman spectroscopy and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS). We observed characteristic transient dynamics in which the Raman modes at 195 cm{sup −1} (V-V vibration) and 616 cm{sup −1} (V-O vibration) showed remarkable hardening along the temperature in M1 phase film, indicating the rearrangements of V-V pairs and VO{sub 6} octahedra. It was also shown that the M1 Raman mode frequency approached those of invariant M2 peaks before entering rutile phase. In UPS spectra with high energy resolution of 0.03 eV for the M2 phase film, narrower V{sub 3d} band was observed together with smaller gap compared to those of M1 phase film, supporting the nature of Mott insulator of M2 phase even in the polycrystalline film. Cooperative behavior of lattice rearrangements and electronic phase transition was suggested for M1 phase film.

  14. Dynamic Monte Carlo Simulations of Phase Ordering in Br Electrosorption on Ag(100)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, S. J.; Brown, G.; Rikvold, P. A.

    2000-03-01

    We study the dynamics of Br electrosorption on single-crystal Ag(100) by Monte Carlo simulation. The system has a second-order phase transition from a low-coverage disordered phase at more negative potentials to a doubly degenerate c(2× 2) ordered phase at more positive potentials.(B.M. Ocko, et al.), Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 1511 (1997). Effective lateral interactions were estimated by fitting equilibrium Monte Carlo isotherms to experiments. These are well described by nearest-neighbor exclusion and repulsive 1/r^3 interactions.(M.T.M. Koper, J. Electroanal. Chem. 450), 189 (1997). Considering adsorption/desorption and diffusion with barriers estimated from ab-initio calculations,(A. Ignaczak and J.A.N.F. Gomes, J. Electroanal. Chem. 420), 71 (1997). we simulate the time dependent Br coverage, order parameter, and x-ray scattering intensity following sudden potential steps across the phase boundary. For steps far into the ordered phase, dynamical scaling is observed. For smaller steps, the dynamics are more complicated. We also analyze hysteresis in a simulated cyclic-voltammetry experiment. Movies at http://www.scri.fsu.edu/ ~mitchell/.

  15. Role of relativity in high-pressure phase transitions of thallium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotmool, Komsilp; Chakraborty, Sudip; Bovornratanaraks, Thiti; Ahuja, Rajeev

    2017-02-20

    We demonstrate the relativistic effects in high-pressure phase transitions of heavy element thallium. The known first phase transition from h.c.p. to f.c.c. is initially investigated by various relativistic levels and exchange-correlation functionals as implemented in FPLO method, as well as scalar relativistic scheme within PAW formalism. The electronic structure calculations are interpreted from the perspective of energetic stability and electronic density of states. The full relativistic scheme (FR) within L(S)DA performs to be the scheme that resembles mostly with experimental results with a transition pressure of 3 GPa. The s-p hybridization and the valence-core overlapping of 6s and 5d states are the primary reasons behind the f.c.c. phase occurrence. A recent proposed phase, i.e., a body-centered tetragonal (b.c.t.) phase, is confirmed with a small distortion from the f.c.c. phase. We have also predicted a reversible b.c.t. → f.c.c. phase transition at 800 GPa. This finding has been suggested that almost all the III-A elements (Ga, In and Tl) exhibit the b.c.t. → f.c.c. phase transition at extremely high pressure.

  16. B1-B2 phase transition mechanism and pathway of PbS under pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeleke, Adebayo A.; Yao, Yansun

    2018-03-01

    Experimental studies at finite Pressure-Temperature (P-T) conditions and a theoretical study at 0 K of the phase transition in lead sulphide (PbS) have been inconclusive. Many studies that have been done to understand structural transformation in PbS can broadly be classified into two main ideological streams—one with Pnma and another with Cmcm orthorhombic intermediate phase. To foster better understanding of this phenomenon, we present the result of the first-principles study of phase transition in PbS at finite temperature. We employed the particle swarm-intelligence optimization algorithm for the 0 K structure search and first-principles metadynamics simulations to study the phase transition pathway of PbS from the ambient pressure, 0 K Fm-3m structure to the high-pressure Pm-3m phase under experimentally achievable P-T conditions. Significantly, our calculation shows that both streams are achievable under specific P-T conditions. We further uncover new tetragonal and monoclinic structures of PbS with space group P21/c and I41/amd, respectively. We propose the P21/c and I41/amd as a precursor phase to the Pnma and Cmcm phases, respectively. We investigated the stability of the new structures and found them to be dynamically stable at their stability pressure range. Electronic structure calculations reveal that both P21/c and I41/amd phases are semiconducting with direct and indirect bandgap energies of 0.69(5) eV and 0.97(3) eV, respectively. In general, both P21/c and I41/amd phases were found to be energetically competitive with their respective orthorhombic successors.

  17. Phase transitions in a vortex gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, P.A.

    1995-01-01

    It has been shown recently that the motion of solitons at couplings around a critical coupling can be reduced to the dynamics of particles (the zeros of the Higgs field) on a curved manifold with potential. The curvature gives a velocity-dependent force, and the magnitude of the potential is proportional to the distance from a critical coupling. In this paper we apply this approximation to determining the equation of state of a gas of vortices in the abelian Higgs model. We derive a virial expansion using certain known integrals of the metric, and the second virial coefficient is calculated, determining the behaviour of the gas at low densities. A formula for determining higher-order coefficients is given. At low densities and temperatures T >>λ the equation of state is of the Van der Waals form (P+b N 2 /A 2 )(A-aN) = NT with a=4π and b=-4.89πλ where λ is a measure of the distance from critical coupling. It is found that there is no phase transition in a low-density type-II gas, but there is a transition in the type-I case between a condensed and gaseous state. We conclude with a discussion of the relation of our results to vortex behaviour in superconductors. ((orig.))

  18. From a Single-Band Metal to a High-Temperature Superconductor via Two Thermal Phase Transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, R.-H.; Hashimoto, M.; Karapetyan, H.; Koralek, J.D.; Hinton, J.P.; Testaud, J.P.; Nathan, V.; Yoshida, Y.; Yao, H.; Tanaka, K.; Meevasana, W.; Moore, R.G.; Lu, D.H.; Mo, S.-K.; Ishikado, M.; Eisaki, H.; Hussain, Z.; Devereaux, T.P.; Kivelson, S.A.; Orenstein, J.; Kapitulnik, A.

    2011-11-08

    The nature of the pseudogap phase of cuprate high-temperature superconductors is one of the most important unsolved problems in condensed matter physics. We studied the commencement of the pseudogap state at temperature T* using three different techniques (angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, polar Kerr effect, and time-resolved reflectivity) on the same optimally-doped Bi2201 crystals. We observe the coincident onset at T* of a particle-hole asymmetric antinodal gap, a non-zero Kerr rotation, and a change in the relaxational dynamics, consistent with a phase transition. Upon further cooling, spectroscopic signatures of superconductivity begin to grow close to the superconducting transition temperature (T{sub c}), entangled in an energy-momentum dependent fashion with the pre-existing pseudogap features.

  19. Pressure-induced phase transitions in nanocrystalline ReO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswas, Kanishka; Muthu, D V S; Sood, A K; Kruger, M B; Chen, B; Rao, C N R

    2007-01-01

    Pressure-induced phase transitions in the nanocrystals of ReO 3 with an average diameter of ∼12 nm have been investigated in detail by using synchrotron x-ray diffraction and the results compared with the literature data of bulk samples of ReO 3 . The study shows that the ambient-pressure cubic I phase (space group Pm3-barm) transforms to a monoclinic phase (space group C 2/c), then to a rhombohedral I phase (space group R3-barc), and finally to another rhombohedral phase (rhombohedral II, space group R3-barc) with increasing pressure over the 0.0-20.3 GPa range. The cubic I to monoclinic transition is associated with the largest volume change (∼5%), indicative of a reconstructive transition. The transition pressures are generally lower than those known for bulk ReO 3 . The cubic II (Im3-bar) or tetragonal (P4/mbm) phases do not occur at lower pressures. The nanocrystals are found to be more compressible than bulk ReO 3 . On decompression to ambient pressure, the structure does not revert back to the cubic I structure

  20. A stress-induced phase transition model for semi-crystallize shape memory polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaogang; Zhou, Bo; Liu, Liwu; Liu, Yanju; Leng, Jinsong

    2014-03-01

    The developments of constitutive models for shape memory polymer (SMP) have been motivated by its increasing applications. During cooling or heating process, the phase transition which is a continuous time-dependent process happens in semi-crystallize SMP and the various individual phases form at different temperature and in different configuration. Then, the transformation between these phases occurred and shape memory effect will emerge. In addition, stress applied on SMP is an important factor for crystal melting during phase transition. In this theory, an ideal phase transition model considering stress or pre-strain is the key to describe the behaviors of shape memory effect. So a normal distributed model was established in this research to characterize the volume fraction of each phase in SMP during phase transition. Generally, the experiment results are partly backward (in heating process) or forward (in cooling process) compared with the ideal situation considering delay effect during phase transition. So, a correction on the normal distributed model is needed. Furthermore, a nonlinear relationship between stress and phase transition temperature Tg is also taken into account for establishing an accurately normal distributed phase transition model. Finally, the constitutive model which taking the stress as an influence factor on phase transition was also established. Compared with the other expressions, this new-type model possesses less parameter and is more accurate. For the sake of verifying the rationality and accuracy of new phase transition and constitutive model, the comparisons between the simulated and experimental results were carried out.

  1. Third-order gas-liquid phase transition and the nature of Andrews critical point

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Ma

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this article is to study the nature of the Andrews critical point in the gas-liquid transition in a physical-vapor transport (PVT system. A dynamical model, consistent with the van der Waals equation near the Andrews critical point, is derived. With this model, we deduce two physical parameters, which interact exactly at the Andrews critical point, and which dictate the dynamic transition behavior near the Andrews critical point. In particular, it is shown that 1 the gas-liquid co-existence curve can be extended beyond the Andrews critical point, and 2 the transition is first order before the critical point, second-order at the critical point, and third order beyond the Andrews critical point. This clearly explains why it is hard to observe the gas-liquid phase transition beyond the Andrews critical point. Furthermore, the analysis leads naturally the introduction of a general asymmetry principle of fluctuations and the preferred transition mechanism for a thermodynamic system. The theoretical results derived in this article are in agreement with the experimental results obtained in (K. Nishikawa and T. Morita, Fluid behavior at supercritical states studied by small-angle X-ray scattering, Journal of Supercritical Fluid, 13 (1998, pp. 143-148. Also, the derived second-order transition at the critical point is consistent with the result obtained in (M. Fisher, Specific heat of a gas near the critical point, Physical Review, 136:6A (1964, pp. A1599-A1604.

  2. Phase transitions in nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glendenning, N.K.

    1984-11-01

    The rather general circumstances under which a phase transition in hadronic matter at finite temperature to an abnormal phase in which baryon effective masses become small and in which copious baryon-antibaryon pairs appear is emphasized. A preview is also given of a soliton model of dense matter, in which at a density of about seven times nuclear density, matter ceases to be a color insulator and becomes increasingly color conducting. 22 references

  3. Phase transitions and quantum entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arrachea, L.; Canosa, N.; Plastino, A.; Portesi, M.; Rossignoli, R.

    1990-01-01

    An examination is made of the possibility to predict phase transitions of the fundamental state of finite quantum system, knowing the quantum entropy of these states, defined on the basis of the information theory. (Author). 7 refs., 3 figs

  4. An objective indicator for two-phase flow pattern transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hervieu, E.; Seleghim, P. Jr.

    1998-01-01

    This work concerns the development of a methodology which objective is to characterize and diagnose two-phase flow regime transitions. The approach is based on the fundamental assumption that a transition flow is less stationary than a flow with an established regime. In a first time, the efforts focused on: the design and construction of an experimental loop, allowing to reproduce the main horizontal two-phase flow patterns, in a stable and controlled way; the design and construction of an electrical impedance probe, providing an imaged information of the spatial phase distribution in the pipe; the systematic study of the joint time-frequency and time-scale analysis methods, which permitted to define an adequate parameter quantifying the unstationarity degree. In a second time, in order to verify the fundamental assumption, a series of experiments were conducted, which objective was to demonstrate the correlation between unstationarity and regime transition. The unstationarity degree was quantified by calculating the Gabor's transform time-frequency covariance of the impedance probe signals. Furthermore, the phenomenology of each transition was characterized by the joint moments and entropy. The results clearly show that the regime transitions are correlated with local time-frequency covariance peaks, which demonstrates that these regime transitions are characterized by a loss of stationarity. Consequently, the time-frequency covariance constitutes an objective two-phase flow regime transition indicator. (author)

  5. Multiple phase transitions in the generalized Curie-Weiss model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisele, T.; Ellis, R.S.

    1988-01-01

    The generalized Curie-Weiss model is an extension of the classical Curie-Weiss model in which the quadratic interaction function of the mean spin value is replaced by a more general interaction function. It is shown that the generalized Curie-Weiss model can have a sequence of phase transitions at different critical temperatures. Both first-order and second-order phase transitions can occur, and explicit criteria for the two types are given. Three examples of generalized Curie-Weiss models are worked out in detail, including one example with infinitely many phase transitions. A number of results are derived using large-deviation techniques

  6. Time-resolved dynamics of nanosecond laser-induced phase explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porneala, Cristian; Willis, David A

    2009-01-01

    Visualization of Nd : YAG laser ablation of aluminium targets was performed by a shadowgraph apparatus capable of imaging the dynamics of ablation with nanosecond time resolution. Direct observations of vaporization, explosive phase change and shock waves were obtained. The influence of vaporization and phase explosion on shock wave velocity was directly measured. A significant increase in the shock wave velocity was observed at the onset of phase explosion. However, the shock wave behaviour followed the form of a Taylor-Sedov spherical shock below and above the explosive phase change threshold. The jump in the shock wave velocity above phase explosion threshold is attributed to the release of stored enthalpy in the superheated liquid surface. The energy released during phase explosion was estimated by fitting the transient shock wave position to the Taylor scaling rules. Results of temperature calculations indicate that the vapour temperature at the phase explosion threshold is slightly higher than the critical temperature at the early stages of the shock wave formation. The shock wave pressure nearly doubled when transitioning from normal vaporization to phase explosion.

  7. Phase transitions in Pareto optimal complex networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seoane, Luís F; Solé, Ricard

    2015-09-01

    The organization of interactions in complex systems can be described by networks connecting different units. These graphs are useful representations of the local and global complexity of the underlying systems. The origin of their topological structure can be diverse, resulting from different mechanisms including multiplicative processes and optimization. In spatial networks or in graphs where cost constraints are at work, as it occurs in a plethora of situations from power grids to the wiring of neurons in the brain, optimization plays an important part in shaping their organization. In this paper we study network designs resulting from a Pareto optimization process, where different simultaneous constraints are the targets of selection. We analyze three variations on a problem, finding phase transitions of different kinds. Distinct phases are associated with different arrangements of the connections, but the need of drastic topological changes does not determine the presence or the nature of the phase transitions encountered. Instead, the functions under optimization do play a determinant role. This reinforces the view that phase transitions do not arise from intrinsic properties of a system alone, but from the interplay of that system with its external constraints.

  8. Time-dependent Hartree-Fock dynamics and phase transition in Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kan, K.; Lichtner, P.C.; Dworzecka, M.; Griffin, J.J.

    1980-01-01

    The time-dependent Hartree-Fock solutions of the two-level Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick model are studied by transforming the time-dependent Hartree-Fock equations into Hamilton's canonical form and analyzing the qualitative structure of the Hartree-Fock energy surface in the phase space. It is shown that as the interaction strength increases these time-dependent Hartree-Fock solutions undergo a qualitative change associated with the ground state phase transition previously studied in terms of coherent states. For two-body interactions stronger than the critical value, two types of time-dependent Hartree-Fock solutions (the ''librations'' and ''rotations'' in Hamilton's mechanics) exist simultaneously, while for weaker interactions only the rotations persist. It is also shown that the coherent states with the maximum total pseudospin value are determinants, so that time-dependent Hartree-Fock analysis is equivalent to the coherent state method

  9. Geometry-induced phase transition in fluids: capillary prewetting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatsyshin, Petr; Savva, Nikos; Kalliadasis, Serafim

    2013-02-01

    We report a new first-order phase transition preceding capillary condensation and corresponding to the discontinuous formation of a curved liquid meniscus. Using a mean-field microscopic approach based on the density functional theory we compute the complete phase diagram of a prototypical two-dimensional system exhibiting capillary condensation, namely that of a fluid with long-ranged dispersion intermolecular forces which is spatially confined by a substrate forming a semi-infinite rectangular pore exerting long-ranged dispersion forces on the fluid. In the T-μ plane the phase line of the new transition is tangential to the capillary condensation line at the capillary wetting temperature T(cw). The surface phase behavior of the system maps to planar wetting with the phase line of the new transition, termed capillary prewetting, mapping to the planar prewetting line. If capillary condensation is approached isothermally with T>T(cw), the meniscus forms at the capping wall and unbinds continuously, making capillary condensation a second-order phenomenon. We compute the corresponding critical exponent for the divergence of adsorption.

  10. Contact line motion in confined liquid–gas systems: Slip versus phase transition

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Xinpeng

    2010-11-30

    In two-phase flows, the interface intervening between the two fluid phases intersects the solid wall at the contact line. A classical problem in continuum fluid mechanics is the incompatibility between the moving contact line and the no-slip boundary condition, as the latter leads to a nonintegrable stress singularity. Recently, various diffuse-interface models have been proposed to explain the contact line motion using mechanisms missing from the sharp-interface treatments in fluid mechanics. In one-component two-phase (liquid–gas) systems, the contact line can move through the mass transport across the interface while in two-component (binary) fluids, the contact line can move through diffusive transport across the interface. While these mechanisms alone suffice to remove the stress singularity, the role of fluid slip at solid surface needs to be taken into account as well. In this paper, we apply the diffuse-interface modeling to the study of contact line motion in one-component liquid–gas systems, with the fluid slip fully taken into account. The dynamic van der Waals theory has been presented for one-component fluids, capable of describing the two-phase hydrodynamics involving the liquid–gas transition [A. Onuki, Phys. Rev. E 75, 036304 (2007)]. This theory assumes the local equilibrium condition at the solid surface for density and also the no-slip boundary condition for velocity. We use its hydrodynamicequations to describe the continuum hydrodynamics in the bulk region and derive the more general boundary conditions by introducing additional dissipative processes at the fluid–solid interface. The positive definiteness of entropy production rate is the guiding principle of our derivation. Numerical simulations based on a finite-difference algorithm have been carried out to investigate the dynamic effects of the newly derived boundary conditions, showing that the contact line can move through both phase transition and slip, with their relative

  11. Study of dynamic strain aging in dual phase steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queiroz, R.R.U.; Cunha, F.G.G.; Gonzalez, B.M.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Characterization of the high temperature mechanical behavior of a dual phase steel. ► Determination of the effect of dynamic strain aging on the strain hardening rate. ► Identification of the mechanism associated with dynamic strain aging. ► The value of the interaction energy carbon–dislocation in ferrite was confirmed. - Abstract: The susceptibility to dynamic strain aging of a dual phase steel was evaluated by the variation of mechanical properties in tension with the temperature and the strain rate. The tensile tests were performed at temperatures varying between 25 °C and 600 °C and at strain rates ranging from 10 −2 to 5 × 10 −4 s −1 . The studied steel presented typical manifestations related to dynamic strain aging: serrated flow (the Portevin–Le Chatelier effect) for certain combinations of temperature and strain rates; the presence of a plateau in the variation of yield stress with temperature; a maximum in the curves of tensile strength, flow stress, and work hardening exponent as a function of temperature; and a minimum in the variation of total elongation with temperature. The determined apparent activation energy values, associated with the beginning of the Portevin–Le Chatelier effect and the maximum in the variation of flow stress with temperature, were 83 kJ/mol and 156 kJ/mol, respectively. These values suggest that the mechanism responsible for dynamic strain aging in the dual phase steel is the locking of dislocations by carbon atoms in ferrite and that the formation of clusters and/or transition carbides and carbide precipitation in martensite do not interfere with the dynamic strain aging process.

  12. Polymorphic phase transitions: Macroscopic theory and molecular simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, Jamshed; Zahn, Dirk

    2017-08-01

    Transformations in the solid state are of considerable interest, both for fundamental reasons and because they underpin important technological applications. The interest spans a wide spectrum of disciplines and application domains. For pharmaceuticals, a common issue is unexpected polymorphic transformation of the drug or excipient during processing or on storage, which can result in product failure. A more ambitious goal is that of exploiting the advantages of metastable polymorphs (e.g. higher solubility and dissolution rate) while ensuring their stability with respect to solid state transformation. To address these issues and to advance technology, there is an urgent need for significant insights that can only come from a detailed molecular level understanding of the involved processes. Whilst experimental approaches at best yield time- and space-averaged structural information, molecular simulation offers unprecedented, time-resolved molecular-level resolution of the processes taking place. This review aims to provide a comprehensive and critical account of state-of-the-art methods for modelling polymorph stability and transitions between solid phases. This is flanked by revisiting the associated macroscopic theoretical framework for phase transitions, including their classification, proposed molecular mechanisms, and kinetics. The simulation methods are presented in tutorial form, focusing on their application to phase transition phenomena. We describe molecular simulation studies for crystal structure prediction and polymorph screening, phase coexistence and phase diagrams, simulations of crystal-crystal transitions of various types (displacive/martensitic, reconstructive and diffusive), effects of defects, and phase stability and transitions at the nanoscale. Our selection of literature is intended to illustrate significant insights, concepts and understanding, as well as the current scope of using molecular simulations for understanding polymorphic

  13. Extracellular ice phase transitions in insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawes, T C

    2014-01-01

    At temperatures below their temperature of crystallization (Tc), the extracellular body fluids of insects undergo a phase transition from liquid to solid. Insects that survive the transition to equilibrium (complete freezing of the body fluids) are designated as freeze tolerant. Although this phenomenon has been reported and described in many Insecta, current nomenclature and theory does not clearly delineate between the process of transition (freezing) and the final solid phase itself (the frozen state). Thus freeze tolerant insects are currently, by convention, described in terms of the temperature at which the crystallization of their body fluids is initiated, Tc. In fact, the correct descriptor for insects that tolerate freezing is the temperature of equilibrium freezing, Tef. The process of freezing is itself a separate physical event with unique physiological stresses that are associated with ice growth. Correspondingly there are a number of insects whose physiological cryo-limits are very specifically delineated by this transitional envelope. The distinction also has considerable significance for our understanding of insect cryobiology: firstly, because the ability to manage endogenous ice growth is a fundamental segregator of cryotype; and secondly, because our understanding of internal ice management is still largely nascent.

  14. Holography and the Electroweak Phase Transition

    CERN Document Server

    Creminelli, Paolo; Rattazzi, Riccardo; Creminelli, Paolo; Nicolis, Alberto; Rattazzi, Riccardo

    2002-01-01

    We study through holography the compact Randall-Sundrum (RS) model at finite temperature. In the presence of radius stabilization, the system is described at low enough temperature by the RS solution. At high temperature it is described by the AdS-Schwarzshild solution with an event horizon replacing the TeV brane. We calculate the transition temperature T_c between the two phases and we find it to be somewhat smaller than the TeV scale. Assuming that the Universe starts out at T >> T_c and cools down by expansion, we study the rate of the transition to the RS phase. We find that the transition is too slow and the Universe ends up in an old inflation scenario unless tight bounds are satisfied by the model parameters. In particular we find that the AdS curvature must be comparable to the 5D Planck mass and that the radius stabilization mechanism must lead to a sizeable distortion of the basic RS metric.

  15. Phase transition approach to bursting in neuronal cultures: quorum percolation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monceau, P.; Renault, R.; Métens, S.; Bottani, S.; Fardet, T.

    2017-10-01

    The Quorum Percolation model has been designed in the context of neurobiology to describe bursts of activity occurring in neuronal cultures from the point of view of statistical physics rather than from a dynamical synchronization approach. It is based upon information propagation on a directed graph with a threshold activation rule; this leads to a phase diagram which exhibits a giant percolation cluster below some critical value mC of the excitability. We describe the main characteristics of the original model and derive extensions according to additional relevant biological features. Firstly, we investigate the effects of an excitability variability on the phase diagram and show that the percolation transition can be destroyed by a sufficient amount of such a disorder; we stress the weakly averaging character of the order parameter and show that connectivity and excitability can be seen as two overlapping aspects of the same reality. Secondly, we elaborate a discrete time stochastic model taking into account the decay originating from ionic leakage through the membrane of neurons and synaptic depression; we give evidence that the decay softens and shifts the transition, and conjecture than decay destroys the transition in the thermodynamical limit. We were able to develop mean-field theories associated with each of the two effects; we discuss the framework of their agreement with Monte Carlo simulations. It turns out that the the critical point mC from which information on the connectivity of the network can be inferred is affected by each of these additional effects. Lastly, we show how dynamical simulations of bursts with an adaptive exponential integrateand- fire model can be interpreted in terms of Quorum Percolation. Moreover, the usefulness of the percolation model including the set of sophistication we investigated can be extended to many scientific fields involving information propagation, such as the spread of rumors in sociology, ethology, ecology.

  16. No Hawking-Page phase transition in three dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myung, Y.S.

    2005-01-01

    We investigate whether or not the Hawking-Page phase transition is possible to occur in three dimensions. Starting with the simplest class of Lanczos-Lovelock action, thermodynamic behavior of all AdS-type black holes without charge falls into two classes: Schwarzschild-AdS black holes in even dimensions and Chern-Simons black holes in odd dimensions. The former class can provide the Hawking-Page transition between Schwarzschild-AdS black holes and thermal AdS space. On the other hand, the latter class is exceptional and thus the Hawking-Page transition is hard to occur. In three dimensions, a second-order phase transition might occur between the non-rotating BTZ black hole and the massless BTZ black hole (thermal AdS space), instead of the first-order Hawking-Page transition between the non-rotating BTZ black hole and thermal AdS space

  17. Homogeneous magnetic relaxation in iron-yttrium garnets in the vicinity of a phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luzyanin, I.D.; Khavronin, V.P.

    1977-01-01

    Results are presented of an experimental investigation of the dynamics of homogeneous magnetization during a phase transition of the second kind in iron-yttrium garnet (IYG) single crystals of various shapes. It is shown that homogeneous relaxation significantly depends on both the magnitude of 4πchisub(st) (chisub(st) is static magnetic susceptibility) as well as on the relation between the variable field frequency (at which the investigation is carried out) and the characteristic energies. It is shown that beginning from temperatures such as 4πchisub(st) approximately 1, the characteristic dipole interaction energy becomes frequency dependent; this indicates that in this case Lorentz coupling between the dynamic susceptibility and homogeneous relaxation time is invalid. This is a principle point in investigations of homogeneous relaxation by radio-frequency techniques. The temperature dependence of the homogeneous relaxation time and static susceptibility is determined in the exchange region. It is found that the phase transition in IYG involves anomalous phenomena which manifest in release and absorption of heat by a sample and in the appearance of additional singularities in the temperature dependence of the homogeneous relaxation time

  18. Structural phase transitions in niobium oxide nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)