Exceptional Points and Dynamical Phase Transitions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
I. Rotter
2010-01-01
Full Text Available In the framework of non-Hermitian quantum physics, the relation between exceptional points,dynamical phase transitions and the counter intuitive behavior of quantum systems at high level density is considered. The theoretical results obtained for open quantum systems and proven experimentally some years ago on a microwave cavity, may explain environmentally induce deffects (including dynamical phase transitions, which have been observed in various experimental studies. They also agree(qualitatively with the experimental results reported recently in PT symmetric optical lattices.
Dynamical quantum phase transitions (Review Article)
Zvyagin, A. A.
2016-11-01
During recent years the interest to dynamics of quantum systems has grown considerably. Quantum many body systems out of equilibrium often manifest behavior, different from the one predicted by standard statistical mechanics and thermodynamics in equilibrium. Since the dynamics of a many-body quantum system typically involve many excited eigenstates, with a non-thermal distribution, the time evolution of such a system provides an unique way for investigation of non-equilibrium quantum statistical mechanics. Last decade such new subjects like quantum quenches, thermalization, pre-thermalization, equilibration, generalized Gibbs ensemble, etc. are among the most attractive topics of investigation in modern quantum physics. One of the most interesting themes in the study of dynamics of quantum many-body systems out of equilibrium is connected with the recently proposed important concept of dynamical quantum phase transitions. During the last few years a great progress has been achieved in studying of those singularities in the time dependence of characteristics of quantum mechanical systems, in particular, in understanding how the quantum critical points of equilibrium thermodynamics affect their dynamical properties. Dynamical quantum phase transitions reveal universality, scaling, connection to the topology, and many other interesting features. Here we review the recent achievements of this quickly developing part of low-temperature quantum physics. The study of dynamical quantum phase transitions is especially important in context of their connection to the problem of the modern theory of quantum information, where namely non-equilibrium dynamics of many-body quantum system plays the major role.
Quantum phase transitions with dynamical flavors
Bea, Yago; Ramallo, Alfonso V
2016-01-01
We study the properties of a D6-brane probe in the ABJM background with smeared massless dynamical quarks in the Veneziano limit. Working at zero temperature and non-vanishing charge density, we show that the system undergoes a quantum phase transition in which the topology of the brane embedding changes from a black hole to a Minkowski embedding. In the unflavored background the phase transition is of second order and takes place when the charge density vanishes. We determine the corresponding critical exponents and show that the scaling behavior near the quantum critical point has multiplicative logarithmic corrections. In the background with dynamical quarks the phase transition is of first order and occurs at non-zero charge density. In this case we compute the discontinuity of several physical quantities as functions of the number $N_f$ of unquenched quarks of the background.
Quantum phase transitions with dynamical flavors
Bea, Yago; Jokela, Niko; Ramallo, Alfonso V.
2016-07-01
We study the properties of a D6-brane probe in the Aharony-Bergman-Jafferis-Maldacena (ABJM) background with smeared massless dynamical quarks in the Veneziano limit. Working at zero temperature and nonvanishing charge density, we show that the system undergoes a quantum phase transition in which the topology of the brane embedding changes from a black hole to a Minkowski embedding. In the unflavored background the phase transition is of second order and takes place when the charge density vanishes. We determine the corresponding critical exponents and show that the scaling behavior near the quantum critical point has multiplicative logarithmic corrections. In the background with dynamical quarks the phase transition is of first order and occurs at nonzero charge density. In this case we compute the discontinuity of several physical quantities as functions of the number Nf of unquenched quarks of the background.
Contemporary research of dynamically induced phase transitions
Hull, L. M.
2017-01-01
Dynamically induced phase transitions in metals, within the present discussion, are those that take place within a time scale characteristic of the shock waves and any reflections or rarefactions involved in the loading structure along with associated plastic flow. Contemporary topics of interest include the influence of loading wave shape, the effect of shear produced by directionality of the loading relative to the sample dimensions and initial velocity field, and the loading duration (kinetic effects, hysteresis) on the appearance and longevity of a transformed phase. These topics often arise while considering the loading of parts of various shapes with high explosives, are typically two or three-dimensional, and are often selected because of the potential of the transformed phase to significantly modify the motion. In this paper, we look at current work on phase transitions in metals influenced by shear reported in the literature, and relate recent work conducted at Los Alamos on iron's epsilon phase transition that indicates a significant response to shear produced by reflected elastic waves. A brief discussion of criteria for the occurrence of stress induced phase transitions is provided. Closing remarks regard certain physical processes, such as fragmentation and jet formation, which may be strongly influenced by phase transitions.
Dynamics of the chiral phase transition
van Hees, H; Meistrenko, A; Greiner, C
2013-01-01
The intention of this study is the search for signatures of the chiral phase transition in heavy-ion collisions. To investigate the impact of fluctuations, e.g., of the baryon number, at the transition or at a critical point, the linear sigma model is treated in a dynamical (3+1)-dimensional numerical simulation. Chiral fields are approximated as classical mean fields, and quarks are described as quasi particles in a Vlasov equation. Additional dynamics is implemented by quark-quark and quark-sigma-field interactions. For a consistent description of field-particle interactions, a new Monte-Carlo-Langevin-like formalism has been developed and is discussed.
Dynamical phase transitions in quantum mechanics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rotter Ingrid
2012-02-01
Full Text Available The nucleus is described as an open many-body quantum system with a non-Hermitian Hamilton operator the eigenvalues of which are complex, in general. The eigenvalues may cross in the complex plane (exceptional points, the phases of the eigenfunctions are not rigid in approaching the crossing points and the widths bifurcate. By varying only one parameter, the eigenvalue trajectories usually avoid crossing and width bifurcation occurs at the critical value of avoided crossing. An analog spectroscopic redistribution takes place for discrete states below the particle decay threshold. By this means, a dynamical phase transition occurs in the many-level system starting at a critical value of the level density. Hence the properties of the low-lying nuclear states (described well by the shell model and those of highly excited nuclear states (described by random ensembles differ fundamentally from one another. The statement of Niels Bohr on the collective features of compound nucleus states at high level density is therefore not in contradiction to the shell-model description of nuclear (and atomic states at low level density. Dynamical phase transitions are observed experimentally in different quantum mechanical systems by varying one or two parameters.
Dynamical phase transitions in the two-dimensional ANNNI model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barber, M.N.; Derrida, B.
1988-06-01
We study the phase diagram of the two-dimensional anisotropic next-nearest neighbor Ising (ANNNI) model by comparing the time evolution of two distinct spin configurations submitted to the same thermal noise. We clearly se several dynamical transitions between ferromagnetic, paramagnetic, antiphase, and floating phases. These dynamical transitions seem to occur rather close to the transition lines determined previously in the literature.
Partial dynamical symmetry at critical points of quantum phase transitions.
Leviatan, A
2007-06-15
We show that partial dynamical symmetries can occur at critical points of quantum phase transitions, in which case underlying competing symmetries are conserved exactly by a subset of states, and mix strongly in other states. Several types of partial dynamical symmetries are demonstrated with the example of critical-point Hamiltonians for first- and second-order transitions in the framework of the interacting boson model, whose dynamical symmetries correspond to different shape phases in nuclei.
Information Dynamics at a Phase Transition
Sowinski, Damian
2016-01-01
We propose a new way of investigating phase transitions in the context of information theory. We use an information-entropic measure of spatial complexity known as configurational entropy (CE) to quantify both the storage and exchange of information in a lattice simulation of a Ginzburg-Landau model with a scalar order parameter coupled to a heat bath. The CE is built from the Fourier spectrum of fluctuations around the mean-field and reaches a minimum at criticality. In particular, we investigate the behavior of CE near and at criticality, exploring the relation between information and the emergence of ordered domains. We show that as the temperature is increased from below, the CE displays three essential scaling regimes at different spatial scales: scale free, turbulent, and critical. Together, they offer an information-entropic characterization of critical behavior where the storage and processing of information is maximized at criticality.
Information Dynamics at a Phase Transition
Sowinski, Damian; Gleiser, Marcelo
2017-03-01
We propose a new way of investigating phase transitions in the context of information theory. We use an information-entropic measure of spatial complexity known as configurational entropy (CE) to quantify both the storage and exchange of information in a lattice simulation of a Ginzburg-Landau model with a scalar order parameter coupled to a heat bath. The CE is built from the Fourier spectrum of fluctuations around the mean-field and reaches a minimum at criticality. In particular, we investigate the behavior of CE near and at criticality, exploring the relation between information and the emergence of ordered domains. We show that as the temperature is increased from below, the CE displays three essential scaling regimes at different spatial scales: scale free, turbulent, and critical. Together, they offer an information-entropic characterization of critical behavior where the storage and fidelity of information processing is maximized at criticality.
Non-equilibrium quantum phase transition via entanglement decoherence dynamics
Lin, Yu-Chen; Yang, Pei-Yun; Zhang, Wei-Min
2016-01-01
We investigate the decoherence dynamics of continuous variable entanglement as the system-environment coupling strength varies from the weak-coupling to the strong-coupling regimes. Due to the existence of localized modes in the strong-coupling regime, the system cannot approach equilibrium with its environment, which induces a nonequilibrium quantum phase transition. We analytically solve the entanglement decoherence dynamics for an arbitrary spectral density. The nonequilibrium quantum phase transition is demonstrated as the system-environment coupling strength varies for all the Ohmic-type spectral densities. The 3-D entanglement quantum phase diagram is obtained. PMID:27713556
Dynamics and phase transitions in A 1C 60 compounds
Schober, H.; Renker, B.; Heid, R.; Tölle, A.
1997-02-01
We present an overview of extensive inelastic neutron scattering experiments carried out on powders of A 1C 60. The various phases leave strong fingerprints in the microscopic dynamics confirming the solid-state chemical reactions. The strong kinetic phase transitions can be followed in real time and turn out to be highly complex.
Dynamical symmetries and causality in non-equilibrium phase transitions
Henkel, Malte
2015-01-01
Dynamical symmetries are of considerable importance in elucidating the complex behaviour of strongly interacting systems with many degrees of freedom. Paradigmatic examples are cooperative phenomena as they arise in phase transitions, where conformal invariance has led to enormous progress in equilibrium phase transitions, especially in two dimensions. Non-equilibrium phase transitions can arise in much larger portions of the parameter space than equilibrium phase transitions. The state of the art of recent attempts to generalise conformal invariance to a new generic symmetry, taking into account the different scaling behaviour of space and time, will be reviewed. Particular attention will be given to the causality properties as they follow for co-variant $n$-point functions. These are important for the physical identification of n-point functions as responses or correlators.
Dynamical Symmetries and Causality in Non-Equilibrium Phase Transitions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Malte Henkel
2015-11-01
Full Text Available Dynamical symmetries are of considerable importance in elucidating the complex behaviour of strongly interacting systems with many degrees of freedom. Paradigmatic examples are cooperative phenomena as they arise in phase transitions, where conformal invariance has led to enormous progress in equilibrium phase transitions, especially in two dimensions. Non-equilibrium phase transitions can arise in much larger portions of the parameter space than equilibrium phase transitions. The state of the art of recent attempts to generalise conformal invariance to a new generic symmetry, taking into account the different scaling behaviour of space and time, will be reviewed. Particular attention will be given to the causality properties as they follow for co-variant n-point functions. These are important for the physical identification of n-point functions as responses or correlators.
Geometry and Dynamics of Vortex Loops at Superfluid Phase Transitions
Williams, Gary A.
2004-03-01
The geometrical properties of thermally-excited vortex loops near a superfluid phase transition can be deduced from the dynamics of the transition. The frictional force on a loop is proportional to the total length of the vortex core, and hence depends on the fractal Hausdorff dimension DH of the random-walking core. By comparing the results for the loop dynamics with the dynamic-scaling predictions of Halperin and Hohenberg for the relaxation time, we find DH = (D+2)/2 = 2.5 in D = 3 dimensions, if the dynamic exponent is z = D/2. Computing the frequency-dependence of the superfluid density and comparing with the dynamic scaling of Fisher, Fisher, and Huse gives just the same value. Since Shenoy and co-workers have found precisely the same DH from a Flory-scaling analysis of the loop random walk, our results show that Shenoy's theory is exact if dynamic scaling is exact.
Unified rotational dynamics of molecular crystals with orientational phase transition
Michel, K.H.; Raedt, H. De
1976-01-01
A unified theory for the rotational dynamics of molecular crystals with orientational phase transitions is given. As basic secular variables one takes symmetry adapted functions, which describe the molecular orientations, and the angular momenta of the molecules. Using Mori’s projection operator tec
Hadronic multiplicity distribution and dynamical fluctuations under QGP phase transitions
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
杨纯斌; 鄢文标; 蔡勖
1999-01-01
Hadronic multiplicity distributions in small bins are studied within the Ginzburg-Landau description for quark-hadron phase transitions. Direct comparison of the distributions with Poisson ones （with the same averages） is made in the light of dynamical factors dq for the distributions and ratios Dq≡dq/d1. Scaling behavior between Dq’ s is found, which can be used to detect the formation of quark-gluon plasma. The same method can be used in the analysis of other processes without phase transition.
UNIVERSALITY OF PHASE TRANSITION DYNAMICS: TOPOLOGICAL DEFECTS FROM SYMMETRY BREAKING
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zurek, Wojciech H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Del Campo, Adolfo [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2014-02-13
In the course of a non-equilibrium continuous phase transition, the dynamics ceases to be adiabatic in the vicinity of the critical point as a result of the critical slowing down (the divergence of the relaxation time in the neighborhood of the critical point). This enforces a local choice of the broken symmetry and can lead to the formation of topological defects. The Kibble-Zurek mechanism (KZM) was developed to describe the associated nonequilibrium dynamics and to estimate the density of defects as a function of the quench rate through the transition. During recent years, several new experiments investigating formation of defects in phase transitions induced by a quench both in classical and quantum mechanical systems were carried out. At the same time, some established results were called into question. We review and analyze the Kibble-Zurek mechanism focusing in particular on this surge of activity, and suggest possible directions for further progress.
Scaling and Universality at Dynamical Quantum Phase Transitions.
Heyl, Markus
2015-10-02
Dynamical quantum phase transitions (DQPTs) at critical times appear as nonanalyticities during nonequilibrium quantum real-time evolution. Although there is evidence for a close relationship between DQPTs and equilibrium phase transitions, a major challenge is still to connect to fundamental concepts such as scaling and universality. In this work, renormalization group transformations in complex parameter space are formulated for quantum quenches in Ising models showing that the DQPTs are critical points associated with unstable fixed points of equilibrium Ising models. Therefore, these DQPTs obey scaling and universality. On the basis of numerical simulations, signatures of these DQPTs in the dynamical buildup of spin correlations are found with an associated power-law scaling determined solely by the fixed point's universality class. An outlook is given on how to explore this dynamical scaling experimentally in systems of trapped ions.
Solé, Ricard V
2011-01-01
Phase transitions--changes between different states of organization in a complex system--have long helped to explain physics concepts, such as why water freezes into a solid or boils to become a gas. How might phase transitions shed light on important problems in biological and ecological complex systems? Exploring the origins and implications of sudden changes in nature and society, Phase Transitions examines different dynamical behaviors in a broad range of complex systems. Using a compelling set of examples, from gene networks and ant colonies to human language and the degradation o
Spin dynamics and spin freezing at ferromagnetic quantum phase transitions
Schmakat, P.; Wagner, M.; Ritz, R.; Bauer, A.; Brando, M.; Deppe, M.; Duncan, W.; Duvinage, C.; Franz, C.; Geibel, C.; Grosche, F. M.; Hirschberger, M.; Hradil, K.; Meven, M.; Neubauer, A.; Schulz, M.; Senyshyn, A.; Süllow, S.; Pedersen, B.; Böni, P.; Pfleiderer, C.
2015-07-01
We report selected experimental results on the spin dynamics and spin freezing at ferromagnetic quantum phase transitions to illustrate some of the most prominent escape routes by which ferromagnetic quantum criticality is avoided in real materials. In the transition metal Heusler compound Fe2TiSn we observe evidence for incipient ferromagnetic quantum criticality. High pressure studies in MnSi reveal empirical evidence for a topological non-Fermi liquid state without quantum criticality. Single crystals of the hexagonal Laves phase compound Nb1- y Fe2+ y provide evidence of a ferromagnetic to spin density wave transition as a function of slight compositional changes. Last but not least, neutron depolarisation imaging in CePd1- x Rh x underscore evidence taken from the bulk properties of the formation of a Kondo cluster glass.
Geometry of dynamics, Lyapunov exponents and phase transitions
Caiani, L; Clementi, C; Pettini, M; Caiani, Lando; Casetti, Lapo; Clementi, Cecilia; Pettini, Marco
1997-01-01
The Hamiltonian dynamics of classical planar Heisenberg model is numerically investigated in two and three dimensions. By considering the dynamics as a geodesic flow on a suitable Riemannian manifold, it is possible to analytically estimate the largest Lyapunov exponent in terms of some curvature fluctuations. The agreement between numerical and analytical values for Lyapunov exponents is very good in a wide range of temperatures. Moreover, in the three dimensional case, in correspondence with the second order phase transition, the curvature fluctuations exibit a singular behaviour which is reproduced in an abstract geometric model suggesting that the phase transition might correspond to a change in the topology of the manifold whose geodesics are the motions of the system.
Dynamical Phase Transition in a Model for Evolution with Migration
Waclaw, Bartłomiej; Allen, Rosalind J.; Evans, Martin R.
2010-12-01
We study a simple quasispecies model for evolution in two different habitats, with different fitness landscapes, coupled through one-way migration. Our key finding is a dynamical phase transition at a critical value of the migration rate, at which the time to reach the steady state diverges. The genetic composition of the population is qualitatively different above and below the transition. Using results from localization theory, we show that the critical migration rate may be very small—demonstrating that evolutionary outcomes can be very sensitive to even a small amount of migration.
Characterizing Phase Transitions in a Model of Neutral Evolutionary Dynamics
Scott, Adam; King, Dawn; Bahar, Sonya
2013-03-01
An evolutionary model was recently introduced for sympatric, phenotypic evolution over a variable fitness landscape with assortative mating (Dees & Bahar 2010). Organisms in the model are described by coordinates in a two-dimensional phenotype space, born at random coordinates with limited variation from their parents as determined by a mutation parameter, mutability. The model has been extended to include both neutral evolution and asexual reproduction in Scott et al (submitted). It has been demonstrated that a second order, non-equilibrium phase transition occurs for the temporal dynamics as the mutability is varied, for both the original model and for neutral conditions. This transition likely belongs to the directed percolation universality class. In contrast, the spatial dynamics of the model shows characteristics of an ordinary percolation phase transition. Here, we characterize the phase transitions exhibited by this model by determining critical exponents for the relaxation times, characteristic lengths, and cluster (species) mass distributions. Missouri Research Board; J.S. McDonnell Foundation
Ultrafast dynamics during the photoinduced phase transition in VO2
Wegkamp, Daniel; Stähler, Julia
2015-12-01
The phase transition of VO2 from a monoclinic insulator to a rutile metal, which occurs thermally at TC = 340 K, can also be driven by strong photoexcitation. The ultrafast dynamics during this photoinduced phase transition (PIPT) have attracted great scientific attention for decades, as this approach promises to answer the question of whether the insulator-to-metal (IMT) transition is caused by electronic or crystallographic processes through disentanglement of the different contributions in the time domain. We review our recent results achieved by femtosecond time-resolved photoelectron, optical, and coherent phonon spectroscopy and discuss them within the framework of a selection of latest, complementary studies of the ultrafast PIPT in VO2. We show that the population change of electrons and holes caused by photoexcitation launches a highly non-equilibrium plasma phase characterized by enhanced screening due to quasi-free carriers and followed by two branches of non-equilibrium dynamics: (i) an instantaneous (within the time resolution) collapse of the insulating gap that precedes charge carrier relaxation and significant ionic motion and (ii) an instantaneous lattice potential symmetry change that represents the onset of the crystallographic phase transition through ionic motion on longer timescales. We discuss the interconnection between these two non-thermal pathways with particular focus on the meaning of the critical fluence of the PIPT in different types of experiments. Based on this, we conclude that the PIPT threshold identified in optical experiments is most probably determined by the excitation density required to drive the lattice potential change rather than the IMT. These considerations suggest that the IMT can be driven by weaker excitation, predicting a transiently metallic, monoclinic state of VO2 that is not stabilized by the non-thermal structural transition and, thus, decays on ultrafast timescales.
Dynamic phase transitions in confined lubricant fluids under shear
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Drummond, Carlos; Israelachvili, Jacob
2001-04-01
A surface force apparatus was used to measure the transient and steady-state friction forces between molecularly smooth mica surfaces confining thin films of squalane, C{sub 30}H{sub 62}, a saturated, branched hydrocarbon liquid. The dynamic friction ''phase diagram'' was determined under different shearing conditions, especially the transitions between stick-slip and smooth sliding ''states'' that exhibited a chaotic stick-slip regime. The apparently very different friction traces exhibited by simple spherical, linear, and branched hydrocarbon films under shear are shown to be due to the much longer relaxation times and characteristic length scales associated with transitions from rest to steady-state sliding, and vice versa, in the case of branched liquids. The physical reasons and tribological implications for the different types of transitions observed with spherical, linear, and branched fluids are discussed.
Dynamic scaling at classical phase transitions approached through nonequilibrium quenching
Liu, Cheng-Wei; Polkovnikov, Anatoli; Sandvik, Anders W.
2014-02-01
We use Monte Carlo simulations to demonstrate generic scaling aspects of classical phase transitions approached through a quench (or annealing) protocol where the temperature changes as a function of time with velocity v. Using a generalized Kibble-Zurek ansatz, we demonstrate dynamic scaling for different types of stochastic dynamics (Metropolis, Swendsen-Wang, and Wolff) on Ising models in two and higher dimensions. We show that there are dual scaling functions governing the dynamic scaling, which together describe the scaling behavior in the entire velocity range v ∈[0,∞). These functions have asymptotics corresponding to the adiabatic and diabatic limits, and close to these limits they are perturbative in v and 1/v, respectively. Away from their perturbative domains, both functions cross over into the same universal power-law scaling form governed by the static and dynamic critical exponents (as well as an exponent characterizing the quench protocol). As a by-product of the scaling studies, we obtain high-precision estimates of the dynamic exponent z for the two-dimensional Ising model subject to the three variants of Monte Carlo dynamics: for single-spin Metropolis updates zM=2.1767(5), for Swendsen-Wang multicluster updates zSW=0.297(3), and for Wolff single-cluster updates zW=0.30(2). For Wolff dynamics, we find an interesting behavior with a nonanalytic breakdown of the quasiadiabatic and diabatic scalings, instead of the generic smooth crossover described by a power law. We interpret this disconnect between the two scaling regimes as a dynamic phase transition of the Wolff algorithm, caused by an effective sudden loss of ergodicity at high velocity.
Emergence of coherence and the dynamics of quantum phase transitions
Braun, Simon; Friesdorf, Mathis; Hodgman, Sean S.; Schreiber, Michael; Ronzheimer, Jens Philipp; Riera, Arnau; del Rey, Marco; Bloch, Immanuel; Eisert, Jens
2015-01-01
The dynamics of quantum phase transitions pose one of the most challenging problems in modern many-body physics. Here, we study a prototypical example in a clean and well-controlled ultracold atom setup by observing the emergence of coherence when crossing the Mott insulator to superfluid quantum phase transition. In the 1D Bose–Hubbard model, we find perfect agreement between experimental observations and numerical simulations for the resulting coherence length. We, thereby, perform a largely certified analog quantum simulation of this strongly correlated system reaching beyond the regime of free quasiparticles. Experimentally, we additionally explore the emergence of coherence in higher dimensions, where no classical simulations are available, as well as for negative temperatures. For intermediate quench velocities, we observe a power-law behavior of the coherence length, reminiscent of the Kibble–Zurek mechanism. However, we find nonuniversal exponents that cannot be captured by this mechanism or any other known model. PMID:25775515
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Deviren, Şeyma Akkaya, E-mail: sadeviren@nevsehir.edu.tr [Department of Science Education, Education Faculty, Nevsehir Hacı Bektaş Veli University, 50300 Nevşehir (Turkey); Deviren, Bayram [Department of Physics, Nevsehir Hacı Bektaş Veli University, 50300 Nevsehir (Turkey)
2016-03-15
The dynamic phase transitions and dynamic phase diagrams are studied, within a mean-field approach, in the kinetic Ising model on the Shastry-Sutherland lattice under the presence of a time varying (sinusoidal) magnetic field by using the Glauber-type stochastic dynamics. The time-dependence behavior of order parameters and the behavior of average order parameters in a period, which is also called the dynamic order parameters, as a function of temperature, are investigated. Temperature dependence of the dynamic magnetizations, hysteresis loop areas and correlations are investigated in order to characterize the nature (first- or second-order) of the dynamic phase transitions as well as to obtain the dynamic phase transition temperatures. We present the dynamic phase diagrams in the magnetic field amplitude and temperature plane. The phase diagrams exhibit a dynamic tricritical point and reentrant phenomena. The phase diagrams also contain paramagnetic (P), Néel (N), Collinear (C) phases, two coexistence or mixed regions, (N+C) and (N+P), which strongly depend on interaction parameters. - Highlights: • Dynamic magnetization properties of spin-1/2 Ising model on SSL are investigated. • Dynamic magnetization, hysteresis loop area, and correlation have been calculated. • The dynamic phase diagrams are constructed in (T/|J|, h/|J|) plane. • The phase diagrams exhibit a dynamic tricritical point and reentrant phenomena.
Extensional Flow-Induced Dynamic Phase Transitions in Isotactic Polypropylene.
Ju, Jianzhu; Wang, Zhen; Su, Fengmei; Ji, Youxin; Yang, Haoran; Chang, Jiarui; Ali, Sarmad; Li, Xiangyang; Li, Liangbin
2016-09-01
With a combination of fast extension rheometer and in situ synchrotron radiation ultra-fast small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering, flow-induced crystallization (FIC) of isotactic polypropylene (iPP) is studied at temperatures below and above the melting point of α crystals (Tmα). A flow phase diagram of iPP is constructed in strain rate-temperature space, composing of melt, non-crystalline shish, α and α&β coexistence regions, based on which the kinetic and dynamic competitions among these four phases are discussed. Above Tmα , imposing strong flow reverses thermodynamic stabilities of the disordered melt and the ordered phases, leading to the occurrence of FIC of β and α crystals as a dynamic phase transition. Either increasing temperature or stain rate favors the competiveness of the metastable β over the stable α crystals, which is attributed to kinetic rate rather than thermodynamic stability. The violent competitions among four phases near the boundary of crystal-melt may frustrate crystallization and result in the non-crystalline shish winning out.
Acoustic levitation of liquid drops: Dynamics, manipulation and phase transitions.
Zang, Duyang; Yu, Yinkai; Chen, Zhen; Li, Xiaoguang; Wu, Hongjing; Geng, Xingguo
2017-05-01
The technique of acoustic levitation normally produces a standing wave and the potential well of the sound field can be used to trap small objects. Since no solid surface is involved it has been widely applied for the study of fluid physics, nucleation, bio/chemical processes, and various forms of soft matter. In this article, we survey the works on drop dynamics in acoustic levitation, focus on how the dynamic behavior is related to the rheological properties and discuss the possibility to develop a novel rheometer based on this technique. We review the methods and applications of acoustic levitation for the manipulation of both liquid and solid samples and emphasize the important progress made in the study of phase transitions and bio-chemical analysis. We also highlight the possible open areas for future research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Pelissetto, Andrea; Vicari, Ettore
2017-01-01
We study the off-equilibrium behavior of systems with short-range interactions, slowly driven across a thermal first-order transition, where the equilibrium dynamics is exponentially slow. We consider a dynamics that starts in the high-T phase at time t =ti0 in the low-T phase, with a time-dependent temperature T (t )/Tc≈1 -t /ts, where ts is the protocol time scale. A general off-equilibrium scaling (OS) behavior emerges in the limit of large ts. We check it at the first-order transition of the two-dimensional q -state Potts model with q =20 and 10. The numerical results show evidence of a dynamic transition, where the OS functions show a spinodal-like singularity. Therefore, the general mean-field picture valid for systems with long-range interactions is qualitatively recovered, provided the time dependence is appropriately (logarithmically) rescaled.
Phase transitions and relaxation dynamics of Ising models exchanging particles
Goh, Segun; Fortin, Jean-Yves; Choi, M. Y.
2017-01-01
A variety of systems in nature and in society are open and subject to exchanging their constituents with other systems (e.g., environments). For instance, in biological systems, cells collect necessary energy and material by exchange of molecules or ions. Similarly, countries, cities or research institutes evolve as their constituents move in or out. To probe the corresponding particle exchange dynamics in such systems, we consider two Ising models exchanging particles and establish a master equation describing the equilibrium phases as well as the non-equilibrium dynamics of the system. It is found that an additional stable phase emerges as a consequence of the particle exchange process. Furthermore, we formulate the Ginzburg-Landau theory which allows to probe correlation effects. Accordingly, critical slowing down is manifested and the associated dynamic exponent is computed in the linear relaxation regime. In particular, this approach is relevant for investigating the grand canonical description of the system plus environment, with particle exchange and state transitions taken into account explicitly.
Schirò, Giorgio; Fomina, Margarita; Cupane, Antonio
2013-09-01
In this work, we compare experimental data on myoglobin hydrated powders from elastic neutron scattering, broadband dielectric spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry. Our aim is to obtain new insights on the connection between the protein dynamical transition, a fundamental phenomenon observed in proteins whose physical origin is highly debated, and the liquid-liquid phase transition (LLPT) possibly occurring in protein hydration water and related to the existence of a low temperature critical point in supercooled water. Our results provide a consistent thermodynamic/dynamic description which gives experimental support to the LLPT hypothesis and further reveals how fundamental properties of water and proteins are tightly related.
Dynamic aspect of the chiral phase transition in the mode coupling theory
Ohnishi, K; Ohta, K
2005-01-01
We analyze the dynamic aspect of the chiral phase transition. We apply the mode coupling theory to the linear sigma model and derive the kinetic equation for the chiral phase transition. We challenge Hohenberg and Halperin's classification scheme of dynamic critical phenomena in which the dynamic universality class of the chiral phase transition has been identified with that of the antiferromagnet. We point out a crucial difference between the chiral dynamics and the antiferromagnet system. We also calculate the dynamic critical exponent for the chiral phase transition. Our result is $z=1-\\eta/2\\cong 0.98$ which is contrasted with $z=d/2=1.5$ of the antiferromagnet.
Cascading dynamics on random networks: Crossover in phase transition
Liu, Run-Ran; Wang, Wen-Xu; Lai, Ying-Cheng; Wang, Bing-Hong
2012-02-01
In a complex network, random initial attacks or failures can trigger subsequent failures in a cascading manner, which is effectively a phase transition. Recent works have demonstrated that in networks with interdependent links so that the failure of one node causes the immediate failures of all nodes connected to it by such links, both first- and second-order phase transitions can arise. Moreover, there is a crossover between the two types of transitions at a critical system-parameter value. We demonstrate that these phenomena can occur in the more general setting where no interdependent links are present. A heuristic theory is derived to estimate the crossover and phase-transition points, and a remarkable agreement with numerics is obtained.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
TIAN Jing; QIU Hai-Bo
2013-01-01
In this paper,by employing Bogliubov backreaction method,we investigate quantum correction effects on dynamical phase transition in a single species bosonic Josephson junction induced by increasing nonlinear interaction.Compared with mean field theory results,we find that the transition point is shifted.The dynamical phase transition is accompanied by a change of the entanglement entropy,which is found to reach a maximum at the transition point of the mean field theory.
Dynamics of Electrically Driven Martensitic Phase Transitions in Fe Nanoislands
Gerhard, L.; Wesselink, R.J.H.; Ostanin, S.; Ernst, A.; Wulfhekel, W.
2013-01-01
Magnetoelectric coupling has attracted interest due to its potential to write magnetic information with electric fields. In the model system of Fe islands on Cu(111), electric fields can induce martensitic phase transitions between ferromagnetic body-centered cubic and antiferromagnetic face-centere
Effects of phase transition induced density fluctuations on pulsar dynamics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Partha Bagchi
2015-07-01
Full Text Available We show that density fluctuations during phase transitions in pulsar cores may have non-trivial effects on pulsar timings, and may also possibly account for glitches and anti-glitches. These density fluctuations invariably lead to non-zero off-diagonal components of the moment of inertia, leading to transient wobbling of star. Thus, accurate measurements of pulsar timing and intensity modulations (from wobbling may be used to identify the specific pattern of density fluctuations, hence the particular phase transition, occurring inside the pulsar core. Changes in quadrupole moment from rapidly evolving density fluctuations during the transition, with very short time scales, may provide a new source for gravitational waves.
Phenomena at the QCD phase transition in nonequilibrium chiral fluid dynamics (NχFD)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nahrgang, Marlene [Duke University, Department of Physics, Durham, NC (United States); Herold, Christoph [Suranaree University of Technology, School of Physics, Nakhon Ratchasima (Thailand)
2016-08-15
Heavy-ion collisions performed in the beam energy range accessible by the NICA collider facility are expected to produce systems of extreme net-baryon densities and can thus reach yet unexplored regions of the QCD phase diagram. Here, one expects the phase transition between the plasma of deconfined quarks and gluons and the hadronic matter to be of first order. A discovery of the first-order phase transition would as well prove the existence of the QCD critical point, a landmark in the phase diagram. In order to understand possible signals of the first-order phase transition in heavy-ion collision experiments it is very important to develop dynamical models of the phase transition. Here, we discuss the opportunities of studying dynamical effects at the QCD first-order phase transition within our model of nonequilibrium chiral fluid dynamics. (orig.)
Dynamical phase transition in a simple model of competing shops
Lambert, Gaultier; Bertin, Eric
2011-01-01
We consider a simple model in which a set of agents randomly visit one of two competing shops selling the same perishable products (typically food). The satisfaction of agents with respect to a given store is related to the freshness of the previously bought products. Agents then choose with a higher probability the store they are most satisfied with. Studying the model both through numerical simulations and mean-field analytical methods, we find a rich behaviour with continuous and discontinuous phase transitions between a symmetric phase where both stores maintain the same level of activity, and a phase with broken symmetry where one of the two shops attracts more customers than the other.
Disorder induced phase transition in an opinion dynamics model: results in 2 and 3 dimensions
Mukherjee, Sudip
2016-01-01
We study a model of continuous opinion dynamics with both positive and negative mutual interaction. The model shows a continuous phase transition between a phase with consensus (order) and a phase having no consensus (disorder). The mean field version of the model was already studied. Using extensive numerical simulations, we study the same model in $2$ and $3$ dimensions. The critical points of the phase transitions for various cases and the associated critical exponents have been estimated. The universality class of the phase transitions in the model is found to be same as Ising model in the respective dimensions.
Partial Dynamical Symmetry at Critical-Points of Quantum Phase Transitions
Leviatan, A
2007-01-01
We show that partial dynamical symmetries (PDS) can occur at critical-points of quantum phase transitions, in which case, underlying competing symmetries are conserved exactly by a subset of states, and mix strongly in other states. Several types of PDS are demonstrated with the example of critical-point Hamiltonians for first- and second-order transitions in the framework of the interacting boson model, whose dynamical symmetries correspond to different shape-phases in nuclei.
Direct Observation of Dynamical Quantum Phase Transitions in an Interacting Many-Body System
Jurcevic, P.; Shen, H.; Hauke, P.; Maier, C.; Brydges, T.; Hempel, C.; Lanyon, B. P.; Heyl, M.; Blatt, R.; Roos, C. F.
2017-08-01
The theory of phase transitions represents a central concept for the characterization of equilibrium matter. In this work we study experimentally an extension of this theory to the nonequilibrium dynamical regime termed dynamical quantum phase transitions (DQPTs). We investigate and measure DQPTs in a string of ions simulating interacting transverse-field Ising models. During the nonequilibrium dynamics induced by a quantum quench we show for strings of up to 10 ions the direct detection of DQPTs by revealing nonanalytic behavior in time. Moreover, we provide a link between DQPTs and the dynamics of other quantities such as the magnetization, and we establish a connection between DQPTs and entanglement production.
Nonequilibrium dynamical phase transition of 3D kinetic Ising/Heisenberg spin system
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Shao Yuan-Zhi; Lai J. K. L.; Shek C. H.; Lin Guang-Ming; Lan Tu
2004-01-01
We have studied the nonequilibrium dynamic phase transitions of both three-dimensional (3D) kinetic Ising and Heisenberg spin systems in the presence of a perturbative magnetic field by Monte Carlo simulation. The feature of the phase transition is characterized by studying the distribution of the dynamical order parameter.In the case of anisotropic Ising spin system (ISS), the dynamic transition is discontinuous and continuous under low and high temperatures respectively, which indicates the existence of a tri-critical point (TCP) on the phase boundary separating low-temperature order phase and high-temperature disorder phase. The TCP shifts towards the higher temperature region with the decrease of frequency, I.e. TTCp=1.33×exp(-ω/30.7). In the case of the isotropic Heisenberg spin system (HSS), however, the situation on dynamic phase transition of HSS is quite different from that of ISS in that no stable dynamical phase transition was observed in kinetic HSS after a threshold time. The evolution of magnetization in the HSS driven by a symmetrical external field after a certain duration always tends asymptotically to a disorder state no matter what an initial state the system starts with. The threshold time τ depends upon the amplitude H0,reduced temperature T/TC and the frequency ωas τ=C·ωα·H-β0·(T/TC)-γ.
Nonlinear wave dynamics near phase transition in PT-symmetric localized potentials
Nixon, Sean; Yang, Jianke
2016-09-01
Nonlinear wave propagation in parity-time symmetric localized potentials is investigated analytically near a phase-transition point where a pair of real eigenvalues of the potential coalesce and bifurcate into the complex plane. Necessary conditions for a phase transition to occur are derived based on a generalization of the Krein signature. Using the multi-scale perturbation analysis, a reduced nonlinear ordinary differential equation (ODE) is derived for the amplitude of localized solutions near phase transition. Above the phase transition, this ODE predicts a family of stable solitons not bifurcating from linear (infinitesimal) modes under a certain sign of nonlinearity. In addition, it predicts periodically-oscillating nonlinear modes away from solitons. Under the opposite sign of nonlinearity, it predicts unbounded growth of solutions. Below the phase transition, solution dynamics is predicted as well. All analytical results are compared to direct computations of the full system and good agreement is observed.
Nonlinear wave dynamics near phase transition in $\\mathcal{PT}$-symmetric localized potentials
Nixon, Sean
2015-01-01
Nonlinear wave propagation in parity-time ($\\mathcal{PT}$) symmetric localized potentials is investigated analytically near a phase-transition point where a pair of real eigenvalues of the potential coalesce and bifurcate into the complex plane. Necessary conditions for phase transition to occur are derived based on a generalization of the Krein signature. Using multi-scale perturbation analysis, a reduced nonlinear ODE model is derived for the amplitude of localized solutions near phase transition. Above phase transition, this ODE model predicts a family of stable solitons not bifurcating from linear (infinitesimal) modes under a certain sign of nonlinearity. In addition, it predicts periodically-oscillating nonlinear modes away from solitons. Under the opposite sign of nonlinearity, it predicts unbounded growth of solutions. Below phase transition, solution dynamics is predicted as well. All analytical results are compared to direct computations of the full system and good agreement is observed.
Phase transitions, nonequilibrium dynamics, and critical behavior of strongly interacting systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mottola, E.; Bhattacharya, T.; Cooper, F. [and others
1998-12-31
This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development project at Los Alamos National Laboratory. In this effort, large-scale simulations of strongly interacting systems were performed and a variety of approaches to the nonequilibrium dynamics of phase transitions and critical behavior were investigated. Focus areas included (1) the finite-temperature quantum chromodynamics phase transition and nonequilibrium dynamics of a new phase of matter (the quark-gluon plasma) above the critical temperature, (2) nonequilibrium dynamics of a quantum fields using mean field theory, and (3) stochastic classical field theoretic models with applications to spinodal decomposition and structural phase transitions in a variety of systems, such as spin chains and shape memory alloys.
Self-Consistent Dynamics of Inflationary Phase Transitions
Boyanovsky, D; De Vega, H J; Holman, R; Kumar, S P
1997-01-01
The physics of the inflationary universe requires the study of the out of equilibrium evolution of quantum fields in curved spacetime. We present the evolution for both the geometry and the matter (described by the quantum inflaton field) by means of the non-perturbative large N limit combined with semi-classical gravitational dynamics including the back-reaction of quantum fluctuations self-consistently for a new inflation scenario. We provide a criterion for the validity of the classical approximation and a full analysis of the case in which spinodal quantum fluctuations drive the evolution of the scale factor. Under carefully determined conditions, we show that the full field equations may be well approximated by those of a single composite field which obeys the classical equation of motion in all cases. The de Sitter stage is found to be followed by a matter dominated phase. We compute the spectrum of scalar density perturbations and argue that the spinodal instabilities are responsible for a `red' spectr...
Wigner's dynamical transition state theory in phase space : classical and quantum
Waalkens, Holger; Schubert, Roman; Wiggins, Stephen
2008-01-01
We develop Wigner's approach to a dynamical transition state theory in phase space in both the classical and quantum mechanical settings. The key to our development is the construction of a normal form for describing the dynamics in the neighbourhood of a specific type of saddle point that governs t
Kramers and non-Kramers Phase Transitions in Many-Particle Systems with Dynamical Constraint
Herrmann, Michael; Velázquez, Juan J L
2011-01-01
We study a Fokker-Planck equation with double-well potential that is nonlocally driven by a dynamical constraint and involves two small parameters. Relying on formal asymptotics we identify several parameter regimes and derive reduced dynamical models for different types of phase transitions.
Dynamics and phase transitions in A{sub 1}C{sub 60} compounds
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schober, H.; Toelle, A. [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin, 38 -Grenoble (France); Renker, B.; Heid, R. [INFP, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, D-76021, Karlsruhe (Germany)
1997-06-01
We present an overview of extensive inelastic neutron scattering experiments carried out on powders of A{sub 1}C{sub 60}. The various phases leave strong fingerprints in the microscopic dynamics confirming the solid-state chemical reactions. The strong kinetic phase transitions can be followed in real time and turn to be highly complex. (orig.).
Chen, L.; Fan, J. L.; Gong, H. R.
2017-03-01
Molecular dynamic simulation is used to systematically find out the effects of the size and shape of nanoparticles on phase transition and mechanical properties of W nanomaterials. It is revealed that the body-centered cubic (BCC) to face-centered cubic (FCC) phase transition could only happen in cubic nanoparticles of W, instead of the shapes of sphere, octahedron, and rhombic dodecahedron, and that the critical number to trigger the phase transition is 5374 atoms. Simulation also shows that the FCC nanocrystalline W should be prevented due to its much lower tensile strength than its BCC counterpart and that the octahedral and rhombic dodecahedral nanoparticles of W, rather than the cubic nanoparticles, should be preferred in terms of phase transition and mechanical properties. The derived results are discussed extensively through comparing with available observations in the literature to provide a deep understanding of W nanomaterials.
Phase transitions and dynamics of bulk and interfacial water
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Franzese, G; Hernando-Martinez, A [Departament de Fisica Fonamental, Universitat de Barcelona, Diagonal 647, Barcelona 08028 (Spain); Kumar, P [Center for Studies in Physics and Biology, Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021 (United States); Mazza, M G; Stokely, K; Strekalova, E G; Stanley, H E [Center for Polymer Studies and Department of Physics, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); De los Santos, F, E-mail: gfranzese@ub.ed [Departamento de Electromagnetismo y Fisica de la Materia, Universidad de Granada, Fuentenueva s/n, 18071 Granada (Spain)
2010-07-21
New experiments on water at the surface of proteins at very low temperature display intriguing dynamic behaviors. The extreme conditions of these experiments make it difficult to explore the wide range of thermodynamic state points needed to offer a suitable interpretation. Detailed simulations suffer from the same problem, where equilibration times at low temperature become extremely long. We show how Monte Carlo simulations and mean field calculations using a tractable model of water help interpret the experimental results. Here we summarize the results for bulk water and investigate the thermodynamic and dynamic properties of supercooled water at an interface.
Rapidly Activated Dynamic Phase Transitions in Nonlinear Solids
1993-02-15
I Form Approv# edAD -A263 601 AiENTA11ON PAGE- f____________18 1. AGENCY USE ONLY (Lea"e blaWk 12. REPORT DATE 13. REPORT TYPE AND OATES COVEREO Feb...phase transforming media during high energy impact. Conversion of mechanical energy to thermal ener- gy has been studied by means of an extended theory...and Phase Structures in General Media , R. Fosdick, E. Dunn & M. Slemrod eds., IMA volume series, Springer- Verlag. Song, J. and T. L. Pence (1992
Quantum phase transition and quench dynamics in the anisotropic Rabi model
Shen, Li-Tuo; Yang, Zhen-Biao; Wu, Huai-Zhi; Zheng, Shi-Biao
2017-01-01
We investigate the quantum phase transition (QPT) and quench dynamics in the anisotropic Rabi model when the ratio of the qubit transition frequency to the oscillator frequency approaches infinity. Based on the Schrieffer-Wolff transformation, we find an anti-Hermitian operator that maps the original Hamiltonian into a one-dimensional oscillator Hamiltonian within the spin-down subspace. We analytically derive the eigenenergy and eigenstate of the normal and superradiant phases and demonstrate that the system undergoes a second-order quantum phase transition at a critical border. The critical border is a straight line in a two-dimensional parameter space which essentially extends the dimensionality of QPT in the Rabi model. By combining the Kibble-Zurek mechanism and the adiabatic dynamics method, we find that the residual energy vanishes as the quench time tends to zero, which is a sharp contrast to the universal scaling where the residual energy diverges in the same limit.
Molecular dynamics simulation for the baryon-quark phase transition at finite baryon density
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Akimura, Y. [Saitama University, Department of physics, Sakura-Ku, Saitama City (Japan); Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Advanced Science Research Center, Tokai (Japan); Maruyama, T.; Chiba, S. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Advanced Science Research Center, Tokai (Japan); Yoshinaga, N. [Saitama University, Department of physics, Sakura-Ku, Saitama City (Japan)
2005-09-01
We study the baryon-quark phase transition in the molecular dynamics (MD) of the quark degrees of freedom at finite baryon density. The baryon state at low baryon density, and the deconfined quark state at high baryon density are reproduced. We investigate the equations of state of matters with different u-d-s compositions. It is found that the baryon-quark transition is sensitive to the quark width. (orig.)
Relationship between the liquid-liquid phase transition and dynamic behaviour in the Jagla model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xu, Limei [Center for Polymer Studies and Department of Physics, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Ehrenberg, Isaac [Department of Physics, Yeshiva University, 500 West 185th Street, New York, NY 10033 (United States); Buldyrev, Sergey V [Center for Polymer Studies and Department of Physics, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Stanley, H Eugene [Center for Polymer Studies and Department of Physics, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215 (United States)
2006-09-13
Using molecular dynamics simulations, we study a spherically symmetric 'two-scale' Jagla potential with both repulsive and attractive ramps. This potential displays a liquid-liquid phase transition with a positively sloped coexistence line ending at a critical point well above the equilibrium melting line. We study the dynamic behaviour in the vicinity of this liquid-liquid critical point. Below the critical point, we find that the dynamics in the more ordered high density liquid (HDL) are much slower then the dynamics in the less ordered low density liquid (LDL). Moreover, the behaviour of the diffusion constant and relaxation time in the HDL phase follows approximately an Arrhenius law, while in the LDL phase the slope of the Arrhenius fit increases upon cooling. Above the critical pressure, as we cool the system at constant pressure, the behaviour of the dynamics smoothly changes with temperature. It resembles the behaviour of the LDL at high temperatures and resembles the behaviour of the HDL at low temperatures. This dynamic crossover happens in the vicinity of the Widom line (the extension of the coexistence line into the one-phase region) which also has a positive slope. Our work suggests a possible general relation between a liquid-liquid phase transition and the change in dynamics.
Pulse and quench induced dynamical phase transition in a chiral multiferroic spin chain
Azimi, M.; Sekania, M.; Mishra, S. K.; Chotorlishvili, L.; Toklikishvili, Z.; Berakdar, J.
2016-08-01
Quantum dynamics of magnetic order in a chiral multiferroic chain is studied. We consider two different scenarios: ultrashort terahertz excitations or a sudden electric field quench. Performing analytical and numerical exact diagonalization calculations, we trace the pulse induced spin dynamics and extract quantities that are relevant to quantum information processing. In particular, we analyze the dynamics of the system chirality, the von Neumann entropy, and the pairwise and many-body entanglement. If the characteristic frequencies of the generated states are noncommensurate, then a partial loss of pair concurrence occurs. Increasing the system size, this effect becomes even more pronounced. Many-particle entanglement and chirality are robust and persist in the incommensurate phase. To analyze the dynamical quantum transitions for the quenched and pulsed dynamics we combined the Weierstrass factorization technique for entire functions and the Lanczos exact diagonalization method. For a small system we obtained analytical results including the rate function of the Loschmidt echo. Exact numerical calculations for a system up to 40 spins confirm phase transition. Quench-induced dynamical transitions have been extensively studied recently. Here we show that related dynamical transitions can be achieved and controlled by appropriate electric field pulses.
Phase Transition Dynamics of Three Types of Water within Poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide) Hydrogels
Takeuchi, Yuki; Ikeda-Fukazawa, Tomoko
2016-11-01
Water in hydrogels has been classified into three types: bound, intermediate, and free water. To investigate the individual phase transition dynamics for each type of water, differential scanning calorimetic (DSC) curves and Raman spectra of poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide) hydrogels were measured with heating from 130 to 310 K. Bound and intermediate water showed glassy initial states at 130 K, whereas free water became hexagonal ice (Ih) structure. Intermediate water in glassy state undergoes four phase transition steps: glass-to-liquid transition (at 160-190 K), crystallization from liquid state to cubic ice (Ic) (at 200-230 K), Ic-Ih transition (at 240-250 K), and melting (at 250-273 K). It is concluded that pre-melting of ice, which has been observed in various polymer hydrogels, results from the exothermic Ic-Ih transition of intermediate water.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Ai Shu-Tao
2006-01-01
The temperature gradients that arise in the paraelectric-ferroelectric interface dynamics induced by the latent heat transfer are studied from the point of view that a ferroelectric phase transition is a stationary, thermal-electric coupled transport process. The local entropy production is derived for a ferroelectric phase transition system from the Gibbs equation. Three types of regions in the system are described well by using the Onsager relations and the principle of minimum entropy production. The theoretical results coincides with the experimental ones.
Molecular dynamics simulation for baryon-quark phase transition at finite temperature and density
Akimura, Y; Yoshinaga, N; Chiba, S; Akimura, Yuka; Maruyama, Toshiki; Yoshinaga, Naotaka; Chiba, Satoshi
2005-01-01
We study the baryon-quark phase transition in a molecular dynamics (MD) of quark degrees of freedom at finite temperature and density. The baryon state at low density and temperature, and the deconfined quark state at high density and temperature are reproduced. We investigate the equations of state of matters with different $u$-$d$-$s$ compositions. Then we draw phase diagrams in the temperature-density plane by this simulation. It is found that the baryon-quark transition is sensitive to the quark width.
Geometry of dynamics and phase transitions in classical lattice $\\phi^{4}$ theories
Caiani, L; Clementi, C; Pettini, G; Pettini, M; Gatto, R; Caiani, Lando; Casetti, Lapo; Clementi, Cecilia; Pettini, Giulio; Pettini, Marco; Gatto, Raoul
1998-01-01
We perform a microcanonical study of classical lattice phi^4 field models in 3 dimensions with O(n) symmetries. The Hamiltonian flows associated to these systems that undergo a second order phase transition in the thermodynamic limit are here investigated. The microscopic Hamiltonian dynamics neatly reveals the presence of a phase transition through the time averages of conventional thermodynamical observables. Moreover, peculiar behaviors of the largest Lyapunov exponents at the transition point are observed. A Riemannian geometrization of Hamiltonian dynamics is then used to introduce other relevant observables, that are measured as functions of both energy density and temperature. On the basis of a simple and abstract geometric model, we suggest that the apparently singular behaviour of these geometric observables might probe a major topological change of the manifolds whose geodesics are the natural motions.
Gitterman, Moshe
2014-09-01
In discussing phase transitions, the first thing that we have to do is to define a phase. This is a concept from thermodynamics and statistical mechanics, where a phase is defined as a homogeneous system. As a simple example, let us consider instant coffee. This consists of coffee powder dissolved in water, and after stirring it we have a homogeneous mixture, i.e., a single phase. If we add to a cup of coffee a spoonful of sugar and stir it well, we still have a single phase -- sweet coffee. However, if we add ten spoonfuls of sugar, then the contents of the cup will no longer be homogeneous, but rather a mixture of two homogeneous systems or phases, sweet liquid coffee on top and coffee-flavored wet sugar at the bottom...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Petry, W.; Neuhaus, J. [Techn. Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department E13, Munich (Germany)
1996-11-01
Many elements transform from a high temperature bcc phase to a more dense packed temperature phase. The great majority of these transitions are of 1st order, displacive and reconstructive. The lattice potentials which govern these martensitic transitions can be probed by inelastic neutron scattering, thereby answering fundamental questions like : Will the transition be announced by dynamical or static fluctuations? What are the trajectories for the displacements needed for the transformation? Does the vibrational entropy stabilize the high temperature phase? Are the unusual transport properties in these materials related to their ability to transform? (author) 17 figs., 1 tab., 46 refs.
Nonlinear response and dynamical transitions in a phase-field crystal model for adsorbed overlayers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ramos, J A P [Departamento de Ciencias Exatas, Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia, 45000-000 Vitoria da Conquista, BA (Brazil); Granato, E [Laboratorio Associado de Sensores e Materiais, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, 12245-970 Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Ying, S C; Ala-Nissila, T [Department of Physics, PO Box 1843, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912-1843 (United States); Achim, C V [Department of Applied Physics, Aalto University School of Science and Technology, PO Box 11000, FI-00076 Aalto, Espoo (Finland); Elder, K R, E-mail: Jorge@las.inpe.b [Department of Physics, Oakland University, Rochester, Michigan 48309-4487 (United States)
2010-09-01
The nonlinear response and sliding friction behavior of a phase-field crystal model for driven adsorbed atomic layers is determined numerically. The model describes the layer as a continuous density field coupled to the pinning potential of the substrate and under an external driving force. Dynamical equations which take into account both thermal fluctuations and inertial effects are used for numerical simulations of commensurate and incommensurate layers. At low temperatures, the velocity response of an initially commensurate layer shows hysteresis with dynamical melting and freezing transitions at different critical forces. The main features of the sliding friction behavior are similar to the results obtained previously from molecular dynamics simulations of particle models. However, the dynamical transitions correspond to nucleations of stripes rather than closed domains.
DYNAMIC MODELING STRATEGY FOR FLOW REGIME TRANSITION IN GAS-LIQUID TWO-PHASE FLOWS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
X. Wang; X. Sun; H. Zhao
2011-09-01
In modeling gas-liquid two-phase flows, the concept of flow regime has been used to characterize the global interfacial structure of the flows. Nearly all constitutive relations that provide closures to the interfacial transfers in two-phase flow models, such as the two-fluid model, are often flow regime dependent. Currently, the determination of the flow regimes is primarily based on flow regime maps or transition criteria, which are developed for steady-state, fully-developed flows and widely applied in nuclear reactor system safety analysis codes, such as RELAP5. As two-phase flows are observed to be dynamic in nature (fully-developed two-phase flows generally do not exist in real applications), it is of importance to model the flow regime transition dynamically for more accurate predictions of two-phase flows. The present work aims to develop a dynamic modeling strategy for determining flow regimes in gas-liquid two-phase flows through the introduction of interfacial area transport equations (IATEs) within the framework of a two-fluid model. The IATE is a transport equation that models the interfacial area concentration by considering the creation and destruction of the interfacial area, such as the fluid particle (bubble or liquid droplet) disintegration, boiling and evaporation; and fluid particle coalescence and condensation, respectively. For the flow regimes beyond bubbly flows, a two-group IATE has been proposed, in which bubbles are divided into two groups based on their size and shape (which are correlated), namely small bubbles and large bubbles. A preliminary approach to dynamically identifying the flow regimes is provided, in which discriminators are based on the predicted information, such as the void fraction and interfacial area concentration of small bubble and large bubble groups. This method is expected to be applied to computer codes to improve their predictive capabilities of gas-liquid two-phase flows, in particular for the applications in
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Huai-Yong; Zhao, Ying-Qin; Lu, Qing [Sichuan Univ., Chengdu (China). Inst. of Atomic and Molecular Physics; Zeng, Zhao-Yi [Chongqing Normal Univ. (China). College of Physics and Electronic Engineering; Chinese Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang (China). National Key Laboratory for Shock Wave and Detonation Physics Research; Cheng, Yan [Sichuan Univ., Chengdu (China). Inst. of Atomic and Molecular Physics; Sichuan Univ., Chengdu (China). Key Laboratory of High Energy Density Physics and Technology of Ministry of Education
2016-11-01
Lattice dynamics, structural phase transition, and the thermodynamic properties of barium titanate (BaTiO{sub 3}) are investigated by using first-principles calculations within the density functional theory (DFT). It is found that the GGA-WC exchange-correlation functional can produce better results. The imaginary frequencies that indicate structural instability are observed for the cubic, tetragonal, and orthorhombic phases of BaTiO{sub 3} and no imaginary frequencies emerge in the rhombohedral phase. By examining the partial phonon density of states (PDOSs), we find that the main contribution to the imaginary frequencies is the distortions of the perovskite cage (Ti-O). On the basis of the site-symmetry consideration and group theory, we give the comparative phonon symmetry analysis in four phases, which is useful to analyze the role of different atomic displacements in the vibrational modes of different symmetry. The calculated optical phonon frequencies at Γ point for the four phases are in good agreement with other theoretical and experimental data. The pressure-induced phase transition of BaTiO{sub 3} among four phases and the thermodynamic properties of BaTiO{sub 3} in rhombohedral phase have been investigated within the quasi-harmonic approximation (QHA). The sequence of the pressure-induced phase transition is rhombohedral → orthorhombic → tetragonal → cubic, and the corresponding transition pressure is 5.17, 5.92, 6.65 GPa, respectively. At zero pressure, the thermal expansion coefficient α{sub V}, heat capacity C{sub V}, Grueneisen parameter γ, and bulk modulus B of the rhombohedral phase BaTiO{sub 3} are estimated from 0 K to 200 K.
Transition of COM-COP relative phase in a dynamic balance task.
Ko, Ji-Hyun; Challis, John H; Newell, Karl M
2014-12-01
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the coordination between center of mass (COM) and center of pressure (COP) could be a candidate collective variable of a dynamical system that captures the organization of the multi-segmental whole body postural control system. We examined the transition of the COM-COP coordination pattern in a moving platform balance control paradigm. 10 young healthy adults stood on a moving surface of support that within a trial was sinusoidally translated in the anterior-posterior direction continuously scaling up and then down its frequency within the range from 0Hz to 3.0Hz. The COP was derived from a single force platform mounted on the moving surface of support. 4 angular joint motions (ankle, knee, hip, and neck) were measured by a 3D motion analysis system that also allowed COM to be derived. The COM-COP coordination changed from in-phase/anti-phase to anti-phase/in-phase at a certain frequency of the support surface, showed hysteresis as a function of the direction of frequency change and higher variability at the transition region. Conversely, the transition of the ankle-hip coordination consistently occurred at 0.3Hz across subjects with little between or within subject variability as a function of transition frequency and before the COM-COP transition. The findings provide evidence that: (1) the transition of the COM-COP coordination pattern is that of a non-equilibrium phase transition with critical fluctuations and hysteresis; and (2) that COM-COP coupling is a candidate collective variable of the multi-segmental whole body postural control system acting on a redundant postural task.
Pankovic, V; Predojevic, M; Krmar, M; Pankovic, Vladan; Hubsch, Tristan; Predojevic, Milan; Krmar, Miodrag
2004-01-01
Developing an earlier proposal (Ne'eman, Damnjanovic, etc), we show herein that there is a Landau continuous phase transition from the exact quantum dynamics to the effectively classical one, occurring via spontaneous superposition breaking (effective hiding), as a special case of the corresponding general formalism (Bernstein). Critical values of the order parameters for this transition are determined by Heisenberg's indeterminacy relations, change continuously, and are in excellent agreement with the recent and remarkable experiments with Bose condensation. It is also shown that such a phase transition can sucessfully model self-collapse (self-decoherence), as an effective classical phenomenon, on the measurement device. This then induces a relative collapse (relative decoherence) as an effective quantum phenomenon on the measured quantum object by measurement. We demonstrate this (including the case of Bose-Einstein condensation) in the well-known cases of the Stern-Gerlach spin measurement, Bell's inequal...
Universal space-time scaling symmetry in the dynamics of bosons across a quantum phase transition
Clark, Logan W; Chin, Cheng
2016-01-01
The dynamics of many-body systems spanning condensed matter, cosmology, and beyond is hypothesized to be universal when the systems cross continuous phase transitions. The universal dynamics is expected to satisfy a scaling symmetry of space and time with the crossing rate, inspired by the Kibble-Zurek mechanism. We test this symmetry based on Bose condensates in a shaken optical lattice. Shaking the lattice drives condensates across an effectively ferromagnetic quantum phase transition. After crossing the critical point, the condensates manifest delayed growth of spin fluctuations and develop anti-ferromagnetic spatial correlations resulting from sub-Poisson generation of topological defects. The characteristic times and lengths scale as power-laws of the crossing rate, yielding the temporal exponent 0.50(2) and the spatial exponent 0.26(2), consistent with theory. Furthermore, the fluctuations and correlations are invariant in scaled space-time coordinates, in support of the scaling symmetry of quantum crit...
Nonlinear dynamics of wave packets in PT-symmetric optical lattices near the phase transition point
Nixon, Sean; Yang, Jianke
2012-01-01
Nonlinear dynamics of wave packets in PT-symmetric optical lattices near the phase-transition point are analytically studied. A nonlinear Klein-Gordon equation is derived for the envelope of these wave packets. A variety of novel phenomena known to exist in this envelope equation are shown to also exist in the full equation including wave blowup, periodic bound states and solitary wave solutions.
Teodorescu, Razvan
2009-10-01
Systems of oscillators coupled non-linearly (stochastically or not) are ubiquitous in nature and can explain many complex phenomena: coupled Josephson junction arrays, cardiac pacemaker cells, swarms or flocks of insects and birds, etc. They are know to have a non-trivial phase diagram, which includes chaotic, partially synchronized, and fully synchronized phases. A traditional model for this class of problems is the Kuramoto system of oscillators, which has been studied extensively for the last three decades. The model is a canonical example for non-equilibrium, dynamical phase transitions, so little understood in physics. From a stochastic analysis point of view, the transition is described by the large deviations principle, which offers little information on the scaling behavior near the critical point. I will discuss a special case of the model, which allows a rigorous analysis of the critical properties of the model, and reveals a new, anomalous scaling behavior in the vicinity of the critical point.
Regular and chaotic classical dynamics in the U(5)-SU(3) quantum phase transition of the IBM
Macek, M
2012-01-01
We study the classical dynamics in a generic first-order quantum phase transition between the U(5) and SU(3) limits of the interacting boson model. The dynamics is chaotic, of H\\'enon-Heiles type, in the spherical phase and is regular, yet sensitive to local degeneracies, in the deformed phase. Both types of dynamics persist in the coexistence region resulting in a divided phase space.
Zhong, Fan; Chen, Qizhou
2005-10-21
Phase transitions are of great importance in a diversity of fields. They are usually classified into continuous phase transitions and first-order phase transitions (FOPTs). Whereas the former has a well-developed theoretical framework of the renormalization-group (RG) theory, no general theory has yet been developed for the latter that appear far more frequently. Focusing on the dynamics of a generic FOPT in the phi4 model below its critical point, we show by a field-theoretic RG method that it is governed by an unexpected unstable fixed point of the corresponding phi3 model. Accordingly, it exhibits a distinct scaling and universality behavior with unstable exponents different from the critical ones.
Generic dynamical phase transition in one-dimensional bulk-driven lattice gases with exclusion
Lazarescu, Alexandre
2017-06-01
Dynamical phase transitions are crucial features of the fluctuations of statistical systems, corresponding to boundaries between qualitatively different mechanisms of maintaining unlikely values of dynamical observables over long periods of time. They manifest themselves in the form of non-analyticities in the large deviation function of those observables. In this paper, we look at bulk-driven exclusion processes with open boundaries. It is known that the standard asymmetric simple exclusion process exhibits a dynamical phase transition in the large deviations of the current of particles flowing through it. That phase transition has been described thanks to specific calculation methods relying on the model being exactly solvable, but more general methods have also been used to describe the extreme large deviations of that current, far from the phase transition. We extend those methods to a large class of models based on the ASEP, where we add arbitrary spatial inhomogeneities in the rates and short-range potentials between the particles. We show that, as for the regular ASEP, the large deviation function of the current scales differently with the size of the system if one considers very high or very low currents, pointing to the existence of a dynamical phase transition between those two regimes: high current large deviations are extensive in the system size, and the typical states associated to them are Coulomb gases, which are highly correlated; low current large deviations do not depend on the system size, and the typical states associated to them are anti-shocks, consistently with a hydrodynamic behaviour. Finally, we illustrate our results numerically on a simple example, and we interpret the transition in terms of the current pushing beyond its maximal hydrodynamic value, as well as relate it to the appearance of Tracy-Widom distributions in the relaxation statistics of such models. , which features invited work from the best early-career researchers working
Cavity-assisted dynamical quantum phase transition in superconducting quantum simulators
Tian, Lin
Coupling a quantum many-body system to a cavity can create bifurcation points in the phase diagram, where the many-body system switches between different phases. Here I will discuss the dynamical quantum phase transitions at the bifurcation points of a one-dimensional transverse field Ising model coupled to a cavity. The Ising model can be emulated with various types of superconducting qubits connected in a chain. With a time-dependent Bogoliubov method, we show that an infinitesimal quench of the driving field can cause gradual evolution of the transverse field on the Ising spins to pass through the quantum critical point. Our calculation shows that the cavity-induced nonlinearity plays an important role in the dynamics of this system. Quasiparticles can be excited in the Ising chain during this process, which results in the deviation of the system from its adiabatic ground state. This work is supported by the National Science Foundation under Award Number 0956064.
Shankaraiah, N.; Dubey, Awadhesh K.; Puri, Sanjay; Shenoy, Subodh R.
2016-12-01
In the conceptual framework of phase ordering after temperature quenches below transition, we consider the underdamped Bales-Gooding-type "momentum conserving" dynamics of a 2D martensitic structural transition from a square-to-rectangle unit cell. The one-component or NOP=1 order parameter is one of the physical strains, and the Landau free energy has a triple well, describing a first-order transition. We numerically study the evolution of the strain-strain correlation, and find that it exhibits dynamical scaling, with a coarsening length L (t ) ˜tα . We find at intermediate and long times that the coarsening exponent sequentially takes on respective values close to α =2 /3 and 1 /2 . For deep quenches, the coarsening can be arrested at long times, with α ≃0 . These exponents are also found in 3D. To understand such behavior, we insert a dynamical-scaling ansatz into the correlation function dynamics to give, at a dominant scaled separation, a nonlinear kinetics of the curvature g (t )≡1 /L (t ) . The curvature solutions have time windows of power-law decays g ˜1 /tα , with exponent values α matching simulations, and manifestly independent of spatial dimension. Applying this curvature-kinetics method to mass-conserving Cahn-Hilliard dynamics for a double-well Landau potential in a scalar NOP=1 order parameter yields exponents α =1 /4 and 1 /3 for intermediate and long times. For vector order parameters with NOP≥2 , the exponents are α =1 /4 only, consistent with previous work. The curvature kinetics method could be useful in extracting coarsening exponents for other phase-ordering dynamics.
Noise-induced dynamical phase transitions in long-range systems.
Chavanis, Pierre-Henri; Baldovin, Fulvio; Orlandini, Enzo
2011-04-01
In the thermodynamic limit, the time evolution of isolated long-range interacting systems is properly described by the Vlasov equation. This equation admits nonequilibrium dynamically stable stationary solutions characterized by a zero order parameter. We show that the presence of external noise sources, such as a heat bath, can reduce their lifetime and induce at a specific time a dynamical phase transition marked by a nonzero order parameter. This transition may be used as a distinctive experimental signature of the temporary existence of nonequilibrium Vlasov-stable states. In particular, we present evidence of a regime characterized by an order parameter pulse. Our analytical results are corroborated by numerical simulations of a paradigmatic long-range model.
New Dynamical Scaling Universality for Quantum Networks Across Adiabatic Quantum Phase Transitions
Acevedo, Oscar L.; Rodriguez, Ferney J.; Quiroga, Luis; Johnson, Neil F.; Rey, Ana M.
2014-05-01
We reveal universal dynamical scaling behavior across adiabatic quantum phase transitions in networks ranging from traditional spatial systems (Ising model) to fully connected ones (Dicke and Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick models). Our findings, which lie beyond traditional critical exponent analysis and adiabatic perturbation approximations, are applicable even where excitations have not yet stabilized and, hence, provide a time-resolved understanding of quantum phase transitions encompassing a wide range of adiabatic regimes. We show explicitly that even though two systems may traditionally belong to the same universality class, they can have very different adiabatic evolutions. This implies that more stringent conditions need to be imposed than at present, both for quantum simulations where one system is used to simulate the other and for adiabatic quantum computing schemes.
The dynamic and geometric phase transition in the cellular network of pancreatic islet
Wang, Xujing
2013-03-01
The pancreatic islet is a micro-organ that contains several thousands of endocrine cells, majority of which being the insulin releasing β - cells . - cellsareexcitablecells , andarecoupledtoeachother through gap junctional channels. Here, using percolation theory, we investigate the role of network structure in determining the dynamics of the β-cell network. We show that the β-cell synchronization depends on network connectivity. More specifically, as the site occupancy is reducing, initially the β-cell synchronization is barely affected, until it reaches around a critical value, where the synchronization exhibit a sudden rapid decline, followed by an slow exponential tail. This critical value coincides with the critical site open probability for percolation transition. The dependence over bond strength is similar, exhibiting critical-behavior like dependence around a certain value of bond strength. These results suggest that the β-cell network undergoes a dynamic phase transition when the network is percolated. We further apply the findings to study diabetes. During the development of diabetes, the β - cellnetworkconnectivitydecreases . Siteoccupancyreducesfromthe reducing β-cell mass, and the bond strength is increasingly impaired from β-cell stress and chronic hyperglycemia. We demonstrate that the network dynamics around the percolation transition explain the disease dynamics around onset, including a long time mystery in diabetes, the honeymoon phenomenon.
Exchange anisotropy and the dynamic phase transition in thin ferromagnetic Heisenberg films.
Jang, Hyunbum; Grimson, Malcolm J; Hall, Carol K
2003-10-01
Monte Carlo simulations have been performed to investigate the dependence of the dynamic phase behavior on the bilinear exchange anisotropy of a classical Heisenberg spin system. The system under consideration is a planar thin ferromagnetic film with competing surface fields subject to a pulsed oscillatory external field. The results show that the films exhibit a single discontinuous dynamic phase transition (DPT) as a function of the anisotropy of the bilinear exchange interaction in the Hamiltonian. Furthermore, there is no evidence of stochastic resonance associated with the DPT. These results are in marked contrast to the continuous DPT observed in the same system as a function of temperature and applied field strength for a fixed bilinear exchange anisotropy.
Bubble dynamics and the quark-hadron phase transition in nuclear collisions
Fogaça, D A; Fariello, R; Navarra, F S
2016-01-01
We study the nucleation of a quark gluon plasma (QGP) phase in a hadron gas at low temperatures and high baryon densities. This kind of process will presumably happen very often in nuclear collisions at FAIR and NICA. When the right energy density (or baryon density) is reached the conversion of one phase into another is not instantaneous. It is a complex process, which involves the nucleation of bubbles of the new phase. One important element of this transition process is the rate of growth of a QGP bubble. In order to estimate it we solve the Relativistic Rayleigh$-$Plesset equation which governs the dynamics of a relativistic spherical bubble in a cold and strongly interacting medium. The baryon rich hadron gas is represented by the nonlinear Walecka model and the QGP is described by the MIT bag model and also by a mean field model of QCD.
Sen, Arnab; Nandy, Sourav; Sengupta, K.
2016-12-01
We study a class of periodically driven d -dimensional integrable models and show that after n drive cycles with frequency ω , pure states with non-area-law entanglement entropy Sn(l ) ˜lα (n ,ω ) are generated, where l is the linear dimension of the subsystem, and d -1 ≤α (n ,ω )≤d . The exponent α (n ,ω ) eventually approaches d (volume law) for large enough l when n →∞ . We identify and analyze the crossover phenomenon from an area (S ˜ld -1 for d ≥1 ) to a volume (S ˜ld ) law and provide a criterion for their occurrence which constitutes a generalization of Hastings's theorem to driven integrable systems in one dimension. We also find that Sn generically decays to S∞ as (ω/n ) (d +2 )/2 for fast and (ω/n ) d /2 for slow periodic drives; these two dynamical phases are separated by a topological transition in the eigenspectrum of the Floquet Hamiltonian. This dynamical transition manifests itself in the temporal behavior of all local correlation functions and does not require a critical point crossing during the drive. We find that these dynamical phases show a rich re-entrant behavior as a function of ω for d =1 models and also discuss the dynamical transition for d >1 models. Finally, we study entanglement properties of the steady state and show that singular features (cusps and kinks in d =1 ) appear in S∞ as a function of ω whenever there is a crossing of the Floquet bands. We discuss experiments which can test our theory.
Internal character dictates phase transition dynamics between isolation and cohesive grouping
Manrique, Pedro D; Johnson, Neil F
2015-01-01
We show that accounting for internal character among interacting, heterogeneous entities generates rich phase transition behavior between isolation and cohesive dynamical grouping. Our analytical and numerical calculations reveal different critical points arising for different character-dependent grouping mechanisms. These critical points move in opposite directions as the population's diversity decreases. Our analytical theory helps explain why a particular class of universality is so common in the real world, despite fundamental differences in the underlying entities. Furthermore, it correctly predicts the non-monotonic temporal variation in connectivity observed recently in one such system.
Acevedo, Óscar L.; Quiroga, Luis; Rodríguez, Ferney J.; Johnson, Neil F.
2014-03-01
Dynamical quantum phase crossings of spin networks have recently received increased attention thanks to their relation to adiabatic quantum computing, and their feasible realizations using ultra-cold atomic and molecular systems with a highly tunable degree of connectivity. Dynamical scaling of spatially distributed systems like Ising models have been widely studied, and successfully related to well-known theories like the Kibble-Zurek mechanism. The case of totally connected networks such as the Dicke Model and Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick Model, however, is known to exhibit a breakdown of these frameworks. Our analysis overcomes the lack of spatial correlation structure by developing a general approach which (i) is valid regardless the connectivity of the system, (ii) goes beyond critical exponents, and (iii) provides a time-resolved picture of dynamical scaling. By treating these models as a method for macroscopic quantum control of their subsystems, we have found microscopic signatures of the dynamical scaling as well as instances of dynamical enhancement of distinctive quantum properties such as entanglement and coherence. Our results yield novel prescriptions for the fields of quantum simulations and quantum control, and deepen our fundamental understanding of phase transitions.
Probing the Dynamics of a Superradiant Quantum Phase Transition with a Single Trapped Ion.
Puebla, Ricardo; Hwang, Myung-Joong; Casanova, Jorge; Plenio, Martin B
2017-02-17
We demonstrate that the quantum phase transition (QPT) of the Rabi model and critical dynamics near the QPT can be probed in the setup of a single trapped ion. We first demonstrate that there exists equilibrium and nonequilibrium scaling functions of the Rabi model by finding a proper rescaling of the system parameters and observables, and show that those scaling functions are representative of the universality class to which the Rabi model belongs. We then propose a scheme that can faithfully realize the Rabi model in the limit of a large ratio of the effective atomic transition frequency to the oscillator frequency using a single trapped ion and, therefore, the QPT. It is demonstrated that the predicted universal functions can indeed be observed based on our scheme. Finally, the effects of realistic noise sources on probing the universal functions in experiments are examined.
Probing the Dynamics of a Superradiant Quantum Phase Transition with a Single Trapped Ion
Puebla, Ricardo; Hwang, Myung-Joong; Casanova, Jorge; Plenio, Martin B.
2017-02-01
We demonstrate that the quantum phase transition (QPT) of the Rabi model and critical dynamics near the QPT can be probed in the setup of a single trapped ion. We first demonstrate that there exists equilibrium and nonequilibrium scaling functions of the Rabi model by finding a proper rescaling of the system parameters and observables, and show that those scaling functions are representative of the universality class to which the Rabi model belongs. We then propose a scheme that can faithfully realize the Rabi model in the limit of a large ratio of the effective atomic transition frequency to the oscillator frequency using a single trapped ion and, therefore, the QPT. It is demonstrated that the predicted universal functions can indeed be observed based on our scheme. Finally, the effects of realistic noise sources on probing the universal functions in experiments are examined.
Dahms, Rainer N.; Oefelein, Joseph C.
2013-09-01
A theory that explains the operating pressures where liquid injection processes transition from exhibiting classical two-phase spray atomization phenomena to single-phase diffusion-dominated mixing is presented. Imaging from a variety of experiments have long shown that under certain conditions, typically when the pressure of the working fluid exceeds the thermodynamic critical pressure of the liquid phase, the presence of discrete two-phase flow processes become diminished. Instead, the classical gas-liquid interface is replaced by diffusion-dominated mixing. When and how this transition occurs, however, is not well understood. Modern theory still lacks a physically based model to quantify this transition and the precise mechanisms that lead to it. In this paper, we derive a new model that explains how the transition occurs in multicomponent fluids and present a detailed analysis to quantify it. The model applies a detailed property evaluation scheme based on a modified 32-term Benedict-Webb-Rubin equation of state that accounts for the relevant real-fluid thermodynamic and transport properties of the multicomponent system. This framework is combined with Linear Gradient Theory, which describes the detailed molecular structure of the vapor-liquid interface region. Our analysis reveals that the two-phase interface breaks down not necessarily due to vanishing surface tension forces, but due to thickened interfaces at high subcritical temperatures coupled with an inherent reduction of the mean free molecular path. At a certain point, the combination of reduced surface tension, the thicker interface, and reduced mean free molecular path enter the continuum length scale regime. When this occurs, inter-molecular forces approach that of the multicomponent continuum where transport processes dominate across the interfacial region. This leads to a continuous phase transition from compressed liquid to supercritical mixture states. Based on this theory, a regime diagram for
A phase transition induces chaos in a predator-prey ecosystem with a dynamic fitness landscape.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
William Gilpin
2017-07-01
Full Text Available In many ecosystems, natural selection can occur quickly enough to influence the population dynamics and thus future selection. This suggests the importance of extending classical population dynamics models to include such eco-evolutionary processes. Here, we describe a predator-prey model in which the prey population growth depends on a prey density-dependent fitness landscape. We show that this two-species ecosystem is capable of exhibiting chaos even in the absence of external environmental variation or noise, and that the onset of chaotic dynamics is the result of the fitness landscape reversibly alternating between epochs of stabilizing and disruptive selection. We draw an analogy between the fitness function and the free energy in statistical mechanics, allowing us to use the physical theory of first-order phase transitions to understand the onset of rapid cycling in the chaotic predator-prey dynamics. We use quantitative techniques to study the relevance of our model to observational studies of complex ecosystems, finding that the evolution-driven chaotic dynamics confer community stability at the "edge of chaos" while creating a wide distribution of opportunities for speciation during epochs of disruptive selection-a potential observable signature of chaotic eco-evolutionary dynamics in experimental studies.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Apetrei, Alin Marian, E-mail: alin.apetrei@uaic.r [Department of Physics, Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iasi, 11 Blvd. Carol I, Iasi 700506 (Romania); Enachescu, Cristian; Tanasa, Radu; Stoleriu, Laurentiu; Stancu, Alexandru [Department of Physics, Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iasi, 11 Blvd. Carol I, Iasi 700506 (Romania)
2010-09-01
We apply here the Monte Carlo Metropolis method to a known atom-phonon coupling model for 1D spin transition compounds (STC). These inorganic molecular systems can switch under thermal or optical excitation, between two states in thermodynamical competition, i.e. high spin (HS) and low spin (LS). In the model, the ST units (molecules) are linked by springs, whose elastic constants depend on the spin states of the neighboring atoms, and can only have three possible values. Several previous analytical papers considered a unique average value for the elastic constants (mean-field approximation) and obtained phase diagrams and thermal hysteresis loops. Recently, Monte Carlo simulation papers, taking into account all three values of the elastic constants, obtained thermal hysteresis loops, but no phase diagrams. Employing Monte Carlo simulation, in this work we obtain the phase diagram at T=0 K, which is fully consistent with earlier analytical work; however it is more complex. The main difference is the existence of two supplementary critical curves that mark a hysteresis zone in the phase diagram. This explains the pressure hysteresis curves at low temperature observed experimentally and predicts a 'chemical' hysteresis in STC at very low temperatures. The formation and the dynamics of the domains are also discussed.
Solvable model for a dynamical quantum phase transition from fast to slow scrambling
Banerjee, Sumilan
2016-01-01
We propose an extension of the Sachdev-Ye-Kitaev (SYK) model that exhibits a quantum phase transition from the previously identified non-Fermi liquid fixed point to a Fermi liquid like state, while still allowing an exact solution in a suitable large $N$ limit. The extended model involves coupling the interacting $N$-site SYK model to a new set of $pN$ peripheral sites with only quadratic hopping terms between them. The conformal fixed point of the SYK model remains a stable low energy phase below a critical ratio of peripheral sites $pp_c$ the quadratic sites effectively screen the SYK dynamics, leading to a quadratic fixed point in the low temperature and frequency limit. The interactions have a perturbative effect in this regime leading to scrambling with Lyapunov exponent $\\lambda_L\\propto T^2$.
Dynamical Quantum Phase Transitions: Role of Topological Nodes in Wave Function Overlaps
Huang, Zhoushen; Balatsky, Alexander V.
2016-08-01
A sudden quantum quench of a Bloch band from one topological phase toward another has been shown to exhibit an intimate connection with the notion of a dynamical quantum phase transition (DQPT), where the returning probability of the quenched state to the initial state—i.e., the Loschmidt echo—vanishes at critical times {t*}. Analytical results to date are limited to two-band models, leaving the exact relation between topology and DQPT unclear. In this Letter, we show that, for a general multiband system, a robust DQPT relies on the existence of nodes (i.e., zeros) in the wave function overlap between the initial band and the postquench energy eigenstates. These nodes are topologically protected if the two participating wave functions have distinctive topological indices. We demonstrate these ideas in detail for both one and two spatial dimensions using a three-band generalized Hofstadter model. We also discuss possible experimental observations.
Phase Transition and Melting Curves of Calcium Fluoride via Molecular Dynamics Simulations
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZENG Zhao-Yi; CHEN Xiang-Rong; ZHU Jun; Hu Cui-E
2008-01-01
The phase transition and melting curves of CaF2 are investigated by using the general utility lattice programme(GULP)via the shell model with molecular dynamics method.By calculating the entropy H(at 0K)and Gibbs free energy G*(at 300K),we find that the phase transition pressure from the face-centred cubic(fcc)structure to the orthorhombic structure is 11.40 GPa and 9.33 GPa at 0K and 300K,respectively.The modified melting point of the fcc CaF2 is in the range of 1650-1733K at 0 GPa.All these results are well consistent with the available experimental data and other theoretical results.We also obtain that the melting temperature of hihg pressure phase is 990-1073K at 10 GPa.Moreover,the temperature dependences of the elastic constants Cij,bulk module B and shear module G are also predicted.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Shao Yuan-Zhi; Zhong Wei-Rong; Lin Guang-Ming; Li Jian-Can
2005-01-01
The dynamic response and stochastic resonance of a kinetic Ising spin system (ISS) subject to the joint action of an external field of weak sinusoidal modulation and stochastic white-noise are studied by solving the mean-field equation of motion based on Glauber dynamics. The periodically driven stochastic ISS shows that the characteristic stochastic resonance as well as nonequilibrium dynamic phase transition (NDPT) occurs when the frequency ω and amplitude h0 of driving field, the temperature t of the system and noise intensity D are all specifically in accordance with each other in quantity. There exist in the system two typical dynamic phases, referred to as dynamic disordered paramagnetic and ordered ferromagnetic phases respectively, corresponding to a zero- and a unit-dynamic order parameter. The NDPT boundary surface of the system which separates the dynamic paramagnetic phase from the dynamic ferromagnetic phase in the 3D parameter space of h0-t-D is also investigated. An interesting dynamical ferromagnetic phase with an intermediate order parameter of 0.66 is revealed for the first time in the ISS subject to the perturbation of a joint determinant and stochastic field. The intermediate order dynamical ferromagnetic phase is dynamically metastable in nature and owns a peculiar characteristic in its stability as well as the response to external driving field as compared with a fully order dynamic ferromagnetic phase.
Emergent topology and dynamical quantum phase transitions in two-dimensional closed quantum systems
Bhattacharya, Utso; Dutta, Amit
2017-07-01
Dynamical quantum phase transitions (DQPTs) manifested in the nonanalyticities in the temporal evolution of a closed quantum system generated by the time-independent final Hamiltonian, following a quench (or ramping) of a parameter of the Hamiltonian, is an emerging frontier of nonequilibrium quantum dynamics. We, here, introduce the notion of a dynamical topological order parameter (DTOP) that characterizes these DQPTs occurring in quenched (or ramped) two-dimensional closed quantum systems; this is quite a nontrivial generalization of the notion of DTOP introduced in Budich and Heyl [Phys. Rev. B 93, 085416 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevB.93.085416] for one-dimensional situations. This DTOP is obtained from the "gauge-invariant" Pancharatnam phase extracted from the Loschmidt overlap, i.e., the modulus of the overlap between the initially prepared state and its time-evolved counterpart reached following a temporal evolution generated by the time-independent final Hamiltonian. This generic proposal is illustrated considering DQPTs occurring in the subsequent temporal evolution following a sudden quench of the staggered mass of the topological Haldane model on a hexagonal lattice where it stays fixed to zero or unity and makes a discontinuous jump between these two values at critical times at which DQPTs occur. What is remarkable is that while the topology of the equilibrium model is characterized by the Chern number, the emergent topology associated with the DQPTs is characterized by a generalized winding number.
Laner, Monika; Hünenberger, Philippe H
2015-06-01
The phase- and phase-transition properties of glycerol-dipalmitate (GDP) bilayer patches are investigated using molecular dynamics simulations. This permits to characterize the influence of introducing a second aliphatic lipid tail by comparison to previously reported simulations of glycerol-1-monopalmitate (GMP). To this purpose, a set of 67 simulations (up to 300ns duration) of 2×8×8GDP bilayer patches are performed, considering the two GDP isomers glycerol-1,3-dipalmitate (13GDP) and glycerol-1,2-dipalmitate (12GDP; racemic), two hydration levels (12GDP only), and temperatures in the range 250-370K. In agreement with experiment, the GDP simulations reveal an increase in the main transition temperature by about 25K relative to GMP, and the occurrence of non-bilayer phases at high temperatures (inverted-cylinder or stacked phases). Structurally, the GDP system tends to evidence a tighter packing of the chains, a reduced extent of tilting, increased order parameters and a reduced fluidity. These differences are easily interpreted in terms of two key changes in molecular properties when going from GMP to GDP: (i) the reduction of the headgroup polarity and hydration (from two free hydroxyl groups to a single one); (ii) the increase in the effective tail cross-section relative to the (hydrated) headgroup cross-section, conferring to GDP a particular wedge shape. These two effects contribute to the relative instability of the liquid-crystalline phase, the stability being recovered in nature when the diglyceride headgroup is functionalized by a bulky or/and polar substituent.
Dynamical growth of the hadron bubbles during the quark-hadron phase transition
Shukla, P K; Sen-Gupta, S K
2001-01-01
The rate of dynamical growth of the hadron bubbles in a supercooled baryon free quark-gluon plasma, is evaluated by solving the equations of relativistic fluid dynamics in all space. For a non-viscous plasma, this dynamical growth rate is found to depend only on the range of correlation $\\xi$ of order parameter fluctuation, and the radius $R$ of the critical hadron bubble, the two length scales relevant for the description of the critical phenomena. Unlike Csernai-Kapusta result, this rate does not vanish in the limit of zero viscosity. Further, it is shown that the dynamical prefactor acquires an additive component when the medium becomes viscous. Interestingly, under certain reasonable assumption for the velocity of the sound in the medium, the viscous and the non-viscous parts of the prefactor are found to be identical to the results obtained by Csernai-Kapusta and Ruggeri-Friedman (for the case of zero viscosity) respectively. It is also demonstrated that the first order phase transition from QGP to hadro...
Ultrafast nano-imagining of the photoinduced phase transition dynamics in VO2
Doenges, Sven A.; Khatib, Omar; O'Callahan, Brian T.; Atkin, Joanna M.; Park, Jae Hyung; Cobden, David H.; Raschke, Markus B.
Many quantum phase transitions in correlated matter exhibit spatial inhomogeneities with expected yet unexplored effects on the associated ultrafast dynamics. Here we demonstrate the combination of ultrafast non-degenerate pump-probe spectroscopy with scattering scanning near-field optical microscopy (s-SNOM) for ultrafast nano-imaging. In a femtosecond near-field non-degenerate near-IR (NIR) pump and mid-IR (MIR) probe experiment, we study the photoinduced insulator-to-metal (IMT) transition in nominally homogeneous VO2 micro-crystals using far-from equilibrium excitation. We observe spatial heterogeneity on 50-100 nm length scales in the fluence dependent IMT dynamics, ranging from sub-100 fs to 1 ps. With pump fluences as high as nominally 10 mJ/cm2 we can reach distinct excitation and saturation regimes. These results suggest a large sensitivity of the IMT with respect to local variations in strain, doping, or defects difficult to discern microscopically.
Rindlisbacher, Tobias
2015-01-01
The transition between the two phases of 4D Euclidean Dynamical Triangulation [1] was long believed to be of second order until in 1996 first order behavior was found for sufficiently large systems [5,9]. However, one may wonder if this finding was affected by the numerical methods used: to control volume fluctuations, in both studies [5,9] an artificial harmonic potential was added to the action; in [9] measurements were taken after a fixed number of accepted instead of attempted moves which introduces an additional error. Finally the simulations suffer from strong critical slowing down which may have been underestimated. In the present work, we address the above weaknesses: we allow the volume to fluctuate freely within a fixed interval; we take measurements after a fixed number of attempted moves; and we overcome critical slowing down by using an optimized parallel tempering algorithm [12]. With these improved methods, on systems of size up to 64k 4-simplices, we confirm that the phase transition is first ...
Euclidean Dynamical Triangulation revisited: is the phase transition really first order?
Rindlisbacher, Tobias
2014-01-01
The transition between the two phases of 4D Euclidean Dynamical Triangulation [1] was long believed to be of second order until in 1996 first order behavior was found for sufficiently large systems [3,4]. However, one may wonder if this finding was affected by the numerical methods used: to control volume fluctuations, in both studies [3,4] an artificial harmonic potential was added to the action; in [4] measurements were taken after a fixed number of accepted instead of attempted moves which introduces an additional error. Finally the simulations suffer from strong critical slowing down which may have been underestimated. In the present work, we address the above weaknesses: we allow the volume to fluctuate freely within a fixed interval; we take measurements after a fixed number of attempted moves; and we overcome critical slowing down by using an optimized parallel tempering algorithm [6]. With these improved methods, on systems of size up to 64k 4-simplices, we confirm that the phase transition is first o...
Exact Growth of Entanglement and Dynamical Phase Transition in Global Fermionic Quench
Paranjape, Shruti
2016-01-01
Critical quantum quench of free Dirac fermions in an infinite system is examined carefully. A much broader analysis, with more emphasis on free scalar fields, has been done in hep-th/1512.0218. For specially prepared squeezed states of the massive theory, quenched states obtained are Calabrese-Cardy(CC) states and generalized Calabrese-Cardy(gCC) states with higher-spin charges. Exact time dependence of correlators are computed showing thermalization explicitly. We also calculate the exact monotonic growth of entanglement entropy in CC states. In case of gCC states, for a particular charge, we show that there is a dynamical phase transition from monotonic to non-monotonic entanglement entropy growth when the effective chemical potential is increased beyond a critical value.
Electroweak phase transition in technicolor
Jarvinen, Matti
2010-01-01
Several phenomenologically viable walking technicolor models have been proposed recently. I demonstrate that these models can have first order electroweak phase transitions, which are sufficiently strong for electroweak baryogenesis. Strong dynamics can also lead to several separate transitions at the electroweak scale, with the possibility of a temporary restoration and an extra breaking of the electroweak symmetry. First order phase transitions will produce gravitational waves, which may be detectable at future experiments.
Molecular dynamics insight to phase transition in n-alkanes with carbon nanofillers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rastogi, Monisha [School of Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Mandi, Himachal Pradesh 175 001 (India); Vaish, Rahul, E-mail: rahul@iitmandi.ac.in [School of Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Mandi, Himachal Pradesh 175 001 (India); Materials Research Centre, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012 (India)
2015-05-15
The present work aims to investigate the phase transition, dispersion and diffusion behavior of nanocomposites of carbon nanotube (CNT) and straight chain alkanes. These materials are potential candidates for organic phase change materials(PCMs) and have attracted flurry of research recently. Accurate experimental evaluation of the mass, thermal and transport properties of such composites is both difficult as well as economically taxing. Additionally it is crucial to understand the factors that results in modification or enhancement of their characteristic at atomic or molecular level. Classical molecular dynamics approach has been extended to elucidate the same. Bulk atomistic models have been generated and subjected to rigorous multistage equilibration. To reaffirm the approach, both canonical and constant-temperature, constant- pressure ensembles were employed to simulate the models under consideration. Explicit determination of kinetic, potential, non-bond and total energy assisted in understanding the enhanced thermal and transport property of the nanocomposites from molecular point of view. Crucial parameters including mean square displacement and simulated self diffusion coefficient precisely define the balance of the thermodynamic and hydrodynamic interactions. Radial distribution function also reflected the density variation, strength and mobility of the nanocomposites. It is expected that CNT functionalization could improve the dispersion within n-alkane matrix. This would further ameliorate the mass and thermal properties of the composite. Additionally, the determined density was in good agreement with experimental data. Thus, molecular dynamics can be utilized as a high throughput technique for theoretical investigation of nanocomposites PCMs.
Molecular dynamics insight to phase transition in n-alkanes with carbon nanofillers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Monisha Rastogi
2015-05-01
Full Text Available The present work aims to investigate the phase transition, dispersion and diffusion behavior of nanocomposites of carbon nanotube (CNT and straight chain alkanes. These materials are potential candidates for organic phase change materials(PCMs and have attracted flurry of research recently. Accurate experimental evaluation of the mass, thermal and transport properties of such composites is both difficult as well as economically taxing. Additionally it is crucial to understand the factors that results in modification or enhancement of their characteristic at atomic or molecular level. Classical molecular dynamics approach has been extended to elucidate the same. Bulk atomistic models have been generated and subjected to rigorous multistage equilibration. To reaffirm the approach, both canonical and constant-temperature, constant- pressure ensembles were employed to simulate the models under consideration. Explicit determination of kinetic, potential, non-bond and total energy assisted in understanding the enhanced thermal and transport property of the nanocomposites from molecular point of view. Crucial parameters including mean square displacement and simulated self diffusion coefficient precisely define the balance of the thermodynamic and hydrodynamic interactions. Radial distribution function also reflected the density variation, strength and mobility of the nanocomposites. It is expected that CNT functionalization could improve the dispersion within n-alkane matrix. This would further ameliorate the mass and thermal properties of the composite. Additionally, the determined density was in good agreement with experimental data. Thus, molecular dynamics can be utilized as a high throughput technique for theoretical investigation of nanocomposites PCMs.
Dynamical scaling in infinitely correlated many-body systems through a quantum phase transition
Acevedo, Oscar Leonardo; Quiroga, Luis; Rodriguez, Ferney Javier; Johnson, Neil
2013-03-01
We assess dynamical scaling of many two-level systems (TLSs) infinitely correlated, either through a mediating radiation mode as in the Dicke Model, or through a direct interaction between TLSs as in the Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick model. Those models are characterized by the presence of a Quantum Phase Transition (QPT) in the thermodynamic limit, and they belong to the same universality class. The assessment is done by means of exact computational simulations of finite-size systems under linear rampings of the interaction parameter crossing the quantum critical point. Our results exhibit significant differences with respect to previous works on dynamical scaling across QPTs in the near-adiabatic regime, which have focused on spin-chain models where correlation lengths can be defined. We have confirmed that in infinitely correlated models an effective system size can play the role of the correlation length in traditional scaling arguments. However, due to the infinite correlation among TLSs, the standard Kibble-Zurek mechanism is not realized as the system cannot fully enter an adiabatic evolution during the ordered phase. Also, in the two-level approximation, a suitable deviation from the standard Landau-Zener protocol must be performed in order to obtain scaling collapse.
Nonequilibrium Dynamical Phase Transition of a Three-Dimensional Kinetic Heisenberg Spin System
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
邵元智; 林光明; 蓝图; J.K.L Lai; C.H.Shek
2002-01-01
We systematically investigate the dynamical response of a three-dimensional kinetic isotropic Heisenberg spin system (ISS) to an external driving field by Monte Carlo numerical simulation. The dynamical response of the isotropic HSS differs obviously from those of the anisotropic Ising spin system in which no realstable ordered state and relevant dynamical phase transition were observed in the kinetic ISS. There is a threshold time after which the magnetization m(t) in the ISS driven by a symmetrical external field always tends asymptotically to a disorder state regardless of the initial state of the system. The threshold time depends on the reduced temperature T/TC of the investigated spin system, amplitude H0 and frequency of the external field, i.e. γ = C. ωα . H0-β. (T/TC)-γ.C is a constant equal to 0.0302 for a three-dimensional lattice and exponents а = 1.18 ± 0.01, β = 1.81 ± 0.01and γ = 1.68 ± 0.01.
Solvable model for a dynamical quantum phase transition from fast to slow scrambling
Banerjee, Sumilan; Altman, Ehud
2017-04-01
We propose an extension of the Sachdev-Ye-Kitaev (SYK) model that exhibits a quantum phase transition from the previously identified non-Fermi-liquid fixed point to a Fermi-liquid-like state, while still allowing an exact solution in a suitable large-N limit. The extended model involves coupling the interacting N -site SYK model to a new set of p N peripheral sites with only quadratic hopping terms between them. The conformal fixed point of the SYK model remains a stable low-energy phase below a critical ratio of peripheral sites p NFL) phase is characterized by a universal Lyapunov exponent λL→2 π T in the low-temperature limit; however, the temperature scale marking the crossover to the conformal regime vanishes continuously at the critical point pc. The residual entropy at T →0 , nonzero in the NFL, also vanishes continuously at the critical point. For p >pc the quadratic sites effectively screen the SYK dynamics, leading to a quadratic fixed point in the low-temperature and low-frequency limit. The interactions have a perturbative effect in this regime leading to scrambling with Lyapunov exponent λL∝T2 .
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ludwig, Benno
2009-09-24
In this work the avalanche dynamics of five shape memory samples has been analyzed by acoustic emission spectroscopy. The acoustic emission spectroscopy is particularly suitable for this analysis as it couples with high sensitivity to small structural changes caused by nucleation processes, interface movements, or variant rearrangements [91]. Owing to its high time resolution it provides a statistical approach to describe the jerky and intermittent character of the avalanche dynamics [20]. Rate-dependent cooling and heating runs have been conducted in order to study time-dependent aspects of the transition dynamics of the single crystals Ni{sub 63}Al{sub 37}, Au{sub 50.5}Cd{sub 49.5}, and Fe{sub 68.8}Pd{sup single}{sub 31.2}, and the polycrystalline sample Fe{sub 68.8}Pd{sup poly}{sub 31.2}. Moreover, a ferromagnetic Ni{sub 52}Mn{sub 23}Ga{sub 25} single crystal has been studied by temperature cycles under an applied magnetic field and additionally by magnetic-field cycles at a constant temperature in the martensitic phase. All samples analyzed in this work show power law behavior in the acoustic emission features amplitude, energy, and duration, which indicates scale-free behavior. The access to these power law spectra allows an investigation of energy barriers separating the metastable states, which give rise to avalanche transition dynamics. By performing rate-dependent experiments the importance of thermal fluctuations and the impact of martensite respectively twin stabilization processes have been examined. In the case of the Ni{sub 52}Mn{sub 23}Ga{sub 25} sample, the magnetic-field-induced variant rearrangement at slow field cycles leads to stronger signals than the rearrangement at quick cycles. This behavior can be explained by twin stabilization processes, which are accompanied by a reduction of the twin boundary mobility. For Ni{sub 63}Al{sub 37}, the combination of relevant thermal fluctuations, different involved time scales, and a high degree of
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ludwig, Benno
2009-09-24
In this work the avalanche dynamics of five shape memory samples has been analyzed by acoustic emission spectroscopy. The acoustic emission spectroscopy is particularly suitable for this analysis as it couples with high sensitivity to small structural changes caused by nucleation processes, interface movements, or variant rearrangements [91]. Owing to its high time resolution it provides a statistical approach to describe the jerky and intermittent character of the avalanche dynamics [20]. Rate-dependent cooling and heating runs have been conducted in order to study time-dependent aspects of the transition dynamics of the single crystals Ni{sub 63}Al{sub 37}, Au{sub 50.5}Cd{sub 49.5}, and Fe{sub 68.8}Pd{sup single}{sub 31.2}, and the polycrystalline sample Fe{sub 68.8}Pd{sup poly}{sub 31.2}. Moreover, a ferromagnetic Ni{sub 52}Mn{sub 23}Ga{sub 25} single crystal has been studied by temperature cycles under an applied magnetic field and additionally by magnetic-field cycles at a constant temperature in the martensitic phase. All samples analyzed in this work show power law behavior in the acoustic emission features amplitude, energy, and duration, which indicates scale-free behavior. The access to these power law spectra allows an investigation of energy barriers separating the metastable states, which give rise to avalanche transition dynamics. By performing rate-dependent experiments the importance of thermal fluctuations and the impact of martensite respectively twin stabilization processes have been examined. In the case of the Ni{sub 52}Mn{sub 23}Ga{sub 25} sample, the magnetic-field-induced variant rearrangement at slow field cycles leads to stronger signals than the rearrangement at quick cycles. This behavior can be explained by twin stabilization processes, which are accompanied by a reduction of the twin boundary mobility. For Ni{sub 63}Al{sub 37}, the combination of relevant thermal fluctuations, different involved time scales, and a high degree of
Non-equilibrium phase transitions
Henkel, Malte; Lübeck, Sven
2009-01-01
This book describes two main classes of non-equilibrium phase-transitions: (a) static and dynamics of transitions into an absorbing state, and (b) dynamical scaling in far-from-equilibrium relaxation behaviour and ageing. The first volume begins with an introductory chapter which recalls the main concepts of phase-transitions, set for the convenience of the reader in an equilibrium context. The extension to non-equilibrium systems is made by using directed percolation as the main paradigm of absorbing phase transitions and in view of the richness of the known results an entire chapter is devoted to it, including a discussion of recent experimental results. Scaling theories and a large set of both numerical and analytical methods for the study of non-equilibrium phase transitions are thoroughly discussed. The techniques used for directed percolation are then extended to other universality classes and many important results on model parameters are provided for easy reference.
Wang, Wei; Shu, Panpan; Wang, Zhen
2015-01-01
Heterogeneous adoption thresholds exist widely in social contagions, but were always neglected in previous studies. We first propose a non-Markovian spreading threshold model with general adoption threshold distribution. In order to understand the effects of heterogeneous adoption thresholds quantitatively, an edge-based compartmental theory is developed for the proposed model. We use a binary spreading threshold model as a specific example, in which some individuals have a low adoption threshold (i.e., activists) while the remaining ones hold a relatively high adoption threshold (i.e., bigots), to demonstrate that heterogeneous adoption thresholds markedly affect the final adoption size and phase transition. Interestingly, the first-order, second-order and hybrid phase transitions can be found in the system. More importantly, there are two different kinds of crossover phenomena in phase transition for distinct values of bigots' adoption threshold: a change from first-order or hybrid phase transition to the s...
Molecular dynamics simulation of phase and structural transitions in model lung surfactant mixtures
Duncan, Susan L.
Lung surfactant (LS) is a complex mixture of lipids and proteins that reduces and regulates the surface tension in the lungs, thereby decreasing the work of breathing. A thorough understanding of LS function is critical to the development and optimization of synthetic surfactants for the treatment of neonatal and adult respiratory distress syndrome. We have utilized coarse-grained (CG) molecular dynamics simulation to study the dynamic, hysteretic changes occurring in the structure and phase of model surfactant mixtures with varying temperature, pressure and composition. In particular, we have studied the effects of the LS components palmitoyloleoylphosphatidylglycerol (POPG), palmitoyloleoylphosphatidylcholine (POPC), palmitic acid (PA), cholesterol, and two surface-active proteins SP-B 1--25 (the 25-residue N-terminal fragment of SP-B), and SP-C on model surfactant monolayers containing the primary lipid component dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC). The results indicate that POPG, POPC, SP-B1--25 and SP-C act as fluidizers and PA and cholesterol act as condensing agents, which change the phase-transition temperature, LC-LE phase distribution, and the extent of hysteresis. To explore the role of LS proteins SP-B and SP-C in storing and redelivering lipid from lipid monolayers during the compression and re-expansion occurring in lungs during breathing, we have simulated 2D-to-3D transitions at the interface. These simulations show that at near-zero surface tension the presence of a fluidizing agent, such as POPG, SP-C, or SP-B 1--25 decreases the monolayers resistance to bending allowing the monolayers to form large undulations and ultimately folds. Another folding mechanism is also observed in monolayers containing peptides, involving the lipid-mediated aggregation of the peptides into a defect, from which the fold can nucleate. The occurrence of folding depends on the hydrophobic character of the peptides; if the number of hydrophobic residues is decreased
Phase Transition for the Mixing Time of the Glauber Dynamics for Coloring Regular Trees
Tetali, Prasad; Vigoda, Eric; Yang, Linji
2009-01-01
We prove that the mixing time of the Glauber dynamics for random $k$-colorings of the complete tree with branching factor $b$ undergoes a phase transition at $k=b(1+o_b(1))/\\ln{b}$. Our main result shows nearly sharp bounds on the mixing time of the dynamics on the complete tree with $n$ vertices for $k=Cb/\\ln{b}$ colors with constant $C$. For $C\\geq 1$ we prove the mixing time is $O(n^{1+o_b(1)}\\ln^2{n})$. On the other side, for $C< 1$ the mixing time experiences a slowing down, in particular, we prove it is $O(n^{1/C + o_b(1)}\\ln^2{n})$ and $\\Omega(n^{1/C-o_b(1)})$. The critical point C=1 is interesting since it coincides (at least up to first order) to the so-called reconstruction threshold which was recently established by Sly. The reconstruction threshold has been of considerable interest recently since it appears to have close connections to the efficiency of certain local algorithms, and this work was inspired by our attempt to understand these connections in this particular setting.
Mandal, Gautam
2013-01-01
Quantum quench dynamics is considered in a one dimensional unitary matrix model with a single trace potential. This model is integrable and has been studied in the context of non-critical string theory. We find dynamical phase transitions, and study the role of the quantum critical point. In course of the time evolutions, we find evidence of selective equilibration for a certain class of observables. The equilibrium is governed by the Generalized Gibbs Ensemble (GGE) and differs from the standard Gibbs ensemble. We compute the production of entropy which is O(N) for large N matrices. An important feature of the equilibration is the appearance of an energy cascade, reminiscent of the Richardson cascade in turbulence, where we find flow of energy from initial long wavelength modes to progressively shorter wavelength excitations. We discuss possible implication of the equilibration and of GGE in string theories and higher spin theories. In another related study, we compute time evolutions in a double trace unita...
Phase Transition for Glauber Dynamics for Independent Sets on Regular Trees
Restrepo, Ricardo; Vera, Juan C; Vigoda, Eric; Yang, Linji
2010-01-01
We study the effect of boundary conditions on the relaxation time of the Glauber dynamics for the hard-core model on the tree. The hard-core model is defined on the set of independent sets weighted by a parameter $\\lambda$, called the activity. The Glauber dynamics is the Markov chain that updates a randomly chosen vertex in each step. On the infinite tree with branching factor $b$, the hard-core model can be equivalently defined as a broadcasting process with a parameter $\\omega$ which is the positive solution to $\\lambda=\\omega(1+\\omega)^b$, and vertices are occupied with probability $\\omega/(1+\\omega)$ when their parent is unoccupied. This broadcasting process undergoes a phase transition between the so-called reconstruction and non-reconstruction regions at $\\omega_r\\approx \\ln{b}/b$. Reconstruction has been of considerable interest recently since it appears to be intimately connected to the efficiency of local algorithms on locally tree-like graphs, such as sparse random graphs. In this paper we show tha...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Jia Ning; Ma Shou-Feng; Zhong Shi-Quan
2012-01-01
Previous studies suggest that there are three different jam phases in the cellular automata automaton model with a slow-to-start rule under open boundaries.In the present paper,the dynamics of each free-flow-jam phase transition is studied.By analysing the microscopic behaviour of the traffic flow,we obtain analytical results on the phase transition dynamics.Our results can describe the detailed time evolution of the system during phase transition,while they provide good approximation for the numerical simulation data.These findings can perfectly explain the microscopic mechanism and details of the boundary-triggered phase transition dynamics.
Extinction phase transitions in a model of ecological and evolutionary dynamics
Barghathi, Hatem; Tackkett, Skye; Vojta, Thomas
2017-07-01
We study the non-equilibrium phase transition between survival and extinction of spatially extended biological populations using an agent-based model. We especially focus on the effects of global temporal fluctuations of the environmental conditions, i.e., temporal disorder. Using large-scale Monte-Carlo simulations of up to 3 × 107 organisms and 105 generations, we find the extinction transition in time-independent environments to be in the well-known directed percolation universality class. In contrast, temporal disorder leads to a highly unusual extinction transition characterized by logarithmically slow population decay and enormous fluctuations even for large populations. The simulations provide strong evidence for this transition to be of exotic infinite-noise type, as recently predicted by a renormalization group theory. The transition is accompanied by temporal Griffiths phases featuring a power-law dependence of the life time on the population size.
Discrete dynamics in transitional economies
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. Barkley Rosser, Jr.
1998-01-01
Full Text Available This paper traces the transition from planned command socialism to market capitalism and the accompanying complex non-linear dynamics involved. Long wave chaotic hysteretic investment cycles emerge under socialism leading to crisis and breakdown. Macroeconomic collapse occurs with bifurcations of coordination structures during transition. During recovery, transitional cobweb labor market dynamics exhibit chaos, fractal basin boundaries between coexisting non-chaotic attractors, discontinuous phase transitions, strange attractors, and cascades of infinitely many period-doubling bifurcations.
Combinatorial optimization using dynamical phase transitions in driven-dissipative systems
Leleu, Timothée; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa; Utsunomiya, Shoko; Aihara, Kazuyuki
2017-02-01
The dynamics of driven-dissipative systems is shown to be well-fitted for achieving efficient combinatorial optimization. The proposed method can be applied to solve any combinatorial optimization problem that is equivalent to minimizing an Ising Hamiltonian. Moreover, the dynamics considered can be implemented using various physical systems as it is based on generic dynamics—the normal form of the supercritical pitchfork bifurcation. The computational principle of the proposed method relies on an hybrid analog-digital representation of the binary Ising spins by considering the gradient descent of a Lyapunov function that is the sum of an analog Ising Hamiltonian and archetypal single or double-well potentials. By gradually changing the shape of the latter potentials from a single to double well shape, it can be shown that the first nonzero steady states to become stable are associated with global minima of the Ising Hamiltonian, under the approximation that all analog spins have the same amplitude. In the more general case, the heterogeneity in amplitude between analog spins induces the stabilization of local minima, which reduces the quality of solutions to combinatorial optimization problems. However, we show that the heterogeneity in amplitude can be reduced by setting the parameters of the driving signal near a regime, called the dynamic phase transition, where the analog spins' DC components map more accurately the global minima of the Ising Hamiltonian which, in turn, increases the quality of solutions found. Last, we discuss the possibility of a physical implementation of the proposed method using networks of degenerate optical parametric oscillators.
Tuning the presence of dynamical phase transitions in a generalized X Y spin chain
Divakaran, Uma; Sharma, Shraddha; Dutta, Amit
2016-05-01
We study an integrable spin chain with three spin interactions and the staggered field (λ ) while the latter is quenched either slowly [in a linear fashion in time (t ) as t /τ , where t goes from a large negative value to a large positive value and τ is the inverse rate of quenching] or suddenly. In the process, the system crosses quantum critical points and gapless phases. We address the question whether there exist nonanalyticities [known as dynamical phase transitions (DPTs)] in the subsequent real-time evolution of the state (reached following the quench) governed by the final time-independent Hamiltonian. In the case of sufficiently slow quenching (when τ exceeds a critical value τ1), we show that DPTs, of the form similar to those occurring for quenching across an isolated critical point, can occur even when the system is slowly driven across more than one critical point and gapless phases. More interestingly, in the anisotropic situation we show that DPTs can completely disappear for some values of the anisotropy term (γ ) and τ , thereby establishing the existence of boundaries in the (γ -τ ) plane between the DPT and no-DPT regions in both isotropic and anisotropic cases. Our study therefore leads to a unique situation when DPTs may not occur even when an integrable model is slowly ramped across a QCP. On the other hand, considering sudden quenches from an initial value λi to a final value λf, we show that the condition for the presence of DPTs is governed by relations involving λi,λf, and γ , and the spin chain must be swept across λ =0 for DPTs to occur.
Is there universal predator-prey dynamics at the laminar-turbulent phase transition?
Shih, Hong-Yan; Goldenfeld, Nigel
2016-11-01
Direct numerical simulation of pipe flow shows that transitional turbulence is dominated by two collective modes: a longitudinal mode for small-scale turbulent fluctuations whose anisotropy induces an emergent large-scale azimuthal mode (so-called zonal flow) that inhibits anisotropic Reynolds stress. This activation-inhibition interaction leads to stochastic predator-prey-like dynamics, from which it follows that the transition to turbulence belongs to the directed percolation universality class. Here we show how predator-prey dynamics arises by deriving phenomenologically an effective field theory of the transition from a coarse-graining of the Reynolds equation. The rigorous mapping between the conserved currents in Rayleigh-Benard convection (RBC), Taylor-Couette and pipe flows suggests that the zonal flow-turbulence scenario might occur in these systems, consistent with observations of zonal flows in two-dimensional RBC, and bursts of transitional turbulence in Couette flow that follow the critical scalings of directed percolation.
Ruderman, A; Santos, E; Pastawski, H M
2015-01-01
In this work we show that the molecular chemical bond formation and dissociation in presence of the d-band of a metal catalyst can be described as a Quantum Dynamical Phase Transition (QDPT). This agree with DFT calculations that predict sudden jumps in some observables as the molecule breaks. According to our model this phenomenon emerges because the catalyst provides for a non- Hermitian Hamiltonian. We show that when the molecule approaches the surface, as occurs in the Heyrovsky reaction of H 2, the bonding H 2 orbital has a smooth crossover into a bonding molecular orbital built with the closest H orbital and the surface metal d-states. The same occurs for the antibonding state. Meanwhile, two resonances appear within the continuous spectrum of the d- band which are associated with bonding and antibonding orbitals between the furthest H atom and the d-states at the second metallic layer. These move towards the band center where they collapse into a pure metallic resonance and an almost isolated H orbital...
Ruderman, A.; Dente, A. D.; Santos, E.; Pastawski, H. M.
2015-08-01
In this work we show that molecular chemical bond formation and dissociation in the presence of the d-band of a metal catalyst can be described as a quantum dynamical phase transition (QDPT). This agrees with DFT calculations that predict sudden jumps in some observables as the molecule breaks. According to our model this phenomenon emerges because the catalyst provides for a non-Hermitian Hamiltonian. We show that when the molecule approaches the surface, as occurs in the Heyrovsky reaction of H2, the bonding H2 orbital has a smooth crossover into a bonding molecular orbital built with the closest H orbital and the surface metal d-states. The same occurs for the antibonding state. Meanwhile, two resonances appear within the continuous spectrum of the d-band, which are associated with bonding and antibonding orbitals between the furthest H atom and the d-states at the second metallic layer. These move toward the band center, where they collapse into a pure metallic resonance and an almost isolated H orbital. This phenomenon constitutes a striking example of the non-trivial physics enabled when one deals with non-Hermitian Hamiltonian beyond the usual wide band approximation.
On Dynamical Systems and Phase Transitions for q + 1-state p-adic Potts Model on the Cayley Tree
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mukhamedov, Farrukh, E-mail: far75m@yandex.ru [International Islamic University Malaysia, Department of Computational and Theoretical Sciences, Faculty of Science (Malaysia)
2013-03-15
In the present paper, we study a new kind of p-adic measures for q + 1-state Potts model, called p-adic quasi Gibbs measure. For such a model, we derive a recursive relations with respect to boundary conditions. Note that we consider two mode of interactions: ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic. In both cases, we investigate a phase transition phenomena from the associated dynamical system point of view. Namely, using the derived recursive relations we define a fractional p-adic dynamical system. In ferromagnetic case, we establish that if q is divisible by p, then such a dynamical system has two repelling and one attractive fixed points. We find basin of attraction of the fixed point. This allows us to describe all solutions of the nonlinear recursive equations. Moreover, in that case there exists the strong phase transition. If q is not divisible by p, then the fixed points are neutral, and this yields that the existence of the quasi phase transition. In antiferromagnetic case, there are two attractive fixed points, and we find basins of attraction of both fixed points, and describe solutions of the nonlinear recursive equation. In this case, we prove the existence of a quasi phase transition.
Molecular Dynamical Simulation of Ice Phase Transition: Ice Ih to High-Density Amorphous
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
DONG Shun-Le; WANG Yan
2005-01-01
@@ We put 5kbar and 12kbar on perfect ice Ih lattice at 77K and 180K. After 30000 simulation steps (in units of 10-15 s), high-density amorphous ice is formed. Four-site simple-pair potential TIP4P is used for molecular interactions and the rigid molecular model is employed. Phase transition processes are fitted by an exponential function, and different phase transition times τ are obtained from O-O radial distribution functions (366 and 359fs for 77K and 180K) and O-O-O angle distribution functions (126 and 116fs for 77K and 180K).
Dynamic behavior of the He Ⅱ -He I phase transition under gravity
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2002-01-01
The phase transition of superfluid helium (He Ⅱ ) to normal fluid helium (He I ) is studied in this note. The He Ⅱ-He I interface is found to move upwards under finite heat current. The temperature tracks are measured by four high resolution temperature sensors (HRTs). And the shifting of the λ point temperature (phase transition temperature)along the cell is studied experimentally and theoretically.Under gravity, the shifting of the λ point temperature increases with the pressure. The experimental results agree well with the theoretical ones.``
Magnetization dynamics across the first order phase transition in FeRh thin films
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pressacco, Federico
2014-08-01
The metallic alloy FeRh undergoes a phase transition from an antiferromagnetic phase (AFP) to a ferromagnetic phase (FP) when heated above 400 K. The change in magnetic order results in a change in the net magnetization of the system from zero up to 1.2 kA/m after increasing the system temperature. This is an uncommon characteristic for a magnetic material since usually one observes a decrease of the magnetization upon heating. This discloses the possibility to apply FeRh to Heat-Assisted Magnetic Recording (HAMR) devices.
Peterseim, Tobias; Dressel, Martin
2017-01-01
The time-dependent optical properties of molecular systems are investigated by step-scan Fourier-transform spectroscopy in order to explore the dynamics at phase transitions and molecular orientation in the milli- and microsecond range. The electrical switching of liquid crystals traced by vibrational spectroscopy reveals a rotation of the molecules with a relaxation time of 2 ms. The photo-induced neutral-ionic transition in TTF-CA takes place by a suppression of the dimerization in the ionic phase and creation of neutral domains. The time-dependent infrared spectra, employed to investigate the domain-wall dynamics, depend on temperature and laser pulse intensity; the relaxation of the spectra follows a stretched-exponential decay with relaxation times in the microsecond range strongly dependent on temperature and laser intensity. We present all details of the experimental setups and thoroughly discuss the technical challenges.
Peterseim, Tobias; Dressel, Martin
2016-06-01
The time-dependent optical properties of molecular systems are investigated by step-scan Fourier-transform spectroscopy in order to explore the dynamics at phase transitions and molecular orientation in the milli- and microsecond range. The electrical switching of liquid crystals traced by vibrational spectroscopy reveals a rotation of the molecules with a relaxation time of 2 ms. The photo-induced neutral-ionic transition in TTF-CA takes place by a suppression of the dimerization in the ionic phase and creation of neutral domains. The time-dependent infrared spectra, employed to investigate the domain-wall dynamics, depend on temperature and laser pulse intensity; the relaxation of the spectra follows a stretched-exponential decay with relaxation times in the microsecond range strongly dependent on temperature and laser intensity. We present all details of the experimental setups and thoroughly discuss the technical challenges.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Neumann, A.U.; Derrida, B.
1988-10-01
We study the time evolution of two configurations submitted to the same thermal noise for several two dimensional models (Ising ferromagnet, symmetric spin glass, non symmetric spin glass). For all these models, we find a non zero critical temperature above which the two configurations always meet. Using finite size scaling ideas, we determine for these three models this dynamical phase transition and some of the critical exponents. For the ferromagnet, the transition T/sub c/ approx. = 2.25 coincides with the Curie temperature whereas for the two spin glass models +- J distribution of bonds) we obtain T/sub c/ approx. = 1.5-1.7.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mazhukin, V.I. [Institute of Mathematical Modeling, Russian Academy of Sciences, Miusskaya sq. 4A, 125047 Moscow (Russian Federation); Lobok, M.G. [Institute of Mathematical Modeling, Russian Academy of Sciences, Miusskaya sq. 4A, 125047 Moscow (Russian Federation)], E-mail: immras@orc.ru; Chichkov, B. [Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. Holleritallee 8, 30419 Hannover (Germany)], E-mail: b.chichkov@lhz.de
2009-03-01
We investigate laser pulse influence on aluminum target in irradiance range 10{sup 9} to 10{sup 16} W/cm{sup 2}, pulse duration between 10{sup -8} and 10{sup -15} s, Gaussian time profile with wavelength of 0.8 {mu}m. For all computations energy density was 10 J/cm{sup 2}. Plasma in the evaporated material is generated at the energy density above 10 J/cm{sup 2}as the modeling showed. Long and short laser pulses distinguish by the mechanisms of energy transformation. For short laser pulses there is volumetric energy absorption, together with rapid phase transitions it lead to overheating in solid and liquid states, overheated solid temperature rises up to (6-8)T{sub m}. Under influence of the energy saved in overheated solid, duration of the phase transitions becomes nanosecond, which is several orders of magnitude longer than laser pulse.
Phase transitions modern applications
Gitterman, Moshe
2014-01-01
This book provides a comprehensive review of the theory of phase transitions and its modern applications, based on the five pillars of the modern theory of phase transitions i.e. the Ising model, mean field, scaling, renormalization group and universality. This expanded second edition includes, along with a description of vortices and high temperature superconductivity, a discussion of phase transitions in chemical reaction and moving systems. The book covers a close connection between phase transitions and small world phenomena as well as scale-free systems such as the stock market and the Internet. Readership: Scientists working in different fields of physics, chemistry, biology and economics as well as teaching material for undergraduate and graduate courses.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
许可; 李未
1999-01-01
Phase transition is an important feature of SAT problem. For random k-SAT model, it is proved that as r（ratio of clauses to variables） increases, the structure of solutions will undergo a sudden change like satisfiability phase transition when r reaches a threshold point (r=rcr). This phenomenon shows that the satisfying truth assignments suddenly shift from being relatively different from each other to being very similar to each other.##属性不符
Symmetry structure and phase transitions
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Ashok Goyal; Meenu Dahiya; Deepak Chandra
2003-05-01
We study chiral symmetry structure at ﬁnite density and temperature in the presence of external magnetic ﬁeld and gravity, a situation relevant in the early Universe and in the core of compact stars. We then investigate the dynamical evolution of phase transition in the expanding early Universe and possible formation of quark nuggets and their survival.
Zhu, Li; Liu, Xian-Kai; Zhao, Ge; Zhi, Yi-Dan; Bu, Xin; Ying, Tian-Yi; Feng, Er-Ling; Wang, Jie; Zhang, Xue-Min; Huang, Pei-Tang; Wang, Heng-Liang
2007-05-01
Shigella flexneri is an infectious pathogen that causes dysentery to human, which remains a serious threat to public health, particularly in developing countries. In this study, the global protein expression patterns of S. flexneri during transition from exponential growth to stationary phase in vitro were analyzed by using 2-D PAGE combined with MALDI-TOF MS. In a time-course experiment with five time points, the relative abundance of 49 protein spots varied significantly. Interestingly, a putative outer membrane protein YciD (OmpW) was almost not detected in the exponential growth phase but became one of the most abundant proteins in the whole stationary-phase proteome. Some proteins regulated by the global regulator FNR were also significantly induced (such as AnsB, AspA, FrdAB, and KatG) or repressed (such as AceEF, OmpX, SodA, and SucAB) during the growth phase transition. These proteins may be the key effectors of the bacterial cell cycle or play important roles in the cellular maintenance and stress responses. Our expression profile data provide valuable information for the study of bacterial physiology and form the basis for future proteomic analyses of this pathogen.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2007-01-01
Shigella flexneri is an infectious pathogen that causes dysentery to human, which remains a serious threat to public health, particularly in developing countries. In this study, the global protein expression patterns of S. flexneri during transition from exponential growth to stationary phase in vitro were analyzed by using 2-D PAGE combined with MALDI-TOF MS. In a time-course experiment with five time points, the relative abundance of 49 protein spots varied significantly. In terestingly, a putative outer membrane protein YciD (OmpW) was almost not detected in the exponential growth phase but became one of the most abundant proteins in the whole stationary-phase proteome. Some proteins regulated by the global regulator FNR were also significantly induced (such as AnsB, AspA, FrdAB,and KatG) or repressed (such as AceEF, OmpX, SodA, and SucAB) during the growth phase transition. These proteins may be the key effectors of the bacterial cell cycle or play important roles in the cellular maintenance and stress responses.Our expression profile data provide valuable information for the study of bacterial physiology and form the basis for future proteomic analyses of this pathogen.
Martín-Sómer, Ana; Yáñez, Manuel; Hase, William L; Gaigeot, Marie-Pierre; Spezia, Riccardo
2016-03-01
Beyond the established use of thermodynamic vs kinetic control to explain chemical reaction selectivity, the concept of bifurcations on a potential energy surface (PES) is proving to be of pivotal importance with regard to selectivity. In this article, we studied by means of post-transition state (TS) direct dynamics simulations the effect that vibrational and rotational excitation at the TS may have on selectivity on a bifurcating PES. With this aim, we studied the post-TS unimolecular reactivity of the [Ca(formamide)](2+) ion, for which Coulomb explosion and neutral loss reactions compete. The PES exhibits different kinds of nonintrinsic reaction coordinate (IRC) dynamics, among them PES bifurcations, which direct the trajectories to multiple reaction paths after passing the TS. Direct dynamics simulations were used to distinguish between the bifurcation non-IRC dynamics and non-IRC dynamics arising from atomistic motions directing the trajectories away from the IRC. Overall, we corroborated the idea that kinetic selectivity often does not reduce to a simple choice between paths with different barrier heights and instead dynamical behavior after passing the TS may be crucial. Importantly, rotational excitation may play a pivotal role on the reaction selectivity favoring nonthermodynamic products.
Sznajd-Weron, Katarzyna
2010-09-01
In the past decade low-temperature Glauber dynamics for the one-dimensional Ising system has been several times observed experimentally and occurred to be one of the most important theoretical approaches in a field of molecular nanomagnets. On the other hand, it has been shown recently that Glauber dynamics with the Metropolis flipping probability for the zero-temperature Ising ferromagnet under synchronous updating can lead surprisingly to the antiferromagnetic steady state. In this paper the generalized class of Glauber dynamics at zero temperature will be considered and the relaxation into the ground state, after a quench from high temperature, will be investigated. Using Monte Carlo simulations and a mean field approach, discontinuous phase transition between ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic phases for a one-dimensional ferromagnet will be shown.
Ishikawa, Atsushi; Horiuchi, Keizo; Ikeda, Ryuichi; Nakamura, Daiyu
1989-01-01
The temperature dependence of 35Cl NQR frequencies has been reinvestigated for dimethylammonium hexachlorotellurate(IV) using an FT NQR spectrometer. A new line is observed just above the lowest-frequency line already reported for the intermediate-temperature phase. In the lowest-temperature phase, the temperature dependence is definitely determined by finding new lines. The NQR frequencies can be precisely measured even in the vicinity of the phase transitions. The temperature dependence of the nuclear quadrupole relaxation time, T1Q of 35Cl and 37Cl nuclei has also been observed. In a temperature range 64-160 K, the isotope ratio, T1Q( 37Cl)/ T1Q( 35Cl) is 1.5 for each line, suggesting that the quadrupolar relaxation arises mainly from the libration of the complex anion. Above 160 K, T1Q decreases very rapidly with increasing temperature for each line. This can be interpreted in terms of the onset of the reorientation of the anion as a whole, which is responsible for the fade-out phenomenon of the two lines occurring near 220 K. The nature of the phase transitions and the anionic dynamics are discussed in detail. Especially, the phase transition at 96 K which is rather unusual and is explained through softening of the librations and the rotational displacement of the anions successively operated.
Phase transitions in operational risk.
Anand, Kartik; Kühn, Reimer
2007-01-01
In this paper we explore the functional correlation approach to operational risk. We consider networks with heterogeneous a priori conditional and unconditional failure probability. In the limit of sparse connectivity, self-consistent expressions for the dynamical evolution of order parameters are obtained. Under equilibrium conditions, expressions for the stationary states are also obtained. Consequences of the analytical theory developed are analyzed using phase diagrams. We find coexistence of operational and nonoperational phases, much as in liquid-gas systems. Such systems are susceptible to discontinuous phase transitions from the operational to nonoperational phase via catastrophic breakdown. We find this feature to be robust against variation of the microscopic modeling assumptions.
Phase Transition Dynamics of Collective Decision in Scale-Free Networks
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
DUAN Wen-Qi; CHEN Zhong; LIU Zeng-Rong
2005-01-01
@@ A strategic collective decision model is introduced to investigate the role of decision transmission mechanism and interaction networks in determining the collective decision dynamics. Assuming that agents are located in a scale-free network and their decisions are interdependent of each other. In our model, it is found that the effective decision transmission rate -λ exists a threshold -λc = 1, which marks the transition between the two regimes, i.e.the decision spreading and the decision disappearing in the population. Furthermore, -λ is mainly determined by the decision transmission mechanism and interaction network's topology.
Dynamics of a two-phase flow through a minichannel: Transition from churn to slug flow
Górski, Grzegorz; Litak, Grzegorz; Mosdorf, Romuald; Rysak, Andrzej
2016-04-01
The churn-to-slug flow bifurcations of two-phase (air-water) flow patterns in a 2mm diameter minichannel were investigated. With increasing a water flow rate, we observed the transition of slugs to bubbles of different sizes. The process was recorded by a digital camera. The sequences of light transmission time series were recorded by a laser-phototransistor sensor, and then analyzed using the recurrence plots and recurrence quantification analysis (RQA). Due to volume dependence of bubbles velocities, we observed the formation of periodic modulations in the laser signal.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Eriksen, Johan; Thilsted, Anil Haraksingh; Marie, Rodolphe
2011-01-01
A method of in situ chromosome immobilisation and DNA extraction in a microfluidic polymer chip was presented. Light-induced local heating was used to induce poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) phase transition in order to create a hydrogel and embed a single chromosome such that it was immobilised....... This was achieved with the use of a near-infrared laser focused on an absorption layer integrated in the polymer chip in close proximity to the microchannel. It was possible to proceed to DNA extraction while holding on the chromosome at an arbitrary location by introducing protease K into the microchannel. © 2011...
Buendía, G M; Rikvold, P A
2008-11-01
We study the dynamical response of a two-dimensional Ising model subject to a square-wave oscillating external field. In contrast to earlier studies, the system evolves under a so-called soft Glauber dynamic [Rikvold and Kolesik, J. Phys. A 35, L117 (2002)], for which both nucleation and interface propagation are slower and the interfaces smoother than for the standard Glauber dynamic. We choose the temperature and magnitude of the external field such that the metastable decay of the system following field reversal occurs through nucleation and growth of many droplets of the stable phase, i.e., the multidroplet regime. Using kinetic Monte Carlo simulations, we find that the system undergoes a nonequilibrium phase transition, in which the symmetry-broken dynamic phase corresponds to an asymmetric stationary limit cycle for the time-dependent magnetization. The critical point is located where the half period of the external field is approximately equal to the metastable lifetime of the system. We employ finite-size scaling analysis to investigate the characteristics of this dynamical phase transition. The critical exponents and the fixed-point value of the fourth-order cumulant are found to be consistent with the universality class of the two-dimensional equilibrium Ising model. This universality class has previously been established for the same nonequilibrium model evolving under the standard Glauber dynamic, as well as in a different nonequilibrium model of CO oxidation. The results reported in the present paper support the hypothesis that this far-from-equilibrium phase transition is universal with respect to the choice of the stochastic dynamics.
Santos, Lea F.; Távora, Marco; Pérez-Bernal, Francisco
2016-07-01
Excited-state quantum phase transitions (ESQPTs) are generalizations of quantum phase transitions to excited levels. They are associated with local divergences in the density of states. Here, we investigate how the presence of an ESQPT can be detected from the analysis of the structure of the Hamiltonian matrix, the level of localization of the eigenstates, the onset of bifurcation, and the speed of the system evolution. Our findings are illustrated for a Hamiltonian with infinite-range Ising interaction in a transverse field. This is a version of the Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick (LMG) model and the limiting case of the one-dimensional spin-1/2 system with tunable interactions realized with ion traps. From our studies for the dynamics, we uncover similarities between the LMG and the noninteracting XX models.
Kopaev, YuV
1992-01-01
Electronic Phase Transitions deals with topics, which are presently at the forefront of scientific research in modern solid-state theory. Anderson localization, which has fundamental implications in many areas of solid-state physics as well as spin glasses, with its influence on quite different research activities such as neural networks, are two examples that are reviewed in this book. The ab initio statistical mechanics of structural phase transitions is another prime example, where the interplay and connection of two unrelated disciplines of solid-state theory - first principle ele
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Kohji Tashiro
2007-01-01
The crystalline phase transition of aliphatic nylon 10/10 has been investigated on the basis of the simultaneous measurement of wide-angle and small-angle X-ray scatterings, the infrared spectral measurement and the molecular dynamics calculation. An interpretation of infrared spectra taken for a series of nylon samples and the corresponding model compounds was successfully made, allowing us to assign the infrared bands of the planar-zigzag methylene segments reasonably. As a result the methylene segmental parts of molecular chains were found to experience an order-to-disorder transition in the Brill transition region, where the intermolecular hydrogen bonds are kept alive although the bond strength becomes weaker at higher temperature. The small-angle X-ray scattering data revealed a slight change in lamellar stacking mode in the transition region. The crystal structure has been found to change more remarkably in the temperature region immediately below the melting point, where the conformationally disordered chains experienced drastic rotational and translational motions without any constraints by hydrogen bonds, and the lamellar thickness increased largely along the chain axis. These experimental results were reasonably reproduced by the molecular dynamics calculation performed at the various temperatures.
Photoinduced phase transitions
Nasu, K
2004-01-01
A new class of insulating solids was recently discovered. Whenirradiated by a few visible photons, these solids give rise to amacroscopic excited domain that has new structural and electronicorders quite different from the starting ground state. This occurrenceis called "photoinduced phase transition", and this multi-authoredbook reviews recent theoretical and experimental studies of this newphenomenon.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kitazaki, Tamotsu; Kato, Tomohiko, E-mail: katou@fit.ac.jp
2014-03-15
Random magnets generally exhibit gradual phase transitions more or less. The origin of the phenomena has been controversial for a long time: intrinsic phenomena of disordered magnets or non-equilibrium effect due to finite observation time. We now support the latter, but there have not been clear evidences experimentally and theoretically. We show that the behavior of phase transition of a simple random magnetic system differs in the observation time by using a dynamic Monte Carlo simulation. The target of the simulation is experiments of the line width of NMR spin-echo spectra, a type of the order parameter, on Mn{sub x}Cd{sub 1−x} (HCOO){sub 2}·2(NH{sub 2})2CO. The calculated results indicate that, as the averaging time becomes shorter, the phase transition becomes more gradual. This tendency is most pronounced around the percolation concentration. The calculated results coincide well with the characteristic features of the experimental results. This coincidence supports that the smearing behavior of the order parameter is a non-equilibrium effect, though Ising model employed in the simulation is different with Heisenberg system of the target substance.
Critical dynamical properties of a first-order dissipative phase transition
Casteels, W.; Fazio, R.; Ciuti, C.
2017-01-01
We theoretically investigate the critical properties of a single driven-dissipative nonlinear photon mode. In a well-defined thermodynamical limit of large excitation numbers, the exact quantum solution describes a first-order phase transition in the regime where semiclassical theory predicts optical bistability. We study the behavior of the complex spectral gap associated with the Liouvillian superoperator of the corresponding master equation. We show that in this limit the Liouvillian gap vanishes exponentially and that the bimodality of the photon Wigner function disappears. The connection between the considered thermodynamical limit of large photon numbers for the single-mode cavity and the thermodynamical limit of many cavities for a driven-dissipative Bose-Hubbard system is discussed.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qibin Li
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Paraffin based nanofluids are widely used as thermal energy storage materials and hold many applications in the energy industry. In this work, equilibrium and nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations are employed to study the thermal properties of the mixed nanofluids of n-octadecane and Cu nanoparticles during phase transition. Four different nanofluids systems with different mass ratios between the n-octadecane and Cu nanoparticles have been studied and the results show that Cu nanoparticles can improve the thermal properties of n-octadecane. The melting point, heat capacity and thermal conductivity of the mixed systems are decreased with the increasing of the mass ratio of n-octadecane.
Current fluctuations at a phase transition
Gerschenfeld, A.; Derrida, B.
2011-10-01
The ABC model is a simple diffusive one-dimensional non-equilibrium system which exhibits a phase transition. Here we show that the cumulants of the currents of particles through the system become singular near the phase transition. At the transition, they exhibit an anomalous dependence on the system size (an anomalous Fourier's law). An effective theory for the dynamics of the single mode which becomes unstable at the transition allows one to predict this anomalous scaling.
Xu, Limei; Kumar, Pradeep; Buldyrev, S V; Chen, S-H; Poole, P H; Sciortino, F; Stanley, H E
2005-11-15
We investigate, for two water models displaying a liquid-liquid critical point, the relation between changes in dynamic and thermodynamic anomalies arising from the presence of the liquid-liquid critical point. We find a correlation between the dynamic crossover and the locus of specific heat maxima C(P)(max) ("Widom line") emanating from the critical point. Our findings are consistent with a possible relation between the previously hypothesized liquid-liquid phase transition and the transition in the dynamics recently observed in neutron scattering experiments on confined water. More generally, we argue that this connection between C(P)(max) and dynamic crossover is not limited to the case of water, a hydrogen bond network-forming liquid, but is a more general feature of crossing the Widom line. Specifically, we also study the Jagla potential, a spherically symmetric two-scale potential known to possess a liquid-liquid critical point, in which the competition between two liquid structures is generated by repulsive and attractive ramp interactions.
Qiu, Kang; Wang, Li-Fang; Shen, Jian; Yousif, Alssadig A. M.; He, Peng; Shao, Dan-Dan; Zhang, Xiao-Min; Kirunda, John B.; Jia, Ya
2016-11-01
Based on a deterministic continuous model of cell populations dynamics in the colonic crypt and in colorectal cancer, we propose four combinations of feedback mechanisms in the differentiations from stem cells (SCs) to transit cells (TCs) and then to differentiated cells (DCs), the four combinations include the double linear (LL), the linear and saturating (LS), the saturating and linear (SL), and the double saturating (SS) feedbacks, respectively. The relative fluctuations of the population of SCs, TCs, and DCs around equilibrium states with four feedback mechanisms are studied by using the Langevin method. With the increasing of net growth rate of TCs, it is found that the Fano factors of TCs and DCs go to a peak in a transient phase, and then increase again to infinity in the cases of LS and SS feedbacks. The “up-down-up” characteristic on the Fano factor (like the van der Waals loop) demonstrates that there exists a transient phase between the normal and cancerous phases, our novel findings suggest that the mathematical model with LS or SS feedback might be better to elucidate the dynamics of a normal and abnormal (cancerous) phases.
Characterization of a quantum phase transition in Dirac systems by means of the wave-packet dynamics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
E. Romera
2012-12-01
Full Text Available We study the signatures of phase transitions in the time evolution of wave-packets by analyzing two simple model systems: a graphene quantum dot model in a magnetic field and a Dirac oscillator in a magnetic field. We have characterized the phase transitions using the autocorrelation function. Our work also reveals that the description in terms of Shannon entropy of the autocorrelation function is a clear phase transition indicator.
Emergence and Phase Transitions
Sikkema, Arnold
2006-05-01
Phase transitions are well defined in physics through concepts such as spontaneous symmetry breaking, order parameter, entropy, and critical exponents. But emergence --- also exhibiting whole-part relations (such as top-down influence), unpredictability, and insensitivity to microscopic detail --- is a loosely-defined concept being used in many disciplines, particularly in psychology, biology, philosophy, as well as in physics[1,2]. I will review the concepts of emergence as used in the various fields and consider the extent to which the methods of phase transitions can clarify the usefulness of the concept of emergence both within the discipline of physics and beyond.1. Robert B. Laughlin, A Different Universe: Reinventing Physics from the Bottom Down (New York: Basic Books, 2005). 2. George F.R. Ellis, ``Physics and the Real World'', Physics Today, vol. 58, no. 7 (July 2005) pp. 49-54.
Understanding quantum phase transitions
Carr, Lincoln
2010-01-01
Quantum phase transitions (QPTs) offer wonderful examples of the radical macroscopic effects inherent in quantum physics: phase changes between different forms of matter driven by quantum rather than thermal fluctuations, typically at very low temperatures. QPTs provide new insight into outstanding problems such as high-temperature superconductivity and display fundamental aspects of quantum theory, such as strong correlations and entanglement. Over the last two decades, our understanding of QPTs has increased tremendously due to a plethora of experimental examples, powerful new numerical meth
Phase transitions in geometrothermodynamics
Quevedo, H; Taj, S; Vazquez, A
2010-01-01
Using the formalism of geometrothermodynamics, we investigate the geometric properties of the equilibrium manifold for diverse thermodynamic systems. Starting from Legendre invariant metrics of the phase manifold, we derive thermodynamic metrics for the equilibrium manifold whose curvature becomes singular at those points where phase transitions of first and second order occur. We conclude that the thermodynamic curvature of the equilibrium manifold, as defined in geometrothermodynamics, can be used as a measure of thermodynamic interaction in diverse systems with two and three thermodynamic degrees of freedom.
Quantum Phase Transitions in a Finite System
Leviatan, A
2006-01-01
A general procedure for studying finite-N effects in quantum phase transitions of finite systems is presented and applied to the critical-point dynamics of nuclei undergoing a shape-phase transition of second-order (continuous), and of first-order with an arbitrary barrier.
Phase Transition in Tensor Models
Delepouve, Thibault
2015-01-01
Generalizing matrix models, tensor models generate dynamical triangulations in any dimension and support a $1/N$ expansion. Using the intermediate field representation we explicitly rewrite a quartic tensor model as a field theory for a fluctuation field around a vacuum state corresponding to the resummation of the entire leading order in $1/N$ (a resummation of the melonic family). We then prove that the critical regime in which the continuum limit in the sense of dynamical triangulations is reached is precisely a phase transition in the field theory sense for the fluctuation field.
Kumar, Nardeep; Rúa, Armando; Lu, Junqiang; Fernández, Félix; Lysenko, Sergiy
2017-08-01
The ultrafast elastic light scattering technique is applied to reveal the strong nonlinearity of V3O5 associated with a photoinduced insulator-metal phase transition. Observation of time-domain relaxation dynamics suggests several stages of structural transition. We discuss the nonequilibrium processes in V3O5 in terms of photoinduced melting of a polaronic Wigner crystal, coalescence of V-O octahedra, and photogeneration of acoustical phonons in the low-T and high-T phases of V3O5 . A molecular dynamics computation supports experimentally observed stages of V3O5 relaxation dynamics.
Optical Transients Powered by Magnetars: Dynamics, Light Curves, and Transition to the Nebular Phase
Wang, L J; Dai, Z G; Xu, Dong; Han, Yan-Hui; Wu, X F; Wei, Jian-Yan
2016-01-01
Millisecond magnetars can be formed via several channels: core-collapse of massive stars, accretion-induced collapse of white dwarfs (WDs), double WD mergers, double neutron star (NS) mergers, and WD-NS mergers. Because the mass of ejecta from these channels could be quite different, their light curves are also expected to be diverse. We evaluate the dynamic evolution of optical transients powered by millisecond magnetars. We find that the magnetar with short spin-down timescale converts its rotational energy mostly into the kinetic energy of the transient, while the energy of a magnetar with long spin-down timescale goes into radiation of the transient. This leads us to speculate that hypernovae could be powered by magnetars with short spin-down timescales. At late times the optical transients will gradually evolve into a nebular phase because of the photospheric recession. We treat the photosphere and nebula separately because their radiation mechanisms are different. In some cases the ejecta could be light...
Transitions from phase-locked dynamics to chaos in a piecewise-linear map
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhusubaliyev, Z.T.; Mosekilde, Erik; De, S.
2008-01-01
place via border-collision fold bifurcations. We examine the transition to chaos through torus destruction in such maps. Considering a piecewise-linear normal-form map we show that this transition, by virtue of the interplay of border-collision bifurcations with period-doubling and homoclinic...
Fodor, Z
2000-01-01
Recent developments on the four dimensional (4d) lattice studies of the finite temperature electroweak phase transition (EWPT) are summarized. The phase diagram is given in the continuum limit. The finite temperature SU(2)-Higgs phase transition is of first order for Higgs-boson masses m/sub H/<66.5+or-1.4 GeV. Above this endpoint only a rapid cross-over can be seen. The full 4d result agrees completely with that of the dimensional reduction approximation. The Higgs-boson endpoint mass in the standard model (SM) would be 72.1+or-1. 4 GeV. Taking into account the LEP Higgs-boson mass lower bound excludes any EWPT in the SM. A one-loop calculation of the static potential in the SU(2)-Higgs model enables a precise comparison between lattice simulations and perturbative results. The most popular extension of the SM, the minimal supersymmetric SM (MSSM) is also studied on 4d lattices. (17 refs).
Stanislavchuk, T. N.; Litvinchuk, A. P.; Hu, Rongwei; Jeon, Young Hun; Ji, Sung Dae; Cheong, S.-W.; Sirenko, A. A.
2015-10-01
Optical properties and lattice dynamics of hexagonal 2 H -BaMn O3 single crystals are studied experimentally in a wide temperature range by means of rotating analyzer ellipsometry and Raman scattering. The magnitude of the direct electronic band gap is found to be Eg=3.2 eV . At room temperature the far-infrared (IR) ellipsometry spectra reveal six IR-active phonons; two of them are polarized along the c axis and four are polarized within the a-b plane. Seven phonon modes are identified in the Raman scattering experiments. Group theoretical mode analysis and complementary density functional theory lattice dynamics calculations are consistent with the 2 H -BaMn O3 structure belonging to the polar P 63m c space group at room temperature. All observed vibrational modes are assigned to specific eigenmodes of the lattice. The neutron diffraction measurements reveal a structural phase transition upon cooling below TC=130 ±5 K , which is accompanied by a lattice symmetry change from P 63m c to P 63c m . Simultaneously, at temperatures below TC several additional IR- and Raman-active modes are detected in experimental spectra. This confirms the occurrence of a structural transition, which is possibly associated with the appearance of electrical polarization along the c axis and a previously known tripling of the primitive cell volume at low temperatures.
Lattice dynamics and a magnetic-structural phase transition in the nickel orthoborate N i3(BO3) 2
Pisarev, R. V.; Prosnikov, M. A.; Davydov, V. Yu.; Smirnov, A. N.; Roginskii, E. M.; Boldyrev, K. N.; Molchanova, A. D.; Popova, M. N.; Smirnov, M. B.; Kazimirov, V. Yu.
2016-04-01
Nickel orthoborate N i3(BO3) 2 having a complex orthorhombic structure Pnnm (No. 58, Z =2 ) of the kotoite type is known for quite a long time as an antiferromagnetic material below TN=46 K , but up to now its physical properties including the lattice dynamics have not been explored. Six [Ni O6 ] units of 2 a and 4 f types are linked via rigid [B O3 ] groups and these structural particularities impose restrictions on the lattice dynamics and spin-phonon interactions. We performed the symmetry analysis of the phonon modes at the center of the Brillouin zone. The structural parameters and phonon modes were calculated using the dmol3 program. We report and analyze results of infrared and Raman studies of phonon spectra measured in all required polarizations. Most of the even and odd phonons predicted on the basis of the symmetry analysis and theoretical calculations were reliably identified in the measured spectra. Clear evidence of the spin-phonon interaction was found for some particular phonons below TN. An unexpected emergence of several very narrow and weak phonon lines was observed in the infrared absorption spectra exactly at the magnetic ordering temperature TN. Moreover, anomalous behavior was found for some Raman phonons. The emergence of new phonon modes in the infrared and Raman spectra exactly at TN proves the existence of a magnetostructural phase transition of a new type in N i3(BO3) 2 . A possible nature of this transition is discussed.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
罗孟波; 陈庆虎; 焦正宽
2002-01-01
We investigate the influence of the boundary condition on the short-time dynamic behaviour of the Ising-like phase transition in square-lattice fully frustrated (FF) XY models with periodic and fluctuating twist boundary conditions. The transition temperature Tc and the dynamic and static critical exponents z, 2β/v and v are estimated for both cases using short-time dynamic scaling analysis. The results show that both models have the same critical exponents, indicating that the boundary condition has nearly no effect on the short-time dynamic behaviour of the FFXY model.
Optical Transients Powered by Magnetars: Dynamics, Light Curves, and Transition to the Nebular Phase
Wang, Ling-Jun; Wang, S. Q.; Dai, Z. G.; Xu, Dong; Han, Yan-Hui; Wu, X. F.; Wei, Jian-Yan
2016-04-01
Millisecond magnetars can be formed via several channels: core collapse of massive stars, accretion-induced collapse of white dwarfs (WDs), double WD mergers, double neutron star (NS) mergers, and WD-NS mergers. Because the mass of ejecta from these channels could be quite different, their light curves are also expected to be diverse. We evaluate the dynamic evolution of optical transients powered by millisecond magnetars. We find that the magnetar with a short spin-down timescale converts its rotational energy mostly into the kinetic energy of the transient, while the energy of a magnetar with a long spin-down timescale goes into radiation of the transient. This leads us to speculate that hypernovae could be powered by magnetars with short spin-down timescales. At late times the optical transients will gradually evolve into a nebular phase because of the photospheric recession. We treat the photosphere and nebula separately because their radiation mechanisms are different. In some cases the ejecta could be light enough that the magnetar can accelerate it to a relativistic speed. It is well known that the peak luminosity of a supernova (SN) occurs when the luminosity is equal to the instantaneous energy input rate, as shown by Arnett. We show that photospheric recession and relativistic motion can modify this law. The photospheric recession always leads to a delay of the peak time {t}{pk} relative to the time {t}× at which the SN luminosity equals the instantaneous energy input rate. Relativistic motion, however, may change this result significantly.
Dynamics of L-H transition and I-phase in EAST
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Xu, G. S.; Wang, H. Q.; Xu, M.
2014-01-01
The turbulence and flows at the plasma edge during the L-I-H, L-I-L and single-step L-H transitions have been measured directly using two reciprocating Langmuir probe systems at the outer midplane with several newly designed probe arrays in the EAST superconducting tokamak. The E × B velocity, tu...
Gauge dependence of the critical dynamics at the superconducting phase transition
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M.Dudka
2007-01-01
Full Text Available The critical dynamics of superconductors in the charged regime is reconsidered within field-theory. For the dynamics, the Ginzburg-Landau model with complex order parameter coupled to the gauge field suggested earlier [Lannert et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 097004 (2004] is used. Assuming relaxational dynamics for both quantities, the renormalization group functions within one loop approximation are recalculated for different choices of the gauge. A gauge independent result for the divergence of the melectric conductivity is obtained only at the weak scaling fixed point unstable in one loop order where the timescales of the order parameter and the gauge field are different.
Mixed phases during the phase transitions
Tatsumi, Toshitaka; Maruyama, Toshiki
2011-01-01
Quest for a new form of matter inside compact stars compels us to examine the thermodynamical properties of the phase transitions. We closely consider the first-order phase transitions and the phase equilibrium on the basis of the Gibbs conditions, taking the liquid-gas phase transition in asymmetric nuclear matter as an example. Characteristic features of the mixed phase are figured out by solving the coupled equations for mean-fields and densities of constituent particles self-consistently within the Thomas-Fermi approximation. The mixed phase is inhomogeneous matter composed of two phases in equilibrium; it takes a crystalline structure with a unit of various geometrical shapes, inside of which one phase with a characteristic shape, called "pasta", is embedded in another phase by some volume fraction. This framework enables us to properly take into account the Coulomb interaction and the interface energy, and thereby sometimes we see the mechanical instability of the geometric structures of the mixed phase...
Learning phase transitions by confusion
van Nieuwenburg, Evert P L; Huber, Sebastian D
2016-01-01
Classifying phases of matter is a central problem in physics. For quantum mechanical systems, this task can be daunting owing to the exponentially large Hilbert space. Thanks to the available computing power and access to ever larger data sets, classification problems are now routinely solved using machine learning techniques. Here, we propose to use a neural network based approach to find phase transitions depending on the performance of the neural network after training it with deliberately incorrectly labelled data. We demonstrate the success of this method on the topological phase transition in the Kitaev chain, the thermal phase transition in the classical Ising model, and the many-body-localization transition in a disordered quantum spin chain. Our method does not depend on order parameters, knowledge of the topological content of the phases, or any other specifics of the transition at hand. It therefore paves the way to a generic tool to identify unexplored phase transitions.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YIN Bing; DONG Shun-Le
2009-01-01
A molecular dynamics simulation is performed for water confined within carbon nanotubes with diameters 11.00 (A) and 12.38 (A).Under pressures from 0.1 MPa to 500MPa the simulations are carried out by cooling from 300K to 240 K.Water molecules tend to transform from disordered to ordered with different configurations (square,pentagonal,hexagonal and hexagonal plus a chain).It is concluded that denser structures may appear under high pressures.
Passive Supporters of Terrorism and Phase Transitions
August, Friedrich; Delitzscher, Sascha; Hiller, Gerald; Krueger, Tyll
2010-01-01
We discuss some social contagion processes to describe the formation and spread of radical opinions. The dynamics of opinion spread involves local threshold processes as well as mean field effects. We calculate and observe phase transitions in the dynamical variables resulting in a rapidly increasing number of passive supporters. This strongly indicates that military solutions are inappropriate.
Kürkçü, Cihan; Merdan, Ziya; Öztürk, Hülya
2016-04-01
The crystal structure of CoF2 was studied theoretically using first-principles density functional theory (DFT) methods within the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) and local density approximation (LDA) under rapid hydrostatic pressure up to 144 GPa. CoF2 undergoes a structural phase transformation from the rutile-type tetragonal parent phase with space group P42/mnm to the CaCl2-type orthorhombic parent phase with space group Pnnm at 64 GPa with GGA and at 96 GPa with LDA methods. Another phase transformation occurs from the CaCl2-type structure to monoclinic parent phase with space group P21/c at 96 GPa with a GGA method. These phase transitions are also studied by enthalpy and total energy calculations. According to these calculations, we obtained the first phase transformation at about 6.5 GPa both GGA and LDA methods and the later phase transformation at about 45 GPa with the GGA method.
Phase Transitions of Simple Systems
Berry, Stephen
2008-01-01
This monograph develops a unified microscopic basis for phases and phase changes of bulk matter and small systems in terms of classical physics. The origins of such phase changes are derived from simple but physically relevant models of how transitions between rigid crystalline, glassy and fluid states occur, how phase equilibria arise, and how bulk properties evolve from those of small systems.
Loscar, Ernesto S; Candia, Julián
2013-10-01
We study the irreversible growth of magnetic thin films under the influence of spatially periodic fields by means of extensive Monte Carlo simulations. We find first-order pseudo-phase-transitions that separate a dynamically disordered phase from a dynamically ordered phase. By analogy with time-dependent oscillating fields applied to Ising-type models, we qualitatively associate this dynamic transition with the localization-delocalization transition of spatial hysteresis loops. Depending on the relative width of the magnetic film L compared to the wavelength of the external field λ, different transition regimes are observed. For small systems (L λ), the transition is driven by anomalous stochastic resonance. The origin of the latter is identified as due to the emergence of an additional relevant length scale, namely, the roughness of the spin domain switching interface. The distinction between different stochastic resonance regimes is discussed at length both qualitatively by means of snapshot configurations and quantitatively via residence-length and order-parameter probability distributions.
Javadian, Soheila; Taghavi, Fariba; Yari, Faramarz; Hashemianzadeh, Seyed Majid
2012-09-01
In this study, the mechanism of the temperature-dependent phase transition of confined water inside a (9,9) single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) was studied using the hierarchical multi-scale modeling techniques of molecular dynamics (MD) and density functional theory (DFT). The MD calculations verify the formation of hexagonal ice nanotubes at the phase transition temperature T(c)=275K by a sharp change in the location of the oxygen atoms inside the SWCNT. Natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis provides evidence of considerable intermolecular charge transfer during the phase transition and verifies that the ice nanotube contains two different forms of hydrogen bonding due to confinement. Nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analyses were used to demonstrate the fundamental influence of intermolecular hydrogen bonding interactions on the formation and electronic structure of ice nanotubes. In addition, the NQR analysis revealed that the rearrangement of nano-confined water molecules during the phase transition could be detected directly by the orientation of ¹⁷O atom EFG tensor components related to the molecular frame axes. The effects of nanoscale confinements in ice nanotubes and water clusters were analyzed by experimentally observable NMR and NQR parameters. These findings showed a close relationship between the phase behavior and orientation of the electronic structure in nanoscale structures and demonstrate the usefulness of NBO and NQR parameters for detecting phase transition phenomena in nanoscale confining environments.
Magnetic resonance of phase transitions
Owens, Frank J; Farach, Horacio A
1979-01-01
Magnetic Resonance of Phase Transitions shows how the effects of phase transitions are manifested in the magnetic resonance data. The book discusses the basic concepts of structural phase and magnetic resonance; various types of magnetic resonances and their underlying principles; and the radiofrequency methods of nuclear magnetic resonance. The text also describes quadrupole methods; the microwave technique of electron spin resonance; and the Mössbauer effect. Phase transitions in various systems such as fluids, liquid crystals, and crystals, including paramagnets and ferroelectrics, are also
Multiobjective Optimization and Phase Transitions
Seoane, Luís F
2015-01-01
Many complex systems obey to optimality conditions that are usually not simple. Conflicting traits often interact making a Multi Objective Optimization (MOO) approach necessary. Recent MOO research on complex systems report about the Pareto front (optimal designs implementing the best trade-off) in a qualitative manner. Meanwhile, research on traditional Simple Objective Optimization (SOO) often finds phase transitions and critical points. We summarize a robust framework that accounts for phase transitions located through SOO techniques and indicates what MOO features resolutely lead to phase transitions. These appear determined by the shape of the Pareto front, which at the same time is deeply related to the thermodynamic Gibbs surface. Indeed, thermodynamics can be written as an MOO from where its phase transitions can be parsimoniously derived; suggesting that the similarities between transitions in MOO-SOO and Statistical Mechanics go beyond mere coincidence.
Laner, Monika; Hünenberger, Philippe H
2015-02-01
The effect of methanol on the phase and phase-transition properties of a 2×8×8 glycerol-1-monopalmitate bilayer patch is investigated using a series of 239 molecular dynamics simulations on the 180 ns timescale, considering methanol concentrations cM and temperatures T in the ranges 0-12.3M and 302-338 K, respectively. The results in the form of hysteresis-corrected transition temperatures Tm are compatible with the expected features of the biphasic effect, with a reversal concentration crev of about 5.2 M. Below this concentration, the main transition is between the liquid crystal (LC) and gel (GL) phases, and Tm decreases upon increasing cM. Above this concentration, the interdigitated (ID) phase is the stable ordered phase instead, and Tm slightly increases upon increasing T up to about 10 M. The analysis of the structural and dynamical properties also reveals very different sensitivities and responses of the three phases to changes in cM. In particular, the properties of the GL phase are insensitive to cM, whereas those of the LC and ID phases are altered via an increase of the area per lipid. For the LC phase, increasing cM promotes disorder and fluidity. For the ID phase, in contrast, increasing cM up to about 10 M slightly increases the ordering and rigidity. Two side issues are also addressed, concerning: (i) the occurrence tilt-precession motions in the GL and ID phases; (ii) the influence of the pressure coupling scheme employed in the simulations, semi- or fully-anisotropic, on the simulation results.
Tsuchiya, Masa; Giuliani, Alessandro; Hashimoto, Midori; Erenpreisa, Jekaterina; Yoshikawa, Kenichi
2015-01-01
Background The underlying mechanism of dynamic control of the genome-wide expression is a fundamental issue in bioscience. We addressed it in terms of phase transition by a systemic approach based on both density analysis and characteristics of temporal fluctuation for the time-course mRNA expression in differentiating MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Methodology In a recent work, we suggested criticality as an essential aspect of dynamic control of genome-wide gene expression. Criticality was evident by a unimodal-bimodal transition through flattened unimodal expression profile. The flatness on the transition suggests the existence of a critical transition at which up- and down-regulated expression is balanced. Mean field (averaging) behavior of mRNAs based on the temporal expression changes reveals a sandpile type of transition in the flattened profile. Furthermore, around the transition, a self-similar unimodal-bimodal transition of the whole expression occurs in the density profile of an ensemble of mRNA expression. These singular and scaling behaviors identify the transition as the expression phase transition driven by self-organized criticality (SOC). Principal Findings Emergent properties of SOC through a mean field approach are revealed: i) SOC, as a form of genomic phase transition, consolidates distinct critical states of expression, ii) Coupling of coherent stochastic oscillations between critical states on different time-scales gives rise to SOC, and iii) Specific gene clusters (barcode genes) ranging in size from kbp to Mbp reveal similar SOC to genome-wide mRNA expression and ON-OFF synchronization to critical states. This suggests that the cooperative gene regulation of topological genome sub-units is mediated by the coherent phase transitions of megadomain-scaled conformations between compact and swollen chromatin states. Conclusion and Significance In summary, our study provides not only a systemic method to demonstrate SOC in whole-genome expression
Learning phase transitions by confusion
van Nieuwenburg, Evert P. L.; Liu, Ye-Hua; Huber, Sebastian D.
2017-02-01
Classifying phases of matter is key to our understanding of many problems in physics. For quantum-mechanical systems in particular, the task can be daunting due to the exponentially large Hilbert space. With modern computing power and access to ever-larger data sets, classification problems are now routinely solved using machine-learning techniques. Here, we propose a neural-network approach to finding phase transitions, based on the performance of a neural network after it is trained with data that are deliberately labelled incorrectly. We demonstrate the success of this method on the topological phase transition in the Kitaev chain, the thermal phase transition in the classical Ising model, and the many-body-localization transition in a disordered quantum spin chain. Our method does not depend on order parameters, knowledge of the topological content of the phases, or any other specifics of the transition at hand. It therefore paves the way to the development of a generic tool for identifying unexplored phase transitions.
Neutrino Oscillation Induced by Chiral Phase Transition
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
MU Cheng-Fu; SUN Gao-Feng; ZHUANG Peng-Fei
2009-01-01
Electric charge neutrality provides a relationship between chiral dynamics and neutrino propagation in compact stars.Due to the sudden drop of the electron density at the first-order chiral phase transition,the oscillation for low energy neutrinos is significant and can be regarded as a signature of chiral symmetry restoration in the core of compact stars.
The Structural Phase Transition in Octaflournaphtalene
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mackenzie, Gordon A.; Arthur, J. W.; Pawley, G. S.
1977-01-01
The phase transition in octafluoronaphthalene has been investigated by Raman scattering and neutron powder diffraction. The weight of the experimental evidence points to a unit cell doubling in the a direction, but with no change in space group symmetry. Lattice dynamics calculations support...
Bettencourt, L M A
2001-01-01
I consider several Langevin and Fokker-Planck classes of dynamics for scalar field theories in contact with a thermal bath at temperature T. These models have been applied recently in the numerical description of the dynamics of second order phase transitions and associated topological defect formation as well as in other studies of these critical phenomena. Closed form solutions of the Fokker-Planck equation are given for the harmonic potential and a dynamical mean-field approximation is developed. These methods allow for an analytical discussion of the behavior of the theories in several circumstances of interest such as critical slowing down at a second order transition and the development of spinodal instabilities. These insights allow for a more detailed understanding of several numerical studies in the literature.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Diama, A.; Matthies, B.; Herwig, K. W.;
2009-01-01
We present evidence from neutron diffraction measurements and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of three different monolayer phases of the intermediate-length alkanes tetracosane (n-C24H50 denoted as C24) and dotriacontane (n-C32H66 denoted as C32) adsorbed on a graphite basal-plane surface. Our...... show evidence of broadening of the lamella boundaries as a result of molecules diffusing parallel to their long axis. At still higher temperatures, they indicate that the introduction of gauche defects into the alkane chains drives a melting transition to a monolayer fluid phase as reported previously...
Incommensurate phase transitions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Currat, R. [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France)
1996-11-01
We review the characteristic aspects of modulated crystals from the point of view of inelastic neutron scattering. We discuss the phenomenological Landau theory of the normal-to-incommensurate displacive instability and its predictions concerning the fluctuation spectrum of the modulated phase. General results on the form of the normal-mode eigenvectors and on the inelastic scattering channels through which they couple to the probe are established using the superspace approach. We illustrate these results on a simple discrete model symmetry and we review available inelastic neutron scattering data on several displacively modulated compounds. (author) 21 figs., 73 refs.
Microgravity Two-Phase Flow Transition
Parang, M.; Chao, D.
1999-01-01
Two-phase flows under microgravity condition find a large number of important applications in fluid handling and storage, and spacecraft thermal management. Specifically, under microgravity condition heat transfer between heat exchanger surfaces and fluids depend critically on the distribution and interaction between different fluid phases which are often qualitatively different from the gravity-based systems. Heat transfer and flow analysis in two-phase flows under these conditions require a clear understanding of the flow pattern transition and development of appropriate dimensionless scales for its modeling and prediction. The physics of this flow is however very complex and remains poorly understood. This has led to various inadequacies in flow and heat transfer modeling and has made prediction of flow transition difficult in engineering design of efficient thermal and flow systems. In the present study the available published data for flow transition under microgravity condition are considered for mapping. The transition from slug to annular flow and from bubbly to slug flow are mapped using dimensionless variable combination developed in a previous study by the authors. The result indicate that the new maps describe the flow transitions reasonably well over the range of the data available. The transition maps are examined and the results are discussed in relation to the presumed balance of forces and flow dynamics. It is suggested that further evaluation of the proposed flow and transition mapping will require a wider range of microgravity data expected to be made available in future studies.
Shock dynamics of phase diagrams
Moro, Antonio
2014-01-01
A thermodynamic phase transition denotes a drastic change of state of a physical system due to a continuous change of thermodynamic variables, as for instance pressure and temperature. The classical van der Waals equation of state is the simplest model that predicts the occurrence of a critical point associated with the gas-liquid phase transition. Nevertheless, below the critical temperature, theoretical predictions of the van der Waals theory significantly depart from the observed physical behaviour. We develop a novel approach to classical thermodynamics based on the solution of Maxwell relations for a generalised family of nonlocal entropy functions. This theory provides an exact mathematical description of discontinuities of the order parameter within the phase transition region, it explains the universal form of the equations of state and the occurrence of triple points in terms of the dynamics of nonlinear shock wave fronts.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Silvia eScarpetta
2014-05-01
Full Text Available Complex collective activity emerges spontaneously in cortical circuits in-vivo and in-vitro, such as alternation of up and down states, precise spatiotemporal patterns replay, and power law scaling of neural avalanches. We focus on such critical features observed in cortical slices.We study spontaneous dynamics emerging in noisy recurrent networks of spiking neurons with sparse structured connectivity.The emerging spontaneous dynamics is studied, in presence of noise, with fixed connections. Note that no short-term synaptic depression is used. Two different regimes of spontaneous activity emerge changing the connection strength or noise intensity: a low activity regime, characterized by a nearly exponential distribution of firing rates with a maximum at rate zero, and a high activity regime, characterized by a nearly Gaussian distribution peaked at a high rate for high activity, with long-lasting replay of stored patterns. Between this two regimes, a transition region is observed, where firing rates show a bimodal distribution, with alternation of up and down states. In this region, one observes neuronal avalanches exhibiting power laws in size and duration, and a waiting time distribution between successive avalanches which shows a non-monotonic behaviour. During periods of high activity (up states consecutive avalanches are correlated, since they are part of a short transient replay initiated by noise focusing, and waiting times show a power law distribution. One can think at this critical dynamics as a reservoire of dynamical patterns for memory functions.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Frankland, J.D.; Chbihi, A.; Hudan, S. [and others
2002-07-01
Fragment production in central collisions of Xe+Sn has been systematically studied with the INDRA multidetector from 25 to 150 AMeV. The predominant role of collision dynamics is evidenced in multiple intermediate mass fragment production even at the lowest energies, around the so-called multifragmentation threshold. For beam energies 50 AMeV and above, a promising agreement with suitably modified Anti-symmetrized Molecular Dynamics calculations has been achieved. Intriguingly the same reactions have recently been interpreted as evidence for a liquid-gas phase transition in thermodynamically equilibrated systems. The universal fluctuation theory, thanks to its lack of any equilibrium hypothesis, shows clearly that in all but a tiny minority of carefully-selected central collisions fragment production is incompatible with either critical or phase coexistence behaviour. On the other hand, it does not exclude some similarity with aggregation scenarios such as the lattice-gas or Fisher droplet models. (authors)
Phase transitions in finite systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chomaz, Ph. [Grand Accelerateur National d' Ions Lourds (GANIL), DSM-CEA / IN2P3-CNRS, 14 - Caen (France); Gulminelli, F. [Caen Univ., 14 (France). Lab. de Physique Corpusculaire
2002-07-01
In this series of lectures we will first review the general theory of phase transition in the framework of information theory and briefly address some of the well known mean field solutions of three dimensional problems. The theory of phase transitions in finite systems will then be discussed, with a special emphasis to the conceptual problems linked to a thermodynamical description for small, short-lived, open systems as metal clusters and data samples coming from nuclear collisions. The concept of negative heat capacity developed in the early seventies in the context of self-gravitating systems will be reinterpreted in the general framework of convexity anomalies of thermo-statistical potentials. The connection with the distribution of the order parameter will lead us to a definition of first order phase transitions in finite systems based on topology anomalies of the event distribution in the space of observations. Finally a careful study of the thermodynamical limit will provide a bridge with the standard theory of phase transitions and show that in a wide class of physical situations the different statistical ensembles are irreducibly inequivalent. (authors)
Xing, Hui; Dong, Xianglei; Wu, Hongjing; Hao, Guanhua; Wang, Jianyuan; Chen, Changle; Jin, Kexin
2016-05-01
We report the results of a phase-field study of degenerate seaweed to tilted dendrite transition and their growth dynamics during directional solidification of a binary alloy. Morphological selection maps in the planes of (G, Vp) and (ε4, Vp) show that lower pulling velocity, weaker anisotropic strength and higher thermal gradient can enhance the formation of the degenerate seaweed. The tip undercooling shows oscillations in seaweed growth, but it keeps at a constant value in dendritic growth. The M-S instability on the tips and the surface tension anisotropy of the solid-liquid interface are responsible for the formation of the degenerate seaweed. It is evidenced that the place where the interfacial instability occurs determines the morphological transition. The transient transition from degenerate seaweed to tilted dendrite shows that dendrites are dynamically preferred over seaweed. For the tilted dendritic arrays with a large tilted angle, primary spacing is investigated by comparing predicted results with the classical scaling power law, and the growth direction is found to be less sensitive to the pulling velocity and the primary spacing. Furthermore, the effect of the initial interface wavelength on the morphological transition is investigated to perform the history dependence of morphological selection.
Chen, Meng; Lu, Xiancai; Liu, Xiandong; Hou, Qingfeng; Zhu, Youyi; Zhou, Huiqun
2014-09-09
Adsorption of surfactants at the water/vapor interface depends upon their chemical potential at the interface, which is generally temperature-dependent. Molecular dynamics simulations have been performed to reveal temperature influences on the microstructure of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) molecule adsorption layer. At room temperature, SDS molecules aggregate at the interface, being in a liquid-expanded phase, whereas they tend to spread out and probably transit to a gaseous phase as the temperature increases to above 318 K. This phase transition has been confirmed by the temperature-dependent changes in two-dimensional array, tilt angles, and immersion depths to the aqueous phase of SDS molecules. The aggregation of SDS molecules accompanies with larger immersion depths, more coordination of Na(+) ions, and less coordination of water. Desorption free energy profiles show that higher desorption free energy appears for SDS molecules at the aggregate state at low temperatures, but no energy barrier is observed. The shapes of desorption free energy profiles depend upon the distribution of SDS at the interface, which, in turn, is related to the phase state of SDS. Our study sheds light on the development of adsorption thermodynamics and kinetics theories.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wenduo Chen
Full Text Available Gay-Berne (GB potential is regarded as an accurate model in the simulation of anisotropic particles, especially for liquid crystal (LC mesogens. However, its computational complexity leads to an extremely time-consuming process for large systems. Here, we developed a GPU-accelerated molecular dynamics (MD simulation with coarse-grained GB potential implemented in GALAMOST package to investigate the LC phase transitions for mesogens in small molecules, main-chain or side-chain polymers. For identical mesogens in three different molecules, on cooling from fully isotropic melts, the small molecules form a single-domain smectic-B phase, while the main-chain LC polymers prefer a single-domain nematic phase as a result of connective restraints in neighboring mesogens. The phase transition of side-chain LC polymers undergoes a two-step process: nucleation of nematic islands and formation of multi-domain nematic texture. The particular behavior originates in the fact that the rotational orientation of the mesogenes is hindered by the polymer backbones. Both the global distribution and the local orientation of mesogens are critical for the phase transition of anisotropic particles. Furthermore, compared with the MD simulation in LAMMPS, our GPU-accelerated code is about 4 times faster than the GPU version of LAMMPS and at least 200 times faster than the CPU version of LAMMPS. This study clearly shows that GPU-accelerated MD simulation with GB potential in GALAMOST can efficiently handle systems with anisotropic particles and interactions, and accurately explore phase differences originated from molecular structures.
Gravitational waves from global second order phase transitions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jr, John T. Giblin [Department of Physics, Kenyon College, 201 North College Rd, Gambier, OH 43022 (United States); Price, Larry R.; Siemens, Xavier; Vlcek, Brian, E-mail: giblinj@kenyon.edu, E-mail: larryp@caltech.edu, E-mail: siemens@gravity.phys.uwm.edu, E-mail: bvlcek@uwm.edu [Center for Gravitation and Cosmology, Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, P.O. Box 413, Milwaukee, WI 53201 (United States)
2012-11-01
Global second-order phase transitions are expected to produce scale-invariant gravitational wave spectra. In this manuscript we explore the dynamics of a symmetry-breaking phase transition using lattice simulations. We explicitly calculate the stochastic gravitational wave background produced during the transition and subsequent self-ordering phase. We comment on this signal as it compares to the scale-invariant spectrum produced during inflation.
Phase transitions and critical phenomena
Domb, Cyril
2001-01-01
The field of phase transitions and critical phenomena continues to be active in research, producing a steady stream of interesting and fruitful results. It has moved into a central place in condensed matter studies.Statistical physics, and more specifically, the theory of transitions between states of matter, more or less defines what we know about 'everyday' matter and its transformations.The major aim of this serial is to provide review articles that can serve as standard references for research workers in the field, and for graduate students and others wishing to obtain reliable in
Sliding Over a Phase Transition
Tosatti, Erio; Benassi, Andrea; Vanossi, Andrea; Santoro, Giuseppe E.
2011-03-01
The frictional response experienced by a stick-slip slider when a phase transition occurs in the underlying solid substrate is a potentially exciting, poorly explored problem. We show, based on 2-dimensional simulations modeling the sliding of a nanotip, that indeed friction may be heavily affected by a continuous structural transition. First, friction turns nonmonotonic as temperature crosses the transition, peaking at the critical temperature Tc where fluctuations are strongest. Second, below Tc friction depends upon order parameter directions, and is much larger for those where the frictional slip can cause a local flip. This may open a route towards control of atomic scale friction by switching the order parameter direction by an external field or strain, with possible application to e.g., displacive ferroelectrics such as BaTi O3 , as well as ferro- and antiferro-distortive materials. Supported by project ESF FANAS/AFRI sponsored by the Italian Research Council (CNR).
Electroweak phase transition recent results
Csikor, Ferenc
2000-01-01
Recent results of four-dimensional (4d) lattice simulations on the finite temperature electroweak phase transition (EWPT) are discussed. The phase transition is of first order in the SU(2)-Higgs model below the end point Higgs mass 66.5$\\pm$1.4 GeV. For larger masses a rapid cross-over appears. This result completely agrees with the results of the dimensional reduction approach. Including the full Standard Model (SM) perturbatively the end point is at 72.1$\\pm$1.4 GeV. Combined with recent LEP Higgs mass lower bounds, this excludes any EWPT in the SM. A one-loop calculation of the static potential makes possible a precise comparison of the lattice and perturbative results. Recent 4d lattice studies of the Minimal Supersymmetric SM (MSSM) are also mentioned.
Dynamic transition in supercritical iron.
Fomin, Yu D; Ryzhov, V N; Tsiok, E N; Brazhkin, V V; Trachenko, K
2014-11-26
Recent advance in understanding the supercritical state posits the existence of a new line above the critical point separating two physically distinct states of matter: rigid liquid and non-rigid gas-like fluid. The location of this line, the Frenkel line, remains unknown for important real systems. Here, we map the Frenkel line on the phase diagram of supercritical iron using molecular dynamics simulations. On the basis of our data, we propose a general recipe to locate the Frenkel line for any system, the recipe that importantly does not involve system-specific detailed calculations and relies on the knowledge of the melting line only. We further discuss the relationship between the Frenkel line and the metal-insulator transition in supercritical liquid metals. Our results enable predicting the state of supercritical iron in several conditions of interest. In particular, we predict that liquid iron in the Jupiter core is in the "rigid liquid" state and is highly conducting. We finally analyse the evolution of iron conductivity in the core of smaller planets such as Earth and Venus as well as exoplanets: as planets cool off, the supercritical core undergoes the transition to the rigid-liquid conducting state at the Frenkel line.
Higgs Couplings and Electroweak Phase Transition
Katz, Andrey
2014-01-01
We argue that extensions of the Standard Model (SM) with a strongly first-order electroweak phase transition generically predict significant deviations of the Higgs couplings to gluons, photons, and Z bosons from their SM values. Precise experimental measurements of the Higgs couplings at the LHC and at the proposed next-generation facilities will allow for a robust test of the phase transition dynamics. To illustrate this point, in this paper we focus on the scenario in which loops of a new scalar field are responsible for the first-order phase transition, and study a selection of benchmark models with various SM gauge quantum numbers of the new scalar. We find that the current LHC measurement of the Higgs coupling to gluons already excludes the possibility of a first-order phase transition induced by a scalar in a sextet, or larger, representation of the SU(3)_c. Future LHC experiments (including HL-LHC) will be able to definitively probe the case when the new scalar is a color triplet. If the new scalar is...
Tefelski, D. B.; Kulisiewicz, L.; Wierschem, A.; Delgado, A.; Rostocki, A. J.; Siegoczyński, R. M.
2011-03-01
Particle image velocimetry (PIV) is an optical measurement method capable of providing visualisation of velocity field of particle flow in fluids. After analysis of data acquired in the form of an image sequence, it is possible to retrieve information about flow parameters as mean values of velocity, vorticity, shear and normal strain. This paper presents the results of high pressure experiments using this method applied to triolein and oleic acid samples in their phase transition region. A high pressure optical chamber, He-Ne laser and light-sheet optics together with a digital camera and image acquisition computer allow us to study the motion of particles in high pressure conditions. The set-up was similar to that presented in Özmutlu et al. [Momentum and energy transfer during phase change of water under high hydrostatic pressure, Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. 7(3) (2006), pp. 161-168] and Kulisiewicz et al. [Visualization of pressure-shift freezing and thawing of concentrated aqueous sucrose solutions, High Press. Res. 27(2) (2007), pp. 291-297]. The analysis of phase transition dynamics in triolein and oleic acid is an extension to the work presented in Tefelski et al. [The investigation of the dynamics of the phase transformation in triolein and oleic acid under pressure, J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 121(142004) (2008), pp. 1-6]. Oleic acid is a monounsaturated fatty acid and has a bent rod shape. Triolein is a triglyceride and has a "chair"-like shape. It is the base particle of many vegetable oils, especially olive oil. Triolein consists of three chains of oleic acid bound by a glycerol part. Information obtained by the study of phase transitions dynamics is important for food science and food technology processes which involve high pressure treatment. The PIV method shows differences in the solidification process of both substances in time, the existence of inhomogeneities (layers of different densities in the observed flow) and allows us to calculate the
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Taub, H. [University of Missouri, Columbia; Hansen, F.Y. [Technical University of Denmark; Diama, Amand [National University of the Ivory Coast; Matthies, Blake [Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company, The; Criswell, Leah [University of Missouri, Columbia; Mo, Haiding [Advanced Optowave Corporation; Bai, M [University of Missouri, Columbia; Herwig, Kenneth W [ORNL
2009-01-01
We present evidence from neutron diffraction measurements and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of three different monolayer phases of the intermediate-length alkanes tetracosane (n-C(24)H(50) denoted as C24) and dotriacontane (n-C(32)H(66) denoted as C32) adsorbed on a graphite basal-plane surface. Our measurements indicate that the two monolayer films differ principally in the transition temperatures between phases. At the lowest temperatures, both C24 and C32 form a crystalline monolayer phase with a rectangular-centered (RC) structure. The two sublattices of the RC structure each consists of parallel rows of molecules in their all-trans conformation aligned with their long axis parallel to the surface and forming so-called lamellas of width approximately equal to the all-trans length of the molecule. The RC structure is uniaxially commensurate with the graphite surface in its [110] direction such that the distance between molecular rows in a lamella is 4.26 A=sqrt[3a(g)], where a(g)=2.46 A is the lattice constant of the graphite basal plane. Molecules in adjacent rows of a lamella alternate in orientation between the carbon skeletal plane being parallel and perpendicular to the graphite surface. Upon heating, the crystalline monolayers transform to a 'smectic' phase in which the inter-row spacing within a lamella expands by approximately 10% and the molecules are predominantly oriented with the carbon skeletal plane parallel to the graphite surface. In the smectic phase, the MD simulations show evidence of broadening of the lamella boundaries as a result of molecules diffusing parallel to their long axis. At still higher temperatures, they indicate that the introduction of gauche defects into the alkane chains drives a melting transition to a monolayer fluid phase as reported previously.
Diama, A; Matthies, B; Herwig, K W; Hansen, F Y; Criswell, L; Mo, H; Bai, M; Taub, H
2009-08-28
We present evidence from neutron diffraction measurements and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of three different monolayer phases of the intermediate-length alkanes tetracosane (n-C(24)H(50) denoted as C24) and dotriacontane (n-C(32)H(66) denoted as C32) adsorbed on a graphite basal-plane surface. Our measurements indicate that the two monolayer films differ principally in the transition temperatures between phases. At the lowest temperatures, both C24 and C32 form a crystalline monolayer phase with a rectangular-centered (RC) structure. The two sublattices of the RC structure each consists of parallel rows of molecules in their all-trans conformation aligned with their long axis parallel to the surface and forming so-called lamellas of width approximately equal to the all-trans length of the molecule. The RC structure is uniaxially commensurate with the graphite surface in its [110] direction such that the distance between molecular rows in a lamella is 4.26 A=sqrt[3a(g)], where a(g)=2.46 A is the lattice constant of the graphite basal plane. Molecules in adjacent rows of a lamella alternate in orientation between the carbon skeletal plane being parallel and perpendicular to the graphite surface. Upon heating, the crystalline monolayers transform to a "smectic" phase in which the inter-row spacing within a lamella expands by approximately 10% and the molecules are predominantly oriented with the carbon skeletal plane parallel to the graphite surface. In the smectic phase, the MD simulations show evidence of broadening of the lamella boundaries as a result of molecules diffusing parallel to their long axis. At still higher temperatures, they indicate that the introduction of gauche defects into the alkane chains drives a melting transition to a monolayer fluid phase as reported previously.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vatansever, Erol, E-mail: erol.vatansever@deu.edu.tr
2017-05-10
By means of Monte Carlo simulation method with Metropolis algorithm, we elucidate the thermal and magnetic phase transition behaviors of a ferrimagnetic core/shell nanocubic system driven by a time dependent magnetic field. The particle core is composed of ferromagnetic spins, and it is surrounded by an antiferromagnetic shell. At the interface of the core/shell particle, we use antiferromagnetic spin–spin coupling. We simulate the nanoparticle using classical Heisenberg spins. After a detailed analysis, our Monte Carlo simulation results suggest that present system exhibits unusual and interesting magnetic behaviors. For example, at the relatively lower temperature regions, an increment in the amplitude of the external field destroys the antiferromagnetism in the shell part of the nanoparticle, leading to a ground state with ferromagnetic character. Moreover, particular attention has been dedicated to the hysteresis behaviors of the system. For the first time, we show that frequency dispersions can be categorized into three groups for a fixed temperature for finite core/shell systems, as in the case of the conventional bulk systems under the influence of an oscillating magnetic field. - Highlights: • Cubic core/shell nanoparticle is considered. • Monte-Carlo simulation with Metropolis algorithm is used. • The particle is subjected to time dependent oscillating magnetic field. • External field destroys the antiferromagnetism in the shell part of particle. • Frequency dispersions of hysteresis loop areas can be categorized into three groups.
Yang, Jin-Wen; Gao, Tao; Gong, Yan-Rong
2014-06-01
The pressure-induced disproportionation reaction phase transition, mechanical, and dynamical properties of LaH2 with fluorite structure under high pressure are investigated by performing first-principles calculations using the projector augmented wave (PAW) method. The phase transition of 2LaH2 → LaH + LaH3 obtained from the usual condition of equal enthalpies occurs at the pressure of 10.38 GPa for Perdew-Wang (PW91) functional and 6.05 GPa for Ceperly-Adler (CA) functional, respectively. The result shows that the PW91 functional calculations agree excellently with the experimental finding of 11 GPa of synchrotron radiation (SR) X-ray diffraction (XRD) of Machida et al. and 10 GPa of their PBE functional theoretical result. Three independent single-crystal elastic constants, polycrystalline bulk modulus, shear modulus, Young's modulus, elastic anisotropy, Poisson's ratio, the brittle/ductile characteristics and elastic wave velocities over different directions dependences on pressure are also successfully obtained. Especially, the phonon dispersion curves and corresponding phonon density of states of LaH2 under high pressure are determined systematically using a linear-response approach to density functional perturbation theory (DFPT). Our results demonstrate that LaH2 in fluorite phase can be stable energetically up to 10.38 GPa, stabilized mechanically up to 17.98 GPa, and stabilized dynamically up to 29 GPa, so it may remain a metastable phase above 10.38 GPa up to 29 GPa, these calculated results accord with the recent X-Ray diffraction experimental finding and theoretical predictions of Machida et al.
Phases and phase transitions in the algebraic microscopic shell model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Georgieva A. I.
2016-01-01
Full Text Available We explore the dynamical symmetries of the shell model number conserving algebra, which define three types of pairing and quadrupole phases, with the aim to obtain the prevailing phase or phase transition for the real nuclear systems in a single shell. This is achieved by establishing a correspondence between each of the pairing bases with the Elliott’s SU(3 basis that describes collective rotation of nuclear systems. This allows for a complete classification of the basis states of different number of particles in all the limiting cases. The probability distribution of the SU(3 basis states within theirs corresponding pairing states is also obtained. The relative strengths of dynamically symmetric quadrupole-quadrupole interaction in respect to the isoscalar, isovector and total pairing interactions define a control parameter, which estimates the importance of each term of the Hamiltonian in the correct reproduction of the experimental data for the considered nuclei.
Pressure-induced phase transition in CrO2.
Alptekin, Sebahaddin
2015-12-01
The ab initio constant pressure molecular dynamics technique and density functional theory with generalized gradient approximation (GGA) was used to study the pressure-induced phase transition of CrO2. The phase transition of the rutile (P42/mnm) to the orthorhombic CaCl2 (Pnnm) structure at 30 GPa was determined successfully in a constant pressure simulation. This phase transition was analyzed from total energy calculations and, from the enthalpy calculation, occurred at around 17 GPa. Structural properties such as bulk modules, lattice parameters and phase transition were compared with experimental results. The phase transition at 12 ± 3 GPa was in good agreement with experimental results, as was the phase transition from the orthorhombic CaCl2 (Pnnm) to the monoclinic (P21/c) structure also found at 35 GPa.
Bubble nucleation and growth in very strong cosmological phase transitions
Megevand, Ariel
2016-01-01
Strongly first-order phase transitions, i.e., those with a large order parameter, are characterized by a considerable supercooling and high velocities of phase transition fronts. A very strong phase transition may have important cosmological consequences due to the departures from equilibrium caused in the plasma. In general, there is a limit to the strength, since the metastability of the old phase may prevent the transition to complete. Near this limit, the bubble nucleation rate achieves a maximum and thus departs from the widely assumed behavior in which it grows exponentially with time. We study the dynamics of this kind of phase transitions. We show that in some cases a gaussian approximation for the nucleation rate is more suitable, and in such a case we solve analytically the evolution of the phase transition. We compare the gaussian and exponential approximations with realistic cases and we determine their ranges of validity. We also discuss the implications for cosmic remnants such as gravitational ...
A nonequilibrium phase transition in immune response
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhang Wei; Qi An-Shen
2004-01-01
The dynamics of immune response correlated to signal transduction in immune thymic cells (T cells) is studied.In particular, the problem of the phosphorylation of the immune-receptor tyrosine-based activation motifs (ITAM) is explored. A nonlinear model is established on the basis of experimental observations. The behaviours of the model can be well analysed using the concepts of nonequilibrium phase transitions. In addition, the Riemann-Hugoniot cusp catastrophe is demonstrated by the model. Due to the application of the theory of nonequilibrium phase transitions,the biological phenomena can be clarified more precisely. The results can also be used to further explain the signal transduction and signal discrimination of an important type of immune T cell.
Phase transitions at finite density
Friman, Bengt
2012-01-01
I discuss the analytic structure of thermodynamic quantities for complex values of thermodynamic variables within Landau theory. In particular, the singularities connected with phase transitions of second order, first order and cross over types are examined. A conformal mapping is introduced, which may be used to explore the thermodynamics of strongly interacting matter at finite values of the baryon chemical potential $\\mu$ starting from lattice QCD results at $\\mu^{2}\\leq 0$. This method allows us to improve the convergence of a Taylor expansion about $\\mu=0$ and to enhance the sensitivity to physical singularities in the complex $\\mu$ plane. The technique is illustrated by an application to a second-order transition in a chiral effective model.
Interacting Weyl fermions: Phases, phase transitions, and global phase diagram
Roy, Bitan; Goswami, Pallab; Juričić, Vladimir
2017-05-01
We study the effects of short-range interactions on a generalized three-dimensional Weyl semimetal, where the band touching points act as the (anti)monopoles of Abelian Berry curvature of strength n . We show that any local interaction has a negative scaling dimension -2 /n . Consequently, all Weyl semimetals are stable against weak short-range interactions. For sufficiently strong interactions, we demonstrate that the Weyl semimetal either undergoes a first-order transition into a band insulator or a continuous transition into a symmetry breaking phase. A translational symmetry breaking axion insulator and a rotational symmetry breaking semimetal are two prominent candidates for the broken symmetry phase. At the one-loop order, the correlation length exponent for continuous transitions is ν =n /2 , indicating their non-Gaussian nature for any n >1 . We also discuss the scaling of the thermodynamic and transport quantities in general Weyl semimetals as well as inside broken symmetry phases.
Chia, Tze Shyang; Quah, Ching Kheng
2016-12-01
As a function of temperature, the hexamethylenetetramine-2-methylbenzoic acid (1/2) cocrystal, C6H12N4·2C8H8O2, undergoes a reversible structural phase transition. The orthorhombic high-temperature phase in the space group Pccn has been studied in the temperature range between 165 and 300 K. At 164 K, a t2 phase transition to the monoclinic subgroup P21/c space group occurs; the resulting twinned low-temperature phase was investigated in the temperature range between 164 and 100 K. The domains in the pseudomerohedral twin are related by a twofold rotation corresponding to the matrix (100/0-10/00-1. Systematic absence violations represent a sensitive criterium for the decision about the correct space-group assignment at each temperature. The fractional volume contributions of the minor twin domain in the low-temperature phase increases in the order 0.259 (2) → 0.318 (2) → 0.336 (2) → 0.341 (3) as the temperature increases in the order 150 → 160 → 163 → 164 K. The transformation occurs between the nonpolar point group mmm and the nonpolar point group 2/m, and corresponds to a ferroelastic transition or to a t2 structural phase transition. The asymmetric unit of the low-temperature phase consists of two hexamethylenetetramine molecules and four molecules of 2-methylbenzoic acid; it is smaller by a factor of 2 in the high-temperature phase and contains two half molecules of hexamethylenetetramine, which sit across twofold axes, and two molecules of the organic acid. In both phases, the hexamethylenetetramine residue and two benzoic acid molecules form a three-molecule aggregate; the low-temperature phase contains two of these aggregates in general positions, whereas they are situated on a crystallographic twofold axis in the high-temperature phase. In both phases, one of these three-molecule aggregates is disordered. For this disordered unit, the ratio between the major and minor conformer increases upon cooling from
Gibbs measures and phase transitions
Georgii, Hans-Otto
2011-01-01
From a review of the first edition: ""This book […] covers in depth a broad range of topics in the mathematical theory of phase transition in statistical mechanics. […] It is in fact one of the author's stated aims that this comprehensive monograph should serve both as an introductory text and as a reference for the expert."" (F. Papangelou, Zentralblatt MATH) The second edition has been extended by a new section on large deviations and some comments on the more recent developments in the area.
Light scattering near phase transitions
Cummins, HZ
1983-01-01
Since the development of the laser in the early 1960's, light scattering has played an increasingly crucial role in the investigation of many types of phase transitions and the published work in this field is now widely dispersed in a large number of books and journals.A comprehensive overview of contemporary theoretical and experimental research in this field is presented here. The reviews are written by authors who have actively contributed to the developments that have taken place in both Eastern and Western countries.
Phase transitions and critical phenomena
Domb, Cyril
2000-01-01
The field of phase transitions and critical phenomena continues to be active in research, producing a steady stream of interesting and fruitful results. No longer an area of specialist interest, it has acquired a central focus in condensed matter studies. The major aim of this serial is to provide review articles that can serve as standard references for research workers in the field, and for graduate students and others wishing to obtain reliable information on important recent developments.The two review articles in this volume complement each other in a remarkable way. Both deal with what m
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Okada, Fuminori [Konica Minolta, INC. (Japan); Akiyama, Yoshikatsu, E-mail: akiyama.yoshikatsu@twmu.ac.jp, E-mail: akiyama.yoshikatsu@abmes.twmu.ac.jp; Kobayashi, Jun [Tokyo Women’s Medical University (TWIns), Institute of Advanced Biomedical Engineering and Science (Japan); Ninomiya, Hidetaka [Konica Minolta, INC. (Japan); Kanazawa, Hideko [Keio University, Faculty of Pharmacy (Japan); Yamato, Masayuki; Okano, Teruo [Tokyo Women’s Medical University (TWIns), Institute of Advanced Biomedical Engineering and Science (Japan)
2015-03-15
Temperature-responsive cell culture surfaces prepared by modifying tissue-culture polystyrene with nanoscale poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PIPAAm) hydrogels are widely used as intelligent surfaces for the fabrication of various cell sheets that change with temperature. In this work, the characteristics of nanoscale PIPAAm hydrogels were phenomenologically elucidated on the basis of time-dependent surface evaluations under conditions of changing temperature. Because the dynamic characteristics of the nanoscale hydrogel did not exhibit good performance, the nanoscale PIPAAm hydrogel was analyzed by monitoring its temperature-dependent dynamic swelling/deswelling changes using reflectometric interference spectroscopy (RIfS) on an instrument equipped with a microfluidic system. RIfS measurements under ambient atmosphere provided the precise physical thickness of the dry PIPAAm hydrogel (6.7 nm), which agreed with the atomic force microscopy results (6.6 nm). Simulations of the reflectance spectra revealed that changes in the wavelength of the minimum reflectance (Δλ) were attributable to the changes in the refractive index of the thin PIPAAm hydrogel induced by a temperature-dependent volume phase transition. The temperature-dependent Δλ change was used to monitor the swelling/deswelling behavior of the nanoscale PIPAAm hydrogel. In addition, the phase transition temperature of the thin PIPAAm hydrogel under aqueous conditions was also determined to be the inflection point of the plot of the change in Δλ as a function of temperature. The dynamic behavior of a thin PIPAAm hydrogel chemically deposited on a surface was readily analyzed using a new analytical system with RIfS and microfluidic devices.
Lu, Xia; Chiu, Hsien-Chieh; Arthur, Zachary; Zhou, Jigang; Wang, Jian; Chen, Ning; Jiang, De-Tong; Zaghib, Karim; Demopoulos, George P.
2016-10-01
Li2FeSiO4 (LFS) has drawn much attention as cathode for high capacity Li-ion batteries. Even though significant volume of study has been devoted to its crystal chemistry and electrochemistry, many questions relating to its Li-ion storage dynamics remain yet to be fully elucidated. In this context, synchrotron-based X-ray diffraction and absorption spectroscopies are employed to characterize the phase stability and charge compensation mechanism in a metastable Li2FeSiO4 nanostructured cathode as a function of state-of-charge (Li2-xFeSiO4, x = 0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0) and cycling at very low current. The results demonstrate (i) no detectable phase transition from monoclinic to orthorhombic phase during the first charge-discharge cycle but rather formation of antisite defects that progressively induce phase transformation after several electrochemical cycles; (ii) characteristics of solid solution Li-ion storage (Li2-xFeSiO4, x = 0-1); and (iii) the charge compensation for the first Li extraction does not come solely from the ferrous to ferric conversion, but interestingly from prominent participation of lattice oxygen as well that appears to destabilize the cycled LFS structure with significant performance implications.
Gai, Lili; Vogel, Thomas; Maerzke, Katie A; Iacovella, Christopher R; Landau, David P; Cummings, Peter T; McCabe, Clare
2013-08-07
Two different techniques - replica-exchange Wang-Landau (REWL) and statistical temperature molecular dynamics (STMD) - were applied to systematically study the phase transition behavior of self-assembling lipids as a function of temperature using an off-lattice lipid model. Both methods allow the direct calculation of the density of states with improved efficiency compared to the original Wang-Landau method. A 3-segment model of amphiphilic lipids solvated in water has been studied with varied particle interaction energies (ε) and lipid concentrations. The phase behavior of the lipid molecules with respect to bilayer formation has been characterized through the calculation of the heat capacity as a function of temperature, in addition to various order parameters and general visual inspection. The simulations conducted by both methods can go to very low temperatures with the whole system exhibiting well-ordered structures. With optimized parameters, several bilayer phases are observed within the temperature range studied, including gel phase bilayers with frozen water, mixed water (i.e., frozen and liquid water), and liquid water, and a more fluid bilayer with liquid water. The results obtained from both methods, STMD and REWL, are consistently in excellent agreement with each other, thereby validating both the methods and the results.
Gai, Lili; Vogel, Thomas; Maerzke, Katie A.; Iacovella, Christopher R.; Landau, David P.; Cummings, Peter T.; McCabe, Clare
2013-08-01
Two different techniques - replica-exchange Wang-Landau (REWL) and statistical temperature molecular dynamics (STMD) - were applied to systematically study the phase transition behavior of self-assembling lipids as a function of temperature using an off-lattice lipid model. Both methods allow the direct calculation of the density of states with improved efficiency compared to the original Wang-Landau method. A 3-segment model of amphiphilic lipids solvated in water has been studied with varied particle interaction energies (ɛ) and lipid concentrations. The phase behavior of the lipid molecules with respect to bilayer formation has been characterized through the calculation of the heat capacity as a function of temperature, in addition to various order parameters and general visual inspection. The simulations conducted by both methods can go to very low temperatures with the whole system exhibiting well-ordered structures. With optimized parameters, several bilayer phases are observed within the temperature range studied, including gel phase bilayers with frozen water, mixed water (i.e., frozen and liquid water), and liquid water, and a more fluid bilayer with liquid water. The results obtained from both methods, STMD and REWL, are consistently in excellent agreement with each other, thereby validating both the methods and the results.
Miura, Kohtaroh
2012-01-01
We study the thermal phase transition in colour SU(3) Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) with a variable number of fermions in the fundamental representation by using lattice Monte-Carlo simulations. We collect the (pseudo) critical couplings for N_f=(0, 4, 6,8), and we investigate the pre-conformal dynamics associated with the infra-red fixed point in terms of the N_f dependence of the transition temperature. We propose three independent estimates of the number of flavour N_f^* where the conformal phase would emerge, which give consistent results within the largish errors. We consider lines of fixed N_t in the space of (N_f, bare lattice coupling), and locate the vanishing of the step scaling function for N_f^*\\sim 11.1\\pm 1.6. We define a typical interaction strength (g_TC) at the scale of critical temperature T_c, and we find that g_TC meets the zero temperature critical couplings estimated by the two-loop Schwinger Dyson equation or the IRFP coupling in the four-loop beta-function at N_f^*\\sim 12.5\\pm 0.7. Furt...
Harada, Jun; Ohtani, Masaki; Takahashi, Yukihiro; Inabe, Tamotsu
2015-04-08
Molecules in crystals often suffer from severe limitations on their dynamic processes, especially on those involving large structural changes. Crystalline compounds, therefore, usually fail to realize their potential as dielectric materials even when they have large dipole moments. To enable polar molecules to undergo dynamic processes and to provide their crystals with dielectric properties, weakly bound charge-transfer (CT) complex crystals have been exploited as a molecular architecture where the constituent polar molecules have some freedom of dynamic processes, which contribute to the dielectric properties of the crystals. Several CT crystals of polar tetrabromophthalic anhydride (TBPA) molecules were prepared using TBPA as an electron acceptor and aromatic hydrocarbons, such as coronene and perylene, as electron donors. The crystal structures and dielectric properties of the CT crystals as well as the single-component crystal of TBPA were investigated at various temperatures. Molecular reorientation of TBPA molecules did not occur in the single-component crystal, and the crystal did not show a dielectric response due to orientational polarization. We have found that the CT crystal formation provides a simple and versatile method to develop molecular dielectrics, revealing that the molecular dynamics of the TBPA molecules and the dielectric property of their crystals were greatly changed in CT crystals. The TBPA molecules underwent rapid in-plane reorientations in their CT crystals, which exhibited marked dielectric responses arising from the molecular motion. An order-disorder phase transition was observed for one of the CT crystals, which resulted in an abrupt change in the dielectric constant at the transition temperature.
Quark Deconfinement Phase Transition in Neutron Stars
Alaverdyan, G B
2009-01-01
The hadron-quark phase transition in the interior of compact stars is investigated, when the transition proceeds through a mixed phase. The hadronic phase is described in the framework of relativistic mean-field theory, when also the scalar-isovector delta-meson mean-field is taken into account. The changes of the parameters of phase transition caused by the presence of delta-meson field are explored. The results of calculation of structure of the mixed phase (Glendenning construction) are compared with the results of usual first-order phase transition (Maxwell construction).
Interacting Weyl fermions: Phases, phase transitions and global phase diagram
Roy, Bitan; Juricic, Vladimir
2016-01-01
We study the effects of short-range interactions on a generalized three-dimensional Weyl semimetal, where the band touching points act as the (anti)monopoles of Abelian Berry curvature of strength $n$. We show that any local interaction has a \\emph{negative} scaling dimension $-2/n$. Consequently all Weyl semimetals are stable against weak short-range interactions. For sufficiently strong interactions, we demonstrate that the Weyl semimetal either undergoes a first order transition into a band insulator or a continuous transition into a symmetry breaking phase. A translational symmetry breaking axion insulator and a rotational symmetry breaking semimetal are two prominent candidates for the broken symmetry phase. At one loop level, the correlation length exponent for continuous transitions is $\
Chiral phase transition from string theory.
Parnachev, Andrei; Sahakyan, David A
2006-09-15
The low energy dynamics of a certain D-brane configuration in string theory is described at weak t'Hooft coupling by a nonlocal version of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. We study this system at finite temperature and strong t'Hooft coupling, using the string theory dual. We show that for sufficiently low temperatures chiral symmetry is broken, while for temperatures larger then the critical value, it gets restored. We compute the latent heat and observe that the phase transition is of the first order.
Alvarez, Gonzalo A
2007-01-01
The control of open quantum systems has a fundamental relevance for fields ranging from quantum information processing to nanotechnology. Typically, the system whose coherent dynamics one wants to manipulate, interacts with an environment that smoothly degrades its quantum dynamics. Thus, a precise understanding of the inner mechanisms of this process, called "decoherence", is critical to develop strategies to control the quantum dynamics. In this thesis we solved the generalized Liouville-von Neumann quantum master equation to obtain the dynamics of many-spin systems interacting with a spin bath. We also solve the spin dynamics within the Keldysh formalism. Both methods lead to identical solutions and together gave us the possibility to obtain numerous physical predictions that contrast well with Nuclear Magnetic Resonance experiments. We applied these tools for molecular characterizations, development of new numerical methodologies and the control of quantum dynamics in experimental implementations. But, mo...
High pressure structural phase transitions of PbPo
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bencherif, Y.; Boukra, A. [Departement de Physique, Faculte des Sciences, Universite de Mostaganem (Algeria); Departement de Physique, Universite des Sciences et de la Technologie d' Oran, USTO, Oran (Algeria); Zaoui, A., E-mail: azaoui@polytech-lille.fr [Universite Lille Nord de France, LGCgE (EA 4515) Lille1, Polytech' Lille, Cite Scientifique, Avenue Paul Langevin, 59655 Villeneuve D' Ascq Cedex (France); Ferhat, M. [Departement de Physique, Universite des Sciences et de la Technologie d' Oran, USTO, Oran (Algeria)
2012-09-01
First-principles calculations have been performed to investigate the high pressure phase transitions and dynamical properties of the less known lead polonium compound. The calculated ground state parameters for the NaCl phase show good agreement with the experimental data. The obtained results show that the intermediate phase transition for this compound is the orthorhombic Pnma phase. The PbPo undergoes from the rocksalt to Pnma phase at 4.20 GPa. Further structural phase transition from intermediate to CsCl phase has been found at 8.5 GPa. In addition, phonon dispersion spectra were derived from linear-response to density functional theory. In particular, we show that the dynamical properties of PbPo exhibit some peculiar features compared to other III-V compounds. Finally, thermodynamics properties have been also addressed from quasiharmonic approximation.
QCD Phase Transitions, Volume 15
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schaefer, T.; Shuryak, E.
1999-03-20
The title of the workshop, ''The QCD Phase Transitions'', in fact happened to be too narrow for its real contents. It would be more accurate to say that it was devoted to different phases of QCD and QCD-related gauge theories, with strong emphasis on discussion of the underlying non-perturbative mechanisms which manifest themselves as all those phases. Before we go to specifics, let us emphasize one important aspect of the present status of non-perturbative Quantum Field Theory in general. It remains true that its studies do not get attention proportional to the intellectual challenge they deserve, and that the theorists working on it remain very fragmented. The efforts to create Theory of Everything including Quantum Gravity have attracted the lion share of attention and young talent. Nevertheless, in the last few years there was also a tremendous progress and even some shift of attention toward emphasis on the unity of non-perturbative phenomena. For example, we have seen some efforts to connect the lessons from recent progress in Supersymmetric theories with that in QCD, as derived from phenomenology and lattice. Another example is Maldacena conjecture and related development, which connect three things together, string theory, super-gravity and the (N=4) supersymmetric gauge theory. Although the progress mentioned is remarkable by itself, if we would listen to each other more we may have chance to strengthen the field and reach better understanding of the spectacular non-perturbative physics.
The Structural Phase Transition in Solid DCN
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dietrich, O. W.; Mackenzie, Gordon A.; Pawley, G. S.
1976-01-01
Neutron scattering measurements on deuterated hydrogen cyanide have shown that the structural phase transition from a tetragonal to an orthorhombic form at 160 K is a first order transition. A transverse acoustic phonon mode, which has the symmetry of the transition was observed at very low energ...... energies and showed “softening” as the transition was approached from above.......Neutron scattering measurements on deuterated hydrogen cyanide have shown that the structural phase transition from a tetragonal to an orthorhombic form at 160 K is a first order transition. A transverse acoustic phonon mode, which has the symmetry of the transition was observed at very low...
Kinetics of shock-induced polymorphic phase transitions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hayes, D.B.
1976-01-01
Shock-loading induces polymorphic phase transitions in some solids if the pressure exceeds that at which phase transition occurs under quasi-static compression. Volume changes in shock-induced transitions must occur very rapidly to produce the structured shock waves observed, so transition rates are large under these dynamic conditions. By contrast, the same transition might require minutes or hours under quasi-static loading. If shock-induced transition is so rapid that kinetic effects can be ignored, a steady two-wave structure is propagated. The first wave, of amplitude equal to the transition pressure, shocks the material to the phase boundary but produces no transition; the second, slower wave produces the transformed phase. When kinetic effects are important, this two-wave structure does not form immediately but by an evolutionary process which produces transients in the amplitudes and rise times of the stress waves. By measuring these transient effects, some facts about the kinetics of phase transitions have been inferred. Comprehensive studies on phase-transition kinetics in antimony, iron, and potassium chloride are described, with emphasis on a thermodynamic description of the intermediate states during transition. Complicating effects such as shear strength and wave perturbations due to free surfaces are discussed.
Density Functional Theory for Phase-Ordering Transitions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wu, Jianzhong [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States)
2016-03-30
Colloids display astonishing structural and dynamic properties that can be dramatically altered by modest changes in the solution condition or an external field. This complex behavior stems from a subtle balance of colloidal forces and intriguing mesoscopic and macroscopic phase transitions that are sensitive to the processing conditions and the dispersing environment. Whereas the knowledge on the microscopic structure and phase behavior of colloidal systems at equilibrium is now well-advanced, quantitative predictions of the dynamic properties and the kinetics of phase-ordering transitions in colloids are not always realized. Many important mesoscopic and off-equilibrium colloidal states remain poorly understood. The proposed research aims to develop a new, unifying approach to describe colloidal dynamics and the kinetics of phase-ordering transitions based on accomplishments from previous work for the equilibrium properties of both uniform and inhomogeneous systems and on novel concepts from the state-of-the-art dynamic density functional theory. In addition to theoretical developments, computational research is designed to address a number of fundamental questions on phase-ordering transitions in colloids, in particular those pertinent to a competition of the dynamic pathways leading to various mesoscopic structures, off-equilibrium states, and crystalline phases. By providing a generic theoretical framework to describe equilibrium, metastable as well as non-ergodic phase transitions concurrent with the colloidal self-assembly processes, accomplishments from this work will have major impacts on both fundamental research and technological applications.
QGP phase transition and multiplicity fluctuations
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
杨纯斌; 王晓荣; 蔡勖
1997-01-01
The scaled factorial moments in QGP phase transitions are studied analytically by the extended Ginzburg-Landau model.The dependence of InFq on phase space interval is different for the first- and second-order QGP phase transitions.When lnFq are fitted to polynomials of X=δ1/3,the relative sign between the fitted coefficients of X and bq,l calculated theoretically can be used to judge the order of phase transitions.Two sets of experimental data are reanalysed and the phase transitions are the first order for one set of data but the second order for another.
Scale invariance from phase transitions to turbulence
Lesne, Annick
2012-01-01
During a century, from the Van der Waals mean field description (1874) of gases to the introduction of renormalization group (RG techniques 1970), thermodynamics and statistical physics were just unable to account for the incredible universality which was observed in numerous critical phenomena. The great success of RG techniques is not only to solve perfectly this challenge of critical behaviour in thermal transitions but to introduce extremely useful tools in a wide field of daily situations where a system exhibits scale invariance. The introduction of scaling, scale invariance and universality concepts has been a significant turn in modern physics and more generally in natural sciences. Since then, a new "physics of scaling laws and critical exponents", rooted in scaling approaches, allows quantitative descriptions of numerous phenomena, ranging from phase transitions to earthquakes, polymer conformations, heartbeat rhythm, diffusion, interface growth and roughening, DNA sequence, dynamical systems, chaos ...
Locating phase transitions in computationally hard problems
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
B Ashok; T K Patra
2010-09-01
We discuss how phase-transitions may be detected in computationally hard problems in the context of anytime algorithms. Treating the computational time, value and utility functions involved in the search results in analogy with quantities in statistical physics, we indicate how the onset of a computationally hard regime can be detected and the transit to higher quality solutions be quantified by an appropriate response function. The existence of a dynamical critical exponent is shown, enabling one to predict the onset of critical slowing down, rather than finding it after the event, in the specific case of a travelling salesman problem (TSP). This can be used as a means of improving efficiency and speed in searches, and avoiding needless computations.
Dutta, Rajkrishna; Alptekin, Sebahaddin; Mandal, Nibir
2013-03-27
We have investigated the electronic structure and the mechanism of the pressure induced phase transition of beryllium selenide (BeSe) by employing a first-principles pseudopotential method within the framework of density functional theory. Our study demonstrates that use of the hybrid PBE0 functional (PBE stands for Perdew, Burke and Ernzerhof) leads to significant improvement in the band gap calculations, compared to those using either of the common density functionals (local density approximation (LDA) and generalized gradient approximation (GGA)), which severely underestimate the band gap of BeSe. The band gap obtained from the hybrid PBE0 functional shows excellent agreement with available experimental data. A constant-pressure (NPH) first-principles molecular dynamics (FPMD) approach has been adopted to characterize the first-order pressure induced phase transition from the zinc blende (ZB) to the nickel arsenide (NiAs) structure. We have shown that the FPMD simulation overestimates the transition pressure P(T) (compared to static enthalpy and experimental data) due to overpressure in the simulation box. The MD simulation reveals the structural pathway (cubic → orthorhombic → monoclinic → hexagonal), leading from the ZB phase to the NiAs phase. To find an explanation for the phase transition we calculated the vibrational and elastic properties under pressure. Negative Grüneisen parameters were obtained for the transverse acoustic phonon modes at the X and L high symmetry points. However, no mechanical instability or imaginary frequencies were found at pressures near P(T). Thus the transition results from a thermodynamic instability rather than an elastic/dynamical one. We have also calculated the optical properties of both the B3 and B8 phases, such as the real and imaginary parts of the dielectric constant, reflectivity, loss function and refractive index, and compared them with the existing experimental and theoretical data. An abrupt decrease is
Phase transition in the ABC model
Clincy, M.; Derrida, B.; Evans, M. R.
2003-06-01
Recent studies have shown that one-dimensional driven systems can exhibit phase separation even if the dynamics is governed by local rules. The ABC model, which comprises three particle species that diffuse asymmetrically around a ring, shows anomalous coarsening into a phase separated steady state. In the limiting case in which the dynamics is symmetric and the parameter q describing the asymmetry tends to one, no phase separation occurs and the steady state of the system is disordered. In the present work, we consider the weak asymmetry regime q=exp(-β/N), where N is the system size, and study how the disordered state is approached. In the case of equal densities, we find that the system exhibits a second-order phase transition at some nonzero βc. The value of βc=2π(3) and the optimal profiles can be obtained by writing the exact large deviation functional. For nonequal densities, we write down mean-field equations and analyze some of their predictions.
Phase transitions in fluids and biological systems
Sipos, Maksim
In this thesis, I consider systems from two seemingly different fields: fluid dynamics and microbial ecology. In these systems, the unifying features are the existences of global non-equilibrium steady states. I consider generic and statistical models for transitions between these global states, and I relate the model results with experimental data. A theme of this thesis is that these rather simple, minimal models are able to capture a lot of functional detail about complex dynamical systems. In Part I, I consider the transition between laminar and turbulent flow. I find that quantitative and qualitative features of pipe flow experiments, the superexponential lifetime and the splitting of turbulent puffs, and the growth rate of turbulent slugs, can all be explained by a coarse-grained, phenomenological model in the directed percolation universality class. To relate this critical phenomena approach closer to the fluid dynamics, I consider the transition to turbulence in the Burgers equation, a simplified model for Navier-Stokes equations. Via a transformation to a model of directed polymers in a random medium, I find that the transition to Burgers turbulence may also be in the directed percolation universality class. This evidence implies that the turbulent-to-laminar transition is statistical in nature and does not depend on details of the Navier-Stokes equations describing the fluid flow. In Part II, I consider the disparate subject of microbial ecology where the complex interactions within microbial ecosystems produce observable patterns in microbe abundance, diversity and genotype. In order to be able to study these patterns, I develop a bioinformatics pipeline to multiply align and quickly cluster large microbial metagenomics datasets. I also develop a novel metric that quantifies the degree of interactions underlying the assembly of a microbial ecosystem, particularly the transition between neutral (random) and niche (deterministic) assembly. I apply this
Cosmological phase transitions from lattice field theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jansen, Karl [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC
2011-11-22
In this proceedings contribution we discuss the fate of the electroweak and the quantum chromodynamics phase transitions relevant for the early stage of the universe at non-zero temperature. These phase transitions are related to the Higgs mechanism and the breaking of chiral symmetry, respectively. We will review that non-perturbative lattice field theory simulations show that these phase transitions actually do not occur in nature and that physical observables show a completely smooth behaviour as a function of the temperature.
Holographic Phase Transition Probed by Nonlocal Observables
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiao-Xiong Zeng
2016-01-01
Full Text Available From the viewpoint of holography, the phase structure of a 5-dimensional Reissner-Nordström-AdS black hole is probed by the two-point correlation function, Wilson loop, and entanglement entropy. As the case of thermal entropy, we find for all the probes that the black hole undergoes a Hawking-Page phase transition, a first-order phase transition, and a second-order phase transition successively before it reaches a stable phase. In addition, for these probes, we find that the equal area law for the first-order phase transition is valid always and the critical exponent of the heat capacity for the second-order phase transition coincides with that of the mean field theory regardless of the size of the boundary region.
Behavior of the Lyapunov Exponent and Phase Transition in Nuclei
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Nan; WU Xi-Zhen; LI Zhu-Xia; WANG Ning; ZHUO Yi-Zhong; SUN Xiu-Quan
2000-01-01
Based on the quantum molecular dynamics model, we investigate the dynamical behaviors of the excited nuclear system to simulate the latter stage of heavy ion reactions, which associate with a liquid-gas phase transition. We try to search a microscopic way to describe the phase transition in realnuclei. The Lyapunov exponent is employed and examined for our purpose. We find out that the Lyapunov exponent is one of good microscopic quantities to describe the phase transition in hot nuclei. Coulomb potential and the finite size effect may give a strong influence on the critical temperature. However, the collision term plays a minor role in the process of the liquid-gas phase transition in finite systems.
Ueda, Akira; Yamada, Shota; Isono, Takayuki; Kamo, Hiromichi; Nakao, Akiko; Kumai, Reiji; Nakao, Hironori; Murakami, Youichi; Yamamoto, Kaoru; Nishio, Yutaka; Mori, Hatsumi
2014-08-27
A hydrogen bond (H-bond) is one of the most fundamental and important noncovalent interactions in chemistry, biology, physics, and all other molecular sciences. Especially, the dynamics of a proton or a hydrogen atom in the H-bond has attracted increasing attention, because it plays a crucial role in (bio)chemical reactions and some physical properties, such as dielectricity and proton conductivity. Here we report unprecedented H-bond-dynamics-based switching of electrical conductivity and magnetism in a H-bonded purely organic conductor crystal, κ-D3(Cat-EDT-TTF)2 (abbreviated as κ-D). This novel crystal κ-D, a deuterated analogue of κ-H3(Cat-EDT-TTF)2 (abbreviated as κ-H), is composed only of a H-bonded molecular unit, in which two crystallographically equivalent catechol-fused ethylenedithiotetrathiafulvalene (Cat-EDT-TTF) skeletons with a +0.5 charge are linked by a symmetric anionic [O···D···O](-1)-type strong H-bond. Although the deuterated and parent hydrogen systems, κ-D and κ-H, are isostructural paramagnetic semiconductors with a dimer-Mott-type electronic structure at room temperature (space group: C2/c), only κ-D undergoes a phase transition at 185 K, to change to a nonmagnetic insulator with a charge-ordered electronic structure (space group: P1). The X-ray crystal structure analysis demonstrates that this dramatic switching of the electronic structure and physical properties originates from deuterium transfer or displacement within the H-bond accompanied by electron transfer between the Cat-EDT-TTF π-systems, proving that the H-bonded deuterium dynamics and the conducting TTF π-electron are cooperatively coupled. Furthermore, the reason why this unique phase transition occurs only in κ-D is qualitatively discussed in terms of the H/D isotope effect on the H-bond geometry and potential energy curve.
When is the deconfinement phase transition universal?
Holland, K; Wiese, U J
2003-01-01
Pure Yang-Mills theory has a finite-temperature phase transition, separating the confined and deconfined bulk phases. Svetitsky and Yaffe conjectured that if this phase transition is of second order, it belongs to the universality class of transitions for particular scalar field theories in one lower dimension. We examine Yang-Mills theory with the symplectic gauge groups Sp(N). We find new evidence supporting the Svetitsky-Yaffe conjecture and make our own conjecture as to which gauge theories have a universal second order deconfinement phase transition.
Turner, Joshua J.
A growing interest in the physics of complex systems such as in the transition-metal oxide family has exploded recently, especially in the last 20 years or so. One notable effect is the change in electrical resistivity of a system by orders of magnitude in an applied magnetic field, coined the "colossal magnetoresistance effect". In efforts to understand these types of effects, there has been an unveiling of a rich variety of phenomena in the field of strongly correlated electron physics that has come to dominate the current scientific times. Most notable is the competition of myriad types of order: magnetic, lattice, charge and orbital all self-organize to display a fascinating array of phases on a variety of length scales. Furthermore, it has become apparent that new probes are needed to grasp some of this physics that transcends current condensed matter theory, where much of the behavior of these types of systems has remained unexplored. We have developed a new technique to gain more information about the system than with conventional x-ray diffraction. By scattering highly coherent, low energy x-rays, we can measure manganite speckle: a "fingerprint' of the microscopic structure in the bulk. The coherence of the x-rays can further be used to elucidate new insight into the dynamics of these phases. We describe here a number of novel effects near the orbital order phase transition in a half-doped manganite. We observe a small fluctuating component in the scattered signal that is correlated with three effects: both a rapidly decreasing total signal and orbital domain size, as well as an abrupt onset of a broad background intensity that we attribute to the thermal production of correlated polarons. Our results suggest that the transition is characterized by a competition between a pinned orbital domain topology that remains static, and mobile domain boundaries that exhibit slow, spatiotemporal fluctuations. This study opens up a new chapter to the study of
Experimental and theoretical investigations on shock wave induced phase transitions
Gupta, Satish C.; Sikka, S. K.
2001-06-01
Shock wave loading of a material can cause variety of phase transitions, like polymorphism, amorphization, metallization and molecular dissociations. As the shocked state lasts only for a very short duration (about a few microseconds or less), in-situ microscopic measurements are very difficult. Although such studies are beginning to be possible, most of the shock-induced phase transitions are detected using macroscopic measurements. The microscopic nature of the transition is then inferred from comparison with static pressure data or interpreted by theoretical methods. For irreversible phase transitions, microscopic measurements on recovered samples, together with orientation relations determined from selected area electron diffraction and examination of the morphology of growth of the new phase can provide insight into mechanism of phase transitions. On theoretical side, the current ab initio band structure techniques based on density functional formalism provide capability for accurate computation of the small energy differences (a few mRy or smaller) between different plausible structures. Total energy calculation along the path of a phase transition can furnish estimates of activation barrier, which has implications for understanding kinetics of phase transitions. Molecular dynamics calculations, where the new structure evolves naturally, are becoming increasingly popular especially for understanding crystal to amorphous phase transitions. Illustrations from work at our laboratory will be presented.
Baryogenesis via leptonic CP-violating phase transition
Pascoli, Silvia; Zhou, Ye-Ling
2016-01-01
We propose a new mechanism to generate a lepton asymmetry based on the vacuum CP-violating phase transition (CPPT). This approach differs from classical thermal leptogenesis as a specific seesaw model, and its UV completion, need not be specified. The lepton asymmetry is generated via the dynamically realised coupling of the Weinberg operator during the phase transition. This mechanism provides strong connections with low-energy neutrino experiments.
Beyond nuclear "pasta" : Phase transitions and neutrino opacity of new "pasta" phases
Alcain, P. N.; Giménez Molinelli, P. A.; Dorso, C. O.
2014-12-01
In this work, we focus on different length scales within the dynamics of nucleons in conditions according to the neutron star crust, with a semiclassical molecular dynamics model, studying isospin symmetric matter at subsaturation densities. While varying the temperature, we find that a solid-liquid phase transition exists, which can be also characterized with a morphology transition. For higher temperatures, above this phase transition, we study the neutrino opacity, and find that in the liquid phase, the scattering of low momenta neutrinos remain high, even though the morphology of the structures differ significatively from those of the traditional nuclear pasta.
Phase transitions of quadrupolar fluids
O'Shea, Seamus F.; Dubey, Girija S.; Rasaiah, Jayendran C.
1997-07-01
Gibbs ensemble simulations are reported for Lennard-Jones particles with embedded quadrupoles of strength Q*=Q/(ɛσ5)1/2=2.0 where ɛ and σ are the Lennard-Jones parameters. Calculations revealing the effect of the dispersive forces on the liquid-vapor coexistence were carried out by scaling the attractive r-6 term in the Lennard-Jones pair potential by a factor λ ranging from 0 to 1. Liquid-vapor coexistence is observed for all values of λ including λ=0 for Q*=2.0, unlike the corresponding dipolar fluid studied by van Leeuwen and Smit et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 3991 (1993)] which showed no phase transition below λ=0.35 when the reduced dipole moment μ*=2.0. The simulation data are analyzed to estimate the critical properties of the quadrupolar fluid and their dependence on the strength λ of the dispersive force. The critical temperature and pressure show a clear quadratic dependence on λ, while the density is less confidently identified as being linear in λ. The compressibility is roughly linear in λ.
Phase transitions in the web of science
Phillips, J. C.
2015-06-01
The Internet age is changing the structure of science, and affecting interdisciplinary interactions. Publication profiles connecting mathematics with molecular biology and condensed matter physics over the last 40 years exhibit common phase transitions indicative of the critical role played by specific interdisciplinary interactions. The strengths of the phase transitions quantify the importance of interdisciplinary interactions.
The Structural Phase Transition in Solid DCN
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dietrich, O. W.; Mackenzie, Gordon A.; Pawley, G. S.
1975-01-01
Neutron scattering measurements on deuterated hydrogen cyanide have shown that the structural phase change from a tetragonal to an orthorhombic form at 160K is a first-order transition. A transverse acoustic phonon mode, which has the symmetry of the phase change, was observed at very low energies...... and showed 'softening' as the transition temperature was approached from above....
Phase Transitions in Living Neural Networks
Williams-Garcia, Rashid Vladimir
Our nervous systems are composed of intricate webs of interconnected neurons interacting in complex ways. These complex interactions result in a wide range of collective behaviors with implications for features of brain function, e.g., information processing. Under certain conditions, such interactions can drive neural network dynamics towards critical phase transitions, where power-law scaling is conjectured to allow optimal behavior. Recent experimental evidence is consistent with this idea and it seems plausible that healthy neural networks would tend towards optimality. This hypothesis, however, is based on two problematic assumptions, which I describe and for which I present alternatives in this thesis. First, critical transitions may vanish due to the influence of an environment, e.g., a sensory stimulus, and so living neural networks may be incapable of achieving "critical" optimality. I develop a framework known as quasicriticality, in which a relative optimality can be achieved depending on the strength of the environmental influence. Second, the power-law scaling supporting this hypothesis is based on statistical analysis of cascades of activity known as neuronal avalanches, which conflate causal and non-causal activity, thus confounding important dynamical information. In this thesis, I present a new method to unveil causal links, known as causal webs, between neuronal activations, thus allowing for experimental tests of the quasicriticality hypothesis and other practical applications.
Phase Transitions in Networks of Memristive Elements
Sheldon, Forrest; di Ventra, Massimiliano
The memory features of memristive elements (resistors with memory), analogous to those found in biological synapses, have spurred the development of neuromorphic systems based on them (see, e.g.,). In turn, this requires a fundamental understanding of the collective dynamics of networks of memristive systems. Here, we study an experimentally-inspired model of disordered memristive networks in the limit of a slowly ramped voltage and show through simulations that these networks undergo a first-order phase transition in the conductivity for sufficiently high values of memory, as quantified by the memristive ON/OFF ratio. We provide also a mean-field theory that reproduces many features of the transition and particularly examine the role of boundary conditions and current- vs. voltage-controlled networks. The dynamics of the mean-field theory suggest a distribution of conductance jumps which may be accessible experimentally. We finally discuss the ability of these networks to support massively-parallel computation. Work supported in part by the Center for Memory and Recording Research at UCSD.
Phase sensitive quantum interference on forbidden transition in ladder scheme
Koganov, Gennady A
2014-01-01
A three level ladder system is analyzed and the coherence of initially electric-dipole forbidden transition is calculated. Due to the presence of two laser fields the initially dipole forbidden transition becomes dynamically permitted due to ac Stark effect. It is shown that such transitions exhibit quantum-interference-related phenomena, such as electromagnetically induced transparency, gain without inversion and enhanced refractive index. Gain and dispersion characteristics of such transitions strongly depend upon the relative phase between the driving and the probe fields. Unlike allowed transitions, gain/absorption behavior of ac-Stark allowed transitions exhibit antisymmetric feature on the Rabi sidebands. It is found that absorption/gain spectra possess extremely narrow sub-natural resonances on these ac Stark allowed forbidden transitions. An interesting finding is simultaneous existence of gain and negative dispersion at Autler-Townes transition which may lead to both reduction of the group velocity a...
SUSY and the Electroweak Phase Transition
Farrar, Glennys R S; Farrar, Glennys R.; Losada, Marta
1996-01-01
We analyze the effective 3 dimensional theory previously constructed for the MSSM and multi-Higgs models to determine the regions of parameter space in which the electroweak phase transition is sufficiently strong for a $B+L$ asymmetry to survive in the low temperature phase. We find that the inclusion of all supersymmetric scalars and all 1-loop corrections has the effect of enhancing the strength of the phase transition. Without a light stop or extension of the MSSM the phase transition is sufficiently first order only if the lightest Higgs mass $M_{h}\\lsi 70$ GeV and $tan\\beta\\lsi 1.75$.
Singh, Baltej; Gupta, Mayanak Kumar; Mittal, Ranjan; Zbiri, Mohamed; Rols, Stephane; Patwe, Sadequa Jahedkhan; Achary, Srungarpu Nagabhusan; Schober, Helmut; Tyagi, Avesh Kumar; Chaplot, Samrath Lal
2017-02-01
β-Eucryptite (LiAlSiO4) shows anisotropic thermal expansion as well as one-dimensional super-ionic conductivity. We have performed the lattice dynamical calculations using ab-initio density functional theory along with inelastic neutron scattering measurements. The anisotropic stress dependence of the phonon spectrum is calculated to obtain the thermal expansion behavior along various axes. The calculations show that the Grüneisen parameters of the low-energy phonon modes around 10 meV have large negative values and govern the negative thermal expansion behavior at low temperatures along both the "a"- and "c"-axes. On the other hand, anisotropic elasticity along with anisotropic positive values of the Grüneisen parameters of the high-energy modes in the range 30-70 meV are responsible for the thermal expansion at high temperatures, which is positive in the a-b plane and negative along the c-axis. The analysis of the polarization vectors of the phonon modes sheds light on the mechanism of the anomalous thermal expansion behavior. The softening of a Γ-point mode at about 2 GPa may be related to the high-pressure phase transition.
Valleytronics and phase transition in silicene
Aftab, Tayyaba
2017-03-01
Magnetic and transport properties of silicene in the presence of perpendicular electromagnetic fields and a ferromagnetic material are studied. It is shown that for small exchange field, the magnetic moment associated with each valley is opposite for the other and it gives a shift in band energy, by a Zeeman-like coupling term. Thus opening a new horizon for valley-orbit coupling. Magnetic proximity effect is seen to adjust the spintronics of each valley. Valley polarization is calculated using the semi classical formulation of electron dynamics. It can be modified and measured due to its contribution in Hall conductivity. Quantum phase transitions are observed in silicene, providing a tool to control the topological state experimentally. The strong dependence of the physical properties on valley degree of freedom is an important step towards valleytronics.
Mikuli, E.; Migdał-Mikuli, A.; Natkaniec, I.; Mayer, J.
2000-10-01
DSC measurements performed at 95 -290 K have shown that [Mn(H 2 O) 6 ](CIO 4) 2 possesses, besides a high-temperature phase, existing above 323 K, four low-temperature solid phases. The inelastic incoherent neutron scattering (IINS) spectra and neutron powder diffraction (NPD) pat-terns registered at 20 -290 K have supported the DSC results and provided evidence that the investigated substance possesses even more than five solid phases. The IINS spectra have shown that in the room-temperature phase, water molecules perform fast stochastic reorientation at the picosecond scale. The orientational disorder characteristic for the room-temperature phase can be easily overcooled and frozen. Even by relatively slow cooling at ca. 40 K/hour a metastable, orientational (protonic) glass phase is formed below ca. 160 K. Below ca. 100 K, a structural phase transition was observed by the NPD, however the IINS spectra indicate existence of the pure ordered low-temperature phase only after annealing the sample for a few hours at 100 K. On heating, a structural phase transition takes place at ca. 120 K, and at ca. 225 K water molecules begin fast reorientation.
Chirality effects on 2D phase transitions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Scalas, E.; Brezesinski, G.; Möhwald, H.
1996-01-01
-nearest neighbours (NNN) and an NNN-distorted lattice is observed. At 5 degrees C, the transition pressure is 15 mN m(-1), whereas at 20 degrees C it is 18 mN m(-1). Chirality destroys this transition: the pure enantiomer always exhibits an oblique lattice with tilted molecules, and the azimuths of tilt...... and distortion continuously vary from a direction close to NN to a direction close to NNN. The nature of the phase transition and the influence of chirality on it are discussed within the framework of Landau's theory of phase transitions....
Cosmological perturbations from an inhomogeneous phase transition
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Matsuda, Tomohiro, E-mail: matsuda@sit.ac.j [Laboratory of Physics, Saitama Institute of Technology, Fusaiji, Okabe-machi, Saitama 369-0293 (Japan)
2009-07-21
A mechanism for generating metric perturbations in inflationary models is considered. Long-wavelength inhomogeneities of light scalar fields in a decoupled sector may give rise to superhorizon fluctuations of couplings and masses in the low-energy effective action. Cosmological phase transitions may then occur that are not simultaneous in space, but occur with time lags in different Hubble patches that arise from the long-wavelength inhomogeneities. Here an interesting model in which cosmological perturbations may be created at the electroweak phase transition is considered. The results show that phase transitions may be a generic source of non-Gaussianity.
Standing magnetic wave on Ising ferromagnet: Nonequilibrium phase transition
Halder, Ajay; Acharyya, Muktish
2016-12-01
The dynamical response of an Ising ferromagnet to a plane polarised standing magnetic field wave is modelled and studied here by Monte Carlo simulation in two dimensions. The amplitude of standing magnetic wave is modulated along the direction x. We have detected two main dynamical phases namely, pinned and oscillating spin clusters. Depending on the value of field amplitude the system is found to undergo a phase transition from oscillating spin cluster to pinned as the system is cooled down. The time averaged magnetisation over a full cycle of magnetic field oscillations is defined as the dynamic order parameter. The transition is detected by studying the temperature dependences of the variance of the dynamic order parameter, the derivative of the dynamic order parameter and the dynamic specific heat. The dependence of the transition temperature on the magnetic field amplitude and on the wavelength of the magnetic field wave is studied at a single frequency. A comprehensive phase boundary is drawn in the plane described by the temperature and field amplitude for two different wavelengths of the magnetic wave. The variation of instantaneous line magnetisation during a period of magnetic field oscillation for standing wave mode is compared to those for the propagating wave mode. Also the probability that a spin at any site, flips, is calculated. The above mentioned variations and the probability of spin flip clearly distinguish between the dynamical phases formed by propagating magnetic wave and by standing magnetic wave in an Ising ferromagnet.
Phase transitions in dissipative Josephson chains
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bobbert, P.A.; Fazio, R.; Schoen, G. (Department of Applied Physics, Delft University of Technology, 2628 CJ Delft, The Netherlands (NL)); Zimanyi, G.T. (Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, Davis, California 95616 (USA))
1990-03-01
We study the zero-temperature phase transitions of a chain of Josephson junctions, taking into account the quantum fluctuations due to the charging energy and the effects of an Ohmic dissipation. We map the problem onto a generalized Coulomb gas model, which then is transformed into a sine-Gordon field theory. Apart from the expected dipole unbinding transition, which describes a transition between globally superconducting and resistive behavior, we find a quadrupole unbinding transition at a critical strength of the dissipation. This transition separates two superconducting states characterized by different local properties.
Problem-solving phase transitions during team collaboration
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wiltshire, Travis; Butner, Jonathan E.; Fiore, Stephen M.
2017-01-01
) with dynamical systems theory suggesting that when a system is undergoing a phase transition it should exhibit a peak in entropy and that entropy levels should also relate to team performance. Communications from 40 teams that collaborated on a complex problem were coded for occurrence of problem...... phases. Peaks in entropy thus corresponded to qualitative shifts in teams’ CPS communications, providing empirical evidence that teams exhibit phase transitions during CPS. Also, lower average levels of entropy at the phase transition points predicted better CPS performance. We specify future directions......-solving processes. We applied a sliding window entropy technique to each team's communications and specified criteria for (a) identifying data points that qualify as peaks and (b) determining which peaks were robust. We used multilevel modeling, and provide a qualitative example, to evaluate whether phases exhibit...
Dynamic Modeling of Phase Crossings in Two-Phase Flow
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Madsen, Søren; Veje, Christian; Willatzen, Morten
2012-01-01
of the variables and are usually very slow to evaluate. To overcome these challenges, we use an interpolation scheme with local refinement. The simulations show that the method handles crossing of the saturation lines for both liquid to two-phase and two-phase to gas regions. Furthermore, a novel result obtained...... in this work, the method is stable towards dynamic transitions of the inlet/outlet boundaries across the saturation lines. Results for these cases are presented along with a numerical demonstration of conservation of mass under dynamically varying boundary conditions. Finally we present results...
The deconfining phase transition in and out of equilibrium
Bazavov, Oleksiy
Recent experiments carried out at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at the Brookhaven National Laboratory provide strong evidence that a matter can be driven from a confined, low-temperature phase, observed in our every day world into a deconfined high-temperature phase of liberated quarks and gluons. The equilibrium and dynamical properties of the deconfining phase transition are thus of great theoretical interest, since they also provide an information about the first femtoseconds of the evolution of our Universe, when the hot primordial soup while cooling has undergone a chain of phase transitions. The aspects of the deconfining phase transition studied in this work include: the dynamics of the SU(3) gauge theory after the heating quench (which models rapid heating in the heavy-ion collisions), equilibrium properties of the phase transition in the SU(3) gauge theory with boundaries at low temperature (small volumes at RHIC suggest that boundary effects cannot be neglected and periodic boundary conditions normally used in lattice simulations do not correspond to the experimental situation), and a study of the order of the transition in U(1) gauge theory.
Flow of hypermagnetic helicity in the embryo of a new phase in the electroweak phase transition
Akhmet'ev, P M; Sokoloff, D D
2010-01-01
The dynamics of the magnetic helicity during the electroweak phase transition in the early Universe is studied. It is shown that the boundary surface between symmetric (hypermagnetic) phase and Maxwellian phase with a broken symmetry is a membrana for the separation of the magnetic helicity. Assuming the total linking number of knots of hypermagnetic field is negative, it is proved that the helicity rising in the Maxwellian phase is left-handed.
Conductor-insulator quantum phase transitions
Trivedi, Nandini; Valles, James M
2012-01-01
When many particles come together how do they organise themselves? And what destroys this organisation? Combining experiments and theory, this book describes intriguing quantum phases - metals, superconductors and insulators - and transitions between them.
Magnetic Fields from the Electroweak Phase Transition
Törnkvist, O
1998-01-01
I review some of the mechanisms through which primordial magnetic fields may be created in the electroweak phase transition. I show that no magnetic fields are produced initially from two-bubble collisions in a first-order transition. The initial field produced in a three-bubble collision is computed. The evolution of fields at later times is discussed.
The transition to chaotic phase synchronization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mosekilde, E.; Laugesen, J. L.; Zhusubaliyev, Zh. T.
2012-01-01
The transition to chaotic phase synchronization for a periodically driven spiral-type chaotic oscillator is known to involve a dense set of saddle-node bifurcations. By following the synchronization transition through the cascade of period-doubling bifurcations in a forced Ro¨ssler system, this p...
Spin-current probe for phase transition in an insulator
Qiu, Zhiyong; Li, Jia; Hou, Dazhi; Arenholz, Elke; N'diaye, Alpha T.; Tan, Ali; Uchida, Ken-Ichi; Sato, Koji; Okamoto, Satoshi; Tserkovnyak, Yaroslav; Qiu, Z. Q.; Saitoh, Eiji
2016-08-01
Spin fluctuation and transition have always been one of the central topics of magnetism and condensed matter science. Experimentally, the spin fluctuation is found transcribed onto scattering intensity in the neutron-scattering process, which is represented by dynamical magnetic susceptibility and maximized at phase transitions. Importantly, a neutron carries spin without electric charge, and therefore it can bring spin into a sample without being disturbed by electric energy. However, large facilities such as a nuclear reactor are necessary. Here we show that spin pumping, frequently used in nanoscale spintronic devices, provides a desktop microprobe for spin transition; spin current is a flux of spin without an electric charge and its transport reflects spin excitation. We demonstrate detection of antiferromagnetic transition in ultra-thin CoO films via frequency-dependent spin-current transmission measurements, which provides a versatile probe for phase transition in an electric manner in minute devices.
Structural phase transitions and topological defects in ion Coulomb crystals
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Partner, Heather L. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Bundesallee 100, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany); Nigmatullin, Ramil [Institute of Quantum Physics, Albert-Einstein Allee-11, Ulm University, 89069 Ulm (Germany); Burgermeister, Tobias; Keller, Jonas; Pyka, Karsten [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Bundesallee 100, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany); Plenio, Martin B. [Center for Integrated Quantum Science and Technology, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, Ulm University, 89069 Ulm (Germany); Institute for Theoretical Physics, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, Ulm University, 89069 Ulm (Germany); Retzker, Alex [Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904, Givat Ram (Israel); Zurek, Wojciech H. [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87544 (United States); Campo, Adolfo del [Department of Physics, University of Massachusetts Boston, Boston, MA 02125 (United States); Mehlstäubler, Tanja E., E-mail: tanja.mehlstaeubler@ptb.de [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Bundesallee 100, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany)
2015-03-01
We use laser-cooled ion Coulomb crystals in the well-controlled environment of a harmonic radiofrequency ion trap to investigate phase transitions and defect formation. Topological defects in ion Coulomb crystals (kinks) have been recently proposed for studies of nonlinear physics with solitons and as carriers of quantum information. Defects form when a symmetry breaking phase transition is crossed nonadiabatically. For a second order phase transition, the Kibble–Zurek mechanism predicts that the formation of these defects follows a power law scaling in the rate of the transition. We demonstrate a scaling of defect density and describe kink dynamics and stability. We further discuss the implementation of mass defects and electric fields as first steps toward controlled kink preparation and manipulation.
Structural phase transitions and topological defects in ion Coulomb crystals
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Partner, Heather L. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig (Germany); Nigmatullin, Ramil [Institute of Quantum Physics, Ulm Univ., Ulm (Germany); Burgermeister, Tobias [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig (Germany); Keller, Jonas [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig (Germany); Pyka, Karsten [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig (Germany); Plenio, Martin B. [Center for Integrated Quantum Science and Technology, Ulm Univ., Ulm, (Germany):Institute for Theoretical Physics, Ulm Univ.,Ulm, (Germany); Retzker, Alex [Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Givat Ram (Israel); Zurek, Wojciech Hubert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); del Campo, Adolfo [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Mehlstaubler, Tanja E. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig (Germany)
2014-11-19
We use laser-cooled ion Coulomb crystals in the well-controlled environment of a harmonic radiofrequency ion trap to investigate phase transitions and defect formation. Topological defects in ion Coulomb crystals (kinks) have been recently proposed for studies of nonlinear physics with solitons and as carriers of quantum information. Defects form when a symmetry breaking phase transition is crossed non-adiabatically. For a second order phase transition, the Kibble-Zurek mechanism predicts that the formation of these defects follows a power law scaling in the rate of the transition. We demonstrate a scaling of defect density and describe kink dynamics and stability. We further discuss the implementation of mass defects and electric fields as first steps toward controlled kink preparation and manipulation.
Horava-Lifshitz early universe phase transition beyond detailed balance
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kheyri, F.; Khodadi, M.; Sepangi, H.R. [Shahid Beheshti University, Department of Physics, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2013-01-15
The early universe is believed to have undergone a QCD phase transition to hadrons at about 10 {mu}s after the big bang. We study such a transition in the context of the non-detailed balance Horava-Lifshitz theory by investigating the effects of the dynamical coupling constant {lambda} in a flat universe. The evolution of the relevant physical quantities, namely the energy density {rho}, temperature T, scale factor a and the Hubble parameter H is investigated before, during and after the phase transition, assumed to be of first order. Also, in view of the recent lattice QCD simulations data, we study a cross-over phase transition of the early universe whose results are based on two different sets of lattice data. (orig.)
Transit time MESFET phase shifter
Walters, Peter C.; Roger D. Pollard; Richardson, John R.
1992-01-01
The phase shift of a signal through a common-source MESFET can be changed with little effect on the amplitude by altering the gate-drain spacing. The feasibility of employing this principle to realize a highly compact, monolithic phase shifter has been investigated. The behaviour of the devices with differing gate-drain spacing has been measured and modelled and a design for a monolithic implementation is presented.
Consistent lattice Boltzmann equations for phase transitions.
Siebert, D N; Philippi, P C; Mattila, K K
2014-11-01
Unlike conventional computational fluid dynamics methods, the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) describes the dynamic behavior of fluids in a mesoscopic scale based on discrete forms of kinetic equations. In this scale, complex macroscopic phenomena like the formation and collapse of interfaces can be naturally described as related to source terms incorporated into the kinetic equations. In this context, a novel athermal lattice Boltzmann scheme for the simulation of phase transition is proposed. The continuous kinetic model obtained from the Liouville equation using the mean-field interaction force approach is shown to be consistent with diffuse interface model using the Helmholtz free energy. Density profiles, interface thickness, and surface tension are analytically derived for a plane liquid-vapor interface. A discrete form of the kinetic equation is then obtained by applying the quadrature method based on prescribed abscissas together with a third-order scheme for the discretization of the streaming or advection term in the Boltzmann equation. Spatial derivatives in the source terms are approximated with high-order schemes. The numerical validation of the method is performed by measuring the speed of sound as well as by retrieving the coexistence curve and the interface density profiles. The appearance of spurious currents near the interface is investigated. The simulations are performed with the equations of state of Van der Waals, Redlich-Kwong, Redlich-Kwong-Soave, Peng-Robinson, and Carnahan-Starling.
Molecular markers of phase transition in locusts
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ARNOLD DE LOOF; ILSE CLAEYS; GERT SIMONET; PETER VERLEYEN; TIM VANDERSMISSEN; FILIP SAS; JURGEN HUYBRECHTS
2006-01-01
The changes accompanying the transition from the gregarious to the solitary phase state in locusts are so drastic that for a long time these phases were considered as distinct species. It was Boris Uvarov who introduced the concept of polyphenism. Decades of research revealed that phase transition implies changes in morphometry, the color of the cuticle, behavior and several aspects of physiology. In particular, in the recent decade, quite a number of molecular studies have been undertaken to uncover phase-related differences.They resulted in novel insights into the role of corazonin, neuroparsins, some protease inhibitors, phenylacetonitrile and so on. The advent of EST-databases of locusts (e.g. Kang et al., 2004) is a most encouraging novel development in physiological and behavioral locust research. Yet, the answer to the most intriguing question, namely whether or not there is a primordial molecular inducer of phase transition, is probably not within reach in the very near future.
Quark-Hadron Phase Transitions in Viscous Early Universe
Tawfik, A
2011-01-01
Based on hot big bang theory, the cosmological matter is conjectured to undergo QCD phase transition(s) to hadrons, when the universe was about $1-10 \\mu$s old. In the present work, we study the quark-hadron phase transition, by taking into account the effect of the bulk viscosity. We analyze the evolution of the quantities relevant for the physical description of the early universe, namely, the energy density $\\rho$, temperature $T$, Hubble parameter $H$ and scale factor $a$ before, during and after the phase transition. To study the cosmological dynamics and the time evolution we use both analytical and numerical methods. By assuming that the phase transition may be described by an effective nucleation theory (prompt {\\it first-order} phase transition), we also consider the case where the universe evolved through a mixed phase with a small initial supercooling and monotonically growing hadronic bubbles. The numerical estimation of the cosmological parameters, $a$ and $H$ for instance, makes it clear that th...
Polymorphic phase transition in Superhydrous Phase B
Koch-Müller, M.; Dera, P.; Fei, Y.; Hellwig, H.; Liu, Z.; Orman, J. Van; Wirth, R.
2005-09-01
We synthesized superhydrous phase B (shy-B) at 22 GPa and two different temperatures: 1200°C (LT) and 1400°C (HT) using a multi-anvil apparatus. The samples were investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), single crystal X-ray diffraction, Raman and IR spectroscopy. The IR spectra were collected on polycrystalline thin-films and single crystals using synchrotron radiation, as well as a conventional IR source at ambient conditions and in situ at various pressures (up to 15 GPa) and temperatures (down to -180°C). Our studies show that shy-B exists in two polymorphic forms. As expected from crystal chemistry, the LT polymorph crystallizes in a lower symmetry space group ( Pnn2), whereas the HT polymorph assumes a higher symmetry space group ( Pnnm). TEM shows that both modifications consist of nearly perfect crystals with almost no lattice defects or inclusions of additional phases. IR spectra taken on polycrystalline thin films exhibit just one symmetric OH band and 29 lattice modes for the HT polymorph in contrast to two intense but asymmetric OH stretching bands and at least 48 lattice modes for the LT sample. The IR spectra differ not only in the number of bands, but also in the response of the bands to changes in pressure. The pressure derivatives for the IR bands are higher for the HT polymorph indicating that the high symmetry form is more compressible than the low symmetry form. Polarized, low-temperature single-crystal IR spectra indicate that in the LT-polymorph extensive ordering occurs not only at the Mg sites but also at the hydrogen sites.
Polymorphic Phase Transition in Superhydrous Phase B
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Koch-Muller,M.; Dera, P.; Fei, Y.; Hellwig, H.; Liu, Z.; Van Orman, J.; Wirth, R.
2005-01-01
We synthesized superhydrous phase B (shy-B) at 22 GPa and two different temperatures: 1200 C (LT) and 1400 C (HT) using a multi-anvil apparatus. The samples were investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), single crystal X-ray diffraction, Raman and IR spectroscopy. The IR spectra were collected on polycrystalline thin-films and single crystals using synchrotron radiation, as well as a conventional IR source at ambient conditions and in situ at various pressures (up to 15 GPa) and temperatures (down to -180 C). Our studies show that shy-B exists in two polymorphic forms. As expected from crystal chemistry, the LT polymorph crystallizes in a lower symmetry space group (Pnn2), whereas the HT polymorph assumes a higher symmetry space group (Pnnm). TEM shows that both modifications consist of nearly perfect crystals with almost no lattice defects or inclusions of additional phases. IR spectra taken on polycrystalline thin films exhibit just one symmetric OH band and 29 lattice modes for the HT polymorph in contrast to two intense but asymmetric OH stretching bands and at least 48 lattice modes for the LT sample. The IR spectra differ not only in the number of bands, but also in the response of the bands to changes in pressure. The pressure derivatives for the IR bands are higher for the HT polymorph indicating that the high symmetry form is more compressible than the low symmetry form. Polarized, low-temperature single-crystal IR spectra indicate that in the LT-polymorph extensive ordering occurs not only at the Mg sites but also at the hydrogen sites.
Complex Nonlinearity Chaos, Phase Transitions, Topology Change and Path Integrals
Ivancevic, Vladimir G
2008-01-01
Complex Nonlinearity: Chaos, Phase Transitions, Topology Change and Path Integrals is a book about prediction & control of general nonlinear and chaotic dynamics of high-dimensional complex systems of various physical and non-physical nature and their underpinning geometro-topological change. The book starts with a textbook-like expose on nonlinear dynamics, attractors and chaos, both temporal and spatio-temporal, including modern techniques of chaos–control. Chapter 2 turns to the edge of chaos, in the form of phase transitions (equilibrium and non-equilibrium, oscillatory, fractal and noise-induced), as well as the related field of synergetics. While the natural stage for linear dynamics comprises of flat, Euclidean geometry (with the corresponding calculation tools from linear algebra and analysis), the natural stage for nonlinear dynamics is curved, Riemannian geometry (with the corresponding tools from nonlinear, tensor algebra and analysis). The extreme nonlinearity – chaos – corresponds to th...
Methods for molecular dynamics with nonadiabatic transitions
Coker, D F
1994-01-01
We show how the dynamically nonlocal formulation of classical nuclear motion in the presence of quantal electronic transitions presented many years ago by Pechukas can be localized in time using time dependent perturbation theory to give an impulsive force which acts when trajectories hop between electronic surfaces. The action of this impulsive force is completely equivalent to adjusting the nuclear velocities in the direction of the nonadiabatic coupling vector so as to conserve energy, a procedure which is widely used in surface hopping trajectory methods. This is the first time the precise connection between these two formulations of the nonadiabatic dynamics problem has been considered. We also demonstrate that the stationary phase approximation to the reduced propagator at the heart of Pechukas' theory is not unitary due to its neglect of nonstationary paths. As such mixed quantum-classical evolution schemes based on this approximation are not norm conserving and in general must fail to give the correct...
Ferrofluid nucleus phase transitions in an external uniform magnetic field
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
B. M. Tanygin; S. I. Shulyma; V. F. Kovalenko; M. V. Petrychuk
2015-01-01
The phase transition between a massive dense phase and a diluted superparamagnetic phase has been studied by means of a direct molecular dynamics simulation. The equilibrium structures of the ferrofluid aggregate nucleus are obtained for different values of a temperature and an external magnetic field magnitude. An approximate match of experiment and simulation has been shown for the ferrofluid phase diagram coordinates “field–temperature”. The provided phase coexistence curve has an opposite trend comparing to some of known theoretical results. This contradiction has been discussed. For given experimental parameters, it has been concluded that the present results describe more precisely the transition from linear chains to a dense globes phase. The theoretical concepts which provide the opposite binodal curve dependency trend match other experimental conditions:a diluted ferrofluid, a high particle coating rate, a high temperature, and/or a less particles coupling constant value.
An absorbing phase transition from a structured active particle phase
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lopez, Cristobal [Instituto Mediterraneo de Estudios Avanzados IMEDEA (CSIC-UIB), Campus de la Universidad de las Islas Baleares, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Ramos, Francisco [Departamento de Electromagnetismo y Fisica de la Materia and Instituto de Fisica Teorica y Computacional Carlos I, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Granada, 18071 Granada (Spain); Hernandez-GarcIa, Emilio [Instituto Mediterraneo de Estudios Avanzados IMEDEA (CSIC-UIB), Campus de la Universidad de las Islas Baleares, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain)
2007-02-14
In this work we study the absorbing state phase transition of a recently introduced model for interacting particles with neighbourhood-dependent reproduction rates. The novelty of the transition is that as soon as the active phase is reached by increasing a control parameter a periodically arranged structure of particle clusters appears. A numerical study in one and two dimensions shows that the system falls into the directed percolation universality class.
Magnetic phase transitions in layered intermetallic compounds
Mushnikov, N. V.; Gerasimov, E. G.; Rosenfeld, E. V.; Terent'ev, P. B.; Gaviko, V. S.
2012-10-01
Magnetic, magnetoelastic, and magnetotransport properties have been studied for the RMn2Si2 and RMn6Sn6 (R is a rare earth metal) intermetallic compounds with natural layered structure. The compounds exhibit wide variety of magnetic structures and magnetic phase transitions. Substitution of different R atoms allows us to modify the interatomic distances and interlayer exchange interactions thus providing the transition from antiferromagnetic to ferromagnetic state. Near the boundary of this transition the magnetic structures are very sensitive to the external field, temperature and pressure. The field-induced transitions are accompanied by considerable change in the sample size and resistivity. It has been shown that various magnetic structures and magnetic phase transitions observed in the layered compounds arise as a result of competition of the Mn-Mn and Mn-R exchange interactions.
Numerical Study of Phase Transition in Thermoviscoelasticity
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ShaoqingTANG
1997-01-01
We study the spatially periodic problem of thermoviscoelasticity with nonmonotone structure relations.By pseudo-spectral method.we demosnstrate numerically phase transitions for certain symmetric initial data.Without symmetry,the simulations show that a translation occurs for the phase boundary.
New Cyclic Voltammetry Method for Examining Phase Transitions: Simulated Results
2006-01-01
We propose a new experimental technique for cyclic voltammetry, based on the first-order reversal curve (FORC) method for analysis of systems undergoing hysteresis. The advantages of this electrochemical FORC (EC-FORC) technique are demonstrated by applying it to dynamical models of electrochemical adsorption. The method can not only differentiate between discontinuous and continuous phase transitions, but can also quite accurately recover equilibrium behavior from dynamic analysis of systems...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chodos, Steven L.; Berg, Rolf W.
1979-01-01
This paper deals with the observation and identification of phonon frequencies resulting from the low temperature phase transitions in K2XY6 crystals. By means of a simple lattice dynamical model, the vibrational Raman and IR data available in the literature and obtained here have been analyzed....... The model used is an extension of one previously used to explain the vibronic spectra of several related compounds. The Journal of Chemical Physics is copyrighted by The American Institute of Physics....
Phase Transition in the Simplest Plasma Model
Iosilevskiy, Igor
2009-01-01
We have investigated the phase transition of the gas-liquid type, with an upper critical point, in a variant of the One Component Plasma model (OCP) that has a uniform but compressible compensating background. We have calculated the parameters of the critical and triple points, spinodals, and two-phase coexistence curves (binodals). We have analyzed the connection of this simplest plasma phase transition with anomalies in the spatial charge profiles of equilibrium non-uniform plasma in the local-density approximations of Thomas-Fermi or Poisson-Boltzmann-type.
Theory of phase transitions rigorous results
Sinai, Ya G
1982-01-01
Theory of Phase Transitions: Rigorous Results is inspired by lectures on mathematical problems of statistical physics presented in the Mathematical Institute of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest. The aim of the book is to expound a series of rigorous results about the theory of phase transitions. The book consists of four chapters, wherein the first chapter discusses the Hamiltonian, its symmetry group, and the limit Gibbs distributions corresponding to a given Hamiltonian. The second chapter studies the phase diagrams of lattice models that are considered at low temperatures. The no
End point of the electroweak phase transition
Csikor, Ferenc; Heitger, J; Aoki, Y; Ukawa, A
1999-01-01
We study the hot electroweak phase transition (EWPT) by 4-dimensional lattice simulations on lattices with symmetric and asymmetric lattice spacings and give the phase diagram. A continuum extrapolation is done. We find first order phase transition for Higgs-boson masses $m_H<66.5 \\pm 1.4$ GeV. Above this end point a rapid cross-over occurs. Our result agrees with that of the dimensional reduction approach. It also indicates that the fermionic sector of the Standard Model (SM) may be included perturbatively. We get for the SM end point $72.4 the SM.
Phase Transition Induced Fission in Lipid Vesicles
Leirer, C; Myles, V M; Schneider, M F
2010-01-01
In this work we demonstrate how the first order phase transition in giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) can function as a trigger for membrane fission. When driven through their gel-fluid phase transition GUVs exhibit budding or pearl formation. These buds remain connected to the mother vesicle presumably by a small neck. Cooling these vesicles from the fluid phase (T>Tm) through the phase transition into the gel state (T
Phase transitions in traffic flow on multilane roads.
Kerner, Boris S; Klenov, Sergey L
2009-11-01
Based on empirical and numerical analyses of vehicular traffic, the physics of spatiotemporal phase transitions in traffic flow on multilane roads is revealed. The complex dynamics of moving jams observed in single vehicle data measured by video cameras on American highways is explained by the nucleation-interruption effect in synchronized flow, i.e., the spontaneous nucleation of a narrow moving jam with the subsequent jam dissolution. We find that (i) lane changing, vehicle merging from on-ramps, and vehicle leaving to off-ramps result in different traffic phases-free flow, synchronized flow, and wide moving jams-occurring and coexisting in different road lanes as well as in diverse phase transitions between the traffic phases; (ii) in synchronized flow, the phase transitions are responsible for a non-regular moving jam dynamics that explains measured single vehicle data: moving jams emerge and dissolve randomly at various road locations in different lanes; (iii) the phase transitions result also in diverse expanded general congested patterns occurring at closely located bottlenecks.
PT phase transition in multidimensional quantum systems
Bender, Carl M
2012-01-01
Non-Hermitian PT-symmetric quantum-mechanical Hamiltonians generally exhibit a phase transition that separates two parametric regions, (i) a region of unbroken PT symmetry in which the eigenvalues are all real, and (ii) a region of broken PT symmetry in which some of the eigenvalues are complex. This transition has recently been observed experimentally in a variety of physical systems. Until now, theoretical studies of the PT phase transition have generally been limited to one-dimensional models. Here, four nontrivial coupled PT-symmetric Hamiltonians, $H=p^2/2+x^2/2+q^2/2+y^2/2+igx^2y$, $H=p^2/2+x^2/2+q^2/2+y^2+igx^2y$, $H=p^2/2+x^2/2+q^2/2+y^2/2+r^2/2+z^2/2+igxyz$, and $H=p^2/2+x^2/2+q^2/2+y^2+r^2/2+3z^2/2+igxyz$ are examined. Based on extensive numerical studies, this paper conjectures that all four models exhibit a phase transition. The transitions are found to occur at $g\\approx 0.1$, $g\\approx 0.04$, $g\\approx 0.1$, and $g\\approx 0.05$. These results suggest that the PT phase transition is a robust phen...
Computational diagnostics for detecting phase transitions during nanoindentation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, S.M.; Hoover, C.G.; Kallman, J.S.; De Groot, A.J. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)); Hoover, W.G. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States) California Univ., Livermore, CA (United States). Div. of Applied Science); Wooten, F. (California Univ., Livermore, CA (United States). Div. of Applied Science)
1992-12-01
We study nanoindenmtion of silicon using nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. with up to a million particles. Both crystalline and amorphous silicon samples are considered. We use compumtional diffraction pattems as a diagnostic tool for detecting phase transitions resulting from structural changes. Simulations of crystalline samples show a transition to the amorphous phase in a region a few atomic layers thick surrounding the lateral faces of the indenter, as has been suggested by experimental results. Our simulation results provide estimates for the yield strength (nanohardness) of silicon for a range of temperatures.
Antiferrodistortive phase transition in EuTiO3
Goian, V.; Kamba, S.; Pacherova, O.; Drahokoupil, J.; Palatinus, L; Dusek, M.; Rohlicek, J.; Savinov, M.; Laufek, F.; Schranz, W.; Fuith, A; Kachlik, M.; Maca, K.; Shkabko, A.; Sagarna, L.
2012-01-01
X-ray diffraction, dynamical mechanical analysis and infrared reflectivity studies revealed an antiferrodistortive phase transition in EuTiO3 ceramics. Near 300K the perovskite structure changes from cubic Pm-3m to tetragonal I4/mcm due to antiphase tilting of oxygen octahedra along the c axis (a0a0c- in Glazer notation). The phase transition is analogous to SrTiO3. However, some ceramics as well as single crystals of EuTiO3 show different infrared reflectivity spectra bringing evidence of a ...
Socioeconomic transitions as common dynamic processes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gundlach, Erich; Paldam, Martin
Long-run socioeconomic transitions can be observed as stylized facts across countries and over time. For instance, poor countries have more agriculture and less democracy than rich countries, and this pattern also holds within countries for transitions from a traditional to a modern society....... It is shown that the agricultural and the democratic transitions can be partly explained as the outcome of dynamic processes that are shared among countries. We identify the effects of common dynamic processes with panel estimators that allow for heterogeneous country effects and possible cross......-country spillovers. Common dynamic processes appear to be in line with alternative hypotheses on the causes of socioeconomic transitions....
Second- and First-Order Phase Transitions in CDT
Ambjorn, J; Jurkiewicz, J; Loll, R
2012-01-01
Causal Dynamical Triangulations (CDT) is a proposal for a theory of quantum gravity, which implements a path-integral quantization of gravity as the continuum limit of a sum over piecewise flat spacetime geometries. We use Monte Carlo simulations to analyse the phase transition lines bordering the physically interesting de Sitter phase of the four-dimensional CDT model. Using a range of numerical criteria, we present strong evidence that the so-called A-C transition is first order, while the B-C transition is second order. The presence of a second-order transition may be related to an ultraviolet fixed point of quantum gravity and thus provide the key to probing physics at and possibly beyond the Planck scale.
Theory of photoinduced phase transitions in itinerant electron systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yonemitsu, Kenji [Institute for Molecular Science, Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Okazaki, Aichi 444-8585 (Japan)], E-mail: kxy@ims.ac.jp; Nasu, Keiichiro [Solid State Theory Division, Institute of Materials Structure Science, KEK, Graduate University for Advanced Studies, CREST JST, Oho 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan)], E-mail: knasu@post.kek.jp
2008-08-15
Theoretical progress in the research of photoinduced phase transitions is reviewed with closely related experiments. After a brief introduction of stochastic evolution in statistical systems and domino effects in localized electron systems, we treat photoinduced dynamics in itinerant-electron systems. Relevant interactions are required in the models to describe the fast and ultrafast charge-lattice-coupled dynamics after photoexcitations. First, we discuss neutral-ionic transitions in the mixed-stack charge-transfer complex, TTF-CA. When induced by intrachain charge-transfer photoexcitations, the dynamics of the ionic-to-neutral transition are characterized by a threshold behavior, while those of the neutral-to-ionic transition by an almost linear behavior. The difference originates from the different electron correlations in the neutral and ionic phases. Second, we deal with halogen-bridged metal complexes, which show metal, Mott insulator, charge-density-wave, and charge-polarization phases. The latter two phases have different broken symmetries. The charge-density-wave to charge-polarization transition is much more easily achieved than the reverse transition. This is clarified by considering microscopic charge-transfer processes. The transition from the charge-density-wave to Mott insulator phases and that from the Mott insulator to metal phases proceed much faster than those between the low-symmetry phases. Next, we discuss ultrafast, inverse spin-Peierls transitions in an organic radical crystal and alkali-TCNQ from the viewpoint of intradimer and interdimer charge-transfer excitations. Then, we study photogenerated electrons in the quantum paraelectric perovskite, SrTiO{sub 3}, which are assumed to couple differently with soft-anharmonic phonons and breathing-type high-energy phonons. The different electron-phonon couplings result in two types of polarons, a 'super-paraelectric large polaron' with a quasi-global parity violation, and an &apos
Theory of photoinduced phase transitions in itinerant electron systems
Yonemitsu, Kenji; Nasu, Keiichiro
2008-08-01
Theoretical progress in the research of photoinduced phase transitions is reviewed with closely related experiments. After a brief introduction of stochastic evolution in statistical systems and domino effects in localized electron systems, we treat photoinduced dynamics in itinerant-electron systems. Relevant interactions are required in the models to describe the fast and ultrafast charge-lattice-coupled dynamics after photoexcitations. First, we discuss neutral-ionic transitions in the mixed-stack charge-transfer complex, TTF-CA. When induced by intrachain charge-transfer photoexcitations, the dynamics of the ionic-to-neutral transition are characterized by a threshold behavior, while those of the neutral-to-ionic transition by an almost linear behavior. The difference originates from the different electron correlations in the neutral and ionic phases. Second, we deal with halogen-bridged metal complexes, which show metal, Mott insulator, charge-density-wave, and charge-polarization phases. The latter two phases have different broken symmetries. The charge-density-wave to charge-polarization transition is much more easily achieved than the reverse transition. This is clarified by considering microscopic charge-transfer processes. The transition from the charge-density-wave to Mott insulator phases and that from the Mott insulator to metal phases proceed much faster than those between the low-symmetry phases. Next, we discuss ultrafast, inverse spin-Peierls transitions in an organic radical crystal and alkali-TCNQ from the viewpoint of intradimer and interdimer charge-transfer excitations. Then, we study photogenerated electrons in the quantum paraelectric perovskite, SrTiO 3, which are assumed to couple differently with soft-anharmonic phonons and breathing-type high-energy phonons. The different electron-phonon couplings result in two types of polarons, a “super-paraelectric large polaron” with a quasi-global parity violation, and an “off-center-type self
Dynamic finite-size scaling at first-order transitions
Pelissetto, Andrea; Vicari, Ettore
2017-07-01
We investigate the dynamic behavior of finite-size systems close to a first-order transition (FOT). We develop a dynamic finite-size scaling (DFSS) theory for the dynamic behavior in the coexistence region where different phases coexist. This is characterized by an exponentially large time scale related to the tunneling between the two phases. We show that, when considering time scales of the order of the tunneling time, the dynamic behavior can be described by a two-state coarse-grained dynamics. This allows us to obtain exact predictions for the dynamical scaling functions. To test the general DFSS theory at FOTs, we consider the two-dimensional Ising model in the low-temperature phase, where the external magnetic field drives a FOT, and the 20-state Potts model, which undergoes a thermal FOT. Numerical results for a purely relaxational dynamics fully confirm the general theory.
Phase transitions in traffic flow on multilane roads
Kerner, Boris S.; Klenov, Sergey L.
2009-11-01
Based on empirical and numerical analyses of vehicular traffic, the physics of spatiotemporal phase transitions in traffic flow on multilane roads is revealed. The complex dynamics of moving jams observed in single vehicle data measured by video cameras on American highways is explained by the nucleation-interruption effect in synchronized flow, i.e., the spontaneous nucleation of a narrow moving jam with the subsequent jam dissolution. We find that (i) lane changing, vehicle merging from on-ramps, and vehicle leaving to off-ramps result in different traffic phases—free flow, synchronized flow, and wide moving jams—occurring and coexisting in different road lanes as well as in diverse phase transitions between the traffic phases; (ii) in synchronized flow, the phase transitions are responsible for a non-regular moving jam dynamics that explains measured single vehicle data: moving jams emerge and dissolve randomly at various road locations in different lanes; (iii) the phase transitions result also in diverse expanded general congested patterns occurring at closely located bottlenecks.
Network Inoculation: Heteroclinics and phase transitions in an epidemic model
Yang, Hui; Gross, Thilo
2016-01-01
In epidemiological modelling, dynamics on networks, and in particular adaptive and heterogeneous networks have recently received much interest. Here we present a detailed analysis of a previously proposed model that combines heterogeneity in the individuals with adaptive rewiring of the network structure in response to a disease. We show that in this model qualitative changes in the dynamics occur in two phase transitions. In a macroscopic description one of these corresponds to a local bifurcation whereas the other one corresponds to a non-local heteroclinic bifurcation. This model thus provides a rare example of a system where a phase transition is caused by a non-local bifurcation, while both micro- and macro-level dynamics are accessible to mathematical analysis. The bifurcation points mark the onset of a behaviour that we call network inoculation. In the respective parameter region exposure of the system to a pathogen will lead to an outbreak that collapses, but leaves the network in a configuration wher...
The diamagnetic phase transition in Magnetars
Wang, Zhaojun; Zhu, Chunhua; Wu, Baoshan
2016-01-01
Neutron stars are ideal astrophysical laboratories for testing theories of the de Haas-van Alphen (dHvA) effect and diamagnetic phase transition which is associated with magnetic domain formation. The "magnetic interaction" between delocalized magnetic moments of electrons (the Shoenberg effect), can result in an effect of the diamagnetic phase transition into domains of alternating magnetization (Condon's domains). Associated with the domain formation are prominent magnetic field oscillation and anisotropic magnetic stress which may be large enough to fracture the crust of magnetar with a super-strong field. Even if the fracture is impossible as in "low-field" magnetar, the depinning phase transition of domain wall motion driven by low field rate (mainly due to the Hall effect) in the randomly perturbed crust can result in a catastrophically variation of magnetic field. This intermittent motion, similar to the avalanche process, makes the Hall effect be dissipative. These qualitative consequences about magne...
Thermogeometric phase transition in a unified framework
Banerjee, Rabin; Samanta, Saurav
2016-01-01
Using geomterothermodynamics (GTD), we investigate the phase transition of black hole in a metric independent way. We show that for any black hole, curvature scalar (of equilibrium state space geometry) is singular at the point where specific heat diverges. Previously such a result could only be shown by taking specific examples on a case by case basis. A different type of phase transition, where inverse specific heat diverges, is also studied within this framework. We show that in the latter case, metric (of equilibrium state space geometry) is singular instead of curvature scalar. Since a metric singularity may be a coordinate artifact, we propose that GTD indicates that it is the singularity of specific heat and not inverse specific heat which indicates a phase transition of black holes.
Lifshitz scaling effects on holographic paramagnetism/ferromagneism phase transition
Zhang, Cheng-Yuan; Jin, Yong-Yi; Chai, Yun-Tian; Hu, Mu-Hong; Zhang, Zhuo
2016-01-01
In the probe limit, we investigate holographic paramagnetism-ferromagnetism phase transition in the four-dimensional (4D) and five-dimensional(5D) Lifshitz black holes by means of numerical and semi-analytical methods, which is realized by introducing a massive 2-form field coupled to the Maxwell field. We find that the Lifshitz dynamical exponent $z$ contributes evidently to magnetic moment and hysteresis loop of single magnetic domain quantitatively not qualitatively. Concretely, in the case without external magnetic field, the spontaneous magnetization and ferromagnetic phase transition happen when the temperature gets low enough, and the critical exponent for the magnetic moment is always $1/2$, which is in agreement with the result from mean field theory. And the increasing $z$ enhances the phase transition and increases the DC resistivity which behaves as the colossal magnetic resistance effect in some materials. Furthermore, in the presence of the external magnetic field, the magnetic susceptibility sa...
Late-time cosmological phase transitions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schramm, D.N. (Chicago Univ., IL (USA) Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (USA))
1990-11-01
It is shown that the potential galaxy formation and large-scale structure problems of objects existing at high redshifts (Z {approx gt} 5), structures existing on scales of 100M pc as well as velocity flows on such scales, and minimal microwave anisotropies ({Delta}T/T) {approx lt} 10{sup {minus}5} can be solved if the seeds needed to generate structure form in a vacuum phase transition after decoupling. It is argued that the basic physics of such a phase transition is no more exotic than that utilized in the more traditional GUT scale phase transitions, and that, just as in the GUT case, significant random gaussian fluctuations and/or topological defects can form. Scale lengths of {approximately}100M pc for large-scale structure as well as {approximately}1 M pc for galaxy formation occur naturally. Possible support for new physics that might be associated with such a late-time transition comes from the preliminary results of the SAGE solar neutrino experiment, implying neutrino flavor mixing with values similar to those required for a late-time transition. It is also noted that a see-saw model for the neutrino masses might also imply a tau neutrino mass that is an ideal hot dark matter candidate. However, in general either hot or cold dark matter can be consistent with a late-time transition. 47 refs., 2 figs.
The dynamics of gait transitions: effects of grade and load.
Diedrich, F J; Warren, W H
1998-03-01
Diedrich and Warren (1995a) proposed that gait transitions behave like bifurcations between attractors, with the relative phase of the leg segments as an order parameter and stride frequency and stride length as control parameters. In the present experiments, the authors tested the prediction that manipulation of the attractor layout, either through the addition of load to the ankles or through an increase in the grade of the treadmill, induces corresponding changes in the walk-run transition. As predicted, the load manipulation shifted the most stable walk and the transition to lower stride frequencies. In contrast, the grade manipulation shifted the most stable walk and the transition to shorter stride lengths. Other features of the dynamic theory were also replicated, including enhanced fluctuations of phase and systematic changes in stride length and frequency at the transition. Overall, in these experiments a shift of the attractors in control parameter space yielded a corresponding shift of the transition.
Fluctuations near the deconfinement phase transition boundary
Mishustin, I N
2005-01-01
In this talk I discuss how a first order phase transition may proceed in rapidly expanding partonic matter produced in a relativistic heavy-ion collision. The resulting picture is that a strong collective flow of matter will lead to the fragmentation of a metastable phase into droplets. If the transition from quark-gluon plasma to hadron gas is of the first order, it will manifest itself by strong nonstatistical fluctuations in observable hadron distributions. I discuss shortly existing experimental data on the multiplicity fluctuations.
Queueing phase transition: theory of translation.
Romano, M Carmen; Thiel, Marco; Stansfield, Ian; Grebogi, Celso
2009-05-15
We study the current of particles on a lattice, where to each site a different hopping probability has been associated and the particles can move only in one direction. We show that the queueing of the particles behind a slow site can lead to a first-order phase transition, and derive analytical expressions for the configuration of slow sites for this to happen. We apply this stochastic model to describe the translation of mRNAs. We show that the first-order phase transition, uncovered in this work, is the process responsible for the classification of the proteins having different biological functions.
Phase Transition in Loop Quantum Gravity
Mäkelä, Jarmo
2016-01-01
We point out that with a specific counting of states loop quantum gravity implies that black holes perform a phase transition at a certain characteristic temperature $T_C$. In this phase transition the punctures of the spin network on the stretched horizon of the black hole jump, in effect, from the vacuum to the excited states. The characteristic temperature $T_C$ may be regarded as the lowest possible temperature of the hole. From the point of view of a distant observer at rest with respect to the hole the characteristic temperature $T_C$ corresponds to the Hawking temperature of the hole.
Scaling Concepts in Describing Continuous Phase Transitions
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2016-10-01
Phase transitions, like the boiling of water upon increasingtemperature, are a part of everyday experience and are yet,upon closer inspection, unusual phenomena, and reveal a hostof fascinating features. Comprehending key aspects of phasetransitions has lead to the uncovering of new ways of describingmatter composed of large numbers of interacting elements,which form a dominant way of analysis in contemporarystatistical mechanics and much else. An introductorydiscussion is presented here of the concepts of scaling, universalityand renormalization, which forms the foundation ofthe study of continuous phase transitions, such as the spontaneousmagnetization of ferromagnetic substances.
Endpoint of the hot electroweak phase transition
Csikor, Ferenc; Heitger, J
1999-01-01
We give the nonperturbative phase diagram of the four-dimensional hot electroweak phase transition. The Monte-Carlo analysis is done on lattices with different lattice spacings ($a$). A systematic extrapolation $a \\to 0$ is done. Our results show that the finite temperature SU(2)-Higgs phase transition is of first order for Higgs-boson masses $m_H<66.5 \\pm 1.4$ GeV. At this endpoint the phase transition is of second order, whereas above it only a rapid cross-over can be seen. The full four-dimensional result agrees completely with that of the dimensional reduction approximation. This fact is of particular importance, because it indicates that the fermionic sector of the Standard Model can be included perturbatively. We obtain that the Higgs-boson endpoint mass in the Standard Model is $72.4 \\pm 1.7$ GeV. Taking into account the LEP Higgs-boson mass lower bound excludes any electroweak phase transition in the Standard Model.
Mochida, Tomoyuki; Funasako, Yusuke; Inagaki, Takashi; Li, Meng-Jiao; Asahara, Kotaro; Kuwahara, Daisuke
2013-05-10
Crystal structures and thermal properties of cobaltocenium salts with bis(perfluoroalkylsulfonyl)amide (C(n)F2(n+1)SO2)2N anions [n = 0 (1), 1 (1 a), 2 (1 b), 3 (1 c), and 4 (1 d)] and the 1,1,2,2,3,3-hexafluoropropane-1,3-disulfonylamide anion (2) were investigated. In these solids, the cations are surrounded by four anions around their C5 axis, and stacking of these local structures forms two kinds of assembled structures. In the salts with even n (1, 1 b, and 1 d), the cation and anion are arranged alternately to form mixed-stack columns in the crystal. In contrast, in the salts with odd n (1 a and 1 c), the cations and anions independently form segregated-stack columns. An odd-even effect was also observed in the sum of the phase-change entropies from crystal to melt. All of the salts exhibited phase transitions in the solid state. The phase transitions to the lowest-temperature phase in 1, 1 a, and 2 are accompanied by order-disorder of the anions and symmetry lowering of the space group, which results in the formation of an ion pair. Solid-state (13)C NMR measurements on 1 a and 1 b revealed enhanced molecular motions of the cation in the higher-temperature phases. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Dynamics of transitions between capillary stable states under weightlessness
Srikanth, Praveen
The study of two phase systems with one of the phases obstructing the other is of importance in a lot of fields. Liquid droplets in airways and air bubbles in the blood stream both fall under this category of problems. Helium bubbles in hydrazine fuel lines of satellites also have been found to cause frequent thruster shutdown and also seriously affect spacecraft control. Studies have been carried out until now to look at static equilibrium topologies and stability of such two phase systems in straight, bent and laterally compressed capillaries. In this investigation we look at the dynamics of the transitions between the stable topologies identified for a straight cylindrical capillary. The break up of the interface could adversely affect system performance. OpenFOAM is used to compute transitions from a stable droplet to a plug or the reverse by suitably adding or removing the obstructing phase through inlet patches on the wall of the cylinder. The main parameters presented are the non-dimensional energy, non-dimensional transition times, non-dimensional transition volumes and the general dynamics of the transitions itself. Before computing transitions the static equilibrium topologies computed by OpenFOAM are compared with those predicted by Surface Evolver and are found to be within acceptable deviations. The grid dependence of these transitions has also been studied. Transitions are computed for contact angles in the range of 10° to 170°. Different modes of transitions are observed depending on the contact angle of the case for both the types of transitions. The transition volumes are compared to the volume of existence limits for the corresponding initial topology at a particular contact angle for both the transitions.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Weston, R.E. Jr.; Sears, T.J.; Preses, J.M. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States)
1993-12-01
Research in this program is directed towards the spectroscopy of small free radicals and reactive molecules and the state-to-state dynamics of gas phase collision, energy transfer, and photodissociation phenomena. Work on several systems is summarized here.
Transition to turbulence in pipe flow as a phase transition
Vasudevan, Mukund; Hof, Björn
2015-11-01
In pipe flow, turbulence first arises in the form of localized turbulent patches called puffs. The flow undergoes a transition to sustained turbulence via spatio-temporal intermittency, with puffs splitting, decaying and merging in the background laminar flow. However, the due to mean advection of the puffs and the long timescales involved (~107 advective time units), it is not possible to study the transition in typical laboratory set-ups. So far, it has only been possible to indirectly estimate the critical point for the transition. Here, we exploit the stochastic memoryless nature of the puff decay and splitting processes to construct a pipe flow set-up, that is periodic in a statistical sense. It then becomes possible to study the flow for sufficiently long times and characterize the transition in detail. We present measurements of the turbulent fraction as a function of Reynolds number which in turn allows a direct estimate of the critical point. We present evidence that the transition has features of a phase transition of second order.
Simulation of transition dynamics to high confinement in fusion plasmas
Nielsen, A H; Madsen, J; Naulin, V; Rasmussen, J Juul; Wan, B N
2014-01-01
The transition dynamics from the low (L) to the high (H) confinement mode in magnetically confined plasmas is investigated using a first-principles four-field fluid model. Numerical results are in close agreement with measurements from the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak - EAST. Particularly, the slow transition with an intermediate dithering phase is well reproduced by the numerical solutions. Additionally, the model reproduces the experimentally determined L-H transition power threshold scaling that the ion power threshold increases with increasing particle density. The results hold promise for developing predictive models of the transition, essential for understanding and optimizing future fusion power reactors.
Deconfinement phase transition in neutron star matter
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI Ang; PENG Guang-Xiong; Lombardo U
2009-01-01
The transition from hadron phase to strange quark phase in dense matter is investigated. Instead of using the conventional bag model in quark sect, we achieve the confinement by a density-dependent quark mass derived from in-medium chiral condensates, with a thermodynamic problem improved. In nuclear slot,we adopt the equation of state from Brueckner-Bethe-Goldstone approach with three-body force. It is found that the mixed phase can occur, for reasonable confinement parameter, near the normal saturation density,and transit to pure quark matter at 4-5 times the saturation, which is quite different from the previous results from other quark models that pure quark phase can not appear at neutron-star densities.
Dong, Shunle; Chen, Zhuo; Wang, Yan
2010-03-01
This article has been retracted: please see Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal ( http://www.elsevier.com/locate/withdrawalpolicy). This article has been retracted at the request of the Editors of Chemical Physics. A large part of this article (text as well as measured data) has been published previously in Canadian Journal of Physics (Neutron-scattering studies of the phase transitions in high-pressure ices during annealing, by Y. Wang, A.I. Kolesnikov, S.L. Dong, and J.C. Li, Can. J. Phys., 81 (2003) 401-407, doi: 10.1139/p03-045).
Liquid gas phase transition in hypernuclei
Mallik, S
2016-01-01
The fragmentation of excited hypernuclear system formed in heavy ion collisions has been described by the canonical thermodynamical model extended to three component systems. The multiplicity distribution of the fragments has been analyzed in detail and it has been observed that the hyperons have the tendency to get attached to the heavier fragments. Another important observation is the phase coexistence of the hyperons, a phenomenon which is linked to liquid gas phase transition in strange matter.
Phase transitions and glass transition in a hyperquenched silica–alumina glass
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhang, Y.F.; Zhao, D.H.; Yue, Yuanzheng
2017-01-01
We investigate phase transitions, glass transition, and dynamic behavior in the hyperquenched 69SiO2–31Al2O3 (mol%) glass (SA glass). Upon reheating, the SA glass exhibits a series of thermal responses. Subsequent to the sub-Tg enthalpy release, the glass undergoes a large jump in isobaric heat...... capacity (ΔCp) during glass transition, implying the fragile nature of the SA glass. The mullite starts to form before the end of glass transition, indicating that the SA glass is extremely unstable against crystallization. After the mullite formation, the remaining glass phase exhibits an increased Tg...... and a suppressed ΔCp. The formation of cristobalite at 1553 K indicates the dominance of silica in the remaining glass matrix. The cristobalite gradually re-melts as the isothermal heat-treatment temperature is raised from 1823 to 1853 K, which is well below the melting point of cristobalite, while the amount...
Hysteresis in the phase transition of chocolate
Ren, Ruilong; Lu, Qunfeng; Lin, Sihua; Dong, Xiaoyan; Fu, Hao; Wu, Shaoyi; Wu, Minghe; Teng, Baohua
2016-01-01
We designed an experiment to reproduce the hysteresis phenomenon of chocolate appearing in the heating and cooling process, and then established a model to relate the solidification degree to the order parameter. Based on the Landau-Devonshire theory, our model gave a description of the hysteresis phenomenon in chocolate, which lays the foundations for the study of the phase transition behavior of chocolate.
Caloric materials near ferroic phase transitions
Moya, X.; Kar-Narayan, S.; Mathur, N. D.
2014-05-01
A magnetically, electrically or mechanically responsive material can undergo significant thermal changes near a ferroic phase transition when its order parameter is modified by the conjugate applied field. The resulting magnetocaloric, electrocaloric and mechanocaloric (elastocaloric or barocaloric) effects are compared here in terms of history, experimental method, performance and prospective cooling applications.
Chaos: Butterflies also Generate Phase Transitions
Leplaideur, Renaud
2015-10-01
We exhibit examples of mixing subshifts of finite type and of continuous potentials such that there are phase transitions but the pressure is always strictly convex. More surprisingly, we show that the pressure can be analytic on some interval although there exist several equilibrium states.
Phase Transitions, Diffraction Studies and Marginal Dimensionality
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage
1985-01-01
Continuous phase transitions and the associated critical phenomena have been one of the most active areas of research in condensed matter physics for several decades. This short review is only one cut through this huge subject and the author has chosen to emphasize diffraction studies as a basic...
Problem of phase transitions in nuclear structure
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Scharff-Goldhaber, G
1980-01-01
Phase transitions between rotational and vibrational nuclei are discussed from the point of view of the variable moment of inertia model. A three-dimensional plot of the ground-state moments of inertia of even-even nuclei vs N and Z is shown. 3 figures. (RWR)
Dimensional phase transitions in small Yukawa clusters
Sheridan, T E
2009-01-01
We investigate the one- to two-dimensional zigzag transition in clusters consisting of a small number of particles interacting through a Yukawa (Debye) potential and confined in a two-dimensional biharmonic potential well. Dusty (complex) plasma clusters with $n \\le 19$ monodisperse particles are characterized experimentally for two different confining wells. The well anisotropy is accurately measured, and the Debye shielding parameter is determined from the longitudinal breathing frequency. Debye shielding is shown to be important. A model for this system is used to predict equilibrium particle configurations. The experiment and model exhibit excellent agreement. The critical value of $n$ for the zigzag transition is found to be less than that predicted for an unshielded Coulomb interaction. The zigzag transition is shown to behave as a continuous phase transition from a one-dimensional to a two-dimensional state, where the state variables are the number of particles, the well anisotropy and the Debye shield...
Microtubules: dynamically unstable stochastic phase-switching polymers
Zakharov, P. N.; Arzhanik, V. K.; Ulyanov, E. V.; Gudimchuk, N. B.; Ataullakhanov, F. I.
2016-08-01
One of the simplest molecular motors, a biological microtubule, is reviewed as an example of a highly nonequilibrium molecular machine capable of stochastic transitions between slow growth and rapid disassembly phases. Basic properties of microtubules are described, and various approaches to simulating their dynamics, from statistical chemical kinetics models to molecular dynamics models using the Metropolis Monte Carlo and Brownian dynamics methods, are outlined.
Phase transition to QGP matter : confined vs deconfined matter
Maire, Antonin
2015-01-01
Simplified phase diagram of the nuclear phase transition, from the regular hadronic matter to the QGP phase. The sketch is meant to describe the transition foreseen along the temperature axis, at low baryochemical potential, µB.
Phase transition – Break down the walls
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wandahl, Søren
2012-01-01
-phase issues of the construction process. This research first identifies the problems theoretically, and looks into which framework to be used in understanding of the phase transition problem. This combined with data from interviews reveal 8 major issues in phase transition, which decrease the value....... In a popular term this problem is often called “over the wall syndrome”. The manufacturing industry has worked with this for many years, in e.g. integrated product development, concurrent engineering, supply chain management, etc. Now the construction industry needs to focus more on these crucial inter...... tender often is limited due to regulations. Therefore, contractors miss a large amount of non-operational information, and the client and his consulting engineers never mange to share their tacit knowledge of project preconditions....
Phase transitions in Pareto optimal complex networks
Seoane, Luís F
2015-01-01
The organization of interactions in complex systems can be described by networks connecting different units. These graphs are useful representations of the local and global complexity of the underlying systems. The origin of their topological structure can be diverse, resulting from different mechanisms including multiplicative processes and optimization. In spatial networks or in graphs where cost constraints are at work, as it occurs in a plethora of situations from power grids to the wiring of neurons in the brain, optimization plays an important part in shaping their organization. In this paper we study network designs resulting from a Pareto optimization process, where different simultaneous constraints are the targets of selection. We analyze three variations on a problem finding phase transitions of different kinds. Distinct phases are associated to different arrangements of the connections; but the need of drastic topological changes does not determine the presence, nor the nature of the phase transit...
Phase diagrams and kinetics of phase transitions in protein solutions.
Vekilov, Peter G
2012-05-16
The phase behavior of proteins is of interest for fundamental and practical reasons. The nucleation of new phases is one of the last major unresolved problems of nature. The formation of protein condensed phases (crystals, polymers, and other solid aggregates, as well as dense liquids and gels) underlies pathological conditions, plays a crucial role in the biological function of the respective protein, or is an essential part of laboratory and industrial processes. In this review, we focus on phase transitions of proteins in their properly folded state. We first summarize the recently acquired understanding of physical processes underlying the phase diagrams of the protein solutions and the thermodynamics of protein phase transitions. Then we review recent findings on the kinetics of nucleation of dense liquid droplets and crystals. We explore the transition from nucleation to spinodal decomposition for liquid-liquid separation and introduce the new concept of solution-to-crystal spinodal. We review the two-step mechanism of protein crystal nucleation, in which mesoscopic metastable protein clusters serve as precursors to the ordered crystal nuclei. The concepts and mechanisms reviewed here provide powerful tools for control of the nucleation process by varying the solution thermodynamic parameters.
Structural phase transitions in boron carbide under stress
Korotaev, P.; Pokatashkin, P.; Yanilkin, A.
2016-01-01
Structural transitions in boron carbide B4C under stress were studied by means of first-principles molecular dynamics in the framework of density functional theory. The behavior depends strongly on degree of non-hydrostatic stress. Under hydrostatic stress continuous bending of the three-atom C-B-C chain was observed up to 70 GPa. The presence of non-hydrostatic stress activates abrupt reversible chain bending, which is displacement of the central boron atom in the chain with the formation of weak bonds between this atom and atoms in the nearby icosahedra. Such structural change can describe a possible reversible phase transition in dynamical loading experiments. High non-hydrostatic stress achieved in uniaxial loading leads to disordering of the initial structure. The formation of carbon chains is observed as one possible transition route.
Defect Formation in First Order Phase Transitions with Damping
Ferrera, A
1998-01-01
Within the context of first order phase transitions in the early universe, we study the influence of a coupling between the (global U(1)) scalar driving the transition and the rest of the matter content of the theory. The effect of the coupling on the scalar is simulated by introducing a damping term in its equations of motion, as suggested by recent results in the electroweak phase transition. After a preceeding paper, in which we studied the influence that this coupling has in the dynamics of bubble collisions and topological defect formation, we proceed in this paper to quantify the impact of this new effects on the probability of defect creation per nucleating bubble.
The comfortable driving model revisited: Traffic phases and phase transitions
Knorr, Florian
2013-01-01
We study the spatiotemporal patterns resulting from different boundary conditions for a microscopic traffic model and contrast it with empirical results. By evaluating the time series of local measurements, the local traffic states are assigned to the different traffic phases of Kerner's three-phase traffic theory. For this classification we use the rule-based FOTO-method, which provides `hard' rules for this assignment. Using this approach, our analysis shows that the model is indeed able to reproduce three qualitatively different traffic phases: free flow (F), synchronized traffic (S), and wide moving jams (J). In addition, we investigate the likelihood of transitions between the three traffic phases. We show that a transition from free flow (F) to a wide moving jam (J) often involves an intermediate transition; first from free flow F to synchronized flow S and then from synchronized flow to a wide moving jam. This is supported by the fact that the so called F->S transition (from free flow to synchronized t...
2007-01-01
We propose a new, cyclic-voltammetry based experimental technique that can not only differentiate between discontinuous and continuous phase transitions in an adsorbate layer, but also quite accurately recover equilibrium behavior from dynamic analysis of systems with a continuous phase transition. The Electrochemical first-order reversal curve (EC-FORC) diagram for a discontinuous phase transition (nucleation and growth), such as occurs in underpotential deposition, is characterized by a neg...
The normal-auxeticity mechanical phase transition in graphene
Deng, Binghui; Hou, Jie; Zhu, Hanxing; Liu, Sheng; Liu, Emily; Shi, Yunfeng; Peng, Qing
2017-06-01
When a solid object is stretched, in general, it shrinks transversely. However, the abnormal ones are auxetic, which exhibit lateral expansion, or negative Poisson ratio. While graphene is a paradigm 2D material, surprisingly, graphene converts from normal to auxetic at certain strains. Here, we show via molecular dynamics simulations that the normal-auxeticity mechanical phase transition only occurs in uniaxial tension along the armchair direction or the nearest neighbor direction. Such a characteristic persists at temperatures up to 2400 K. Besides monolayer, bilayer and multi-layer graphene also possess such a normal-auxeticity transition. This unique property could extend the applications of graphene to new horizons.
A Phase Transition for Circle Maps and Cherry Flows
Palmisano, Liviana
2013-07-01
We study C 2 weakly order preserving circle maps with a flat interval. The main result of the paper is about a sharp transition from degenerate geometry to bounded geometry depending on the degree of the singularities at the boundary of the flat interval. We prove that the non-wandering set has zero Hausdorff dimension in the case of degenerate geometry and it has Hausdorff dimension strictly greater than zero in the case of bounded geometry. Our results about circle maps allow to establish a sharp phase transition in the dynamics of Cherry flows.
A Phase Transition for Circle Maps and Cherry Flows
Palmisano, Liviana
2012-01-01
We study $C^{2}$ weakly order preserving circle maps with a flat interval. The main result of the paper is about a sharp transition from degenerate geometry to bounded geometry depending on the degree of the singularities at the boundary of the flat interval. We prove that the non-wandering set has zero Hausdorff dimension in the case of degenerate geometry and it has Hausdorff dimension strictly greater than zero in the case of bounded geometry. Our results about circle maps allow to establish a sharp phase transition in the dynamics of Cherry flows.
Phase transitions in Pareto optimal complex networks.
Seoane, Luís F; Solé, Ricard
2015-09-01
The organization of interactions in complex systems can be described by networks connecting different units. These graphs are useful representations of the local and global complexity of the underlying systems. The origin of their topological structure can be diverse, resulting from different mechanisms including multiplicative processes and optimization. In spatial networks or in graphs where cost constraints are at work, as it occurs in a plethora of situations from power grids to the wiring of neurons in the brain, optimization plays an important part in shaping their organization. In this paper we study network designs resulting from a Pareto optimization process, where different simultaneous constraints are the targets of selection. We analyze three variations on a problem, finding phase transitions of different kinds. Distinct phases are associated with different arrangements of the connections, but the need of drastic topological changes does not determine the presence or the nature of the phase transitions encountered. Instead, the functions under optimization do play a determinant role. This reinforces the view that phase transitions do not arise from intrinsic properties of a system alone, but from the interplay of that system with its external constraints.
Nuclear Matter Phase Transition in Infinite and Finite Systems
Terranova, S.; Bonasera, A.
2005-04-01
A new "semiclassical" model of the nuclear matter, composed of u, d colored quarks, is proposed. The approach, named Constrained Molecular Dynamics (CoMD) is based on the molecular dynamics simulation of the quarks, which interact through the Richardson's potential, and on a constraint due to Pauli blocking. With a suitable choice of the quark masses, some possible Equation of State (EOS) of the nuclear matter, at temperature equal to zero and finite baryon density, are obtained. These equations of state, not only present some known properties of the nuclear matter, as the Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP) phase transition, but also shown the existence of a new state, the Exotic Color Clustering (ECC) state, in which cluster of quarks with the same color are formed. Some new quantities, "indicators" of the phase transition, are introduced: three order parameters, Mc2, Mc3, Mc4 defined trough the Gell-Mann matrices λα, and the lifetime of the J/Ψ particle. The behavior of the J/Ψ particle is studied also in the "finite" systems, obtained by expanding the corresponding "infinite" systems. It seems that the dynamics and the finite size effects do not wash completely the phase transition occurred in infinite systems, and the J/Ψ particle is still a good signature.
Phase transition in aluminous silica in the lowermost mantle
Tronnes, R. G.; Andrault, D.; Konopkova, Z.; Morgenroth, W.; Liermann, H.
2012-12-01
Lower mantle basaltic lithologies contain 35-40% Mg-perovskite, 20-30% Ca-perovskite, 15-25% Al-rich phases (NAL and Ca-ferrite phases) and 15-20% silica-dominated phases. The Fe-rich Mg-perovskite makes basaltic material denser than peridotite throughout the lower mantle below 720 km depth, with important implications for mantle dynamics. Partial separation of subducted basaltic crust from depleted lithosphere might occur within the strongly heterogeneous D" zone. Further details on phase transitions and equation of states for the various minerals, however, are needed for more complete insights. The silica-dominated phases have considerable solubility of alumina [1]. We investigated silica with 4 and 6 wt% alumina to 120 GPa, using LH-DAC at the Extreme Conditions Beamline (P02.2) at PETRA-III, DESY. Powdered glass mixed with 10-15 wt% Pt-powder was compressed and heated in NaCl pressure media in Re-gaskets. The transition from the CaCl2-structured phase to seifertite (alpha-PbO2-structure) occurs at about 116 GPa at 2500 K. This is intermediate between the transition pressures of about 122 GPa and 100-113 GPa reported for similar temperatures for pure SiO2 [2] and a basalt composition [1], respectively. The CaCl2-structured silica phase crystallized along with seifertite, consistent with a binary phase loop trending towards lower pressure with increasing Al-content. The presence of an Al-rich Ca-ferrite phase (near the MgAl2O4-NaAlSiO4-join) in basaltic material indicates that the Al-solubility limits for the silica-dominated phases in basaltic compositions may be similar to those in the binary system SiO2-AlO1.5. Based on the X-ray pattern refinement, our samples show no significant volume change across the transition. Even so, the transition could be associated with a significant density change if the Al substitution mechanisms are different in CaCl2-structured phase and seifertite. The most likely situation is that Al-substitution occurs via O-vacancies in the
Electroweak phase transition and baryogenesis in the nMSSM
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Huber, Stephan J. [Theory Division, CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)]. E-mail: stephan.huber@cern.ch; Konstandin, Thomas [Department of Physics, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), AlbaNova University Center, Roslagstullsbacken 11, 106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)]. E-mail: konstand@theophys.kth.se; Prokopec, Tomislav [Institute for Theoretical Physics (ITF) and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University, Leuvenlaan 4, Postbus 80.195, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands)]. E-mail: t.prokopec@phys.uu.nl; Schmidt, Michael G. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Heidelberg University, Philosophenweg 16, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany)]. E-mail: m.g.schmidt@thphys.uni-heidelberg.de
2006-11-20
We analyze the nMSSM with CP violation in the singlet sector. We study the static and dynamical properties of the electroweak phase transition. We conclude that electroweak baryogenesis in this model is generic in the sense that if the present limits on the mass spectrum are applied, no severe additional tuning is required to obtain a strong first-order phase transition and to generate a sufficient baryon asymmetry. For this we determine the shape of the nucleating bubbles, including the profiles of CP-violating phases. The baryon asymmetry is calculated using the advanced transport theory to first and second order in gradient expansion presented recently. Still, first and second generation sfermions must be heavy to avoid large electric dipole moments.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kaempfer, Tino
2009-12-15
The present thesis is dedicated to the experimental study of the metal-semiconductor phase transition of samarium sulfide (SmS): Temperature- and time-resolved experiments on the characterization of the phase transition of mixed-valence SmS samples (M-SmS) are presented. The measurement of the dynamics of the laser-induced phase transition pursues via time-resolved ultrashort-time microscopy and by X-ray diffraction with sub-picosecond time resolution. The electronic and structural processes, which follow an excitation of M-SmS with infrared femtosecond laser pulses, are physically interpreted on the base of the results obtained in this thesis and model imaginations. [German] Die vorliegende Arbeit ist der experimentellen Untersuchung des Metall-Halbleiter-Phasenuebergangs von Samariumsulfid (SmS) gewidmet. Es werden temperatur- und zeitaufgeloeste Experimente zur Charakterisierung des Phasenuebergangs gemischt-valenter SmS Proben (M-SmS) vorgestellt. Die Messung der Dynamik des laserinduzierten Phasenuebergangs erfolgt ueber zeitaufgeloeste Ultrakurzzeit-Mikroskopie und durch Roentgenbeugung mit subpikosekunden Zeitaufloesung. Die elektronischen und strukturellen Prozesse, welche einer Anregung von M-SmS mit infraroten Femtosekunden-Laserpulsen folgen, werden auf der Basis der in dieser Arbeit gewonnenen Ergebnisse und Modellvorstellungen physikalisch interpretiert. (orig.)
Two Phase Flow Mapping and Transition Under Microgravity Conditions
Parang, Masood; Chao, David F.
1998-01-01
In this paper, recent microgravity two-phase flow data for air-water, air-water-glycerin, and air- water-Zonyl FSP mixtures are analyzed for transition from bubbly to slug and from slug to annular flow. It is found that Weber number-based maps are inadequate to predict flow-pattern transition, especially over a wide range of liquid flow rates. It is further shown that slug to annular flow transition is dependent on liquid phase Reynolds number at high liquid flow rate. This effect may be attributed to growing importance of liquid phase inertia in the dynamics of the phase flow and distribution. As a result a new form of scaling is introduced to present data using liquid Weber number based on vapor and liquid superficial velocities and Reynolds number based on liquid superficial velocity. This new combination of the dimensionless parameters seem to be more appropriate for the presentation of the microgravity data and provides a better flow pattern prediction and should be considered for evaluation with data obtained in the future. Similarly, the analysis of bubble to slug flow transition indicates a strong dependence on both liquid inertia and turbulence fluctuations which seem to play a significant role on this transition at high values of liquid velocity. A revised mapping of data using a new group of dimensionless parameters show a better and more consistent description of flow transition over a wide range of liquid flow rates. Further evaluation of the proposed flow transition mapping will have to be made after a wider range of microgravity data become available.
The Next Generation Transit Survey - Prototyping Phase
McCormac, James; Wheatley, Peter; West, Richard; Walker, Simon; Bento, Joao; Skillen, Ian; Faedi, Francesca; Burleigh, Matt; Casewell, Sarah; Chazelas, Bruno; Genolet, Ludovic; Gibson, Neale; Goad, Mike; Lawrie, Katherine; Ryans, Robert; Todd, Ian; Udry, Stephan; Watson, Christopher
2016-01-01
We present the prototype telescope for the Next Generation Transit Survey, which was built in the UK in 2008/09 and tested on La Palma in the Canary Islands in 2010. The goals for the prototype system were severalfold: to determine the level of systematic noise in an NGTS-like system; demonstrate that we can perform photometry at the (sub) millimagnitude level on transit timescales across a wide field; show that it is possible to detect transiting super-Earth and Neptune-sized exoplanets and prove the technical feasibility of the proposed planet survey. We tested the system for around 100 nights and met each of the goals above. Several key areas for improvement were highlighted during the prototyping phase. They have been subsequently addressed in the final NGTS facility which was recently commissioned at ESO Cerro Paranal, Chile.
Holographic phase transitions at finite chemical potential
Mateos, David; Matsuura, Shunji; Myers, Robert C.; Thomson, Rowan M.
2007-11-01
Recently, holographic techniques have been used to study the thermal properties of Script N = 2 super-Yang-Mills theory, with gauge group SU(Nc) and coupled to Nf coupling. Here we consider the phase diagram as a function of temperature and baryon chemical potential μb. For fixed μb transitions separating a region with vanishing baryon density and one with nonzero density. For fixed μb>Nc Mq there is no phase transition as a function of the temperature and the baryon density is always nonzero. We also compare the present results for the grand canonical ensemble with those for canonical ensemble in which the baryon density is held fixed [1].
Nonequilibrium phase transitions in biomolecular signal transduction
Smith, Eric; Krishnamurthy, Supriya; Fontana, Walter; Krakauer, David
2011-11-01
We study a mechanism for reliable switching in biomolecular signal-transduction cascades. Steady bistable states are created by system-size cooperative effects in populations of proteins, in spite of the fact that the phosphorylation-state transitions of any molecule, by means of which the switch is implemented, are highly stochastic. The emergence of switching is a nonequilibrium phase transition in an energetically driven, dissipative system described by a master equation. We use operator and functional integral methods from reaction-diffusion theory to solve for the phase structure, noise spectrum, and escape trajectories and first-passage times of a class of minimal models of switches, showing how all critical properties for switch behavior can be computed within a unified framework.
Phase transition in the countdown problem
Lacasa, Lucas; Luque, Bartolo
2012-07-01
We present a combinatorial decision problem, inspired by the celebrated quiz show called Countdown, that involves the computation of a given target number T from a set of k randomly chosen integers along with a set of arithmetic operations. We find that the probability of winning the game evidences a threshold phenomenon that can be understood in the terms of an algorithmic phase transition as a function of the set size k. Numerical simulations show that such probability sharply transitions from zero to one at some critical value of the control parameter, hence separating the algorithm's parameter space in different phases. We also find that the system is maximally efficient close to the critical point. We derive analytical expressions that match the numerical results for finite size and permit us to extrapolate the behavior in the thermodynamic limit.
Structural phase transitions in monolayer molybdenum dichalcogenides
Choe, Duk-Hyun; Sung, Ha June; Chang, Kee Joo
2015-03-01
The recent discovery of two-dimensional materials such as graphene and transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) has provided opportunities to develop ultimate thin channel devices. In contrast to graphene, the existence of moderate band gap and strong spin-orbit coupling gives rise to exotic electronic properties which vary with layer thickness, lattice structure, and symmetry. TMDs commonly appear in two structures with distinct symmetries, trigonal prismatic 2H and octahedral 1T phases which are semiconducting and metallic, respectively. In this work, we investigate the structural and electronic properties of monolayer molybdenum dichalcogenides (MoX2, where X = S, Se, Te) through first-principles density functional calculations. We find a tendency that the semiconducting 2H phase is more stable than the metallic 1T phase. We show that a spontaneous symmetry breaking of 1T phase leads to various distorted octahedral (1T') phases, thus inducing a metal-to-semiconductor transition. We discuss the effects of carrier doping on the structural stability and the modification of the electronic structure. This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) under Grant No. NRF-2005-0093845 and Samsung Science and Technology Foundation under Grant No. SSTFBA1401-08.
Dimension Changing Phase Transitions in Instanton Crystals
Kaplunovsky, Vadim
2013-01-01
We investigate lattices of instantons and the dimension-changing transitions between them. Our ultimate goal is the 3d->4D transition, which is holographically dual to the phase transition between the baryonic and the quarkyonic phases of cold nuclear matter. However, in this paper (just as in [1]) we focus on lower dimensions -- the 1D lattice of instantons in a harmonic potential V M_2^2x_2^2+M_3^2x_2^2+M_4^2x_4^2 and the zigzag-shaped lattice as a first stage of the 1D->2D transition. We prove that in the low- and moderate-density regimes, interactions between the instantons are dominated by two-body forces. This drastically simplifies finding the ground state of the instantons' orientations, so we made a numeric scan of the whole orientation space instead of assuming any particular ansatz. We find that depending on the M_2/M_3/M_4 ratios, the ground state of instanton orientations can follow a wide variety of patterns. For the straight 1D lattices, we found orientations periodically running over elements ...
Extracellular ice phase transitions in insects.
Hawes, T C
2014-01-01
At temperatures below their temperature of crystallization (Tc), the extracellular body fluids of insects undergo a phase transition from liquid to solid. Insects that survive the transition to equilibrium (complete freezing of the body fluids) are designated as freeze tolerant. Although this phenomenon has been reported and described in many Insecta, current nomenclature and theory does not clearly delineate between the process of transition (freezing) and the final solid phase itself (the frozen state). Thus freeze tolerant insects are currently, by convention, described in terms of the temperature at which the crystallization of their body fluids is initiated, Tc. In fact, the correct descriptor for insects that tolerate freezing is the temperature of equilibrium freezing, Tef. The process of freezing is itself a separate physical event with unique physiological stresses that are associated with ice growth. Correspondingly there are a number of insects whose physiological cryo-limits are very specifically delineated by this transitional envelope. The distinction also has considerable significance for our understanding of insect cryobiology: firstly, because the ability to manage endogenous ice growth is a fundamental segregator of cryotype; and secondly, because our understanding of internal ice management is still largely nascent.
Holographic phase transitions at finite chemical potential
Mateos, David; Myers, Robert C; Thomson, Rowan M
2007-01-01
Recently holographic techniques have been used to study the thermal properties of N=2 SYM theory, with gauge group SU(Nc) and coupled to Nf Nc Mq there is no phase transition as a function of the temperature and the baryon density is always nonzero. We also compare the present results for the grand canonical ensemble with those for canonical ensemble in which the baryon density is held fixed [1].
Quantum phase transitions in constrained Bose systems
Bonnes, Lars
2011-01-01
This doctoral thesis studies low dimensional quantum systems that can be realized in recent cold atom experiments. From the viewpoint of quantum statistical mechanics, the main emphasis is on the detailed study of the different quantum and thermal phases and their transitions using numerical methods, such as quantum Monte Carlo and the Tensor Network Renormalization Group. The first part of this work deals with a lattice Boson model subject to strong three-body losses. In a quantum-Zeno li...
Phase transition in the Sznajd model with independence
Sznajd-Weron, K; Timpanaro, A M
2011-01-01
We propose a model of opinion dynamics which describes two major types of social influence -- conformity and independence. Conformity in our model is described by the so called outflow dynamics (known as Sznajd model). According to sociologists' suggestions, we introduce also a second type of social influence, known in social psychology as independence. Various social experiments have shown that the level of conformity depends on the society. We introduce this level as a parameter of the model and show that there is a continuous phase transition between conformity and independence.
Recent theoretical advances on superradiant phase transitions
Baksic, Alexandre; Nataf, Pierre; Ciuti, Cristiano
2013-03-01
The Dicke model describing a single-mode boson field coupled to two-level systems is an important paradigm in quantum optics. In particular, the physics of ``superradiant phase transitions'' in the ultrastrong coupling regime is the subject of a vigorous research activity in both cavity and circuit QED. Recently, we explored the rich physics of two interesting generalizations of the Dicke model: (i) A model describing the coupling of a boson mode to two independent chains A and B of two-level systems, where chain A is coupled to one quadrature of the boson field and chain B to the orthogonal quadrature. This original model leads to a quantum phase transition with a double symmetry breaking and a fourfold ground state degeneracy. (ii) A generalized Dicke model with three-level systems including the diamagnetic term. In contrast to the case of two-level atoms for which no-go theorems exist, in the case of three-level system we prove that the Thomas-Reich-Kuhn sum rule does not always prevent a superradiant phase transition.
Superconducting phase transition in STM tips
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Eltschka, Matthias; Jaeck, Berthold; Assig, Maximilian; Etzkorn, Markus; Ast, Christian R. [Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, Stuttgart (Germany); Kern, Klaus [Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, Stuttgart (Germany); Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (Switzerland)
2015-07-01
The superconducting properties of systems with dimensions comparable to the London penetration depth considerably differ from macroscopic systems. We have studied the superconducting phase transition of vanadium STM tips in external magnetic fields. Employing Maki's theory we extract the superconducting parameters such as the gap or the Zeeman splitting from differential conductance spectra. While the Zeeman splitting follows the theoretical description of a system with s=1/2 and g=2, the superconducting gaps as well as the critical fields depend on the specific tip. For a better understanding of the experimental results, we solve a one dimensional Usadel equation modeling the superconducting tip as a cone with the opening angle α in an external magnetic field. We find that only a small region at the apex of the tip is superconducting in high magnetic fields and that the order of the phase transition is directly determined by α. Further, the spectral broadening increases with α indicating an intrinsic broadening mechanism due to the conical shape of the tip. Comparing these calculations to our experimental results reveals the order of the superconducting phase transition of the STM tips.
Kasinsky, H E; Ellis, S; Martens, G; Ausió, J
2014-12-01
During early-to-middle spermiogenesis in multicellular, internally fertilizing charalean green algae (Chara fibrosa, Chara vulgaris, Chara tomentosa, Nitella missouriensis), patterning of chromatin/nucleoplasm in developing spermatid nuclei changes from granules → fibers → contorted lamellae → condensed chromatin. Cytochemical, immunocytochemical, electrophoretic studies on C. vulgaris and C. tomentosa spermatids (Kwiatkowska, Poplonska) and amino acid analysis of protamines in Chara corallina sperm (Reynolds, Wolfe), indicate that more positively charged protamines replace histones directly during spermiogenesis, not indirectly through other intermediate transitional proteins as in internally fertilizing neogastropods and sharks with more ordered spermatid lamellae. We hypothesize that such lamellar-mediated patterning is due to liquid-liquid phase separation by spinodal decomposition. This is a spontaneous thermodynamic process that involves diffusive instability of a lamellar chromatin network, a dominant pattern repeat distance and bicontinuity of chromatin/nucleoplasm phases. C. vulgaris sperm show contorted lamellae in the posterior region, whereas C. corallina sperm display contorted peripheral lamellae and interior fibrils. Among internally fertilizing liverworts, which may have evolved from Zygnematales, mid-spermatid nuclei lack lamellae. Instead they display self-coiled chromatin rods in Blasia pusilla, contain short chromatin tubules in Haplomitrium hookeri resembling those in internally fertilizing mosses and a hornwort and indirectly replace histones with protamines in Marchantia polymorpha.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Asaji, Tetsuo, E-mail: asaji@chs.nihon-u.ac.jp; Hara, Masamichi; Fujimori, Hiroki [Nihon University, Department of Chemistry, College of Humanities and Sciences (Japan); Hagiwara, Shoko [Nihon University, Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Integrated Basic Sciences (Japan)
2016-12-15
Hydrogen dynamics in one-dimensional hydrogen bonded organic antiferroelectric, co-crystal of 5,5’-dimethyl-2,2’-bipyridine (55DMBP) and chloranilic acid (H{sub 2}ca), was investigated by use of {sup 2}H high resolution solid-state NMR. The two types of hydrogen bonds O-H …N and N{sup +}-H …O{sup −} in the antiferroelectric phase were clearly observed as the splitting of the side band of the {sup 2}H MAS NMR spectra of the acid-proton deuterated compound 55DMBP-D {sub 2}ca. The temperature dependence of the spin-lattice relaxation time was measured of the N{sup +}-H and O-H deuterons, respectively. It was suggested that the motion of the O-H deuteron is already in the antiferroelectric phase in the fast-motion regime in the NMR time scale, while that of the N{sup +}-H deuteron is a slow motion. In the high-temperature paraelectric phase, the both deuterons become equivalent and the fast motion of the deuterons in the NMR time scale is taking place with the activation energy of 7.9 kJ mol{sup −1}.
Transition-state theory and dynamical corrections
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Henriksen, Niels Engholm; Hansen, Flemming Yssing
2002-01-01
. The correction factor due to non-adiabatic dynamics is considered in relation to the non-activated dissociative sticking of N-2 on Fe(111). For this process, conventional transition-state theory gives a sticking probability which is about 10 times too large (at T = 300 K). We estimate that the sticking......We consider conventional transition-state theory, and show how quantum dynamical correction factors can be incorporated in a simple fashion, as a natural extension of the fundamental formulation. Corrections due to tunneling and non-adiabatic dynamics are discussed, with emphasis on the latter...
Simulation of transition dynamics to high confinement in fusion plasmas
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Anders Henry; Xu, G. S.; Madsen, Jens;
2015-01-01
The transition dynamics from the low (L) to the high (H) confinement mode in magnetically confined plasmas is investigated using a first-principles four-field fluid model. Numerical results are in agreement with measurements from the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak - EAST. Particula......The transition dynamics from the low (L) to the high (H) confinement mode in magnetically confined plasmas is investigated using a first-principles four-field fluid model. Numerical results are in agreement with measurements from the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak - EAST....... Particularly, the slow transition with an intermediate dithering phase is well reproduced at proper parameters. The model recovers the power threshold for the L-H transition as well as the decrease in power threshold switching from single to double null configuration observed experimentally. The results...
Electroweak phase transition and some related phenomena – a brief review
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
BUDDHADEB GHOSH
2016-09-01
In this article, we give a bird’s eye view of the research on electroweak phase transition and some related phenomena, viz., cosmological baryogenesis, electroweak bubble dynamics and generation of gravitationalwaves. Our presentation revolves around the observation that a strong first-order electroweak phase transition cannot be obtained in the Standard Model for experimentally favoured Higgs mass and hence the cosmologicalevents associated with this kind of phase transition cannot be explained in this model. However, this phase transition can be achieved in a number of beyond Standard Models. As a prototype case, we consider the littlest Higgs model with T parity and show the results of some calculations within this model.
Phase transitions of ε-HNIW in compound systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jing-yuan Zhang
2016-05-01
Full Text Available The heat-induced phase transitions of ε-HNIW, both neat and coated with various additives used in plastic bonded explosives, were investigated using powder X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry. It was found that ε-HNIW, after being held at 70°C for 60h, remained in the ε-phase. Applying other conditions, various phase transition parameters were determined, including Tc (the critical phase transition temperature, T50 (the temperature at which 50% of the phase transition is complete and T180 (the percentage of γ-HNIW present in samples heated to 180°C. According to the above three parameters, additives were divided into three categories: those that delay phase transition, those that raise the critical temperature and the transition rate, and those that promote the phase transition. Based on the above data, a phase transition mechanism is proposed.
Stability and Existence of Multidimensional Subsonic Phase Transitions
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Ya-Guang Wang; Zhouping Xin
2003-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to prove the uniform stability of multidimensional subsonic phase transitions satisfying the viscosity-capillarity criterion in a van der Waals fluid, and further to establish the local existence of phase transition solutions.
Phase Transitions and Scaling in Systems Far from Equilibrium
Täuber, Uwe C.
2017-03-01
Scaling ideas and renormalization group approaches proved crucial for a deep understanding and classification of critical phenomena in thermal equilibrium. Over the past decades, these powerful conceptual and mathematical tools were extended to continuous phase transitions separating distinct nonequilibrium stationary states in driven classical and quantum systems. In concordance with detailed numerical simulations and laboratory experiments, several prominent dynamical universality classes have emerged that govern large-scale, long-time scaling properties both near and far from thermal equilibrium. These pertain to genuine specific critical points as well as entire parameter space regions for steady states that display generic scale invariance. The exploration of nonstationary relaxation properties and associated physical aging scaling constitutes a complementary potent means to characterize cooperative dynamics in complex out-of-equilibrium systems. This review describes dynamic scaling features through paradigmatic examples that include near-equilibrium critical dynamics, driven lattice gases and growing interfaces, correlation-dominated reaction-diffusion systems, and basic epidemic models.
Holography and the Electroweak Phase Transition
Creminelli, P; Rattazzi, Riccardo; Creminelli, Paolo; Nicolis, Alberto; Rattazzi, Riccardo
2002-01-01
We study through holography the compact Randall-Sundrum (RS) model at finite temperature. In the presence of radius stabilization, the system is described at low enough temperature by the RS solution. At high temperature it is described by the AdS-Schwarzshild solution with an event horizon replacing the TeV brane. We calculate the transition temperature T_c between the two phases and we find it to be somewhat smaller than the TeV scale. Assuming that the Universe starts out at T >> T_c and cools down by expansion, we study the rate of the transition to the RS phase. We find that the transition is too slow and the Universe ends up in an old inflation scenario unless tight bounds are satisfied by the model parameters. In particular we find that the AdS curvature must be comparable to the 5D Planck mass and that the radius stabilization mechanism must lead to a sizeable distortion of the basic RS metric.
Second-order phase transitions of pure substances
Schaftenaar, H.P.C.
2009-01-01
In this report we are dealing with the thermodynamic theory of second-order phase transitions or continuous transitions of unary systems. The first classification of these phase transitions is due to Ehrenfest (1933), based on chemical potentials. First-order transitions are changes in which the der
Driver, S L; Herrero-Albillos, J; Bonilla, C M; Bartolomé, F; García, L M; Howard, C J; Carpenter, M A
2014-02-05
Magnetic phase transitions in RCo2 Laves phases with R as a rare earth element are accompanied by changes in crystallographic space group. For purely structural transitions they would be described as improper ferroelastic and therefore fulfil the condition for multiferroic phase transitions in combining two out of three properties, ferro/antiferromagnetism, ferroelectricity and ferroelasticity. Here lattice parameter data from the literature and new measurements of elastic and anelastic properties, by resonant ultrasound spectroscopy, for NdCo2 and ErCo2 have been analysed from this perspective. The temperature dependence of symmetry-breaking shear strains is consistent with the cubic ↔ tetragonal transition in NdCo2 being close to tricritical in character and the cubic ↔ rhombohedral transition in ErCo2 being first order. Elastic softening and acoustic loss within the stability ranges of the ferroelastic phases can be understood in terms of a combination of intrinsic softening due to strain/order parameter coupling and ferroelastic twin-wall motion. Softening ahead of the transitions does not fit with standard macroscopic descriptions of dynamic effects from other systems but, rather, in the case of NdCo2, might be attributed to the involvement of a second zone centre order parameter related to a separate instability driven by cooperative Jahn-Teller distortions. In ErCo2, acoustic loss in the temperature interval above the transition point is discussed in terms of a possible tweed microstructure associated with strain coupling to local magnetic ordering. The overall multiferroic behaviour can be understood in terms of a single magnetic order parameter (irrep mΓ+4 of magnetic space group Fd3m1') which couples with a structural order parameter (irrep Γ+3 or Γ+5). The coupling is linear/quadratic which, in the case of two separate instabilities, causes them to combine in a single multiferroic phase transition.
Phase transitions in the $sdg$ interacting boson model
Van Isacker, P; Zerguine, S
2009-01-01
A geometric analysis of the $sdg$ interacting boson model is performed. A coherent-state is used in terms of three types of deformation: axial quadrupole ($\\beta_2$), axial hexadecapole ($\\beta_4$) and triaxial ($\\gamma_2$). The phase-transitional structure is established for a schematic $sdg$ hamiltonian which is intermediate between four dynamical symmetries of U(15), namely the spherical ${\\rm U}(5)\\otimes{\\rm U}(9)$, the (prolate and oblate) deformed ${\\rm SU}_\\pm(3)$ and the $\\gamma_2$-soft SO(15) limits. For realistic choices of the hamiltonian parameters the resulting phase diagram has properties close to what is obtained in the $sd$ version of the model and, in particular, no transition towards a stable triaxial shape is found.
Lattice dynamics, phase transitions and spin relaxation in [Fe(C{sub 5}H{sub 5}){sub 2}] PF{sub 6}
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Herber, R. H.; Felner, I.; Nowik, I., E-mail: nowik@vms.huji.ac.il [The Hebrew University, Racah Institute of Physics (Israel)
2016-12-15
The organometallic compound ferrocenium hexafluorophosphate, [Fe(C{sub 5}H{sub 5}){sub 2}] PF{sub 6}, has been studied by Mössbauer spectroscopy in the past, mainly to determine the crystal structure at high temperatures. Here we present studies at 95 K to 305 K and analyze the spectra in terms of spin relaxation theory which yields accurately the hyperfine interaction parameters and the spin-spin and spin-lattice relaxation rates in this paramagnetic compound. The spectral area under the resonance curve yields the recoil free fraction and thus the mean square of the vibration amplitude
Landau Theory in the Region of First Order Phase Transitions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
O.G. Medvedovskaya
2014-04-01
Full Text Available For the case when the line of the first order phase transitions does not transform into the line of the second order phase transitions, i.e. not as ends with the tricritical point but not with a critical one: critical lines, limiting the region of metastable states, by using the Landau theory of phase transitions were determined.
Phase transition in SONFIS&SORST
Owladeghaffari, Hamed
2008-01-01
In this study, we introduce general frame of MAny Connected Intelligent Particles Systems (MACIPS). Connections and interconnections between particles get a complex behavior of such merely simple system (system in system).Contribution of natural computing, under information granulation theory, are the main topics of this spacious skeleton. Upon this clue, we organize two algorithms involved a few prominent intelligent computing and approximate reasoning methods: self organizing feature map (SOM), Neuro- Fuzzy Inference System and Rough Set Theory (RST). Over this, we show how our algorithms can be taken as a linkage of government-society interaction, where government catches various fashions of behavior: solid (absolute) or flexible. So, transition of such society, by changing of connectivity parameters (noise) from order to disorder is inferred. Add to this, one may find an indirect mapping among finical systems and eventual market fluctuations with MACIPS. Keywords: phase transition, SONFIS, SORST, many con...
Evidencing the "robot phase transition" in experimental human-algorithmic markets
Cartlidge, John; Cliff, Dave
2013-01-01
Johnson, Zhao, Hunsader, Meng, Ravindar, Carran, and Tivnan (2012) recently suggested the existence of a phase transition in the dynamics of financial markets in which there is free interaction between human traders and algorithmic trading systems ("robots"). Above a particular time-threshold, humans and robots trade with one another; below the threshold all transactions are robot-to-robot. We refer to this abrupt system transition as the "robot phase transition". Here, we conduct controlled ...
Antiferrodistortive phase transition in EuTiO3
Goian, V.; Kamba, S.; Pacherová, O.; Drahokoupil, J.; Palatinus, L.; Dušek, M.; Rohlíček, J.; Savinov, M.; Laufek, F.; Schranz, W.; Fuith, A.; Kachlík, M.; Maca, K.; Shkabko, A.; Sagarna, L.; Weidenkaff, A.; Belik, A. A.
2012-08-01
X-ray diffraction, dynamical mechanical analysis, and infrared reflectivity studies revealed an antiferrodistortive phase transition in EuTiO3 ceramics. Near 300 K, the perovskite structure changes from cubic Pm3¯m to tetragonal I4/mcm due to antiphase tilting of oxygen octahedra along the c axis (a0a0c- in Glazer notation). The phase transition is analogous to SrTiO3. However, some ceramics as well as single crystals of EuTiO3 show different infrared reflectivity spectra bringing evidence of a different crystal structure. In such samples, electron diffraction revealed an incommensurate tetragonal structure with modulation wave vector q ≃ 0.38 a*. Extra phonons in samples with modulated structure are activated in the IR spectra due to folding of the Brillouin zone. We propose that defects such as Eu3+ and oxygen vacancies strongly influence the temperature of the phase transition to antiferrodistortive phase as well as the tendency to incommensurate modulation in EuTiO3.
Melonic phase transition in group field theory
Baratin, Aristide; Oriti, Daniele; Ryan, James P; Smerlak, Matteo
2013-01-01
Group field theories have recently been shown to admit a 1/N expansion dominated by so-called `melonic graphs', dual to triangulated spheres. In this note, we deepen the analysis of this melonic sector. We obtain a combinatorial formula for the melonic amplitudes in terms of a graph polynomial related to a higher dimensional generalization of the Kirchhoff tree-matrix theorem. Simple bounds on these amplitudes show the existence of a phase transition driven by melonic interaction processes. We restrict our study to the Boulatov-Ooguri models, which describe topological BF theories and are the basis for the construction of four dimensional models of quantum gravity.
Detonations and deflagrations in cosmological phase transitions
Megevand, Ariel
2009-01-01
We study the steady state motion of bubble walls in cosmological phase transitions. Taking into account the boundary and continuity conditions for the fluid variables, we calculate numerically the wall velocity as a function of the nucleation temperature, the latent heat, and a friction parameter. We determine regions in the space of these parameters in which detonations and/or deflagrations are allowed. In order to apply the results to a physical case, we calculate these quantities in a specific model, which consists of an extension of the Standard Model with singlet scalar fields. We also obtain analytic approximations for deflagrations and detonations.
Observables of non-equilibrium phase transition
Tomasik, Boris; Melo, Ivan; Kopecna, Renata
2015-01-01
Rapidly expanding fireball which undergoes first-order phase transition will supercool and proceed via spinodal decomposition. Hadrons are produced from the individual fragments as well as leftover matter filling the space between them. Emission from fragments should be visible in rapidity correlations, particularly of protons. Also, even within narrow centrality classes, rapidity distributions will be fluctuating from one event to another in case of fragmentation. This can be identified with the help of Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Finally, a method is presented which allows to sort events with varying rapidity distributions in such a way, that events with similar rapidity histograms are grouped together.
Early Work on Defect Driven Phase Transitions
Kosterlitz, J. Michael; Thouless, David J.
2016-12-01
This article summarizes the early history of the theory of phase transitions driven by topological defects, such as vortices in superfluid helium films or dislocations and disclinations in two-dimensional solids. We start with a review of our two earliest papers, pointing out their errors and omissions as well as their insights. We then describe the work, partly done by Kosterlitz but mostly done by other people, which corrected these oversights, and applied these ideas to experimental systems, and to numerical and experimental simulations.
Berry phase transition in twisted bilayer graphene
Rode, Johannes C.; Smirnov, Dmitri; Schmidt, Hennrik; Haug, Rolf J.
2016-09-01
The electronic dispersion of a graphene bilayer is highly dependent on rotational mismatch between layers and can be further manipulated by electrical gating. This allows for an unprecedented control over electronic properties and opens up the possibility of flexible band structure engineering. Here we present novel magnetotransport data in a twisted bilayer, crossing the energetic border between decoupled monolayers and coupled bilayer. In addition a transition in Berry phase between π and 2π is observed at intermediate magnetic fields. Analysis of Fermi velocities and gate induced charge carrier densities suggests an important role of strong layer asymmetry for the observed phenomena.
Adiabatic quantum computation and quantum phase transitions
Latorre, J I; Latorre, Jose Ignacio; Orus, Roman
2003-01-01
We analyze the ground state entanglement in a quantum adiabatic evolution algorithm designed to solve the NP-complete Exact Cover problem. The entropy of entanglement seems to obey linear and universal scaling at the point where the mass gap becomes small, suggesting that the system passes near a quantum phase transition. Such a large scaling of entanglement suggests that the effective connectivity of the system diverges as the number of qubits goes to infinity and that this algorithm cannot be efficiently simulated by classical means. On the other hand, entanglement in Grover's algorithm is bounded by a constant.
Critical phase transitions during ablation of atrial fibrillation
Iravanian, Shahriar; Langberg, Jonathan J.
2017-09-01
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia with significant morbidity and mortality. Pharmacological agents are not very effective in the management of AF. Therefore, ablation procedures have become the mainstay of AF management. The irregular and seemingly chaotic atrial activity in AF is caused by one or more meandering spiral waves. Previously, we have shown the presence of sudden rhythm organization during ablation of persistent AF. We hypothesize that the observed transitions from a disorganized to an organized rhythm is a critical phase transition. Here, we explore this hypothesis by simulating ablation in an anatomically-correct 3D AF model. In 722 out of 2160 simulated ablation, at least one sudden transition from AF to an organized rhythm (flutter) was noted (33%). They were marked by a sudden decrease in the cycle length entropy and increase in the mean cycle length. At the same time, the number of reentrant wavelets decreased from 2.99 ± 0.06 in AF to 1.76 ± 0.05 during flutter, and the correlation length scale increased from 13.3 ± 1.0 mm to 196.5 ± 86.6 mm (both P < 0.0001). These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that transitions from AF to an anatomical flutter behave as phase transitions in complex non-equilibrium dynamical systems with flutter acting as an absorbing state. Clinically, the facilitation of phase transition should be considered a novel mechanism of ablation and may help to design effective ablation strategies.
Phase transition equilibrium of terthiophene isomers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Costa, Jose C.S.; Lima, Carlos F.R.A.C.; Rocha, Marisa A.A. [Centro de Investigacao em Quimica, Departamento de Quimica e Bioquimica, Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, P-4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Gomes, Ligia R. [CIAGEB, Faculdade de Ciencias de Saude Escola Superior de Saude da UFP, Universidade Fernando Pessoa, Rua Carlos da Maia, 296, P-4200-150 Porto (Portugal); REQUIMTE, Departamento de Quimica e Bioquimica, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, P-4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Santos, Luis M.N.B.F., E-mail: lbsantos@fc.up.p [Centro de Investigacao em Quimica, Departamento de Quimica e Bioquimica, Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, P-4169-007 Porto (Portugal)
2011-02-15
The thermodynamic study of the phase transition (fusion and sublimation) of 2,2':5',2''-terthiophene and 3,2':5',3''-terthiophene is presented. The obtained data is used to evaluate the (solid + liquid) and (solid + gas) phase equilibrium, and draw the phase diagrams of the pure compounds near the triple point coordinates. For each compound the vapour pressures at different temperatures were measured by a combined Knudsen effusion method with a vacuum quartz crystal microbalance. Based on the previous results, the standard molar enthalpies, entropies and Gibbs energies of sublimation were derived at T = 298.15 K. For the two terthiophenes and for 3,3'-bithiophene, the temperature, and the molar enthalpies of fusion were measured in a power compensated differential scanning calorimetry. The relationship between structure and energetics is discussed based on the experimental results, ab initio calculations and previous literature data for 2,2'-bithiophene and 3,3'-bithiophene. The 3,2':5',3''-terthiophene shows a higher solid phase stability than the 2,2':5',2''-terthiophene isomer arising from the higher cohesive energy due to positioning of the sulphur atom in the thiophene ring. The higher phase stability of 3,3'-bithiophene relative to 2,2'-bithiophene isomer is also related to its higher absolute entropy in the solid phase associated with the ring positional degeneracy observed in the crystal structure of this isomer. A significant differentiation in the crystal phase stability between isomers was found.
Beyond Nuclear Pasta: Phase Transitions and Neutrino Opacity of Non-Traditional Pasta
Alcain, Pablo N; Dorso, Claudio O
2014-01-01
In this work, we focus on different length scales within the dynamics of nucleons in conditions according to the neutron star crust, with a semiclassical molecular dynamics model, studying isospin symmetric matter at subsaturation densities. While varying the temperature, we find that a solid-liquid phase transition exists, that can be also characterized with a morphology transition. For higher temperatures, above this phase transition, we study the neutrino opacity, and find that in the liquid phase, the scattering of low momenta neutrinos remain high, even though the morphology of the structures differ significatively from those of the traditional nuclear pasta.
Topological phase transitions in superradiance lattices
Wang, Da-Wei; Yuan, Luqi; Liu, Ren-Bao; Zhu, Shi-Yao
2015-01-01
The discovery of the quantum Hall effect (QHE) reveals a new class of matter phases, topological insulators (TI's), which have been extensively studied in solid-state materials and recently in photonic structures, time-periodic systems and optical lattices of cold atoms. All these topological systems are lattices in real space. Our recent study shows that Scully's timed Dicke states (TDS) can form a superradiance lattice (SL) in momentum space. Here we report the discovery of topological phase transitions in a two-dimensional SL in electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). By periodically modulating the three EIT coupling fields, we can create a Haldane model with in-situ tunable topological properties. The Chern numbers of the energy bands and hence the topological properties of the SL manifest themselves in the contrast between diffraction signals emitted by superradiant TDS. The topological superradiance lattices (TSL) provide a controllable platform for simulating exotic phenomena in condensed matte...
Transitional Phenomena on Phase Change Materials
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wójcik Tadeusz M.
2014-03-01
Full Text Available One of the most significant problem with technology development is transferring of large heat fluxes, which requires constant heat transfer temperature (in the specified temperature range. This problem concern mainly the nuclear energetics, space technologies, military technologies and most of all electronics containing integrated circuits with very large scale of integrations. Intensive heat transfer and thermal energy storage are possible by the use of phase change materials (PCMs. In the paper there are presented preliminary results of research on the use of liquid-gas (L-G PCMs and solid-solid phase change materials (S-S PCMs. For L-G PCMs the boiling characteristics were determined by increasing and decreasing the heat flux, which for certain sets of structural parameters of the heating surface and the physical properties of the liquid induce a variety of forms of transitional phenomena. Thermal energy storage is much more effective when using PCMs than sensible heat.
On Phase Transition of Compressed Sensing in the Complex Domain
Yang, Zai; Xie, Lihua
2011-01-01
The phase transition is a performance measure of the sparsity-undersampling tradeoff in compressed sensing (CS). This letter reports, for the first time, the existence of an exact phase transition for the $\\ell_1$ minimization approach to the complex valued CS problem. This discovery is not only a complementary result to the known phase transition of the real valued CS but also shows considerable superiority of the phase transition of complex valued CS over that of the real valued CS. The results are obtained by extending the recently developed ONE-L1 algorithms to complex valued CS and applying their optimal and iterative solutions to empirically evaluate the phase transition.
A time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau phase field formalism for shock-induced phase transitions
Haxhimali, Tomorr; Belof, Jonathan L.; Benedict, Lorin X.
2017-01-01
Phase-field models have become popular in the last two decades to describe a host of free-boundary problems. The strength of the method relies on implicitly describing the dynamics of surfaces and interfaces by a continuous scalar field that enters the global grand free energy functional of the system. Here we explore the potential utility of this method in order to describe shock-induced phase transitions. To this end we make use of the Multiphase Field Theory (MFT) to account for the existence of multiple phases during the transition, and we couple MFT to a hydrodynamic model in the context of a new LLNL code for phase transitions, SAMSA. As a demonstration of this approach, we apply our code to the α - ɛ-Fe phase transition under shock wave loading conditions and compare our results with experiments of Jensen et. al. [J. Appl. Phys., 105:103502 (2009)] and Barker and Hollenbach [J. Appl. Phys., 45:4872 (1974)].
Nuclear Binding Near a Quantum Phase Transition
Elhatisari, Serdar; Li, Ning; Rokash, Alexander; Alarcón, Jose Manuel; Du, Dechuan; Klein, Nico; Lu, Bing-nan; Meißner, Ulf-G.; Epelbaum, Evgeny; Krebs, Hermann; Lähde, Timo A.; Lee, Dean; Rupak, Gautam
2016-09-01
How do protons and neutrons bind to form nuclei? This is the central question of ab initio nuclear structure theory. While the answer may seem as simple as the fact that nuclear forces are attractive, the full story is more complex and interesting. In this work we present numerical evidence from ab initio lattice simulations showing that nature is near a quantum phase transition, a zero-temperature transition driven by quantum fluctuations. Using lattice effective field theory, we perform Monte Carlo simulations for systems with up to twenty nucleons. For even and equal numbers of protons and neutrons, we discover a first-order transition at zero temperature from a Bose-condensed gas of alpha particles (4He nuclei) to a nuclear liquid. Whether one has an alpha-particle gas or nuclear liquid is determined by the strength of the alpha-alpha interactions, and we show that the alpha-alpha interactions depend on the strength and locality of the nucleon-nucleon interactions. This insight should be useful in improving calculations of nuclear structure and important astrophysical reactions involving alpha capture on nuclei. Our findings also provide a tool to probe the structure of alpha cluster states such as the Hoyle state responsible for the production of carbon in red giant stars and point to a connection between nuclear states and the universal physics of bosons at large scattering length.
Nuclear binding near a quantum phase transition
Elhatisari, Serdar; Rokash, Alexander; Alarcón, Jose Manuel; Du, Dechuan; Klein, Nico; Lu, Bing-nan; Meißner, Ulf-G; Epelbaum, Evgeny; Krebs, Hermann; Lähde, Timo A; Lee, Dean; Rupak, Gautam
2016-01-01
How do protons and neutrons bind to form nuclei? This is the central question of ab initio nuclear structure theory. While the answer may seem as simple as the fact that nuclear forces are attractive, the full story is more complex and interesting. In this work we present numerical evidence from ab initio lattice simulations showing that nature is near a quantum phase transition, a zero-temperature transition driven by quantum fluctuations. Using lattice effective field theory, we perform Monte Carlo simulations for systems with up to twenty nucleons. For even and equal numbers of protons and neutrons, we discover a first-order transition at zero temperature from a Bose-condensed gas of alpha particles (4He nuclei) to a nuclear liquid. Whether one has an alpha-particle gas or nuclear liquid is determined by the strength of the alpha-alpha interactions, and we show that the alpha-alpha interactions depend on the strength and locality of the nucleon-nucleon interactions. The existence of the nearby first-order ...
Phase transitions in Thirring’s model
Campa, Alessandro; Casetti, Lapo; Latella, Ivan; Pérez-Madrid, Agustín; Ruffo, Stefano
2016-07-01
In his pioneering work on negative specific heat, Walter Thirring introduced a model that is solvable in the microcanonical ensemble. Here, we give a complete description of the phase-diagram of this model in both the microcanonical and the canonical ensemble, highlighting the main features of ensemble inequivalence. In both ensembles, we find a line of first-order phase transitions which ends in a critical point. However, neither the line nor the point have the same location in the phase-diagram of the two ensembles. We also show that the microcanonical and canonical critical points can be analytically related to each other using a Landau expansion of entropy and free energy, respectively, in analogy with what has been done in (Cohen and Mukamel 2012 J. Stat. Mech. P12017). Examples of systems with certain symmetries restricting the Landau expansion have been considered in this reference, while no such restrictions are present in Thirring’s model. This leads to a phase diagram that can be seen as a prototype for what happens in systems of particles with kinematic degrees of freedom dominated by long-range interactions.
Multifractality and Network Analysis of Phase Transition
Li, Wei; Yang, Chunbin; Han, Jihui; Su, Zhu; Zou, Yijiang
2017-01-01
Many models and real complex systems possess critical thresholds at which the systems shift dramatically from one sate to another. The discovery of early-warnings in the vicinity of critical points are of great importance to estimate how far the systems are away from the critical states. Multifractal Detrended Fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA) and visibility graph method have been employed to investigate the multifractal and geometrical properties of the magnetization time series of the two-dimensional Ising model. Multifractality of the time series near the critical point has been uncovered from the generalized Hurst exponents and singularity spectrum. Both long-term correlation and broad probability density function are identified to be the sources of multifractality. Heterogeneous nature of the networks constructed from magnetization time series have validated the fractal properties. Evolution of the topological quantities of the visibility graph, along with the variation of multifractality, serve as new early-warnings of phase transition. Those methods and results may provide new insights about the analysis of phase transition problems and can be used as early-warnings for a variety of complex systems. PMID:28107414
Preon model and cosmological quantum-hyperchromodynamic phase transition
Nishimura, H.; Hayashi, Y.
1987-05-01
From the cosmological viewpoint, we investigate whether or not recent preon models are compatible with the picture of the first-order phase transition from the preon phase to the composite quark-lepton phase. It is shown that the current models accepting the 't Hooft anomaly-matching condition together with quantum hyperchromodynamics are consistent with the cosmological first-order phase transition.
Stress induced phase transitions in silicon
Budnitzki, M.; Kuna, M.
2016-10-01
Silicon has a tremendous importance as an electronic, structural and optical material. Modeling the interaction of a silicon surface with a pointed asperity at room temperature is a major step towards the understanding of various phenomena related to brittle as well as ductile regime machining of this semiconductor. If subjected to pressure or contact loading, silicon undergoes a series of stress-driven phase transitions accompanied by large volume changes. In order to understand the material's response for complex non-hydrostatic loading situations, dedicated constitutive models are required. While a significant body of literature exists for the dislocation dominated high-temperature deformation regime, the constitutive laws used for the technologically relevant rapid low-temperature loading have severe limitations, as they do not account for the relevant phase transitions. We developed a novel finite deformation constitutive model set within the framework of thermodynamics with internal variables that captures the stress induced semiconductor-to-metal (cd-Si → β-Si), metal-to-amorphous (β-Si → a-Si) as well as amorphous-to-amorphous (a-Si → hda-Si, hda-Si → a-Si) transitions. The model parameters were identified in part directly from diamond anvil cell data and in part from instrumented indentation by the solution of an inverse problem. The constitutive model was verified by successfully predicting the transformation stress under uniaxial compression and load-displacement curves for different indenters for single loading-unloading cycles as well as repeated indentation. To the authors' knowledge this is the first constitutive model that is able to adequately describe cyclic indentation in silicon.
Phase transition in predator-prey ecosystems and a connection to transitional turbulence
Shih, Hong-Yan; Goldenfeld, Nigel
2015-03-01
We suggest how the transition from laminar fluid flow to turbulence can be connected to the extinction phase transition in spatially-extended predator-prey systems. By measuring the statistics of spontaneous relaminarization, spatiotemporal intermittency and expanding turbulent puffs in hydrodynamics equations and mapping them to the corresponding states in the predator-prey model, the extinction event and the formation and propagation of spatial patterns in ecology can be interpreted as the instabilities in fluid systems. We also summarize the general phenomena of such predator-prey dynamics in a wide class of transitional turbulence systems such as magnetohydrodynamics. This work was partially supported by the National Science Foundation through Grant NSF-DMR-1044901.
Electronic correlations at the alpha-gamma structural phase transition in paramagnetic iron
Leonov, I.; Poteryaev, A. I.; Anisimov, V. I.; Vollhardt, D.
2010-01-01
We compute the equilibrium crystal structure and phase stability of iron at the alpha(bcc)-gamma(fcc) phase transition as a function of temperature, by employing a combination of ab initio methods for calculating electronic band structures and dynamical mean-field theory. The magnetic correlation energy is found to be an essential driving force behind the alpha-gamma structural phase transition in paramagnetic iron.
Amorphous and crystalline phase interaction during the Brill transition in nylon 66
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
2009-07-01
Full Text Available A prominent α' process in specifically treated nylon 66 and microcomposite samples is identified by dynamic mechanical analysis and proposed to be an amorphous phase counterpart of the Brill transition identified by synchrotron wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD. It is suggested that this α' process, which marks a critical free volume change and an onset of segmental chain movement in the amorphous phase, precedes and prompts the Brill transition in the crystalline phase.
Quark-hadron phase transition in massive gravity
Atazadeh, K.
2016-11-01
We study the quark-hadron phase transition in the framework of massive gravity. We show that the modification of the FRW cosmological equations leads to the quark-hadron phase transition in the early massive Universe. Using numerical analysis, we consider that a phase transition based on the chiral symmetry breaking after the electroweak transition, occurred at approximately 10 μs after the Big Bang to convert a plasma of free quarks and gluons into hadrons.
Quark–hadron phase transition in massive gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Atazadeh, K., E-mail: atazadeh@azaruniv.ac.ir
2016-11-15
We study the quark–hadron phase transition in the framework of massive gravity. We show that the modification of the FRW cosmological equations leads to the quark–hadron phase transition in the early massive Universe. Using numerical analysis, we consider that a phase transition based on the chiral symmetry breaking after the electroweak transition, occurred at approximately 10 μs after the Big Bang to convert a plasma of free quarks and gluons into hadrons.
Using trading strategies to detect phase transitions in financial markets
Forró, Z.; Woodard, R.; Sornette, D.
2015-04-01
We show that the log-periodic power law singularity model (LPPLS), a mathematical embodiment of positive feedbacks between agents and of their hierarchical dynamical organization, has a significant predictive power in financial markets. We find that LPPLS-based strategies significantly outperform the randomized ones and that they are robust with respect to a large selection of assets and time periods. The dynamics of prices thus markedly deviate from randomness in certain pockets of predictability that can be associated with bubble market regimes. Our hybrid approach, marrying finance with the trading strategies, and critical phenomena with LPPLS, demonstrates that targeting information related to phase transitions enables the forecast of financial bubbles and crashes punctuating the dynamics of prices.
Dynamics of the Transition Corona
Masson, Sophie; McCauley, Patrick; Golub, Leon; Reeves, Katharine K.; DeLuca, Edward E.
2014-01-01
Magnetic reconnection between the open and closed magnetic fields in the corona is believed to play a crucial role in the corona/heliosphere coupling. At large scale, the exchange of open/closed connectivity is expected to occur in pseudo-streamer (PS) structures. However, there is neither clear observational evidence of how such coupling occurs in PSs, nor evidence for how the magnetic reconnection evolves. Using a newly developed technique, we enhance the off-limb magnetic fine structures observed with the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly and identify a PS-like feature located close to the northern coronal hole. We first identify that the magnetic topology associated with the observation is a PS, null-point (NP) related topology bounded by the open field. By comparing the magnetic field configuration with the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) emission regions, we determined that most of the magnetic flux associated with plasma emission are small loops below the PS basic NP and open field bounding the PS topology. In order to interpret the evolution of the PS, we referred to a three-dimensional MHD interchange reconnection modeling the exchange of connectivity between small closed loops and the open field. The observed PS fine structures follow the dynamics of the magnetic field before and after reconnecting at the NP obtained by the interchange model. Moreover, the pattern of the EUV plasma emission is the same as the shape of the expected plasma emission location derived from the simulation. These morphological and dynamical similarities between the PS observations and the results from the simulation strongly suggest that the evolution of the PS, and in particular the opening/closing of the field, occurs via interchange/slipping reconnection at the basic NP of the PS. Besides identifying the mechanism at work in the large-scale coupling between the open and closed fields, our results highlight that interchange reconnection in PSs is a gradual physical process that differs
Wainwright, Carroll L.
2012-09-01
I present a numerical package (CosmoTransitions) for analyzing finite-temperature cosmological phase transitions driven by single or multiple scalar fields. The package analyzes the different vacua of a theory to determine their critical temperatures (where the vacuum energy levels are degenerate), their supercooling temperatures, and the bubble wall profiles which separate the phases and describe their tunneling dynamics. I introduce a new method of path deformation to find the profiles of both thin- and thick-walled bubbles. CosmoTransitions is freely available for public use.Program summaryProgram Title: CosmoTransitionsCatalogue identifier: AEML_v1_0Program summary URL: http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEML_v1_0.htmlProgram obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. IrelandLicensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.htmlNo. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 8775No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 621096Distribution format: tar.gzProgramming language: Python.Computer: Developed on a 2009 MacBook Pro. No computer-specific optimization was performed.Operating system: Designed and tested on Mac OS X 10.6.8. Compatible with any OS with Python installed.RAM: Approximately 50 MB, mostly for loading plotting packages.Classification: 1.9, 11.1.External routines: SciPy, NumPy, matplotLibNature of problem: I describe a program to analyze early-Universe finite-temperature phase transitions with multiple scalar fields. The goal is to analyze the phase structure of an input theory, determine the amount of supercooling at each phase transition, and find the bubble-wall profiles of the nucleated bubbles that drive the transitions.Solution method: To find the bubble-wall profile, the program assumes that tunneling happens along a fixed path in field space. This reduces the equations of motion to one dimension, which can then be solved using the overshoot
Dynamical transitions in the evolution of learning algorithms by selection
Neirotti, J P; Neirotti, Juan Pablo; Caticha, Nestor
2002-01-01
We study the evolution of artificial learning systems by means of selection. Genetic programming is used to generate a sequence of populations of algorithms which can be used by neural networks for supervised learning of a rule that generates examples. In opposition to concentrating on final results, which would be the natural aim while designing good learning algorithms, we study the evolution process and pay particular attention to the temporal order of appearance of functional structures responsible for the improvements in the learning process, as measured by the generalization capabilities of the resulting algorithms. The effect of such appearances can be described as dynamical phase transitions. The concepts of phenotypic and genotypic entropies, which serve to describe the distribution of fitness in the population and the distribution of symbols respectively, are used to monitor the dynamics. In different runs the phase transitions might be present or not, with the system finding out good solutions, or ...
A Model Study Of The Deconfining Phase Transition
Velytsky, A
2004-01-01
The study of the deconfining phase transition or crossover is important for the understanding of properties of nuclear matter and the quark gluon plasma. Heavy ion collisions experiments are capable of creating conditions necessary for deconfinement. The dynamics of this process and not only its equilibrium properties are of interest. In this dissertation non-equilibrium aspects of rapid heating and cooling of the QCD vacuum are studied in a model framework. The 3-D Potts model with an external magnetic field is an effective model of QCD (of pure SU(3) gauge theory, when the magnetic field is set to zero), which we study by means of Monte Carlo simulations. Other models are used to understand the influence of the strength of the phase transition. In our investigations these systems are temperature driven through a phase transition or a rapid crossover using updating procedures in the Glauber universality class. We study hysteresis cycles with different updating speeds and simulations of a quench. Qualitativel...
The Diamagnetic Phase Transition of Dense Electron Gas: Astrophysical Applications
Wang, Zhaojun; Lü, Guoliang; Zhu, Chunhua; Wu, Baoshan
2016-10-01
Neutron stars are ideal astrophysical laboratories for testing theories of the de Haas-van Alphen effect and diamagnetic phase transition which is associated with magnetic domain formation. The “magnetic interaction” between delocalized magnetic moments of electrons (the Shoenberg effect), can result in an effect of the diamagnetic phase transition into domains of alternating magnetization (Condon's domains). Associated with the domain formation are prominent magnetic field oscillation and anisotropic magnetic stress which may be large enough to fracture the crust of magnetar with a super-strong field. Even if the fracture is impossible as in “low-field” magnetar, the depinning phase transition of domain wall (DW) motion driven by low field rate (mainly due to the Hall effect) in the randomly perturbed crust can result in a catastrophically variation of magnetic field. This intermittent motion, similar to the avalanche process, makes the Hall effect be dissipative. These qualitative consequences about magnetized electron gas are consistent with observations of magnetar emission, and especially the threshold critical dynamics of driven DW can partially overcome the difficulties of “low-field” magnetar bursts and the heating mechanism of transient, or “outbursting” magnetar.
Phase transition in traffic jam experiment on a circuit
Tadaki, Shin-ichi; Kikuchi, Macoto; Fukui, Minoru; Nakayama, Akihiro; Nishinari, Katsuhiro; Shibata, Akihiro; Sugiyama, Yuki; Yosida, Taturu; Yukawa, Satoshi
2013-10-01
The emergence of a traffic jam is considered to be a dynamical phase transition in a physics point of view; traffic flow becomes unstable and changes phase into a traffic jam when the car density exceeds a critical value. In order to verify this view, we have been performing a series of circuit experiments. In our previous work (2008 New J. Phys. 10 033001), we demonstrated that a traffic jam emerges even in the absence of bottlenecks at a certain high density. In this study, we performed a larger indoor circuit experiment in the Nagoya Dome in which the positions of cars were observed using a high-resolution laser scanner. Over a series of sessions at various values of density, we found that jammed flow occurred at high densities, whereas free flow was conserved at low densities. We also found indications of metastability at an intermediate density. The critical density is estimated by analyzing the fluctuations in speed and the density-flow relation. The value of this critical density is consistent with that observed on real expressways. This experiment provides strong support for physical interpretations of the emergence of traffic jams as a dynamical phase transition.
Dynamic wetting model for the isotropic-to-nematic transition over a flat substrate.
Rey, Alejandro D; Herrera-Valencia, E E
2014-03-14
Phase ordering over solid substrates is a ubiquitous and important soft material transformation process whose description incorporates wetting, anchoring and phase transition kinetics. In this paper the kinetics of the isotropic-to-nematic isothermal phase transition over a flat solid surface in a growing spherical drop is analyzed based on the Landau-de Gennes Q-tensor order parameter equations. The model, based on a previously derived interface force balance and a newly derived contact line force balance, is shown to be consistent with the generic model of conservative interface and contact line motions. The advancing dynamic contact angle equation is extracted from kinematic compatibility between the moving isotropic-nematic interface and contact line. A tractable surface phase transition kinetic model obtained by focusing on the dominant phase transition and wetting driving forces yields: (i) the constant advancing dynamic contact angle θ, and (ii) the contact line speed as a function of undercooling ΔT. It is shown that as undercooling increases, the surface phase transition mode approaches the bulk phase transition mode, such that θ approaches π. The elastic and wetting parameters that control the phase transformation process are identified and experiments for their determination are defined. These dynamic wetting and surface phase transition results significantly expand existing characterization methods of LC-substrate interfaces based on static phase transition droplet methods.
Uniaxial Phase Transition in Si : Ab initio Calculations
Cheng, C.
2002-01-01
Based on a previously proposed thermodynamic analysis, we study the relative stabilities of five Si phases under uniaxial compression using ab initio methods. The five phases are diamond, beta-tin, sh, sc, and hcp structures. The possible phase-transition patterns were investigated by considering the phase transitions between any two chosen phases of the five phases. By analyzing the different conributions to the relative pahse stability, we identified the most important factors in reducing t...
Phase transitions in tumor growth: III vascular and metastasis behavior
Llanos-Pérez, J. A.; Betancourt-Mar, J. A.; Cocho, G.; Mansilla, R.; Nieto-Villar, José Manuel
2016-11-01
We propose a mechanism for avascular, vascular and metastasis tumor growth based on a chemical network model. Vascular growth and metastasis, appear as a hard phase transition type, as "first order", through a supercritical Andronov-Hopf bifurcation, emergence of limit cycle and then through a cascade of bifurcations type saddle-foci Shilnikov's bifurcation. Finally, the thermodynamics framework developed shows that the entropy production rate, as a Lyapunov function, indicates the directional character and stability of the dynamical behavior of tumor growth according to this model.
Observation of dynamical precursors of the isotropic-nematic transition by computer simulation
Allen, M.P.; Frenkel, D.
1987-01-01
We present the results of the first molecular-dynamics simulations of a molecular liquid, namely a system of prolate hard ellipsoids of revolution, near the isotropic-nematic liquid-crystal phase transition. Collective rotational motion in the isotropic phase slows down on approach to the transition
Exotic quantum phase transitions of strongly interacting topological insulators
Slagle, Kevin; You, Yi-Zhuang; Xu, Cenke
2015-03-01
Using determinant quantum Monte Carlo simulations, we demonstrate that an extended Hubbard model on a bilayer honeycomb lattice has two novel quantum phase transitions. The first is a quantum phase transition between the weakly interacting gapless Dirac fermion phase and a strongly interacting fully gapped and symmetric trivial phase, which cannot be described by the standard Gross-Neveu model. The second is a quantum critical point between a quantum spin Hall insulator with spin Sz conservation and the previously mentioned strongly interacting fully gapped phase. At the latter quantum critical point the single-particle excitations remain gapped, while spin and charge gaps both close. We argue that the first quantum phase transition is related to the Z16 classification of the topological superconductor 3He-B phase with interactions, while the second quantum phase transition is a topological phase transition described by a bosonic O (4 ) nonlinear sigma model field theory with a Θ term.
Magnetocaloric materials and first order phase transitions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Neves Bez, Henrique
of the properties of such materials.The experimental characterization of these materials is done through various different methods, such as X-ray diffraction, magnetometry, calorimetry, direct measurements of entropy change, capacitance dilatometry, scanning electron microscopy,energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry......This thesis studies the first order phase transitions of the magnetocaloric materials La0.67Ca0.33MnO3 and La(Fe,Mn,Si)13Hz trying to overcome challenges that these materials face when applied in active magnetic regenerators. The study is done through experimental characterization and modelling...... and magnetocaloric regenerative tests. The magnetic, thermal and structural properties obtained from such measurements are then evaluated through different models, i.e. the Curie-Weiss law, the Bean-Rodbell model, the free electron model and the Debye model.The measured magnetocaloric properties of La0.67Ca0.33MnO3...
The phase transition of Axelrod's model revisited
Reia, Sandro M
2016-01-01
Axelrod's model with $F=2$ cultural features, where each feature can assume $k$ states drawn from a Poisson distribution of parameter $q$, exhibits a continuous nonequilibrium phase transition in the square lattice. Here we use extensive Monte Carlo simulations and finite size scaling to study the critical behavior of the order parameter $\\rho$, which is the fraction of sites that belong to the largest domain of an absorbing configuration averaged over many runs. We find that it vanishes as $\\rho \\sim \\left (q_c^0 - q \\right)^\\beta$ with $\\beta \\approx 0.25$ at the critical point $q_c^0 \\approx 3.10$ and that the exponent that measures the width of the critical region is $\
Switchable Metal-Insulator Phase Transition Metamaterials.
Hajisalem, Ghazal; Nezami, Mohammadreza S; Gordon, Reuven
2017-05-10
We investigate the switching of a gap plasmon tunnel junction between conducting and insulating states. Hysteresis is observed in the second and the third harmonic generation power dependence, which arises by thermally induced disorder ("melting") of a two-carbon self-assembled monolayer between an ultraflat gold surface and metal nanoparticles. The hysteresis is observed for a variety of nanoparticle sizes, but not for larger tunnel junctions where there is no appreciable tunneling. By combining quantum corrected finite-difference time-domain simulations with nonlinear scattering theory, we calculate the changes in the harmonic generation between the tunneling and the insulating states, and good agreement is found with the experiments. This paves the way to a new class of metal-insulator phase transition switchable metamaterials, which may provide next-generation information processing technologies.
Phase transitions in open quantum systems
Jung, C; Rotter, I
1999-01-01
We consider the behaviour of open quantum systems in dependence on the coupling to one decay channel by introducing the coupling parameter $\\alpha$ being proportional to the average degree of overlapping. Under critical conditions, a reorganization of the spectrum takes place which creates a bifurcation of the time scales with respect to the lifetimes of the resonance states. We derive analytically the conditions under which the reorganization process can be understood as a second-order phase transition and illustrate our results by numerical investigations. The conditions are fulfilled e.g. for a picket fence with equal coupling of the states to the continuum. Energy dependencies within the system are included. We consider also the generic case of an unfolded Gaussian Orthogonal Ensemble. In all these cases, the reorganization of the spectrum occurs at the critical value $\\alpha_{crit}$ of the control parameter globally over the whole energy range of the spectrum. All states act cooperatively.
Observables of non-equilibrium phase transition
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tomasik, Boris [Univerzita Mateja Bela, FPV, Banska Bystrica (Slovakia); Ceske vysoke uceni technicke v Praze, FJFI, Prague (Czech Republic); Schulc, Martin; Kopecna, Renata [Ceske vysoke uceni technicke v Praze, FJFI, Prague (Czech Republic); Melo, Ivan [Univerzita Mateja Bela, FPV, Banska Bystrica (Slovakia); Zilinska univerzita, Elektrotechnicka fakulta, Zilina (Slovakia)
2016-08-15
A rapidly expanding fireball which undergoes first-order phase transition will supercool and proceed via spinodal decomposition. Hadrons are produced from the individual fragments as well as the left-over matter filling the space between them. Emission from fragments should be visible in rapidity correlations, particularly of protons. In addition to that, even within narrow centrality classes, rapidity distributions will be fluctuating from one event to another in case of fragmentation. This can be identified with the help of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Finally, we present a method which allows to sort events with varying rapidity distributions, in such a way that events with similar rapidity histograms are grouped together. (orig.)
Scaling theory of topological phase transitions
Chen, Wei
2016-02-01
Topologically ordered systems are characterized by topological invariants that are often calculated from the momentum space integration of a certain function that represents the curvature of the many-body state. The curvature function may be Berry curvature, Berry connection, or other quantities depending on the system. Akin to stretching a messy string to reveal the number of knots it contains, a scaling procedure is proposed for the curvature function in inversion symmetric systems, from which the topological phase transition can be identified from the flow of the driving energy parameters that control the topology (hopping, chemical potential, etc) under scaling. At an infinitesimal operation, one obtains the renormalization group (RG) equations for the driving energy parameters. A length scale defined from the curvature function near the gap-closing momentum is suggested to characterize the scale invariance at critical points and fixed points, and displays a universal critical behavior in a variety of systems examined.
Probing the nature of phases across the phase transition at finite isospin chemical potential
Bali, Gunnar S; Gavai, Rajiv V; Mathur, N
2016-01-01
We compare the low eigenvalue spectra of the Overlap Dirac operator on two sets of configurations at $\\mu_I/\\mu_I^c$ = 0.5 and 1.5 generated with dynamical staggered fermions at these isospin chemical potential on $24^3 \\times 6$ lattices. We find very small changes in the number of zero modes and low lying modes which is in stark contrast with those across the corresponding finite temperature phases where one sees a drop across the phase transition. Possible consequences are discussed.
Phase transitions in undoped BaCeO3
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kuzmin, A.V.; Gorelov, V.P.; Melekh, B.T.
2003-01-01
of the structural phase transitions in BaCeO3. Five second-order transitions at 480 +/- 10, 530 +/- 10, 900 +/- 10, 1030 +/- 20 and 1170 +/- 20 K, and also one first-order transition at 665 +/- 10 K, were found. The transitions at 900 and 1030 K have not been reported before. (C) 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights...
Modeling the competing phase transition pathways in nanoscale olivine electrodes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tang Ming, E-mail: tang25@llnl.go [Condensed Matter and Materials Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Carter, W. Craig [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Belak, James F. [Condensed Matter and Materials Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Chiang, Yet-Ming [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)
2010-12-30
Recent experimental developments reveal that nanoscale lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO{sub 4}) olivine particles exhibit very different phase transition behavior from the bulk olivine phase. A crystalline-to-amorphous phase transition has been observed in nanosized particles in competition with the equilibrium phase transition between the lithium-rich and lithium-poor olivine phases. Here we apply a diffuse-interface (phase-field) model to study the kinetics of the different phase transition pathways in nanosized LiFePO{sub 4} particles upon delithiation. We find that the nucleation and growth kinetics of the crystalline-to-crystalline and crystalline-to-amorphous phase transformations are sensitive to the applied electrical overpotential and particle size, which collectively determine the preferred phase transition pathway. While the crystalline-to-crystalline phase transition is favored by either faster nucleation or growth kinetics at low or high overpotentials, particle amorphization dominates at intermediate overpotentials. Decreasing particle size expands the overpotential region in which amorphization is preferred. The asymmetry in the nucleation energy barriers for amorphization and recrystallization results in a phase transition hysteresis that should promote the accumulation of the amorphous phase in electrodes after repeated electrochemical cycling. The predicted overpotential- and size-dependent phase transition behavior of nanoscale LiFePO{sub 4} particles is consistent with experimental observations.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Moellenbeck, Simone
2011-04-11
In the present work ultra fast time resolved electron diffraction (TR-RHEED) at various adsorbate systems on silicon (Si) substrates was performed. Using the Debye-Waller-effect, the vibrational amplitude of the excited adsorbate atoms can be directly observed in the experiments as a function of time. For a coverage of 4/3 monolayers Lead (Pb) on Si(1 1 1) forms a ({radical}(3) x {radical}(3))-reconstruction. The transient intensity evolution of the diffraction spots is recorded in a TR-RHEED-experiment. After excitation with a fs-laser pulse the intensity decreases due to the Debye-Waller-effect. The temporal behavior of the de-excitation process can be described with two exponential functions: a short time constant of 100 ps and a long one of 2800 ps. The two time constants can be assigned to two different phonon modes of the Pb-adsorbate. The huge difference between the two time constants and thus difference in the coupling to the substrate is explained by the bonding geometry in the structural model. To confirm this possible explanation, further TR-RHEED-experiments for the ({radical}(7) x {radical}(3))-reconstruction of Pb on Si(1 1 1) were performed. The ({radical}(7) x {radical}(3))-reconstruction with a coverage of 1.2 monolayers shows comparable structural elements. The transient intensity evolution can be described with the identical two time constants. In addition, first experiments on the {beta} ({radical}(3) x {radical}(3))-phase of Pb/Si(1 1 1) are presented. This {beta} ({radical}(3) x {radical}(3))-reconstruction, with a coverage of 1/3 monolayers of Pb, shows a phase transition to a (3 x 3)-reconstruction, which was observed in the experiments. Further investigated adsorbate systems are: ({radical}(3) x {radical}(3))Ag/Si(1 1 1), ({radical}(3) x {radical}(3))In/Si(1 1 1), ({radical}(31) x {radical}(31))In/Si(1 1 1), and ({radical}(3) x {radical}(3))Bi/Si(1 1 1). In the second part of the present work the structural dynamics of strongly driven
Thermotropic and barotropic phase transitions on diacylphosphatidylethanolamine bilayer membranes.
Matsuki, Hitoshi; Endo, Shigeru; Sueyoshi, Ryosuke; Goto, Masaki; Tamai, Nobutake; Kaneshina, Shoji
2017-07-01
The bilayer phase transitions of four diacylphosphatidylethanolamines (PEs) with matched saturated acyl chains (Cn=12, 14, 16 and 18) and two PEs with matched unsaturated acyl chains containing a different kind of double bonds were observed by differential scanning calorimetry under atmospheric pressure and light-transmittance measurements under high pressure. The temperature-pressure phase diagrams for these PE bilayer membranes were constructed from the obtained phase-transition data. The saturated PE bilayer membranes underwent two different phase transitions related to the liquid crystalline (Lα) phase, the transition from the hydrated crystalline (Lc) phase and the chain melting (gel (Lβ) to Lα) transition, depending on the thermal history. Pressure altered the gel-phase stability of the bilayer membranes of PEs with longer chains at a low pressure. Comparing the thermodynamic quantities of the saturated PE bilayer membranes with those of diacylphosphatidylcholine (PC) bilayer membranes, the PE bilayer membranes showed higher phase-transition temperatures and formed more stable Lc phase, which originates from the strong interaction between polar head groups of PE molecules. On the other hand, the unsaturated PE bilayer membranes underwent the transition from the Lα phase to the inverted hexagonal (HII) phase at a high temperature and this transition showed a small transition enthalpy but high pressure-responsivity. It turned out that the kind of double bonds markedly affects both bilayer-bilayer and bilayer-nonbilayer transitions and the Lα/HII transition is a volume driven transition for the reconstruction of molecular packing. Further, the phase-transition behavior was explained by chemical potential curves of bilayer phases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
The Deconfinement Phase Transition in the Interior of Neutron Stars
Zhou, Xia
2010-01-01
The decon?nement phase transition which happens in the interior of neutron stars are investigated. Coupled with the spin evolution of the stars, the effect of entropy production and deconfinement heat generation during the deconfinement phase transition in the mixed phase of the neutron stars are discussed. The entropy production of deconfinement phase transition can be act as a signature of phase transition, but less important and does not significantly change the thermal evolution of neutron stars. The deconfinement heat can change the thermal evolution of neutron star distinctly.
Topological and geometrical aspects of phase transitions
Santos, F. A. N.; Rehn, J. A.; Coutinho-Filho, M. D.
2014-03-01
In the first part of this review, we use a topological approach to describe the frustration- and field-induced phase transitions exhibited by the infinite-range XY model on the AB2 chain, including noncollinear spin structures. For this purpose, we have computed the Euler characteristic, χ, as well as other topological invariants, which are found to behave similarly as a function of the energy level in the context of Morse theory. Our findings and those available in the literature suggest that the cusp-like singularity exhibited by χ at the critical energy, Ec, put together with the divergence of the density of Jacobian's critical points emerge as necessary and sufficient conditions for the occurrence of finite-temperature topology-induced phase transitions. In the second part, we present an alternative solution of the Ising chain in a field under free and periodic boundary conditions, in the microcanonical, canonical, and grand canonical ensembles, from a unified combinatorial and topological perspective. In particular, the computation of the per-site entropy as a function of the energy unveils a residual value for critical values of the magnetic field, a phenomenon for which we provide a topological interpretation and a connection with the Fibonacci sequence. We also show that, in the thermodynamic limit, the per-site microcanonical entropy is equal to the logarithm of the per-site Euler characteristic. Finally, we emphasize that our combinatorial approach to the canonical ensemble allows exact computation of the thermally averaged value (T) of the Euler characteristic; our results show that the conjecture (Tc)= 0, where Tc is the critical temperature, is valid for the Ising chain.
Absorbing State Phase Transition with Competing Quantum and Classical Fluctuations
Marcuzzi, Matteo; Buchhold, Michael; Diehl, Sebastian; Lesanovsky, Igor
2016-06-01
Stochastic processes with absorbing states feature examples of nonequilibrium universal phenomena. While the classical regime has been thoroughly investigated in the past, relatively little is known about the behavior of these nonequilibrium systems in the presence of quantum fluctuations. Here, we theoretically address such a scenario in an open quantum spin model which, in its classical limit, undergoes a directed percolation phase transition. By mapping the problem to a nonequilibrium field theory, we show that the introduction of quantum fluctuations stemming from coherent, rather than statistical, spin flips alters the nature of the transition such that it becomes first order. In the intermediate regime, where classical and quantum dynamics compete on equal terms, we highlight the presence of a bicritical point with universal features different from the directed percolation class in a low dimension. We finally propose how this physics could be explored within gases of interacting atoms excited to Rydberg states.
Phase transitions and hysteresis of cooperative contagion processes
Chen, Li; Brockmann, Dirk
2016-01-01
We investigate the effects of cooperation between two interacting infectious diseases that spread and stabilize in a host population. We propose a model in which individuals that are infected with one disease are more likely to acquire the second disease, both diseases following the susceptible-infected-susceptible reaction scheme. We analyze cooperative coinfection in stochastic network models as well as the idealized, well-mixed mean field system and show that cooperative mechanisms dramatically change the nature of phase transitions compared to single disease dynamics. We show that, generically, cooperative coinfection exhibits discontinuous transitions from the disease free to high prevalence state when a critical transmission rate is crossed. Furthermore, cooperative coinfection exhibits two distinct critical points, one for outbreaks the second one for eradication that can be substantially lower. This implies that cooperative coinfection exhibits hysteresis in its response to changing effective transmis...
Phase transitions in contagion processes mediated by recurrent mobility patterns
Balcan, Duygu; 10.1038/nphys1944
2011-01-01
Human mobility and activity patterns mediate contagion on many levels, including the spatial spread of infectious diseases, diffusion of rumors, and emergence of consensus. These patterns however are often dominated by specific locations and recurrent flows and poorly modeled by the random diffusive dynamics generally used to study them. Here we develop a theoretical framework to analyze contagion within a network of locations where individuals recall their geographic origins. We find a phase transition between a regime in which the contagion affects a large fraction of the system and one in which only a small fraction is affected. This transition cannot be uncovered by continuous deterministic models due to the stochastic features of the contagion process and defines an invasion threshold that depends on mobility parameters, providing guidance for controlling contagion spread by constraining mobility processes. We recover the threshold behavior by analyzing diffusion processes mediated by real human commutin...
Dynamical transitions of a driven Ising interface.
Sahai, Manish K; Sengupta, Surajit
2008-03-01
We study the structure of an interface in a three-dimensional Ising system created by an external nonuniform field H(r,t) . H changes sign over a two-dimensional plane of arbitrary orientation. When the field is pulled with velocity v(e) , [i.e., H(r,t)=H(r-v(e)t) ], the interface undergoes several dynamical transitions. For low velocities it is pinned by the field profile and moves along with it, the distribution of local slopes undergoing a series of commensurate-incommensurate transitions. For large v(e) the interface depins and grows with Kardar-Parisi-Zhang exponents.
Hamad, Ibrahim Abou; Novotny, Mark A; Rikvold, Per Arne
2007-01-01
We propose a new, cyclic-voltammetry based experimental technique that can not only differentiate between discontinuous and continuous phase transitions in an adsorbate layer, but also quite accurately recover equilibrium behavior from dynamic analysis of systems with a continuous phase transition. The Electrochemical first-order reversal curve (EC-FORC) diagram for a discontinuous phase transition (nucleation and growth), such as occurs in underpotential deposition, is characterized by a negative region, while such a region does not exist for a continuous phase transition, such as occurs in the electrosorption of Br on Ag(100). Moreover, for systems with a continuous phase transition, the minima of the individual EC-FORCs trace the equilibrium curve, even at very high scan rates. Since obtaining experimental data for the EC-FORC method would require only a simple reprogramming of the potentiostat used in conventional cyclic-voltammetry experiments, we believe that this method has significant potential for ea...
Phase Transition Properties of 3D Potts Models
Bazavov, Alexei; Dubey, Santosh
2008-01-01
Using multicanonical Metropolis simulations we estimate phase transition properties of 3D Potts models for q=4 to 10: The transition temperatures, latent heats, entropy gaps, normalized entropies at the disordered and ordered endpoints, interfacial tensions, and spinodal endpoints.
Non-equilibrium phase transitions in complex plasma
Sutterlin, K. R.; Wysocki, A.; Rath, C.; Ivlev, A. V.; Thomas, H. M.; Khrapak, S.; Zhdanov, S.; Rubin-Zuzic, M.; W. J. Goedheer,; Fortov, V. E.; Lipaev, A. M.; Molotkov, V. I.; Petrov, O. F.; Morfill, G. E.; Lowen, H.
2010-01-01
Complex plasma being the 'plasma state of soft matter' is especially suitable for investigations of non-equilibrium phase transitions. Non-equilibrium phase transitions can manifest in dissipative structures or self-organization. Two specific examples are lane formation and phase separatio
Nonequilibrium stationary states and phase transitions in directed Ising models
Godrèche, Claude; Bray, Alan J.
2009-12-01
We study the nonequilibrium properties of directed Ising models with non-conserved dynamics, in which each spin is influenced by only a subset of its nearest neighbours. We treat the following models: (i) the one-dimensional chain; (ii) the two-dimensional square lattice; (iii) the two-dimensional triangular lattice and (iv) the three-dimensional cubic lattice. We raise and answer the question: (a) under what conditions is the stationary state described by the equilibrium Boltzmann-Gibbs distribution? We show that, for models (i), (ii) and (iii), in which each spin 'sees' only half of its neighbours, there is a unique set of transition rates, namely with exponential dependence in the local field, for which this is the case. For model (iv), we find that any rates satisfying the constraints required for the stationary measure to be Gibbsian should satisfy detailed balance, ruling out the possibility of directed dynamics. We finally show that directed models on lattices of coordination number z>=8 with exponential rates cannot accommodate a Gibbsian stationary state. We conjecture that this property extends to any form of the rates. We are thus led to the conclusion that directed models with Gibbsian stationary states only exist in dimensions one and two. We then raise the question: (b) do directed Ising models, augmented by Glauber dynamics, exhibit a phase transition to a ferromagnetic state? For the models considered above, the answers are open problems, with the exception of the simple cases (i) and (ii). For Cayley trees, where each spin sees only the spins further from the root, we show that there is a phase transition provided the branching ratio, q, satisfies q>=3.
Phase transitions in a gas of anyons
MacKenzie, R; Paranjape, M B; Richer, J
2010-01-01
We continue our numerical Monte Carlo simulation of a gas of closed loops on a 3 dimensional lattice, however now in the presence of a topological term added to the action corresponding to the total linking number between the loops. We compute the linking number using certain notions from knot theory. Adding the topological term converts the particles into anyons. Using the correspondence that the model is an effective theory that describes the 2+1-dimensional Abelian Higgs model in the asymptotic strong coupling regime, the topological linking number simply corresponds to the addition to the action of the Chern-Simons term. We find the following new results. The system continues to exhibit a phase transition as a function of the anyon mass as it becomes small \\cite{mnp}, although the phases do not change the manifestation of the symmetry. The Chern-Simons term has no effect on the Wilson loop, but it does affect the {\\rm '}t Hooft loop. For a given configuration it adds the linking number of the 't Hooft loo...
Phase transition in compact stars due to a violent shock
Mishustin, Igor; Nandi, Rana; Satarov, Leonid
2014-01-01
In this letter we study the dynamics of a first order phase transition from nucleonic to quark matter in neutron stars. Using standard equations of state for these two phases we find the density range where such a transition is possible. Then we study the transformation of the star assuming that the quark core is formed via a spherical shock wave. The thermodynamical conditions in the quark core are found from the conservation laws across the transition region. Their dependence on the density and velocity of the incoming nuclear matter are studied. It is found that the shock is especially violent in the beginning of the conversion process when the velocity of the infalling matter is especially high. As the shock propagates further from the center the front velocity first increases and reaches a maximum value when the incoming velocity is around $0.2$. Finally, the front velocity quickly goes to zero when incoming matter velocity approaches zero. We have shown that the density and pressure jumps are especially...
Characterizing quantum phase transitions by single qubit operations
Giampaolo, S M; De Siena, S
2006-01-01
We introduce observable quantities, borrowing from concepts of quantum information theory, for the characterization of quantum phase transitions in spin systems. These observables are uniquely defined in terms of single spin unitary operations. We define the energy gap between the ground state and the state produced by the action of a single-qubit local gate. We show that this static quantity involves only single-site expectations and two-point correlation functions on the ground state. We then discuss a dynamical local observable defined as the acceleration of quantum state evolution after performing an instaneous single-qubit perturbation on the ground state. This quantity involves three-point correlations as well. We show that both the static and the dynamical observables detect and characterize completely quantum critical points in a class of spin systems.
Quantum phase transition and entanglement in Li atom system
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2008-01-01
By use of the exact diagonalization method, the quantum phase transition and en- tanglement in a 6-Li atom system are studied. It is found that entanglement appears before the quantum phase transition and disappears after it in this exactly solvable quantum system. The present results show that the von Neumann entropy, as a measure of entanglement, may reveal the quantum phase transition in this model.
Discord under the influence of a quantum phase transition
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wang Lin-cheng; Shen Jian; Yi Xue-Xi
2011-01-01
This paper studies the discord of a bipartite two-level system coupling to an XY spin-chain environment in a transverse field and investigates the relationship between the discord property and the environment's quantum phase transition. The results show that the quantum discord is also able to characterize the quantum phase transitions. We also discuss the difference between discord and entanglement, and show that quantum discord may reveal more general information than quantum entanglement for characterizing the environment's quantum phase transition.
Noise-Induced Phase Transition in Traffic Flow
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI Ke-Ping; GAO Zi-You
2004-01-01
One of the dynamic phases of the traffic flow is the traffic jam. It appears in traffic flow when the vehicledensity is larger than the critical value. In this paper, a new method is presented to investigate the traffic jam when thevehicle density is smaller than the critical value. In our method, we introduce noise into the traffic system after sufficienttransient time. Under the effect of noise, the traffic jam appears, and the phase transition from tree to synchronized flowoccurs in traffic flow. Our method is tested for the deterministic NaSch traffic model. The simulation results demonstratethat there exist a broad range of lower densities at which the noise effect leading to traffic jam can be observed.
Noise-Induced Phase Transition in Traffic Flow
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIKe-Ping; GAOZi-You
2004-01-01
One of the dynamic phases of the traffic flow is the traffic jam. It appears in traffic flow when the vehicle density is larger than the critical value. In this paper, a new method is presented to investigate the traffic jam when the vehicle density is smaller than the critical value. In our method, we introduce noise into the traffic system after sufficient transient time. Under the effect of noise, the traffic jam appears, and the phase transition from free to synchronized flow occurs in traffic flow. Our method is tested for the deterministic NaSch traffic model. The simulation results demonstrate that there exist a broad range of lower densities at which the noise effect leading to traffic jam can be observed.
Phase transition of holographic entanglement entropy in massive gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zeng, Xiao-Xiong, E-mail: xxzeng@itp.ac.cn [School of Material Science and Engineering, Chongqing Jiaotong University, Chongqing 400074 (China); Key Laboratory of Frontiers in Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Zhang, Hongbao, E-mail: hzhang@vub.ac.be [Department of Physics, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Theoretische Natuurkunde, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, and The International Solvay Institutes, Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Li, Li-Fang, E-mail: lilf@itp.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Space Weather, National Space Science Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)
2016-05-10
The phase structure of holographic entanglement entropy is studied in massive gravity for the quantum systems with finite and infinite volumes, which in the bulk is dual to calculating the minimal surface area for a black hole and black brane respectively. In the entanglement entropy–temperature plane, we find for both the black hole and black brane there is a Van der Waals-like phase transition as the case in thermal entropy–temperature plane. That is, there is a first order phase transition for the small charge and a second order phase transition at the critical charge. For the first order phase transition, the equal area law is checked and for the second order phase transition, the critical exponent of the heat capacity is obtained. All the results show that the phase structure of holographic entanglement entropy is the same as that of thermal entropy regardless of the volume of the spacetime on the boundary.
Holographic phase transition probed by non-local observables
Zeng, Xiao-Xiong
2016-01-01
From the viewpoint of holography, the phase structure of a 5-dimensional Reissner-Nordstr\\"{o}m-AdS black hole is probed by the two point correlation function, Wilson loop, and entanglement entropy. As the case of thermal entropy, we find for all the probes, the black hole undergos a Hawking-Page phase transition, a first order phase transition and a second order phase transition successively before it reaches to a stable phase. In addition, for these probes, we find the equal area law for the first order phase transition is valid always and the critical exponent of the heat capacity for the second order phase transition coincides with that of the mean field theory regardless of the size of the boundary region.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Simone Techert
2009-09-01
Full Text Available Photo-induced phase transitions are characterized by the transformation from phase A to phase B through the absorption of photons. We have investigated the mechanism of the photo-induced phase transitions of four different ternary systems CiE4/alkane (i with n = 8, 10, 12, 14; cyclohexane/H2O. We were interested in understanding the effect of chain length increase on the dynamics of transformation from the microemulsion phase to the liquid crystal phase. Applying light pump (pulse/x-ray probe (pulse techniques, we could demonstrate that entropy and diffusion control are the driving forces for the kind of phase transition investigated.
Evolution of order and chaos across a first-order quantum phase transition
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Leviatan, A., E-mail: ami@phys.huji.ac.il [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Macek, M., E-mail: mmacek@phys.huji.ac.il [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel)
2012-07-24
We study the evolution of the dynamics across a generic first-order quantum phase transition in an interacting boson model of nuclei. The dynamics inside the phase coexistence region exhibits a very simple pattern. A classical analysis reveals a robustly regular dynamics confined to the deformed region and well separated from a chaotic dynamics ascribed to the spherical region. A quantum analysis discloses regular bands of states in the deformed region, which persist to energies well above the phase-separating barrier, in the face of a complicated environment. The impact of kinetic collective rotational terms on this intricate interplay of order and chaos is investigated.
Evolution of order and chaos across a first-order quantum phase transition
Leviatan, A
2012-01-01
We study the evolution of the dynamics across a generic first order quantum phase transition in an interacting boson model of nuclei. The dynamics inside the phase coexistence region exhibits a very simple pattern. A classical analysis reveals a robustly regular dynamics confined to the deformed region and well separated from a chaotic dynamics ascribed to the spherical region. A quantum analysis discloses regular bands of states in the deformed region, which persist to energies well above the phase-separating barrier, in the face of a complicated environment. The impact of kinetic collective rotational terms on this intricate interplay of order and chaos is investigated.
New Cyclic Voltammetry Method for Examining Phase Transitions on Electrodes: Simulated Results
Abou Hamad, Ibrahim; Robb, Daniel; Rikvold, Per Arne
2007-03-01
We propose a new experimental technique for cyclic voltammetry, based on the first-order reversal curve (FORC) method for analysis of systems undergoing hysteresis. The advantages of this technique are demonstrated by applying it to dynamical models of electrochemical adsorption. The method can not only differentiate between discontinuous and continuous phase transitions, but can also quite accurately recover equilibrium behavior from dynamic analysis of systems with a continuous phase transition. The FORC diagram for a discontinuous phase transition is characterized by a negative (unstable) region separating two positive (stable) regions, while such a negative region does not exist for continuous phase transitions. Experimental data for Electrochemical FORC (EC-FORC) analysis could easily be obtained by simple reprogramming of a potentiostat designed for conventional cyclic-voltammetry experiments.I. Abou Hamad, D.T. Robb, P.A. Rikvold, J. Electroanal. Chem., in press.
Non-equilibrium dynamical phases of the two-atom Dicke model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bhattacherjee, Aranya B.
2014-09-12
In this paper, we investigate the non-equilibrium dynamical phases of the two-atom Dicke model, which can be realized in a two species Bose–Einstein condensate interacting with a single light mode in an optical cavity. Apart from the usual non-equilibrium normal and inverted phases, a non-equilibrium mixed phase is possible which is a combination of normal and inverted phase. A new kind of dynamical phase transition is predicted from non-superradiant mixed phase to the superradiant phase which can be achieved by tuning the two different atom–photon couplings. We also show that a dynamical phase transition from the non-superradiant mixed phase to the superradiant phase is forbidden for certain values of the two atom–photon coupling strengths. - Highlights: • We investigate the non-equilibrium dynamical phases of the two-atom Dicke model. • The dynamical phase diagram reveals a new kind of non-equilibrium mixed phase. • A new kind of dynamical phase transition is predicted from mixed phase to the superradiant phase. • In the dynamical phase diagram of the mixed phase, there are regions where the superradiant phase cannot exist.
Elastic phase transitions in metals at high pressures.
Krasilnikov, O M; Vekilov, Yu Kh; Mosyagin, I Yu; Isaev, E I; Bondarenko, N G
2012-04-19
The elastic phase transitions of cubic metals at high pressures are investigated within the framework of Landau theory. It is shown that at pressures comparable with the magnitude of the bulk modulus the phase transition is connected with the loss of stability relative to uniform deformation of the crystalline lattice. Discontinuity of the order parameter at the transition point and its equilibrium value are expressed through the second- to fourth-order elastic constants. The second-,third- and fourth-order elastic constants and phonon dispersion curves of vanadium under hydrostatic pressure are obtained by first-principles calculations. Structural transformation in vanadium under pressure is studied using the obtained results. It is shown that the experimentally observed at P ≈ 69 GPa phase transition in vanadium is the first-order phase transition close to a second-order phase transition.
Pressure induced phase transitions in ceramic compounds containing tetragonal zirconia
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sparks, R.G.; Pfeiffer, G.; Paesler, M.A.
1988-12-01
Stabilized tetragonal zirconia compounds exhibit a transformation toughening process in which stress applied to the material induces a crystallographic phase transition. The phase transition is accompanied by a volume expansion in the stressed region thereby dissipating stress and increasing the fracture strength of the material. The hydrostatic component of the stress required to induce the phase transition can be investigated by the use of a high pressure technique in combination with Micro-Raman spectroscopy. The intensity of Raman lines characteristic for the crystallographic phases can be used to calculate the amount of material that has undergone the transition as a function of pressure. It was found that pressures on the order of 2-5 kBar were sufficient to produce an almost complete transition from the original tetragonal to the less dense monoclinic phase; while a further increase in pressure caused a gradual reversal of the transition back to the original tetragonal structure.
Atomistic simulation of fcc-bcc phase transition in single crystal A1 under uniform compression
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Li Li; Shao Jian-Li; Li Yan-Fang; Duan Su-Qing; [ Liang Jiu-Qing
2012-01-01
By molecular dynamics simulations employing an embedded atom model potential,we investigate the fcc-to-bcc phase transition in single crystal Al,caused by uniform compression.Results show that the fec structure is unstable when the pressure is over 250 GPa,in reasonable agreement with the calculated value through the density functional theory.The morphology evolution of the structural transition and the corresponding transition mechanism are analysed in detail.The bec (011) planes are transited from the fcc (11(1)) plane and the (1(1)1) plane.We suggest that the transition mechanism consists mainly of compression,shear,slid and rotation of the lattice.In addition,our radial distribution function analysis explicitly indicates the phase transition of A1 from fcc phase to bcc structure.
Highly birefringent crystal for Raman transitions with phase modulators
Arias, Nieves; Abediyeh, Vahide; Hamzeloui, Saeed; Jeronimo-Moreno, Yasser; Gomez, Eduardo
2016-05-01
We present a system to excite Raman transitions with minimum phase noise. The system uses a phase modulator to generate the phase locked beams required for the transition. We use a long calcite crystal to filter out one of the sidebands, avoiding the cancellation that appears at high detunings for phase modulation. The measured phase noise is limited by the quality of the microwave synthesizer. We use the calcite crystal a second time to produce a co-propagating Raman pair with perpendicular polarizations to drive velocity insensitive Raman transitions. Support from CONACYT and Fundacion Marcos Moshinsky.
Van der Waals phase transition in the framework of holography
Zeng, Xiao-Xiong
2015-01-01
Phase structure of the quintessence Reissner-Nordstr\\"{o}m-AdS black hole is probed with the nonlocal observables such as holographic entanglement entropy and two point correlation function. Our result shows that, as the case of the thermal entropy, both the observables exhibit the similar Van der Waals-like phase transition. To reinforce the conclusion, we further check the equal area law for the first order phase transition and critical exponent of the heat capacity for the second order phase transition. We also discuss the effect of the state parameter on the phase structure of the nonlocal observables.
ATLAS Transition Region Upgrade at Phase-1
Song, H; The ATLAS collaboration
2014-01-01
This report presents the L1 Muon trigger transition region (1.0<|ƞ|<1.3) upgrade of ATLAS Detector at phase-1. The high fake trigger rate in the Endcap region 1.0<|ƞ|<2.4 would become a serious problem for the ATLAS L1 Muon trigger system at high luminosity. For the region 1.3<|ƞ|<2.4, covered by the Small Wheel, ATLAS is enhancing the present muon trigger by adding local fake rejection and track angle measurement capabilities. To reduce the rate in the remaining ƞ interval it has been proposed a similar enhancement by adding at the edge of the inner barrel a structure of 3-layers RPCs of a new generation. These RPCs will be based on a thinner gas gap and electrodes with respect to the ATLAS standards, a new high performance Front End, integrating fast TDC capabilities, and a new low profile and light mechanical structure allowing the installation in the tiny space available.This design effectively suppresses fake triggers by making the coincidence with both end-cap and interaction point...
Phase transitions in models of human cooperation
Perc, Matjaž
2016-08-01
If only the fittest survive, why should one cooperate? Why should one sacrifice personal benefits for the common good? Recent research indicates that a comprehensive answer to such questions requires that we look beyond the individual and focus on the collective behavior that emerges as a result of the interactions among individuals, groups, and societies. Although undoubtedly driven also by culture and cognition, human cooperation is just as well an emergent, collective phenomenon in a complex system. Nonequilibrium statistical physics, in particular the collective behavior of interacting particles near phase transitions, has already been recognized as very valuable for understanding counterintuitive evolutionary outcomes. However, unlike pairwise interactions among particles that typically govern solid-state physics systems, interactions among humans often involve group interactions, and they also involve a larger number of possible states even for the most simplified description of reality. Here we briefly review research done in the realm of the public goods game, and we outline future research directions with an emphasis on merging the most recent advances in the social sciences with methods of nonequilibrium statistical physics. By having a firm theoretical grip on human cooperation, we can hope to engineer better social systems and develop more efficient policies for a sustainable and better future.
Swarms, Phase Transitions, and Collective Intelligence
Millonas, M M
1993-01-01
A spacially extended model of the collective behavior of a large number of locally acting organisms is proposed in which organisms move probabilistically between local cells in space, but with weights dependent on local morphogenetic substances, or morphogens. The morphogens are in turn are effected by the passage of an organism. The evolution of the morphogens, and the corresponding flow of the organisms constitutes the collective behavior of the group. Such models have various types of phase transitions and self-organizing properties controlled both by the level of the noise, and other parameters. The model is then applied to the specific case of ants moving on a lattice. The local behavior of the ants is inspired by the actual behavior observed in the laboratory, and analytic results for the collective behavior are compared to the corresponding laboratory results. It is hoped that the present model might serve as a paradigmatic example of a complex cooperative system in nature. In particular swarm models c...
Entanglement, quantum phase transitions and quantum algorithms
Orus, R
2006-01-01
The work that we present in this thesis tries to be at the crossover of quantum information science, quantum many-body physics, and quantum field theory. We use tools from these three fields to analyze problems that arise in the interdisciplinary intersection. More concretely, in Chapter 1 we consider the irreversibility of renormalization group flows from a quantum information perspective by using majorization theory and conformal field theory. In Chapter 2 we compute the entanglement of a single copy of a bipartite quantum system for a variety of models by using techniques from conformal field theory and Toeplitz matrices. The entanglement entropy of the so-called Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick model is computed in Chapter 3, showing analogies with that of (1+1)-dimensional quantum systems. In Chapter 4 we apply the ideas of scaling of quantum correlations in quantum phase transitions to the study of quantum algorithms, focusing on Shor's factorization algorithm and quantum algorithms by adiabatic evolution solving a...
Phase Transitions in Two-Dimensional Traffic Flow Models
Cuesta, J A; Molera, J M; Cuesta, José A; Martinez, Froilán C; Molera, Juan M
1993-01-01
Abstract: We introduce two simple two-dimensional lattice models to study traffic flow in cities. We have found that a few basic elements give rise to the characteristic phase diagram of a first-order phase transition from a freely moving phase to a jammed state, with a critical point. The jammed phase presents new transitions corresponding to structural transformations of the jam. We discuss their relevance in the infinite size limit.
Phase Transitions in Two-Dimensional Traffic Flow Models
Cuesta, José A; Molera, Juan M; Escuela, Angel Sánchez; 10.1103/PhysRevE.48.R4175
2009-01-01
We introduce two simple two-dimensional lattice models to study traffic flow in cities. We have found that a few basic elements give rise to the characteristic phase diagram of a first-order phase transition from a freely moving phase to a jammed state, with a critical point. The jammed phase presents new transitions corresponding to structural transformations of the jam. We discuss their relevance in the infinite size limit.
Regularity and chaos at critical points of first-order quantum phase transitions
Macek, Michal
2011-01-01
We study the interplay between regular and chaotic dynamics at the critical point of a first order quantum shape-phase transition in an interacting boson model of nuclei. A classical analysis reveals a distinct behavior of the coexisting phases in a broad energy range. The dynamics is completely regular in the deformed phase while it becomes strongly chaotic in the spherical phase. A quantum analysis of the spectra separates the regular states from the irregular ones, assigns them to particular phases and discloses persisting regular rotational bands in the deformed region.
Phase Space Structures of k-threshold Sequential Dynamical Systems
Rani, Raffaele
2011-01-01
Sequential dynamical systems (SDS) are used to model a wide range of processes occurring on graphs or networks. The dynamics of such discrete dynamical systems is completely encoded by their phase space, a directed graph whose vertices and edges represent all possible system configurations and transitions between configurations respectively. Direct calculation of the phase space is in most cases a computationally demanding task. However, for some classes of SDS one can extract information on the connected component structure of phase space from the constituent elements of the SDS, such as its base graph and vertex functions. We present a number of novel results about the connected component structure of the phase space for k-threshold dynamical system with binary state spaces. We establish relations between the structure of the components, the threshold value, and the update sequence. Also fixed-point reachability from garden of eden configurations is investigated and upper bounds for the length of paths in t...
Fast phase transitions induced by picosecond electrical pulses on phase change memory cells
Wang, W. J.; Shi, L. P.; Zhao, R.; Lim, K. G.; Lee, H. K.; Chong, T. C.; Wu, Y. H.
2008-07-01
The reversible and fast phase transitions induced by picosecond electrical pulses are observed in the nanostructured GeSbTe materials, which provide opportunities in the application of high speed nonvolatile random access memory devices. The mechanisms for fast phase transition are discussed based on the investigation of the correlation between phase transition speed and material size. With the shrinkage of material dimensions, the size effects play increasingly important roles in enabling the ultrafast phase transition under electrical activation. The understanding of how the size effects contribute to the phase transition speed is of great importance for ultrafast phenomena and applications.
Cosmological Consequences of QCD Phase Transition(s) in Early Universe
Tawfik, A
2008-01-01
We discuss the cosmological consequences of QCD phase transition(s) on the early universe. We argue that our recent knowledge about the transport properties of quark-gluon plasma (QGP) should throw additional lights on the actual time evolution of our universe. Understanding the nature of QCD phase transition(s), which can be studied in lattice gauge theory and verified in heavy ion experiments, provides an explanation for cosmological phenomenon stem from early universe.
Coexistence of order and chaos at critical points of first-order quantum phase transitions in nuclei
Macek, M
2011-01-01
We study the interplay between ordered and chaotic dynamics at the critical point of a generic first-order quantum phase transition in the interacting boson model of nuclei. Classical and quantum analyses reveal a distinct behavior of the coexisting phases. While the dynamics in the deformed phase is robustly regular, the spherical phase shows strongly chaotic behavior in the same energy intervals. The effect of collective rotations on the dynamics is investigated.
Explosive Phase Transition in a Majority-Vote Model with Inertia
Chen, Hanshuang; Zhang, Haifeng; Li, Guofeng; Hou, Zhonghuai; Kurths, Jürgen
2016-01-01
We generalize the original majority-vote model by incorporating an inertia into the microscopic dynamics of the spin flipping, where the spin-flip probability of any individual depends not only on the states of its neighbors, but also on its own state. Surprisingly, the order-disorder phase transition is changed from a usual continuous type to a discontinuous or an explosive one when the inertia is above an appropriate level. A central feature of such an explosive transition is a strong hysteresis behavior as noise intensity goes forward and backward. Within the hysteresis region, a disordered phase and two symmetric ordered phases are coexisting and transition rates between these phases are numerically calculated by a rare-event sampling method. A mean-field theory is developed to analytically reveal the property of this phase transition.
Pressure-Induced Phase Transitions of n-Tridecane
Yamashita, Motoi
Pressure-induced phase transition behavior of n-tridecane from the ordered phase through the rotator phase into the liquid phase has been investigated by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy at 25 °C. The transition between the ordered and rotator phases has been observed in the pressure range of 270-220 MPa and the transition between the rotator and liquid phases has been observed in the pressure range of 171-112 MPa, within the experimental error of ±50 MPa. The populations of the -gtg- + -gtg'-, -gg- and gt- defects determined from the methylene wagging mode are smaller in the rotator phase than in the liquid phase and are smaller under higher pressure in both of the rotator and liquid phases. A relationship has been found between the conformation and the intensity of the 890 cm-1 band, which has been assigned as the methyl rocking mode and has been considered as insensitive to conformation.
Quantum phase transitions in Bose-Fermi systems
Petrellis, D; Iachello, F
2011-01-01
Quantum phase transitions in a system of N bosons with angular momentum L=0,2 (s,d) and a single fermion with angular momentum j are investigated both classically and quantum mechanically. It is shown that the presence of the odd fermion strongly influences the location and nature of the phase transition, especially the critical value of the control parameter at which the phase transition occurs. Experimental evidence for the U(5)-SU(3) (spherical to axially-deformed) transition in odd-even nuclei is presented.
Liquid-Gas Phase Transition in Nuclear Equation of State
Lee, S J
1997-01-01
A canonical ensemble model is used to describe a caloric curve of nuclear liquid-gas phase transition. Allowing a discontinuity in the freeze out density from one spinodal density to another for a given initial temperature, the nuclear liquid-gas phase transition can be described as first order. Averaging over various freeze out densities of all the possible initial temperatures for a given total reaction energy, the first order characteristics of liquid-gas phase transition is smeared out to a smooth transition. Two experiments, one at low beam energy and one at high beam energy show different caloric behaviors and are discussed.
On the theory of phase transitions in polypeptides
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yakubovich, Alexander V.; Solov'yov, Ilia; Greiner, Walter
2008-01-01
We suggest a theoretical method based on the statistical mechanics for treating the alpha-helix random coil transition in polypeptides. This process is considered as a first-order-like phase transition. The developed theory is free of model parameters and is based solely on fundamental physical...... principles. We apply the developed formalism for the description of thermodynamical properties of alanine polypeptides of different length. We analyze the essential thermodynamical properties of the system such as heat capacity, phase transition temperature and latent heat of the phase transition...
Liquid-liquid phase transition in Stillinger-Weber silicon
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Beaucage, Philippe; Mousseau, Normand [Departement de Physique and Regroupement Quebecois sur les Materiaux de Pointe, Universite de Montreal, CP 6128, Succursale Centre-ville, Montreal, QC, H3C 3J7 (Canada)
2005-04-20
It was recently demonstrated that Stillinger-Weber silicon undergoes a liquid-liquid first-order phase transition deep into the supercooled region (Sastry and Angell 2003 Nat. Mater. 2 739). Here we study the effects of perturbations on this phase transition. We show that the order of the liquid-liquid transition changes with negative pressure. We also find that the liquid-liquid transition disappears when the three-body term of the potential is strengthened by as little as 5%. This implies that the details of the potential could affect strongly the nature and even the existence of the liquid-liquid phase.
On the Phase Transition of N-Isopropylcarbazole.
1986-05-01
vacinity of the phase transition (ca. T 137 + 40 K). We propose a semiquantitative interpretation of the phase transition in NIPC based on this assumption...the order parameter fluctuations in the vacinity of TO . V. Conclusions. The elastic properties of NIPC in the temperature range 90 K - 295 K have
Local discontinuous Galerkin methods for phase transition problems
Tian, Lulu
2015-01-01
In this thesis we develop a local discontinuous Galerkin (LDG) finite element method to solve mathematical models for phase transitions in solids and fluids. The first model we study is called a viscosity-capillarity (VC) system associated with phase transitions in elastic bars and Van der Waals
Quantum Monte Carlo simulation of topological phase transitions
Yamamoto, Arata; Kimura, Taro
2016-12-01
We study the electron-electron interaction effects on topological phase transitions by the ab initio quantum Monte Carlo simulation. We analyze two-dimensional class A topological insulators and three-dimensional Weyl semimetals with the long-range Coulomb interaction. The direct computation of the Chern number shows the electron-electron interaction modifies or extinguishes topological phase transitions.
Diamagnetic phase transitions in two-dimensional conductors
Bakaleinikov, L. A.; Gordon, A.
2014-11-01
A theory describing the susceptibility amplitude and the magnetic induction bifurcation near the dHvA driven diamagnetic phase transitions in quasi two-dimensional (2D) organic conductors of the (ET)2X with X=Cu(NCS)2, KHg(SCN)4, I3, AuBr2, IBr2, etc. is presented. We show that there is a drastic increase in the temperature and magnetic field dependence of the susceptibility amplitude on approaching the diamagnetic phase transition point. Near the phase transition point the temperature and magnetic field dependences are fitted by the ones typical of the mean-field phase transition theory. These dependences confirm the long-range character of the magnetic interactions among the conduction electrons leading to diamagnetic phase transitions. We demonstrate that the magnetic induction splitting of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and muon spin-rotation spectroscopy (μSR) lines due to two Condon domains decreases tending to zero on approaching the diamagnetic phase transition. This decrease is fitted by the temperature and magnetic field dependence of the susceptibility characteristic of the mean-field theory of phase transitions. Performing new susceptibility, NMR and μSR experiments will enable to detect diamagnetic phase transitions and Condon domains in quasi 2D metals.
Nuclear Liquid-Gas Phase Transition: Experimental Signals
D'Agostino, M.; Bruno, M.; Gulminelli, F.; Cannata, F.; Chomaz, Ph.; Casini, G.; Geraci, E.; Gramegna, F.; Moroni, A.; Vannini, G.
2005-03-01
The connection between the thermodynamics of charged finite nuclear systems and the asymptotically measured partitions in heavy ion collisions is discussed. Different independent signals compatible with a liquid-to-gas-like phase transition are reported. In particular abnormally large fluctuations in the measured observables are presented as a strong evidence of a first order phase transition with negative heat capacity.
Nuclear liquid-gas phase transition: Experimental signals
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
D' Agostino, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica and INFN, Bologna (Italy); Bruno, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica and INFN, Bologna (Italy); Gulminelli, F. [LPC Caen (IN2P3-CNRS/ISMRA et Universite), F-14050 Caen Cedex (France); Cannata, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica and INFN, Bologna (Italy); Chomaz, Ph. [GANIL, DSM-CEA/IN2P3-CNRS (France); Casini, G. [INFN Sezione di Firenze (Italy); Geraci, E. [Dipartimento di Fisica and INFN, Bologna (Italy); Gramegna, F. [INFN Laboratorio Nazionale di Legnaro (Italy); Moroni, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica and INFN, Milano (Italy); Vannini, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica and INFN, Bologna (Italy)
2005-03-07
The connection between the thermodynamics of charged finite nuclear systems and the asymptotically measured partitions in heavy ion collisions is discussed. Different independent signals compatible with a liquid-to-gas-like phase transition are reported. In particular abnormally large fluctuations in the measured observables are presented as a strong evidence of a first order phase transition with negative heat capacity.
Quantum Monte Carlo simulation of topological phase transitions
Yamamoto, Arata
2016-01-01
We study the electron-electron interaction effects on topological phase transitions by the ab-initio quantum Monte Carlo simulation. We analyze two-dimensional class A topological insulators and three-dimensional Weyl semimetals with the long-range Coulomb interaction. The direct computation of the Chern number shows the electron-electron interaction modifies or extinguishes topological phase transitions.
Two kinds of Phase transitions in a Voting model
Hisakado, Masato
2012-01-01
In this paper, we discuss a voting model with two candidates, C_1 and C_2. We consider two types of voters--herders and independents. The voting of independents is based on their fundamental values; on the other hand, the voting of herders is based on the number of previous votes. We can identify two kinds of phase transitions. One is information cascade transition similar to a phase transition seen in Ising model. The other is a transition of super and normal diffusions. These phase transitions coexist together. We compared our results to the conclusions of experiments and identified the phase transitions in the upper t limit using analysis of human behavior obtained from experiments.
Ali, Mubarak; Lin, I.-Nan
2017-01-01
In addition to self-governing properties, tiny-sized particles of metallic colloids are the building blocks of large-sized particles; thus, their study has been the subject of a large number of publications. In the present work, it has been discussed that geometry structure of tiny particle made through atom-to-atom amalgamation depends on attained dynamics of gold atoms along with protruded orientations. The localized process conditions direct two-dimensional structure of a tiny particle at atomically flat air-solution interface while heating locally dynamically approached atoms, thus, negate the role of van der Waals interactions. At electronphoton-solution interface, impinging electrons stretch or deform atoms of tiny particles depending on the mechanism of impingement. In addition, to strike regular grid of electrons ejected on split of atoms not executing excitations and de-excitations of their electrons, atoms of tiny particles also deform or stretch while occupying various sites depending on the process of synergy. Under suitable impinging electron streams, those tiny particles in monolayer two-dimensional structure electron states of their atoms are diffused in the direction of transferred energy, thus, coincide to the next adjacent atoms in each one-dimensional array dealing the same sort of behavior. Instantaneously, photons of adequate energy propagate on the surfaces of such electronic structures and modify those into smooth elements, thus, disregard the phenomenon of localized surface plasmons. This study highlights the fundamental process of formation of tiny particles where the role of localized dynamics of atoms and their electronic structure along with interaction to light are discussed. Such a tool of processing materials, in nonequilibrium pulse-based process, opens a number of possibilities to develop engineered materials with specific chemical, optical, and electronic properties.
High pressure phase transitions for CdSe
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Bo Kong; Ti-Xian Zeng; Zhu-Wen Zhou; De-Liang Chen; Xiao-Wei Sun
2014-05-01
The structure and pressure-induced phase transitions for CdSe are investigated using first-principles calculations. The pressure-induced phase transition sequence WZ/ZB $\\to$ Rs $\\to$ $\\to$ CsCl for CdSe is drawn reasonably for the fist time, the corresponding transition pressures are 3.8, 29 and 107 GPa, respectively and the intermediate states between the structure and the CsCl structure should exist.
Quantum Phase Transitions in Odd-Mass Nuclei
Leviatan, A; Iachello, F
2011-01-01
Quantum shape-phase transitions in odd-even nuclei are investigated in the framework of the interacting boson-fermion model. Classical and quantum analysis show that the presence of the odd fermion strongly influences the location and nature of the phase transition, especially near the critical point. Experimental evidence for the occurrence of spherical to axially-deformed transitions in odd-proton nuclei Pm, Eu and Tb (Z=61, 63, 65) is presented.
Deconfinement Phase Transition Heating and Thermal Evolution of Neutron Stars
Kang, Miao; Wang, Xiaodong
2007-01-01
The deconfinement phase transition will lead to the release of latent heat during spins down of neutron stars if the transition is the first-order one.We have investigated the thermal evolution of neutron stars undergoing such deconfinement phase transition. The results show that neutron stars may be heated to higher temperature.This feature could be particularly interesting for high temperature of low-magnetic field millisecond pulsar at late stage.
Chiral phase transition in QED3 at finite temperature
Yin, Pei-Lin; Xiao, Hai-Xiao; Wei, Wei; Feng, Hong-Tao; Zong, Hong-Shi
2016-12-01
In the framework of Dyson-Schwinger equations, we employ two kinds of criteria (one kind is the chiral condensate, the other kind is thermodynamic quantities, such as the pressure, the entropy, and the specific heat) to investigate the nature of chiral phase transitions in QED3 for different fermion flavors. It is found that the chiral phase transitions in QED3 for different fermion flavors are all typical second-order phase transitions; the critical temperature and order of the chiral phase transition obtained from the chiral condensate and susceptibility are the same with that obtained by the thermodynamic quantities, which means that they are equivalent in describing the chiral phase transition; the critical temperature decreases as the number of fermion flavors increases and there is a boundary that separates the Tc-Nf plane into chiral symmetry breaking and restoration regions.
Phase transition in a spatial Lotka-Volterra model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Szabo, Gyorgy; Czaran, Tamas
2001-06-01
Spatial evolution is investigated in a simulated system of nine competing and mutating bacterium strains, which mimics the biochemical war among bacteria capable of producing two different bacteriocins (toxins) at most. Random sequential dynamics on a square lattice is governed by very symmetrical transition rules for neighborhood invasions of sensitive strains by killers, killers by resistants, and resistants by sensitives. The community of the nine possible toxicity/resistance types undergoes a critical phase transition as the uniform transmutation rates between the types decreases below a critical value P{sub c} above that all the nine types of strains coexist with equal frequencies. Passing the critical mutation rate from above, the system collapses into one of three topologically identical (degenerated) states, each consisting of three strain types. Of the three possible final states each accrues with equal probability and all three maintain themselves in a self-organizing polydomain structure via cyclic invasions. Our Monte Carlo simulations support that this symmetry-breaking transition belongs to the universality class of the three-state Potts model.
Yang-Mills correlators across the deconfinement phase transition
Reinosa, U.; Serreau, J.; Tissier, M.; Tresmontant, A.
2017-02-01
We compute the finite temperature ghost and gluon propagators of Yang-Mills theory in the Landau-DeWitt gauge. The background field that enters the definition of the latter is intimately related with the (gauge-invariant) Polyakov loop and serves as an equivalent order parameter for the deconfinement transition. We use an effective gauge-fixed description where the nonperturbative infrared dynamics of the theory is parametrized by a gluon mass which, as argued elsewhere, may originate from the Gribov ambiguity. In this scheme, one can perform consistent perturbative calculations down to infrared momenta, which have been shown to correctly describe the phase diagram of Yang-Mills theories in four dimensions as well as the zero-temperature correlators computed in lattice simulations. In this article, we provide the one-loop expressions of the finite temperature Landau-DeWitt ghost and gluon propagators for a large class of gauge groups and present explicit results for the SU(2) case. These are substantially different from those previously obtained in the Landau gauge, which corresponds to a vanishing background field. The nonanalyticity of the order parameter across the transition is directly imprinted onto the propagators in the various color modes. In the SU(2) case, this leads, for instance, to a cusp in the electric and magnetic gluon susceptibilities as well as similar signatures in the ghost sector. We mention the possibility that such distinctive features of the transition could be measured in lattice simulations in the background field gauge studied here.
Phase transition in a spatial Lotka-Volterra model.
Szabó, G; Czárán, T
2001-06-01
Spatial evolution is investigated in a simulated system of nine competing and mutating bacterium strains, which mimics the biochemical war among bacteria capable of producing two different bacteriocins (toxins) at most. Random sequential dynamics on a square lattice is governed by very symmetrical transition rules for neighborhood invasions of sensitive strains by killers, killers by resistants, and resistants by sensitives. The community of the nine possible toxicity/resistance types undergoes a critical phase transition as the uniform transmutation rates between the types decreases below a critical value P(c) above that all the nine types of strains coexist with equal frequencies. Passing the critical mutation rate from above, the system collapses into one of three topologically identical (degenerated) states, each consisting of three strain types. Of the three possible final states each accrues with equal probability and all three maintain themselves in a self-organizing polydomain structure via cyclic invasions. Our Monte Carlo simulations support that this symmetry-breaking transition belongs to the universality class of the three-state Potts model.
On SU(3) effective models and chiral phase-transition
Tawfik, Abdel Nasser
2015-01-01
The sensitivity of Polyakov Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (PNJL) model as an effective theory of quark dynamics to chiral symmetry has been utilized in studying the QCD phase-diagram. Also, Poyakov linear sigma-model (PLSM), in which information about the confining glue sector of the theory was included through Polyakov-loop potential. Furthermore, from quasi-particle model (QPM), the gluonic sector of QPM is integrated to LSM in order to reproduce recent lattice calculations. We review PLSM, QLSM, PNJL and HRG with respect to their descriptions for the chiral phase-transition. We analyse chiral order-parameter M(T), normalized net-strange condensate Delta_{q,s}(T) and chiral phase-diagram and compare the results with lattice QCD. We conclude that PLSM works perfectly in reproducing M(T) and Delta_{q,s}(T). HRG model reproduces Delta_{q,s}(T), while PNJL and QLSM seem to fail. These differences are present in QCD chiral phase-diagram. PLSM chiral boundary is located in upper band of lattice QCD calculations and agree we...
Farley, Katie Elizabeth
Pronounced nonlinear variation of electrical transport characteristics as a function of applied voltage, temperature, magnetic field, strain, or photo-excitation is usually underpinned by electronic instabilities that originate from the complex interplay of spin, orbital, and lattice degrees of freedom. This dissertation focuses on two canonical materials that show pronounced discontinuities in their temperature-dependent resistivity as a result of electron---phonon and electron---electron correlations: orthorhombic TaS3 and monoclinic VO2. Strong electron-phonon interactions in transition metal oxides and chalcogenides results in interesting structural and electronic phase transitions. The properties of the material can be changed drastically in response to external stimuli such as temperature, voltage, or light. Understanding the influence these interactions have on the electronic structure and ultimately transport characteristics is of utmost importance in order to take these materials from a fundamental aspect to prospective applications such as low-energy interconnects, steep-slope transistors, and synaptic neural networks. This dissertation describes synthetic routes to nanoscale TaS3 and VO2, develops mechanistic understanding of their electronic instabilities, and in the case of the latter system explores modulation of the electronic and structural phase transition via the incorporation of substitutional dopant atoms. We start in chapter 2 with a detailed study of the synthesis and electronic transport properties of TaS3, which undergoes a Peierls' distortion to form a charge density wave. Scaling this material down to the nanometer-sized regime allows for interrogation of single or discrete phase coherent domains. Using electrical transport and broad band noise measurements, the dynamics of pinning/depinning of the charge density wave is investigated. Chapter 3 provides a novel synthetic approach to produce high-edge-density MoS2 nanorods. MoS2 is a
Ab initio simulations of phase stability and martensitic transitions in NiTi
Haskins, Justin B.; Thompson, Alexander E.; Lawson, John W.
2016-12-01
For NiTi-based alloys, the shape memory effect is governed by a transition from a low-temperature martensite phase to a high-temperature austenite phase. Despite considerable experimental and computational work, basic questions regarding the stability of the phases and the martensitic phase transition remain unclear even for the simple case of binary, equiatomic NiTi. We perform ab initio molecular dynamics simulations to describe the temperature-dependent behavior of NiTi and resolve several of these outstanding issues. Structural correlation functions and finite temperature phonon spectra are evaluated to determine phase stability. We show that finite temperature, entropic effects stabilize the experimentally observed martensite (B19') and austenite (B2) phases while destabilizing the theoretically predicted (B33) phase. Free energy computations based on ab initio thermodynamic integration confirm these results and permit estimates of the transition temperature between the phases. In addition to the martensitic phase transition, we predict a new transition between the B33 and B19' phases. The role of defects in suppressing phase transformation temperatures is discussed.
Ab Initio Simulations of Temperature Dependent Phase Stability and Martensitic Transitions in NiTi
Haskins, Justin B.; Thompson, Alexander E.; Lawson, John W.
2016-01-01
For NiTi based alloys, the shape memory effect is governed by a transition from a low-temperature martensite phase to a high-temperature austenite phase. Despite considerable experimental and computational work, basic questions regarding the stability of the phases and the martensitic phase transition remain unclear even for the simple case of binary, equiatomic NiTi. We perform ab initio molecular dynamics simulations to describe the temperature-dependent behavior of NiTi and resolve several of these outstanding issues. Structural correlation functions and finite temperature phonon spectra are evaluated to determine phase stability. In particular, we show that finite temperature, entropic effects stabilize the experimentally observed martensite (B19') and austenite (B2) phases while destabilizing the theoretically predicted (B33) phase. Free energy computations based on ab initio thermodynamic integration confirm these results and permit estimates of the transition temperature between the phases. In addition to the martensitic phase transition, we predict a new transition between the B33 and B19' phases. The role of defects in suppressing these phase transformations is discussed.
The Theory of Dynamic Public Transit Priority with Dynamic Stochastic Park and Ride
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chengming Zhu
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Public transit priority is very important for relieving traffic congestion. The connotation of dynamic public transit priority and dynamic stochastic park and ride is presented. Based on the point that the travel cost of public transit is not higher than the travel cost of car, how to determine the level of dynamic public transit priority is discussed. The traffic organization method of dynamic public transit priority is introduced. For dynamic stochastic park and ride, layout principle, scale, and charging standard are discussed. Traveler acceptability is high through the analysis of questionnaire survey. Dynamic public transit priority with dynamic stochastic park and ride has application feasibility.
Echoes of Inflationary Particle Phase Transitions in the CMB
Jiang, Hongliang; Sun, Sichun; Wang, Yi
2015-01-01
Cosmological phase transitions (CPTs), such as the Grand Unified Theory (GUT) and the electroweak (EW) ones, play a significant role in both particle physics and cosmology. In this letter, we propose to probe the first-order CPTs, by detecting gravitational waves (GWs) which are generated during the phase transitions through the cosmic microwave background (CMB). If happened around the inflation era, the first-order CPTs may yield low-frequency GWs due to bubble dynamics, leaving imprints on the CMB. In contrast to the nearly scale-invariant primordial GWs caused by vacuum fluctuation, these bubble-generated GWs are scale dependent and have non-trivial B-mode spectra. If decoupled from inflaton, the EWPT during inflation may serve as a mirror image of the one after reheating where the baryon asymmetry could be generated via EW baryogenesis (EWBG). The CMB thus provides a potential way to test the feasibility of the EWBG, complementary to the collider measurements of Higgs potential and the direct detection of...
Thermodynamics of Phase Transitions of a Kerr Nonlinear Blackbody
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHENG Ze
2008-01-01
We study the thermodynamics of phase transitions of a blackbody whose interior is filled by a Kerr nonlinear crystal. There is a transition temperature To, above which the Kerr nonlinear blackbody is in the normal thermal radiation state, and below which it is in the squeezed thermal radiation state. At To, the Gibbs free energy of the two phases is continuous but the entropy density of the two phases is discontinuous. Hence, there is a jump in the entropy density and this leads to a latent heat density. The photon system undergoes a first-order phase transition from the normal to the squeezed thermal radiation state.
Large N Phase Transitions, Finite Volume, and Entanglement Entropy
Johnson, Clifford V
2014-01-01
Holographic studies of the entanglement entropy of field theories dual to charged and neutral black holes in asymptotically global AdS4 spacetimes are presented. The goal is to elucidate various properties of the quantity that are peculiar to working in finite volume, and to gain access to the behaviour of the entanglement entropy in the rich thermodynamic phase structure that is present at finite volume and large N. The entropy is followed through various first order phase transitions, and also a novel second order phase transition. Behaviour is found that contrasts interestingly with an earlier holographic study of a second order phase transition dual to an holographic superconductor.
Reentrant Phase Transitions in Rotating AdS Black Holes
Altamirano, Natacha; Mann, Robert B
2013-01-01
We study the thermodynamics of higher-dimensional singly spinning asymptotically AdS black holes in the canonical (fixed J) ensemble of extended phase space, where the cosmological constant is treated as pressure and the corresponding conjugate quantity is interpreted as thermodynamic volume. Along with the usual small/large black hole phase transition, we find a new phenomenon of reentrant phase transitions for all d>5 dimensions, in which a monotonic variation of the temperature yields two phase transitions from large to small and back to large black holes. This situation is similar to that seen in multicomponent liquids.
Diamagnetic phase transitions in two-dimensional conductors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bakaleinikov, L.A., E-mail: bakal.ammp@mail.ioffe.ru [A.F. Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation); Department of Mathematics and Physics, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Haifa, Campus Oranim, Tivon 36006 (Israel); Gordon, A. [Department of Mathematics and Physics, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Haifa, Campus Oranim, Tivon 36006 (Israel)
2014-11-15
A theory describing the susceptibility amplitude and the magnetic induction bifurcation near the dHvA driven diamagnetic phase transitions in quasi two-dimensional (2D) organic conductors of the (ET){sub 2}X with X=Cu(NCS){sub 2},KHg(SCN){sub 4},I{sub 3},AuBr{sub 2},IBr{sub 2}, etc. is presented. We show that there is a drastic increase in the temperature and magnetic field dependence of the susceptibility amplitude on approaching the diamagnetic phase transition point. Near the phase transition point the temperature and magnetic field dependences are fitted by the ones typical of the mean-field phase transition theory. These dependences confirm the long-range character of the magnetic interactions among the conduction electrons leading to diamagnetic phase transitions. We demonstrate that the magnetic induction splitting of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and muon spin-rotation spectroscopy (μSR) lines due to two Condon domains decreases tending to zero on approaching the diamagnetic phase transition. This decrease is fitted by the temperature and magnetic field dependence of the susceptibility characteristic of the mean-field theory of phase transitions. Performing new susceptibility, NMR and μSR experiments will enable to detect diamagnetic phase transitions and Condon domains in quasi 2D metals. - Highlights: • A theory of diamagnetic phase transitions (DPTs) is presented in 2D organic conductors. • The behaviour of the susceptibility amplitude and the induction splitting is shown near the DPT. • The calculated quantities are described by the mean-field theory of phase transitions.
Phase transition and PTCR effect in erbium doped BT ceramics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Leyet, Y. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad de Oriente, C.P. 90500 Santiago de Cuba (Cuba); Instituto Federal de Educacao Ciencia e Tecnologia (IFAM), Av. 7 de Setembro 1975, Centro, Manaus 69020-120, AM (Brazil); Pena, R.; Zulueta, Y. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad de Oriente, C.P. 90500 Santiago de Cuba (Cuba); Guerrero, F. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad de Oriente, C.P. 90500 Santiago de Cuba (Cuba); CESI, Universidade do Estado do Amazonas, Ave Mario Andreaza, Amazonas (Brazil); Anglada-Rivera, J. [CESI, Universidade do Estado do Amazonas, Ave Mario Andreaza, Amazonas (Brazil); Romaguera, Y. [INESC TEC, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Perez de la Cruz, J., E-mail: jcruz@inescporto.pt [INESC TEC, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal)
2012-06-25
Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Erbium influence the dielectric response BaTiO{sub 3} ceramics. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Features of the phase transition are not explained by phenomenological models. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Relaxation parameters do not show influence on ferroelectric-paraelectric phase transition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dielectric anomaly on BET phase transition is associated with the PTCR effect. - Abstract: In this work the dielectric behaviour and main features of the phase transition of BaTiO{sub 3} and Ba{sub 0.99}Er{sub 0.01}TiO{sub 3} ceramics were carefully investigated. The temperature and frequency dependences of the dielectric properties of erbium doped BaTiO{sub 3} ceramics were measured in the 25-225 Degree-Sign C and 100 Hz to 10 MHz ranges, respectively. From this study, a dielectric anomaly in the ferroelectric-paraelectric phase transition of the Ba{sub 0.99}Er{sub 0.01}TiO{sub 3} ceramic was observed. The features of the samples phase transition were analysed by using Curie-Weiss, Santos-Eiras' and order parameter local phenomenological models. In the BaTiO{sub 3} system, all models showed a normal phase transition, while was not possible to establish the character of the phase transition in the Ba{sub 0.99}Er{sub 0.01}TiO{sub 3} system. The relaxation parameters of conductive processes for the study ferroelectric materials, analysed in the time domain, did not show any influence on the ferroelectric-paraelectric phase transition. Finally, it was demonstrated that the anomaly observed on the phase transition of the erbium doped BaTiO{sub 3} ceramics is associated with the processes that results in the PTCR effect.
Jamming transitions in force-based models for pedestrian dynamics
Chraibi, Mohcine; Tordeux, Antoine; Nishinari, Katsuhiro; Schadschneider, Andreas; Seyfried, Armin
2015-01-01
Force-based models describe pedestrian dynamics in analogy to classical mechanics by a system of second order ordinary differential equations. By investigating the linear stability of two main classes of forces, parameter regions with unstable homogeneous states are identified. In this unstable regime it is then checked whether phase transitions or stop-and-go waves occur. Results based on numerical simulations show, however, that the investigated models lead to unrealistic behavior in form of backwards moving pedestrians and overlapping. This is one reason why stop-and-go waves have not been observed in these models. The unrealistic behavior is not related to the numerical treatment of the dynamic equations but rather indicates an intrinsic problem of this model class. Identifying the underlying generic problems gives indications how to define models that do not show such unrealistic behavior. As an example we introduce a new force-based model which produces realistic jam dynamics without the appearance of u...
Insight into Structural Phase Transitions from Density Functional Theory
Ruzsinszky, Adrienn
2014-03-01
Structural phase transitions caused by high pressure or temperature are very relevant in materials science. The high pressure transitions are essential to understand the interior of planets. Pressure or temperature induced phase transitions can be relevant to understand other phase transitions in strongly correlated systems or molecular crystals.Phase transitions are important also from the aspect of method development. Lower level density functionals, LSDA and GGAs all fail to predict the lattice parameters of different polymorphs and the phase transition parameters at the same time. At this time only nonlocal density functionals like HSE and RPA have been proved to resolve the geometry-energy dilemma to some extent in structural phase transitions. In this talk I will report new results from the MGGA_MS family of meta-GGAs and give an insight why this type of meta-GGAs can give a systematic improvement of the geometry and phase transition parameters together. I will also present results from the RPA and show a possible way to improve beyond RPA.
CO2 Capture from Flue Gas by Phase Transitional Absorption
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liang Hu
2009-06-30
A novel absorption process called Phase Transitional Absorption was invented. What is the Phase Transitional Absorption? Phase Transitional Absorption is a two or multi phase absorption system, CO{sub 2} rich phase and CO{sub 2} lean phase. During Absorption, CO{sub 2} is accumulated in CO{sub 2} rich phase. After separating the two phases, CO{sub 2} rich phase is forward to regeneration. After regeneration, the regenerated CO{sub 2} rich phase combines CO{sub 2} lean phase to form absorbent again to complete the cycle. The advantage for Phase Transitional Absorption is obvious, significantly saving on regeneration energy. Because CO{sub 2} lean phase was separated before regeneration, only CO{sub 2} rich phase was forward to regeneration. The absorption system we developed has the features of high absorption rate, high loading and working capacity, low corrosion, low regeneration heat, no toxic to environment, etc. The process evaluation shows that our process is able to save 80% energy cost by comparing with MEA process.
Anomalous critical slowdown at a first order phase transition in single polymer chains
Zhang, Shuangshuang; Qi, Shuanhu; Klushin, Leonid I.; Skvortsov, Alexander M.; Yan, Dadong; Schmid, Friederike
2017-08-01
Using Brownian dynamics, we study the dynamical behavior of a polymer grafted onto an adhesive surface close to the mechanically induced adsorption-stretching transition. Even though the transition is first order (in the infinite chain length limit, the stretching degree of the chain jumps discontinuously), the characteristic relaxation time is found to grow according to a power law as the transition point is approached. We present a dynamic effective interface model which reproduces these observations and provides an excellent quantitative description of the simulation data. The generic nature of the theoretical model suggests that the unconventional mixing of features that are characteristic for first-order transitions (a jump in an order parameter) and features that are characteristic of critical points (an anomalous slowdown) may be a common phenomenon in force-driven phase transitions of macromolecules.
Macroscopic time-reversal symmetry breaking at a nonequilibrium phase transition
Shim, Pyoung-Seop; Chun, Hyun-Myung; Noh, Jae Dong
2016-01-01
We study the entropy production in a globally coupled Brownian particles system that undergoes an order-disorder phase transition. Entropy production is a characteristic feature of nonequilibrium dynamics with broken detailed balance. We find that the entropy production rate is subextensive in the disordered phase and extensive in the ordered phase. It is found that the entropy production rate per particle vanishes in the disordered phase and becomes positive in the ordered phase following critical scaling laws. We derive the scaling relations for associated critical exponents. The disordered phase exemplifies a case where the entropy production is subextensive with the broken detailed balance.