Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIANG Shan-qing; FU feng
2007-01-01
The dynamic and static modulus of elasticity (MOE) between bluestained and non-bluestained lumber of Lodgepole pine were tested and analyzed by using three methods of Non-destructive testing (NDT), Portable Ultrasonic Non-destructive Digital Indicating Testing (Pundit), Metriguard and Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) and the normal bending method. Results showed that the dynamic and static MOE of bluestained wood were higher than those of non-bluestained wood. The significant differences in dynamic MOE and static MOE were found between bulestained and non-bluestained wood, of which, the difference in each of three dynamic MOE (Ep.the ultrasonic wave modulus of elasticity, Em, the stress wave modulus of elasticity and Ef, the longitudinal wave modulus of elasticity) between bulestained and non-bluestained wood arrived at the 0.01 significance level, whereas that in the static MOE at the 0.05 significance level. The differences in MOE between bulestained and non-bluestained wood were induced by the variation between sapwood and heartwood and the different densities of bulestained and non-bluestained wood. The correlation between dynamic MOE and static MOE was statistically significant at the 0.01 significance level. Although the dynamic MOE values of Ep, Em, Ef were significantly different, there exists a close relationship between them (arriving at the 0.01 correlation level). Comparative analysis among the three techniques indicated that the accurateness of FFT was higher than that of Pundit and Metriguard. Effect of tree knots on MOE was also investigated. Result showed that the dynamic and static MOE gradually decreased with the increase of knot number, indicating that knot number had significant effect on MOE value.
Elastic Modulus of 304 Stainless Steel Coating by Cold Gas Dynamic Spraying
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2012-01-01
304 stainless steel coating was deposited on the IF steel substrate by cold gas dynamic spraying （CGDS）, and the elastic modulus of the 304 stainless steel coating was studied. The elastic modulus of cold sprayed 304 stain- less steel coating was measured using the three-point bend testing and the compound beam theory, and the other me- chanic parameters （such as the equivalent flexural rigidity and the moment of inertia of area） of the coatings were also calculated using this compound beam theory. It is found that the calculated results using the above methods are accu- rate and reliable. The elastic modulus value of the cold sprayed 304 stainless steel coating is 1. 179 X 105 MPa, and it is slightly lower than the 304 stainless steel plate （about 2 X 105 MPa）. It indicates that the elastic modulus of the cold sprayed coatings was quite different from the comparable bulk materials. The main reason is that the pores and other defects are existed in the coatings, and the elastic modulus of the coatings also depends on varies parameters such as the feed stock particle size, porosity, and processing parameters.
Elastic modulus of viral nanotubes
Zhao, Yue; Ge, Zhibin; Fang, Jiyu
2008-09-01
We report an experimental and theoretical study of the radial elasticity of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) nanotubes. An atomic force microscope tip is used to apply small radial indentations to deform TMV nanotubes. The initial elastic response of TMV nanotubes can be described by finite-element analysis in 5nm indentation depths and Hertz theory in 1.5nm indentation depths. The derived radial Young’s modulus of TMV nanotubes is 0.92±0.15GPa from finite-element analysis and 1.0±0.2GPa from the Hertz model, which are comparable with the reported axial Young’s modulus of 1.1GPa [Falvo , Biophys. J. 72, 1396 (1997)].
Soares,Priscilla Barbosa Ferreira; Nunes,Sarah Arantes; Franco,Sinésio Domingues; Pires, Raphael Rezende; Zanetta-Barbosa,Darceny; Soares, Carlos José
2014-01-01
The clinical performance of dental implants is strongly defined by biomechanical principles. The aim of this study was to quantify the Vicker's hardness (VHN) and elastic modulus (E) surround bone to dental implant in different regions, and to discuss the parameters of dynamic microindantion test. Ten cylindrical implants with morse taper interface (Titamax CM, Neodent; 3.5 mm diameter and 7 mm a height) were inserted in rabbit tibia. The mechanical properties were analyzed using microhardnes...
Computation of Modulus of Elasticity of Concrete
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Onwuka, D.O
2013-09-01
Full Text Available - In this presentation, a computer based method which uses a set of algebraic equations and statistical data, were used to compute concrete mixes for prescribeable elastic concrete modulus, and vice versa. The computer programs based on Simplex and Regression theories can be used to predict several mix proportions for obtaining a desired modulus of elasticity of concrete made from crushed granite rock and other materials. The modulus of elasticity of concrete predicted by these programs agreed with experimentally obtained values. The programs are easy and inexpensive to use, and give instant and accurate results. For example, if the modulus of elasticity is specified as input, the computer instantly prints out all possible concrete mix ratios that can yield concrete having the specified elastic modulus. When the concrete mix ratio is specified as input, the computer quickly prints out the elastic modulus of the concrete obtainable from a given concrete mix ratio.
Study on elastic modulus of individual ferritin
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG JinHai; CUI ChengYi; ZHOU XingFei
2009-01-01
The mechanical property of individual ferriUn was measured with force-volume mapping (FV) under contact mode of atomic force microscopy (AFM) in this work. The elastic modulus of individual ferritin was estimated by the Hertz mode. The estimated value of the elastic modulus of individual ferritin was about 250-800 MPs under a small deformation. In addition, the elastic modulus of individual ferritin was compared with that of the colloid gold nanoparticle.
Elastic modulus of cetacean auditory ossicles.
Tubelli, Andrew A; Zosuls, Aleks; Ketten, Darlene R; Mountain, David C
2014-05-01
In order to model the hearing capabilities of marine mammals (cetaceans), it is necessary to understand the mechanical properties, such as elastic modulus, of the middle ear bones in these species. Biologically realistic models can be used to investigate the biomechanics of hearing in cetaceans, much of which is currently unknown. In the present study, the elastic moduli of the auditory ossicles (malleus, incus, and stapes) of eight species of cetacean, two baleen whales (mysticete) and six toothed whales (odontocete), were measured using nanoindentation. The two groups of mysticete ossicles overall had lower average elastic moduli (35.2 ± 13.3 GPa and 31.6 ± 6.5 GPa) than the groups of odontocete ossicles (53.3 ± 7.2 GPa to 62.3 ± 4.7 GPa). Interior bone generally had a higher modulus than cortical bone by up to 36%. The effects of freezing and formalin-fixation on elastic modulus were also investigated, although samples were few and no clear trend could be discerned. The high elastic modulus of the ossicles and the differences in the elastic moduli between mysticetes and odontocetes are likely specializations in the bone for underwater hearing.
Temperature effect on elastic modulus of thin films and nanocrystals
Liang, Lihong; Li, Meizhi; Qin, Fuqi; Wei, Yueguang
2013-02-01
The stability of nanoscale devices is directly related to elasticity and the effect of temperature on the elasticity of thin films and nanocrystals. The elastic instability induced by rising temperature will cause the failure of integrated circuits and other microelectronic devices in service. The temperature effect on the elastic modulus of thin films and nanocrystals is unclear although the temperature dependence of the modulus of bulk materials has been studied for over half a century. In this paper, a theoretical model of the temperature-dependent elastic modulus of thin films and nanocrystals is developed based on the physical definition of the modulus by considering the size effect of the related cohesive energy and the thermal expansion coefficient. Moreover, the temperature effect on the modulus of Cu thin films is simulated by the molecular dynamics method. The results indicate that the elastic modulus decreases with increasing temperature and the rate of the modulus decrease increases with reducing thickness of thin films. The theoretical predictions based on the model are consistent with the results of computational simulations, semi-continuum calculations and the experimental measurements for Cu, Si thin films and Pd nanocrystals.
Static versus dynamic gerbil tympanic membrane elasticity: derivation of the complex modulus.
Aernouts, Jef; Dirckx, Joris J J
2012-07-01
An accurate estimation of tympanic membrane stiffness is important for realistic modelling of middle ear mechanics. Tympanic membrane stiffness has been investigated extensively under either quasi-static or dynamic loading conditions. It is known that biological tissues are sensitive to strain rate. Therefore, in this work, the mechanical behaviour of the tympanic membrane was studied under both quasi-static and dynamic loading conditions. Experiments were performed on the pars tensa of four gerbil tympanic membranes. A custom-built indentation apparatus was used to perform in situ tissue indentations and testing was done applying both quasi-static and dynamic sinusoidal indentations up to 8.2 Hz. The unloaded shape of the tympanic membrane was measured and used to create specimen-specific finite element models to simulate the experiments. The frequency dependent Young's modulus of each specimen was then estimated by an inverse analysis in which the error between experimental and simulated indentation data was optimised for each indentation frequency separately. Using an 8 μm central region thickness, we found Young's moduli between 71 and 106 MPa (n = 4) at 0.2 Hz indentation frequency. A standard linear viscoelastic model and a viscoelastic model with a continuous relaxation spectrum were used to derive a complex modulus in the frequency domain. Due to experimental limitations, the indentation frequency upper limit was 8.2 Hz. The average relative modulus increase in this domain was 14% and the increase was the strongest below 6 Hz.
Elastic bending modulus of monolayer graphene
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lu Qiang; Huang Rui [Department of Aerospace Engineering and Engineering Mechanics, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Arroyo, Marino [Department of Applied Mathematics 3, LaCaN, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya (UPC), Barcelona 08034 (Spain)
2009-05-21
An analytic formula is derived for the elastic bending modulus of monolayer graphene based on an empirical potential for solid-state carbon atoms. Two physical origins are identified for the non-vanishing bending stiffness of the atomically thin graphene sheet, one due to the bond-angle effect and the other resulting from the bond-order term associated with the dihedral angles. The analytical prediction compares closely with ab initio energy calculations. Pure bending of graphene monolayers into cylindrical tubes is simulated by a molecular mechanics approach, showing slight nonlinearity and anisotropy in the tangent bending modulus as the bending curvature increases. An intrinsic coupling between bending and in-plane strain is noted for graphene monolayers rolled into carbon nanotubes. (fast track communication)
Chaves, J M; Florêncio, O; Silva, P S; Marques, P W B; Afonso, C R M
2015-06-01
Recent studies in materials for biomedical applications have focused on β-titanium alloys that are highly biocompatible, free of toxic elements and with an elastic modulus close to that of human bone (10-40 GPa). Beta Ti-xNb-3Fe (x=10, 15, 20 and 25 wt%) alloys were obtained by rapid solidification and characterized by anelastic relaxation measurements at temperatures between 140 K and 770 K, using a free-decay elastometer, as well as analysis by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The observed stabilization of the β-phase with rising Nb content was linked to the strength of the relaxation peak around 570 K. The phase transformations detected in the anelastic relaxation spectra agreed with those observed in the DSC curves. However, the results from anelastic relaxation spectra provide more detailed information about the kinetics of phase transformations. At temperatures between 140 K and 300 K, there was an indication of a reversible transformation in the alloys studied. The elastic modulus measurements showed a hardening of the material, between 400 K and 620 K, related to the ω-phase precipitation. However, the starting temperature of ω-phase precipitation was clearly influenced by the Nb content, showing a shift to high temperature with increasing percentage of Nb. At temperatures above 620 K, a fall was observed in the dynamical elastic modulus, accompanied by a relaxation peak centered at 660 K, which was attributed to the growing α-phase arising from the ω-phase, which acts as a nucleation sites or from the decomposition of the metastable β-phase. XRD patterns confirmed the formation of β, α and ω phases after mechanical relaxation measurements. A predominant β phase with dendritic morphology was observed, which became more stable with 25 wt% Nb. The lowest elastic modulus was of 65 GPa obtained in the Ti-25Nb-3Fe alloy, representing a
Soares, Priscilla Barbosa Ferreira; Nunes, Sarah Arantes; Franco, Sinésio Domingues; Pires, Raphael Rezende; Zanetta-Barbosa, Darceny; Soares, Carlos José
2014-01-01
The clinical performance of dental implants is strongly defined by biomechanical principles. The aim of this study was to quantify the Vicker's hardness (VHN) and elastic modulus (E) surround bone to dental implant in different regions, and to discuss the parameters of dynamic microindantion test. Ten cylindrical implants with morse taper interface (Titamax CM, Neodent; 3.5 mm diameter and 7 mm a height) were inserted in rabbit tibia. The mechanical properties were analyzed using microhardness dynamic indenter with 200 mN load and 15 s penetration time. Seven continuous indentations were made distancing 0.08 mm between each other perpendicularly to the implant-bone interface towards the external surface, at the limit of low (Lp) and high implant profile (Hp). Data were analyzed by Student's t-test (a=0.05) to compare the E and VHN values obtained on both regions. Mean and standard deviation of E (GPa) were: Lp. 16.6 ± 1.7, Hp. 17.0 ± 2.5 and VHN (N/mm2): Lp. 12.6 ± 40.8, Hp. 120.1 ± 43.7. No statistical difference was found between bone mechanical properties of high and low profile of the surround bone to implant, demonstrating that the bone characterization homogeneously is pertinent. Dynamic microindantion method proved to be highly useful in the characterization of the individual peri-implant bone tissue.
Determination of Modulus of Elasticity and Shear Modulus by the Measurement of Relative Strains
Labašová, Eva
2016-12-01
This contribution is focused on determining the material properties (Young modulus and shear modulus) of the testing samples. The theoretical basis for determining material properties are the knowledge of linear elasticity and strength. The starting points are dependencies among the modulus of elasticity, shear modulus, normal stress and relative strain. The relative strains of the testing samples were obtained by measuring predefined load conditions using a strain-gauge bridge and the universal measurement system Quantum X MX 840. The integration of these tasks into the teaching process enhances practical and intellectual skills of students at secondary level technical universities.
Modulus of Elasticity and Thermal Expansion Coefficient of ITO Film
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Carter, Austin D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Elhadj, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
2016-06-24
The purpose of this experiment was to determine the modulus of elasticity (E) and thermal expansion coefficient (α) of RF sputtered Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) as a function of temperature (T), and to collect ITO film stress data. In order to accomplish that goal, the Toho FLX-2320-S thin film stress measurement machine was used to collect both single stress and stress-temperature data for ITO coated fused silica and sapphire substrates. The stress measurement function of the FLX-2320-S cannot be used to calculate the elastic modulus of the film because the Stoney formula incorporates the elastic modulus of the substrate, rather than of the film itself.
Elastic modulus of phases in Ti–Mo alloys
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Wei-dong [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Liu, Yong, E-mail: yonliu11@aliyun.com [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Wu, Hong; Song, Min [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Zhang, Tuo-yang [Metallurgical Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Lan, Xiao-dong; Yao, Tian-hang [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China)
2015-08-15
In this work, a series of binary Ti–Mo alloys with the Mo contents ranging from 3.2 to 12 at.% were prepared using non-consumable arc melting. The microstructures were investigated by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscope, and the elastic modulus was evaluated by nanoindentation testing technique. The evolution of the volume fractions of ω phase was investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results indicated that the phase constitution and elastic modulus of the Ti–Mo alloys are sensitive to the Mo content. Ti–3.2Mo and Ti–8Mo alloys containing only α and β phases, respectively, have a low elastic modulus. In contrast, Ti–4.5Mo, Ti–6Mo, Ti–7Mo alloys, with different contents of ω phase, have a high elastic modulus. A simple micromechanical model was used to calculate the elastic modulus of ω phase (E{sub ω}), which was determined to be 174.354 GPa. - Highlights: • Ti–Mo alloys with the Mo contents ranging from 3.2 to 12 at.% were investigated. • XPS was used to investigate the volume fractions of ω phase. • The elastic modulus of Ti–Mo alloys is sensitive to the Mo content. • The elastic modulus of ω phase was determined to be 174.354 GPa.
Device to measure elastic modulus of superconducting windings
CERN PhotoLab
1979-01-01
This device was made to measure elastic modulus of the Po dipole superconducting coils. More elaborated devices, but based on the same concept, were later used to measure the apparent elastic moduli of the LHC superconducting magnet coils. See also 7903547X, 7901386.
Elastic modulus of posts and the risk of root fracture.
Meira, Josete B C; Espósito, Camila O M; Quitero, Mayra F Z; Poiate, Isis A V P; Pfeifer, Carmem Silvia C; Tanaka, Carina B; Ballester, Rafael Y
2009-08-01
The definition of an optimal elastic modulus for a post is controversial. This work hypothesized that the influence of the posts' elastic modulus on dentin stress concentration is dependent on the load direction. The objective was to evaluate, using finite element analysis, the maximum principal stress (sigma(max)) on the root, using posts with different elastic modulus submitted to different loading directions. Nine 3D models were built, representing the dentin root, gutta-percha, a conical post and the cortical bone. The softwares used were: MSC.PATRAN2005r2 (preprocessing) and MSC.Marc2005r2 (processing). Load of 100 N was applied, varying the directions (0 degrees, 45 degrees and 90 degrees) in relation to the post's long axis. The magnitude and direction of the sigma(max) were recorded. At the 45 degrees and 90 degrees loading, the highest values of sigma(max) were recorded for the lowest modulus posts, on the cervical region, with a direction that suggests debonding of the post. For the 0 degrees loading, the highest values of sigma(max) were recorded for higher modulus posts, on the apical region, and the circumferential direction suggests vertical root fracture. The hypothesis was accepted: the effect of the elastic modulus on the magnitude and direction of the sigma(max) generated on the root was dependent on the loading direction.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Byung Jae Lee
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The primary objective of this study is to investigate the effects of cylinder size (150 by 300 mm and 100 by 200 mm on empirical equations that relate static elastic moduli and compressive strength and static and dynamic elastic moduli of concrete. For the purposes, two sets of one hundred and twenty concrete cylinders, 150 by 300 mm and 100 by 200 mm, were prepared from three different mixtures with target compressive strengths of 30, 35, and 40 MPa. Static and dynamic tests were performed at 4, 7, 14, and 28 days to evaluate compressive strength and static and dynamic moduli of cylinders. The effects of the two different cylinder sizes were investigated through experiments in this study and database collected from the literature. For normal strength concrete (≤40 MPa, the two different cylinder sizes do not result in significant differences in test results including experimental variability, compressive strength, and static and dynamic elastic moduli. However, it was observed that the size effect became substantial in high strength concrete greater than 40 MPa. Therefore, special care is still needed to compare the static and dynamic properties of high strength concrete from the two different cylinder sizes.
Determination of the elastic modulus of snow via acoustic measurements
Gerling, Bastian; van Herwijnen, Alec; Löwe, Henning
2016-04-01
The elastic modulus of snow is a key quantity from the viewpoint of avalanche research and forecasting, snow engineering or materials science in general. Since it is a fundamental property, many measurements have been reported in the literature. Due to differences in measurement methods, there is a lot of variation in the reported values. Especially values derived via computer tomography (CT) based numerical calculations using finite element methods are not corresponding to the results of other methods. The central issue is that CT based moduli are purely elastic whereas other methods may include viscoelastic deformation. In order to avoid this discrepancy we derived the elastic modulus of snow via wave propagation measurements and compared our results with CT based calculations. We measured the arrival times of acoustic pulses propagating through the snow samples to determine the P-wave velocity and in turn derive the elastic modulus along the direction of wave propagation. We performed a series of laboratory experiments to derive the P-wave modulus of snow in relation to density. The P-wave modulus ranged from 10 to 280 MPa for a snow density between 150 and 370 kg/m^3;. The moduli derived from the acoustic measurements correlated well with the CT-based values and both exhibited a power law trend over the entire density range. Encouraged by these results we used the acoustic method to investigate the temporal evolution of the elastic modulus. The rate of increase was very close to values mentioned in literature on the sintering rate of snow. Overall, our results are a first but important step towards a new measurement method to attain the elastic properties of snow.
Reduction in the modulus of elasticity in orthodontic wires.
Goldberg, A J; Vanderby, R; Burstone, C J
1977-10-01
The modulus of elasticity of stainless steel orthodontic wires was found to be 20% below the normally assumed range of 19.3 to 20.0 x 10(4) MPa (28.0 to 29.0 x 10(6) psi). Use of the latter value can result in significant computational errors in orthodontic applicance mechanics. The lower modulus was attributed to severe cold drawing.
Multigene Genetic Programming for Estimation of Elastic Modulus of Concrete
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alireza Mohammadi Bayazidi
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a new multigene genetic programming (MGGP approach for estimation of elastic modulus of concrete. The MGGP technique models the elastic modulus behavior by integrating the capabilities of standard genetic programming and classical regression. The main aim is to derive precise relationships between the tangent elastic moduli of normal and high strength concrete and the corresponding compressive strength values. Another important contribution of this study is to develop a generalized prediction model for the elastic moduli of both normal and high strength concrete. Numerous concrete compressive strength test results are obtained from the literature to develop the models. A comprehensive comparative study is conducted to verify the performance of the models. The proposed models perform superior to the existing traditional models, as well as those derived using other powerful soft computing tools.
Measurement of Elastic Modulus of Collagen Type I Single Fiber.
Dutov, Pavel; Antipova, Olga; Varma, Sameer; Orgel, Joseph P R O; Schieber, Jay D
2016-01-01
Collagen fibers are the main components of the extra cellular matrix and the primary contributors to the mechanical properties of tissues. Here we report a novel approach to measure the longitudinal component of the elastic moduli of biological fibers under conditions close to those found in vivo and apply it to type I collagen from rat tail tendon. This approach combines optical tweezers, atomic force microscopy, and exploits Euler-Bernoulli elasticity theory for data analysis. This approach also avoids drying for measurements or visualization, since samples are freshly extracted. Importantly, strains are kept below 0.5%, which appear consistent with the linear elastic regime. We find, surprisingly, that the longitudinal elastic modulus of type I collagen cannot be represented by a single quantity but rather is a distribution that is broader than the uncertainty of our experimental technique. The longitudinal component of the single-fiber elastic modulus is between 100 MPa and 360 MPa for samples extracted from different rats and/or different parts of a single tail. Variations are also observed in the fibril-bundle/fibril diameter with an average of 325±40 nm. Since bending forces depend on the diameter to the fourth power, this variation in diameter is important for estimating the range of elastic moduli. The remaining variations in the modulus may be due to differences in composition of the fibril-bundles, or the extent of the proteoglycans constituting fibril-bundles, or that some single fibrils may be of fibril-bundle size.
Size-Dependent Elastic Modulus and Vibration Frequency of Nanocrystals
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lihong Liang
2011-01-01
Full Text Available The elastic properties and the vibration characterization are important for the stability of materials and devices, especially for nanomaterials with potential and broad application. Nanomaterials show different properties from the corresponding bulk materials; the valid theoretical model about the size effect of the elastic modulus and the vibration frequency is significant to guide the application of nanomaterials. In this paper, a unified analytical model about the size-dependent elastic modulus and vibration frequency of nanocrystalline metals, ceramics and semiconductors is established based on the inherent lattice strain and the binding energy change of nanocrystals compared with the bulk crystals, and the intrinsic correlation between the elasticity and the vibration properties is discussed. The theoretical predictions for Cu, Ag, Si thin films, nanoparticles, and TiO2 nanoparticles agree with the experimental results, the computational simulations, and the other theoretical models.
Ultrasonic Measurement of Elastic Modulus of Kelvin Foam
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Oh Sukwon
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Elastic modulus of 3D-printed Kelvin foam plate is investigated by measuring the acoustic wave velocity of 1 MHz ultrasound. An isotropic tetrakaidecahedron foam of 3 mm unit cell is designed and printed layer upon layer to fablicate a Kelvin foam plate of 14mm thickness by 3D CAD/printer using ABS plastic. The Kelvin foam plate is filled completely with paraffin wax for impedance matching, so that acoustic wave may propagate through the porous foam plate. The acoustic wave velocity of the foam plate is measured using the time-of-flight (TOF method to calculate the elastic modulus of the Kelvin foam plate based on acousto-elasticity.
Measurement of Elastic Modulus of Collagen Type I Single Fiber.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pavel Dutov
Full Text Available Collagen fibers are the main components of the extra cellular matrix and the primary contributors to the mechanical properties of tissues. Here we report a novel approach to measure the longitudinal component of the elastic moduli of biological fibers under conditions close to those found in vivo and apply it to type I collagen from rat tail tendon. This approach combines optical tweezers, atomic force microscopy, and exploits Euler-Bernoulli elasticity theory for data analysis. This approach also avoids drying for measurements or visualization, since samples are freshly extracted. Importantly, strains are kept below 0.5%, which appear consistent with the linear elastic regime. We find, surprisingly, that the longitudinal elastic modulus of type I collagen cannot be represented by a single quantity but rather is a distribution that is broader than the uncertainty of our experimental technique. The longitudinal component of the single-fiber elastic modulus is between 100 MPa and 360 MPa for samples extracted from different rats and/or different parts of a single tail. Variations are also observed in the fibril-bundle/fibril diameter with an average of 325±40 nm. Since bending forces depend on the diameter to the fourth power, this variation in diameter is important for estimating the range of elastic moduli. The remaining variations in the modulus may be due to differences in composition of the fibril-bundles, or the extent of the proteoglycans constituting fibril-bundles, or that some single fibrils may be of fibril-bundle size.
Aida Rodríguez, Sara; Alcalá, Jorge; Martins Souza, Roberto
2011-03-01
Although the Hertz theory is not applicable in the analysis of the indentation of elastic-plastic materials, it is common practice to incorporate the concept of indenter/specimen combined modulus to consider indenter deformation. The appropriateness was assessed of the use of reduced modulus to incorporate the effect of indenter deformation in the analysis of the indentation with spherical indenters. The analysis based on finite element simulations considered four values of the ratio of the indented material elastic modulus to that of the diamond indenter, E/Ei (0, 0.04, 0.19, 0.39), four values of the ratio of the elastic reduced modulus to the initial yield strength, Er/Y (0, 10, 20, 100), and two values of the ratio of the indenter radius to maximum total displacement, R/δmax (3, 10). Indenter deformation effects are better accounted for by the reduced modulus if the indented material behaves entirely elastically. In this case, identical load-displacement (P - δ) curves are obtained with rigid and elastic spherical indenters for the same elastic reduced modulus. Changes in the ratio E/Ei , from 0 to 0.39, resulted in variations lower than 5% for the load dimensionless functions, lower than 3% in the contact area, Ac , and lower than 5% in the ratio H/Er . However, deformations of the elastic indenter made the actual radius of contact change, even in the indentation of elastic materials. Even though the load dimensionless functions showed only a little increase with the ratio E/Ei , the hardening coefficient and the yield strength could be slightly overestimated when algorithms based on rigid indenters are used. For the unloading curves, the ratio δe/δmax , where δe is the point corresponding to zero load of a straight line with slope S from the point (Pmax, δmax ), varied less than 5% with the ratio E/Ei . Similarly, the relationship between reduced modulus and the unloading indentation curve, expressed by Sneddon's equation, did not reveal the necessity
Modelling of the Elasticity Modulus for Rock Using Genetic Expression Programming
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Umit Atici
2016-01-01
Full Text Available In rock engineering projects, statically determined parameters are more reflective of actual load conditions than dynamic parameters. This study reports a new and efficient approach to the formulation of the static modulus of elasticity Es applying gene expression programming (GEP with nondestructive testing (NDT methods. The results obtained using GEP are compared with the results of multivariable linear regression analysis (MRA, univariate nonlinear regression analysis (URA, and the dynamic elasticity modulus (Ed. The GEP model was found to produce the most accurate calculation of Es. The proposed approach is a simple, nondestructive, and practical way to determine Es for anisotropic and heterogeneous rocks.
柴田, 信一; 曹, 勇; 福本, 功; Shibata, Shin-ichi; Cao, Yong; Fukumoto, Isao
2005-01-01
Bending modulus of elasticity of the composite material from bagasse fiber (remains after sugar cane squeezed) and biodegradable resin was investigated in view of the content of bagasse fiber and the fiber length. The result was validated by short fiber strengthen theory. The result is as followings. Bending modulus of elasticity increased with increasing the content of bagasse fiber. The increase of Bending modulus of elasticity is predicted by short fiber strengthen theory incorporated with...
Study on the AFM Force Spectroscopy method for elastic modulus measurement of living cells
Demichelis, A.; Pavarelli, S.; Mortati, L.; Sassi, G.; Sassi, M.
2013-09-01
The cell elasticity gives information about its pathological state and metastatic potential. The aim of this paper is to study the AFM Force Spectroscopy technique with the future goal of realizing a reference method for accurate elastic modulus measurement in the elasticity range of living cells. This biological range has not been yet explored with a metrological approach. Practical hints are given for the realization of a Sylgard elasticity scale. Systematic effects given by the sample curing thickness and nanoindenter geometry have been found with regards of the measured elastic modulus. AFM measurement reproducibility better than 20% is obtained in the entire investigated elastic modulus scale of 101 - 104 kPa.
Wu, H. I.; Spence, R. D.; Sharpe, P. J.; Goeschl, J. D.
1985-01-01
The traditional bulk elastic modulus approach to plant cell pressure-volume relations is inconsistent with its definition. The relationship between the bulk modulus and Young's modulus that forms the basis of their usual application to cell pressure-volume properties is demonstrated to be physically meaningless. The bulk modulus describes stress/strain relations of solid, homogeneous bodies undergoing small deformations, whereas the plant cell is best described as a thin-shelled, fluid-filled structure with a polymer base. Because cell walls possess a polymer structure, an alternative method of mechanical analysis is presented using polymer elasticity principles. This initial study presents the groundwork of polymer mechanics as would be applied to cell walls and discusses how the matrix and microfibrillar network induce nonlinear stress/strain relationships in the cell wall in response to turgor pressure. In subsequent studies, these concepts will be expanded to include anisotropic expansion as regulated by the microfibrillar network.
Reliable measurement of elastic modulus of cells by nanoindentation in an atomic force microscope
Zhou, Zhoulong
2012-04-01
The elastic modulus of an oral cancer cell line UM1 is investigated by nanoindentation in an atomic force microscope with a flat-ended tip. The commonly used Hertzian method gives apparent elastic modulus which increases with the loading rate, indicating strong effects of viscoelasticity. On the contrary, a rate-jump method developed for viscoelastic materials gives elastic modulus values which are independent of the rate-jump magnitude. The results show that the rate-jump method can be used as a standard protocol for measuring elastic stiffness of living cells, since the measured values are intrinsic properties of the cells. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.
Measurement of elastic modulus and evaluation of viscoelasticity of foundry green sand
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qingchun XIANG
2004-08-01
Full Text Available Elastic modulus is an important physical parameter of molding sand; it is closely connected with molding sand's properties. Based on theories of rheology and molding sand microdeformation, elastic modulus of molding sand was measured and investigated using the intelligent molding sand multi-property tester developed by ourselves. The measuring principle was introduced. Effects of bentonite percentage and compactibility of the molding sand were experimentally studied. Furthermore, the essential viscoelastic nature of green sand was analyzed. It is considered that viscoelastic deformation of molding sand consists mainly of that of Kelvin Body of clay membrane, and elastic modulus of molding sand depends mainly on that of Kelvin Body which is the elastic component of clay membrane between sands. Elastic modulus can be adopted as one of the property parameters, and can be employed to evaluate viscoelastic properties of molding sand.
Measurement of elastic modulus and evaluation of viscoelasticity of foundry green sand
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2004-01-01
Elastic modulus is an important physical parameter of molding sand; it is closely connected with molding sand's properties. Based on theories of rheology and molding sand microdeformation, elastic modulus of molding sand was measured and investigated using the intelligent molding sand multi-property tester developed by ourselves. The measuring principle was introduced. Effects of bentonite percentage and compactibility of the molding sand were experimentally studied. Furthermore, the essential viscoelastic nature of green sand was analyzed. It is considered that viscoelastic deformation of molding sand consists mainly of that of Kelvin Body of clay membrane, and elastic modulus of molding sand depends mainly on that of Kelvin Body which is the elastic component of clay membrane between sands. Elastic modulus can be adopted as one of the property parameters, and can be employed to evaluate the viscoelastic properties of molding sand.
If mechanics of cells can be described by elastic modulus in AFM indentation experiments?
Sokolov, Igor; Dokukin, Maxim; Guz, Nataliia; Kalaparthi, Vivekanand
2014-03-01
We study the question if cells, being highly heterogeneous objects, can be described with an elastic modulus (the Young's modulus) in a self-consistent way. We analyze the elastic modulus using indentation done with AFM of human cervical epithelial cells. Both sharp (cone) and dull AFM probes were used. The indentation data collected were processed through different elastic models. The cell was considered as a homogeneous elastic medium which had either smooth spherical boundary (Hertz/Sneddon models) or the boundary covered with a layer of glycocalyx and membrane protrusions (``brush'' models). Validity of these approximations was investigated. Specifically, we tested the independence of the elastic modulus of the indentation depth, which is assumed in these models. We demonstrate that only one model shows consistency with treating cells as homogeneous elastic medium, the bush model when processing the indentation data collected with the dull probe. The elastic modulus demonstrates strong depth dependence in all other three models. We conclude that it is possible to describe the elastic properties of the cell body by means of an effective elastic modulus in a self-consistent way when using the brush model to analyze data collected with a dull AFM probe.
Determination of elastic modulus in nickel alloy from ultrasonic measurements
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Nikhat Parveen; G V S Murthy
2011-04-01
Elastic constants relate technological, structural and safety aspects to various materials phenomena and to their fundamental interatomic forces. Hence, they are of fundamental importance in almost all engineering applications. Thus its determination is of utmost importance. The aim of the present investigation is to study the behaviour of elastic constants and the variation on heat treatment in a nickel base super alloy Nimonic 263 by ultrasonic velocity measurements. From the present study it is evident that the elastic moduli of the material are very sensitive to any minor compositional changes, resulting due to the formation of intermetallic phases on heat treatment and can be effectively monitored by ultrasonic.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Wen-ming; PAN Fu-sheng; LU Yun; ZENG Su-min
2006-01-01
In this paper, we proposed a five-zone model to predict the elastic modulus of particulate reinforced metal matrix composite. We simplified the calculation by ignoring structural parameters including particulate shape, arrangement pattern and dimensional variance mode which have no obvious influence on the elastic modulus of a composite, and improved the precision of the method by stressing the interaction of interfaces with pariculates and maxtrix of the composite. The five- zone model can reflect effects of interface modulus on elastic modulus of composite. It overcomes limitations of expressions of rigidity mixed law and flexibility mixed law. The original idea of five zone model is to put forward the particulate/interface interactive zone and matrix/interface interactive zone. By organically integrating the rigidity mixed law and flexibility mixed law,the model can predict the engineering elastic constant of a composite effectively.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Singh, J.P.; Sutaria, M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Technology Div.; Ferber, M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)
1997-01-01
Elastic modulus of an yttria partially stabilized zirconia (YSZ) thermal barrier coating (TBC) was evaluated with a Knoop indentation technique. The measured elastic modulus values for the coating ranged from 68.4 {+-} 22.6 GPa at an indentation load of 50 g to 35.7 {+-} 9.8 at an indentation load of 300 g. At higher loads, the elastic modulus values did not change significantly. This steady-state value of 35.7 GPa for ZrO{sub 2} TBC agreed well with literature values obtained by the Hertzian indentation method. Furthermore, the measured elastic modulus for the TBC is lower than that reported for bulk ZrO{sub 2} ({approx} 190 GPa). This difference is believed to be due to the presence of a significant amount of porosity and microcracks in the TBCs. Hardness was also measured.
Elastic modulus and hardness of cortical and trabecular bovine bone measured by nanoindentation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG X J; CHEN X B; HODGSON P D; WEN C E
2006-01-01
The elastic modulus and hardness of several microstructure components of dry bovine vertebrae and tibia have been investigated in the longitude and transverse directions using nanoindentation. The elastic modulus for the osteons and the interstitial lamellae in the longitude direction were found to be (24.7±2.5) GPa and (30.1±2.4) GPa. As it's difficult to distinguish osteons from interstitial lamellae in the transverse direction,the average elastic modulus for cortical bovine bone in the transverse direction was (19.8±1.6) GPa. The elastic modulus for trabecular bone in the longitude and transverse direction were (20±2) GPa and (14.7±1.9) GPa respectively. The hardness also varied among the microstructure components in the range of 0.41-0.89 GPa. Analyses of variance show that the values are significantly different.
Simplified prediction model for elastic modulus of particulate reinforced metal matrix composites
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Wen-ming; PAN Fu-sheng; LU Yun; ZENG Su-min
2006-01-01
Some structural parameters of the metal matrix composite, including particulate shape and distribution do not influence the elastic modulus. A prediction model for the elastic modulus of particulate reinforced metal matrix Al composite was developed and improved. Expressions of rigidity and flexibility of the rule of mixing were proposed. A five-zone model for elasticity performance calculation of the composite was proposed. The five-zone model is thought to be able to reflect the effects of the MMC interface on elastic modulus of the composite. The model overcomes limitations of the currently-understood rigidity and flexibility of the rule of mixing. The original idea of a five-zone model is to propose particulate/interface interactive zone and matrix/interface interactive zone. By integrating organically with the law of mixing, the new model is found to be capable of predicting the engineering elastic constants of the MMC composite.
Comparison of mechanical and ultrasound elastic modulus of ovine tibial cortical bone.
Grant, Caroline A; Wilson, Lance J; Langton, Christian; Epari, Devakar
2014-07-01
Finite element models of bones can be created by deriving geometry from an X-ray CT scan. Material properties such as the elastic modulus can then be applied using either a single or set of homogeneous values, or individual elements can have local values mapped onto them. Values for the elastic modulus can be derived from the CT density values using an elasticity versus density relationship. Many elasticity-density relationships have been reported in the literature for human bone. However, while ovine in vivo models are common in orthopaedic research, no work has been done to date on creating FE models of ovine bones. To create these models and apply relevant material properties, an ovine elasticity-density relationship needs to be determined. Using fresh frozen ovine tibias the apparent density of regions of interest was determined from a clinical CT scan. The bones were the sectioned into cuboid samples of cortical bone from the regions of interest. Ultrasound was used to determine the elastic modulus in each of three directions - longitudinally, radially and tangentially. Samples then underwent traditional compression testing in each direction. The relationships between apparent density and both ultrasound, and compression modulus in each direction were determined. Ultrasound testing was found to be a highly repeatable non-destructive method of calculating the elastic modulus, particularly suited to samples of this size. The elasticity-density relationships determined in the longitudinal direction were very similar between the compression and ultrasound data over the density range examined. A clear difference was seen in the elastic modulus between the longitudinal and transverse directions of the bone samples, and a transverse elasticity-density relationship is also reported.
Oestreicher, J H; Frueh, B R
1995-06-01
We built an experimental apparatus to investigate the passive elastic characteristics of orbicularis oculi muscle and examined specimens from normal humans, humans with stable Graves' eye disease, and cynomolgus monkeys. Stress-strain curves were determined and found to be exponential. The elastic modulus (Young's modulus), analogous to the stiffness of the material, was calculated as a function of strain. Elastic modulus as a function of instantaneous stress was linear. Monkey elastic modulus values were determined, but did not allow meaningful interspecies comparison because of the small sample size. No significant difference was found between normal humans and humans with Graves' eye disease with respect to elastic modulus values.
Ultrasound estimation and FE analysis of elastic modulus of Kelvin foam
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Nohyu; Yang, Seung Yong [School of Mechatronics Engineering, Korea University of Technology and Education, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)
2016-02-15
The elastic modulus of a 3D-printed Kelvin foam plate is investigated by measuring the acoustic wave velocity of 1 MHz ultrasound. An isotropic tetrakaidecahedron foam with 3 mm unit cell is designed and printed layer upon layer to fabricate a Kelvin foam plate of 14 mm thickness with a 3D CAD/printer using ABS plastic. The Kelvin foam plate is completely filled with paraffin wax for impedance matching, so that the acoustic wave may propagate through the porous foam plate. The acoustic wave velocity of the foam plate is measured using the time-of-flight (TOF) method and is used to calculate the elastic modulus of the Kelvin foam plate based on acousto-elasticity. Finite element method (FEM) and micromechanics is applied to the Kelvin foam plate to calculate the theoretical elastic modulus using a non-isotropic tetrakaidecahedron model. The predicted elastic modulus of the Kelvin foam plate from FEM and micromechanics model is similar, which is only 3-4% of the bulk material. The experimental value of the elastic modulus from the ultrasonic method is approximately twice as that of the numerical and theoretical methods because of the flexural deformation of the cell edges neglected in the ultrasonic method.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘绍娜; 李书伟; 汤沛; 李鹏飞; 张英
2011-01-01
弹性模量是表征材料弹性性质的特征物理量,在工程应用中具有重要的作用.设计了基于声卡和Adobe Audition的材料动弹性模量测定的测试系统,基于声卡的数据采集系统由传感器、调理装置、计算机组成.对不同长度的等强度悬臂梁进行实验,利用Matlab软件进行实验数据分析,得到悬臂梁的固有频率,从而根据理论公式计算出材料的动弹性模量,并与有限元分析结果进行比较.实验结果表明该测试系统测量精度较高,该试验方法简单易行,具有较强的实用性.%Elastic modulus is a physical quantity representing the elastic properties of the material, which is very important in engineering application.A test system of dynamic elastic modulus is proposed based on sound card and Adobe Audition,ire which the data acquisition system based on sound card is composed of a sensor,a processing device and a computer.Meanwhile different lengths of equal strength cantilever beams are experimented, which empirical data obtained are analyzed by using Mal\\ah.Thus the natural frequencies of cantilever beams are gained, and then dynamic elastic modulus is worked out based on the theoretical formula,which is compared with the finite element analysis.The results indicate that the test system is simple and feasible with high precise in me as wing, therefore it is practicable.
In-situ measurement of elastic modulus for ceramic top-coat at high temperature
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
齐红宇; 周立柱; 马海全; 杨晓光; 李旭
2008-01-01
The ceramic thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) play an increasingly important in advanced gas turbine engines because of their ability to further increase the engine operating temperature and reduce the cooling, thus help achieve future engine low emission, high efficiency and improve the reliability goals. Currently, there are two different processes such as the plasma spraying (PS) and the electron beam-physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) techniques. The PS coating was selected to test the elastic modulus. Using the nanoindentation and resonant frequency method, the mechanical properties of ceramic top-coat were measured in-situ. According to the theory of the resonant frequency and composite beam, the testing system was set up including the hardware and software. The results show that the accurate characterization of the elastic properties of TBCs is important for stress-strain analysis and failure prediction. The TBCs systems are multi-layer material system. It is difficult to measure the elastic modulus of top-coat by tensile method. The testing data is scatter by nanoindentation method because of the microstructure of the ceramic top-coat. The elastic modulus of the top-coat between 20?1 150 ℃ is obtained. The elastic modulus is from 2 to 70 GPa at room temperature. The elastic modulus changes from 62.5 GPa to 18.6 GPa when the temperature increases from 20 ℃ to 1 150 ℃.
Size dependent elastic modulus and mechanical resilience of dental enamel.
O'Brien, Simona; Shaw, Jeremy; Zhao, Xiaoli; Abbott, Paul V; Munroe, Paul; Xu, Jiang; Habibi, Daryoush; Xie, Zonghan
2014-03-21
Human tooth enamel exhibits a unique microstructure able to sustain repeated mechanical loading during dental function. Although notable advances have been made towards understanding the mechanical characteristics of enamel, challenges remain in the testing and interpretation of its mechanical properties. For example, enamel was often tested under dry conditions, significantly different from its native environment. In addition, constant load, rather than indentation depth, has been used when mapping the mechanical properties of enamel. In this work, tooth specimens are prepared under hydrated conditions and their stiffnesses are measured by depth control across the thickness of enamel. Crystal arrangement is postulated, among other factors, to be responsible for the size dependent indentation modulus of enamel. Supported by a simple structure model, effective crystal orientation angle is calculated and found to facilitate shear sliding in enamel under mechanical contact. In doing so, the stress build-up is eased and structural integrity is maintained.
Effect of Elastic Modulus on Biomechanical Properties of Lumbar Interbody Fusion Cage
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yue Zhu; Fusheng Li; Shujun Li; Yulin Hao; Rui Yang
2009-01-01
This work focuses on the influence of elastic modulus on biomechanical properties of lumbar interbody fusion cages by selecting two titanium alloys with different elastic modulus.They were made by a new β type alloy with chemical composition of Ti-24Nb-4Zr-7.6Sn having low Young's modulus ～50 GPa and by a conventional biomedical alloy Ti-6Al-4V having Young's modulus ～110 GPa.The results showed that the designed cages with low modulus (LMC) and high modulus (HMC) can keep identical compression load ～9.8 kN and endure fatigue cycles higher than 5× 106 without functional or mechanical failure under 2.0 kN axial compression.The anti-subsidence ability of both group cages were examined by axial compression of thoracic spine specimens (T9～T10) dissected freshly from the calf with averaged age of 6 months.The results showed that the LMC has better anti-subsidence ability than the HMC (p<0.05).The above results suggest that the cage with low elastic modulus has great potential for clinical applications.
Berteau, Jean-Philippe; Baron, Cécile; Pithioux, Martine; Launay, Franck; Chabrand, Patrick; Lasaygues, Philippe
2014-07-01
The assessment of elastic properties in children's cortical bone is a major challenge for biomechanical engineering community, more widely for health care professionals. Even with classical clinical modalities such as X-ray tomography, MRI, and/or echography, inappropriate diagnosis can result from the lack of reference values for children bone. This study provides values for elastic properties of cortical bone in children using ultrasonic and mechanical measurements, and compares them with adult values. 18 fibula samples from 8 children (5-16 years old, mean age 10.6 years old ±4.4) were compared to 16 fibula samples from 3 elderly adults (more than 65 years old). First, the dynamic modulus of elasticity (Edyn) and Poisson's ratio (ν) are evaluated via an ultrasonic method. Second, the static modulus of elasticity (Esta) is estimated from a 3-point microbending test. The mean values of longitudinal and transverse wave velocities measured at 10 MHz for the children's samples are respectively 3.2mm/μs (±0.5) and 1.8mm/μs (±0.1); for the elderly adults' samples, velocities are respectively 3.5mm/μs (±0.2) and 1.9 mm/μs (±0.09). The mean Edyn and the mean Esta for the children's samples are respectively 15.5 GPa (±3.4) and 9.1 GPa (±3.5); for the elderly adults' samples, they are respectively 16.7 GPa (±1.9) and 5.8 GPa (±2.1). Edyn, ν and Esta are in the same range for children's and elderly adults' bone without any parametric statistical difference; a ranking correlation between Edyn and Esta is shown for the first time.
Actin cytoskeleton contributes to the elastic modulus of embryonic tendon during early development.
Schiele, Nathan R; von Flotow, Friedrich; Tochka, Zachary L; Hockaday, Laura A; Marturano, Joseph E; Thibodeau, Jeffrey J; Kuo, Catherine K
2015-06-01
Tendon injuries are common and heal poorly. Strategies to regenerate or replace injured tendons are challenged by an incomplete understanding of normal tendon development. Our previous study showed that embryonic tendon elastic modulus increases as a function of developmental stage. Inhibition of enzymatic collagen crosslink formation abrogated increases in tendon elastic modulus at late developmental stages, but did not affect increases in elastic modulus of early stage embryonic tendons. Here, we aimed to identify potential contributors to the mechanical properties of these early stage embryonic tendons. We characterized tendon progenitor cells in early stage embryonic tendons, and the influence of actin cytoskeleton disruption on tissue elastic modulus. Cells were closely packed in embryonic tendons, and did not change in density during early development. We observed an organized network of actin filaments that seemed contiguous between adjacent cells. The actin filaments exhibited a crimp pattern with a period and amplitude that matched the crimp of collagen fibers at each developmental stage. Chemical disruption of the actin cytoskeleton decreased tendon tissue elastic modulus, measured by atomic force microscopy. Our results demonstrate that early developmental stage embryonic tendons possess a well organized actin cytoskeleton network that contributes significantly to tendon tissue mechanical properties. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Mechanical properties of concrete with SAP. Part II: Modulus of elasticity
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hasholt, Marianne Tange; Jespersen, Morten H. Seneka; Jensen, Ole Mejlhede
2010-01-01
In this study, focus is on the modulus of elasticity for concrete with superabsorbent polymers (SAP). The results show that based on composite theory it is possible to establish a model, which predicts overall concrete elasticity. The model assumes a three phase material of aggregate, cement paste......, and air with volume fractions of the three phases as well as elastic properties of paste and aggregates as input parameters. Addition of SAP changes the E-modulus, because it both has an influence on properties of the cement paste and on the volume of air voids. Here, the E-modulus is an example...... a more or less empirical relation. The results show that when introducing SAP, models of a more empirical nature can be misleading (and e.g. relations stated in codes are often of this empirical nature). The reason is twofold: First, the empirical models often have a general problem with the effect...
Mechanical properties of concrete with SAP. Part II: Modulus of elasticity
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hasholt, Marianne Tange; Jespersen, Morten H. Seneka; Jensen, Ole Mejlhede
2010-01-01
In this study, focus is on the modulus of elasticity for concrete with superabsorbent polymers (SAP). The results show that based on composite theory it is possible to establish a model, which predicts overall concrete elasticity. The model assumes a three phase material of aggregate, cement paste......, and air with volume fractions of the three phases as well as elastic properties of paste and aggregates as input parameters. Addition of SAP changes the E-modulus, because it both has an influence on properties of the cement paste and on the volume of air voids. Here, the E-modulus is an example...... a more or less empirical relation. The results show that when introducing SAP, models of a more empirical nature can be misleading (and e.g. relations stated in codes are often of this empirical nature). The reason is twofold: First, the empirical models often have a general problem with the effect...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王平; 王杰民; 刘红玫; 王谦
2011-01-01
A series of studies on dynamic elasticity modulus and damping ratio of highly weathered rock which covered by loess are conducted with small strain ed, using triaxial shear equipment and their dynamics properties are analyzed. The results show that the dynamic stress and strain relation of highly weathered rock is nonlinear elastic relations, and fit the model of hyperbolic type with small strain ed. Within the same strain range, the mudstone's damping ratio is greater than the red sandstone's. In the same consolidation condition, the initial elastic modulus of red sandstone is greater than the one of mudstone. The research provides experimental technology and dynamic property parameters to dynamic response analysis and seismic deformation mechanism study for highly weathered rock which covered by thick layer of loess.%运用扭剪仪对小应变εd时黄土层下覆强风化岩的动模量和阻尼比进行了系列研究,分析了其动力学特性.结果表明,在小应变情况下风化岩体的动应力与动应变关系为非线性弹性关系,基本符合双曲线型模型；在相同应变范围内,泥岩阻尼比大于红砂岩的阻尼比；在相同固结条件下,红砂岩的初始动弹模大于泥岩初始动弹模.研究为厚覆盖层黄土场地及其下覆强风化岩层、隧道、高边坡动力反应分析和地震后土体变形机理研究提供了必要试验技术和参数.
Influence of punch radius on elastic modulus of three-point bending tests
Pengliang Hou; Hongwei Zhao; Zhichao Ma; Shizhong Zhang; Jianping Li; Xiaolong Dong; Yujiao Sun; Zhongwei Zhu
2016-01-01
Three-point bending is one of the most common methods of studying the mechanical performance of materials. The influence of punch radius in the measurements is not considered in the previous studies. This article focuses on the influence of the punch radius on the elastic modulus. The experiment is set up to measure the elastic modulus of 6061 aluminum alloy (6061 Al) and copper as the specimens, in which several different radii of punches are used. The maximum bending deflection of the middl...
Elastic modulus of SiCw/6061Al alloy composites as-squeeze-cast
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
姜传海; 吴建生; 王德尊
2001-01-01
By using the system of image analyzer connected with scanning electron microscope, the whisker orientation in the SiCw/6061Al alloy composite as-squeeze-cast was measured. According to the shear lag model and the actual distribution function of whisker in composite, the inhomogeneity of elastic modulus in composite was analyzed. With the method of ultrasonic velocity, the elastic modulus of composite was measured. The results showed that, the whiskers of composite are preferred in an orientation normal to the direction of squeeze cast. The higher the volume fraction of whisker, the more extent of preferred orientation of it, and the inhomogeneity of elastic modulus is mainly due to the differences of whisker distribution in composite.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Omar, Yamila M.; Al Ghaferi, Amal, E-mail: aalghaferi@masdar.ac.ae, E-mail: mchiesa@masdar.ac.ae; Chiesa, Matteo, E-mail: aalghaferi@masdar.ac.ae, E-mail: mchiesa@masdar.ac.ae [Laboratory for Energy and Nanosciences, Institute Center for Energy (iEnergy), Masdar Institute of Science and Technology, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)
2015-07-20
Extensive work has been done in order to determine the bulk elastic modulus of isotropic samples from force curves acquired with atomic force microscopy. However, new challenges are encountered given the development of new materials constructed of one-dimensional anisotropic building blocks, such as carbon nanostructured paper. In the present work, we establish a reliable framework to correlate the elastic modulus values obtained by amplitude modulation atomic force microscope force curves, a nanoscopic technique, with that determined by traditional macroscopic tensile testing. In order to do so, several techniques involving image processing, statistical analysis, and simulations are used to find the appropriate path to understand how macroscopic properties arise from anisotropic nanoscale components, and ultimately, being able to calculate the value of bulk elastic modulus.
Elastic Modulus Measurement of ORNL ATF FeCrAl Alloys
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Thompson, Zachary T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Terrani, Kurt A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Yamamoto, Yukinori [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
2015-10-01
Elastic modulus and Poisson’s ratio for a number of wrought FeCrAl alloys, intended for accident tolerant fuel cladding application, are determined via resonant ultrasonic spectroscopy. The results are reported as a function of temperature from room temperature to 850°C. The wrought alloys were in the fully annealed and unirradiated state. The elastic modulus for the wrought FeCrAl alloys is at least twice that of Zr-based alloys over the temperature range of this study. The Poisson’s ratio of the alloys was 0.28 on average and increased very slightly with increasing temperature.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A Jafari Malekabadi
2016-04-01
Full Text Available Introduction: Poisson ratio and modulus of elasticity are two fundamental properties of elastic and viscoelastic solids that use in solving all contact problems, including the calculation of stress, the contact surfaces and elastic deformation (Mohsenin, 1986; Gentle and Halsall, 1982. There are many published literature on Poisson ratio and elasticity modulus of fruit and vegetables. Shitanda et al. (2002 calculated Poisson ratio of rice by considering Boussinesq’s theory. They showed that the Poisson ratio is greater for shorter varieties. In another study, researchers used the instrumented bending beam to measure the lateral expansion of red beans. They were considered Poisson ratio as the ratio of transverse strain to the longitudinal strain (regardless of the geometry of the sample and were calculated modulus of elasticity with Hertz theory for convex bodies (Kiani Deh Kiani et al., 2009. Cakir et al. (2002 was determined the Poisson ratio and elastic modulus of some onion varieties. They used a simple formula to determine the transverse strain that developed by Sitkei (1986 for prism-shaped rod, regardless of the geometry of the product. Reviewed scientific literature shows that these parameters have not been studied according to the geometric shape of onions and was not used by a more accurate method, such as image processing to determine these parameters. The objective of this study was to evaluate the mechanical properties of two varieties of onions. Poisson ratio was determined with image processing. Considering shape of the onions and deformation value, and using Hertz’s theory with Poisson ratio, modulus of elasticity was calculated. The effects of loading directions (polar or equatorial, deformation value (5, 10 and 15 mm, loading speed (15 or 25 mm min-1 and onion varieties (Red and Yellow on the modulus of elasticity and apparent Poisson’s ratio were examined. Materials and Methods: The onions harvested in autumn, 20 days
MODULUS OF ELASTICITY AND HARDNESS OF COMPRESSION AND OPPOSITE WOOD CELL WALLS OF MASSON PINE
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yanhui Huang,
2012-05-01
Full Text Available Compression wood is commonly found in Masson pine. To evaluate the mechanical properties of the cell wall of Masson pine compression and opposite wood, nanoindentation was used. The results showed that the average values of hardness and cell wall modulus of elasticity of opposite wood were slightly higher than those of compression wood. With increasing age of the annual ring, the modulus of elasticity showed a negative correlation with microfibril angle, but a weak correlation was observed for hardness. In opposite and compression wood from the same annual ring, the differences in average values of modulus of elasticity and hardness were small. These slight differences were explained by the change of microfibril angle (MFA, the press-in mode of nanoindentation, and the special structure of compression wood. The mechanical properties were almost the same for early, transition, and late wood in a mature annual ring of opposite wood. It can therefore be inferred that the average modulus of elasticity (MOE and hardness of the cell walls in a mature annual ring were not being affected by cell wall thickness.
Elastic modulus affects the growth and differentiation of neural stem cells
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xian-feng Jiang
2015-01-01
Full Text Available It remains poorly understood if carrier hardness, elastic modulus, and contact area affect neural stem cell growth and differentiation. Tensile tests show that the elastic moduli of Tiansu and SMI silicone membranes are lower than that of an ordinary dish, while the elastic modulus of SMI silicone membrane is lower than that of Tiansu silicone membrane. Neural stem cells from the cerebral cortex of embryonic day 16 Sprague-Dawley rats were seeded onto ordinary dishes as well as Tiansu silicone membrane and SMI silicone membrane. Light microscopy showed that neural stem cells on all three carriers show improved adherence. After 7 days of differentiation, neuron specific enolase, glial fibrillary acidic protein, and myelin basic protein expression was detected by immunofluorescence. Moreover, flow cytometry revealed a higher rate of neural stem cell differentiation into astrocytes on Tiansu and SMI silicone membranes than on the ordinary dish, which was also higher on the SMI than the Tiansu silicone membrane. These findings confirm that all three cell carrier types have good biocompatibility, while SMI and Tiansu silicone membranes exhibit good mechanical homogenization. Thus, elastic modulus affects neural stem cell differentiation into various nerve cells. Within a certain range, a smaller elastic modulus results in a more obvious trend of cell differentiation into astrocytes.
Elastic modulus affects the growth and differentiation of neural stem cells
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Xian-feng Jiang; Kai Yang; Xiao-qing Yang; Ying-fu Liu; Yuan-chi Cheng; Xu-yi Chen; Yue Tu
2015-01-01
It remains poorly understood if carrier hardness, elastic modulus, and contact area affect neural stem cell growth and differentiation. Tensile tests show that the elastic moduli of Tiansu and SMI silicone membranes are lower than that of an ordinary dish, while the elastic modulus of SMI silicone membrane is lower than that of Tiansu silicone membrane. Neural stem cells from the cerebral cortex of embryonic day 16 Sprague-Dawley rats were seeded onto ordinary dishes as well as Tiansu silicone membrane and SMI silicone membrane. Light microscopy showed that neural stem cells on all three carriers show improved adherence. After 7 days of differentiation, neuron speciifc enolase, glial ifbrillary acidic protein, and myelin basic protein expression was detected by immunolfuorescence. Moreover, lfow cytometry revealed a higher rate of neural stem cell differentiation into astrocytes on Tiansu and SMI silicone membranes than on the ordinary dish, which was also higher on the SMI than the Tiansu silicone membrane. These ifndings con-ifrm that all three cell carrier types have good biocompatibility, while SMI and Tiansu silicone membranes exhibit good mechanical homogenization. Thus, elastic modulus affects neural stem cell differentiation into various nerve cells. Within a certain range, a smaller elastic modulus re-sults in a more obvious trend of cell differentiation into astrocytes.
Elastic modulus of TiN film investigated with Kroner model and X-ray diffraction
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2001-01-01
The four-point bending method was applied to measure X-ray elastic constants(XEC) of (422) and (331) planes of TiN coating. Elastic Modulus and XECs of all the crystal planes were calculated by Kroner method. The results from the calculation and the experiment were compared. It is concluded that the XECs values of same film prepared by different techniques scatter a little because of the effects of stoichiometric proportion and microstructure of films.
Influence of punch radius on elastic modulus of three-point bending tests
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Pengliang Hou
2016-05-01
Full Text Available Three-point bending is one of the most common methods of studying the mechanical performance of materials. The influence of punch radius in the measurements is not considered in the previous studies. This article focuses on the influence of the punch radius on the elastic modulus. The experiment is set up to measure the elastic modulus of 6061 aluminum alloy (6061 Al and copper as the specimens, in which several different radii of punches are used. The maximum bending deflection of the middle point is 1.0 mm. Moreover, a finite element simulation is constructed to simulate the bending process of specimen, which is consistent with the experimental results. According to the results, the punch radius has affected the measurement of elastic modulus, and the elastic modulus, the contact length, and the peak load increase with the increase in the punch radius. Combining the experiment result (E1 and the standard result (E3 of Changchun research institute for testing machines, it is found that the appropriate punch radius is in the range from 2.5 to 3.0 mm for this experiment, when the specimen’s dimension is 30.0 mm × 6.0 mm × 1.0 mm.
Evaluation the Effects of Some Relevant Parameters on Elastic Modulus of Pumpkin Seed and Its Kernel
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Mohammad Hossein Abbaspour-Fard
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The elastic modulus of two varieties of Iranian pumpkin seed and its kernel (namely, Zaria and Gaboor were evaluated as a function of size (large, medium, and small, loading rate (2, 5, 8, and 10 mm/min, and moisture content (4, 7.8, 14, and 20% d.b under quasistatic compression loading. The results showed that elastic modulus of pumpkin seed and its kernel decreased with increasing moisture content and also increasing loading rate, for the varieties under study. The average modulus of elasticity of pumpkin seed from 68.86 to 46.65 Mpa and from 97.14 to 74.93 Mpa was obtained for moisture levels ranging from 4 to 20%, for Zaria and Gaboor varieties, respectively. The elastic modulus of pumpkin seed decreased from 73.55 to 43.04 Mpa and from 101.83 to 71.32 Mpa with increasing loading rate from 2 to 10 mm/min for Zaria and Gaboor varieties, respectively.
Tiryaki, Sebahattin; Aras, Uğur; Kalaycıoğlu, Hülya; Erişir, Emir; Aydın, Aytaç
2017-07-01
Determining the mechanical properties of particleboard has gained a great importance due to its increasing usage as a building material in recent years. This study aims to develop artificial neural network (ANN) and multiple linear regression (MLR) models for predicting modulus of rupture (MOR) and modulus of elasticity (MOE) of particleboard depending on different pressing temperature, pressing time, pressing pressure and resin type. Experimental results indicated that the increased pressing temperature, time and pressure in manufacturing process generally improved the mechanical properties of particleboard. It was also seen that ANN and MLR models were highly successful in predicting the MOR and MOE of particleboard under given conditions. On the other hand, a comparison between ANN and MLR revealed that the ANN was superior compared to the MLR in predicting the MOR and MOE. Finally, the findings of this study are expected to provide beneficial insights for practitioners to better understand usability of such composite materials for engineering applications and to better assess the effects of pressing conditions on the MOR and MOE of particleboard.
Palchesko, Rachelle N; Zhang, Ling; Sun, Yan; Feinberg, Adam W
2012-01-01
Mechanics is an important component in the regulation of cell shape, proliferation, migration and differentiation during normal homeostasis and disease states. Biomaterials that match the elastic modulus of soft tissues have been effective for studying this cell mechanobiology, but improvements are needed in order to investigate a wider range of physicochemical properties in a controlled manner. We hypothesized that polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) blends could be used as the basis of a tunable system where the elastic modulus could be adjusted to match most types of soft tissue. To test this we formulated blends of two commercially available PDMS types, Sylgard 527 and Sylgard 184, which enabled us to fabricate substrates with an elastic modulus anywhere from 5 kPa up to 1.72 MPa. This is a three order-of-magnitude range of tunability, exceeding what is possible with other hydrogel and PDMS systems. Uniquely, the elastic modulus can be controlled independently of other materials properties including surface roughness, surface energy and the ability to functionalize the surface by protein adsorption and microcontact printing. For biological validation, PC12 (neuronal inducible-pheochromocytoma cell line) and C2C12 (muscle cell line) were used to demonstrate that these PDMS formulations support cell attachment and growth and that these substrates can be used to probe the mechanosensitivity of various cellular processes including neurite extension and muscle differentiation.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rachelle N Palchesko
Full Text Available Mechanics is an important component in the regulation of cell shape, proliferation, migration and differentiation during normal homeostasis and disease states. Biomaterials that match the elastic modulus of soft tissues have been effective for studying this cell mechanobiology, but improvements are needed in order to investigate a wider range of physicochemical properties in a controlled manner. We hypothesized that polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS blends could be used as the basis of a tunable system where the elastic modulus could be adjusted to match most types of soft tissue. To test this we formulated blends of two commercially available PDMS types, Sylgard 527 and Sylgard 184, which enabled us to fabricate substrates with an elastic modulus anywhere from 5 kPa up to 1.72 MPa. This is a three order-of-magnitude range of tunability, exceeding what is possible with other hydrogel and PDMS systems. Uniquely, the elastic modulus can be controlled independently of other materials properties including surface roughness, surface energy and the ability to functionalize the surface by protein adsorption and microcontact printing. For biological validation, PC12 (neuronal inducible-pheochromocytoma cell line and C2C12 (muscle cell line were used to demonstrate that these PDMS formulations support cell attachment and growth and that these substrates can be used to probe the mechanosensitivity of various cellular processes including neurite extension and muscle differentiation.
Parametric studies on effective elastic modulus of nano-clay/polymer composites
Thakur, Arvind Kumar; Srinivas, J.
2016-04-01
This paper proposes a methodology of finding effective elastic properties of nanoclay-reinforced polymer composites with aligned clay particles. When interphase regions exist between nanoclay platelets and polymer, numerical homogenization is initially required to identify the properties of effective particle consisting of both clay and interface regions. Once the elastic properties of equivalent particle are obtained, Mori-Tanaka approach is employed to identify all the effective properties of resultant composite. The methodology is implemented with a modular based computer program developed in MATLAB and the variation of longitudinal modulus as a function of weight fraction of nanoclay, aspect ratio of fibers, number of stacks, nanoclay volume fraction etc is reported. The empirical results are validated with a numerical model developed in ANSYS using a representative volume element for prediction of the elastic modulus. Results are illustrated with two cases of exfoliated morphology.
Li, Ming; Zhao, Aiwu; Jiang, Rui; Wang, Dapeng; Li, Da; Guo, Hongyan; Tao, Wenyu; Gan, Zibao; Zhang, Maofeng
2011-02-01
We studied the influence of the elastic modulus on the gecko-inspired dry adhesion by regulating the elastic modulus of bulk polyurethane combined with changing the size of microarrays. Segmented polyurethane (PU) was utilized to fabricate micro arrays by the porous polydimethyl siloxane (PDMS) membrane molding method. The properties of the micro arrays, such as the elastic modulus and adhesion, were investigated by Triboindenter. The study demonstrates that bulk surfaces show the highest elastic modulus, with similar values at around 175 MPa and decreasing the arrays radius causes a significant decrease in E, down to 0.62 MPa. The corresponding adhesion experiments show that decrease of the elastic modulus can enhance the adhesion which is consistent with the recent theoretical models.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王勇; 王艳丽
2011-01-01
With the GDS dynamic triaxial system, undrained dynamic triaxial tests on the saturated sand of different fines contents were performed; and effects of fines content on the dynamic elastic modulus and damping ratio were analyzed. Results show that the dynamic elastic modulus of sand decreases with increasing of fines content; but the trend is reversed beyond the critical value of fines content of 30%. The damping ratio of sand firstly increases and then decreases with increasing fines content at the same critical value of fines content of 30%. When fines content is less than 30%, the dynamic characteristics of sand is determined mainly by the coarse grains; the skeleton void ratio between coarse grains increases with the increase of fines content; and the ability to resist deformation under the same strain level weakens so that the elastic modulus decreases. Meanwhile, the stress wave propagation speed slows down because of the reduction of contact points between soil particles, hysteresis quality of the soil dynamic load response strengthens and the damping ratio increases; when the fines content is greater than 30%, the dynamic characteristics of sand is determined mainly by the fine grains; the interfine void ratio decreases with increasing of fines content; so that the dynamic properties of sand shows a reverse trend.%利用GDS循环三轴试验系统,进行一系列不同细粒含量砂土的不排水动三轴试验,研究细粒含量对饱和砂土动弹性模量与阻尼比的影响.试验结果表明,砂土的动弹性模量随细粒含量的增加而减小,但当超过细粒含量的临界值30％后,变化趋势则相反;阻尼比随着细粒含量的增加呈现先增大后减小的趋势,其细粒含量的临界值也为30％.当细粒含量小于30％时,砂土的动力特性主要由粗粒决定,粗粒间形成的骨架孔隙比随细粒含量的增加而增大,相同应变水平下抵抗变形的能力随之减弱,从而使动弹性模量减小.同
Prediction of the modulus of elasticity of Eucalyptus grandis through two nondestructive techniques
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Pedro Henrique Gonzalez de Cademartori
Full Text Available The present study aimed to estimate the modulus of elasticity (MOE at static bending of Rose gum (Eucalyptus grandis heartwood and sapwood through two nondestructive techniques: ultrasound and stress wave. Sixty samples of heartwood and sapwood were prepared. Nondestructive tests were performed using ultrasound and stress wave timer equipment, while destructive tests were carried out in a universal machine through static bending tests. The main results showed that the heartwood presented better behavior than the sapwood in the non-destructive tests. However, the best model was obtained considering both wood types through the ultrasonic technique. Therefore, stress wave and ultrasonic techniques could be employed to estimate the modulus of elasticity of Rose gum wood.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
You, J.H. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Boltzmann Street 2, 85748 Garching (Germany)]. E-mail: jeong-ha.you@ipp.mpg.de; Hoeschen, T. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Boltzmann Street 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Lindig, S. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Boltzmann Street 2, 85748 Garching (Germany)
2006-01-01
Plasma-sprayed tungsten, which is a candidate material for the first wall armour, shows a porous, heterogeneous microstructure. Due to its characteristic morphology, the properties are significantly different from those of its dense bulk material. Measurements of the elastic modulus of this coating have not been reported in the literature. In this work Young's modulus of highly porous plasma-sprayed tungsten coatings deposited on steel (F82H) substrates was measured. For the fabrication of the coating system the vacuum plasma-spray process was applied. Measurements were performed by means of three-point and four-point bending tests. The obtained modulus values ranged from 53 to 57 GPa. These values could be confirmed by the test result of a detached coating strip, which was 54 GPa. The applied methods produced consistent results regardless of testing configurations and specimen sizes. The errors were less than 1%. Residual stress of the coating was also estimated.
You, J. H.; Höschen, T.; Lindig, S.
2006-01-01
Plasma-sprayed tungsten, which is a candidate material for the first wall armour, shows a porous, heterogeneous microstructure. Due to its characteristic morphology, the properties are significantly different from those of its dense bulk material. Measurements of the elastic modulus of this coating have not been reported in the literature. In this work Young's modulus of highly porous plasma-sprayed tungsten coatings deposited on steel (F82H) substrates was measured. For the fabrication of the coating system the vacuum plasma-spray process was applied. Measurements were performed by means of three-point and four-point bending tests. The obtained modulus values ranged from 53 to 57 GPa. These values could be confirmed by the test result of a detached coating strip, which was 54 GPa. The applied methods produced consistent results regardless of testing configurations and specimen sizes. The errors were less than 1%. Residual stress of the coating was also estimated.
Effect of precipitation on elastic modulus of Al-Zn-Mg-Cu-Li alloys
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHAO Zhong-kui; ZHOU Tie-tao; LIU Pei-ying; LI Huan-xi; CHEN Chang-qi
2006-01-01
Al-5.6Zn-3.0Mg-1.6Cu-1.1Li-0.24Cr alloys and Al-8.0Zn-2.4Mg-2.4Cu-1.1Li-0.18Zr alloys (mass fraction, %) were aged by different processes. The microstructure and mechanical properties were determined by transmission electron microscopy(TEM),tensile test and Vicker's hardness test. The experimental results show that the most signified hardening is obtained by double-ageing or multi-ageing for the Al-Zn-Mg-Cu-Li alloys. The yield strength and the elastic modulus of the Li-containing alloys have relationships with ageing processes. The elastic modulus of Li-containing alloys decreases with the increment of precipitates though it is higher than that of Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy.
Study of the Effect of Temperature Changes on the Elastic Modulus of Flexible Pavement Layers
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Mohd Raihan Taha
2013-02-01
Full Text Available In general, the stiffness of flexible pavement is influenced by environmental changes, whereby temperature and rainfall affect the asphalt layer and non-asphalt layer, such as the subgrade, respectively. Normally, the effect of temperature on flexible pavement can be measured using two methods. The first is a destructive test whereby core samples are tested in a laboratory using a Universal Testing Machine (UTM. The second is a non-destructive in situ test using equipment such as a Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD and Spectral Analysis of Surface Waves (SASW. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of temperature at different tensile levels on the Soekarno-Hatta and Purwakarta Cikampek roads in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia. It is observed that different tensile levels and testing methods result in various elastic modulus values of flexible pavement. The higher the temperature applied to the flexible pavement layer, the more the elastic modulus values decrease. In contrast, the lower the temperature imposed on the flexible pavement layer, the more the elastic modulus values increase. Different testing methods (FWD, UTM and SASW on the flexible pavement layer are also affected by temperature changes.
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Akaninyene Afangide Umoh
2012-12-01
Full Text Available The study examined the effect of periwinkle shell ash as supplementary cementitious material on the compressive strength and static modulus of elasticity of concrete with a view to comparing it’s established relation with an existing model. The shells were calcined at a temperature of 800oC. Specimens were prepared from a mix of designed strength 25N/mm2. The replacement of cement with periwinkle shell ash (PSA was at five levels of 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40% by volume. A total of 90 cubical and cylindrical specimens each were cast and tested at 7, 14, 28, 90, 120 and 180 days. The results revealed that the PSA met the minimum chemical and physical requirements for class C Pozzolans. The compressive strength of the PSA blended cement concrete increased with increase in curing age up to 180 days but decreased as the PSA content increased. The design strength was attained with 10%PSA content at the standard age of 28 days. The static modulus of elasticity of PSA blended cement concrete was observed to increase with increased in curing age and decreases with PSA content. In all the curing ages 0%PSA content recorded higher value than the blended cement concrete. The statistical analysis indicated that the percentage PSA replacement and the curing age have significant effect on the properties of the concrete at 95% confidence level. The relation between compressive strength and static modulus of elasticity fitted into existing model for normal-weight concrete.
Antony Finto; Lewis Jordan; Laurence R. Schimleck; Alexander Clark; Ray A. Souter; Richard F. Daniels
2011-01-01
Modulus of elasticity (MOE), modulus of rupture (MOR), and specific gravity (SG) are important properties for determining the end-use and value of a piece of lumber. This study addressed the variation in MOE, MOR, and SG with physiographic region, tree height, and wood type. Properties were measured from two static bending samples (dimensions 25.4 mm Ã 25.4 mm Ã 406.4...
Contraction stress, elastic modulus, and degree of conversion of three flowable composites.
Cadenaro, Milena; Codan, Barbara; Navarra, Chiara O; Marchesi, Giulio; Turco, Gianluca; Di Lenarda, Roberto; Breschi, Lorenzo
2011-06-01
The aim of this study was to measure the contraction stress of three flowable resin composites and to correlate the stress with the elastic modulus and the degree of conversion. One low-shrinkage (Venus Diamond Flow) and two conventional (Tetric EvoFlow and X-Flow) flowable composites were polymerized for 40s with a light-emitting diode (LED) curing unit. Contraction force was continuously recorded for 300s using a stress-analyser, and stress values were calculated at 40s and at 300s. The maximum stress rate was also calculated for each specimen. The elastic modulus of each composite was assayed using a biaxial flexural test, and degree of conversion was analysed with Raman spectroscopy. X-Flow exhibited higher stress values than the other tested materials. Venus Diamond Flow showed the lowest stress values at 40s and at 300s, and the lowest maximum stress rate. Stress values were correlated with elastic modulus but not with degree of conversion, which was comparable among all tested materials.
On the nontrivial wave-vector dependence of the elastic modulus of glasses
Baldi, Giacomo; Giordano, Valentina M.; Ruta, Beatrice; Monaco, Giulio
2016-04-01
Recent theoretical models for the vibrations in glasses assume that the complex elastic modulus depends on frequency but not on the wave vector, q . This assumption translates in a simple q dependence of the dynamic structure factor, which can be experimentally tested. Following the suggestion of a recent paper [U. Buchenau, Phys. Rev. E 90, 062319 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevE.90.062319], we present here a new analysis, performed in q space, of inelastic x-ray scattering data of supercooled silica. The outcome of the analysis is compared to the more common approach in the frequency domain and indicates that the mentioned theoretical assumption is consistent with the data only below the boson peak frequency. At higher frequencies it gives rise to a breakdown of the classical second moment sum rule. This violation arises from the underlying assumption of the presence of a single excitation in the spectra. A comparison with the vibrational dynamics of α -cristobalite suggests, on the contrary, that in the terahertz frequency domain the inelastic spectrum of the glass gains contributions from both acousticlike and opticlike modes. A microscopic theory of the vibrations in glasses cannot neglect the medium range order in their structure, which gives rise to dispersion curves within a pseudo-Brillouin zone.
Nanoscale elastic modulus of single horizontal ZnO nanorod using nanoindentation experiment
Soomro, Muhammad Yousuf; Hussain, Ijaz; Bano, Nargis; Broitman, Esteban; Nur, Omer; Willander, Magnus
2012-02-01
We measure the elastic modulus of a single horizontal ZnO nanorod [NR] grown by a low-temperature hydrothermal chemical process on silicon substrates by performing room-temperature, direct load-controlled nanoindentation measurements. The configuration of the experiment for the single ZnO NR was achieved using a focused ion beam/scanning electron microscope dual-beam instrument. The single ZnO NR was positioned horizontally over a hole on a silicon wafer using a nanomanipulator, and both ends were bonded with platinum, defining a three-point bending configuration. The elastic modulus of the ZnO NR, extracted from the unloading curve using the well-known Oliver-Pharr method, resulted in a value of approximately 800 GPa. Also, we discuss the NR creep mechanism observed under indentation. The mechanical behavior reported in this paper will be a useful reference for the design and applications of future nanodevices.
Li, Jiankang; Li, Liang
2017-02-01
Geometric confinement is a promising method for the reconstruction of silk fibroin to form diversified structures with excellent mechanical properties. To accomplish geometric confinement, a water vapor assistant embossing process is used with porous anodic aluminum oxide templates, yielding silk fibroin nanopillars with diameters ranging from 40 nm to 130 nm. The elastic modulus of the regenerated silk fibroin nanopillars is investigated with atomic force microscopy nanoindentation analysis. Compared to films with the same treatment conditions, geometric confinement provided a twofold increase in elastic modulus in embossed silk fibroin nanopillars, indicating that β-sheet crystal ordering occurred during the water vapor assistant embossing process. These results demonstrate the feasibility and mechanical property enhancement of the embossing method to fabricate silk nanostructures, and will be useful in designing miniaturized devices.
The apparent elastic modulus of the juxtarticular subchondral bone of the femoral head.
Brown, T D; Vrahas, M S
1984-01-01
An experiment was undertaken to obtain approximate values for the intrinsic elastic modulus of subchondral bone. Shallow spherical caps, with uniform and incrementally controlled thickness, were machined from subchondral bone in the weight-bearing regions of 11 fresh-frozen normal femoral head autopsy specimens. Under application of polar point loads, the measured deflections were compared with a corresponding analytical shell solution, thus allowing back-calculation of the apparent modulus. Analogous tests were performed on similarly shaped specimens of stock Plexiglas of known modulus in order to estimate the precision of the testing method. The aggregate results for subchondral bone showed that its intrinsic stiffness correlated inversely with nominal shell thickness, but even the thinnest (1.0 mm thick) of these shells had an apparent modulus (mean = 1.372 GN/m2, SD = 414 MN/m2) well below that generally accepted for "pure" cortical bone (about 14 GN/m2). This stiffness deficit was very likely due to the presence of histologically evident marrow spaces. However, the low apparent modulus values measured in this study may not be fully representative of complex in vivo behavior, because in the testing of excised shells there is no radial compressive stress transfer to underlying cancellous bone.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Darci Alberto Gatto
2012-11-01
Full Text Available This study was developed aiming at evaluating the use of constant dynamic elastic obtained by non-destructive testing, as a parameter in the estimation of mechanical properties of Eucalyptus cloeziana obtained by destructive test. With equipment emitting ultrasonicwaves from transducers adapted to dry spots of 45 kHz, we determined the ultrasonic velocity relates to distance and time of transmission of the wave along the length of specimens used in test with nominal dimensions of 2.0 x 2.0 x 30.0 cm in thickness, width and length,respectively. To assess the sensitivity of ultrasound, the samples were tested for evidencedestructively in a universal test for determining the modulus of elasticity and rupture in staticbending. The results showed that the ultrasonic method is a fast and efficient tool for inference of non-destructive wood mechanical properties. However, differences in the adjustment of statistical models showed that the best regression parameters were obtained toestimating the modulus of elasticity, compared with the modulus of rupture.
Strain-rate Dependence of Elastic Modulus Reveals Silver Nanoparticle Induced Cytotoxicity.
Caporizzo, Matthew Alexander; Roco, Charles M; Ferrer, Maria Carme Coll; Grady, Martha E; Parrish, Emmabeth; Eckmann, David M; Composto, Russell John
Force-displacement measurements are taken at different rates with an atomic force microscope to assess the correlation between cell health and cell viscoelasticity in THP-1 cells that have been treated with a novel drug carrier. A variable indentation-rate viscoelastic analysis, VIVA, is employed to identify the relaxation time of the cells that are known to exhibit a frequency dependent stiffness. The VIVA agrees with a fluorescent viability assay. This indicates that dextran-lysozyme drug carriers are biocompatible and deliver concentrated toxic material (rhodamine or silver nanoparticles) to the cytoplasm of THP-1 cells. By modelling the frequency dependence of the elastic modulus, the VIVA provides three metrics of cytoplasmic viscoelasticity: a low frequency modulus, a high frequency modulus and viscosity. The signature of cytotoxicity by rhodamine or silver exposure is a frequency independent twofold increase in the elastic modulus and cytoplasmic viscosity, while the cytoskeletal relaxation time remains unchanged. This is consistent with the known toxic mechanism of silver nanoparticles, where metabolic stress causes an increase in the rigidity of the cytoplasm. A variable indentation-rate viscoelastic analysis is presented as a straightforward method to promote the self-consistent comparison between cells. This is paramount to the development of early diagnosis and treatment of disease.
Elastic Modulus and Stress Analysis of Porous Titanium Parts Fabricated by Selective Laser Melting
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Junchao Li∗,Yanyan Zang; Wei Wang
2016-01-01
The mismatch of elasticity modulus has limited the application of titanium alloys in medical implants, and porous structures have been proved effective to deal with this problem. However, the manufacturing of porous structures has been restricted from conventional technologies. In this study, selective laser melting ( SLM) technology was employed to produce a set of Ti⁃6Al⁃4V porous samples based on cubic lattices with varying size of strut width from 200 μm to 600 μm. Then the compression tests were conducted to analyze the influence of the strut width on the elasticity modulus and the ultimate strength. The result shows both of them increases linearly with the growth of strut width or with the decrease of porosity, and the elasticity modulus of porous parts is largely reduced and actually meets the requirement of clinical application. Additionally, a finite element model was established to verify the un⁃uniform stress distribution of porous parts. It reveals that fractures always initially occur at the vertical struts along the force direction which suffer from the main deformation.
A mechanical model to compute elastic modulus of tissues for harmonic motion imaging.
Shan, Baoxiang; Pelegri, Assimina A; Maleke, Caroline; Konofagou, Elisa E
2008-07-19
Numerous experimental and computational methods have been developed to estimate tissue elasticity. The existing testing techniques are generally classified into in vitro, invasive in vivo and non-invasive in vivo. For each experimental method, a computational scheme is accordingly proposed to calculate mechanical properties of soft biological tissues. Harmonic motion imaging (HMI) is a new technique that performs radio frequency (RF) signal tracking to estimate the localized oscillatory motion resulting from a radiation force produced by focused ultrasound. A mechanical model and computational scheme based on the superposition principle are developed in this paper to estimate the Young's modulus of a tissue mimicking phantom and bovine liver in vitro tissue from the harmonic displacement measured by HMI. The simulation results are verified by two groups of measurement data, and good agreement is shown in each comparison. Furthermore, an inverse function is observed to correlate the elastic modulus of uniform phantoms with amplitude of displacement measured in HMI. The computational scheme is also implemented to estimate 3D elastic modulus of bovine liver in vitro.
Microstructure, Elastic Modulus and Tensile Properties of Ti-Nb-O Alloy System
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2008-01-01
In the present study Ti-Nb binary alloy system was chosen because it has excellent biocompatibility as well as reasonable mechanical properties, aiming at understanding oxygen content on microstructural formation,elastic modulus and tensile properties in Ti-Nb alloy system. Small alloy buttons of 50 mm in diameter were prepared by arc melting on a water-cooled copper hearth under an argon gas atmosphere with a non-consumable tungsten electrode. The button ingots were then heat treated in a vacuum atmosphere at 1273 K for 0.5 h followed by water quenching in a specially designed heat treatment furnace. Microstructure, elastic modulus and tensile properties were investigated in order to understand the effect of oxygen content in quenched TiNb alloy system. The orthorhombic structured α″ martensite was changed to bcc structured β-phase with increasing Nb content. Interestingly, it was found that oxygen makes β-phase stable in quenched Ti-Nb alloy system. Elastic modulus values were sensitive to phase stability of constituent phases. Yield strength increased with increasing oxygen content. Details will be explained by phase formation and stability behavior.
Determination of the elastic modulus of fly ash-based stabilizer applied in the trackbed
Lojda, Vít; Lidmila, Martin; Pýcha, Marek
2017-09-01
This paper describes a unique application of a fly ash-based stabilizer in the trackbed of a railway main line. The key goals of the stabilizer application are to protect the subgrade against the ingress of rain water, to increase the frost resistance and to remediate the natural ground constituted of weathered rock. The stabilizer was designed as a mixture of fly ash, generated as a waste material from coal plants, gypsum, calcium oxide and water. The mixture recipe was developed in a laboratory over several years. In 2005, a trial section of a railway line with subgrade consisting of clay limestone (weathered marlite) was built in the municipality of Smiřice. Since then, periodical measurements including collection of samples for laboratory evaluation of the fly ash-based stabilizer have taken place. Over the time span of the measurements, changes in mineral composition and development of fly ash transforming structures leading to the formation of C-A-S-H gel were detected. This paper describes the experimental laboratory investigation of the influence of dynamic loading on the elastic modulus of fly ash stabilizer samples and the development of permanent deformation of the samples with increasing number of loading cycles.
3D mapping of elastic modulus using shear wave optical micro-elastography
Zhu, Jiang; Qi, Li; Miao, Yusi; Ma, Teng; Dai, Cuixia; Qu, Yueqiao; He, Youmin; Gao, Yiwei; Zhou, Qifa; Chen, Zhongping
2016-10-01
Elastography provides a powerful tool for histopathological identification and clinical diagnosis based on information from tissue stiffness. Benefiting from high resolution, three-dimensional (3D), and noninvasive optical coherence tomography (OCT), optical micro-elastography has the ability to determine elastic properties with a resolution of ~10 μm in a 3D specimen. The shear wave velocity measurement can be used to quantify the elastic modulus. However, in current methods, shear waves are measured near the surface with an interference of surface waves. In this study, we developed acoustic radiation force (ARF) orthogonal excitation optical coherence elastography (ARFOE-OCE) to visualize shear waves in 3D. This method uses acoustic force perpendicular to the OCT beam to excite shear waves in internal specimens and uses Doppler variance method to visualize shear wave propagation in 3D. The measured propagation of shear waves agrees well with the simulation results obtained from finite element analysis (FEA). Orthogonal acoustic excitation allows this method to measure the shear modulus in a deeper specimen which extends the elasticity measurement range beyond the OCT imaging depth. The results show that the ARFOE-OCE system has the ability to noninvasively determine the 3D elastic map.
Li, Guang-Rong; Lv, Bo-Wen; Yang, Guan-Jun; Zhang, Wei-Xu; Li, Cheng-Xin; Li, Chang-Jiu
2015-12-01
The elastic modulus of plasma-sprayed top coating plays an important role in thermal cyclic lifetime of thermally sprayed thermal barrier coatings (TBCs), since the thermal stress is determined by the substrate/coating thermal mismatch and the elastic modulus of top coating. Consequently, much attention had been paid to understanding the relationship between elastic modulus and lamellar structure of top coating. However, neglecting the intra-splat cracks connected with inter-splat pores often leads to poor prediction in in-plane modulus. In this study, a modified model taking account of intra-splat cracks and other main structural characteristics of plasma-sprayed yttria-stabilized zirconia coating was proposed. Based on establishing the relationship between elastic modulus and structural parameters of basic unit, effects of structural parameters on the elastic modulus of coatings were discussed. The predicted results are well consistent with experimental data on coating elastic modulus in both out-plane direction and in-plane direction. This study would benefit the further comprehensive understanding of failure mechanism of TBCs in thermal cyclic condition.
A Comparative Study of Solutions Concerning Thick Elastic Plates on Bi-modulus Foundation
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Ioana Vlad
2004-01-01
Full Text Available The classical bending theory of elastic plates is based upon the assumption that the internal moments are proportional to the curvatures of the median deformed surface. This theory does not include the effects of shear and normal pressure in the plate. The model of a bi-modulus foundation is a realistic generalization of the Winkler’s classical one and is widely used to represent the subgrade of railroad systems, airport lanes [1], [2]. The derived equation of elastic thick plates on bi-modulus foundation considers shear and normal stress as linear variable across the plate thickness. This paper presents numerical solutions for thick plate resting on bi-modulus subgrade. These solutions take into account the shear distortion, and they are compared to the solution obtained by Finite Element Analysis and with the Winkler’s model. Particular solutions for the rectangular plate of clamped boundary, for the hinged rectangular plate and for a semi-elliptical plate, are discussed. The numerical solutions consist of double power series and they were obtained based on the minimum of the total strain energy [1]. Parametric studies have been performed in order to emphasize the effects of the chosen foundation and that of the geometry.
Ptak, Arkadiusz; Takeda, Seiji; Nakamura, Chikashi; Miyake, Jun; Kageshima, Masami; Jarvis, Suzanne P.; Tokumoto, Hiroshi
2001-09-01
A modified atomic force microscopy (AFM) system, based on a force modulation technique, has been used to find an approximate value for the elastic modulus of a single peptide molecule directly from a mechanical test. For this purpose a self-assembled monolayer built from two kinds of peptides, reactive (able to anchor to the AFM tip) and nonreactive, was synthesized. In a typical experiment a single C3K30C (C=cysteine, K=lysine) peptide molecule was stretched between a Au(111) substrate and the gold-coated tip of an AFM cantilever to which it was attached via gold-sulfur bonds. The amplitude of the cantilever oscillations, due to an external force applied via a magnetic particle to the cantilever, was recorded by a lock-in amplifier and recalculated into stiffness of the stretched molecule. A longitudinal Young's modulus for the α-helix of a single peptide molecule and for the elongated state of this molecule has been estimated. The obtained values; 1.2±0.3 and 50±15 GPa, for the peptide α-helix and elongated peptide backbone, respectively, seem to be reasonable comparing them to the Young's modulus of protein crystals and linear organic polymers. We believe this research opens up a means by which scientists can perform quantitative studies of the elastic properties of single molecule, especially of biologically important polymers like peptides or DNA.
Elastic modulus and viscoelastic properties of full thickness skin characterised at micro scales.
Crichton, Michael L; Chen, Xianfeng; Huang, Han; Kendall, Mark A F
2013-03-01
The recent emergence of micro-devices for vaccine delivery into upper layers of the skin holds potential for increased immune responses using physical means to target abundant immune cell populations. A challenge in doing this has been a limited understanding of the skin elastic properties at the micro scale (i.e. on the order of a cell diameter; ~10 μm). Here, we quantify skin's elastic properties at a micro-scale by fabricating customised probes of scales from sub- to super-cellular (0.5 μm-20 μm radius). We then probe full thickness skin; first with force-relaxation experiments and subsequently by elastic indentations. We find that skin's viscoelastic response is scale-independent: consistently a ~40% decrease in normalised force over the first second, followed by further 10% reduction over 10 s. Using Prony series and Hertzian contact analyses, we determined the strain-rate independent elastic moduli of the skin. A high scale dependency was found: the smallest probe encountered the highest elastic modulus (~30 MPa), whereas the 20 μm radius probe was lowest (below 1 MPa). We propose that this may be a result of the load distribution in skin facilitated by the hard corneocytes in the outermost skin layers, and softer living cell layers below. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bending elasticity modulus of giant vesicles composed of aeropyrum pernix k1 archaeal lipid.
Genova, Julia; Ulrih, Nataša Poklar; Kralj-Iglič, Veronika; Iglič, Aleš; Bivas, Isak
2015-03-26
Thermally induced shape fluctuations were used to study elastic properties of giant vesicles composed of archaeal lipids C25,25-archetidyl (glucosyl) inositol and C25,25-archetidylinositol isolated from lyophilised Aeropyrum pernix K1 cells. Giant vesicles were created by electroformation in pure water environment. Stroboscopic illumination using a xenon flash lamp was implemented to remove the blur effect due to the finite integration time of the camera and to obtain an instant picture of the fluctuating vesicle shape. The mean weighted value of the bending elasticity modulus kc of the archaeal membrane determined from the measurements meeting the entire set of qualification criteria was (1.89 ± 0.18) × 10-19 J, which is similar to the values obtained for a membrane composed of the eukaryotic phospholipids SOPC (1.88 ± 0.17) × 10-19 J and POPC (2.00 ± 0.21) ´ 10-19 J. We conclude that membranes composed of archaeal lipids isolated from Aeropyrum pernix K1 cells have similar elastic properties as membranes composed of eukaryotic lipids. This fact, together with the importance of the elastic properties for the normal circulation through blood system, provides further evidence in favor of expectations that archaeal lipids could be appropriate for the design of drug delivery systems.
Evaluation of elastic modulus and hardness of highly inhomogeneous materials by nanoindentation
Epshtein, Svetlana A.; Borodich, Feodor M.; Bull, Steve J.
2015-04-01
The experimental and numerical techniques for evaluation of mechanical properties of highly inhomogeneous materials are discussed. The techniques are applied to coal as an example of such a material. Characterization of coals is a very difficult task because they are composed of a number of distinct organic entities called macerals and some amount of inorganic substances along with internal pores and cracks. It is argued that to avoid the influence of the pores and cracks, the samples of the materials have to be prepared as very thin and very smooth sections, and the depth-sensing nanoindentation (DSNI) techniques has to be employed rather than the conventional microindentation. It is shown that the use of the modern nanoindentation techniques integrated with transmitted light microscopy is very effective for evaluation of elastic modulus and hardness of coal macerals. However, because the thin sections are glued to the substrate and the glue thickness is approximately equal to the thickness of the section, the conventional DSNI techniques show the effective properties of the section/substrate system rather than the properties of the material. As the first approximation, it is proposed to describe the sample/substrate system using the classic exponential weight function for the dependence of the equivalent elastic contact modulus on the depth of indentation. This simple approach allows us to extract the contact modulus of the material constitutes from the data measured on a region occupied by a specific component of the material. The proposed approach is demonstrated on application to the experimental data obtained by Berkovich nanoindentation with varying maximum depth of indentation.
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Ahmadian Khoshemehr Leila
2009-09-01
Full Text Available Background: Luting agents are used to attach indirect restoration into or on the tooth. Poor mechanical properties of cement may be a cause of fracture of this layer and lead to caries and restoration removal. The purpose of this study was to compare the elastic modulus and compressive strength of Ariadent (A Poly and Harvard polycarboxylate (H Poly cements and Vitremer resin modified glass ionomer (RGl.Materials & Methods: In this experimental study 15 specimens were prepared form each experimental cement in Laboratory of Tehran Oil Refining Company. The cylindrical specimens were compressed in Instron machine after 24 hours. Elastic modulus and compressive strength were calculated from stress/strain curve of each specimen. One way ANOVA and Tukey tests were used for statistical analysis and P values<0.05 were considered to be statistically significant.Results: The mean elastic modulus and mean compressive strength were 2.2 GPa and 87.8MPa in H poly, 2.4 GPa and 56.5 MPa in A Poly, and 0.8GPa and 105.6 MPa in RGI, respectively. Statistical analysis showed that compressive strength and elastic modulus of both polycarboxylate cements were significantly different from hybrid ionomer (P<0.05, but the difference between elastic modulus of two types of polycarboxilate cements was not statistically significant. Compressive strength of two polycarboxilate cements were significantly different (P<0.05. Conclusion: An ideal lutting agent must have the best mechanical properties. Between the tested luttins RGl cement had the lowest elastic modulus and the highest compressive strength, but the A poly cement had the highest elastic modulus and the lowest compressive strength. Therefore none of them was the best.
Are the dynamics of silicate glasses and glass-forming liquids embedded in their elastic properties?
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Smedskjær, Morten Mattrup; Mauro, John C.
According to the elastic theory of the glass transition, the dynamics of glasses and glass-forming liquids are controlled by the evolution of shear modulus. In particular, the elastic shoving model expresses dynamics in terms of an activation energy required to shove aside the surrounding atoms, ...... of the silicate glass transition are governed by additional factors beyond the evolution of the shear modulus....
Guz, Nataliia; Dokukin, Maxim; Kalaparthi, Vivekanand; Sokolov, Igor
2014-01-01
Here we investigated the question whether cells, being highly heterogeneous objects, could be described with the elastic modulus (effective Young’s modulus) in a self-consistent way. We performed a comparative analysis of the elastic modulus derived from the indentation data obtained with atomic force microscopy (AFM) on human cervical epithelial cells (both normal and cancerous). Both sharp (cone) and dull (2500-nm radius sphere) AFM probes were used. The indentation data were processed through different elastic models. The cell was approximated as a homogeneous elastic medium that had either 1), smooth hemispherical boundary (Hertz/Sneddon models) or 2), the boundary covered with a layer of glycocalyx and membrane protrusions (“brush” models). Consistency of these approximations was investigated. Specifically, we tested the independence of the elastic modulus of the indentation depth, which is assumed in these models. We demonstrated that only one model showed consistency in treating cells as a homogeneous elastic medium, namely, the brush model, when processing the indentation data collected with the dull AFM probe. The elastic modulus demonstrated strong depth dependence in all models: Hertz/Sneddon models (no brush taken into account), and when the brush model was applied to the data collected with sharp conical probes. We conclude that it is possible to describe the elastic properties of the cell body by means of an effective elastic modulus, used in a self-consistent way, when using the brush model to analyze data collected with a dull AFM probe. The nature of these results is discussed. PMID:25099796
The bulk elastic modulus and the reversible properties of cell walls in developing Quercus leaves.
Saito, Takami; Soga, Kouichi; Hoson, Takayuki; Terashima, Ichiro
2006-06-01
We examined the relationship between the bulk elastic modulus (epsilon) of an individual leaf obtained by the pressure-volume (P-V) technique and the mechanical properties of cell walls in the leaf. The plants used were Quercus glauca and Q. serrata, an evergreen and a deciduous broad-leaved tree species, respectively. We compared epsilon and Young's modulus of leaf specimens determined by the stretch technique at various stages of their leaf development. The results showed that epsilon increased from approximately 5 to 20 MPa during leaf development, although other potential determinants of epsilon such as the apoplastic water content in the leaf and the diameter of a palisade tissue cells remained almost constant. epsilon in these two species was similar at every developmental stages, although the apparent mechanical strength of the leaf lamina and thickness of mesophyll cell walls were greater in Q. glauca. There were significant linear relationships between Young's modulus and epsilon (P < 0.01; R (2) = 0.78 and 0.84 in Q. glauca and Q. serrata, respectively) with small y-intercepts. From these results, we conclude that epsilon is closely related to the reversible properties of the cell walls. From the estimation of epsilon based on a physical model, we suggest that the effective thickness of cell walls responsible for epsilon is smaller than the observed wall thickness.
Shojaee, S. A.; Qi, Y.; Wang, Y. Q.; Mehner, A.; Lucca, D. A.
2017-01-01
Ion irradiation is an alternative to heat treatment for transforming organic-inorganic thin films to a ceramic state. One major shortcoming in previous studies of ion-irradiated films is the assumption that constituent phases in ion-irradiated and heat-treated films are identical and that the ion irradiation effect is limited to changes in composition. In this study, we investigate the effects of ion irradiation on both the composition and structure of constituent phases and use the results to explain the measured elastic modulus of the films. The results indicated that the microstructure of the irradiated films consisted of carbon clusters within a silica matrix. It was found that carbon was present in a non-graphitic sp2-bonded configuration. It was also observed that ion irradiation caused a decrease in the Si-O-Si bond angle of silica, similar to the effects of applied pressure. A phase transformation from tetrahedrally bonded to octahedrally bonded silica was also observed. The results indicated the incorporation of carbon within the silica network. A combination of the decrease in Si-O-Si bond angle and an increase in the carbon incorporation within the silica network was found to be responsible for the increase in the elastic modulus of the films. PMID:28071696
Vatankhah, Elham; Semnani, Dariush; Prabhakaran, Molamma P; Tadayon, Mahdi; Razavi, Shahnaz; Ramakrishna, Seeram
2014-02-01
Scaffolds for tissue engineering (TE) require the consideration of multiple aspects, including polymeric composition and the structure and mechanical properties of the scaffolds, in order to mimic the native extracellular matrix of the tissue. Electrospun fibers are frequently utilized in TE due to their tunable physical, chemical, and mechanical properties and porosity. The mechanical properties of electrospun scaffolds made from specific polymers are highly dependent on the processing parameters, which can therefore be tuned for particular applications. Fiber diameter and orientation along with polymeric composition are the major factors that determine the elastic modulus of electrospun nano- and microfibers. Here we have developed a neural network model to investigate the simultaneous effects of composition, fiber diameter and fiber orientation of electrospun polycaprolactone/gelatin mats on the elastic modulus of the scaffolds under ambient and simulated physiological conditions. The model generated might assist bioengineers to fabricate electrospun scaffolds with defined fiber diameters, orientations and constituents, thereby replicating the mechanical properties of the native target tissue.
The effect of elastic modulus and friction coefficient on rubber tube sealing performance
Li, Zhimiao; Xu, Siyuan; Ren, Fushen; Liu, Jubao
2015-03-01
The packer is the key element in separating geosphere layers of water injection, water plugging and fracturing operations in the oilfield. The sealing ability of the packer is depending on the contact pressure between rubber tube and the casing. The circumferential strain of casing wall was tested by the strain gauge to get the contact pressure distribution along axial direction of the tube. The friction force between the casing and the rubber tube was taken by the pressure sensor in compression process. Under the 20,60 and 100 degrees Celsius conditions, the friction forces and the contact pressure distribution were taken in work condition of single rubber tube, double rubber tubes and combination rubber tubes after oil immersion .The result shows that elastic modulus of rubber tube has little effect on the friction force and contact pressure. With elastic modulus decreasing, the friction forces has gradually decreasing trend; The friction coefficient has much impact on friction force: the friction forces under the condition of dry friction and wet friction are respectively equivalent to 48.27% and 5.38% axial compression forces. At wet friction condition, the contact pressure distribution is more uniform and the sealing effect is better.
Dynamics of Elastic Excitable Media
Cartwright, J H E; Hernández-García, E; Piro, O; Cartwright, Julyan H. E.; Eguiluz, Victor M.; Hernandez-Garcia, Emilio; Piro, Oreste
1999-01-01
The Burridge-Knopoff model of earthquake faults with viscous friction is equivalent to a van der Pol-FitzHugh-Nagumo model for excitable media with elastic coupling. The lubricated creep-slip friction law we use in the Burridge-Knopoff model describes the frictional sliding dynamics of a range of real materials. Low-dimensional structures including synchronized oscillations and propagating fronts are dominant, in agreement with the results of laboratory friction experiments. Here we explore the dynamics of fronts in elastic excitable media.
Silver, Frederick H; Bradica, Gino; Tria, Alfred
2002-03-01
The viscoelastic mechanical properties of normal and osteoarthritic articular were analyzed based on data reported by Kempson [in: Adult Articular Cartilage (1973)] and Silver et al. (Connect. Tissue Res., 2001b). Results of the analysis of tensile elastic stress-strain curves suggest that the elastic modulus of cartilage from the superficial zone is approximately 7.0 GPa parallel and 2.21 GPa perpendicular to the cleavage line pattern. Collagen fibril lengths in the superficial zone were found to be approximately 1265 microm parallel and 668 microm perpendicular to the cleavage line direction. The values for the elastic modulus and fibril lengths decreased with increased extent of osteoarthritis. The elastic modulus of type II collagen parallel to the cleavage line pattern in the superficial zone approaches that of type I collagen in tendon, suggesting that elastic energy storage occurs in the superficial zone due to the tensile pre-tension that exists in this region. Decreases in the elastic modulus associated with osteoarthritis reflect decreased ability of cartilage to store elastic energy, which leads to cartilage fibrillation and fissure formation. We hypothesize that under normal physiological conditions, collagen fibrils in cartilage function to store elastic energy associated with weight bearing and locomotion. Enzymatic cleavage of cartilage proteoglycans and collagen observed in osteoarthritis may lead to fibrillation and fissure formation as a result of impaired energy storage capability of cartilage.
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Hio-Teng Leong
Full Text Available Pain and tenderness of the upper trapezius are the major complaints among people with chronic neck and shoulder disorders. Hyper-activation and increased muscle tension of the upper trapezius during arm elevation will cause imbalance of the scapular muscle force and contribute to neck and shoulder disorders. Assessing the elasticity of the upper trapezius in different arm positions is therefore important for identifying people at risk so as to give preventive programmes or for monitoring the effectiveness of the intervention programmes for these disorders. This study aimed to establish the reliability of supersonic shear imaging (SSI in quantifying upper trapezius elasticity/shear elastic modulus and its ability to measure the modulation of muscle elasticity during arm elevation. Twenty-eight healthy adults (15 males, 13 females; mean age = 29.6 years were recruited to participate in the study. In each participant, the shear elastic modulus of the upper trapezius while the arm was at rest and at 30° abduction was measured by two operators and twice by operator 1 with a time interval between the measurements. The results showed excellent within- and between-session intra-operator (ICC = 0.87-0.97 and inter-observer (ICC = 0.78-0.83 reliability for the upper trapezius elasticity with the arm at rest and at 30° abduction. An increase of 55.23% of shear elastic modulus from resting to 30° abduction was observed. Our findings demonstrate the possibilities for using SSI to quantify muscle elasticity and its potential role in delineating the modulation of upper trapezius elasticity, which is essential for future studies to compare the differences in shear elastic modulus between normal elasticity and that of individuals with neck and shoulder disorders.
Umehara, Jun; Nakamura, Masatoshi; Fujita, Kosuke; Kusano, Ken; Nishishita, Satoru; Araki, Kojiro; Tanaka, Hiroki; Yanase, Ko; Ichihashi, Noriaki
2017-07-01
Stretching maneuvers for the pectoralis minor muscle, which involve shoulder horizontal abduction or scapular retraction, are performed in clinical and sports settings because the tightness of this muscle may contribute to scapular dyskinesis. The effectiveness of stretching maneuvers for the pectoralis minor muscle is unclear in vivo. The purpose of this study was to verify the effectiveness of stretching maneuvers for the pectoralis minor muscle in vivo using ultrasonic shear wave elastography. Eighteen healthy men participated in this study. Elongation of the pectoralis minor muscle was measured for 3 stretching maneuvers (shoulder flexion, shoulder horizontal abduction, and scapular retraction) at 3 shoulder elevation angles (30°, 90°, and 150°). The shear elastic modulus, used as the index of muscle elongation, was computed using ultrasonic shear wave elastography for the 9 aforementioned stretching maneuver-angle combinations. The shear elastic modulus was highest in horizontal abduction at 150°, followed by horizontal abduction at 90°, horizontal abduction at 30°, scapular retraction at 30°, scapular retraction at 90°, scapular retraction at 150°, flexion at 150°, flexion at 90°, and flexion at 30°. The shear elastic moduli of horizontal abduction at 90° and horizontal abduction at 150° were significantly higher than those of other stretching maneuvers. There was no significant difference between horizontal abduction at 90° and horizontal abduction at 150°. This study determined that shoulder horizontal abduction at an elevation of 90° and horizontal abduction at an elevation of 150° were the most effective stretching maneuvers for the pectoralis minor muscle in vivo. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Guo, Shun; Meng, Qingkun; Zhao, Xinqing; Wei, Qiuming; Xu, Huibin
2015-10-01
Titanium and its alloys have become the most attractive implant materials due to their high corrosion resistance, excellent biocompatibility and relatively low elastic modulus. However, the current Ti materials used for implant applications exhibit much higher Young’s modulus (50 ~ 120 GPa) than human bone (~30 GPa). This large mismatch in the elastic modulus between implant and human bone can lead to so-called “stress shielding effect” and eventual implant failure. Therefore, the development of β-type Ti alloys with modulus comparable to that of human bone has become an ever more pressing subject in the area of advanced biomedical materials. In this study, an attempt was made to produce a bone-compatible metastable β-type Ti alloy. By alloying and thermo-mechanical treatment, a metastable β-type Ti-33Nb-4Sn (wt. %) alloy with ultralow Young’s modulus (36 GPa, versus ~30 GPa for human bone) and high ultimate strength (853 MPa) was fabricated. We believe that this method can be applied to developing advanced metastable β-type titanium alloys for implant applications. Also, this approach can shed light on design and development of novel β-type titanium alloys with large elastic limit due to their high strength and low elastic modulus.
Klöffel, Tobias; Bitzek, Erik; Meyer, Bernd
2015-06-01
Experimental and theoretical studies on nanowires have reported a size-dependence of the Young׳s modulus in the axial direction, which has been attributed to the increasing influence of surface stresses with decreasing wire diameter. Internal interfaces and their associated interface stresses could lead to similar changes in the elastic properties. In Kobler et al. [1], however, we reported results from atomistic calculations which showed for Ag that twin boundaries have a negligible effect on the Young׳s modulus. Here, we present data of density-functional theory calculations of elastic constants and Young׳s modulus for defect-free bulk Ag as well as for bulk Ag containing dense arrays of twin boundaries. It is shown that rigorous convergence tests are required in order to be able to deduce changes in the elastic properties due to bulk defects in a reliable way.
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Berdova, Maria; Liu, Xuwen; Franssila, Sami, E-mail: sami.franssila@aalto.fi [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Aalto University, 02150 Espoo (Finland); Wiemer, Claudia; Lamperti, Alessio; Tallarida, Grazia; Cianci, Elena [Laboratorio MDM, IMM CNR, Via C. Olivetti 2, 20864 Agrate Brianza (MB) (Italy); Fanciulli, Marco [Laboratorio MDM, IMM CNR, Via C. Olivetti 2, 20864 Agrate Brianza (MB), Italy and Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Università degli studi di Milano Bicocca, 20126 Milano (Italy)
2016-09-15
The investigation of mechanical properties of atomic layer deposition HfO{sub 2} films is important for implementing these layers in microdevices. The mechanical properties of films change as a function of composition and structure, which accordingly vary with deposition temperature and post-annealing. This work describes elastic modulus, hardness, and wear resistance of as-grown and annealed HfO{sub 2}. From nanoindentation measurements, the elastic modulus and hardness remained relatively stable in the range of 163–165 GPa and 8.3–9.7 GPa as a function of deposition temperature. The annealing of HfO{sub 2} caused significant increase in hardness up to 14.4 GPa due to film crystallization and densification. The structural change also caused increase in the elastic modulus up to 197 GPa. Wear resistance did not change as a function of deposition temperature, but improved upon annealing.
Elastic modulus of LaFe{sub 4}Sb{sub 12}
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ishii, I. [Department of Quantum Matter, ADSM, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8530 (Japan)], E-mail: ishii@hiroshima-u.ac.jp; Higaki, H.; Morita, S. [Department of Quantum Matter, ADSM, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8530 (Japan); Mori, I.; Sugawara, H. [Faculty of Integrated Arts and Sciences, Tokushima University, Tokushima 770-8502 (Japan); Yoshizawa, M. [Graduate School of Engineering, Iwate University, Morioka 020-8551 (Japan); Suzuki, T. [Department of Quantum Matter, ADSM, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8530 (Japan)
2008-04-01
In filled skutterudite compounds and clathrate compounds, guest atoms, which are accommodated in polyhedral cages, exhibit an anharmonic oscillation so-called the rattling motion. The rattling motion is suggested by inelastic neutron scattering experiments in filled skutterudite compound LaFe{sub 4}Sb{sub 12}. To investigate an influence of rattling motion of La atoms to the lattice system, we have measured temperature dependence of elastic modulus C{sub 44} on a LaFe{sub 4}Sb{sub 12} single-crystalline sample in the T range between 4.2 and 150 K for ultrasonic frequencies from 30 to 220 MHz. We found ultrasonic frequency dependence in C{sub 44}, suggesting the rattling motion of La atoms between 30 and 80 K. We obtained a relaxation time 3.1x10{sup -11}s and an excitation energy {approx}300K of the rattling motion.
Study on Attenuation, Modulus of Elasticity and Nonlinearity in Thermowood Using Ultrasound
Hæggström, E.; Wallin, A.; Hoffren, H.; Hassinen, T.; Viitaniemi, P.
2005-04-01
We determined ultrasonically the attenuation, modulus of elasticity (MOE), and nonlinearity parameter (B/A) of dry defect-free thermally modified wood samples ("thick" 10 × 50 × 100 mm3 and "thin" 2 × 40 × 150 mm3) of Finnish pine, Pinus Sylvestris, as a function of treatment temperature (60-240 °C, three hours in protective water steam). The samples were cut as radial-tangential (RT) planes, and as longitudinal-radial (LR) planes. Two distinct regions of change in mechanical parameters were seen: one around 140 C where both the linear and nonlinear parameters increased and one around 230 C where the mechanical parameters decreased. These treatment temperatures thus serves as candidates for quality class delimiters for these soft wood samples.
Evaluation of elastic modulus and hardness of crop stalks cell walls by nano-indentation.
Wu, Yan; Wang, Siqun; Zhou, Dingguo; Xing, Cheng; Zhang, Yang; Cai, Zhiyong
2010-04-01
Agricultural biomaterials such as crop stalks are natural sources of cellulosic fiber and have great potential as reinforced materials in bio-composites. In order to evaluate their potential as materials for reinforcement, the nano-mechanical properties of crop-stalk cell walls, i.e. those of cotton (Gossypium herbaceu) stalk, soybean (Glycine max) stalk, cassava (Manihot esculent) stalk, rice (Oryza sativa L.) straw, and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) straw, were investigated by means of nano-indentation and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The elastic modulus of wheat straw was found to be 20.8 GPa, which was higher than that of the other four crops. The highest hardness was observed in cotton stalk at 0.85 GPa. The elastic moduli of the crop stalks were lower than those of most of the hardwood species, but higher than that of some softwoods and of lyocell fiber. The mean value of the hardness of the five crop stalks' cell walls was higher than those of wood or lyocell fiber.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2001-01-01
Ultrahigh-strength mortar mixed surface-oxidized silicon carbide as a fine aggregate was prepared by means of press-casting followed by curing in an autoclave. The relation between modulus of elasticity up to 111 GPa and compressive strength up to 360 MPa of mortar mixed silicon carbide was discussed and it was revealed that the contributions of the aggregate hardness and of the interfacial strength between the aggregate and the cement paste on the elasticity of mortar were imporant.
Yoneda, Akira; Fukui, Hiroshi; Gomi, Hitoshi; Kamada, Seiji; Xie, Longjian; Hirao, Naohisa; Uchiyama, Hiroshi; Tsutsui, Satoshi; Baron, Alfred Q. R.
2017-09-01
We measured the elasticity of single crystal gold (Au) and its lattice parameters under high pressure using inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS). The elastic moduli were obtained at five pressure points between 0 and 20 GPa. The pressure variation of the bulk modulus displays anomalous behavior, being nearly constant up to ˜5 GPa, and then steeply increasing at higher pressure. A similar anomaly is observed in first-principles calculations. An absolute pressure scale was derived by direct numerical integration of the bulk modulus over volume change. This yields a scale that gives slightly lower pressure values than those of previous work, about 5-10% lower at ˜20 GPa.
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Tobias Klöffel
2015-06-01
Here, we present data of density-functional theory calculations of elastic constants and Young׳s modulus for defect-free bulk Ag as well as for bulk Ag containing dense arrays of twin boundaries. It is shown that rigorous convergence tests are required in order to be able to deduce changes in the elastic properties due to bulk defects in a reliable way.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2008-01-01
The elastic-plastic indentation properties of materials with varying ratio of hardness to Young's modulus (H/E) were analyzed with the finite element method. And the indentation stress fields of materials with varying ratio H/E on the surface were studied by the experiment. The results show that the penetration depth, contact radius, plastic pileup and the degree of elastic recovery depend strongly on the ratio H/E. Moreover, graphs were established to describe the relationship between the elastic-plastic indentation parameters and H/E. The established graphs can be used to predict the H/E of materials when compared with experimental data.
Static modulus of elasticity of concrete measured by the ultrasonic method
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Sena Rodrigues, S.
2003-12-01
Full Text Available Lately, a huge number of accidents caused by problems found in the durability of concrete structures due to inappropriate project design, lack of control of quality during the project s execution, inadequate maintenance practices and an aggressive environment has been reported. This finding has required from the professionals constant inspections and evaluations of the real conditions of all concrete structures. In order to perform those inspections, one should know not only the elastic modulus to analyze the concrete structural behaviour but also to investigate its performance, since the strains may yield cracks able to compromise the durability- of structures. Non-destructive testing techniques, particularly the ultrasonic testing, are performed to evaluate and determine the quality of a concrete structure or element. Currently, such essays have been widely researched and analyzed all over the world because they enable the examination of structures without damaging them. The purpose of the present study was to correlate the ultrasonic pulse velocity and the elastic modulus of several concrete specimens molded with a range of water-cement ratios, different kinds of aggregates and curing methods. All the concrete specimens were tested in different ages to determine the pulse velocity and the static modulus of elasticity standardized according to KBR 8522, through mechanical extensometers, electrical strain gauge and LVTD inductive transducer.
Recientemente se ha registrado un gran número de accidentes causados por problemas relacionados con la durabilidad de las estructuras de hormigón y debidos a un inadecuado proyecto de diseño, ausencia de control de calidad durante la ejecución del proyecto, prácticas inadecuadas de construcción y un ambiente agresivo. Este hallazgo ha dado lugar a que los ingenieros realicen constantes inspecciones y evaluaciones de la condición real de todas las estructuras de hormigón. Para llevar a cabo
Effect of Soil Contact on the Modulus of Elasticity of Beeswax-Impregnated Wood
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Róbert Németh
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The aims of this study were to use beeswax impregnation as a wood preservative method and to evaluate its suitability to protect wood species with low resistance to decay. Poplar (Populus × euramericana cv. Pannonia and beech (Fagus sylvatica samples were impregnated with beeswax and exposed to soil contact for 18 months. Impregnated samples were separated into three groups, on the basis of their degrees of pore saturation (DPS. With progressing decay, the load-bearing capacity and modulus of elasticity (MOE of the woods decreased. After one month of soil contact, there was a marked decrease in MOE, which is explained by the increase in the moisture content of the wood. After 18 months, control samples were completely decayed. Nevertheless, impregnated samples showed less decay and a noticeable remaining load-bearing capacity. Impregnation efficiency had a pronounced effect on decay resistance. In both investigated species, samples with higher DPS resulted in less of a decrease in MOE than in samples with lower DPS. Although beeswax is a bio-based material, it showed noticeable decay resistance effects against soft rot. Scanning electron microscopy investigations showed that the impregnation has a barrier effect, mostly in the longitudinal direction, against the spread of the fungi.
Determining the elastic modulus of thin films using a buckling-based method: computational study
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zheng Xiupeng; Cao Yanping; Li Bo; Feng Xiqiao [AML, Department of Engineering Mechanics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Jiang Hanqing [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Huang, Yonggang Y, E-mail: caoyanping@tsinghua.edu.c, E-mail: fengxq@tsinghua.edu.c [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States)
2009-09-07
The buckling mode of a thin film lying on a soft substrate has been used to determine the elastic modulus of thin films and one-dimensional objects (e.g. nanowires and nanotubes). In this paper, dimensional analysis and three-dimensional nonlinear finite element computations have been made to investigate the buckling of a film with finite width bonded to a compliant substrate. Our study demonstrates that the effect of Poisson's ratio of the film can be neglected when its width-thickness ratio is smaller than 20. For wider films, omitting the influence of Poisson's ratio may lead to a significant systematic error in the measurement of the Young's modulus and, therefore, the film should be treated as a plate. It is also found that the assumption of the uniform interfacial normal stress along the width of the film made in the theoretical analysis does not cause an evident error, even when its width is comparable to its thickness. Based on the computational results, we further present a simple expression to correlate the buckling wavelength with the width and thickness of the film and the material properties (Young's moduli and Poisson's ratios) of the film and substrate, which has a similar form to that in the classical plane-strain problem. The fundamental solutions reported here are not only very accurate in a broad range of geometric and material parameters but also convenient for practical use since they do not involve any complex calculation.
COMPARISON OF ELASTIC OF POROUS CORDIERITE BY FLEXURE AND DYNAMIC TEST METHODS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stafford, Randall [Cummins, Inc; Golovin, K. B. [Cummins, Inc; Dickinson, A. [Cummins, Inc; Watkins, Thomas R [ORNL; Shyam, Amit [ORNL; Lara-Curzio, Edgar [ORNL
2012-01-01
Previous work showed differences in apparent elastic modulus between mechanical flexure testing and resonance methods. Flexure tests have been conducted using non-contact optical systems to directly measure deflection for calculation of elastic modulus. Dynamic test methods for elastic modulus measurement were conducted on the same material for comparison. The results show significant difference in the apparent elastic modulus for static flexure versus dynamic methods. The significance of the difference in apparent elastic modulus on thermal stress and the hypotheses for these differences will be discussed. Dynamic measurement (resonance) and static measurement (mechanical) produce different values for elastic modulus of porous cordierite ceramic. The elastic modulus from resonance is a measure of the material response at very low strain which is different from the material response in a mechanical test with relatively large strain. The apparent elastic moduli for dynamic versus static test methods in this study are different by a factor of two. This result has significant impact on calculated stress and life in an aftertreatment component.
Impact Of Elastic Modulus Degradation On Springback In Sheet Metal Forming
Halilovič, Miroslav; Vrh, Marko; Štok, Boris
2007-05-01
Strain recovery after removal of forming loads, commonly defined as springback, is of great concern in sheet metal forming, in particular with regard to proper prediction of the final shape of the part. To control the problem a lot of work has been done, either by minimizing the springback on the material side or by increasing the estimation precision in corresponding process simulations. Unfortunately, by currently available software springback still cannot be adequately predicted, because most analyses of springback are using linear, isotropic and constant Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio. But, as it was measured and reported, none of it is true. The aim of this work is to propose an upgraded mechanical model which takes evolution of damage and related orthotropic stiffness degradation into account. Damage is considered by inclusion of ellipsoidal cavities, and their influence on the stiffness degradation is taken in accordance with the Mori-Tanaka theory, adopting the GTN model for plastic flow. In order to improve the numerical springback prediction, two major things are important: first, the correct evaluation of the stress-strain state at the end of the forming process, and second, correctness of the elastic properties used in the elastic relaxation analysis. Since in modelling of the forming process we adopt a damage constitutive model with orthotropic stiffness degradation considered, a corresponding damage parameters identification upon specific experimental tests data must be performed first, independently of the metal forming modelling. An improved identification of material parameters, which simultaneously considers tensile test results with different type of specimens and using neural network, is proposed. With regard to the case in which damage in material is neglected it is shown in the article how the springback of a formed part differs, when we take orthotropic damage evolution into consideration.
Karimi, Alireza; Navidbakhsh, Mahdi; Alizadeh, Mansour; Razaghi, Reza
2014-10-01
There have been different stress-strain definitions to measure the elastic modulus of spongy materials, especially polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) sponge. However, there is no agreement as to which stress-strain definition should be implemented. This study was aimed to show how different results are given by the various definitions of stress-strain used, and to recommend a specific definition when testing spongy materials. A fabricated PVA sponge was subjected to a series of tensile tests in order to measure its mechanical properties. Three stress definitions (second Piola-Kichhoff stress, engineering stress, and true stress) and four strain definitions (Almansi-Hamel strain, Green-St. Venant strain, engineering strain, and true strain) were used to determine the elastic modulus. The results revealed that the Almansi-Hamel strain definition exhibited the highest non-linear stress-strain relation and, as a result, may overestimate the elastic modulus at different stress definitions (second Piola-Kichhoff stress, engineering stress, and true stress). The Green-St. Venant strain definition failed to address the non-linear stress-strain relation using different definitions of stress and invoked an underestimation of the elastic modulus values. Engineering stress and strain definitions were only valid for small strains and displacements, which make them impractical when analyzing spongy materials. The results showed that the effect of varying the stress definition on the maximum stress measurements was significant but not when calculating the elastic modulus. It is important to consider which stress-strain definition is employed when characterizing the mechanical properties of spongy materials. Although the true stress-true strain definition exhibits a non-linear relation, we favor it in spongy materials mechanics as it gives more accurate measurements of the material's response using the instantaneous values.
The effect of three-dimensional postural change on shear elastic modulus of the iliotibial band.
Tateuchi, Hiroshige; Shiratori, Sakiko; Ichihashi, Noriaki
2016-06-01
To understand and treat iliotibial band (ITB) syndrome, caused by excessive compression between the ITB and lateral femoral condyle, it is important to identify factors contributing to an increase in ITB stiffness. The purpose of this study was to clarify the factors that contribute to an increase in ITB stiffness by examining the relationship between three-dimensional postural changes and ITB stiffness. Fourteen healthy individuals performed one-leg standing under 7 conditions (including normal one-leg standing as a control condition) in which the pelvic position was changed in three planes. The shear elastic modulus in the ITB was measured using shear-wave elastography, as a measure of ITB stiffness. The three-dimensional joint angles and external joint moments in the hip and knee joints were also measured to confirm the changes in joint angles and external load. Compared to the normal one-leg standing condition, ITB stiffness was significantly increased in the pelvic posterior tilted position (i.e. hip extension), contralateral pelvic dropped position (i.e. hip adduction), and contralateral pelvic posterior rotated position (i.e. hip external rotation). The findings suggest that interventions to reduce hip extension, adduction, and external rotation might be useful if these excessive positional changes are detected in patients with ITB syndrome.
Kim, Hyunok; Kimchi, Menachem
2011-08-01
This paper presents a numerical modeling approach for predicting springback by considering the variations of elastic modulus on springback in stamping AHSS. Various stamping tests and finite-element method (FEM) simulation codes were used in this study. The cyclic loading-unloading tensile tests were conducted to determine the variations of elastic modulus for dual-phase (DP) 780 sheet steel. The biaxial bulge test was used to obtain plastic flow stress data. The non-linear reduction of elastic modulus for increasing the plastic strain was formulated by using the Yoshida model that was implemented in FEM simulations for springback. To understand the effects of material properties on springback, experiments were conducted with a simple geometry such as U-shape bending and the more complex geometry such as the curved flanging and S-rail stamping. Different measurement methods were used to confirm the final part geometry. Two different commercial FEM codes, LS-DYNA and DEFORM, were used to compare the experiments. The variable elastic modulus improved springback predictions in U-shape bending and curved flanging tests compared to FEM with the constant elastic modulus. However, in S-rail stamping tests, both FEM models with the isotropic hardening model showed limitations in predicting the sidewall curl of the S-rail part after springback. To consider the kinematic hardening and Bauschinger effects that result from material bending-unbending in S-rail stamping, the Yoshida model was used for FEM simulation of S-rail stamping and springback. The FEM predictions showed good improvement in correlating with experiments.
Li, Zhiming; Fu, Liming; Fu, Bin; Yang, Xiaoping; Shan, Aidang
2014-10-01
To understand the nanomechanical properties of nano-grained (NG) Ti produced by combination of asymmetric and symmetric rolling, nanoindentation hardness (H(n)) and elastic modulus (E(n)) of different planes within the NG Ti specimens were measured using continuous stiffness measurement mode at room temperature. For comparison, the nanomechanical properties of the as-received hot-rolled coarse-grained (CG) Ti and ultrafine-grained (UFG) Ti with only asymmetric rolling process were also investigated. It was found that H(n) of the Ti samples increased significantly with the decrease of grain sizes, while E(n) exhibited a slight decrease as the grain sizes decreased from CG to NG regime. The increase of H(n) was expected to be caused by higher density of dislocations and finer grains attained by severer plastic deformation, while the slight decrease of E(n) was considered as a result of the increased density of lattice defects and volume fraction of the grain boundary atoms. Furthermore, the nanomechanical properties of different planes of the Ti specimen exhibited a little difference which can be expressed as H(n(RD-TD)) > H(n(N-RD)) > H(n(TD-ND)) and E(n(RD-TD)) > E(n(ND-RD)) > E(n(TD-ND)). These differences were ascribed to crystallographic textures formed by rolling deformation.
Kourtis, Lampros C; Carter, Dennis R; Beaupre, Gary S
2014-08-01
Three-point bending tests are often used to determine the apparent or effective elastic modulus of long bones. The use of beam theory equations to interpret such tests can result in a substantial underestimation of the true effective modulus. In this study three-dimensional, nonlinear finite element analysis is used to quantify the errors inherent in beam theory and to create plots that can be used to correct the elastic modulus calculated from beam theory. Correction plots are generated for long bones representative of a variety of species commonly used in research studies. For a long bone with dimensions comparable to the mouse femur, the majority of the error in the effective elastic modulus results from deformations to the bone cross section that are not accounted for in the equations from beam theory. In some cases, the effective modulus calculated from beam theory can be less than one-third of the true effective modulus. Errors are larger: (1) for bones having short spans relative to bone length; (2) for bones with thin vs. thick cortices relative to periosteal diameter; and (3) when using a small radius or "knife-edge" geometry for the center loading ram and the outer supports in the three-point testing system. The use of these correction plots will enable researchers to compare results for long bones from different animal strains and to compare results obtained using testing systems that differ with regard to length between the outer supports and the radius used for the loading ram and outer supports.
Sit, Arthur J; Lin, Shuai-Chun; Kazemi, Arash; McLaren, Jay W; Pruet, Christopher M; Zhang, Xiaoming
2017-08-28
Abnormal ocular biomechanical properties may be important for understanding the risk of glaucoma. However, there are no clinical methods for measuring standard material properties in patients. In this feasibility study we demonstrated proof-of-principle for a novel method, ultrasound surface wave elastography (USWE), to determine the in vivo Young's modulus of elasticity of corneas in normal human eyes. Twenty eyes of 10 healthy subjects (mean age 51.4±7.2;±SD, range 43-64 y) were studied. A spherical-tipped probe (3-mm diameter) was placed on closed eyelids and generated a gentle harmonic vibration at 100 Hz for 0.1 second. Wave speed propagation in the cornea was measured by USWE, and Young's modulus was calculated from the wave speed. Associations between Young's modulus and intraocular pressure (IOP), age, central corneal thickness, and axial length were explored by Pearson correlation. Statistical significance was determined by using generalized estimating equation models to account for possible correlation between fellow eyes. Mean IOP was 12.8±2.7 mm Hg. Mean wave speed in the cornea was 1.82±0.10 m/s. Young's modulus of elasticity was 696±113 kPa and was correlated with IOP (r=0.57; P=0.004), but none of the other variables (P>0.1). USWE is a novel non-invasive technique for measuring ocular biomechanical properties. Corneal Young's modulus in normal eyes is associated with IOP, consistent with measurements in cadaver eyes. Further work is needed to determine elasticity in other ocular tissues, particularly the sclera, and if elasticity is altered in glaucoma patients.
Elastic Modulus and Hardness of Cr-Nb Nano-Multilayers
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YANG Meng-Jin; LAI Wen-Sheng; PAN Feng
2007-01-01
Cr-Nb nano-multilayered films with various modulation wavelengths ∧ are prepared by e-gun evaporation and their mechanical properties are investigated. Cr and Nb both have bcc structures with large differences in lattice constants and Young's modulus, which are supposed to favour modulus enhancement. Nevertheless,nano-indention measurements show no enhancement for the modulus and a slight decrease for the hardness with decreasing ∧ down to 6 nm. This is mainly due to counter-contribution to modulus from adjacent layers subjected to reverse strains, in agreement with recent theoretical study, while the decrease of hardness arises from grain boundary sliding. Interestingly, at ∧ = 3 nm, the hardness of the film has an increase of 44% relative to the value of a rule of mixture, owing to the emergence of a new phase for reconciling the structure difference at the interfaces.
Kwang Liang Koh; Xianbai Ji; Aravind Dasari; Xuehong Lu; Soo Khim Lau; Zhong Chen
2017-01-01
This paper examines the effect of surface treatment and filler shape factor on the fracture toughness and elastic modulus of epoxy-based nanocomposite. Two forms of nanofillers, polydopamine-coated montmorillonite clay (D-clay) and polydopamine-coated carbon nanofibres (D-CNF) were investigated. It was found that Young’s modulus increases with increasing D-clay and D-CNF loading. However, the fracture toughness decreases with increased D-clay loading but increases with increased D-CNF loading...
Zhevstovskikh, Irina V.; Okulov, Vsevolod I.; Gudkov, Vladimir V.; Sarychev, Maksim N.; Medvedev, Kirill A.; Andriichuk, Myroslav D.; Paranchich, Lidiya D.
2016-12-01
Influence on elastic moduli of donor electron d-states of cobalt impurities has been investigated in mercury selenide crystals. Experiments have been carried out at the frequency of 53 MHz in the temperature interval of 1.3-100 K. Softening of the (C_{11} - C_{12})/2 modulus below 10 K has been observed in the impurity crystals in contrast with the (C_{11} + C_{12} + 2C_{44})/2 and C_{44} moduli those have exhibited hardening at cooling typical for dielectric and semiconductor crystals. The softening of the elastic modulus has been interpreted as manifestation of hybridization of the impurity d-states in the conduction band of the crystal. Comparison of theoretical calculations with experimental data has been proved to be in good agreement and has made it possible to determine the parameters characterizing the hybridized electron states.
Umegaki, Hiroki; Ikezoe, Tome; Nakamura, Masatoshi; Nishishita, Satoru; Kobayashi, Takuya; Fujita, Kosuke; Tanaka, Hiroki; Ichihashi, Noriaki
2015-02-01
Regarding hamstring stretching methods, many studies have investigated the effect of stretching duration or frequency on muscle stiffness. However, the most effective stretching positions for hamstrings are unclear because it is impossible to quantify muscle elongation directly and noninvasively in vivo. Recently, a new ultrasound technology, ultrasonic shear wave elastography, has permitted noninvasive and reliable measurement of muscle shear elastic modulus, which has a strong linear relationship to the amount of muscle elongation. This study aimed to investigate the effect of hip internal and external rotation on shear elastic modulus of the lateral and medial hamstrings, respectively, during stretching in vivo using ultrasonic shear wave elastography. Twenty-three healthy men (age, 23.0 ± 2.1 years) were recruited for this study. To investigate the effect of hip rotation on the elongation of the medial and lateral hamstrings, shear elastic modulus of the biceps femoris (BF) and semitendinosus (ST) was measured at rest (a supine position with 90° knee flexion, 90° hip flexion, and hip neutral rotation) and in seven stretching positions (with 45° knee flexion and hip internal, external, and neutral rotation) using ultrasonic shear wave elastography. In both BF and ST, the shear elastic modulus in the rest position was significantly lower than that in all stretching positions. However, no significant differences were seen among stretching positions. Our results suggest that adding hip rotation at a stretching position for the hamstrings may not have a significant effect on muscle elongation of the medial and lateral hamstrings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Whisker Orientation Function and Elastic Modulus of the as-cast 20%SiCw/Mg Composite
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2001-01-01
The relationship between the plane-orientation function and the space-orientation function of whiskers in whisker-reinforced metal matrix composites was analyzed theoretically. The actual orientation of whiskers in the as-cast 20%SiCw/Mg composite (SiCw content in volume fraction) were investigated, and the elastic modulus of the composite was measured with an ultrasonic velocity analyzer. Results show that there is an evident difference be-tween the plane-orientation function and the space-orientation function of whiskers and the space-orientation function can represent the actual condition of the composite. Only by using the space-orientation function of whiskers, the difference of elastic modulus of the as-cast composite in different directions can be explained reasonably.
Saravana Kumar, Gurunathan; George, Subin Philip
2017-02-01
This work proposes a methodology involving stiffness optimization for subject-specific cementless hip implant design based on finite element analysis for reducing stress-shielding effect. To assess the change in the stress-strain state of the femur and the resulting stress-shielding effect due to insertion of the implant, a finite element analysis of the resected femur with implant assembly is carried out for a clinically relevant loading condition. Selecting the von Mises stress as the criterion for discriminating regions for elastic modulus difference, a stiffness minimization method was employed by varying the elastic modulus distribution in custom implant stem. The stiffness minimization problem is formulated as material distribution problem without explicitly penalizing partial volume elements. This formulation enables designs that could be fabricated using additive manufacturing to make porous implant with varying levels of porosity. Stress-shielding effect, measured as difference between the von Mises stress in the intact and implanted femur, decreased as the elastic modulus distribution is optimized.
2014-02-01
measurements – Generally in the 230 to 250 GPa range * VTT manufacturing, 1996, ISBN 951-38-4987-2 Figure 7 Modulus measurements on 0.5-mm wafers of...Capacitors,”1998 Society of Automotive Engineers. 4. Barsoum, Michel, “Fundamentals of Ceramics,” cap.11, p. 401. 5. VTT Manufacturing, ISBN 951-38
Effect of dynamic visco-elasticity on vertical and torsional vibrations of a half-space
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Prakash Chandra Pal
2001-08-01
By expressing the dynamic visco-elastic characteristic of a material in terms of the complex shear modulus, the vertical vibrations of a visco-elastic half-space as well as that of a mass in visco-elastic half-space are considered here. Torsional vibrations of a visco-elastic half-space is also considered. Numerical results are derived for two cases and shown graphically.
Internal strain estimation for quantification of human heel pad elastic modulus: A phantom study
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Holst, Karen; Liebgott, Hervé; Wilhjelm, Jens E.
2013-01-01
Shock absorption is the most important function of the human heel pad. However, changes in heel pad elasticity, as seen in e.g. long-distance runners, diabetes patients, and victims of Falanga torture are affecting this function, often in a painful manner. Assessment of heel pad elasticity......, and the three hard phantoms were 89kPa, 153kPa, and 168kPa, respectively. The combination of ultrasound images and force measurements provided an effective way of assessing the elastic properties of the heel pad due to the internal strain estimation....
Sadeghian, H.; Yang, C.K.; Goosen, J.F.L.; Van der Drift, E.; Bossche, A.; French, P.J.; Van Keulen, F.
2009-01-01
This letter presents the application of electrostatic pull-in instability to study the size-dependent effective Young’s Modulus Ẽ ( ~170–70 GPa) of [110] silicon nanocantilevers (thickness ~1019–40 nm). The presented approach shows substantial advantages over the previous methods used for
NEW TEST TECHNIQUE FOR SHEAR MODULUS AND OTHER ELASTIC CONSTANTS OF FILAMENTARY COMPOSITES,
corresponding to one tensile test . Otherwise, two tests are required to obtain those properties. The shear modulus, which is independent of the Poisson’s...ratio, can be obtained from tensile test data on a specimen having filaments oriented at any angle 0 < alpha < 90 degrees. The validity and
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gaihede, Michael Lyhne; Donghua, Liao; Gregersen, H.
2007-01-01
are related to these, but studies are few and mostly not comparable. The elastic properties of membranes can be described by the areal modulus, and these may also be susceptible to age-related changes reflected by changes in the areal modulus. The areal modulus is determined by the relationship between...... a younger (n = 10) and an older (n = 10) group of normal subjects. The areal modulus for lateral and medial displacement of the tympanic membrane system was smaller in the older group (mean = 0.686 and 0.828 kN m(-1), respectively) compared to the younger group (mean = 1.066 and 1.206 kN m(-1), respectively...... finite element analyses. In vivo estimates of Young's modulus in this study were a factor 2-3 smaller than previously found in vitro. No significant age-related differences were found in the elastic properties as expressed by the areal modulus....
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fatih Yapıcı
2012-03-01
Full Text Available In this study, test samples prepared from Anatolian chestnut (Castanea sativa wood were first exposed to heat treatment at 130, 145, 160, 175, 190 and 205 ºC for 3, 6, 9 and 12 hours. Then the values of the samples of the modulus of rupture (MOR and modulus of elasticity (MOE were determined and evaluated by multiple variance analysis. The aim of this study was to establish the effects of heat treatment on the MOR and MOE values of wood samples by using fuzzy logic classifier. Secondly, input and output values and rule base of the fuzzy logic classifier model were built by using the results obtained from the experiment. The developed fuzzy classifier model could predict the MOR and MOE values of test samples at the accuracy levels of 92.64 % and 90.35 %, respectively. The model could be especially employed in manufacturing stages of timber industry.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Farahnaz Sharafeddin
2015-09-01
Full Text Available Statement of the Problem: Composite resin may be used in different temperatures; it is crucial to determine the effect of temperature on mechanical properties of nanohybrid and silorane-based composite. Purpose: This in vitro study compared the flexural strength and modulus of elasticity of nanohybrid and silorane-based resin composite, at 4˚C, room temperature (25˚C, and 45˚C. Materials and Method: In this experimental study, 60 specimens were prepared in a metal split mold (2×2×25mm. Two different resin composites, Filtek Z250 XT (3M/ ESPE and Filtek P90 (3M/ESPE, were evaluated. The material were inserted into split molds at room temperature, 4˚C or 45˚C and cured with LED (1200 mW/cm2 for 20 seconds in four points (n=10. Then, a three-point bending test was performed using a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min for measuring the flexural strength and flexural modulus of samples. The data were analyzed by the two-way ANOVA and Tukey test (p< 0.05. Results: The mean highest flexural strength was observed at 45˚C, showing statistically significant difference with flexural strength at 4˚C (p= 0.0001 and 25˚C (p= 0.003 regardless of the type of resin composite. The flexural modulus at 45˚C was highest, showing the statistically significant difference with flexural modulus at 4˚C (p= 0.0001 and 25˚C (p= 0.002. The flexural modulus was statistically different between nanohybrid and silorane-based resin composite (p= 0.01 in 25˚C and 45˚C, but there were no statistically significant differences between flexural strength of Filtek Z250 XT and Filtek P90 regardless of the temperatures (p= 0.062. Conclusion: Preheating the resin composite at 45˚C improves flexural strength and modulus of nanohybrid and silorane-based resin composite. However, flexural strength and modulus of the tested materials were not affected by precooling. The flexural modulus of nanohybrid resin composite was significantly higher than
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Videla, C.
2002-03-01
Full Text Available The study of Structural Lightweight Concrete (SLC, which is a material generally composed of cement, water and lightweight aggregate, has been mainly focused on developing particular cases. Then, the main objective of this research was to generalise the knowledge of this type of material. Particularly, the effect of replacing conventional coarse aggregate by lightweight aggregate on mechanical properties of concrete was studied. SLC may be conceived as a two -phase material. The first phase, composed of cement, water and siliceous natural sand, is called the "resistant phase", and contributes to the structural strength. The second phase is the lightweight phase, comprised of coarse lightweight aggregate, and it is meant to decrease the concrete density. In this way it would be possible to describe the mechanical behaviour of concrete, based on lightweight aggregate and the cement mortar parameters. The obtained results allow for the proposition of relationships between mechanical properties of SLC (such as compressive strength and modulus of elasticity and the constituent materials properties and amount. At the same time, an easily measured index representing the structural capability of lightweight aggregate is also proposed, this index allows to estimate the potential mechanical properties of concrete which could be obtained by using a particular aggregate.
El estudio del Hormigón Ligero Estructural (HLE, material compuesto generalmente por cemento, agua y árido ligero, ha estado enfocado principalmente al desarrollo de casos particulares. Por lo anterior, el objetivo principal de esta investigación fue generalizar el conocimiento sobre este material. En particular, la meta de este trabajo fue estudiar el efecto que tiene el reemplazo de árido convencional por un árido ligero, en las propiedades mecánicas del hormigón. El modelo aplicado conceptualiza al HLE como un material de dos fases, una denominada "soportante", constituida
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Christian Lorbach
2014-07-01
Full Text Available The bending stiffness of pulp fibers in both dry and wet states is of great importance with respect to many optical and physical paper properties. We introduce a method that evaluates fiber bending stiffness from the fibers’ Young’s modulus (E and the area moment of inertia (I from the fiber cross section. The values for E and I in the dry state are obtained from single fiber tensile testing and image analysis of the fiber cross section. The values for the wet state are estimated from literature results for decreasing elastic modulus due to wetting and by the measurement of swollen, freeze-dried fiber cross sections by serial sectioning. We show a comparison between the results from our method and the bending stiffness of individual fibers measured with other methods.
Zipping, entanglement, and the elastic modulus of aligned single-walled carbon nanotube films.
Won, Yoonjin; Gao, Yuan; Panzer, Matthew A; Xiang, Rong; Maruyama, Shigeo; Kenny, Thomas W; Cai, Wei; Goodson, Kenneth E
2013-12-17
Reliably routing heat to and from conversion materials is a daunting challenge for a variety of innovative energy technologies--from thermal solar to automotive waste heat recovery systems--whose efficiencies degrade due to massive thermomechanical stresses at interfaces. This problem may soon be addressed by adhesives based on vertically aligned carbon nanotubes, which promise the revolutionary combination of high through-plane thermal conductivity and vanishing in-plane mechanical stiffness. Here, we report the data for the in-plane modulus of aligned single-walled carbon nanotube films using a microfabricated resonator method. Molecular simulations and electron microscopy identify the nanoscale mechanisms responsible for this property. The zipping and unzipping of adjacent nanotubes and the degree of alignment and entanglement are shown to govern the spatially varying local modulus, thereby providing the route to engineered materials with outstanding combinations of mechanical and thermal properties.
Dutta, Debaditya; Lee, Kee-Won; Allen, Robert A; Wang, Yadong; Brigham, John C; Kim, Kang
2013-11-01
Mechanical strength is a key design factor in tissue engineering of arteries. Most existing techniques assess the mechanical property of arterial constructs destructively, leading to sacrifice of a large number of animals. We propose an ultrasound-based non-invasive technique for the assessment of the mechanical strength of engineered arterial constructs. Tubular scaffolds made from a biodegradable elastomer and seeded with vascular fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells were cultured in a pulsatile-flow bioreactor. Scaffold distension was computed from ultrasound radiofrequency signals of the pulsating scaffold via 2-D phase-sensitive speckle tracking. Young's modulus was then calculated by solving the inverse problem from the distension and the recorded pulse pressure. The stiffness thus computed from ultrasound correlated well with direct mechanical testing results. As the scaffolds matured in culture, ultrasound measurements indicated an increase in Young's modulus, and histology confirmed the growth of cells and collagen fibrils in the constructs. The results indicate that ultrasound elastography can be used to assess and monitor non-invasively the mechanical properties of arterial constructs. Copyright © 2013 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ming Liang; Yong Hu; Xiangjun Kong; Weiyu Fan; Xue Xin; Hui Luo
2016-01-01
High modulus bitumens modified by polystyrene-block-polybutadiene-block-polystyrene (SBS) with different molecular structure were investigated on dynamic shear rheometer and fluorescence microscopy to evaluate viscoelastic properties and morphology of binders. The results shows that storage modulus (G’) is obviously less than loss modulus (G”), which means viscous behaviour of bitumen is dominant, and anti-rutting factor (G* ⁄ sin δ) is markedly enhanced by star SBS than by linear SBS. The mo...
Hussain, Sadakat
Soy-based polyurethane foams (PUFs) were reinforced with fibres of different aspect ratios to improve the compressive modulus. Each of the three fibre types reinforced PUF differently. Shorter micro-crystalline cellulose fibres were found embedded inside the cell struts of PUF and reinforced them. The reinforcement was attributed to be stress transfer from the matrix to the fibre by comparing the experimental results to those predicted by micro-mechanical models for short fibre reinforced composites. The reinforced cell struts increased the overall compressive modulus of the foam. Longer glass fibres (470 microns, length) provided the best reinforcement. These fibres were found to be larger than the cell diameters. The micro-mechanical models could not predict the reinforcement provided by the longer glass fibres. The models predicted negligible reinforcement because the very low modulus PUF should not transfer load to the higher modulus fibres. However, using a finite element model, it was determined that the fibres were providing reinforcement through direct fibre interaction with each other. Intermediate length glass fibres (260 microns, length) were found to poorly reinforce the PUF and should be avoided. These fibres were too short to interact with each other and were on average too large to embed and reinforce cell struts. In order to produce natural fibre reinforced PUFs in the future, a novel device was invented. The purpose of the device is to deliver natural fibres at a constant mass flow rate. The device was found to consistently meter individual loose natural fibre tufts at a mass flow rate of 2 grams per second. However, the device is not robust and requires further development to deliver a fine stream of natural fibre that can mix and interact with the curing polymeric components of PUF. A design plan was proposed to address the remaining issues with the device.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gaihede, Michael [Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Aalborg Hospital, Aarhus University Hospital, Aalborg (Denmark); Liao Donghua [Centre of Excellence in Visceral Biomechanics and Pain, Aalborg Hospital, Aarhus University Hospital, Aalborg (Denmark); Gregersen, Hans [Centre of Excellence in Visceral Biomechanics and Pain, Aalborg Hospital, Aarhus University Hospital, Aalborg (Denmark)
2007-02-07
The quasi-static elastic properties of the tympanic membrane system can be described by the areal modulus of elasticity determined by a middle ear model. The response of the tympanic membrane to quasi-static pressure changes is determined by its elastic properties. Several clinical problems are related to these, but studies are few and mostly not comparable. The elastic properties of membranes can be described by the areal modulus, and these may also be susceptible to age-related changes reflected by changes in the areal modulus. The areal modulus is determined by the relationship between membrane tension and change of the surface area relative to the undeformed surface area. A middle ear model determined the tension-strain relationship in vivo based on data from experimental pressure-volume deformations of the human tympanic membrane system. The areal modulus was determined in both a younger (n = 10) and an older (n = 10) group of normal subjects. The areal modulus for lateral and medial displacement of the tympanic membrane system was smaller in the older group (mean = 0.686 and 0.828 kN m{sup -1}, respectively) compared to the younger group (mean = 1.066 and 1.206 kN m{sup -1}, respectively), though not significantly (2p = 0.10 and 0.11, respectively). Based on the model the areal modulus was established describing the summated elastic properties of the tympanic membrane system. Future model improvements include exact determination of the tympanic membrane area accounting for its shape via 3D finite element analyses. In vivo estimates of Young's modulus in this study were a factor 2-3 smaller than previously found in vitro. No significant age-related differences were found in the elastic properties as expressed by the areal modulus.
The effects of side-artifacts on the elastic modulus of trabecular bone.
Un, Kerem; Bevill, Grant; Keaveny, Tony M
2006-01-01
Determining accurate density-mechanical property relationships for trabecular bone is critical for correct characterization of this important structure-function relation. When testing any excised specimen of trabecular bone, an unavoidable experimental artifact originates from the sides of the specimen where peripheral trabeculae lose their vertical load-bearing capacity due to interruption of connectivity, a phenomenon denoted here as the 'side-artifact'. We sought in this study to quantify the magnitude of such side-artifact errors in modulus measurement and to do so as a function of the trabecular architecture and specimen size. Using parametric computational analysis of high-resolution micro-CT-based finite-element models of cores of elderly human vertebral trabecular bone, a specimen-specific correction factor for the side-artifact was quantified as the ratio of the side-artifact-free apparent modulus (Etrue) to the apparent modulus that would be measured in a typical experiment (Emeasured). We found that the width over which the peripheral trabeculae were mostly unloaded was between 0.19 and 0.58 mm. The side-artifact led to an underestimation error in Etrue of over 50% in some specimens, having a mean (+/-SD) of 27+/-11%. There was a trend for the correction factor to linearly increase as volume fraction decreased (p=0.001) and as mean trabecular separation increased (perror increased substantially as specimen size decreased. Two methods used for correcting for the side-artifact were both successful in bringing Emeasured into statistical agreement with Etrue. These findings have important implications for the interpretation of almost all literature data on trabecular bone mechanical properties since they indicate that such properties need to be adjusted to eliminate the substantial effects of side-artifacts in order to provide more accurate estimates of in situ behavior.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mirković Nemanja
2007-01-01
Full Text Available Background/Aim. Elastic modulus of metal-ceramic systems determines their flexural strength and prevents damages on ceramics during mastication. Recycling of basic alloys is often a clinical practice, despite the possible effects on the quality of the future metal-ceramic dentures. This research was done to establish recasting effects of nickel-chromium and cobalt-chromium alloys on the elastic modulus of metalceramic systems in making fixed partial dentures. Methods. The research was performed as an experimental study. Six metal-ceramic samples of nickel-chromium alloy (Wiron 99 and cobalt-chromium alloy (Wirobond C were made. Alloy residues were recycled through twelve casting generations with the addition of 50% of new alloy on the occasion of every recasting. Three- point bending test was used to determine elastic modulus, recommended by the standard ISO 9693:1999. Fracture load for damaging ceramic layer was recorded on the universal testing machine (Zwick, type 1464, with the speed of 0,05 mm/min. Results. The results of this research revealed significant differences between elasticity modules of metal-ceramic samples in every examined recycle generation. Recasting had negative effect on the elastic modulus of the examined alloys. This research showed the slight linear reduction of elastic modulus up to the 6th generation of recycling. After the 6th recycling there was a sudden fall of elastic modulus. Conclusion. Recasting of nickelchromium and cobalt-chromium alloys is not recommended because of the reduced elastic modulus of these alloys. Instead of reusing previously recasted alloys, the alloy residues should be returned to the manufacturer. .
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gérrard Eddy Jai Poinern
2014-07-01
Full Text Available In this study we determine the elastic and hardness properties of electrochemically engineered porous anodic aluminium oxide (AAO membranes and AAO membranes infiltrated with Poly (2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate to form a unique biologically compatible AAO/polymer composite. The electrochemically-synthesised membranes have a nanometre scale porous oxide structure with a mean pore diameter of 100 nm. The membranes were characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy before and after polymer infiltration. The polymer treated and untreated membranes were then examined using the nano-indentation technique to measure the hardness and subsequently determine the membrane elasticity.
High elastic modulus nanopowder reinforced resin composites for dental applications
Wang, Yijun
2007-12-01
Dental restorations account for more than $3 billion dollars a year on the market. Among them, all-ceramic dental crowns draw more and more attention and their popularity has risen because of their superior aesthetics and biocompatibility. However, their relatively high failure rate and labor-intensive fabrication procedure still limit their application. In this thesis, a new family of high elastic modulus nanopowder reinforced resin composites and their mechanical properties are studied. Materials with higher elastic modulus, such as alumina and diamond, are used to replace the routine filler material, silica, in dental resin composites to achieve the desired properties. This class of composites is developed to serve (1) as a high stiffness support to all-ceramic crowns and (2) as a means of joining independently fabricated crown core and veneer layers. Most of the work focuses on nano-sized Al2O3 (average particle size 47 nm) reinforcement in a polymeric matrix with 50:50 Bisphenol A glycidyl methacrylate (Bis-GMA): triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) monomers. Surfactants, silanizing agents and primers are examined to obtain higher filler levels and enhance the bonding between filler and matrix. Silane agents work best. The elastic modulus of a 57.5 vol% alumina/resin composite is 31.5 GPa compared to current commercial resin composites with elastic modulus alumina, diamond/resin composites are studied. An elastic modulus of about 45 GPa is obtained for a 57 vol% diamond/resin composite. Our results indicate that with a generally monodispersed nano-sized high modulus filler, relatively high elastic modulus resin-based composite cements are possible. Time-dependent behavior of our resin composites is also investigated. This is valuable for understanding the behavior of our material and possible fatigue testing in the future. Our results indicate that with effective coupling agents and higher filler loading, viscous flow can be greatly decreased due to the
Wang, Dan; He, Ya-Ping; Zhang, Yi-Feng; Liu, Bo-Ji; Zhao, Chong-Ke; Fu, Hui-Jun; Wei, Qing; Xu, Hui-Xiong
2017-01-06
To evaluate the diagnostic performance of a new technique of shear wave speed (SWS) imaging for the diagnosis of thyroid nodule with elasticity modulus and SWS measurement. 322 thyroid nodules in 322 patients (216 benign nodules, 106 malignant nodules) were included in this study. All the nodules received conventional ultrasound (US) and SWS imaging (Aplio500, Toshiba Medical Systems, Japan) before fine-needle aspiration (FNA) and/or surgery. The values of E-max and E-mean with elastic modulus (61.27 ± 36.31 kPa and 31.89 ± 19.11 kPa) or SWS (4.45 ± 1.49 m/s and 3.26 ± 2.71 m/s) in malignant nodules were significantly higher than those in benign lesions (29.18 ± 18.62 kPa and 15.85 ± 6.96 kPa, or 2.98 ± 0.85 m/s and 2.19 ± 0.42 m/s, all P 0.05). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, E-max (m/s) with SWS was identified to be the strongest independent predictor for malignant nodules (odds ratio [OR] = 16.760), followed by poorly-defined margin (OR = 7.792), taller-than-wide shape (OR = 3.160), micro-calcification (OR = 2.422), and E-max (kPa) with elastic modulus (OR = 0.914). The AUC was 0.813 for E-max with SWS (m/s) and 0.796 for E-max with elastic modulus (kPa). With cut-off SWS value of 3.52 m/s in E-max, sensitivity of 69.8%, specificity of 81.5%, and accuracy of 77.6% were achieved. SWS imaging is a valuable tool in predicting thyroid malignancy. E-max with SWS measurement is the strongest independent predictor for thyroid malignancy.
Change of Static and Dynamic Elastic Properties due to CO² Injection in North Sea Chalk
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Alam, Mohammad Monzurul; Hjuler, M.L.; Christensen, H.F.;
2012-01-01
Reservoir modeling and monitoring uses dynamic data for predicting and determining static changes. Dynamic data are achieved from the propagation velocity of elastic waves in rock while static data are obtained from the mechanical deformation. Reservoir simulation and monitoring are particularly......% non-carbonate. We studied difference in static and dynamic behavior. Furthermore, brine saturated data were compared with CO2 injected data to reveal the effect of supercritical CO2 injection in both static and dynamic elastic properties. We used strain gauges and LVDTs to measure static deformation....... We observed lower dynamic elastic modulus for chalk with higher non-carbonate content at porosities lower than 30%. In 30% porosity chalk, dynamic compressional and bulk modulus were found significantly higher than the static modulus. Static measurements with LVDT were found lowest. The effect of CO2...
Objectification of Modulus Elasticity of Foam Concrete Poroflow 17-5 on the Subbase Layer
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hájek Matej
2016-05-01
Full Text Available Principles of sustainable development create the need to develop new building materials. Foam concrete is a type of lightweight concrete that has many advantages compared to conventional building materials, for example low density and thermal insulation characteristics. With current development level, any negatively influencing material features are constantly eliminated as well. This paper is dealing with substitution of hydraulically bound mixtures by cement foam concrete Poroflow 17-5. The executed assessment is according to the methodology of assessing the existing asphalt pavements in Slovak Republic. The ex post calculation was used to estimate modulus range for Poroflow 17-5 based on the results of static load tests conducted using the Testing Experiment Equipment.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kwang Liang Koh
2017-07-01
Full Text Available This paper examines the effect of surface treatment and filler shape factor on the fracture toughness and elastic modulus of epoxy-based nanocomposite. Two forms of nanofillers, polydopamine-coated montmorillonite clay (D-clay and polydopamine-coated carbon nanofibres (D-CNF were investigated. It was found that Young’s modulus increases with increasing D-clay and D-CNF loading. However, the fracture toughness decreases with increased D-clay loading but increases with increased D-CNF loading. Explanations have been provided with the aid of fractographic analysis using electron microscope observations of the crack-filler interactions. Fractographic analysis suggests that although polydopamine provides a strong adhesion between the fillers and the matrix, leading to enhanced elastic stiffness, the enhancement prohibits energy release via secondary cracking, resulting in a decrease in fracture toughness. In contrast, 1D fibre is effective in increasing the energy dissipation during fracture through crack deflection, fibre debonding, fibre break, and pull-out.
Koh, Kwang Liang; Ji, Xianbai; Dasari, Aravind; Lu, Xuehong; Lau, Soo Khim; Chen, Zhong
2017-07-10
This paper examines the effect of surface treatment and filler shape factor on the fracture toughness and elastic modulus of epoxy-based nanocomposite. Two forms of nanofillers, polydopamine-coated montmorillonite clay (D-clay) and polydopamine-coated carbon nanofibres (D-CNF) were investigated. It was found that Young's modulus increases with increasing D-clay and D-CNF loading. However, the fracture toughness decreases with increased D-clay loading but increases with increased D-CNF loading. Explanations have been provided with the aid of fractographic analysis using electron microscope observations of the crack-filler interactions. Fractographic analysis suggests that although polydopamine provides a strong adhesion between the fillers and the matrix, leading to enhanced elastic stiffness, the enhancement prohibits energy release via secondary cracking, resulting in a decrease in fracture toughness. In contrast, 1D fibre is effective in increasing the energy dissipation during fracture through crack deflection, fibre debonding, fibre break, and pull-out.
Koh, Kwang Liang; Ji, Xianbai; Lu, Xuehong; Lau, Soo Khim; Chen, Zhong
2017-01-01
This paper examines the effect of surface treatment and filler shape factor on the fracture toughness and elastic modulus of epoxy-based nanocomposite. Two forms of nanofillers, polydopamine-coated montmorillonite clay (D-clay) and polydopamine-coated carbon nanofibres (D-CNF) were investigated. It was found that Young’s modulus increases with increasing D-clay and D-CNF loading. However, the fracture toughness decreases with increased D-clay loading but increases with increased D-CNF loading. Explanations have been provided with the aid of fractographic analysis using electron microscope observations of the crack-filler interactions. Fractographic analysis suggests that although polydopamine provides a strong adhesion between the fillers and the matrix, leading to enhanced elastic stiffness, the enhancement prohibits energy release via secondary cracking, resulting in a decrease in fracture toughness. In contrast, 1D fibre is effective in increasing the energy dissipation during fracture through crack deflection, fibre debonding, fibre break, and pull-out. PMID:28773136
Thermal Variation of Elastic Modulus on Nanocrystalline NiCuZn Ferrites
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S. R. Murthy
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The nanopowders of Ni0.38Cu0.12Zn0.5Fe2O4 with particle size, 20 nm have been synthesised using Microwave-Hydrothermal method and characterized. Then the ferrite samples were microwave sintered at different temperatures in an air atmosphere and characterized. The magnetic properties were measured at room temperature. The dielectric constant (ɛ, initial permeability (μi and quality factor (Q has been measured on sintered samples at 1 MHz. Thermal variation of initial permeability has been measured over temperature range of 300 K–600 K. A detailed study of elastic behaviour of NiCuZn ferrites has been under taken using a composite piezoelectric oscillator method over a temperature of 300 K–600 K. The room temperature elastic moduli is found to be slightly sample dependent and decreases with increasing the temperature, except near the Curie temperature, TC, where a small anomaly is observed. The internal friction at room temperature is also found to be more particle size dependent. The temperature variation of internal friction exhibits a broad maximum around 500 K, just below Curie temperature TC 530 K. The above observations were carried on in the demagnetized state; on the application of a 400 mT magnetic field allowed us to reach the saturated state of the sample at any of the measuring temperature. The anomaly observed in the thermal variation of elastic moduli and internal friction is explained with the help of temperature variation of magneto-crystalline anisotropy constant.
Elastic modulus measurements of LDEF glasses and glass-ceramics using a speckle technique
Wiedlocher, D. E.; Kinser, D. L.
1992-01-01
Elastic moduli of five glass types and the glass-ceramic Zerodur, exposed to a near-earth orbit environment on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF), were compared to that of unexposed samples. A double exposure speckle photography technique utilizing 633 nm laser light was used in the production of the speckle pattern. Subsequent illumination of a double exposed negative using the same wavelength radiation produces Young's fringes from which the in-plane displacements are measured. Stresses imposed by compressive loading produced measurable strains in the glasses and glass-ceramic.
Dynamic response of visco-elastic plates
Kadıoǧlu, Fethi; Tekin, Gülçin
2016-12-01
In this study, a comprehensive analysis about the dynamic response characteristics of visco-elastic plates is given. To construct the functional in the Laplace-Carson domain for the analysis of visco-elastic plates based on the Kirchhoff hypothesis, functional analysis method is employed. By using this new energy functional in the Laplace-Carson domain, moment values that are important for engineers can be obtained directly with excellent accuracy and element equations can be written explicitly. Three-element model is considered for modelling the visco-elastic material behavior. The solutions obtained in the Laplace-Carson domain by utilizing mixed finite element formulation are transformed to the time domain using the Durbin's inverse Laplace transform technique. The proposed mixed finite element formulation is shown to be simple to implement and gives satisfactory results for dynamic response of visco-elastic plates.
Elastic Modulus Measurements of the LHC Dipole Superconducting Coil at 300 K and at 77 K
Couturier, K; Todesco, Ezio; Tommasini, D; Scandale, Walter
2002-01-01
We present measurements of the stress-displacement relation for the superconducting coils used in the Large Hadron Collider main magnets (dipoles and quadrupoles). This mechanical property is relevant to determine the correct amount of azimuthal pre-stress to be imposed on the coil. The hysteresis pattern in the loading and unloading curves is discussed. The stress-displacement curves are used to compute the corresponding elastic moduli and deformations. Measurements are also carried out at liquid nitrogen temperature, using the same framework to interpret experimental data.
Zaragoza, J.; Chang, A.; Asuri, P.
2017-01-01
Polymer hydrogelshave shown to exhibit improved properties upon the addition of nanoparticles; however, the mechanical underpinnings behind these enhancements have not been fully elucidated. Moreover, fewer studies have focused on developing an understanding of how polymer parameters affect the nanoparticle-mediated enhancements. In this study, we investigated the elastic properties of silica nanoparticle-reinforced poly(acrylamide) hydrogels synthesized using crosslinkers of various lengths. Crosslinker length positively affected the mechanical properties of hydrogels that were synthesized with or without nanoparticles. However the degree of nanoparticle enhancement was negatively correlated to crosslinker length. Our findings enable the understanding of the respective roles of nanoparticle and polymer properties on nanoparticle-mediated enhancement of hydrogels and thereby the development of next-generation nanocomposite materials.
Elasticity Modulus and Flexural Strength Assessment of Foam Concrete Layer of Poroflow
Hajek, Matej; Decky, Martin; Drusa, Marian; Orininová, Lucia; Scherfel, Walter
2016-10-01
Nowadays, it is necessary to develop new building materials, which are in accordance to the principles of the following provisions of the Roads Act: The design of road is a subject that follows national technical standards, technical regulations and objectively established results of research and development for road infrastructure. Foam concrete, as a type of lightweight concrete, offers advantages such as low bulk density, thermal insulation and disadvantages that will be reduced by future development. The contribution focuses on identifying the major material characteristics of foam concrete named Poroflow 17-5, in order to replace cement-bound granular mixtures. The experimental measurements performed on test specimens were the subject of diploma thesis in 2015 and continuously of the dissertation thesis and grant research project. At the beginning of the contribution, an overview of the current use of foam concrete abroad is elaborated. Moreover, it aims to determine the flexural strength of test specimens Poroflow 17-5 in combination with various basis weights of the underlying geotextile. Another part of the article is devoted to back-calculation of indicative design modulus of Poroflow based layers based on the results of static plate load tests provided at in situ experimental stand of Faculty of Civil Engineering, University of Žilina (FCE Uniza). Testing stand has been created in order to solve problems related to research of road and railway structures. Concern to building construction presents a physical homomorphic model that is identical with the corresponding theory in all structural features. Based on the achieved material characteristics, the tensile strength in bending of previously used road construction materials was compared with innovative alternative of foam concrete and the suitability for the base layers of pavement roads was determined.
Blaise, A.; André, S.; Delobelle, P.; Meshaka, Y.; Cunat, C.
2016-11-01
Exact measurements of the rheological parameters of time-dependent materials are crucial to improve our understanding of their intimate relation to the internal bulk microstructure. Concerning solid polymers and the apparently simple determination of Young's modulus in tensile tests, international standards rely on basic protocols that are known to lead to erroneous values. This paper describes an approach allowing a correct measurement of the instantaneous elastic modulus of polymers by a tensile test. It is based on the use of an appropriate reduced model to describe the behavior of the material up to great strains, together with well-established principles of parameter estimation in engineering science. These principles are objective tools that are used to determine which parameters of a model can be correctly identified according to the informational content of a given data set. The assessment of the methodology and of the measurements is accomplished by comparing the results with those obtained from two other physical experiments, probing the material response at small temporal and length scales, namely, ultrasound measurements with excitation at 5 MHz and modulated nanoindentation tests over a few nanometers of amplitude.
Approaches To Modelling Of Elastic Modulus Degradation In Sheet Metal Forming
Vrh, Marko; Halilovič, Miroslav; Štok, Boris
2007-04-01
Strain recovery after removal of forming loads, commonly defined as springback, is of great concern in sheet metal forming, in particular with regard to proper prediction of the final shape of the part. To control the problem a lot of work has been done, either by minimizing the springback on the material side or by increasing the estimation precision in corresponding process simulations. Unfortunately, by currently available software springback still cannot be adequately predicted, because most analyses of springback are using linear, isotropic and constant Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio. But, as it was measured and reported, none of it is true. The aim of this work is to propose an upgraded mechanical model which takes evolution of damage and related orthotropic stiffness degradation into account. Damage is considered by inclusion of ellipsoidal cavities, and their influence on the stiffness degradation is taken in accordance with the Mori-Tanaka theory, adopting the GTN model for plastic flow. With regard to the case in which damage in material is neglected it is shown in the article how the springback of a formed part differs, when we take orthotropic damage evolution into consideration.
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W. Pabst
2004-12-01
Full Text Available In this fourth paper of a series on the effective elastic properties of alumina-zirconia composite ceramics the influence of porosity on the effective tensile modulus of alumina and zirconia ceramics is discussed. The examples investigated are alumina and zirconia ceramics prepared from submicron powders by starch consolidation casting using two different types of starch, potato starch (median size D50 =47.2 µm and corn starch (median size D50 =13.7 µm. The dependence of effective tensile moduli E, on the porosity f, measured for porosities in the ranges of approx. 19-55 vol.% and 10-42 vol.% for alumina and zirconia, respectively, using a resonant frequency technique, was evaluated by fitting with various model relations, including newly developed ones. A detailed comparison of the fitting results suggests the superiority of the new relation E/E0 = (1 - f·(1 - f/fC, developed by the authors (with the tensile modulus of the dense ceramic material E0 and the critical porosity fC, over most other existing fit models. Only for special purposes and well-behaved data sets the recently proposed exponential relation E/E0 = exp [-Bf/(1 - f] and the well-known Phani-Niyogi relation E/E0 = (1 - f/fCN might be preferable.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Spicer, James B [Johns Hopkins University; Zeng, Fan W [Johns Hopkins University; Han, Karen [Johns Hopkins University; Olasov, Lauren R [Johns Hopkins University; Gallego, Nidia C [ORNL; Contescu, Cristian I [ORNL
2014-01-01
Laser ultrasonic techniques can be used to study the ultrasonic properties of nuclear graphites and can serve as tools in establishing relationships between materials microstructure and the macroscopic stiffnesses of graphite. Establishing structure-property relationships permits improved ultrasonic sensing of graphite microstructural changes related to service-induced degradation. Laser ultrasonic measurements were made using a pulsed Nd:YAG laser source and detection was performed using a Michelson-type interferometer. This source-receiver combination provides for non-contacting, highly linear transduction of broadbanded, ultrasonic pulses permitting simultaneous determination of longitudinal and shear stiffnesses. Measurements show that among the graphites examined, a change in density of 0.26 g/cm3 (average 1.8 g/cm3) results in a change in the longitudinal elastic stiffness of 9.2 GPa (average 11.3 GPa) and 3.2 GPa (average 4.3 GPa) for the shear stiffness. Larger variations in density were produced by controlled oxidation of IG-110 and NBG-18. Shear wave birefringence measurements using laser line sources in IG-110 and PCEA indicate that IG-110 behaves isotropically while PCEA displays texture characteristic of transversely isotropic materials.
Measurement of the elastic modulus of spider mite silk fibers using atomic force microscopy
Hudson, Stephen D.; Zhurov, Vladimir; Grbić, Vojislava; Grbić, Miodrag; Hutter, Jeffrey L.
2013-04-01
Bio-nanomaterials are one of the fastest developing sectors of industry and technology. Spider silk, a highly attractive light-weight biomaterial, has high tensile strength and elasticity and is compatible with human tissues, allowing for many areas of application. In comparison to spider silk fibers with diameters of several micrometers, spider mite silk fibers have much smaller diameters of tens of nanometers, making conventional tensile testing methods impractical. To determine the mechanical properties of adult and larval Tetranychus urticae silk fibers, we have performed three-point bending tests with an atomic force microscope. We found that because of the small diameters of these fibers, axial tension—due to both the applied force and a pre-existing strain—has a significant effect on the fiber response, even in the small-deformation limit. As a result, the typical Euler-Bernoulli-Timoshenko theory cannot be applied. We therefore follow the approach of Heidelberg et al. to develop a mechanical model of the fiber response that accounts for bending, an initial tension in the fibers, and a tension due to elongation during testing. This model provides self-consistent results, allowing us to determine that adult and larval fibers have Young's moduli of 24±3 GPa and 15±3 GPa, respectively. Both adult and larval fibers have an estimated ultimate strength of 200-300 MPa and a toughness of order 9 MJ/m3. We note that with increasing interest in the mechanical properties of very high aspect ratio nanomaterials, the influence of pre-existing tension must be considered in any measurements involving a bending test.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Ji Wang; Bin Zhou; Ian Parkinson; C. David L. Thomas; John G. Clement; Nick Fazzalari; X. Edward Guo
2013-01-01
Osteoporotic hip fracture is associated with significant trabecular bone loss, which is typically characterized as low bone density by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and altered microstructure by micro-computed tomography (µCT). Emerging morphological analysis techniques, e.g. individual trabecula segmentation (ITS), can provide additional insights into changes in plate-like and rod-like trabeculae, two major micro-structural types serving different roles in determining bone strength. Using ITS, we evaluated trabecular microstructure of intertrochanteric bone cores obtained from 23 patients undergoing hip replacement surgery for intertrochanteric fracture and 22 cadaveric controls. Micro-finite element (µFE) analyses were performed to further understand how the abnormalities seen by ITS might translate into effects on bone strength. ITS analyses revealed that, near fracture site, plate-like trabeculae were seriously depleted in fracture patients, but trabecular rod volume was maintained. Besides, decreased plate area and rod length were observed in fracture patients. Fracture patients also showed decreased elastic moduli and shear moduli of trabecular bone. These results provided evidence that in intertrochanteric hip fracture, preferential loss of plate-like trabeculae led to more rod-like microstructure and deteriorated mechanical competence adjacent to the fracture site, which increased our understanding of the biomechanical pathogenesis of hip fracture in osteoporosis.
Pasta Elasticity: Molecular dynamics simulations of nuclear pasta deformations
Caplan, M. E.; Horowitz, C. J.; Berry, D. K.
2015-04-01
Nuclear pasta is expected in the inner crust of neutron stars at densities near the nuclear saturation density. In this work, the elastic properties of pasta are calculated from large scale molecular dynamics simulations by deforming the simulation volume. Our model uses a semi-classical two-nucleon potential that reproduces nuclear saturation. We report the shear modulus and breaking strain of a variety of pasta phases for different temperatures, densities, and proton fractions. The presence of pasta in neutron stars could have significant effects on crustal oscillations and could be inferred from observations of soft-gamma repeaters. Additionally, these elastic parameters will enable us to improve estimates of the maximum size and lifetime of ``mountains'' on the crust, which could efficiently radiate gravitational waves.
Hyperoxia increases the elastic modulus of alveolar epithelial cells through Rho kinase.
Wilhelm, Kristina R; Roan, Esra; Ghosh, Manik C; Parthasarathi, Kaushik; Waters, Christopher M
2014-02-01
Patients with acute lung injury are administered high concentrations of oxygen during mechanical ventilation, and while both hyperoxia and mechanical ventilation are necessary, each can independently cause additional injury. However, the precise mechanisms that lead to injury are not well understood. We hypothesized that alveolar epithelial cells may be more susceptible to injury caused by mechanical ventilation because hyperoxia causes cells to be stiffer due to increased filamentous actin (f-actin) formation via the GTPase RhoA and its effecter Rho kinase (ROCK). We examined cytoskeletal structures in cultured murine lung alveolar epithelial cells (MLE-12) under normoxic and hyperoxic (48 h) conditions. We also measured cell elasticity (E) using an atomic force microscope in the indenter mode. Hyperoxia caused increased f-actin stress fibers and bundle formation, an increase in g- and f-actin, an increase in nuclear area and a decrease in nuclear height, and cells became stiffer (higher E). Treatment with an inhibitor (Y-27632) of ROCK significantly decreased E and prevented the cytoskeletal changes, while it did not influence the nuclear height and area. Pre-exposure of cells to hyperoxia promoted detachment when cells were subsequently stretched cyclically, but the ROCK inhibitor prevented this effect. Hyperoxia caused thickening of vinculin focal adhesion plaques, and inhibition of ROCK reduced the formation of distinct focal adhesion plaques. Phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase was significantly reduced by both hyperoxia and treatment with Y-27632. Hyperoxia caused increased cell stiffness and promoted cell detachment during stretch. These effects were ameliorated by inhibition of ROCK.
Xingxia Ma; Grant T. Kirker; Carol A. Clausen; Mingliang Jiang; Haibin Zhou
2017-01-01
The modulus of elasticity (MOE) of wood is a sensitive indicator of rotfungal attack. To develop an alternative method of rapid assessment of fungal decay in the laboratory, changes in static MOE of untreated and preservative-treated wood were measured during exposure to the brownrot fungus, Gloeophyllum trabeum, and the white-rot fungus, Trametes...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
吕毅刚; 韩伟威; 吕健鸣; 刘云峰
2016-01-01
为弥补传统测试方法的不足,建立暴露试验站,开展了自然暴露环境下的桥梁混凝土长期静、动弹性模量试验研究.运用超声波平测法,取不同测距的接收波波峰相关散点进行回归计算,获取桥梁混凝土的纵波波速及表面波波速,根据动弹性模量与波速的数学关系,计算出混凝土的动弹性模量.基于一批碎石混凝土试件的试验结果,分析了混凝土动弹性模量随时间发展的规律,构建了5~20 mm和5~30 mm两种连续级配碎石混凝土试件的静、动弹性模量换算公式.结合钢筋混凝土构件的试验研究,验证了该静、动弹性模量换算公式的适用性.本试验方法和研究成果为桥梁工程的长期弹性模量无损快速跟踪测试奠定了基础.%In order to remedy the deficiencies of traditional detection methods, an exposure experiment station is established, and the experimental research on the long-term static and dynamic elastic moduli of bridge concrete in natural exposure environment is carried out. By use of ultrasonic plane testing method, the longitudinal and surface wave velocities of bridge concrete are obtained through regression calculation of correlative points of the received wave crests of different ranges. The dynamic elastic modulus of concrete is calculated according to the mathematical relationship between dynamic elastic modulus and wave velocity. Based on the experimental results of a group of gravel concrete specimens, the rule of dynamic elastic modulus of concrete developing with time is analyzed, and the conversion formulas between static elastic modulus and dynamic elastic modulus of the concrete specimens with 5-20 mm and 5-30 mm gravels are set up. The applicability of the conversion formulas is verified by experimental research of reinforced concrete members. The detection methods and findings can lay the foundations of fast nondestructive follow - up detection of the long-term elastic modulus of
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yuan Xiaoming; Sun Jing; Sun Rui
2006-01-01
An error analysis of the dynamic shear modulus of stiff specimens from tests performed by a new resonant column device developed by the Institute of Engineering Mechanics, China was conducted. A modified approach for calculating the dynamic shear modulus of the stiff specimens is presented. The error formula of the tests was deduced and parameters that impact the accuracy of the test were identified. Using six steel specimens with known standard stiffness as a base, a revised dynamic shear modulus calculation for stiff specimens was formulated by comparing three of the models.The maximum error between the test results and the calculated results shown by curves from both the free-vibration and the resonant-vibration tests is less than 6%. The free-vibration and resonant-vibration tests for three types of stiff samples with a known modulus indicate that the maximum deviation between the actual and the tested value using the modified approach were less than 10%. As a result, the modified approach presented here is shown to be reliable and the new device can be used for testing dynamic shear modulus of any stiff materials at low shear strain levels
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
胡勐乾; 周群; 纪忠华; 李亮
2015-01-01
通过利用我国部分核电厂核岛区岩体原位测试获得的动、静模量，对动、静模量之间的关系进行对比研究。结果表明，微风化岩体的动、静模量比值Ed／Es 分布在0.56～3.0之间，中风化岩体的动、静模量比值Ed／Es 分布在1.84～9.32之间。由一元线性回归分析可得动、静模量的关系式，表明动、静模量之间具有较好的相关性。%It was studied the relationship of the dynamic elastic modulus and static modulus using the data getting from in situ testing of rock of island of partial nuclear power plants.The results showed that the ratio of dynamic elastic modulus and static modulus of slightly weathered rock was 0.56 to 3.0, and the ratio of dynamic elastic modulus and static modulus of moderately weathered rock was 1.84 to 9.32.The relationship of the dynamic elastic modulus and static modulus from linear regression analysis indicated that they have a good correlation.
The Measurement of Hardness and Elastic Modulus of non-Metallic Inclusions in Steely Welding Joints
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Ignatova Anna
2015-08-01
Full Text Available Trunk pipelines work under a cyclic dynamical mechanical load because when oil or gas is pumped, the pressure constantly changes - pulsates. Therefore, the fatigue phenomenon is a common reason of accidents. The fatigue phenomenon more often happens in the zone of non-metallic inclusions concentration. To know how the characteristics of nonmetallic inclusions influence the probability of an accident the most modern research methods should be used. It is determined with the help of the modern research methods that the accident rate of welded joints of pipelines is mostly influenced by their morphological type, composition and size of nonmetallic inclusions, this effect is more important than the common level of pollution by non-metallic inclusions. The article presents the results of the investigations of welded joints, obtained after the use of different common welding materials. We used the methods, described in the state standards: scanning electronic microscopy, spectral microprobe analysis and nano-indentation. We found out that non-metallic inclusions act like stress concentrators because they shrink, forming a blank space between metal and nonmetallic inclusions; it strengthens the differential properties on this boundary. Nonmetallic inclusion is not fixed, it can move. The data that we have received mean that during welded joints’ contamination (with non-metallic inclusions monitoring process, more attention should be paid to the content of definite inclusions, but not to total contamination.
Hinterhofer, Christine; Apprich, Veronika; Ferguson, James C; Stanek, Christian
2007-11-01
The mechanical properties of horn samples from 22 hind claws with chronic laminitis were determined in adult Austrian Fleckvieh cows. The resistance to deformation was quantified as the modulus of elasticity (E). Tension tests revealed mean E values of 520MPa for the dorsal wall, 243MPa for the abaxial wall, 339MPa for the axial wall and 97MPa for the sole. E tended to be lower in laminitic horn than in sound horn in all segments tested, with the difference being largest in the abaxial wall. The mean dry-matter content (DMC) of the laminitic claws was 75.8% in the dorsal wall, 75.86% in the abaxial wall, 71.15% in the axial wall and 69.28% in the sole. These values are generally comparable to those for sound claws except in the axial wall. Further, E and DMC were only correlated in the axial wall. Chronic laminitis leads to a low resistance of claw horn to mechanical insults in the dorsal wall, abaxial wall and sole, and to the loss of a correlation between the E and DMC in these segments. The reason for these alterations is therefore not increased ingress of moisture, but must be due to changes in the microstructure, biochemical components and/or horn formation by the diseased dermis.
Rohini, Rani; Bose, Suryasarathi
2015-03-28
In this study, branched poly(ethyleneimine), BPEI, was synthesized from carboxylic acid terminated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (c-MWNTs) and characterized using FTIR, TEM and TGA. The BPEI was then chemically grafted onto MWNTs to enhance the interfacial adhesion with the epoxy matrix. The epoxy composites with c-MWNTs and the BPEI-g-MWNTs were prepared using a sonication and mechanical stirring method, followed by curing at 100 °C and post-curing at 120 °C. The dynamic mechanical thermal analysis showed an impressive 49% increment in the storage elastic modulus in the composites. In addition, the nanoindentation on the composites exhibited significant improvement in the hardness and decrease in the plasticity index in the presence of the BPEI-g-MWNTs. Thus, epoxy composites with BPEI-g-MWNTs can be further explored as self-healing materials.
Elastic Constants of Superconducting MgB2 from Molecular Dynamics Simulations with Shell Model
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2005-01-01
The elastic constants of superconducting MgB2 are calculated using a molecular dynamics method (MD)with shell model. The lattice parameters, five independent elastic constants, equations of state (EOS), Debye temperature, and bulk modulus of MgB2 are obtained. Meanwhile, the dependence of the bulk modulus B, the lattice parameters a and c, and the unit cell volume V on the applied pressure are presented. It is demonstrated that the method introduced here can well reproduce the experimental results with a reasonable accuracy.
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Holmes Amey J
2005-07-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Bronchial hyperreactivity is influenced by properties of the conducting airways and the surrounding pulmonary parenchyma, which is tethered to the conducting airways. Vitamin A deficiency (VAD is associated with an increase in airway hyperreactivity in rats and a decrease in the volume density of alveoli and alveolar ducts. To better define the effects of VAD on the mechanical properties of the pulmonary parenchyma, we have studied the elastic modulus, elastic fibers and elastin gene-expression in rats with VAD, which were supplemented with retinoic acid (RA or remained unsupplemented. Methods Parenchymal mechanics were assessed before and after the administration of carbamylcholine (CCh by determining the bulk and shear moduli of lungs that that had been removed from rats which were vitamin A deficient or received a control diet. Elastin mRNA and insoluble elastin were quantified and elastic fibers were enumerated using morphometric methods. Additional morphometric studies were performed to assess airway contraction and alveolar distortion. Results VAD produced an approximately 2-fold augmentation in the CCh-mediated increase of the bulk modulus and a significant dampening of the increase in shear modulus after CCh, compared to vitamin A sufficient (VAS rats. RA-supplementation for up to 21 days did not reverse the effects of VAD on the elastic modulus. VAD was also associated with a decrease in the concentration of parenchymal elastic fibers, which was restored and was accompanied by an increase in tropoelastin mRNA after 12 days of RA-treatment. Lung elastin, which was resistant to 0.1 N NaOH at 98°, decreased in VAD and was not restored after 21 days of RA-treatment. Conclusion Alterations in parenchymal mechanics and structure contribute to bronchial hyperreactivity in VAD but they are not reversed by RA-treatment, in contrast to the VAD-related alterations in the airways.
Falland-Cheung, Lisa; Waddell, J Neil; Chun Li, Kai; Tong, Darryl; Brunton, Paul
2017-04-01
Conducting in vitro research for forensic, impact and injury simulation modelling generally involves the use of a skull simulant with mechanical properties similar to those found in the human skull. For this study epoxy resin, fibre filled epoxy resin, 3D-printing filaments (PETG, PLA) and self-cure acrylic denture base resin were used to fabricate the specimens (n=20 per material group), according to ISO 527-2 IBB and ISO20795-1. Tensile and flexural testing in a universal testing machine was used to measure their tensile/flexural elastic modulus and strength. The results showed that the epoxy resin and fibre filled epoxy resin had similar tensile elastic moduli (no statistical significant difference) with lower values observed for the other materials. The fibre filled epoxy resin had a considerably higher flexural elastic modulus and strength, possibly attributed to the presence of fibres. Of the simulants tested, epoxy resin had an elastic modulus and flexural strength close to that of mean human skull values reported in the literature, and thus can be considered as a suitable skull simulant for a skin/skull/brain model for lower impact forces that do not exceed the fracture stress. For higher impact forces a 3D printing filament (PLA) may be a more suitable skull simulant material, due to its closer match to fracture stresses found in human skull bone. Influencing factors were also anisotropy, heterogeneity and viscoelasticity of human skull bone and simulant specimens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Costa, Akf; Xavier, Ta; Noritomi, Py; Saavedra, G; Borges, Als
2014-01-01
SUMMARY The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence the width of the occlusal isthmus and inlay material had on the stress distribution, displacement, and fracture resistance of upper human premolars. For this in vitro test, 35 intact upper premolars (UPM) were selected and five were kept intact for the control group (group I). The remaining 30 were divided into two experimental groups (n=15) according to the width of isthmus: conservative (CP) and extensive preparation (EP), one third and more than two thirds of cuspal distance, respectively. Five teeth from each experimental group were left without restoration for negative controls (CPnc and EPnc), and the remaining 10 in each group were subdivided according to the inlay material (resin or ceramic): group CPr, CP + indirect resin; group CPc, CP + ceramic; group EPr, EP + indirect resin; and group EPc, EP + ceramic. The cemented inlays were loaded in a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min until fracture. The fractured specimens were analyzed with stereomicroscopy, and the values of the fracture resistance evaluated by analysis of variance and Tukey test. For the finite element analyses, an average UPM for each group was modeled in Rhinoceros CAD software and imported to Ansys 13.0. An average of 320,000 tetrahedral elements and 540,000 nodes for the seven models were performed using the same experimental simulation setup for each. The models were constrained on the base, and a displacement of 0.02 mm was applied to keep a linear behavior for the analysis. A von Mises stress and total displacement fields were used for the coherence test and the maximum principal stress fields were used for mechanical behavior comparisons. Group I (161.73 ± 22.94) showed a significantly higher mean value than the other experimental groups (EPc: 103.55 ± 15.84; CPc: 94.38 ± 12.35; CPr: 90.31 ± 6.10; EPr: 65.42 ± 10.15; CPnc: 65.46 ± 5.37; EPnc: 58.08 ± 9.62). The stress distribution was
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Ming Liang
2016-07-01
Full Text Available High modulus bitumens modified by polystyrene-block-polybutadiene-block-polystyrene (SBS with different molecular structure were investigated on dynamic shear rheometer and fluorescence microscopy to evaluate viscoelastic properties and morphology of binders. The results shows that storage modulus (G’ is obviously less than loss modulus (G”, which means viscous behaviour of bitumen is dominant, and anti-rutting factor (G* ⁄ sin δ is markedly enhanced by star SBS than by linear SBS. The morphology indicated that star SBS improved the softening point more obviously, tending to form a cross-linked network in bitumen. As for linear SBS, it is dispersed in bitumen in the form of globules and enhances the ductility of binder.
Application of Finite Element to Evaluate Material with Small Modulus of Elasticity
2013-03-01
the lights are switched off, however, the adults will fly for hours against the walls of the enclosure and damage their wings. This is to be avoided...Introduction to Contact Mechanics. Springer‐Verlag, New York, NY, 2000. 30. Cao, Y., X. Qian, and N. Huber, “Spherical indentation into elastoplastic
The Determination of the Elastic Modulus of Rubber Mooring Tethers and Their Use in Coastal Moorings
2005-12-01
meters (Geyer et al., 1992). The Vector Averaging Current Meter (VACM) utilizes a Savonius rotor to measure current speed and a vane to obtain...direction. If the VACM were moved up and down by the waves on a mooring that is tilted, the non-linearly of the Savonius rotor can rectify the oscillating
Gömze, L. A.; Gömze, L. N.
2017-02-01
Materials with different crystalline and morphological compositions have different chemical, physical, mechanical and rheological properties, including wear protection, melting temperature, module of elasticity and viscosity. Examining the material structures and behaviors of differentceramic bodies and CMCs under high speed collisions in several years the authors have understood the advantages of hetero-modulus and hetero-viscous complex material systems to absorb and dissipate the kinetic energy of objects during high speed collisions. Applying the rheo-mechanical principles the authors successfully developed a new family of hetero-modulus and hetero-viscous alumina matrix composite materials with extreme mechanical properties including dynamic strength. These new corundum-matrix composite materials reinforced with Si2ON 2, Si3N4 , SiAlON and AlN submicron and nanoparticles have excellent dynamic strength during collisions with high density metallic bodies with speeds about 1000 m/sec or more. At the same time in the alumina matrix composites can be observed a phase transformation of submicron and nanoparticles of alpha and beta silicone-nitride crystals into cubicc-Si3N4 diamond-like particles can be observed, when the high speed collision processes are taken place in vacuum or oxygen-free atmosphere. Using the rheological principles and the energy engorgement by fractures, heating and melting of components the authors successfully developed several new hetero-modulus, hetero-viscous and hetero-plastic complex materials. These materials generally are based on ceramic matrixes and components having different melting temperatures and modules of elasticity from low values like carbon and light metals (Mg, Al, Ti, Si) up to very high values like boride, nitride and carbide ceramics. Analytical methods applied in this research were scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffractions and energy dispersive spectrometry. Digital image analysis was applied to microscopy
Arnold, W.; Faber, C.; Knapmeyer, M.; Witte, L.; Schröder, S.; Tune, J.; Möhlmann, D.; Roll, R.; Chares, B.; Fischer, H.; Seidensticker, K.
2014-07-01
The landing of Philae on comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko is scheduled for November 11, 2014. Each of the three landing feet of Philae house a triaxial acceleration sensor of CASSE, which will thus be the first sensors to be in mechanical contact with the cometary surface. CASSE will be in listening mode to record the deceleration of the lander, when it impacts with the comet at a velocity of approx. 0.5 m/s. The analysis of this data yields information on the reduced elastic modulus and the yield stress of the comet's surface material. We describe a series of controlled landings of a lander model. The tests were conducted in the Landing & Mobility Test Facility (LAMA) of the DLR Institute of Space Systems in Bremen, Germany, where an industrial robot can be programmed to move landers or rovers along predefined paths, allowing to adapt landing procedures with predefined velocities. The qualification model of the Philae landing gear was used in the tests. It consists of three legs manufactured of carbon fiber and metal joints. A dead mass of the size and mass of the lander housing is attached via a damper above the landing gear to represent the lander structure as a whole. Attached to each leg is a foot with two soles and a mechanically driven fixation screw (''ice screw'') to secure the lander on the comet. The right soles, if viewed from the outside towards the lander body, house a Brüel & Kjaer DeltaTron 4506 triaxial piezoelectric accelerometer as used on the spacecraft. Orientation of the three axes was such that one of the axes, here the X-axis of the accelerometer, points downwards, while the Y- and Z-axes are horizontal. Data were recorded at a sampling rate of 8.2 kHz within a time gate of 2 s. In parallel, a video sequence was taken, in order to monitor the touchdown on the sand and the movement of the ice screws. Touchdown measurements were conducted on three types of ground with landing velocities between 0.1 to 1.1 m/s. Landings with low velocities were
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Asmussen, Erik; Peutzfeldt, Anne
2008-01-01
was that the marginal stresses would decrease with increasing modulus of elasticity of the restoration. METHODS: A cylindrical tooth was modelled in enamel and dentin and fitted with a Class I or a Class II restoration of resin composite. In one scenario the restoration was bonded to the tooth, in another...... the restoration was left nonbonded. The resin composite was modelled with a modulus of elasticity of 5, 10, 15 or 20 GPa and loaded occlusally with 100 N. By means of the soft-ware program ABAQUS the von Mises stresses in enamel and dentin were calculated. RESULTS: In the bonded scenario, the maximum stresses...... in the enamel were located at the occlusal margins (range 7-11 MPa), and in the dentin centrally at the pulpal floor (range 3.4-5.5MPa). The stresses decreased with increasing modulus of elasticity of the resin composite. In the nonbonded scenario, the stresses were higher in the dentin and lower in the enamel...
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Nour M. Ajaj-ALKordy
2014-01-01
Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that the high-impact acrylic resin is a suitable denture base material for patients with clinical fracture of the acrylic denture.
Consequence of reduced necrotic bone elastic modulus in a Perthes' hip
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Salmingo, Remel A.; Skytte, Tina Lercke; Mikkelsen, Lars Pilgaard
in the femoral head using Finite Element Analysis (FEA). Methods The femoral and necrotic bone of the affected hip of a Perthes’ patient was segmented from the MR images using Simpleware. The segmented parts were exported to SolidWorks to build the 3D solid model and Comsol for FEA. A load of 750 N (300% body...
Influence of internal stresses on field-dependent elastic modulus and damping in pure nickel
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Morales, A.L., E-mail: AngelLuis.Morales@uclm.e [Area de Ingenieria Mecanica, E.T.S. Ingenieros Industriales (Universidad de Castilla - La Mancha), Edificio Politecnico, Avda. Camilo Jose Cela s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Nieto, A.J.; Chicharro, J.M.; Pintado, P. [Area de Ingenieria Mecanica, E.T.S. Ingenieros Industriales (Universidad de Castilla - La Mancha), Edificio Politecnico, Avda. Camilo Jose Cela s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Rodriguez, G.P.; Herranz, G. [Area de Ciencia de los Materiales e Ingenieria Metalurgica, E.T.S. Ingenieros Industriales (Universidad de Castilla - La Mancha), Edificio Politecnico, Avda. Camilo Jose Cela s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)
2010-11-15
Measurements of the {Delta}E-effect and magnetomechanical damping are reported for crystalline pure nickel under several states of internal stresses. The different internal stresses are obtained by means of a wide variety of heat treatments and studied via microscopic examination and measurement. The influence of the heating temperature, the heating time and the cooling method on the magnetoelastic properties is studied. Our results make it possible to select the most suitable heat treatment for each application and to optimize the magnetoelastic response of nickel. Relative variations from 2% to 13% can be obtained in the {Delta}E-effect, whereas relative variations from 40.0% to 99.9% are possible in magnetomechanical damping, in terms of specific damping capacity.
Elastic Modulus of Foamcrete in Compression and Bending at Elevated Temperatures
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Md Azree Othuman Mydin
2012-09-01
Full Text Available This paper will presents the experimental results that have been performed to examine and characterize the mechanical properties of foamcrete at elevated temperatures. Foamcrete of 650 and 1000 kg/m 3 density were cast and tested under compression and bending. The tests were done at room temperature, 100, 200, 300, 400, 500, and 600°C. The results of this study consistently demonstrated that the loss in stiffness for cement based material like foamcrete at elevated temperatures occurs predominantly after about 95°C, regardless of density. This indicates that the primary mechanism causing stiffness degradation is microcracking, which occurs as water expands and evaporates from the porous body. As expected, reducing the density of LFC reduces its strength and stiffness. However, for LFC of different densities, the normalised strength-temperature and stiffnesstemperature relationships are very similar.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, J.T.; Hong, S.H.; Park, H.J.; Park, G.H. [Hybrid Materials Center (HMC), Faculty of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials Engineering, Sejong University, 209 Neugdong-ro, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Suh, J.Y. [High Temperature Energy Materials Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Hwarangno 14-gil 5, Seoungbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Park, J.M., E-mail: jinman_park@hotmail.com [Global Technology Center, Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd, 129 Samsung-ro, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon-si, Gyeonggi-do 443-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, K.B., E-mail: kbkim@sejong.ac.kr [Hybrid Materials Center (HMC), Faculty of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials Engineering, Sejong University, 209 Neugdong-ro, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of)
2015-10-25
In this study, we explore the microstructural modulation and mechanical properties of Fe–Nb–B ultrafine composites by the addition of boron. According to the evolution of microstructure, mechanical properties including yield strength and plastic strain were significantly changed. With increase of boron content, Fe–B type compounds were newly formed and eutectic structured matrix was concurrently altered. Newly formed phases with high hardness/elastic modulus leads to considerably increase the yield strength up to 3110 MPa but macroscopic plasticity is deteriorated inadequately. To understand the origin of critically changed macroscopic mechanical properties, the values of hardness and elastic modulus obtained from nanoindentation test were plotted and demonstrated as a contour map. The structural characterization and nano-scale mechanical analysis are capable of providing the clear evidence to understand the relationship between microstructure and mechanical properties of the ultrafine multi-phase composites. - Highlights: • Fe–Nb–B heterogeneous ultrafine eutectic composites. • Nano-scale mechanical analysis has been performed by nanoindentation test. • Relationship between microstructural heterogeneity and mechanical coherency. • Hardness and elastic modulus were plotted as a mechanical contour map.
Elastic superlattices with simultaneously negative effective mass density and shear modulus
Solís-Mora, I. S.; Palomino-Ovando, M. A.; Pérez-Rodríguez, F.
2013-03-01
We investigate the vibrational properties of superlattices with layers of rubber and polyurethane foam, which can be either conventional or auxetic. Phononic dispersion calculations show a second pass band for transverse modes inside the lowest band gap of the longitudinal modes. In such a band, the superlattices behave as a double-negative elastic metamaterial since the effective dynamic mass density and shear modulus are both negative. The pass band is associated to a Fabry-Perot resonance band which turns out to be very narrow as a consequence of the high contrast between the acoustic impedances of the superlattice components.
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S. Shahbazi
2007-06-01
Full Text Available Introduction: Based on the invasive studies it has been shown that factors such as age, the progress of eye disorders, lens fibers compression and the biochemical changes of ocular matrix alter the physical characteristics and elastic properties of eye. In this study, a noninvasive method of estimating human eye elasticityis proposed and its relation with age and gender is evaluated using ultrasound images. Materials and Methods: To estimate eye elasticity, an especial loading system was designed and an external stress of 2614 ± 146 Pa which is less than the intraocular pressure of eye was applied to 20 eyes in an in vivo study. The pressure was measured using digital force gauge. The ultrasound images of B-mode were acquired prior to and post applying the stress. For the offline study throughout the loading process, the ultrasound images were saved as multi-frames into the computer by video grabber board. Monitoring, saving and further study of images were provided for the extraction of eye axial length and posterior wall thickness (PWT. The elasticity was estimated by measuring the relative changes of the axial length of eye, the posterior wall thickness and the applied stress. The statistical correlation of elastic modulus was analyzed based on age and gender. Results: The elastic modulus of the eye and the posterior wall thickness was estimated to be 51,777 ± 27304 and 14603 ± 4636 Pa, respectively. The obtained results indicated that there was no significant difference between the elastic parameters of the eye and the posterior wall thickness based on gender in both male and female group. The correlation analysis of the elastic parameter showed that there was significant difference between the eye and the posterior wall thickness based on age with a 95% confidence interval. Discussion and Conclusion: Based on the results obtained in this study the ultrasonic instruments might be used to estimate the hardness of eye lesions as well as eye
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Oliveira, M.R.; Garcia, G.C.R.; Claudinei, S.; Ribeiro, S., E-mail: mroliveira@ppgem.eel.usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (DEMAR/EEL/USP), Lorena, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia. Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais; Resende, W.S. [Industrias Brasileiras de Artigos Refratarios (IBAR), Lorena, SP (Brazil)
2011-07-01
The studied castable contain andalusite aggregates, and when sintered in temperatures above 1280 deg C, transformed into mullite improving the properties of concrete due to its low expansion and thermal conductivity, creep resistance and thermal shock. The refractory was homogenized in a mixer with 5.5% m/m of water and poured into a metal mold resulting in prismatic bars. After curing for 48 hours, were sintered at 1450 ° C for 0 h, 1 h, 2.5 h and 10 h with heating and cooling rates of 2 ° C / min. The results of elastic modules were, respectively, in GPa: 25.75±1.75, 37.79±0.36, 39.03±1.97 and 54.47±4.01, and rupture, MPa: 8.40±0.78, 11.94±0.68, 10.91±0.91 and 11,34±1.16, showing the increase in elastic modulus for longer times and for times exceeding one hour, no significant changes in results of the modulus of rupture , stabilizing the change of this refractory's properties after the first hour of sintering. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rouhi, Saeed, E-mail: s_rouhi@iaul.ac.ir
2017-05-15
In this paper, the mechanical properties of the R-graphynes are investigated by using molecular dynamics simulations. For this purpose, the uniaxial strain is applied on the nanosheets. The effects of R-graphyne chirality and dimension on their fracture and elastic properties are investigated. It is shown that the fracture properties of the armchair R-graphyne are approximately independent from the nanosheet sizes. However, a clear dependence is observed in the fracture properties of the zigzag R-graphyne on the nanosheet dimensions. Comparing the elastic modulus of the armchair and zigzag R-graphynes, it is shown that for the same sizes, the elastic modulus of armchair R-graphyne is approximately equal to 2.5 times of the elastic modulus of the zigzag ones. Pursuing the fracture process of R-graphynes with different chiralities, it is represented that the fracture propagates in the zigzag nanosheet with a higher velocity than the armchair ones.
Measurement of Young’s Modulus and Internal Damping of Pork Muscle in Dynamic Mode
Chakroun, Moez; Ghozlen, Med Hédi Ben
2016-09-01
Automotive shocks involve various tiers’ speed for different human body tissues. Knowing the behavior of these tissues, including muscles, in different vibration frequency is therefore necessary. The muscle has viscoelatic properties. Dynamically, this material has variable mechanical properties depending on the vibration frequency. A novel technique is being employed to examine the variation of the mechanical impedance of pork muscle as a function of frequency. A force is imposed on the lower surface of the sample and acceleration is measured on its upper surface. These two parameters are measured using sensors. The sample is modeled by Kelvin-Voigt model. These measures allow deducing the change in the mechanical impedance modulus (/Zexp/ = /Force: Acceleration/) of pork muscle as a function of vibration frequency. The measured impedance has a resonance of approximately 60Hz. Best-fit parameters of theoretical impedance can be deduced by superposition with the experiment result. The variation of Young’s modulus and internal damping of pig’s muscle as a function of frequency are determined. The results obtained between 5Hz and 30Hz are the same as determined by Aimedieu and al in 2003, therefore validating our technique. The Young’s modulus of muscle increases with the frequency, on the other hand, we note a rating decrease of internal damping.
Renaud, Guillaume; Talmant, Maryline; Marrelec, Guillaume
2016-01-01
International audience; The nonlinear elasticity of solids at the microstrain level has been recently studied by applying dynamic acousto-elastic testing. It is the analog of conventional quasi-static acousto-elastic experiments but the strain-dependence (or stress-dependence) of ultrasonic wave-speed is measured with an applied strain ranging from 10−7 to 10−5 and produced by a stationary elastic wave. In conventional quasi-static acousto-elastic experiments, the strain is applied in a quasi...
Tomlinson, Christopher
2013-01-01
This thesis investigates the effects of using various percentages of RAP and asphalt binder contents on the dynamic modulus and fatigue resistance of asphalt concrete. Two RAP percentages (20% and 40%) and three binder percentages (plant-mixed, plant-mixed + 0.5%, and plant-mixed + 1.0%) were evaluated. A Superpave gyratory compactor and an asphalt vibratory compactor were used to prepare dynamic modulus samples and fatigue beam samples at 7% air voids. Three replicate samples for each percen...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pease, Bradley Justin; Michel, Alexander; Thybo, Anna Emilie A.;
2012-01-01
A combined experimental and numerical approach for estimating the elastic modulus of reinforcement corrosion products is presented. Deformations between steel and mortar were measured using digital image correlation during accelerated corrosion testing at 100 μA/cm2 (~1.16 mm/year). Measured...... deformations were compared to a numerical corrosion model that considers electrochemical, transport, and mechanical processes, including penetration of corrosion products into a ‘corrosion-accommodating region,’ provided by the mortar’s capillary porosity, directly surrounding the steel. Comparing model...... and experimental results provides an order-of-magnitude approximation of corrosion product stiffness of 2.0 GPa....
Low elastic modulus titanium–nickel scaffolds for bone implants
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, Jing; Yang, Hailin; Wang, Huifeng; Ruan, Jianming, E-mail: jianming@csu.edu.cn
2014-01-01
The superelastic nature of repeating the human bones is crucial to the ideal artificial biomedical implants to ensure smooth load transfer and foster the ingrowth of new bone tissues. Three dimensional interconnected porous TiNi scaffolds, which have the tailorable porous structures with micro-hole, were fabricated by slurry immersing with polymer sponge and sintering method. The crystallinity and phase composition of scaffolds were studied by X-ray diffraction. The pore morphology, size and distribution in the scaffolds were characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The porosity ranged from 65 to 72%, pore size was 250–500 μm. Compressive strength and elastic modulus of the scaffolds were ∼ 73 MPa and ∼ 3GPa respectively. The above pore structural and mechanical properties are similar to those of cancellous bone. In the initial cell culture test, osteoblasts adhered well to the scaffold surface during a short time, and then grew smoothly into the interconnected pore channels. These results indicate that the porous TiNi scaffolds fabricated by this method could be bone substitute materials. - Highlights: • A novel approach for the fabrication of porous TiNi scaffolds • Macroporous structures are replicated from the polymer sponge template. • The pore characteristics and mechanical properties of TiNi scaffolds agree well with the requirement of trabecular bone. • Cytocompatibility of TiNi scaffolds is assessed, and it closely associated with pore property.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hassan S. OTUOZE
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Traditional asphalt tests like Hveem and Marshall tests are at best mere characterization than effective test of pavement field performance because of complex viscoelastic behavior of asphalt. Mechanical properties otherwise called simple performance tests (SPT are performance criteria of asphalt. Dynamic modulus among other SPT’s like permanent deformation, fatigue cracking, thermal cracking, moisture susceptibility, shear and friction properties; determines stress-strain to time-temperature relationships that imparts on strength, service life and durability. The test followed the recommendations of NCHRP 1-37a (2004 and mixes were prepared using 0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% HDPP contents. The parameters tested for dynamic modulus, /E*/, are stiffness, recoverable strain (ε, and phase angle (ξ. Time – temperature superposition (TTS called master curve was fitted using sigmoidal curve to interpolate the parameters beyond measured data set so as to observe the viscoelastic behavior outside the physical properties. The performance of 0.5% HDPP asphalt is better enhanced than the conventional asphalt to improve upon strength, service and durability.
Renaud, Guillaume; Talmant, Maryline; Marrelec, Guillaume
2016-10-01
The nonlinear elasticity of solids at the microstrain level has been recently studied by applying dynamic acousto-elastic testing. It is the analog of conventional quasi-static acousto-elastic experiments but the strain-dependence (or stress-dependence) of ultrasonic wave-speed is measured with an applied strain ranging from 10-7 to 10-5 and produced by a stationary elastic wave. In conventional quasi-static acousto-elastic experiments, the strain is applied in a quasi-static manner; it exceeds 10-4 and can reach 10-2. In this work, we apply dynamic acousto-elastic testing to measure the third-order elastic constants of two isotropic materials: polymethyl methacrylate and dry Berea sandstone. The peak amplitude of the dynamic applied strain is 8 × 10-6. The method is shown to be particularly suitable for materials exhibiting large elastic nonlinearity like sandstones, since the measurement is performed in the domain of validity of the third-order hyperelastic model. In contrast, conventional quasi-static acousto-elastic experiments in such materials are often performed outside the domain of validity of the third-order hyperelastic model and the stress-dependence of the ultrasonic wave-speed must be extrapolated at zero stress, leading to approximate values of the third-order elastic constants. The uncertainty of the evaluation of the third-order elastic constants is assessed by repeating multiple times the measurements and with Monte-Carlo simulations. The obtained values of the Murnaghan third-order elastic constants are l = -73 GPa ± 9%, m = -34 GPa ± 9%, and n = -61 GPa ± 10% for polymethyl methacrylate, and l = -17 000 GPa ± 20%, m = -11 000 GPa ± 10%, and n = -30 000 GPa ± 20% for dry Berea sandstone.
Effect of consolidation ratios on maximum dynamic shear modulus of sands
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yuan Xiaoming; Sun Jing; Sun Rui
2005-01-01
The dynamic shear modulus (DSM) is the most basic soil parameter in earthquake or other dynamic loading conditions and can be obtained through testing in the field or in the laboratory. The effect of consolidation ratios on the maximum DSM for two types of sand is investigated by using resonant column tests. And, an increment formula to obtain the maximum DSM for cases of consolidation ratio kc＞1 is presented. The results indicate that the maximum DSM rises rapidly when kc is near 1 and then slows down, which means that the power function of the consolidation ratio increment kc-1 can be used to describe the variation of the maximum DSM due to kc＞1. The results also indicate that the increase in the maximum DSM due to kc＞1 is significantly larger than that predicted by Hardin and Black's formula.
Elastic modulus of Al-Si/SiC metal matrix composites as a function of volume fraction
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Santhosh Kumar, S; Rajasekharan, T [Powder Metallurgy Group, Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Kanchanbagh PO, Hyderabad-500 058 (India); Seshu Bai, V [School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Central University PO, Hyderabad-500 046 (India); Rajkumar, K V; Sharma, G K; Jayakumar, T, E-mail: dearsanthosh@gmail.co [Non-Destructive Evaluation Division, Indira Gandhi Center for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, Chennai-603 102 (India)
2009-09-07
Aluminum alloy matrix composites have emerged as candidate materials for electronic packaging applications in the field of aerospace semiconductor electronics. Composites prepared by the pressureless infiltration technique with high volume fractions in the range 0.41-0.70 were studied using ultrasonic velocity measurements. For different volume fractions of SiC, the longitudinal velocity and shear velocity were found to be in the range of 7600-9300 m s{sup -1} and 4400-5500 m s{sup -1}, respectively. The elastic moduli of the composites were determined from ultrasonic velocities and were analysed as a function of the volume fraction of the reinforcement. The observed variation is discussed in the context of existing theoretical models for the effective elastic moduli of two-phase systems.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Md Azree Othuman Mydin
2012-09-01
Full Text Available This paper focused on an experimental works that have been performed to examine the young’s modulus of foamed concrete at elevated temperatures up to 600°C. Foamed concrete of 650 and 1000 kg/m3 density were cast and tested under compression and bending. The experimental results of this study consistently demonstrated that the loss in stiffness for cement based material like foamed concrete at elevated temperatures occurs predominantly after about 95°C, regardless of density. This indicates that the primary mechanism causing stiffness degradation is microcracking, which occurs as water expands and evaporates from the porous body. As expected, reducing the density of LFC reduces its strength and stiffness. However, for LFC of different densities, the normalised strength-temperature and stiffness-temperature relationships are very similar.
A new mechanism for low and temperature-independent elastic modulus.
Zhang, Liangxiang; Wang, Dong; Ren, Xiaobing; Wang, Yunzhi
2015-06-25
The first Elinvar alloy, FeNiCr, which has invariant elastic modulus over a wide temperature range, was discovered almost 100 years ago by Guillaume. The physical origin of such an anomaly has been attributed to the magnetic phase transition taking place in the system. However, the recent discovery of non-magnetic Elinvar such as multi-functional β-type Ti alloys has imposed a new challenge to the existing theories. In this study we show that random field from stress-carrying defects could suppress the sharp first-order martensitic transformation into a continuous strain glass transition, leading to continued formation and confined growth of nano-domains of martensite in a broad temperature range. Accompanying such a unique transition, there is a gradual softening of the elastic modulus over a wide temperature range, which compensates the normal modulus hardening due to anharmonic atomic vibration, resulting in a low and temperature-independent elastic modulus. The abundance of austenite/martensite interfaces are found responsible for the low elastic modulus.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fábio B. Vicente
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The mechanical properties of Ti alloys are changed significantly with the addition of interstitial elements, such as oxygen. Because oxygen is a strong stabilizer of the α phase and has an effect on hardening in a solid solution, it has aroused great interest in the biomedical area. In this paper, Ti-Zr alloys were subjected to a doping process with small amounts of oxygen. The influence of interstitial oxygen in the structure, microstructure and some selected mechanical properties of interest for use as biomaterial and biocompatibility of the alloys were analyzed. The results showed that in the range of 0.02 wt% to 0.04 wt%, oxygen has no influence on the structure, microstructure or biocompatibility of the studied alloys, but causes hardening of the alloys, increasing the values of the microhardness and causing variation in the elasticity modulus values.
Identification of Dynamic Parameters for Robots with Elastic Joints
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Loredana Zollo
2015-02-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a novel method for identifying dynamic parameters of robot manipulators with elastic joints. A procedure based on the Lagrangianm formulation of the dynamic model is proposed. Each term is inspected to search for a linear relationship with the dynamic parameters, thus enabling the linearization of robot dynamic model. Hence, the torque vector is expressed as the product of a regressor matrix, suitably defined by the vector of dynamic parameters. A parametric identification based on a least-squares technique is applied to determine dynamic parameters of robots with elastic joints. The correctness of the proposed procedure has been tested in simulation on two robotic structures with elastic joints of different complexity, that is, a 2-degree-of-freedom (dof and a 6-dof manipulator, controlled with a PD control in the joint space.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mojzeš Marcel
2015-03-01
Full Text Available The Gabčíkovo hydroelectric power plant is located in a complicated geological environment (gravel sub-soil and a high groundwater level. Excavation work started after the withdrawal of water in the autumn of 1984 and lasted until the autumn of 1986. A basic geodetic control network with a special monument was founded before the excavation work began. This network served for the setting-out of the hydroelectric power plant as well as for the control of the excavation work. The repeated geodetic control measurements have been evaluated and presented at many seminars and conferences. Monitoring the horizontal and vertical stability of the geodetic control network during the general site excavation showed significant horizontal and vertical deformations. The paper is focused on an estimation of an effective Young's modulus of elasticity in the area studied.
Viscous-elastic dynamics of power-law fluids within an elastic cylinder
Boyko, Evgeniy; Bercovici, Moran; Gat, Amir D.
2017-07-01
In a wide range of applications, microfluidic channels are implemented in soft substrates. In such configurations, where fluidic inertia and compressibility are negligible, the propagation of fluids in channels is governed by a balance between fluid viscosity and elasticity of the surrounding solid. The viscous-elastic interactions between elastic substrates and non-Newtonian fluids are particularly of interest due to the dependence of viscosity on the state of the system. In this work, we study the fluid-structure interaction dynamics between an incompressible non-Newtonian fluid and a slender linearly elastic cylinder under the creeping flow regime. Considering power-law fluids and applying the thin shell approximation for the elastic cylinder, we obtain a nonhomogeneous p-Laplacian equation governing the viscous-elastic dynamics. We present exact solutions for the pressure and deformation fields for various initial and boundary conditions for both shear-thinning and shear-thickening fluids. We show that in contrast to Stokes' problem where a compactly supported front is obtained for shear-thickening fluids, here the role of viscosity is inversed and such fronts are obtained for shear-thinning fluids. Furthermore, we demonstrate that for the case of a step in inlet pressure, the propagation rate of the front has a tn/n +1 dependence on time (t ), suggesting the ability to indirectly measure the power-law index (n ) of shear-thinning liquids through measurements of elastic deformation.
Experiment Study and Interpretation on Relation between Modulus of Rock and Strain Amplitude
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Bao Xueyang; Shi Xingjue; Wen Dan; Li Chengbo; Wang Xingzhou
2006-01-01
Nonlinear elasticity of the earth medium produces a numerical difference between the dynamic and the static modulus of rock. The dynamic modulus is calculated with the ultrasonic velocity measurement, the small-cycle modulus is calculated with small cycles in the load-unload experiment, the static modulus is calculated from the slope of the stress-strain curve in the large cycle, the Young' s modulus is obtained from the ratio of stress to strain in the measured point.The relationship between the modulus and the strain amplitudes is studied by changing the strain amplitude in the small cycles. The moduli obtained from different measuring methods are thus compared. The result shows that the dynamic modulus is the largest, the small-cycle modulus takes the second place, the static modulus of bigger-cycle is the third, and finally the Young's modulus is the smallest. Nonlinear modulus of rock is a function of the strain level and strain amplitude. The modulus decreases exponentially with the ascending of the strain amplitude, while increases with the ascending of the strain level. Finally, the basic concept of the P-M model is briefly introduced and the relationship between the modulus and strain amplitude is explained by the rock having different distribution densities and the different open-and-close stresses of the micro-cracks.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
朱剑; 贺明; 邱枫
2012-01-01
The Young＇s modulus of graphene with various rectangular and circular vacancy defects is investigated by molecular dynamics simulation. By comparing with the results calculated from an effective spring model, it is demonstrated that the Young＇s modulus of graphene is largely correlated to the size of vacancy defects perpendicular to the stretching direction. And a linear reduction of Young＇s modulus with the increasing concentration of monoatomic-vacancy defects （Le., the slope of =0.03） is also observed. The fracture behavior of graphene, including the fracture strength, crack initiation and propagation are then studied by the molecular dynamics simulation, the effective spring model, and the quantized fracture mechanics. The blunting effect of vacancy edges is demonstrated, and the characterized crack tip radius of 4.44 A is observed.
DYNAMIC BUCKLING OF ELASTIC-PLASTIC COLUMN IMPACTED BY RIGID BODY
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2006-01-01
The dynamic buckling of an elastic-plastic column subjected to an axial impact by a rigid body was discussed by using the energy law. The traveling process of elastic-plastic waves under impact action was analyzed by characteristics method. The equation of lateral disturbance used to analyze the problem was developed by taking into account the effect of elastic-plastic stress wave. The power series solution of this problem has been the power series approach. The buckling criterion of this problem was proposed by analyzing the characteristics of the solution. The relationship among critical velocity and impact mass, critical buckling length, hardening modulus was given by using theoretical analysis and numerical computation.
Yang, C.; Zhou, Z. F.; Li, J. W.; Yang, X. X.; Qin, W.; Jiang, R.; Guo, N. G.; Wang, Y.; Sun, C. Q.
2012-02-01
With structural miniaturization down to the nanoscale, the detectable quantities of solid materials no longer remain constant but become tunable. For the II-VI semiconductors example, the band gap expands, the elastic modulus increases, the melting point drops, and the Raman optical phonons experience red shift associated with creation of low frequency Raman acoustic modes that undergo blue shift with decreasing the dimensional scale. In order to understand the common origin of the size dependency of these seemingly irrelevant properties, we formulated these quantities for CdS, ZnS, and CdSe semiconductors from the perspectives of bond order-length-strength correlation and the local bond averaging approach. Consistency between the theory predictions and the measured size dependence of these quantities clarified that the undercoordination-induced local strain and quantum entrapment and the varied fraction of undercoordinated atoms of the entire solid correlate these quantities and dominate their size effect.
Nonlinear elastic behavior of rocks revealed by dynamic acousto-elastic testing
Shokouhi, Parisa; Riviere, Jacques; Guyer, Robert; Johnson, Paul
2017-04-01
Nonlinear elastic behavior of rocks is studied at the laboratory scale with the goal of illuminating observations at the Earth scale, for instance during strong ground motion and earthquake slip processes. A technique called Dynamic Acousto-Elastic Testing (DAET) is used to extract the nonlinear elastic response of disparate rocks (sandstone, granite and soapstone). DAET is the dynamic analogous to standard (quasi-static) acousto-elastic testing. It consists in measuring speed of sound with high-frequency low amplitude pulses (MHz range) across the sample while it is dynamically loaded with a low frequency, large amplitude resonance (kHz range). This particular configuration provides the instantaneous elastic response over a full dynamic cycle and reveals unprecedented details: instantaneous softening, tension/compression asymmetry as well as hysteretic behaviors. The strain-induced modulation of ultrasonic pulse velocities ('fast dynamics') is analyzed to extract nonlinearity parameters. A projection method is used to extract the harmonic content and a careful comparison of the fast dynamics response is made. In order to characterize the rate of elastic recovery ('slow dynamics'), we continue to monitor the ultrasonic wave velocity for about 30 minutes after the low-frequency resonance is turned off. In addition, the frequency, pressure and humidity dependences of the nonlinear parameters are reported for a subset of samples. We find that the nonlinear components can be clustered into two categories, which suggests that two main mechanisms are at play. The first one, related to the second harmonic, is likely related to the opening/closing of microstructural features such as cracks and grain/grain contacts. In contrast, the second mechanism is related to all other nonlinear parameters (transient softening, hysteresis area and higher order harmonics) and may arise from shearing mechanisms at grain interfaces.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Meza, J. M.; Franco, E. E.; Farias, M. C. M.; Buiochi, F.; Souza, R. M.; Cruz, J.
2008-07-01
Currently, the acoustic and nano indentation techniques are two of the most used techniques for materials elastic modulus measurement. In this article fundamental principles and limitations of both techniques are shown and discussed. Last advances in nano indentation technique are also reviewed. an experimental study in ceramic, metallic, composite and single crystals was also done. Results shown that ultrasonic technique is capable to provide results in agreement with those reported in literature. However, ultrasonic technique does not allow measuring the elastic modulus of some small samples and single crystals. On the other hand, the nano indentation technique estimates the elastic modulus values in reasonable agreement with those measured by acoustic methods, particularly in amorphous materials, while in some policristaline materials some deviation from expected values was obtained. (Author) 29 refs.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Meza, J. M.; Franco, E. E.; Farias, M. C. M.; Buiochi, F.; Souza, R. M.; Cruz, J.
2008-07-01
Currently, the acoustic and nano indentation techniques are two of the most used techniques for materials elastic modulus measurement. In this article fundamental principles and limitations of both techniques are shown and discussed. Last advances in nano indentation technique are also reviewed. an experimental study in ceramic, metallic, composite and single crystals was also done. Results shown that ultrasonic technique is capable to provide results in agreement with those reported in literature. However, ultrasonic technique does not allow measuring the elastic modulus of some small samples and single crystals. On the other hand, the nano indentation technique estimates the elastic modulus values in reasonable agreement with those measured by acoustic methods, particularly in amorphous materials, while in some policristaline materials some deviation from expected values was obtained. (Author) 29 refs.
Quasi-elastic neutron scattering studies of protein dynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rorschach, H.E.
1993-05-25
Results that shed new light on the study of protein dynamics were obtained by quasi-elastic neutron scattering. The triple axis instrument H-9 supplied by the cold source was used to perform a detailed study of the quasi-elastic spectrum and the Debye-Waller factor for trypsin in powder form, in solution, and in crystals. A preliminary study of myoglobin crystals was also done. A new way to view the results of quasi-elastic scattering experiments is sketched, and the data on trypsin are presented and analyze according to this new picture.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
陈渊召; 李振霞
2013-01-01
为对橡胶颗粒沥青混合料弹性模量进行预估,分别建立单夹杂复合材料两层嵌入式模型和多步骤多相细观力学模型,得到橡胶颗粒沥青混合料弹性模量预测方法,对橡胶颗粒沥青混合料弹性模量进行预测；将弹性模量预测结果与实测结果进行对比分析,研究橡胶颗粒沥青混合料弹性模量影响因素,并对低温条件下弹性衰减进行分析.研究结果表明:该细观力学模型方法是有效的和可靠的,可用于预先评估橡胶颗粒沥青路面在低温下的力学性能和除冰能力；沥青胶浆的弹性模量对橡胶颗粒沥青混合料弹性模量的影响较大,且随沥青胶浆弹性模量的增大而增大；橡胶颗粒用量变化对混合料弹性模量的影响比较大,随着橡胶颗粒用量的增加,混合料弹性模量逐渐减小；在低温下,混合料的弹性模量显著增大,橡胶颗粒沥青路面的除冰效果将大大减弱.%In order to predict elastic modulus of crumb rubber asphalt mixture,two-layer embedded model of single inclusion composite and multi-step multiphase micro-mechanical model were established.Prediction method of elastic modulus for crumb rubber asphalt mixture was gotten.Elastic modulus of crumb rubber asphalt mixture was predicted,and elastic modulus comparative analysis of prediction results and measured results was carried out.Influencing factors of elastic modulus for crumb rubber asphalt mixture were researched,and deep analysis on elasticity attenuation under low temperature was carried out.The results show that the micro-mechanical model method is effective and reliable,and can be used to predict mechanical properties and deicing ability of crumb rubber asphalt mixture under low temperature.The effect of elastic modulus for asphalt mortar on elastic modulus for asphalt mixture is big,and elastic modulus of crumb rubber asphalt mixture increases with the increase of the asphalt mortar.The effect of crumb rubber
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hui Yao
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The objectives of this research are to use micro- and nanomaterials to modify the asphalt mixture and to evaluate the mechanical performance of asphalt mixtures. These micro- and nanomaterials, including carbon microfiber, Nanomer material, nanosilica, nonmodified nanoclay, and polymer modified nanoclay, were selected to blend with the control asphalt to improve the overall performance of the modified asphalt binders and mixtures. The microstructures of original materials and asphalt binders were observed by the field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM. The mixture performance tests were employed to evaluate the resistance to rutting and permanent deformation of the modified asphalt mixtures. Test results indicate that (1 the dynamic modulus of micro- and nanomodified asphalt mixtures improved significantly; (2 the rutting susceptibility of the modified asphalt mixtures was reduced significantly compared to that of the control asphalt mixture; (3 the microstructures of modified asphalt binders were different from the control asphalt, and the structures determine the improvement in the performance of modified asphalt mixtures. These results indicate that the addition of micro- and nanomaterials enhanced the rutting performance and strength of asphalt mixtures. In addition, the analysis of variance (ANOVA was used to analyze the modifying effects of micro- and nanomaterials on the performance.
Cojocaru, C. V.; Kruger, S. E.; Moreau, C.; Lima, R. S.
2011-01-01
Si-based ceramics (e.g., SiC and Si3N4) are known as promising high-temperature structural materials in various components where metals/alloys reached their ultimate performances (e.g., advanced gas turbine engines and structural components of future hypersonic vehicles). To alleviate the surface recession that Si-based ceramics undergo in a high-temperature environmental attack (e.g., H2O vapor), appropriate refractory oxides are engineered to serve as environmental barrier coatings (EBCs). The current state-of-the-art EBCs multilayer system comprises a silicon (Si) bond coat, mullite (3Al2O3·2SiO2) interlayer and (1 - x)BaO· xSrO·Al2O3·2SiO2, 0 ≤ x ≤ 1 (BSAS) top coat. In this article, the role of high-temperature exposure (1300 °C) performed in H2O vapor environment (for time intervals up to 500 h) on the elastic moduli of air plasma sprayed Si/mullite/BSAS layers deposited on SiC substrates was investigated via depth-sensing indentation. Laser-ultrasonics was employed to evaluate the E values of as-sprayed BSAS coatings as an attempt to validate the indentation results. Fully crystalline, crack-free, and near-crack-free as-sprayed EBCs were engineered under controlled deposition conditions. The absence of phase transformation and stability of the low elastic modulus values (e.g., ~60-70 GPa) retained by the BSAS top layers after harsh environmental exposure provides a plausible explanation for the almost crack-free coatings observed. The relationships between the measured elastic moduli of the EBCs and their microstructural behavior during the high-temperature exposure are discussed.
Viscous-elastic dynamics of power-law fluids within an elastic cylinder
Gat, Amir; Boyko, Evgeniy; Bercovici, Moran
2016-11-01
We study the fluid-structure interaction dynamics of non-Newtonian flow through a slender linearly elastic cylinder at the creeping flow regime. Specifically, considering power-law fluids and applying the thin shell approximation for the elastic cylinder, we obtain a non-homogeneous p-Laplacian equation governing the viscous-elastic dynamics. We obtain exact solutions for the pressure and deformation fields for various initial and boundary conditions, for both shear thinning and shear thickening fluids. In particular, impulse or a step in inlet pressure yield self-similar solutions, which exhibit a compactly supported propagation front solely for shear thinning fluids. Applying asymptotic expansions, we provide approximations for weakly non-Newtonian behavior showing good agreement with the exact solutions sufficiently far from the front.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
FANG Te-Hua; JIAN Sheng-Rui; CHUU Der-San
2004-01-01
@@ Mechanical characteristics of a suspended (10, 10) single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) during atomic force microscopy (AFM) nanoindentation are investigated at different temperatures by molecular dynamics simulations.The results indicate that the Young modulus of the (10, 10) SWCNT under temperatures of 300-600K is 1.2-1.3 TPa. As the temperature increases, the Young modulus of the SWCNT increases, but the axial strain of the SWCNT decreases. The strain-induced spontaneous formation of the Stone-Wales defects and the rippled behaviour under inhomogeneous stress are studied. The rippled behaviour of the SWCNT is enhanced with the increasing axial strain. The adhesive phenomenon between the probe and the nanotube and the elastic recovery of the nanotube during the retraction are also investigated.
Dynamic response of cylindrical lined cavity in elastic medium
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
高盟; 王滢; 高广运
2013-01-01
An analytical solution to the transient dynamic response of a cylindrical lining subjected to an internal loading was presented and the dynamic interaction between the lining and surrounding soil was considered. The lining structure and the soil were treated as a cylindrical elastic shell and an infinite elastic compressible medium, respectively. A two-dimensional axisymmetric wave equation was derived from the governing equation of displacement by introducing the potential functions. Shell equation of motion was established based on continuity conditions. The closed-form solution for dynamic response of the lining due to an impact loading was obtained in Laplace transforms and inverse transforms. Detailed parametric studies were also presented to illustrate the influences of the Poisson ratio of soil, the dynamic shear moduli of both soil and lining and the thickness of lining on dynamic response of the lining.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chris L. de Korte
2013-03-01
Full Text Available Atherosclerotic plaque rupture can initiate stroke or myocardial infarction. Lipid-rich plaques with thin fibrous caps have a higher risk to rupture than fibrotic plaques. Elastic moduli differ for lipid-rich and fibrous tissue and can be reconstructed using tissue displacements estimated from intravascular ultrasound radiofrequency (RF data acquisitions. This study investigated if modulus reconstruction is possible for noninvasive RF acquisitions of vessels in transverse imaging planes using an iterative 2D cross-correlation based displacement estimation algorithm. Furthermore, since it is known that displacements can be improved by compounding of displacements estimated at various beam steering angles, we compared the performance of the modulus reconstruction with and without compounding. For the comparison, simulated and experimental RF data were generated of various vessel-mimicking phantoms. Reconstruction errors were less than 10%, which seems adequate for distinguishing lipid-rich from fibrous tissue. Compounding outperformed single-angle reconstruction: the interquartile range of the reconstructed moduli for the various homogeneous phantom layers was approximately two times smaller. Additionally, the estimated lateral displacements were a factor of 2–3 better matched to the displacements corresponding to the reconstructed modulus distribution. Thus, noninvasive elastic modulus reconstruction is possible for transverse vessel cross sections using this cross-correlation method and is more accurate with compounding.
ELASTIC DYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF MODERATELY THICK PLATE USING MESHLESS LRPIM
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Ping Xia; Shuyao Long; Hongxue Cui
2009-01-01
A meshless local radial point interpolation method (LRPIM) for solving elastic dy-namic problems of moderately thick plates is presented in this paper. The discretized system equation of the plate is obtained using a locally weighted residual method. It uses a radial basis function (RBF) coupled with a polynomial basis function as a trial function, and uses the quartic spline function as a test function of the weighted residual method. The shape function has the properties of the Kronecker delta function, and no additional treatment is done to impose essen-tial boundary conditions. The Newmark method for solving the dynamic problem is adopted in computation. Effects of sizes of the quadrature sub-domain and influence domain on the dynamic properties are investigated. The numerical results show that the presented method can give quite accurate results for the elastic dynamic problem of the moderately thick plate.
Paredes, V; Salvagni, E; Rodríguez-Castellon, E; Gil, F J; Manero, J M
2015-04-01
A biocompatible new titanium alloy Ti-16Hf-25Nb with low elastic modulus (45 GPa) and the use of short bioadhesive peptides derived from the extracellular matrix have been studied. In terms of cell adhesion, a comparative study with mixtures of short peptides as RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp)/PHSRN (Pro-His-Ser-Arg-Asn) and RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp)/FHRRIKA (Phe-His-Arg-Arg-Ile-Lys-Ala) have been carried out with rat mesenchymal cells. The effect of these mixtures of short peptides have already been studied but there are no comparative studies between them. Despite the wide variety of silane precursors available for surface modification in pure titanium, the majority of studies have used aminosilanes, in particular 3-minopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES). Nevertheless, the 3-chloropropyltriethoxysilane (CPTES) is, recently, proposed by other authors. Unlike APTES, CPTES does not require an activation step and offers the potential to directly bind the nucleophilic groups present on the biomolecule (e.g., amines or thiols). Since the chemical surface composition of this new alloy could be different to that pure titanium, both organosilanes have been compared and characterized by means of a complete surface characterization using contact angle goniometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.
THE DYNAMIC BUCKLING OF ELASTIC-PLASTIC COLUMN SUBJECTED TO AXIAL IMPACT BY A RIGID BODY
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Han Zhijun; Wang Jingchao; Cheng Guoqiang; Ma Hongwei; Zhang Shanyuan
2005-01-01
The dynamic buckling of an elastic-plastic column subjected to axial impact by a rigid body has been discussed in this paper. The whole traveling process of elastic-plastic waves under impact action is analyzed with the characteristics method. The regularity of stress changes in both column ends and the first separating time of a rigid body and column are obtained. By using the energy principle and taking into account the propagation and reflection of stress waves the lateral disturbance equation is derived and the power series solution is given. In addition,the critical buckling condition can be obtained from the stability analysis of the solution. By numerical computation and analysis, the relationship among critical velocity and impact mass,hardening modulus, and buckling time is given.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mateos, A.
2015-03-01
Full Text Available Dynamic modulus is defined as the ratio of peak cyclic stress to peak cyclic strain under harmonic loading. It is one of the most important properties of asphalt mixtures, since it determines the strain response characteristics as a function of loading rate and temperature. Different simplified models exist that can predict this variable from mixture composition and binder rheological data, with Witczak and Hirsh models being the most widely accepted. These models have been evaluated in the present study, on the basis of 352 data points from eight asphalt concrete mixtures that were tested between −5 and 60 °C. A new model is also formulated which improves predictions of the previous ones for Spanish mixtures, even though it is a relatively simple equation that requires very limited binder rheological data compared to Witczak and Hirsch models.El módulo dinámico es la relación entre los picos de tensión y deformación bajo carga armónica. Es una de las propiedades más importantes de las mezclas bituminosas, ya que determina la respuesta deformacional en función de la velocidad de carga y la temperatura. Existen diferentes modelos simplificados que permiten predecir esta variable a partir de la composición de la mezcla y de las características reológicas del betún, siendo los de Witczak y el de Hirsch los más ampliamente aceptados. Dichos modelos han sido evaluados en el presente estudio a partir de 352 puntos procedentes de ocho mezclas tipo hormigón bituminoso que fueron ensayadas entre −5 y 60 °C. Así mismo, se ha formulado un nuevo modelo que mejora las predicciones de los anteriores para las mezclas españolas, aun tratándose de una ecuación relativamente simple que requiere una mínima información reológica del betún en comparación con los modelos de Witczak y Hirsch.
Actin dynamics and the elasticity of cytoskeletal networks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
2009-09-01
Full Text Available The structural integrity of a cell depends on its cytoskeleton, which includes an actin network. This network is transient and depends upon the continual polymerization and depolymerization of actin. The degradation of an actin network, and a corresponding reduction in cell stiffness, can indicate the presence of disease. Numerical simulations will be invaluable for understanding the physics of these systems and the correlation between actin dynamics and elasticity. Here we develop a model that is capable of generating actin network structures. In particular, we develop a model of actin dynamics which considers the polymerization, depolymerization, nucleation, severing, and capping of actin filaments. The structures obtained are then fed directly into a mechanical model. This allows us to qualitatively assess the effects of changing various parameters associated with actin dynamics on the elasticity of the material.
An Extension of Godunov SPH II: Application to Elastic Dynamics
Sugiura, Keisuke
2016-01-01
Godunov Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (Godunov SPH) method is a computational fluid dynamics method that utilizes a Riemann solver and achieves the second-order accuracy in space. In this paper, we extend the Godunov SPH method to elastic dynamics by incorporating deviatoric stress tensor that represents the stress for shear deformation or anisotropic compression. Analogously to the formulation of the original Godunov SPH method, we formulate the equation of motion, the equation of energy, and the time evolution equation of deviatoric stress tensor so that the resulting discretized system achieves the second-order accuracy in space. The standard SPH method tends to suffer from the tensile instability that results in unphysical clustering of particles especially in tension-dominated region. We find that the tensile instability can be suppressed by selecting appropriate interpolation for density distribution in the equation of motion for the Godunov SPH method even in the case of elastic dynamics. Several tes...
Robert J. Moon; Joseph Wells; David E. Kretschmann; James Evans; Alex C. Wiedenhoeft; Charles R. Frihart
2010-01-01
To better understand the performance of bonded, coated, and modified wood, knowledge of how these processes alter the dimensional change and mechanical properties of wood at a given moisture content (MC) are important. These localized influences on earlywood (EW) and latewood (LW) properties are not well understood. In the present study, the influence of chemical...
Simple method of dynamic Young’s modulus determination in lime and cement mortars
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rosell, J. R.
2011-03-01
Full Text Available The present work explains a simple method to determine the dynamic Young module (MOE by inducing a set of small mechanical perturbation to samples of lime and cement mortars and correlating the results obtained with results determined using other techniques and methods. The procedure described herein follows the instructions stated in the UNE-EN ISO 12680-1 standard for refractory products although in this study the instructions are applied to standardized RILEM 4x4x16 cm test samples made of lime and cement mortars. In addition, MOE determinations are obtained by using ultrasonic impulse velocity while static Young's modulus determinations are obtained by performing conventional bending tests.
The ability of this procedure to correlate with results from other techniques, along with its simplicity, suggests that it can be widely adapted to determine the deformability of mortars under load using standardized samples.
El presente trabajo muestra un método simple para determinar el módulo de Young dinámico (MOE a partir de pequeñas perturbaciones mecánicas producidas a probetas de mortero de cal y de cemento, correlacionando los resultados obtenidos con las correspondientes mediciones realizadas con otras técnicas. El procedimiento sigue básicamente las instrucciones fijadas en la norma UNE-EN ISO 12680-1 de productos refractarios, pero aplicándolo a probetas normalizadas RILEM 4x4x16 de morteros confeccionados con cal y cemento. Paralelamente se realizan determinaciones del MOE a partir de la velocidad de paso de impulsos ultrasónicos y determinaciones del módulo de Young estático a partir de ensayos de flexión convencionales.
La simplicidad del método aplicado y la correlación de los resultados obtenidos con las variables medidas permiten concluir que esta metodología es de aplicación directa para determinar la deformabilidad bajo carga de los morteros a partir de probetas normalizadas.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ni, De Wei; Charlas, Benoit; Kwok, Kawai
2016-01-01
Solid Oxide Fuel Cells are subjected to significant stresses during production and operation. The various stress-generating conditions impose strength requirements on the cell components, and thus the mechanical properties of the critical load bearing materials at relevant operational conditions ...
Measurements of radiated elastic wave energy from dynamic tensile cracks
Boler, Frances M.
1990-01-01
The role of fracture-velocity, microstructure, and fracture-energy barriers in elastic wave radiation during a dynamic fracture was investigated in experiments in which dynamic tensile cracks of two fracture cofigurations of double cantilever beam geometry were propagating in glass samples. The first, referred to as primary fracture, consisted of fractures of intact glass specimens; the second configuration, referred to as secondary fracture, consisted of a refracture of primary fracture specimens which were rebonded with an intermittent pattern of adhesive to produce variations in fracture surface energy along the crack path. For primary fracture cases, measurable elastic waves were generated in 31 percent of the 16 fracture events observed; the condition for radiation of measurable waves appears to be a local abrupt change in the fracture path direction, such as occurs when the fracture intersects a surface flaw. For secondary fractures, 100 percent of events showed measurable elastic waves; in these fractures, the ratio of radiated elastic wave energy in the measured component to fracture surface energy was 10 times greater than for primary fracture.
An extension of Godunov SPH II: Application to elastic dynamics
Sugiura, Keisuke; Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro
2017-03-01
Godunov Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (Godunov SPH) method is a computational fluid dynamics method that utilizes a Riemann solver and achieves the second-order accuracy in space. In this paper, we extend the Godunov SPH method to elastic dynamics by incorporating deviatoric stress tensor that represents the stress for shear deformation or anisotropic compression. Analogously to the formulation of the original Godunov SPH method, we formulate the equation of motion, the equation of energy, and the time evolution equation of deviatoric stress tensor so that the resulting discretized system achieves the second-order accuracy in space. The standard SPH method tends to suffer from the tensile instability that results in unphysical clustering of particles especially in tension-dominated region. We find that the tensile instability can be suppressed by selecting appropriate interpolation for density distribution in the equation of motion for the Godunov SPH method even in the case of elastic dynamics. Several test calculations for elastic dynamics are performed, and the accuracy and versatility of the present method are shown.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pereira, A. H. A.
2012-06-01
Full Text Available The work herein verifies the changes of the elastic moduli, damping and modulus of rupture (MOR of a high alumina refractory castable due to heating, cooling and heating-cooling thermal shock damage. Twelve prismatic specimens were prepared for the tests and divided into four groups. The thermal shocks were performed on three groups, each containing three specimens having abrupt temperature changes of 1100°C during heating in the first group, during cooling in the second and during heating followed by cooling in the third group. The fourth group, which was taken as a reference did not receive any thermal shock. The elastic moduli were measured after each thermal shock cycle. After 10 cycles, the MOR, the damping and the damping dependence on excitation amplitude were measured at room temperature for all specimens.
The elastic moduli showed a similar decrease and the damping a similar increase due to the cooling and heating-cooling thermal shocks. The heating thermal shocks caused no significant changes on the elastic moduli and damping. However, the MOR appeared to be sensitive to the heating thermal shock. This work also shows that the damping for the studied refractory castable is non-linear (i.e., amplitude of excitation sensitive and that this non-linearity increases when the damage level rises.
En este trabajo se investigaron las alteraciones de los módulos elásticos dinámicos, del amortiguamiento y del módulo de rotura (MOR de un material refractario moldeable de alta alúmina después de recibir choques térmicos de calentamiento, enfriamiento y calentamiento seguido de enfriamiento (calentamiento-enfriamiento. Para ello se prepararon doce cuerpos prismáticos dividiéndolos en cuatro grupos. Los choques térmicos se le aplicaron a sólo tres grupos, cada uno con tres muestras. Al primer grupo se le aplicó un cambio brusco de temperatura de 1100 °C en calentamiento, en enfriamiento al segundo grupo y calentamiento seguido
The Effects of Price Elasticity Dynamics on a Firm’s Profit
Ali Jazayeri; Narjes Jazayeri
2011-01-01
This paper studies the dynamic behavior of price elasticity and its effects on the overall profit.Although price elasticity has a significant effect on sales, its dynamics have not been examined sofar in pricing models. In this paper, a simple pricing model is suggested in which, price elasticity isconsidered dynamic. The suggested pricing model is concerned with a monopolist that its objectiveis to maximize profit by determining the optimal price. Dynamics of price elasticity is described by...
High elastic modulus nanoparticles: a novel tool for subfailure connective tissue matrix damage.
Empson, Yvonne M; Ekwueme, Emmanuel C; Hong, Jung K; Paynter, Danielle M; Kwansa, Albert L; Brown, Chalmers; Pekkanen, Allison M; Roman, Maren; Rylander, Nichole M; Brolinson, Gunnar P; Freeman, Joseph W
2014-09-01
Subfailure matrix injuries such as sprains and strains account for a considerable portion of ligament and tendon pathologies. In addition to the lack of a robust biological healing response, these types of injuries are often characterized by seriously diminished matrix biomechanics. Recent work has shown nanosized particles, such as nanocarbons and nanocellulose, to be effective in modulating cell and biological matrix responses for biomedical applications. In this article, we investigate the feasibility and effect of using high stiffness nanostructures of varying size and shape as nanofillers to mechanically reinforce damaged soft tissue matrices. To this end, nanoparticles (NPs) were characterized using atomic force microscopy and dynamic light scattering techniques. Next, we used a uniaxial tensile injury model to test connective tissue (porcine skin and tendon) biomechanical response to NP injections. After injection into damaged skin and tendon specimens, the NPs, more notably nanocarbons in skin, led to an increase in elastic moduli and yield strength. Furthermore, rat primary patella tendon fibroblast cell activity evaluated using the metabolic water soluble tetrazolium salt assay showed no cytotoxicity of the NPs studied, instead after 21 days nanocellulose-treated tenocytes exhibited significantly higher cell activity when compared with nontreated control tenocytes. Dispersion of nanocarbons injected by solution into tendon tissue was investigated through histologic studies, revealing effective dispersion and infiltration in the treated region. Such results suggest that these high modulus NPs could be used as a tool for damaged connective tissue repair.
Moon, Ji Young; Tanner, Roger I; Lee, Joon Sang
2016-07-01
A red blood cell (RBC) in a microfluidic channel is highly interesting for scientists in various fields of research on biological systems. This system has been studied extensively by empirical, analytical, and numerical methods. Nonetheless, research of predicting the behavior of an RBC in a microchannel is still an interesting area. The complications arise from deformation of an RBC and interactions among the surrounding fluid, wall, and RBCs. In this study, a pressure-driven RBC in a microchannel was simulated with a three-dimensional lattice Boltzmann method of an immersed boundary. First, the effect of boundary thickness on the interaction between the wall and cell was analyzed by measuring the time of passage through the narrow channel. Second, the effect of volume conservation stiffness was studied. Finally, the effect of global area stiffness was analyzed.
Jourdain Principle of a Super-Thin Elastic Rod Dynamics
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
XUE Yun; SHANG Hui-Lin
2009-01-01
A super thin elastic rod is modeled with a background of DNA super coiling structure, and its dynamics is discussed based on the Jourdain variation. The cross section of the rod is taken as the object of this study and two velocity spaces about arc coordinate and the time are obtained respectively. Virtual displacements of the section on the two velocity spaces are defined and can be expressed in terms of Jourdaln variation. Jourdain principles of a super thin elastic rod dynamics on arc coordinate and the time velocity space are established,respectively, which show that there are two ways to realize the constraint conditions. If the constitutive relation of the rod is linear, the Jourdaln principle takes the Euler-Lagrange form with generalized coordinates. The Kirchhoff equation, Lagrange equation and Appell equation can be derived from the present Jourdaln principle.While the rod subjected to a surface constraint, Lagrange equation with undetermined multipliers may be derived.
Setiyana, B.; Wicahyo, F.D.; Ismail, Rifky; Jamari, Jamari; Schipper, Dirk J.
2015-01-01
The indentation technique has been proven to be useful in determining mechanical properties of materials, but it is rarely applied to rubber-like materials (elastomers). It is difficult to describe accurately the mechanical properties of an elastomer by theoretical formulation due to its complex
Bu, Shao-Chong; Kuijer, Roel; van der Worp, Roelofje J.; van Putten, Sander M.; Wouters, Olaf; Li, Xiao-Rong; Hooymans, Johanna M. M.; Los, Leonoor I.
PURPOSE. The stiffness of the extracellular matrix has been shown to regulate cell adhesion, migration, and transdifferentiation in fibrotic processes. Retinal Muller cells have been shown to be mechanosensitive; they are involved in fibrotic vitreoretinal diseases. Since fibrosis increases the
Bu, Shao-Chong; Kuijer, Roel; van der Worp, Roelofje J.; van Putten, Sander M.; Wouters, Olaf; Li, Xiao-Rong; Hooymans, Johanna M. M.; Los, Leonoor I.
2015-01-01
PURPOSE. The stiffness of the extracellular matrix has been shown to regulate cell adhesion, migration, and transdifferentiation in fibrotic processes. Retinal Muller cells have been shown to be mechanosensitive; they are involved in fibrotic vitreoretinal diseases. Since fibrosis increases the rigi
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Oriele Palumbo
2015-05-01
Full Text Available Amorphous (Ni0.6Nb0.41−xZrx membranes were investigated by means of X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetry, differential thermal analysis and tensile modulus measurements. Crystallization occurs only above 673 K, and even after hydrogenation the membranes retain their mainly amorphous nature. However, after exposure to gaseous hydrogen, the temperature dependence of the tensile modulus, M, displays large variations. The modulus of the hydrogen reacted membrane is higher with respect to the pristine samples in the temperature range between 298 K and 423 K. Moreover, a sharp drop in M is observed upon heating to approximately 473 K, well below the glass transition temperature of these glasses. We propose that the changes in the moduli as a function of temperature on the hydrogenated samples are due to the formation of nanocrystalline phases of Zr hydrides in (Ni0.6Nb0.41−xZrx-H membanes.
Elastic metamaterials with simultaneously negative effective shear modulus and mass density.
Wu, Ying; Lai, Yun; Zhang, Zhao-Qing
2011-09-02
We propose a type of elastic metamaterial comprising fluid-solid composite inclusions which can possess a negative shear modulus and negative mass density over a large frequency region. Such a material has the unique property that only transverse waves can propagate with a negative dispersion while longitudinal waves are forbidden. This leads to many interesting phenomena such as negative refraction, which is demonstrated by using a wedge sample and a significant amount of mode conversion from transverse waves to longitudinal waves that cannot occur on the interface of two natural solids.
Elastic Metamaterials with Simultaneously Negative Effective Shear Modulus and Mass Density
Wu, Ying
2011-09-02
We propose a type of elastic metamaterial comprising fluid-solid composite inclusions which can possess a negative shear modulus and negative mass density over a large frequency region. Such a material has the unique property that only transverse waves can propagate with a negative dispersion while longitudinal waves are forbidden. This leads to many interesting phenomena such as negative refraction, which is demonstrated by using a wedge sample and a significant amount of mode conversion from transverse waves to longitudinal waves that cannot occur on the interface of two natural solids.
Hardness and Elastic Modulus on Six-Fold Symmetry Gold Nanoparticles
Ramos, Manuel; Ortiz-Jordan, Luis; Hurtado-Macias, Abel; Flores, Sergio; Elizalde-Galindo, José T.; Rocha, Carmen; Torres, Brenda; Zarei-Chaleshtori, Maryam; Chianelli, Russell R.
2013-01-01
The chemical synthesis of gold nanoparticles (NP) by using gold (III) chloride trihydrate (HAuCl∙3H2O) and sodium citrate as a reducing agent in aqueous conditions at 100 °C is presented here. Gold nanoparticles areformed by a galvanic replacement mechanism as described by Lee and Messiel. Morphology of gold-NP was analyzed by way of high-resolution transmission electron microscopy; results indicate a six-fold icosahedral symmetry with an average size distribution of 22 nm. In order to understand the mechanical behaviors, like hardness and elastic moduli, gold-NP were subjected to nanoindentation measurements—obtaining a hardness value of 1.72 GPa and elastic modulus of 100 GPa in a 3–5 nm of displacement at the nanoparticle’s surface. PMID:28809302
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
孙燕良; 张厚江; 朱磊; 王喜平; 闫海成; 廖春晖
2012-01-01
以落叶松(Larix gmelinii)新鲜材、古建筑旧材为试验材料,运用微钻阻力仪对其内部的微钻阻力进行了快速检测,分析微钻阻力与两种落叶松材弹性模量之间的相关性及利用微钻阻力快速评估木材弹性模量的可行性.结果表明,对于新鲜落叶松材料,其微钻阻力检测值与弹性模量呈显著线性相关,可以利用微钻阻力较好地评估其弹性模量,且二者相关系数为0.831 9；对于古建筑的落叶松材料,利用微钻阻力快速检测弹性模量的精度则相对较差,二者相关系数为0.341 5,需结合其他检测指标综合进行判断.%Aimed at finding the correlation between the micro-drilling resistance and modulus of elasticity of two larch wood and the feasibility to rapid assessment of the modulus of elasticity, the micro-drilling resistance meter was adopted to detect the internal situation of new and old larch wood. The results showed that the micro-drilling resistance detection value and e-lastic modulus presented a significant linear correlation for general larch materials. The micro-drilling could be used to better assess the modulus of elasticity, and the correlation coefficient were 0.831 9 between them. However, for the old larch, the precision of ueing micro-drilling resistance for rapid detection of the elastic modulus were relatively poor with the correlation coefficient of 0.341 5, it should combine with other testing indicators to get the reliable data.
Measuring Propellant Stress Relaxation Modulus Using Dynamic Mechanical Analyzer
2017-03-29
P. N., Singh, P. P., and Bhattacharya, B., “Determination of Activation Energy of Relaxation Events in Composite Solid Propellants by Dynamic...Article 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 04 August 2016 – 29 March 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Measuring Propellant Stress Relaxation Modulus Using Dynamic...ERC 14. ABSTRACT A method for determining the stress relaxation master curve of solid rocket propellants was developed. The propellant was tested in
Overall Dynamic Constitutive Relations of Micro-structured Elastic Composites
Nemat-Nasser, Sia
2011-01-01
A method for homogenization of a heterogeneous (finite or periodic) elastic composite is presented. It allows direct, consistent, and accurate evaluation of the averaged overall frequency-dependent dynamic material constitutive relations. It is shown that when the spatial variation of the field variables is restricted by a Bloch-form (Floquet-form) periodicity, then these relations together with the overall conservation and kinematical equations accurately yield the displacement or stress modeshapes and, necessarily, the dispersion relations. It also gives as a matter of course point-wise solution of the elasto-dynamic field equations, to any desired degree of accuracy. The resulting overall dynamic constitutive relations however, are general and need not be restricted by the Bloch-form periodicity. The formulation is based on micro-mechanical modeling of a representative unit cell of the composite proposed by Nemat-Nasser and coworkers; see, e.g., [1] and [2].
Stress-enhanced Gelation: A Dynamic Nonlinearity of Elasticity
Yao, Norman Y.; Broedersz, Chase P.; Depken, Martin; Becker, Daniel J.; Pollak, Martin R.; MacKintosh, Frederick C.; Weitz, David A.
2013-01-01
A hallmark of biopolymer networks is their sensitivity to stress, reflected by pronounced nonlinear elastic stiffening. Here, we demonstrate a distinct dynamical nonlinearity in biopolymer networks consisting of F-actin cross-linked by α-actinin-4. Applied stress delays the onset of relaxation and flow, markedly enhancing gelation and extending the regime of solid-like behavior to much lower frequencies. We show that this macroscopic network response can be accounted for at the single molecule level by the increased binding affinity of the cross-linker under load, characteristic of catch-bond-like behavior. PMID:23383843
Modeling universal dynamics of cell spreading on elastic substrates.
Fan, Houfu; Li, Shaofan
2015-11-01
A three-dimensional (3D) multiscale moving contact line model is combined with a soft matter cell model to study the universal dynamics of cell spreading over elastic substrates. We have studied both the early stage and the late stage cell spreading by taking into account the actin tension effect. In this work, the cell is modeled as an active nematic droplet, and the substrate is modeled as a St. Venant Kirchhoff elastic medium. A complete 3D simulation of cell spreading has been carried out. The simulation results show that the spreading area versus spreading time at different stages obeys specific power laws, which is in good agreement with experimental data and theoretical prediction reported in the literature. Moreover, the simulation results show that the substrate elasticity may affect force dipole distribution inside the cell. The advantage of this approach is that it combines the hydrodynamics of actin retrograde flow with moving contact line model so that it can naturally include actin tension effect resulting from actin polymerization and actomyosin contraction, and thus it might be capable of simulating complex cellular scale phenomenon, such as cell spreading or even crawling.
Liu, Lei; Wang, Zhao-Qi; Hu, Cui-E.; Cheng, Yan; Ji, Guang-Fu
2017-09-01
We present a comparative investigation on structural, elastic, dynamical and thermodynamic properties of Weyl semimetals MX (M = Ta or Nb; X = As or P) using density functional theory (DFT) within the generalized gradient approximation. The elastic properties of NbAs, TaP and NbP are obtained for the first time, then we compared them with each other and with some well-studied materials. Among four Weyl semimetals, TaP and NbAs possess the largest and smallest bulk modulus B, shear modulus G, and Young's modulus E, respectively, while NbP and TaAs own the maximum and minimum elastic Debye temperature. Through the analysis of three dimensional (3D) representations and two dimensional (2D) projections of Young's modulus, MX series exhibit distinct elastic anisotropy, especially for TaAs and NbAs. The calculated phonon dispersions of four Weyl semimetals show no imaginary frequency throughout the Brillouin zone, indicating they are dynamically stable. In addition, compared with other theoretical results, our calculated Brillouin-zone-center frequencies of MX series are more in line with experimental data. Furthermore, Phonon velocities are obtained using phonon spectra, and anisotropic phonon group velocities are responsible for their anisotropic lattice thermal conductivity. Additionally, thermodynamic properties are also predicted using the calculated phonon density of states. The results are in good agreement with available experimental values. We expect our work can provide more information for further experimental studies.
Modulus and yield stress of drawn LDPE
Thavarungkul, Nandh
Modulus and yield stress were investigated in drawn low density polyethylene (LDPE) film. Uniaxially drawn polymeric films usually show high values of modulus and yield stress, however, studies have normally only been conducted to identify the structural features that determine modulus. In this study small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS), thermal shrinkage, birefringence, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) were used to examine, directly and indirectly, the structural features that determine both modulus and yield stress, which are often closely related in undrawn materials. Shish-kebab structures are proposed to account for the mechanical properties in drawn LDPE. The validity of this molecular/morphological model was tested using relationships between static mechanical data and structural and physical parameters. In addition, dynamic mechanical results are also in line with static data in supporting the model. In the machine direction (MD), "shish" and taut tie molecules (TTM) anchored in the crystalline phase account for E; whereas crystal lamellae with contributions from "shish" and TTM determine yield stress. In the transverse direction (TD), the crystalline phase plays an important roll in both modulus and yield stress. Modulus is determined by crystal lamellae functioning as platelet reinforcing elements in the amorphous matrix with an additional contributions from TTM and yield stress is determined by the crystal lamellae's resistance to deformation.
Hwang, Seho; Shin, Jehyun; Kim, Jongman; Won, Byeongho; Song, Wonkyoung; Kim, Changryol; Ki, Jungseok
2014-05-01
One of the most important physical properties is the measurement of the elastic constants of the formation in the evaluation of shale gas. Normally the elastic constants by geophysical well logging and the laboratory test are used in the design of hydraulic fracturing . The three inches diameter borehole of the depth of 505 m for the evaluation of shale gas drilled and was fully cored at the Haenan Basin, southwestern part of Korea Peninsula. We performed a various laboratory tests and geophysical well logging using slime hole logging system. Geophysical well logs include the radioactive logs such as natural gamma log, density log and neutron log, and monopole and dipole sonic log, and image logs. Laboratory tests are the axial compression test, elastic wave velocities and density, and static elastic constants measurements for 21 shale and sandstone cores. We analyzed the relationships between the physical properties by well logs and laboratory test as well as static elastic constants by laboratory tests. In the case of an sonic log using a monopole source of main frequency 23 kHz, measuring P-wave velocity was performed reliably. When using the dipole excitation of low frequency, the signal to noise ratio of the measured shear wave was very low. But when measuring using time mode in a predetermined depth, the signal to noise ratio of measured data relatively improved to discriminate the shear wave. P-wave velocities by laboratory test and sonic logging agreed well overall, but S-wave velocities didn't. The reason for the discrepancy between the laboratory test and sonic log is mainly the low signal to noise ratio of sonic log data by low frequency dipole source, and measuring S-wave in the small diameter borehole is still challenge. The relationship between the P-wave velocity and two dynamic elastic constants, Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio, shows a good correlation. And the relationship between the static elastic constants and dynamic elastic constants also
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
许松; 唐晓明; 苏远大
2015-01-01
The effective modulus of transversely isotropic compound material containing aligned ellipsoidal inhomogeneity is derived using the method of sphere-equivalency of effective scattering. Based on this approach, we derive the integral solution of the Eshelby tensor for the anisotropic medium, allowing for numerically evaluating the effects of anisotropy for the solution. The numerical results show that the effective modulus of the medium decreases monotonically with increasing the concentration of the inhomogeneties. The anisotropy increases if the inhomogeneity alignment direction is perpendicular to the TI symmetry axis of the background medium. By reducing the numbers of matrix elastic modulus from 5 to 2, we calculate the slowness surfaces for the three modes of propagation in an isotropic medium containing aligned ellipsoidal inhomogeneity. The results are the same as the existing ones, which validates the exactness of our theory. The modeling results can be used to evaluate elastic property of an anisotropic medium with aligned inclusions, such as earth formation shale rocks containing aligned cracks.
Overall Dynamic Properties of 3-D periodic elastic composites
Srivastava, Ankit
2011-01-01
A method for the homogenization of 3-D periodic elastic composites is presented. It allows for the evaluation of the averaged overall frequency dependent dynamic material constitutive tensors relating the averaged dynamic ?eld variable tensors of velocity, strain, stress, and linear momentum. The formulation is based on micromechanical modeling of a representative unit cell of a composite proposed by Nemat-Nasser & Hori (1993), Nemat-Nasser et. al. (1982) and Mura (1987) and is the 3-D generalization of the 1-D elastodynamic homogenization scheme presented by Nemat-Nasser & Srivastava (2011). We show that for 3-D periodic composites the overall compliance (stiffness) tensor is hermitian, irrespective of whether the corresponding unit cell is geometrically or materially symmetric.Overall mass density is shown to be a tensor and, like the overall compliance tensor, always hermitian. The average strain and linear momentum tensors are, however, coupled and the coupling tensors are shown to be each others'...
Dynamic Modulus Test Analysis of Sulfur Modified Asphalt Mixture%硫磺改性沥青混合料的动态模量试验分析
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
侯睿; 郭忠印
2013-01-01
UTM system was used to test asphalt mixture's dynamic modulus with different sulfur contents (by mass).The influences of temperature,loading frequency and sulfur content on the viscoelastic properties of asphalt mixtures were analyzed.The results show that the temperature and loading frequency have the same influence on dynamic modulus of both sulfur modified asphalt mixture and conventional asphalt mixture.The effect of sulfur contents on viscoelastic properties of asphalt mixtures is different.A small quantity of sulfur will increase asphalt mixture's viscosity and temperature sensitivity,but a large quantity of sulfur will increase asphalt mixture's elasticity and reduce temperature sensitivity.%采用UTM系统对不同硫磺掺量(质量比)的沥青混合料进行动态模量试验,分析了温度、加载频率和硫磺掺量对沥青混合料黏弹特性的影响.结果表明:温度和加载频率对硫磺改性沥青混合料和普通沥青混合料动态模量的影响规律基本相同；不同硫磺掺量对沥青混合料黏弹性能的影响有所不同,硫磺掺量较小时,沥青混合料的黏性增加,温度敏感性增大；硫磺掺量较大时,沥青混合料的弹性增加,温度敏感性降低.
Mozafari, E.; Shulumba, N.; Steneteg, P.; Alling, B.; Abrikosov, Igor A.
2016-08-01
We present a theoretical scheme to calculate the elastic constants of magnetic materials in the high-temperature paramagnetic state. Our approach is based on a combination of disordered local moments picture and ab initio molecular dynamics (DLM-MD). Moreover, we investigate a possibility to enhance the efficiency of the simulations of elastic properties using the recently introduced method: symmetry imposed force constant temperature-dependent effective potential (SIFC-TDEP). We have chosen cubic paramagnetic CrN as a model system. This is done due to its technological importance and its demonstrated strong coupling between magnetic and lattice degrees of freedom. We have studied the temperature-dependent single-crystal and polycrystalline elastic constants of paramagentic CrN up to 1200 K. The obtained results at T = 300 K agree well with the experimental values of polycrystalline elastic constants as well as the Poisson ratio at room temperature. We observe that the Young's modulus is strongly dependent on temperature, decreasing by ˜14 % from T = 300 K to 1200 K. In addition we have studied the elastic anisotropy of CrN as a function of temperature and we observe that CrN becomes substantially more isotropic as the temperature increases. We demonstrate that the use of Birch law may lead to substantial errors for calculations of temperature induced changes of elastic moduli. The proposed methodology can be used for accurate predictions of mechanical properties of magnetic materials at temperatures above their magnetic order-disorder phase transition.
Elastic constant versus temperature behavior of three hardened maraging steels
Ledbetter, H. M.; Austin, M. W.
1985-01-01
Elastic constants of three maraging steels were determined by measuring ultrasonic velocities. Annealed steels show slightly lower bulk moduli and considerably lower shear moduli than hardened steels. All the elastic constants (Young's modulus, shear modulus, bulk modulus and Poisson's ratio) show regular temperature behavior between 76 and 400 K. Young's modulus and the shear modulus increase with increasing yield strength, but the bulk modulus and Poisson's ratio are relatively unchanged. Elastic anisotropy is quite small.
Determination of Young's modulus by nanoindentation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
MA Dejun; Chung Wo Ong; LIU Jianmin; HE Jiawen
2004-01-01
A methodology for determining Young's modulus of materials by non-ideally sharp indentation has been developed. According to the principle of the same area-to-depth ratio, a non-ideally pyramidal indenter like a Berkovich one can be approximated by a non-ideally conical indenter with a spherical cap at the tip. By applying dimensional and finite element analysis to the non-ideally conical indentation, a set of approximate one-to-one relationships between the ratio of nominal hardness/reduced Young's modulus and the ratio of elastic work/total work, which correspond to different tip bluntness, have been revealed. The nominal hardness is defined as the maximum indentation load divided by the cross-section area of the conical indenter specified at the maximum indentation depth. As a consequence, Young's modulus can be determined from a nanoindentation test only using the maximum indentation load and depth, and the work done during loading and unloading processes. The new method for determining Young's modulus is referred to as "pure energy method". The validity of the method was examined by performing indentation tests on five materials. The experimental results and the standard reference values are in good agreement, indicating that the proposed pure energy method is a promising substitution for the most widely used analysis models at present.
Stresses and elastic constants of crystalline sodium, from molecular dynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schiferl, S.K.
1985-02-01
The stresses and the elastic constants of bcc sodium are calculated by molecular dynamics (MD) for temperatures to T = 340K. The total adiabatic potential of a system of sodium atoms is represented by pseudopotential model. The resulting expression has two terms: a large, strictly volume-dependent potential, plus a sum over ion pairs of a small, volume-dependent two-body potential. The stresses and the elastic constants are given as strain derivatives of the Helmholtz free energy. The resulting expressions involve canonical ensemble averages (and fluctuation averages) of the position and volume derivatives of the potential. An ensemble correction relates the results to MD equilibrium averages. Evaluation of the potential and its derivatives requires the calculation of integrals with infinite upper limits of integration, and integrand singularities. Methods for calculating these integrals and estimating the effects of integration errors are developed. A method is given for choosing initial conditions that relax quickly to a desired equilibrium state. Statistical methods developed earlier for MD data are extended to evaluate uncertainties in fluctuation averages, and to test for symmetry. 45 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
亚斌; 周秉文; 黄炳坤; 贾非; 丁旭; 任志原; 张兴国
2015-01-01
碳纳米管具有优异的力学、电学、光学和磁学等性能，是聚合物复合材料理想的增强体。弹性模量是材料重要的力学性能参数之一，本文介绍了近年来碳纳米管聚合物复合材料弹性模量的研究状况，综述了混合法则、Hashin-Shtrikman 模型、Cox 模型、Halpin-Tsai模型和数值模拟法预测碳纳米管聚合物复合材料弹性模量的方法，并提出了研究中面临的一些问题以及发展方向。%Carbon nanotubes have been considered as an ideal reinforcement for polymer composites owing to their outstanding mechanical,electrical,optical and magnetic properties.Elastic modulus is an important pa-rameter of mechanical properties of materials.The research progress of the study of the elastic modulus of car-bon nanotubes reinforced polymer composites was reviewed in this paper.Different method of predicting the elastic modulus of carbon nanotube/polymer composites,rule of Mixtures,Hashin-Shtrikman model,Cox model Halpin-Tsai model and numerical simulation were introduced.In addition,the problems and the develo-ping prospect in this field were discussed and previewed.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mun'aim Idrus
2011-02-01
Full Text Available In this study the tropical light hardwood species jelutong (Dyera costulata, terbulan (Endospermum diadenum, batai (Paraserianthes moluccana, rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis, and pulai (Alstonia pneumatophora were treated with benzene diazonium salt to improve their dynamic Young’s modulus (Ed, and thermal stability. Benzine diazonium salt reacted with cellulose in wood and produced 2,6-diazocellulose by a coupling reaction, as confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy. Values of Ed were calculated from the free-free flexural vibration method and found to increase on treatment. The morphological properties were studied by FTIR and scanning electron microscopy (SEM and found to be changed. Thermal properties of treated wood samples were evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. The treated wood samples exhibited an increased thermal stability relative to the untreated wood samples; this increase may be related to the formation of 2, 6-diazo cellulose compound.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Day, J; Ding, Ming; van der Linden, JC
2001-01-01
In osteoarthritis, one postulate is that changes in the mechanical properties of the subchondral bone layer result in cartilage damage. The goal of this study was to examine changes in subchondral trabecular bone properties at the calcified tissue level in the early stages of cartilage damage....... Finite element models were constructed from microCT scans of trabectilar bone from the proximal tibia of donors with mild cartilage damage and from normal donors. In the donors with cartilage damage, macroscopic damage was present only in the medial compartment. The effective tissue elastic moduli were...... determined using a combination of finite element models and mechanical testing. The bone tissue modulus was reduced by 60% in the medial condyle of the cases with cartilage damage compared to the control specimens. Neither the presence of cartilage damage nor the anatomic site (medial vs. lateral) affected...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
秦向辉; 谭成轩; 孙进忠; 陈群策; 安美建
2012-01-01
在北京某深孔原岩应力测量和原岩应力测量段同等深度单轴及不同围压下的三轴岩石力学试验的基础上,结合统计的钻孔岩体结构参数,分析了原岩应力测量段深度处修正前、后的岩石弹性模量,进而探讨了地应力与岩石弹性模量间关系.结果表明,在花岗岩中,主应力大小与修正前、后的岩石弹性模量间均呈正相关关系,而在灰岩中,主应力大小与修正前、后岩石弹性模量间的关系不明确,需要进一步研究;在花岗岩中,主应力大小与修正后的岩石弹性模量间的相关性系数高于主应力大小与修正前的岩石弹性模量间的相关性系数:各向同性高的岩体(如花岗岩),实测地应力大小与岩石力学试验结果相关性好,而各向异性大的岩体(如沉积岩),实测地应力大小与岩石力学试验结果相关性较差.%An in-situ stress measurement and a rock mechanical test under different confining pressures and statistics of structure properties of rock mass in a deep borehole in Beijing have been carried out to research the relation between in-situ stress and rock elastic modulus thoroughly. The results are as follows: the relation between principal stress magnitude and rock elastic modulus shows a positive correlation in granite, but not clear in limestone. In granite, the relative coefficient between principal stress magnitude and revised rock elastic modulus exceeds the relative coefficient between principal stress magnitude and rock elastic modulus. The correlation between in-situ crustal stress magnitude and results of rock mechanical test in high-isotropic rock (e.g. granite) is high, but the correlation in low-isotropic rock (e.g. sedimentary rock) is low.
Mullin, Scott; Panday, Ashoutosh; Balsara, Nitash Pervez; Singh, Mohit; Eitouni, Hany Basam; Gomez, Enrique Daniel
2014-04-22
A polymer that combines high ionic conductivity with the structural properties required for Li electrode stability is useful as a solid phase electrolyte for high energy density, high cycle life batteries that do not suffer from failures due to side reactions and dendrite growth on the Li electrodes, and other potential applications. The polymer electrolyte includes a linear block copolymer having a conductive linear polymer block with a molecular weight of at least 5000 Daltons, a structural linear polymer block with an elastic modulus in excess of 1.times.10.sup.7 Pa and an ionic conductivity of at least 1.times.10.sup.-5 Scm.sup.-1. The electrolyte is made under dry conditions to achieve the noted characteristics. In another aspect, the electrolyte exhibits a conductivity drop when the temperature of electrolyte increases over a threshold temperature, thereby providing a shutoff mechanism for preventing thermal runaway in lithium battery cells.
Nonlinear dynamic acousto-elasticity measurement by Rayleigh wave in concrete cover evaluation
Vu, Quang Anh; Garnier, Vincent; Payan, Cédric; Chaix, Jean-François; Lott, Martin; Eiras, Jesús N.
2015-10-01
This paper presents local non-destructive evaluation of concrete cover by using surface Rayleigh wave in nonlinear Dynamic Acousto-Elasticity (DAE) measurement. Dynamic non classical nonlinear elastic behavior like modulus decrease under applied stress and slow dynamic process has been observed in many varieties of solid, also in concrete. The measurements conducted in laboratory, consist in qualitative evaluation of concrete thermal damage. Nonlinear elastic parameters especially conditioning offset are analyzed for the cover concrete by Rayleigh wave. The results of DAE method show enhanced sensitivity when compared to velocity measurement. Afterward, this technique broadens measurements to the field.
Kim, Wansun; Lee, Inhwa; Kim, Dong Yoon; Yu, Youn-Yeol; Jung, Hae-Yoon; Kwon, Seyeoul; Park, Weon Seo; Kim, Taek-Soo
2017-05-01
To protect brittle layers in organic photovoltaic devices, the mechanical neutral plane strategy can be adopted through placing the brittle functional materials close to the neutral plane where stress and strain are zero during bending. However, previous research has been significantly limited in the location and number of materials to protect through using a single neutral plane. In this study, multiple neutral planes are generated using low elastic modulus adhesives and are controlled through quantitative analyses in order to protect the multiple brittle materials at various locations. Moreover, the protection of multiple brittle layers at various locations under both concave and convex bending directions is demonstrated. Multilayer structures that have soft adhesives are further analyzed using the finite element method analysis in order to propose guidelines for structural design when employing multiple neutral planes.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
任艳玲; 卢立新
2012-01-01
应用复合材料细观力学分析方法,推导了4层瓦楞纸板的复合瓦楞纸的弹性模量。考虑2层瓦楞原纸间粘合剂的影响,分析了复合瓦楞纸纵向弹性模量与粘合剂体积分数及其纵向弹性模量的关系,并用实验进行了验证。为4层瓦楞纸板进一步的相关理论分析奠定基础。%Elastic modulus of corrugated laminated paper for four-ply corrugated board was deduced based on micromechanics analysis of composite material.Considering the effect of adhesive between two layers of base paper,the relationship between corrugated laminated paper＇s longitudinal elastic modulus and volume fraction as well as of the adhesive was analyzed.Verification experiments were carried out.The purpose was to provide reference for further theoretical analysis of four-ply corrugated paperboard.
Ilegbusi, Olusegun; Li, Ziang; Min, Yugang; Meeks, Sanford; Kupelian, Patrick; Santhanam, Anand P
2012-01-01
The aim of this paper is to model the airflow inside lungs during breathing and its fluid-structure interaction with the lung tissues and the lung tumor using subject-specific elastic properties. The fluid-structure interaction technique simultaneously simulates flow within the airway and anisotropic deformation of the lung lobes. The three-dimensional (3D) lung geometry is reconstructed from the end-expiration 3D CT scan datasets of humans with lung cancer. The lung is modeled as a poro-elastic medium with anisotropic elastic property (non-linear Young's modulus) obtained from inverse lung elastography of 4D CT scans for the same patients. The predicted results include the 3D anisotropic lung deformation along with the airflow pattern inside the lungs. The effect is also presented of anisotropic elasticity on both the spatio-temporal volumetric lung displacement and the regional lung hysteresis.
Elastic properties of fly ash-stabilized mixes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sanja Dimter
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Stabilized mixes are used in the construction of bearing layers in asphalt and concrete pavement structures. Two nondestructive methods: resonant frequency method and ultrasonic pulse velocity method, were used for estimation of elastic properties of fly ash–stabilized mixes. Stabilized mixes were designed containing sand from the river Drava and binder composed of different share of cement and fly ash. The aim of the research was to analyze the relationship between the dynamic modulus of elasticity determined by different nondestructive methods. Data showed that average value of elasticity modulus obtained by the ultrasound velocity method is lower than the values of elasticity modulus obtained by resonant frequency method. For further analysis and enhanced discussion of elastic properties of fly ash stabilized mixes, see Dimter et al. [1].
Three-dimensional treatment of nonequilibrium dynamics and higher order elasticity
Lott, Martin; Payan, Cédric; Garnier, Vincent; Vu, Quang A.; Eiras, Jesús N.; Remillieux, Marcel C.; Le Bas, Pierre-Yves; Ulrich, T. J.
2016-04-01
This letter presents a three-dimensional model to describe the complex behavior of nonlinear mesoscopic elastic materials such as rocks and concrete. Assuming isotropy and geometric contraction of principal stress axes under dynamic loading, the expression of elastic wave velocity is derived, based on the second-order elastic constants ( λ , μ ) , third-order elastic constants (l, m, n), and a parameter α of nonclassical nonlinear elasticity resulting from conditioning. We demonstrate that both softening and recovering of the elastic properties under dynamic loading is an isotropic effect related to the strain tensor. The measurement of the conditioning is achieved using three polarized waves. The model allows the evaluation of the third-order elastic constants uncoupled from conditioning and viscoelastic effects. The values obtained are similar to those reported in the literature using quasi-static loading.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
岑朝正; 蒋永芳; 蒋朝军
2015-01-01
The elasticity modulus of coal-body is related to the water quantity contained in the coal, due to the geology condition under which coal is deposited varies considerably, the water quantity is unconstant in the coal so that the elasticity modulus of coal-body is also different. To get a full understanding of the elasticity modulus of coal-body varying with water contained in the coal experiment relevant is carried out with the RMT-150B rock mechanism device before and after the coal in a degree of different waterlogged, the coal sample taken from Xinmi Coal Field.The elasticity modulus of coal-body changing with different water contained in the coal is learned, and the consequence of which is also analysed based on the acting mechanisation between the coal and the water contained in it. In the end, an conclusion can be drawn from the experiment that the elasticity modulus of coal has become samller and smaller according to the quantity of water-contained in the coal. The most important reason of that result is because the water occurring in the coal change the original colloid connection manner among coal matrix to that of water and colloid, with the connection force being dropped ,so that the capacity of the coal-body resistible to formation from out-side power become less.%煤岩体内通常含有一定的水份，由于煤岩体所处地质环境的差异，会造成煤岩体含水量不同，进而影响煤岩体的弹性模量。为了解不同含水率下煤岩体弹性模量变化规律，实验采取新密矿区煤样，通过在RMT-150B岩石力学试验装置上对浸泡前后煤样进行三轴应力加载实验，得出浸泡前后煤样的弹性模量变化，进而根据水与煤样之间的作用关系，分析了引起煤岩弹性模量变化的原因。实验结果显示经过浸泡后煤样的弹性模量降低，并且含水率增加越大，弹性模量降低越大。分析认为煤样弹性模量降低主要是由于水的存在是使颗粒之
Molecular dynamics simulation of the structural, elastic, and thermal properties of pyrochlores
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dong, Liyuan; Li, Yuhong; Devanathan, Ram; Gao, Fei
2016-04-28
We present a comprehensive simulation study of the effect of composition on the structural, elastic and thermal properties of 25 different compounds from the pyrochlore family. We joined a repulsive potential to an existing interatomic potential to enable molecular dynamics simulations of conditions away from equilibrium. We systematically varied the chemistry of the pyrochlore by substituting different cations in the A and B sites of the A2B2O7 formula unit. The A cations varied from Lu3+ to La3+, and the B cations from Ti4+ to Ce4+. The lattice parameter increased steadily with increasing the radius of A or B cations, but the bulk modulus showed a decreasing trend with increasing cation radius. However, the specific heat capacity and thermal expansion coefficient remained almost unchanged with increasing the radii of A and B cations. It is of interest to note that Ce on the B site significantly reduces the specific heat capacity and thermal expansion coefficient, which could have implications for annealing of radiation damage in cerate pyrochlores. The present results are consistent with the experimental measurements, which validates these potentials for simulation of dynamical processes, such as radiation damage, in pyrochlores.
Teaching nonlinear dynamics through elastic cords
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chacon, R; Galan, C A; Sanchez-Bajo, F, E-mail: rchacon@unex.e [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Escuela de IngenierIas Industriales, Universidad de Extremadura, Apartado Postal 382, E-06071 Badajoz (Spain)
2011-01-15
We experimentally studied the restoring force of a length of stretched elastic cord. A simple analytical expression for the restoring force was found to fit all the experimental results for different elastic materials. Remarkably, this analytical expression depends upon an elastic-cord characteristic parameter which exhibits two limiting values corresponding to two nonlinear springs with different Hooke's elastic constants. Additionally, the simplest model of elastic cord dynamics is capable of exhibiting a great diversity of nonlinear phenomena, including bifurcations and chaos, thus providing a suitable alternative model system for discussing the basic essentials of nonlinear dynamics in the context of intermediate physics courses at university level.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张杨; 马岩; 杨春梅
2013-01-01
In modern biomedical technology,it is a more cutting-edge research to use biomedical materials as alternative materials for making medical assistance implements.In this paper,under the theory of modern cervical splint design,we researched the sliced veneer laminated timber cervical splint characteristics from micro-structure,and constructed a new sliced veneer laminated timber cervical splint.The paper gave the optimal size of sliced veneer of the molded cervical splint,and calculated the theoretical elastic modulus and its correlation coefficient which would impact its strength.Furthermore,we got the mechanical expression by deducing these the quantitative mathematical relation between the elastic modulus of coefficients and sliced veneer laminated timber cervical splint.This provided a basis for the micromechanics theory of cervical splint composite elastic mechanics,and provided experimental proofs.%采用现代颈椎夹板设计理论,从微观结构研究薄木层积材特性,构造新型薄木层积材颈椎夹板.文中给出模压颈椎夹板的薄木最优尺寸,求出其理论弹性模量,给出对强度产生影响的相关系数,并推导出这些系数和薄木层积材颈椎夹板的弹性模量之间定量的数学关系和力学表达式,为颈椎夹板复合弹性力学的微观力学理论提供基础,并给出试验证明.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Solenir Ruffato
2001-04-01
Full Text Available Neste trabalho investigou-se a viabilidade de se obter o módulo de compressão de grãos de milho, utilizando-se dados experimentais de força versus tempo, provenientes de testes de impacto, juntamente com uma análise estrutural elástica do processo. Os módulos de elasticidade foram determinados para grãos, a diferentes teores de umidade, submetidos a impactos de diferentes velocidades, e obtidos por um processo de otimização por meio da técnica de elementos finitos. Dois tipos de módulo foram avaliados: (a um módulo efetivo para todo o grão e (b um módulo para cada uma das três regiões, com diferentes características, segundo as quais o grão foi dividido. O teor de umidade e a velocidade de impacto influenciaram nos valores dos módulos. Módulos para grãos a 13,4% base úmida (b.u. foram maiores do que para aqueles a 20,0% b.u. A análise realizada (elástica mostrou-se ser mais adequada na obtenção de módulos de elasticidade de grãos a 13,4% b.u.; neste teor, os grãos apresentam características elásticas mais pronunciadas que quando a 20,0% b.u. e, nos grãos com altos teores de umidade, as características viscoelásticas tornam-se predominantes.In this study the viability of obtaining the corn compression modulus through an elastic structural analysis was investigated using force versus time data from grain impact tests. The moduli of elasticity of shelled corn at different moisture contents submitted to various impact velocities were determined. The moduli were obtained through an optimization process using the finite element technique. Two kinds of modulus were obtained: (a an effective modulus for the grain and (b a modulus for each one of the three regions, with different characteristics, in which the grain was divided. The moisture content and the impact velocity affected the modulus values. The moduli values for grains at 13.4% wet basis (w.b. were higher than those for grains at 20.0% w.b. The analysis used
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
MACKEY TC; ABATT FG; JOHNSON KI
2009-01-16
The purpose of this study was to determine the sensitivity of the dynamic response of the Hanford double-shell tanks (DSTs) to the assumptions regarding the constitutive properties of the contained waste. In all cases, the waste was modeled as a uniform linearly elastic material. The focus of the study was on the changes in the modal response of the tank and waste system as the extensional modulus (elastic modulus in tension and compression) and shear modulus of the waste were varied through six orders of magnitude. Time-history analyses were also performed for selected cases and peak horizontal reaction forces and axial stresses at the bottom of the primary tank were evaluated. Because the analysis focused on the differences in the responses between solid-filled and liquid-filled tanks, it is a comparative analysis rather than an analysis of record for a specific tank or set of tanks. The shear modulus was varied between 4 x 10{sup 3} Pa and 4.135 x 10{sup 9} Pa. The lowest value of shear modulus was sufficient to simulate the modal response of a liquid-containing tank, while the higher values are several orders of magnitude greater than the upper limit of expected properties for tank contents. The range of elastic properties used was sufficient to show liquid-like response at the lower values, followed by a transition range of semi-solid-like response to a clearly identifiable solid-like response. It was assumed that the mechanical properties of the tank contents were spatially uniform. Because sludge-like materials are expected only to exist in the lower part of the tanks, this assumption leads to an exaggeration of the effects of sludge-like materials in the tanks. The results of the study show that up to a waste shear modulus of at least 40,000 Pa, the modal properties of the tank and waste system are very nearly the same as for the equivalent liquid-containing tank. This suggests that the differences in critical tank responses between liquid-containing tanks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
MACKEY TC; ABATT FG; JOHNSON KI
2009-01-16
The purpose of this study was to determine the sensitivity of the dynamic response of the Hanford double-shell tanks (DSTs) to the assumptions regarding the constitutive properties of the contained waste. In all cases, the waste was modeled as a uniform linearly elastic material. The focus of the study was on the changes in the modal response of the tank and waste system as the extensional modulus (elastic modulus in tension and compression) and shear modulus of the waste were varied through six orders of magnitude. Time-history analyses were also performed for selected cases and peak horizontal reaction forces and axial stresses at the bottom of the primary tank were evaluated. Because the analysis focused on the differences in the responses between solid-filled and liquid-filled tanks, it is a comparative analysis rather than an analysis of record for a specific tank or set of tanks. The shear modulus was varied between 4 x 10{sup 3} Pa and 4.135 x 10{sup 9} Pa. The lowest value of shear modulus was sufficient to simulate the modal response of a liquid-containing tank, while the higher values are several orders of magnitude greater than the upper limit of expected properties for tank contents. The range of elastic properties used was sufficient to show liquid-like response at the lower values, followed by a transition range of semi-solid-like response to a clearly identifiable solid-like response. It was assumed that the mechanical properties of the tank contents were spatially uniform. Because sludge-like materials are expected only to exist in the lower part of the tanks, this assumption leads to an exaggeration of the effects of sludge-like materials in the tanks. The results of the study show that up to a waste shear modulus of at least 40,000 Pa, the modal properties of the tank and waste system are very nearly the same as for the equivalent liquid-containing tank. This suggests that the differences in critical tank responses between liquid-containing tanks
Regulating the modulus of a chiral liquid crystal polymer network by light.
Kumar, Kamlesh; Schenning, Albertus P H J; Broer, Dirk J; Liu, Danqing
2016-04-01
We report a novel way to modulate the elastic modulus of azobenzene containing liquid crystal networks (LCNs) by exposure to light. The elastic modulus can cycle between different levels by controlling the illumination conditions. Exposing the polymer network to UV light near the trans absorption band of azobenzene gives a small reduction of the glass transition temperature thereby lowering the modulus. The addition of blue light addressing the cis absorption band surprisingly amplifies this effect. The continuous oscillatory effects of the trans-to-cis isomerization of the azobenzene overrule the overall net cis conversion. The influence on the chain dynamics of the network is demonstrated by dynamic mechanical thermal analysis which shows a large shift of the glass transition temperature and a modulus decrease by more than two orders of magnitude. The initial high modulus and the glassy state are recovered within a minute in the dark by switching off the light sources, despite the observation that azobenzene is still predominantly in its cis state. Based on these new findings, we are able to create a shape memory polymer LCN film at room temperature using light.
Köhn, D.; Wilken, D.; Rabbel, W.
2012-04-01
The FINO3 project is aimed at the construction of an offshore research platform in the north-sea, hosting research projects dealing with offshore wind energy topics. As part of FINO3 our sub-project deals with the development of new seismic acquisition and inversion concepts for offshore-building foundation soil analysis. We are focussed on the determination of seismic parameters and structural information of the building plot of the platform. Possible changes of the shear modulus of the sediments in the vicinity of the FINO3 monopile due to mechanic loads on the platform are estimated by a tube-waveform tomography. The tube-waves are excited by a hammer blow at the internal wall of the FINO3 monopile above the water line. The tube-waves are propagating through the water column and the sediments and are measured in situ by hydrophones at the external wall of the monopile. Homogenous long wavelength starting models for the waveform tomography are estimated using simple 2D finite difference models. Possible shear-wave velocity starting models range from 150-300 m/s. The resolution of the tube-waveform tomography is estimated by simple chequerboard and random media models. Additionally first results of the data application in the vicinity of the monopile are presented.
Thermal effects in the dynamics of disordered elastic systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bustingorry, S.; Kolton, A.B. [Centro Atomico Bariloche, 8400 S.C. de Bariloche (Argentina); Rosso, A. [CNRS, LPTMS, Univ. Paris-Sud, UMR 8626, Orsay Cedex F-91405 (France); Krauth, W. [CNRS-Laboratoire de Physique Statistique, Ecole Normale Superieure, 24 rue Lhomond, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Giamarchi, T. [DPMC-MaNEP, University of Geneva, 24 Quai Ernest Ansermet, 1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland)], E-mail: Thierry.Giamarchi@physics.unige.ch
2009-03-01
Many seemingly different macroscopic systems (magnets, ferroelectrics, CDW, vortices, etc.) can be described as generic disordered elastic systems. Understanding their static and dynamics thus poses challenging problems both from the point of view of fundamental physics and of practical applications. Despite important progress many questions remain open. In particular the temperature has drastic effects on the way these systems respond to an external force. We address here the important question of the thermal effect close to depinning, and whether these effects can be understood in the analogy with standard critical phenomena, analogy so useful to understand the zero temperature case. We show that close to the depinning force temperature leads to a rounding of the depinning transition and compute the corresponding exponent. In addition, using a novel algorithm it is possible to study precisely the behavior close to depinning, and to show that the commonly accepted analogy of the depinning with a critical phenomenon does not fully hold, since no divergent lengthscale exists in the steady state properties of the line below the depinning threshold.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
梁思; 钱林学; 刘冬
2015-01-01
目的：研究静态弹性成像操作对正常乳腺组织弹性模量造成的影响。方法：①对15个正常腺体型乳腺同一位置进行静态超声弹性检测，截取未压缩时的图像及最大压缩图像，测量乳腺厚度(h，cm)，计算最小伸长比(λ)，得出静态弹性成像正常操作对正常乳腺组织造成的变形；②对50个正常腺体型乳腺采集未进行压缩时弹性模量(E0，kPa)及压缩所致伸长比达到第一部分所得λ时的弹性模量(Em，kPa)。分别计算弹性模量改变比(Rm/0)，得出静态弹性成像正常操作时正常乳腺组织弹性模量的改变。结果：静态弹性成像操作中对正常腺体型乳腺造成的最小伸长比λ=0.74±0.07，静态弹性成像中正常操作造成的变形使正常乳腺组织弹性模量增加4.38倍。结论：静态弹性成像造成正常乳腺组织弹性模量增加4.38倍。%Objective:To investigate the effects of static ultrasound elastography on the elastic modulus of normal breast tissue.Methods: (1)Fifteen cases of normal breasts was tested by static ultrasound elastography at the same locations. Intercepted two pictures each time with one stress-free and the other compressed the maximum amount. For these two cases we measured the breast thickness and calculated the minimum stretch ratios(λ). (2)Fifty breasts with no breast nodules were prospectively enrolled in the study. Intercepted two pictures each time with one stress-free and the other compressed to the minimum stretch ratios(λ). For these two cases we measured the Elastic modulus (E0, Em, kPa). Calculate the elastic modulus change ratio (Rm/0).Results: (1)The minimum stretch ratio caused by static ultrasound elastography was 0.74±0.07. (2)The elastic modulus change ratio of static ultrasound elastography was 4.38±1.72. Conclusion: The normal operation of static ultrasound elastography caused 74 percent deformation in normal breast tissue. There was 4.38 times elastic
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ciftci, Yasemin Oe. [Gazi University Teknikokullar, Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Ankara (Turkey); Evecen, Meryem; Aldirmaz, Emine [Amasya University, Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Amasya (Turkey)
2017-01-15
First-principles calculations for the structural, elastic, electronic and vibrational properties of BeGeAs{sub 2} with chalcopyrite structure have been reported in the frame work of the density functional theory. The calculated ground state properties are in good agreement with the available data. By considering the electronic band structure and electronic density of states calculation, it is found that this compound is a semiconductor which confirmed the previous work. Single-crystal elastic constants and related properties such as Young's modulus, Poisson ratio, shear modulus and bulk modulus have been predicted using the stress-finite strain technique. It can be seen from the calculated elastic constants that this compound is mechanically stable in the chalcopyrite structure. Pressure dependences of elastic constants and band gap are also reported. Finally, the phonon dispersion curves and total and partial density of states were calculated and discussed. The calculated phonon frequencies BeGeAs{sub 2} are positive, indicating the dynamical stability of the studied compound. (orig.)
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
梁建国; 龙腾
2012-01-01
灌孔混凝土砌块砌体是由砌体和灌孔混凝土两部分组合而成，为了得到竖向压力作用下两种材料的相互作用机理，该文基于最小势能原理推导了砌体对灌孔混凝土的套箍系数以及灌孔混凝土砌块砌体内的应力分布，得到了灌孔混凝土砌块砌体的弹性模量可近似按材料力学组合截面公式进行计算，其计算结果与收集的全国65组281个试件试验结果符合良好，并通过试验结果统计得到了灌孔混凝土砌块砌体弹性模量的建议公式。理论分析和试验结果表明，我国现行规范中灌孔混凝土砌块砌体弹性模量取值偏低，将使配筋砌块砌体结构的设计计算结果偏于不安全。%In order to obtain the interaction mechanism between the grout and masonry in grouted concrete block masonry structures under vertical load, the hooping factor which denotes the hooping action of the masonry to the grouted concrete and the stress distribution in the grouted concrete block masonry is studied based on the minimum potential energy principle. The elastic modulus of grouted concrete block masonry can be approximately calculated according to the assembled section formula in material mechanics, and the calculation results of this formula agree well with the test results of 281 specimens in 65 groups. Another proposed formula to calculate the elastic modulus of the grouted concrete block is derived base on the test results by regression analysis method. Theoretical analysis and test results show that the value of elastic modulus of grouted concrete block masonry in our current code is low, indicating it is unsafe to guide the design of reinforced concrete block masonry structures.
ELASTIC: A Large Scale Dynamic Tuning Environment
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andrea Martínez
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The spectacular growth in the number of cores in current supercomputers poses design challenges for the development of performance analysis and tuning tools. To be effective, such analysis and tuning tools must be scalable and be able to manage the dynamic behaviour of parallel applications. In this work, we present ELASTIC, an environment for dynamic tuning of large-scale parallel applications. To be scalable, the architecture of ELASTIC takes the form of a hierarchical tuning network of nodes that perform a distributed analysis and tuning process. Moreover, the tuning network topology can be configured to adapt itself to the size of the parallel application. To guide the dynamic tuning process, ELASTIC supports a plugin architecture. These plugins, called ELASTIC packages, allow the integration of different tuning strategies into ELASTIC. We also present experimental tests conducted using ELASTIC, showing its effectiveness to improve the performance of large-scale parallel applications.
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Anochie-Boateng, Joseph
2010-11-01
Full Text Available of Pavement Design, Wiley, New York, USA. 8. Agar, J.G., Morgenstern, N.R., and Scott, J.D., (1987). Shear Strength and Stress-Strain Behavior of Athabasca Oil Sand at Elevated Temperatures and Pressures, Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 24(1), pp. 1-10. 9.... Dusseault, M.B. and Morgenstern, N.R., (1978). Shear Strength of Athabasca Oil Sands, Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 15(2), pp. 216-238. 10. Samieh, A.M. and Wong, R.C.K., (1997). Deformation of Athabasca Oil Sand in Triaxial Compression Tests at Low...
沥青混合料动态模量数值预测方法%Numerical Prediction Method for Dynamic Modulus of Asphalt Mixture
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
万成; 张肖宁; 贺玲凤; 王绍怀; 段跃华
2012-01-01
In order to predict the dynamic modulus of asphalt mixture more accurately, with X-ray CT for the digital image processing and numerical simulation technique, the influence of asphalt mixture structure on its mechanical properties was studied from 3D microscopic scale. The asphalt mixture specimens were scanned to obtain the real internal 3D microstructure with X-ray CT. The program was developed to build up 3D digital specimen. Aggregates were assumed to be elastic and sand mastic was viscoelastic. They were characterized by modified Generalized Maxwell Model. The shear relaxation module parameters as finite element parameters were obtained through fitting Prony series. Finally, the numerical simulation of dynamic modulus based on indirect tensile test was conducted under different temperatures and loading frequencies. The results indicate that the predicted values agree well with the actually measured values. Predicting dynamic modulus of asphalt mixture incorporated with real 3D microstructure based on finite element method is a promising application to conduct research on asphalt concrete. This method overcomes the defects of conventional numerical simulation method of asphalt mixture.%为了更好地预测沥青混合料的动态模量，利用工业CT采集数字图像，并与数值模拟技术相结合，从三维细观尺度研究了混合料结构对其性能的影响。首先采用工业CT扫描沥青混合料试件，获取其内部的真实三维细观结构，再开发程序建立沥青混合料的三维数值试样。将沥青混合料中的集料设为弹性体，将沥青砂胶设为粘弹性体，并采用修正的广义Maxwell模型表征，拟合出Prony级数的剪切松弛模量参数，作为有限元的输入参数。最后进行不同温度和频率下的沥青混合料间接拉伸动态模量数值模拟。结果表明：预测值和实测值吻合良好，基于三维细观尺度预测沥青混合料动态模量切实可行；该方法
Elastic properties of surfactant monolayers at liquid-liquid interfaces: A molecular dynamics study
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Laradji, Mohamed; Mouritsen, Ole G.
2000-01-01
Using a simple molecular model based on the Lennard-Jones potential, we systematically study the elastic properties of liquid-liquid interfaces containing surfactant molecules by means of extensive and large-scale molecular dynamics simulations. The main elastic constants of the interface, corres...
Čapek, Jaroslav; Machová, Markéta; Fousová, Michaela; Kubásek, Jiří; Vojtěch, Dalibor; Fojt, Jaroslav; Jablonská, Eva; Lipov, Jan; Ruml, Tomáš
2016-12-01
Recently, porous metallic materials have been extensively studied as candidates for use in the fabrication of scaffolds and augmentations to repair trabecular bone defects, e.g. in surroundings of joint replacements. Fabricating these complex structures by using common approaches (e.g., casting and machining) is very challenging. Therefore, rapid prototyping techniques, such as selective laser melting (SLM), have been investigated for these applications. In this study, we characterized a highly porous (87 vol.%) 316L stainless steel scaffold prepared by SLM. 316L steel was chosen because it presents a biomaterial still widely used for fabrication of joint replacements and, from the practical point of view, use of the same material for fabrication of an augmentation and a joint replacement is beneficial for corrosion prevention. The results are compared to the reported properties of two representative nonporous 316L stainless steels prepared either by SLM or casting and subsequent hot forging. The microstructural and mechanical properties and the surface chemical composition and interaction with the cells were investigated. The studied material exhibited mechanical properties that were similar to those of trabecular bone (compressive modulus of elasticity ~0.15GPa, compressive yield strength ~3MPa) and cytocompatibility after one day that was similar to that of wrought 316L stainless steel, which is a commonly used biomaterial. Based on the obtained results, SLM is a suitable method for the fabrication of porous 316L stainless steel scaffolds with highly porous structures.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hassan, H.F. [Sultan Qaboos Univ., Muscat (Oman). College of Engineering
2007-07-01
In 2001, approximately 229 million tons of municipal solid waste (MSW) were produced in the United States. MSW consists of items such as paper, grass clippings, furniture, clothing, bottles, food scraps, appliances, paint, and batteries. MSW incinerator ash is the by-product produced during the combustion of municipal solid waste in combustor facilities and has two components, namely bottom ash and fly ash. To reduce the disposal problem, the incinerators are used to reduce the volume and weight of MSW. This is usually a self-sustained process using the waste as a fuel resulting in as much as a 90 and 75 per cent reduction in volume and weight, respectively. This paper presented the results of a study that investigated the use of incinerator ash as a partial replacement of fine aggregate in hot-mix asphalt concrete. MSW incinerator ash was collected from an incinerator facility at Sultan Qaboos University in Oman and a physical and chemical characterization of the ash was conducted. MSW ash was used in the mixture to replace fine aggregate with a percentage ranging from 0 to 40 per cent, by total aggregate weight. The mixes were designed using the Marshall mix design method and the dynamic modulus test was conducted on samples prepared at optimum asphalt contents for mixes containing different percentage of ash and at different temperatures and frequencies. Master curves for different percentages of ash in the mix were developed from the testing results. It was found that the Marshall mix design results for the mixes containing MSW ash indicated a decrease in stability, and specific gravity, and an increase in air voids. 18 refs., 10 figs.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
邓嘉胤; 崔春翔; 刘双进; 戚玉敏; 杨薇; 高平; 彭诚; 宫崎隆
2009-01-01
BACKGROUND: As dental implants, pure titanium and Ti-6Al-4V has achieved broad clinical applications, but they also contain toxic vanadium and aluminum element. Moreover, their elastic modulus is so high as to produce stress shield. OBJECTIVE: To examine the micro-hardness and elastic modulus of the self-made Ti-30Nb-8Zr-2Mo titanium alloy. DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: An observational experiment was performed at the laboratory of College of Material Science and Engineering at Hebei University of Technology between March 2003 and February 2006. MATERIALS: Titanium alloy was prepared using titanium sponge (≥ 99% purify), niobium strip (≥ 99.9% purify), molybdenum powder (≥ 99% purify) and zirconium sponge (≥ 99.4% purify).METHODS: The micro-hardness of the specimens was determined after uniformly annealing, hot-forging and solution. Compression test was conducted on post-aging samples. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Hardness and stress-strain curve.RESULTS: The maximal alloy strength was obtained after solution under 800 ℃ for 0.5 hours. Post-aging alloy's hardness was improved significantly although little change occurred on solution alloy. Compressive strength of alloy samples was 1 054 MPa, while elastic modulus reached 16.5 GPa. CONCLUSION: Both micro-hardness and elastic modulus of the self-made Ti-30Nb-8Zr-2Mo titanium alloy have satisfied performance requirements for dental implant materials.%背景:目前广泛应用于临床的纯钛和Ti-6AI-4V种植体材料中存在着铝和钒的潜在毒性及弹性模量太大易造成界面应力屏障等问题.目的:对自行研制的新型钛合金Ti-30Nb-8Zr-2Mo进行硬度及弹性模量性能测试.设计、时间及地点:观察实验,于2003-03/2006-02在河北工业大学材料学实验室完成.材料:钛合金制备用原材料海绵钛纯度≥99%、钼粉纯度≥99%、铌条≥99.9%、海绵锆≥99.4%.方法:在均匀化退火、热煅、固溶后对试样显微硬度进行测量,对时效后的样品
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
SATHYA S R R PERUMAL; YASHONATH SUBRAMANIAN
2017-07-01
Recent studies suggest that hydrogen bonds, in particular, hydrogen bond chains play an important role in determining the properties of a substance.We report an investigation into the triclinic phase of crystalline malonic acid. One of two intermolecular interaction potentials proposed here is seen to predict the lattice parameters as well as the enthalpy of the triclinic phase in good agreement with experimental data. Structural and dynamic properties are reported. Also reported are the lifetime of the hydrogen bond and hydrogen bondchains of length l along [011] direction where l = 1 to 5. From the temperature dependence of the lifetime we have obtained the activation energies of the chains. We also report the elements of elastic constant tensor. Theresults show that the presence of the hydrogen bond chain along [011] direction leads to higher value for elastic tensor Cyyzz suggesting a strong correlation between hydrogen bond chains and the elastic constant along thatdirection. This is consistent with the recent report of Azuri I et al. 2015 Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 54 13566 who reported that rather large Young’s modulus for certain amino acid crystals.
Microscopic origin of volume modulus inflation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cicoli, Michele [ICTP, Strada Costiera 11, Trieste 34014 (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Bologna, via Irnerio 46, 40126 Bologna (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Bologna, via Irnerio 46, 40126 Bologna (Italy); Muia, Francesco [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Bologna, via Irnerio 46, 40126 Bologna (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Bologna, via Irnerio 46, 40126 Bologna (Italy); Pedro, Francisco Gil [Departamento de Fisica Teórica UAM and Instituto de Fisica Teórica UAM/CSIC, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)
2015-12-21
High-scale string inflationary models are in well-known tension with low-energy supersymmetry. A promising solution involves models where the inflaton is the volume of the extra dimensions so that the gravitino mass relaxes from large values during inflation to smaller values today. We describe a possible microscopic origin of the scalar potential of volume modulus inflation by exploiting non-perturbative effects, string loop and higher derivative perturbative corrections to the supergravity effective action together with contributions from anti-branes and charged hidden matter fields. We also analyse the relation between the size of the flux superpotential and the position of the late-time minimum and the inflection point around which inflation takes place. We perform a detailed study of the inflationary dynamics for a single modulus and a two moduli case where we also analyse the sensitivity of the cosmological observables on the choice of initial conditions.
Microscopic Origin of Volume Modulus Inflation
Cicoli, Michele; Pedro, Francisco Gil
2015-01-01
High-scale string inflationary models are in well-known tension with low-energy supersymmetry. A promising solution involves models where the inflaton is the volume of the extra dimensions so that the gravitino mass relaxes from large values during inflation to smaller values today. We describe a possible microscopic origin of the scalar potential of volume modulus inflation by exploiting non-perturbative effects, string loop and higher derivative perturbative corrections to the supergravity effective action together with contributions from anti-branes and charged hidden matter fields. We also analyse the relation between the size of the flux superpotential and the position of the late-time minimum and the inflection point around which inflation takes place. We perform a detailed study of the inflationary dynamics for a single modulus and a two moduli case where we also analyse the sensitivity of the cosmological observables on the choice of initial conditions.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pattou, F.; Trutt, J.C
1963-07-01
A dynamic method has been developed for measuring Young's modulus and the rigidity modulus using the 'Forster Elastomat'. The principle consists in the determination of the resonance frequencies of graphite samples submitted to transverse, longitudinal, and torsional vibrations. The first two modes of vibration make it possible to calculate the elasticity modulus or the Young's modulus E, the third mode makes possible the calculation of the rigidity modulus G. The relationships from which the moduli E and G are measured are given. A systematic study has been made of graphite samples produced by extrusion or compression and submitted afterwards to one or several impregnations with pitch. For graphites made from the same coke by the same method, a linear relationship has been found for Young's modulus as a function of the apparent density. For the same apparent density, graphites made from different starting materials have generally different Young's moduli that bear a relationship to the crystalline characteristics of the material. The measurements of the rigidity modulus C made on different graphites also show the influence of crystallite orientation. (authors) [French] Une methode de mesure dynamique du module d'Young et du module de rigidite du graphite utilisant 'l'Elastomat Forster' a ete mise au point. Le principe consiste a determiner les frequences de resonance d'echantillons de graphite soumis a des vibrations transversales, longitudinales et de torsion. Les deux premiers modes de vibration permettent de calculer le module d'elasticite ou module d'Young E, le troisieme mode de vibration permet de calculer le module de rigidite G. Apres avoir decrit la methode de mesure, on rappelle les relations qui permettent de calculer les modules E et G. L'etude systematique d'echantillons de graphite, fabriques par filage ou pressage et ayant subi eventuellement une ou plusieurs impregnations au
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
杨国良; 钟雯; 黄晓韵; 梁思敏; 何慧慧; 陈家驹
2015-01-01
Based on layered elastic theory,the elastic modulus of asphalt course in asphalt pavement was predicted using BP artificial neural network.According to the types of pavement structure in common use,the database of surface deflections with their corresponding structural parameters of asphalt course based on layered elastic theory was established.The elastic modulus backcalculation model of asphalt course in asphalt pavement was developed using BP artificial neural network to predict.The predictive results of asphalt course elastic modulus backcalculation using theoretical deflection basin and measured deflection basin indicate that the elastic modulus backcalculation model of asphalt course in asphalt pavement is of good predictive accuracy and reliability.It would provide the references with the elastic modulus backcalculation model of asphalt course to accurately and quickly estimate the conditions of asphalt course in asphalt pavement.%基于层状弹性体系理论,建立BP人工神经网络反演沥青路面沥青面层弹性模量预测模型,利用BP人工神经网络预测沥青路面沥青面层弹性模量.理论弯沉盆和实测弯沉盆反演沥青面层弹性模量的结果表明,建立的BP人工神经网络反演沥青路面沥青面层弹性模量模型具有良好的预测精度和可靠性,为评价沥青路面的沥青面层性能状况提供了参考.
Hanson, David E.; Martin, Richard L.
2010-08-01
We investigate the thermodynamic consequences of the distribution of rotational conformations of polyisoprene on the elastic response of a network chain. In contrast to the classical theory of rubber elasticity, which associates the elastic force with the distribution of end-to-end distances, we find that the distribution of chain contour lengths provides a simple mechanism for an elastic force. Entropic force constants were determined for small contour length extensions of chains constructed as a series of localized kinks, with each kink containing between one and five cis-1,4-isoprene units. The probability distributions for the kink end-to-end distances were computed by two methods: (1) by constructing a Boltzmann distribution from the lengths corresponding to the minimum energy dihedral rotational conformations, obtained by optimizing isoprene using first principles density functional theory, and (2) by sampling the trajectories of molecular dynamics simulations of an isolated molecule composed of five isoprene units. Analogous to the well-known tube model of elasticity, we make the assumption that, for small strains, the chain is constrained by its surrounding tube, and can only move, by a process of reptation, along the primitive path of the contour. Assuming that the chain entropy is Boltzmann's constant times the logarithm of the contour length distribution, we compute the tensile force constants for chain contour length extension as the change in entropy times the temperature. For a chain length typical of moderately crosslinked rubber networks (78 isoprene units), the force constants range between 0.004 and 0.033 N/m, depending on the kink size. For a cross-linked network, these force constants predict an initial tensile modulus of between 3 and 8 MPa, which is comparable to the experimental value of 1 MPa. This mechanism is also consistent with other thermodynamic phenomenology.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kocak, B. [Gazi University, Department of Physics, Teknikokullar, 06500 Ankara (Turkey); Ciftci, Y.O., E-mail: yasemin@gazi.edu.tr [Gazi University, Department of Physics, Teknikokullar, 06500 Ankara (Turkey); Colakoglu, K. [Gazi University, Department of Physics, Teknikokullar, 06500 Ankara (Turkey); Deligoz, E. [Aksaray University, Department of Physics, 68100 Aksaray (Turkey)
2012-02-01
The structural, phase transition, elastic, lattice dynamic and thermodynamic properties of rare-earth compounds PrP and PrAs with NaCl (B1), CsCl (B2), ZB (B3), WC (B{sub h}) and CuAu (L1{sub 0}) structures are investigated using the first principles calculations within the generalized gradient approximation (GGA). For the total-energy calculation, we have used the projected augmented plane-wave (PAW) implementation of the Vienna Ab-initio Simulation Package (VASP). Specifically, some basic physical parameters, e.g. lattice constants, bulk modulus, elastic constants, shear modulus, Young's modulus and Poison's ratio, are predicted. The obtained equilibrium structure parameters are in excellent agreement with the experimental and theoretical data. The temperature and pressure variations of the volume, bulk modulus, thermal expansion coefficient, heat capacity and Debye temperature are calculated in wide pressure and temperature ranges. The phonon dispersion curves and corresponding one-phonon density of states (DOS) for both compounds are also computed in the NaCl (B1) structure.
Kocak, B.; Ciftci, Y. O.; Colakoglu, K.; Deligoz, E.
2012-02-01
The structural, phase transition, elastic, lattice dynamic and thermodynamic properties of rare-earth compounds PrP and PrAs with NaCl (B1), CsCl (B2), ZB (B3), WC (B h) and CuAu (L1 0) structures are investigated using the first principles calculations within the generalized gradient approximation (GGA). For the total-energy calculation, we have used the projected augmented plane-wave (PAW) implementation of the Vienna Ab-initio Simulation Package (VASP). Specifically, some basic physical parameters, e.g. lattice constants, bulk modulus, elastic constants, shear modulus, Young's modulus and Poison's ratio, are predicted. The obtained equilibrium structure parameters are in excellent agreement with the experimental and theoretical data. The temperature and pressure variations of the volume, bulk modulus, thermal expansion coefficient, heat capacity and Debye temperature are calculated in wide pressure and temperature ranges. The phonon dispersion curves and corresponding one-phonon density of states (DOS) for both compounds are also computed in the NaCl (B1) structure.
Yu, H.; Adams, R. D.; da Silva, L. F. M.
2014-05-01
The fact that adhesive modulus increases enormously during the cure process from zero to the order of a few GPa makes it difficult or impossible for any commercially available modulus measurement instrument to be used. In order to develop an apparatus to measure how the mechanical properties of the tested adhesive change with time so that the cure process can be monitored and internal residual cured stress can be calculated, a variety of existing methods and apparatuses have been looked at and some tested. A novel form of torsional pendulum for measuring the change of adhesive modulus with time and temperature has been developed. The novelty of the apparatus lies in using a low torsional stiffness soft rubber membrane to physically hold the sample in a uniaxial geometry. It was possible to oscillate the specimen over a range of frequencies, so that the measured dynamic shear modulus range of tested adhesives can be extended to the range of 0.005 MPa to over 1 GPa.
Dynamic Response Analysis of Microflow Electrochemical Sensors with Two Types of Elastic Membrane.
Zhou, Qiuzhan; Wang, Chunhui; Chen, Yongzhi; Chen, Shuozhang; Lin, Jun
2016-05-09
The Molecular Electric Transducer (MET), widely applied for vibration measurement, has excellent sensitivity and dynamic response at low frequencies. The elastic membrane in the MET is a significant factor with an obvious effect on the performance of the MET in the low frequency domain and is the focus of this paper. In simulation experiments, the elastic membrane and the reaction cavity of the MET were analysed in a model based on the multiphysics finite element method. Meanwhile, the effects caused by the elastic membrane elements are verified in this paper. With the numerical simulation and practical experiments, a suitable elastic membrane can be designed for different cavity structures. Thus, the MET can exhibit the best dynamic response characteristics to measure the vibration signals. With the new method presented in this paper, it is possible to develop and optimize the characteristics of the MET effectively, and the dynamic characteristics of the MET can be improved in a thorough and systematic manner.
The role of elastic compressibility in dynamic subduction models
Austmann, Walter; Govers, Rob; Burov, Evgenii
2014-05-01
Recent advances in geodynamic numerical models show a trend towards more realistic rheologies. The Earth is no longer modeled as a purely viscous fluid, but the effects of, for example, elasticity and plasticity are also included. However, by making such improvements, it is essential to include these more complex rheologies in a consistent way. Specifically, compressibility needs also to be included, an effect that is commonly neglected in numerical models. Recently, we showed that the effect of elastic compressibility is significant. This was done for a gravity driven cylinder in a homogeneous Maxwell fluid bounded by closed boundaries. For a fluid with a realistic compressibility (Poisson ratio equals 0.3), the settling velocity showed a discrepancy with the semi-analytical steady state incompressible solution of approximately 40%. The motion of the fluid was no longer restricted by a small region around the cylinder, but the motion of the cylinder compressed also the fluid near the bottom boundary. This compression decreased the resistance on the cylinder and resulted in a larger settling velocity. Here, we examine the influence of elastic compressibility in an oceanic subduction setting. The slab is driven by slab pull and a far field prescribed plate motion. Preliminary results indicate that elastic compressibility has a significant effect on the fluid motion. Differences with respect to nearly incompressible solution are most significant near material boundaries. In line with our earlier findings, the flow is increased in regions of confined flow, such as the mantle wedge or the subduction channel. As a consequence, an increasing compressibility results in a larger slab velocity. We seek to identify surface observables, such as topography and plate motion, that allow us to distinguish the compressible and incompressible behavior.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张新; 程华; 王仲刚; 叶敏
2015-01-01
The finite element method (FEM) of 3D homogenization theory is derived through the homogenization theory in multi⁃scale to predict the equivalent elastic modulus of composite material. It is supposed that porous concrete consists of mortar ma⁃trix and identical smooth balls. To generate the random unit⁃cell model of porous concrete, an improved numerical method of ran⁃dom pores is presented. The expanded polystyrene (EPS) concrete is taken as an example. Six groups of random unit⁃cell models of different volume fractions of EPS concrete are generated, and its equivalent elastic modulus is calculated by FEM of 3D homogeniza⁃tion theory. It is shown that random unit⁃cell model can express both the nonuniform in mesoscale and the equivalent elastic modu⁃lus calculated by FEM of 3D homogenization theory is consistent with Miled’s test.%应用多尺度渐进展开的均匀化理论，推导三维均匀化理论的有限元解法，求解复合材料等效弹性系数。假设多孔混凝土由光滑均匀一致的球孔与水泥石基质组成，提出改进的随机投放方法，生成三维均匀化理论求解的随机单胞模型。以聚苯乙烯泡沫（EPS）混凝土为数值算例，生成6组不同体积分数的EPS混凝土随机单胞模型，通过三维均匀化理论的有限元法计算得到其等效弹性模量。计算结果表明：随机单胞模型能反映细观的非均质性，三维均匀化理论的有限元法计算得到的等效弹性模量变化趋势比较符合Miled的试验结果。
Dynamic Acousto-Elasticity: Pressure and Frequency Dependences in Berea Sandstone.
Riviere, J. V.; Pimienta, L.; Latour, S.; Fortin, J.; Schubnel, A.; Johnson, P. A.
2014-12-01
Nonlinear elasticity is studied at the laboratory scale with the goal of understanding observations at earth scales, for instance during strong ground motion, tidal forcing and earthquake slip processes. Here we report frequency and pressure dependences on elasticity when applying dynamic acousto-elasticity (DAE) of rock samples, analogous to quasi-static acousto-elasticity. DAE allows one to obtain the elastic behavior over the entire dynamic cycle, detailing the full nonlinear behavior under tension and compression, including hysteresis and memory effects. We perform DAE on a sample of Berea sandstone subject to 0.5MPa uniaxial load, with sinusoidal oscillating strain amplitudes ranging from 10-6 to 10-5 and at frequencies from 0.1 to 260Hz. In addition, the confining pressure is increased stepwise from 0 to 30MPa. We compare results to previous measurements made at lower (mHz) and higher (kHz) frequencies. Nonlinear elastic parameters corresponding to conditioning effects, third order elastic constants and fourth order elastic constants are quantitatively compared over the pressure and frequency ranges. We observe that the decrease in modulus due to conditioning increases with frequency, suggesting a frequency and/or strain-rate dependence that should be included in nonlinear elastic models of rocks. In agreement with previous measurements, nonlinear elastic effects also decrease with confining pressure, suggesting that nonlinear elastic sources such as micro-cracks, soft bonds and dislocations are turned off as the pressure increases.
The Effect of the Elastic Compliance of Actuator Components on the Dynamics of a Robot
Gulyaev, Valerii Ivanovich; Zavrazhina, Tat'yana Viktorovna
2003-02-01
Kinematic and dynamic control problems for a pedestal-mounted robot with a multilink arm are formulated. The robot is considered a system of perfectly rigid bodies controlled by a combined actuating system. The mathematical model of robot dynamics accounts for the elastic properties of actuator components based on the formalism of Lagrange equations of the second kind. The effect of the elastic compliance of the actuator components on the dynamics of manipulator links and actuator motors is discussed. A robot with a two-link arm is considered as an example
Paredes, Virginia; Salvagni, Emiliano; Rodríguez-Castellón, Enrique; Manero, José María
2017-08-01
Metals are widely employed for many biological artificial replacements, and it is known that the quality and the physical/chemical properties of the surface are crucial for the success of the implant. Therefore, control over surface implant materials and their elastic moduli may be crucial to avoid undesired effects. In this study, surface modification upon cleaning and activation of a low elastic modulus Ti alloy (Ti25Hf21Nb) was investigated. Two different methods, oxygen plasma (OP) cleaning and piranha (PI) solution, were studied and compared. Both surface treatments were effective for organic contaminant removal and to increase the Ti-oxide layer thickness rather than other metal-oxides present at the surface, which is beneficial for biocompatibility of the material. Furthermore, both techniques drastically increased hydrophilicity and introduced oxidation and hydroxylation (OH)-functional groups at the surface that may be beneficial for further chemical modifications. However, these treatments did not alter the surface roughness and bulk material properties. The surfaces were fully characterized in terms of surface roughness, wettability, oxide layer composition, and hydroxyl surface density through analytical techniques (interferometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), contact angle, and zinc complexation). These findings provide essential information when planning surface modifications for cleanliness, oxide layer thickness, and surface hydroxyl density, as control over these factors is essential for many applications, especially in biomaterials.
Nonlinear effect of elastic vortexlike motion on the dynamic stress state of solids
Shilko, Evgeny V.; Grinyaev, Yurii V.; Popov, Mikhail V.; Popov, Valentin L.; Psakhie, Sergey G.
2016-05-01
We present a theoretical analysis of the dynamic stress-strain state of regions in a solid body that are involved in a collective elastic vortexlike motion. It is shown that the initiation of elastic vortexlike motion in the material is accompanied by the appearance of dilatancy and equivalent strain, the magnitudes of which are proportional to the square of the ratio of linear velocity on the periphery of the elastic vortex to the velocity of longitudinal elastic waves (P wave). Under conditions of dynamic loading the described dynamic effects are able to initiate inelastic deformation or destruction of the material at loading speeds of a few percent of the P -wave speed. The obtained analytical estimates suggest that dynamic nonlinear strains can make a significant contribution in a number of widely studied nonlinear dynamic phenomena in solids. Among them are the effect of acoustic (dynamic) dilatancy in solids and granular media, which leads to the generation of longitudinal elastic waves by transverse waves [V. Tournat et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 085502 (2004), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.92.085502] and the formation of an array of intense "hot spots" (reminiscent of shear-induced hydrodynamic instabilities in fluids) in adiabatic shear bands [P. R. Guduru et al., Phys. Rev. E 64, 036128 (2001), 10.1103/PhysRevE.64.036128].
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
姚文娟; 叶志明
2004-01-01
For statically indeterminate structure, the internal force will be changed with the translation of the supports, because the internal force is related to the absolute value of the stiffness EI. When the tension is different with the compression modulus, EI is the function of internal force and is not constant any more that is different from classic mechanics. In the other words, it is a nonlinear problem to calculate the internal force. The expression for neutral axis of the statically indeterminate structure was derived in the paper. The iterative program for nonlinear internal force was compiled. One case study was presented to illustrate the difference between the results using the different modulus theory and the single modulus theory as in classical mechanics. Finally, some reasonable suggestions were made for the different modulus structures.
Effects of elastic support on the dynamic behaviors of the wind turbine drive train
Wang, Xibin; Zhou, Tianfeng; Xie, Lijing; Jiao, Li; Liu, Zhibing; Liang, Zhiqiang; Yan, Pei
2017-03-01
The reliability and service life of wind turbines are influenced by the complex loading applied on the hub, especially amidst a poor external wind environment. A three-point elastic support, which includes the main bearing and two torque arms, was considered in this study. Based on the flexibilities of the planet carrier and the housing, a coupled dynamic model was developed for a wind turbine drive train. Then, the dynamic behaviors of the drive train for different elastic support parameters were computed and analyzed. Frequency response functions were used to examine how different elastic support parameters influence the dynamic behaviors of the drive train. Results showed that the elastic support parameters considerably influenced the dynamic behaviors of the wind turbine drive train. A large support stiffness of the torque arms decreased the dynamic response of the planet carrier and the main bearing, whereas a large support stiffness of the main bearing decreased the dynamic response of planet carrier while increasing that of the main bearing. The findings of this study provide the foundation for optimizing the elastic support stiffness of the wind turbine drive train.
Effects of elastic support on the dynamic behaviors of the wind turbine drive train
Wang, Shuaishuai; Zhu, Caichao; Song, Chaosheng; Han, Huali
2017-09-01
The reliability and service life of wind turbines are influenced by the complex loading applied on the hub, especially amidst a poor external wind environment. A three-point elastic support, which includes the main bearing and two torque arms, was considered in this study. Based on the flexibilities of the planet carrier and the housing, a coupled dynamic model was developed for a wind turbine drive train. Then, the dynamic behaviors of the drive train for different elastic support parameters were computed and analyzed. Frequency response functions were used to examine how different elastic support parameters influence the dynamic behaviors of the drive train. Results showed that the elastic support parameters considerably influenced the dynamic behaviors of the wind turbine drive train. A large support stiffness of the torque arms decreased the dynamic response of the planet carrier and the main bearing, whereas a large support stiffness of the main bearing decreased the dynamic response of planet carrier while increasing that of the main bearing. The findings of this study provide the foundation for optimizing the elastic support stiffness of the wind turbine drive train.
Dynamics of elastic interactions in soft and biological matter
Yuval, Janni; Safran, Samuel A.
2013-04-01
Cells probe their mechanical environment and can change the organization of their cytoskeletons when the elastic and viscous properties of their environment are modified. We use a model in which the forces exerted by small, contractile acto-myosin filaments (e.g., nascent stress fibers in stem cells) on the extracellular matrix are modeled as local force dipoles. In some cases, the strain field caused by these force dipoles propagates quickly enough so that only static elastic interactions need be considered. On the other hand, in the case of significant energy dissipation, strain propagation is slower and may be eliminated completely by the relaxation of the cellular cytoskeleton (e.g., by cross-link dissociation). Here, we consider several dissipative mechanisms that affect the propagation of the strain field in adhered cells and consider these effects on the interaction between force dipoles and their resulting mutual orientations. This is a first step in understanding the development of orientational (nematic) or layering (smectic) order in the cytoskeleton. We use the theory to estimate the propagation time of the strain fields over a cellular distance for different mechanisms and find that in some cases it can be of the order of seconds, thus competing with the cytoskeletal relaxation time. Furthermore, for a simple system of two force dipoles, we predict that in some cases the orientation of force dipoles might change significantly with time, e.g., for short times the dipoles exhibit parallel alignment while for later times they align perpendicularly.
Various Expressions for Modulus of Random Convexity
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Xiao Lin ZENG
2013-01-01
We first prove various kinds of expressions for modulus of random convexity by using an Lo(F,R)-valued function's intermediate value theorem and the well known Hahn-Banach theorem for almost surely bounded random linear functionals,then establish some basic properties including continuity for modulus of random convexity.In particular,we express the modulus of random convexity of a special random normed module Lo(F,X) derived from a normed space X by the classical modulus of convexity of X.
Room-temperature dynamic quasi-elastic mechanical behavior of a Zr-Cu-Fe-Al bulk metallic glass
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zadorozhnyy, V.Yu.; Zadorozhnyy, M.Yu.; Shuryumov, A.Yu.; Golovin, I.S. [National University of Science and Technology ' ' MISiS' ' , 119049, Moscow (Russian Federation); Ketov, S.V.; Louzguine-Luzgin, D.V. [WPI Advanced Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai, 980-8577 (Japan)
2016-02-15
The paper represents storage modulus and internal friction modulation upon cyclic loading of Zr{sub 61}Cu{sub 27}Fe{sub 2}Al{sub 10} bulk metallic glassy samples within quasi-reversible deformation regime. The structure of the samples was studied by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy including high-resolution imaging and selected-area electron diffraction. It is found that kinetically frozen anelastic deformation accumulates on mechanical cycling at room temperature and causes an increase in the storage modulus and even nanocrystallization of a metallic glassy phase after a certain number of cycles. The study has shown that even a minor cyclic deformation in an elastic region can lead to the changes the atomic structure and in turn affect the elastic modulus. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Elastic moduli of pyrope rich garnets
Pandey, B. K.; Pandey, A. K.; Singh, C. K.
2013-06-01
The elastic properties of minerals depend on its composition, crystal structure, temperature and level of defects. The elastic parameters are important for the interpretation of the structure and composition of the garnet rich family. In present work we have calculated the elastic moduli such as isothermal bulk modulus, Young's modulus and Shear modulus over a wide range of temperature from 300 K to 1000 K by using Birch EOS and Poirrier Tarantola equation of state. The obtained results are compared with the experimental results obtained by measuring the elastic moduli of single crystal. The calculated results show that the logarithmic isothermal EOS does not cooperate well with experimental results.
Quantitative photoacoustic elastography of Young's modulus in humans
Hai, Pengfei; Zhou, Yong; Gong, Lei; Wang, Lihong V.
2017-03-01
Elastography can noninvasively map the elasticity distribution of biological tissue, which is often altered in pathological states. In this work, we report quantitative photoacoustic elastography (QPAE), capable of measuring Young's modulus of human tissue in vivo. By combining photoacoustic elastography with a stress sensor having known stress-strain behavior, QPAE can simultaneously measure strain and stress, from which Young's modulus is calculated. We first applied QPAE to quantify the Young's modulus of tissue-mimicking agar phantoms with different concentrations. The measured values fitted well with both the empirical expectations based on the agar concentrations and those measured in independent standard compression tests. We then demonstrated the feasibility of QPAE by measuring the Young's modulus of human skeletal muscle in vivo. The data showed a linear relationship between muscle stiffness and loading. The results proved that QPAE can noninvasively quantify the absolute elasticity of biological tissue, thus enabling longitudinal imaging of tissue elasticity. QPAE can be exploited for both preclinical biomechanics studies and clinical applications.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
杜修力; 金浏
2012-01-01
Concrete was assumed to compose of aggregate particles and a mortar matrix, and the concrete unit was processed equivalently based on the Voigt parallel model in the paper. The distribution of equivalent elastic modulus of a meso-unit was studied, based on the Weibull distribution, and a graphical method and the stepwise regression were applied to optimizing the estimated parameters. Furthermore, the validity of the assumed distribution was examined by the Kolmogorov test. The statistical parameter of element Young's modulus with different element-scale, and the spatial distribution randomness of aggregate were studied in the paper. The problem on material characteristic element scale of concrete of different grade-level was analyzed at the end of the paper. The analytical results indicate that: l) the form and the parameters of random distribution of elastic modulus of a concrete meso-scale unit have size effects, and not fully obey the Weibull distribution. 2) the variability of elastic modulus of a concrete meso-element associates with scales; and the variability increases firstly and tends to be stable gradually with the decrease of element size, which reflects the facts that there exists a reasonable representation of non-uniform degree of concrete at meso level. The reasonable scale, i.e. the variation coefficients tending to the inflection point of a smooth transition to the corresponding scale, is defined as a characteristic element scale. 3) The characteristic element scale of concrete material on two-grade, three-grade and four-grade are 10mm, 15mm and 18mm, respectively. 4) The spatial distribution randomness of aggregate has little effects on random distribution properties of elastic modulus of a concrete meso-unit.%假定混凝土是由骨料颗粒及砂浆基质组成的复合材料,基于Voigt并联模型对混凝土细观单元进行等效化,对单元的等效弹性模量进行统计分析。以Weibull分布为假设分布,
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Protasio F Castro
1997-06-01
Full Text Available Um estudo experimental foi realizado com o objetivo de contribuir com o desenvolvimento de métodos de ensaios de avaliação das características mecânicas das barras de plástico reforçado com fibra (FRP a serem utilizadas como armadura nas obras de engenharia civil. Comparou-se o módulo de elasticidade estático, obtido por ensaio de tração em uma máquina universal, com o módulo de elasticidade dinâmico, obtido por ensaios não destrutivos. O módulo de elasticidade dinâmico foi determinado utilizando-se dois métodos de propagação de ondas: o pulso ultra-sônico e a freqüência de ressonância. Os valores do módulo de elasticidade dinâmico e os valores do módulo de elasticidade estático obtidos a partir da curva tensão-deformação dos ensaios de tração são significativamente semelhantes. Os resultados mostram que os ensaios de módulo de elasticidade dinâmico possuem potencial para serem utilizados na linha de fabricação das barras de FRP como controle da produção.An experimental study was carried out to support the development of standards test methods for fiber reinforced plastic (FRP bars used as concrete reinforcement. In addition, this study compares the elastic modulus values from tensile stress-strain curves with the dynamic values obtained nondestructively. Dynamic modulus of elasticity was determined using two stress wave propagation methods: ultrasonic pulse velocity and resonant frequency. The dynamic values compared favorably with values obtained from tensile stress-strain curves. The results showed the feasibility of using nondestructive methods, as control test, to estimate FRP bars elastic modulus in a manufacture process.
Elastic fiber formation: a dynamic view of extracellular matrix assembly using timer reporters.
Kozel, Beth A; Rongish, Brenda J; Czirok, Andras; Zach, Julia; Little, Charles D; Davis, Elaine C; Knutsen, Russell H; Wagenseil, Jessica E; Levy, Marilyn A; Mecham, Robert P
2006-04-01
To study the dynamics of elastic fiber assembly, mammalian cells were transfected with a cDNA construct encoding bovine tropoelastin in frame with the Timer reporter. Timer is a derivative of the DsRed fluorescent protein that changes from green to red over time and, hence, can be used to distinguish new from old elastin. Using dynamic imaging microscopy, we found that the first step in elastic fiber formation is the appearance of small cell surface-associated elastin globules that increased in size with time (microassembly). The elastin globules are eventually transferred to pre-existing elastic fibers in the extracellular matrix where they coalesce into larger structures (macroassembly). Mechanical forces associated with cell movement help shape the forming, extracellular elastic fiber network. Time-lapse imaging combined with the use of Timer constructs provides unique tools for studying the temporal and spatial aspects of extracellular matrix formation by live cells.
微米木纤维颈椎夹板的制备及其弹性模量模型%Preparation of micron wood ifbre cervical splint and its elastic modulus model
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张杨; 马岩
2015-01-01
In order to meet the medical criteria in the strength of cervical splints, with micron grade wood ifber as the material, the micron wood ifbre cervical splint was prepared. Through the micro-organisational observation on Populus tomentosa wood ifbre (its density was 0.439 g/cm3 and its moisture content was between12% ~ 15%, it was found that the interior structure of the wood ifbre showed a stable honeycombed unidirectional spongy structure. The wood ifbre had good toughness and intensity when it was cut into the micron wood ifbre (average thickness 52mm) and it can be uses in medical cervical splint manufacturing after molded. By calculating the elastic modulus values under the different pavement states of wood ifbers, it also could be found that in the molding process, the ifber size, density, amount of compression, amount of glue, gluing effect and other factors all will cause influences to the elastic modulus of the cervical splint.%为制备出在强度上满足医用条件的颈椎夹板，以微米级的木纤维为材料，通过对密度0.439 g/cm3、含水率12%～15%的毛白杨进行微观组织观察，发现木材内部呈现稳定的蜂窝状单向多孔结构，用其切削出平均厚度为52 mm的木纤维，具有良好的韧性和强度，经过模压可用于制造医用颈椎夹板。对木纤维不同铺装状态下的弹性模量进行计算，得出了在模压过程中纤维尺寸、密度、压缩量、施胶量、胶合程度等因素都会对夹板弹性模量产生一定的影响。
Study of low elastic modulus expandable screws in osteoporotic sheep in vivo%低弹性模量膨胀螺钉在骨质疏松绵羊的体内研究
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
石磊; 王陵; 雷伟; 郭征; 吴子祥; 刘达
2011-01-01
Objective To observe the biological performance of the low elastic modulus expandable screw in osteoporotic sheep in vivo and to find out whether the stability of the screw can be improved. Methods Four adult female sheep were ovariectomized. After 12 months, the bone mineral density of the lumber vertebra was determined using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry to confirm the establishment of the osteoporosis model. Bilateral pedicles of the lumbar vertebrae ( L, -L, ) were random fixed with two different elastic modulus expendable screws, low elastic module expandable screws (42GPa) for the experiment group and ordinary expandable screws (HOGPa) for the control group. All the animals were sacrificed 3 months after the implantation. Maximal force testing, micro-CT measurement, and histology analysis were performed. Results BMD of the lumbar vertebrae of the sheep decreased significantly 1 year after ovariectomy ( P 0. 05 ) . Histological observation showed that newly formed bone around the screws was more in the experimental group than in the controlgroup. Meanwhile more tight contact and less fibrous connective tissue were observed on the screw-boneinterface in the experimental group. Conclusion The low elastic modulus expandable screws can furtherimprove the biomechanioal fixation strength in osteoporotk: sheep and reduce the failure of the screwfixation, through reduction of the difference of elastic modulus between the screws and the surrounding bonetissue.%目的 观察应力作用下低弹性模量膨胀螺钉在骨质疏松绵羊体内生物学表现,探讨其是否能在普通膨胀螺钉的基础上进一步提高螺钉的稳定性.方法 选用4只成年雌性绵羊,行去势手术12月后,以双能X线骨密度测量仪测定去势前后腰椎骨密度,确定骨质疏松模型建立成功.于L1-L5脊椎两侧椎弓根内随机植入两种弹性模量的膨胀螺钉,低弹膨胀螺钉(42GPa)为实验组,普通膨胀螺钉(110GPa)为对照组,术后3月处
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hu, Feng Feng; Sun, Yu; Peng, Bin Bin [School of Mechanical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing (China)
2016-10-15
An elastic dynamic model of high-speed multi-link precision press considering structural stiffness of rotation joints was established by the finite element method. In the finite element model, rotation joint was established by four bar elements with equivalent stiffness, and connected link was established by beam element. Then, the elastic dynamics equation of the system was established, and modal superposition method was used to solve the dynamic response. Compared with the traditional elastic dynamic model with perfect constraint of the rotation joints, the elastic dynamic response value of the improved model is larger. To validate the presented new method of elastic dynamics analysis with stiffness of rotation joints, a related test of slider Bottom dead center (BDC) position in different speed was designed. The test shows that the model with stiffness of rotation joints is more reasonable. So it provides a reasonable theory and method for dynamic characteristics research of such a multi-link machine.
Flight Dynamics and Control of Elastic Hypersonic Vehicles Uncertainty Modeling
Chavez, Frank R.; Schmidt, David K.
1994-01-01
It has been shown previously that hypersonic air-breathing aircraft exhibit strong aeroelastic/aeropropulsive dynamic interactions. To investigate these, especially from the perspective of the vehicle dynamics and control, analytical expressions for key stability derivatives were derived, and an analysis of the dynamics was performed. In this paper, the important issue of model uncertainty, and the appropriate forms for representing this uncertainty, is addressed. It is shown that the methods suggested in the literature for analyzing the robustness of multivariable feedback systems, which as a prerequisite to their application assume particular forms of model uncertainty, can be difficult to apply on real atmospheric flight vehicles. Also, the extent to which available methods are conservative is demonstrated for this class of vehicle dynamics.
Bakker, D.P.; Huijs, F.M.; Vries, J. de; Klijnstra, J.W.; Busscher, H.J.; Mei, H.C. van der
2003-01-01
Deposition of three marine bacterial strains with different cell surface hydrophobicities from artificial seawater to polyurethane coatings on glass with different surface tensions and elastic modulus was studied in situ in a parallel plate (PP) and stagnation point (SP) flow chamber. Different surf
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eva Wahyu Indriyati
2013-06-01
Full Text Available The increasing demand of crude oil will increase the price of petroleum asphalt. Indonesia has imported asphalt to meet the need for the annually road construction and maintenance. One solution to improving the rheological properties of bitumen is by adding the harder bitumen or other chemical compound to reduce dependence to petroleum asphalt. In Indonesia there is a source of natural asphalt in Buton Island, Sulawesi with huge amount of deposit that potentially could improve the rheological properties of Pen 60/70 Petroleum Asphalt. In order to obtain a better understanding on the contribution of Asbuton to the improvement of performance on rheological properties, this research used 19 variations of Asbuton and pen 60/70 petroleum bitumen. This variation is then subjected to the basic rheology test and the mechanistic test using Dynamic Shear Rheometer. The conclusion of basic rheological performance is obtained that mixture (Asbuton and 60/70 petroleum bitumen will increase hardness of bitumen. Conclusion on mechanistic rheological performance is that mixture (Asbuton and 60/70 petrol bitumen will increase Performance Grade (PG and Complex Shear Modulus (G*. The results from the analysis of Master Curve and Black Diagram, it is shown that the increasing proportion of bitumen Asbuton will decrease the phase angle (δ but its temperature susceptibility is worse.
A micromechanical approach for homogenization of elastic metamaterials with dynamic microstructure
Muhlestein, Michael B.; Haberman, Michael R.
2016-08-01
An approximate homogenization technique is presented for generally anisotropic elastic metamaterials consisting of an elastic host material containing randomly distributed heterogeneities displaying frequency-dependent material properties. The dynamic response may arise from relaxation processes such as viscoelasticity or from dynamic microstructure. A Green's function approach is used to model elastic inhomogeneities embedded within a uniform elastic matrix as force sources that are excited by a time-varying, spatially uniform displacement field. Assuming dynamic subwavelength inhomogeneities only interact through their volume-averaged fields implies the macroscopic stress and momentum density fields are functions of both the microscopic strain and velocity fields, and may be related to the macroscopic strain and velocity fields through localization tensors. The macroscopic and microscopic fields are combined to yield a homogenization scheme that predicts the local effective stiffness, density and coupling tensors for an effective Willis-type constitutive equation. It is shown that when internal degrees of freedom of the inhomogeneities are present, Willis-type coupling becomes necessary on the macroscale. To demonstrate the utility of the homogenization technique, the effective properties of an isotropic elastic matrix material containing isotropic and anisotropic spherical inhomogeneities, isotropic spheroidal inhomogeneities and isotropic dynamic spherical inhomogeneities are presented and discussed.
基于弹性模量的再生混凝土疲劳强度分析%On Fatigue Strength of Recycled Aggregate Concrete Based on Its Elastic Modulus
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李宏; 肖建庄
2012-01-01
通过试验与分析,建立了再生混凝土弹性模量与其疲劳强度的回归公式,结果表明:由该回归公式计算出的再生混凝土受压疲劳强度与试验结果接近,可用来预测再生混凝土的受压疲劳强度,并指导工程实践;初步验证了GB 50010-2002《混凝土结构设计规范》中普通混凝土受压疲劳强度的取值方法对再生混凝土同样适用.%Based on the experiments and analysis, the relationship between the elastic modulus and the fatigue strength of recycled aggregate concrete(RAC) was established. The compressive fatigue strength calculated according to the formula suggested by this investigation is close to the experimental results, a reliable prediction for the compressive fatigue strength of RAC can be used to guide the engineering practice. And it is confirmed from this study that the method in code for GB 50010-2002 (Design of Concrete Structures＞ is suitable for the calculation of the compressive fatigue strength of RAC.
Dynamics of the rotor on elastic-damping supports under action of kinematic effects
Chernyshev, V.; Savin, L.; Fominova, O.
2017-08-01
The article describes the elements of the theory of dynamic analysis of rotor systems. The mathematical model of a gyroscopic rotor as an elementary object on elastic-damping supports. The results of simulation of the trajectories of the rotor under kinematic loading with amplitude commensurate with the clearance in bearing assemblies of fluid friction.
Mechanical vulnerability of lower second premolar utilising visco-elastic dynamic stress analysis.
Khani, M M; Tafazzoli-Shadpour, M; Aghajani, F; Naderi, P
2009-10-01
Stress analysis determines vulnerability of dental tissues to external loads. Stress values depend on loading conditions, mechanical properties and constrains of structural components. The critical stress levels lead to tissue damage. The aim of this study is to analyse dynamic stress distribution of lower second premolar due to physiological cyclic loading, and dependency of pulsatile stress characteristics to visco-elastic property of dental components by finite element modelling. Results show that visco-elastic property markedly influences stress determinants in major anatomical sites including dentin, cementum-enamel and dentin-enamel junctions. Reduction of visco-elastic parameter leads to mechanical vulnerability through elevation of stress pulse amplitude, maximum stress value; and reduction of stress phase shift as a determinant of stress wave propagation. The results may be applied in situations in which visco-elasticity is reduced such as root canal therapy and post and core restoration in which teeth are more vulnerable to fracture.
Analysis of the dynamic response of layered, elastic media by means of the Fast Fourier Transform
Abdelkarim, A.M.A.M.; Vrouwenvelder, A.C.W.M.
1999-01-01
A straightforward method is presented to calculate the three-dimensional response of layered, elastic half-spaces to a dynamic surface loading. The derivation of the method is performed in the wavenumber-frequency domain. Space-frequency domain results are subsequently obtained through the applicati
Torsional Buckling and Writhing Dynamics of Elastic Cables and DNA
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Goyal, S; Perkins, N C; Lee, C L
2003-02-14
Marine cables under low tension and torsion on the sea floor can undergo a dynamic buckling process during which torsional strain energy is converted to bending strain energy. The resulting three-dimensional cable geometries can be highly contorted and include loops and tangles. Similar geometries are known to exist for supercoiled DNA and these also arise from the conversion of torsional strain energy to bending strain energy or, kinematically, a conversion of twist to writhe. A dynamic form of Kirchhoff rod theory is presented herein that captures these nonlinear dynamic processes. The resulting theory is discretized using the generalized-method for finite differencing in both space and time. The important kinematics of cross-section rotation are described using an incremental rotation ''vector'' as opposed to traditional Euler angles or Euler parameters. Numerical solutions are presented for an example system of a cable subjected to increasing twist at one end. The solutions show the dynamic evolution of the cable from an initially straight element, through a buckled element in the approximate form of a helix, and through the dynamic collapse of this helix through a looped form.
Elastic Dynamic Stability of Big-Span Power Transmission Tower Subjected to Seismic Excitations
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG Hang; LI Li; FANG Qin-han; YE Kun
2009-01-01
By combining the time-history response analysis and the eigenvalue buckling analysis,this paper developed a computational procedure to study the elastic dynamic stability of a transmission tower by APDL language in ANSYS.The influences of different input directions of seismic excitations and damping ratio on the elastic dynamic stability of tower were discussed.The following conclusions were obtained:(1) Longitudinal direction of the transmission lines is the worst input direction of seismic excitation for the transmission tower.(2) Dead load has no significant effect on the critical load and the occurrence time of buckling.(3) Vertical input of seismic excitations has no great effect on the dynamic stability of the transmission tower.(4) Damping effect has an influence on the dynamic stability of the transmission tower; however,the inherent characteristics of dynamic buckling is not changed.
Experimental and Theoretical Study of Young Modulus in Micromachined Polysilicon Films
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
丁建宁; 孟永钢; 温诗铸
2002-01-01
The elastic modulus is a very important mechanical property in micromachined structures. Several design issues such as resonant frequencies and stiffness in the micromachined structures are related to the elastic modulus. In addition, the accuracy of results from finite element models is highly dependent upon the elastic modulus. In this study, the Young modulus of micromachined thin polysilicon films has been investigated with a new tensile test machine using a magnetic-solenoid force actuator with linear response, low hysteresis, no friction and direct electrical control. The tensile test results show that the measured average value of Young modulus for a typical sample, (164±1.2) GPa, falls within the theoretical bounds of the texture model. These results will provide more reliable design of polysilicon microelectromechanical systems (MEMS).
The elastic dynamics analysis of band saw tightening system
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2000-01-01
In this paper, the node movement analysis of the levers of band saw tightening system is developed. A group of theoretical displacement and distortion equations of levers are presented using the Lagrange's equation. This could be the basis for the future research in the field of band saw's tightening system dynamics analysis.
Estimation of the Young’s modulus of cellulose Iß by MM3 and quantum mechanics
Young’s modulus provides a measure of the resistance to deformation of an elastic material. In this study, modulus estimations for models of cellulose Iß relied on calculations performed with molecular mechanics (MM) and quantum mechanics (QM) programs. MM computations used the second generation emp...
On the modelling of the dynamics of elastically deformable floating structures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Seng, Sopheak; Malenica, Sime; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher;
2015-01-01
In this paper we are reexamining the dynamic equations of an elastically deformable floating structure to identify and evaluate the contribution from the inertia cross coupling terms which commonly have been neglected due to the assumption of small structural deformation. Numerical experiments...
Quasi-elastic neutron scattering studies of protein dynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rorschach, H.E.
1991-03-20
The techniques of X-ray and neutron scattering that have been so successfully applied to the study of the structure of biological macromolecules have in recent years been also used for the study of the thermal motion of these molecules. The diffraction of X-rays has been widely used to investigate the high-frequency motion of the heavy-atom residues of proteins. In these studies, the mean-square thermal amplitudes can be determined from the intensities of the sharp structural lines obtained from single crystals of the hydrated proteins. Similar information can be obtained on lighter atoms from the study of the neutron scattering from single crystals. The results of these measurements are coupled closely to the rapidly developing field of theoretical molecular dynamics which is now being applied to study the dynamics of large biological molecules. This report discusses research in this area.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Surucu, G. [Kaman MYO, Ahi Evran Univ., Kaman (Turkey); Colakoglu, K.; Ciftci, Y.O. [Gazi Univ., Teknikokullar, Dept. of Physics, Ankara (Turkey); Ozisik, H.B.; Deligoz, E., E-mail: edeligoz@yahoo.com [Alsaray Univ. (Turkey). Depet. of Physics
2015-12-15
Using the generalized-gradient approximation (GGA) based on density functional theory, we have reported the structural, mechanical, electronic, and lattice dynamical properties of the intermetallic compounds Pd{sub 3}X (X = Ti, Zr, Hf) with D0{sub 24} and the L1{sub 2} structures. The elastic constants were predicted using the stress-finite strain technique. We performed numerical estimations of the bulk modulus, shear modulus, Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio anisotropy factor, G/B ratio, and hardness. Our studies have showed that all Pd{sub 3}X (X = Ti, Zr, Hf) with D0{sub 24} and the L1{sub 2} structures are mechanically stable and relatively hard materials with low compressibility, and they could be considered as ductile systems. Also, the phonon dispersion curves and total and partial density of states were calculated and discussed for Pd{sub 3}X (X = Ti, Zr, Hf). We finally estimated some thermodynamic properties such as entropy, free energy, and heat capacity at the temperature range 0–1000 K. The calculated phonon frequencies of Pd{sub 3}X (X = Ti, Zr, Hf) are positive, indicating the dynamical stability of the studied compounds. For the first time, we have performed the numerical estimation of lattice dynamical properties for the compounds and still awaits experimental confirmation. The obtained ground state properties are in good agreement with those of experimental and theoretical studies. (author)
Accurate direct Eulerian simulation of dynamic elastic-plastic flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kamm, James R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Walter, John W [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2009-01-01
The simulation of dynamic, large strain deformation is an important, difficult, and unsolved computational challenge. Existing Eulerian schemes for dynamic material response are plagued by unresolved issues. We present a new scheme for the first-order system of elasto-plasticity equations in the Eulerian frame. This system has an intrinsic constraint on the inverse deformation gradient. Standard Godunov schemes do not satisfy this constraint. The method of Flux Distributions (FD) was devised to discretely enforce such constraints for numerical schemes with cell-centered variables. We describe a Flux Distribution approach that enforces the inverse deformation gradient constraint. As this approach is new and novel, we do not yet have numerical results to validate our claims. This paper is the first installment of our program to develop this new method.
Dynamics of a chain of magnetic particles connected with elastic linkers
Cebers, A
2003-01-01
The model of an elastic magnetic chain is considered. By numerical simulation of the dynamics of rod shapes acted on by magnetic and elastic forces in viscous fluid, it is shown that the characteristic 'U'-like metastable shapes (hairpins) can be formed. The characteristic 'S'-like long-living shapes are formed at intermediate stages, depending on the initial perturbation of the rod, and finally relax to the global energy minima corresponding to the straight rod. Further extensions of the model will include long-range magnetic interactions between distant parts of a rod.
Tripathy, Mukta; Schweizer, Kenneth S
2011-04-01
In paper II of this series we apply the center-of-mass version of Nonlinear Langevin Equation theory to study how short-range attractive interactions influence the elastic shear modulus, transient localization length, activated dynamics, and kinetic arrest of a variety of nonspherical particle dense fluids (and the spherical analog) as a function of volume fraction and attraction strength. The activation barrier (roughly the natural logarithm of the dimensionless relaxation time) is predicted to be a rich function of particle shape, volume fraction, and attraction strength, and the dynamic fragility varies significantly with particle shape. At fixed volume fraction, the barrier grows in a parabolic manner with inverse temperature nondimensionalized by an onset value, analogous to what has been established for thermal glass-forming liquids. Kinetic arrest boundaries lie at significantly higher volume fractions and attraction strengths relative to their dynamic crossover analogs, but their particle shape dependence remains the same. A limited universality of barrier heights is found based on the concept of an effective mean-square confining force. The mean hopping time and self-diffusion constant in the attractive glass region of the nonequilibrium phase diagram is predicted to vary nonmonotonically with attraction strength or inverse temperature, qualitatively consistent with recent computer simulations and colloid experiments.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yakup Hundur; Rainer Hippler; Ziya B. Güven(c)
2006-01-01
@@ Linear thermal expansion coefficient (TEC) of Ti bulk is investigated by means of molecular dynamics simulation.The elastic minimum image convention of periodic boundary conditions is introduced to allow the bulk to adjust its size according to the new fixed temperature. The TEC and the specific heat of Ti are compared to the available theoretical and experimental data.
Knipfer, T; Fei, J; Gambetta, G A; Shackel, K A; Matthews, M A
2014-10-21
The cell-pressure-probe is a unique tool to study plant water relations in-situ. Inaccuracy in the estimation of cell volume (νo) is the major source of error in the calculation of both cell volumetric elastic modulus (ε) and cell hydraulic conductivity (Lp). Estimates of νo and Lp can be obtained with the pressure-clamp (PC) and pressure-relaxation (PR) methods. In theory, both methods should result in comparable νo and Lp estimates, but this has not been the case. In this study, the existing νo-theories for PC and PR methods were reviewed and clarified. A revised νo-theory was developed that is equally valid for the PC and PR methods. The revised theory was used to determine νo for two extreme scenarios of solute mixing between the experimental cell and sap in the pressure probe microcapillary. Using a fully automated cell-pressure-probe (ACPP) on leaf epidermal cells of Tradescantia virginiana, the validity of the revised theory was tested with experimental data. Calculated νo values from both methods were in the range of optically determined νo (=1.1-5.0nL) for T. virginiana. However, the PC method produced a systematically lower (21%) calculated νo compared to the PR method. Effects of solute mixing could only explain a potential error in calculated νo of cell turgor) of 19%, which is a fundamental parameter in calculating νo. It followed from the revised theory that the ratio of ΔV/ΔP was inversely related to the solute reflection coefficient. This highlighted that treating the experimental cell as an ideal osmometer in both methods is potentially not correct. Effects of non-ideal osmotic behavior by transmembrane solute movement may be minimized in the PR as compared to the PC method.
Flexural modulus identification of thin polymer sheets
Gluhihs, S.; Kovalovs, A.; Tishkunovs, A.; Chate, A.
2011-06-01
The method of determination of the flexural Young's modulus is based on a solution to the problem of compression of a thin-walled cylindrical specimen by two parallel planes (TWCS method). This method was employed to calculate the flexural modulus for PET polymer compositions. The flexural modules received by TWCS method were verified by comparing the experimentally measured eigenfrequencies by Polytec vibrometer with numerical results from ANSYS program.
Flexural modulus identification of thin polymer sheets
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gluhihs, S; Kovalovs, A; Tishkunovs, A; Chate, A, E-mail: s_gluhih@inbox.lv [Riga Technical University, Institute of Materials and Structures, Azenes 16/22, LV-1048, Riga (Latvia)
2011-06-23
The method of determination of the flexural Young's modulus is based on a solution to the problem of compression of a thin-walled cylindrical specimen by two parallel planes (TWCS method). This method was employed to calculate the flexural modulus for PET polymer compositions. The flexural modules received by TWCS method were verified by comparing the experimentally measured eigenfrequencies by Polytec vibrometer with numerical results from ANSYS program.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
范春芝; 安力春; 徐建红; 王真; 孙静; 唐杰; 温朝阳
2011-01-01
目的 研究声束平行于肌纤维(纵切面)和声束垂直于肌纤维(横切面)时肱二头肌的杨氏模量值差异.方法 141例男性志愿者,年龄16～34岁,平均22岁,均无上肢外伤史、重症肌无力、进行性肌营养不良、周期性瘫痪、代谢性肌病等病史.使用法国Supersonic Imagine公司的AixPlore型实时定量剪切波超声弹性成像超声诊断仪,L4-15线阵探头.探头平行于肱二头肌肌纤维(纵切面)和垂直于肱二头肌肌纤维(横切面)时分别测量肱二头肌杨氏模量值并进行比较.结果 松弛状态下,肱二头肌纵切面杨氏模量值为(45.658±13.479)kPa,横切面杨氏模量值为(7.334±1.612) kPa,差异有统计学意义(P=0.0000);收缩状态下,肱二头肌纵切面杨氏模量值为(123.658±31.392) kPa,横切面杨氏模量值为(13.261±4.045)kPa,差异有统计学意义(P=0.0000).结论 肱二头肌纵切面杨氏模量值明显大于横切面杨氏模量值;肱二头肌弹性模量的各向异性,提示在检查心肌、肾脏等组织结构具有各向异性的脏器时,应注意到超声检查切面角度可能会影响其杨氏模量测量值大小;横切面检查和纵切面检查相结合也许能为疾病的诊断提供更多的信息和依据.%Objective To assess the elastic modulus difference of the ultrasonic beam parallel to the biceps brachii fiber( longitudinal section )and the ultrasonic beam perpendicular to the biceps brachii fibers( cross section ). Methods A total of 141 male volunteers aged 16 to 34 years ( mean 22 years old ), who had no history of upper extremity trauma, myasthenia gravis, progressive muscular dystrophy, periodic paralysis and metabolic myopathy were included in the study. A shear-wave elasto-sonography ( AixPlorer model, Supersonic Imagine, Aix en Provence, France ) coupled with a linear array transducer array ( 4-15 MHz ) was employed. The ultrasound transducer was parallel to the biceps brachii muscle fiber and then it was
Chaotic Dynamics of the Partially Follower-Loaded Elastic Double Pendulum
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Thomsen, Jon Juel
1995-01-01
The non-linear dynamics of the elastically restrained double pendulum, with non-conservative follower-type loading and linear damping, is re-examined with specific reference to the occurrence of chaotic motion. A local non-linear perturbation analysis is performed, showing that in three distinct ...
Oscillatory Structure of Elastic Precursor in Shocked Crystalline Solids: A Molecular Dynamics Study
Zybin, Sergey; Zhakhovskii, Vasilii; Elert, Mark; White, Carter T.
2003-03-01
Molecular dynamics simulations are used to study the structure of elastic precursors of shock waves propagating through crystalline solids in different directions. Both rare gas and diamond crystals were studied using Lennard-Jones and reactive empirical bond order potentials respectively. Elastic precursors were found to exhibit an oscillatory profile for various directions and different shock strengths ranging from a pure elastic wave to an elastic-plastic shock splitting to a shock wave with melting. These oscillations originate from collisions of atomic planes in the shock direction bouncing against each other as in one-dimensional chain. After the oscillations fade, and the shear stress achieves its sustained maximum value, plastic deformation develops. These effects are strongly influenced by the orientation dependence of shear stress under high strain rate at the shock front. Our simulations also show that a stationary combination of elastic precursor with plastic wave could exist in moderate and even melting shock waves. The oscillatory structure of the elastic precursor might play an important role in the initiation of shock-induced chemical reactions in crystalline solids.
Bu, Shao-Chong; Kuijer, Roel; van der Worp, Roelofje J; van Putten, Sander M; Wouters, Olaf; Li, Xiao-Rong; Hooymans, Johanna M M; Los, Leonoor I
2015-09-01
The stiffness of the extracellular matrix has been shown to regulate cell adhesion, migration, and transdifferentiation in fibrotic processes. Retinal Müller cells have been shown to be mechanosensitive; they are involved in fibrotic vitreoretinal diseases. Since fibrosis increases the rigidity of the extracellular matrix, our aim was to develop an in vitro model for studying Müller cell morphology and differentiation state in relation to matrix stiffness. A spontaneously immortalized human Müller cell line (MIO-M1) was cultured on type I collagen-coated polyacrylamide gels with Young's moduli ranging from 2 to 92 kPa. Cell surface area, focal adhesion, and the expression and morphology of α-smooth muscle actin induced by transforming growth factor β (TGF-β [10 ng/mL for 48 hours]) were analyzed by immunocytology. The images were documented by using fluorescence microscopy and confocal scanning laser microscopy. MIO-M1 cells cultured on stiff substrates exhibited a significant increase in cell surface area, stress fiber, and mature focal adhesion formation. Furthermore, Müller cells treated with TGF-β1 and TGF-β2 and cultured on stiff substrates showed an increased incorporation of α-smooth muscle actin into stress fibers when compared to those grown on soft surfaces. Compliance of the surrounding matrix seems to influence the morphology and contraction of retinal Müller cells in fibrotic conditions. Development of an in vitro model simulating both the normally compliant retinal tissue and the rigid retinal fibrotic tissue helps fill the gap between the results of petri-dish cell culture with rigid surfaces and in vivo findings.
Staii, Cristian
2014-03-01
Detailed knowledge of mechanical parameters such as cell elasticity, stiffness of the growth substrate, or traction stresses generated during axonal extensions is essential for understanding the mechanisms that control neuronal growth. Here I present results obtained in my research group, which combine Atomic Force Microscopy and Fluorescence Microscopy measurements to produce systematic, high-resolution elasticity maps for different types of live neuronal cells cultured on glass or biopolymer-based substrates. We measure how the stiffness of neurons changes both during neurite outgrowth and upon chemical modification (disruption of the cytoskeleton) of the cell. We find a reversible local stiffening of the cell during growth, and show that the increase in local elastic modulus is primarily due to the formation of microtubules in the cell soma. We also report a reversible shift in the elastic modulus of the cortical neurons cytoskeleton with temperature, from tubulin dominated regions at 37C to actin dominated regions at 25C. We demonstrate that the dominant mechanism by which the elasticity of the neuronal soma changes in response to temperature is the contractile stiffening of the actin component of the cytoskeleton induced by the activity of myosin II motors. We acknowledge financial support from NSF grant CBET 1067093.
Numerical simulation of hydro-elastic problems with smoothed particle hydro-dynamics method
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘谋斌; 邵家儒; 李慧琦
2013-01-01
Violent free surface flows with strong fluid-solid interactions can produce a tremendous pressure load on structures, resu-lting in elastic and even plastic deformations. Modeling hydro-elastic problems with structure deformations and a free surface break-up is difficult by using routine numerical methods. This paper presents an improved Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) method for modeling hydro-elastic problems. The fluid particles are used to model the free surface flows governed by Navier-Stokes equations, and the solid particles are used to model the dynamic movement and deformation of the elastic solid objects. The impro-ved SPH method employs a Kernel Gradient Correction (KGC) technique to improve the computational accuracy and a Fluid-Solid Interface Treatment (FSIT) algorithm with the interface fluid and solid particles being treated as the virtual particles against their counterparts and a soft repulsive force to prevent the penetration and a corrective density approximation scheme to remove the nume-rical oscillations. Three typical numerical examples are simulated, including a head-on collision of two rubber rings, the dam break with an elastic gate and the water impact onto a forefront elastic plate. The obtained SPH results agree well with experimental obse-rvations and numerical results from other sources.
Dynamic Elasticity of a Magnetic Fluid Column in a Strong Magnetic Field
Polunin, V. M.; Ryapolov, P. A.; Shel'deshova, E. V.; Kuz'ko, A. E.; Aref'ev, I. M.
2017-07-01
The elastomagnetic parameters of a magnetic fluid kept by magnetic levitation in a tube placed horizontally in a strong magnetic field are measured, including the oscillation frequency, the ponderomotive and dynamic elasticity coefficients, the magnetization curve, and the magnetic field strength and its gradient. Results of calculations for the model of ponderomotive elasticity for the examined sample of the magnetic fluid corrected for the resistance of the moving viscous fluid are in good agreement with the experimental magnetization curve. The described method is of interest for a study of magnetophoresis, nanoparticle aggregations, viscosity, and their time dependences in magnetic colloids.
Renormalization of the tension and area expansion modulus in fluid membranes.
Marsh, D
1997-08-01
Renormalization of the membrane tension and elastic area expansion modulus by thermally induced bending fluctuations is treated in terms of the formalism of Brochard, De Gennes, and Pfeuty (J. de Phys. (France). 37:1099-1104, 1976). The dependence of the renormalized tension on the bare membrane tension parallels the dependence on the fractional area extension of giant vesicles found experimentally by Evans and Rawicz (Physiol. Rev. Lett. 64:2094-2097, 1990), and suggests conditions for molecular dynamics simulations with membrane patches of limited size that might best represent the properties of macroscopic vesicles.
Dynamic Wrinkling and Strengthening of an Elastic Filament in a Viscous Fluid
Chopin, Julien; Dasgupta, Moumita; Kudrolli, Arshad
2017-08-01
We investigate the wrinkling dynamics of an elastic filament immersed in a viscous fluid submitted to compression at a finite rate with experiments and by combining geometric nonlinearities, elasticity, and slender body theory. The drag induces a dynamic lateral reinforcement of the filament leading to growth of wrinkles that coarsen over time. We discover a new dynamical regime characterized by a time scale with a nontrivial dependence on the loading rate, where the growth of the instability is superexponential and the wave number is an increasing function of the loading rate. We find that this time scale can be interpreted as the characteristic time over which the filament transitions from the extensible to the inextensible regime. In contrast with our analysis with moving boundary conditions, Biot's analysis in the limit of infinitely fast loading leads to rate independent exponential growth and wavelength.
ELASTIC CHARACTERIZATION OF Eucalyptus citriodora WOOD
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Adriano Wagner Ballarin
2003-01-01
Full Text Available This paper contributed to the elastic characterization of Eucalyptus citriodora grown inBrazil, considering an orthotropic model and evaluating its most important elastic constants.Considering this as a reference work to establish basic elastic ratios — several important elasticconstants of Brazilian woods were not determined yet - the experimental set-up utilized one tree of 65years old from plantations of “Horto Florestal Navarro de Andrade”, at Rio Claro-SP, Brazil. All theexperimental procedures attended NBR 7190/97 – Brazilian Code for wooden structures –withconventional tension and compression tests. Results showed statistical identity between compressionand tension modulus of elasticity. The relation observed between longitudinal and radial modulus ofelasticity was 10 (EL/ER ≈ 10 and same relation, considering shear modulus (modulus of rigidity was20 (EL/GLR ≈ 20. These results, associated with Poisson’s ratios herein determined, allow theoreticalmodeling of wood mechanical behavior in structures.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2001-01-01
Under certain conditions, the dynamic equatioins of membrane shells and the dynamic equations of flexural shells are obtained from dynamic equations of Koiter shells by the method of asymptotic analysis.
废旧塑料改性沥青混合料动态模量研究%Research on dynamic modulus of waste plastic modified asphalt mixture
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张倩; 谢来斌; 李彦伟; 何勇海; 刘建
2011-01-01
Waste plastic is reused in pavement engineering in this research. The purpose of the study is to probe the possibility of using waste plastic in asphalt mixture as a kind of modifier so as to find a way to solve the problem of the waste plastic disposal. High Density Polyethylene plastic bags obtained from supermarket were shredded into pieces and were added into asphalt mixture at three percentages of 2%, 5% and 8%. The corresponding control samples were also made and tested. Three different temperatures were used (4°C, 21. 3°C and 39. 2°C) and the frequencies ranged from 0. 1 Hz to 25 Hz in this dynamic modulus test. When compared with the test results of the control samples, almost all the dynamic modulus of the plastic modified samples( except 4 results) are greater than those of the control samples. No regular pattern is shown in the test results of the phase angle. Modified asphalt mixture with 2% plastic is of the greatest dynamic modulus and phase angle.%针对目前大量废旧塑料处置问题,尝试将其用于改性沥青混合料,以探索其在道路工程中使用的可能性.采用超市废旧高密度聚乙烯购物塑料袋,将其切碎后按照2％.5％和8％的掺量制作沥青混合料试件,采用三种试验温度在六种加载频率下进行动态模量试验,与未掺加塑料混合料的相应指标进行对比.试验结果显示在各个试验温度和加载频率下,掺加塑料屑的混合料动态模量普遍提高.掺加塑料与否对相位角指标的影响未呈现一定规律.在各个试验温度和加载频率下,2％塑料掺量混合料均具有较高的动态模量和相位角.
大空隙沥青混合料的动态模量预测模型%Dynamic Modulus Prediction Model of ATPB Mixture
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
潘艳珠; 王端宜
2011-01-01
随着沥青路面力学-经验设计和分析方法的发展,路面材料参数的研究显得越来越重要.文中利用MTS材料试验系统对含有透水基层(ATPB)的ATPB-25和ATPB-30两种沥青混合料进行了动态模量试验测试.试验测试中,根据沥青混合料所处的温度环境设定了不同的测试温度和加载频率.然后根据测试结果生成了该沥青混合料的全时域动态模量主曲线以及相对应的主曲线方程.这些试验研究可为含有ATPB的沥青路面结构优化设计和性能分析预测提供高质量的参数,对于延长沥青路面的使用寿命具有重要意义.%With the development of the asphalt pavement mechanistic-empirical design and analysis methods, the research of pavement material parameters is becoming more and more significant. In this investigation, the MTS system was used to do the dynamic modulus test for ATPB-25 and ATPB-30, which are both asphalt treated permeable base(ATPB)mixture. During the test, different measuring temperatures and loading frequencies are set according to the temperature environment of the asphalt mixtures. Then, based on the test results, a full time-domain dynamic modulus master curve and corresponding master curve equation of the asphalt mixture are created. By these experiments, high-quality parameters for the optimization design and performance analysis of asphalt pavement structure with ATPB can be established. These studies are of great significance in extending the service life of the asphalt pavement, asphalt mixture; dynamic modulus; master curve; pavement mechanics; empirical design.
The Young Modulus of Black Strings and the Fine Structure of Blackfolds
Armas, Jay; Harmark, Troels; Obers, Niels A
2011-01-01
We explore corrections in the blackfold approach, which is a worldvolume theory capturing the dynamics of thin black branes. The corrections probe the fine structure of the branes, going beyond the approximation in which they are infinitely thin, and account for the dipole moment of worldvolume stress-energy as well as the internal spin degrees of freedom. We show that the dipole correction is induced elastically by bending a black brane. We argue that the long-wavelength transport coefficient capturing this response is a relativistic generalization of the Young modulus of elastic materials and we compute it analytically. Using this we draw predictions for black rings in dimensions greater than six. Furthermore, we employ our corrected blackfold equations to various multi-spinning black hole configurations in the blackfold limit, finding perfect agreement with known analytic solutions.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
GAO Ning; LAI Wen-Sheng
2006-01-01
@@ The calculation of elastic constants of Ag/Pd superlattice thin films by molecular dynamics simulations with many-body potentials is presented. It reveals that the elastic constants C11 and C55 increase with decreasing modulation wavelength A of the films, which is consistent with experiments. However, the change of C11 and C55 with A is found to be around the values determined by a rule of mixture using bulk elastic constants of metals.No supermodulus effect is observed and it is due to cancellation between enhanced and reduced contributions to elastic constants from Ag and Pd layers subjected to compressive and tensile strains, respectively.
Saha, Sourav; Mojumder, Satyajit; Mahboob, Monon; Islam, M. Zahabul
2016-07-01
Tungsten is a promising material and has potential use as battery anode. Tungsten nanowires are gaining attention from researchers all over the world for this wide field of application. In this paper, we investigated effect of temperature and geometric parameters (diameter and aspect ratio) on elastic properties of Tungsten nanowire. Aspect ratios (length to diameter ratio) considered are 8:1, 10:1, and 12:1 while diameter of the nanowire is varied from 1-4 nm. For 2 nm diameter sample (aspect ratio 10:1), temperature is varied (10K ~ 1500K) to observe elastic behavior of Tungsten nanowire under uniaxial tensile loading. EAM potential is used for molecular dynamic simulation. We applied constant strain rate of 109 s-1 to deform the nanowire. Elastic behavior is expressed through stress vs. strain plot. We also investigated the fracture mechanism of tungsten nanowire and radial distribution function. Investigation suggests peculiar behavior of Tungsten nanowire in nano-scale with double peaks in stress vs. strain diagram. Necking before final fracture suggests that actual elastic behavior of the material is successfully captured through atomistic modeling.
DYNAMICAL FORMATION OF CAVITY IN TRANSVERSELY ISOTROPIC HYPER-ELASTIC SPHERES
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
任九生; 程昌钧
2003-01-01
The cavity formation in a radial transversely isotropic hyper-elastic sphere of an incompressible Ogden material, subjected to a suddenly applied uniform radial tensile boundary deadload, is studied following the theory of finite deformation dynamics. A cavity forms at the center of the sphere when the tensile load is greater than its critical value. It is proved that the evolution of the cavity radius with time follows that of nonlinear periodic oscillations.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shuhei Isami
Full Text Available Simple elastic network models of DNA were developed to reveal the structure-dynamics relationships for several nucleotide sequences. First, we propose a simple all-atom elastic network model of DNA that can explain the profiles of temperature factors for several crystal structures of DNA. Second, we propose a coarse-grained elastic network model of DNA, where each nucleotide is described only by one node. This model could effectively reproduce the detailed dynamics obtained with the all-atom elastic network model according to the sequence-dependent geometry. Through normal-mode analysis for the coarse-grained elastic network model, we exhaustively analyzed the dynamic features of a large number of long DNA sequences, approximately ∼150 bp in length. These analyses revealed positive correlations between the nucleosome-forming abilities and the inter-strand fluctuation strength of double-stranded DNA for several DNA sequences.
Isami, Shuhei; Nishimori, Hiraku; Awazu, Akinori
2015-01-01
Simple elastic network models of DNA were developed to reveal the structure-dynamics relationships for several nucleotide sequences. First, we propose a simple all-atom elastic network model of DNA that can explain the profiles of temperature factors for several crystal structures of DNA. Second, we propose a coarse-grained elastic network model of DNA, where each nucleotide is described only by one node. This model could effectively reproduce the detailed dynamics obtained with the all-atom elastic network model according to the sequence-dependent geometry. Through normal-mode analysis for the coarse-grained elastic network model, we exhaustively analyzed the dynamic features of a large number of long DNA sequences, approximately $\\sim 150$ bp in length. These analyses revealed positive correlations between the nucleosome-forming abilities and the inter-strand fluctuation strength of double-stranded DNA for several DNA sequences.
ELASTIC-PLASTIC DYNAMIC RESPONSE OF A CANTILEVER BEAM SUBJECTED TO OBLIQUE IMPACT AT ITS TIP
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Xi Feng; Liu Feng
2005-01-01
By employing large deformation governing equations expressed in the form of finite difference, the dynamic responses of an elastic, perfectly plastic cantilever subjected to an oblique impact at its tip was numerically studied. Through analyzing the instantaneous distribution of the yield function (ψ= |M/Mo|+ (N/No)2), bending moment and axial force during the early stage of the response, the elastic-plastic deformation mechanism and the influence of axial component of an oblique impact on the dynamic response of a cantilever beam were discussed. The present analysis shows that the deformation mechanism of an elastic-plastic cantilever subjected to an obtained by using the rigid, perfectly plastic approach, the mode of shrinking plastic region that occurred instantly after the oblique impact and the mode of stationary hinge were both confirmed.The primary features of the deformation mechanism are captured by both analysis methods. It has also been found that the beam's deformation is mainly controlled by the axial component of the oblique impact in the early phase of the dynamic response, the deformation mechanism is obviously different from the case of a transverse impact. With further development of the response,the axial component attenuates rapidly and gives negligible contribution to the yielding of the beam cross-section. At the same time, the bending moments along the cantilever develop gradually and dominate the beam's deformation. The numerical results indicate that the mass, impact speed and oblique angle are the important factors that influence the elastic-plastic dynamic response of a cantilever beam.
Dynamic measurements of the elastic constants of glass wool
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tarnow, Viggo
2005-01-01
The sound wave in the air between the fibers of glass wool exerts an oscillatory viscous drag on the fibers and excites a mechanical wave in the fiber skeleton. Accurate calculations of sound attenuation in glass wool must take the mechanical wave in the fiber skeleton into account...
Time-varying tolls in a dynamic model of road traffic congestion with elastic demand
Verhoef, E.T.
1997-01-01
In this paper, a dynamic model of road traffic congestion is presented, with an elastic overall demand for morning peak road usage, and with the congestion technology used being 'flow congestion'. It is demonstrated that in such a case, the optimal time-varying toll should include a 'flat', time-invariant component when road users share the same desired arrival time. This has important consequences for the design of optimal toll schemes in reality, because it implies that optimal tolls cannot...
Dynamic Analysis of Kineto-Elastic Beam System with Second-order Effect
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LU Nian-li; LUO Bing; XIA Yong-jun
2009-01-01
Dynamic equations of motional flexible beam elements were derived considering second-order effect. Non-linear finite element method and three-node Euler-Bernoulli beam elements were used. Because accuracy is higher in non-linear structural analysis, three-node beam elements are used to deduce shape functions and stiffness matrices in dynamic equations of flexible elements. Static condensation method was used to obtain the finial dynamic equations of three-node beam elements. According to geometrical relations of nodal displacements in concomitant and global coordinate system, dynamic equations of elements can be transformed to global coordinate system by concomitant coordinate method in order to build the global dynamic equations. Analyzed amplitude condition of flexible arm support of a port crane, the results show that second-order effect should be considered in kinetic-elastic analysis for heavy load machinery of big flexibility.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHENG Yan; TU Ya-Jing; ZENG Zhao-Yi; GOU Qing-Quan
2008-01-01
Shell model molecular dynamic simulation with interatomic pair potential is utilized to investigate the elastic and thermodynamic properties of gallium nitride with hexagonal wurtzite structure (w-GaN) at high pressure. The calculated elastic constants Cij at zero pressure and 300 K agree well with the experimental data and other calculated values. Meanwhile, the dependences of the relative volume V/Vo, elastic constants Cij, entropy S, enthalpy H, and heat capacities Cv and Cp on pressure are successfully obtained. From the elastic constants obtained, we also calculate the shear modulus G, bulk modulus B, Young's modulus E, Poisson's ratio v, Debye temperature ΘD, and shear anisotropic factor Ashear on pressures.
Applications of DSP to Explicit Dynamic FEA Simulations of Elastically-Dominated Impact Problems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ted Diehl
2000-01-01
Full Text Available Explicit Dynamic Finite Element techniques are increasingly used for simulating impact events of personal electronic devices such as portable phones and laptop computers. Unfortunately, the elastically-dominated impact behavior of these devices greatly increases the tendency of Explicit Dynamic methods to calculate noisy solutions containing high-frequency ringing, especially for acceleration and contact-force data. For numerous reasons, transient FEA results are often improperly recorded by the analyst, causing corruption by aliasing. If aliasing is avoided, other sources of distortion can still occur. For example, filtering or decimating Explicit Dynamic data typically requires extremely small normalized cutoff frequencies that can cause significant numerical problems for common DSP programs such as MATLAB. This paper presents techniques to combat the unique DSP-related challenges of Explicit Dynamic data and then demonstrates them on a very challenging transient problem of a steel ball impacting a plastic LCD display in a portable phone, correlating simulation and experimental results.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
宋宝成; 刘初升; 彭利平; 李珺
2015-01-01
A feasible method was proposed to improve the vibration intensity of screen surface via application of a new type elastic screen surface with multi degree of freedom (NTESSMDF). In the NTESSMDF, the primary robs were coupled to the main screen structure with ends embedded into the elastomers, and the secondary robs were attached to adjacent two primary robs with elastic bands. The dynamic model of vibrating screen with NTESSMDF was established based on Lagrange’s equation and the equivalent stiffnesses of the elastomer and elastic band were calculated. According to numerical simulation using the 4th order Runge-Kutta method, the vibration intensity of screen surface can be enhanced substantially with an averaged acceleration amplitude increasing ratio of 72.36%. The primary robs and secondary robs vibrate inversely in steady state, which would result in the friability of materials and avoid stoppage. The experimental results validate the dynamic characteristics with acceleration amplitude rising by 62.93%on average, which demonstrates the feasibility of NTESSMDF.
Servo-elastic dynamics of a hydraulic actuator pitching a blade with large deflections
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Morten Hartvig; Kallesøe, Bjarne Skovmose
2007-01-01
This paper deals with the servo-elastic dynamics of a hydraulic pitch actuator acting on a largely bend wind turbine blade. The compressibility of the oil and flexibility of the hoses introduce a dynamic mode in the pitch bearing degree of freedom. This mode may obtain negative damping...... if the proportional gain on the actuator position error is defined too large relative to the viscous forces in the hydraulic system and the total rotational inertia of the pitch bearing degree of freedom. A simple expression for the stability limit of this proportional gain is derived for tuning the gain based...
Loading Rate for Modulus of Rupture Test
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
QUMing; ZHANGYong－fang
1996-01-01
Relationship among load rate,strain rate and stress rate for modulus of ruptue test,the way of applying load with stress rate using both hydraulic compression testing machine and nechanical compression testing machine have been described.The test results are identical with selected strain rate loading and stress rate loading.
Dynamical Analysis of Long Fiber-Reinforced Laminated Plates with Elastically Restrained Edges
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Liz G. Nallim
2012-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a variational formulation for the free vibration analysis of unsymmetrically laminated composite plates with elastically restrained edges. The study includes a micromechanics approach that allows starting the study considering each layer as constituted by long unidirectional fibers in a continuous matrix. The Mori-Tanaka method is used to predict the mechanical properties of each lamina as a function of the elastic properties of the components and of the fiber volume fraction. The resulting mechanical properties for each lamina are included in a general Ritz formulation developed to analyze the free vibration response of thick laminated anisotropic plates resting on elastic supports. Comprehensive numerical examples are computed to validate the present method, and the effects of the different mechanical and geometrical parameters on the dynamical behavior of different laminated plates are shown. New results for general unsymmetrical laminates with elastically restrained edges are also presented. The analytical approximate solution obtained in this paper can also be useful as a basis to deal with optimization problems under, for instance, frequency constraints.
Elastic Properties of CaSiO3 Perovskite from ab initio Molecular Dynamics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shigeaki Ono
2013-10-01
Full Text Available Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations were performed to investigate the elasticity of cubic CaSiO3 perovskite at high pressure and temperature. All three independent elastic constants for cubic CaSiO3 perovskite, C11, C12, and C44, were calculated from the computation of stress generated by small strains. The elastic constants were used to estimate the moduli and seismic wave velocities at the high pressure and high temperature characteristic of the Earth’s interior. The dependence of temperature for sound wave velocities decreased as the pressure increased. There was little difference between the estimated compressional sound wave velocity (VP in cubic CaSiO3 perovskite and that in the Earth’s mantle, determined by seismological data. By contrast, a significant difference between the estimated shear sound wave velocity (VS and that in the Earth’s mantle was confirmed. The elastic properties of cubic CaSiO3 perovskite cannot explain the properties of the Earth’s lower mantle, indicating that the cubic CaSiO3 perovskite phase is a minor mineral in the Earth’s lower mantle.
Quasi-elastic neutron scattering studies of the slow dynamics of supercooled and glassy aspirin
Zhang, Yang; Tyagi, Madhusudan; Mamontov, Eugene; Chen, Sow-Hsin
2012-02-01
Aspirin, also known as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), is not only a wonderful drug, but also a good glass former. Therefore, it serves as an important molecular system to study the near-arrest and arrested phenomena. In this paper, a high-resolution quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS) technique is used to investigate the slow dynamics of supercooled liquid and glassy aspirin from 410 down to 350 K. The measured QENS spectra can be analyzed with a stretched exponential model. We find that (i) the stretched exponent β(Q) is independent of the wavevector transfer Q in the measured Q range and (ii) the structural relaxation time τ(Q) follows a power-law dependence on Q. Consequently, the Q-independent structural relaxation time τ0 can be extracted for each temperature to characterize the slow dynamics of aspirin. The temperature dependence of τ0 can be fitted with the mode-coupling power law, the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann equation and a universal equation for fragile glass forming liquids recently proposed by Tokuyama in the measured temperature range. The calculated dynamic response function χT(Q, t) using the experimentally determined self-intermediate scattering function of the hydrogen atoms of aspirin shows direct evidence of the enhanced dynamic fluctuations as the aspirin is increasingly supercooled, in agreement with the fixed-time mean squared displacement langx2rang and the non-Gaussian parameter α2 extracted from the elastic scattering.
Quasi-Elastic Neutron Scattering Studies of the Slow Dynamics of Supercooled and Glassy Aspirin
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Yang [ORNL; Tyagi, M. [NCNR and University of Maryland; Mamontov, Eugene [ORNL; Chen, Sow-hsin H [ORNL
2011-01-01
Aspirin, also known as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), is not only a wonderful drug, but also a good glass former. Therefore, it serves as an important molecular system to study the near-arrest and arrested phenomena. In this paper, a high-resolution quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS) technique is used to investigate the slow dynamics of supercooled liquid and glassy aspirin from 410 K down to 350 K. The measured QENS spectra can be analyzed with a stretched exponential model. We find that (i) the stretched exponent (Q) is independent of the wave vector transfer Q in the measured Q-range, and (ii) the structural relaxation time (Q) follows a power law dependence on Q. Consequently, the Q-independent structural relaxation time 0 can be extracted for each temperature to characterize the slow dynamics of aspirin. The temperature dependence of 0 can be fitted with the mode coupling power law, the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann equation and a universal equation for fragile glass forming liquids recently proposed by M. Tokuyama in the measured temperature range. The calculated dynamic response function T(Q,t) using the experimentally determined self-intermediate scattering function of the hydrogen atoms of aspirin shows a direct evidence of the enhanced dynamic fluctuations as the aspirin is increasingly supercooled, in agreement with the fixed-time mean squared displacement x2 and non-Gaussian parameter 2 extracted from the elastic scattering.
Modeling the dynamics of a tracer particle in an elastic active gel.
Ben-Isaac, E; Fodor, É; Visco, P; van Wijland, F; Gov, Nir S
2015-07-01
The internal dynamics of active gels both in artificial (in vitro) model systems and inside the cytoskeleton of living cells has been extensively studied with experiments of recent years. These dynamics are probed using tracer particles embedded in the network of biopolymers together with molecular motors, and distinct nonthermal behavior is observed. We present a theoretical model of the dynamics of a trapped active particle, which allows us to quantify the deviations from equilibrium behavior, using both analytic and numerical calculations. We map the different regimes of dynamics in this system and highlight the different manifestations of activity: breakdown of the virial theorem and equipartition, different elasticity-dependent "effective temperatures," and distinct non-Gaussian distributions. Our results shed light on puzzling observations in active gel experiments and provide physical interpretation of existing observations, as well as predictions for future studies.
Frequency-dependent dynamic effective properties of porous materials
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Peijun Wei; Zhuping Huang
2005-01-01
The frequency-dependent dynamic effective properties (phase velocity, attenuation and elastic modulus) of porous materials are studied numerically. The coherent plane longitudinal and shear wave equations, which are obtained by averaging on the multiple scattering fields, are used to evaluate the frequency-dependent dynamic effective properties of a porous material. It is found that the prediction of the dynamic effective properties includes the size effects of voids which are not included in most prediction of the traditional static effective properties. The prediction of the dynamic effective elastic modulus at a relatively low frequency range is compared with that of the traditional static effective elastic modulus, and the dynamic effective elastic modulus is found to be very close to the Hashin-Shtrikman upper bound.
The Stability and Dynamics of Elastic Structures and Fluid Flows.
1985-03-01
Pol- Duffing oscillators . For special values of the detuning parameters the secondary states are periodic. Then periodic multiplication of solutions...incident wave is near a resonant frequency, the target oscillates and its interaction with the surrounding fluid produces peaks in the scattered field...slightly damped, and oscillating outgoing spherical waves that represent the "decayed ringing" of the membrane. Application is given to the baffled circular
Coriolis Effects in the Dynamics of a Rotating Elastic Structure
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brøns, Morten; Hjorth, Poul G.; Kliem, Wolfhard
1996-01-01
Small oscillations of a rotating elasticum with a mass at the free end are investigated with Poincare-Lindstedt series. It is shown that the mass moves on a figure-eight shaped curve in a direction determined by the sign of the angular velocity and hence that the Coriolis force influences...
Modeling static and dynamic thermography of the human breast under elastic deformation
Jiang, Li; Zhan, Wang; Loew, Murray H.
2011-01-01
An abnormal thermogram has been shown to be a reliable indicator of increased risk of breast cancer. Numerical modeling techniques for thermography are proposed to quantify the complex relationships between the breast thermal behaviors and the underlying physiological/pathological conditions. Previous thermal modeling techniques did not account for gravity-induced elastic deformation arising from various body postures, nor did they suggest that a dynamic thermal procedure may be used to enhance clinical diagnosis. In this paper, 3D finite element method (FEM)-based thermal and elastic modeling techniques are developed to characterize comprehensively both the thermal and elastic properties of normal and tumorous breast tissues during static and dynamic thermography. In the steady state, gravity-induced breast deformation is found to cause an upper-lower asymmetric surface temperature contrast for sitting/standing up body posture, even though all the thermal and elastic properties are assumed uniform. Additionally, the tumor-induced surface temperature alterations are found to be caused primarily by shallow tumors and to be less sensitive to tumor size than to tumor depth. In the dynamic state, the breast exhibits distinctive temporal patterns that are associated with distinct thermal events: cold stress and thermal recovery induced by changes in the ambient temperature. Specifically, the tumor-induced thermal contrast shows an opposite initial change and delayed peak as compared with the deformation-induced thermal contrast. These findings are expected to provide a stronger foundation for, and greater specificity and precision in, thermographic diagnosis, and treatment of breast cancer.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
杨欢; 邢玲玲; 张穗萌; 吴兴举; 袁好
2015-01-01
Based on the interaction potential among particles and the isothermal bulk modulus ,we had discussed the rule of pres‐sure dependence of the isothermal bulk modulus with Born‐Mie potential and Born‐Mayer potential and Harrison potential .The conclusions shows that calculated results with Harrison potential were in good agreement with the available experimental data .%从体积弹性模量与原子相互作用势的关系出发，分别利用Born‐Mie势、Born‐Mayer势和 Harrison交叉排斥势函数来讨论弹性模量随压强变化的规律，结果表明，用Harrison交叉排斥势函数得到的理论预测值与实验结果吻合得很好。
Dynamics of pre-strained bi-material elastic systems linearized three-dimensional approach
Akbarov, Surkay D
2015-01-01
This book deals with dynamics of pre-stressed or pre-strained bi-material elastic systems consisting of stack of pre-stressed layers, stack of pre-stressed layers and pre-stressed half space (or half plane), stack of pre-stressed layers as well as absolute rigid foundation, pre-stressed compound solid and hollow cylinders and pre-stressed sandwich hollow cylinders. The problems considered in the book relate to the dynamics of a moving and oscillating moving load, forced vibration caused by linearly located or point located time-harmonic forces acting to the foregoing systems. Moreover, a considerable part of the book relate to the problems regarding the near surface, torsional and axisymmetric longitudinal waves propagation and dispersion in the noted above bi-material elastic systems. The book carries out the investigations within the framework of the piecewise homogeneous body model with the use of the Three-Dimensional Linearized Theory of Elastic Waves in Initially Stressed Bodies.
Zhang, Rong; Bin, Yuezhen; Dong, Enyuan; Matsuo, Masaru
2014-06-26
Dynamic tensile moduli of polyethylene--nickel-coated carbon fiber (NiCF) composites with 10 and 4 vol % NiCF contents under electrical field were measured by a homemade instrument in the frequency range of 100--0.01 Hz. The drastic descent of the storage modulus of the composite with 10 vol % was verified in lower frequency range with elevating surface temperature (T(s)) by self-heating (Joule heat). The composite was cut when T(s) was beyond 108 °C. On the other hand, the measurement of the composite with 4 vol % beyond 88 °C was impossible, since T(s) did not elevate because of the disruption of current networks. Incidentally, the dynamic tensile moduli by external heating could be measured up to 130 and 115 °C for 10 and 4 vol %, respectively, but the two composites could be elongated beyond the above temperatures. Such different properties were analyzed in terms of crystal dispersions, electrical treeing, and thermal fluctuation-induced tunneling effect.
Quasi-Hamiltonian principle of liquid-filled elastic body dynamics
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2010-01-01
Liquid-filled elastic body dynamics is an important branch of fluid-solid coupling mechanics. It deals with the study of motion of a body and the liquid contained in the body under the interaction between the two,for example,a liquid-filled satellite,a fuel tank of an airplane,etc. The research on liquid-filled elastic body dynamics is usually done by the variational method since the method has a feature of treating things as a whole. Considering the elastic motion of the liquid-filled body and the surface tension effect on the liquid-gas interface,liquid-solid interface and gas-solid interface,the present paper establishes a quasi-Hamiltonian variational principle for the above-mentioned system. After finding the stationary-value conditions of its functional obtained,a complete system of governing equations consisting of the stationary value conditions,preconditions and constraint conditions is established,and then the equations are reduced into some known ones in a special case.
Bending elastic moduli of lipid bilayers : modulation by solutes
Duwe, H.P.; Kaes, J.; Sackmann, E.
1990-01-01
We present high precision measurements of the bending elastic moduli for bilayers of a variety of different lipids and of modifications of the flexural rigidity by solutes. The measurements are based on the Fourier analysis of thermally excited membrane undulations (vesicle shape fluctuations) using a recently developed dynamic image processing method. Measurements of the bending modulus as a function of the undulation wave vector provide information on the limitation of the excitations by th...
Efficient Option Pricing in Crisis Based on Dynamic Elasticity of Variance Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Congyin Fan
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Market crashes often appear in daily trading activities and such instantaneous occurring events would affect the stock prices greatly. In an unstable market, the volatility of financial assets changes sharply, which leads to the fact that classical option pricing models with constant volatility coefficient, even stochastic volatility term, are not accurate. To overcome this problem, in this paper we put forward a dynamic elasticity of variance (DEV model by extending the classical constant elasticity of variance (CEV model. Further, the partial differential equation (PDE for the prices of European call option is derived by using risk neutral pricing principle and the numerical solution of the PDE is calculated by the Crank-Nicolson scheme. In addition, Kalman filtering method is employed to estimate the volatility term of our model. Our main finding is that the prices of European call option under our model are more accurate than those calculated by Black-Scholes model and CEV model in financial crashes.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
赵坪锐; 刘观; 胡佳
2014-01-01
依据梁端CRTS域型板式轨道的结构受力特征，采用梁模拟钢轨、轨道板和底座板，线性弹簧模拟扣件与CA砂浆的弹性作用，采用单向受压弹簧模拟滑动层与挤塑板的支撑作用，建立梁端轨道叠合梁计算模型，分析挤塑板弹性模量对无砟轨道承受轮载以及梁端位移时的受力变化规律。分析表明：由于梁端挤塑板弹性模量相对较低，列车通过时容易引起刚度不平顺、增大轨道受力，应适当提高挤塑板弹性模量；而梁端位移作用时，较大的挤塑板弹性模量则会引起较大的附加弯矩。综合考虑两方面作用，在常用32 m梁上，挤塑板弹性模量在10~50 MPa时，轨道受力状态最佳，其他梁型应根据实际梁端位移适当调整挤塑板弹性模量。%In this research, based on structural and mechanical characteristic of CRTS-II slab track at bridge beam end, a beam-track composite model at bridge beam end was established. In this model, the rail, track slab and base plate were assumed to be beam elements; the fastener and CA mortar were assumed to be linear springs so as to simulate their elastic effect;and the sliding layer and the extruded sheet were assumed to be uniaxial compression springs so as to simulate their supporting effect. Then the change rules of the action effects of both the wheel load and bridge beam end displacement were analyzed with the change of the elastic modulus of the extruded sheet. The analysis shows that: because of the lower elastic modulus of the extruded sheet, there will be uneven stiffness and increased rail stress when train passing through, so the elastic modulus of extruded sheet should be increased appropriately;and on the other hand, because of the higher elastic modulus of the extruded sheet, there will be additional bending moment when displacement angle appearing at bridge beam end. Then this research comes to the conclusion:according to a comprehensive
Zhu, Ning; Sun, Shouguang; Li, Qiang; Zou, Hua
2016-05-01
When a train runs at high speeds, the external exciting frequencies approach the natural frequencies of bogie critical components, thereby inducing strong elastic vibrations. The present international reliability test evaluation standard and design criteria of bogie frames are all based on the quasi-static deformation hypothesis. Structural fatigue damage generated by structural elastic vibrations has not yet been included. In this paper, theoretical research and experimental validation are done on elastic dynamic load spectra on bogie frame of high-speed train. The construction of the load series that correspond to elastic dynamic deformation modes is studied. The simplified form of the load series is obtained. A theory of simplified dynamic load-time histories is then deduced. Measured data from the Beijing-Shanghai Dedicated Passenger Line are introduced to derive the simplified dynamic load-time histories. The simplified dynamic discrete load spectra of bogie frame are established. Based on the damage consistency criterion and a genetic algorithm, damage consistency calibration of the simplified dynamic load spectra is finally performed. The computed result proves that the simplified load series is reasonable. The calibrated damage that corresponds to the elastic dynamic discrete load spectra can cover the actual damage at the operating conditions. The calibrated damage satisfies the safety requirement of damage consistency criterion for bogie frame. This research is helpful for investigating the standardized load spectra of bogie frame of high-speed train.
Dynamic torsional buckling of multi-walled carbon nanotubes embedded in an elastic medium
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Chengqi Sun; Kaixin Liu; Guoxing Lu
2008-01-01
In this paper the dynamic torsional buckling of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) embedded in an elastic medium is studied by using a continuum mechan-ics model. By introducing initial imperfections for MWNTs and applying the preferred mode analytical method, a buck-ling condition is derived for the buckling load and associ-ated buckling mode. In particular, explicit expressions are obtained for embedded double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWNTs). Numerical results show that, for both the DWNTs and embedded DWNTs, the buckling form shifts from the lower buckling mode to the higher buckling mode with increasing the buckling load, but the buckling mode is invari-able for a certain domain of the buckling load. It is also indicated that, the surrounding elastic medium generally has effect on the lower buckling mode of DWNTs only when compared with the corresponding one for individual DWNTs.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李凤明; 胡超; 徐敏强; 黄文虎
2003-01-01
Based on the theory of elastic dynamics,multiple scattering of elastic waves and dynamic stress concentrations in fiber-reinforced composite are studied.The analytical expressions of elastic waves in different regions are presented.The mode coefficients of elastic waves are determined in accordance with the continuous conditions of displacement and stress on the boundary of the multiinterfaces.By using the addition theorem of Hankel functions,the formula of scattered wave fields in different local coordinates are transformed into those in one local coordinate to determine the unknown coefficients and dynamic stress concentration factors (DSCFs).The influences of the distance between two inclusions,material properties and structural size on the DSCFs near the interfaces are analyzed.As examples,the numerical results of DSCFs near the interfaces for two kinds of fiber-reinforced composites are presented and discussed.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
袁应龙; 卢子兴
2004-01-01
The elastic properties of syntactic foams with coated hollow spherical inclusions have been studied by means of Mori and Tanaka' s concept of average stress in the matrix and Eshelby' s equivalent inclusion theories. Some formulae to predict the effective modulus of this material have been derived theoretically. Based on these formulae, the influences of coating parameters such as the thickness and Poisson' s ratio on the modulus of the syntactic foams have been discussed at the same time.
Chen, Hai-Long; Jin, Feng-Nian; Fan, Hua-Lin
2013-02-01
Due to the wide applications of arches in underground protective structures, dynamic analysis of circular arches including soil-structure interactions is important. In this paper, an exact solution of the forced vibration of circular arches subjected to subsurface denotation forces is obtained. The dynamic soil-structure interaction is considered with the introduction of an interfacial damping between the structure element and the surrounding soil into the equation of motion. By neglecting the influences of shear, rotary inertia and tangential forces and assuming the arch incompressible, the equations of motion of the buried arches were set up. Analytical solutions of the dynamic responses of the protective arches were deduced by means of modal superposition. Arches with different opening angles, acoustic impedances and rise-span ratios were analyzed to discuss their influences on an arch. The theoretical analysis suggests blast loads for elastic designs and predicts the potential failure modes for buried protective arches.
Coupled spin, elastic and charge dynamics in magnetic nanostructures
Kamra, A.
2015-01-01
In this Thesis, I address the interaction of magnetic degrees of freedom with charge current and elastic dynamics in hybrid systems composed of magnetic and non-magnetic materials. The objective, invariably, is to control and study spin dynamics using charge and elastic degrees of freedom. In certai
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michal Sarna
Full Text Available During asthma development, differentiation of epithelial cells and fibroblasts towards the contractile phenotype is associated with bronchial wall remodeling and airway constriction. Pathological fibroblast-to-myofibroblast transition (FMT can be triggered by local inflammation of bronchial walls. Recently, we have demonstrated that human bronchial fibroblasts (HBFs derived from asthmatic patients display some inherent features which facilitate their FMT in vitro. In spite of intensive research efforts, these properties remain unknown. Importantly, the role of undifferentiated HBFs in the asthmatic process was systematically omitted. Specifically, biomechanical properties of undifferentiated HBFs have not been considered in either FMT or airway remodeling in vivo. Here, we combine atomic force spectroscopy with fluorescence microscopy to compare mechanical properties and actin cytoskeleton architecture of HBFs derived from asthmatic patients and non-asthmatic donors. Our results demonstrate that asthmatic HBFs form thick and aligned 'ventral' stress fibers accompanied by enlarged focal adhesions. The differences in cytoskeleton architecture between asthmatic and non-asthmatic cells correlate with higher elastic modulus of asthmatic HBFs and their increased predilection to TGF-β-induced FMT. Due to the obvious links between cytoskeleton architecture and mechanical equilibrium, our observations indicate that HBFs derived from asthmatic bronchi can develop considerably higher static tension than non-asthmatic HBFs. This previously unexplored property of asthmatic HBFs may be potentially important for their myofibroblastic differentiation and bronchial wall remodeling during asthma development.
Sarna, Michal; Wojcik, Katarzyna A; Hermanowicz, Pawel; Wnuk, Dawid; Burda, Kvetoslava; Sanak, Marek; Czyż, Jarosław; Michalik, Marta
2015-01-01
During asthma development, differentiation of epithelial cells and fibroblasts towards the contractile phenotype is associated with bronchial wall remodeling and airway constriction. Pathological fibroblast-to-myofibroblast transition (FMT) can be triggered by local inflammation of bronchial walls. Recently, we have demonstrated that human bronchial fibroblasts (HBFs) derived from asthmatic patients display some inherent features which facilitate their FMT in vitro. In spite of intensive research efforts, these properties remain unknown. Importantly, the role of undifferentiated HBFs in the asthmatic process was systematically omitted. Specifically, biomechanical properties of undifferentiated HBFs have not been considered in either FMT or airway remodeling in vivo. Here, we combine atomic force spectroscopy with fluorescence microscopy to compare mechanical properties and actin cytoskeleton architecture of HBFs derived from asthmatic patients and non-asthmatic donors. Our results demonstrate that asthmatic HBFs form thick and aligned 'ventral' stress fibers accompanied by enlarged focal adhesions. The differences in cytoskeleton architecture between asthmatic and non-asthmatic cells correlate with higher elastic modulus of asthmatic HBFs and their increased predilection to TGF-β-induced FMT. Due to the obvious links between cytoskeleton architecture and mechanical equilibrium, our observations indicate that HBFs derived from asthmatic bronchi can develop considerably higher static tension than non-asthmatic HBFs. This previously unexplored property of asthmatic HBFs may be potentially important for their myofibroblastic differentiation and bronchial wall remodeling during asthma development.
Elastic modulus in rigid Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/ZrO{sub 2} ceramic laminates
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Moya, J.S.; Sanchez-Herencia, J.A.; Bartolome, J.F. [CSIC, Madrid (Spain). Inst. de Ciencia de Materiales; Tanimoto, T. [Shonan Inst. of Tech., Fujisawa, Kanagawa (Japan)
1997-10-01
In previous works it has been shown that by making a three-layer composite in which the central region contains the matrix oxide and stabilized zirconia and the surface layers contain the matrix oxide and unstabilized zirconia, strength can be substantially enhanced relative to the monolithic materials containing the oxide matrix and either stabilized or unstabilized zirconia. The magnitude of the surface compressive stresses can be varied controlling the thickness of the outer layers and by proper thermal treatment in which the relative amounts of the monoclinic and tetragonal phases in the outer layers are controlled or by varying the volume fraction of total zirconia in the component. Often, the residual stresses are tailored to obtain high surface compression and a moderate bulk tension. In the present investigation, the authors have studied the effects of macroscopic residual stresses on stress intensities in the different layers of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/ZrO{sub 2} laminates and the influence of the layered design on the elastic modulus of these materials.
Young's modulus and hardness of shark tooth biomaterials.
Whitenack, Lisa B; Simkins, Daniel C; Motta, Philip J; Hirai, Makoto; Kumar, Ashok
2010-03-01
To date, the majority of studies on feeding mechanics in sharks have focused on the movement of cranial components and muscle function, with little attention to tooth properties or function. Attributes related to mechanical properties, such as structural strength, may also be subjected to natural selection. Additionally it is necessary to characterize these properties in order to construct biomechanical models of tooth function. The goal of this study was to determine hardness and elastic modulus for the shark tooth materials enameloid, osteodentine, and orthodentine. Five teeth each from one carcharhiniform species, the bonnethead Sphyrna tiburo, and one lamniform, the sand tiger shark Carcharias taurus, were utilized for nanoindentation testing. Each tooth was sectioned transversely, air-dried, and polished. Both enameloid and dentine were tested on each tooth via a Berkovich diamond tip, with nine 2 microm deep indentations per material. t-Tests were used to determine if there were differences in hardness and Young's modulus between the tooth materials of the two species. There was no significant difference between the two species for the material properties of enameloid, however both hardness and Young's modulus were higher for osteodentine than for orthodentine. This may be due to differences in microanatomy and chemical composition, however this needs to be studied in greater detail. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dynamic Soft Elasticity in Monodomain Nematic Elastomers
Hotta, A; Terentjev, E. M.
2002-01-01
We study the linear dynamic mechanical response of monodomain nematic liquid crystalline elastomers under shear in the geometry that allows the director rotation. The aspects of time-temperature superposition are discussed at some length and Master Curves are obtained between the glassy state and the nematic transition temperature Tni. However, the time-temperature superposition did not work through the clearing point Tni, due to change from the ``soft-elasticity'' nematic regime to the ordin...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yang Yu
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The structural scheme of mechanical elastic energy storage (MEES system served by permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM and bidirectional converters is designed. The aim of the research is to model and control the complex electromechanical system. The mechanical device of the complex system is considered as a node in generalized coordinate system, the terse nonlinear dynamic model of electromechanical coupling for the electromechanical system is constructed through Lagrange-Maxwell energy method, and the detailed deduction of the mathematical model is presented in the paper. The theory of direct feedback linearization (DFL is applied to decouple the nonlinear dynamic model and convert the developed model from nonlinear to linear. The optimal control theory is utilized to accomplish speed tracking control for the linearized system. The simulation results in three different cases show that the proposed nonlinear dynamic model of MEES system is correct; the designed algorithm has a better control performance in contrast with the conventional PI control.
Shear modulus of neutron star crust
Baiko, D A
2011-01-01
Shear modulus of solid neutron star crust is calculated by thermodynamic perturbation theory taking into account ion motion. At given density the crust is modelled as a body-centered cubic Coulomb crystal of fully ionized atomic nuclei of one type with the uniform charge-compensating electron background. Classic and quantum regimes of ion motion are considered. The calculations in the classic temperature range agree well with previous Monte Carlo simulations. At these temperatures the shear modulus is given by the sum of a positive contribution due to the static lattice and a negative $\\propto T$ contribution due to the ion motion. The quantum calculations are performed for the first time. The main result is that at low temperatures the contribution to the shear modulus due to the ion motion saturates at a constant value, associated with zero-point ion vibrations. Such behavior is qualitatively similar to the zero-point ion motion contribution to the crystal energy. The quantum effects may be important for li...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李真; 吕恒勇; 任泽阳; 梁晓宁; 贾晓霞; 李硕; 牛雅莉; 李迎新; 郭瑞君
2016-01-01
Objective To investigate the clinical diagnostic value of elastography in myofascial pain syndrome by measuring the elastic properties of myofascial trigger points.Methods The elastic modulus of 30 myofascial trigger points from 15 female patients with myofascial pain syndrome and 8 normal points from 8 female healthy volunteers were measured by shear wave elastography.The mean,min,max,and standard deviation (SD) of elastic modulus in lesions,surrounding tissue of myofascial trigger point and normal points were recorded and compared,and the correlation between elasticity of myofascial trigger points and age,location were analyzed.Results The mean,min,max,and standard deviation of elastic modulus in lesion area of myofascial trigger point were significantly higher than that in surrounding tissue and normal points (P＜0.05).There were no significant differences between lesion area of myofascial trigger point and normal points (P＞0.05),and elastic modulus of myofascial trigger points bore no relation to age and location (P＞0.05).Conclusions Shear wave elastic modulus can be used to differentiate lesion area and its adjacent area of trigger points and normal points,which will provide a new way to identify myofascial trigger point and new basis for palpation,thus has higher application value in clinical and research prospect.%目的 通过剪切波弹性成像(SWE)技术研究肌筋膜疼痛综合征激痛点的弹性特征,探索弹性超声技术在肌筋膜疼痛综合征临床诊断中的应用价值.方法 对8例女性健康志愿者的8个正常点和15例女性肌筋膜疼痛综合征患者腰背部30个激痛点行弹性超声检查,分别获得正常点、激痛点病灶区及邻近区定量分析取样框(Q-box)内弹性模量的均值(Mean)、最小值(Min)、最大值(Max)及标准差(SD);比较正常点、激痛点病灶区及临近区的弹性模量差异,探索激痛点弹性模量与患者年龄、所在部位的关系.结果 激痛点病灶区弹
Song, Yongjia; Hu, Hengshan; Rudnicki, John W.; Duan, Yunda
2016-09-01
An exact analytical solution is presented for the effective dynamic transverse shear modulus in a heterogeneous fluid-filled porous solid containing cylindrical inclusions. The complex and frequency-dependent properties of the dynamic shear modulus are caused by the physical mechanism of mesoscopic-scale wave-induced fluid flow whose scale is smaller than wavelength but larger than the size of pores. Our model consists of three phases: a long cylindrical inclusion, a cylindrical shell of poroelastic matrix material with different mechanical and/or hydraulic properties than the inclusion and an outer region of effective homogeneous medium of laterally infinite extent. The behavior of both the inclusion and the matrix is described by Biot's consolidation equations, whereas the surrounding effective medium which is used to describe the effective transverse shear properties of the inner poroelastic composite is assumed to be a viscoelastic solid whose complex transverse shear modulus needs to be determined. The determined effective transverse shear modulus is used to quantify the S-wave attenuation and velocity dispersion in heterogeneous fluid-filled poroelastic rocks. The calculation shows the relaxation frequency and relative position of various fluid saturation dispersion curves predicted by this study exhibit very good agreement with those of a previous 2-D finite-element simulation. For the double-porosity model (inclusions having a different solid frame than the matrix but the same pore fluid as the matrix) the effective shear modulus also exhibits a size-dependent characteristic that the relaxation frequency moves to lower frequencies by two orders of magnitude if the radius of the cylindrical poroelastic composite increases by one order of magnitude. For the patchy-saturation model (inclusions having the same solid frame as the matrix but with a different pore fluid from the matrix), the heterogeneity in pore fluid cannot cause any attenuation in the
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
van Gulik Walter M
2006-12-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Dynamic modeling of metabolic reaction networks under in vivo conditions is a crucial step in order to obtain a better understanding of the (disfunctioning of living cells. So far dynamic metabolic models generally have been based on mechanistic rate equations which often contain so many parameters that their identifiability from experimental data forms a serious problem. Recently, approximative rate equations, based on the linear logarithmic (linlog format have been proposed as a suitable alternative with fewer parameters. Results In this paper we present a method for estimation of the kinetic model parameters, which are equal to the elasticities defined in Metabolic Control Analysis, from metabolite data obtained from dynamic as well as steady state perturbations, using the linlog kinetic format. Additionally, we address the question of parameter identifiability from dynamic perturbation data in the presence of noise. The method is illustrated using metabolite data generated with a dynamic model of the glycolytic pathway of Saccharomyces cerevisiae based on mechanistic rate equations. Elasticities are estimated from the generated data, which define the complete linlog kinetic model of the glycolysis. The effect of data noise on the accuracy of the estimated elasticities is presented. Finally, identifiable subset of parameters is determined using information on the standard deviations of the estimated elasticities through Monte Carlo (MC simulations. Conclusion The parameter estimation within the linlog kinetic framework as presented here allows the determination of the elasticities directly from experimental data from typical dynamic and/or steady state experiments. These elasticities allow the reconstruction of the full kinetic model of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and the determination of the control coefficients. MC simulations revealed that certain elasticities are potentially unidentifiable from dynamic data only
ANALYTICAL SOLUTION OF BENDING-COMPRESSION COLUMN USING DIFFERENT TENSION-COMPRESSION MODULUS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
姚文娟; 叶志明
2004-01-01
Based on elastic theory of different tension-compression modulus, the analytical solution was deduced for bending-compression column subject to combined loadings by the flowing coordinate system and phased integration method. The formulations for the neutral axis, stress, strain and displacement were developed, the finite element program was compiled for calculation, and the comparison between the result of finite element and analytical solution were given too. Finally, compare and analyze the result of different modulus and the same modulus, obtain the difference of two theories in result, and propose the reasonable suggestion for the calculation of this structure.
Elastic Multibody Dynamics A Direct Ritz Approach
Bremer, H
2008-01-01
This textbook is an introduction to and exploration of a number of core topics in the field of applied mechanics: On the basis of Lagrange's Principle, a Central Equation of Dynamics is presented which yields a unified view on existing methods. From these, the Projection Equation is selected for the derivation of the motion equations of holonomic and of non-holonomic systems. The method is applied to rigid multibody systems where the rigid body is defined such that, by relaxation of the rigidity constraints, one can directly proceed to elastic bodies. A decomposition into subsystems leads to a minimal representation and to a recursive representation, respectively, of the equations of motion. Applied to elastic multibody systems one obtains, along with the use of spatial operators, a straight-on procedure for the interconnected partial and ordinary differential equations and the corresponding boundary conditions. The spatial operators are eventually applied to a RITZ series for approximation. The resulting equ...
Dynamical cavitation and oscillation of an anisotropic incompressible hyper-elastic sphere
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
REN JiuSheng; LI HanHai; YUAN XueGang; CHENG ChangJun
2012-01-01
Dynamical cavitation and oscillation of an anisotropic two-family fiber-reinforced incompressible hyper-elastic sphere subjected to a suddenly applied constant boundary dead load are examined within the framework of finite elasto-dynamics.An exact differential equation between the radius of the cavity and the applied load is obtained.The curves for the variation of the maximum radius of the cavity with the load and the phase diagrams are obtained by vibration theories and numerical computation.It is shown that there exists a critical value for the applied load.When the applied load is larger than the critical value,a spherical cavity will suddenly form at the center of the sphere.It is proved that the evolution of the cavity radius with time follows that of nonlinear periodic oscillation,and oscillation of the anisotropic sphere is not the same as that of the isotropic sphere.
Elastic neutron scattering study of water dynamics in ion-exchanged type-A zeolites.
Corsaro, C; Crupi, V; Longo, F; Majolino, D; Venuti, V; Wanderlingh, U
2005-12-01
With the aim to investigate, by means of elastic neutron scattering, the effects produced by the cation substitution on the dynamics of water in zeolites, we measured, using a neutron backscattering spectrometer, the temperature dependence of mean-square atomic displacements [u2] derived from window integrated quasielastic spectra of fully and partially hydrated Na-A and Mg50-A zeolites. The results, collected in the 20-273 K temperature range, reveal that, at low temperature, the [u2] shows a harmonic trend independent of hydration and cation substitution, and, at higher temperatures, the onset of a non-Gaussian dynamics of the elastic intensity. This latter takes place at T approximately 200 K and approximately 150 K for fully and partially hydrated samples, respectively. This behavior has been interpreted in terms of reorientational jumps of H atoms described by two-site processes within an asymmetric double-minimum potential. In spite of its simplicity, the model seems to reproduce the rearrangement of the hydrogen bond network of zeolitic water. The fit results indicate a reduced proton mobility by diminishing the water content and by the induced Na+-->Mg2+ ion exchange, in agreement with previous incoherent quasielastic neutron scattering results at higher temperatures.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
陶国运; 张丽; 孙昳; 郑慧珂; 艾莉莎; 梁运光
2015-01-01
ObjectiveTo explore the application of real-time shear wave elasticity imaging to detect the liver elastic modulus and serum liver fibrosis indexes and liver fibrosis.Methods In Pingdingshan Coal Group General Hospital 68 patients who were diagnosed as chronic liver disease, were detected the serum indices of liver fibrosis, liver biopsy and SWE test, analyzed the liver elastic modulus values correlated with serum liver fibrosis indexes and liver pathology.ResultsIn group G0/G1, HA, PCⅢ, LN,ⅣC and S5 segments of the elastic value and S6 segment of elasticity values were not correlated; in group G2, HA and S6 segments of the elasticity value was positively correlated (r=0.58,P0.05); PCⅢ and S5, S6 segment of the elasticity value were positively correlated (r=0.65,P0.05);ⅣC and S5 segment of the elasticity value was positively correlated (r=0.91,P0.05); in group S0/S1, HA, PCⅢ, LN,ⅣC and S5 segments of the elastic value and S6 segment of elasticity values were not correlated; S2 in group A, HA and S6 segments of the elasticity value was positively correlated (r=0.54,P0.05); PCⅢ and S5, S6 segment of the elasticity value were positively correlated (r=0.72,P0.05);PCⅢ与S5、S6段的弹性值呈正相关(r=0.65,P0.05);ⅣC与S5段的弹性值呈正相关(r=0.91,P0.05);S0/S1组中,HA、PCⅢ、LN、ⅣC与S5段的弹性值及S6 段的弹性值均无相关关系;S2 组中, HA与S6段的弹性值呈正相关(r=0.54,P0.05);PCⅢ与S5、S6段的弹性值呈正相关(r=0.72,P<0.05;r=0.65,P<0.05);ⅣC与S5、S6段的弹性值呈正相关(r=0.66,P<0.05;r=0.52,P<0.05);S3/S4组中,HA、PCⅢ、LN、ⅣC与S5段的弹性值及S6段的弹性值均无相关性.肝组织炎症分级与纤维化分期有显著相关性(r=0.512,P<0.05).结论 实时剪切波弹性成像测得肝脏硬度与血清肝纤维化指标及肝脏病理有较好的相关性,实时剪切波弹性成像可动态监测肝纤维化进展,评估肝纤维化程度.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rorschach, H.E.
1993-05-25
Results that shed new light on the study of protein dynamics were obtained by quasi-elastic neutron scattering. The triple axis instrument H-9 supplied by the cold source was used to perform a detailed study of the quasi-elastic spectrum and the Debye-Waller factor for trypsin in powder form, in solution, and in crystals. A preliminary study of myoglobin crystals was also done. A new way to view the results of quasi-elastic scattering experiments is sketched, and the data on trypsin are presented and analyze according to this new picture.
Controlling the influence of elastic eigenmodes on nanomagnet dynamics through pattern geometry
Berk, C.; Yahagi, Y.; Dhuey, S.; Cabrini, S.; Schmidt, H.
2017-03-01
The effect of the nanoscale array geometry on the interaction between optically generated surface acoustic waves (SAWs) and nanomagnet dynamics is investigated using Time-Resolved Magneto-Optical Kerr Effect Microscopy (TR-MOKE). It is demonstrated that altering the nanomagnet geometry from a periodic to a randomized aperiodic pattern effectively removes the magneto-elastic effect of SAWs on the magnetization dynamics. The efficiency of this method depends on the extent of any residual spatial correlations and is quantified by spatial Fourier analysis of the two structures. Randomization allows observation and extraction of intrinsic magnetic parameters such as spin wave frequencies and damping to be resolvable using all-optical methods, enabling the conclusion that the fabrication process does not affect the damping.
DYNAMICAL FORMATION OF CAVITY IN A COMPOSED HYPER-ELASTIC SPHERE
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
任九生; 程昌钧
2004-01-01
The dynamical formation of cavity in a hyper-elastic sphere composed of two materials with the incompressible strain energy function, subjected to a suddenly applied uniform radial tensile boundary dead-load, was studied following the theory of finite deformation dynamics. Besides a trivial solution corresponding to the homogeneous static state, a cavity forms at the center of the sphere when the tensile load is larger than its critical value. An exact differential relation between the cavity radius and the tensile land was obtained. It is proved that the evolution of cavity radius with time displays nonlinear periodic oscillations. The phase diagram for oscillation, the maximum amplitude, the approximate period and the critical load were all discussed.
Dynamical and elastic properties of MgSiO3 perovskite (bridgmanite)
Wehinger, Björn; Bosak, Alexeï; Nazzareni, Sabrina; Antonangeli, Daniele; Mirone, Alessandro; Chaplot, Samrath Lal; Mittal, Ranjan; Ohtani, Eiji; Shatskiy, Anton; Saxena, Surendra; Ghose, Subrata; Krisch, Michael
2016-03-01
We report on the lattice dynamics of MgSiO3 perovskite (bridgmanite). Phonon spectroscopy was performed employing inelastic X-ray scattering from single crystals, and the results were confronted to ab initio calculations. We observe a remarkable agreement between experiment and theory, and provide accurate results for phonon dispersion relations, the vibrational density of states, and the full elasticity tensor. The present work constitutes an important milestone fully validating the lattice dynamics calculation against precise experimental evidence and marks a starting point to extend this kind of combined studies to the high-pressure and high-temperature conditions directly relevant for the physical properties and chemical composition of Earth's lower mantle.
Dynamical response of hyper-elastic cylindrical shells under periodic load
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
REN Jiu-sheng
2008-01-01
Dynamical responses, such as motion and destruction of hyper-elastic cylindricai shells subject to periodic or suddenly applied constant load on the inner surface,are studied within a framework of finite elasto-dynamics. By numerical computation and dynamic qualitative analysis of the nonlinear differential equation, it is shown that there exists a certain critical value for the internal load describing motion of the inner surface of the shell. Motion of the shell is nonlinear periodic or quasi-periodic oscillation when the average load of the periodic load or the constant load is less than its critical value.However, the shell will be destroyed when the load exceeds the critical value. Solution to the static equilibrium problem is a fixed point for the dynamical response of the corresponding system under a suddenly applied constant load. The property of fixed point is related to the property of the dynamical solution and motion of the shell. The effects of thickness and load parameters on the critical value and oscillation of the shell are discussed.
DYNAMICYOUNG’S MODULUS MEASUREMENT OF TREATED AND POST-TREATED TROPICAL WOOD POLYMER COMPOSITES (WPC
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sinin Hamdan
2010-02-01
Full Text Available By means of dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA, selected tropical wood species, namely Eugenia spp., Artocarpus rigidus, Artocarpus elesticus, Koompassia malaccensis, and Xylopia spp. have been characterized. The woods were treated with sodium meta-periodate to convert them into wood polymer composites (WPC. After two weeks the WPC were chemically treated with phenylhydrazine to convert them into secondary wood polymer composites, also called post-treated WPC (PTWPC. The chemical treatment and post-treatment are successful in improving the mechanical properties of the final product. The storage modulus (E’ was measured using dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA, and the dynamic Young’s modulus (Ed was calculated using free-free vibrational testing. The results reveal that the elastic properties i.e. stiffness (Ed and storage modulus (E’ of the composite were dependent on the type of wood species. The E’ of WPC and PTWPC were much higher than raw wood, whereas the glass transition temperatures (Tg of WPC and PTWPC were much lower than those of raw wood. Free-free vibration testing provided rapid information about the quality of the composite material, such as the stiffness (Ed of the PTWPC compared to the respective WPC and raw woods. The WPC and PTWPC were characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. FTIR analysis indicated the absorption band of raw wood at 1635 cm-1 due to carbonyl stretching, whereas WPC and PTWPC showed increased absorption bands near 1718 cm-1 and 1604 cm-1, respectively.
Dynamics of an Unstabilized Spacecraft During the Deployment of an Elastic Pantograph Structure
Zakrzhevskii, A. E.; Khoroshilov, V. S.
2014-05-01
An unstabilized spacecraft with a pantograph structure deployed in orbit to carry solar batteries is the subject of study. The objective of the study is to construct a mathematical model of this system taking into account the elastic properties of elements of the pantograph in longitudinal and transverse directions. This model is based on the Lagrangian formalism as applied to a mechanical system with rheonomic constraints. The expressions for the coefficients of the equations of motions are obtained using Mathematica 5©. A Fortran application software package is used for numerical simulation of dynamic processes. This package can be adapted, if necessary, to study other structures. The behavior of the spacecraft during the deployment of the pantograph is numerically analyzed using different values of spacecraft parameters and the parameters of the deployment process in the gravity field.
Detail of photo 7903109 stack of superconducting cables in the modulus measuring device
1979-01-01
The picture shows an assembly of insulated superconducting cables of the type used in the Po dipole magnet inserted in the elastic modulus measuring device (photos 7903547X and 7903169) in order to measures its mechanical properties under azimuthal compression. See also 7903547X, 7903169, 8307552X.
Measuring Young's Modulus the Easy Way, and Tracing the Effects of Measurement Uncertainties
Nunn, John
2015-01-01
The speed of sound in a solid is determined by the density and elasticity of the material. Young's modulus can therefore be calculated once the density and the speed of sound in the solid are measured. The density can be measured relatively easily, and the speed of sound through a rod can be measured very inexpensively by setting up a longitudinal…
Laboratory Performance Evaluation of High Modulus Asphalt Concrete Modified with Different Additives
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Peng Li
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The objective of this study is to evaluate comprehensive performance of high modulus asphalt concrete (HMAC and propose common values for establishing evaluation system. Three gradations with different modifiers were conducted to study the high and low temperature performance, shearing behavior, and water stability. The laboratory tests for HMAC included static and dynamic modulus tests, rutting test, uniaxial penetration test, bending test, and immersion Marshall test. Dynamic modulus test results showed that modifier can improve the static modulus and the improvements were remarkable at higher temperature. Moreover, modulus of HMAC-20 was better than those of HMAC-16 and HMAC-25. The results of performance test indicated that HMAC has good performance to resist high temperature rutting, and the resistances of the HMAC-20 and HMAC-25 against rutting were better than that of HMAC-16. Then, the common values of dynamic stability were recommended. Furthermore, common values of HMAC performance were established based on pavement performance tests.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
石茂林; 李洪友; 陈梦月
2014-01-01
A two-section model of titanium alloy dental implant and bone issue was established by 3-D software Pro/E and meshed by Ansys Workbench 14.5.The influence of components of different elastic modulus and their combinations on implant-bone interface stress distribution was studied after setting material properties,constraints and loading.The method to improve dental implant system was studied.The result shows that the dental implant system of lower elastic modulus implants was with better biomechanical compatibility.A dental implant system using suitable modulus abutment and dental implant combination can reduce implant-bone interface stress effectively.%采用Pro/E三维构图软件及Ansys Workbench 14．5建立二段式钛合金种植牙系统模型，并进行网格划分．设定材料属性、约束和加载条件，分析种植牙系统不同弹性模量组件及其组合对骨界面应力分布的影响，研究种植牙系统的改进方法．结果表明：低模量值种植体具有更好的生物力学相容性，种植牙系统采用适宜模量值基台和种植体组合能够有效地降低骨界面应力．
BEM TECHNIQUE FOR THE ANALYSIS OF 2D ELASTIC SOLIDS DYNAMICS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vorona Yu.V.
2014-12-01
Full Text Available A numerical approach to calculating the singular parts of the Boundary Integral Equations for 2D elastic solids harmonic vibration is proposed. The validation of the approach in wide range of frequencies is demonstrated. The developed numerical BEM technique is appliead to the problem of elastic solids periodical vibration.
Dremin, I M
2012-01-01
When colliding, the high energy hadrons can either produce new particles or scatter elastically without change of their quantum num- bers and other particles produced. Namely elastic scattering of hadrons is considered in this review paper. Even though the inelastic processes dominate at high energies, the elastic scattering constitutes the notice- able part of the total cross section ranging between 18 and 25% with some increase at higher energies. The scattering proceeds mostly at small angles and reveals peculiar dependences at larger angles disclos- ing the geometrical structure of the colliding particles and di?erent dynamical mechanisms. The fast decreasing Gaussian peak at small angles is followed by the exponential (Orear) regime with some shoul- ders and dips and then by the power-like decrease. Results of various theoretical approaches are compared with exper- imental data. Phenomenological models pretending to describe this process are reviewed. The unitarity condition requires the exponen- tial re...
Small shear modulus of cubic CaSiO3 perovskite
Kawai, Kenji; Tsuchiya, Taku
2015-04-01
Ca-perovskite (CaPv) is considered to be one of the most abundant minerals in the Earth's lower mantle (LM). Furthermore, previous static calculations and mean-field theory suggest that it has a much larger shear modulus than bridgmanite (MgPv). In this study, the elasticity of cubic CaPv was reinvestigated using the density functional constant-temperature first principles molecular dynamics method under the correct conditions to simulate its elasticity. Our new results clearly demonstrate that cubic CaPv has comparable bulk and slightly smaller shear moduli than Fe-bearing MgPv. This is because the boundary condition for the supercell used in this study allows for the rotational phonon motion of SiO6 octahedra under strain, which predominantly affects the decrease in C11 and C44. Acoustic wave velocities determined from the elastic moduli indicate that cubic CaPv has slower velocities and larger densities than Fe-bearing MgPv and preliminary reference Earth model in the LM. This suggests that if CaPv-rich material exists, it can accumulate in the lowermost LM and produce a seismically low-velocity anomaly.
Ab-initio study of electronic structure and elastic properties of ZrC
Mund, H. S.; Ahuja, B. L.
2016-05-01
The electronic and elastic properties of ZrC have been investigated using the linear combination of atomic orbitals method within the framework of density functional theory. Different exchange-correlation functionals are taken into account within generalized gradient approximation. We have computed energy bands, density of states, elastic constants, bulk modulus, shear modulus, Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, lattice parameters and pressure derivative of the bulk modulus by calculating ground state energy of the rock salt structure type ZrC.
Janusonis, J.; Jansma, T.; Chang, C. L.; Liu, Qi; Gatilova, A.; Lomonosov, A. M.; Shalagatskyi, V.; Pezeril, T.; Temnov, V. V.; Tobey, R. I.
2016-01-01
Surface magnetoelastic waves are coupled elastic and magnetic excitations that propagate along the surface of a magnetic material. Ultrafast optical techniques allow for a non-contact excitation and detection scheme while providing the ability to measure both elastic and magnetic components individu
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Awodola T. O.
2014-09-01
Full Text Available The dynamic response to moving concentrated masses of elastically supported rectangular plates resting on Winkler elastic foundation is investigated in this work. This problem, involving non-classical boundary conditions, is solved and illustrated with two common examples often encountered in engineering practice. Analysis of the closed form solutions shows that, for the same natural frequency (i the response amplitude for the moving mass problem is greater than that one of the moving force problem for fixed Rotatory inertia correction factor R0 and foundation modulus F0, (ii The critical speed for the moving mass problem is smaller than that for the moving force problem and so resonance is reached earlier in the former. The numerical results in plotted curves show that, for the elastically supported plate, as the value of R0 increases, the response amplitudes of the plate decrease and that, for fixed value of R0, the displacements of the plate decrease as F0 increases. The results also show that for fixed R0 and F0, the transverse deflections of the plates under the actions of moving masses are higher than those when only the force effects of the moving load are considered. Hence, the moving force solution is not a save approximation to the moving mass problem. Also, as the mass ratio Γ approaches zero, the response amplitude of the moving mass problem approaches that one of the moving force problem of the elastically supported rectangular plate resting on constant Winkler elastic foundation.
Cold Resistant Properties of High Modulus Polyurethane
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI Minghua; XIA Ru; ZHANG Yuchuan; HUANG Zhifang; YAO Heping; HUANG Wanli; WANG Yifeng; HUI Jianqiang; WU Chunyu
2009-01-01
Six kinds of polyurethane(PU)elastomers were prepared based on different poly-esters,polyethers and chain extenders.The structure,mechanical properties and cold resistant proper-ties of PU were systematically investigated by FTIR,XRD,DMTA,universal testing machine and flex ductility machine.The results show that T_g of soft segment is the main factor of the cold resistant properties of polyurethane elastomer.Compared with the same relative molecular mass of the polyester and the polyether,the polyether flexibility is better,the glass transition temperature(T_g)is lower and the cold resistant properties is remarkable,for example the cold resistant properties of PU based on poly(tetramethylene glycol),1,4-BG and MDI achieves the fifth level.The physics performances of polyurethane elastomers,such as breakdown strength,Young's modulus and the cold resistant prop-erties,are all superior.
Elasticity of some mantle crystal structures. II.
Wang, H.; Simmons, G.
1973-01-01
The single-crystal elastic constants are determined as a function of pressure and temperature for rutile structure germanium dioxide (GeO2). The data are qualitatively similar to those of rutile TiO2 measured by Manghnani (1969). The compressibility in the c direction is less than one-half that in the a direction, the pressure derivative of the shear constant is negative, and the pressure derivative of the bulk modulus has a relatively high value of about 6.2. According to an elastic strain energy theory, the negative shear modulus derivative implies that the kinetic barrier to diffusion decreases with increasing pressure.
Elastic properties of suspended black phosphorus nanosheets
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Jia-Ying; Li, Yang; Zhen, Liang; Xu, Cheng-Yan, E-mail: cy-xu@hit.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); MOE Key Laboratory of Micro-systems and Micro-structures Manufacturing, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150080 (China); Zhan, Zhao-Yao [Chongqing Institute of Green and Intelligent Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chongqing 400714 (China); Li, Tie [Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China)
2016-01-04
The mechanical properties of black phosphorus (BP) nanosheets suspended over circular holes were measured by an atomic force microscope nanoindentation method. The continuum mechanic model was introduced to calculate the elastic modulus and pretension of BP nanosheets with thicknesses ranging from 14.3 to 34 nm. Elastic modulus of BP nanosheets declines with thickness, and the maximum value is 276 ± 32.4 GPa. Besides, the effective strain of BP ranges from 8 to 17% with a breaking strength of 25 GPa. Our results show that BP nanosheets serve as a promising candidate for flexible electronic applications.
Elastic properties of superconductors and materials with weakly correlated spins.
Binek, Christian
2017-07-07
It is shown that in the ergodic regime, the temperature dependence of Young's modulus is solely determined by the magnetic properties of a material. For the large class of materials with paramagnetic or diamagnetic response, simple functional forms of the temperature derivative of Young's modulus are derived and compared with experimental data and empirical results. Superconducting materials in the Meissner phase are ideal diamagnets. As such, they display remarkable elastic properties. Constant diamagnetic susceptibility gives rise to a temperature independent elastic modulus for ceramic and single crystalline superconductors alike. The thermodynamic approach established in this report, paves the way to tailor elastic material parameters through the design of magnetic properties.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张洪武; 张新伟
2002-01-01
The objective of the paper is to develop a new algorithm for numericalsolution of dynamic elastic-plastic strain hardening/softening problems. The gradientdependent model is adopted in the numerical model to overcome the result mesh-sensitivity problem in the dynamic strain softening or strain localization analysis.The equations for the dynamic elastic-plastic problems are derived in terms of theparametric variational principle, which is valid for associated, non-associated andstrain softening plastic constitutive models in the finite element analysis. The preciseintegration method, which has been widely used for discretization in time domain ofthe linear problems, is introduced for the solution of dynamic nonlinear equations.The new algorithm proposed is based on the combination of the parametric quadraticprogramming method and the precise integration method and has all the advantagesin both of the algorithms. Results of numerical examples demonstrate not only thevalidity, but also the advantages of the algorithm proposed for the numerical solutionof nonlinear dynamic problems.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
孙仲林; 党进谦; 樊恒辉; 王飞
2012-01-01
The dispersive clay is a special soil which has low erosion resistance ability, impermeability, and high dispersion in pure water; it would cause serious harm to water conservancy construction. There have been many results on identification and modification of dispersive clay; but study of dynamic characteristics of dispersive clay is seldom reported in the newspapers. By using the DTC-199 dynamic torsional shear instrument to study the dynamic shear modulus of a kind of dispersive clay coming from a rolling soil dam in Ningxia. By changing the initial conditions such as moisture content, dry density and confining pressure and so on, to study its dynamic characteristics and its variation rules of dynamic shear modulus in different experimental conditions, then to compare and analyze the results. We can get that: dispersive ciay's dynamic shear stress-strain relations conform Hardin-Dmevich hyperbolic model; controlling the initial conditions, as other condition is the same, the lower moisture content, the greater dynamic shear modulus; the greater dry density is, the greater dynamic shear modulus is; the higher confining pressure is, the greater dynamic shear modulus is. Initial shear modulus and the maximum dynamic shear stress change as the same way. Dynamic shear modulus become smaller as dynamic shear strain increases. Compared with ordinary clay, the moisture content has greater impact on its strength and deformation.%分散性土耐冲蚀性低、抗渗性能差,在纯水中具有很高的分散性,严重威胁水利工程的安全.在分散性土的鉴别和改性方面已有很多成果,但分散性土动力特性的研究见诸报端的还很少.利用日本诚研社生产的DTC-199型电液伺服加荷往复扭剪三轴仪,对取自宁夏某碾压均质土坝的分散性土的动剪切模量进行了探索.通过改变试样的含水率、干密度和围压等初始条件,研究分散性土在不同试验条件下的动力特性及剪切模量的变化
Kopasakis, George; Connolly, Joseph W.; Seiel, Jonathan
2016-01-01
A summary of the propulsion system modeling under NASA's High Speed Project (HSP) AeroPropulsoServoElasticity (APSE) task is provided with a focus on the propulsion system for the low-boom supersonic configuration developed by Lockheed Martin and referred to as the N+2 configuration. This summary includes details on the effort to date to develop computational models for the various propulsion system components. The objective of this paper is to summarize the model development effort in this task, while providing more detail in the modeling areas that have not been previously published. The purpose of the propulsion system modeling and the overall APSE effort is to develop an integrated dynamic vehicle model to conduct appropriate unsteady analysis of supersonic vehicle performance. This integrated APSE system model concept includes the propulsion system model, and the vehicle structural aerodynamics model. The development to date of such a preliminary integrated model will also be summarized in this report
Ultrasonic velocity and elastic moduli of heavy metal tellurite glasses
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Afifi, Hesham; Marzouk, Samier
2003-05-26
Longitudinal and transverse ultrasonic waves velocities in lead tungsten tellurite glasses have been measured using the pulse-echo method at 5 MHz frequency and at room temperature (300 K). The elastic properties; longitudinal modulus, shear modulus, Young's modulus, bulk modulus and Poisson's ratio together with the microhardness, softening temperature, and Debye temperature are found to be rather sensitive to the glass composition. Information about the structure of the glass can be deduced after calculating the average stretching force constant and the average ring size. A comparison between the experimental elastic moduli data obtained in this study and those calculated theoretically by other models has been discussed.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Hai-Long Chen; Feng-Nian Jin; Hua-Lin Fan
2013-01-01
Due to the wide applications of arches in underground protective structures,dynamic analysis of circular arches including soil-structure interactions is important.In this paper,an exact solution of the forced vibration of circular arches subjected to subsurface denotation forces is obtained.The dynamic soil-structure interaction is considered with the introduction of an interfacial damping between the structure element and the surrounding soil into the equation of motion.By neglecting the influences of shear,rotary inertia and tangential forces and assuming the arch incompressible,the equations of motion of the buried arches were set up.Analytical solutions of the dynamic responses of the protective arches were deduced by means of modal superposition.Arches with different opening angles,acoustic impedances and rise-span ratios were analyzed to discuss their influences on an arch.The theoretical analysis suggests blast loads for elastic designs and predicts the potential failure modes for buried protective arches.
Dentinogenesis imperfecta - hardness and Young's modulus of teeth.
Wieczorek, Aneta; Loster, Jolanta; Ryniewicz, Wojciech; Ryniewicz, Anna M
2013-01-01
Dentinogenesis imperfecta type II (DI-II) is the most common dental genetic disease with reported incidence 1 in 8000. Elasticity and hardness of the enamel of teeth are important values which are connected with their resistance to attrition. It is hypothesized that values of physical properties for healthy teeth and teeth with DI-II are different. The aim of the study was to investigate some physical properties of teeth extracted from patients with DI-II in comparison with normal teeth. The material of the study was six teeth: three lower molars, with clinical signs of DI-II, which were extracted due to complications of pulp inflammation and three other lower molars which were extracted for orthodontic reasons - well formed, without any signs of pathology. The surfaces of DI-II and normal teeth were tested on the CSM Instruments Scratch Tester machine (producer CSEM Switzerland) by Oliver and Pharr method. The indenter used was Vicker's VG-73 diamond indenter. Additionally, the Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analysis of the surface of the teeth with DI-II was made. Vickers hardness of the teeth with dental pathology (DI-II) was seven times smaller, and Young's modulus six times smaller than those of healthy teeth. The parameters of hardness and elasticity of enamel of teeth with clinical diagnosis of DI-II were very much smaller than in normal teeth and because of that can be responsible for attrition.
From viscous to elastic sheets: Dynamics of smectic freely floating films
Harth, Kirsten; May, Kathrin; Trittel, Torsten; Stannarius, Ralf
2015-03-01
Oscillations and rupture of bubbles, composed of an inner fluid separated from an outer fluid by a membrane, represent an old but still immensely active field of research. Membrane properties except surface tension are often neglected for simple fluid films (e.g. soap bubbles), whereas they govern the dynamics in systems with more complex membranes (e.g. vesicles). Due to their layered phase structure, smectic liquid crystals can form stable, uniform and easy-to handle fluid films of immense aspect ratios. Recently, freely floating bubbles detached from a support were prepared. We analyze the relaxation from strongly non-spherical shapes and the rupture dynamics of such bubbles using high-speed video recordings. Peculiar dynamics intermediate between those of simple viscous fluid films and an elastic response emerge: Oscillations, slowed relaxation and even the formation of wrinkles and extrusions. We characterize these phenomena and propose explanations. We acknowledge funding by the German Aerospace Center DLR within Project OASIS-CO and German Science Foundation Project STA 425-28.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李凤明; 胡超; 徐敏强; 黄文虎
2003-01-01
Based on the theory of elastic dynamics, multiple scattering of elastic waves anddynamic stress concentrations in fiber-reinforced composite are studied. The analytical expressions ofelastic waves in different regions are presented. The mode coefficients of elastic waves are determinedin accordance with the continuous conditions of displacement and stress on the boundary of the multi-interfaces. By using the addition theorem of Hankel functions, the formula of scattered wave fields indifferent local coordinates are transformed into those in one local coordinate to determine the unknowncoefficients and dynamic stress concentration factors (DSCFs). The influences of the distance betweentwo inclusions, material properties and structural size on the DSCFs near the interfaces are analyzed.As examples, the numerical results of DSCFs near the interfaces for two kinds of fiber-reinforcedcomposites are presented and discussed.
Sarangapani, Radhakrishnan; Reddy, Sreekantha T; Sikder, Arun K
2015-04-01
Molecular dynamics simulations studies are carried out on hydroxyl terminated polyethers that are useful in energetic polymeric binder applications. Energetic polymers derived from oxetanes with heterocyclic side chains with different energetic substituents are designed and simulated under the ensembles of constant particle number, pressure, temperature (NPT) and constant particle number, volume, temperature (NVT). Specific volume of different amorphous polymeric models is predicted using NPT-MD simulations as a function of temperature. Plots of specific volume versus temperature exhibited a characteristic change in slope when amorphous systems change from glassy to rubbery state. Several material properties such as Young's, shear, and bulk modulus, Poisson's ratio, etc. are predicted from equilibrated structures and established the structure-property relations among designed polymers. Energetic performance parameters of these polymers are calculated and results reveal that the performance of the designed polymers is comparable to the benchmark energetic polymers like polyNIMMO, polyAMMO and polyBAMO. Overall, it is worthy remark that this molecular simulations study on novel energetic polyethers provides a good guidance on mastering the design principles and allows us to design novel polymers of tailored properties.
Sánchez, Claudia; Vidal, Valérie; Melo, Francisco
2015-08-01
We report an experimental study of the acoustic signal produced by the rupture of an elastic membrane that initially closes a cylindrical overpressurized cavity. This configuration has been recently used as an experimental model system for the investigation of the acoustic emission from the bursting of elongated gas bubbles rising in a conduit. Here, we investigate the effect of the membrane rupture dynamics on the acoustic signal produced by the pressure release by changing the initial tension of the membrane. The initial overpressure in the cavity is fixed at a value such that the system remains in the linear acoustic regime. For large initial membrane deformation, the rupture time τ rup is small compared to the wave propagation time in the cavity and the pressure wave inside the conduit can be fully captured by the linear theory. For low membrane tension, a hole is pierced in the membrane but its rupture does not occur. For intermediate deformation, finally, the rupture progresses in two steps: first the membrane opens slowly; then, after reaching a critical size, the rupture accelerates. A transversal wave is excited along the membrane surface. The characteristic signature of each opening dynamics on the acoustic emission is described.
Benedetto, Antonio; Kearley, Gordon J.
2016-10-01
A new type of neutron-scattering spectroscopy is presented that is designed specifically to measure dynamics in bio-systems that are difficult to obtain in any other way. The temporal information is largely model-free and is analogous to relaxation processes measured with dielectric spectroscopy, but provides additional spacial and geometric aspects of the underlying dynamics. Numerical simulations of the basic instrument design show the neutron beam can be highly focussed, giving efficiency gains that enable the use of small samples. Although we concentrate on continuous neutron sources, the extension to pulsed neutron sources is proposed, both requiring minimal data-treatment and being broadly analogous with dielectric spectroscopy, they will open the study of dynamics to new areas of biophysics.
Benedetto, Antonio; Kearley, Gordon J.
2016-01-01
A new type of neutron-scattering spectroscopy is presented that is designed specifically to measure dynamics in bio-systems that are difficult to obtain in any other way. The temporal information is largely model-free and is analogous to relaxation processes measured with dielectric spectroscopy, but provides additional spacial and geometric aspects of the underlying dynamics. Numerical simulations of the basic instrument design show the neutron beam can be highly focussed, giving efficiency gains that enable the use of small samples. Although we concentrate on continuous neutron sources, the extension to pulsed neutron sources is proposed, both requiring minimal data-treatment and being broadly analogous with dielectric spectroscopy, they will open the study of dynamics to new areas of biophysics. PMID:27703184
Dynamic characteristics of rocks and method of their determine
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Radoslav Schügerl
2009-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents selected problems of the research of the influence of technical vibrations on rocks. The vibrations are the products of the technological procedure, such as mining blasting, ramming of the piles, using of the drilling-equipment or vibration machines. The vibrations could be also evocated by road or train traffic. The most important dynamic characteristics of rocks are dynamic modulus of elasticity Edyn; dynamic modulus of deformation Edef, dyn; dynamic shear-modulus Gdyn; and especially dynamic Poisson´s ratio νdyn. These parameters were obtained by laboratory testing of conglomerate samples.
Elasticity reconstructive imaging by means of stimulated echo MRI.
Chenevert, T L; Skovoroda, A R; O'Donnell, M; Emelianov, S Y
1998-03-01
A method is introduced to measure internal mechanical displacement and strain by means of MRI. Such measurements are needed to reconstruct an image of the elastic Young's modulus. A stimulated echo acquisition sequence with additional gradient pulses encodes internal displacements in response to an externally applied differential deformation. The sequence provides an accurate measure of static displacement by limiting the mechanical transitions to the mixing period of the simulated echo. Elasticity reconstruction involves definition of a region of interest having uniform Young's modulus along its boundary and subsequent solution of the discretized elasticity equilibrium equations. Data acquisition and reconstruction were performed on a urethane rubber phantom of known elastic properties and an ex vivo canine kidney phantom using elastic properties are well represented on Young's modulus images. The long-term objective of this work is to provide a means for remote palpation and elasticity quantitation in deep tissues otherwise inaccessible to manual palpation.
Analysis of Apparent Elasticity Constants of Woven Fabrics
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
董侠; 张建春; 张燕
2001-01-01
The woven fabric can be defined as orthogonal elastomer if the extension force that puts on the fabric is very small. Based on the precondition, the apparent elasticity constants of a woven fabric were analyzed theoretically in the paper. The bias angle (which is between weft yarns and extension direction ) affects apparent elasticity modulus and elasticity coefficient of the fabric in the extension direction. And the experiment describes fluxes of elasticity constants going with the bias angle of the fabric.
Schouten, Alfred C.; Mugge, Winfred; Helm, van der Frans C.T.
2008-01-01
The dynamic behavior of a neuromusculoskeletal system results from the complex mechanical interaction between muscle visco-elasticity resulting from (co-)contraction and afferent feedback from muscle spindles and Golgi tendon organs. As a result of the multiple interactions the individual effect of
Stojanović, Vladimir; Petković, Marko D.
2016-12-01
Geometrically nonlinear free and forced vibrations of damaged high order shear deformable beams resting on a nonlinear Pasternak foundation are investigated in this paper. Equations of motion are derived for the beam which is under subjected combined action of arbitrarily distributed or concentrated transverse loading as well as axial loading. To account for shear deformations, the concept of high order shear deformation is used in comparison with the concept of first order shear deformation theory. Analyses are performed to investigate the effects of the specific stiffness of the foundation on the damaged beam frequencies and displacements with the aim of equalising the response of a damaged and an intact beam. According to that, functions of the foundation stiffness are determined depending on the location and size of the damage as a result of the possibility for the damaged beam to behave like one that is intact. An advanced p-version of the finite element method is developed for geometrically nonlinear vibrations of damaged Reddy-Bickford beams. The present study gives a clear view of the nonlinear dynamical behaviour of four types of beams according to high order shear deformation theory - an intact beam, a damaged beam, a damaged beam on an elastic foundation and intact beam on elastic foundation. The paper also presents the derivation of a new set of two nonlinear partial differential equations where only the transverse and axial displacements figure. The forced nonlinear vibrations problem is solved in the time domain using the Newmark integration method. Free vibration analysis carried out by harmonic balance and the use of continuation methods and backbone curves are constructed.
Dynamic rheology of food protein networks
Small amplitude oscillatory shear analyses of samples containing protein are useful for determining the nature of the protein matrix without damaging it. Elastic modulus, viscous modulus, and loss tangent (the ratio of viscous modulus to elastic modulus) give information on the strength of the netw...
Tulchinsky, Arie
2015-01-01
We study the transient dynamics of a viscous liquid contained in a narrow gap between a rigid surface and a parallel elastic plate. The elastic plate is deformed due to an externally applied time-varying pressure-field. We model the flow-field via the lubrication approximation, and the plate deformation by the Kirchhoff-Love plate theory. We obtain a self-similarity solution for the case of an external point force acting on the elastic plate. The pressure and deformation field during and after the application of the external force are derived and presented by closed form expressions. We examine a uniform external pressure acting on the elastic plate over a finite region and during a finite time period, similar to the viscous-elastic interaction time-scale. The interaction between elasticity and viscosity is shown to reduce by order of magnitude the pressure within the Hele-Shaw cell compared with the externally applied pressure, thus suggesting such configurations may be used for impact mitigation.
Monte Carlo study of the shear modulus at the surface of a Lennard-Jones crystal
Eerden, J. P. v. d.; Knops, H. J. F.; Roos, A.
1992-01-01
In this paper, we give a microscopic definition of local elastic constants. We apply this to the numerical evaluation of the shear modulus of an interf