WorldWideScience

Sample records for dynamic microfunnel culture

  1. Mixed-scale channel networks including Kingfisher-beak-shaped 3D microfunnels for efficient single particle entrapment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yunjeong; Lim, Yeongjin; Shin, Heungjoo

    2016-06-01

    Reproducible research results for nanofluidics and their applications require viable fabrication technologies to produce nanochannels integrated with microchannels that can guide fluid flow and analytes into/out of the nanochannels. We present the simple fabrication of mixed-scale polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) channel networks consisting of nanochannels and microchannels via a single molding process using a monolithic mixed-scale carbon mold. The monolithic carbon mold is fabricated by pyrolyzing a polymer mold patterned by photolithography. During pyrolysis, the polymer mold shrinks by ~90%, which enables nanosized carbon molds to be produced without a complex nanofabrication process. Because of the good adhesion between the polymer mold and the Si substrate, non-uniform volume reduction occurs during pyrolysis resulting in the formation of curved carbon mold side walls. These curved side walls and the relatively low surface energy of the mold provide efficient demolding of the PDMS channel networks. In addition, the trigonal prismatic shape of the polymer is converted into to a Kingfisher-beak-shaped carbon structure due to the non-uniform volume reduction. The transformation of this mold architecture produces a PDMS Kingfisher-beak-shaped 3D microfunnel that connects the microchannel and the nanochannel smoothly. The smooth reduction in the cross-sectional area of the 3D microfunnels enables efficient single microparticle trapping at the nanochannel entrance; this is beneficial for studies of cell transfection.Reproducible research results for nanofluidics and their applications require viable fabrication technologies to produce nanochannels integrated with microchannels that can guide fluid flow and analytes into/out of the nanochannels. We present the simple fabrication of mixed-scale polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) channel networks consisting of nanochannels and microchannels via a single molding process using a monolithic mixed-scale carbon mold. The monolithic

  2. Fabrication and Characterization of Silicon Micro-Funnels and Tapered Micro-Channels for Stochastic Sensing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances S. Ligler

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a simplified, highly reproducible process to fabricate arrays of tapered silicon micro-funnels and micro-channels using a single lithographic step with a silicon oxide (SiO2 hard mask on at a wafer scale. Two approaches were used for the fabrication. The first one involves a single wet anisotropic etch step in concentrated potassium hydroxide (KOH and the second one is a combined approach comprising Deep Reactive Ion Etch (DRIE followed by wet anisotropic etching. The etching is performed through a 500 mm thick silicon wafer, and the resulting structures are characterized by sharp tapered ends with a sub-micron cross-sectional area at the tip. We discuss the influence of various parameters involved in the fabrication such as the size and thickness variability of the substrate, dry and wet anisotropic etching conditions, the etchant composition, temperature, diffusion and micro-masking effects, the quality of the hard mask in the uniformity and reproducibility of the structures, and the importance of a complete removal of debris and precipitates. The presence of apertures at the tip of the structures is corroborated through current voltage measurements and by the translocation of DNA through the apertures. The relevance of the results obtained in this report is discussed in terms of the potential use of these structures for stochastic sensing.

  3. Dynamics of culturable soil microbial communities during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-10-20

    Oct 20, 2008 ... Dynamics of culturable soil microbial communities during decomposition of some ... semi-arid and arid agroecozones of West Africa to measure the dynamics of culturable bacterial and fungal communities in the ... fauna activities, depending on the chemical composition of the residue; C/N ratio, lignin and ...

  4. How can you capture cultural dynamics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihisa eKashima

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cross-cultural comparison is a critical method by which we can examine the interaction between culture and psychological processes. However, comparative methods tend to overlook cultural dynamics – the formation, maintenance, and transformation of cultures over time. The present article gives a brief overview of four different types of research designs that have been used to examine cultural dynamics in the literature: (1 cross-temporal methods that trace medium- to long-term changes in a culture; (2 cross-generational methods that explore medium-term implications of cultural transmission; (3 experimental simulation methods that investigate micro-level mechanisms of cultural dynamics; and (4 formal models and computer simulation methods often used to investigate long-term and macro-level implications of micro-level mechanisms. These methods differ in terms of level of analysis for which they are designed (micro vs. macro-level, scale of time for which they are typically used (short-, medium-, or long-term, and direction of inference (deductive vs. empirical method that they imply. The paper describes examples of these methods, discuss their strengths and weaknesses, and point to their complementarity in inquiries about cultural change. Because cultural dynamics research is about meaning over time, issues deriving from interpretation of meaning and temporal distance between researchers and objects of inquiry can pose threats to the validity of the research and its findings. The methodological question about hermeneutic circle is recalled and further inquiries are encouraged.

  5. Bile canalicular dynamics in hepatocyte sandwich cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reif, Raymond; Karlsson, Johan; Günther, Georgia; Beattie, Lynette; Wrangborg, David; Hammad, Seddik; Begher-Tibbe, Brigitte; Vartak, Amruta; Melega, Simone; Kaye, Paul M; Hengstler, Jan G; Jirstrand, Mats

    2015-10-01

    Many substances are hepatotoxic due to their ability to cause intrahepatic cholestasis. Therefore, there is a high demand for in vitro systems for the identification of cholestatic properties of new compounds. Primary hepatocytes cultivated in collagen sandwich cultures are known to establish bile canaliculi which enclose secreted biliary components. Cholestatic compounds are mainly known to inhibit bile excretion dynamics, but may also alter canalicular volume, or hepatocellular morphology. So far, techniques to assess time-resolved morphological changes of bile canaliculi in sandwich cultures are not available. In this study, we developed an automated system that quantifies dynamics of bile canaliculi recorded in conventional time-lapse image sequences. We validated the hepatocyte sandwich culture system as an appropriate model to study bile canaliculi in vitro by showing structural similarity measured as bile canaliculi length per hepatocyte to that observed in vivo. Moreover, bile canalicular excretion kinetics of CMFDA (5-chloromethylfluorescein diacetate) in sandwich cultures resembled closely the kinetics observed in vivo. The developed quantification technique enabled the quantification of dynamic changes in individual bile canaliculi. With this technique, we were able to clearly distinguish between sandwich cultures supplemented with dexamethasone and insulin from control cultures. In conclusion, the automated quantification system offers the possibility to systematically study the causal relationship between disturbed bile canalicular dynamics and cholestasis.

  6. Hydride generation coupled to microfunnel-assisted headspace liquid-phase microextraction for the determination of arsenic with UV-Vis spectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemniaye-Torshizi, Reihaneh; Ashraf, Narges; Arbab-Zavar, Mohammad Hossein

    2014-12-01

    In this research, a microfunnel-assisted headspace liquid-phase microextraction technique has been used in combination with hydride generation to determine arsenic (As) by UV-Vis spectrophotometry. The method is based on the reduction of As to arsine (AsH3) in acidic media by sodium tetrahydroborate (NaBH4) followed by its subsequent reaction with silver diethyldithiocarbamate (AgDDC) to give an absorbing complex at 510 nm. The complexing reagent (AgDDC) has been dissolved in a 1:1 (by the volume ratio) mixture of chloroform/chlorobenzene microdroplet and exposed to the generated gaseous arsine via a reversed microfunnel in the headspace of the sample solution. Several operating parameters affecting the performance of the method have been examined and optimized. Acetonitrile solvent has been added to the working samples as a sensitivity enhancement agent. Under the optimized operating conditions, the detection limit has been measured to be 0.2 ng mL(-1) (based on 3sb/m criterion, n b = 8), and the calibration curve was linear in the range of 0.5-12 ng mL(-1). The relative standard deviation for eight replicate measurements was 1.9 %. Also, the effects of several potential interferences have been studied. The accuracy of the method was validated through the analysis of JR-1 geological standard reference material. The method has been successfully applied for the determination of arsenic in raw and spiked soft drink and water samples with the recoveries that ranged from 91 to 106 %.

  7. Dynamic cell culture system (7-IML-1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogoli, Augusto

    1992-01-01

    This experiment is one of the Biorack experiments being flown on the International Microgravity Laboratory 1 (MIL-1) mission as part of an investigation studying cell proliferation and performance in space. One of the objectives of this investigation is to assess the potential benefits of bioprocessing in space with the ultimate goal of developing a bioreactor for continuous cell cultures in space. This experiment will test the operation of an automated culture chamber that was designed for use in a Bioreactor in space. The device to be tested is called the Dynamic Cell Culture System (DCCS). It is a simple device in which media are renewed or chemicals are injected automatically, by means of osmotic pumps. This experiment uses four Type I/O experiment containers. One DCCS unit, which contains a culture chamber with renewal of medium and a second chamber without a medium supply fits in each container. Two DCCS units are maintained under zero gravity conditions during the on-orbit period. The other two units are maintained under 1 gh conditions in a 1 g centrifuge. The schedule for incubator transfer is given.

  8. Microfunnel-supported liquid-phase microextraction: application to extraction and determination of Irgarol 1051 and diuron in the Persian Gulf seawater samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Abolfazl; Sheijooni Fumani, Neda; Molaei, Saeideh

    2014-08-22

    In the present work, microfunnel-supported liquid-phase microextraction method (MF-LPME) based on applying low density organic solvent was developed for the determination of antifoulings (Irgarol 1051, diuron and 3,4-dichloroaniline) from seawater samples. In this method, home-designed MF device was used for facile loading and retrieving of organic solvent during the extraction procedure. The extraction was carried out with introduction of 400 μL of toluene via syringe into the MF device placed on the surface of sample solution (300 mL) containing analytes. After the extraction, extractant layer was narrowed into the capillary part of MF by pushing the device inside the sample and withdrawn by using a syringe to evaporate by nitrogen purging. The residual redissolved into 50 μL methanol, diluted to 100 μL with deionized water and injected into the high performance liquid chromatography with UV detection (HPLC-UV). Several factors influencing the extraction such as the type and volume of extraction solvent, sample pH, extraction time and ionic strength were investigated and optimized. Under the optimized conditions, the limits of detection in seawater were 1.4, 4.8 and 1.0 ng L(-1) for 3,4-dichloroaniline (DCA), diuron and Irgarol 1051, respectively. Enrichment factors were obtained 333, 150 and 373 for DCA, diuron and Irgarol 1051, respectively. The precision of the technique was evaluated in terms of repeatability which was less than 12.0% (n=5). The applicability of the proposed method was evaluated by the extraction and determination of antifoulings from seawater samples collected from harbors of Bushehr located in northern Persian Gulf coast. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The Dynamics of Organizational Culture and Academic Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willson, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Planning approaches are in a dynamic relationship with organizational culture. This article uses a case study of academic planning at California State Polytechnic University, Pomona to draw a correspondence between types of organizational culture and planning approaches. The case study shows the differing conceptions of organizational culture held…

  10. A Dynamic Model of Cultural Reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger, Mads Meier; Breen, Richard

    2016-01-01

    of study. Their model describes how parents transmit cultural capital to their children and how children convert cultural capital into educational success. It also provides a behavioral framework for interpreting parental investments in cultural capital. The authors review results from existing empirical......The authors draw on Pierre Bourdieu’s theory of cultural reproduction to develop a formal model of the pathways through which cultural capital acts to enhance children’s educational and socioeconomic success. The authors’ approach brings conceptual and empirical clarity to an important area...... research on the role of cultural capital in education to demonstrate the usefulness of their model for interpretative purposes, and they use National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979—Children and Young Adults survey data to test some of its implications....

  11. Socio-cultural dynamics and education for development in Zimbabwe

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socio-cultural dynamics and education for development in Zimbabwe: Navigating the discourse of exclusion and marginalisation. ... African Journal of Social Work ... Women have either been 'excluded' from education or 'bound' by socio-cultural factors deterring their potential to contribute to the development of the ...

  12. Functional clustering in hippocampal cultures: relating network structure and dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldt, S; Dzakpasu, R; Olariu, E; Żochowski, M; Wang, J X; Shtrahman, E

    2010-01-01

    In this work we investigate the relationship between gross anatomic structural network properties, neuronal dynamics and the resultant functional structure in dissociated rat hippocampal cultures. Specifically, we studied cultures as they developed under two conditions: the first supporting glial cell growth (high glial group), and the second one inhibiting it (low glial group). We then compared structural network properties and the spatio-temporal activity patterns of the neurons. Differences in dynamics between the two groups could be linked to the impact of the glial network on the neuronal network as the cultures developed. We also implemented a recently developed algorithm called the functional clustering algorithm (FCA) to obtain the resulting functional network structure. We show that this new algorithm is useful for capturing changes in functional network structure as the networks evolve over time. The FCA detects changes in functional structure that are consistent with expected dynamical differences due to the impact of the glial network. Cultures in the high glial group show an increase in global synchronization as the cultures age, while those in the low glial group remain locally synchronized. We additionally use the FCA to quantify the amount of synchronization present in the cultures and show that the total level of synchronization in the high glial group is stronger than in the low glial group. These results indicate an interdependence between the glial and neuronal networks present in dissociated cultures

  13. The Cultural Dynamics of Copycat Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesoudi, Alex

    2009-01-01

    The observation that suicides sometimes cluster in space and/or time has led to suggestions that these clusters are caused by the social learning of suicide-related behaviours, or “copycat suicides”. Point clusters are clusters of suicides localised in both time and space, and have been attributed to direct social learning from nearby individuals. Mass clusters are clusters of suicides localised in time but not space, and have been attributed to the dissemination of information concerning celebrity suicides via the mass media. Here, agent-based simulations, in combination with scan statistic methods for detecting clusters of rare events, were used to clarify the social learning processes underlying point and mass clusters. It was found that social learning between neighbouring agents did generate point clusters as predicted, although this effect was partially mimicked by homophily (individuals preferentially assorting with similar others). The one-to-many transmission dynamics characterised by the mass media were shown to generate mass clusters, but only where social learning was weak, perhaps due to prestige bias (only copying prestigious celebrities) and similarity bias (only copying similar models) acting to reduce the subset of available models. These findings can help to clarify and formalise existing hypotheses and to guide future empirical work relating to real-life copycat suicides. PMID:19789643

  14. Book Review: Dynamics of Culture and Tourism in Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Title of Book: Dynamics of Culture and Tourism in Africa: Perspectives on Africa's Development in the 21st Century Editors: Kenneth C. Nwoko and Omon M. Osiki Publisher, Place & Date of Publication: Babcock University Press, Remo-Ogun, 2015. Number of Pages: 622 + xviii. ISBN: 978-978-948-9202 ...

  15. Urban Resilience: Retail Location Dynamics and Cultural Heritage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Duijn, Mark; Rouwendal, Jan

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we study the relationship between cultural heritage and retail store dynamics at the neighbourhood level in the Netherlands. We analyze the total number of stores, number of vacant stores and number of stores by retail sub-industry in neighbourhoods, thereby focusing on the impact of

  16. Beyond the Mind: Cultural Dynamics of the Psyche

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marsico, Giuseppina; Valsiner, Jaan

    This book Beyond the Mind: Cultural Dynamics of the Psyche is unusual in the content and it the format. That’s why it requires an unusual look. It has to do with a man, an intellectual journey and with uncountable travels across the world over the last two decades. This man is Jaan Valsiner and h...

  17. Majority rule: political risks and cultural dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egon Flaig

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available L’exercice de la majorité participe de la ritualisation de la vie politique en Occident. Jusqu’à quel point et pour quelle raison la « loi de la majorité » peut-elle être considérée comme un apport positif ? La loi de la majorité repose sur une abstraction qui a pour principe de traiter également tous les individus quelles que soient leurs autres caractéristiques. Elle n’implique pas la démocratie et peut contribuer au fonctionnement d’un pouvoir fondamentalement aristocratique. Inversement, elle est souvent absente de sociétés où l’égalité politique prévaut. Sa spécificité consiste avant tout à s’affranchir de l’unanimité tout en rendant les décisions applicables par tous. Même s’ils ne sont pas les inventeurs de l’idée de majorité, les anciens Grecs méritent qu’on les observe à cet égard. Ils ont abondamment utilisé cette manière de décider et il en est question dès l’ Odyssée . Aujourd’hui, le communautarisme menace la règle de la majorité et son principe est remis en question. Il devient plus urgent de comprendre en quoi unanimité et majorité s’opposent. Certains courants historiographiques ont opposé la communauté, à la société, qui seule reconnaîtrait les individus. Or, si une telle vision évolutionniste peut être vue comme simpliste, il reste que le principe du consensus domine dans le processus de prise de décision observable dans les sociétés étudiées par les anthropologues. La logique du consensus n’est pas inintelligible. Elle se fonde sur deux éléments : le niveau d’intensité et la réciprocité différée. Une forte mobilisation d’un petit groupe peut lui permettre d’emporter la décision. Cela suppose, de la part des autres, une disposition à céder, qui ne peut fonctionner que parce qu’elle est insérée dans la culture locale comme une conduite socialement acceptable, ce qui devient possible si la concession des uns aujourd’hui a de

  18. [Effects on proliferation ability of vascular smooth muscle cells by static and/or dynamic cell culture: utility of pre-seeding technique for dynamic cell culture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokomuro, Hiroki; Ozawa, Tsukasa; Fujii, Takeshiro; Shiono, Noritsugu; Watanabe, Yoshinori; Yoshihara, Katsunori; Koyama, Nobuya; Okada, Mitsumasa

    2007-11-01

    Conventional biomaterials are not viable, do not grow, and do not provide contractile effects in cardiac tissue. Foreign synthetic material may become thrombogenic or infected. The most recent cardiac constructs consist of biodegradable material which has the potential to solve these problems. However, dynamic three-dimensional cell culture is necessary because conventional culture is limited to construct tough biografts. Vascular smooth muscle cells derived from rat aorta were seeded to poly-L-lactide-epsilon-capro-lactone copolymer in three groups; static culture group (static cell seeding + static cell culture), dynamic culture group (dynamic cell seeding + dynamic cell culture), and pre-seeding group [static cell seeding and culture for 1 week (pre-seeding) + dynamic cell culture]. The dynamic cell culture system used an original spinner flask. The pre-seeding technique used static cell seeding and culture before dynamic culture. The three groups were evaluated by cell proliferation and histologic studies. Vascular smooth muscle cells could be proliferated in/on the biodegradable materials. The pre-seeding group cells grew much more efficiently than the other groups. Very few cells were found in the biodegradable materials with the dynamic groups. However, there were many cells in the materials with the static culture group and pre-seeding group, especially the pre-seeding group. Dynamic culture is useful for constructing tough biografts by the pre-seeding technique.

  19. Generative modelling of regulated dynamical behavior in cultured neuronal networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volman, Vladislav; Baruchi, Itay; Persi, Erez; Ben-Jacob, Eshel

    2004-04-01

    The spontaneous activity of cultured in vitro neuronal networks exhibits rich dynamical behavior. Despite the artificial manner of their construction, the networks’ activity includes features which seemingly reflect the action of underlying regulating mechanism rather than arbitrary causes and effects. Here, we study the cultured networks dynamical behavior utilizing a generative modelling approach. The idea is to include the minimal required generic mechanisms to capture the non-autonomous features of the behavior, which can be reproduced by computer modelling, and then, to identify the additional features of biotic regulation in the observed behavior which are beyond the scope of the model. Our model neurons are composed of soma described by the two Morris-Lecar dynamical variables (voltage and fraction of open potassium channels), with dynamical synapses described by the Tsodyks-Markram three variables dynamics. The model neuron satisfies our self-consistency test: when fed with data recorded from a real cultured networks, it exhibits dynamical behavior very close to that of the networks’ “representative” neuron. Specifically, it shows similar statistical scaling properties (approximated by similar symmetric Lévy distribution with finite mean). A network of such M-L elements spontaneously generates (when weak “structured noise” is added) synchronized bursting events (SBEs) similar to the observed ones. Both the neuronal statistical scaling properties within the bursts and the properties of the SBEs time series show generative (a new discussed concept) agreement with the recorded data. Yet, the model network exhibits different structure of temporal variations and does not recover the observed hierarchical temporal ordering, unless fed with recorded special neurons (with much higher rates of activity), thus indicating the existence of self-regulation mechanisms. It also implies that the spontaneous activity is not simply noise-induced. Instead, the

  20. Community, culture and sustainability in multilevel dynamic systems intervention science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schensul, Jean J

    2009-06-01

    This paper addresses intertwined issues in the conceptualization, implementation and evaluation of multilevel dynamic systems intervention science (MDSIS). Interventions are systematically planned, conducted and evaluated social science-based cultural products intercepting the lives of people and institutions in the context of multiple additional events and processes (which also may be referred to as interventions) that may speed, slow or reduce change towards a desired outcome. Multilevel interventions address change efforts at multiple social levels in the hope that effects at each level will forge synergistic links, facilitating movement toward desired change. This paper utilizes an ecological framework that identifies macro (policy and regulatory institutions), meso (organizations and agencies with resources, and power) and micro (individuals, families and friends living in communities) interacting directly and indirectly. An MDSIS approach hypothesizes that change toward a goal will occur faster and more effectively when synchronized and supported across levels in a social system. MDSIS approaches by definition involve "whole" communities and cannot be implemented without the establishments of working community partnerships This paper takes a dynamic systems approach to science as conducted in communities, and discusses four concepts that are central to MDSIS--science, community, culture, and sustainability. These concepts are important in community based participatory research and to the targeting, refinement, and adaptation of enduring interventions. Consistency in their meaning and use can promote forward movement in the field of MDSIS, and in community-based prevention science.

  1. The Dynamics of Democracy, Development and Cultural Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaiser, Viktoria; Ranganathan, Shyam; Mann, Richard P.; Sumpter, David J. T.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decades many countries have experienced rapid changes in their economies, their democratic institutions and the values of their citizens. Comprehensive data measuring these changes across very different countries has recently become openly available. Between country similarities suggest common underlying dynamics in how countries develop in terms of economy, democracy and cultural values. We apply a novel Bayesian dynamical systems approach to identify the model which best captures the complex, mainly non-linear dynamics that underlie these changes. We show that the level of Human Development Index (HDI) in a country drives first democracy and then higher emancipation of citizens. This change occurs once the countries pass a certain threshold in HDI. The data also suggests that there is a limit to the growth of wealth, set by higher emancipation. Having reached a high level of democracy and emancipation, societies tend towards equilibrium that does not support further economic growth. Our findings give strong empirical evidence against a popular political science theory, known as the Human Development Sequence. Contrary to this theory, we find that implementation of human-rights and democratisation precede increases in emancipative values. PMID:24905920

  2. The dynamics of democracy, development and cultural values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaiser, Viktoria; Ranganathan, Shyam; Mann, Richard P; Sumpter, David J T

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decades many countries have experienced rapid changes in their economies, their democratic institutions and the values of their citizens. Comprehensive data measuring these changes across very different countries has recently become openly available. Between country similarities suggest common underlying dynamics in how countries develop in terms of economy, democracy and cultural values. We apply a novel Bayesian dynamical systems approach to identify the model which best captures the complex, mainly non-linear dynamics that underlie these changes. We show that the level of Human Development Index (HDI) in a country drives first democracy and then higher emancipation of citizens. This change occurs once the countries pass a certain threshold in HDI. The data also suggests that there is a limit to the growth of wealth, set by higher emancipation. Having reached a high level of democracy and emancipation, societies tend towards equilibrium that does not support further economic growth. Our findings give strong empirical evidence against a popular political science theory, known as the Human Development Sequence. Contrary to this theory, we find that implementation of human-rights and democratisation precede increases in emancipative values.

  3. Topological defects control collective dynamics in neural progenitor cell cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Kyogo; Kageyama, Ryoichiro; Sano, Masaki

    2017-04-01

    Cultured stem cells have become a standard platform not only for regenerative medicine and developmental biology but also for biophysical studies. Yet, the characterization of cultured stem cells at the level of morphology and of the macroscopic patterns resulting from cell-to-cell interactions remains largely qualitative. Here we report on the collective dynamics of cultured murine neural progenitor cells (NPCs), which are multipotent stem cells that give rise to cells in the central nervous system. At low densities, NPCs moved randomly in an amoeba-like fashion. However, NPCs at high density elongated and aligned their shapes with one another, gliding at relatively high velocities. Although the direction of motion of individual cells reversed stochastically along the axes of alignment, the cells were capable of forming an aligned pattern up to length scales similar to that of the migratory stream observed in the adult brain. The two-dimensional order of alignment within the culture showed a liquid-crystalline pattern containing interspersed topological defects with winding numbers of +1/2 and -1/2 (half-integer due to the nematic feature that arises from the head-tail symmetry of cell-to-cell interaction). We identified rapid cell accumulation at +1/2 defects and the formation of three-dimensional mounds. Imaging at the single-cell level around the defects allowed us to quantify the velocity field and the evolving cell density; cells not only concentrate at +1/2 defects, but also escape from -1/2 defects. We propose a generic mechanism for the instability in cell density around the defects that arises from the interplay between the anisotropic friction and the active force field.

  4. Cross-cultural behavior (dynamics in the view of global transformations"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetyana Veremienko

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The cross-cultural aspect of globalization is studied in the article. There was conducted the theoretical analysis of the current cross-cultural transformations and there was assessed their influence on the worldwide dynamics within modern global paradigm. There was widened the analysis of cross-cultural peculiarities focusing on the future positive alternative to the civilization development.

  5. A Dynamical Tool to Study the Cultural Context of Conflict Escalation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-13

    critical control parameters of contlict trajectories in dignity cultures. ~ Finally, in/ace cultura , individuals place a large premiwn on external evaluation...underlying specific culture and conflict dynamics. Thus, although social science theory is typically expressed verbally , the dynamical systems tools...when theories are maintained in their verbal form. Finally, dte dynamical-systems approach has implications for the types of empirical methodologies

  6. Malaysian Culture and Race Relations in a Dynamic Work Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Dave, Hemish K.

    2009-01-01

    Race Relations in Malaysia have been a sensitive issue since Malaysia’s independence. Cultural factors have also affected Malaysia’s business world. Using Hofstede’s framework on the five dimensions of national culture, and by looking deeper into Air Asia by using Schein’s 3-Level model, this dissertation is an attempt to identify the cultural sources that affect a Malaysian Organisation. Leadership is a vital factor that determines the culture, both nationally and within an organisation, and...

  7. Community Collectivism : A social dynamic approach to conceptualizing culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkus, Birol; Postmes, Tom; Stroebe, Katherine

    2017-01-01

    Culture shapes individuals, but the measurement of cultural differences has proven a challenge. Traditional measures of cultural values focus on individual perceptions. We suggest that values are established and maintained within social communities of proximate others, such as the family and its

  8. Narrative Inquiry: A Dynamic Relationship between Culture, Language and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Esther Yim Mei

    2017-01-01

    Human development is a cultural process, and language serves as a cultural tool is closely related to virtually all the cognitive changes. The author addresses issues of language in education, and suggests that changing the medium of instruction should not be understood as purely a pedagogical decision. The connection between culture and language…

  9. Coevolutionary network approach to cultural dynamics controlled by intolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracia-Lázaro, Carlos; Quijandría, Fernando; Hernández, Laura; Floría, Luis Mario; Moreno, Yamir

    2011-12-01

    Starting from Axelrod's model of cultural dissemination, we introduce a rewiring probability, enabling agents to cut the links with their unfriendly neighbors if their cultural similarity is below a tolerance parameter. For low values of tolerance, rewiring promotes the convergence to a frozen monocultural state. However, intermediate tolerance values prevent rewiring once the network is fragmented, resulting in a multicultural society even for values of initial cultural diversity in which the original Axelrod model reaches globalization.

  10. Building Cultural Bridges: Historical and Literary Dynamics in Cross ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The proposition of this paper is that African cultural identity is endangered in the new era of post-colonialism and lop-sided globalization. To arrest this situation, it proposes the introduction of African cultural history in all Nigerian Universities, with a view to enlightening the youths of their pristine societies as well as ...

  11. Some aspects of the culture, population dynamics and reproductive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effectiveness of using freshwater Chlorella, mixed algae, lettuce leaves and supplemental baker's yeast for the culture of freshwater rotifer, Brachionus calyciflorus were evaluated every two days for 18 days culture period. Rotifers raised without yeast attained maximum density of 100 - 152 inds.ml-1 after 6 days of ...

  12. Understanding the Influence of Organizational Culture and Group Dynamics on Organizational Change and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Colleen; Kline, Theresa

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between organizational culture, group dynamics, and organizational learning in the context of organizational change. Design/methodology/approach: A case study was used to examine cultural and group level factors that potentially influence groups' learning in the context of…

  13. Comparison of growth kinetics between static and dynamic cultures of human induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Yuma; Kim, Mee-Hae; Kino-Oka, Masahiro

    2018-02-02

    Understanding the fundamental mechanisms that govern the growth kinetics of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) contributes to culture design strategies to improve large-scale production. Two hiPSC lines (Tic and 253G1) were cultured under static and dynamic suspension conditions, and growth kinetics were compared during early (24-48 h), middle (48-72 h), and late (72-96 h) stages. In 2D static culture, similar growth profiles were observed for both hiPSC lines. However, there were significant differences in growth profile patterns and aggregate morphologies between hiPSC lines grown in 3D static and dynamic cultures. Based on immunostaining comparing the two hiPSC lines, surface distribution of collagen type I was observed in aggregates of the Tic line, but not in those of the 253G1 line. Compared to that in 3D static culture, the numbers of cells at 96 h were significantly decreased in 3D dynamic culture. The apparent specific growth rate (μ app ) of the Tic line was maintained continuously throughout culture, whereas that of the 253G1 line decreased gradually with culture until the late phase, at which time this parameter was reduced to μ app  = (0.85 ± 0.71) × 10 -2  h -1 . This indicates that during the growth of hiPSCs in 3D dynamic culture, cells were damaged by liquid flow, which disrupted the cell-synthesized extracellular matrix (ECM). These results demonstrate that cell-synthesized ECM is an important factor affecting cell growth and morphology, and that changes to the ECM within aggregates lead to reduced growth abilities in dynamic culture. Copyright © 2018 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The Creation of 'German Danes' in England - The social dynamics of cultural clashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Jakob

    2004-01-01

    Cultural conflicts and clashes have often been described and analyzed through the work of Geert Hofstede. Actions and reaction, however, cannot always be approached through the concept of static dimensions of cultural differences. This paper describes a situation that led to the creation of mutual...... resentment between Danish and English dairy employees. The clashes developed through dynamic interaction changing the usually described cultural patterns of interaction. This development was triggered not only by cultural differences but also by the struggle for resources and recognition of skills...

  15. Higher frequency of social learning in China than in the West shows cultural variation in the dynamics of cultural evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesoudi, Alex; Chang, Lei; Murray, Keelin; Lu, Hui Jing

    2015-01-01

    Cultural evolutionary models have identified a range of conditions under which social learning (copying others) is predicted to be adaptive relative to asocial learning (learning on one's own), particularly in humans where socially learned information can accumulate over successive generations. However, cultural evolution and behavioural economics experiments have consistently shown apparently maladaptive under-utilization of social information in Western populations. Here we provide experimental evidence of cultural variation in people's use of social learning, potentially explaining this mismatch. People in mainland China showed significantly more social learning than British people in an artefact-design task designed to assess the adaptiveness of social information use. People in Hong Kong, and Chinese immigrants in the UK, resembled British people in their social information use, suggesting a recent shift in these groups from social to asocial learning due to exposure to Western culture. Finally, Chinese mainland participants responded less than other participants to increased environmental change within the task. Our results suggest that learning strategies in humans are culturally variable and not genetically fixed, necessitating the study of the ‘social learning of social learning strategies' whereby the dynamics of cultural evolution are responsive to social processes, such as migration, education and globalization. PMID:25392473

  16. INFLUENCE OF CULTURE AND WORKING ENVIRONMENT AGAINST GROUP DYNAMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DORU CÎRNU

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Over time, during the existence of a company, there are inevitable changes in its organizational structure, normal changes caused by the increase or decrease of its activity volume, changes brought about by the adaptation to the new needs of the market. Concretely, the company can move from organizational systems such as entrepreneurship to bureaucratic or matrix organization systems, depending on the type of activity they perform and the degree of development attained at one point. In this context, it is obvious that a strong organization also has a strong organizational culture, a culture that exists and is carried out within the general framework defined by all the market players. What is imperative for organizations is the continuous supervision of power and the way it is distributed between formal and informal leaders in order to be able to intervene on time through the levers analyzed by us in order to influence their organizational behavior.

  17. Values: the dynamic nexus between biology, ecology and culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Ronald; Boer, Diana

    2016-04-01

    Values are motivational goals that influence attitudes, behaviors and evaluations. Cross-cultural evidence suggests that values show a systematic structure. Personal and cultural variations in the value structure, value priorities and value links to attitudes, behavior and well-being reflect contextual constraints and affordances in the environment, suggesting that values function as broadly adaptive psychological structures. The internal structure of values (the descriptive value system) becomes more clearly differentiated in more economically developed contexts. Value priorities shift toward more autonomous, self-expressive and individualistic orientations with greater economic resources and less ecological stress. In addition to systematic changes in internal structure, value links to attitudes, behaviors and well-being are influenced by economic, ecological and institutional contexts. Values are more likely to be expressed in attitudes and behavior if individuals have greater access to economic resources, experience less institutional and ecological stress or when the values reinforce culturally normative behavior. Frontiers for further value research include a greater examination of the neural underpinnings of values in specific ecological contexts and across the lifespan; and an examination of how values are behaviorally instantiated in different environments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of Dynamic Culture and Periodic Compression on Human Mesenchymal Stem Cell Proliferation and Chondrogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ting; Yu, Li; Lim, Casey G; Goodley, Addison S; Xiao, Xuan; Placone, Jesse K; Ferlin, Kimberly M; Nguyen, Bao-Ngoc B; Hsieh, Adam H; Fisher, John P

    2016-07-01

    We have recently developed a bioreactor that can apply both shear and compressive forces to engineered tissues in dynamic culture. In our system, alginate hydrogel beads with encapsulated human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) were cultured under different dynamic conditions while subjected to periodic, compressive force. A customized pressure sensor was developed to track the pressure fluctuations when shear forces and compressive forces were applied. Compared to static culture, dynamic culture can maintain a higher cell population throughout the study. With the application of only shear stress, qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry revealed that hMSCs experienced less chondrogenic differentiation than the static group. The second study showed that chondrogenic differentiation was enhanced by additional mechanical compression. After 14 days, alcian blue staining showed more extracellular matrix formed in the compression group. The upregulation of the positive chondrogenic markers such as Sox 9, aggrecan, and type II collagen were demonstrated by qPCR. Our bioreactor provides a novel approach to apply mechanical forces to engineered cartilage. Results suggest that a combination of dynamic culture with proper mechanical stimulation may promote efficient progenitor cell expansion in vitro, thereby allowing the culture of clinically relevant articular chondrocytes for the treatment of articular cartilage defects.

  19. Dynamic capability in an under-researched cultural environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Rezaee

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available During the past few years, dynamic capability (DC has been considered as an important issue in banking industry. This paper presents a survey on dynamic capability and its role on reaching sustainable competitive advantage (SCA within Mellat bank of Iran (MBI. A valid research instrument is utilized to conduct a survey among 150 managers from MBI. The study utilizes structural equation modelling to examine different hypotheses based on an integrated model of DC and SCA. According to literature studies, expert opinions and exploratory factor analysis, DC is classified into sensing, learning, reconfiguration, and coordination. Furthermore, SCA of the banking industry is classified into three dimensions: market, customer, and financial performance. The results indicate that DC had the greatest effect on the market centered, while it had the least influence on the customer centered.

  20. Measuring TGF-β Ligand Dynamics in Culture Medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zipei; Zi, Zhike; Liu, Xuedong

    2016-01-01

    TGF-β plays an important role in a myriad of cell activities including differentiation, proliferation, and growth arrest. These effects are influenced by the concentration of TGF-β in the surrounding milieu, which is interpreted by mammalian cells and subsequently translated into meaningful signals that guide their proliferation, survival, or death. To predict cellular responses to TGF-ß signaling based on molecular mechanisms, it is important to consider how cells respond to different ligand doses and how variations in ligand exposure impact Smad signaling dynamics and subsequent gene expression. Here we describe methods to measure TGF-β concentration in the environment and approaches to perturb cellular TGF-β exposure to gain a quantitative understanding of signaling dynamics of this pathway.

  1. Cultural dynamics and marital relationship quality in Mexican-origin families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Rick A; Gonzales, Nancy A; Corona, Marissa; King, Kevin M; Cauce, Ana Mari; Robins, Richard W; Widaman, Keith F; Conger, Rand D

    2014-12-01

    Prior research suggests that acculturation may influence relationship outcomes among Mexican-origin married couples, including marital adjustment and distress. Despite much theory and research on parent-child cultural differences and disruptions in the parent-child relationship, no previous research has investigated possible associations between husband-wife cultural differences and marital relationship quality. With a sample of Mexican-origin married couples (N = 398), the current study investigated the relations between husband-wife differences in acculturation (American orientation) and enculturation (Mexican orientation) with husband and wife reports of positive marital qualities (warmth and relationship satisfaction). To clarify and extend previous research, the current study also investigated within-person models of cultural orientation domains as related to positive marital quality. Results provide partial evidence showing that dyadic cultural differences are associated with lower positive marital quality while cultural similarity is associated with higher positive marital quality; however, the relations are complex and suggest that the associations between wife cultural orientation and positive marital quality may depend on husband cultural orientation (and vice versa). Findings also implicate the importance of assessing spouse bidimensional cultural orientation by showing that the relation between spouse acculturation level and relationship quality may depend on his or her enculturation level. Additional nuances in the findings illustrate the importance of assessing multiple domains of cultural orientation, including language use and cultural values. We highlight several future directions for research investigating nuances in spouse cultural dynamics and relationship processes.

  2. The influence of socio cultural dynamics on convergence communication of aquaculture agribusiness actors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oktavia, Y.

    2018-03-01

    This research aims to: (1) Analyze the level of socio-cultural dynamics of agibusiness aquaculture actors. (2) Analyze the influence of socio-cultural dynamics on convergence communication of capacity development of aquaculture agribusiness actors.Data was collected by questionnaire and interview of group members on agribusiness. Data analyze was done by descriptive and inferential statistics with using SEM method. The result of descriptive statistics on 284 agribusiness members showed that: Socio-cultural dynamics of agibusiness aquaculture actors was in low category, as shown by lack of the role of customary institutions and quality of local leadership.The communication convergence is significantly and positively influenced by the communication behavior of agribusiness actors in access information.

  3. A Dynamic Simulation Model of Organizational Culture and Business Strategy Effects on Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivellas, Panagiotis; Reklitis, Panagiotis; Konstantopoulos, Nikolaos

    2007-12-01

    In the past two decades, organizational culture literature has gained tremendous interest for both academic and practitioners. This is based not only on the suggestion that culture is related to performance, but also on the view that it is subject of direct managerial control and manipulation to the desired direction. In the present paper, we adopt Competing Values Framework (CVF) to operationalise organizational culture and Porter's typology to conceptualize business strategy (cost leadership, innovative and marketing differentiation, and focus). Although simulation of social events is a quite difficult task, since there are so many considerations (not all well understood) involved, in the present study we developed a dynamic model to simulate the organizational culture and strategy effects on financial performance. Data obtained from a six-year survey in the banking sector of a European developing economy was used for the proposed dynamic model development.

  4. Cultural Identity as a Specific Dimension of the Socio-Cultural Dynamics: Refugees in Temerin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan D. RISTIC

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper is based upon research that consisted of a series of interviews conducted with refugees in the municipality of Temerin in Serbia, during the fall of 2011. The objective of this research was to analyze the identity of refugees and the degree of their social integration. The assumption was that dimensions of their identity may show and point to the problems and difficulties of their social integration. The identity of the refugees is analyzed within the socio-cultural context, because migration always occurs in a specific spatial and socio-cultural configuration. Refugees as migrants are exposed to the influences of economic, political and cultural structures of the society. The data shows that the circumstances of war and exile contributed significantly to strengthening the ethnic identity of refugees and that it is still a very important dimension of their cultural identity. Refugees have, in most cases, a positive experience and feelings of acceptance by their neighbors, friends and other inhabitants of Temerin, which indicates a high degree of their social integration.

  5. Dynamics of cultural transmission in Native Americans of the high Great Plains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J Lycett

    Full Text Available Culture is a phenomenon shared by all humans. Attempts to understand how dynamic factors affect the origin and distribution of cultural elements are, therefore, of interest to all humanity. As case studies go, understanding the distribution of cultural elements in Native American communities during the historical period of the Great Plains would seem a most challenging one. Famously, there is a mixture of powerful internal and external factors, creating-for a relatively brief period in time-a seemingly distinctive set of shared elements from a linguistically diverse set of peoples. This is known across the world as the "Great Plains culture." Here, quantitative analyses show how different processes operated on two sets of cultural traits among nine High Plains groups. Moccasin decorations exhibit a pattern consistent with geographically-mediated between-group interaction. However, group variations in the religious ceremony of the Sun Dance also reveal evidence of purifying cultural selection associated with historical biases, dividing down ancient linguistic lines. The latter shows that while the conglomeration of "Plains culture" may have been a product of merging new ideas with old, combined with cultural interchange between groups, the details of what was accepted, rejected or elaborated in each case reflected preexisting ideological biases. Although culture may sometimes be a "melting pot," the analyses show that even in highly fluid situations, cultural mosaics may be indirectly shaped by historical factors that are not always obvious.

  6. Dynamics of cultural transmission in Native Americans of the high Great Plains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lycett, Stephen J

    2014-01-01

    Culture is a phenomenon shared by all humans. Attempts to understand how dynamic factors affect the origin and distribution of cultural elements are, therefore, of interest to all humanity. As case studies go, understanding the distribution of cultural elements in Native American communities during the historical period of the Great Plains would seem a most challenging one. Famously, there is a mixture of powerful internal and external factors, creating-for a relatively brief period in time-a seemingly distinctive set of shared elements from a linguistically diverse set of peoples. This is known across the world as the "Great Plains culture." Here, quantitative analyses show how different processes operated on two sets of cultural traits among nine High Plains groups. Moccasin decorations exhibit a pattern consistent with geographically-mediated between-group interaction. However, group variations in the religious ceremony of the Sun Dance also reveal evidence of purifying cultural selection associated with historical biases, dividing down ancient linguistic lines. The latter shows that while the conglomeration of "Plains culture" may have been a product of merging new ideas with old, combined with cultural interchange between groups, the details of what was accepted, rejected or elaborated in each case reflected preexisting ideological biases. Although culture may sometimes be a "melting pot," the analyses show that even in highly fluid situations, cultural mosaics may be indirectly shaped by historical factors that are not always obvious.

  7. Dynamics of Cocoa Bean Pulp Degradation during Cocoa Bean Fermentation: Effects of Yeast Starter Culture Addition

    OpenAIRE

    Laras Cempaka; Lienda Aliwarga; Susanto Purwo

    2014-01-01

    Fermentation is a crucial step in the post-harvest processing of cocoa beans. This process comprises mixed culture microbial activities on the cocoa bean pulp, producing metabolites that act as important precursors for cocoa flavour development. Variations in the microbial population dynamics during the fermentation process may induce changes in the overall process. Thus, the introduction of a specific microbial starter culture may improve the quality of the fer...

  8. Microbial dynamics in anaerobic enrichment cultures degrading di-n-butyl phthalic acid ester

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trably, Eric; Batstone, Damien J.; Christensen, Nina

    2008-01-01

    in enrichment cultures degrading phthalic acid esters under methanogenic conditions. A selection pressure was applied by adding DBP at 10 and 200 mg L(-1) in semi-continuous anaerobic reactors. The microbial dynamics were monitored using single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP). While only limited abiotic...... losses were observed in the sterile controls (20-22%), substantial DBP biodegradation was found in the enrichment cultures (90-99%). In addition, significant population changes were observed. The dominant bacterial species in the DBP-degrading cultures was affiliated to Soehngenia saccharolytica...

  9. Protozoa Drive the Dynamics of Culturable Biocontrol Bacterial Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Maren Stella; Scheu, Stefan; Jousset, Alexandre

    2013-01-01

    Some soil bacteria protect plants against soil-borne diseases by producing toxic secondary metabolites. Such beneficial biocontrol bacteria can be used in agricultural systems as alternative to agrochemicals. The broad spectrum toxins responsible for plant protection also inhibit predation by protozoa and nematodes, the main consumers of bacteria in soil. Therefore, predation pressure may favour biocontrol bacteria and contribute to plant health. We analyzed the effect of Acanthamoeba castellanii on semi-natural soil bacterial communities in a microcosm experiment. We determined the frequency of culturable bacteria carrying genes responsible for the production of the antifungal compounds 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG), pyrrolnitrin (PRN) and hydrogen cyanide (HCN) in presence and absence of A. castellanii. We then measured if amoebae affected soil suppressiveness in a bioassay with sugar beet seedlings confronted to the fungal pathogen Rhizoctonia solani. Amoebae increased the frequency of both DAPG and HCN positive bacteria in later plant growth phases (2 and 3 weeks), as well as the average number of biocontrol genes per bacterium. The abundance of DAPG positive bacteria correlated with disease suppression, suggesting that their promotion by amoebae may enhance soil health. However, the net effect of amoebae on soil suppressiveness was neutral to slightly negative, possibly because amoebae slow down the establishment of biocontrol bacteria on the recently emerged seedlings used in the assay. The results indicate that microfaunal predators foster biocontrol bacterial communities. Understanding interactions between biocontrol bacteria and their predators may thus help developing environmentally friendly management practices of agricultural systems.

  10. Protozoa Drive the Dynamics of Culturable Biocontrol Bacterial Communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maren Stella Müller

    Full Text Available Some soil bacteria protect plants against soil-borne diseases by producing toxic secondary metabolites. Such beneficial biocontrol bacteria can be used in agricultural systems as alternative to agrochemicals. The broad spectrum toxins responsible for plant protection also inhibit predation by protozoa and nematodes, the main consumers of bacteria in soil. Therefore, predation pressure may favour biocontrol bacteria and contribute to plant health. We analyzed the effect of Acanthamoeba castellanii on semi-natural soil bacterial communities in a microcosm experiment. We determined the frequency of culturable bacteria carrying genes responsible for the production of the antifungal compounds 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG, pyrrolnitrin (PRN and hydrogen cyanide (HCN in presence and absence of A. castellanii. We then measured if amoebae affected soil suppressiveness in a bioassay with sugar beet seedlings confronted to the fungal pathogen Rhizoctonia solani. Amoebae increased the frequency of both DAPG and HCN positive bacteria in later plant growth phases (2 and 3 weeks, as well as the average number of biocontrol genes per bacterium. The abundance of DAPG positive bacteria correlated with disease suppression, suggesting that their promotion by amoebae may enhance soil health. However, the net effect of amoebae on soil suppressiveness was neutral to slightly negative, possibly because amoebae slow down the establishment of biocontrol bacteria on the recently emerged seedlings used in the assay. The results indicate that microfaunal predators foster biocontrol bacterial communities. Understanding interactions between biocontrol bacteria and their predators may thus help developing environmentally friendly management practices of agricultural systems.

  11. Population dynamics of Tisbe holothuriae (Copepoda; Harpacticoida) in exploited mass cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudy, R.; Guerin, J. P.

    Three cultures of Tisbe holothuriae in 101 tanks were harvested each 7 or 10 to 12 days at a rate of 50%. The most frequently harvested culture showed the highest yield. At lower exploitation rates a higher rate of sea water renewal resulted in a higher production. In the cultures, variations in sex ratio, ovigerous rate, and number of eggs per sac contributed to a stabilization of the egg production. More frequent harvesting favoured the ovigerous rate and a higher renewal rate of the medium resulted in more eggs per sac. The growth rate of the population was estimated from calculated values for birth rate and death rate, and this estimate was compared with the observed growth rate. The quality of the sea water medium in mass cultures was investigated and discussed in its effects on population dynamics.

  12. Dynamics of Cocoa Bean Pulp Degradation during Cocoa Bean Fermentation: Effects of Yeast Starter Culture Addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laras Cempaka

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Fermentation is a crucial step in the post-harvest processing of cocoa beans. This process comprises mixed culture microbial activities on the cocoa bean pulp, producing metabolites that act as important precursors for cocoa flavour development. Variations in the microbial population dynamics during the fermentation process may induce changes in the overall process. Thus, the introduction of a specific microbial starter culture may improve the quality of the fermentation. This article discusses the effects ofthe addition of Saccharomyces cerevisae var. Chevalieri starter culture on cocoa bean fermentation. The dynamics in the yeast concentration, sugary pulp compounds and metabolic products were measured during fermentation. The alterations in the dynamic metabolite profile were significant, although only a slight difference was observed in the yeast population. A higher fermentation index was measured for the cocoa bean fermentation with yeast starter culture, 1.13 compared to 0.84. In conclusion, this method can potentially be applied to shorten the cocoa bean fermentation time.

  13. Appreciating the ties that bind technical communication to culture: A dynamic model to help us understand differences in discourse structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastberg, Peter; Kampf, Constance

    In order to support an explicit understanding of cultural patterns as both dynamic and structured, we will examine Hofstede?s model for stabilization of cultural patterns, and use this model to explore some cultural consequences for patterns of logic and signs that influence the effectiveness of ...

  14. Definition and dynamic control of a continuous chromatography process independent of cell culture titer and impurities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmielowski, Rebecca A; Mathiasson, Linda; Blom, Hans; Go, Daniel; Ehring, Hanno; Khan, Heera; Li, Hong; Cutler, Collette; Lacki, Karol; Tugcu, Nihal; Roush, David

    2017-12-01

    Advances in cell culture technology have enabled the production of antibody titers upwards of 30g/L. These highly productive cell culture systems can potentially lead to productivity bottlenecks in downstream purification due to lower column loadings, especially in the primary capture chromatography step. Alternative chromatography solutions to help remedy this bottleneck include the utilization of continuous processing systems such as periodic counter-current chromatography (PCC). Recent studies have provided methods to optimize and improve the design of PCC for cell culture titers up to about 3g/L. This paper defines a continuous loading strategy for PCC that is independent of cell culture background and encompasses cell culture titers up to about 31g/L. Initial experimentation showed a challenge with determining a difference in change in UV280nm signal (ie. ΔUV) between cell culture feed and monoclonal antibody (mAb) concentration. Further investigation revealed UV280nm absorbance of the cell culture feedstock without antibody was outside of the linear range of detection for a given cell pathlength. Additional experimentation showed the difference in ΔUV for various cell culture feeds can be either theoretically predicted by Beer's Law given a known absorbance of the media background and impurities or experimentally determined using various UV280nm cell pathlengths. Based on these results, a 0.35mm pathlength at UV280nm was chosen for dynamic control to overcome the background signal. The pore diffusion model showed good agreement with the experimental frontal analysis data, which resulted in definition of a ΔUV setpoint range between 20 and 70% for 3C-PCC experiments. Product quality of the elution pools was acceptable between various cell culture feeds and titers up to about 41g/L. Results indicated the following ΔUV setpoints to achieve robust dynamic control and maintain 3C-PCC yield: ∼20-45% for titers greater than 10g/L depending on UV absorbance of

  15. Using Speckle Dynamics for Comparison of the Metabolic Activity of Different Cell Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladimirov, A. P.; Malygin, A. S.; Mikhailova, Yu. A.; Borodin, E. M.; Bakharev, A. A.; Poryvaeva, A. P.

    2015-01-01

    The dynamics of speckles in the image plane of a monolayer of cells cultivated on a glass substrate has been recorded. Cell cultures HEL-3, L-41, and Vero were selected as the objects of research. The digitized value of the radiation intensity I in one pixel and the parameter η characterizing the change in the intensity distribution on an 10 × 10 pixel area was recorded for 24 hours. The multiple determinacy coefficient of three cell cultures, which was obtained from the time dependences of η, was equal to 0.94.

  16. Women and media. Institutional cultures, inequality and dynamics of power: 1982 to 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Ricardo Quiroga

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the participation of women in the media seeking to examine whether there was discrimination against them, the characteristics of female employment, institutional cultures and the dynamics of power in the period between 1982 and 2002 in the city of Villa Mercedes, San Luis, Argentina. This development is also a research effort to try to display the status of women in the media world in a certain context and historical moment. Stereotypical representation of female workers in the media has been one of the central themes of the first reviews and studies on communication and gender. Using tools of qualitative methodology using document analysis and semi-structured interviews examine the institutional and dynamic cultures of power in women who worked in the media in the city of Villa Mercedes, San Luis.

  17. Magneto-responsive liquid crystalline elastomer nanocomposites as potential candidates for dynamic cell culture substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera-Posada, Stephany; Mora-Navarro, Camilo; Ortiz-Bermudez, Patricia; Torres-Lugo, Madeline [Department of Chemical Engineering, Call Box 9000, University of Puerto Rico, Mayagüez PR 00681 (Puerto Rico); McElhinny, Kyle M.; Evans, Paul G. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, 1509 University Avenue, University of Wisconsin-Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Calcagno, Barbara O. [Department of General Engineering, Call Box 9000, University of Puerto Rico, Mayagüez PR 00681 (Puerto Rico); Acevedo, Aldo, E-mail: aldo.acevedo@upr.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering, Call Box 9000, University of Puerto Rico, Mayagüez PR 00681 (Puerto Rico)

    2016-08-01

    Recently, liquid crystalline elastomers (LCEs) have been proposed as active substrates for cell culture due to their potential to attach and orient cells, and impose dynamic mechanical signals through the application of external stimuli. In this report, the preparation of anisotropic and oriented nematic magnetic-sensitized LCEs with iron oxide nanoparticles, and the evaluation of the effect of particle addition at low concentrations on the resultant structural, thermal, thermo-mechanical, and mechanical properties is presented. Phase transformations produced by heating in alternating magnetic fields were investigated in LCEs in contact with air, water, and a common liquid cell culture medium was also evaluated. The inclusion of nanoparticles into the elastomers displaced the nematic-to-isotropic phase transition, without affecting the nematic structure as evidenced by similar values of the order parameter, while reducing the maximum thermomechanical deformations. Remote and reversible deformations of the magnetic LCEs were achieved through the application of alternating magnetic fields, which induces the nematic–isotropic phase transition through nanoparticle heat generation. Formulation parameters can be modified to allow for remote actuation at values closer to the human physiological temperature range and within the range of deformations that can affect the cellular behavior of fibroblasts. Finally, a collagen surface treatment was performed to improve compatibility with NIH-3T3 fibroblast cultures, which enabled the attachment and proliferation of fibroblasts on substrates with and without magnetic particles under quiescent conditions. The LCEs developed in this work, which are able to deform and experience stress changes by remote contact-less magnetic stimulation, may allow for further studies on the effect of substrate morphology changes and dynamic mechanical properties during in vitro cell culture. - Highlights: • Magnetic LCE nanocomposites were

  18. Religious Nonconformity and cultural Dynamics: The Case of the Dutch Collegiants

    OpenAIRE

    Ricci, Rosa

    2015-01-01

    Rosa Ricci Summary of the PHD Dissertation: Religious Nonconformity and cultural Dynamics: The Case of the Dutch Collegiants There is ample reason to engage in research around the Collegiants, a minority religious movement in the Netherlands of the 17th century. An exploration of this topic can be interesting not only for a contribution to the history of Religion but also to understand the development of some central concept in the early modernity. Prominent, in this research, is the ...

  19. Effects of national culture on human failures in container shipping: the moderating role of Confucian dynamism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chin-Shan; Lai, Kee-hung; Lun, Y H Venus; Cheng, T C E

    2012-11-01

    Recent reports on work safety in container shipping operations highlight high frequencies of human failures. In this study, we empirically examine the effects of seafarers' perceptions of national culture on the occurrence of human failures affecting work safety in shipping operations. We develop a model adopting Hofstede's national culture construct, which comprises five dimensions, namely power distance, collectivism/individualism, uncertainty avoidance, masculinity/femininity, and Confucian dynamism. We then formulate research hypotheses from theory and test the hypotheses using survey data collected from 608 seafarers who work on global container carriers. Using a point scale for evaluating seafarers' perception of the five national culture dimensions, we find that Filipino seafarers score highest on collectivism, whereas Chinese and Taiwanese seafarers score highest on Confucian dynamism, followed by collectivism, masculinity, power distance, and uncertainty avoidance. The results also indicate that Taiwanese seafarers have a propensity for uncertainty avoidance and masculinity, whereas Filipino seafarers lean more towards power distance, masculinity, and collectivism, which are consistent with the findings of Hofstede and Bond (1988). The results suggest that there will be fewer human failures in container shipping operations when power distance is low, and collectivism and uncertainty avoidance are high. Specifically, this study finds that Confucian dynamism plays an important moderating role as it affects the strength of associations between some national culture dimensions and human failures. Finally, we discuss our findings' contribution to the development of national culture theory and their managerial implications for reducing the occurrence of human failures in shipping operations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Small doses, big troubles: modeling growth dynamics of organisms affecting microalgal production cultures in closed photobioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forehead, Hugh I; O'Kelly, Charles J

    2013-02-01

    The destruction of mass cultures of microalgae by biological contamination of culture medium is a pervasive and expensive problem, in industry and research. A mathematical model has been formulated that attempts to explain contaminant growth dynamics in closed photobioreactors (PBRs). The model simulates an initial growth phase without PBR dilution, followed by a production phase in which culture is intermittently removed. Contaminants can be introduced at any of these stages. The model shows how exponential growth from low initial inocula can lead to "explosive" growth in the population of contaminants, appearing days to weeks after inoculation. Principal influences are contaminant growth rate, PBR dilution rate, and the size of initial contaminant inoculum. Predictions corresponded closely with observed behavior of two contaminants, Uronema sp. and Neoparamoeba sp., found in operating PBRs. A simple, cheap and effective protocol was developed for short-term prediction of contamination in PBRs, using microscopy and archived samples. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Polyculturalism and Sexist Attitudes: Believing Cultures are Dynamic Relates to Lower Sexism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Lisa; Levy, Sheri R; Militano, Maria

    2014-12-01

    In cultural contexts in which sexist beliefs are considered traditional, shifts toward gender equality represent an example of cultural change. Polyculturalism is defined as the belief that cultures change constantly through different racial and ethnic groups' interactions, influences, and exchanges with each other and, therefore, are dynamic and socially constructed rather than static. Thus, polyculturalism may involve openness to cultural change and, thereby, would be expected to be associated with lower sexist attitudes. Four studies (both cross-sectional and longitudinal) with undergraduate and community samples in the Northeastern United States tested whether endorsement of polyculturalism is inversely associated with sexism, above and beyond potentially confounding belief systems. Across studies, for both women and men, endorsement of polyculturalism was associated with lower sexist attitudes for two classes of sexism measures: (a) attitudes toward the rights and roles of women and (b) ambivalent sexist attitudes toward women. Associations remained significant while controlling for potentially confounding variables (colorblindness, conservatism, egalitarianism, gender and ethnic identity, gender and race essentialism, multiculturalism, right-wing authoritarianism, and social dominance orientation). Greater openness to criticizing one's culture mediated polyculturalism's association with attitudes toward the rights and roles of women but not with ambivalent sexist attitudes toward women. Studying polyculturalism may provide unique insights into sexism, and more work is needed to understand the mechanisms involved.

  2. The metabolic dynamics of cartilage explants over a long-term culture period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.K Moo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Although previous studies have been performed on cartilage explant cultures, the generalized dynamics of cartilage metabolism after extraction from the host are still poorly understood due to differences in the experimental setups across studies, which in turn prevent building a complete picture. METHODS: In this study, we investigated the response of cartilage to the trauma sustained during extraction and determined the time needed for the cartilage to stabilize. Explants were extracted aseptically from bovine metacarpal-phalangeal joints and cultured for up to 17 days. RESULTS: The cell viability, cell number, proteoglycan content, and collagen content of the harvested explants were analyzed at 0, 2, 10, and 17 days after explantation. A high percentage of the cartilage explants were found to be viable. The cell density initially increased significantly but stabilized after two days. The proteoglycan content decreased gradually over time, but it did not decrease to a significant level due to leakage through the distorted peripheral collagen network and into the bathing medium. The collagen content remained stable for most of the culture period until it dropped abruptly on day 17. CONCLUSION: Overall, the tested cartilage explants were sustainable over long-term culture. They were most stable from day 2 to day 10. The degradation of the collagen on day 17 did not reach diseased levels, but it indicated the potential of the cultures to develop into degenerated cartilage. These findings have implications for the application of cartilage explants in pathophysiological fields.

  3. Polyculturalism and Sexist Attitudes: Believing Cultures are Dynamic Relates to Lower Sexism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Lisa; Levy, Sheri R.; Militano, Maria

    2014-01-01

    In cultural contexts in which sexist beliefs are considered traditional, shifts toward gender equality represent an example of cultural change. Polyculturalism is defined as the belief that cultures change constantly through different racial and ethnic groups’ interactions, influences, and exchanges with each other and, therefore, are dynamic and socially constructed rather than static. Thus, polyculturalism may involve openness to cultural change and, thereby, would be expected to be associated with lower sexist attitudes. Four studies (both cross-sectional and longitudinal) with undergraduate and community samples in the Northeastern United States tested whether endorsement of polyculturalism is inversely associated with sexism, above and beyond potentially confounding belief systems. Across studies, for both women and men, endorsement of polyculturalism was associated with lower sexist attitudes for two classes of sexism measures: (a) attitudes toward the rights and roles of women and (b) ambivalent sexist attitudes toward women. Associations remained significant while controlling for potentially confounding variables (colorblindness, conservatism, egalitarianism, gender and ethnic identity, gender and race essentialism, multiculturalism, right-wing authoritarianism, and social dominance orientation). Greater openness to criticizing one’s culture mediated polyculturalism’s association with attitudes toward the rights and roles of women but not with ambivalent sexist attitudes toward women. Studying polyculturalism may provide unique insights into sexism, and more work is needed to understand the mechanisms involved. PMID:25530662

  4. Dynamic gene expression for metabolic engineering of mammalian cells in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Huong; Vishwanathan, Nandita; Kantardjieff, Anne; Doo, Inseok; Srienc, Michael; Zheng, Xiaolu; Somia, Nikunj; Hu, Wei-Shou

    2013-11-01

    Recombinant mammalian cells are the major hosts for the production of protein therapeutics. In addition to high expression of the product gene, a hyper-producer must also harbor superior phenotypic traits related to metabolism, protein secretion, and growth control. Introduction of genes endowing the relevant hyper-productivity traits is a strategy frequently used to enhance the productivity. Most of such cell engineering efforts have been performed using constitutive expression systems. However, cells respond to various environmental cues and cellular events dynamically according to cellular needs. The use of inducible systems allows for time dependent expression, but requires external manipulation. Ideally, a transgene's expression should be synchronous to the host cell's own rhythm, and at levels appropriate for the objective. To that end, we identified genes with different expression dynamics and intensity ranges using pooled transcriptome data. Their promoters may be used to drive the expression of the transgenes following the desired dynamics. We isolated the promoter of the Thioredoxin-interacting protein (Txnip) gene and demonstrated its capability to drive transgene expression in concert with cell growth. We further employed this Chinese hamster promoter to engineer dynamic expression of the mouse GLUT5 fructose transporter in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, enabling them to utilize sugar according to cellular needs rather than in excess as typically seen in culture. Thus, less lactate was produced, resulting in a better growth rate, prolonged culture duration, and higher product titer. This approach illustrates a novel concept in metabolic engineering which can potentially be used to achieve dynamic control of cellular behaviors for enhanced process characteristics. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Interaction between stocking density and settlement on population dynamics in suspended mussel culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubillo, Alhambra M.; Fuentes-Santos, Isabel; Labarta, Uxío

    2015-01-01

    Population dynamics on mussels growing on suspended culture depend mainly on the balance of several processes: mortality and/or dislodgements from the ropes, recruitment and growth. The negative effect of overcrowding on mussel growth and survival has been widely studied. Other works have addressed the effect of population size on recruitment on bottom beds. This study aims to provide insight into the processes underlying population dynamics. To this purpose, we analyzed the effect of stocking density on mussel growth, survival and seed settlement, and the post-settlement interaction between adults and recruits in suspended culture. The temporal pattern of the variables involved in population dynamics was fitted by GAM models, which in contrast with parametric models does not assume any prior relationships between variables. Our results show that mussel growth and survival depend on a trade-off between competition for resources at high densities and the risk of great settlements in less crowded adult mussel populations. Intracohort competition increased with stocking density, while seed settlement, which increases the risk of mussel dislodgements and leads to intercohort competition, was higher at moderate stocking densities. Post-settlement competitive pressures were driven by total population density and size composition. Both intracohort competition in adults and asymmetric competition between adults and recruits increase with higher adult-recruit ratios. All these density-dependent processes should be considered in future management strategies and research experimental designs.

  6. MEMS-based dynamic cell-to-cell culture platforms using electrochemical surface modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Jiyoung; Lin, Liwei; Yoon, Sang-Hee; Mofrad, Mohammad R K

    2011-01-01

    MEMS-based biological platforms with the capability of both spatial placements and time releases of living cells for cell-to-cell culture experiments have been designed and demonstrated utilizing electrochemical surface modification effects. The spatial placement is accomplished by electrochemical surface modification of substrate surfaces to be either adhesive or non-adhesive for living cells. The time control is achieved by the electrical activation of the selective indium tin oxide co-culture electrode to allow the migration of living cells onto the electrode to start the cell-to-cell culture studies. Prototype devices have a three-electrode design with an electrode size of 50 × 50 µm 2 and the separation gaps of 2 µm between them. An electrical voltage of −1.5 V has been used to activate the electrodes independently and sequentially to demonstrate the dynamic cell-to-cell culture experiments of NIH 3T3 fibroblast and Madin Darby canine kidney cells. As such, this MEMS platform could be a basic yet versatile tool to characterize transient cell-to-cell interactions

  7. Threat advantage: perception of angry and happy dynamic faces across cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinetti, Claudia; Mesquita, Batja; Yik, Michelle; Cragwall, Caroline; Gallagher, Ashleigh H

    2012-01-01

    The current study tested whether the perception of angry faces is cross-culturally privileged over that of happy faces, by comparing perception of the offset of emotion in a dynamic flow of expressions. Thirty Chinese and 30 European-American participants saw movies that morphed an anger expression into a happy expression of the same stimulus person, or vice versa. Participants were asked to stop the movie at the point where they ceased seeing the initial emotion. As expected, participants cross-culturally continued to perceive anger longer than happiness. Moreover, anger was perceived longer in in-group than in out-group faces. The effects were driven by female rather than male targets. Results are discussed with reference to the important role of context in emotion perception.

  8. Using white noise to gate organic transistors for dynamic monitoring of cultured cell layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivnay, Jonathan; Leleux, Pierre; Hama, Adel; Ramuz, Marc; Huerta, Miriam; Malliaras, George G; Owens, Roisin M

    2015-06-26

    Impedance sensing of biological systems allows for monitoring of cell and tissue properties, including cell-substrate attachment, layer confluence, and the "tightness" of an epithelial tissue. These properties are critical for electrical detection of tissue health and viability in applications such as toxicological screening. Organic transistors based on conducting polymers offer a promising route to efficiently transduce ionic currents to attain high quality impedance spectra, but collection of complete impedance spectra can be time consuming (minutes). By applying uniform white noise at the gate of an organic electrochemical transistor (OECT), and measuring the resulting current noise, we are able to dynamically monitor the impedance and thus integrity of cultured epithelial monolayers. We show that noise sourcing can be used to track rapid monolayer disruption due to compounds which interfere with dynamic polymerization events crucial for maintaining cytoskeletal integrity, and to resolve sub-second alterations to the monolayer integrity.

  9. Effect of dynamic 3-D culture on proliferation, distribution, and osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stiehler, Maik; Bünger, Cody; Baatrup, Anette

    2009-01-01

    Ex vivo engineering of autologous bone tissue as an alternative to bone grafting is a major clinical need. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of 3-D dynamic spinner flask culture on the proliferation, distribution, and differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Immortalized...... human MSCs were cultured on porous 75:25 PLGA scaffolds for up to 3 weeks. Dynamically cultured cell/scaffold constructs demonstrated a 20% increase in DNA content (21 days), enhanced ALP specific activity (7 days and 21 days), a more than tenfold higher Ca2+ content (21 days), and significantly...

  10. Organizational Learning from Cross-Cultural Experiences: An Ethnomethodological Case Study Examining the Relative Importance of Social Structure and Cultural Values during Dynamic Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldecker, Gary T.

    2011-01-01

    This study explored how social structure and cultural values dynamically interact in collective learning between two religious organizations cooperating in a joint project. It further explored the enablers of and impediments to collective learning in this context. The study employed the theoretical framework provided by the Organizational Learning…

  11. The dynamization in the tourism sector through the valorization of the Goods of Cultural Patrimony Intangible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Ramón Fernández

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we seek to reflect on the relationship between heritage and tourism through the declaration of protection of property and Intangible Asset of Cultural Interest. Law 4/1998, on June 11th, the Cultural Heritage of Valencia, as amended in 2004 and 2007 includes the declaration of certain goods representative of the traditional Valencian lifestyles and culture. As well as the expressions of the traditions of the people in his musical manifestation, artistic, gastronomic and of leisure, and especially those that have been an object of oral transmission and that support and promote the use of the Valencian one. It is for it that the declaration like immaterial BIC has contemplated many of the festivities most known about our Comunitat Valenciana, such as “Las Hogueras de San Juan, “Las Fallas”, “La Cabalgata de los Reyes Magos de Alcoy, increasing the visit tourist after his declaration with the maximum protection. We will analyze, so, some of them and his relation with the tourist activity, to the being an essential element for the dynamization of the territory.

  12. Dynamics of Russian business culture values in the reflection of mass media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Sverdlikova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses practices of “Traditions and values of Russian business culture” course teaching at Lomonosov Moscow State University’s Faculty of Sociology. The experience allows drawing methodological and theoretical conclusions on the values of business culture which underlie models of the modern business behavior. The first part of the publication concerns analysis of tradition of studying Russian culture values, in the paradigm of which the Russian business culture exists. According to the findings, traditions are enrooted in the Orthodoxy and are determined by patrimonial memories and contradictions of the Russian people’s character, ideals and spiritual framework. A system of Russian business values is developed based on the traditions as well as literary heritage, biographies of famous Russian and Soviet economists and set of rules of ethics code of the pre-revolutionary Russian business class. The main elements of the system include the following values: faith, family, commitment to business, patriotism, natural ingenuity, ability to set and solve atask of extra complexity, original forms of labor organization, and prevalence of moral motivation forms over material ones. The second part of the article deals with succession of the above-mentioned values in the modern Russian business environment. The content analysis is applied to examine the continuity. The object of the research is the text corpus of the Russian business press. The findings of the research show dynamics of the Russian mass media attention to the business culture values for the period from 2010 to 2014. The mass media interest to the issue coverage has been on the constant rise: from 37,2% of the aggregate amount of information on the Russian business in 2012 to 39,8% in 2014. There have also been examined dynamics of mass media attention to certain business culture values. The mass media assignedtop priority in 2012, 2013 and 2014 to the following values

  13. Incorporation of tritium into planctonic algae in a continuous culture under dynamic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strack, S.; Kistner, G.; Emeis, C.C.

    1979-01-01

    For the purpose of modelling the ecologic behaviour of organically bound tritium (OBT) in aquatic food chains under dynamic conditions (i.e. by changing tritium concentrations), a continuous culture of algae was chosen to which tritium was added by a single injection as tritiated water (HTO). The culture was working according to the chemostatic principle where the concentration of cells is in a steady state. Therefore, according to the growth of algae, tritium is incorporated into the organic substance, while in a parallel process HTO and algae are eliminated from the system at the same rate. From these two processes of first-order kinetics, a special function resulted for the concentration process of OBT in the fermenter that is well known in the field of drug kinetics. Initially it increases until it reaches a maximum value where it intersects the elimination curve of HTO, then decreases and asymptotically approaches the time axis - in the same manner as the elimination curve - only at a superior level. A comparison of this theoretically calculated function with the concentration actually found shows that also under dynamic conditions tritium is undergoing discrimination because of isotopic effects up to a ratio of I=0.80. The calculation of the ratios R=(OBT)/(HTO) in the continuous culture by comparing the function for OBT with the elimination curve for HTO shows a linear increase of R-values during the experiment. At maximum tritium concentration in the algae, the ratio becomes greater than one, and at the end of the experiment it reaches a value of about 6. However, by extrapolating to a time of 40 half-lives, when the absolute concentration of HTO has already decreased by a factor of 10 -12 , a ratio of about 25 was found. The discrimination enters the estimation of R-values at a constant factor of 0.80. (author)

  14. Molecular analysis of chondrocytes cultured in agarose in response to dynamic compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallein-Gerin Frédéric

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Articular cartilage is exposed to high mechanical loads under normal physiological conditions and articular chondrocytes regulate the composition of cartilaginous matrix, in response to mechanical signals. However, the intracellular pathways involved in mechanotransduction are still being defined. Using the well-characterized chondrocyte/agarose model system and dynamic compression, we report protocols for preparing and characterizing constructs of murine chondrocytes and agarose, and analyzing the effect of compression on steady-state level of mRNA by RT-PCR, gene transcription by gene reporter assay, and phosphorylation state of signalling molecules by Western-blotting. The mouse model is of particular interest because of the availability of a large choice of bio-molecular tools suitable to study it, as well as genetically modified mice. Results Chondrocytes cultured in agarose for one week were surrounded by a newly synthesized pericellular matrix, as revealed by immunohistochemistry prior to compression experiments. This observation indicates that this model system is suitable to study the role of matrix molecules and trans-membrane receptors in cellular responsiveness to mechanical stress. The chondrocyte/agarose constructs were then submitted to dynamic compression with FX-4000C™ Flexercell® Compression Plus™ System (Flexcell. After clearing proteins off agarose, Western-blotting analysis showed transient activation of Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK in response to dynamic compression. After assessment by capillary electrophoresis of the quality of RNA extracted from agarose, steady-state levels of mRNA expression was measured by real time PCR. We observed an up-regulation of cFos and cJun mRNA levels as a response to compression, in accordance with the mechanosensitive character observed for these two genes in other studies using cartilage explants submitted to compression. To explore further the

  15. Post-cultural stand dynamics in an abandoned chestnut coppice at its ecological border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Until the be­ginning of the last century, chestnut has played an important role as staple food and primary wood source. In many cases it was cultivated at the border of its ecological limits where it was planted by man in place of the original and more site-adapted tree species. However, with the abandonment of the rural activities, ma­nagement of chestnut forests was progressively left starting from more marginal areas, usually occupied by coppice stands. After the interruption of the traditional coppice management system (usual rotation periods of 10-25 years, natural intra- and interspecific competition dynamics have become the driving force of the stand evolution. This may lead to dramatic changes in both structure and species composition of the stands. The aim of this study is to analyse the post-cultural evolution of an abandoned chestnut coppice in the Pesio Valley (Piedmont, Italy in order to highlight the competition among different "basic silvi­cultural components" of the forest using a dendroecological approach. The "basic silvicultural components" are intended as the elements defined as groups of trees of the stand that have similar features such as silvi­culturally relevant attributes: species (chestnut, beech, fir, origin (seed, sprout and cultural age and function (standard/reserve, maiden, shoot, regeneration, dead tree. The mean growth curves of the compo­nents show the different fitness of each category. From a general point of view, the beech and fir components show a better competitive potential in comparison with chestnut. Among chestnut components, maidens from seeds reveal a better growth trend compared to coppice shoots and standards.

  16. A fluid dynamics approach to bioreactor design for cell and tissue culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusting, Jonathan; Sheridan, John; Hourigan, Kerry

    2006-08-20

    The problem of controlling cylindrical tank bioreactor conditions for cell and tissue culture purposes has been considered from a flow dynamics perspective. Simple laminar flows in the vortex breakdown region are proposed as being a suitable alternative to turbulent spinner flask flows and horizontally oriented rotational flows. Vortex breakdown flows have been measured using three-dimensional Stereoscopic particle image velocimetry, and non-dimensionalized velocity and stress distributions are presented. Regions of locally high principal stress occur in the vicinity of the impeller and the lower sidewall. Topological changes in the vortex breakdown region caused by an increase in Reynolds number are reflected in a redistribution of the peak stress regions. The inclusion of submerged scaffold models adds complexity to the flow, although vortex breakdown may still occur. Relatively large stresses occur along the edge of disks jutting into the boundary of the vortex breakdown region. Copyright 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. The Dynamics of Malay Culture in West Kalimantan in the 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ita Syamtasiyah Ahyat

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available There are various Malay communities in West Kalimantan, which can be divided into two broad categories: (1 Malay migrants from outside Kalimantan (West Kalimantan or contemporary Malays and (2 local Malays or native Malays who are considered as indigenous Malays. Contemporary Malays are Malay people who came from various areas in Sumatra, Riau Islands, Malay peninsula, East Malaysia (Serawak and Sabah States, and Brunei Darussalam. This paper aims to reconstruct the dynamics of Malay culture in West Kalimantan. This historiographical project is undertaken by applying historical method which consists of several main steps: searching for relevant sources, selecting the sources, interpreting the sources, and reconstructing events as relevant to the main topic. Bibliography consists of local sources, documents, and works of foreign scholars which are relevant to the topic.

  18. Application of culture dependent and cultural-independent techniques to investigate the dynamics of microorganisms during industrial cheese making of a Gouda type cheese

    OpenAIRE

    Perolari, Alessandra

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the microbial dynamic in a Gouda type cheese applying a comparison between culture-dependent technique, plate count, and culture-independent technique as PCR-DGGE. The study was also focus on the analyse of the efficiency of the pasteurizer, and its cleaning steps. The study was conducted analysing 4 batches for each of the two days of production, Monday and Friday. Between batch 16 and 17 there was a quick cleaning, and between batch 32 and batch 1, of th...

  19. Enhancements for a Dynamic Data Warehousing and Mining System for Large-Scale Human Social Cultural Behavioral (HSBC) Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-26

    System for Large-Scale Human Social Cultural Behavioral (HSBC) Data Final Report Reporting Period: March 22, 2016 – September 18, 2016...Enhancements for a Dynamic Data Warehousing and Mining System for N00014-16-P-3014 Large-Scale Human Social Cultural Behavioral (HSBC) Data 5b. GRANT NUMBER...decision makers and field personnel to better understand and address unexpected crises. By using graph analytics at large-scales, users will be able to

  20. Inverse problem analysis of pluripotent stem cell aggregation dynamics in stirred-suspension cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostami, Mahboubeh Rahmati; Wu, Jincheng; Tzanakakis, Emmanuel S.

    2015-01-01

    The cultivation of stem cells as aggregates in scalable bioreactor cultures is an appealing modality for the large-scale manufacturing of stem cell products. Aggregation phenomena are central to such bioprocesses affecting the viability, proliferation and differentiation trajectory of stem cells but a quantitative framework is currently lacking. A population balance equation (PBE) model was used to describe the temporal evolution of the embryonic stem cell (ESC) cluster size distribution by considering collision-induced aggregation and cell proliferation in a stirred-suspension vessel. For ESC cultures at different agitation rates, the aggregation kernel representing the aggregation dynamics was successfully recovered as a solution of the inverse problem. The rate of change of the average aggregate size was greater at the intermediate rate tested suggesting a trade-off between increased collisions and agitation-induced shear. Results from forward simulation with obtained aggregation kernels were in agreement with transient aggregate size data from experiments. We conclude that the framework presented here can complement mechanistic studies offering insights into relevant stem cell clustering processes. More importantly from a process development standpoint, this strategy can be employed in the design and control of bioreactors for the generation of stem cell derivatives for drug screening, tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. PMID:26036699

  1. Biorefinery concept in a microalgae pilot plant. Culturing, dynamic filtration and steam explosion fractionation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurra, C; Torras, C; Clavero, E; Ríos, S; Rey, M; Lorente, E; Farriol, X; Salvadó, J

    2014-07-01

    A 53 m(3) microalgae pilot plant with semi-closed photobioreactors has been operated in batch mode at Tarragona, where proper climatic conditions exist. Operations carried-out were microalgae culturing, concentration, cell disruption and lipid extraction. Culturing was performed with and without CO2 fertilization. pH was used to control CO2 dosing. With CO2 fertilization best microalgae concentrations were obtained. Productivities up to 19.9 g/m(2)/day were reached. Although sedimentation and centrifugation was performed, studies focused on dynamic membrane filtration as improved technique compared with conventional one. Significant fouling reduction was obtained by using a vibrational membrane setup. Cell disruption including product pre-extraction was performed by using steam explosion at moderate conditions, as novel technique for this application. Lipid extraction was performed by using conventional techniques with and without exploded material. The amount of lipids obtained from exploded material was higher than with non-exploded material, which shows that steam explosion provides a clear enhancement. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Cultural

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbur F. LaPage

    1971-01-01

    A critical look at outdoor recreation research and some underlying premises. The author focuses on the concept of culture as communication and how it influences our perception of problems and our search for solutions. Both outdoor recreation and science are viewed as subcultures that have their own bodies of mythology, making recreation problems more difficult to...

  3. The response of nucleus pulposus cell senescence to static and dynamic compressions in a disc organ culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jianmin; Pang, Lianglong; Jiao, Shouguo

    2018-04-27

    Mechanical stimuli obviously affect disc nucleus pulposus (NP) biology. Previous studies have indicated that static compression exhibits detrimental effects on disc biology compared with dynamic compression. To study disc NP cell senescence under static compression and dynamic compression in a disc organ culture, porcine discs were cultured and subjected to compression (static compression: 0.4 MPa for 4 h once per day; dynamic compression: 0.4 MPa at a frequency of 1.0 Hz for 4 h once per day) for 7 days using a self-developed mechanically active bioreactor. The non-compressed discs were used as controls. Compared with the dynamic compression, static compression significantly promoted disc NP cell senescence, reflected by the increased senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-Gal) activity, senescence-associated heterochromatic foci (SAHF) formation and senescence markers expression, and the decreased telomerase (TE) activity and NP matrix biosynthesis. Static compression accelerates disc NP cell senescence compared with the dynamic compression in a disc organ culture. The present study provides that acceleration of NP cell senescence may be involved in previously reported static compression-mediated disc NP degenerative changes. © 2018 The Author(s).

  4. Dynamic culture substrate that captures a specific extracellular matrix protein in response to light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Nakanishi, Hidekazu Nakayama, Kazuo Yamaguchi, Andres J Garcia and Yasuhiro Horiike

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of methods for the off–on switching of immobilization or presentation of cell-adhesive peptides and proteins during cell culture is important because such surfaces are useful for the analysis of the dynamic processes of cell adhesion and migration. This paper describes a chemically functionalized gold substrate that captures a genetically tagged extracellular matrix protein in response to light. The substrate was composed of mixed self-assembled monolayers (SAMs of three disulfide compounds containing (i a photocleavable poly(ethylene glycol (PEG, (ii nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA and (iii hepta(ethylene glycol (EG7. Although the NTA group has an intrinsic high affinity for oligohistidine tag (His-tag sequences in its Ni2+-ion complex, the interaction was suppressed by the steric hindrance of coexisting PEG on the substrate surface. Upon photoirradiation of the substrate to release the PEG chain from the surface, this interaction became possible and hence the protein was captured at the irradiated regions, while keeping the non-specific adsorption of non-His-tagged proteins blocked by the EG7 underbrush. In this way, we selectively immobilized a His-tagged fibronectin fragment (FNIII7–10 to the irradiated regions. In contrast, when bovine serum albumin—a major serum protein—was added as a non-His-tagged protein, the surface did not permit its capture, with or without irradiation. In agreement with these results, cells were selectively attached to the irradiated patterns only when a His-tagged FNIII7-10 was added to the medium. These results indicate that the present method is useful for studying the cellular behavior on the specific extracellular matrix protein in cell-culturing environments.

  5. Management Effectiveness and Land Cover Change in Dynamic Cultural Landscapes - Assessing a Central European Biosphere Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Ohnesorge

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Protected areas are a central pillar of efforts to safeguard biodiversity and ecosystem services, but their contribution to the conservation and management of European cultural landscapes that have complex spatial-temporal dynamics is unclear. The conservation strategy of biosphere reserves aims at integrating biodiversity and ecosystem service conservation with economic development by designating zones of differing protection and use intensities. It is applied worldwide to protect and manage valuable cultural landscapes. Using the example of a German biosphere reserve, we developed a framework to assess the effectiveness of Central European reserves in meeting their land cover related management goals. Based on digital biotope maps, we defined and assessed land cover change processes that were relevant to the reserve management's goals over a period of 13 years. We then compared these changes in the reserve's core, buffer, and transition zones and in a surrounding reference area by means of a geographical information system. (Un-desirable key processes related to management aims were defined and compared for the various zones. We found that - despite an overall land cover persistence of approximately 85% across all zones - differences in land cover changes can be more prominent across zones inside the reserve than between the areas inside and outside of it. The reserve as a whole performed better than the surrounding reference area when using land cover related management goals as a benchmark. However, some highly desirable targets, such as the conversion of coniferous plantations into seminatural forests or the gain of valuable biotope types, affected larger areas in the nonprotected reference area than in the transition zone.

  6. cultural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Kreutz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Es un estudio cualitativo que adoptó como referencial teorico-motodológico la antropología y la etnografía. Presenta las experiencias vivenciadas por mujeres de una comunidad en el proceso salud-enfermedad, con el objetivo de comprender los determinantes sócio-culturales e históricos de las prácticas de prevención y tratamiento adoptados por el grupo cultural por medio de la entrevista semi-estructurada. Los temas que emergieron fueron: la relación entre la alimentación y lo proceso salud-enfermedad, las relaciones con el sistema de salud oficial y el proceso salud-enfermedad y lo sobrenatural. Los dados revelaron que los moradores de la comunidad investigada tienen un modo particular de explicar sus procedimientos terapéuticos. Consideramos que es papel de los profesionales de la salud en sus prácticas, la adopción de abordajes o enfoques que consideren al individuo en su dimensión sócio-cultural e histórica, considerando la enorme diversidad cultural en nuestro país.

  7. Mutational dynamics of the SARS coronavirus in cell culture and human populations isolated in 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ooi Eng

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The SARS coronavirus is the etiologic agent for the epidemic of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome. The recent emergence of this new pathogen, the careful tracing of its transmission patterns, and the ability to propagate in culture allows the exploration of the mutational dynamics of the SARS-CoV in human populations. Methods We sequenced complete SARS-CoV genomes taken from primary human tissues (SIN3408, SIN3725V, SIN3765V, cultured isolates (SIN848, SIN846, SIN842, SIN845, SIN847, SIN849, SIN850, SIN852, SIN3408L, and five consecutive Vero cell passages (SIN2774_P1, SIN2774_P2, SIN2774_P3, SIN2774_P4, SIN2774_P5 arising from SIN2774 isolate. These represented individual patient samples, serial in vitro passages in cell culture, and paired human and cell culture isolates. Employing a refined mutation filtering scheme and constant mutation rate model, the mutation rates were estimated and the possible date of emergence was calculated. Phylogenetic analysis was used to uncover molecular relationships between the isolates. Results Close examination of whole genome sequence of 54 SARS-CoV isolates identified before 14th October 2003, including 22 from patients in Singapore, revealed the mutations engendered during human-to-Vero and Vero-to-human transmission as well as in multiple Vero cell passages in order to refine our analysis of human-to-human transmission. Though co-infection by different quasipecies in individual tissue samples is observed, the in vitro mutation rate of the SARS-CoV in Vero cell passage is negligible. The in vivo mutation rate, however, is consistent with estimates of other RNA viruses at approximately 5.7 × 10-6 nucleotide substitutions per site per day (0.17 mutations per genome per day, or two mutations per human passage (adjusted R-square = 0.4014. Using the immediate Hotel M contact isolates as roots, we observed that the SARS epidemic has generated four major genetic groups that are

  8. Expression and Dynamics of Podoplanin in Cultured Osteoblasts with Mechanostress and Mineralization Stimulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takenawa, Tomohiro; Kanai, Takenori; Kitamura, Tetsuya; Yoshimura, Yoshitaka; Sawa, Yoshihiko; Iida, Junichiro

    2018-02-27

    This study investigates the significance of the expression and dynamics of podoplanin in mechanostress and mineralization in cultured murine osteoblasts. Podoplanin increased in osteoblasts subjected to straining in non-mineralization medium, suggesting that the mechanostress alone is a podoplanin induction factor. In osteoblasts subjected to vertical elongation straining in the mineralization medium, the mRNA amounts of podoplanin, osteopontin, and osteocalcin were significantly larger than those in cells not subjected to straining, suggesting that mechanostress is the cause of a synergistic effect in the expression of these proteins. In osteoblasts in the mineralization medium, significant increases in osteocalcin mRNA occurred earlier in cells subjected to straining than in the cells not subjected to straining, suggesting that the mechanostress is a critical factor to enhance the expression of osteocalcin. Western blot and ELISA analysis showed increased podoplanin production in osteoblasts with longer durations of straining. There was significantly less mineralization product in osteoblasts with antibodies for podoplanin, osteopontin, and osteocalcin. There was also less osteopontin and osteocalcin produced in osteoblasts with anti-podoplanin. These findings suggest that mechanostress induces the production of podoplanin in osteoblasts and that podoplanin may play a role in mineralization in cooperation with bone-associated proteins.

  9. Cough Aerosol Cultures of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: Insights on TST / IGRA Discordance and Transmission Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones-López, Edward C.; White, Laura F.; Kirenga, Bruce; Mumbowa, Francis; Ssebidandi, Martin; Moine, Stephanie; Mbabazi, Olive; Mboowa, Gerald; Ayakaka, Irene; Kim, Soyeon; Thornton, Christina S.; Okwera, Alphonse; Joloba, Moses; Fennelly, Kevin P.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale The diagnosis of latent tuberculosis (TB) infection (LTBI) is complicated by the absence of a gold standard. Discordance between tuberculin skin tests (TST) and interferon gamma release assays (IGRA) occurs in 10–20% of individuals, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Methods We analyzed data from a prospective household contact study that included cough aerosol culture results from index cases, environmental and contact factors. We assessed contacts for LTBI using TST and IGRA at baseline and six weeks. We examined TST/IGRA discordance in qualitative and quantitative analyses, and used multivariable logistic regression analysis with generalized estimating equations to analyze predictors of discordance. Measurements and Results We included 96 TB patients and 384 contacts. Discordance decreased from 15% at baseline to 8% by six weeks. In adjusted analyses, discordance was related to less crowding (p = 0.004), non-cavitary disease (OR 1.41, 95% CI: 1.02–1.96; p = 0.03), and marginally with BCG vaccination in contacts (OR 1.40, 95% CI: 0.99–1.98, p = 0.06). Conclusions We observed significant individual variability and temporal dynamism in TST and IGRA results in household contacts of pulmonary TB cases. Discordance was associated with a less intense infectious exposure, and marginally associated with a BCG-mediated delay in IGRA conversion. Cough aerosols provide an additional dimension to the assessment of infectiousness and risk of infection in contacts. PMID:26394149

  10. The Nile floodplain, hydroclimatic variability, and its relation with cultural dynamics in ancient Thebes (Luxor, Egypt)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toonen, Willem H. J.; Graham, Angus; Pennington, Ben; Hunter, Morag; Strutt, Kris; Barker, Dominic; Masson, Aurelia; Emery, Virginia

    2016-04-01

    were contemporary. The abundance of ceramic material also allowed the reconstruction of sedimentation rates across the floodplain, which ranged between 0.8-2.2 mm/yr, largely in agreement with estimates from other studies. Importantly, there seems to have been a major decrease in sedimentation rates after the New Kingdom. Furthermore, the abandonment of the secondary channel of the Nile and the formation of a well-developed calcareous palaeosol (both of which could have been forced by drought and failing Nile floods) correlate with the demise of the New Kingdom. This suggests that regionally observed cultural and natural dynamics may have been driven by hydroclimatic variability in the larger Nile basin. A lower calcareous palaeosol, located at least 1m below the New Kingdom horizon, hints at a previous period of severe drought and its age is tentatively inferred as Old Kingdom. The age of this lower palaeosol needs to be confirmed by more precise dating, but could support the idea that cultural dynamics in ancient floodwater farming cultures are strongly linked to hydroclimatic change.

  11. Dynamic culture of a thermosensitive collagen hydrogel as an extracellular matrix improves the construction of tissue-engineered peripheral nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lanfeng; Li, Rui; Liu, Wanguo; Dai, Jin; Du, Zhenwu; Wang, Xiaonan; Ma, Jianchao; Zhao, Jinsong

    2014-07-15

    Tissue engineering technologies offer new treatment strategies for the repair of peripheral nerve injury, but cell loss between seeding and adhesion to the scaffold remains inevitable. A thermosensitive collagen hydrogel was used as an extracellular matrix in this study and combined with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells to construct tissue-engineered peripheral nerve composites in vitro. Dynamic culture was performed at an oscillating frequency of 0.5 Hz and 35° swing angle above and below the horizontal plane. The results demonstrated that bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells formed membrane-like structures around the poly-L-lactic acid scaffolds and exhibited regular alignment on the composite surface. Collagen was used to fill in the pores, and seeded cells adhered onto the poly-L-lactic acid fibers. The DNA content of the bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells was higher in the composites constructed with a thermosensitive collagen hydrogel compared with that in collagen I scaffold controls. The cellular DNA content was also higher in the thermosensitive collagen hydrogel composites constructed with the thermosensitive collagen hydrogel in dynamic culture than that in static culture. These results indicate that tissue-engineered composites formed with thermosensitive collagen hydrogel in dynamic culture can maintain larger numbers of seeded cells by avoiding cell loss during the initial adhesion stage. Moreover, seeded cells were distributed throughout the material.

  12. Investigation of the in vitro culture process for skeletal-tissue-engineered constructs using computational fluid dynamics and experimental methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Md Shakhawath; Chen, X B; Bergstrom, D J

    2012-12-01

    The in vitro culture process via bioreactors is critical to create tissue-engineered constructs (TECs) to repair or replace the damaged tissues/organs in various engineered applications. In the past, the TEC culture process was typically treated as a black box and performed on the basis of trial and error. Recently, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has demonstrated its potential to analyze the fluid flow inside and around the TECs, therefore, being able to provide insight into the culture process, such as information on the velocity field and shear stress distribution that can significantly affect such cellular activities as cell viability and proliferation during the culture process. This paper briefly reviews the CFD and experimental methods used to investigate the in vitro culture process of skeletal-type TECs in bioreactors, where mechanical deformation of the TEC can be ignored. Specifically, this paper presents CFD modeling approaches for the analysis of the velocity and shear stress fields, mass transfer, and cell growth during the culture process and also describes various particle image velocimetry (PIV) based experimental methods to measure the velocity and shear stress in the in vitro culture process. Some key issues and challenges are also identified and discussed along with recommendations for future research.

  13. Management effectiveness and land cover change in dynamic cultural landscapes-assessing a central European biosphere reserve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohnesorge, B.; Plieninger, Tobias; Hostert, P.

    2013-01-01

    Protected areas are a central pillar of efforts to safeguard biodiversity and ecosystem services, but their contribution to the conservation and management of European cultural landscapes that have complex spatial-temporal dynamics is unclear. The conservation strategy of biosphere reserves aims...... at integrating biodiversity and ecosystem service conservation with economic development by designating zones of differing protection and use intensities. It is applied worldwide to protect and manage valuable cultural landscapes. Using the example of a German biosphere reserve, we developed a framework...

  14. Simple generic model for dynamic experiments with Saccharomyces cerevisiae in continuous culture. Decoupling between anabolism and catabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duboc, Philippe Jean; von Stockar, U.; Villadsen, John

    1998-01-01

    The dynamic behavior of a continuous culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae subjected to a sudden increase in the dilution rate has been successfully modelled for anaerobic growth on glucose, and for aerobic growth on acetate, on ethanol, and on glucose. The catabolism responded by an immediate jump...... identified in steady state continuous cultures or during batch experiments. Only the time constant of biosynthesis regeneration, tau(x), and the time constant of catabolic capacity regeneration, tau(cat), had to be identified during transient experiments. In most experiments 7, was around 3 h, and tau(cat...

  15. Cultural health capital and the interactional dynamics of patient-centered care

    OpenAIRE

    Dubbin, Leslie A.; Chang, Jamie Suki; Shim, Janet K.

    2013-01-01

    As intuitive and inviting as it may appear, the concept of patient-centered care has been difficult to conceptualize, institutionalize and operationalize. Informed by Bourdieu's concepts of cultural capital and habitus, we employ the framework of cultural health capital to uncover the ways in which both patients' and providers' cultural resources, assets, and interactional styles influence their abilities to mutually achieve patient-centered care. Cultural health capital is defined as a speci...

  16. Dynamics and cultural specifics of information needs under conditions of long-term space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feichtinger, Elena; Shved, Dmitry; Gushin, Vadim

    Life in conditions of space flight or chamber study with prolonged isolation is associated with lack of familiar stimuli (sensory deprivation), monotony, significant limitation of communication, and deficit of information and media content (Myasnikov V.I., Stepanova S.I. et al., 2000). Fulfillment of a simulation experiment or flight schedule implies necessity of performance of sophisticated tasks and decision making with limited means of external support. On the other hand, the “stream” of information from the Mission Control (MC) and PI’s (reminders about different procedures to be performed, requests of reports, etc.) is often inadequate to communication needs of crewmembers. According to the theory of “information stress” (Khananashvili M.M., 1984), a distress condition could be formed if: a) it’s necessary to process large amounts of information and make decisions under time pressure; b) there is a prolonged deficit of necessary (e.g. for decision making) information. Thus, we suppose that one of the important goals of psychological support of space or space simulation crews should be forming of favorable conditions of information environment. For that purpose, means of crew-MC information exchange (quantitative characteristics and, if possible, content of radiograms, text and video messages, etc.) should be studied, as well as peculiarities of the crewmembers’ needs in different information and media content, and their reactions to incoming information. In the space simulation experiment with 520-day isolation, communication of international crew with external parties had been studied. Dynamics of quantitative and content characteristics of the crew’s messages was related to the experiment’s stage, presence of “key” events in the schedule (periods of high autonomy, simulated “planetary landing”, etc.), as well as to events not related to the experiment (holidays, news, etc.). It was shown that characteristics of information exchange

  17. Television as a Hybrid Repertoire of Memory. New Dynamic Practices of Cultural Memory in the Multi-Platform Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berber Hagedoorn

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, television is reconsidered as a hybrid ‘repertoire’ ofmemory. It is demonstrated how new dynamic production and scheduling practicesin connection with highly accessible and participatory forms of user engagementoffer opportunities for television users to engage with the past, and how suchpractices affect television as a practice of memory. The media platform HollandDoc is discussed as a principal casestudy. By adopting and expanding Aleida Assmann’s model of the dynamics ofcultural memory between remembering and forgetting, a new model to studytelevision as cultural memory is proposed which represents the medium’shybridity in the multi-platform era.

  18. PRELIMINARY STUDY ON POPULATION DYNAMIC OF HARPACTICOID COPEPOD Euterpina acutifrons IN CULTURE CONDITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Teguh Imanto

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The most important factor to high mortality rate in larval rearing is feeding success in early larval stage related to kind and size of natural live food. Copepod basically is the main source of natural food in the open ocean having some advantages such as smaller size of nauplii, attractive movement and high nutritional value. Observation on population dynamic of harpacticoid copepod Euterpina acutifrons was carried out using 5-L plastic bucket with initial density 100 ind./L. Green algae Nannochloropsis sp. was added to culture media at density of 50,000 cells/mL as a basic feed and additional feeds given were wheat flour (group A and chicken liver (group B at a rate of 50 mg/bucket. The result showed that there was no difference on population pattern in both groups where the incubation time took eight days to hatch, from nauplii to the copepodite stage was three days and from copepodite to adult copepod took five-to-six days. The differences came up from population number: in group (A the highest number of copepod-bearing-egg was only 133 ind., nauplii production up to 62,833 ind. and number of copepodites was 22,333 ind. lower compared to group (B with the highest copepod-egg was 308 ind., nauplii was 113,333 ind. and copepodite was 51,167 ind. The conclusion pointed out that the kind of food did not influence population pattern (quality but gave effect to population growth.

  19. Real-time monitoring of cellular dynamics using a microfluidic cell culture system with integrated electrode array and potentiostat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zor, Kinga; Vergani, M.; Heiskanen, Arto

    2011-01-01

    A versatile microfluidic, multichamber cell culture and analysis system with an integrated electrode array and potentiostat suitable for electrochemical detection and microscopic imaging is presented in this paper. The system, which allows on-line electrode cleaning and modification, was developed...... for real-time monitoring of cellular dynamics, exemplified in this work by monitoring of redox metabolism inside living yeast cells and dopamine release from PC12 cells....

  20. Dynamics, ethnic configurations and unpublished cultural renovations. The case of the most recent protestant evangelization among Colombian Guambiano Indians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Diego Demera V.

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the process of imposition, transference and change of protestant missionary precepts within the indigenous community of Guambia in Cauca, Colombia. Based on the concept of cultural change, the objective of this article is to demostrate the dynamic configuration of Guambian ethnicity and religiousness through the processes of struggle, establishment and resistance. Through the analysis of oral narrative and ethnography, the research focuses on the most significant elements of religious conversion, change, and ritual memory.

  1. Optimization of a 3D Dynamic Culturing System for In Vitro Modeling of Frontotemporal Neurodegeneration-Relevant Pathologic Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunesi, Marta; Fusco, Federica; Fiordaliso, Fabio; Corbelli, Alessandro; Biella, Gloria; Raimondi, Manuela T

    2016-01-01

    Frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) is a severe neurodegenerative disorder that is diagnosed with increasing frequency in clinical setting. Currently, no therapy is available and in addition the molecular basis of the disease are far from being elucidated. Consequently, it is of pivotal importance to develop reliable and cost-effective in vitro models for basic research purposes and drug screening. To this respect, recent results in the field of Alzheimer's disease have suggested that a tridimensional (3D) environment is an added value to better model key pathologic features of the disease. Here, we have tried to add complexity to the 3D cell culturing concept by using a microfluidic bioreactor, where cells are cultured under a continuous flow of medium, thus mimicking the interstitial fluid movement that actually perfuses the body tissues, including the brain. We have implemented this model using a neuronal-like cell line (SH-SY5Y), a widely exploited cell model for neurodegenerative disorders that shows some basic features relevant for FTLD modeling, such as the release of the FTLD-related protein progranulin (PRGN) in specific vesicles (exosomes). We have efficiently seeded the cells on 3D scaffolds, optimized a disease-relevant oxidative stress experiment (by targeting mitochondrial function that is one of the possible FTLD-involved pathological mechanisms) and evaluated cell metabolic activity in dynamic culture in comparison to static conditions, finding that SH-SY5Y cells cultured in 3D scaffold are susceptible to the oxidative damage triggered by a mitochondrial-targeting toxin (6-OHDA) and that the same cells cultured in dynamic conditions kept their basic capacity to secrete PRGN in exosomes once recovered from the bioreactor and plated in standard 2D conditions. We think that a further improvement of our microfluidic system may help in providing a full device where assessing basic FTLD-related features (including PRGN dynamic secretion) that may be

  2. Cultural health capital and the interactional dynamics of patient-centered care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubbin, Leslie A; Chang, Jamie Suki; Shim, Janet K

    2013-09-01

    As intuitive and inviting as it may appear, the concept of patient-centered care has been difficult to conceptualize, institutionalize and operationalize. Informed by Bourdieu's concepts of cultural capital and habitus, we employ the framework of cultural health capital to uncover the ways in which both patients' and providers' cultural resources, assets, and interactional styles influence their abilities to mutually achieve patient-centered care. Cultural health capital is defined as a specialized collection of cultural skills, attitudes, behaviors and interactional styles that are valued, leveraged, and exchanged by both patients and providers during clinical interactions. In this paper, we report the findings of a qualitative study conducted from 2010 to 2011 in the Western United States. We investigated the various elements of cultural health capital, how patients and providers used cultural health capital to engage with each other, and how this process shaped the patient-centeredness of interactions. We find that the accomplishment of patient-centered care is highly dependent upon habitus and the cultural health capital that both patients and providers bring to health care interactions. Not only are some cultural resources more highly valued than others, their differential mobilization can facilitate or impede engagement and communication between patients and their providers. The focus of cultural health capital on the ways fundamental social inequalities are manifest in clinical interactions enables providers, patients, and health care organizations to consider how such inequalities can confound patient-centered care. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The Dynamics of Music and Culture in Traditional Ibibio Society of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the degree of inter-relationship between music and culture with a view to establishing that there can be no thought of culture particularly in a typical African community without reference to music. The paper focuses on the extent to which musical recreation is an integral aspect of the life style of the ...

  4. Dynamic Cultural Contextualisation of Educational Content in Intelligent Learning Environments Using ICON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Phaedra; Mohan, Permanand

    2015-01-01

    Cultural awareness, when applied to Intelligent Learning Environments (ILEs), contours the overall appearance, behaviour, and content used in these systems through the use of culturally-relevant student data and information. In most cases, these adaptations are system-initiated with little to no consideration given to student-initiated control…

  5. Are you looking to teach? Cultural, temporal and dynamic insights into expert teacher gaze

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McIntyre, Nora A.; Mainhard, M. Tim; Klassen, Robert M.

    2017-01-01

    We know that teachers' gaze patterns affect student learning, that experts and novices differ in their gaze during teaching and that gaze patterns differ by culture in non-educational settings. However, teacher gaze research is limited to Western cultural contexts and largely to laboratory settings.

  6. Stroma regulates increased epithelial lateral cell adhesion in 3D culture: a role for actin/cadherin dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Karen F; Pearson, Joanna F; Aziz, Naveed; O'Toole, Peter; Garrod, David; Lang, Shona H

    2011-04-18

    Cell shape and tissue architecture are controlled by changes to junctional proteins and the cytoskeleton. How tissues control the dynamics of adhesion and cytoskeletal tension is unclear. We have studied epithelial tissue architecture using 3D culture models and found that adult primary prostate epithelial cells grow into hollow acinus-like spheroids. Importantly, when co-cultured with stroma the epithelia show increased lateral cell adhesions. To investigate this mechanism further we aimed to: identify a cell line model to allow repeatable and robust experiments; determine whether or not epithelial adhesion molecules were affected by stromal culture; and determine which stromal signalling molecules may influence cell adhesion in 3D epithelial cell cultures. The prostate cell line, BPH-1, showed increased lateral cell adhesion in response to stroma, when grown as 3D spheroids. Electron microscopy showed that 9.4% of lateral membranes were within 20 nm of each other and that this increased to 54% in the presence of stroma, after 7 days in culture. Stromal signalling did not influence E-cadherin or desmosome RNA or protein expression, but increased E-cadherin/actin co-localisation on the basolateral membranes, and decreased paracellular permeability. Microarray analysis identified several growth factors and pathways that were differentially expressed in stroma in response to 3D epithelial culture. The upregulated growth factors TGFβ2, CXCL12 and FGF10 were selected for further analysis because of previous associations with morphology. Small molecule inhibition of TGFβ2 signalling but not of CXCL12 and FGF10 signalling led to a decrease in actin and E-cadherin co-localisation and increased paracellular permeability. In 3D culture models, paracrine stromal signals increase epithelial cell adhesion via adhesion/cytoskeleton interactions and TGFβ2-dependent mechanisms may play a key role. These findings indicate a role for stroma in maintaining adult epithelial tissue

  7. Stroma regulates increased epithelial lateral cell adhesion in 3D culture: a role for actin/cadherin dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen F Chambers

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Cell shape and tissue architecture are controlled by changes to junctional proteins and the cytoskeleton. How tissues control the dynamics of adhesion and cytoskeletal tension is unclear. We have studied epithelial tissue architecture using 3D culture models and found that adult primary prostate epithelial cells grow into hollow acinus-like spheroids. Importantly, when co-cultured with stroma the epithelia show increased lateral cell adhesions. To investigate this mechanism further we aimed to: identify a cell line model to allow repeatable and robust experiments; determine whether or not epithelial adhesion molecules were affected by stromal culture; and determine which stromal signalling molecules may influence cell adhesion in 3D epithelial cell cultures.The prostate cell line, BPH-1, showed increased lateral cell adhesion in response to stroma, when grown as 3D spheroids. Electron microscopy showed that 9.4% of lateral membranes were within 20 nm of each other and that this increased to 54% in the presence of stroma, after 7 days in culture. Stromal signalling did not influence E-cadherin or desmosome RNA or protein expression, but increased E-cadherin/actin co-localisation on the basolateral membranes, and decreased paracellular permeability. Microarray analysis identified several growth factors and pathways that were differentially expressed in stroma in response to 3D epithelial culture. The upregulated growth factors TGFβ2, CXCL12 and FGF10 were selected for further analysis because of previous associations with morphology. Small molecule inhibition of TGFβ2 signalling but not of CXCL12 and FGF10 signalling led to a decrease in actin and E-cadherin co-localisation and increased paracellular permeability.In 3D culture models, paracrine stromal signals increase epithelial cell adhesion via adhesion/cytoskeleton interactions and TGFβ2-dependent mechanisms may play a key role. These findings indicate a role for stroma in maintaining adult

  8. Application of speckle dynamics for studying metabolic activity of cell cultures with herpes virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladimirov, A. P.; Bakharev, A. A.; Malygin, A. S.; Mikhaylova, J. A.; Borodin, E. M.; Poryvayeva, A. P.; Glinskikh, N. P.

    2014-05-01

    The report considers the results of the experiments in which digital values of light intensity I and the image area correlation index η values were recorded on a real-time basis for one or two days. Three cell cultures with viruses along with intact cultures were investigated. High correlation of dependence of η values on time t values was demonstrated for three cultures. The η=η(t) and I=I(t) dependences for cells with and without viruses differ considerably. It was shown that the presence of viruses could be determined as early as ten minutes after measurements were started.

  9. Controlling the Effective Oxygen Tension Experienced by Cells Using a Dynamic Culture Technique for Hematopoietic Ex Vivo Expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Abhilasha; Wong, Cynthia S; Nekkanti, Lakshmi P; Deane, James A; McDonald, Courtney; Li, Jingang; Pham, Yen; Sutherland, Amy E; Jenkin, Graham; Kirkland, Mark A

    2018-02-28

    Clinical hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell (HSPC) transplantation outcomes are strongly correlated with the number of cells infused. Hence, to generate sufficient HSPCs for transplantation, the best culture parameters for expansion are critical. It is generally assumed that the defined oxygen (O 2 ) set for the incubator reflects the pericellular O 2 to which cells are being exposed. Studies have shown that low O 2 tension maintains an undifferentiated state, but the expansion rate may be constrained because of limited diffusion in a static culture system. A combination of low ambient O 2 and dynamic culture conditions has been developed to increase the reconstituting capacity of human HSPCs. In this unit, the protocols for serum-free expansion of HSPCs at 5% and 20% O 2 in static and dynamic nutrient flow mode are described. Finally, the impact of O 2 tension on HSPC expansion in vitro by flow cytometry and colony forming assays and in vivo through engraftment using a murine model is assessed. © 2018 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  10. A durable and biocompatible ascorbic acid-based covalent coating method of polydimethylsiloxane for dynamic cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leivo, Joni; Virjula, Sanni; Vanhatupa, Sari; Kartasalo, Kimmo; Kreutzer, Joose; Miettinen, Susanna; Kallio, Pasi

    2017-07-01

    Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is widely used in dynamic biological microfluidic applications. As a highly hydrophobic material, native PDMS does not support cell attachment and culture, especially in dynamic conditions. Previous covalent coating methods use glutaraldehyde (GA) which, however, is cytotoxic. This paper introduces a novel and simple method for binding collagen type I covalently on PDMS using ascorbic acid (AA) as a cross-linker instead of GA. We compare the novel method against physisorption and GA cross-linker-based methods. The coatings are characterized by immunostaining, contact angle measurement, atomic force microscopy and infrared spectroscopy, and evaluated in static and stretched human adipose stem cell (hASC) cultures up to 13 days. We found that AA can replace GA as a cross-linker in the covalent coating method and that the coating is durable after sonication and after 6 days of stretching. Furthermore, we show that hASCs attach and proliferate better on AA cross-linked samples compared with physisorbed or GA-based methods. Thus, in this paper, we provide a new PDMS coating method for studying cells, such as hASCs, in static and dynamic conditions. The proposed method is an important step in the development of PDMS-based devices in cell and tissue engineering applications. © 2017 The Author(s).

  11. Socio-cultural power dynamics and coping functions: a narrative case report of a female paralympian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Anaurene

    2012-06-01

    This case study explores the lived experiences of an elite female Paralympic powerlifting athlete. The focus is on restrictions and coping responses employed to manage the daily hassles within the cultural and ethnic requirements for achieving athletic excellence. With an unstructured interview, the narrative was acquired which ranged to a total of 75 minutes (approx) and 20 single spaced pages. The data was analyzed using Foucauldian discourse analysis in conjuncture to feminist poststructuralist theory. The results highlight the issues relating to femininity, culture and ethnicity with regard to athletic career. The analysis elicits extracts from the narrative to describe the coping functions reflecting proactive coping, anticipatory coping, and preventative coping. The narrative draws attention to the socio-cultural restrictions and coping functions that the athlete adopted to overcome the barriers of femininity, culture, ethnicity requirements and athleticism.

  12. Conserving agrobiodiversity amid global change, migration, and nontraditional livelihood networks: the dynamic uses of cultural landscape knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl S. Zimmerer

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available I examined agrobiodiversity in smallholder cultural landscapes with the goal of offering new insights into management and policy options for the resilience-based in situ conservation and social-ecological sustainability of local, food-producing crop types, i.e., landraces. I built a general, integrative approach to focus on both land use and livelihood functions of crop landraces in the context of nontraditional, migration-related livelihoods amid global change. The research involved a multimethod, case-study design focused on a cultural landscape of maize, i.e., corn, growing in the Andes of central Bolivia, which is a global hot spot for this crop's agrobiodiversity. Central questions included the following: (1 What are major agroecological functions and food-related services of the agrobiodiversity of Andean maize landraces, and how are they related to cultural landscapes and associated knowledge systems? (2 What are new migration-related livelihood groups, and how are their dynamic livelihoods propelled through global change, in particular international and national migration, linked to the use and cultural landscapes of agrobiodiversity? (3 What are management and policy options derived from the previous questions? Combined social-ecological services as both cultivation and food resources are found to function in relation to the cultural landscape. Results demonstrated major variations of maturation-based, phenologic traits and food-use properties that are cornerstones of the landrace-level agrobiodiversity of Andean maize. Knowledge of these parameters is widespread. Linkage of these production and consumption functions yields a major insight into dynamics of Andean maize agrobiodiversity. Concurrently, this smallholder cultural landscape has become increasingly dependent on new rural conditions, especially increased livelihood diversification and migration amid growing peri-urban influences. Viability of landrace-level maize

  13. Fluid Dynamic Modeling to Support the Development of Flow-Based Hepatocyte Culture Systems for Metabolism Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Jenny M.; Shim, Yoo-Sik; Hans, Vaibhav; Phillips, Martin B.; Macdonald, Jeffrey M.; Walker, Glenn; Andersen, Melvin E.; Clewell, Harvey J.; Yoon, Miyoung

    2016-01-01

    Accurate prediction of metabolism is a significant outstanding challenge in toxicology. The best predictions are based on experimental data from in vitro systems using primary hepatocytes. The predictivity of the primary hepatocyte-based culture systems, however, is still limited due to well-known phenotypic instability and rapid decline of metabolic competence within a few hours. Dynamic flow bioreactors for three-dimensional cell cultures are thought to be better at recapitulating tissue microenvironments and show potential to improve in vivo extrapolations of chemical or drug toxicity based on in vitro test results. These more physiologically relevant culture systems hold potential for extending metabolic competence of primary hepatocyte cultures as well. In this investigation, we used computational fluid dynamics to determine the optimal design of a flow-based hepatocyte culture system for evaluating chemical metabolism in vitro. The main design goals were (1) minimization of shear stress experienced by the cells to maximize viability, (2) rapid establishment of a uniform distribution of test compound in the chamber, and (3) delivery of sufficient oxygen to cells to support aerobic respiration. Two commercially available flow devices – RealBio® and QuasiVivo® (QV) – and a custom developed fluidized bed bioreactor were simulated, and turbulence, flow characteristics, test compound distribution, oxygen distribution, and cellular oxygen consumption were analyzed. Experimental results from the bioreactors were used to validate the simulation results. Our results indicate that maintaining adequate oxygen supply is the most important factor to the long-term viability of liver bioreactor cultures. Cell density and system flow patterns were the major determinants of local oxygen concentrations. The experimental results closely corresponded to the in silico predictions. Of the three bioreactors examined in this study, we were able to optimize the experimental

  14. Xylose-induced dynamic effects on metabolism and gene expression in engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae in anaerobic glucose-xylose cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alff-Tuomala, Susanne; Salusjärvi, Laura; Barth, Dorothee; Oja, Merja; Penttilä, Merja; Pitkänen, Juha-Pekka; Ruohonen, Laura; Jouhten, Paula

    2016-01-01

    Xylose is present with glucose in lignocellulosic streams available for valorisation to biochemicals. Saccharomyces cerevisiae has excellent characteristics as a host for the bioconversion, except that it strongly prefers glucose to xylose, and the co-consumption remains a challenge. Further, since xylose is not a natural substrate of S. cerevisiae, the regulatory response it induces in an engineered strain cannot be expected to have evolved for its utilisation. Xylose-induced effects on metabolism and gene expression during anaerobic growth of an engineered strain of S. cerevisiae on medium containing both glucose and xylose medium were quantified. The gene expression of S. cerevisiae with an XR-XDH pathway for xylose utilisation was analysed throughout the cultivation: at early cultivation times when mainly glucose was metabolised, at times when xylose was co-consumed in the presence of low glucose concentrations, and when glucose had been depleted and only xylose was being consumed. Cultivations on glucose as a sole carbon source were used as a control. Genome-scale dynamic flux balance analysis models were simulated to analyse the metabolic dynamics of S. cerevisiae. The simulations quantitatively estimated xylose-dependent flux dynamics and challenged the utilisation of the metabolic network. A relative increase in xylose utilisation was predicted to induce the bi-directionality of glycolytic flux and a redox challenge even at low glucose concentrations. Remarkably, xylose was observed to specifically delay the glucose-dependent repression of particular genes in mixed glucose-xylose cultures compared to glucose cultures. The delay occurred at a cultivation time when the metabolic flux activities were similar in the both cultures.

  15. Calcium Dynamics of Ex Vivo Long-Term Cultured CD8+ T Cells Are Regulated by Changes in Redox Metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine A Rivet

    Full Text Available T cells reach a state of replicative senescence characterized by a decreased ability to proliferate and respond to foreign antigens. Calcium release associated with TCR engagement is widely used as a surrogate measure of T cell response. Using an ex vivo culture model that partially replicates features of organismal aging, we observe that while the amplitude of Ca2+ signaling does not change with time in culture, older T cells exhibit faster Ca2+ rise and a faster decay. Gene expression analysis of Ca2+ channels and pumps expressed in T cells by RT-qPCR identified overexpression of the plasma membrane CRAC channel subunit ORAI1 and PMCA in older T cells. To test whether overexpression of the plasma membrane Ca2+ channel is sufficient to explain the kinetic information, we adapted a previously published computational model by Maurya and Subramaniam to include additional details on the store-operated calcium entry (SOCE process to recapitulate Ca2+ dynamics after T cell receptor stimulation. Simulations demonstrated that upregulation of ORAI1 and PMCA channels is not sufficient to explain the observed alterations in Ca2+ signaling. Instead, modeling analysis identified kinetic parameters associated with the IP3R and STIM1 channels as potential causes for alterations in Ca2+ dynamics associated with the long term ex vivo culturing protocol. Due to these proteins having known cysteine residues susceptible to oxidation, we subsequently investigated and observed transcriptional remodeling of metabolic enzymes, a shift to more oxidized redox couples, and post-translational thiol oxidation of STIM1. The model-directed findings from this study highlight changes in the cellular redox environment that may ultimately lead to altered T cell calcium dynamics during immunosenescence or organismal aging.

  16. Calcium Dynamics of Ex Vivo Long-Term Cultured CD8+ T Cells Are Regulated by Changes in Redox Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivet, Catherine A; Kniss-James, Ariel S; Gran, Margaret A; Potnis, Anish; Hill, Abby; Lu, Hang; Kemp, Melissa L

    2016-01-01

    T cells reach a state of replicative senescence characterized by a decreased ability to proliferate and respond to foreign antigens. Calcium release associated with TCR engagement is widely used as a surrogate measure of T cell response. Using an ex vivo culture model that partially replicates features of organismal aging, we observe that while the amplitude of Ca2+ signaling does not change with time in culture, older T cells exhibit faster Ca2+ rise and a faster decay. Gene expression analysis of Ca2+ channels and pumps expressed in T cells by RT-qPCR identified overexpression of the plasma membrane CRAC channel subunit ORAI1 and PMCA in older T cells. To test whether overexpression of the plasma membrane Ca2+ channel is sufficient to explain the kinetic information, we adapted a previously published computational model by Maurya and Subramaniam to include additional details on the store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) process to recapitulate Ca2+ dynamics after T cell receptor stimulation. Simulations demonstrated that upregulation of ORAI1 and PMCA channels is not sufficient to explain the observed alterations in Ca2+ signaling. Instead, modeling analysis identified kinetic parameters associated with the IP3R and STIM1 channels as potential causes for alterations in Ca2+ dynamics associated with the long term ex vivo culturing protocol. Due to these proteins having known cysteine residues susceptible to oxidation, we subsequently investigated and observed transcriptional remodeling of metabolic enzymes, a shift to more oxidized redox couples, and post-translational thiol oxidation of STIM1. The model-directed findings from this study highlight changes in the cellular redox environment that may ultimately lead to altered T cell calcium dynamics during immunosenescence or organismal aging.

  17. Geometry optimization of a fibrous scaffold based on mathematical modelling and CFD simulation of a dynamic cell culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tajsoleiman, Tannaz; J. Abdekhodaie, Mohammad; Gernaey, Krist

    2016-01-01

    are the main bottlenecks in this type of processes. In this regard, mathematical modelling and computational fluid dynamics simulation (CFD) are powerful tools to identify an efficient and optimized design by providing reliable insights of the process. This study presents a mathematical model and CFD...... an optimized design of the scaffold within a new mathematical optimization algorithm that is proposed. The main concept of this optimization routine isto maintain a large effective surface while simultaneously keeping the shear stress levelin an operating range that is expected to be supporting growth....... Therewith, it should bepossible to gradually reach improved culture efficiency as defined in the objective function....

  18. Sensorimotor control dynamics and cultural biases: learning to move in the right (or left) direction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterman, Amanda H; Giles, Oscar T; Havelka, Jelena; Ali, Sumaya; Culmer, Peter R; Wilkie, Richard M; Mon-Williams, Mark

    2017-02-01

    The nativist hypothesis suggests universal features of human behaviour can be explained by biologically determined cognitive substrates. This nativist account has been challenged recently by evolutionary models showing that the cultural transmission of knowledge can produce behavioural universals. Sensorimotor invariance is a canonical example of a behavioural universal, raising the issue of whether culture can influence not only which skills people acquire but also the development of the sensorimotor system. We tested this hypothesis by exploring whether culture influences the developing sensorimotor system in children. We took kinematic measures of motor control asymmetries in adults and children from differing cultures where writing follows opposite directions. British and Kuwaiti adults ( n  = 69) and first grade (5-6 year old) children ( n  = 140) completed novel rightward and leftward tracing tasks. The Kuwaitis were better when moving their arm leftward while the British showed the opposite bias. Bayesian analysis techniques showed that while children were worse than adults, they also showed asymmetries-with the asymmetry magnitude related to accuracy levels. Our findings support the idea that culture influences the sensorimotor system.

  19. The Congress for Cultural Freedom seen from the dynamics of the Cold War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Ruiz Durán

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to show how, at the height of the Cold War, the British intelligence services responded to the new spy system created by the Comintern developing a secret campaign of political and cultural propaganda, under the cover of prestigious foundations to channel intellectuals in defense of a liberal democracy. This spy system expected to carry out propaganda secret operations and manipulate the intellectuals from almost the very beginning of the Soviet Revolution. The keystone to win the battle of consciences was the Congress for Cultural Freedom and its editorials, magazines, exhibitions, scholarships, concerts, congresses and conferences. Finally, it will be noted how the Congress for Cultural Freedom implemented the political conception of "non-communist left" to sustain the social democracy in the Western bloc.

  20. The dynamics of daily events and well-being across cultures: when less is more.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Shigehiro; Diener, Ed; Choi, Dong-Won; Kim-Prieto, Chu; Choi, Incheol

    2007-10-01

    The authors examined cultural and individual differences in the relation between daily events and daily satisfaction. In a preliminary study, they established cross-cultural equivalence of 50 daily events. In the main study, participants in the United States, Korea, and Japan completed daily surveys on the 50 events and daily satisfaction for 21 days. The multilevel random coefficient model analyses showed that (a) the within-person association between positive events and daily satisfaction was significantly stronger among Asian American, Korean, and Japanese participants than among European American participants and (b) the within-person association between positive events and daily satisfaction was significantly weaker among individuals high in global life satisfaction than among those low in global life satisfaction. The findings demonstrate a weaker effect of positive events on daily well-being among individuals and cultures high in global well-being. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Proactive Learning Culture: A Dynamic Capability and Key Success Factor for SMEs Entering Foreign Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gnizy, I.; Baker, W.; Grinstein, A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose-Although small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) account for a significant portion of international trade, little is known about the role of strategic orientation culture in improving their foreign launch success. Three orientations-market, entrepreneurial, and learning are all related to

  2. Community dynamics of complex starter cultures for Gouda-type cheeses and its functional consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erkus, O.

    2014-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are used as starter and adjunct cultures for the production of artisanal and industrial fermented milk products such as yoghurt and cheese.  Artisanal fermentations is propagated with the transfer of an inoculum from old batch of fermented food to the new batch

  3. Community dynamics of complex starter cultures for Gouda-type cheeses and its functional consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erkus, O.

    2014-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are used as starter and adjunct cultures for the production of artisanal and industrial fermented milk products such as yoghurt and cheese. Artisanal fermentations is propagated with the transfer of an inoculum from old batch of fermented food to the new batch

  4. The nature and dynamics of culture and its social, moral and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The scope of the nature and functions of culture is very wide and its components are many and varied. It is a complex phenomenon which can be defined to cover almost every aspect of life. For this reason, no exhaustive and conclusive definition of the subject has ever been put forward, although many definitions have ...

  5. The impact of different starter cultures on fat content, pН and SH dynamics in white brined cheese production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Makarijoski

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available White brined cheese is a specific dairy product for Balkan Peninsula countries, Mediterranean, North Africa, Eastern Europe and some parts of Asia. The survey was conducted in 2016 at a dairy industry laboratory in R. of Macedonia. In this research work the influence of three different starter cultures of three white brined cheese variants (A, B, C has been examined regarding the fat content dynamics. The starter culture in variant А (SMCH-5 contained following bacteria strains: Lb. bulgaricus, Str. thermophilus and Lb. acidophilus. In the variant B (Choozit Feta A the follow bacteria strains were included: Lac. lactis ssp. lactis, Lac. lactis ssp. cremoris, Str. thermophilus, Lb. bulgaricus and Lb. helveticus. The variant C (MOTC 092 EE was a combination of the strains: Lac. lactis ssp. lactis, Str. thermophilus, Lb. bulgaricus, Lb. helveticus and Lb. casei. The impact of the above mentioned three different starter cultures was determined over the fat content, рН and SH during the process of ripening of the white brined cheese.

  6. Microbial dynamics and biodiversity of table olives fermentations: the different culture-dependent and –independent approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian eBotta

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The microbial ecology of the table olive fermentation process is a complex set of dynamics in which the roles of the lactic acid bacteria (LAB and yeast populations are closely related, and this synergism is of fundamental importance to obtain high quality products. Several studies on the ecology of table olives, both in spontaneous fermentations and in inoculated ones, have focused on the identification and characterization of yeasts, as they play a key role in the definition of the final organoleptic profiles through the production of volatile compounds. Moreover, these are able to promote the growth of LAB, which is responsible for the stabilization of the final product through the acidification activity and the inhibition of the growth of pathogenic bacteria. The current empirical production process of table olives could be improved through the development of mixed starter cultures. These can only be developed after a deep study of the population dynamics of yeasts and LAB by means of molecular methods. Until now, most studies have exploited culture-dependent approaches to define the natural microbiota of brine and olives. These approaches have identified two main species of LAB, namely Lactobacillus plantarum and L. pentosus, while, as far as yeasts are concerned, the most frequently isolated genera are Candida, Pichia and Saccharomyces. However, there are a few studies in literature in which a culture-independent approach has been employed. This review summarizes the state of the art of the microbial ecology of table olive fermentations and it focuses on the different approaches and molecular methods that have been applied.

  7. Dynamics of immature mAb glycoform secretion during CHO cell culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jimenez del Val, Ioscani; Fan, Yuzhou; Weilguny, Dietmar

    2016-01-01

    and immunogenicity. However, the interaction between bioprocess conditions, cellular metabolism and the intracellular process of glycosylation remains to be fully understood. To gain further insight into these interactions, we present a novel integrated modelling platform that links dynamic variations in m...

  8. Language and other artifacts: socio-cultural dynamics of niche construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Niche construction theory is a relatively new approach in evolutionary biology that seeks to integrate an ecological dimension into the Darwinian theory of evolution by natural selection. It is regarded by many evolutionary biologists as providing a significant revision of the Neo-Darwinian modern synthesis that unified Darwin's theory of natural and sexual selection with 20th century population genetics. Niche construction theory has been invoked as a processual mediator of social cognitive evolution and of the emergence and evolution of language. I argue that language itself can be considered as a biocultural niche and evolutionary artifact. I provide both a general analysis of the cognitive and semiotic status of artifacts, and a formal analysis of language as a social and semiotic institution, based upon a distinction between the fundamental semiotic relations of "counting as" and "standing for." I explore the consequences for theories of language and language learning of viewing language as a biocultural niche. I suggest that not only do niches mediate organism-organism interactions, but also that organisms mediate niche-niche interactions in ways that affect evolutionary processes, with the evolution of human infancy and childhood as a key example. I argue that language as a social and semiotic system is not only grounded in embodied engagements with the material and social-interactional world, but also grounds a sub-class of artifacts of particular significance in the cultural history of human cognition. Symbolic cognitive artifacts materially and semiotically mediate human cognition, and are not merely informational repositories, but co-agentively constitutive of culturally and historically emergent cognitive domains. I provide examples of the constitutive cognitive role of symbolic cognitive artifacts drawn from my research with my colleagues on cultural and linguistic conceptualizations of time, and their cultural variability. I conclude by reflecting on

  9. Language and other artifacts: socio-cultural dynamics of niche construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Niche construction theory is a relatively new approach in evolutionary biology that seeks to integrate an ecological dimension into the Darwinian theory of evolution by natural selection. It is regarded by many evolutionary biologists as providing a significant revision of the Neo-Darwinian modern synthesis that unified Darwin’s theory of natural and sexual selection with 20th century population genetics. Niche construction theory has been invoked as a processual mediator of social cognitive evolution and of the emergence and evolution of language. I argue that language itself can be considered as a biocultural niche and evolutionary artifact. I provide both a general analysis of the cognitive and semiotic status of artifacts, and a formal analysis of language as a social and semiotic institution, based upon a distinction between the fundamental semiotic relations of “counting as” and “standing for.” I explore the consequences for theories of language and language learning of viewing language as a biocultural niche. I suggest that not only do niches mediate organism-organism interactions, but also that organisms mediate niche-niche interactions in ways that affect evolutionary processes, with the evolution of human infancy and childhood as a key example. I argue that language as a social and semiotic system is not only grounded in embodied engagements with the material and social-interactional world, but also grounds a sub-class of artifacts of particular significance in the cultural history of human cognition. Symbolic cognitive artifacts materially and semiotically mediate human cognition, and are not merely informational repositories, but co-agentively constitutive of culturally and historically emergent cognitive domains. I provide examples of the constitutive cognitive role of symbolic cognitive artifacts drawn from my research with my colleagues on cultural and linguistic conceptualizations of time, and their cultural variability. I conclude by

  10. Dynamics of H2O2 Availability to ARPE-19 Cultures in Models of Oxidative Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczara, Patrycja; Sarna, Tadeusz; Burke, Janice M.

    2010-01-01

    Oxidative injury to cells such as the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is often modeled using H2O2-treated cultures, but H2O2 concentrations are not sustained in culture medium. Here medium levels of H2O2 and cytotoxicity were analyzed in ARPE-19 cultures following H2O2 delivery as a single pulse or with continuous generation using glucose oxidase (GOx). When added as a pulse, H2O2 is rapidly depleted (within 2 hr); cytotoxicity at 24, determined by the MTT assay for mitochondrial function, is unaffected by medium replacement at 2 hr. Continuous generation of H2O2 produces complex outcomes. At low GOx concentrations, H2O2 levels are sustained by conditions in which generation matches depletion, but when GOx concentrations produce cytotoxic levels of H2O2, oxidant depletion accelerates. Acceleration results partly from the release of contents from oxidant damaged cells as indicated by testing depletion after controlled membrane disruption with detergents. Cytotoxicity analyses show that cells can tolerate short exposure to high H2O2 doses delivered as a pulse but are susceptible to lower chronic doses. The results provide broadly applicable guidance for using GOx to produce sustained H2O2 levels in cultured cells. This approach will be specifically useful for modeling chronic stress relevant for RPE aging and have wider value for studying cellular effects of sub-lethal oxidant injury and for evaluating antioxidants that may protect significantly against mild but not lethal stress. PMID:20100568

  11. Network bursting dynamics in excitatory cortical neuron cultures results from the combination of different adaptive mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothée Masquelier

    Full Text Available In the brain, synchronization among cells of an assembly is a common phenomenon, and thought to be functionally relevant. Here we used an in vitro experimental model of cell assemblies, cortical cultures, combined with numerical simulations of a spiking neural network (SNN to investigate how and why spontaneous synchronization occurs. In order to deal with excitation only, we pharmacologically blocked GABAAergic transmission using bicuculline. Synchronous events in cortical cultures tend to involve almost every cell and to display relatively constant durations. We have thus named these "network spikes" (NS. The inter-NS-intervals (INSIs proved to be a more interesting phenomenon. In most cortical cultures NSs typically come in series or bursts ("bursts of NSs", BNS, with short (~1 s INSIs and separated by long silent intervals (tens of s, which leads to bimodal INSI distributions. This suggests that a facilitating mechanism is at work, presumably short-term synaptic facilitation, as well as two fatigue mechanisms: one with a short timescale, presumably short-term synaptic depression, and another one with a longer timescale, presumably cellular adaptation. We thus incorporated these three mechanisms into the SNN, which, indeed, produced realistic BNSs. Next, we systematically varied the recurrent excitation for various adaptation timescales. Strong excitability led to frequent, quasi-periodic BNSs (CV~0, and weak excitability led to rare BNSs, approaching a Poisson process (CV~1. Experimental cultures appear to operate within an intermediate weakly-synchronized regime (CV~0.5, with an adaptation timescale in the 2-8 s range, and well described by a Poisson-with-refractory-period model. Taken together, our results demonstrate that the INSI statistics are indeed informative: they allowed us to infer the mechanisms at work, and many parameters that we cannot access experimentally.

  12. Language and other artifacts: socio-cultural dynamics of niche construction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris eSinha

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Niche construction theory is a relatively new approach in evolutionary biology that seeks to integrate an ecological dimension into the Darwinian theory of evolution by natural selection. It is regarded by many evolutionary biologists as providing a significant revision of the Neo-Darwinian modern synthesis that unified Darwin’s theory of natural and sexual selection with 20th century population genetics. Niche construction theory has been invoked as a processual mediator of social cognitive evolution and of the emergence and evolution of language. I argue that language itself can be considered as a biocultural niche and evolutionary artifact. I provide both a general analysis of the cognitive and semiotic status of artifacts, and a formal analysis of language as a social and semiotic institution, based upon a distinction between the fundamental semiotic relations of counting as and standing for. I explore the consequences for theories of language and language learning of viewing language as a biocultural niche. I suggest that not only do niches mediate organism-organism interactions, but also that organisms mediate niche-niche interactions in ways that affect evolutionary processes, with the evolution of human infancy and childhood as a key example. I argue that language as a social and semiotic system is not only grounded in embodied engagements with the material and social-interactional world, but also grounds a sub-class of artifacts of particular significance in the cultural history of human cognition. Symbolic cognitive artifacts materially and semiotically mediate human cognition, and are not merely informational repositories, but co-agentively constitutive of culturally and historically emergent cognitive domains. I provide examples of the constitutive cognitive role of symbolic cognitive artifacts drawn from my research with my colleagues on cultural and linguistic conceptualizations of time, and their cultural variability. I conclude

  13. The dynamic interplay among EFL learners’ ambiguity tolerance, adaptability, cultural intelligence, learning approach, and language achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadi Alahdadi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A key objective of education is to prepare individuals to be fully-functioning learners. This entails developing the cognitive, metacognitive, motivational, cultural, and emotional competencies. The present study aimed to examine the interrelationships among adaptability, tolerance of ambiguity, cultural intelligence, learning approach, and language achievement as manifestations of the above competencies within a single model. The participants comprised one hundred eighty BA and MA Iranian university students studying English language teaching and translation. The instruments used in this study consisted of the translated versions of four questionnaires: second language tolerance of ambiguity scale, adaptability taken from emotional intelligence inventory, cultural intelligence (CQ inventory, and the revised study process questionnaire measuring surface and deep learning. The results estimated via structural equation modeling (SEM revealed that the proposed model containing the variables under study had a good fit with the data. It was found that all the variables except adaptability directly influenced language achievement with deep approach having the highest impact and ambiguity tolerance having the lowest influence. In addition, ambiguity tolerance was a positive and significant predictor of deep approach. CQ was found to be under the influence of both ambiguity tolerance and adaptability. The findings were discussed in the light of the yielded results.

  14. Dynamics of indole-3-acetic acid oxidase activity in suspension culture of sunflower crown-gall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zofia Chirek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available IAA oxidase activity was determined in several growth phases of a suspension culture of sunflower crown-gall. During the short phase of intensive growth (zero passage - PO a negative correlation was noted between enzymatic activity and the rate of growth. IAA oxidase activity increased to a certain level is not a factor limiting cell division. For protraction of the phase of intensive growth (first passage - P1, however, a decrease in the activity of this enzyme seems indispensable. IAA oxidase activity in the tested culture is under the control of inhibitors present in the cells and medium. High enzyme inhibition was observed in PO cells during the phase, of intensive growth and in P1 at the beginning and in the middle part of this phase. These results suggest' that the -auxin level determined in earlier studies in sunflower crown-gall culture is controlled by the IAA oxidase set. During the long phase of intensive growth (P1 this control is of negative feedback type.

  15. Evaluation of Mouse Oocyte In Vitro Maturation Developmental Competency in Dynamic Culture Systems by Design and Construction of A Lab on A Chip Device and Its Comparison with Conventional Culture System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghzadeh Oskouei, Behnaz; Pashaiasl, Maryam; Heidari, Mohammad Hasan; Salehi, Mohammad; Veladi, Hadi; Ghaderi Pakdel, Firuz; Shahabi, Parviz; Novin, Marefat Ghaffari

    2016-01-01

    In conventional assisted reproductive technology (ART), oocytes are cultured in static microdrops within Petri dishes that contain vast amounts of media. However, the in vivo environment is dynamic. This study assesses in vitro oocyte maturation through the use of a new microfluidic device. We evaluate oocyte fertilization to the blastocyct stage and their glutathione (GSH) contents in each experimental group. In this experimental study, we established a dynamic culture condition. Immature oocytes were harvested from ovaries of Naval Medical Research Institute (NMRI) mice. Oocytes were randomly placed in static (passive) and dynamic (active) in vitro maturation (IVM) culture medium for 24 hours. In vitro matured oocytes underwent fertilization, after which we placed the pronucleus (PN) stage embryos in microdrops and followed their developmental stages to blastocyst formation after 3 days. GSH content of the in vitro matured oocytes was assessed by monochlorobimane (MCB) staining. We observed significantly higher percentages of mature metaphase II oocytes (MII) in the passive and active dynamic culture systems (DCS) compared to the static group (Pcultures (Pculture for in vitro oocyte maturation improves their developmental competency in comparison with static culture conditions.

  16. Prey-predator dynamics in communities of culturable soil bacteria and protozoa: differential effects of mercury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtze, M. S.; Ekelund, F.; Rasmussen, Lasse Dam

    2003-01-01

    We investigated whether the prey-predator dynamics of bacteria and protozoa were affected by inorganic mercury at concentrations of 0, 3.5 and 15 mg Hg(II) kg soil(-1). The amount of bioavailable Hg was estimated using a biosensor-assay based on the mer-lux gene fusion. The numbers of bacterial...... with 1/100 TSB as growth medium were also negatively affected by Hg. The different fractions of protozoa were affected to different degrees suggesting that amoebae were less sensitive than slow-growing flagellates, which again were less sensitive than the fast-growing flagellates. In contrast, Hg did...... not induce any detectable changes in the diversity of flagellate morphotypes. In the treatment with 15 mg Hg kg(-1) a transiently increased number of bacteria was seen at day 6 probably concomitant with a decrease in the numbers of protozoa. This might indicate that Hg affected the prey-predator dynamics...

  17. Fighting African corruption when existing corruption-control levels matter in a dynamic cultural setting

    OpenAIRE

    Asongu Simplice

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Purpose – This paper assesses the determinants of corruption-control with freedom dynamics (economic, political, press and trade), government quality and a plethora of socio-economic factors in 46 African countries using updated data. Design/methodology/approach – A quantile regression approach is employed while controlling for the unobserved heterogeneity. Principal component analysis is also used to reduce the dimensions of highly correlated variables. Findings – With the legal ori...

  18. The Dynamics of Malay Culture in West Kalimantan in the 20th Century

    OpenAIRE

    Ahyat, Ita Syamtasiyah

    2014-01-01

    There are various Malay communities in West Kalimantan, which can be divided into two broad categories: (1) Malay migrants from outside Kalimantan (West Kalimantan) or contemporary Malays and (2) local Malays or native Malays who are considered as indigenous Malays. Contemporary Malays are Malay people who came from various areas in Sumatra, Riau Islands, Malay peninsula, East Malaysia (Serawak and Sabah States), and Brunei Darussalam. This paper aims to reconstruct the dynamics of Malay cult...

  19. Basics elements for modelling the dynamics of cell migration in cell culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FarIas, Ro; Vidal, Cs; Rapacioli, M; Flores, V

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces some basic elements for modelling the dynamics of cell migration activity over a bi-dimensional substratum. A square matrix, representing the substratum, is implemented in order to generate virtual cells with an initial random uniform distribution, with the ability to freely move within the matrix and to interact with each others by mean of adhesive forces. Two different conditions were examined: A) cells can freely move and after contacting with another cell they both completely inhibit their migration; B) cells that come into contact have the ability to rotate respect to each other without losing their contacts and retaining the ability to move together but at a slower rate, being the decrease in the rate of movement proportional to the number of contacting cells. The dynamics of the migration process in these two conditions was evaluated by recording the evolution of several parameters as a function of time. Minor modifications in some parameters (mobility, intensity of cell-cell and cell-substratum adhesiveness) significantly change the dynamics and the final result of the virtual migrating cells

  20. Short-term dynamics of culturable bacteria in a soil amended with biotransformed dry olive residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siles, J A; Pascual, J; González-Menéndez, V; Sampedro, I; García-Romera, I; Bills, G F

    2014-03-01

    Dry olive residue (DOR) transformation by wood decomposing basidiomycetes (e.g. Coriolopsis floccosa) is a possible strategy for eliminating the liabilities related to the use of olive oil industry waste as an organic soil amendment. The effects of organic fertilization with DOR on the culturable soil microbiota are largely unknown. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to measure the short-term effects of DOR and C. floccosa-transformed DOR on the culturable bacterial soil community, while at the same time documenting the bacterial diversity of an agronomic soil in the southeastern Iberian Peninsula. The control soil was compared with the same soil treated with DOR and with C. floccosa-transformed DOR for 0, 30 and 60 days. Impact was measured from total viable cells and CFU counts, as well as the isolation and characterization of 900 strains by fatty acid methyl ester profiles and 16S rRNA partial sequencing. The bacterial diversity was distributed between Actinobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Bacilli, Sphingobacteria and Cytophagia. Analysis of the treatments and controls demonstrated that soil amendment with untransformed DOR produced important changes in bacterial density and diversity. However, when C. floccosa-transformed DOR was applied, bacterial proliferation was observed but bacterial diversity was less affected, and the distribution of microorganisms was more similar to the unamended soil. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. A population balance equation model of aggregation dynamics in Taxus suspension cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolewe, Martin E; Roberts, Susan C; Henson, Michael A

    2012-02-01

    The nature of plant cells to grow as multicellular aggregates in suspension culture has profound effects on bioprocess performance. Recent advances in the measurement of plant cell aggregate size allow for routine process monitoring of this property. We have exploited this capability to develop a conceptual model to describe changes in the aggregate size distribution that are observed over the course of a Taxus cell suspension batch culture. We utilized the population balance equation framework to describe plant cell aggregates as a particulate system, accounting for the relevant phenomenological processes underlying aggregation, such as growth and breakage. We compared model predictions to experimental data to select appropriate kernel functions, and found that larger aggregates had a higher breakage rate, biomass was partitioned asymmetrically following a breakage event, and aggregates grew exponentially. Our model was then validated against several datasets with different initial aggregate size distributions and was able to quantitatively predict changes in total biomass and mean aggregate size, as well as actual size distributions. We proposed a breakage mechanism where a fraction of biomass was lost upon each breakage event, and demonstrated that even though smaller aggregates have been shown to produce more paclitaxel, an optimum breakage rate was predicted for maximum paclitaxel accumulation. We believe this is the first model to use a segregated, corpuscular approach to describe changes in the size distribution of plant cell aggregates, and represents an important first step in the design of rational strategies to control aggregation and optimize process performance. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Adapting the Medium: Dynamics of Intermedial Adaptation in Contemporary Japanese Popular Visual Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pusztai Beáta

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available With respect to adaptation studies, contemporary Japanese popular culture signifies a unique case, as different types of media (be those textual, auditive, visual or audio-visual are tightly intertwined through the “recycling” of successful characters and stories. As a result, a neatly woven net of intermedial adaptations has been formed - the core of this complex system being the manga-anime-live-action film “adaptational triangle.” On the one hand, the paper addresses the interplay of the various factors by which the very existence of this network is made possible, such as the distinctive cultural attitude to “originality,” the structure of the comics, animation and film industries, and finally, the role of fictitious genealogies of both traditional and contemporary media in the negotiation of national identity. On the other hand, the essay also considers some of the most significant thematic, narrative, and stylistic effects this close interconnectedness has on the individual medium. Special attention is being paid to the nascent trend of merging the adaptive medium with that of the original story (viewing adaptation as integration, apparent in contemporary manga-based live- action comedies, as the extreme case of intermedial adaptation. That is, when the aim of the adaptational process is no longer the transposition of the story but the adaptation (i.e. the incorporation of the medium itself- elevating certain medium-specific devices into transmedial phenomena.

  3. Substrate adhesion regulates sealing zone architecture and dynamics in cultured osteoclasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Anderegg

    Full Text Available The bone-degrading activity of osteoclasts depends on the formation of a cytoskeletal-adhesive super-structure known as the sealing zone (SZ. The SZ is a dynamic structure, consisting of a condensed array of podosomes, the elementary adhesion-mediating structures of osteoclasts, interconnected by F-actin filaments. The molecular composition and structure of the SZ were extensively investigated, yet despite its major importance for bone formation and remodelling, the mechanisms underlying its assembly and dynamics are still poorly understood. Here we determine the relations between matrix adhesiveness and the formation, stability and expansion of the SZ. By growing differentiated osteoclasts on micro-patterned glass substrates, where adhesive areas are separated by non-adhesive PLL-g-PEG barriers, we show that SZ growth and fusion strictly depend on the continuity of substrate adhesiveness, at the micrometer scale. We present a possible model for the role of mechanical forces in SZ formation and reorganization, inspired by the current data.

  4. A Model to Investigate the Effect of Work Ethic Culture on Dynamics of Rework in Management of Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Kiani

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to investigate the effect of work ethic culture on rework in construction projects through a review of literature, surveys, and interviews with project managers. The main research question is what mechanisms can project manager use to balance the costs of personnel training, financial and language incentives, and implementation costs to finish the project with more profit and less rework. In this regard, modelling and data analysis is done using System Dynamics methodology. The results show that by considering work ethic, rework in the project is reduced from 46 % to 39 %. However, the project has been completed with 10 % lower cost and 26 % lower variance. Integrating the issue of rework with the culture of work ethic in the field of project management by at least one exogenous parameter has been studied, while in this study qualitative parameters have been converted to quantitative parameters using fuzzy inference system. The change in management approach to the issue of work ethics and the formulation of human resource strategies of large projects by human resource managers is one of the applications of this study.

  5. Interethnic Interaction, Strategic Bargaining Power, and the Dynamics of Cultural Norms : A Field Study in an Amazonian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunce, John Andrew; McElreath, Richard

    2017-12-01

    Ethnic groups are universal and unique to human societies. Such groups sometimes have norms of behavior that are adaptively linked to their social and ecological circumstances, and ethnic boundaries may function to protect that variation from erosion by interethnic interaction. However, such interaction is often frequent and voluntary, suggesting that individuals may be able to strategically reduce its costs, allowing adaptive cultural variation to persist in spite of interaction with out-groups with different norms. We examine five mechanisms influencing the dynamics of ethnically distinct cultural norms, each focused on strategic individual-level choices in interethnic interaction: bargaining, interaction-frequency-biased norm adoption, assortment on norms, success-biased interethnic social learning, and childhood socialization. We use Bayesian item response models to analyze patterns of norm variation and interethnic interaction in an ethnically structured Amazonian population. We show that, among indigenous Matsigenka, interethnic education with colonial Mestizos is more strongly associated with Mestizo-typical norms than even extensive interethnic experience in commerce and wage labor is. Using ethnographic observations, we show that all five of the proposed mechanisms of norm adoption may contribute to this effect. However, of these mechanisms, we argue that changes in relative bargaining power are particularly important for ethnic minorities wishing to preserve distinctive norms while engaging in interethnic interaction in domains such as education. If this mechanism proves applicable in a range of other ethnographic contexts, it would constitute one cogent explanation for when and why ethnically structured cultural variation can either persist or erode given frequent, and often mutually beneficial, interethnic interaction.

  6. Towards generalizing co-evolutionary dynamics of socio-hydrology: Theoretical frameworks of cultural evolution and robustness-fragility tradeoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, W. S.; Yu, D. J.; Davis, T.; Hillis, V.; Waring, T. M.

    2017-12-01

    One ongoing challenge to socio-hydrology is the problem of generalization: to what extent do common human-water co-evolutions exist across distinct cases and what are underlying mechanisms of these co-evolutions. This problem stems in part from a lack of unifying theories in socio-hydrology, which hinders the explanation and generalization of results between cases in different regions. Theories help an analyst to make assumptions that are necessary to diagnose a specific phenomenon, to explain the general mechanisms of causation, and, thus, to predict future outcomes. To help address the issue, this study introduces two theories that are increasingly used in the fields of sustainability science and social-ecological systems research: robustness-fragility tradeoff (RFTO) and cultural multi-level selection (CMLS). We apply each of these theories to two distinct cases (water management issues in southwest Bangladesh and the Kissimmee River Basin, Florida) and interpret the phenomena of the levee and adaptation effects. CMLS and RFTO focus on complementary aspects of socio-hydrological phenomena. The theory of RFTO, which is mostly about inherent tradeoffs associated with infrastructure improvements, explains how efforts to increase system robustness can generate hidden endogenous risks. CMLS theory, rooted in the broader theory of cultural evolution, concerns how human cultural dynamics can act as an endogenous driver of system change across multiple levels of social organizations. Using the applied examples, we demonstrate that these two theories can provide an effective way to study social-hydrological systems and to overcome the generalization problem. Our work shows that multiple theories can be synthesized to give a richer understanding of diverse socio-hydrological patterns.

  7. [Water cultured propagation of Polygonum multiflorum and dynamic changes of physiological and biochemical characteristics during adventitious roots formation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jie; Liu, Xiaohui; Yuan, Yike

    2011-02-01

    Water cultured propagation technology of Polygonum multiflorum was investigated with Rooting Powder No. 2 (ABT 2) comparison experiments, and the dynamic changes of endogenous hormones including indole acetic acid (IAA), abscisic acid (ABA), zeatin riboside (ZRs) contents and activities of indoleacetic acid oxidase (IAAO), polyphenol oxidase (PPO) were analyzed during rooting period. The results showed that rooting percentage of softwood cutting with 50 mg x L(-1) ABT2 and 10 mg x L(-1) ABT2 + 0.2% Urea + 0.2% KH2PO4 treatments was 94%, rooting percentage of softwood cuttings of control was 46% only. The adventitious rooting displayed three distinct phases i. e. root-inducing, root formation and root-elongating phases. The dynamic changes of contents of endogenous plant hormones (IAA, ABA, ZRs) and activities of IAAO, PPO tested were tightly related to the rooting process of soft-wood cuttings in P. multiflorum. During root-inducing phase the contents of IAA, ABA and ZRs decreased sharply, whereas ZRs content and IAAO activity kept higher level. IAA content reached the peak and PPO activity increased obviously during root formation phase, while IAAO activities and ABA, ZRs contents declined to minimum. During root-elongating phase PPO, IAAO activities were higher and IAA, ABA, ZRs contents kept steady. During rooting ABT2 (50 mg x L(-1)) treatment increased the content of IAA and PPO activity in cuttings, while the opposite result occurred in contents of ZRs, ABA and IAAO activity.

  8. Language of Physics, Language of Math: Disciplinary Culture and Dynamic Epistemology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redish, Edward F.; Kuo, Eric

    2015-07-01

    Mathematics is a critical part of much scientific research. Physics in particular weaves math extensively into its instruction beginning in high school. Despite much research on the learning of both physics and math, the problem of how to effectively include math in physics in a way that reaches most students remains unsolved. In this paper, we suggest that a fundamental issue has received insufficient exploration: the fact that in science, we don't just use math, we make meaning with it in a different way than mathematicians do. In this reflective essay, we explore math as a language and consider the language of math in physics through the lens of cognitive linguistics. We begin by offering a number of examples that show how the use of math in physics differs from the use of math as typically found in math classes. We then explore basic concepts in cognitive semantics to show how humans make meaning with language in general. The critical elements are the roles of embodied cognition and interpretation in context. Then, we show how a theoretical framework commonly used in physics education research, resources, is coherent with and extends the ideas of cognitive semantics by connecting embodiment to phenomenological primitives and contextual interpretation to the dynamics of meaning-making with conceptual resources, epistemological resources, and affect. We present these ideas with illustrative case studies of students working on physics problems with math and demonstrate the dynamical nature of student reasoning with math in physics. We conclude with some thoughts about the implications for instruction.

  9. Effects of seven diets on the population dynamics of laboratory cultured Tisbe holothuriae Humes (Copepoda, Harpacticoida)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miliou, H.; Moraïtou-Apostolopoulou, M.

    1991-09-01

    The harpacticoid copepod Tisbe holothuriae was collected from Saronicos Gulf (Greece) and reared under constant laboratory conditions. In order to study the effects of food on the population dynamics, seven diets were tested: the seaweed Ulva; five artificial compound feeds: the liquid Fryfood® (Waterlife), a powder of Mytilus, yeast, soya and Spirulina, respectively; and a mixed diet consisting of Ulva and Fryfood. The life cycle parameters (mortality, sex ratio, generation time, offspring production) were measured, and the demographic variables [mean generation time (T), net reproductive rate (Ro), and intrinsic rate of natural increase (rm)] were determined. As to their efficiency regarding population dynamics, the diets ranked as follows: (1) Ulva+Fryfood, (2), Ulva, (3) Fryfood, (4) Mytilus, (5) soya, (6) yeast, and (7) Spirulina. In this order they cause a progressive increase of both larval mortality and generation time, a progressive decrease of sex ratio, number of offspring per egg sac, number of egg sacs per female and, consequently, of Ro and rm. The observed differences between diets were most pronounced with respect to offspring production. Of the compound diets, those containing animal extracts were more efficient than those containing vegetable materials. Ulva plays an important role in the nutrition of T. holothuriae, favouring offspring production as well as larval survival, development and pigmentation. Ulva in combination with Fryfood led to a greater copepodid survival and offspring production. This mixed diet proved to be the most favourable for rearing the Greek population of t. holothuriae, resulting in an efficient intrinsic rate of natural increase (rm=0.304) of the population.

  10. Dynamics of Metabolite Induction in Fungal Co-cultures by Metabolomics at Both Volatile and Non-volatile Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Azzollini

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Fungal co-cultivation has emerged as a promising way for activating cryptic biosynthetic pathways and discovering novel antimicrobial metabolites. For the success of such studies, a key element remains the development of standardized co-cultivation methods compatible with high-throughput analytical procedures. To efficiently highlight induction processes, it is crucial to acquire a holistic view of intermicrobial communication at the molecular level. To tackle this issue, a strategy was developed based on the miniaturization of fungal cultures that allows for a concomitant survey of induction phenomena in volatile and non-volatile metabolomes. Fungi were directly grown in vials, and each sample was profiled by head space solid phase microextraction gas chromatography mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS, while the corresponding solid culture medium was analyzed by liquid chromatography high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS after solvent extraction. This strategy was implemented for the screening of volatile and non-volatile metabolite inductions in an ecologically relevant fungal co-culture of Eutypa lata (Pers. Tul. & C. Tul. (Diatrypaceae and Botryosphaeria obtusa (Schwein. Shoemaker (Botryosphaeriaceae, two wood-decaying fungi interacting in the context of esca disease of grapevine. For a comprehensive evaluation of the results, a multivariate data analysis combining Analysis of Variance and Partial Least Squares approaches, namely AMOPLS, was used to explore the complex LC-HRMS and GC-MS datasets and highlight dynamically induced compounds. A time-series study was carried out over 9 days, showing characteristic metabolite induction patterns in both volatile and non-volatile dimensions. Relevant links between the dynamics of expression of specific metabolite production were observed. In addition, the antifungal activity of 2-nonanone, a metabolite incrementally produced over time in the volatile fraction, was assessed against Eutypa lata and

  11. Cultural tourism and tourism cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ooi, Can-Seng

    Presenting a comprehensive and dynamic understanding of cultural tourism, this volume examines cultural mediators and how they help tourists appreciate foreign cultures. It also shows how tourism experiences are strategically crafted by mediators, the complexity of the mediation process, and how...... various products are mediated differently. A number of different products are investigated, including destination brand identities, "living" cultures and everyday life, art and history. The author illustrates his arguments by comparing the tourism strategies of Copenhagen and Singapore, and demonstrates...

  12. Seeing Mixed Emotions: The Specificity of Emotion Perception From Static and Dynamic Facial Expressions Across Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xia; Sauter, Disa A.; Van Kleef, Gerben A.

    2017-01-01

    Although perceivers often agree about the primary emotion that is conveyed by a particular expression, observers may concurrently perceive several additional emotions from a given facial expression. In the present research, we compared the perception of two types of nonintended emotions in Chinese and Dutch observers viewing facial expressions: emotions which were morphologically similar to the intended emotion and emotions which were morphologically dissimilar to the intended emotion. Findings were consistent across two studies and showed that (a) morphologically similar emotions were endorsed to a greater extent than dissimilar emotions and (b) Chinese observers endorsed nonintended emotions more than did Dutch observers. Furthermore, the difference between Chinese and Dutch observers was more pronounced for the endorsement of morphologically similar emotions than of dissimilar emotions. We also obtained consistent evidence that Dutch observers endorsed nonintended emotions that were congruent with the preceding expressions to a greater degree. These findings suggest that culture and morphological similarity both influence the extent to which perceivers see several emotions in a facial expression. PMID:29386689

  13. Seeing Mixed Emotions: The Specificity of Emotion Perception From Static and Dynamic Facial Expressions Across Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xia; Sauter, Disa A; Van Kleef, Gerben A

    2018-01-01

    Although perceivers often agree about the primary emotion that is conveyed by a particular expression, observers may concurrently perceive several additional emotions from a given facial expression. In the present research, we compared the perception of two types of nonintended emotions in Chinese and Dutch observers viewing facial expressions: emotions which were morphologically similar to the intended emotion and emotions which were morphologically dissimilar to the intended emotion. Findings were consistent across two studies and showed that (a) morphologically similar emotions were endorsed to a greater extent than dissimilar emotions and (b) Chinese observers endorsed nonintended emotions more than did Dutch observers. Furthermore, the difference between Chinese and Dutch observers was more pronounced for the endorsement of morphologically similar emotions than of dissimilar emotions. We also obtained consistent evidence that Dutch observers endorsed nonintended emotions that were congruent with the preceding expressions to a greater degree. These findings suggest that culture and morphological similarity both influence the extent to which perceivers see several emotions in a facial expression.

  14. Dynamic inhibition of excitatory synaptic transmission by astrocyte-derived ATP in hippocampal cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, Schuichi; Fujishita, Kayoko; Tsuda, Makoto; Shigemoto-Mogami, Yukari; Inoue, Kazuhide

    2003-09-01

    Originally ascribed passive roles in the CNS, astrocytes are now known to have an active role in the regulation of synaptic transmission. Neuronal activity can evoke Ca2+ transients in astrocytes, and Ca2+ transients in astrocytes can evoke changes in neuronal activity. The excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate has been shown to mediate such bidirectional communication between astrocytes and neurons. We demonstrate here that ATP, a primary mediator of intercellular Ca2+ signaling among astrocytes, also mediates intercellular signaling between astrocytes and neurons in hippocampal cultures. Mechanical stimulation of astrocytes evoked Ca2+ waves mediated by the release of ATP and the activation of P2 receptors. Mechanically evoked Ca2+ waves led to decreased excitatory glutamatergic synaptic transmission in an ATP-dependent manner. Exogenous application of ATP does not affect postsynaptic glutamatergic responses but decreased presynaptic exocytotic events. Finally, we show that astrocytes exhibit spontaneous Ca2+ waves mediated by extracellular ATP and that inhibition of these Ca2+ responses enhanced excitatory glutamatergic transmission. We therefore conclude that ATP released from astrocytes exerts tonic and activity-dependent down-regulation of synaptic transmission via presynaptic mechanisms.

  15. Musical rhythms in heart period dynamics: a cross-cultural and interdisciplinary approach to cardiac rhythms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettermann, H; Amponsah, D; Cysarz, D; van Leeuwen, P

    1999-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to expand classic heart period analysis methods by techniques from ethnomusicology that explicitly take complex musical rhythm principles into consideration. The methods used are based on the theory of African music, the theory of symbolic dynamics, and combinatorial theory. Heart period tachograms from 192 24-h electrocardiograms of 96 healthy subjects were transformed into binary symbol sequences that were interpretable as elementary rhythmic (percussive) patterns, the time lines in African music. Using a hierarchical rhythm pattern scheme closely related to the Derler Rhythm Classification (from jazz theory), we calculated the predominance and stability of pattern classes. The results show that during sleep certain classes, specific to individuals, occurred in a cyclically recurrent manner and many times more often than expected. Simultaneously, other classes disappeared more or less completely. Moreover, the most frequent classes obviously originate from phase-locking processes in autonomic regulation (e.g., between respiratory and cardiac cycles). In conclusion, the new interdisciplinary method presented here demonstrates that heart period patterns, in particular those occurring during night sleep, can be interpreted as musical rhythms. This method may be of great potential use in music therapy research.

  16. Deploying culture as a defence against incompetence: The unconscious dynamics of public service work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peliwe P. Mnguni

    2012-01-01

    Research purpose: This article employs social defense theory to explore manifestations of anxiety and defense within South African public service organisations. Motivation for the study: Dominant discourse on public service institutions over-relies on political, sociological and public administration theories and tends to ignore psychosocial explanations. Further, whilst the psychodynamics of social service work are generally understood, the unconscious dynamics of generic public service work remain under-theorised. Research design, approach and method: This conceptual article draws on my personal observations as a reflective citizen and experiences as a consultant to government departments. Main findings: Herein, an argument is advanced that the deployment of ill-qualified party loyalists to key positions in the public service is perverse: it serves as a collective defense against the impossible aspects of the task at hand. The appointees, in turn, deploy organisational processes to defend against feelings of incompetence and the inevitability of failure. This practice, coupled with acute resource constraints, sets up front line staff for scapegoating. Practical/managerial implications: An appreciation of the multiple meanings of public service work and the defensive role played by public institutions stands to inform purposeful change towards sustainable public service organisational practice. Contribution/value-add: The discussion seeks to contribute to attempts that employ systems psychodynamics to make sense of anxiety and defense within organisations in general and public service institutions in particular.

  17. A novel miniature dynamic microfluidic cell culture platform using electro-osmosis diode pumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jen-Yung; Wang, Shuo; Allen, Jeffrey S.; Lee, Seong Hyuk; Chang, Suk Tai; Choi, Young-Ki; Friedrich, Craig; Choi, Chang Kyoung

    2014-01-01

    An electro-osmosis (EOS) diode pumping platform capable of culturing cells in fluidic cellular micro-environments particularly at low volume flow rates has been developed. Diode pumps have been shown to be a viable alternative to mechanically driven pumps. Typically electrokinetic micro-pumps were limited to low-concentration solutions (≤10 mM). In our approach, surface mount diodes were embedded along the sidewalls of a microchannel to rectify externally applied alternating current into pulsed direct current power across the diodes in order to generate EOS flows. This approach has for the first time generated flows at ultra-low flow rates (from 2.0 nl/s to 12.3 nl/s) in aqueous solutions with concentrations greater than 100 mM. The range of flow was generated by changing the electric field strength applied to the diodes from 0.5 Vpp/cm to 10 Vpp/cm. Embedding an additional diode on the upper surface of the enclosed microchannel increased flow rates further. We characterized the diode pump-driven fluidics in terms of intensities and frequencies of electric inputs, pH values of solutions, and solution types. As part of this study, we found that the growth of A549 human lung cancer cells was positively affected in the microfluidic diode pumping system. Though the chemical reaction compromised the fluidic control overtime, the system could be maintained fully functional over a long time if the solution was changed every hour. In conclusion, the advantage of miniature size and ability to accurately control fluids at ultra-low volume flow rates can make this diode pumping system attractive to lab-on-a-chip applications and biomedical engineering in vitro studies. PMID:25379101

  18. Cytogenetic heterogeneity and their serial dynamic changes during acquisition of cytogenetic aberrations in cultured mesenchymal stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jung-Ah; Im, Kyong Ok; Park, Si Nae; Kwon, Ji Seok; Kim, Seon Young; Oh, Keunhee; Lee, Dong-Sup; Kim, Min Kyung; Kim, Seong Who; Jang, Mi; Lee, Gene; Oh, Yeon-Mok; Lee, Sang Do; Lee, Dong Soon

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We evaluated cytogenetic aberrations of MSC during culture using G-banding and FISH. • We tracked the quantitative changes of each clone among heterogeneity upon passages. • The changes of cytogenetic profile upon passages were similar to cancer stem cell. - Abstract: To minimize the risk of tumorigenesis in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), G-banding analysis is widely used to detect chromosomal aberrations in MSCs. However, a critical limitation of G-banding is that it only reflects the status of metaphase cells, which can represent as few as 0.01% of tested cells. During routine cytogenetic testing in MSCs, we often detect chromosomal aberrations in minor cell populations. Therefore, we aimed to investigate whether such a minority of cells can expand over time or if they ultimately disappear during MSC passaging. We passaged MSCs serially while monitoring quantitative changes for each aberrant clone among heterogeneous MSCs. To investigate the cytogenetic status of interphase cells, which represent the main population, we also performed interphase FISH analysis, in combination with G-banding and telomere length determination. In human adipose tissue-derived MSCs, 4 types of chromosomal aberrations were found during culturing, and in umbilical cord MSCs, 2 types of chromosomal aberrations were observed. Sequential dynamic changes among heterogeneous aberrant clones during passaging were similar to the dynamic changes observed in cancer stem cells during disease progression. Throughout all passages, the quantitative G-banding results were inconsistent with those of the interphase FISH analysis. Interphase FISH revealed hidden aberrations in stem cell populations with normal karyotypes by G-banding analysis. We found that telomere length gradually decreased during passaging until the point at which cytogenetic aberrations appeared. The present study demonstrates that rare aberrant clones at earlier passages can become predominant clones during

  19. Cytogenetic heterogeneity and their serial dynamic changes during acquisition of cytogenetic aberrations in cultured mesenchymal stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jung-Ah [Department of Laboratory Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Im, Kyong Ok; Park, Si Nae; Kwon, Ji Seok [Cancer Research Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seon Young [Department of Laboratory Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Keunhee; Lee, Dong-Sup [Laboratory of Immunology and Cancer Biology, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Transplantation Research Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Min Kyung; Kim, Seong Who [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Mi; Lee, Gene [Lab of Molecular Genetics, School of Dentistry and Dental Research Institute, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Yeon-Mok; Lee, Sang Do [Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Asthma Center and Clinical Research Center for Chronic Obstructive Airway Diseases, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dong Soon, E-mail: soonlee@snu.ac.kr [Department of Laboratory Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cancer Research Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • We evaluated cytogenetic aberrations of MSC during culture using G-banding and FISH. • We tracked the quantitative changes of each clone among heterogeneity upon passages. • The changes of cytogenetic profile upon passages were similar to cancer stem cell. - Abstract: To minimize the risk of tumorigenesis in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), G-banding analysis is widely used to detect chromosomal aberrations in MSCs. However, a critical limitation of G-banding is that it only reflects the status of metaphase cells, which can represent as few as 0.01% of tested cells. During routine cytogenetic testing in MSCs, we often detect chromosomal aberrations in minor cell populations. Therefore, we aimed to investigate whether such a minority of cells can expand over time or if they ultimately disappear during MSC passaging. We passaged MSCs serially while monitoring quantitative changes for each aberrant clone among heterogeneous MSCs. To investigate the cytogenetic status of interphase cells, which represent the main population, we also performed interphase FISH analysis, in combination with G-banding and telomere length determination. In human adipose tissue-derived MSCs, 4 types of chromosomal aberrations were found during culturing, and in umbilical cord MSCs, 2 types of chromosomal aberrations were observed. Sequential dynamic changes among heterogeneous aberrant clones during passaging were similar to the dynamic changes observed in cancer stem cells during disease progression. Throughout all passages, the quantitative G-banding results were inconsistent with those of the interphase FISH analysis. Interphase FISH revealed hidden aberrations in stem cell populations with normal karyotypes by G-banding analysis. We found that telomere length gradually decreased during passaging until the point at which cytogenetic aberrations appeared. The present study demonstrates that rare aberrant clones at earlier passages can become predominant clones during

  20. Mitochondrial DNA dynamics during in vitro culture and pluripotency induction of a bovine Rho0 cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessôa, L V F; Bressan, F F; Chiaratti, M R; Pires, P R L; Perecin, F; Smith, L C; Meirelles, F V

    2015-10-30

    Large number of cellular changes and diseases are related to mutations in the mitochondrial DNA copy number. Cell culture in the presence of ethidium bromide is a known way of depleting mitochondrial DNA and is a useful model for studying such conditions. Interestingly, the morphology of these depleted cells resembles that of pluripotent cells, as they present larger and fragmented mitochondria with poorly developed cristae. Herein, we aimed to study the mechanisms responsible for the control of mitochondrial DNA replication during mitochondrial DNA depletion mediated by ethidium bromide and during the in vitro induction of cellular pluripotency with exogenous transcription factor expression in a bovine model. This article reports the generation of a bovine Rho0 mesenchymal cell line and describes the analysis of mitochondrial DNA copy number in a time-dependent manner. The expression of apoptosis and mitochondrial-related genes in the cells during mitochondrial DNA repletion were also analyzed. The dynamics of mitochondrial DNA during both the depletion process and in vitro reprogramming are discussed. It was possible to obtain bovine mesenchymal cells almost completely depleted of their mitochondrial DNA content (over 90%). However, the production of induced pluripotent stem cells from the transduction of both control and Rho0 bovine mesenchymal cells with human reprograming factors was not successful.

  1. Connecting Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugegaard, Rikke; Mynster Christensen, Maya

    2017-01-01

    The understanding of cultural dynamics in the area of operations is essential in to the accomplishment of military missions in international operations. The aim of this handbook is to introduce a tool enabling the use of culture as part of the military operational planning process....

  2. Dynamic secondary ion mass spectrometry imaging of microbial populations utilizing C-labelled substrates in pure culture and in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pumphrey, Graham M; Hanson, Buck T; Chandra, Subhash; Madsen, Eugene L

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate that dynamic secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS)-based ion microscopy can provide a means of measuring (13)C assimilation into individual bacterial cells grown on (13)C-labelled organic compounds in the laboratory and in field soil. We grew pure cultures of Pseudomonas putida NCIB 9816-4 in minimal media with known mixtures of (12)C- and (13)C-glucose and analysed individual cells via SIMS imaging. Individual cells yielded signals of masses 12, 13, 24, 25, 26 and 27 as negative secondary ions indicating the presence of (12)C(-), (13)C(-), (24)((12)C(2))(-), (25)((12)C(13)C)(-), (26)((12)C(14)N)(-) and (27)((13)C(14)N)(-) ions respectively. We verified that ratios of signals taken from the same cells only changed minimally during a approximately 4.5 min period of primary O(2)(+) beam sputtering by the dynamic SIMS instrument in microscope detection mode. There was a clear relationship between mass 27 and mass 26 signals in Pseudomonas putida cells grown in media containing varying proportions of (12)C- to (13)C-glucose: a standard curve was generated to predict (13)C-enrichment in unknown samples. We then used two strains of Pseudomonas putida able to grow on either all or only a part of a mixture of (13)C-labelled and unlabelled carbon sources to verify that differential (13)C signals measured by SIMS were due to (13)C assimilation into cell biomass. Finally, we made three key observations after applying SIMS ion microscopy to soil samples from a field experiment receiving (12)C- or (13)C-phenol: (i) cells enriched in (13)C were heterogeneously distributed among soil populations; (ii) (13)C-labelled cells were detected in soil that was dosed a single time with (13)C-phenol; and (iii) in soil that received 12 doses of (13)C-phenol, 27% of the cells in the total community were more than 90% (13)C-labelled.

  3. Development of an economical, autonomous pHstat system for culturing phytoplankton under steady state or dynamic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golda, Rachel L; Golda, Mark D; Hayes, Jacqueline A; Peterson, Tawnya D; Needoba, Joseph A

    2017-05-01

    Laboratory investigations of physiological processes in phytoplankton require precise control of experimental conditions. Chemostats customized to control and maintain stable pH levels (pHstats) are ideally suited for investigations of the effects of pH on phytoplankton physiology, for example in context of ocean acidification. Here we designed and constructed a simple, flexible pHstat system and demonstrated its operational capabilities under laboratory culture conditions. In particular, the system is useful for simulating natural cyclic pH variability within aquatic ecosystems, such as diel fluctuations that result from metabolic activity or tidal mixing in estuaries. The pHstat system operates in two modes: (1) static/set point pH, which maintains pH at a constant level, or (2) dynamic pH, which generates regular, sinusoidal pH fluctuations by systematically varying pH according to user-defined parameters. The pHstat is self-regulating through the use of interchangeable electronically controlled reagent or gas-mediated pH-modification manifolds, both of which feature flow regulation by solenoid valves. Although effective pH control was achieved using both liquid reagent additions and gas-mediated methods, the liquid manifold exhibited tighter control (±0.03pH units) of the desired pH than the gas manifold (±0.10pH units). The precise control provided by this pHstat system, as well as its operational flexibility will facilitate studies that examine responses by marine microbiota to fluctuations in pH in aquatic ecosystems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Perfusion-based microfluidic device for three-dimensional dynamic primary human hepatocyte cell culture in the absence of biological or synthetic matrices or coagulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goral, Vasiliy N; Hsieh, Yi-Cheng; Petzold, Odessa N; Clark, Jeffery S; Yuen, Po Ki; Faris, Ronald A

    2010-12-21

    We describe a perfusion-based microfluidic device for three-dimensional (3D) dynamic primary human hepatocyte cell culture. The microfluidic device was used to promote and maintain 3D tissue-like cellular morphology and cell-specific functionality of primary human hepatocytes by restoring membrane polarity and hepatocyte transport function in vitro without the addition of biological or synthetic matrices or coagulants. A unique feature of our dynamic cell culture device is the creation of a microenvironment, without the addition of biological or synthetic matrices or coagulants, that promotes the 3D organization of hepatocytes into cord-like structures that exhibit functional membrane polarity as evidenced by the expression of gap junctions and the formation of an extended, functionally active, bile canalicular network.

  5. Computational fluid dynamics modeling of mass transfer behavior in a bioreactor for hairy root culture. I. Model development and experimental validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rui; Sun, Wei; Liu, Chun-Zhao

    2011-01-01

    A two-dimensional axisymmetric computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model based on a porous media model and a discrete population balance model was established to investigate the hydrodynamics and mass transfer behavior in an airlift bioreactor for hairy root culture.During the hairy root culture of Echinacea purpurea, liquid and gas velocity, gas holdup, mass transfer rate, as well as oxygen concentration distribution in the airlift bioreactor were simulated by this CFD model. Simulative results indicated that liquid flow and turbulence played a dominant role in oxygen mass transfer in the growth domain of the hairy root culture. The dissolved oxygen concentration in the hairy root clump increased from the bottom to the top of the bioreactor cultured with the hairy roots, which was verified by the experimental detection of dissolved oxygen concentration in the hairy root clump. This methodology provided insight understanding on the complex system of hairy root culture and will help to eventually guide the bioreactor design and process intensification of large-scale hairy root culture. © 2011 American Institute of Chemical Engineers

  6. DynaMiTES - A dynamic cell culture platform for in vitro drug testing PART 1 - Engineering of microfluidic system and technical simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattern, Kai; Beißner, Nicole; Reichl, Stephan; Dietzel, Andreas

    2018-05-01

    Conventional safety and efficacy test models, such as animal experiments or static in vitro cell culture models, can often not reliably predict the most promising drug candidates. Therefore, a novel microfluidic cell culture platform, called Dynamic Micro Tissue Engineering System (DynaMiTES), was designed to allow online analysis of drugs permeating through barrier forming tissues under dynamic conditions combined with monitoring of the transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) by electrodes optimized for homogeneous current distribution. A variety of pre-cultivated cell culture inserts can be integrated and exposed to well controlled dynamic micro flow conditions, resulting in a tightly regulated exposure of the cells to tested drugs, drug formulations and shear forces. With these qualities, the new system can provide more relevant information compared to static measurements. As a first in vitro model, a three-dimensional hemicornea construct consisting of human keratocytes (HCK-Ca) and epithelial cells (HCE-T) was successfully tested in the DynaMiTES. Thereby, we were able to demonstrate the functionality and cell compatibility of this new organ on chip test platform. The modular design of the DynaMiTES allows fast adaptation suitable for the investigation of drug permeation through other important cellular barriers. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Where Do the Cultural Differences in Dynamics of Controlling Parenting Lie? Adolescents as Active Agents in the Perception of and Coping with Parental Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beiwen Chen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available There is ongoing debate about the universal or culture-specific role of controlling parenting in children’s and adolescents’ development. This study addressed the possibility of cultural variability in how controlling parenting practices are perceived and dealt with. Specifically, we examined Belgian ('N' = 341 and Chinese ('N' = 316 adolescents’ perceptions of and reactions towards a vignette depicting parental guilt-induction, relative to generally controlling and autonomy supportive vignettes. Whereas Belgian adolescents perceived guilt-induction to be as controlling as generally controlling parental behavior, Chinese adolescents’ perception of guilt-induction as controlling was more moderate. Belgian and Chinese adolescents also showed some similarities and differences in their responses to the feelings of need frustration following from the controlling practices, with compulsive compliance for instance being more common in Chinese adolescents. Discussion focuses on cross-cultural similarities and differences in dynamics of controlling parenting.

  8. Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Goodman, Lawrence E

    2001-01-01

    Beginning text presents complete theoretical treatment of mechanical model systems and deals with technological applications. Topics include introduction to calculus of vectors, particle motion, dynamics of particle systems and plane rigid bodies, technical applications in plane motions, theory of mechanical vibrations, and more. Exercises and answers appear in each chapter.

  9. Bi-cultural dynamics for risk and protective factors for cardiometabolic health in an Alaska Native (Yup'ik population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Philip

    Full Text Available Alaska Native people experience disparities in mortality from heart disease and stroke. This work attempts to better understand the relationships between socioeconomic, behavioral, and cardiometabolic risk factors among Yup'ik people of southwestern Alaska, with a focus on the role of the socioeconomic, and cultural components. Using a cross-sectional sample of 486 Yup'ik adults, we fitted a Partial Least Squares Path Model (PLS-PM to assess the associations between components, including demographic factors [age and gender], socioeconomic factors [education, economic status, Yup'ik culture, and Western culture], behavioral factors [diet, cigarette smoking and smokeless tobacco use, and physical activity], and cardiometabolic risk factors [adiposity, triglyceride-HDL and LDL lipids, glycemia, and blood pressure]. We found relatively mild associations of education and economic status with cardiometabolic risk factors, in contrast with studies in other populations. The socioeconomic factor and participation in Yup'ik culture had potentially protective associations with adiposity, triglyceride-HDL lipids, and blood pressure, whereas participation in Western culture had a protective association with blood pressure. We also found a moderating effect of participation in Western culture on the relationships between Yup'ik culture participation and both blood pressure and LDL lipids, indicating a potentially beneficial additional effect of bi-culturalism. Our results suggest that reinforcing protective effects of both Yup'ik and Western cultures could be useful for interventions aimed at reducing cardiometabolic health disparities.

  10. Dynamic Compression Promotes the Matrix Synthesis of Nucleus Pulposus Cells Through Up-Regulating N-CDH Expression in a Perfusion Bioreactor Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yichun; Yao, Hui; Li, Pei; Xu, Wenbin; Zhang, Junbin; Lv, Lulu; Teng, Haijun; Guo, Zhiliang; Zhao, Huiqing; Hou, Gang

    2018-03-26

    An adequate matrix production of nucleus pulposus (NP) cells is an important tissue engineering-based strategy to regenerate degenerative discs. Here, we mainly aimed to investigate the effects and mechanism of mechanical compression (i.e., static compression vs. dynamic compression) on the matrix synthesis of three-dimensional (3D) cultured NP cells in vitro. Rat NP cells seeded on small intestinal submucosa (SIS) cryogel scaffolds were cultured in the chambers of a self-developed, mechanically active bioreactor for 10 days. Meanwhile, the NP cells were subjected to compression (static compression or dynamic compression at a 10% scaffold deformation) for 6 hours once per day. Unloaded NP cells were used as controls. The cellular phenotype and matrix biosynthesis of NP cells were investigated by real-time PCR and Western blotting assays. Lentivirus-mediated N-cadherin (N-CDH) knockdown and an inhibitor, LY294002, were used to further investigate the role of N-CDH and the PI3K/Akt pathway in this process. Dynamic compression better maintained the expression of cell-specific markers (keratin-19, FOXF1 and PAX1) and matrix macromolecules (aggrecan and collagen II), as well as N-CDH expression and the activity of the PI3K/Akt pathway, in the 3D-cultured NP cells compared with those expression levels and activity in the cells grown under static compression. Further analysis showed that the N-CDH knockdown significantly down-regulated the expression of NP cell-specific markers and matrix macromolecules and inhibited the activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway under dynamic compression. However, inhibition of the PI3K/Akt pathway had no effects on N-CDH expression but down-regulated the expression of NP cell-specific markers and matrix macromolecules under dynamic compression. Dynamic compression increases the matrix synthesis of 3D-cultured NP cells compared with that of the cells under static compression, and the N-CDH-PI3K/Akt pathway is involved in this regulatory process

  11. Microbial diversity and dynamics throughout manufacturing and ripening of surface ripened semi-hard Danish Danbo cheeses investigated by culture-independent techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryssel, Mia; Johansen, Pernille; Al-Soud, Waleed Abu; Sørensen, Søren; Arneborg, Nils; Jespersen, Lene

    2015-12-23

    Microbial successions on the surface and in the interior of surface ripened semi-hard Danish Danbo cheeses were investigated by culture-dependent and -independent techniques. Culture-independent detection of microorganisms was obtained by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and pyrosequencing, using amplicons of 16S and 26S rRNA genes for prokaryotes and eukaryotes, respectively. With minor exceptions, the results from the culture-independent analyses correlated to the culture-dependent plating results. Even though the predominant microorganisms detected with the two culture-independent techniques correlated, a higher number of genera were detected by pyrosequencing compared to DGGE. Additionally, minor parts of the microbiota, i.e. comprising 4.0% of the OTUs), as well as Pseudoclavibacter, Alkalibacterium and Marinilactibacillus, which represented <2% of the OTUs. At smearing, yeast counts were low with Debaryomyces being the dominant genus accounting for 46.5% of the OTUs. During ripening the yeast counts increased significantly with Debaryomyces being the predominant genus, on average accounting for 96.7%±4.1% of the OTUs. The interior of the cheeses was dominated by Lactococcus spp. comprising on average 93.9%±7.8% of the OTUs throughout the cheese processing. The microbial dynamics described at genus level in this study add to a comprehensive understanding of the complex microbiota existing especially on surface ripened semi-hard cheeses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Dynamics of the Content of Lactobacilli, Microbial Metabolites and Antimicrobial Activity of Growing Culture of Lactobacillus Plantarum 8P-A3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Yu. Chicherin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of the content of lactobacilli, microbial metabolites and antimicrobial activity of growing cultures of Lactobacillus plantarum 8Р-А3 was studied. Lactobacilli L. plantarum 8Р-А3 and test microorganisms isolated from the intestinal contents of patients with dysbacteriosis were used in experiments. Study of the component composition of growing culture supernatant of lactobacilli was carried out by gas liquid chromatography with mass selective detection. By 54 h of cultivation the content of viable microbial cells in the native culture of Lactobacillus achieves 3,0·109 in 1 mL without further increase during the cultivation. The principal component of lactobacilli culture medium possessing antibacterial activity is lactic acid. In addition to lactic acid, which accounts for 70% of the total metabolites, the culture medium and the supernatant contain salts of phosphoric acid (14% as well as amino acids, carboxylic acids, fatty acids, sugars and polyhydric alcohol constituting of up to 16% of the total metabolites. It is found that during the cultivation in liquid medium lactobacilli produce metabolites which possess antibacterial activity against pathogenic bacteria that cause intestinal infections.

  13. Cross-cultural perception and power dynamics across changing organizational and national contexts : Curaçao and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijes, Cornelis

    In this article we study the role of power and power differences in cross-cultural perception. We do so by way of exploratory case studies in the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) and the police in the Netherlands and Curacao. We demonstrate how cross-cultural perception between two specific ethnic

  14. Numerical fluid-dynamic optimization of microchannel-provided porous scaffolds for the co-culture of adherent and non-adherent cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantini, Marco; Fiore, Gianfranco B; Redaelli, Alberto; Soncini, Monica

    2009-03-01

    Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) techniques were used to optimize the microenvironment inside scaffolds for hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) culture in a perfusion bioreactor. These matrices are meant to be seeded with adherent bone marrow stromal cells and then co-cultivated with HSCs; the scaffold micro-architecture and the fluid-dynamic conditions have to be optimized to avoid non-adherent stem cells being dragged away while ensuring adequate nutrient supply. The insertion of longitudinal microchannels was tested as a tool to improve perfusion in a homogeneous porous scaffold. Models of microchannel-provided scaffolds, characterized by different values of geometric parameters concerning pores and channels, were built, and numerical fluid-dynamic and oxygen-transfer analyses were carried out. The results of the computations indicated that the microchannels created preferential paths for culture medium flow, causing low shear stresses and drag forces within the pores; meanwhile, they improved oxygen delivery by forcing its penetration into the scaffold bulk. In particular, an 85% porous, 3-mm-thick scaffold with 175-microm-diameter pores was considered; at a constant average drag force guaranteeing stem cell suspension inside this porous bulk, the addition of approximately 260-microm-diameter, 700-microm-spaced channels resulted in 34% higher oxygen partial pressure at the exit (approximately 135 vs 101 mmHg), maintaining a wall shear stress median value of approximately 0.14 mPa. The present work demonstrates the capacity of microchannel-provided scaffolds to ensure suitable conditions for HSC culture and shows that CFD methods are a valuable tool to retrieve significant clues for the design of the culture environment.

  15. Dynamic Competition and Cooperation of Road Infrastructure Investment of Multiple Tourism Destinations: A Case Study of Xidi and Hongcun World Cultural Heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The transportation infrastructure always plays an important role in the development of the local tourism. A system dynamics method incorporated with a destination choice model is proposed in this paper to analyze the dynamic impacts of transportation infrastructure on the tourism development, where multiple tourism destinations share a common market. Tourists’ destination choice behaviors are characterized by a multinomial logit choice model based on the utility of destinations, which depends heavily on the accessibility of destinations that the local administration has strong willingness to improve. The system dynamics method is used to model dynamic interactions among destinations and to simulate the dynamic evolution of the competition on the tourism market. A case study of the World Cultural Heritage Sites, Xidi and Hongcun villages, shows the competition for road infrastructure investment can produce a win-win situation and bring the cooperation on investment due to the positive externality of transport infrastructure and two villages show a tendency to merge into one bigger destination. Finally, the tourism development strategies for two villages are discussed based on the scenario analysis.

  16. Computational fluid dynamics modeling of mass-transfer behavior in a bioreactor for hairy root culture. II. Analysis of ultrasound-intensified process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rui; Sun, Wei; Liu, Chun-Zhao

    2011-01-01

    Recently, cichoric acid production from hairy roots of Echinacea purpurea was significantly improved by ultrasound stimulation in an airlift bioreactor. In this article, the possible mechanism on ultrasound-intensified hairy root culture of E. purpurea in the bioreactor was elucidated with the help of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation, membrane permeability detection, dissolved oxygen concentration detection, confocal laser-scanning microscopy (LSM) observation, and phenylalanine ammonium lyase (PAL) activity analysis. The CFD model developed in Part I was used to simulate the hydrodynamics and oxygen mass transfer in hairy root bioreactor culture stimulated by ultrasound. A dynamic mesh model combined with a changing Schmidt number method was used for the simulation of the ultrasound field. Simulation results and experimental data illustrated that ultrasound intensified oxygen mass transfer in the hairy root clump, which subsequently stimulated root growth and cichoric acid biosynthesis. Ultrasound increased the hairy root membrane permeability, and a high root membrane permeability of 0.359 h(-1) was observed at the bottom region in the bioreactor. LSM observation showed that the change in the membrane permeability recovered to normal in the further culture after ultrasound stimulation. PAL activity in the hairy roots was stimulated by ultrasound increase and was correlated well to cichoric acid accumulation in the hairy roots of E. purpurea. Copyright © 2011 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE).

  17. Effect of dynamic three-dimensional culture on osteogenic potential of human periodontal ligament-derived mesenchymal stem cells entrapped in alginate microbeads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchiatini, R; Penolazzi, L; Lambertini, E; Angelozzi, M; Morganti, C; Mazzitelli, S; Trombelli, L; Nastruzzi, C; Piva, R

    2015-08-01

    Bioreactors are devices that efficiently create an environment that enables cell cultures to grow in a three-dimensional (3D) context mimicking in vivo conditions. In this study, we investigate the effect of dynamic fluid flow on the osteogenic potential of human mesenchymal stem cells obtained from periodontal ligament and entrapped in alginate microbeads. After proper immunophenotyping, cells were encapsulated in barium alginate, cultured in 3D static or 3D dynamic conditions represented by a bioreactor system. Calcein-AM/propidium iodide staining was used to assess cellular viability. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to analyze the expression of osteogenic markers (Runx2 and COL1). Alizarin Red S staining and the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were used to assess mineral matrix deposition. Optimal encapsulation procedure, in terms of polymer pumping rate, distance from droplet generator to the gelling bath and atomizing airflow was assessed. Cell viability was not affected by encapsulation in alginate microbeads. Bioreactor cell exposure was effective in anticipating osteogenic differentiation and improving mineral matrix deposition. For the first time human mesenchymal stem cells obtained from periodontal ligaments encapsulated in alginate microbeads were cultured in a bioreactor system. This combination could represent a promising strategy to create a cell-based smart system with enhanced osteogenic potential useful for many different dental applications. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Naval Aviation Culture Workshops

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rubio, Robert V

    2008-01-01

    .... Organizational culture impacts a unit's performance -- for better or for worse. This research defines organizational culture and describes the dynamic relationships among individuals, groups, and leaders. Two case studies (NASA and U.S. Airways...

  19. Osteoinduction and survival of osteoblasts and bone-marrow stromal cells in 3D biphasic calcium phosphate scaffolds under static and dynamic culture conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, Subha N; Strobel, Leonie A; Arkudas, Andreas; Beier, Justus P; Maier, Anne-Kathrin; Greil, Peter; Horch, Raymund E; Kneser, Ulrich

    2012-10-01

    In many tissue engineering approaches, the basic difference between in vitro and in vivo conditions for cells within three-dimensional (3D) constructs is the nutrition flow dynamics. To achieve comparable results in vitro, bioreactors are advised for improved cell survival, as they are able to provide a controlled flow through the scaffold. We hypothesize that a bioreactor would enhance long-term differentiation conditions of osteogenic cells in 3D scaffolds. To achieve this either primary rat osteoblasts or bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) were implanted on uniform-sized biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) scaffolds produced by a 3D printing method. Three types of culture conditions were applied: static culture without osteoinduction (Group A); static culture with osteoinduction (Group B); dynamic culture with osteoinduction (Group C). After 3 and 6 weeks, the scaffolds were analysed by alkaline phosphatase (ALP), dsDNA amount, SEM, fluorescent labelled live-dead assay, and real-time RT-PCR in addition to weekly alamarBlue assays. With osteoinduction, increased ALP values and calcium deposition are observed; however, under static conditions, a significant decrease in the cell number on the biomaterial is observed. Interestingly, the bioreactor system not only reversed the decreased cell numbers but also increased their differentiation potential. We conclude from this study that a continuous flow bioreactor not only preserves the number of osteogenic cells but also keeps their differentiation ability in balance providing a suitable cell-seeded scaffold product for applications in regenerative medicine. © 2012 The Authors Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine © 2012 Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Modeling the effect of nitrogen input from feed on the nitrogen dynamics in an enclosed intensive culture pond of black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon)

    OpenAIRE

    Kittiwanich, Jutarat; Songsangjinda, Putth; Yamamoto, Tamiji; Fukami, Kimio; Muangyao, Pensri

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, a mathematical model was developed to evaluate the effect of nitrogen (N) input from feed on the N dynamics under different feeding scenarios in a well aerated and enclosed culture pond of black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon). Three feeding levels were examined: underfeeding, optimum feeding and overfeeding. The model was formulated using field data gathered from an earthen pond (0.69 ha) which was stocked with shrimp post larvae at a density of 340,000 individuals ha(-1...

  1. Dehistoricized Cultural Identity and Cultural Othering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiguo, Qu

    2013-01-01

    The assumption that each culture has its own distinctive identity has been generally accepted in the discussion of cultural identities. Quite often identity formation is not perceived as a dynamic and interactive ongoing process that engages other cultures and involves change in its responses to different challenges at different times. I will…

  2. Spatio-temporal morphology changes in and quenching effects on the 2D spreading dynamics of cell colonies in both plain and methylcellulose-containing culture media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzzio, N E; Pasquale, M A; Huergo, M A C; Bolzán, A E; González, P H; Arvia, A J

    2016-06-01

    To deal with complex systems, microscopic and global approaches become of particular interest. Our previous results from the dynamics of large cell colonies indicated that their 2D front roughness dynamics is compatible with the standard Kardar-Parisi-Zhang (KPZ) or the quenched KPZ equations either in plain or methylcellulose (MC)-containing gel culture media, respectively. In both cases, the influence of a non-uniform distribution of the colony constituents was significant. These results encouraged us to investigate the overall dynamics of those systems considering the morphology and size, the duplication rate, and the motility of single cells. For this purpose, colonies with different cell populations (N) exhibiting quasi-circular and quasi-linear growth fronts in plain and MC-containing culture media are investigated. For small N, the average radial front velocity and its change with time depend on MC concentration. MC in the medium interferes with cell mitosis, contributes to the local enlargement of cells, and increases the distribution of spatio-temporal cell density heterogeneities. Colony spreading in MC-containing media proceeds under two main quenching effects, I and II; the former mainly depending on the culture medium composition and structure and the latter caused by the distribution of enlarged local cell domains. For large N, colony spreading occurs at constant velocity. The characteristics of cell motility, assessed by measuring their trajectories and the corresponding velocity field, reflect the effect of enlarged, slow-moving cells and the structure of the medium. Local average cell size distribution and individual cell motility data from plain and MC-containing media are qualitatively consistent with the predictions of both the extended cellular Potts models and the observed transition of the front roughness dynamics from a standard KPZ to a quenched KPZ. In this case, quenching effects I and II cooperate and give rise to the quenched

  3. Emotional Intelligence and Cross-Cultural Communication Competence: An Analysis of Group Dynamics and Interpersonal Relationships in a Diverse Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Melvin C.; Okoro, Ephraim A.; Okoro, Sussie U.

    2013-01-01

    This study discusses the significance of emotional intelligence and intercultural communication competence in globally diverse classroom settings. Specifically, the research shows a correlation between degrees of emotional intelligence and human communication competence (age, gender, and culture). The dataset consists of 364 participants. Nearly…

  4. The Empty Nest Syndrome in Midlife Families: A Multimethod Exploration of Parental Gender Differences and Cultural Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Barbara A.; Lovegreen, Loren D.

    2009-01-01

    This study explores parental health and well-being in relation to "empty nest" transitions. Focus is placed on the purported empty nest syndrome (i.e., self-reported experiences of depression and emotional distress when children leave home) and variations by parental gender and cultural background. This study is primarily based on…

  5. Physical characterization and diel dynamics of different fractions of extracellular polysaccharides in an axenic culture of a benthic diatom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Brouwer, J.F.C.; Wolfstein, K.; Stal, L.J.

    2002-01-01

    The excretion of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) by an axenic culture of the benthic diatom Cylindrotheca closterium was investigated. Two sequential extraction steps proved to be sufficient to remove the bulk of the EPS present. Soluble EPS was recovered by a simple centrifugation step and

  6. Oxygen availability and strain combination modulate yeast growth dynamics in mixed culture fermentations of grape must with Starmerella bacillaris and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englezos, Vasileios; Cravero, Francesco; Torchio, Fabrizio; Rantsiou, Kalliopi; Ortiz-Julien, Anne; Lambri, Milena; Gerbi, Vincenzo; Rolle, Luca; Cocolin, Luca

    2018-02-01

    Starmerella bacillaris (synonym Candida zemplinina) is a non-Saccharomyces yeast that has been proposed as a co-inoculant of selected Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains in mixed culture fermentations to enhance the analytical composition of the wines. In order to acquire further knowledge on the metabolic interactions between these two species, in this study we investigated the impact of oxygen addition and combination of Starm. bacillaris with S. cerevisiae strains on the microbial growth and metabolite production. Fermentations were carried out under two different conditions of oxygen availability. Oxygen availability and strain combination clearly influenced the population dynamics throughout the fermentation. Oxygen concentration increased the survival time of Starm. bacillaris and decreased the growth rate of S. cerevisiae strains in mixed culture fermentations, whereas it did not affect the growth of the latter in pure culture fermentations. This study reveals new knowledge about the influence of oxygen availability on the successional evolution of yeast species during wine fermentation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Dynamics of spicule production in the marine sponge Hymeniacidon perlevis during in vitro cell culture and seasonal development in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xupeng; Fu, Wantao; Yu, Xingju; Zhang, Wei

    2007-09-01

    To characterize the formation of silica spicules, the dynamics of spiculogenesis of an intertidal marine sponge Hymeniacidon perlevis (Montagu 1818) (Porifera: Demospongiae) were investigated by measuring the gene expression of silicatein (the enzyme responsible for spicule silicification) and the dimensional changes of spicules during the developmental process of individual sponges and in cell cultures of primmorphs of archaeocyte-dominant cell populations. The different developmental stages of spicules were documented by time-lapse microscopy and observed by transmission electron microscopy during a 1-month culture period. During its annual life cycle, H. perlevis has four different developmental stages: dormancy, resuscitation, bloom, and decline. Field-grown individual sponge samples at different stages were collected over 7 months (March to September 2005). The dimensions of the silica spicules from these samples were microscopically measured and statistically analyzed. This analysis and the material properties of the spicules allowed them to be classified into four groups representing the different developmental stages of spiculogenesis. Silicatein expression in the bloom stage was more than 100 times higher than that in the other stages and was correlated with the spicule developmental stage. The trend of spicule formation in field-grown sponges was consistent with the trend in cell culture. A new parameter, the maturation degree (MD) of spicules (defined as the ratio of actual to theoretical silica deposition of mature spicules), was introduced to quantify spicule development. Silica spiculogenesis during H. perlevis development was delineated by comparing MD and silicatein expression.

  8. Athletes’ careers across cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryba, Tatiana; Stambulova, Natalia

    in this symposium continue the initiated dialogue of the relevance of culture and cultural issues in their analyses of how social and cultural discourses shape career development and career transitions of athletes in different countries. Opening the foundations of sport psychological knowledge to culturally diverse...... and, perhaps, unfamiliar intellectual traditions, perspectives and concerns, the symposium will demonstrate how local knowledge of problems enables researchers and practitioners to better understand the dynamics of cultural diversity within the topic of athlete career development and assistance....

  9. Adopting a Cultural Portfolio Project in Teaching German as a Foreign Language: Language Teacher Cognition as a Dynamic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feryok, Anne; Oranje, Jo

    2015-01-01

    Intercultural language teaching and learning has increasingly been adopted in state school systems, yet studies have shown that language teachers struggle to include it in their practice. The aim of this study is to use dynamic systems theory to examine how a German as a foreign language teacher in a New Zealand secondary school adopted a project…

  10. Television as a Hybrid Repertoire of Memory. New Dynamic Practices of Cultural Memory in the Multi-Platform Era

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagedoorn, Berber

    2013-01-01

    abstractIn this article, television is reconsidered as a hybrid ‘repertoire’ ofmemory. It is demonstrated how new dynamic production and scheduling practicesin connection with highly accessible and participatory forms of user engagementoffer opportunities for television users to engage with the

  11. Reclaiming respectability? The class-cultural dynamics of crime, community and governance in inner-city Dublin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilan, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    This paper critically examines developments in Irish urban governance through an ethnographic account of one community's historical memory and contemporary structure. During an era of rapid economic growth, the Irish state has courted previously excluded communities, offering them greater "inclusion" as "partners" in responding to urban decay and crime. The micro-governance structures this creates, however, become sites of contest between competing community factions and class-cultural imperatives. Tensions emerge between aspirational community leaders championing the aesthetics (if not the values) of "respectability" and residual residents who are presented as "rough". The paper demonstrates that nuances of class-cultural identity dictate the character of partnership governance at the community level with particular implications for local regeneration and crime control agendas.

  12. Political-Security, Economy, and Culture within the Dynamics of Geopolitics and Migration: On Philippine Territory and the Filipino People

    OpenAIRE

    John X. LAMBINO

    2015-01-01

    The paper considers the interaction of the dual elements of the nation-state: territory and people. Particularly, it discusses the interaction of geopolitics and migration, i.e. the non-mobile territory and the mobile people, from the perspectives of political-security, economy, and culture, and how the interactions influence government policy focusing on the case of the Philippines.The paper ferrets-out the major factors in the geopolitical transformation of the Philippine Is-lands into the ...

  13. Using in situ dynamic cultures to rapidly biofabricate fabric-reinforced composites of chitosan/bacterial nanocellulose for antibacterial wound dressings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng eZhang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial nano-cellulose (BNC is considered to possess incredible potential in biomedical applications due to its innate unrivalled nano-fibrillar structure and versatile properties. However its use is largely restricted by inefficient production and by insufficient strength when it is in a highly swollen state. In this study, a fabric skeleton reinforced chitosan (CS/BNC hydrogel with high mechanical reliability and antibacterial activity was fabricated by using an efficient dynamic culture that could reserve the nano-fibrillar structure. By adding CS in culture media to 0.25-0.75% (w/v during bacterial cultivation, the CS/BNC composite hydrogel was biosynthesized in situ on a rotating drum composed of fabrics. With the proposed method, BNC biosynthesis became less sensitive to the adverse antibacterial effects of CS and the production time of the composite hydrogel with desirable thickness could be halved from 10 days to 5 days as compared to the conventional static cultures. Although its concentration was low in the medium, CS accounted for more than 38% of the CS/BNC dry weight. FE-SEM observation confirmed conservation of the nano-fibrillar networks and covering of CS on BNC. ATR-FTIR showed a decrease in the degree of intra-molecular hydrogen bonding and water absorption capacity was improved after compositing with CS. The fabric-reinforced CS/BNC composite exhibited bacteriostatic properties against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus and significantly improved mechanical properties as compared to the BNC sheets from static culture. In summary, the fabric-reinforced CS/BNC composite constitutes a desired candidate for advanced wound dressings. From another perspective, coating of BNC or CS/BNC could upgrade the conventional wound dressings made of cotton gauze to reduce pain during wound healing, especially for burn patients.

  14. Cultural tourism and tourism cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ooi, Can-Seng

    Presenting a comprehensive and dynamic understanding of cultural tourism, this volume examines cultural mediators and how they help tourists appreciate foreign cultures. It also shows how tourism experiences are strategically crafted by mediators, the complexity of the mediation process, and how...... various products are mediated differently. A number of different products are investigated, including destination brand identities, "living" cultures and everyday life, art and history. The author illustrates his arguments by comparing the tourism strategies of Copenhagen and Singapore, and demonstrates...... how tourism is an agent for social change. The author also offers an original and refreshing way of understanding tourist behaviour through the concept of the "versatile tourist". The book's empirical cases and dialogic framework provide new and deep insights into tourism activities. In his...

  15. What goes up must . . . Keep going up? Cultural differences in cognitive styles influence evaluations of dynamic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, D Lance; Reb, Jochen; Lian, Huiwen; Sim, Samantha; Ang, Dionysius

    2018-03-01

    Past research on dynamic workplace performance evaluation has taken as axiomatic that temporal performance trends produce naïve extrapolation effects on performance ratings. That is, we naïvely assume that an individual whose performance has trended upward over time will continue to improve, and rate that individual more positively than an individual whose performance has trended downward over time-even if, on average, the 2 individuals have performed at an equivalent level. However, we argue that such naïve extrapolation effects are more pronounced in Western countries than Eastern countries, owing to Eastern countries having a more holistic cognitive style. To test our hypotheses, we examined the effect of performance trend on expectations of future performance and ratings of past performance across 2 studies: Study 1 compares the magnitude of naïve extrapolation effects among Singaporeans primed with either a more or less holistic cognitive style, and Study 2 examines holistic cognitive style as a mediating mechanism accounting for differences in the magnitude of naïve extrapolation effects between American and Chinese raters. Across both studies, we found support for our predictions that dynamic performance trends have less impact on the ratings of more holistic thinkers. Implications for the dynamic performance and naïve extrapolation literatures are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. From myth to the individual: The dynamic process of cultural integration in groups of psychodrama in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Sordano

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes how the work methodology through the tale and psychodrama with children and adolescents focuses on the development of symbolic constructions figuratively organized which draw directly from the unconscious world of the participants and the mythic dimensions that organize their story. The psychodramatic group in childhood and adolescence may promote the social integration of people ethnically and culturally diverse through the recovery of those mythical and deep aspects that play a role in the unconscious of the individual.Keywords: Psychodrama; Adolescents; Mith

  17. Sociopolitical dynamics and cultural continuity in the peruvian northern highlands: a case study from Middle Horizon Cajamarca

    OpenAIRE

    Watanabe, Shinya

    2014-01-01

    This chapter presents excavation data from two archaeological sites, El Palacio and Paredones, located in the Department of Cajamarca in the northern sierra of Peru, a geographic area of social dynamism during the Middle Horizon. The presence of the large-scale site of El Palacio — a Wari administrative center — would suggest that the valley came under direct Wari imperial control in a manner similar to that known under the Inca during the Late Horizon. Yet at the same time, there are chullpa...

  18. Dynamic analysis of reactive oxygen nitrogen species in plasma-activated culture medium by UV absorption spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brubaker, Timothy R.; Ishikawa, Kenji; Takeda, Keigo; Oh, Jun-Seok; Kondo, Hiroki; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Hiromasa; Knecht, Sean D.; Bilén, Sven G.; Hori, Masaru

    2017-12-01

    The liquid-phase chemical kinetics of a cell culture basal medium during treatment by an argon-fed, non-equilibrium atmospheric-pressure plasma source were investigated using real-time ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy and colorimetric assays. Depth- and time-resolved NO2- and NO3- concentrations were strongly inhomogeneous and primarily driven by convection during and after plasma-liquid interactions. H2O2 concentrations determined from deconvolved optical depth spectra were found to compensate for the optical depth spectra of excluded reactive species and changes in dissolved gas content. Plasma-activated media remained weakly basic due to NaHCO3 buffering, preventing the H+-catalyzed decomposition of NO2- seen in acidic plasma-activated water. An initial increase in pH may indicate CO2 sparging. Furthermore, the pH-dependency of UV optical depth spectra illustrated the need for pH compensation in the fitting of optical depth data.

  19. A Multistep Procedure To Prepare Pre-Vascularized Cardiac Tissue Constructs Using Adult Stem Sells, Dynamic Cell Cultures And Porous Scaffolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania ePagliari

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The vascularization of tissue engineered products represents a key issue in regenerative medicine which needs to be addressed before the translation of these protocols to the bedside can be foreseen. Here we propose a multistep procedure to prepare pre-vascularized three-dimensional (3D cardiac bio-substitutes using dynamic cell cultures and highly porous biocompatible gelatin scaffolds. The strategy adopted exploits the peculiar differentiation potential of two distinct subsets of adult stem cells to obtain human vascularized 3D cardiac tissues. In the first step of the procedure, human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs are seeded onto gelatin scaffolds to provide interconnected vessel-like structures, while human cardiomyocyte progenitor cells (hCMPCs are stimulated in vitro to obtain their commitment towards the cardiac phenotype. The use of a modular bioreactor allows the perfusion of the whole scaffold, providing superior performance in terms of cardiac tissue maturation and cell survival. Both the cell culture on natural-derived polymers and the continuous medium perfusion of the scaffold led to the formation of a densely packaged proto-tissue composed of vascular-like and cardiac-like cells, which might complete maturation process and interconnect with native tissue upon in vivo implantation. In conclusion, the data obtained through the approach here proposed highlight the importance to provide stem cells with complementary signals in vitro able to resemble the complexity of cardiac microenvironment.

  20. Planning of educational process for physical culture taking into consideration the dynamics of the physical condition of 13–14 years school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Napadiy

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to justify planning of educational process for physical culture taking into consideration the dynamics of the physical condition of 13–14 years school children during the school year. Material and Methods: assessment of the physical condition of schoolchildren 13–14 years old during the school year was carried out with the help of pedagogical methods and rapid – assessment of the level of physical health of children. 62 students from the 7-th classes of secondary school № 5 of the Kremenets city, including 32 boys and 30 girls were selected. Results: the dynamics of the physical condition of schoolchildren during the school year detected. Periodization of physical preparation of middle school students which will contribute studying of the sequence content of the teaching material in variable modules during the year, and plan appropriate physical load of students physical fitness proposed. Conclusions: modified approach to the planning of the learning process of physical education in secondary schools is based on the division of the school year into periods with clearly defined orientation: retracting, preparatory, basic, retracting, basic, interjacent.

  1. Lactic acid bacteria dynamics during spontaneous fermentation of cocoa beans verified by culture-independent denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, T F; Santana, L K A; Santos, A C F; Silva, G S; Romano, C C; Dias, J C T; Rezende, R P

    2011-11-04

    Cocoa is naturally fermented in the field before the cocoa seeds are removed for processing. We assessed the dynamics of lactic acid bacteria during cocoa fermentation in Bahia, Brazil. During five days of fermentation, temperature and pH were measured and beans were collected for genomic DNA extraction every 12 h. The DNA was used as a template for amplification with Lac1-Lac2 and Lac3-Lac2 for denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analyses. pH values ranged from 3.34 to 4.98, while the temperature varied from 23° to 50°C. Lac1-Lac2 primers permitted detection of 11 operational taxonomic units. Twenty-eight operational taxonomic units were obtained with the primer pair Lac3-Lac2. It was observed that there were variations between the numbers of operational taxonomic units throughout the process, probably because of changes in pH and temperature. The greatest similarity in amplified samples was obtained with the primers Lac3-Lac2.

  2. Design and validation of a dynamic cell-culture system for bone biology research and exogenous tissue-engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allori, Alexander C; Davidson, Edward H; Reformat, Derek D; Sailon, Alexander M; Freeman, James; Vaughan, Adam; Wootton, David; Clark, Elizabeth; Ricci, John L; Warren, Stephen M

    2016-10-01

    Bone lacunocanalicular fluid flow ensures chemotransportation and provides a mechanical stimulus to cells. Traditional static cell-culture methods are ill-suited to study the intricacies of bone biology because they ignore the three-dimensionality of meaningful cellular networks and the lacunocanalicular system; furthermore, reliance on diffusion alone for nutrient supply and waste product removal effectively limits scaffolds to 2-3 mm thickness. In this project, a flow-perfusion system was custom-designed to overcome these limitations: eight adaptable chambers housed cylindrical cell-seeded scaffolds measuring 12 or 24 mm in diameter and 1-10 mm in thickness. The porous scaffolds were manufactured using a three-dimensional (3D) periodic microprinting process and were composed of hydroxyapatite/tricalcium phosphate with variable thicknesses, strut sizes, pore sizes and structural configurations. A multi-channel peristaltic pump drew medium from parallel reservoirs and perfused it through each scaffold at a programmable rate. Hermetically sealed valves permitted sampling or replacement of medium. A gas-permeable membrane allowed for gas exchange. Tubing was selected to withstand continuous perfusion for > 2 months without leakage. Computational modelling was performed to assess the adequacy of oxygen supply and the range of fluid shear stress in the bioreactor-scaffold system, using 12 × 6 mm scaffolds, and these models suggested scaffold design modifications that improved oxygen delivery while enhancing physiological shear stress. This system may prove useful in studying complex 3D bone biology and in developing strategies for engineering thick 3D bone constructs. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. The cultural divide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wrzesinski, Krzysztof; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina; Kanlaya, Rattiyaporn

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Cellular metabolism can be considered to have two extremes: one is characterized by exponential growth (in 2D cultures) and the other by a dynamic equilibrium (in 3D cultures). We have analyzed the proteome and cellular architecture at these two extremes and found that they are dram......Introduction: Cellular metabolism can be considered to have two extremes: one is characterized by exponential growth (in 2D cultures) and the other by a dynamic equilibrium (in 3D cultures). We have analyzed the proteome and cellular architecture at these two extremes and found...

  4. Using in situ nanocellulose-coating technology based on dynamic bacterial cultures for upgrading conventional biomedical materials and reinforcing nanocellulose hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Chen, Lin; Zhang, Qingsong; Jönsson, Leif J; Hong, Feng F

    2016-07-08

    Bacterial nanocellulose (BNC) is a microbial nanofibrillar hydrogel with many potential applications. Its use is largely restricted by insufficient strength when in a highly swollen state and by inefficient production using static cultivation. In this study, an in situ nanocellulose-coating technology created a fabric-frame reinforced nanocomposite of BNC hydrogel with superior strength but retained BNC native attributes. By using the proposed technology, production time could be reduced from 10 to 3 days to obtain a desirable hydrogel sheet with approximately the same thickness. This novel technology is easier to scale up and is more suitable for industrial-scale manufacture. The mechanical properties (tensile strength, suture retention strength) and gel characteristics (water holding, absorption and wicking ability) of the fabric-reinforced BNC hydrogel were investigated and compared with those of ordinary BNC hydrogel sheets. The results reveal that the fabric-reinforced BNC hydrogel was equivalent with regard to gel characteristics, and exhibited a qualitative improvement with regard to its mechanical properties. For more advanced applications, coating technology via dynamic bacterial cultures could be used to upgrade conventional biomedical fabrics, i.e. medical cotton gauze or other mesh materials, with nanocellulose. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:1077-1084, 2016. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  5. Managing culture in IJVs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dao, Li

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to extend a cultural sense-making perspective to the context of international joint ventures. The dominant literature on cultural issues in this inter-firm setting has been criticized for relying on a narrow view of culture mainly as a country-level construct. The paper...... argues that dynamic aspects of culture as enacted by key individual actors and constructed in a given context are far more relevant and critical for the joint venture’s managerial process. With evidence from four Danish – Vietnamese joint ventures, the paper proposes a way of managing culture in IJVs...

  6. Organizational culture modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Valentina Mihaela GHINEA; Constantin BRĂTIANU

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a conceptual analysis of organizational culture modeling in the framework of system dynamics. Tom Peters and Robert Waterman demonstrated through their seminal research that organizational culture constitutes one of the most important key success factors in any company trying to achieve excellence in its business. Organizational culture is a strong nonlinear integrator of the organizational intellectual capital acting especially on the emotional knowled...

  7. Organizational Culture: A Dynamic Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-03-01

    IN THIS SERIES TR-I Edgar H. Schein. w Does Japanese Management Style have a Message for American Managers?" January, 1982, Sloan Management Review ...forces which are, to some degree, unpredictable. If we want to know what portion of what the individual brings to the situation is acultural " as opposed...be found in Evan (1976, Ch. 15). Other studies of cross-ci tural comparisons are not reviewed in detail here, e.g., Hofstede, 1980; England, 1975

  8. What Is so "Cultural" About Cultural Entrepreneurship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staffan Albinsson

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The term “cultural entrepreneurship” has been increasingly used during the new millennium, mirroring the rapidly growing importance of the “quaternary sector of the economy,” i.e. knowledge-based industries, including culture. Exploration of the literature in which the term “cultural entrepreneurship” is used does not bring a solid, clear-cut, and unambiguous understanding of its definition or meaning. The aim of this paper is to present various uses of the concept and to bring about some clarity in how the concept can be understood. Two overarching uses of the cultural entrepreneurship concept have been found: 1. the anthropologist’s and institutional economist’s use, which indicates the dynamic development of intangible cultural features such as symbols, myths, languages, beliefs, values, norms, rituals, and attitudes in and between societies, and 2. the arts development use, which indicates the dynamic development of cultural services, tangible goods, and individual or collective career promotion. Most authors use a cultural entrepreneurship concept without defining it. Authors could apply more precise definitions by using a quadruple bottom-line framework to position themselves in the nexus of financial, social, artistic, and cultural perspectives.

  9. Experiencing Global Culture in Vatel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampf, Constance Elizabeth; Broillet, Alexandra; John, Claudette

    2015-01-01

    To explore the meaning of “global culture” in a professional communication context, this paper explores the “unsettled” global culture of Vatel, a private business school educating students from nearly 50 different countries for the hospitality industry. This paper explores the role of knowledge...... management in understanding global culture, arguing that the notion of “unsettled” cultures demonstrates how ideologies function in global settings and draw on national “settled” cultural resources. In unpacking different aspects of Vatel's culture this paper questions assumptions built into cultural frames...... of reference by offering a global culture frame, drawing on cultural resources from country based “settled” cultural contexts, and reflects on how global cultural contexts can benefit from a knowledge management approach to this dynamic between “settled” cultural contexts and “unsettled” cultural ideologies...

  10. The University of Alcala de Henares (madrid, Spain), as a Dynamic Example and Laboratory of the Recovery, Rehabilitation, and Conservation of the Cultural Heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echeverría Valiente, E.; da Casa Martín, F.; Celis D'amicoa, F.; Navarro, P. C.

    2013-07-01

    Cardinal Cisneros launched in 1499 a major universitary project, that was located in Alcala de Henares (Madrid, Spain). It bestowed recently the recognition of the Council of Europe as a World Heritage Site in 1998 by UNESCO. Cisneros created the new university in the vicinity of the Roman town of Complutum. This site had two qualities which were particularly important: it was placed at a safe distance from the power of the Crown at Toledo, and it was well connected with other main Spanish cities, through the Roman road or calzada that crossed the Iberian peninsula from South to North going along some important settlements as Mérida, Toledo, Zaragoza, and Barcelona. Thus the old town of Alcala de Henares still keeps the remains of the Visigothic, Roman, Muslim and Hebrew cultures. Since the end of the fifteenth century the built Renaissance complex has gone through three clear stages, where lots of relevant architects developed their work. Among them, Pedro Gumiel and Rodrigo Gil de Hontañón can be cited for their first drawings, but other anonymous architects have also contributed to build such an interesting project. In a second stage some repairs were needed on the former structures, in order to adapt them to their new functions due to deterioration or even to changes in ownership or uses (as happened to the Colegio Mayor de San Ildefonso). Finally, at the latest stage at the end of the 20th and the early 21st centuries a new regeneration project took place in order to introduce the modern technologies and energy-efficient standards the old universitary buildings. An interesting example of this modern practices on dynamic conservation of the historical heritage is the new Learning and Research Center (LRC) on the ruins of San Diego headquarter built in 1859 on the site of the Franciscan convent of Santa Maria de Jesus, founded in 1445 by Archbishop Alonso Carrillo (which in turn it replaced an earlier one). The aims of the new LRC are to, preserve and

  11. THE UNIVERSITY OF ALCALA DE HENARES (MADRID, SPAIN, AS A DYNAMIC EXAMPLE AND LABORATORY OF THE RECOVERY, REHABILITATION, AND CONSERVATION OF THE CULTURAL HERITAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Echeverría Valiente

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Cardinal Cisneros launched in 1499 a major universitary project, that was located in Alcala de Henares (Madrid, Spain. It bestowed recently the recognition of the Council of Europe as a World Heritage Site in 1998 by UNESCO. Cisneros created the new university in the vicinity of the Roman town of Complutum. This site had two qualities which were particularly important: it was placed at a safe distance from the power of the Crown at Toledo, and it was well connected with other main Spanish cities, through the Roman road or calzada that crossed the Iberian peninsula from South to North going along some important settlements as Mérida, Toledo, Zaragoza, and Barcelona. Thus the old town of Alcala de Henares still keeps the remains of the Visigothic, Roman, Muslim and Hebrew cultures. Since the end of the fifteenth century the built Renaissance complex has gone through three clear stages, where lots of relevant architects developed their work. Among them, Pedro Gumiel and Rodrigo Gil de Hontañón can be cited for their first drawings, but other anonymous architects have also contributed to build such an interesting project. In a second stage some repairs were needed on the former structures, in order to adapt them to their new functions due to deterioration or even to changes in ownership or uses (as happened to the Colegio Mayor de San Ildefonso. Finally, at the latest stage at the end of the 20th and the early 21st centuries a new regeneration project took place in order to introduce the modern technologies and energy-efficient standards the old universitary buildings. An interesting example of this modern practices on dynamic conservation of the historical heritage is the new Learning and Research Center (LRC on the ruins of San Diego headquarter built in 1859 on the site of the Franciscan convent of Santa Maria de Jesus, founded in 1445 by Archbishop Alonso Carrillo (which in turn it replaced an earlier one. The aims of the new LRC are to

  12. Fecal culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... parasites exam Alternative Names Stool culture; Culture - stool; Gastroenteritis fecal culture Images Salmonella typhi organism Yersinia enterocolitica organism Campylobacter jejuni organism Clostridium difficile organism References Beavis, KG, ...

  13. Characterizing European cultural landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tieskens, Koen F.; Schulp, Catharina J E; Levers, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Almost all rural areas in Europe have been shaped or altered by humans and can be considered cultural landscapes, many of which now are considered to entail valuable cultural heritage. Current dynamics in land management have put cultural landscapes under a huge pressure of agricultural intensifi......Almost all rural areas in Europe have been shaped or altered by humans and can be considered cultural landscapes, many of which now are considered to entail valuable cultural heritage. Current dynamics in land management have put cultural landscapes under a huge pressure of agricultural...... intensification and land abandonment. To prevent the loss of cultural landscapes, knowledge on the location of different types of cultural landscapes is needed. In this paper, we present a characterization of European cultural landscapes based on the prevalence of three key dimensions of cultural landscapes......: landscape structure, management intensity, and value and meaning. We mapped these dimensions across Europe at a 1-km resolution by combining proxies on management intensity and landscape structure with new indicators such as social media usage and registered traditional food products. We integrated...

  14. Philosophy in Dialogue with Culture through Hermeneutics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Man as a product of the society is a bye-product of culture; and man also uses culture as material in the quest to live well and understand the environment and the world around him. This interplay accentuates the correlation between man and culture. Due to the critical role culture plays for man, culture as a dynamic scheme ...

  15. Runaway cultural niche construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendell, Luke; Fogarty, Laurel; Laland, Kevin N.

    2011-01-01

    Cultural niche construction is a uniquely potent source of selection on human populations, and a major cause of recent human evolution. Previous theoretical analyses have not, however, explored the local effects of cultural niche construction. Here, we use spatially explicit coevolutionary models to investigate how cultural processes could drive selection on human genes by modifying local resources. We show that cultural learning, expressed in local niche construction, can trigger a process with dynamics that resemble runaway sexual selection. Under a broad range of conditions, cultural niche-constructing practices generate selection for gene-based traits and hitchhike to fixation through the build up of statistical associations between practice and trait. This process can occur even when the cultural practice is costly, or is subject to counteracting transmission biases, or the genetic trait is selected against. Under some conditions a secondary hitchhiking occurs, through which genetic variants that enhance the capability for cultural learning are also favoured by similar dynamics. We suggest that runaway cultural niche construction could have played an important role in human evolution, helping to explain why humans are simultaneously the species with the largest relative brain size, the most potent capacity for niche construction and the greatest reliance on culture. PMID:21320897

  16. Music, culture and identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilir Ramadani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available At the time of globalization it is difficult to pretend avoiding music culture and identity from political, cultural and social developments. Thus, it is impossible for the music to be unshakable and to represent national identity by not taking and giving nothing to culture. The dynamics of life and the rapid development of technology make it impossible for the culture to remain unaffected in terms of sharing experiences social experiences. Culture represents our current course, both in terms of politics, also in the social and human aspects. Through the technology it is possible for our children to be equal with children of all other countries, to exchange information and to connect directly with all countries of the world. Musical education is one of the main factors of cultural development and preservation of national identity. Identity consists of everything we posses and reflect. We are those who distinguish from each other and have a common denominator compared to other nations.

  17. Pre-Columbian Population Dynamics and Cultural Development in South Coast Perú as Revealed by Analysis of Ancient DNA

    OpenAIRE

    Fehren-Schmitz, Lars

    2012-01-01

    In this paper I report on a study whose principal aim is to understand the development and decline of the southern Peruvian Nasca culture in the upper Río Grande de Nasca drainage, and its cultural and biological affinities to the preceding Paracas culture. Ancient DNA analyses were conducted on over 300 pre-Columbian individuals from various cemeteries in southern Perú, from periods ranging from the Formative Period to the Middle Horizon. Our results show that the Nasca populations are close...

  18. Dynamics of bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cell/mesenchymal stem cell interaction in co-culture and its implications in angiogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguirre, A.; Planell, J.A.; Engel, E.

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → BM-EPCs and MSCs establish complex, self-organizing structures in co-culture. → Co-culture decreases proliferation by cellular self-regulatory mechanisms. → Co-cultured cells present an activated proangiogenic phenotype. → qRT-PCR and cluster analysis identify new target genes playing important roles. -- Abstract: Tissue engineering aims to regenerate tissues and organs by using cell and biomaterial-based approaches. One of the current challenges in the field is to promote proper vascularization in the implant to prevent cell death and promote host integration. Bone marrow endothelial progenitor cells (BM-EPCs) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are bone marrow resident stem cells widely employed for proangiogenic applications. In vivo, they are likely to interact frequently both in the bone marrow and at sites of injury. In this study, the physical and biochemical interactions between BM-EPCs and MSCs in an in vitro co-culture system were investigated to further clarify their roles in vascularization. BM-EPC/MSC co-cultures established close cell-cell contacts soon after seeding and self-assembled to form elongated structures at 3 days. Besides direct contact, cells also exhibited vesicle transport phenomena. When co-cultured in Matrigel, tube formation was greatly enhanced even in serum-starved, growth factor free medium. Both MSCs and BM-EPCs contributed to these tubes. However, cell proliferation was greatly reduced in co-culture and morphological differences were observed. Gene expression and cluster analysis for wide panel of angiogenesis-related transcripts demonstrated up-regulation of angiogenic markers but down-regulation of many other cytokines. These data suggest that cross-talk occurs in between BM-EPCs and MSCs through paracrine and direct cell contact mechanisms leading to modulation of the angiogenic response.

  19. Urine culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culture and sensitivity - urine ... when urinating. You also may have a urine culture after you have been treated for an infection. ... when bacteria or yeast are found in the culture. This likely means that you have a urinary ...

  20. Cultural neuroscience and psychopathology: prospects for cultural psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Suparna; Kirmayer, Laurence J

    2009-01-01

    There is a long tradition that seeks to understand the impact of culture on the causes, form, treatment, and outcome of psychiatric disorders. An early, colonialist literature attributed cultural characteristics and variations in psychopathology and behavior to deficiencies in the brains of colonized peoples. Contemporary research in social and cultural neuroscience holds the promise of moving beyond these invidious comparisons to a more sophisticated understanding of cultural variations in brain function relevant to psychiatry. To achieve this, however, we need better models of the nature of psychopathology and of culture itself. Culture is not simply a set of traits or characteristics shared by people with a common geographic, historical, or ethnic background. Current anthropology understands culture as fluid, flexible systems of discourse, institutions, and practices, which individuals actively use for self-fashioning and social positioning. Globalization introduces new cultural dynamics and demands that we rethink culture in relation to a wider domain of evolving identities, knowledge, and practice. Psychopathology is not reducible to brain dysfunction in either its causes, mechanisms, or expression. In addition to neuropsychiatric disorders, the problems that people bring to psychiatrists may result from disorders in cognition, the personal and social meanings of experience, and the dynamics of interpersonal interactions or social systems and institutions. The shifting meanings of culture and psychopathology have implications for efforts to apply cultural neuroscience to psychiatry. We consider how cultural neuroscience can refine use of culture and its role in psychopathology using the example of adolescent aggression as a symptom of conduct disorder.

  1. Safeguards Culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frazar, Sarah L.; Mladineo, Stephen V.

    2012-07-01

    The concepts of nuclear safety and security culture are well established; however, a common understanding of safeguards culture is not internationally recognized. Supported by the National Nuclear Security Administration, the authors prepared this report, an analysis of the concept of safeguards culture, and gauged its value to the safeguards community. The authors explored distinctions between safeguards culture, safeguards compliance, and safeguards performance, and evaluated synergies and differences between safeguards culture and safety/security culture. The report concludes with suggested next steps.

  2. Organizational Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian HUDREA

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Cultural orientations of an organization can be its greatest strength, providing the basis for problem solving, cooperation, and communication. Culture, however, can also inhibit needed changes. Cultural changes typically happen slowly – but without cultural change, many other organizational changes are doomed to fail. The dominant culture of an organization is a major contributor to its success. But, of course, no organizational culture is purely one type or another. And the existence of secondary cultures can provide the basis for change. Therefore, organizations need to understand the cultural environments and values.

  3. From Culturalism to Citizenship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Casellas López

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This article places the immigrants’ integration issue within the culture-citizenship debate. In order to understand culture as something else than people’s given customs or “essence”, the text begins by analysing the essentialist notion of the term ‘culture’, pointing out some of its deficiencies and risks involved in dealing with such a notion. Drawing on the ethical relativism-universalism continuum, the authors also discuss the drawbacks they see in a culture-centred integration, suggesting instead a citizenship approach based on a multidirectional and dynamic notion –aimed at achieving equal rights for everyone involved, immigrant and native populations alike.

  4. Research into Practice: Cultural and Intercultural Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Will

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the role of cultural awareness (CA) and intercultural awareness (ICA) in classroom theory and practice. CA and ICA can be roughly characterised as an awareness of the role of culture in communication with CA focused on national cultures and ICA on more dynamic and flexible relationships between languages and cultures. There…

  5. Culture and Social Psychology: Converging Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimaggio, Paul; Markus, Hazel Rose

    2010-01-01

    Views of culture in psychology and sociology have converged markedly in the past two decades. Both have rejected what Adams and Markus (2004) refer to as the "entity" conception of culture--the view that culture is coherent, stable, and located in the heads of collectivities' members--in favor of more supple and dynamic constructs. Culture, in…

  6. Culture matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, Zeba

    Zebaa Arif reflects on changes during her career as a mental health nurse in relation to cultural care issues: Cultural awareness is becoming embedded in patient care. All aspects of care are influenced by cultural beliefs and should form part of assessment. Leadership is essential in influencing cultural care, as is organisational commitment.

  7. Cultural entrepreneurship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Klamer (Arjo)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractCultural entrepreneurship is a new character in the cultural sector. This paper characterizes the cultural entrepreneur paying homage to the hermeneutic approach of Don Lavoie and others. The challenge is to render the "cultural" meaningful. An invention is the highlighting of the

  8. Live-cell time-lapse imaging and single-cell tracking of in vitro cultured neural stem cells - Tools for analyzing dynamics of cell cycle, migration, and lineage selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piltti, Katja M; Cummings, Brian J; Carta, Krystal; Manughian-Peter, Ayla; Worne, Colleen L; Singh, Kulbir; Ong, Danier; Maksymyuk, Yuriy; Khine, Michelle; Anderson, Aileen J

    2018-01-15

    Neural stem cell (NSC) cultures have been considered technically challenging for time-lapse analysis due to high motility, photosensitivity, and growth at confluent densities. We have tested feasibility of long-term live-cell time-lapse analysis for NSC migration and differentiation studies. Here, we describe a method to study the dynamics of cell cycle, migration, and lineage selection in cultured multipotent mouse or human NSCs using single-cell tracking during a long-term, 7-14 day live-cell time-lapse analysis. We used in-house made PDMS inserts with five microwells on a glass coverslip petri-dish to constrain NSC into the area of acquisition during long-term live-cell imaging. In parallel, we have defined image acquisition settings for single-cell tracking of cell cycle dynamics using Fucci-reporter mouse NSC for 7 days as well as lineage selection and migration using human NSC for 14 days. Overall, we show that adjustments of live-cell analysis settings can extend the time period of single-cell tracking in mouse or human NSC from 24-72 h up to 7-14 days and potentially longer. However, we emphasize that experimental use of repeated fluorescence imaging will require careful consideration of controls during acquisition and analysis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Community Culture and the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Guide explores the concepts of community and culture and provides tools for identifying, assessing and working cooperatively within the social dynamics and local values connected to environmental protection.

  10. Role of socio-cultural and economic factors in cyprinid fish distribution networks and consumption in Lawa Lake region, Northeast Thailand: Novel perspectives on Opisthorchis viverrini transmission dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Christina Sunyoung; Smith, John F; Suwannatrai, Apiporn; Echaubard, Pierre; Wilcox, Bruce; Kaewkes, Sasithorn; Sithithaworn, Paiboon; Sripa, Banchob

    2017-06-01

    Opisthorchis viverrini (Ov) is a fish-borne parasite endemic in parts of Lao PDR, Cambodia, southern Vietnam and Northeast Thailand (Isaan) where an estimated 10 million people are infected. Human Ov infection, associated with hepatobiliary complications, including cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), occurs when infected fish are consumed raw or undercooked, a longstanding cultural tradition in the region. This mixed- methods descriptive study was carried out in Isaan villages around Lawa Lake, Khon Kaen Province, known for their Ov endemicity. Focus group discussions (FGDs) and in depth interviews (IDIs) were used to explore socio-cultural determinants underlying raw fish consumption practices, and global positioning system (GPS) devices to map local fish distribution networks. Qualitative data affirmed major socio-cultural and dietary lifestyle transitions occurring consequent on recent decades of modernization policies and practices, but also the persistence of Isaan traditional raw-fish eating practices and incorrect beliefs about infection risk avoidance. Fish traders/middlemen purchase most of the catch at the lakeshore and play the dominant role in district market fish distribution networks, at least for the larger and less likely infected, fish species. The lower economic value of the small potentially-infected cyprinid fish means local fishermen typically distribute them free, or sell cheaply, to family and friends, effectively concentrating infection risk in already highly Ov infected villages. Our study confirmed the persistence of traditional Isaan raw-fish meal practices, despite major ongoing socio-cultural lifestyle transitions and decades of Ov infection health education programs. We contend that diffuse socio-cultural drivers underpin this practice, including its role as a valued cultural identity marker. A "fish economics" factor was also evident in the concentration of more likely infected fish back into local villages due to their low economic value at

  11. Effect of aerobic and microaerophilic culture in the growth dynamics of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and in training of quiescent and non-quiescent subpopulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbó, Rosa; Ginovart, Marta; Carta, Akatibu; Portell, Xavier; del Valle, Luis J

    2015-10-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is industrially the most important yeast, and its growth in different concentrations of oxygen can be used to improve various application processes. The aims of this work were to study in aerobic and microaerophilic growth conditions the cell size and tendency of morphological changes in S. cerevisiae in different stages of growth and to assess the effect of the two growth conditions in the differentiation of quiescent and non-quiescent subpopulations in the stationary phase. Dissolved oxygen levels in the culture medium for aerobic and microaerophilic conditions were 6.6 and 5.2 mg L(-1), respectively. In both growth conditions, similar viable cell populations were obtained, although in aerobic conditions the stationary phase was reached and the quiescent and non-quiescent subpopulations were also differentiated. The microaerophilic growth produced a significant reduction in the specific growth rate and consequently also in glucose and oxygen consumption. The most notable changes in cellular size and morphology occurred with the depletion of glucose and oxygen. The concentration of dissolved oxygen in the culture medium significantly modulated the growth kinetics of S. cerevisiae and their development and differentiation to quiescent cells. This could justify the need to readjust small variations in oxygen levels during yeast cultures in biotechnological processes.

  12. Cultural Neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, Daniel L.; Fiske, Susan T.

    2013-01-01

    Cultural neuroscience issues from the apparently incompatible combination of neuroscience and cultural psychology. A brief literature sampling suggests, instead, several preliminary topics that demonstrate proof of possibilities: cultural differences in both lower-level processes (e.g. perception, number representation) and higher-order processes (e.g. inferring others’ emotions, contemplating the self) are beginning to shed new light on both culture and cognition. Candidates for future cultural neuroscience research include cultural variations in the default (resting) network, which may be social; regulation and inhibition of feelings, thoughts, and actions; prejudice and dehumanization; and neural signatures of fundamental warmth and competence judgments. PMID:23874143

  13. Osteoinduction and survival of osteoblasts and bone-marrow stromal cells in 3D biphasic calcium phosphate scaffolds under static and dynamic culture conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Rath, Subha N; Strobel, Leonie A; Arkudas, Andreas; Beier, Justus P; Maier, Anne-Kathrin; Greil, Peter; Horch, Raymund E; Kneser, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    In many tissue engineering approaches, the basic difference between in vitro and in vivo conditions for cells within three-dimensional (3D) constructs is the nutrition flow dynamics. To achieve comparable results in vitro, bioreactors are advised for improved cell survival, as they are able to provide a controlled flow through the scaffold. We hypothesize that a bioreactor would enhance long-term differentiation conditions of osteogenic cells in 3D scaffolds. To achieve this either primary ra...

  14. Culturing Protozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Paul

    1980-01-01

    Compares various nutrient media, growth conditions, and stock solutions used in culturing protozoa. A hay infusion in Chalkey's solution maintained at a stable temperature is recommended for producing the most dense and diverse cultures. (WB)

  15. Bile culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culture - bile ... is placed in a special dish called a culture medium to see if bacteria, viruses, or fungi ... Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Body fluid - anaerobic culture. In: ... . 6th ed. St Louis, MO: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:225-226. Kim AY, ...

  16. Hydrodynamic performance of a single-use aerated stirred bioreactor in animal cell culture: applications of tomography, dynamic gas disengagement (DGD), and CFD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemzadeh, Argang; Elias, Cynthia; Tamer, Melih; Ein-Mozaffari, Farhad

    2018-02-14

    The hydrodynamics of gas-liquid two-phase flow in a single-use bioreactor were investigated in detail both experimentally and numerically. Electrical resistance tomography (ERT) and dynamic gas disengagement (DGD) combined with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) were employed to assess the effect of the volumetric gas flow rate and impeller speed on the gas-liquid flow field, local and global gas holdup values, and Sauter mean bubble diameter. From the results obtained from DGD coupled with ERT, the bubble sizes were determined. The experimental data indicated that the total gas holdup values increased with increasing both the rotational speed of impeller and volumetric gas flow rate. Moreover, the analysis of the flow field generated inside the aerated stirred bioreactor was conducted using CFD results. Overall, a more uniform distribution of the gas holdup was obtained at impeller speeds ≥ 100 rpm for volumetric gas flow rates ≥ 1.6 × 10 -5  m 3 /s.

  17. Understanding Global / Local Cultural Leadership : Issues and Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolsteeg, Johan

    2017-01-01

    Cultural leaders sail between the Scylla and Charibdis of aggregated trans- and supranational cultural-political discourses and the cultural needs of local communities. How do these dynamics influence the work of cultural leaders? How can we understand the work of cultural leaders to connect

  18. Population heterogeneity and dynamics in starter culture and lag phase adaptation of the spoilage yeast Zygosaccharomyces bailii to weak acid preservatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratford, Malcolm; Steels, Hazel; Nebe-von-Caron, Gerhard; Avery, Simon V; Novodvorska, Michaela; Archer, David B

    2014-07-02

    The food spoilage yeast Zygosaccharomyces bailii shows great resistance to weak-acid preservatives, including sorbic acid (2, 4-hexadienoic acid). That extreme resistance was shown to be due to population heterogeneity, with a small sub-population of cells resistant to a variety of weak acids, probably caused by a lower internal pH reducing the uptake of all weak acids. In the present paper, it was found that resistant cells were extremely rare in exponential cultures, but increased by up to 8000-fold in stationary phase. Inoculation of media containing sorbic acid with a population of Z. bailii cells gave rise to what appeared to be a prolonged lag phase, suggesting adaptation to the conditions before the cells entered the period of exponential growth. However, the apparent lag phase caused by sorbic acid was largely due to the time required for the resistant sub-population to grow to detectable levels. The slow growth rate of the sub-population was identical to that of the final total population. The non-resistant bulk population remained viable for 3 days but had lost viability by 6 days and, during that time, there was no indication of any development of resistance in the bulk population. The sub-population growing in sorbic acid showed very high population diversity in colony size and internal pH. After removal of sorbic acid, the population rapidly reverted back to the normal, largely non-resistant, population distribution. The data presented suggest that a reevaluation of the lag phase in microbial batch culture is required, at least for the resistance of Z. bailii to sorbic acid. Furthermore, the significance of phenotypic diversity and heterogeneity in microbial populations is discussed more broadly with potential relevance to bacterial "persisters", natural selection and evolution. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. From In Vivo to In Vitro: Dynamic Analysis of Plasmodium falciparum var Gene Expression Patterns of Patient Isolates during Adaptation to Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yufu; Xue, Xiangyang; Yan, He; Sun, Xiaodong; Wang, Jian; McCutchan, Thomas F.; Pan, Weiqing

    2011-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1), encoded by the var gene family, plays a crucial role in disease virulence through its involvement in binding to various host cellular receptors during infection. Growing evidence suggests that differential expression of the various var subgroups may be involved in parasite virulence. To further explore this issue, we have collected isolates from symptomatic patients in south China-Myanmar border, and characterized their sequence diversity and transcription profiles over time of var gene family, and cytoadherence properties from the time of their initial collection and extending through a two month period of adaptation to culture. Initially, we established a highly diverse, DBLα (4 cysteines) subtype-enriched, but unique local repertoire of var-DBL1α sequences by cDNA cloning and sequencing. Next we observed a rapid transcriptional decline of upsA- and upsB-subtype var genes at ring stage through qRT-PCR assays, and a switching event from initial ICAM-I binding to the CD36-binding activity during the first week of adaptive cultivation in vitro. Moreover, predominant transcription of upsA var genes was observed to be correlated with those isolates that showed a higher parasitemia at the time of collection and the ICAM-1-binding phenotype in culture. Taken together, these data indicate that the initial stage of adaptive process in vitro significantly influences the transcription of virulence-related var subtypes and expression of PfEMP1 variants. Further, the specific upregulation of the upsA var genes is likely linked to the rapid propagation of the parasite during natural infection due to the A-type PfEMP1 variant-mediated growth advantages. PMID:21674009

  20. Global cities and cultural experimentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rojas Gaviria, Pilar; Emontspool, Julie

    2015-01-01

    to the important role of global cities for cultural experimentation. Such cities are not only an interesting market for culturally diverse products, but also learning hubs. Managers willing to address multicultural marketplaces might target these markets with dynamic cultural offers that ensure a balance between......Purpose: Studying the cultural dynamics of expatriate amateur theater in Brussels, this paper investigates multicultural marketplace development in contemporary global cities. Design/methodology/approach: The paper performs an interpretive analysis of the expatriate amateur scene in Brussels from...... an ethnographic perspective, combining observations of rehearsals and performances, in-depth interviews with actors, directors and audience, and secondary data. Findings: The fluidity of global cities allows their inhabitants to engage in collective creative processes of cultural experimentation, performing...

  1. Reconceptualizing Cultural Globalization: Connecting the “Cultural Global” and the “Cultural Local”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Magu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Scholars generally are in agreement that the pace of globalization is rapidly accelerating. Globalization’s impact, beyond the socio-economic and political discourses, is affecting conceptions of culture and cultural studies, and changing and restructuring spaces, global, national and personal interactions and relationships. The “texts” and artifacts borne of culture—activities, events and our conception thereof are a mechanism for the propagation of culture. Simultaneously Westernization/Americanization impacts local cultures through consumerism, which obfuscates local traditions, knowledge and experiences. This research argues that culture is a dynamic, adaptive concept and practice, “borrowing” liberally from ideological and technological innovations of other cultures and integrating these borrowed aspects into the construction and modification of culture across spatial and geographical divides to ensure particular cultures’ survival. The research shows that the local affects the global, and vice versa. It selects local communication “texts” to show that cultures are not “victims” of globalization or the proliferation of mass media. Cultures actively adopt and integrate globalization’s technological artifacts. Globalization’s positive effects are dynamic and span cultural interactions and permeate structures of authority at personal, national and global levels.

  2. Culture evolves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiten, Andrew; Hinde, Robert A.; Laland, Kevin N.; Stringer, Christopher B.

    2011-01-01

    Culture pervades human lives and has allowed our species to create niches all around the world and its oceans, in ways quite unlike any other primate. Indeed, our cultural nature appears so distinctive that it is often thought to separate humanity from the rest of nature and the Darwinian forces that shape it. A contrary view arises through the recent discoveries of a diverse range of disciplines, here brought together to illustrate the scope of a burgeoning field of cultural evolution and to facilitate cross-disciplinary fertilization. Each approach emphasizes important linkages between culture and evolutionary biology rather than quarantining one from the other. Recent studies reveal that processes important in cultural transmission are more widespread and significant across the animal kingdom than earlier recognized, with important implications for evolutionary theory. Recent archaeological discoveries have pushed back the origins of human culture to much more ancient times than traditionally thought. These developments suggest previously unidentified continuities between animal and human culture. A third new array of discoveries concerns the later diversification of human cultures, where the operations of Darwinian-like processes are identified, in part, through scientific methods borrowed from biology. Finally, surprising discoveries have been made about the imprint of cultural evolution in the predispositions of human minds for cultural transmission. PMID:21357216

  3. Culture evolves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiten, Andrew; Hinde, Robert A; Laland, Kevin N; Stringer, Christopher B

    2011-04-12

    Culture pervades human lives and has allowed our species to create niches all around the world and its oceans, in ways quite unlike any other primate. Indeed, our cultural nature appears so distinctive that it is often thought to separate humanity from the rest of nature and the Darwinian forces that shape it. A contrary view arises through the recent discoveries of a diverse range of disciplines, here brought together to illustrate the scope of a burgeoning field of cultural evolution and to facilitate cross-disciplinary fertilization. Each approach emphasizes important linkages between culture and evolutionary biology rather than quarantining one from the other. Recent studies reveal that processes important in cultural transmission are more widespread and significant across the animal kingdom than earlier recognized, with important implications for evolutionary theory. Recent archaeological discoveries have pushed back the origins of human culture to much more ancient times than traditionally thought. These developments suggest previously unidentified continuities between animal and human culture. A third new array of discoveries concerns the later diversification of human cultures, where the operations of Darwinian-like processes are identified, in part, through scientific methods borrowed from biology. Finally, surprising discoveries have been made about the imprint of cultural evolution in the predispositions of human minds for cultural transmission.

  4. Spatial Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reeh, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Spatial Culture – A Humanities Perspective Abstract of introductory essay by Henrik Reeh Secured by alliances between socio-political development and cultural practices, a new field of humanistic studies in spatial culture has developed since the 1990s. To focus on links between urban culture...... and modern society is, however, an intellectual practice which has a much longer history. Already in the 1980s, the debate on the modern and the postmodern cited Paris and Los Angeles as spatio-cultural illustrations of these major philosophical concepts. Earlier, in the history of critical studies, the work...... Foucault considered a constitutive feature of 20th-century thinking and one that continues to occupy intellectual and cultural debates in the third millennium. A conceptual framework is, nevertheless, necessary, if the humanities are to adequa-tely address city and space – themes that have long been...

  5. Transcriptome and proteome dynamics in chemostat culture reveal how Campylobacter jejuni modulates metabolism, stress responses and virulence factors upon changes in oxygen availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guccione, Edward J; Kendall, John J; Hitchcock, Andrew; Garg, Nitanshu; White, Michael A; Mulholland, Francis; Poole, Robert K; Kelly, David J

    2017-10-01

    Campylobacter jejuni, the most frequent cause of food-borne bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide, is a microaerophile that has to survive high environmental oxygen tensions, adapt to oxygen limitation in the intestine and resist host oxidative attack. Here, oxygen-dependent changes in C. jejuni physiology were studied at constant growth rate using carbon (serine)-limited continuous chemostat cultures. We show that a perceived aerobiosis scale can be calibrated by the acetate excretion flux, which becomes zero when metabolism is fully aerobic (100% aerobiosis). Transcriptome changes in a downshift experiment from 150% to 40% aerobiosis revealed many novel oxygen-regulated genes and highlighted re-modelling of the electron transport chains. A label-free proteomic analysis showed that at 40% aerobiosis, many proteins involved in host colonisation (e.g., PorA, CadF, FlpA, CjkT) became more abundant. PorA abundance increased steeply below 100% aerobiosis. In contrast, several citric-acid cycle enzymes, the peptide transporter CstA, PEB1 aspartate/glutamate transporter, LutABC lactate dehydrogenase and PutA proline dehydrogenase became more abundant with increasing aerobiosis. We also observed a co-ordinated response of oxidative stress protection enzymes and Fe-S cluster biogenesis proteins above 100% aerobiosis. Our approaches reveal key virulence factors that respond to restricted oxygen availability and specific transporters and catabolic pathways activated with increasing aerobiosis. © 2017 The Authors. Environmental Microbiology published by Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Enhancing the Reuse of Digital Resources for Integrated Systems to Represent, Understand and Dynamize Complex Interactions in Architectural Cultural Heritage Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, F. J.; Martinez, R.; Finat, J.; Martinez, J.; Puche, J. C.; Finat, F. J.

    2013-07-01

    In this work we develop a multiply interconnected system which involves objects, agents and interactions between them from the use of ICT applied to open repositories, users communities and web services. Our approach is applied to Architectural Cultural Heritage Environments (ACHE). It includes components relative to digital accessibility (to augmented ACHE repositories), contents management (ontologies for the semantic web), semiautomatic recognition (to ease the reuse of materials) and serious videogames (for interaction in urban environments). Their combination provides a support for local real/remote virtual tourism (including some tools for low-level RT display of rendering in portable devices), mobile-based smart interactions (with a special regard to monitored environments) and CH related games (as extended web services). Main contributions to AR models on usual GIS applied to architectural environments, concern to an interactive support performed directly on digital files which allows to access to CH contents which are referred to GIS of urban districts (involving facades, historical or preindustrial buildings) and/or CH repositories in a ludic and transversal way to acquire cognitive, medial and social abilities in collaborative environments.

  7. Manuscript Cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    What do Mesoamerica, Greece, Byzantium, Island, Chad, Ethiopia, India, Tibet, China and Japan have in common? Like many other cultures of the world, they share a particular form of cultural heritage: ancient handwritten documents. In 2007, scholars from some20 countries around the world gathered...... at the University of Copenhagen for a workshop on manuscripts to compare notes. This event led to the publication of this volume, which brings together16 articles on philological, cultural, and material aspects of manuscripts in search for a common ground across disciplines and cultures....

  8. Quantitative analysis of the dynamic signaling pathway involved in the cAMP mediated induction of l-carnitine biosynthesis in E. coli cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormiga, José; González-Alcón, Carlos; Sevilla, Angel; Cánovas, Manuel; Torres, Néstor V

    2010-04-01

    L-(-)-carnitine can be synthesized from waste bioprecursors in the form of crotonobetaine. Such biotransformation is carried out in E. coli by the enzymes encoded by operons regulated by the cAMP receptor proteins. Non-phosphorylated sugars, such as glycerol are used as energy and carbon source since glucose inhibits cAMP synthesis. Until now little attention has been paid to the regulatory signaling structure that operates during the transition from a glucose-consuming, non-l-carnitine producing steady state, to a glycerol-consuming l-carnitine producing steady state. In this work we aim to elucidate and quantify the underlying regulatory mechanisms operating in the abolition of the glucose inhibiting effect. For this purpose we make use of the systemic approach by integrating the available information and our own experimentally generated data to construct a mathematical model. The model is built using power-law representation and is used as a platform to make predictive simulations and to assess the consistency of the regulatory structure of the overall process. The model is subsequently checked for quality through stability and a special, dynamic sensitivity analysis. The results show that the model is able to deal with the observed system transient phase. The model is multi-hierarchical, comprising the metabolic, gene expression, signaling and bioreactor levels. It involves variables and parameters of a very different nature that develop in different time scales and orders of magnitude. Some of the most relevant conclusions obtained are: (i) the regulatory interactions among glucose, glycerol and cAMP metabolism are far stronger than those present in the l-carnitine transport, production and degradation processes; (ii) carnitine biosynthesis is very sensitive to the cAMP signaling system since it reacts at very low cAMP receptor concentrations, and (iii) ATP is a critical factor in the transient dynamics. All these model-derived observations have been

  9. Skin or nail culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucosal culture; Culture - skin; Culture - mucosal; Nail culture; Culture - fingernail; Fingernail culture ... There, it is placed in a special dish (culture). It is then watched to see if bacteria, ...

  10. [Time, cultures, and coexistence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elchardus, M; Glorieux, I; Scheys, M

    1987-06-01

    "In this essay, the authors try to illustrate the relevance of the sociology of time for the study of migration and inter-cultural relations. It is argued that by taking the time-dimension more explicitly into account, our insights in the dynamics of these relations can be [improved].... In connection with international migration processes, this relationship appears to be influenced by at least six different factors: 1) the sudden transition from a rural to an urban, industrial environment; 2) the perspective of the return to the homeland; 3) the confrontation with the culture of the host country and with other migrants' cultures; 4) the religious, ideological and political developments in the homeland; 5) the reactions of the host country and the problems these create; 6) the minority position of the migrants." (SUMMARY IN ENG) excerpt

  11. Accelerating the culture change!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klunk, S W; Panetta, J; Wooten, J

    1996-11-01

    Exide Electronics, a major supplier of uninterruptible power system equipment, embarked on a journey of changing a culture to improve quality, enhance customer responsiveness, and reduce costs. This case study examines the evolution of change over a period of seven years, with particular emphasis on the most recent years, 1992 through 1995. The article focuses on the Raleigh plant operations and describes how each succeeding year built on the successes and fixed the shortcomings of the prior years to accelerate the culture change, including corrective action and continuous improvement processes, organizational structures, expectations, goals, achievements, and pitfalls. The real challenge to changing the culture was structuring a dynamic approach to accelerate change! The presentation also examines how the evolutionary process itself can be created and accelerated through ongoing communication, regular feedback of progress and goals, constant evaluation and direction of the process, and measuring and paying for performance.

  12. Cultural Communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armas, Jose

    It is too often taken for granted that the communication process with culturally different children takes place as readily as it might with children from Anglo cultures. Most teachers receive training in verbal and formal communication skills; children come to school with nonverbal and informal communication skills. This initially can create…

  13. Culture Stories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    2007-01-01

    by certain representations and embedded in certain norms and values. The analytical framework is applied on a case of cultural urban branding. The case is the harbour front in Aalborg, Denmark where a number of flagship architecture projects and cultural institutions are being planned. It is shown how...

  14. Cultural probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jacob Østergaard

    The aim of this study was thus to explore cultural probes (Gaver, Boucher et al. 2004), as a possible methodical approach, supporting knowledge production on situated and contextual aspects of occupation.......The aim of this study was thus to explore cultural probes (Gaver, Boucher et al. 2004), as a possible methodical approach, supporting knowledge production on situated and contextual aspects of occupation....

  15. Culture Clash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertram, Sheila; Olson, Hope

    1996-01-01

    Discusses two basic cultures within the library science field, one that emphasizes "soft-edged" traditional service and the other newer culture which has evolved around information technology and entrepreneurial drive. Topics include historical background; university pressures on library schools to be "tech-oriented";…

  16. Reaction dynamics during pulsed light activation of ATX-S10 Na(II)-sensitized cell cultures: analysis based on fluorescence-oxygen diagram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawauchi, Satoko; Sato, Shunichi; Morimoto, Yuji; Kikuchi, Makoto

    2005-04-01

    To elucidate the mechanism of photosensitization with pulsed light excitation, we previously introduced fluorescence-oxygen diagram that shows the correlation between photochemical oxygen consumption and photobleaching during a treatment (Kawauchi et al., Photochem. Photobiol., 80, 216-223, 2004). In pulsed photodynamic treatment of A549 cells with ATX-S10"Na(II), the diagrams for treatments at relatively high repetition rates of 10 and 30 Hz showed the complex behaviors of photochemical reaction; photobleaching initially occurred with oxygen consumption but it was switched to oxygen-independent photobleaching, which was followed by a secondary oxygen-consuming regime. In this study, fluorescence microscopy revealed that for treatments at 10 and 30 Hz, subcellular fluorescence distribution of ATX-S10×Na(II) changed drastically from the high-intensity spotty patterns showing lysosomal accumulation to the diffusive patterns within the cytosol during certain ranges of total light dose. These ranges were found to coincide with those in which oxygen-independent reaction appeared. These findings suggest that the sensitizer started to be redistributed from lysosomes to the cytosol during the oxygen-independent reaction regime. On the other hand, at 5 Hz, such reaction switching was not clearly seen during whole irradiation period in the diagram; this was consistent with the observation that sensitizer redistribution efficiently occurred even in the early phase of irradiation. The appearance of oxygen-independent reaction at the higher repetition rates may be caused by high local concentration of the sensitizer and the resultant low concentration of oxygen in the reaction sites due to the shorter pulse-to-pulse time intervals. In pulsed photodynamic treatment, pulse frequency is an important parameter that affects the intracellular kinetics of the sensitizer and hence the photochemical reaction dynamics.

  17. Modelling the dynamics of youth subcultures

    OpenAIRE

    Holme, Petter; Gronlund, Andreas

    2005-01-01

    What are the dynamics behind youth subcultures such as punk, hippie, or hip-hop cultures? How does the global dynamics of these subcultures relate to the individual's search for a personal identity? We propose a simple dynamical model to address these questions and find that only a few assumptions of the individual's behaviour are necessary to regenerate known features of youth culture.

  18. Contextualising culture and social cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogeley, Kai; Roepstorff, Andreas

    2009-12-01

    Cognitive neurosciencists have recently begun to study self-consiousness and intersubjectivity but have not yet taken into account adequately the influence of culture on these phenomena. Here, we argue against the naïve inclusion of 'culture' as an additional independent factor that can be empirically addressed adequately merely by considering mother tongue or nationality. Instead, we propose that culture needs to be considered as a dynamical system of individuals; that culture is in continous dialectic interaction and exchange with the individuals that constitute it; and that cultural classifications feed back into social practices and identity processes, hence exhibiting a 'looping effect'. These proposals have important implications for the development of cultural neuroscience.

  19. Avatar Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koda, Tomoko; Ishida, Toru; Rehm, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    Avatars are increasingly used to express our emotions in our online communications. Such avatars are used based on the assumption that avatar expressions are interpreted universally among all cultures. This paper investigated cross-cultural evaluations of avatar expressions designed by Japanese...... and Western designers. The goals of the study were: (1) to investigate cultural differences in avatar expression evaluation and apply findings from psychological studies of human facial expression recognition, (2) to identify expressions and design features that cause cultural differences in avatar facial...... expression interpretation. The results of our study confirmed that (1) there are cultural differences in interpreting avatars’ facial expressions, and the psychological theory that suggests physical proximity affects facial expression recognition accuracy is also applicable to avatar facial expressions, (2...

  20. CULTURAL TOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana POP

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we will try to analyse the cultural tourism. We will start by referring to the complex concepts of tourism and culture and to the synergies existing between them. We will define cultural tourism and present its appearance and evolution as well as its importance as a modern form of tourism. We will present the various types of cultural tourism with their characteristics and the specific features of cultural tourists according to their interests. We will also mention that there are advantages and disadvantages for any kind of tourism depending on the position – local communities, companies or tourists. For the future we will refer to the new partnership between UNWTO and UNESCO.

  1. Gender in identification practices of mass culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. B. Sinkevych

    2014-10-01

    The dynamics of the images of masculinity and femininity in popular culture depends on shared cultural paradigm. However, these images not only reflect, but also construct social and cultural reality. Gender representation in popular culture activates the process of selecting, structuring and formation of values of a stereotype, its communicative refinement, giving it new meaning. It promotes innovative images, which play the role of landmarks gender identity.

  2. Cultural Heritage in a Digital Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Rachel Charlotte

    Advanced digital technologies and shifting paradigms of communication are challenging contemporary cultural heritage institutions to provide new forms of representations and experiences that include modern consumers as active co-creators in, rather than passive consumers of, cultural heritage...... communication. From a theoretical anthropological premise of culture and identity as dynamic and transformational, I explore potential new understandings and conceptualisations of cultural heritage and its representations in relation to a research experiment into interactive technologies....

  3. Culture Matters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian Warner-Søderholm

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Whether managers are concerned with financial issues, marketing, or human resource management (HRM, cultural values and practices do matter. The purpose of this article is to understand Norwegian managers’ cultural values within the cross-cultural landscape of her neighbors in the “Scandinavian cluster.” Clearly, subtle but disturbing differences may surface even when representatives from similar cultures work together. As a follow on from the GLOBE project, data based on the GLOBE instrument were collected on culture and communication values in Norway from 710 Norwegian middle managers for this present study. Although the Scandinavian cultures appear ostensibly similar, the results illustrate that research can reveal subtle but important cultural differences in nations that are similar yet dissimilar. All three Scandinavian societies appear intrinsically egalitarian; they appear to value low Power Distance, directness, and consensus in decision making and to promote Gender Egalitarianism. Nevertheless, there are significant differences in the degrees of commitment to these values by each individual Scandinavian partner. These differences need to be understood and appreciated to avoid misunderstandings.

  4. Music, cognition, culture, and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, I

    2001-06-01

    We seem able to define the biological foundations for our musicality within a clear and unitary framework, yet music itself does not appear so clearly definable. Music is different things and does different things in different cultures; the bundles of elements and functions that are music for any given culture may overlap minimally with those of another culture, even for those cultures where "music" constitutes a discrete and identifiable category of human activity in its own right. The dynamics of culture, of music as cultural praxis, are neither necessarily reducible, nor easily relatable, to the dynamics of our biologies. Yet music appears to be a universal human competence. Recent evolutionary theory, however, affords a means for exploring things biological and cultural within a framework in which they are at least commensurable. The adoption of this perspective shifts the focus of the search for the foundations of music away from the mature and particular expression of music within a specific culture or situation and on to the human capacity for musicality. This paper will survey recent research that examines that capacity and its evolutionary origins in the light of a definition of music that embraces music's multifariousness. It will be suggested that music, like speech, is a product of both our biologies and our social interactions; that music is a necessary and integral dimension of human development; and that music may have played a central role in the evolution of the modern human mind.

  5. Digging culture and doing culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andries van den Broek; Jos de Haan; Frank Huysmans

    2009-01-01

    Original title: Cultuurbewonderaars en cultuurbeoefenaars. There are people who love art and culture and there are people who practise it; people who enjoy it and people who are themselves creative in their leisure time. Who are these culture-lovers and practitioners? How has participation in

  6. Safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drukraroff, C.

    2010-01-01

    The concept of Safety Culture was defined after Chernobyl's nuclear accident in 1986. It has not been exempt from discussion interpretations, adding riders, etc..., over the last 24 years because it has to do with human behavior and performance in the organizations. Safety Culture is not an easy task to define, assess and monitor. The proof of it is that today we still discussing and writing about it. How has been the evolution of Safety Culture at the Juzbado Factory since 1985 to today?. What is the strategy that we will be following in the future. (Author)

  7. Cultural Globalization and Economic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Carlos Leitão

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the relationship between cultural globalization and economic growth for the Portuguese experience for the period 1995-2011. In this research we apply a static and dynamic panel data. The initial GDP per capita is negatively correlated with economic growth. This result is according to theoretical and empirical studies. This paper shows that international trade and cultural globalization promote the economic growth. As we expected the inflation has a negative impact on economic growth.

  8. Leadership, Culture and Organizational Change

    OpenAIRE

    Vladimir-Codrin Ionescu

    2014-01-01

    An effective leadership, an evolutionary organizational culture and permanent connection to change may ensure a company’s success within an ever more dynamic competitive environment. The scientific approach of this paper is in line with theoretical and applied research in the field by the presentation of the connections existing among leadership, organizational culture and organizational change. The paper highlights the triad “vision – motivation – momentum”, the mission and the defining coor...

  9. Social Media as Leisure Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtslund, Anne-Mette Bech; Albrechtslund, Anders

    2014-01-01

    The main idea of this article is to situate social media practices in broader cultural practices. We point to certain dynamics in social media practices which we connect to the culture of 20th century mass tourism. This gives us a nuanced understanding of the activities connecting everyday life...... and social media. Further, our analysis provides new insights into the basic motivation for engaging in online sociality despite concerns about privacy, time-waste and exploitation....

  10. Blood culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culture - blood ... A blood sample is needed . The site where blood will be drawn is first cleaned with an antiseptic such ... organism from the skin getting into (contaminating) the blood sample and causing a false-positive result (see ...

  11. Rectal culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have an infection of the rectum, such as gonorrhea . It may also be done instead of a ... infection. This may be: Bacterial infection Parasitic enterocolitis Gonorrhea Sometimes a culture shows that you are a ...

  12. Stool Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... illness by producing toxins . These bacteria may be cultured , but many of the tests used to detect ... been contaminated with pathogenic bacteria, such as undercooked meat or raw eggs, or the same food that ...

  13. Diversity and dynamics of lactic acid bacteria in Atole agrio, a traditional maize-based fermented beverage from South-Eastern Mexico, analysed by high throughput sequencing and culturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Cataluña, Alba; Elizaquível, Patricia; Carrasco, Purificación; Espinosa, Judith; Reyes, Dolores; Wacher, Carmen; Aznar, Rosa

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this work was to analyse the diversity and dynamics of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) throughout the fermentation process in Atole agrio, a traditional maize based food of Mexican origin. Samples of different fermentation times were analysed using culture-dependent and -independent approaches. Identification of LAB isolates revealed the presence of members of the genera Pediococcus, Weissella, Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc and Lactococcus, and the predominance of Pediococcus pentosaceus and Weissella confusa in liquid and solid batches, respectively. High-throughput sequencing (HTS) of the 16S rRNA gene confirmed the predominance of Lactobacillaceae and Leuconostocaceae at the beginning of the process. In liquid fermentation Acetobacteraceae dominate after 4 h as pH decreased. In contrast, Leuconostocaceae dominated the solid fermentation except at 12 h that were overgrown by Acetobacteraceae. Regarding LAB genera, Lactobacillus dominated the liquid fermentation except at 12 h when Weissella, Lactococcus and Streptococcus were the most abundant. In solid fermentation Weissella predominated all through the process. HTS determined that Lactobacillus plantarum and W. confusa dominated in the liquid and solid batches, respectively. Two oligotypes have been identified for L. plantarum and W. confusa populations, differing in a single nucleotide position each. Only one of the oligotypes was detected among the isolates obtained from each species, the biological significance of which remains unclear.

  14. Integrating Chinese and African Culture into Human Resource ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hofstede's cultural dimensions and Hofstede and Bond (1988) Confucian Dynamism values that have been widely used in studying culture's influence in cross cultural management across the world and Asia respectively are used as a basis for comparing African and Chinese culture to reveal areas of convergence or ...

  15. On viewing culture as situation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampf, Constance

    alphabet can be used across languages, and emic tools which are specific to context of a single culture as phonemic rules can explain the sound system in a given language. In linguistics, phonetics describe articulation behaviours of a single sound-a micro unit which is then combined with other phonetic......, I propose that we focus on culture as situation. Using a situational frame, we can then approach culture as a series of observable behaviours in the interaction between audiences and communicators-behaviours which crystallize in genres, yet change dynamically as communicators and their audiences...... participate in social action (Bazerman 1988 & Miller 1984, 1994). To begin to define culture as situation, I will engage the cultural systems perspective (Kampf & Kastberg 2005). This perspective is based on the interaction between norms of behaviour and context in which Hofstede situated his dimensions...

  16. Cross-cultural organizational behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfand, Michele J; Erez, Miriam; Aycan, Zeynep

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews research on cross-cultural organizational behavior (OB). After a brief review of the history of cross-cultural OB, we review research on work motivation, or the factors that energize, direct, and sustain effort across cultures. We next consider the relationship between the individual and the organization, and review research on culture and organizational commitment, psychological contracts, justice, citizenship behavior, and person-environment fit. Thereafter, we consider how individuals manage their interdependence in organizations, and review research on culture and negotiation and disputing, teams, and leadership, followed by research on managing across borders and expatriation. The review shows that developmentally, cross-cultural research in OB is coming of age. Yet we also highlight critical challenges for future research, including moving beyond values to explain cultural differences, attending to levels of analysis issues, incorporating social and organizational context factors into cross-cultural research, taking indigenous perspectives seriously, and moving beyond intracultural comparisons to understand the dynamics of cross-cultural interfaces.

  17. A Cultural Sexuality or a Sexual Culture?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandermeersch, Patrick

    1990-01-01

    P. Vandermeersch, A Cultural Sexuality or a Sexual Culture? In: F. VAN DE VIJVER & G. HUTSCHEMAEKERS (ed.), The Investigation of Culture. Current Issues in Cultural Psychology, Tilburg, Tilburg University Press, 1990, 43-58.

  18. INNOVATIONS AS A FACTOR OF IMPROVING QUALITY AND RELEVANCE OF MUNICIPALITIES’ CULTURE SERVICES

    OpenAIRE

    Martynova Svetlana Eduardovna

    2012-01-01

    The article considers social impact of innovative technologies implementation as well as new ways of municipal management in the sphere of culture. The subject of the study is the dynamics of municipalities’ population social satisfaction of culture service and the dynamics of demand for culture institutions’ services. The article is aimed at distinguishing social demand for innovative changes in the culture sphere as well as the dynamics analysis of social evaluation as a result of culture i...

  19. Advertising cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malefyt, Timothy de Waal; Moeran, Brian

    to the relationship between advertizing and anthropology. The link between them may come as a surprise to those who consider advertizing to be firmly rooted in commerce and anthropology in culture. Through the lens of anthropologists, this book not only shows how anthropology and advertizing are connected...... and how anthropology can be used to give an informed cultural understanding of the consumer. From constructing a "Japaneseness" that appeals to two very different Western audiences, to tracking the changes, in the post World War II period, in advertizing, and considering how people can be influenced...... by language and symbols, this book is an innovative mix of business strategy and cultural theory. Its pioneering work should provide a valuable guide to consumer behaviour for practitioners and students alike, and should pave the way for a new and exciting area of research....

  20. Spatial Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reeh, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    , the notion of aesthetics (taken in the original signification of aisthesis: sensory perception) helped to map the relations between city, human experience, and various forms of art and culture. Delving into our simultaneously optical and tactical reception of space (a dialectics pointed out by Walter...... Benjamin), studies in urbanity and aesthetics may highlight mul-tisensory everyday practices that pass unnoticed in the current era of visual domination. A humanistic approach to urban and spatial cultures should also learn from German sociologist and philosopher Georg Simmel’s hypothesis of a modern need......: Memory”, and ”Staging and Interpretation: Places”....

  1. Mayan Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hervik, Peter Bent

    1992-01-01

    The social categories « Maya » and « mestizo » habe been applied to denote the Yucatec Mayan people in Mexico. The A. examines the cluster of perceived attributes (schemata) evoked by the terms and how they relate to each other. He shows that there is an incongruency between them along the lines ...... of local and academic categorization, which is an implication of the different social spaces in which they arise. In spite of the incongruency and the cultural plurality evoked by their usage, the A. argues that the people of Yucatec share a single culture....

  2. Information cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skouvig, Laura

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to suggest a genealogy of the concept of information beyond the 20th century. The article discusses how the concept of information culture might provide a way of formulating such a genealogic strategy. The article approaches this purpose by providing a general...... narrative of premodern information cultures, examining works on early-modern scholars and 18th century savants and discussion of what seems to be a Foucauldian rupture in the conceptualization of information in 19th century England. The findings of the article are situated in the thinking that a genealogy...

  3. Cultural Usability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shi, Qingxin

    2007-01-01

    Culture has already played an important role in the global market. It not only affects products, but also impacts on usability evaluation methods. This project aims to examine in the established thinking aloud usability evaluation method (TA UEM), how does the evaluator build a supportive...... relationship and communicate effectively with the user in order to find relevant usability problems in culturally localized applications. It includes three parts, pilot study, field study and experiments, to get both qualitative data and quantitative data. From this project, we hope to find an effective way...

  4. Cultural diversity, democracy and the prospects of cosmopolitanism: a theory of cultural encounters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delanty, Gerard

    2011-12-01

    The most appropriate way of theorizing cultural diversity is to situate it in the context of a broader relational theory of culture in which the key dynamic is cultural encounters. The relational conception of culture places the emphasis on the relations between social actors and the processes by which some of these relations generate enduring cultural regularities and forms. This has important implications for political community and in particular for cosmopolitanism. It is in relationships that cultural phenomena are generated and become the basis of different kinds of political community. The paper outlines a typology of six kinds of cultural encounters and discusses four major cultural trends that variously emerge from these encounters. This approach with its emphasis on cultural encounters is the broad sociological context in which questions about cultural change and the prospects of cosmopolitanism should be discussed. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2011.

  5. Chapter 8: Youth Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stald, Gitte Bang

    2016-01-01

    no longer has to be fixed, and can be negotiated. The discussion at the end of the chapter focuses on how technology changes at an increasing pace, and how its adoption changes the way we live and interact. Mobile phone use influences interpersonal and group dynamics, from the smallest unit of society......Gitte Stald has been researching mobile technologies since their early days of adoption by younger audiences. In her talk, she focuses on adolescents and their mobile media use. Stald shares her findings from the longitudinal and cross-cultural studies she has been conducting over the years....... The chapter builds on findings from a Danish and a European context, but they can be expanded to think about mobile youth culture in general. Gitte Stald discusses the concepts of digital natives and digital immigrants, sharing, immediacy, and the feeling of presence (or absent presence), social coordination...

  6. CLASSROOM CULTURE OF PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia FĂT

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results obtained during an enquiry based on a questionnaire about the classroom culture. This concept it is understood as a micro-society with its own characteristics derived from the dynamic of socialization and training process. This research aims to investigate certain specific aspects of micro-sociology and emphasis on classroom culture. A relatively new concept is reflected by the normative consensus or the integrated system of values that belongs to the teachers, pupils and school, as a social entity. The integrative ensemble of values, class cohesion degree and training strategies are only a few of the aspects described by 62 pupils aged 17-18 years old, from a very prestigious school in Bucharest. The perception of pupils regarding our concept is the effect of the relational practices and training used constantly by the teachers. Those practices reflect the school’s focus mostly on cognitive performance.

  7. Dynamics of culturable soil microbial communities during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ecological zones impacted significantly (P < 0.05) on bacterial proliferation, but not on fungal growth. Sampling period significantly (P < 0.05) affected microbial density and the semi-arid agroecozone was more supportive of microbial proliferation than the arid zone. A total of nine predominant fungal species belonging to ...

  8. Homonormative dynamics and the subversion of culture

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Croce, Mariano

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 1 (2015), s. 3-20 ISSN 1368-4310 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-35646S Institutional support: RVO:68378122 Keywords : homonormativity * intimacy * same- sex marriage Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences Impact factor: 0.564, year: 2015

  9. Considering the cultural context in psychopathology formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junaid Hassim

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Mental health research appears to be continually transforming. Recent literature reflects a greater appreciation for the ways in which pathoplastic features of culture modulate emotional regulation. This article introduces those aspects of the literature which explore the (reconsideration of culture as a dynamic and essential construct in the clinical formulation of psychopathology. Objectives. The study aims to review literature that focuses on the dynamic influence of culture in psychopathology. Furthermore, the researchers aim to present a view on the ways in which culture appeared to shape the topography of psychopathology nosology. Method. A literature review of 31 sources. Results. The review indicated that 29 literature sources were conceptual in design, suggesting a great need for more empirical research. This section also explored themes identified during the literature review. The literature was tabulated according to features and emerging themes. Three major themes were identified and included: the cultural context; the evolving definitions of culture; and culture and psychopathology. Conclusion/discussion. An analysis of the themes was offered. The authors concluded by highlighting the significance of the literature at present. Areas of particular interest suggested that health and behaviour are dependent, at least in part, on culture; psychopathology may also be appreciated as a social construct; culture influences psychopathology regardless of the aetiology; diagnostic classes do not adequately consider operational definitions; and a greater focus on hermeneutic perceptivity in appreciating cultural dynamics in psychopathology will benefit clinical assessment.

  10. Cultural Politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotsky, Sandra

    1991-01-01

    Multicultural education has at least two faces--an academic one and an ideological one. Encouraging the balkanization of U.S. culture threatens to undermine the academic integrity of the social studies curriculum. Offers suggestions to make sure that schools are offering an academically rigorous multicultural curriculum, not political…

  11. Grindr Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shield, Andrew DJ

    2018-01-01

    intersections of sexuality with other socio-cultural categories such as race and migration background, but also gender and ability. I find that user experiences with exclusion and discrimination can be related to Grindr’s interface, such as its drop-down menus, the discourses circulated by Grindr users...

  12. Black Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Angela Khristin

    2013-01-01

    The migration of blacks in North America through slavery became united. The population of blacks passed down a tradition of artist through art to native born citizens. The art tradition involved telling stories to each generation in black families. The black culture elevated by tradition created hope to determine their personal freedom to escape…

  13. Culture Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Angela Khristin

    2013-01-01

    The migration of blacks in North America through slavery became united. The population of blacks past downs a tradition of artist through art to native born citizens. The art tradition involved telling stories to each generation in black families. The black culture elevated by tradition created hope to determine their personal freedom to escape…

  14. callus culture

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    steve

    capacity in comparison to those of grown on 75%. NH4NO3 depleted media under the same light regime. Light dependent secondary metabolite production. Initially, we have cultured wounded grape leaf explants in the dark for callus induction and monitoring possible pigmentation and phenolics accumulation. Supplemen-.

  15. Cultural Usability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shi, Qingxin

    2007-01-01

    Culture has already played an important role in the global market. It not only affects products, but also impacts on usability evaluation methods. This project aims to examine in the established thinking aloud usability evaluation method (TA UEM), how does the evaluator build a supportive...

  16. Hydroponic Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steucek, G. L.; Yurkiewicz, W. J.

    1973-01-01

    Describes a hydroponic culture technique suitable for student exercises in biology. This technique of growing plants in nutrient solutions enhances plant growth, and is an excellent way to obtain intact plants with root systems free of soil or other particulate matter. (JR)

  17. The Concept of Culture and CulturalTransformation: Views of Malik Bennabi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulaziz Berghout

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at contributing to an integrated understanding of Malik Bennabi's view of culture and cultural transformation. An attempt is made to analyze Bennabi's concepts and ideas that constitute the core of his study of culture and its dynamic civilizing function. The paper introduces Bennabi's understanding of culture as a project with a pivotal educational value. His cultural envisioning shows that ethics, aesthetics, practical reasoning and technical skills form the nucleus of any civilizational change. The paper highlights Bennabi's view that culture is an important social and educational agent of change that can restore the sense of efficacy and creativity to the Islamic society.

  18. Cultured Trash, Not Trash Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Taufiqurrohman, Taufiqurrohman; Utomo, Setyo; Wibowo, Purwo Adi

    2017-01-01

    As civilized creature, human actually can manage trash as well as possible although it is often stereotyped as a vain thing. This article gives the proof that trash can be cultured as well so that a society can take benefits from the existence of it. This article parses ways of orderly managing it at schools, in this case two schools in Jepara. The results say that trash can be cultured by having an organization to manage the Trash Bank at schools and to train students to classify and recycle...

  19. Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Culture, Conflict, and Negotiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-28

    negotiator cognition: Judgement accuracy and negotiation processes in individualistic and collectivistic cultures", Organizational Behavior and Human...Interdisciplinary perspectives on culture, conflict, and negotiation! LYNN IMAI and MICHELE J. GELFAND There is no doubt that many of the greatest...motivation, group dynamics. or globalization. The value - if not the necessity - of interdisciplinary perspectives is indisputable. Organizational

  20. Convergence of Culture and ICTs: E-Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drigas, Athanasios; Koukianakis, Lefteris

    In modern society where digital technology prevails, the combination of Information and Communication technology (ICT) and the various human activities created the term e-services. This paper presents an e-culture services portal, focusing on e-culture applications like e-literature, e-gallery and music servers. The user-visitor has the opportunity to navigate through its pages which contain a large amount of information about Greek literature, galleries and music in the form of text, images and sound. Although it started as an early e-culture application, today it has been updated with new web-based technologies, in order to be accessible by people with visual disabilities, using dynamical techniques for content management. Its goals are mainly to make the so-called "Information for All" scheme a palpable reality and secondly to spread the aforementioned Greek cultural heritage aspects to a global level.

  1. Cultural Originality

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of originality for the concept of alterity (or difference) and endorse it rather than rejecting it as the bedrock of a ..... economies and tax-paying dynamics of established nation-states. How then do we ~ and people .... The book demonstrates particularly clearly certain features of the intellec- tual artisanship of anthropological ...

  2. Talking Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmgreen, Lise-Lotte

    When Danish businesses move production abroad, ‘culture’ is often seen as a huge challenge to the successful outcome of cross-border collaboration. Therefore, business leaders often seek information and guidelines of how to cope in the vast amount of literature on culture and intercultural...... communication. Much of this literature is based on functionalist approaches providing the dos and don’ts of intercultural encounters. This involves inter alia conceptualising ‘culture’ as a relatively fixed, homogeneous entity of values, attitudes and norms shared by members of a group, often leading readers...... to adopt dichotomised understandings and discourses about other cultures (see e.g. Hofstede 2001; Jandt 1998; Trompenaars & Hampden-Turner 1997). However, experience shows that the world in which intercultural encounters take place is not as simple and easy to categorise as these approaches may suggest...

  3. MARKETING CULTURAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Gómez Ramírez

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza la definición de "Marketing" Cultural y la adaptación y beneficios del "marketing" tradicional respecto al conjunto de manifestaciones artísticas de las diversas industrias involucradas en el sector cultural o artístico; asimismo, se desagregan los conceptos básicos que lo componen como factor de éxito en dichas empresas. Se hace uso de la exposición de casos específicos para ilustrar la articulación de estos dos conceptos aparentemente contrapuestos, cultura y "marketing", y registra algunas reflexiones para que el lector se involucre en la construcción del concepto aquí presentado.

  4. Cultural neurolinguistics

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Chuansheng; Xue, Gui; Mei, Leilei; Chen, Chunhui; Dong, Qi

    2009-01-01

    As the only species that evolved to possess a language faculty, humans have been surprisingly generative in creating a diverse array of language systems. These systems vary in phonology, morphology, syntax, and written forms. Before the advent of modern brain-imaging techniques, little was known about how differences across languages are reflected in the brain. This chapter aims to provide an overview of an emerging area of research - cultural neurolinguistics - that examines systematic cross...

  5. Cultural neurolinguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chuansheng; Xue, Gui; Mei, Leilei; Chen, Chunhui; Dong, Qi

    2009-01-01

    As the only species that evolved to possess a language faculty, humans have been surprisingly generative in creating a diverse array of language systems. These systems vary in phonology, morphology, syntax, and written forms. Before the advent of modern brain-imaging techniques, little was known about how differences across languages are reflected in the brain. This chapter aims to provide an overview of an emerging area of research - cultural neurolinguistics - that examines systematic cross-cultural/crosslinguistic variations in the neural networks of languages. We first briefly describe general brain networks for written and spoken languages. We then discuss language-specific brain regions by highlighting differences in neural bases of different scripts (logographic vs. alphabetic scripts), orthographies (transparent vs. nontransparent orthographies), and tonality (tonal vs. atonal languages). We also discuss neural basis of second language and the role of native language experience in second-language acquisition. In the last section, we outline a general model that integrates culture and neural bases of language and discuss future directions of research in this area.

  6. Cultural Robotics: The Culture of Robotics and Robotics in Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooman Samani

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we have investigated the concept of “Cultural Robotics” with regard to the evolution of social into cultural robots in the 21st Century. By defining the concept of culture, the potential development of a culture between humans and robots is explored. Based on the cultural values of the robotics developers, and the learning ability of current robots, cultural attributes in this regard are in the process of being formed, which would define the new concept of cultural robotics. According to the importance of the embodiment of robots in the sense of presence, the influence of robots in communication culture is anticipated. The sustainability of robotics culture based on diversity for cultural communities for various acceptance modalities is explored in order to anticipate the creation of different attributes of culture between robots and humans in the future.

  7. La arquitectura cultural. / Cultural architecture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lobos, Jorge

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo releva la Arquitectura Cultural, que es plural y diversa en términos estéticos y conceptuales. Sugiere la apertura a otras dinámicas de comprensión de lo arquitectónico, a otras lógicas de construcción de las ciudades. Para aclarar el concepto se expone un breve ejemplo práctico./This article points out the "cultural architecture", which is plural and diverse in concept and aesthetic terms. It suggests the opening to other dinamics of comprehention of the architectural issue and the building of cities. The article presents a brief empirical example that clarifies the conceptual approach.

  8. Digital Culture and Digital Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalçın Yalçınkaya

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study; digital culture and digital library which have a vital connection with each other are examined together. The content of the research consists of the interaction of culture, information, digital culture, intellectual technologies, and digital library concepts. The study is an entry work to integrity of digital culture and digital library theories and aims to expand the symmetry. The purpose of the study is to emphasize the relation between the digital culture and digital library theories acting intersection of the subjects that are examined. Also the perspective of the study is based on examining the literature and analytical evaluation in both studies (digital culture and digital library. Within this context, the methodology of the study is essentially descriptive and has an attribute for the transmission and synthesis of distributed findings produced in the field of the research. According to the findings of the study results, digital culture is an inclusive term that describes the effects of intellectual technologies in the field of information and communication. Information becomes energy and the spectrum of the information is expanding in the vertical rise through the digital culture. In this context, the digital library appears as a new living space of a new environment. In essence, the digital library is information-oriented; has intellectual technology support and digital platform; is in a digital format; combines information resources and tools in relationship/communication/cooperation by connectedness, and also it is the dynamic face of the digital culture in time and space independence. Resolved with the study is that the digital libraries are active and effective in the formation of global knowing and/or mass wisdom in the process of digital culture.

  9. Black Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Khristin Brown

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The migration of blacks in North America through slavery became united.  The population of blacks past downs a tradition of artist through art to native born citizens. The art tradition involved telling stories to each generation in black families. The black culture elevated by tradition created hope to determine their personal freedom to escape from poverty of enslavement and to establish a way of life through tradition. A way of personal freedoms was through getting a good education that lead to a better foundation and a better way of life.

  10. Culture Jamming Versus Popular Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardia Acynthia Putri

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This literature study researched Adbusters, the anti-commercial organization, and described the organization’s activities and media usage, mainly in the period of 2007-2010, which critized the populer culture. Adbusters is an organization which performs “Culture Jamming”; a rebellious act reacting towards commercialism domination in many aspects including popular culture. Compared to other similar organizations, Adbusters has been executing more various activisms using several media which other organizations do not use. This study used the Adbusters’ official website and blogs as main data sources. The data of Adbusters’ activities and media usage were categorized and analyzed, thus the tendency of its development can be described. This study also analyzed Adbusters’ activity using Media Hegemony Theory and Political Economy Media Theory. The media has been dominated by a certain group that owns politic and economic power, so the information flow has been dominated by them. Media and its contents have been commercialized, thus capitalism and commercialism have been considered as a common system that should run the world. Adbusters has been trying to stop the domination and change the society’s way of thinking into a more critical way of thinking.   Abstrak: Studi literatur ini meneliti tentang Adbusters, sebuah organisasi anti komersial, dengan mendeskripsikan aktivitas serta penggunaan media organisasi tersebut dari tahun 2007-2010 dalam mengkritisi budaya populer. Adbusters adalah organisasi yang melakukan Culture Jamming, aksi perlawanan terhadap dominasi komersialisme di segala aspek termasuk popular culture. Dibandingkan dengan organisasi lain yang serupa, aktivitas Adbusters lebih bervariasi dan menggunakan media-media yang tidak biasa digunakan organisasi lain. Penelitian ini menggunakan situs online resmi Adbusters sebagai sumber data utama. Data mengenai aktivitas dan

  11. The Business of Politics Commerce, and Culture in East Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ooi, Can-Seng

    2016-01-01

    Review of: "Cultural Policies in East Asia: Dynamics Between the State, Arts and Creative Industries". Edited by Hye-Kyung Lee and Lorraine Lim. Basingstoke: Palgrave, Macmillan, 2014. 229 pp.......Review of: "Cultural Policies in East Asia: Dynamics Between the State, Arts and Creative Industries". Edited by Hye-Kyung Lee and Lorraine Lim. Basingstoke: Palgrave, Macmillan, 2014. 229 pp....

  12. Cultural Robotics: The Culture of Robotics and Robotics in Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Samani, Hooman; Saadatian, Elham; Pang, Natalie; Polydorou, Doros; Fernando, Owen Noel Newton; Nakatsu, Ryohei; Koh, Jeffrey Tzu Kwan Valino

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we have investigated the concept of “Cultural Robotics” with regard to the evolution of social into cultural robots in the 21st Century. By defining the concept of culture, the potential development of a culture between humans and robots is explored. Based on the cultural values of the robotics developers, and the learning ability of current robots, cultural attributes in this regard are in the process of being formed, which would define the new concept of cultural robotics. Ac...

  13. An Investigation of Organizational Culture Changes and Effectiveness at Jefferson College: 1963-Present

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaffrey, Dena M.

    2012-01-01

    A fundamental factor in the internal dynamics of a college is its culture. Central to understanding organizational culture is to minimize the occurrence and consequences of cultural conflict and help foster the development of shared goals. Modifying organizational culture is important. Without culture change, there is little hope of enduring…

  14. Culture collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David

    2012-01-01

    Culture collections no matter their size, form, or institutional objectives play a role in underpinning microbiology, supplying the resources for study, innovation, and discovery. Their basic roles include providing a mechanism for ex situ conservation of organisms; they are repositories for strains subject to publication, taking in safe, confidential, and patent deposits from researchers. They supply strains for use; therefore, the microorganisms provided must be authentic and preserved well, and any associated information must be valid and sufficient to facilitate the confirmation of their identity and to facilitate their use. The organisms must be collected in compliance with international conventions, international and national legislation and distributed to users indicating clearly the terms and conditions under which they are received and can be used. Collections are harmonizing approaches and characterizing strains to meet user needs. No one single collection can carry out this task alone, and therefore, it is important that output and strategy are coordinated to ensure culture collections deliver the basic resources and services microbiological innovation requires. This chapter describes the types of collection and how they can implement quality management systems and operate to deliver their basic functions. The links to information sources given not only provide support for the practitioners within collections but also provide guidance to users on accessing the huge resource available and how they can help ensure microbiology has the resources and a solid platform for future development. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Cultural Erosion and the Crises of Development in Nigeria | Yakubu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper explores the dynamics of cultural change and the erosion of cultural heritage vis-à-vis the consequent developmental crises that have enveloped the Nigerian nation for several decades. It is divided into five sections. In the introductory section, the concept of culture is defined, described, and contextualized within ...

  16. Postpartum Depression and Social Support in China: A Cultural Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Lu; Zhu, Ruijuan; Zhang, Xueying

    2016-09-01

    This study explored how Chinese culture affects the relationship between social support and postpartum depression. In-depth interviews with 38 mothers in mainland China showed that discrepancies between expected and perceived available social support and conflicts among social support providers are two major contributors to the stress associated with postpartum depression. These dynamics are deeply rooted in the context of Chinese culture with its distinctive gender roles and family dynamics. These cultural norms further prevent women from seeking social support.

  17. Culture-lovers and Culture-leavers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frank Huysmans; Andries van den Broek; Jos de Haan

    2005-01-01

    Who are the people in the Netherlands with an active interest in cultural heritage and the performing arts, and who prefer to leave these forms of culture alone? Have the size and composition of the groups of 'culture-lovers' and 'culture-leavers' changed since the end of the 1970s? These are the

  18. Academic Culture and Campus Culture of Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xi; Tian, Xianghong

    2012-01-01

    Academic culture of universities mainly consists of academic outlooks, academic spirits, academic ethics and academic environments. Campus culture in a university is characterized by individuality, academic feature, opening, leading, variety and creativity. The academic culture enhances the construction of campus culture. The campus culture…

  19. The Role of National Culture on Entrepreneurship: An Assessment on the Entrepreneurial Culture of Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Doğan, Ebru

    2016-01-01

    Entrepreneurship constitutes the most important dynamic of economic growth and development. With growing importance all over the world, entrepreneurship is also closely related to the social and cultural structure of a society. As the culture is a remarkable element of entrepreneurship and entrepreneurial environment, a country desiring to promote the development of entrepreneurship and emergence of more entrepreneurs would need a culture supporting entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship is...

  20. Playing up and playing down cultural identity: Introducing cultural influence and cultural variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Gail M; Nguyen, Jacqueline; Iturbide, Maria I

    2017-01-01

    Cultural variability (CV) is introduced as an overlooked dimension of cultural identity development pertaining to emphasizing and de-emphasizing the influence of a single cultural identity (i.e., cultural influence [CI]) on daily interactions and behaviors. The Cultural IDentity Influence Measure (CIDIM) is introduced as a novel measure of CI and CV, and hypothesis-driven validation is conducted in two samples along with exploration of associations between CV and well-being. A multicultural sample of 242 emerging adults participated in a daily diary study (Mage = 19.95 years, SDage = 1.40) by completing up to eight daily online surveys containing the CIDIM, criterion measures (ethnic identity, other group orientation, ethnic identity salience and daily variability in salience, social desirability), and measures of personal and interpersonal well-being. A second validation sample (n = 245) completed a 1-time survey with the CIDIM and a subset of criterion measures. Results using both samples show evidence of CI and CV and demonstrate the validity, reliability, and domain-sensitivity of the CIDIM. Further, CV made unique and positive contributions to predicting interaction quality after accounting for ethnic salience and variability in ethnic salience. An analytic approach utilizing standard deviations produced near-identical results to multilevel modeling and is recommended for parsimony. Ethnic minority and majority individuals make daily adjustments to play up and play down the influence of cultural identity on their social interactions and behaviors, and these adjustments predict interpersonal well-being. Cultural influence and cultural variability contribute to our emerging understanding of cultural identity as dynamic and agentic. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Local Culture as a Resource in Regional Development in the Southwest-Finland Archipelago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katriina Siivonen

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In cultural and regional politics in the European Union, and in practice for instance in the Southwest-Finland Archipelago, local culture and cultural heritage are considered resources. Global boundlessness, heterogeneity and change are basic qualities of culture. However, in regional development, culture is seen and used as a number of different local cultures with their own essential cultural heritage. The culture of local everyday life is opposite to, and in tension with, the construct of cultures used in regional development. Accordingly, culture should primarily be safeguarded as a heterogenic, dynamic and interactive process of everyday life. This process is the most important resource of local culture. In addition, culture should be safeguarded as value-based cultural constructions, such as brands or common identities of certain cultures, with for instance cultural heritage as a part of it. In the latter case, a common, transparent definition of these brands, identities and cultural heritages with their different values, is needed.

  2. Proteomic analysis of host cell protein dynamics in the supernatant of Fc-fusion protein-producing CHO DG44 and DUKX-B11 cell lines in batch and fed-batch cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin Hyoung; Jin, Jong Hwa; Ji, In Jung; An, Hyun Joo; Kim, Jong Won; Lee, Gyun Min

    2017-10-01

    Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are the most widely used host cell lines for the commercial production of therapeutic proteins including Fc-fusion proteins. During the culture of recombinant CHO (rCHO) cells, host cell proteins (HCPs), secreted from viable cells and released from dead cells, accumulate extracellularly, potentially impairing product quality. In this study, the HCPs that accumulated extracellularly in batch and fed-batch cultures of Fc-fusion protein-producing rCHO cell lines (DG-Fc and DUKX-Fc) were identified and quantified using nanoflow liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), followed by gene ontology and functional analysis. When the proteome database of Cricetulus griseus was used as a reference to identify the HCPs, more HCPs were identified for DG-Fc (1632 HCPs in batch culture and 1733 HCPs in fed-batch culture) than for DUKX-Fc (1114 HCPs in batch culture and 1002 HCPs in fed-batch culture). Clustering analysis of HCPs, which were classified into four clusters according to their concentration profiles during culture, showed that the concentration profiles of HCPs affecting the quality of Fc-fusion proteins correlated with changes in Fc-fusion protein quality. Taken together, the dataset of HCPs obtained in this study using the two different rCHO cell lines provides insights into the determination of appropriate target proteins to be removed during the culture and purification steps so as to ensure good Fc-fusion protein quality. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 2267-2278. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Cultural forms of thinking as translation-communicative basis of the individual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chekrygina T. A.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available social psychology approach to cultural dynamics used by the authors formed within the framework of the cultural and historical concept is a comparative analysis of cultural-historical process that helps to identify its main characteristic features of a particular cultural community, which are the most sustainable socio-cultural entities (cultural forms and perform translation-communication function of the culture impact on personality development and social relations. The authors concluded that cultural forms were the main determinants of socio-cultural identification with internal mechanism – cultural forms of thinking

  4. Understanding and assessing safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalling, Ian

    1997-01-01

    The 'Dalling' integrated model of organisational performance is introduced and described. A principal element of this model is culture, which is dynamically contrasted with the five other interacting critical elements, which comprise: the management system, the knowledge base, corporate leadership, stakeholders and consciousness. All six of these principal driving elements significantly influence health, safety, environmental, security, or any other aspect of organisational performance. It is asserted that the elements of organisational performance must be clearly defined and understood if meaningful measurements are to be carried out and sustained progress made in improving the knowledge of organisational performance. AEA Technology's safety culture research programme is then described together with the application of a safety culture assessment tool to organisations in the nuclear, electricity, transport, and oil and gas industries, both within and outside of the United Kingdom. (author)

  5. Oscillating Cell Culture Bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freed, Lisa E.; Cheng, Mingyu; Moretti, Matteo G.

    2010-01-01

    To better exploit the principles of gas transport and mass transport during the processes of cell seeding of 3D scaffolds and in vitro culture of 3D tissue engineered constructs, the oscillatory cell culture bioreactor provides a flow of cell suspensions and culture media directly through a porous 3D scaffold (during cell seeding) and a 3D construct (during subsequent cultivation) within a highly gas-permeable closed-loop tube. This design is simple, modular, and flexible, and its component parts are easy to assemble and operate, and are inexpensive. Chamber volume can be very low, but can be easily scaled up. This innovation is well suited to work with different biological specimens, particularly with cells having high oxygen requirements and/or shear sensitivity, and different scaffold structures and dimensions. The closed-loop changer is highly gas permeable to allow efficient gas exchange during the cell seeding/culturing process. A porous scaffold, which may be seeded with cells, is fixed by means of a scaffold holder to the chamber wall with scaffold/construct orientation with respect to the chamber determined by the geometry of the scaffold holder. A fluid, with/without biological specimens, is added to the chamber such that all, or most, of the air is displaced (i.e., with or without an enclosed air bubble). Motion is applied to the chamber within a controlled environment (e.g., oscillatory motion within a humidified 37 C incubator). Movement of the chamber induces relative motion of the scaffold/construct with respect to the fluid. In case the fluid is a cell suspension, cells will come into contact with the scaffold and eventually adhere to it. Alternatively, cells can be seeded on scaffolds by gel entrapment prior to bioreactor cultivation. Subsequently, the oscillatory cell culture bioreactor will provide efficient gas exchange (i.e., of oxygen and carbon dioxide, as required for viability of metabolically active cells) and controlled levels of fluid

  6. Cultural Humility and Hospital Safety Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hook, Joshua N; Boan, David; Davis, Don E; Aten, Jamie D; Ruiz, John M; Maryon, Thomas

    2016-12-01

    Hospital safety culture is an integral part of providing high quality care for patients, as well as promoting a safe and healthy environment for healthcare workers. In this article, we explore the extent to which cultural humility, which involves openness to cultural diverse individuals and groups, is related to hospital safety culture. A sample of 2011 hospital employees from four hospitals completed measures of organizational cultural humility and hospital safety culture. Higher perceptions of organizational cultural humility were associated with higher levels of general perceptions of hospital safety, as well as more positive ratings on non-punitive response to error (i.e., mistakes of staff are not held against them), handoffs and transitions, and organizational learning. The cultural humility of one's organization may be an important factor to help improve hospital safety culture. We conclude by discussing potential directions for future research.

  7. CONNECTION BETWEEN ECONOMICS, CULTURE AND CULTURAL DIPLOMACY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agil Valiyev

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Today, culture is one of the main feeble factors of economic development.  The leading role of culture in economic development should be argued as multiplied: so, on firstly, as domestic value, on secondly, as a main factor of regional economic development advanced to raised gravity of different regions for residents, tourists and investors, on thirdly, as major parameters of social development based on tolerance, creativity and knowledge. To the different international experiences, culture is main part of economic development in our life. Cultural diversities are combined into a main reason economic development model. The article consist of explainations about the understanding of culture, cultural diplomacy and economics, approach on conflicts between culture and economics, to find how affecting of culture to economic development, the role of culture in economic development of Azerbaijan. The article can be considered as a useful resource  for experts and researchers conducting research in this field.

  8. Memahami “Cultural Studies” dan Multikulturalisme dari Perspektif Pascamodern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhyar Yusuf Lubis

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Cultural studies is a study of culture, the paradigm of which is quite different fromthat of the conventional (i.e. modern studies. If we accept this view, it means that the wholeproblem of cultural reality, epistemology, and methodology cannot be used to understand andinvestigate cultural studies and multiculturalism. The infeasibility of using conventionalstudy of culture to apprehend cultural studies and multiculturalism is related with theprinciple of incommensurability between those two fields, so there are different worldviewsand rules (language games between the two. This difference is vividly showed in characterand model of study that conceives culture as homogeneity, single identity, patterned values,fragmented. Cultural studies and multiculturalism conceive culture as plurality, complexity,constructed identity, dynamics, diversity, interaction, and something porous. In light of thisworldview, cultural studies, multiculturalism, and globalism, according to my analysis, mustbe understood and studied from postmodern perspective or paradigm.

  9. Dynamics of aesthetic appreciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbon, Claus-Christian

    2012-03-01

    Aesthetic appreciation is a complex cognitive processing with inherent aspects of cold as well as hot cognition. Research from the last decades of empirical has shown that evaluations of aesthetic appreciation are highly reliable. Most frequently, facial attractiveness was used as the corner case for investigating aesthetic appreciation. Evaluating facial attractiveness shows indeed high internal consistencies and impressively high inter-rater reliabilities, even across cultures. Although this indicates general and stable mechanisms underlying aesthetic appreciation, it is also obvious that our taste for specific objects changes dynamically. Aesthetic appreciation on artificial object categories, such as fashion, design or art is inherently very dynamic. Gaining insights into the cognitive mechanisms that trigger and enable corresponding changes of aesthetic appreciation is of particular interest for research as this will provide possibilities to modeling aesthetic appreciation for longer durations and from a dynamic perspective. The present paper refers to a recent two-step model ("the dynamical two-step-model of aesthetic appreciation"), dynamically adapting itself, which accounts for typical dynamics of aesthetic appreciation found in different research areas such as art history, philosophy and psychology. The first step assumes singular creative sources creating and establishing innovative material towards which, in a second step, people adapt by integrating it into their visual habits. This inherently leads to dynamic changes of the beholders' aesthetic appreciation.

  10. Cultural Analysis - towards cross-cultural understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gullestrup, Hans

    The book considers intercultural understanding and co-action, partly by means of general insight into concept of culture and the dimensions which bring about cultural differences, and partly as a methodology to analyse a certain culture - whether one's own or others'. This leads towards...... an understanding of cultural complexity and cultural differences among people. Furthermore, the book provides a discussion of a number of ethical issues, which almost invariably will arise when people meet and co-act across cultural boundaries. Cultural Analysis consists of four parts. The first part offers...... a theoretical/abstract proposal for cultural understanding. The second part presents a theoretical/abstract proposal for under-standing intercultural plurality and complexity. The third part provides an empirical model for the analysis of intercultural co-action. Finally, the fourth part present and discusses...

  11. Exploring Culture : Exercises, Stories and Synthetic Cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, G.J.

    2002-01-01

    A unique training book containing over 100 culture awareness exercises, dialogues, stories incidents and simulations that bring to life Geert Hofstede's five dimensions of culture. These dimensions are: power distance, collectivism versus individualism, femininity versus masculinity, uncertainly

  12. A literature review of safety culture.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, Kerstan Suzanne; Stevens-Adams, Susan Marie; Wenner, Caren A.

    2013-03-01

    Workplace safety has been historically neglected by organizations in order to enhance profitability. Over the past 30 years, safety concerns and attention to safety have increased due to a series of disastrous events occurring across many different industries (e.g., Chernobyl, Upper Big-Branch Mine, Davis-Besse etc.). Many organizations have focused on promoting a healthy safety culture as a way to understand past incidents, and to prevent future disasters. There is an extensive academic literature devoted to safety culture, and the Department of Energy has also published a significant number of documents related to safety culture. The purpose of the current endeavor was to conduct a review of the safety culture literature in order to understand definitions, methodologies, models, and successful interventions for improving safety culture. After reviewing the literature, we observed four emerging themes. First, it was apparent that although safety culture is a valuable construct, it has some inherent weaknesses. For example, there is no common definition of safety culture and no standard way for assessing the construct. Second, it is apparent that researchers know how to measure particular components of safety culture, with specific focus on individual and organizational factors. Such existing methodologies can be leveraged for future assessments. Third, based on the published literature, the relationship between safety culture and performance is tenuous at best. There are few empirical studies that examine the relationship between safety culture and safety performance metrics. Further, most of these studies do not include a description of the implementation of interventions to improve safety culture, or do not measure the effect of these interventions on safety culture or performance. Fourth, safety culture is best viewed as a dynamic, multi-faceted overall system composed of individual, engineered and organizational models. By addressing all three components of

  13. Cultural Diversity: Implications For Workplace Management

    OpenAIRE

    Donatus I. Amaram

    2011-01-01

    The acceptance and management of cultural diversity have been promoted and touted as a positive tool in social and organizational engineering aimed at solving and preventing group dynamics problems in both business organizations and society as well. Positive attributes of cultural integration in business organizations have received fair and significant attention in the past two decades. What have not been sufficiently presented are the challenges and pitfalls inherent in the management of cul...

  14. Culture and managers in a globalised world

    OpenAIRE

    Giousmpasoglou, Charalampos; Marinakou, Evangelia

    2016-01-01

    The dynamic nature of the management function in global business today and the realisation that what works effectively in one country may not be as efficient in another has led management scholars and practising managers in continuous efforts to enhance their understanding of this environment and its effects to managers. This chapter explores management across cultures. The discussion starts with the origin and definition of cross cultural management; then it is focused on the study of the In...

  15. Revisiting cultural awareness and cultural relevancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abi-Hashem, Naji

    2015-10-01

    Comments on the original article by Christopher et al. (see record 2014-20055-001) regarding critical cultural awareness. The more insights and exploration of the meaning and influence of culture we receive, the better. There is no single treatment of any personal or collective culture(s) that can be inherently complete or totally exhaustive. New hermeneutics and skills are always needed, appreciated, and refreshing. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Cultural Understanding Through Cross-Cultural Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briere, Jean-Francois

    1986-01-01

    A college course used an explicit intercultural approach and collective research activities to compare French and American cultures and to examine the reasons for cultural attitudes and culture conflict. Class assignments dealt with contrastive analyses of American and French institutions like advertising, cinema, feminism, etc. (MSE)

  17. Microalgal Culture Collection Transfers

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Milford Microalgal culture Collection holds over 200 live cultures representing 13 classes of of algae. The cultures are maintained in three different growing...

  18. Urethral discharge culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genital exudate culture; Culture - genital discharge or exudate; Urethritis - culture ... Augenbraun MH, McCormack WM. Urethritis. In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases . 8th ed. ...

  19. Urine culture - catheterized specimen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culture - urine - catheterized specimen; Urine culture - catheterization; Catheterized urine specimen culture ... Normal values depend on the test being performed. Normal results are reported as "no growth" and are a sign ...

  20. Organizations, projects and culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. van Cleeff; Pieter van Nispen tot Pannerden

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: to explore and demonstrate the effects of organizational culture on projects, in particular project culture and project management style. Methodology/approach: descriptive and explorative; through students’ groups. Findings: the cultural relationship between organizations, their projects

  1. Lymph node culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culture - lymph node ... or viruses grow. This process is called a culture. Sometimes, special stains are also used to identify specific cells or microorganisms before culture results are available. If needle aspiration does not ...

  2. Routine sputum culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sputum culture ... There, it is placed in a special dish (culture). It is then watched to see if bacteria ... Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Culture, routine. In: Chernecky CC, Berger BJ, ... . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:409- ...

  3. Cross-cultural awareness

    OpenAIRE

    БУРЯК Н.Ю.

    2016-01-01

    The article deals with the importance of cultural awareness for businesspeople when they go abroad. It also gives some cultural advice and factors which are thought to be the most important in creating a culture.

  4. Developing cultural sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruddock, Heidi; Turner, deSalle

    2007-01-01

    Title. Developing cultural sensitivity: nursing students’ experiences of a study abroad programme Aim. This paper is a report of a study to explore whether having an international learning experience as part of a nursing education programme promoted cultural sensitivity in nursing students....... Background. Many countries are becoming culturally diverse, but healthcare systems and nursing education often remain mono-cultural and focused on the norms and needs of the majority culture. To meet the needs of all members of multicultural societies, nurses need to develop cultural sensitivity...... on the deliver of culturally sensitive care. Keywords: cultural sensitivity, nursing students, empirical research, report, interviews, study abroad programmes, phenomenology...

  5. A Culture-Behavior-Brain Loop Model of Human Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shihui; Ma, Yina

    2015-11-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that cultural influences on brain activity are associated with multiple cognitive and affective processes. These findings prompt an integrative framework to account for dynamic interactions between culture, behavior, and the brain. We put forward a culture-behavior-brain (CBB) loop model of human development that proposes that culture shapes the brain by contextualizing behavior, and the brain fits and modifies culture via behavioral influences. Genes provide a fundamental basis for, and interact with, the CBB loop at both individual and population levels. The CBB loop model advances our understanding of the dynamic relationships between culture, behavior, and the brain, which are crucial for human phylogeny and ontogeny. Future brain changes due to cultural influences are discussed based on the CBB loop model. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Safeguards Culture: Analogies from Safety Culture and Security Culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naito, K.

    2013-01-01

    The terminology of 'safeguards culture' has been used loosely by safeguards experts as an essential element for establishing an organizational environment of stakeholders for the effective and efficient implementation of international safeguards. However, unlike the other two triplet brothers/ sisters of 3S's (Safety, Security, Safeguards), there is no formally established definition of safeguards culture. In the case of safety culture, INSAG (the International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group) has extensively dealt with its concept, elaborating its definition and key characteristics, and published its report, INSAG-4, as the IAEA Safety Series 75. On the other hand, security culture has also been defined by AdSec (the Advisory Group on Nuclear Security). In this paper, a provisional definition of safeguards culture is made on the analogies of safety culture and security culture, and an effort is made to describe essential elements of safeguards culture. It is proposed for SAGSI (the Standing Advisory Group on Safeguards Implementation) to formally consider the definition of safeguards culture and its characteristics. The paper is followed by the slides of the presentation. (author)

  7. FROM CULTURAL IMPOTENCE TO CULTURAL AMPUTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Вячеслав Владимирович Суханов

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Cultural space of any state is formed by a population that is within its borders. In this article, the author introduces a new cultural definitions «cultural impotence» and «cultural amputation», justifying their use, both in terms of population of the Russian Federation and the European Union and America. The article analyzes the state of society and the cultural factors that influence the development of society in Russia, there are options to bring the country out of a deep cultural crisis. Also established a close relationship between the domestic policy of the state and development of culture.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-2-1

  8. La Dialectique culturelle et le devenir de la France (France's Cultural Dialectics and Evolution).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labat, Joseph

    1980-01-01

    Analyzes the evolution of French culture during the last thirty years as a series of steps towards the acquisition of a second culture by the individual and by the whole civilization. Describes the dynamics of cultural change as a process of interaction and mutual enrichment involving the individual and the culture. (MES)

  9. Nuevos turistas en busca de un nuevo producto: El patrimonio cultural

    OpenAIRE

    Martín de la Rosa, Beatriz

    2003-01-01

    The tourism is dynamic. At the present time, the tourists want nature and culture, not only sun and beach. New tourists and new products (Cultural tourism) appear. To analyze some of these consequences is objetive of this article

  10. Modeling safety culture as a socially emergent phenomenon: a case study in aircraft maintenance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Passenier, D.F.; Mols, C.; Bím, J.; Sharpanskykh, A.

    2016-01-01

    Safety culture is often understood as encompassing organizational members’ shared attitudes, beliefs, perceptions and values associated with safety. Safety culture theory development is fraught with inconsistencies and superficiality of measurement methods, because the dynamic and political nature

  11. Signs of universality in the structure of culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Băbeanu, Alexandru-Ionuţ; Talman, Leandros; Garlaschelli, Diego

    2017-11-01

    Understanding the dynamics of opinions, preferences and of culture as whole requires more use of empirical data than has been done so far. It is clear that an important role in driving this dynamics is played by social influence, which is the essential ingredient of many quantitative models. Such models require that all traits are fixed when specifying the "initial cultural state". Typically, this initial state is randomly generated, from a uniform distribution over the set of possible combinations of traits. However, recent work has shown that the outcome of social influence dynamics strongly depends on the nature of the initial state. If the latter is sampled from empirical data instead of being generated in a uniformly random way, a higher level of cultural diversity is found after long-term dynamics, for the same level of propensity towards collective behavior in the short-term. Moreover, if the initial state is randomized by shuffling the empirical traits among people, the level of long-term cultural diversity is in-between those obtained for the empirical and uniformly random counterparts. The current study repeats the analysis for multiple empirical data sets, showing that the results are remarkably similar, although the matrix of correlations between cultural variables clearly differs across data sets. This points towards robust structural properties inherent in empirical cultural states, possibly due to universal laws governing the dynamics of culture in the real world. The results also suggest that this dynamics might be characterized by criticality and involve mechanisms beyond social influence.

  12. Bridging User Requirements and Cultural Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadzilias, Elias; Carugati, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    This chapter aims at defining a framework for the design of e-Government services on cultural heritage. Starting from an analysis of three cases on digitisation of different types of cultural objects the author highlights the problems existing in the creation of e-services on cultural heritage....... These cases show the existence of four key issues in the development of this kind of information systems: digitisation, requirements engineering, standardisation and interoperability. The proposed framework addresses these issues focusing on the user requirements and the cultural object representation....... Dynamic content exchange requires the use of a prescriptive framework for the development of cultural heritage websites. This chapter provides such a framework using observation from concrete applications and knowledge of information systems development methodologies....

  13. Adaptation and creativity in cultural context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonora M. Cohen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Adaptation is the fit between the individual and the environment. The dynamic interplay between person, culture, and environment is one of the most important issues in analyzing creativity. Adaptation is defined as the fit or adjustment of the individual to external conditions, but adaptation can also mean moving from one environment to another more suitable, or even forcing the environment to adapt in response to creative efforts. Culture impacts creativity in limiting acceptable boundaries, yet providing the artifacts used in creating. Culture is impacted and changed by creative efforts. Tight conformity to confining environments or cultures can stifle. The creator must be aware of cultural values and not overstep these boundaries for work to be accepted. A developmental continuum of adaptive, creative behaviors suggests a shift from individual adaptation to the environment to adaptation by the world to the individual.

  14. How Cultural Knowledge Shapes Core Design Thinking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Torkil; Ranjan, Apara; Bødker, Mads

    2017-01-01

    The growing trend of co-creation and co-design in cross-cultural design teams presents challenges for the design thinking process. We integrate two frameworks, one on reasoning patterns in design thinking, the other on the dynamic constructivist theory of culture, to propose a situation specific...... framework for the empirical analysis of design thinking in cross-cultural teams. We illustrate the framework with a qualitative analysis of 16 episodes of design related conversations, which are part of a design case study. The results show that cultural knowledge, either as shared by the cross......-cultural team or group specific knowledge of some team members, shape the reasoning patterns in the design thinking process across all the 16 episodes. Most of the design discussions were approached by the designers as problem situations that were formulated in a backward direction, where the value to create...

  15. Examining cultural drifts in artworks through history and development: cultural comparisons between Japanese and western landscape paintings and drawings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nand, Kristina; Masuda, Takahiko; Senzaki, Sawa; Ishii, Keiko

    2014-01-01

    Research on cultural products suggest that there are substantial cultural variations between East Asian and European landscape masterpieces and contemporary members' landscape artwork (Masuda et al., 2008c), and that these cultural differences in drawing styles emerge around the age of 8 (Senzaki et al., 2014b). However, culture is not static. To explore the dynamics of historical and ontogenetic influence on artistic expressions, we examined (1) 17-20th century Japanese and Western landscape masterpieces, and (2) cross-sectional adolescent data in landscape artworks alongside previous findings of elementary school-aged children, and undergraduates. The results showed cultural variations in artworks and masterpieces as well as substantial "cultural drifts" (Herskovits, 1948) where at certain time periods in history and in development, people's expressions deviated from culturally default patterns but occasionally returned to its previous state. The bidirectional influence of culture and implications for furthering the discipline of cultural psychology will be discussed.

  16. Entrepreneurship, cultural cluster and evolution of creative city atmospheres: The case of design industries in Taipei.

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng-Yi, Lin

    2012-01-01

    Entrepreneurship is a crucial dynamic not only driving clustering of cultural/creative industries but also fostering the evolution of creative city atmospheres. Existing research of local cultural entrepreneurship have more focused on organizational and management practice of cultural industry in western experience , rather than less concentrated on the socio-spatial dynamics of cultural entrepreneurship as the evolution mechanism of creative city atmospheres in an Asia context. While the clu...

  17. Semiclassical dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balazs, N.L.

    1979-01-01

    It is pointed out that in semiclassical dynamics one is encouraged to study the evolution of those curves in phase space which classically represent ensembles corresponding to wave functions. It is shown that the fixed points generate new time scales so that for times longer than the critical times, quantum dynamics will profoundly differ from classical dynamics. (P.L.)

  18. Dynamical Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Huimin

    The following sections are included: * Definition of Dynamical Languages * Distinct Excluded Blocks * Definition and Properties * L and L″ in Chomsky Hierarchy * A Natural Equivalence Relation * Symbolic Flows * Symbolic Flows and Dynamical Languages * Subshifts of Finite Type * Sofic Systems * Graphs and Dynamical Languages * Graphs and Shannon-Graphs * Transitive Languages * Topological Entropy

  19. Many Forms of Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Adam B.

    2009-01-01

    Psychologists interested in culture have focused primarily on East-West differences in individualism-collectivism, or independent-interdependent self-construal. As important as this dimension is, there are many other forms of culture with many dimensions of cultural variability. Selecting from among the many understudied cultures in psychology,…

  20. HPT: The Culture Factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addison, Roger M.; Wittkuhn, Klaus D.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the challenges in managing performance across national cultures and within changing corporate cultures. Describes two human performance technology tools that can help performance consultants understand different cultures and provide the basis for successful management action: the culture audit and the systems model that can be adapted…

  1. Journal of Cultural Studies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of Cultural Studies was established in 1999 as an independent tool for research development in Africa. It is published by the Nigerian Group for the Study of African Cultures (NIGSAC), a non-profit organisation which focuses on cultural and development issues in Africa. The journal aims to explore the varied socio-cultural ...

  2. Reflections on Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Lisette

    1999-01-01

    Examines aspects of cross-cultural studies, delineates a concept of culture, explores the interplay of culture and ethics, and analyzes the shifting cultural and economic values as issues that either the economists or the humanists will deal with under the banner of the future global village. (Author/VWL)

  3. Aging in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Helene H

    2013-06-01

    This article reviews the empirical studies that test socioemotional aging across cultures. The review focuses on comparisons between Western (mostly North Americans and Germans) and Eastern cultures (mostly Chinese) in areas including age-related personality, social relationships, and cognition. Based on the review, I argue that aging is a meaning-making process. Individuals from each cultural context internalize cultural values with age. These internalized cultural values become goals that guide adult development. When individuals from different cultures each pursue their own goals with age, cultural differences in socioemotional aging occur.

  4. Religious culture as a barrier?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agergaard, Sine

    2016-01-01

    Political interventions, media coverage and research often refer to the underrepresentation of ethnic minorities, particularly girls and women, participating in physical activity and organised sports. In both public and academic debates, reference is made to the religious culture as a particular...... barrier to participation in sports among Muslim girls and women. This article aims to provide a counter-narrative by focusing on young Muslim girls who simultaneously practice their religion and sports. The main research question was: How do young Danish Muslim girls align participation in sports...... religion as hegemonic, embodied and dynamic cultural phenomena, the analysis points to the diversity through which Muslim girls and women participate and engage in sports. Finally, the article discusses the extent to which counter-narratives may contribute to changing perspectives on so-called hard...

  5. Conceptualizing cultures of violence and cultural change

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, J. Carter

    2007-01-01

    The historiography of violence has undergone a distinct cultural turn as attention has shifted from examining violence as a clearly defined (and countable) social problem to analysing its historically defined 'social meaning'. Nevertheless, the precise nature of the relationship between 'violence' and 'culture' is still being established. How are 'cultures of violence' formed? What impact do they have on violent behaviour? How do they change? This essay examines some of the conceptual aspects...

  6. Organizational Culture and Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth A. Martinez; Nancy Beaulieu; Robert Gibbons; Peter Pronovost; Thomas Wang

    2015-01-01

    Organizations are all around us. Culture is trickier—to analyze and even to see. We consider both the effect of management on culture and the effect of culture on performance. We begin by describing an intervention that dramatically improved outcomes and conspicuously included a culture-change component. We then use details from this intervention to describe potential empirical analyses of the association between organizational culture and performance in this and similar settings. Finally, we...

  7. Inferring cultural models from corpus data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kim Ebensgaard

    2015-01-01

    on three instantiations of the construction – namely, [too young to V], [too proud to V], and [too macho to V] – to see whether there are patterns in their ranges of coattracted verbs that are indicative of force-dynamic relations in cultural models of age, pride, and machismo respectively....

  8. Consumer Culture Theory: Ideology, Mythology and Meaning in Technology Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bajde, Domen

    2014-01-01

    Consumer culture theory helps us take note of the cultural forces and dynamics in which technology consumption is entangled. It enables people to articulate the cultural processes (ideological, mythic, ritualistic, etc.) through which cultural meanings become granted to or denied to technological...... innovations, thus shaping the value of technologies as cultural resources sustaining consumer identities. In its urge to shed light on these aspects, CCT tends to reinforce the gaps and asymmetries between the “socio-cultural” and the “techno-material”, leaving plenty of room for further study. The authors...

  9. Technological, mediatic and cultural hybridisation: Cultural mediations in the context of globalisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laan Mendes de Barros

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We live in a context of borders that are dissolving in many senses, of the convergence and hybridisation of technologies, mass media and cultures. The context is the resizing of practical time, of movements and links between the local and the global. In these times of interculturality, communication plays a very important role; not so much in its technological media dimension, but particularly in the dynamics of cultural mediations that are dividing off from mediatised relations. This article aims to reflect on the transformations in present-day communication processes, marked by strong movements of hybridisation, as well as examining how to consider interculturality in the context of cultural mediations, based on dialogue between Latin American and French authors. Also, using media material, the article presents illustrations of the Brazilian cultural scene, which is marked by a long history of hybridisation that is filled with intercultural dynamics.

  10. DYNAMICS OF SYMBOLS AS TRANSCULTURAL POETICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson Vagner de Oliveira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at reflecting on the poetic possibilities of productions that take the encounter of cultures as compositional element to discuss issues beyond the limits of literature and culture. Thus, we sought to demonstrate the dynamics of cross-cultural symbolic systems through the political play A Revolta da Casa dos Ídolos (1978 by Pepetela in order to propose new understandings of the social reality in contemporary Angola.

  11. Managing organizational culture within a management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comeau, L.; Watts, G.

    2009-01-01

    The Point Lepreau Generating Station (PLGS) is currently undergoing a major refurbishment of its nuclear reactor. At the same time, a small team is designing the organization that will operate the plant after refurbishment. This paper offers a high level overview of the Post-Refurbishment Organization (PRO) project and will focus primarily on the approach used to address organizational culture and human system dynamics. We will describe how various tools, used to assess organization culture, team performance, and individual self-understanding, are used collectively to place the right person in the right position. We will explain how the career system, Pathfinder, is used to integrate these tools to support a comprehensive model for organization design and development. Finally, we demonstrate how the management of organizational cultural and human system dynamics are integrated into the PLGS Integrated Management System. (author)

  12. Game-Changing Innovations: How Culture Can Change the Parameters of Its Own Evolution and Induce Abrupt Cultural Shifts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oren Kolodny

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the most puzzling features of the prehistoric record of hominid stone tools is its apparent punctuation: it consists of abrupt bursts of dramatic change that separate long periods of largely unchanging technology. Within each such period, small punctuated cultural modifications take place. Punctuation on multiple timescales and magnitudes is also found in cultural trajectories from historical times. To explain these sharp cultural bursts, researchers invoke such external factors as sudden environmental change, rapid cognitive or morphological change in the hominids that created the tools, or replacement of one species or population by another. Here we propose a dynamic model of cultural evolution that accommodates empirical observations: without invoking external factors, it gives rise to a pattern of rare, dramatic cultural bursts, interspersed by more frequent, smaller, punctuated cultural modifications. Our model includes interdependent innovation processes that occur at different rates. It also incorporates a realistic aspect of cultural evolution: cultural innovations, such as those that increase food availability or that affect cultural transmission, can change the parameters that affect cultural evolution, thereby altering the population's cultural dynamics and steady state. This steady state can be regarded as a cultural carrying capacity. These parameter-changing cultural innovations occur very rarely, but whenever one occurs, it triggers a dramatic shift towards a new cultural steady state. The smaller and more frequent punctuated cultural changes, on the other hand, are brought about by innovations that spur the invention of further, related, technology, and which occur regardless of whether the population is near its cultural steady state. Our model suggests that common interpretations of cultural shifts as evidence of biological change, for example the appearance of behaviorally modern humans, may be unwarranted.

  13. An anthropology of learning on nested frictions in cultural ecologies

    CERN Document Server

    Hasse, Cathrine

    2015-01-01

    This book has one explicit purpose: to present a new theory of cultural learning in organisations which combines practice-based learning with cultural models - a cognitive anthropological schema theory of taken-for-granted connections - tied to the everyday meaningful use of artefacts. The understanding of culture as emerging in a process of learning open up for new understandings, which is useful for researchers, practitioners and students interested in dynamic studies of culture and cultural studies of organisations. The new approach goes beyond culture as a static, essentialist entity and open for our possibility to learn in organisations across national cultures, across ethnicity and across the apparently insurmountable local educational differences which makes it difficult for people to communicate working together in an increasingly globalized world. The empirical examples are mainly drawn from organisations of education and science which are melting-pots of cultural encounters.

  14. Cultural considerations in the criminal law: the sentencing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehnlein, James K; Schaefer, Michele N; Bloom, Joseph D

    2005-01-01

    In forensic psychiatry, there is increasing recognition of the importance of culture and ethnicity in the criminal justice process as the population becomes more culturally diverse. However, there has been little consideration of the role of cultural factors in the trial process for criminal defendants, particularly in the sentencing phase of trial. Using a capital murder case study, this article explores the role of cultural forensic psychiatric consultation, focusing on the sentencing phase of trial as the place where the full scope and power of a cultural evaluation can be brought most effectively to the attention of the court. Cultural psychiatric perspectives can enrich a core forensic evaluation and be maximally helpful to the court, by exploring family dynamics and psychological health influenced by cultural history, immigrant and refugee experiences, and sociocultural environment. Specific recommendations and cautions for effective cultural consultation in forensic psychiatry are discussed.

  15. Incorporating organisational safety culture within ergonomics practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Tim; Tappin, David

    2010-10-01

    This paper conceptualises organisational safety culture and considers its relevance to ergonomics practice. Issues discussed in the paper include the modest contribution that ergonomists and ergonomics as a discipline have made to this burgeoning field of study and the significance of safety culture to a systems approach. The relevance of safety culture to ergonomics work with regard to the analysis, design, implementation and evaluation process, and implications for participatory ergonomics approaches, are also discussed. A potential user-friendly, qualitative approach to assessing safety culture as part of ergonomics work is presented, based on a recently published conceptual framework that recognises the dynamic and multi-dimensional nature of safety culture. The paper concludes by considering the use of such an approach, where an understanding of different aspects of safety culture within an organisation is seen as important to the success of ergonomics projects. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: The relevance of safety culture to ergonomics practice is a key focus of this paper, including its relationship with the systems approach, participatory ergonomics and the ergonomics analysis, design, implementation and evaluation process. An approach to assessing safety culture as part of ergonomics work is presented.

  16. An investigation of the relationship between innovation and cultural diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandler, Anne; Laland, Kevin N

    2009-08-01

    In this paper we apply reaction-diffusion models to explore the relationship between the rate of behavioural innovation and the level of cultural diversity. We investigate how both independent invention and the modification and refinement of established innovations impact on cultural dynamics and diversity. Further, we analyse these relationships in the presence of biases in cultural learning and find that the introduction of new variants typically increases cultural diversity substantially in the short term, but may decrease long-term diversity. Independent invention generally supports higher levels of cultural diversity than refinement. Repeated patterns of innovation through refinement generate characteristic oscillating trends in diversity, with increasing trends towards greater average diversity observed for medium but not low innovation rates. Conformity weakens the relationship between innovation and diversity. The level of cultural diversity, and pattern of temporal dynamics, potentially provide clues as to the underlying process, which can be used to interpret empirical data.

  17. Cultural Evolutionary Perspectives on Creativity and Human Innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, Laurel; Creanza, Nicole; Feldman, Marcus W

    2015-12-01

    Cultural traits originate through creative or innovative processes, which might be crucial to understanding how culture evolves and accumulates. However, because of its complexity and apparent subjectivity, creativity has remained largely unexplored as the dynamic underpinning of cultural evolution. Here, we explore the approach to innovation commonly taken in theoretical studies of cultural evolution and discuss its limitations. Drawing insights from cognitive science, psychology, archeology, and even animal behavior, it is possible to generate a formal description of creativity and to incorporate a dynamic theory of creativity into models of cultural evolution. We discuss the implications of such models for our understanding of the archaeological record and the history of hominid culture. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Family, alcohol, and culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, L A

    1989-01-01

    During the 1970s and 1980s a small but rich tradition of anthropological and sociological studies of family culture, cultural context, and alcohol has developed. Ideally, ethnographic analysis of a cultural group and in-depth holistic examination of family process are incorporated in such research. In conducting family, culture, and alcohol investigations, researchers are encouraged to reexamine some conceptual assumptions: (1) their working definition of culture; (2) their relative emphasis on family culture or cultural context; (3) their attention to socialization as an active process in the transmission of culture within and across generations; and (4) their adoption of a holistic and cross-generational perspective. To apply this line of research to preventive and intervention strategies, two questions are especially relevant: Why are particular alcohol traditions established and maintained within families? What incentives and constraints from the family's cultural context help create, preserve, and/or terminate particular drinking practices?

  19. Cultural Literacy: Negotiating Language, Culture, and Thought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Ellen Riojas; Flores, Belinda Bustos

    2007-01-01

    Our schools see increasing numbers of students who reflect the wide diversity of this country's population, but too often these differences--culture, language, socioeconomic backgrounds, ethnicity are viewed from negative or deficit perspectives when they are, in fact, the cultural capital that enriches discussion, broadens viewpoints, and…

  20. The Effect of Globalization on Tanzanian Culture: A Review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Globalization has a lot of controversies with regard to the rise of global culture. American and Western norms and practices are gradually being transported across the globe as acceptable ways of behaviour. In view of this, the rich and dynamic Tanzanian culture is being diluted. This paper critically assesses influence of ...

  1. An assessment of the impact of organizational culture on employee ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Understanding the dynamism of organizational culture and its relationship to employee performance is very crucial to organizational strategic objectives. The primary aim of this paper is to assessthe impact of organizational culture on employee performance. Literature review and library research are adopted to assess how ...

  2. Mexico City's Indios Verdes: Exploring Cultural Processes Using Public Memorials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Seth

    2010-01-01

    Finding ways to convey current research in cultural geography that is predicated on theoretical frameworks in a manner accessible to high school and undergraduate college students is pedagogically important but difficult in practice. Statues in Mexico City nicknamed the Indios Verdes offer a rich example of fluid cultural dynamics that illustrate…

  3. World Culture and ICT use – a Study from Bhutan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zander, Pär-Ola Mikael; Choeda, Choeda; Dukpa, Dorji

    2015-01-01

    permeated institutions across the world. Such cultures can be said to consist of a dynamic system of values, beliefs, behaviours, norms, rules, tools and technologies, and show similar patterns across the world. If such a culture is present to the degree argued by World Culturalists, the scope for mutual...

  4. Cultural commodity chains, cultural clusters, or cultural production chains?

    OpenAIRE

    Andy C. Pratt

    2008-01-01

    The paper begins with a discussion of the definition of cultural industries. The paper's three main themes are concerned with, first: 1) a contestation of the generic application of the global commodity chain concept, 2) the need for a unique focus on cultural industries associated with the particular nature of its production process, and 3) the role of embedded judgments of quality is an integral part of this process. Second, the paper suggests that a restyled focus on production chains (inv...

  5. Robotic art, culture and cultural imagination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romic, Bojana

    2015-01-01

    In the recent years there has been an ongoing debate about the notion and (possible) function of robotic culture; with the development of the new generation of drones, as well as the advancement in social and health robotics, questions about robot culture seem to open a variety of discussions...... – beginning with the inquiry of how can we grasp the notion of culture, as an umbrella term for the range of habitual and technological practices, in relation to equally heterogeneous field of robotics. This article aims to accentuate the importance of cultural imagination of robots in situating the robotic...... research, observing it 'as a mixed register of fantasy and an actual practice' (Kakoudaki, 2007). The emphasis will be put on the robotic art which, I argue, is in the fluid state of exchange with other areas of robotic research, equally benefiting from the larger context of cultural imagination of robots...

  6. Culture Wars in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørum, Tania

    2016-01-01

    In the 1960s high and low culture were brought into sharp conflict i Denmark. In 1961 a Ministry of Culture was established for the first time. The first minister of culture, the social democrat Julius Bomholt, saw art and culture as an important part of education for democracy that should be made...... available to everyone. The general public, however, raised demands for more popular and relaxing entertainment. The confrontation between the cultural elite and popular opinion escalated to a series of veritable culture wars....

  7. Culture as Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kacunko, Slavko

    A collection of essays 2011-2014 By following, and reproducing, the cultural turn, the rhetoric of cultural mix and hybridism is disseminated today primarily in its crossing of trade barriers. Cultures reduced to their exchange value function as capital - an accumulative, speculative and, ultimat......A collection of essays 2011-2014 By following, and reproducing, the cultural turn, the rhetoric of cultural mix and hybridism is disseminated today primarily in its crossing of trade barriers. Cultures reduced to their exchange value function as capital - an accumulative, speculative and...

  8. Jumping Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sannino, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    We propose an alternative paradigm to the conjectured Miransky scaling potentially underlying the physics describing the transition from the conformally broken to the conformally restored phase when tuning certain parameters such as the number of flavors in gauge theories. According to the new pa...... without particle interpretation. The jumping scenario, therefore, does not support a near-conformal dynamics of walking type. We will also discuss the impact of jumping dynamics on the construction of models of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking....

  9. Dynamical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Sternberg, Shlomo

    2010-01-01

    Celebrated mathematician Shlomo Sternberg, a pioneer in the field of dynamical systems, created this modern one-semester introduction to the subject for his classes at Harvard University. Its wide-ranging treatment covers one-dimensional dynamics, differential equations, random walks, iterated function systems, symbolic dynamics, and Markov chains. Supplementary materials offer a variety of online components, including PowerPoint lecture slides for professors and MATLAB exercises.""Even though there are many dynamical systems books on the market, this book is bound to become a classic. The the

  10. Dynamics Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Dynamics Lab replicates vibration environments for every Navy platform. Testing performed includes: Flight Clearance, Component Improvement, Qualification, Life...

  11. The impacts of the Öræfajökull eruption in AD 1362 and climate change on cultural landscape dynamics in the province of Öræfi south of Vatnajökull glacier, Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurmundsson, F.; Gísladóttir, G.; Erlendsson, E.

    2013-12-01

    Environmental changes can be attributed to both natural processes and human influences. The aim of this study is to examine the effects of volcanism and climate change on the development of land quality and cultural landscapes in the province of Öræfi in the Austur-Skaftafellssýsla district, south of Vatnajökull glacier, over the last 1100 years. Few areas in Iceland are as vulnerable to climate changes and volcanic eruptions as the region south of Vatnajökull glacier. The region has been repeatedly affected by tephra fallout from explosive eruptions, most notably the Öræfajökull eruption in AD 1362. This research employs historical written sources to investigate changes in the cultural and natural landscape. Historical and palaeoenvironmental data will be accumulated and stored in a database designed for the research, allowing data to be analyzed and presented on maps. Preliminary results show that from the onset of the settlement in the late 9th century until AD 1362 Öræfi was a wealthy, densely populated farming society, with many large farm estates and large number of livestock (cattle and sheep) sustained by the natural vegetation. The farm estates were 40 by the mid 14th century and the churches were four. The first records of land ownership show that the Church had accumulated the most valuable holdings in Öræfi shortly before the Öræfajökull volcanic eruption in AD 1362. Out of the 40 farm estates 12 belonged to the Church and on a national scale the churches in Öræfi were richer in livestock, sacramentals and missals compared to churches in other parts of Iceland. The Öræfajökull volcanic eruption in AD 1362 had devastating long term impact on the settlement and terrestrial ecosystem in Öræfi. The area was abandoned following the eruption and in the early 15th century only eight out of the 40 farm estates prior to the eruption were settled. The values of the estates shrunk dramatically as did the arable land. The number of churches

  12. Cultural consultation as a model for training multidisciplinary mental healthcare professionals in cultural competence skills: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owiti, J A; Ajaz, A; Ascoli, M; de Jongh, B; Palinski, A; Bhui, K S

    2014-01-01

    Lack of cultural competence in care contributes to poor experiences and outcomes from care for migrants and racial and ethnic minorities. As a result, health and social care organizations currently promote cultural competence of their workforce as a means of addressing persistent poor experiences and outcomes. At present, there are unsystematic and diverse ways of promoting cultural competence, and their impact on clinician skills and patient outcomes is unknown. We developed and implemented an innovative model, cultural consultation service (CCS), to promote cultural competence of clinicians and directly improve on patient experiences and outcomes from care. CCS model is an adaptation of the McGill model, which uses ethnographic methodology and medical anthropological knowledge. The method and approach not only contributes both to a broader conceptual and dynamic understanding of culture, but also to learning of cultural competence skills by healthcare professionals. The CCS model demonstrates that multidisciplinary workforce can acquire cultural competence skills better through the clinical encounter, as this promotes integration of learning into day-to-day practice. Results indicate that clinicians developed a broader and patient-centred understanding of culture, and gained skills in narrative-based assessment method, management of complexity of care, competing assumptions and expectations, and clinical cultural formulation. Cultural competence is defined as a set of skills, attitudes and practices that enable the healthcare professionals to deliver high-quality interventions to patients from diverse cultural backgrounds. Improving on the cultural competence skills of the workforce has been promoted as a way of reducing ethnic and racial inequalities in service outcomes. Currently, diverse models for training in cultural competence exist, mostly with no evidence of effect. We established an innovative narrative-based cultural consultation service in an inner

  13. Organizing Construction Practices in Different Cultural Contexts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Christian; Rasmussen, Christian K. S.

    2013-01-01

    a number of characteristics and challenges related to the cultural context have been identified highlighting a central issue in existing and future construction practices due to the globalization and thereby increasing importance of cultural understanding in project-based organizing. The empirical findings......This paper presents in-depth case studies of construction practices with a specific focus on understanding the emergent and dynamic nature of construction management in different cultural contexts. The cases are based on actual working-experiences by the author as an assistant project manager...... participating in the construction management on site working for three different contractors in different cultural contexts: (1) Construir Futuro S.A. in Quito, Ecuador; (2) Anker Hansen & co. A/S in Copenhagen, Denmark; and (3) E. Pihl & Soen A/S in Stockholm, Sweden. Based on these explorative case studies...

  14. A renormalization group theory of cultural evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fáth, Gábor; Sarvary, Miklos

    2005-03-01

    We present a theory of cultural evolution based upon a renormalization group scheme. We consider rational but cognitively limited agents who optimize their decision-making process by iteratively updating and refining the mental representation of their natural and social environment. These representations are built around the most important degrees of freedom of their world. Cultural coherence among agents is defined as the overlap of mental representations and is characterized using an adequate order parameter. As the importance of social interactions increases or agents become more intelligent, we observe and quantify a series of dynamic phase transitions by which cultural coherence advances in the society. A similar phase transition may explain the so-called “cultural explosion’’ in human evolution some 50,000 years ago.

  15. PENGARUH MEDIA KOMUNIKASI MASSA TERHADAP POPULAR CULTURE DALAM KAJIAN BUDAYA/CULTURAL STUDIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Bedjo Tanudjaja

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Cultural studies (including social studies differs than the conventional modern cultural studies. Cultural studies cannot be examined and understood based on modern epistemology, because the basic asumptions of the two are very much influenced by postmodern thoughts. There is incommensurability between the two because of the different worldview and language games. If modern cultural studies is objective, universal, monocultural, and has single identity, then cultural studies sees culture as plural, multicultural, complex, and has constructed identity, that is dynamic, different, interactive, and intensively effecting others. Pop culture, which has more attention in cultural studies, is a place where consciousness is being fought for. This situation cannot be separated from the growth of the information and the globalization eras that tend to bring the world into a global world. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia: Cultural Studies atau kajian budaya adalah model kajian budaya (termasuk sosial yang berbeda dengan kajian budaya modern (konvensional. Cultural Studies tidak dapat diteliti dan pahami berdasarkan epistemologi modern, karena asumsi-asumsi dasar kedua kajian ini sangat dipengaruhi oleh pemikiran posmodern. Ada prinsip ketidakterbandingan (incommensurability antara kajian budaya modern dengan Cultural studies, karena perbedaan pandangan dunia dan language games-nya. Jika karakter kajian budaya modern bersifat obyektif, universal, monokultural, dun beridentitas tunggal, maka cultural Studies memandang budaya bersifat plural, multikultural, kompleks, identitas terkonstruksi, dinamis, berbeda, interaktif, dan saling berpengaruh secara intens. Budaya pop, yang mendapat perhatian berlebih dalam kajian budaya, merupakan medan di mana kesadaran diperebutkan. Situasi ini tentu tidak dapat dipisahkan dan berkembangnya era informasi dan era globalisasi yang cenderung membawa dunia menjadi desa global. Kata kunci: cultural studies, multikultural, budaya

  16. Nordic cultural policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duelund, Peter

    2008-01-01

    A critical view on Nordic Cultural Policy 1961-2008 - Aims, measures, forms of organisation, state og national identity......A critical view on Nordic Cultural Policy 1961-2008 - Aims, measures, forms of organisation, state og national identity...

  17. Plant tissue culture techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Dieter Illg

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant cell and tissue culture in a simple fashion refers to techniques which utilize either single plant cells, groups of unorganized cells (callus or organized tissues or organs put in culture, under controlled sterile conditions.

  18. Armenian Cultural Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmanyan, S. V.; Mickaelian, A. M.

    2015-07-01

    Cultural Astronomy is the reflection of sky events in various fields of nations' culture. In foreign literature this field is also called "Astronomy in Culture" or "Astronomy and Culture". Cultural astronomy is the set of interdisciplinary fields studying the astronomical systems of current or ancient societies and cultures. It is manifested in Religion, Mythology, Folklore, Poetry, Art, Linguistics and other fields. In recent years, considerable attention has been paid to this sphere, particularly international organizations were established, conferences are held and journals are published. Armenia is also rich in cultural astronomy. The present paper focuses on Armenian archaeoastronomy and cultural astronomy, including many creations related to astronomical knowledge; calendars, rock art, mythology, etc. On the other hand, this subject is rather poorly developed in Armenia; there are only individual studies on various related issues (especially many studies related to Anania Shirakatsi) but not coordinated actions to manage this important field of investigation.

  19. Developing Cultural Awareness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail Fırat Altay

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at emphasizing the issue of teaching of culture in foreign languageteaching. In this respect, the reasons of teaching culture in foreign language classes arefocused on initially. So, the justifications of teaching culture are considered and explainedand by the help of a dialogue. Right after this, ways of developing cultural awareness is takeninto account. At this step, types of courses to develop cultural awareness are dealt with.Developing cultural awareness in class is another aspect to handle. Besides, ways ofdeveloping cultural awareness outside the class are worked on. Whether there are dangers ofusing culture in foreign language class is explained in dangers and problems part. In theconclusion, ideas of the writer on the subject as final remarks are clarified.

  20. Culture and social class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Yuri

    2017-12-01

    A large body of research in Western cultures has demonstrated the psychological and health effects of social class. This review outlines a cultural psychological approach to social stratification by comparing psychological and health manifestations of social class across Western and East Asian cultures. These comparisons suggest that cultural meaning systems shape how people make meaning and respond to material/structural conditions associated with social class, thereby leading to culturally divergent manifestations of social class. Specifically, unlike their counterparts in Western cultures, individuals of high social class in East Asian cultures tend to show high conformity and other-orientated psychological attributes. In addition, cultures differ in how social class impacts health (i.e. on which bases, through which pathways, and to what extent). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Culture in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medin, Douglas L.; Bang, Megan

    2014-01-01

    Culture plays a large but often unnoticeable role in what we teach and how we teach children. We are a country of immense diversity, but in classrooms the dominant European-American culture has become the language of learning.

  2. Rectal culture (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A rectal culture test is performed by inserting a cotton swab in the rectum. The swab is rotated gently, and withdrawn. A smear of the swab is placed in culture media to encourage the growth of microorganisms. The ...

  3. The Politics of Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Storey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an overview over the evolution of thinking about "culture" in the work of Raymond Williams. With the introduction of Antonio Gramsci's concept of hegemony culture came to be understood as consisting of not only shared, but contested meanings as well. On the basis of this redefinition by Williams, cultural studies was able to delineate culture as the production, circulation, and consumption of meanings that become embodied and embedded in social practice.

  4. Organizational culture & employee behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Tianya

    2015-01-01

    Organizations are among the key units of the society. During their establishment and development, a specific kind of organizational culture eventually appears. The purpose of organizational culture is to improve solidarity and cohesion, and to stimulate employees' enthusiasm and creativity to improve the organization’s economic efficiency. In addition, organizational culture greatly influences employee behavior. The aim of this study is to find out how organizational culture affects employ...

  5. Urine, faeces and culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quitzau, M.

    This article looks upon the importance of considering cultural aspects in relation to toilet technologies. It is outlined how culture theoretically can be seen as an integrated part of every day actions and technology.......This article looks upon the importance of considering cultural aspects in relation to toilet technologies. It is outlined how culture theoretically can be seen as an integrated part of every day actions and technology....

  6. ENTENDENDO A DINÂMICA CULTURAL EM XINGÓ NA PERSPECTIVA INTER SÍTIOS: INDÚSTRIAS LÍTICAS E OS LUGARES PERSISTENTES NO BAIXO VALE DO RIO SÃO FRANCISCO, NORDESTE DO BRASIL (Entendiendo la dinámica cultural en Xingó en la perspectiva inter-sitios: industrias líticas y los lugares persistentes en el bajo valle del río São Francisco, Nordeste del Brasil; Understanding cultural dynamics in Xingó from an intersite perspective: lithic industries and persistent places in the São Francisco river low valley, Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Fagundes

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo tem como objetivo apresentar parte dos resultados da tese de doutoramento acerca da dinâmica cultural evidenciada em dezesseis sítios arqueológicos localizados na Área 03 de Xingó, baixo vale do rio São Francisco, Brasil. Assim, apresentaremos os dados obtidos da pesquisa empírica da organização tecnológica de conjuntos líticos e como foi possível, por meio desses resultados, inferir sobre questões acerca da distribuição espacial dos sítios arqueológicos e suas possíveis inter-relações de forma a indicar um modelo de uso da paisagem à compreensão do sistema regional de assentamento em terraços do baixo vale do rio São Francisco. ESPAÑOL: Este artículo tiene como objetivo presentar parte de los resultados de mi tesis de doctorado sobre la dinámica cultural evidenciada en dieciséis sitios arqueológicos ubicados en el Área 03 de Xingó, bajo valle del río São Francisco, Brasil. Por lo tanto, se presentarán los datos obtenidos de la investigación empírica de la organización tecnológica de conjuntos líticos para inferir, por medio de esos resultados, aspectos sobre la distribución espacial de los sitios arqueológicos y sus posibles interrelaciones, buscando generar un modelo de uso del paisaje para la comprensión del sistema regional de asentamiento en bancales del bajo valle del río São Francisco. ENGLISH: This paper presents part of the results of my doctoral thesis on the cultural dynamics of sixteen archaeological sites situated in Area 03 in Xingó, São Francisco river valley, Brazil. Empirical data are presented that demonstrate the technological organization of the lithic industries at the sites. Then, through these data, it is shown what we can infer about the archaeological sites’ spatial distribution and interrelationship. These inferences are used to indicate a model of landscape use that can be used to understand the regional system of distribution and placement of

  7. Fluid Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorsen, Michael

    These lecture notes are intended mainly for the 7th semester course "Fluid Dynamics" offered by the Study Committee on Civil Engineering, Aalborg University.......These lecture notes are intended mainly for the 7th semester course "Fluid Dynamics" offered by the Study Committee on Civil Engineering, Aalborg University....

  8. Molecular dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Bethke, I.

    2002-01-01

    Molecular dynamics is a model for the structure and meaning of object based programming systems. In molecular dynamics the memory state of a system is modeled as a fluid consisting of a collection of molecules. Each molecule is a collection of atoms with bindings between them. A computation is

  9. Culture as Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kacunko, Slavko

    A collection of essays 2011-2014 By following, and reproducing, the cultural turn, the rhetoric of cultural mix and hybridism is disseminated today primarily in its crossing of trade barriers. Cultures reduced to their exchange value function as capital - an accumulative, speculative and...

  10. Personal Space Across Cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgh-Olesen, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    —constitutes one of the main areas of interest, dividing cultures into either contact or low-contact cultures. Examples of proxetics—human spatial behavior studied in terms of universal spacing patterns and cultural similarities—are presented. Finally, future directions for the study of PS in the digital age...

  11. Animal culture: chimpanzee conformity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schaik, Carel P

    2012-05-22

    Culture-like phenomena in wild animals have received much attention, but how good is the evidence and how similar are they to human culture? New data on chimpanzees suggest their culture may even have an element of conformity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Cultural Exploration through Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schall, Janine M.

    2010-01-01

    Increasing diversity in the United States means that all students must understand multiple cultural perspectives and identities. Educators need to facilitate learning engagements that highlight the complexities of culture and cultural identity, going beyond surface characteristics such as foods, holidays, and clothing that are often the focus in…

  13. Sport and culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annet Tiessen-Raaphorst; Andries van den Broek

    2016-01-01

    Oringinal title: Sport en cultuur Many people derive enjoyment from sport and culture in their free time: attending matches, performances, exhibitions or festivals, following sport and culture via the media or participating in a sport or cultural activity. Who takes part in which activities? Does

  14. Cross-Cultural Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannen, Deborah

    A two-part presentation on cross-cultural communication consists of a discussion of cultural differences in interpersonal communication and an article from a Greek English-language publication concerning telephone use skills in a foreign country. Cultural differences in communication are divided into eight types and illustrated: (1) when to talk;…

  15. Resolving conflicting safety cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slider, J.E.; Patterson, M.

    1993-01-01

    Several nuclear power plant sites have been wounded in the crossfire between two distinct corporate cultures. The traditional utility culture lies on one side and that of the nuclear navy on the other. The two corporate cultures lead to different perceptions of open-quotes safety culture.close quotes This clash of safety cultures obscures a very important point about nuclear plant operations: Safety depends on organizational learning. Organizational learning provides the foundation for a perception of safety culture that transcends the conflict between utility and nuclear navy cultures. Corporate culture may be defined as the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs shared by employees of a given company. Safety culture is the part of corporate culture concerning shared attitudes and beliefs affecting individual or public safety. If the safety culture promotes behaviors that lead to greater safety, employees will tend to open-quotes do the right thingclose quotes even when circumstances and formal guidance alone do not ensure that actions will be correct. Safety culture has become particularly important to nuclear plant owners and regulators as they have sought to establish and maintain a high level of safety in today's plants

  16. Bio-Culturalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grodal, Torben Kragh

    2007-01-01

    The article argues on the basis of analyses of successful films for children that not only cultural determinants but also innate determinats are important, and that film studies should combine cultural studies with cognitive theory, evolutionary theory and neuroscience, an approach that is called...... Bio-culturalism....

  17. TESOL and Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Dwight

    1999-01-01

    Looks at the question of how culture is understood in the Teaching English as a Second/Other-Language (TESOL) profession. Examines the perspectives toward culture implicitly or explicitly expressed in recent "TESOL Quarterly" articles, and concludes that different views of culture exist in the field. (Author/VWL)

  18. Extending Cultural Literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riecken, Ted J.; Court, Deborah

    1992-01-01

    Advocates defining cultural literacy to recognize the mass media's role in transmitting and maintaining cultural stereotypes and shaping values and beliefs. Distinguishes between ideational and material aspects of culture. Advocates teaching critical thinking and respect for persons in light of questionable moral perspectives in certain media…

  19. Information and Corporate Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Miriam A.

    1984-01-01

    This paper defines "corporate culture" (set of values and beliefs shared by people working in an organization which represents employees' collective judgments about future) and discusses importance of corporate culture, nature of corporate cultures in business and academia, and role of information in shaping present and future corporate…

  20. Culture and Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractDiscourses on culture and development vary according to their conceptions of culture and of development and according to their standpoint. The ‘culture and development’ problematic has typically: (1) arisen from a conception of ‘culture’ as a relatively fixed, homogeneous set of mental

  1. Peritoneal fluid culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culture - peritoneal fluid ... sent to the laboratory for Gram stain and culture. The sample is checked to see if bacteria ... The peritoneal fluid culture may be negative, even if you have ... diagnosis of peritonitis is based on other factors, in addition ...

  2. Selling cultural heritage?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, B.M.

    2017-01-01

    This thesis explores the value of cultural and archaeological heritage through a focus on multinational corporations (MNCs) across industries and their involvement with cultural heritage. Research to date has focused mainly on industries where MNCs have a direct impact on cultural or archaeological

  3. Culture Differences and English Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin

    2011-01-01

    Language is a part of culture, and plays a very important role in the development of the culture. Some sociologists consider it as the keystone of culture. They believe, without language, culture would not be available. At the same time, language is influenced and shaped by culture, it reflects culture. Therefore, culture plays a very important…

  4. Religiosity, Culture, and Science Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, R. C.; Kahan, D.

    2017-12-01

    It is well established that cultural commitments influence receptivity to scientific information on risks and related policy-relevant facts. Religiosity is one proxy for such commitments. My presentation will present data from numerous studies (observational and experimental, lab and field) that address how religiosity as a form of cultural affinity shapes engagement with the best available evidence on human-caused climate change. The central conclusion of this research is that a skeptical position on climate change, much like a skeptical position on human evolution, operates as a tacit badge of membership in and loyalty to groups bound together by religious affiliations. Overcoming the distorting impact that this dynamic has on climate-science communication requires engaging members of religious groups not as members of those groups per se but as citizens with a practical stake in addressing the risks that climate change poses to them and their neighbors. Once enlisted into discussion and practical action on these grounds, however, religious individuals can be expected to share their positive experiences and outlooks with other members of their religious communities, thereby demonstrating to them that engaging with this form of science does not conflict with their cultural identities.

  5. Culture-sensitive psychotraumatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Schnyder

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although there is some evidence of the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD construct's cross cultural validity, trauma-related disorders may vary across cultures, and the same may be true for treatments that address such conditions. Experienced therapists tailor psychotherapy to each patient's particular situation, to the nature of the patient's psychopathology, to the stage of therapy, and so on. In addition, culture-sensitive psychotherapists try to understand how culture enhances the meaning of their patient's life history, the cultural components of their illness and help-seeking behaviors, as well as their expectations with regard to treatment. We cannot take for granted that all treatment-seeking trauma survivors speak our language or share our cultural values. Therefore, we need to increase our cultural competencies. Methods: The authors of this article are clinicians and/or researchers from across the globe, working with trauma survivors in various settings. Each author focused on one or more specific cultural aspects of working with trauma survivors and highlighted the following aspects. Results: As a result of culture-specific individual and collective meanings linked to trauma and trauma-related disorders survivors may be exposed to (self-stigma in the aftermath of trauma. Patients who are reluctant to talk about their traumatic experiences may instead be willing to write or use other ways of accessing the painful memories such as drawing. In other cultures, community and family cohesion are crucial elements of recovery. While awareness of culture-specific aspects is important, we also need to beware of premature cultural stereotyping. When disseminating empirically supported psychotherapies for PTSD across cultures, a number of additional challenges need to be taken into account: many low and middle income countries have very limited resources available and suffer from a poor health infrastructure. Conclusions: In summary

  6. Sustaining ecosystem services in cultural landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Plieninger

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Classical conservation approaches focus on the man-made degradation of ecosystems and tend to neglect the social-ecological values that human land uses have imprinted on many environments. Throughout the world, ingenious land-use practices have generated unique cultural landscapes, but these are under pressure from agricultural intensification, land abandonment, and urbanization. In recent years, the cultural landscapes concept has been broadly adopted in science, policy, and management. The interest in both outstanding and vernacular landscapes finds expression in the UNESCO World Heritage Convention, the European Landscape Convention, and the IUCN Protected Landscape Approach. These policies promote the protection, management, planning, and governance of cultural landscapes. The ecosystem services approach is a powerful framework to guide such efforts, but has rarely been applied in landscape research and management. With this paper, we introduce a special feature that aims to enhance the theoretical, empirical and practical knowledge of how to safeguard the resilience of ecosystem services in cultural landscapes. It concludes (1 that the usefulness of the ecosystem services approach to the analysis and management of cultural landscapes should be reviewed more critically; (2 that conventional ecosystem services assessment needs to be complemented by socio-cultural valuation; (3 that cultural landscapes are inherently changing, so that a dynamic view on ecosystem services and a focus on drivers of landscape change are needed; and (4 that managing landscapes for ecosystem services provision may benefit from a social-ecological resilience perspective.

  7. The New Urban Success: How Culture Pays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desislava Hristova

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Urban economists have put forward the idea that cities that are culturally interesting tend to attract “the creative class” and, as a result, end up being economically successful. Yet it is still unclear how economic and cultural dynamics mutually influence each other. By contrast, that has been extensively studied in the case of individuals. Over decades, the French sociologist Pierre Bourdieu showed that people's success and their positions in society mainly depend on how much they can spend (their economic capital and what their interests are (their cultural capital. For the first time, we adapt Bourdieu's framework to the city context. We operationalize a neighborhood's cultural capital in terms of the cultural interests that pictures geo-referenced in the neighborhood tend to express. This is made possible by the mining of what users of the photo-sharing site of Flickr have posted in the cities of London and New York over 5 years. In so doing, we are able to show that economic capital alone does not explain urban development. The combination of cultural capital and economic capital, instead, is more indicative of neighborhood growth in terms of house prices and improvements of socio-economic conditions. Culture pays, but only up to a point as it comes with one of the most vexing urban challenges: that of gentrification.

  8. Culture and Negotiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, Anne Marie; Kumar, Rajesh

    2011-01-01

    The literature on cross-cultural negotiation has expanded considerably over the past few decades, but the findings are often ambiguous and sometimes even contradictory. This introduction highlights the critical areas where objections are commonly raised about the relevance of national culture......, the applicability of typologies that treat cultures as static, and the problem of ambiguous terminology. It may not be surprising that studies contradict each other given the ambiguity of the national cultural construct and variations in the context of the negotiating situations that are studied. The articles...... in this issue contribute to deepening our understanding about cross-cultural negotiation processes....

  9. Cultural aspects of suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharajh, Hari D; Abdool, Petal S

    2005-09-08

    Undefined cultural factors cannot be dismissed and significantly contribute to the worldwide incidence of death by suicide. Culture is an all embracing term and defines the relationship of an individual to his environment. This study seeks to investigate the effect of culture on suicide both regionally and internationally. Culture-bound syndrome with suicidal behaviours specific to a particular culture or geographical region are discussed. Opinions are divided as to the status of religious martyrs. The law itself is silent on many aspects of suicidal behaviour and despite decriminalization of suicide as self-murder, the latter remains on the statutes of many developing countries. The Caribbean region is of concern due to its steady rise in mean suicide rate, especially in Trinidad and Tobago where socio-cultural factors are instrumental in influencing suicidal behaviour. These include transgenerational cultural conflicts, psycho-social problems, media exposure, unemployment, social distress, religion and family structure. The methods used are attributed to accessibility and lethality. Ingestion of poisonous substances is most popular followed by hanging. The gender differences seen with regard to suicidality can also be attributed to gender related psychopathology and psychosocial differences in help-seeking behaviour. These are influenced by the cultural environment to which the individual is exposed. Culture provides coping strategies to individuals; as civilization advances many of these coping mechanisms are lost unclothing the genetic predisposition of vulnerable groups. In the management of suicidal behaviour, a system of therapeutic re-culturation is needed with an emphasis on relevant culture- based therapies.

  10. Discrete dynamics versus analytic dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toxværd, Søren

    2014-01-01

    For discrete classical Molecular dynamics obtained by the “Verlet” algorithm (VA) with the time increment h there exists a shadow Hamiltonian H˜ with energy E˜(h) , for which the discrete particle positions lie on the analytic trajectories for H˜ . Here, we proof that there, independent of such a......For discrete classical Molecular dynamics obtained by the “Verlet” algorithm (VA) with the time increment h there exists a shadow Hamiltonian H˜ with energy E˜(h) , for which the discrete particle positions lie on the analytic trajectories for H˜ . Here, we proof that there, independent...... of such an analytic analogy, exists an exact hidden energy invariance E * for VA dynamics. The fact that the discrete VA dynamics has the same invariances as Newtonian dynamics raises the question, which of the formulations that are correct, or alternatively, the most appropriate formulation of classical dynamics....... In this context the relation between the discrete VA dynamics and the (general) discrete dynamics investigated by Lee [Phys. Lett. B122, 217 (1983)] is presented and discussed....

  11. Cultural effects on mindreading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Zapata, Daniel; Slaughter, Virginia; Henry, Julie D

    2016-01-01

    People from other cultural backgrounds sometimes seem inscrutable. We identified a potential cause of this phenomenon in two experiments demonstrating that adults' mental state inferences are influenced by the cultural identity of the target. We adapted White, Hill, Happé, and Frith's (2009) Strange Stories to create matched intra-cultural and cross-cultural mindreading and control conditions. Experiment 1 showed that Australian participants were faster to respond and received higher scores in the intra-cultural mindreading condition relative to the cross-cultural mindreading condition, but performance in the control conditions was equivalent. Experiment 2 replicated this pattern in independent samples of Australian and Chilean participants. These findings have important implications for cross-cultural communication and understanding. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Creativity, innovation, and entrepreneurship across cultures theory and practices

    CERN Document Server

    Carayannis, Elias

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this volume is to further develop the relationship between culture and manifold phenomena of creativity, innovation and entrepreneurship in order to promote further and better understanding how, why, and when these phenomena are manifested themselves across different cultures.   Currently, cross-cultural research is one of the most dynamically and rapidly growing areas. At the same time, creativity, inventiveness, innovation, and entrepreneurship are championed in the literature as the critical element that is vital not just for companies, but also for the development of societies. A sizable body of research demonstrates that cultural differences may foster or inhibit creative, inventive, innovative and entrepreneurial activities; and each culture has its own strengths and weaknesses in these regards.  Better understanding of cultural diversity in these phenomena can help to build on strengths and overcome weaknesses.   Cross-cultural studies in this field represent a comparatively new class of ...

  13. Safeguards Culture: Lessons Learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mladineo, Stephen V.

    2009-05-27

    Abstract: At the 2005 INMM/ESARDA Workshop in Santa Fe, New Mexico, I presented a paper entitled “Changing the Safeguards Culture: Broader Perspectives and Challenges.” That paper described a set of theoretical models that can be used as a basis for evaluating changes to safeguards culture. This paper builds on that theoretical discussion to address practical methods for influencing culture. It takes lessons from methods used to influence change in safety culture and security culture, and examines the applicability of these lessons to changing safeguards culture. Paper: At the 2005 INMM/ESARDA Workshop on “Changing the Safeguards Culture: Broader Perspectives and Challenges,” in Santa Fe, New Mexico, I presented a paper entitled “Changing the Safeguards Culture: Broader Perspectives and Challenges.” That paper, coauthored by Karyn R. Durbin and Andrew Van Duzer, described a set of theoretical models that can be used as a basis for evaluating changes to safeguards culture. This paper updates that theoretical discussion, and seeks to address practical methods for influencing culture. It takes lessons from methods used to influence change in safety culture and security culture, and examines the applicability of these lessons to changing safeguards culture. Implicit in this discussion is an understanding that improving a culture is not an end in itself, but is one method of improving the underlying discipline, that is safety, security, or safeguards. Culture can be defined as a way of life, or general customs and beliefs of a particular group of people at a particular time. There are internationally accepted definitions of safety culture and nuclear security culture. As yet, there is no official agreed upon definition of safeguards culture. At the end of the paper I will propose my definition. At the Santa Fe Workshop the summary by the Co-Chairs of Working Group 1, “The Further Evolution of Safeguards,” noted: “It is clear that ‘safeguards culture

  14. Cultures of Silence and Cultures of Voice: The Role of Whistleblowing in Healthcare Organisations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannion, Russell; Davies, Huw To

    2015-06-24

    'Whistleblowing' has come to increased prominence in many health systems as a means of identifying and addressing quality and safety issues. But whistleblowing - and the reactions to it - have many complex and ambiguous aspects that need to be considered as part of the broader (organisational) cultural dynamics of healthcare institutions. © 2015 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  15. Cultures of Silence and Cultures of Voice: The Role of Whistleblowing in Healthcare Organisations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell Mannion

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ‘Whistleblowing’ has come to increased prominence in many health systems as a means of identifying and addressing quality and safety issues. But whistleblowing – and the reactions to it – have many complex and ambiguous aspects that need to be considered as part of the broader (organisational cultural dynamics of healthcare institutions.

  16. Embarrassment as a key to understanding cultural differences. Basic principles of cultural analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouchet, Dominique

    1995-01-01

    I introduce here the principles I use in my investigation of intercultural marketing and management. I explain how I discovered them, and show how they spring from a theoretical understanding of the dynamic of cultural differences. One of the basic methodological principles for my analysis...

  17. Record dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robe, Dominic M.; Boettcher, Stefan; Sibani, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    When quenched rapidly beyond their glass transition, colloidal suspensions fall out of equilibrium. The pace of their dynamics then slows down with the system age, i.e., with the time elapsed after the quench. This breaking of time translational invariance is associated with dynamical observables......-facto irreversible and become increasingly harder to achieve. Thus, a progression of record-sized dynamical barriers are traversed in the approach to equilibration. Accordingly, the statistics of the events is closely described by a log-Poisson process. Originally developed for relaxation in spin glasses...

  18. Galactic dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Binney, James

    2008-01-01

    Since it was first published in 1987, Galactic Dynamics has become the most widely used advanced textbook on the structure and dynamics of galaxies and one of the most cited references in astrophysics. Now, in this extensively revised and updated edition, James Binney and Scott Tremaine describe the dramatic recent advances in this subject, making Galactic Dynamics the most authoritative introduction to galactic astrophysics available to advanced undergraduate students, graduate students, and researchers. Every part of the book has been thoroughly overhauled, and many section

  19. Anti-Ageing Cultures, Biopolitics and Globalisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett Neilson

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In March 2004, the author attended the Inaugural International Conference on Longevity at the Sydney Exhibition and Convention Centre in Darling Harbour. As a cultural researcher interested in the interactions between demographic shifts, capitalist globalisation and changing forms of political power, the prospect of a direct encounter with the debates and practices surrounding the burgeoning field of anti-ageing medicine promised a means to observe the complex cultural dynamics of population ageing at play. This article explores the discord the atuhor witnessed; a quarrel that, despite the march of technological advance, attests the ongoing conflict in the nexus where politics meets life.

  20. Cross-cultural Knowledge Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorel Mihai PARASCHIV

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The success of international companies in providing high quality products and outstanding services is subject, on the one hand, to the increasing dynamic of the economic environment and on the other hand to the adoption of worldwide quality standards and procedures. As market place is becoming more and more global, products and services offered worldwide by international companies must face the multi-cultural environment challenges. These challenges manifest themselves not only at customer relationship level but also deep inside companies, at employee level. Important support in facing all these challenges has been provided at cognitive level by management system models and at technological level by information cutting edge technologies Business Intelligence & Knowledge Management Business Intelligence is already delivering its promised outcomes at internal business environment and, with the explosive deployment of public data bases, expand its analytical power at national, regional and international level. Quantitative measures of economic environment, wherever available, may be captured and integrated in companies’ routine analysis. As for qualitative data, some effort is still to be done in order to integrate measures of social, political, legal, natural and technological environment in companies’ strategic analysis. An increased difficulty is found in treating cultural differences, common knowledge making the most hidden part of any foreign environment. Managing cultural knowledge is crucial to success in cultivating and maintaining long-term business relationships in multicultural environments. Knowledge Management provides the long needed technological support for cross-cultural management in the tedious task of improving knowledge sharing in multi-national companies and using knowledge effectively in international joint ventures. The paper is approaching the conceptual frameworks of knowledge management and proposes an unified model

  1. Cultural initiation of medical doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zsinkó-Szabó, Zoltán; Lázár, Imre

    2013-12-01

    Eighteen years experience of teaching medical anthropology at a Hungarian medical school offers insight into the dynamics of interference between the rationalist epistemological tradition of biomedicine as one of the central paradigms of modernism and the cultural relativism of medical anthropology, as cultural anthropology is considered to be one of the generators of postmodern thinking. Tracing back the informal "prehistory" of our Institute, we can reveal its psychosomatic, humanistic commitment and critical basis as having represented a kind of counterculture compared with the technocrats of state-socialist Hungary's health ideology. The historical change and socio-cultural transition in Hungary after 1989 was accompanied by changes in the medical system as well as in philosophy and in the structure of the teaching of social sciences. The developing pluralism in the medical system together with the pluralism of social ideologies allowed the substitution of the dogmatic Marxist-Leninist framework with the more pragmatic and empiricist behavioral sciences including medical sociology and medical anthropology. The conflict between the initiation function of the hard preclinical training of the first two years, and the reflective, relativistic and critical narrative on "biomedicine as culture bound entity" constructed by medical anthropology during the second year of medical training is discussed. We also submit our fieldwork data gained as a result of a two year investigation period focusing on diverse initiation types of "would be" physicians. The main proportion of our data derives from individual semi structured deep interviews together with focus group interviews carried out with medical students of upper years. Finally, the role of medical anthropology in the "rite of passage" of becoming a medical doctor is summarized, paying attention to their field work reports and the risks and gains in this process.

  2. Making Safety Culture a Corporate Culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svenningsson, J.

    2016-01-01

    Safety Culture is something that we have actively worked with in the nuclear industry for a long time. Formally, it has been on the agenda since the Chernobyl accident. However, the work with creating a safe organizational culture can of course be traced back even further in time. Over the years a lot has happened in how we are approaching the concept of safety culture and especially how we look upon the human being as a part of the system and how we as humans interact with the organization and technology. For an organization to have a culture that promotes safety it is essential to create an ownership of safety with all workers within the site. To create this ownership it is vital to have the undivided commitment of the management. It all starts with the fundamental values of the organization. These values must then be concluded in firm expectations of behaviors that apply to all workers and management. This could be referred to as expectation of a Professional Behavior that allows us to live up to the company values. At OKG nuclear power plant, a successful Business Improvement Program was recently carried out with intention to develop and contribute to the maturity of the organization in terms of safety. One of the sub-programs of the program was called Professional Behavior - With purpose of making safety into a corporate culture. At OKG, Safety culture is something that systematically been addressed and worked with since 2004. Even though the Safety Culture program could be considered to already have reached a certain level of maturity the Business Improvement program helped the organization to lay the foundation for further development by clarify expected behaviors that was firmly cemented in to the corporate values.

  3. Cross-Cultural Impression Management: A Cultural Knowledge Audit Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spong, Abigail; Kamau, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Many people moving into a new culture for work or study do so without prior cross-cultural training, yet successful cultural adaptation has important ramifications. The purpose of this paper is to focus on cross-cultural impression management as an element of cultural adaptation. Does cultural adaptation begin by paying strong attention…

  4. Culture and psychiatric diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Aggarwal, Neil Krishan

    2013-01-01

    Since the publication of DSM-IV in 1994, neurobiologists and anthropologists have criticized the rigidity of its diagnostic criteria that appear to exclude whole classes of alternate illness presentations, as well as the lack of attention in contemporary psychiatric nosology to the role of contextual factors in the emergence and characteristics of psychopathology. Experts in culture and mental health have responded to these criticisms by revising the very process of diagnosis for DSM-5. Specifically, the DSM-5 Cultural Issues Subgroup has recommended that concepts of culture be included more prominently in several areas: an introductory chapter on Cultural Aspects of Psychiatric Diagnosis - composed of a conceptual introduction, a revised Outline for Cultural Formulation, a Cultural Formulation Interview that operationalizes this Outline, and a glossary on cultural concepts of distress - as well as material directly related to culture that is incorporated into the description of each disorder. This chapter surveys these recommendations to demonstrate how culture and context interact with psychiatric diagnosis at multiple levels. A greater appreciation of the interplay between culture, context, and biology can help clinicians improve diagnostic and treatment planning. Copyright © 2013 APA*

  5. Structural Dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Du Gi

    2005-08-01

    This book introduces summary of structural dynamics, the reason of learning of structural dynamics, single-degree of freedom system, simple harmonic vibration and application, numerical analysis method, such as time domain and frequency domain and nonlinear system, multi-degree of freedom system random vibration over discrete distribution, continuous distribution and extreme value distribution, circumstance vibration, earth quake vibration, including input earthquake, and earthquake-resistant design and capacity spectrum method, wind oscillation wave vibration, vibration control and maintenance control.

  6. Addressing Cross-Cultural Teamwork Barriers: Implications for Industry Practice and Higher Education Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitt, Steven R.

    2016-01-01

    This study explores cultural factors affecting international team dynamics and the implications for industry practice and higher education. Despite decades of studying and experience with cultural diversity, international work groups continue to be challenged by ethnocentrism and prejudices. Central to the context is that cultural differences in…

  7. Cultural Influences on Intertemporal Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-30

    literature (in English) on Arab culture is explored to contrast how that culture reasons about time and events, with respect to Western cultures. A number...concepts about risk that are prevalent in Western culture, and applying these concepts to existing literature (in English) on Arab culture that...identifies how cultural factors influence intertemporal reasoning, with a focus on Arab culture. Two additional cultures, Pashtun and Somali, were studied

  8. Economic impact of cultural tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Zadel, Zrinka; Bogdan, Sinisa

    2013-01-01

    The subject of analysis in the paper is economic impact of cultural tourism and identification of the main factors which directly affect cultural tourism revenues. Most countries do not have a statistical system of monitoring and analysing individual factors of cultural tourism such as the number of arrivals of cultural tourists and consumption of cultural tourists. Therefore, it is hard to assess the economic impact of cultural tourism. In cultural tourism, cultural assets are prepared and p...

  9. Updating cultural capital theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prieur, Annick; Savage, Mike

    2011-01-01

    than absolute terms, and that a field analytic perspective provides the means of understanding cultural capital as such a relative entity. Second, the move from the empirical observation of oppositions to the conceptualisation of cultural capital also demands that the functioning of features......This paper considers how the analysis of cultural engagement can be elaborated through a reworking of the concept of cultural capital, as originally derived from Bourdieu’s (1984) Distinction. Drawing on detailed studies of the UK and Aalborg, Denmark, we show that despite the weakening......, and art); and (c) an international and a local or national orientation stand out as the most important. We discuss whether these oppositions can usefully be conceptualised as cultural capital. We argue that such a conceptualisation demands, first, that cultural capital is understood in relative rather...

  10. Culture and Creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Anders Ib

    INTRODUCTION The present publication deals with issues of imagination and creativity as a notion, philosophy – and social and cultural form, with point of departure in current debates on visual culture. Whereas these debates cover a large ground, spanning from media studies over design to cultural...... studies, they seldom reflect on the basic fact that visual culture in its present form indicates a huge collective creativity in some capacity, implicating the entire postwar era. From early focuses on the possible social and cultural roles of the image in the 1950s and 60s - e.g. in work of Roland...... Barthes and Daniel Boorstin - to the present day, forms of visual culture have proliferated through a variety of collective dimensions, as reflected for instance in the curriculums of visual communication within design education and studies of image representation and pictorial cognition in art history...

  11. Ethics, evolution and culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesoudi, Alex; Danielson, Peter

    2008-08-01

    Recent work in the fields of evolutionary ethics and moral psychology appears to be converging on a single empirically- and evolutionary-based science of morality or ethics. To date, however, these fields have failed to provide an adequate conceptualisation of how culture affects the content and distribution of moral norms. This is particularly important for a large class of moral norms relating to rapidly changing technological or social environments, such as norms regarding the acceptability of genetically modified organisms. Here we suggest that a science of morality/ethics can benefit from adopting a cultural evolution or gene-culture coevolution approach, which treats culture as a second, separate evolutionary system that acts in parallel to biological/genetic evolution. This cultural evolution approach brings with it a set of established theoretical concepts (e.g. different cultural transmission mechanisms) and empirical methods (e.g. evolutionary game theory) that can significantly improve our understanding of human morality.

  12. Sound as Popular Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , physical, perceptual, and sensory processes that integrate a multitude of cultural traditions and forms of knowledge. The chapters discuss conceptual issues as well as terminologies and research methods; analyze historical and contemporary case studies of listening in various sound cultures; and consider......The wide-ranging texts in this book take as their premise the idea that sound is a subject through which popular culture can be analyzed in an innovative way. From an infant’s gurgles over a baby monitor to the roar of the crowd in a stadium to the sub-bass frequencies produced by sound systems...... in the disco era, sound—not necessarily aestheticized as music—is inextricably part of the many domains of popular culture. Expanding the view taken by many scholars of cultural studies, the contributors consider cultural practices concerning sound not merely as semiotic or signifying processes but as material...

  13. Sound as Popular Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The wide-ranging texts in this book take as their premise the idea that sound is a subject through which popular culture can be analyzed in an innovative way. From an infant’s gurgles over a baby monitor to the roar of the crowd in a stadium to the sub-bass frequencies produced by sound systems...... in the disco era, sound—not necessarily aestheticized as music—is inextricably part of the many domains of popular culture. Expanding the view taken by many scholars of cultural studies, the contributors consider cultural practices concerning sound not merely as semiotic or signifying processes but as material......, physical, perceptual, and sensory processes that integrate a multitude of cultural traditions and forms of knowledge. The chapters discuss conceptual issues as well as terminologies and research methods; analyze historical and contemporary case studies of listening in various sound cultures; and consider...

  14. Nature/culture/seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmreich, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Seawater has occupied an ambiguous place in anthropological categories of "nature" and "culture." Seawater as nature appears as potentiality of form and uncontainable flux; it moves faster than culture - with culture frequently figured through land-based metaphors - even as culture seeks to channel water's (nature's) flow. Seawater as culture manifests as a medium of pleasure, sustenance, travel, disaster. I argue that, although seawater's qualities in early anthropology were portrayed impressionistically, today technical, scientific descriptions of water's form prevail. For example, processes of globalization - which may also be called "oceanization" - are often described as "currents," "flows," and "circulations." Examining sea-set ethnography, maritime anthropologies, and contemporary social theory, I propose that seawater has operated as a “theory machine” for generating insights about human cultural organization. I develop this argument with ethnography from the Sargasso Sea and in the Sea Islands. I conclude with a critique of appeals to water's form in social theory.

  15. Nuclear Safeguards Culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Findlay, T.

    2015-01-01

    The paper will consider safeguards culture both at the IAEA and among member states. It will do so through the lens of organizational culture theory and taking into account developments in safeguards since the Iraq case of the early 1990s. The study will seek to identify the current characteristics of safeguards culture and how it has evolved since the 93+2 programme was initiated, as well as considering the roles of the most important purveyors of such culture, including member states and their national safeguards authorities, the General Conference and Board of Governors, the Director General, the Secretariat as a whole, the Safeguards Department and the inspectorate. The question of what might be an optimal safeguards culture at the Agency and among member states will be investigated, along with the issue of how such a culture might be engendered or encouraged. (author)

  16. Bacterial cell culture

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2014-01-01

    ### Materials 1. Glass culture tubes with metal caps and labels - Growth medium, from media room or customized - Glass pipette tubes - Parafilm ### Equipment 1. Vortexer - Fireboy or Bunsen burner - Motorized pipette - Micropipettes and sterile tips ### Procedure For a typical liquid culture, use 5 ml of appropriate medium. The amount in each tube does not have to be exact if you are just trying to culture cells for their precious DNA. 1. Streak an a...

  17. The Absence of Culture?

    OpenAIRE

    Norberg, Magnus; Jomer, Mikael

    2007-01-01

    This thesis attempts to investigate if national culture still is a factor to consider for large multinational organizations when choosing a supplier, or if the global business environment due to globalization has become so standardized and homogenous that the influence of national culture differences has diminished. Existing academic literature is divided regarding this matter; some studies indicate that the influence of national culture on business relations is subtle while other argues that...

  18. Esperanto & cultural identity

    OpenAIRE

    Lehrmann, Ask; Christensen, Julie Hellesøe; Dzieza, Malgorzata; Hansen, Nathalie Gylling

    2007-01-01

    The topic of this project is the relationship between culture, cultural identity and language, and their relationship to the ambiguous concept of neutrality. Taking a case study of Esperanto, an artificial language designed with the specific intention of being a completely neutral and nationless language, we will explore how languages relate to the world. By comparing the thoughts on culture and group identity of various authors, we will then try to explore the concept of neutrality – for can...

  19. The Culture of Entrepreneurship

    OpenAIRE

    Chakraborty, Shankha; Thompson, Jon; Yehoue, Etienne

    2014-01-01

    We study the cultural process through which a society inculcates an entrepreneurial spirit. People work for a guaranteed wage or operate a firm whose return depends on business expertise. The latter is culturally acquired, within the family or outside, and people may choose an occupation different from the one they were socialized into. We show that a cultural bias towards safer occupations from colonial and post-colonial policies leads to stagnation where entrepreneurs do not upgrade technol...

  20. Culture in global business

    OpenAIRE

    Andström, Emmi

    2014-01-01

    Cultural diversity is a question mark to many companies and some are afraid to build multicultural teams, however cultural differences can be a huge benefit to any company, especially to those working in global markets. Company management as well as the individuals within the teams need to understand what are the biggest issues within multicultural teams, how to get to know other cultures and to be aware of issues caused by stereotyping others, what to expect from others and how to overcome ...

  1. Negotiating cultures in cyberspace

    OpenAIRE

    Reeder, Kenneth; Macfadyen, Leah P.; Roche, Jörg; Chase, Mackie

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we report findings of a multidisciplinary study of online participation by culturally diverse participants in a distance adult education course offered in Canada and examine in detail three of the study's findings. First, we explore both the historical and cultural origins of "cyberculture values" as manifested in our findings, using the notions of explicit and implicit enforcement of those values and challenging the assumption that cyberspace is a culture free zone. Second, we ...

  2. Corpora and Cultural Cognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kim Ebensgaard

    2017-01-01

    Cultural cognition is, to a great extent, transmitted through language and, consequently, reflected and replicated in language use. Cultural cognition may be instantiated in various patterns of language use, such as the discursive behavior of constructions. Very often, such instantiations can be ...... is addressed. In the third part of the chapter, three case studies are presented – one from Danish and two from English – to illustrate the analysis of cultural conceptualization via corpus-linguistic techniques....

  3. Doing Cultural Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    du Gay, Paul; Hall, Stuart; Janes, Linda

    What does the Walkman have to do with the 21st century? The long-awaited second edition of this classic textbook takes students on a journey between past and present, giving them the skills do to cultural analysis along the way. Through the notion of the 'circuit of culture', this book teaches...... to the past - unpack the key concepts of contemporary culture, such as mobility and materiality - look with fresh eyes at today's media world and the cultural practices it gives rise to - practice their critical skills with up-to-date exercises and activities This book remains the perfect 'how to...

  4. Organizational culture, Anthropology of

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krause-Jensen, Jakob; Wright, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Anthropologists have studied organizations since the 1930s. In the 1980s, anthropologists' concepts of culture were instrumentalized by nonanthropologists to promote ‘organizational culture’ as a management tool. In subsequent decades, concern shifted to welding employees from different ‘national...... cultures’ into transnational corporations and organizations concerned with international governance. In such organizations, anthropology graduates are increasingly employed as ‘cultural experts.’ We track the anthropological research on organizational culture and argue that the sensibilities and analytical...... skills acquired and the concepts developed through the ethnographic encounter gives anthropology a unique voice in the study of cultural matters in organizations....

  5. Cultivating Cultural Appreciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esprivalo, Pamela Sue; Forney, Scott

    2001-01-01

    Presents an activity that addresses cultural differences and diversity through ethnobotany. Offers a multicultural framework designed to develop concepts about plant characteristics and taxonomy. (ASK)

  6. Culture of salmonid fishes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stickney, Robert R

    1991-01-01

    .... In recognition of the growing concern that aquaculture development has the potential to negatively impact the natural environment, a chapter on controversies surrounding salmonid culture has been included...

  7. Technology and Culture in Modern Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    manufacture, distribution, marketing , and use of technology. In particular, they note how a repressive information environment is detrimental to...national costumes .”51 Germany and various other Central and Eastern European nations chose the Kulturnation, meaning cultural nation (Herder’s term...willingness to trust is dynamic, responding to its environment. Looking beyond a few personal relationships , a society must collectively create an

  8. Communicating Culture: An Exploratory Study of the Key Concepts in Maori Culture on Maori Web Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatko J Kovacic

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available We examine how accurately the belief system or cultural concepts of Maori, the indigenous people of New Zealand, is reconstructed in the virtual world of the Internet. Nine Maori web sites were searched using a list of 44 key concepts in Maori culture. We registered how many pages within a particular web site contain each of the key concepts. These numbers were set up in a data matrix for further statistical analysis. The Multidimensional Scaling method was used to construct a spatial representation of Maori web sites in the space generated by the key concepts in Maori culture. Using the correlation coefficients between derived dimensions and the key concepts we interpreted three dimensions as General Cultural, Intra-tribe Dynamics and Educational. The position of each Maori web site in this space has been located and described.

  9. Computation within cultured neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMarse, T; Cadotte, A; Douglas, P; He, P; Trinh, V

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we present three related areas of research we are pursuing to study neural computation in vitro. Rat cortical neurons cultured on 60 channel multielectrode array (MEA) allow the researcher to measure from and stimulate sixty different sites across a small population of neurons grown in vitro. Using this system we can send stimulation patterns into the network and study how these living neural networks compute by measuring its outputs. Our first series of studies uses chaotic control techniques to study the dynamics and potentially control the behavior of cortical network. At the same time, we are beginning to apply a model of computation called the liquid state machine or LSM model developed by Wolfgang Maass to provide a firm mathematical framework from which to proceed with our investigations. Each of these components is integrated into a third area investigating the role of computation and feedback using a real-time sensory-motor feedback robotic flight system.

  10. Cultural change that sticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzenbach, Jon R; Steffen, Ilona; Kronley, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    When a major change initiative runs aground, leaders often blame their company's culture for pushing it off course. They try to forge ahead by overhauling the culture--a tactic that tends to fizzle, fail, or backfire. Most cultures are too well entrenched to be jettisoned. The secret is to stop fighting your culture--and to work with and within it, until it evolves in the right direction. Today's best-performing companies, such as Southwest Airlines, Apple, and the Four Seasons, understand this, say the authors, three consultants from Booz & Company. These organizations follow five principles for making the most of their cultures: 1. Match strategy to culture. Culture trumps strategy every time, no matter how brilliant the plan, so the two need to be in alignment. 2. Focus on a few critical shifts in behavior. Wholesale change is hard; choose your battles wisely. 3. Honor the strengths of the existing culture. Every culture is the product of good intentions and has strengths; put them to use. 4. Integrate formal and informal interventions. Don't just implement new rules and processes; identify "influencers" who can bring other employees along. 5. Measure and monitor cultural evolution. Otherwise you can't identify backsliding or correct course. When the leaders of Aetna applied these rules while implementing a new strategy in the early 2000s, they reinvigorated the company's ailing culture and restored employee pride. That shift was reflected in the business results, as Aetna went from a $300 million loss to a $1.7 billion gain.

  11. TOURISM AND CULTURAL REVIVAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George NICULESCU

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the tourism and the cultural revival. Cultural change is a recurrent concern in tourism studies. Host societies frequently remodel their culture following the creation of a tourist resort. But, that does not necessarily imply an acculturating process, since what actually takes place is pragmatic cultural production work in response to the touristic demands that offer consolidated economic alternatives and livelihood. Culture change has been a concern in tourism anthropology studies ever since this field of research established itself, particularly concerning the changes host societies undergo. But that does not necessarily imply the phenomenon is to be analyzed exclusively under the focus of the acculturation paradigm, since researchers often come across the production of new cultural elements of a traditional character among host populations in their attempt to occupy new spaces from which to address the world. in fact, that applies to various social situations where local actors seek to display certain lifestyles and cultural traits in order to draw attention to their ethnic, regional, or national features. Therefore, the object of study no longer focuses on the gradual loss of local and cultural (or ethnic substance, but rather on the relative ethnicity triggered by and among translocal flows that may lead to the deliberate turnaround of different cultural aspects of the host populations. Based on those premises, this article deals with the investigation of a cultural change process, making use of the historic perspective that includes an analysis of the “strategies of cultural mobilization” activated by the social subjects that are constantly recreating themselves in the tourism areas.

  12. Cultural Aspects of Suicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari D. Maharajh

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Undefined cultural factors cannot be dismissed and significantly contribute to the worldwide incidence of death by suicide. Culture is an all embracing term and defines the relationship of an individual to his environment. This study seeks to investigate the effect of culture on suicide both regionally and internationally. Culture-bound syndrome with suicidal behaviours specific to a particular culture or geographical region are discussed. Opinions are divided as to the status of religious martyrs. The law itself is silent on many aspects of suicidal behaviour and despite decriminalization of suicide as self-murder, the latter remains on the statutes of many developing countries. The Caribbean region is of concern due to its steady rise in mean suicide rate, especially in Trinidad and Tobago where socio-cultural factors are instrumental in influencing suicidal behaviour. These include transgenerational cultural conflicts, psycho-social problems, media exposure, unemployment, social distress, religion and family structure. The methods used are attributed to accessibility and lethality. Ingestion of poisonous substances is most popular followed by hanging. The gender differences seen with regard to suicidality can also be attributed to gender related psychopathology and psychosocial differences in help-seeking behaviour. These are influenced by the cultural environment to which the individual is exposed. Culture provides coping strategies to individuals; as civilization advances many of these coping mechanisms are lost unclothing the genetic predisposition of vulnerable groups. In the management of suicidal behaviour, a system of therapeutic re-culturation is needed with an emphasis on relevant culture- based therapies.

  13. Assessment of Safety Culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilic Zabric, T.; Kavsek, D.

    2006-01-01

    A strong safety culture leads to more effective conduct of work and a sense of accountability among managers and employees, who should be given the opportunity to expand skills by training. The resources expended would thus result in tangible improvements in working practices and skills, which encourage further improvement of safety culture. In promoting an improved safety culture, NEK has emphasized both national and organizational culture with an appropriate balance of behavioural sciences and quality management systems approaches. In recent years there has been particular emphasis put on an increasing awareness of the contribution that human behavioural sciences can make to develop good safety practices. The purpose of an assessment of safety culture is to increase the awareness of the present culture, to serve as a basis for improvement and to keep track of the effects of change or improvement over a longer period of time. There is, however, no single approach that is suitable for all purposes and which can measure, simultaneously, all the intangible aspects of safety culture, i.e. the norms, values, beliefs, attitudes or the behaviours reflecting the culture. Various methods have their strengths and weaknesses. To prevent significant performance problems, self-assessment is used. Self-assessment is the process of identifying opportunities for improvement actively or, in some cases, weaknesses that could cause more serious errors or events. Self-assessments are an important input to the corrective action programme. NEK has developed questionnaires for safety culture self-assessment to obtain information that is representative of the whole organization. Questionnaires ensure a greater degree of anonymity, and create a less stressful situation for the respondent. Answers to questions represent the more apparent and conscious values and attitudes of the respondent. NEK proactively co-operates with WANO, INPO, IAEA in the areas of Safety Culture and Human

  14. Cultural Perspective on African American Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Angela Khristin

    2013-01-01

    The migration of blacks in North America through slavery became united. The population of blacks passed down a tradition of artist through art to native born citizens. The art tradition involved telling stories to each generation in black families. The black culture elevated by tradition created hope to determine their personal freedom to escape…

  15. The Cultural Transmission of Cooperative Norms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyue eZhou

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Cooperative behavior depends on cultural environment, so what happens when people move from to a new culture governed by a new norm? The dynamics of culture-induced cooperation has not been well understood. We expose lab subjects to a sequence of different subject pools while playing a constrained Trust Game. We find prior exposure to different subject pools does in fact influence cooperative behavior; first impressions matter—the primacy effect plays a stronger role than the recency effect; and selfish first impressions matter more than cooperative first impressions—observing selfish behavior by others had a longer-lasting and greater influence on behaviors than observing cooperative behavior by others. Moreover, three consecutive exposures to cooperative environments were needed to neutralize one exposure to a selfish environment.

  16. The cultural transmission of cooperative norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xinyue; Liu, Yan; Ho, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Cooperative behavior depends on cultural environment, so what happens when people move from to a new culture governed by a new norm? The dynamics of culture-induced cooperation has not been well understood. We expose lab participants to a sequence of different subject pools while playing a constrained Trust Game. We find prior exposure to different subject pools does in fact influence cooperative behavior; first impressions matter-the primacy effect plays a stronger role than the recency effect; and selfish first impressions matter more than cooperative first impressions-observing selfish behavior by others had a longer-lasting and greater influence on behaviors than observing cooperative behavior by others. Moreover, three consecutive exposures to cooperative environments were needed to neutralize one exposure to a selfish environment.

  17. Dynamic Bifurcations

    CERN Document Server

    1991-01-01

    Dynamical Bifurcation Theory is concerned with the phenomena that occur in one parameter families of dynamical systems (usually ordinary differential equations), when the parameter is a slowly varying function of time. During the last decade these phenomena were observed and studied by many mathematicians, both pure and applied, from eastern and western countries, using classical and nonstandard analysis. It is the purpose of this book to give an account of these developments. The first paper, by C. Lobry, is an introduction: the reader will find here an explanation of the problems and some easy examples; this paper also explains the role of each of the other paper within the volume and their relationship to one another. CONTENTS: C. Lobry: Dynamic Bifurcations.- T. Erneux, E.L. Reiss, L.J. Holden, M. Georgiou: Slow Passage through Bifurcation and Limit Points. Asymptotic Theory and Applications.- M. Canalis-Durand: Formal Expansion of van der Pol Equation Canard Solutions are Gevrey.- V. Gautheron, E. Isambe...

  18. Dynamical Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paldus, Josef

    The well known symmetry (invariance, degeneracy) dynamical groups or algebras of quantum mechanical Hamiltonians provide quantum numbers (conservation laws, integrals of motion) for state labeling and the associated selection rules. In addition, it is often advantageous to employ much larger groups, referred to as the dynamical groups (noninvariance groups, dynamical algebras, spectrum generating algebras), which may or may not be the invariance groups of the studied system [4.1,2,3,4,5,6,7]. In all known cases, they are Lie groups (LGs), or rather corresponding Lie algebras (LAs), and one usually requires that all states of interest of a system be contained in a single irreducible representation (irrep). Likewise, one may require that the Hamiltonian be expressible in terms of the Casimir operators of the corresponding universal enveloping algebra [4.8,9]. In a weaker sense, one regards any group (or corresponding algebra) as a dynamical group if the Hamiltonian can be expressed in terms of its generators [4.10,11,12]. In nuclear physics, one sometimes distinguishes exact (baryon number preserving), almost exact (e.g., total isospin), approximate (e.g., SU(3) of the "eightfold way") and model (e.g., nuclear shell model) dynamical symmetries [4.13]. The dynamical groups of interest in atomic and molecular physics can be conveniently classified by their topological characteristic of compactness. Noncompact LGs (LAs) generally arise in simple problems involving an infinite number of bound states, while those involving a finite number of bound states (e.g., molecular vibrations or ab initio models of electronic structure) exploit compact LG's.

  19. Dynamical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Birkhoff, George D

    1927-01-01

    His research in dynamics constitutes the middle period of Birkhoff's scientific career, that of maturity and greatest power. -Yearbook of the American Philosophical Society The author's great book€¦is well known to all, and the diverse active modern developments in mathematics which have been inspired by this volume bear the most eloquent testimony to its quality and influence. -Zentralblatt MATH In 1927, G. D. Birkhoff wrote a remarkable treatise on the theory of dynamical systems that would inspire many later mathematicians to do great work. To a large extent, Birkhoff was writing about his o

  20. Glassy Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henrik J.; Sibani, Paolo

    2007-01-01

    The term glassy dynamics is often used to refer to the extremely slow relaxation observed in several types of many component systems. The time span needed to reach a steady, time independent, state will typically be far beyond experimentally accessible time scales. When melted alloys are cooled...... down they typically do not enter a crystalline ordered state. Instead the atoms retain the amorphous arrangement characteristic of the liquid high temperature phase while the mobility of the molecules decreases very many orders of magnitude. This colossal change in the characteristic dynamical time...

  1. Forest dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frelich, Lee

    2016-01-01

    Forest dynamics encompass changes in stand structure, species composition, and species interactions with disturbance and environment over a range of spatial and temporal scales. For convenience, spatial scale is defined as individual tree, neighborhood, stand, and landscape. Whether a given canopy-leveling disturbance will initiate a sequence of development in structure with little change in composition or initiate an episode of succession depends on a match or mismatch, respectively, with traits of the dominant tree species that allow the species to survive disturbance. When these match, certain species-disturbance type combinations lock in a pattern of stand and landscape dynamics that can persist for several generations of trees; thus, dominant tree species regulate, as well as respond to, disturbance. A complex interaction among tree species, neighborhood effects, disturbance type and severity, landform, and soils determines how stands of differing composition form and the mosaic of stands that compose the landscape. Neighborhood effects (e.g., serotinous seed rain, sprouting, shading, leaf-litter chemistry, and leaf-litter physical properties) operate at small spatial extents of the individual tree and its neighbors but play a central role in forest dynamics by contributing to patch formation at stand scales and dynamics of the entire landscape. Dominance by tree species with neutral to negative neighborhood effects leads to unstable landscape dynamics in disturbance-prone regions, wherein most stands are undergoing succession; stability can only occur under very low-severity disturbance regimes. Dominance by species with positive effects leads to stable landscape dynamics wherein only a small proportion of stands undergo succession at any one time. Positive neighborhood effects are common in temperate and boreal zones, whereas negative effects are more common in tropical climates. Landscapes with positive dynamics have alternate categories of dynamics

  2. Korean Screen Cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    new approaches to Korean popular culture beyond national borders and includes work on K-pop and Korean television drama. This book is a vital addition to existing scholarship on Korean popular culture, offering a unique view by providing an imaginary unification of the two Koreas negotiated through...

  3. Conceptualizing leadership across cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dickson, M.W.; Castaño, N.; Magomaeva, A.; den Hartog, D.N.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we summarize research on how the meaning of leadership varies systematically across cultures, and describe the conflict in the literature between the quest for universals and the identification of cultural contingencies in leadership theory. We review the literature on the

  4. Mainstreaming Culture in Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Fanny M.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the "awakening" to the importance of culture in psychology in America, international psychology has remained on the sidelines of psychological science. The author recounts her personal and professional experience in tandem with the stages of development in international/cross-cultural psychology. Based on her research in cross-cultural…

  5. Cultural Diplomacy in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haigh, Anthony

    The evolution of European government activities in the sphere of international cultural relations is examined. Section 1 describes the period between World War I and World War II when European governments tried to enhance their prestige and policies by means of cultural propaganda. Section 2 analyzes the period during World War II when the…

  6. Culture and weight consciousness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nasser, Mervat

    1997-01-01

    ... of eating disorders. This review is used to highlight the problematic areas in cross-cultural methodologies and to suggest directions for future research. The author also relates the feminist theories that have been put forward to explain the phenomenon of eating disorders in the West to the condition of modern women in many non-western cultures...

  7. Cross cultural usability testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Torkil; Goyal, Shivam

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we present the results of a pilot study in Denmark of cross cultural effects on Think Aloud usability testing. We provide an overview of previous research on cross cultural usability evaluation with a special focus on the relationship between the evaluator and the test user...

  8. Cultural Keywords in Discourse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    . The Natural Semantic Metalanguage (NSM) approach is used as a unifying framework for the studies. This approach offers an attractive methodology for doing explorative discourse analysis on emic and culturally-sensitive grounds. Cultural Keywords in Discourse will be of interest to researchers and students...

  9. Linking Norms and Culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McBreen, J.; Tosto, Di G.; Dignum, F.; Hofstede, G.J.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to propose a method of modelling the evolution of social norms in different cultural settings. We analyse the role of culture in shaping agents' normative reasoning and hence their behaviour. The general notion of 'value' is discussed from the perspective of the BDI

  10. Commercial cage fish culture

    OpenAIRE

    Aigbadon, B.V.

    1987-01-01

    With increasing emphasis in Nigeria on aquaculture as an alternative to dwindling artisanal fishing and scarce foreign exchange for fish import, cage fish culture, is a more profitable aquaculture practice than pond culture. It appears to be one of the most viable business ventures with minimum risks. It is a highly recommendable project

  11. Translation between cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique de Oliveira Lee

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article will question the pertinence of understanding interculturality in terms of translation between cultures. I shall study this hypothesis in two ways : 1 / the cosmopolitan horizon, which the idea of translation may implicate ; 2 / the critique of the premises of unique origin and homogeneity of cultures which this hypothesis makes possible.

  12. MicroCulture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchetti, Emanuela

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a playful learning scenario, to enhance children’s museum experience, and the design of MicroCulture, a new learning platform. MicroCulture has been developed through a participatory design process, involving around 25 children. The perspective proposed in this paper is focused...

  13. Escape From Cultural Isolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umesao, Tadao

    1975-01-01

    On the premise that the fundamental character of international interchange lies in a cruel and merciless collision of mutually suspicious and distrustful cultures, the historical resistance of the Japanese to cultural interchange is examined, the consequences of international trade without interchange noted, and the means of escape outlined. (JT)

  14. Why Youth Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cintron, Ralph

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses youth culture and raises concerns about the tricky social terrain modernity offers for youth identity. He discusses familiar "topoi" or thematics that seem to drive most work on youth culture, suggests that justice and fairness are moral imperatives, and that acknowledging the worthiness of difference is one…

  15. Cultural Collage Paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coy, Mary

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a cultural collage painting project. Three things served as the impetus for this project: (1) a desire for students to explore the theme of "culture"; (2) an appreciation for the photo-montaged, layered images one sees in print media; and (3) noticing that projects from core subject areas hanging on the walls…

  16. Plant Tissue Culture

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Admin

    The success of plant biotechnology relies on the fundamental techniques of plant tissue culture. Understanding basic biol- ogy of plants is a prerequisite for proper utilization of the plant system or parts thereof. Plant tissue culture helps in providing a basic understanding of physical and chemical requirements of cell, tissue, ...

  17. Pop Goes the Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurlansky, Mark J.

    1977-01-01

    Popular culture is defended as a solid academic entry that is a new approach to sociology, art, and literature. The contributions and theories of three professors are discussed: Arthur Asa Berger, Leslie Fiedler, and Alan Gowans. They illustrate the range and diversity in the pop culture field. (LBH)

  18. Pop Culture in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, David Manning, Ed.

    The nature of today's popular culture, its place in American life, and its merit or lack of it are the themes of these essays from "The New York Times Magazine." Introductory essays discuss the use of leisure time, paying the cost of the arts, and whether American society can be considered "cultured." Subsequent essays discuss the nature of radio…

  19. Understanding Corporate Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cluff, Gary A.

    1988-01-01

    Considers concept of corporate culture and discusses several values which can be considered when assessing corporate culture, and the "compatibility scales" used to measure them. Included are discussions of employee attitudes, work atmosphere, internal communications, management style, employment opportunity, stability, business ethics, corporate…

  20. Culture, technology, communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ess, Charles; Sudweeks, Fay

    The first book-length anthology to collect some of the most significant culturally-oriented research and scholarship on CMC from the biennial conference series "Cultural Attitudes towards Technology and Communication" (CATaC). The collection is significant for its contribution towards calling...