Dynamic Characteristics of Flow Induced Vibration in a Rotor-Seal System
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nan Zhang
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Flow induced vibration is an important factor affecting the performance of the rotor-seal system. From the point of view of flow induced vibration, the nonlinear models of the rotor-seal system are presented for the analysis of the fluid force, which is induced by the interaction between the unstable fluid flow in the seal and the vibrating rotor. The nonlinear characteristics of flow induced vibration in the rotor-seal system are analyzed, and the nonlinear phenomena in the unbalanced rotor-seal system are investigated using the nonlinear models. Various nonlinear phenomena of flow induced vibration in the rotor-seal system, such as synchronization phenomenon and amplitude mutation, are reproduced.
Rotor dynamic analysis of main coolant pump
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Chong Won; Seo, Jeong Hwan; Kim, Choong Hwan; Shin, Jae Chul; Wang, Lei Tian [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea)
1999-03-01
A rotor dynamic analysis program DARBS/MCP, for the main coolant pump of the integral reactor, has been developed. The dynamic analysis model of the main coolant pump includes a vertical shaft, three grooved radial journal bearings and gaps that represent the structure-fluid interaction effects between the rotor and the lubricant fluid. The electromagnetic force from the motor and the hydro-dynamic force induced by impeller are the major sources of vibration that may affect the rotor system stability. DARBS/MCP is a software that is developed to effectively analyze the dynamics of MCP rotor systems effectively by applying powerful numerical algorithms such as FEM with modal truncation and {lambda}-matrix method for harmonic analysis. Main design control parameters, that have much influence to the dynamic stability, have been found by Taguchi's sensitivity analysis method. Design suggestions to improve the stability of MCP rotor system have been documented. The dynamic bearing parameters of the journal bearings used for main coolant pump have been determined by directly solving the Reynolds equation using FDM method. Fluid-structure interaction effect that occurs at the small gaps between the rotor and the stator were modeled as equivalent seals, the electromagnetic force effect was regarded as a linear negative radial spring and the impeller was modeled as a rigid disk with hydrodynamic and static radial force. Although there exist critical speeds in the range of operational speeds for type I and II rotor systems, the amplitude of vibration appears to be less than the vibration limit set by the API standards. Further more, it has been verified that the main design parameters such as the clearance and length of journal bearings, and the static radial force of impeller should be properly adjusted, in order to the improve dynamic stability of the rotor system. (author). 39 refs., 81 figs., 17 tabs.
Flow Induced Spring Coefficients of Labyrinth Seals for Application in Rotor Dynamics
Benckert, H.; Wachter, J.
1980-01-01
Flow induced aerodynamic spring coefficients of labyrinth seals are discussed and the restoring force in the deflection plane of the rotor and the lateral force acting perpendicularly to it are also considered. The effects of operational conditions on the spring characteristics of these components are examined, such as differential pressure, speed, inlet flow conditions, and the geometry of the labyrinth seals. Estimation formulas for the lateral forces due to shaft rotation and inlet swirl, which are developed through experiments, are presented. The utilization of the investigations is explained and results of stability calculations, especially for high pressure centrifugal compressors, are added. Suggestions are made concerning the avoidance of exciting forces in labyrinths.
The Dynamics of Rotor with Rubbing
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jerzy T. Sawicki
1999-01-01
characteristics of rub-induced rotor response, initial conditions, as well as appropriate ranges of system parameters. Of special interest are the changes in the apparent nonlinearity of the system dynamics as rubs are induced at different rotor speeds. In particular, starting with 2nd order sub/superharmonics, which are symptomatic of quadratic nonlinearity, progressively higher order polynomial behavior is excited, i.e., cubic, giving rise to 3rd order sub/superharmonics. As the speed is transitioned between such apparent nonlinearities, chaotic like behavior is induced because of the lack of whole or rational tone tuning between the apparent system frequency and the external source noise. The cause of such behavior will be discussed in detail along with the results of several parametric studies.
Dynamic Gust Load Analysis for Rotors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yuting Dai
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Dynamic load of helicopter rotors due to gust directly affects the structural stress and flight performance for helicopters. Based on a large deflection beam theory, an aeroelastic model for isolated helicopter rotors in the time domain is constructed. The dynamic response and structural load for a rotor under the impulse gust and slope-shape gust are calculated, respectively. First, a nonlinear Euler beam model with 36 degrees-of-freedoms per element is applied to depict the structural dynamics for an isolated rotor. The generalized dynamic wake model and Leishman-Beddoes dynamic stall model are applied to calculate the nonlinear unsteady aerodynamic forces on rotors. Then, we transformed the differential aeroelastic governing equation to an algebraic one. Hence, the widely used Newton-Raphson iteration algorithm is employed to simulate the dynamic gust load. An isolated helicopter rotor with four blades is studied to validate the structural model and the aeroelastic model. The modal frequencies based on the Euler beam model agree well with published ones by CAMRAD. The flap deflection due to impulse gust with the speed of 2m/s increases twice to the one without gust. In this numerical example, results indicate that the bending moment at the blade root is alleviated due to elastic effect.
APPLICATION OF MECHANIZED MATHEMATICS TO ROTOR DYNAMICS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
胡超; 王岩; 王立国; 黄文虎
2002-01-01
Based on the mechanized mathematics and WU Wen-tsun elimination method,using oil film forces of short-bearing model and Muszynska's dynamic model, the dynamical behavior of rotor-bearing system and its stability of motion are investigated. As example,the concept of Wu characteristic set and Maple software, whirl parameters of short- bearing model, which is usually solved by the numerical method, are analyzed. At the same time,stability of zero solution of Jeffcott rotor whirl equation and stability of self-excited vibration are studied. The conditions of stable motion are obtained by using theory of nonlinear vibration.
Dynamical localization of coupled relativistic kicked rotors
Rozenbaum, Efim B.; Galitski, Victor
2017-02-01
A periodically driven rotor is a prototypical model that exhibits a transition to chaos in the classical regime and dynamical localization (related to Anderson localization) in the quantum regime. In a recent work [Phys. Rev. B 94, 085120 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevB.94.085120], A. C. Keser et al. considered a many-body generalization of coupled quantum kicked rotors, and showed that in the special integrable linear case, dynamical localization survives interactions. By analogy with many-body localization, the phenomenon was dubbed dynamical many-body localization. In the present work, we study nonintegrable models of single and coupled quantum relativistic kicked rotors (QRKRs) that bridge the gap between the conventional quadratic rotors and the integrable linear models. For a single QRKR, we supplement the recent analysis of the angular-momentum-space dynamics with a study of the spin dynamics. Our analysis of two and three coupled QRKRs along with the proved localization in the many-body linear model indicate that dynamical localization exists in few-body systems. Moreover, the relation between QRKR and linear rotor models implies that dynamical many-body localization can exist in generic, nonintegrable many-body systems. And localization can generally result from a complicated interplay between Anderson mechanism and limiting integrability, since the many-body linear model is a high-angular-momentum limit of many-body QRKRs. We also analyze the dynamics of two coupled QRKRs in the highly unusual superballistic regime and find that the resonance conditions are relaxed due to interactions. Finally, we propose experimental realizations of the QRKR model in cold atoms in optical lattices.
Identification of helicopter rotor dynamic models
Molusis, J. A.; Bar-Shalom, Y.; Warmbrodt, W.
1983-01-01
A recursive, extended Kalman-filter approach is applied to the identifiction of rotor damping levels of representative helicopter dynamic systems. The general formulation of the approach is presented in the context of a typically posed stochastic estimation problem, and the method is analytically applied to determining the damping levels of a coupled rotor-body system. The identified damping covergence characteristics are studied for sensitivity to both constant-coefficient and periodic-coefficient measurement models, process-noise covariance levels, and specified initial estimates of the rotor-system damping. A second application of the method to identifying the plant model for a highly damped, isolated flapping blade with a constant-coefficient state model (hover) and a periodic-coefficient state model (forward flight) is also investigated. The parameter-identification capability is evaluated for the effect of periodicity on the plant model coefficients and the influence of different measurement noise levels.
Rotor dynamic considerations for large wind power generator systems
Ormiston, R. A.
1973-01-01
Successful large, reliable, low maintenance wind turbines must be designed with full consideration for minimizing dynamic response to aerodynamic, inertial, and gravitational forces. Much of existing helicopter rotor technology is applicable to this problem. Compared with helicopter rotors, large wind turbines are likely to be relatively less flexible with higher dimensionless natural frequencies. For very large wind turbines, low power output per unit weight and stresses due to gravitational forces are limiting factors. The need to reduce rotor complexity to a minimum favors the use of cantilevered (hingeless) rotor configurations where stresses are relieved by elastic deformations.
Dynamic Analysis of Darrieus Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Rotors
Lobitz, D. W.
1981-01-01
The dynamic response characteristics of the vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) rotor are important factors governing the safety and fatigue life of VAWT systems. The principal problems are the determination of critical rotor speeds (resonances) and the assessment of forced vibration response amplitudes. The solution to these problems is complicated by centrifugal and Coriolis effects which can have substantial influence on rotor resonant frequencies and mode shapes. The primary tools now in use for rotor analysis are described and discussed. These tools include a lumped spring mass model (VAWTDYN) and also finite-element based approaches. The accuracy and completeness of current capabilities are also discussed.
NONLINEAR DYNAMICS OF A CRACKED ROTOR IN A MANEUVERING AIRCRAFT
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIN Fu-sheng 林富生; MENG Guang 孟光; Eric Hahn
2004-01-01
The nonlinear dynamics of a cracked rotor system in an aircraft maneuvering with constant velocity or acceleration was investigated. The influence of the aircraft climbing angle on the cracked rotor system response is of particular interest and the results show that the climbing angle can markedly affect the parameter range for bifurcation, for quasi-periodic response and for chaotic response as well as for system stability. Aircraft acceleration is also shown to significantly affect the nonlinear behavior of the cracked rotor system, illustrating the possibility for on-line rotor crack fault diagnosis.
9th IFToMM International Conference on Rotor Dynamics
2015-01-01
This book presents the proceedings of the 9th IFToMM International Conference on Rotor Dynamics. This conference is a premier global event that brings together specialists from the university and industry sectors worldwide in order to promote the exchange of knowledge, ideas, and information on the latest developments and applied technologies in the dynamics of rotating machinery. The coverage is wide ranging, including, for example, new ideas and trends in various aspects of bearing technologies, issues in the analysis of blade dynamic behavior, condition monitoring of different rotating machines, vibration control, electromechanical and fluid-structure interactions in rotating machinery, rotor dynamics of micro, nano, and cryogenic machines, and applications of rotor dynamics in transportation engineering. Since its inception 32 years ago, the IFToMM International Conference on Rotor Dynamics has become an irreplaceable point of reference for those working in the field, and this book reflects the high qua...
A Brief Review on Dynamics of a Cracked Rotor
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Chandan Kumar
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Fatigue crack is an important rotor fault, which can lead to catastrophic failure if undetected properly and in time. Study and Investigation of dynamics of cracked shafts are continuing since last four decades. Some review papers were also published during this period. The aim of this paper is to present a review on recent studies and investigations done on cracked rotor. It is not the intention of the authors to provide all literatures related with the cracked rotor. However, the main emphasis is to provide all the methodologies adopted by various researchers to investigate a cracked rotor. The paper incorporates a candid commentary on various methodologies. The paper further deals an extended Lagrangian formulation to investigate dynamics of cracked rotor.
Effect of Bearing Housings on Centrifugal Pump Rotor Dynamics
Yashchenko, A. S.; Rudenko, A. A.; Simonovskiy, V. I.; Kozlov, O. M.
2017-08-01
The article deals with the effect of a bearing housing on rotor dynamics of a barrel casing centrifugal boiler feed pump rotor. The calculation of the rotor model including the bearing housing has been performed by the method of initial parameters. The calculation of a rotor solid model including the bearing housing has been performed by the finite element method. Results of both calculations highlight the need to add bearing housings into dynamic analyses of the pump rotor. The calculation performed by modern software packages is more a time-taking process, at the same time it is a preferred one due to a graphic editor that is employed for creating a numerical model. When it is necessary to view many variants of design parameters, programs for beam modeling should be used.
Dynamic Analysis of a Helicopter Rotor by Dymore Program
Doğan, Vedat; Kırca, Mesut
The dynamic behavior of hingeless and bearingless blades of a light commercial helicopter which has been under design process at ITU (İstanbul Technical University, Rotorcraft Research and Development Centre) is investigated. Since the helicopter rotor consists of several parts connected to each other by joints and hinges; rotors in general can be considered as an assembly of the rigid and elastic parts. Dynamics of rotor system in rotation is complicated due to coupling of elastic forces (bending, torsion and tension), inertial forces, control and aerodynamic forces on the rotor blades. In this study, the dynamic behavior of the rotor for a real helicopter design project is analyzed by using DYMORE. Blades are modeled as elastic beams, hub as a rigid body, torque tubes as rigid bodies, control links as rigid bodies plus springs and several joints. Geometric and material cross-sectional properties of blades (Stiffness-Matrix and Mass-Matrix) are calculated by using VABS programs on a CATIA model. Natural frequencies and natural modes of the rotating (and non-rotating) blades are obtained by using DYMORE. Fan-Plots which show the variation of the natural frequencies for different modes (Lead-Lag, Flapping, Feathering, etc.) vs. rotor RPM are presented.
Rotor Dynamic Analysis of RM12 Jet Engine Rotor using ANSYS
Srikrishnanivas, Deepak
2012-01-01
Rotordynamics is a field under mechanics, mainly deals with the vibration of rotating structures. In recent days, the study about rotordynamics has gained more importance within Jet engine industries. The main reason is Jet engine consists of many rotating parts constitutes a complex dynamic system. While designing rotors of high speed turbo machineries, it is of prime importance to consider rotordynamics characteristics in to account. Considering these characteristics at the design phase may...
Nonlinear dynamic behaviors of ball bearing rotor system
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Li-qin; CUI Li; ZHENG De-zhi; GU Le
2009-01-01
Nonlinear forces and moments caused by ball bearing were calculated based on relationship of displacement and deflection and quasi-dynamic model of bearing. Five-DOF dynamic equations of rotor supported by ball bearings were estimated. The Newmark-β method and Newton-Laphson method were used to solve the equations. The dynamic characteristics of rotor system were studied through the time response, the phase portrait, the Poincar? maps and the bifurcation diagrams. The results show that the system goes through the quasiperiodic bifurcation route to chaos as rotate speed increases and there are several quasi-periodic regions and chaos regions. The amplitude decreases and the dynamic behaviors change as the axial load of ball bearing increases; the initial contact angle of ball bearing affects dynamic behaviors of the system obviously. The system can avoid non-periodic vibration by choosing structural parameters and operating parameters reasonably.
Dynamic Vibration Absorber with Negative Stiffness for Rotor System
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Hongliang Yao
2016-01-01
Full Text Available To suppress the vibration of a rotor system, a vibration absorber combining negative stiffness with positive stiffness together is proposed in this paper. Firstly, the negative stiffness producing mechanism using ring type permanent magnets is presented and the characteristics of the negative stiffness are analyzed. Then, the structure of the absorber is proposed; the principles and nonlinear dynamic characteristics of the absorber-rotor system are studied numerically. Finally, experiments are carried out to verify the numerical conclusions. The results show that the proposed vibration absorber is effective to suppress the vibration of the rotor system, the nonlinearity of the negatives stiffness affects the vibration suppression effect little, and the negative stiffness can broaden the effective vibration control frequency range of the absorber.
Preliminary analysis of turbochargers rotors dynamic behaviour
Monoranu, R.; Ştirbu, C.; Bujoreanu, C.
2016-08-01
Turbocharger rotors for the spark and compression ignition engines are resistant steels manufactured in order to support the exhaust gas temperatures exceeding 1200 K. In fact, the mechanical stress is not large as the power consumption of these systems is up to 10 kW, but the operating speeds are high, ranging between 30000 ÷ 250000 rpm. Therefore, the correct turbochargers functioning involves, even from the design stage, the accurate evaluation of the temperature effects, of the turbine torque due to the engine exhaust gases and of the vibration system behaviour caused by very high operating speeds. In addition, the turbocharger lubrication complicates the model, because the classical hydrodynamic theory cannot be applied to evaluate the floating bush bearings. The paper proposes a FEM study using CATIA environment, both as modeling medium and as tool for the numerical analysis, in order to highlight the turbocharger complex behaviour. An accurate design may prevent some major issues which can occur during its operation.
Dynamic Model of Contact Interface between Stator and Rotor
Zhao, Zenghui; Wang, Yuping; Yuan, YiKun; Zhao, Xiangdong
2013-01-01
Based on the equivalent principle, a linear spring contact model was established for the friction layer between stator and rotor. Different contact conditions were described by a distance index δ. Detailed analysis of the nonlinear contact behavior especially the static and dynamic slipping was carried on using a space-time equation. A contact deflection angle was proposed to quantitatively express the influence of friction force on the output performance. A more precision simulation model wa...
Dynamic rotor mode in antiferromagnetic nanoparticles
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lefmann, Kim; Jacobsen, H.; Garde, J.
2015-01-01
We present experimental, numerical, and theoretical evidence for an unusual mode of antiferromagnetic dynamics in nanoparticles. Elastic neutron scattering experiments on 8-nm particles of hematite display a loss of diffraction intensity with temperature, the intensity vanishing around 150 K...
Dynamics of the rotor on elastic-damping supports under action of kinematic effects
Chernyshev, V.; Savin, L.; Fominova, O.
2017-08-01
The article describes the elements of the theory of dynamic analysis of rotor systems. The mathematical model of a gyroscopic rotor as an elementary object on elastic-damping supports. The results of simulation of the trajectories of the rotor under kinematic loading with amplitude commensurate with the clearance in bearing assemblies of fluid friction.
Dynamic analysis of squeeze film damper supported rotors using equivalent linearization
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
El-Shafei, A. (Cairo Univ., Giza (Egypt). Dept. of Mechanical Design and Production); Eranki, R.V. (Aluman Mill Products, Inc., Morris, IL (United States))
1994-07-01
The technique of equivalent linearization is presented in this paper as a powerful technique to perform nonlinear dynamic analysis of squeeze film damper (SFD) supported rotors using linear rotor-dynamic methods. Historically, it is customary to design SFDs for rotor-dynamic analysis by assuming circular-centered orbits, which is convenient in making the nonlinear damper coefficients time independent and thus can be used in an iterative approach to determine the rotor-dynamic characteristics. However, the general synchronous orbit is elliptic in nature due to possible asymmetry in the rotor support. This renders the nonlinear damper coefficients time dependent, which would require extensive numerical computation using numerical integration to determine the rotor dynamic characteristics. Alternatively, it is shown that the equivalent linearization, which is based on a least-squares approach, can be used to obtain time-independent damper coefficients for SFDs executing eccentric elliptic orbits, which are nonlinear in the orbit parameters. The resulting equivalent linear forces are then used in an iterative procedure to obtain the unbalance response of a rigid rotor-SFD system. Huge savings over numerical integration are reported for this simple rotor. The technique can be extended to be used in conjunction with currently available linear rotor-dynamic programs to determine the rotor-dynamic characteristics through iteration. It is expected that for multirotor multibearing systems this technique will result in even more economical computation.
Jia, Mei-Hui; Wang, Cheng-Lin; Ren, Bin
2017-07-01
Stress, strain and vibration characteristics of rotor parts should be changed significantly under high acceleration, manufacturing error is one of the most important reason. However, current research on this problem has not been carried out. A rotor with an acceleration of 150,000 g is considered as the objective, the effects of manufacturing errors on rotor mechanical properties and dynamic characteristics are executed by the selection of the key affecting factors. Through the force balance equation of the rotor infinitesimal unit establishment, a theoretical model of stress calculation based on slice method is proposed and established, a formula for the rotor stress at any point derives. A finite element model (FEM) of rotor with holes is established with manufacturing errors. The changes of the stresses and strains of a rotor in parallelism and symmetry errors are analyzed, which verify the validity of the theoretical model. The pre-stressing modal analysis is performed based on the aforementioned static analysis. The key dynamic characteristics are analyzed. The results demonstrated that, as the parallelism and symmetry errors increase, the equivalent stresses and strains of the rotor slowly increase linearly, the highest growth rate does not exceed 4%, the maximum change rate of natural frequency is 0.1%. The rotor vibration mode is not significantly affected. The FEM construction method of the rotor with manufacturing errors can be utilized for the quantitative research on rotor characteristics, which will assist in the active control of rotor component reliability under high acceleration.
Dynamic behavior of aero-engine rotor with fusing design suffering blade off
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cun WANG
2017-06-01
Full Text Available Fan blade off (FBO from a running turbofan rotor will introduce sudden unbalance into the dynamical system, which will lead to the rub-impact, the asymmetry of rotor and a series of interesting dynamic behavior. The paper first presents a theoretical study on the response excited by sudden unbalance. The results reveal that the reaction force of the bearing located near the fan could always reach a very high value which may lead to the crush of ball, journal sticking, high stress on the other components and some other failures to endanger the safety of engine in FBO event. Therefore, the dynamic influence of a safety design named “fusing” is investigated by mechanism analysis. Meantime, an explicit FBO model is established to simulate the FBO event, and evaluate the effectiveness and potential dynamic influence of fusing design. The results show that the fusing design could reduce the vibration amplitude of rotor, the reaction force on most bearings and loads on mounts, but the sudden change of support stiffness induced by fusing could produce an impact effect which will couple with the influence of sudden unbalance. Therefore, the implementation of the design should be considered carefully with optimized parameters in actual aero-engine.
Dynamic response of a rub-impact rotor system under axial thrust
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
An, Xueli; Zhou, Jianzhong; Xiang, Xiuqiao; Li, Chaoshun; Luo, Zhimeng [Huazhong University of Science andTechnology, College of Hydroelectric and Digitalization Engineering, Wuhan, Hubei (China)
2009-11-15
A model of a rigid rotor system under axial thrust with rotor-to-stator is developed based on the classic impact theory and is analyzed by the Lagrangian dynamics. The rubbing condition is modeled using the elastic impact-contact idealization, which consists of normal and tangential forces at the rotor-to-stator contact point. Mass eccentricity and rotating speed are used as control parameters to simulate the response of rotor system. The motions of periodic, quasi-periodic and chaotic are found in the rotor system response. Mass eccentricity plays an important role in creating chaotic phenomena. (orig.)
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wang Liqin; Cui Li; Zheng Dezhi; Gu Le
2008-01-01
A rotor system supported by roller bearings displays very complicated nonlinear behaviors due to nonlinear Hertzian contact forces, radial clearances and bearing waviness. This paper presents nonlinear bearing forces of a roller bearing under four-dimensional loads and establishes 4-DOF dynamics equations of a rotor roller bearing system. The methods of Newmark-β and of Newton-Laphson are used to solve the nonlinear equations. The dynamics behaviors of a rigid rotor system are studied through the bifurcation, the Poincar bility caused by the quasi-periodic bifurcation, the periodic-doubling bifurcation and chaos routes as the rotational speed increases.Clearances, outer race waviness, inner race waviness, roller waviness, damping, radial forces and unbalanced forces-all these bring a significant influence to bear on the system stability. As the clearance increases, the dynamics behaviors become complicated with the number and the scale of instable regions becoming larger. The vibration frequencies induced by the roller bearing waviness and the orders of the waviness might cause severe vibrations. The system is able to eliminate non-periodic vibration by reasonable choice and optimization of the parameters.
Experimental Dynamic Analysis of a Breathing Cracked Rotor
Guo, Chao-Zhong; Yan, Ji-Hong; Bergman, Lawrence A.
2017-09-01
Crack fault diagnostics plays a critical role for rotating machinery in the traditional and Industry 4.0 factory. In this paper, an experiment is set up to study the dynamic response of a rotor with a breathing crack as it passes through its 1/2, 1/3, 1/4 and 1/5 subcritical speeds. A cracked shaft is made by applying fatigue loads through a three-point bending apparatus and then placed in a rotor testbed. The vibration signals of the testbed during the coasting-up process are collected. Whirl orbit evolution at these subcritical speed zones is analyzed. The Fourier spectra obtained by FFT are used to investigate the internal frequencies corresponding to the typical orbit characteristics. The results show that the appearance of the inner loops and orientation change of whirl orbits in the experiment are agreed well with the theoretical results obtained previously. The presence of higher frequencies 2X, 3X, 4X and 5X in Fourier spectra reveals the causes of subharmonic resonances at these subcritical speed zones. The experimental investigation is more systematic and thorough than previously reported in the literature. The unique dynamic behavior of the orbits and frequency spectra are feasible features for practical crack diagnosis. This paper provides a critical technology support for the self-aware health management of rotating machinery in the Industry 4.0 factory.
Flowers, George T.
1995-02-01
This semiannual status report lists specific accomplishments made on the research of the influence of backup bearings and support structure dynamics on the behavior of rotors with active supports. Papers have been presented representing work done on the T-501 engine model; an experimental/simulation study of auxiliary bearing rotordynamics; and a description of a rotordynamical model for a magnetic bearing supported rotor system, including auxiliary bearing effects. A finite element model for a foil bearing has been developed. Additional studies of rotor/bearing/housing dynamics are currently being performed as are studies of the effects of sideloading on auxiliary bearing rotordynamics using the magnetic bearing supported rotor model.
Duval, R. W.; Bahrami, M.
1985-01-01
The Rotor Systems Research Aircraft uses load cells to isolate the rotor/transmission systm from the fuselage. A mathematical model relating applied rotor loads and inertial loads of the rotor/transmission system to the load cell response is required to allow the load cells to be used to estimate rotor loads from flight data. Such a model is derived analytically by applying a force and moment balance to the isolated rotor/transmission system. The model is tested by comparing its estimated values of applied rotor loads with measured values obtained from a ground based shake test. Discrepancies in the comparison are used to isolate sources of unmodeled external loads. Once the structure of the mathematical model has been validated by comparison with experimental data, the parameters must be identified. Since the parameters may vary with flight condition it is desirable to identify the parameters directly from the flight data. A Maximum Likelihood identification algorithm is derived for this purpose and tested using a computer simulation of load cell data. The identification is found to converge within 10 samples. The rapid convergence facilitates tracking of time varying parameters of the load cell model in flight.
Analysis on Dynamic Performance for Active Magnetic Bearing—Rotor System
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YANHui－yan; WANGXi－ping; 等
2001-01-01
In the application of active magnetic bearings(AMB),one of the key problems to be solved is the safety and stabiltiy in the sense of rotor dynamics,The project related to the present paper deals with the method for analyzing bearing rotor systems with high rotation speed and specially supported by active magnetic bearings,and studies its rotor dynamics performance,including calculation of the natural frequencies with their distribution characteristics,and the critical speeds of the system.one of the targets of this project is to formulate a theory and method valid for the analysis of the dynamic performance of the active magntic bearing-rotor systemby combining the traditional theory and method of rotor dynamics with the analytical theory and design method based on modern control theory of the AMB system.
Flap motion of helicopter rotors with novel, dynamic stall model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Han Wei
2016-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a nonlinear flapping equation for large inflow angles and flap angles is established by analyzing the aerodynamics of helicopter blade elements. In order to obtain a generalized flap equation, the Snel stall model was first applied to determine the lift coefficient of the helicopter rotor. A simulation experiment for specific airfoils was then conducted to verify the effectiveness of the Snel stall model as it applies to helicopters. Results show that the model requires no extraneous parameters compared to the traditional stall model and is highly accurate and practically applicable. Based on the model, the relationship between the flapping angle and the angle of attack was analyzed, as well as the advance ratio under the dynamic stall state.
Dynamic Model of Contact Interface between Stator and Rotor
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
ZengHui Zhao
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Based on the equivalent principle, a linear spring contact model was established for the friction layer between stator and rotor. Different contact conditions were described by a distance index δ. Detailed analysis of the nonlinear contact behavior especially the static and dynamic slipping was carried on using a space-time equation. A contact deflection angle was proposed to quantitatively express the influence of friction force on the output performance. A more precision simulation model was established based on the theoretical analysis, and influences of different preload pressures and elastic modulus Em of friction layer on output performance were analyzed. The results showed the simulation results had very good consistency with experimental results, and the model could well reflect the output characteristics of contact interface.
A Coupled Helicopter Rotor/Fuselage Dynamics Model Using Finite Element Multi-body
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cheng Qi-you
2016-01-01
Full Text Available To develop a coupled rotor/flexible fuselage model for vibration reduction studies, the equation of coupled rotor-fuselage is set up based on the theory of multi-body dynamics, and the dynamic analysis model is established with the software MSC.ADMAS and MSC.NASTRAN. The frequencies and vibration acceleration responses of the system are calculated with the model of coupled rotor-fuselage, and the results are compared with those of uncoupled modeling method. Analysis results showed that compared with uncoupled model, the dynamic characteristic obtained by the model of coupled rotor-fuselage are some different. The intrinsic frequency of rotor is increased with the increase of rotational velocities. The results also show that the flying speed has obvious influence on the vibration acceleration responses of the fuselage. The vibration acceleration response in the vertical direction is much higher at the low speed and high speed flight conditions.
Experimental and Numerical Study of Rotor Dynamics of a Two- and Three-Bladed Wind Turbine
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Torben J.; Kim, Taeseong
2016-01-01
In this paper the dynamics of a two-bladed turbine is investigated numerically as well as experimentally with respect to how the turbine frequencies change with the rotor speed. It is shown how the turbine frequencies of a two-bladed rotor change with the azimuthal position at standstill and how ...
Rotor Voltage Dynamics in the Doubly Fed Induction Generator During Grid Faults
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lima, Francisco K. A.; Luna, Alvaro; Rodriguez, Pedro
2010-01-01
, something that would permit the injection of power to the grid during the fault, as the new grid codes demand. A theoretical study of the dynamical behavior of the rotor voltage is also developed, in order to show that the voltage at the rotor terminals required for the control strategy implementation...
Dynamic Model and Fault Feature Research of Dual-Rotor System with Bearing Pedestal Looseness
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nanfei Wang
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The paper presents a finite element model of dual-rotor system with pedestal looseness stemming from loosened bolts. Dynamic model including bearing pedestal looseness is established based on the dual-rotor test rig. Three-degree-of-freedom (DOF planar rigid motion of loose bearing pedestal is fully considered and collision recovery coefficient is also introduced in the model. Based on the Timoshenko beam elements, using the finite element method, rigid body kinematics, and the Newmark-β algorithm for numerical simulation, dynamic characteristics of the inner and outer rotors and the bearing pedestal plane rigid body motion under bearing pedestal looseness condition are studied. Meanwhile, the looseness experiments under two different speed combinations are carried out, and the experimental results are basically the same. The simulation results are compared with the experimental results, indicating that vibration displacement waveforms of loosened rotor have “clipping” phenomenon. When the bearing pedestal looseness fault occurs, the inner and outer rotors vibration spectrum not only contains the difference and sum frequency of the two rotors’ fundamental frequency but also contains 2X and 3X component of rotor with loosened support, and so forth; low frequency spectrum is more, containing dividing component, and so forth; the rotor displacement spectrums also contain fewer combination frequency components, and so forth; when one side of the inner rotor bearing pedestal is loosened, the inner rotor axis trajectory is drawn into similar-ellipse shape.
Dynamic Characteristics and Experimental Research of Dual-Rotor System with Rub-Impact Fault
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hongzhi Xu
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Rub-impact fault model for dual-rotor system was further developed, in which rubbing board is regarded as elastic sheet. Sheet elastic deformation, contact penetration, and elastic damping support during rubbing of sheet and wheel disk were considered. Collision force and friction were calculated by utilizing Hertz contact theory and Coulomb model and introducing nonlinear spring damping model and friction coefficient. Then kinetic differential equations of rub-impact under dry rubbing condition were established. Based on one-dimensional finite element model of dual-rotor system, dynamic transient response of overall structure under rub-impact existing between rotor wheel and sheet was obtained. Meanwhile, fault dynamic characteristics and impact of rubbing clearance on rotor vibration were analyzed. The results show that, during the process of rub-impact, the spectrums of rotor vibration are complicated and multiple combined frequency components of inner and outer rotor fundamental frequencies are typical characteristic of rub-impact fault for dual-rotor system. It also can be seen from rotor vibration response that the rubbing rotor’s fundamental frequency is modulated by normal rotor double frequency.
Dynamics of High-Speed Precision Geared Rotor Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lim Teik C.
2014-07-01
Full Text Available Gears are one of the most widely applied precision machine elements in power transmission systems employed in automotive, aerospace, marine, rail and industrial applications because of their reliability, precision, efficiency and versatility. Fundamentally, gears provide a very practical mechanism to transmit motion and mechanical power between two rotating shafts. However, their performance and accuracy are often hampered by tooth failure, vibrations and whine noise. This is most acute in high-speed, high power density geared rotor systems, which is the primary scope of this paper. The present study focuses on the development of a gear pair mathematical model for use to analyze the dynamics of power transmission systems. The theory includes the gear mesh representation derived from results of the quasi-static tooth contact analysis. This proposed gear mesh theory comprising of transmission error, mesh point, mesh stiffness and line-of-action nonlinear, time-varying parameters can be easily incorporated into a variety of transmission system models ranging from the lumped parameter type to detailed finite element representation. The gear dynamic analysis performed led to the discovery of the out-of-phase gear pair torsion modes that are responsible for much of the mechanical problems seen in gearing applications. The paper concludes with a discussion on effectual design approaches to minimize the influence of gear dynamics and to mitigate gear failure in practical power transmission systems.
Influence of unbalance levels on nonlinear dynamics of a rotor-backup rolling bearing system
Fonseca, Cesar A.; Santos, Ilmar F.; Weber, Hans I.
2017-04-01
Rotor drops in magnetic bearing and unbalance in rotors have been objective of study for many years. The combination of these two well-known phenomena led to an interesting chaotic response, when the rotor touches the inner race of the back-up bearing. The present work explores the nonlinear rotor backup bearing dynamics both theoretically and experimentally using a fully instrumented test rig, where the position of shaft, its angular velocity and the contact forces between the shaft and the backup bearing are sampled at 25 kHz. The test rig is built by a removable passive magnetic bearing, which allows for simulation of magnetic bearing failure (loss of carrying capacity and rotor fall). The rotor is studied numerically as well as experimentally. A theoretical approach is given beforehand and supplies the basis of the study. Finally the presented results are commented on the point of view of nonlinear dynamics applied to the practical use. The theoretical and numerical analyses are shown through orbit plots, phase plans, Poincaré maps, force response in time and double sided spectrum. The latter is important to characterize the condition at different levels of unbalance between forward and backward whirl. Our preliminary results indicate that for smaller amount of unbalance the rotor swings at the bottom of the bearing, the more the unbalance increases, other dynamical behavior occur and some can be extremely harmful, since the rotor can be lifted from the contact state and return, starting to impact innumerable times without reaching a steady state.
Contributions to the dynamics of helicopters with active rotor controls
Malpica, Carlos A.
This dissertation presents an aeromechanical closed loop stability and response analysis of a hingeless rotor helicopter with a Higher Harmonic Control (HHC) system for vibration reduction. The analysis includes the rigid body dynamics of the helicopter and blade flexibility. The gain matrix is assumed to be fixed and computed off-line. The discrete elements of the HHC control loop are rigorously modeled, including the presence of two different time scales in the loop. By also formulating the coupled rotor-fuselage dynamics in discrete form, the entire coupled helicopter-HHC system could be rigorously modeled as a discrete system. The effect of the periodicity of the equations of motion is rigorously taken into account by converting the system into an equivalent system with constant coefficients and identical stability properties using a time lifting technique. The most important conclusion of the present study is that the discrete elements in the HHC loop must be modeled in any HHC analysis. Not doing so is unconservative. For the helicopter configuration and HHC structure used in this study, an approximate continuous modeling of the HHC system indicates that the closed loop, coupled helicopter-HHC system remains stable for optimal feedback control configurations which the more rigorous discrete analysis shows can result in closed loop instabilities. The HHC gains must be reduced to account for the loss of gain margin brought about by the discrete elements. Other conclusions of the study are: (i) the HHC is effective in quickly reducing vibrations, at least at its design condition, although the time constants associated with the closed loop transient response indicate closed loop bandwidth to be 1 rad/sec on average, thus overlapping with FCS or pilot bandwidths, and raising the issue of potential interactions; (ii) a linearized model of helicopter dynamics is adequate for HHC design, as long as the periodicity of the system is correctly taken into account, i
Ugarte, Juan P; Orozco-Duque, Andrés; Tobón, Catalina; Kremen, Vaclav; Novak, Daniel; Saiz, Javier; Oesterlein, Tobias; Schmitt, Clauss; Luik, Armin; Bustamante, John
2014-01-01
There is evidence that rotors could be drivers that maintain atrial fibrillation. Complex fractionated atrial electrograms have been located in rotor tip areas. However, the concept of electrogram fractionation, defined using time intervals, is still controversial as a tool for locating target sites for ablation. We hypothesize that the fractionation phenomenon is better described using non-linear dynamic measures, such as approximate entropy, and that this tool could be used for locating the rotor tip. The aim of this work has been to determine the relationship between approximate entropy and fractionated electrograms, and to develop a new tool for rotor mapping based on fractionation levels. Two episodes of chronic atrial fibrillation were simulated in a 3D human atrial model, in which rotors were observed. Dynamic approximate entropy maps were calculated using unipolar electrogram signals generated over the whole surface of the 3D atrial model. In addition, we optimized the approximate entropy calculation using two real multi-center databases of fractionated electrogram signals, labeled in 4 levels of fractionation. We found that the values of approximate entropy and the levels of fractionation are positively correlated. This allows the dynamic approximate entropy maps to localize the tips from stable and meandering rotors. Furthermore, we assessed the optimized approximate entropy using bipolar electrograms generated over a vicinity enclosing a rotor, achieving rotor detection. Our results suggest that high approximate entropy values are able to detect a high level of fractionation and to locate rotor tips in simulated atrial fibrillation episodes. We suggest that dynamic approximate entropy maps could become a tool for atrial fibrillation rotor mapping.
Dynamic behavior of a magnetic bearing supported jet engine rotor with auxiliary bearings
Flowers, George T.; Xie, Huajun; Sinha, S. C.
1995-01-01
This paper presents a study of the dynamic behavior of a rotor system supported by auxiliary bearings. The steady-state behavior of a simulation model based upon a production jet engine is explored over a wide range of operating conditions for varying rotor imbalance, support stiffness, and damping. Interesting dynamical phenomena, such as chaos, subharmonic responses, and double-valued responses, are presented and discussed.
Xu, Yuanping; Zhou, Jin; Di, Long; Zhao, Chen
2017-01-01
Active magnetic bearings (AMBs) support rotors using electromagnetic force rather than mechanical forces. It is necessary to accurately identify the AMBs force coefficients since they play a critical role in the rotordynamic analysis including system stability, bending critical speeds and modes of vibrations. This paper proposes a rotor unbalance response based approach to identifying the AMBs stiffness and damping coefficients during rotation. First, a Timoshenko beam finite element (FE) rotor model is created. Second, an identification procedure based on the FE model is proposed. Then based on the experimental rotor unbalance response data from 1200 rpm to 30,000 rpm, the AMBs dynamic force parameters (stiffness and damping) are obtained. Finally, the identified results are verified by comparing the estimated and experimental rotor unbalance responses, which shows high accuracy.
Dynamic modeling and nonlinear control strategy for an underactuated quad rotor rotorcraft
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Ashfaq Ahmad MIAN; Dao-bo WANG
2008-01-01
In this paper, a nonlinear dynamic MIMO model of a 6-DOF underactuated quad rotor rotorcraft is derived based on Newton-Euler formalism. The derivation comprises determining equations of motion of the quad rotor in three dimensions and seeking to approximate the actuation forces through modeling of the aerodynamic coefficients and electric motor dynamics. The derived model is dynamically unstable, so a sequential nonlinear control strategy is implemented for the quad rotor. The control strategy includes exact feedback linearization technique, using the geometric methods of nonlinear control. The performance of the nonlinear control algorithm is evaluated using simulation and the results show the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy for the quad rotor rotorcraft near quasi-stationary flight.
Turbulent Flow Characteristics and Dynamics Response of a Vertical-Axis Spiral Rotor
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Yuli Wang
2013-05-01
Full Text Available The concept of a vertical-axis spiral wind rotor is proposed and implemented in the interest of adapting it to air flows from all directions and improving the rotor’s performance. A comparative study is performed between the proposed rotor and conventional Savonius rotor. Turbulent flow features near the rotor blades are simulated with Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model. The torque coefficient of the proposed rotor is satisfactory in terms of its magnitude and variation through the rotational cycle. Along the height of the rotor, distinct spatial turbulent flow patterns vary with the upstream air velocity. Subsequent experiments involving a disk generator gives an in-depth understanding of the dynamic response of the proposed rotor under different operation conditions. The optimal tip-speed ratio of the spiral rotor is 0.4–0.5, as is shown in both simulation and experiment. Under normal and relative-motion flow conditions, and within the range of upstream air velocity from 1 to 12 m/s, the output voltage of the generator was monitored and statistically analyzed. It was found that normal air velocity fluctuations lead to a non-synchronous correspondence between upstream air velocity and output voltage. In contrast, the spiral rotor’s performance when operating from the back of a moving truck was significantly different to its performance under the natural conditions.
Aero dynamical and mechanical behaviour of the Savonius rotor
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aouachria, Z. [Batna Univ., (Algeria). Applied Energetic Physics Laboratory
2009-07-01
Although the Savonius wind turbine is not as efficient as the traditional Darrieus wind turbine, its rotor design has many advantages such as simple construction; acceptance of wind from all directions; high starting torque; operation at relatively low speed; and easy adaptation to urban sites. These advantages may outweigh its low efficiency and make it suitable for small-scale power requirements such as pumping and rural electrification. This paper presented a study of the aerodynamic behaviour of a Savonius rotor, based on blade pressure measurements. A two-dimensional analysis method was used to determine the aerodynamic strengths, which leads to the Magnus effect and the generation of the vibrations on the rotor. The study explained the vibratory behaviour of the rotor and proposed an antivibration system to protect the machine. 14 refs., 1 tab., 9 figs.
Nonlinear Dynamics Analysis of Tilting Pad Journal Bearing-Rotor System
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jiayang Ying
2011-01-01
Full Text Available The nonlinear dynamics theory is increasingly applied in the dynamics analysis of tilting pad journal bearing-rotor system. However, extensive work on system dynamics done previously neglects the influence caused by the moment of inertia of the pad. In this paper, a comparison is made between the responses of the rotor in the bearings with and without pad inertia effect. Taking the Jeffcott rotor system as an example, the characteristics of bearing-rotor system, such as bifurcation diagram, cycle response, frequency spectrum, phase trajectories, and Poincaré maps, were attained within a certain rotation rate range. The pivotal oil-film force of tilting pad journal bearing was calculated by database method. The results directly demonstrate that considering the influence of the pad moment of inertia, system dynamics characteristics are found more complicated when rotor-bearing system works around natural frequency and system bifurcation is observed forward when rotor-bearing system works on high-speed range.
Quantum molecular dynamics of methyl rotors in peptide links
Del Mar, J
2002-01-01
A particles wavefunction extends beyond the classically accessible regions of the potential energy surface. Quantum mechanical tunnelling is the result of this partial delocalisation, which enables the surpassing of classically inaccessible potential barriers. A particles mass is an important aspect, reflecting the tunnelling probability; a consequence of this is that a proton is ideally suited to this behaviour. Symmetrical molecular rotors such as Ch sub 3 provide a clear example of quantum mechanical tunnelling, seen in their motional spectrum. The advantage of the methyl rotor is that it's found in a wide range of organic compounds, giving a wide range in hindering potentials. It is effectively a proton rotor, and is easily observed using techniques such as Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), and Inelastic Neutron Scattering (INS). Both NMR and INS techniques are sensitive to molecular motion, and as they measure the tunnel frequencies in different energy windows, are complementary. Of central importance to...
Study of nonlinear dynamic characteristics of rotor-bearing systems
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
焦映厚; 陈照波; 曲秀全
2004-01-01
Based on the short-bearing model, the stability of a rigid Jeffcott rotor system is studied in a relatively wide parameter range by using Poincare maps and the numerical intrgration method. The results of the calculation show that the period doubling bifurcation, quasi-periodic and chaotic motions may occur. In some typical system are acquired with the numerical integration method. They demonstrate some motion state of the system.The fractal dimension concept is used to determine whether the system is in a state of chaotic motion. The analysis result of this paper provides the theoretical basis for qualitatively controlling the stable operating states ofthe rotors.
Dynamics analysis of a cracked dual-disk over-hung rotor-bearing system
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHEN Hong; LI He; ZHANG Xiao-wei; WEN Bang-chun
2006-01-01
A dynamic model of a dual-disk vertical over-hung rotor-bearing system is developed,taking into account nonlinear oil-film force.Its dynamic behaviors are investigated by numerical Runge-Kutta method.Its bifurcation and chaos characteristics are analyzed with crack fault and without crack fault.By analyzing the bifurcation plot,Poincare section plots and amplitude spectra,we found that the crack greatly influences the dynamic characteristics of the rotor-bearing system.Because of the strong effect of the nonlinear oil-film force and crack to the system,1/2 times,1/3 times frequency components appear in the response spectrum map.The results may bring up theoretical references for fault diagnosis of rotor-beating systems.
Nonlinear dynamics of flexible rotor supported on the gas foil journal bearings
Bhore, Skylab P.; Darpe, Ashish K.
2013-09-01
Investigation on nonlinear dynamics of a flexible rotor supported on the gas foil journal bearings is attempted. A time domain orbit simulation is carried out that couples the equations of rotor motion, unsteady Reynolds equation and foil deformation. The unsteady Reynolds equation is solved using control volume formulation with power law hybrid scheme and Gauss-Seidel method. The nonlinear dynamic response is analyzed using disc center and journal center trajectories, Poincaré maps, Fast Fourier transforms and bifurcation plots. The analysis is carried out for different system parameters, namely, rotating speed, unbalance eccentricity, compliance and loss factor of gas foil bearing. The analysis reveals highly nonlinear behavior with periodic, multi-periodic and quasiperiodic motion of the disc and the journal center. The present analysis can be useful in designing and selection of suitable operating parameters of rotor bearing system.
Studies on dynamic characteristics of the joint in the aero-engine rotor system
Shuguo, Liu; Yanhong, Ma; Dayi, Zhang; Jie, Hong
2012-05-01
The joint as a major part of the aero-engine rotating shafts directly influences its rotordynamics and state stability. This paper studies the dynamic effects of structure parameters and the external load on the stiffness and contact state of the rotor joints with nonlinear finite-element method and experiments. And a sensitivity analysis of critical speeds and vibration modes with respect to typical parameters (stiffness of the spline joints) is performed with finite difference methods, through two approaches, i.e. relative sensitivity analysis and absolute sensitivity analysis. The study results show that the stiffness and contact state of joints vary with external loads and geometry structures, and affect the rotor system operating. It is advisable to consider the influence of the position, structural parameter and external load of the rotor joints on aero-engine structure dynamics design.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2002-01-01
The nonlinear dynamic behavior of a rubbing rotor system was studied with a mathematical model established with the eccentricity and interaction between bending and torsional vibrations taken into consideration.The nonlinear vibrational response of a rubbing rotor was analyzed using numerical integral,spectroscopic analysis and Poince mapping method,which made it possible to have better understanding of the vibrational characteristics of partial rubbing and complete circular rubbing rotors.The numerical results reveal the response of torsional vibration mainly takes a form of suporchronous motion,and its frequency decreases as the rotational speed increases when partial rubbing occurs,and the response of torsional vibration is synchronous when complete circular rubbing occurs.The comparison of the dynamics of rubbing rotors with and without the interaction between bending and torsional vibrations shows the interaction between bending and torsional vibrations advances the rotational speed,at which the response of bending vibration changes from a synchronous motion into a quasi-periodic motion,and the interaction between bending and torsional vibrations reduces stability of the rubbing rotor.
Dynamics of fluidic devices with applications to rotor pitch links
Scarborough, Lloyd H., III
Coupling a Fluidic Flexible Matrix Composite (F2MC) to an air-pressurized fluid port produces a fundamentally new class of tunable vibration isolator. This fluidlastic device provides significant vibration reduction at an isolation frequency that can be tuned over a broad frequency range. The material properties and geometry of the F2MC element, as well as the port inertance, determine the isolation frequency. A unique feature of this device is that the port inertance depends on pressure so the isolation frequency can be adjusted by changing the air pressure. For constant port inertance, the isolation frequency is largely independent of the isolated mass so the device is robust to changes in load. A nonlinear model is developed to predict isolator length and port inertance. The model is linearized and the frequency response calculated. Experiments agree with theory, demonstrating a tunable isolation range from 9 Hz to 36 Hz and transmitted force reductions of up to 60 dB at the isolation frequency. Replacing rigid pitch links on rotorcraft with coupled fluidic devices has the potential to reduce the aerodynamic blade loads transmitted through the pitch links to the swashplate. Analytical models of two fluidic devices coupled with three different fluidic circuits are derived. These passive fluidlastic systems are tuned, by varying the fluid inertances and capacitances of each fluidic circuit, to reduce the transmitted pitch-link loads. The different circuit designs result in transmitted pitch link loads reduction at up to three main rotor harmonics. The simulation results show loads reduction at the targeted out-of-phase and in-phase harmonics of up to 88% and 93%, respectively. Experimental validation of two of the fluidic circuits demonstrates loads reduction of up to 89% at the out-of-phase isolation frequencies and up to 81% at the in-phase isolation frequencies. Replacing rigid pitch links on rotorcraft with fluidic pitch links changes the blade torsional
Dynamic balance of unsymmetrical rotor-bearing system
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
黄森林; 刘占生; 苏杰先
2003-01-01
The formula is derived for calculating correction weights from motion equations of unsymmetrical ro-tor-bearing system. Two trial weights are required in two trial operations for ea ch balancing plane, and forwardprecession of trial responses are used to calculate the correction weights. Comparative experiments between thismethod and the conventional method are carried out on the test bench. Moreover, this method was used to bal-ance a 600 MW generator-bearing system, it decreased the balancing time and improved the balance accuracy.This method has been proved valid for balancing unsymmetrical rotor-bearing system.
Wind Tunnel Interference Effects on Tilt Rotor Testing Using Computational Fluid Dynamics
Koning, Witold J. F.
2016-01-01
Experimental techniques to measure rotorcraft aerodynamic performance are widely used. However, most of them are either unable to capture interference effects from bodies, or require an extremely large computational budget. The objective of the present research is to develop an XV-15 Tiltrotor Research Aircraft rotor model for investigation of wind tunnel wall interference using a novel Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) solver for rotorcraft, RotCFD. In RotCFD, a mid-fidelity Unsteady Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) solver is used with an incompressible flow model and a realizable k-e turbulence model. The rotor is, however, not modeled using a computationally expensive, unsteady viscous body-fitted grid, but is instead modeled using a blade-element model (BEM) with a momentum source approach. Various flight modes of the XV-15 isolated rotor, including hover, tilt, and airplane mode, have been simulated and correlated to existing experimental and theoretical data. The rotor model is subsequently used for wind tunnel wall interference simulations in the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex (NFAC) at Ames Research Center in California. The results from the validation of the isolated rotor performance showed good correlation with experimental and theoretical data. The results were on par with known theoretical analyses. In RotCFD the setup, grid generation, and running of cases is faster than many CFD codes, which makes it a useful engineering tool. Performance predictions need not be as accurate as high-fidelity CFD codes, as long as wall effects can be properly simulated. For both test sections of the NFAC wall, interference was examined by simulating the XV-15 rotor in the test section of the wind tunnel and with an identical grid but extended boundaries in free field. Both cases were also examined with an isolated rotor or with the rotor mounted on the modeled geometry of the Tiltrotor Test Rig (TTR). A "quasi linear trim" was used to trim the thrust
Influence of the Mechanical Seals on the Dynamic Performance of Rotor-Bearing Systems
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
XU Hua; ZHU Jun
2006-01-01
In this Paper,to consider the effects of mechanical seals.a lumped-mass modeJ and the transfer matric method are used to establish the equations for the dynamics performance of rotor-bearing system.The general inverted iteration method is also used to solve the eigenvalue problem of these equations.To check the response of the rotorbearing system under unbalance motivation,the Gauss method is used to calculate the dynamic response of the constrained vibration.The results,based on the dynamic properties calculation of a typical mechanical spiral seal,such as stiffness coefficients and damping coefficients.exert the influence of the mechanical seal on the rotorbeating system of the high-speed machinery.Meanwhile,some structure parameters that may affect the dynamic performance and forced vibration under unbalance motiVation of the rotor-bearing system considering mechanical seals are analyzed in the Paper.The analysis results show that the mechanical seal more or less has effects on the rotor-bearing system.The mechanical seal has much more effects on the flexible rotor-bearing system than on the rigid one.For instance,in a certain case,ifthe effects of the mechanical seal were taken into account,the system's critical speed may increase by 70-80%.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Liang Hu
2016-10-01
Full Text Available A nonlinear coupled dynamic model of a rod fastening rotor under rub-impact and initial permanent deflection was developed in this paper. The governing motion equation was derived by the D’Alembert principle considering the contact characteristic between disks, nonlinear oil-film force, rub-impact force, unbalance mass, etc. The contact effects between disks was modeled as a flexural spring with cubical nonlinear stiffness. The coupled nonlinear dynamic phenomena of the rub-impact rod fastening rotor bearing system with initial permanent deflection were investigated by the fourth-order Runge-Kutta method. Bifurcation diagram, vibration waveform, frequency spectrum, shaft orbit and Poincaré map are used to illustrate the rich diversity of the system response with complicated dynamics. The studies indicate that the coupled dynamic responses of the rod fastening rotor bearing system under rub-impact and initial permanent deflection exhibit a rich nonlinear dynamic diversity, synchronous periodic-1 motion, multiple periodic motion, quasi-periodic motion and chaotic motion can be observed under certain conditions. Larger radial stiffness of the stator will simplify the system motion and make the oil whirl weaker or even disappear at a certain rotating speed. With the increase of initial permanent deflection length, the instability speed of the system gradually rises, and the chaotic motion region gets smaller and smaller. The corresponding results can provide guidance for the fault diagnosis of a rub-impact rod fastening rotor with initial permanent deflection and contribute to the further understanding of the nonlinear dynamic characteristics of the rod fastening rotor bearing system.
Preventing the oil film instability in rotor-dynamics
Sorge, F.
2016-09-01
Horizontal rotor systems on lubricated journal bearings may incur instability risks depending on the load and the angular speed. The instability is associated with the asymmetry of the stiffness matrix of the bearings around the equilibrium position, in like manner as the internal hysteretic instability somehow, where some beneficial effect is indeed obtainable by an anisotropic configuration of the support stiffness. Hence, the idea of the present analysis is to check if similar advantages are also obtainable towards the oil film instability. The instability thresholds are calculated by usual methods, such as the Routh criterion or the direct search for the system eigenvalues. The results indicate that the rotor performances may be improved in the range of low Sommerfeld numbers by softening the support stiffness in the vertical plane, and hardening it on the horizontal one, up to the complete locking, though this advantage has to be paid by rather lower instability thresholds for large Sommerfeld numbers. Nevertheless, a "two-mode" arrangement is conceivable, with some vertical flexibility of the supports for large journal eccentricity, and complete locking for small eccentricity. As another alternative, the support anisotropy may be associated with the use of step bearings, whose particular characteristic is to improve the stability for small eccentricities.
Wake-induced unsteady flows: Their impact on rotor performance and wake rectification
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Adamczyk, J.J. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Brook Park, OH (United States). Lewis Research Center; Celestina, M.L. [Sverdrup Technology, Inc., Brook Park, OH (United States). Dept. of Aeromechanics; Chen, J.P. [Mississippi State Univ., MS (United States). NSF Engineering Research Center
1996-01-01
The impact of wake-induced unsteady flows on blade row performance and the wake rectification process is examined by means of numerical simulation. The passage of a stator wake through a downstream rotor is first simulated using a three-dimensional unsteady viscous flow code. The results from this simulation are used to define two steady-state inlet conditions for a three-dimensional viscous flow simulation of a rotor operating in isolation. The results obtained from these numerical simulations are then compared to those obtained form the unsteady simulation both to quantify the impact of the wake-induced unsteady flow field on rotor performance and to identify the flow processes which impact wake rectification. Finally, the results from this comparison study are related to an existing model, which attempts to account for the impact of wake-induced unsteady flows on the performance of multistage turbomachinery.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Arbab Nighat Khizer
2015-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a time-domain approach for identification of longitudinal dynamics of single rotor model helicopter. A frequency sweep excitation input signal is applied for hover flying mode widely used for space state linearized model. A fully automated programmed flight test method provides high quality flight data for system identification using the computer controlled flight simulator X-plane©. The flight test data were recorded, analyzed and reduced using the SIDPAC (System Identification Programs for Air Craft toolbox for MATLAB, resulting in an aerodynamic model of single rotor helicopter. Finally, the identified model of single rotor helicopter is validated on Raptor 30-class model helicopter at hover showing the reliability of proposed approach
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sheu, D.L.
1978-09-01
The effects of tower motion on the dynamic response of a windmill rotor are studied. The blade lagging and side tower motion are taken into consideration in the analysis. The equations of motion for the system are a set of linear ordinary differential equations having periodic coefficients. The periodic coefficients of the equations of motion for a three bladed rotor are eliminated by using the multiblade coordinate transformation method. For a two bladed rotor, the equations of motion are solved by using the harmonic balance method. In addition to both methods, the Floquet Transition Matrix method is shown to be an effective way in dealing with the linear ordinary differential equations having periodic coefficients. The differences between the instability regions for a three bladed system and for a two bladed system are discussed.
Dynamic surface measurements on a model helicopter rotor during blade slap at high angles of attack
Hubbard, J. E., Jr.; Harris, W. L.
1982-01-01
The modern helicopter offers a unique operational capability to both the public and private sectors. However, the use of the helicopter may become severely limited due to the radiated noise generated by the rotor system. A description is presented of some of the experimental results obtained with a model helicopter rotor in an anechoic wind tunnel with regard to blade stall as a source mechanism of blade slap. Attention is given to dynamic rotor blade surface phenomena and the resulting far field impulsive noise from the model helicopter rotor at high angles of attack and low tip speed. The results of the investigation strongly implicates the boundary layer as playing an important role in blade slap due to blade/vortex interaction (BVI) in a highly loaded rotor. Intermittent stall cannot be ruled out as a possible source mechanism for blade slap. This implies that blade surface characteristics, airfoil shape and local Reynolds number may now be used as tools to reduce the resultant far-field sound pressure levels in helicopters.
Modal dynamics of structures with bladed isotropic rotors and its complexity for 2-bladed rotors
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Morten Hartvig
2016-01-01
wind turbine model consisting of three degrees of freedom for each blade and seven degrees of freedom for the nacelle and drivetrain. The modal dynamics of a 3-bladed 10MW turbine from previous studies is recaptured. Removing one blade, the larger and higher harmonic terms in the system matrix lead...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sadrul Islam, A.K.M.; Quamrul Islam, M.; Razzaque, M.M. [Bangladesh University (Bangladesh). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Ashref, R
1995-12-31
Drag and torque coefficients of a stationary S-shaped rotor have been investigated by measuring the pressure distribution on the blade surfaces for various rotor angles. The experiments have been carried out at a Reynolds number of 1.1 x 10{sup 5} in a uniform flow jet produced by an open circuit wind tunnel. The measurements indicate that the drag force, and hence the torque, varies with rotor angle. The maximum net static torque occurs at 45{sup o} of rotor angle and it becomes negative in the range of 135{sup o} to 165{sup o} of rotor angle. A quasi-steady approach has been applied for the prediction of the dynamic performance of the rotor using the static drag and torque coefficients. This method results in a fair agreement with the measured power coefficient. (Author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yu-Jen Wang
2015-03-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes the design of a weighted-rotor energy harvester (WREH in which the oscillation is caused by the periodic change of the tangential component of gravity, to harvest kinetic energy from a rotating wheel. When a WREH is designed with a suitable characteristic length, the rotor’s natural frequency changes according to the wheel rotation speed and the rotor oscillates at a wide angle and high angular velocity to generate a large amount of power. The magnetic disk is designed according to an optimized circular Halbach array. The optimized circular Halbach array magnetic disk provides the largest induced EMF for different sector-angle ratios for the same magnetic disk volume. This study examined the output voltage and power by considering the constant and accelerating plate-rotation speeds, respectively. This paper discusses the effects of the angular acceleration speed of a rotating wheel corresponding to the dynamic behaviors of a weighted rotor. The average output power is 399 to 535 microwatts at plate-rotation speeds from 300 to 500 rpm, enabling the WREH to be a suitable power source for a tire-pressure monitoring system.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Salazar, Jorge Andrés González; Cerda Varela, Alejandro Javier; Santos, Ilmar
2013-01-01
This paper reports the dynamic study of a flexible rotor-bearing test rig which resembles a large overhung centrifugal compressor. The rotor is supported by an active tilting pad journal bearing (TPJB) able to perform the adjustable lubrication regime. Such a regime is obtained by injecting press...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Salazar, Jorge Andrés González; Cerda Varela, Alejandro Javier; Santos, Ilmar
2013-01-01
This paper reports the dynamic study of a flexible rotor-bearing test rig which resembles a large overhung centrifugal compressor. The rotor is supported by an active tilting pad journal bearing (TPJB) able to perform the adjustable lubrication regime. Such a regime is obtained by injecting...
NONLINEAR DYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF HYDRODYNAMIC JOURNAL BEARING-FLEXIBLE ROTOR SYSTEM
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Lu Yanjun; Yu Lie; Liu Heng
2005-01-01
The nonlinear dynamic behaviors of flexible rotor system with hydrodynamic bearing supports are analyzed. The shaft is modeled by using the finite element method that takes the effect of inertia and shear into consideration. According to the nonlinearity of the hydrodynamic journal bearing-flexible rotor system, a modified modal synthesis technique with free-interface is represented to reduce degrees-of-freedom of model of the flexible rotor system. According to physical character of oil film, variational constrain approach is introduced to continuously revise the variational form of Reynolds equation at every step of dynamic integration and iteration. Fluid lubrication problem with Reynolds boundary is solved by the isoparametric finite element method without the increasing of computing efforts. Nonlinear oil film forces and their Jacobians are simultaneously calculated and -Newton-Floquet (PNF) method. A method, combining the predictor-corrector mechanism to the PNF method, is presented to calculate the bifurcation point of periodic motions to be subject to change of system parameters. The local stability and bifurcation behaviors of periodic motions are obtained by Floquet theory. The chaotic motions of the beating-rotor system are investigated by power spectrum.The numerical examples show that the scheme of this study saves computing efforts but also is of good precision.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Edgar Estupiñán P
2006-08-01
Full Text Available El presente trabajo resalta la importancia del balanceamiento de rotores como principal herramienta dentro de las tareas correctivas del mantenimiento predictivo, con el fin de que se reduzcan las vibraciones y sus efectos secundarios en las máquinas rotatorias. Se ha desarrollado un instrumento virtual para el balanceamiento dinámico de rotores, basado en un sistema de adquisición de datos (SAD. El instrumento tiene incluidos todos los cálculos necesarios para balancear rotores en un plano y en dos planos, a partir de la medición de los datos de vibración, utilizando el procedimiento de los coeficientes de influencia o utilizando un procedimiento de medición sin fase. También se ha incluido un módulo para determinar la severidad vibratoria del rotor y un módulo de análisis de vibraciones, que incluye análisis espectral y de la forma de onda. Este instrumento virtual es una herramienta útil para el balanceamiento de rotores en laboratorio así como también en la industria.This article highlights the importance of rotor balancing like the most important corrective action included in a predictive maintenance program, whose main objective is reducing the vibrations level and its secondary effect in rotary machines. A virtual instrument, based in a data acquisition system has been developed for rotor balancing. With this instrument it is possible to balance rotors in a single or two-plane, using the influence coefficient method or a no phase method. Also the instrument includes a function to determine the vibration severity and a function of vibration analysis with spectral and waveform analysis included. This virtual instrument is useful for rotor balancing in the laboratory as well as in the industry.
RESEARCH OF DYNAMIC PARAMETERS OF THE ELECTRIC DRIVE ON THE BASIS OF ROLLING ROTOR MOTOR
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G. V. Kulinchenko
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Purpose. Development and investigation of a dynamic model of electric drive on the base of the rolling rotor motor (RRM which reflects the positioning of the actuator of the locking and regulating equipment in time. Methodology. Analytical description of electromagnetic and mechanical processes in the electric drive during the RRM shaft movement by using a system of differential equations. Numerical imitation modeling with the processes visualization in the Matlab environment of the RRM rotor displacement with mechanical load in time. Results. It is shown that the degree of influence of the value of the load inertia on the dynamics of the object obtained by the waveform changes the rotation angle of the rotor and motor speed in time. The degree of influence of the value of the electromagnetic time constant of the dynamics of the positioning of the actuator, and the nature of transients during acceleration and fixing position of the rotor with a predetermined moment of inertia for different values of inductance. The effect of the ratio of electromechanical and electromagnetic time constants of the nature of the transition processes accompanying jog mode angular displacement of the drive shaft on the base of RRM. Originality. The lack of technical means to ensure acceptable accuracy time measurement of angular displacement shaft of the actuator in jog mode offset by using a laser meter which gives the opportunity to assess the adequacy of the dynamic model of the RRM. Practical value. The results of investigations allow to create a tool for optimization of structural, technical and hardware and software solutions for the improvement and modernization of the projected electric locking and regulating equipment. The direction for improving the dynamics of the drive on the basis of RRM is indicated providing for an increase in its torque characteristics of the motor by reducing the influence of the parameters of transients.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiaoyan Ye
2014-05-01
Full Text Available In order to study the water lubricated bearing-rotor system in seawater desalination pump, this paper is based on the coupling between the lubricating flow field and the rotor dynamics. The fluid-solid interaction (FSI method, Rigid Body, was adopted to study the journal orbit of the bearing-rotor system under the periodic unbalancing load. The influences of geometric and working parameter to the journal orbit were combined to analyze the stability and reliability of the bearing-rotor system. The result shows that increasing the rotating speed would increase the journal whirling amplitude and the system sensitivity to the external excitation and unbalancing load were promoted; increasing the aspect ratio would reduce the journal whirling amplitude and cause the system to be more unstable; increasing the inlet pressure would reduce the journal whirling amplitude and cause the system to be more unstable; increasing the unbalancing load would reduce the stability margin and the system is easy to be unstable if obstructed; increasing the radial clearance would reduce the journal whirling amplitude and cause the system to be more unstable. The attitude angle has no influence on the journal whirling amplitude but would influence the stability of system and the value of attitude angle should not be large.
Bershader, Daniel
1988-01-01
For some time now, NASA has had a program under way to aid in the validation of rotor performance and acoustics codes associated with the UH-60 rotary-wing aircraft; and to correlate results of such studies with those obtained from investigations of other selected aircraft rotor performance. A central feature of these studies concerns the dynamic measurement of surface pressure at various locations up to frequencies of 25 KHz. For this purpose, fast-response gauges of the Kulite type are employed. The latter need to be buried in the rotor; they record surface pressures which are transmitted by a pipette connected to the gauge. The other end of the pipette is cut flush with the surface. In certain locations, the pipette configuration includes a rather sharp right-angle bend. The natural question has arisen in this connection: In what way are the pipettes modifying the signals received at the rotor surface and subsequently transmitted to the sensitive Kulite transducer element. The basic details and results of the program performed and recently completed in the High Pressure Shock Tube Laboratory of the Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics at Stanford University are given.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
DONG Guo-qing; CUI Ya-hui; WANG Zhong-ren; LIU Zhan-sheng; SHEN Ji-quan
2008-01-01
To study the misalignment of gear coupling, this paper analyzed the distortion of the tooth of gear coupling on the base of gear coupling's motion under parallel misalignment, and derived the specific expression of additive radial force, which produced by the rotor' torque. The motion differential equations of the large in-creased pressure wind tunnel rotor-gear coupling system were derived by the finite element method. Newmark integral method was applied to calculate the dynamic response of the system with parallel misalignment. The nu-merical results show that: under the effect of additive radial force, the static misalignment can arouse 2X fre-quency component lateral vibration; the dynamic misalignment can arouse2X,4X,6X multiple frequency compo-nents lateral vibration. The 2X frequency component is obvious. The additive radial force of the gear coupling can arouse lateral vibration with even multiple frequency components.
Nonlinear Vibration Induced by the Water-film Whirl and Whip in a Sliding Bearing Rotor System
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHAI Liming; LUO Yongyao; WANG Zhengwei; KITAUCHI Seishiro; MIYAGAWA Kazuyoshi
2016-01-01
Many industrial applications and experiments have shown that sliding bearings often experience fluid film whip due to nonlinear fluid film forces which can cause rotor-stator rub-impact failures. The oil-film whips have attracted many studies while the water-film whips in the water lubricated sliding bearing have been little researched with the mechanism still an open problem. The dynamic fluid film forces in a water sliding bearing are investigated numerically with rotational, whirling and squeezing motions of the journal using a nonlinear model to identify the relationships between the three motions. Rotor speed-up and slow-down experiments are then conducted with the rotor system supported by a water lubricated sliding bearing to induce the water-film whirl/whip and verify the relationship. The experimental results show that the vibrations of the journal alternated between increasing and decreasing rather than continuously increasing as the rotational speed increased to twice the first critical speed, which can be explained well by the nonlinear model. The radial growth rate of the whirl motion greatly affects the whirl frequency of the journal and is responsible for the frequency lock in the water-film whip. Further analysis shows that increasing the lubricating water flow rate changes the water-film whirl/whip characteristics, reduces the first critical speed, advances the time when significant water-film whirling motion occurs, and also increases the vibration amplitude at the bearing center which may lead to the rotor-stator rub-impact. The study gives the insight into the water-film whirl and whip in the water lubricated sliding bearing.
Nonlinear vibration induced by the water-film whirl and whip in a sliding bearing rotor system
Zhai, Liming; Luo, Yongyao; Wang, Zhengwei; Kitauchi, Seishiro; Miyagawa, Kazuyoshi
2016-03-01
Many industrial applications and experiments have shown that sliding bearings often experience fluid film whip due to nonlinear fluid film forces which can cause rotor-stator rub-impact failures. The oil-film whips have attracted many studies while the water-film whips in the water lubricated sliding bearing have been little researched with the mechanism still an open problem. The dynamic fluid film forces in a water sliding bearing are investigated numerically with rotational, whirling and squeezing motions of the journal using a nonlinear model to identify the relationships between the three motions. Rotor speed-up and slow-down experiments are then conducted with the rotor system supported by a water lubricated sliding bearing to induce the water-film whirl/whip and verify the relationship. The experimental results show that the vibrations of the journal alternated between increasing and decreasing rather than continuously increasing as the rotational speed increased to twice the first critical speed, which can be explained well by the nonlinear model. The radial growth rate of the whirl motion greatly affects the whirl frequency of the journal and is responsible for the frequency lock in the water-film whip. Further analysis shows that increasing the lubricating water flow rate changes the water-film whirl/whip characteristics, reduces the first critical speed, advances the time when significant water-film whirling motion occurs, and also increases the vibration amplitude at the bearing center which may lead to the rotor-stator rub-impact. The study gives the insight into the water-film whirl and whip in the water lubricated sliding bearing.
Dynamic Analysis of a Hybrid Squeeze Film Damper Mounted Rub-Impact Rotor-Stator System
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cai-Wan Chang-Jian
2012-01-01
Full Text Available An investigation is carried out on the systematic analysis of the dynamic behavior of the hybrid squeeze-film damper (HSFD mounted a rotor-bearing system with strongly nonlinear oil-film force and nonlinear rub-impact force in the present study. The dynamic orbits of the system are observed using bifurcation diagrams plotted using the dimensionless rotating speed ratio as control parameters. The onset of chaotic motion is identified from the phase diagrams, power spectra, Poincaré maps, bifurcation diagrams, maximum Lyapunov exponents, and fractal dimension of the rotor-bearing system. The dynamic behaviors are unlike the usual ways into chaos (1⇒2⇒4⇒8⇒16⇒32⋯⇒ chaos or periodic ⇒ quasi-periodic ⇒ chaotic, it suddenly gets in chaos from the periodic motion without any transition. The results presented in this study provide some useful insights into the design and development of a rotor-bearing system for rotating machinery that operates in highly rotating speed and highly nonlinear regimes.
Dynamics of Flexible Wind Power Generator with Unbalanced Rotor
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Venelin Jivkov
2016-08-01
Full Text Available The paper deals with dynamic analysis of a wind power generator as a large flexible structure with high speed rotating machines and considerable masses. The dynamic model is considered as a multibody system of rigid and flexible bodies. Nonstationary and transitional processes caused because of eccentricity of the high speed rotating machines, as well as, of the propeller vibrations are simulated and analyzed. Analytical method is applied for dynamic simulation. The results are verified by numerical procedures. Example of wind power generator with three propellers is presented.
Nonlinear dynamic analysis of a rotor-bearing-seal system under two loading conditions
Ma, Hui; Li, Hui; Niu, Heqiang; Song, Rongze; Wen, Bangchun
2013-11-01
The operating speed of the rotating machinery often exceeds the second or even higher order critical speeds to pursue higher efficiency. Thus, how to restrain the higher order mode instability caused by the nonlinear oil-film force and seal force at high speed as far as possible has become more and more important. In this study, a lumped mass model of a rotor-bearing-seal system considering the gyroscopic effect is established. The graphite self-lubricating bearing and the sliding bearing are simulated by a spring-damping model and a nonlinear oil-film force model based on the assumption of short bearings, respectively. The seal is simulated by Muszynska nonlinear seal force model. Effects of the seal force and oil-film force on the first and second mode instabilities are investigated under two loading conditions which are determined by API Standard 617 (Axial and Centrifugal Compressors and Expander-compressors for Petroleum, Chemical and Gas Industry Services, Seventh Edition). The research focuses on the effects of exciting force forms and their magnitudes on the first and second mode whips in a rotor-bearing-seal system by using the spectrum cascades, vibration waveforms, orbits and Poincaré maps. The first and second mode instability laws are compared by including and excluding the seal effect in a rotor system with single-diameter shaft and two same discs. Meanwhile, the instability laws are also verified in a rotor system with multi-diameter shaft and two different discs. The results show that the second loading condition (out-of-phase unbalances of two discs) and the nonlinear seal force can mainly restrain the first mode instability and have slight effects on the second mode instability. This study may contribute to a further understanding about the higher order mode instability of such a rotor system with fluid-induced forces from the oil-film bearings and seals.
Dynamic Analysis of a Rotor-Bearing-SFD System with the Bearing Inner Race Defect
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Junhong Zhang
2017-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, the dynamic behavior of a rotor-bearing-SFD system with the inner race defect of bearing is investigated. The contact force between the rolling element and the race is calculated in Hertzian contact and elastohydrodynamic lubrication condition. The supporting force of the SFD is simulated by integrating the pressure distribution derived from Reynolds’s equation. The equations of motion of the rotor-bearing-SFD system are derived and solved using the fourth-order Runge-Kutta method. The dynamic behavior and the fault characteristics are analyzed with two configurations of the SFD: (1 mounted on the unfaulted bearing and (2 mounted on the faulty bearing. According to the analysis of time-frequency diagram, waterfall plot, and spectral diagram, the results show that the characteristics of inner race defects on bearing frequencies are related to the characteristic multiple frequency of the inner race defect and the fundamental frequency. The speed and defect width have different influence on the distribution and amplitude of frequency. The SFD can enhance the system stability under the bearing fault but the enhancement decreases with the increasing speed. Meanwhile, the beneficial effect of the SFD varies according to the mounted position in the rotor system.
Coherent dynamics in the rotor tip shear layer of utility scale wind turbines
Yang, Xiaolei; Barone, Matthew; Sotiropoulos, Fotis
2015-01-01
Recent field experiments conducted in the near-wake (up to 0.5 rotor diameters downwind of the rotor) of a 2.5 MW wind turbine using snow-based super-large-scale particle image velocimetery (SLPIV) (Hong et al., Nature Comm., vol. 5, 2014, no. 4216) were successful in visualizing tip vortex cores as areas devoid of snowflakes. The so-visualized snow voids, however, suggested tip vortex cores of complex shape consisting of circular cores with distinct elongated comet-like tails. We employ large-eddy simulation (LES) to elucidate the structure and dynamics of the complex tip vortices identified experimentally. The LES is shown to reproduce vortex cores in good qualitative agreement with the SLPIV results, essentially capturing all vortex core patterns observed in the field in the tip shear layer. We show that the visualized vortex patterns are the result of energetic coherent dynamics in the rotor tip shear layer driven by interactions between the tip vortices and a second set of counter-rotating spiral vortice...
Investigation of dynamic characteristics of a rotor system with surface coatings
Yang, Yang; Cao, Dengqing; Wang, Deyou
2017-02-01
A Jeffcott rotor system with surface coatings capable of describing the mechanical vibration resulting from unbalance and rub-impact is formulated in this article. A contact force model proposed recently to describe the impact force between the disc and casing with coatings is employed to do the dynamic analysis for the rotor system with rubbing fault. Due to the variation of penetration, the contact force model is correspondingly modified. Meanwhile, the Coulomb friction model is applied to simulate the friction characteristics. Then, the case study of rub-impact with surface coatings is simulated by the Runge-Kutta method, in which a linear interpolation method is adopted to predict the rubbing instant. Moreover, the dynamic characteristics of the rotor system with surface coatings are analyzed in terms of bifurcation plot, waveform, whirl orbit, Poincaré map and spectrum plot. And the effects of the hardness of surface coatings on the response are investigated as well. Finally, compared with the classical models, the modified contact force model is shown to be more suitable to solve the rub-impact of aero-engine with surface coatings.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R.Nagendra Babu
2010-08-01
Full Text Available Geometric discontinuities cause a large variation of stress and produce a significant increase in stress. The high stress due to the variation of geometry is called as ‘stress concentration’. This will increase when the loads are further applied. There are many investigators who have studied the stress distribution around the notches, grooves, and other irregularities of various machine components. This paper analyses the effects of thermal and fatigue load on a steam turbine rotor under the operating conditions. Stresses due to thermal and dynamic loads of High Pressure Steam Turbine Rotor of 210MW power station are found in two stages. A source code is developed for calculating the nominal stress at each section of HPT rotor. Maximum stress is obtained using FEA at the corresponding section. Thermal and Fatigue Stress Concentration Factors at each section are calculated. It is observed that the SCFdue to the combined effect of thermal and dynamic loads at the temperatures beyond 5400C is exceeding the safe limits.
Active damping of flexible rotor blade dynamics using electrorheological-fluid-based actuators
Wereley, Norman M.
1994-05-01
Advanced rotor systems including hingeless and bearingless rotors have air and ground resonance instabilities due to coalescence of low-frequency rotor modes with landing gear and fuselage modes, respectively. This coalescence is of difficulty due to the direct connection of the rotor blade in these advanced rotor systems to the rotor hub using a flexure or flexbeam. We are currently exploring the mitigation of this modal coalescence through the use of active damping techniques and electro-rheological fluid technology.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Enemark, Søren; Santos, Ilmar
2014-01-01
Passive magnetic bearings are known due to the excellent characteristics in terms of friction and no requirement of additional energy sources to work. However, passive magnetic bearings do not provide damping, are not stable and, depending on their design, may also introduce magnetic eccentricity....... Such magnetic eccentricities are generated by discrepancies in magnet fabrication. In this framework the main focus of the work is the theoretical as well as experimental investigation of the nonlinear dynamics of a rotor-bearing system with strong emphasis on the magnetic eccentricities and non......-linear stiffness. In this investigation passive magnetic bearings using axially- aligned neodymium cylinder magnets are investigated. The cylinder magnets are axially magnetised for rotor as well as bearings. Compared to bearings with radial magnetisation, the magnetic stiffness of axially-aligned bearings...
Nonlinear dynamic modeling of rotor system supported by angular contact ball bearings
Wang, Hong; Han, Qinkai; Zhou, Daning
2017-02-01
In current bearing dynamic models, the displacement coordinate relations are usually utilized to approximately obtain the contact deformations between the rolling element and raceways, and then the nonlinear restoring forces of the rolling bearing could be calculated accordingly. Although the calculation efficiency is relatively higher, the accuracy is lower as the contact deformations should be solved through iterative analysis. Thus, an improved nonlinear dynamic model is presented in this paper. Considering the preload condition, surface waviness, Hertz contact and elastohydrodynamic lubrication, load distribution analysis is solved iteratively to more accurately obtain the contact deformations and angles between the rolling balls and raceways. The bearing restoring forces are then obtained through iteratively solving the load distribution equations at every time step. Dynamic tests upon a typical rotor system supported by two angular contact ball bearings are conducted to verify the model. Through comparisons, the differences between the nonlinear dynamic model and current models are also pointed out. The effects of axial preload, rotor eccentricity and inner/outer waviness amplitudes on the dynamic response are discussed in detail.
Coherent spin-rotational dynamics of oxygen super rotors
Milner, Alexander A; Milner, Valery
2014-01-01
We use state- and time-resolved coherent Raman spectroscopy to study the rotational dynamics of oxygen molecules in ultra-high rotational states. While it is possible to reach rotational quantum numbers up to $N \\approx 50$ by increasing the gas temperature to 1500 K, low population levels and gas densities result in correspondingly weak optical response. By spinning O$_2$ molecules with an optical centrifuge, we efficiently excite extreme rotational states with $N\\leqslant 109$ in high-density room temperature ensembles. Fast molecular rotation results in the enhanced robustness of the created rotational wave packets against collisions, enabling us to observe the effects of weak spin-rotation coupling in the coherent rotational dynamics of oxygen. The decay rate of spin-rotation coherence due to collisions is measured as a function of the molecular angular momentum and explained in terms of the general scaling law. We find that at high values of $N$, the rotational decoherence of oxygen is much faster than t...
Dynamics of large rotors on spring supported foundations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Puttonen, J. [IVO Power Engineering Ltd., Vantaa (Finland)] Luukkanen, P. [Imatran Voima Oy, Vantaa (Finland)
1997-12-31
This article presents some case studies relating to the dynamics of the large machines on spring isolated foundations. The studies comprise both vibration calculations and measurements also introducing the accuracy of numerical methods available in practical engineering. A summary of the pros and cons of spring isolated foundations in power plants is included. The cases described are from the lately built power plants of the IVO-group. The auxiliary feed water pump analysed consists of an electric motor (7 MW), a gear and two pumps. During the trial runs, severe vibrations were observed calling for thorough vibration measurements. The modelling of the whole vibrating entity in the rotating machinery, including the shaft train, oil films of bearings and the foundation is demonstrated by a turbine generator set of 100 MW. Finally, some results of a test comparing the acoustic emission and traditional vibration measurements for recognizing the rub between the shaft and the hydrodynamic bearing are presented. (orig.) 6 refs.
Transverse vibration of a rotor system driven by two cardan joints
Saigo, M.; Iwatsubo, T.
1987-05-01
The torque-induced transverse vibration of a rotor system driven by two Cardan joints is analyzed and the effects of the stiffness asymmetry of the rotor shaft supports, the damping force in the joints and the gyroscopic moment of the rotor on the dynamic stability of the system are evaluated. The analysis proves that both parametric and self-excited vibrations can occur due to the transmitted torque when the driving shaft and the driven shaft (rotor shaft) are inclined; the stiffness asymmetry of rotor supports does not always have the stabilizing effect which has been observed in a rotor system driven by a single Cardan joint [1
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
E. E. Ovsiannikova
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The article studies dynamics of rotor on active magnetic bearings within the mathematical model development of rotor in artificial ventricle. The problem of stabilization of rigid titanium rotor with magnetic inserts on active magnetic bearings is analyzed.The relevance of the research field is caused by high percent of people who are suffering from heart disease. The purposes of work are to create a mathematical model of the rigid rotor and position its center to meet specified requirements for displacement of no more than 0.2 millimeter while rotating with the speed from 5 000 rpm to 10 000 rpm in constant blood flow. The work of AMBs is based on the principle of active magnetic pendant of ferromagnetic solid. The stabilization in adjusted position is accomplished by magnetic forces, which affect the solid from the control electromagnets.The article presents initial data, design scheme, assumptions accepted to solve the problem and derivation of dynamic equation of rotating rigid rotor on AMBs. The decentralized control of magnetic pendant was implemented. The PD control – proportional differential control - was chosen as the base of control system. Its application is widespread due to the simplicity, industrial use and operation stability. The use of decentralized control in dynamics modeling of a rigid rotor in AMBs is physically occurred and has some advantages. One of the most important advantages is the calculation of control parameters by selection of appropriate values of rigidity and damping parameters.The analysis of rotor dynamics was conducted in MATLAB© software package.The modeling was performed to allow observing the system action while the parameters were varied.The conducted research showed that to meet the specified requirements of maximal rotor displacement no more than 0.2 mm the following values of coefficients were required: and The stabilization of the rotor
Coherent dynamics in the rotor tip shear layer of utility-scale wind turbines
Yang, Xiaolei; Hong, Jiarong; Barone, Matthew; Sotiropoulos, Fotis
2016-10-01
Recent field experiments conducted in the near-wake (up to 0.5 rotor diameters downwind of the rotor) of a 2.5 MW wind turbine using snow-based super-large-scale particle image velocimetery (SLPIV) (Hong et al., Nature Comm., vol. 5, 2014, no. 4216) were successful in visualizing tip vortex cores as areas devoid of snowflakes. The so-visualized snow voids, however, suggested tip vortex cores of complex shape consisting of circular cores with distinct elongated comet-like tails. We employ large-eddy simulation (LES) to elucidate the structure and dynamics of the complex tip vortices identified experimentally. The LES is shown to reproduce vortex cores in good qualitative agreement with the SLPIV results, essentially capturing all vortex core patterns observed in the field in the tip shear layer. We show that the visualized vortex patterns are the result of energetic coherent dynamics in the rotor tip shear layer driven by interactions between the tip vortices and a second set of counter-rotating spiral vortices intertwined with the tip vortices. We further show that the mean flow within the region where such rich coherent dynamics occur satisfies the instability criterion proposed by Leibovich and Stewartson (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 126, 1983, pp. 335--356), indicating that the instability uncovered by the SLPIV and the LES is of centrifugal type. This study highlights the feasibility of employing snow voids to visualize tip vortices and demonstrates the enormous potential of integrating SLPIV with LES as a powerful tool for gaining novel insights into the wakes of utility scale wind turbines.
Stringer, David Blake
The overarching objective in this research is the development of a robust, rotor dynamic, physics based model of a helicopter drive train as a foundation for the prognostic modeling for rotary-wing transmissions. Rotorcrafts rely on the integrity of their drive trains for their airworthiness. Drive trains rely on gear technology for their integrity and function. Gears alter the vibration characteristics of a mechanical system and significantly contribute to noise, component fatigue, and personal discomfort prevalent in rotorcraft. This research effort develops methodologies for generating a rotor dynamic model of a rotary-wing transmission based on first principles, through (i) development of a three-dimensional gear-mesh stiffness model for helical and spur gears and integration of this model in a finite element rotor dynamic model, (ii) linear and nonlinear analyses of a geared system for comparison and validation of the gear-mesh model, (iii) development of a modal synthesis technique for potentially providing model reduction and faster analysis capabilities for geared systems, and (iv) extension of the gear-mesh model to bevel and epicyclic configurations. In addition to model construction and validation, faults indigenous to geared systems are presented and discussed. Two faults are selected for analysis and seeded into the transmission model. Diagnostic vibration parameters are presented and used as damage indicators in the analysis. The fault models produce results consistent with damage experienced during experimental testing. The results of this research demonstrate the robustness of the physics-based approach in simulating multiple normal and abnormal conditions. The advantages of this physics-based approach, when combined with contemporary probabilistic and time-series techniques, provide a useful method for improving health monitoring technologies in mechanical systems.
Dynamic behavior of dissymmetric rotor bearings modelled with a periodic coefficient large system
Guilhen, P. M.; Berthier, P.; Ferraris, G.; Lalanne, M.
1987-01-01
The instability and unbalance response of dissymmetric rotor-bearing systems containing periodic coefficients when modeling produces matrices with a large number of degrees of freedom are discussed. It is important to solve the equations and then predict the dynamic behavior of the system. This can be done knowing the instability areas and the unbalance response in the stable areas. One deals here with a large number of equations and a reduction of the number of degrees of freedom of the system is achieved through a pseudo modal method. This method is shown to give satisfactory results.
Corrigan, J. C.; Cronkhite, J. D.; Dompka, R. V.; Perry, K. S.; Rogers, J. P.; Sadler, S. G.
1989-01-01
Under a research program designated Design Analysis Methods for VIBrationS (DAMVIBS), existing analytical methods are used for calculating coupled rotor-fuselage vibrations of the AH-1G helicopter for correlation with flight test data from an AH-1G Operational Load Survey (OLS) test program. The analytical representation of the fuselage structure is based on a NASTRAN finite element model (FEM), which has been developed, extensively documented, and correlated with ground vibration test. One procedure that was used for predicting coupled rotor-fuselage vibrations using the advanced Rotorcraft Flight Simulation Program C81 and NASTRAN is summarized. Detailed descriptions of the analytical formulation of rotor dynamics equations, fuselage dynamic equations, coupling between the rotor and fuselage, and solutions to the total system of equations in C81 are included. Analytical predictions of hub shears for main rotor harmonics 2p, 4p, and 6p generated by C81 are used in conjunction with 2p OLS measured control loads and a 2p lateral tail rotor gearbox force, representing downwash impingement on the vertical fin, to excite the NASTRAN model. NASTRAN is then used to correlate with measured OLS flight test vibrations. Blade load comparisons predicted by C81 showed good agreement. In general, the fuselage vibration correlations show good agreement between anslysis and test in vibration response through 15 to 20 Hz.
Köhler, Jannis; Ostendorf, Andreas; Gurevich, Evgeny
2015-01-01
We theoretically and experimentally investigate the flow field that emerges from a rod-like microrotor rotating about its center in a non-axisymmetric manner. A simple theoretical model is proposed that uses a superposition of two rotlets as a fundamental solution to the Stokes equation. The predictions of this model are compared to measurements of the azimuthal and radial microfluidic velocity field components that are induced by a rotor composed of fused microscopic spheres. The rotor is driven magnetically and the fluid flow is measured with help of a probe particle fixed by an optical tweezer. We find considerable deviations of the mere azimuthal flow pattern induced by a single rotating sphere as it has been reported by Di Leonardo \\textit{et al.} [Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 134502 (2006)]. Notably, the presence of a radial velocity component that manifests itself by an oscillation of the probe particle with twice the rotor frequency is observed. These findings open up a way to discuss possible radial transpor...
Ribeiro, Eduardo Afonso; Pereira, Jucélio Tomás; Alberto Bavastri, Carlos
2015-09-01
One of the major reasons for inserting damping into bearings is that rotating machines are often requested in critical functioning conditions having sometimes to function under dynamic instability or close to critical speeds. Hydrodynamic and magnetic bearings have usually been used for this purpose, but they present limitations regarding costs and operation, rendering the use of viscoelastic supports a feasible solution for vibration control in rotating machines. Most papers in the area use simple analytic or single degree of freedom models for the rotor as well as classic mechanical models of linear viscoelasticity for the support - like Maxwell, Kelvin-Voigt, Zenner, four-element, GHM models and even frequency independent models - but they lack the accuracy of fractional models in a large range of frequency and temperature regarding the same number of coefficients. Even in those works, the need to consider the addition of degrees of freedom to the support is evident. However, so far no paper has been published focusing on a methodology to determine the optimal constructive form for any viscoelastic support in which the rotor is discretized by finite elements associated to an accurate model for characterizing the viscoelastic material. In general, the support is meant to be a simple isolation system, and the fact the stiffness matrix is complex and frequency-temperature dependent - due to its viscoelastic properties - forces the traditional methods to require an extremely long computing time, thus rendering them too time consuming in an optimization environment. The present work presents a robust methodology based mainly on generalized equivalent parameters (GEP) - for an optimal design of viscoelastic supports for rotating machinery - aiming at minimizing the unbalance frequency response of the system using a hybrid optimization technique (genetic algorithms and Nelder-Mead method). The rotor is modeled based on the finite element method using Timoshenko's thick
Helicopter Rotor Sailing by Non-Smooth Dynamics Co-Simulation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fancello Matteo
2014-08-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the application of a co-simulation approach for the simulation of frictional contact in general-purpose multibody dynamics to a rotorcraft dynamics problem. The proposed approach is based on the co-simulation of a main problem, which is described and solved as a set of differential algebraic equations, with a subproblem that is characterized by nonsmooth dynamics events and solved using a timestepping technique. The implementation and validation of the formulation is presented. The method is applied to the analysis of the droop and anti-flap contacts of helicopter rotor blades. Simulations focusing on the problem of blade sailing are conducted to understand the behavior and assess the validity of the method. For this purpose, the results obtained using a contact model based on Hertzian reaction forces at the interface are compared with those of the proposed approach.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2006-01-01
Based on the model structure of the influence coefficient method analyzed in depth by matrix theory,it is explained the reason why the unreasonable and instable correction masses with bigger MSE are obtained by LS influence coefficient method when there are correlation planes in the dynamic balancing. It also presened the new ridge regression method for solving correction masses according to the Tikhonov regularization theory, and described the reason why the ridge regression can eliminate the disadvantage of the LS method. Applying this new method to dynamic balancing of gas turbine, it is found that this method is superior to the LS method when influence coefficient matrix is ill-conditioned,the minimal correction masses and residual vibration are obtained in the dynamic balancing of rotors.
Modeling of high speed micro rotors in moderate flow confinement
Dikmen, E.; Hoogt, van der P.J.M.; Aarts, R.G.K.M.
2008-01-01
The recent developments in high speed micro rotating machinery lead to the need for multiphysical modeling of the rotor and the surrounding medium. In this study, thermal and flow induced effects on rotor dynamics of geometries with moderate flow confinement are studied. The structure is modeled via
Dynamics of the interaction between the rotor and the induction zone
Mirzaei, Mahmood; Meyer Forsting, Alexander R.; Troldborg, Niels
2016-09-01
Traditionally met masts are used for power and load verifications. They are normally placed 2-4 rotor diameters ahead of the turbine. However in complex terrain this can lead to complex analysis of the effect of the terrain on the flow field. A nacelle mounted lidar can provide a better tool for wind field measurements in all terrains. Provided that the measurement is close enough to the rotor disc, the uncertainty in the flow field measurement can be reduced significantly. Therefore any complex terrain calibration and changes in the wind direction can be avoided. However, close distance lidar measurements are affected by the presence of the wind turbine, due to its induction zone. In this work, the dynamic coupling between changes in the wind turbine operating point and the velocities inside the induction zone is studied. Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) simulations are used to investigate this interaction. Thereafter, system identification is used to fit first order dynamic models to the simulation results. The parameters of the model are given for the turbine induction zone. These results possibly reduce the uncertainty in lidar measurements, arising from wind turbine blockage.
Studies of Rigid Rotor-Rigid Surface Scattering in Dynamical Lie Algebraic Method
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Xiao-Yan; DING Shi-Liang
2004-01-01
The dynamical Lie algebraic method is used for the description of statistical mechanics of rotationally inelastic molecule-surface scattering. It can give the time-evolution operators about the low power of a+ and a by solving a set of coupled nonlinear differential equations. For considering the contribution of the high power of a+ and a, we use the Magnus formula. Thus, with the time-evolution operators we can get the statistical average values of the measurable quantities in terms of the density operator formalism in statistical mechanics. The method is applied to the scattering of N2 (rigid rotor) by a flat, rigid surface to illustrate its general procedure. The results demonstrate that the method is useful for describing the statistical dynamics of gas-surface scattering.
Influence of unbalance levels on nonlinear dynamics of a rotor-backup rolling bearing system
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fonseca, Cesar A.; Santos, Ilmar; Weber, Hans I.
2017-01-01
Rotor drops in magnetic bearing and unbalance in rotors have been objective of study for many years. The combination of these two well-known phenomena led to an interesting chaotic response, when the rotor touches the inner race of the back-up bearing. The present work explores the nonlinear roto...
水轮发电机组转动部分动力学分析%Rotor-dynamic Analysis of Hydraulic Turbine Rotor System
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
陈德亮
2013-01-01
本文根据水轮发电机组中的密封形式及其边界条件特征，选用Muszyska密封力模型近似水轮机上冠、下环间隙流体激振力，并加载到水轮发电机组转动部分中，采用New mark数值方法对包括发电机、主轴、上导轴承、下导轴承、水轮机转轮、上冠和下环密封在内的水轮发电组转动部分-密封系统进行数值仿真，得到了水轮发电机组转动部分动力学特性，并将其与水轮发电机组实际运行数据进行对比，结果证明所建立的密封力模型符合工程实际，对水轮发电机组转动部分的设计有一定的指导意义。%Based on the seal form of hydroelectric generating unit and its boundary conditions, Muszyska model is used to approximate the fluid exciting force in gap flow between the crown and band of Francis turbine, and is loaded into the rotor system. New mark numerical method is selected to simulate rotor-seal system including generator, main shaft, upper guide bearing, lower guide bearing, turbine runner and the seals of the crown and the band of the turbine. Rotor-dynamic characteristics of the hydrogenerator rotor system is obtained and compared with the actual operation data. The result shows that the selected sealing force model can accord with engineering practice, and it has a guiding value to the design of hydrogenerator rotor system.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jivkov Venelin S.
2016-12-01
Full Text Available The paper presents a geometrical approach to dynamics simulation of a rigid and flexible system, compiled of high speed rotating machine with eccentricity and considerable inertia and mass. The machine is mounted on a vertical flexible pillar with considerable height. The stiffness and damping of the column, as well as, of the rotor bearings and the shaft are taken into account. Non-stationary vibrations and transitional processes are analyzed. The major frequency and modal mode of the flexible column are used for analytical reduction of its mass, stiffness and damping properties. The rotor and the foundation are modelled as rigid bodies, while the flexibility of the bearings is estimated by experiments and the requirements of the manufacturer. The transition effects as a result of limited power are analyzed by asymptotic methods of averaging. Analytical expressions for the amplitudes and unstable vibrations throughout resonance are derived by quasi-static approach increasing and decreasing of the exciting frequency. Analytical functions give the possibility to analyze the influence of the design parameter of many structure applications as wind power generators, gas turbines, turbo-generators, and etc. A numerical procedure is applied to verify the effectiveness and precision of the simulation process.
The Torsional Vibration of Turbo Axis Induced by Unsteady Aerodynamic Force on Rotor blade
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ChenZuoyi; WuXiaofeng
1998-01-01
An algorithm for computing the 3-D oscillating flow field of the balde passage under the torsional vibration of the rotor is applied to analyze the stability in turbomachines.The induced flow field responding to blade vibration is computed by Oscillating Fluid Mechanics Method and parametric Polynomial Method.After getting the solution of the unsteady flow field,the work done by the unsteay aerodynamic force acting on the blade can be obtained.The negative or positive work is the criterion of the aeroelastic stability.Numerical results indicate that there are instabilities of the torsional vibration in some frequency bands.
Jivkov, Venelin S.; Zahariev, Evtim V.
2016-12-01
The paper presents a geometrical approach to dynamics simulation of a rigid and flexible system, compiled of high speed rotating machine with eccentricity and considerable inertia and mass. The machine is mounted on a vertical flexible pillar with considerable height. The stiffness and damping of the column, as well as, of the rotor bearings and the shaft are taken into account. Non-stationary vibrations and transitional processes are analyzed. The major frequency and modal mode of the flexible column are used for analytical reduction of its mass, stiffness and damping properties. The rotor and the foundation are modelled as rigid bodies, while the flexibility of the bearings is estimated by experiments and the requirements of the manufacturer. The transition effects as a result of limited power are analyzed by asymptotic methods of averaging. Analytical expressions for the amplitudes and unstable vibrations throughout resonance are derived by quasi-static approach increasing and decreasing of the exciting frequency. Analytical functions give the possibility to analyze the influence of the design parameter of many structure applications as wind power generators, gas turbines, turbo-generators, and etc. A numerical procedure is applied to verify the effectiveness and precision of the simulation process. Nonlinear and transitional effects are analyzed and compared to the analytical results. External excitations, as wave propagation and earthquakes, are discussed. Finite elements in relative and absolute coordinates are applied to model the flexible column and the high speed rotating machine. Generalized Newton - Euler dynamics equations are used to derive the precise dynamics equations. Examples of simulation of the system vibrations and nonstationary behaviour are presented.
主动电磁轴承系统的动力学性能分析%Analysis on Dynamic Performance for Active Magnetic Bearing-Rotor System
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
严慧燕; 汪希平; 朱礼进; 张直明; 万金贵
2001-01-01
In the application of active magnetic bearings (AMB), one of the key problems to be solved is the safety and stability in the sense of rotor dynamics. The project related to the present paper deals with the method for analyzing bearing rotor systems with high rotation speed and specially supported by active magnetic bearings, and studies its rotor dynamics performance, including calculation of the natural frequencies with their distribution characteristics, and the critical speeds of the system. One of the targets of this project is to formulate a theory and method valid for the analysis of the dynamic performance of the active magnetic bearing-rotor system by combining the traditional theory and method of rotor dynamics with the analytical theory and design method based on modern control theory of the AMB system.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Santos, Ilmar; Saracho, C.M.; Smith, J.T.
2004-01-01
This work gives a theoretical and experimental contribution to the problem of rotor-blades dynamic interaction. A validation procedure of mathematical models is carried out with help of a simple test rig, built by a mass-spring system attached to four flexible rotating blades. With this test rig,...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Enemark, Søren; Santos, Ilmar F.
2016-01-01
In this work, the nonlinear dynamic behaviour of a vertical rigid rotor interacting with a flexible foundation by means of two passive magnetic bearings is quantified and evaluated. The quantification is based on theoretical and experimental investigation of the non-uniformity (anisotropy) of the...
Qian, Hai; Cousins, Morgan E.; Horak, Erik H.; Wakefield, Audrey; Liptak, Matthew D.; Aprahamian, Ivan
2017-01-01
Although there are some proposed explanations for aggregation-induced emission, a phenomenon with applications that range from biosensors to organic light-emitting diodes, current understanding of the quantum-mechanical origin of this photophysical behaviour is limited. To address this issue, we assessed the emission properties of a series of BF2-hydrazone-based dyes as a function of solvent viscosity. These molecules turned out to be highly efficient fluorescent molecular rotors. This property, in addition to them being aggregation-induced emission luminogens, enabled us to probe deeper into their emission mechanism. Time-dependent density functional theory calculations and experimental results showed that the emission is not from the S1 state, as predicted from Kasha's rule, but from a higher energy (>S1) state. Furthermore, we found that suppression of internal conversion to the dark S1 state by restricting the rotor rotation enhances fluorescence, which leads to the proposal that suppression of Kasha's rule is the photophysical mechanism responsible for emission in both viscous solution and the solid state.
Effects of tooth profile modification on dynamic responses of a high speed gear-rotor-bearing system
Hu, Zehua; Tang, Jinyuan; Zhong, Jue; Chen, Siyu; Yan, Haiyan
2016-08-01
A finite element node dynamic model of a high speed gear-rotor-bearing system considering the time-varying mesh stiffness, backlash, gyroscopic effect and transmission error excitation is developed. Different tooth profile modifications are introduced into the gear pair and corresponding time-varying mesh stiffness curves are obtained. Effects of the tooth profile modification on mesh stiffness are analyzed, and the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the gear-rotor-bearing transmission system are given. The dynamic responses with respect to a wide input speed region including dynamic factor, vibration amplitude near the bearing and dynamic transmission error are obtained by introducing the time-varying mesh stiffness in different tooth profile modification cases into the gear-rotor-bearing dynamic system. Effects of the tooth profile modification on the dynamic responses are studied in detail. The numerical simulation results show that both the short profile modification and the long profile modification can affect the mutation of the mesh stiffness when the number of engaging tooth pairs changes. A short profile modification with an appropriate modification amount can improve the dynamic property of the system in certain work condition.
Rotor-stator contact dynamics using a non-ideal drive—Theoretical and experimental aspects
Lahriri, Said; Weber, Hans I.; Santos, Ilmar F.; Hartmann, Henning
2012-09-01
The possible contact between rotor and stator is considered a serious malfunction that may lead to catastrophic failure. Rotor rub is seen as a secondary phenomenon caused by a primary source, i.e. sudden mass unbalance, instabilities generated by aerodynamic and hydrodynamic forces in seals and bearings among others. The contact event gives rise to normal and friction forces exerted on the rotor at impact events. The friction force plays a significant role by transferring some rotational energy of the rotor to lateral motion. A mathematical model has been developed to capture this for a conventional backup annular guide setup. It is reasonable to superpose an impact condition to the rub, where the rotor spin energy can be fully transformed into rotor lateral movements. Using a nonideal drive, i.e. an electric motor without any kind of velocity feedback control, it is even possible to stop the rotor spin under rubbing conditions. All the rotational energy will be transformed in a kind of "self-excited" rotor lateral vibration with repeated impacts against the housing. This paper studies the impact motion of a rotor impacting a conventional backup annular guide for the case of dry and lubricated inner surface of the guide. For the dry surface case, the experimental and numerical analysis shows that the rotational energy is fully transformed into lateral motion and the rotor spin is stopped. Based on this study this paper proposes a new unconventional backup bearing design in order to reduce the rub related severity in friction and center the rotor at impact events. The analysis shows that the rotor at impacts is forced to the center of the backup bearing and the lateral motion is mitigated. As a result of this, the rotor spin is kept constant.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
de Vaal, Jacobus B.; Hansen, Martin Otto Laver; Moan, Torgeir
2014-01-01
This paper discusses the influence of rigid body motions on rotor induced velocities and aerodynamic loads of a floating horizontal axis wind turbine. Analyses are performed with a simplified free wake vortex model specifically aimed at capturing the unsteady and non-uniform inflow typically...... experienced by a floating wind turbine. After discussing the simplified model in detail, comparisons are made to a state of the art free wake vortex code, using test cases with prescribed platform motion. It is found that the simplified model compares favourably with a more advanced numerical model......, and captures the essential influences of rigid body motions on the rotor loads, induced velocities and wake influence....
NUMERICAL AND EXSPERIMENTAL ASPECTS OF THERMALLY INDUCED VIBRATION IN REAL ROTORS
Milenko B Jevtić; Ljiljana Z Radovanović; Zivoslav Z Adamović
2011-01-01
Temperature fields in electric energy generators may lead to mechanical dissbalance of an already balanced rotor. The author collected information in a number of steam power plants and confirmed the existence of the problem. This paper is presents the specific case of thermal deformation of the rotor, caused by an asymmetrical temperature field in scale of rotor. On the grounds of the relevant physical aspects, we propose a mathematical model identifying fields in a turbo generator rotor and ...
DeSmidt, Hans A.; Smith, Edward C.; Bill, Robert C.; Wang, Kon-Well
2013-01-01
This project develops comprehensive modeling and simulation tools for analysis of variable rotor speed helicopter propulsion system dynamics. The Comprehensive Variable-Speed Rotorcraft Propulsion Modeling (CVSRPM) tool developed in this research is used to investigate coupled rotor/engine/fuel control/gearbox/shaft/clutch/flight control system dynamic interactions for several variable rotor speed mission scenarios. In this investigation, a prototypical two-speed Dual-Clutch Transmission (DCT) is proposed and designed to achieve 50 percent rotor speed variation. The comprehensive modeling tool developed in this study is utilized to analyze the two-speed shift response of both a conventional single rotor helicopter and a tiltrotor drive system. In the tiltrotor system, both a Parallel Shift Control (PSC) strategy and a Sequential Shift Control (SSC) strategy for constant and variable forward speed mission profiles are analyzed. Under the PSC strategy, selecting clutch shift-rate results in a design tradeoff between transient engine surge margins and clutch frictional power dissipation. In the case of SSC, clutch power dissipation is drastically reduced in exchange for the necessity to disengage one engine at a time which requires a multi-DCT drive system topology. In addition to comprehensive simulations, several sections are dedicated to detailed analysis of driveline subsystem components under variable speed operation. In particular an aeroelastic simulation of a stiff in-plane rotor using nonlinear quasi-steady blade element theory was conducted to investigate variable speed rotor dynamics. It was found that 2/rev and 4/rev flap and lag vibrations were significant during resonance crossings with 4/rev lagwise loads being directly transferred into drive-system torque disturbances. To capture the clutch engagement dynamics, a nonlinear stick-slip clutch torque model is developed. Also, a transient gas-turbine engine model based on first principles mean
Zhang, Xuening; Han, Qinkai; Peng, Zhike; Chu, Fulei
2015-05-01
A great deal of research work has been done on the dynamic behaviors of the rotor-bearing system. However, the important effects of load and variation of contact angle on the bearing performance have not been focused on sufficiently. In this paper, a five-degree-of-freedom load distribution model is set up considering the bearing preload and the loads due to the rotor imbalance. Utilizing this model, the variation of the bearing contact angle is investigated thoroughly. The comparisons of the obtained contact angle against the results from literature validate that the proposed load distribution model is effective. With this model, the static ball deformations are obtained considering variation of the contact angle. Through resolving the dynamic displacements of the rotor, the dynamic ball deformations could also be obtained. Then the total restoring forces and moments of the bearings could be formulated. By introducing these nonlinear forces and moments into the rotating system, a new dynamic model considering the preload and the variation of contact angle is set up. The present analyses indicate that the bearing contact angle will be changed remarkably with the effect of bearing load. The deflection vibration of the rotor-bearing system will be underestimated without considering the varying contact angle. With the effect of varying contact angle, the ball passage frequency and its combinations with the shaft rotating frequency become more noticeable. The main resonance regions for the rotor-bearing system shift to the lower speed ranges when the variation of contact angle is taken into account.
Design and dynamic characteristic prediction of air-powered twin-rotor piston engine
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
徐海军; 张雷; 潘存云; 张湘
2015-01-01
A novel air-powered twin-rotor piston engine (ATPE) utilizing a differential velocity driving mechanism to achieve a high output torque was proposed. The ATPE had eight separated rotary cylinders which can dynamically enlarge the engine displacement as a result of the special driving mechanism, which was named dynamic volume expansion. The mathematical model of ATPE comprising a dynamic model and a thermodynamic model was established under the assumption of no mechanical friction. The model was numerically simulated in Matlab. The results show that shortage of low output torque confusing traditional air-powered engines can be overcome. The average output torque sharply increases to 100 N·m, which is about three times that of traditional air-powered engines with equal cylinder displacement under the pressure of 0.6 MPa at 480 r/min. ATPE can be used to drive vehicles directly without transmission box, therefore the energy transfer efficiency of ATPE can be increased. Furthermore, benefitting from the novel gas distribution system, the engine shows an ability in self-adjusting under different loads. The arrangements of air ports automatically adjust the open interval of air ports according to the load, which may simplify the speed control system.
Dynamic balancing of dual-rotor system with very little rotating speed difference
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
杨健; 贺世正; 王乐勤
2003-01-01
Unbalanced vibration in dual-rotor rotating machinery was studied with numerical simulations and experiments. A new method is proposed to separate vibration signals of inner and outer rotors for a system with very little difference in rotating speeds. Magnitudes and phase values of unbalance defects can be obtained directly by sampling the vibration signal synchronized with reference signal. The balancing process is completed by the reciprocity influence coefficients of inner and outer rotors method. Results showed the advantage of such method for a dual-rotor system as compared with conventional balancing.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mustapha Lahmar
2015-04-01
Full Text Available On the basis of the V. K. Stokes micro-continuum theory, the effects of couple stresses on the nonlinear dynamic response of the unbalanced Jeffcott’s flexible rotor supported by layered hydrodynamic journal bearings is presented in this paper. A nonlinear transient modified Reynolds’ equation is derived and discretized by the finite element method to obtain the fluid-film pressure field as well as the film thickness by means of the implicit Euler method. The nonlinear orbits of the rotor center are determined by solving the nonlinear differential equations of motion with the explicit Euler’s scheme taking into account the flexibility of rotor. According to the obtained results, the combined effects of couple stresses due to the presence of polymer additives in lubricant and the pressure dependent viscosity on the nonlinear dynamic response of the rotor-bearing system are significant and cannot be ignored or overlooked. As expected, these effects are more noticeable for polymers characterized by higher length molecular chains.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Borkowski Paweł
2016-03-01
Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the 1st stage of HP rotor blade assembly steam turbine TK 120. The methodology was focused on the selection of mechanical properties and the way of the rotor disc modeling and estimating the degree of damage caused by creep. Then the dynamic interference between the frequencies of excitation and the natural frequencies was assessed. Static calculations were performed for the cyclic sectors consisting of the disc, disc blades, spacers and shrouding, including loads as temperature, mass forces from the angular velocity and the pressure on the blades. Then, the creep analysis using a Norton’s model and the modal analysis were performed. Static analysis gave information concerning the distributions of displacements, stress and strain components. In the creep analysis, the creep displacements and stress relaxation versus time were determined and the estimated degree of damage caused by creep was evaluated at each part of the rotor disc. In the modal analysis, the natural frequencies and modes of vibrations corresponding to the nodal diameters were found. The results of modal analysis were shown in the SAFE graph. Numerical calculations have shown that the rotor disc was a well-designed structure and did not reveal any dynamic interference.
Analysis of Pressure Pulsation Induced by Rotor-Stator Interaction in Nuclear Reactor Coolant Pump
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xu Zhang
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The internal flow of reactor coolant pump (RCP is much more complex than the flow of a general mixed-flow pump due to high temperature, high pressure, and large flow rate. The pressure pulsation that is induced by rotor-stator interaction (RSI has significant effects on the performance of pump; therefore, it is necessary to figure out the distribution and propagation characteristics of pressure pulsation in the pump. The study uses CFD method to calculate the behavior of the flow. Results show that the amplitudes of pressure pulsation get the maximum between the rotor and stator, and the dissipation rate of pressure pulsation in impellers passage is larger than that in guide vanes passage. The behavior is associated with the frequency of pressure wave in different regions. The flow rate distribution is influenced by the operating conditions. The study finds that, at nominal flow, the flow rate distribution in guide vanes is relatively uniform and the pressure pulsation amplitude is the smallest. Besides, the vortex shedding or backflow from the impeller blade exit has the same frequency as pressure pulsation but there are phase differences, and it has been confirmed that the absolute value of phase differences reflects the vorticity intensity.
Rotor Speed Estimation Method Used in Dynamic Control of the Induction Motor
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
CRĂCIUNAŞ Gabriela
2013-10-01
Full Text Available In this paper it is proposed an algorithm for rotor speed estimation calculated directly from the rotor flux. The flux required for speed computation is estimated using Gopinath reduced order robust adaptive observer. In order to determine the structure of the observer we started from the state equations of the induction motor using spatial vectors written in fixed coordinates towards stator and considering the rotor speed constant. Quality of speed and rotor fluxestimation was evaluated from the results obtained during different operation regimes. The proposed algorithm was then tested for its usability in the case of indirect field oriented control based on the rotor flux of the induction motor by the simulation inMATLAB/Simulink.
Frequencies in the Vibration Induced by the Rotor Stator Interaction in a Centrifugal Pump Turbine
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rodriguez, Cristian; Egusquiza, Eduard; Santos, Ilmar
2007-01-01
of the analysis and after it is carried out in one of the units, the vibration levels are reduced The vibration induced by the RSI is predicted considering the sequence of interaction and different amplitudes in the interactions between the same moving blade and different stationary blades, giving a different......The highest vibration levels in large pump turbines are, in general, originated in the rotor stator interaction (RSI). This vibration has specific characteristics that can be clearly observed in the frequency domain: harmonics of the moving blade passing frequency and a particular relationship...... among their amplitudes. It is valuable for the design and condition monitoring to count on these characteristics. A CFD model is an appropriate tool to determine the force and its characteristics. However it is time consuming and needs highly qualified human resources while usually these results...
Friedmann, P. P.
1984-01-01
An aeroelastic model suitable for the study of aeroelastic and structural dynamic effects in multirotor vehicles simulating a hybrid heavy lift vehicle was developed and applied to the study of a number of diverse problems. The analytical model developed proved capable of modeling a number of aeroelastic problems, namely: (1) isolated blade aeroelastic stability in hover and forward flight, (2) coupled rotor/fuselage aeromechanical problem in air or ground resonance, (3) tandem rotor coupled rotor/fuselage problems, and (4) the aeromechanical stability of a multirotor vehicle model representing a hybrid heavy lift airship (HHLA). The model was used to simulate the ground resonance boundaries of a three bladed hingeless rotor model, including the effect of aerodynamic loads, and the theoretical predictions compared well with experimental results. Subsequently the model was used to study the aeromechanical stability of a vehicle representing a hybrid heavy lift airship, and potential instabilities which could occur for this type of vehicle were identified. The coupling between various blade, supporting structure and rigid body modes was identified.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Seki, K.; Shimizu, Y.; Yasui, T. [Tokai University, Tokyo (Japan)
1997-11-25
Dynamic force on blades in a large wind mill changes with rotational speed for various reasons, such as wind shear that causes vertical distribution of wind velocity or titling angle. Therefore, a 2-blade system on a teetered hub is a practical selection for the coned, down-wind type. Use of teetered axis greatly reduces bending moment in the flap direction and that at the axis of rotation. An attempt was made to understand dynamic loads by inertial force resulting from oscillation of the blade rotating on the teetered axis, and thereby to avoid them. The in-plane load can be diminished to zero when the teetered axis is coincided with the center of gravity, but generally cannot be avoided when the blade is strained significantly, except it is operated at the rated condition. The in-plane load and bending moment can be avoided, when rotational freedom is given around the y axis. Dynamic load on a down-wind rotor can be avoided by use of universal joint. 3 refs., 6 figs.
NUMERICAL AND EXSPERIMENTAL ASPECTS OF THERMALLY INDUCED VIBRATION IN REAL ROTORS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Milenko B Jevtić
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Temperature fields in electric energy generators may lead to mechanical dissbalance of an already balanced rotor. The author collected information in a number of steam power plants and confirmed the existence of the problem. This paper is presents the specific case of thermal deformation of the rotor, caused by an asymmetrical temperature field in scale of rotor. On the grounds of the relevant physical aspects, we propose a mathematical model identifying fields in a turbo generator rotor and suggest the optimum control by which the unwanted effects are eliminated.
Pavlenko, I. V.; Simonovskiy, V. I.; Demianenko, M. M.
2017-08-01
This research paper is aimed to investigating rotor dynamics of multistage centrifugal machines with ball bearings by using the computer programs “Critical frequencies of the rotor” and “Forced oscillations of the rotor,” which are implemented the mathematical model based on the use of beam finite elements. Free and forces oscillations of the rotor for the multistage centrifugal oil pump NPS 200-700 are observed by taking into account the analytical dependence of bearing stiffness on rotor speed, which is previously defined on the basis of results’ approximation for the numerical simulation in ANSYS by applying 3D finite elements. The calculations found that characteristic and constrained oscillations of rotor and corresponded to them forms of vibrations, as well as the form of constrained oscillation on the actual frequency for acceptable residual unbalance are determined.
Integration of dynamic, aerodynamic and structural optimization of helicopter rotor blades
Peters, David A.
1987-01-01
The purpose of the research is to study the integration of structural, dynamic, and aerodynamic considerations in the design-optimization process for helicopter rotorblades. This is to be done in three phases. Task 1 is to bring on-line computer codes that could perform the finite-element frequency analyses of rotor blades. The major features of this program are summarized. The second task was to bring on-line an optimization code for the work. Several were tried and it was decided to use CONMIN. Explicit volume constraints on the thicknesses and lumped masses used in the optimization were added. The specific aeroelastic constraint that the center of mass must be forward of the quarter chord in order to prevent flutter was applied. The bending-torsion coupling due to cg-ea offset within the blade cross section was included. Also included were some very simple stress constraints. The first three constraints are completed, and the fourth constraint is being completed.
Non-linear dynamics of a geared rotor-bearing system with multiple clearances
Kahraman, A.; Singh, R.
1991-02-01
Non-linear frequency response characteristics of a geared rotor-bearing system are examined in this paper. A three-degree-of-freedom dynamic model is developed which includes non-linearities associated with radial clearances in the radial rolling element bearings and backlash between a spur gear pair; linear time-invariant gear meshing stiffness is assumed. The corresponding linear system problem is also solved, and predicted natural frequencies and modes match with finite element method results. The bearing non-linear stiffness function is approximated for the sake of convenience by a simple model which is identical to that used for the gear mesh. This approximate bearing model has been verified by comparing steady state frequency spectra. Applicability of both analytical and numerical solution techniques to the multi-degree-of-freedom non-linear problem is investigated. Satisfactory agreement has been found between our theory and available experimental data. Several key issues such as non-linear modal interactions and differences between internal static transmission error excitation and external torque excitation are discussed. Additionally, parametric studies are performed to understand the effect of system parameters such as bearing stiffness to gear mesh stiffness ratio, alternating to mean force ratio and radial bearing preload to mean force ratio on the non-linear dynamic behavior. A criterion used to classify the steady state solutions is presented, and the conditions for chaotic, quasi-periodic and subharmonic steady state solutions are determined. Two typical routes to chaos observed in this geared system are also identified.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alexandre Presas
2014-07-01
Full Text Available In this paper, PZT actuators are used to study the dynamic behavior of a rotating disk structure due to rotor-stator interaction excitation. The disk is studied with two different surrounding fluids—air and water. The study has been performed analytically and validated experimentally. For the theoretical analysis, the natural frequencies and the associated mode shapes of the rotating disk in air and water are obtained with the Kirchhoff-Love thin plate theory coupled with the interaction with the surrounding fluid. A model for the Rotor Stator Interaction that occurs in many rotating disk-like parts of turbomachinery such as compressors, hydraulic runners or alternators is presented. The dynamic behavior of the rotating disk due to this excitation is deduced. For the experimental analysis a test rig has been developed. It consists of a stainless steel disk (r = 198 mm and h = 8 mm connected to a variable speed motor. Excitation and response are measured from the rotating system. For the rotating excitation four piezoelectric patches have been used. Calibrating the piezoelectric patches in amplitude and phase, different rotating excitation patterns are applied on the rotating disk in air and in water. Results show the feasibility of using PZT to control the response of the disk due to a rotor-stator interaction.
Presas, Alexandre; Egusquiza, Eduard; Valero, Carme; Valentin, David; Seidel, Ulrich
2014-07-07
In this paper, PZT actuators are used to study the dynamic behavior of a rotating disk structure due to rotor-stator interaction excitation. The disk is studied with two different surrounding fluids-air and water. The study has been performed analytically and validated experimentally. For the theoretical analysis, the natural frequencies and the associated mode shapes of the rotating disk in air and water are obtained with the Kirchhoff-Love thin plate theory coupled with the interaction with the surrounding fluid. A model for the Rotor Stator Interaction that occurs in many rotating disk-like parts of turbomachinery such as compressors, hydraulic runners or alternators is presented. The dynamic behavior of the rotating disk due to this excitation is deduced. For the experimental analysis a test rig has been developed. It consists of a stainless steel disk (r = 198 mm and h = 8 mm) connected to a variable speed motor. Excitation and response are measured from the rotating system. For the rotating excitation four piezoelectric patches have been used. Calibrating the piezoelectric patches in amplitude and phase, different rotating excitation patterns are applied on the rotating disk in air and in water. Results show the feasibility of using PZT to control the response of the disk due to a rotor-stator interaction.
Active control of gust- and interference-induced vibration of tilt-rotor aircraft
Ham, Norman D.; Wereley, Norman M.; Von Ellenrieder, Karl D.
1989-01-01
An active control system to suppress the response of the blade bending modes of a tilt-rotor aircraft to axial gusts and wing/rotor interference is described. The use of blade-mounted accelerometers as sensors is shown to permit the measurement and control of tilt-rotor blade modal responses and their associated vibratory loads directly. The feedback of modal acceleration, in addition to modal rate and displacement, is demonstrated to provide a control phase lead, in comparison with feedback of modal rate and displacement only, which makes higher system gains achievable.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHOU Shihua; SONG Guiqiu; REN Zhaohui; WEN Bangchun
2016-01-01
Extensive studies on nonlinear dynamics of gear systems with internal excitation or external excitation respectively have been carried out. However, the nonlinear characteristics of gear systems under combined internal and external excitations are scarcely investigated. An eight-degree-of-freedom(8-DOF) nonlinear spur gear-rotor-bearing model, which contains backlash, transmission error, eccentricity, gravity and input/output torque, is established, and the coupled lateral-torsional vibration characteristics are studied. Based on the equations of motion, the coupled spur gear-rotor-bearing system(SGRBS) is investigated using the Runge-Kutta numerical method, and the effects of rotational speed, error fluctuation and load fluctuation on the dynamic responses are explored. The results show that a diverse range of nonlinear dynamic characteristics such as periodic motion, quasi-periodic motion, chaotic behaviors and impacts exhibited in the system are strongly attributed to the interaction between internal and external excitations. Significantly, the changing rotational speed could effectively control the vibration of the system. Vibration level increases with the increasing error fluctuation. Whereas the load fluctuation has an influence on the nonlinear dynamic characteristics and the increasing excitation force amplitude makes the vibration amplitude increase, the chaotic motion may be restricted. The proposed model and numerical results can be used for diagnosis of faults and vibration control of practical SGRBS.
Zhou, Shihua; Song, Guiqiu; Ren, Zhaohui; Wen, Bangchun
2016-03-01
Extensive studies on nonlinear dynamics of gear systems with internal excitation or external excitation respectively have been carried out. However, the nonlinear characteristics of gear systems under combined internal and external excitations are scarcely investigated. An eight-degree-of-freedom(8-DOF) nonlinear spur gear-rotor-bearing model, which contains backlash, transmission error, eccentricity, gravity and input/output torque, is established, and the coupled lateral-torsional vibration characteristics are studied. Based on the equations of motion, the coupled spur gear-rotor-bearing system(SGRBS) is investigated using the Runge-Kutta numerical method, and the effects of rotational speed, error fluctuation and load fluctuation on the dynamic responses are explored. The results show that a diverse range of nonlinear dynamic characteristics such as periodic motion, quasi-periodic motion, chaotic behaviors and impacts exhibited in the system are strongly attributed to the interaction between internal and external excitations. Significantly, the changing rotational speed could effectively control the vibration of the system. Vibration level increases with the increasing error fluctuation. Whereas the load fluctuation has an influence on the nonlinear dynamic characteristics and the increasing excitation force amplitude makes the vibration amplitude increase, the chaotic motion may be restricted. The proposed model and numerical results can be used for diagnosis of faults and vibration control of practical SGRBS.
Foster, John V.; Hartman, David C.
2017-01-01
The NASA Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Traffic Management (UTM) project is conducting research to enable civilian low-altitude airspace and UAS operations. A goal of this project is to develop probabilistic methods to quantify risk during failures and off nominal flight conditions. An important part of this effort is the reliable prediction of feasible trajectories during off-nominal events such as control failure, atmospheric upsets, or navigation anomalies that can cause large deviations from the intended flight path or extreme vehicle upsets beyond the normal flight envelope. Few examples of high-fidelity modeling and prediction of off-nominal behavior for small UAS (sUAS) vehicles exist, and modeling requirements for accurately predicting flight dynamics for out-of-envelope or failure conditions are essentially undefined. In addition, the broad range of sUAS aircraft configurations already being fielded presents a significant modeling challenge, as these vehicles are often very different from one another and are likely to possess dramatically different flight dynamics and resultant trajectories and may require different modeling approaches to capture off-nominal behavior. NASA has undertaken an extensive research effort to define sUAS flight dynamics modeling requirements and develop preliminary high fidelity six degree-of-freedom (6-DOF) simulations capable of more closely predicting off-nominal flight dynamics and trajectories. This research has included a literature review of existing sUAS modeling and simulation work as well as development of experimental testing methods to measure and model key components of propulsion, airframe and control characteristics. The ultimate objective of these efforts is to develop tools to support UTM risk analyses and for the real-time prediction of off-nominal trajectories for use in the UTM Risk Assessment Framework (URAF). This paper focuses on modeling and simulation efforts for a generic quad-rotor configuration typical
IDENTIFICATION OF CRACKED ROTOR BY WAVELET TRANSFORM
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
邹剑; 陈进; 蒲亚鹏
2002-01-01
The dynamic equation of cracked rotor in rotational frame was modelled, the numerical simulation solutions of the cracked rotor and the uncracked rotor were obtained. By the wavelet transform, the time-frequency properties of the cracked rotor and the uncracked rotor were discussed, the difference of the time-frequency properties between the cracked rotor and the uncracked rotor was compared. A new detection algorithm using wavelet transform to identify crack was proposed. The experiments verify the availability and validity of the wavelet transform in identification of crack.
Fault detection in rotor bearing systems using time frequency techniques
Chandra, N. Harish; Sekhar, A. S.
2016-05-01
Faults such as misalignment, rotor cracks and rotor to stator rub can exist collectively in rotor bearing systems. It is an important task for rotor dynamic personnel to monitor and detect faults in rotating machinery. In this paper, the rotor startup vibrations are utilized to solve the fault identification problem using time frequency techniques. Numerical simulations are performed through finite element analysis of the rotor bearing system with individual and collective combinations of faults as mentioned above. Three signal processing tools namely Short Time Fourier Transform (STFT), Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT) and Hilbert Huang Transform (HHT) are compared to evaluate their detection performance. The effect of addition of Signal to Noise ratio (SNR) on three time frequency techniques is presented. The comparative study is focused towards detecting the least possible level of the fault induced and the computational time consumed. The computation time consumed by HHT is very less when compared to CWT based diagnosis. However, for noisy data CWT is more preferred over HHT. To identify fault characteristics using wavelets a procedure to adjust resolution of the mother wavelet is presented in detail. Experiments are conducted to obtain the run-up data of a rotor bearing setup for diagnosis of shaft misalignment and rotor stator rubbing faults.
Active vibration control of a rotor-bearing system based on dynamic stiffness
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andrés Blanco Ortega
2010-01-01
Full Text Available En este artículo se presenta un esquema de control activo de vibraciones para atenuar las amplitudes de vibración síncrona inducidas por el desbalance en un sistema rotorchumaceras; donde una de las chumaceras puede ser desplazada automáticamente para modificar la longitud efectiva del rotor, y como consecuencia, la rigidez del rotor. El control de la rigidez dinámica se basa en un análisis de la respuesta en frecuencia, control de velocidad y en el uso de esquemas de aceleración, para evadir las amplitudes de la vibración en la resonancia mientras el sistema rotatorio pasa (acelerado o desacelerado a través de una velocidad crítica. Se utiliza identificación algebraica para estimar el desbalance en línea, mientras el rotor es llevado a la velocidad de operación deseada. Algunas simulaciones numéricas y resultados experimentales son incluidos para mostrar las propiedades de la compensación del desbalance y la robustez del esquema de control activo de vibraciones propuesto, cuando el rotor se opera a una velocidad por encima de la primera velocidad crítica.
Dynamic Thermal Analysis of DFIG Rotor-side Converter during Balanced Grid Fault
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhou, Dao; Blaabjerg, Frede
2014-01-01
and the rotor voltage during the balanced grid fault is firstly addressed. By using the traditional demagnetizing control, the damping of the stator flux and the safety operation area are theoretically evaluated with various amounts of demagnetizing current. It is observed that the higher demagnetizing current...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
郭俊贤; 向锦武; 覃海鹰
2011-01-01
旋翼阻尼特性是直升机动力学问题的要素之一，根据全机动力学设计要求，进行地面共振和旋翼／动力／传动扭振系统稳定性分析，并据此提出旋翼系统阻尼特性参数设计要求．分析了粘弹性阻尼器和液压阻尼器的特点，研究了阻尼器刚度和阻尼对全机耦合动力学的影响；通过比较不同孔径节流孔的阻尼特性，确定了阻尼器设计方案．计算分析结果以及阻尼器样件的性能试验和机上试验验证结果表明：阻尼特性能够满足地面共振和旋翼／动力／传动扭振系统稳定性要求，并可实现其用于桨叶折叠的功能要求．%The rotor damping is one of the key points for a helicopter dynamic design. An introduction to the theoretical and practical study of one of the helicopter dynamic problems, which describesd the development of the rotor damping based on the helicopter dynamic with rotor/fuselage coupling that contains the stability analysis of ground resonance and the stability of rotor/power/transmission coherent was given. Based on the dynamic requirement of rotor/frame, damping analysis of the elasto-damper and the fluid-damper, which considered the effect of the stiffness and the damping was presented. The parametric sensitivity of the damper stiffness and damping was estimated. With constraints from engine control and ground resonance, the different effect was given with various available designs. Calculating and testing results performed demonstrating that, as solution to the dynamic problem, the damping with suitable orifice design for a variable liquid damper is reasonable for the helicopter dynamic problem solution and rotor blade folding.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Enemark, Søren; Santos, Ilmar F.
2016-01-01
Helical pseudoelastic shape memory alloy (SMA) springs are integrated into a dynamic system consisting of a rigid rotor supported by passive magnetic bearings. The aim is to determine the utility of SMAs for vibration attenuation via their mechanical hysteresis, and for adaptation of the dynamic ...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhong-xiu FEI; Shui-guang TONG; Chao WEI
2013-01-01
Recently,the finite element method (FEM) has been commonly applied in the engineering analysis of rotor dynamics.Gyroscopic moments,rotary inertia,transverse shear deformation and gravity can be included in computational models of rotor-bearing systems.In this paper,a finite element model and its solution method are presented for the calculation of the dynamics of dual rotor systems.A typical structure with two rotor shafts is discussed and the procedure for obtaining the coupling motion equations of the subsystems is illustrated.A computer program is developed to solve critical speeds and to simulate the transient motion.The influence of gyroscopic moments on co-rotation and counter-rotation is analyzed,and the effect of the speed ratio on critical speed is studied.The dynamic characteristics under different conditions of increasing speed during start-up are demonstrated by comparison with transient nodal displacements.The presented model provides a complete foundation for further investigation of the dynamics of dual rotor systems.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
ARCHANA SHUKLA; SRIHARI KESHAVAMURTHY
2017-07-01
The present work aims to control the rotational excitations of an ac-driven planar rotor, a model for rigid diatomic molecules, by rebuilding barriers in the classical phase space. The barriers are invariant tori with irrational winding ratios which are perturbatively constructed at desired locations in the phase space. Weestablish that constructing such barriers, equivalent to additional weak fields, can efficiently suppress the chaos leading to the control of various processes. The phase space barriers are shown to be effective in controlling the quantum dynamics as well. In particular, the efficiency of the phase space barriers towards controlling dynamical tunneling in the system is explored. Our studies are relevant to understanding the role of the chaotic regions in dynamical tunneling and for molecular alignment using bichromatic fields.
Helicopter Rotor Blade Monitoring using Autonomous Wireless Sensor Network
Sanchez Ramirez, Andrea; Loendersloot, Richard; Tinga, Tiedo; Basu, B.
2013-01-01
The advancement on Wireless Sensor Networks for vibration monitoring presents important possibilities for helicopter rotor health and usage monitoring. While main rotor blades account for the main source of lift for helicopters, rotor induced vibration establishes an important source for
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cheney, M.C. [PS Enterprises, Inc., Glastonbury, CT (United States)
1997-12-31
The cost of energy for renewables has gained greater significance in recent years due to the drop in price in some competing energy sources, particularly natural gas. In pursuit of lower manufacturing costs for wind turbine systems, work was conducted to explore an innovative rotor designed to reduce weight and cost over conventional rotor systems. Trade-off studies were conducted to measure the influence of number of blades, stiffness, and manufacturing method on COE. The study showed that increasing number of blades at constant solidity significantly reduced rotor weight and that manufacturing the blades using pultrusion technology produced the lowest cost per pound. Under contracts with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the California Energy Commission, a 400 kW (33m diameter) turbine was designed employing this technology. The project included tests of an 80 kW (15.5m diameter) dynamically scaled rotor which demonstrated the viability of the design.
滚动转子式压缩机转子动力学分析%Rotor Dynamics Analysis of Rolling Rotor Compressor
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
于慎波; 丛明星; 孙俊主
2015-01-01
This article introduces the calculation of the compressor rotor critical speed and unbalance response analysis. Radial unbalanced magnetic pull(UMP) is produced in rotor when the motor is running. UMP impacts the critical speeds of the rotor shaft. The result of UMP is obtained by extracting radial magnetic flux density in air gap with finite element method, and critical speeds are also calculated in the influence of UMP. Amount of unbalance of the rotor position for some sensitive degree is calculated. Frequency equation of the bearing-rotor system is solved and the complex frequency is obtained. The logarithmic decrement curve is shown. The stability analysis of the spindle is done.%文中研究了压缩机转子临界转速和不平衡响应的分析计算。电机在旋转过程中产生的径向不平衡磁拉力，作用在转子上，会对其临界转速产生影响。利用有限元法提取了电机气隙径向磁密，合成不平衡磁拉力，并计算在不平衡磁拉力影响下的压缩机转子临界转速；计算转子对于某些位置上的不平衡量的敏感程度；求解轴承-转子系统频率方程并求得复频率，画出了复特征值对应的对数衰减率曲线，分析了轴系的稳定性。
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ramirez Solis, Jose Antonio; Cristalinas Navarro, Victor Manuel; Mojica Calderon, Cecilio [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)
2010-07-01
As a part of the diagnosis of the root cause of the fault of the blades of the L-1 wheel of a of low pressure rotor of 200 MW, in one of the power stations of electrical generation, an experimental test of friction in the same rotor was designed and carried out, but in the adjacent wheel of movable blades L-2. The objectives of the friction experimental test were to determine the dynamic characteristics of the friction, to corroborate what it was observed in the spectra diagrams registered by the power station during the operation of the unit, to determine the maximum bending stress of the used element to provide friction to the wheel of L-2 blades and to infer, in a qualitative way, the magnitude of the force of friction necessary to generate the dynamic characteristics of the friction and finally to determine the micro-structural changes that underwent the used element to apply friction. [Spanish] Como parte del diagnostico de la causa raiz de la falla de los alabes de la rueda L-1 de un rotor de baja presion de 200 MW, en una de las centrales de generacion electrica, se diseno y efectuo una prueba experimental de rozamiento en el mismo rotor, pero en la rueda adyacente de alabes moviles L-2. Los objetivos de la prueba experimental de rozamiento fueron determinar las caracteristicas dinamicas del razonamiento, para corroborar lo observado en los diagramas de espectros registrados por la central durante la operacion de la unidad, determinar el esfuerzo maximo a la flexion del elemento utilizado para suministrar rozamiento a la rueda de alabes L-2 e inferir, de manera cualitativa, la magnitud de la fuerza de rozamiento necesaria para generar las caracteristicas dinamicas del rozamiento y por ultimo determinar los cambios microestructurales que experimento el elemento utilizado para aplicar rozamiento.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ramirez Solis, Jose Antonio; Cristalinas Navarro, Victor Manuel; Mojica Calderon, Cecilio [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)
2007-11-15
As a part of the diagnosis of the root cause of the blades fault of the of the L-1 wheel of a of low pressure rotor of 300 MW, in one of the Power stations of Electrical Generation, a design was made and an experimental rubbing test of friction in the same rotor was performed but in the adjacent wheel of movable blades L-2. The objectives of the experimental rubbing test were to determine the dynamic characteristics of the rubbing to corroborate what was observed in the diagrams of spectra registered by the power station during the operation of the Unit, to determine the maximum bending stress of the used element to provide rubbing to the wheel of blades L-2 and to infer in a qualitative way the magnitude of the necessary friction force to generate the dynamic characteristics of the rubbing and finally to determine the micro-structural changes that underwent the element employed to apply rubbing. [Spanish] Como parte del diagnostico de la causa raiz de la falla de los alabes de la rueda L-1 de un rotor de baja presion de 300 MW, en una de las Centrales de Generacion Electrica, se diseno y efectuo una prueba experimental de rozamiento en el mismo rotor pero en la rueda adyacente de alabes moviles L-2. Los objetivos de la prueba experimental de rozamiento fueron determinar las caracteristicas dinamicas del rozamiento para corroborar lo observado en los diagramas de espectros registrados por la Central durante la operacion de la Unidad, determinar el esfuerzo maximo a la flexion del elemento utilizado para suministrar rozamiento a la rueda de alabes L-2 e inferir de manera cualitativa la magnitud de la fuerza de rozamiento necesaria para generar las caracteristicas dinamicas del razonamiento y por ultimo determinar los cambios microestructurales que experimento el elemento utilizado para aplicar rozamiento.
Experimental Investigation of High-Pressure Steam Induced Stall of a Transonic Rotor
2007-06-01
disturbance can occur anywhere in a turbomachine and may be present during typical operation in small areas. When localized disturbances expand, stall...describe the flow breakdown over a particular stage of a turbomachine . Stall, however, often leads to a more damaging phenomenon known as surge. 3...Surge The cyclic stalling of a stage in a turbomachine is referred to as surge. Surge occurs when both the rotor and stator in a certain stage
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Duchemin, M.
2003-12-15
The aim of this work was the development of a model allowing to simulate the dynamical behaviour on an on-board rotor. The calculations of the different energies and virtual works of the different parts of a rotor submitted to a random movement have been made taking into account the different possible asymmetries of the shaft and of the discs. A simple model has been defined using the Rayleigh-Ritz method in order to study the basic phenomena. For the processing of real systems, a finite-element modeling has been developed. The nonlinear equations of the movement have been obtained using the application of Lagrange equations. The basic phenomena relative to the rotors dynamics with a moving stand have been studied for the simple model. Various analytical studies have been performed on simple movements: simple translation, sinusoidal translation, constant rotation, accelerated rotation. For all these movements, the deformation equations remain linear. On the contrary, for a simple sinusoidal rotation movement, parametric terms have to be entered in the equations. An instability study has been performed on this movement using the multiple scales method. This method has permitted to determine the instability areas. A step-by-step resolution has been used to check these instability areas with the Rayleigh-Ritz model. An experimental device has been made to test the model developed with the finite-element method. The main movement analyzed is the sinusoidal rotation one which seems to be the most interesting with respect to the phenomena described with the simple model. The adjustment of the resonance frequencies of the system has been performed by the adjustment of the bearings stiffness. The study of an on-board rotor with a flexible stand is thus not a priority. The adjustment of the damping performed on an angular shock study has shown that the obtained modeling is very good when the structural damping is distributed over the bearings. After adjustment, the
Liu, Jing; Shao, Yimin
2017-06-01
Rotor bearing systems (RBSs) play a very valuable role for wind turbine gearboxes, aero-engines, high speed spindles, and other rotational machinery. An in-depth understanding of vibrations of the RBSs is very useful for condition monitoring and diagnosis applications of these machines. A new twelve-degree-of-freedom dynamic model for rigid RBSs with a localized defect (LOD) is proposed. This model can formulate the housing support stiffness, interfacial frictional moments including load dependent and load independent components, time-varying displacement excitation caused by a LOD, additional deformations at the sharp edges of the LOD, and lubricating oil film. The time-varying displacement model is determined by a half-sine function. A new method for calculating the additional deformations at the sharp edges of the LOD is analytical derived based on an elastic quarter-space method presented in the literature. The proposed dynamic model is utilized to analyze the influences of the housing support stiffness and LOD sizes on the vibration characteristics of the rigid RBS, which cannot be predicted by the previous dynamic models in the literature. The results show that the presented method can give a new dynamic modeling method for vibration formulation for a rigid RBS with and without the LOD on the races.
Parallel algorithm of trigonometric collocation method in nonlinear dynamics of rotors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Musil T.
2007-11-01
Full Text Available A parallel algorithm of a numeric procedure based on a method of trigonometric collocation is presented for investigating an unbalance response of a rotor supported by journal bearings. After a condensation process the trigonometric collocation method results in a set of nonlinear algebraic equations which is solved by the Newton-Raphson method. The order of the set is proportional to the number of nonlinear bearing coordinates and terms of the finite Fourier series. The algorithm, realized in the MATLAB parallel computing environment (DCT/DCE, uses message passing technique for interacting among processes on nodes of a parallel computer. This technique enables portability of the source code both on parallel computers with distributed and shared memory. Tests, made on a Beowulf cluster and a symmetric multiprocessor, have revealed very good speed-up and scalability of this algorithm.
Prediction of dynamic loads and induced vibrations in stall
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Thirstrup Petersen, J.; Aagaard Madsen, H. [Risoe National Lab. (Denmark); Bjoerck, A. [Aeronautical Research Inst. of Sweden (Sweden); Enevoldsen, P. [Bonus Energy A/S (Denmark); Oeye, S. [The Technical Univ. of Denmark (Denmark); Ganander, H. [Teknikgruppen AB (Sweden); Winkelaar, D. [Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (Netherlands)
1998-05-01
Results from research in an EC Joule-III project and from national projects are presented. The objectives are improvement of design methods for stall regulated wind turbines with emphasis on stall induced vibrations and dynamic stall. The primary concern is limitation of the edgewise vibrations in the fundamental blade natural mode shape, which have caused trouble on modern wind turbines of approximate size 500 kW nominal power and 40 m rotor diameter. A theoretical study of quasi-steady aerodynamics confirms that the vibrations are driven basically by energy supplied from the aerodynamic forces during stalled operation. This energy exchange is equivalent to negative aerodynamic damping. The theoretical approach identifies the main parameters controlling the phenomenon. These parameters describe the steady and the dynamic airfoil characteristics, the overall aerodynamic layout of the blade, e.g. chord length and twist, the structural properties of the blade, e.g. structural damping and properties controlling the resulting vibration direction. Furthermore, full aeroelastic calculations and comparison with measurements show that the properties of the supporting structure, i.e. the main shaft, the nacelle and the tower, are important, as the global vibration of the rotor on its support may exchange energy with the blade vibration, when the blade natural frequency is close to one of the frequencies of the coupled rotor tilt-yaw mode shapes, usually denoted the global rotor whirl frequencies. It is confirmed that the influence of changing the primary design parameters can be determined by use of qualified aeroelastic calculations. Presented design guidelines therefore build on both the simple quasi-steady models, which can be used for the preliminary choice of the design variables mentioned above, and on full aeroelastic calculations. The aeroelastic calculations refine the design basis and should be used for choosing the final design variables and for final
Assessment of Geometry and In-Flow Effects on Contra-Rotating Open Rotor Broadband Noise Predictions
Zawodny, Nikolas S.; Nark, Douglas M.; Boyd, D. Douglas, Jr.
2015-01-01
Application of previously formulated semi-analytical models for the prediction of broadband noise due to turbulent rotor wake interactions and rotor blade trailing edges is performed on the historical baseline F31/A31 contra-rotating open rotor configuration. Simplified two-dimensional blade element analysis is performed on cambered NACA 4-digit airfoil profiles, which are meant to serve as substitutes for the actual rotor blade sectional geometries. Rotor in-flow effects such as induced axial and tangential velocities are incorporated into the noise prediction models based on supporting computational fluid dynamics (CFD) results and simplified in-flow velocity models. Emphasis is placed on the development of simplified rotor in-flow models for the purpose of performing accurate noise predictions independent of CFD information. The broadband predictions are found to compare favorably with experimental acoustic results.
2006-10-31
Molecular Dipolar Rotors on Insulating Surfaces," Salamanca , Spain. Trends in Nanotechnology Conference. September 5-9, 2003 [86] Laura I. Clarke, Mary Beth...Horansky at the Trends in Nanotechnology Conference, Salamanca , Spain (September 5-9, 2003). [145] Michl, J. “Unusual Molecules: Artificial Surface...temperature and frequency for difluorophenylene rotor crystal. Figure JP6. Monte Carlo results for the local potential asymmetry at
旋翼结冰对直升机飞行动力学特性的影响%Effect of Rotor Icing on Helicopter Flight Dynamic Characteristics
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李国知; 曹义华
2011-01-01
基于旋翼冰风洞试验数据,考虑桨叶表面附着冰脱落及桨叶表面局部温度对结冰的影响,提出了旋翼结冰的工程模型,建立了直升机旋翼结冰后的飞行动力学模型,以UH-60A为样机,研究了直升机旋翼结冰后的平衡特性,分析了结冰对直升机稳定性的影响.根据有人驾驶垂直/短距起落飞机军用品质规范(MIL-F-83300)与军用旋翼飞行器驾驶品质要求(ADS-33E-PRF),分析了结冰时间、环境温度、液态水含量以及平均水滴直径对旋翼结冰后的直升机开环状态下的操纵特性、姿态敏捷性、轴间耦合特性以及垂直轴操纵功效的影响.计算结果的对比分析显示,旋翼结冰模型合理,直升机飞行动力学模型计算精度高,能够用来研究直升机旋翼结冰后的飞行动力学问题.%Based on the rotor icing tunnel data, and considering the effect of rotor blade ice shedding and local temperature variation on the rotor blade icing, an engineering rotor icing model is advanced. Then a flight dynamics modal is built of a single rotor helicopter due to icing. The trim characteristics and stability of a UH-60A helicopter in icing conditions at the hover and in the forward flight are studied in detail. Using the military specification flying qualities of piloted V/STOL aircraft (MIL-F-83300) and the handling qualities requirements for military helicopters (ADS-33E-PRF), the effect of icing on the controllability, attitude quickness, interaxis coupling, and vertical axis control power of the helicopter open-loop system are analyzed in terms of icing time, atmospheric temperature, liquid water content, and median volumetric diameter. Calculation results indicate that the rotor icing model and the iced helicopter dynamics model are feasible and effective, and that they can be used to investigate issues in helicopter dynamics in rotor icing conditions.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘大诚; 史立伟
2014-01-01
相比于普遍使用的浮动轴承，在涡轮增压器中使用球轴承具有机械效率高和加速响应快的优势。以车用球轴承涡轮增压器为研究对象，用有限元法对轴承-转子系统进行了转子动力学特性的研究，对轴承-转子系统的临界转速进行了计算与分析，这是判断转子工作转速是否稳定和涡轮增压器工作是否可靠的重要依据；建立了增压器模型，并对比了计算结果和试验结果，证明了方法的可行性。通过整机试验表明，球轴承涡轮增压器能够满足当前车用发动机的需求，能够提高发动机的工作性能。%Turbochargers in ball bearings have much advantage than floating busing bearings,such as high mechanical efficiency and fast accelerate response.The paper studied obj ect that was ball bearing turbocharger of vehicle,researched on rotor dynamic characteristics of bearing-rotor system,and used finite element method to analyze the critical speed of bearing-rotor system which is the very important basis to j udging whether the rotor work is stable and turbocharger work is reliable. Comparing and analyzing the computing and experimental results,it proves the feasibility and accuracy of setting up model on bearing-rotor system of ball bearing turbocharger.After the test of prototype,it was proved that ball bearing turbo-charger can meet the current needs of vehicle engine and improve the working performance of the engine.
Large scale dynamics in a turbulent compressible rotor/stator cavity flow at high Reynolds number
Lachize, C.; Verhille, G.; Le Gal, P.
2016-08-01
This paper reports an experimental investigation of a turbulent flow confined within a rotor/stator cavity of aspect ratio close to unity at high Reynolds number. The experiments have been driven by changing both the rotation rate of the disk and the thermodynamical properties of the working fluid. This fluid is sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) whose physical properties are adjusted by imposing the operating temperature and the absolute pressure in a pressurized vessel, especially near the critical point of SF6 reached for T c = 45.58 ◦C, P c = 37.55 bar. This original set-up allows to obtain Reynolds numbers as high as 2 × 107 together with compressibility effects as the Mach number can reach 0.5. Pressure measurements reveal that the resulting fully turbulent flow shows both a direct and an inverse cascade as observed in rotating turbulence and in accordance with Kraichnan conjecture for 2D-turbulence. The spectra are however dominated by low-frequency peaks, which are subharmonics of the rotating disk frequency, involving large scale structures at small azimuthal wavenumbers. These modes appear for a Reynolds number around 105 and experience a transition at a critical Reynolds number Re c ≈ 106. Moreover they show an unexpected nonlinear behavior that we understand with the help of a low dimensional amplitude equations.
Nuclear dynamics induced by antiprotons
Feng, Zhao-Qing
2015-01-01
Reaction dynamics in collisions of antiprotons on nuclei is investigated within the Lanzhou quantum molecular dynamics model. The reaction channels of elastic scattering, annihilation, charge exchange and inelastic collisions of antiprotons on nucleons have been included in the model. Dynamics on particle production, in particular pions, kaons, antikaons and hyperons, is investigated in collisions of $\\overline{p}$ on $^{12}$C, $^{20}$Ne, $^{40}$Ca and $^{181}$Ta from a low to high incident momenta. It is found that the annihilations of $\\overline{p}$ on nucleons are of importance on the dynamics of particle production in phase space. Hyperons are mainly produced via meson induced reactions on nucleons and strangeness exchange collisions, which lead to the delayed emission in antiproton-nucleus collisions.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Abdullah Özer
2015-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents experimental and numerical results about the effectiveness of a beam-type twin dynamic vibration absorber for a cantilevered flexible structure carrying an unbalanced rotor. An experimental laboratory prototype setup has been built and implemented in our laboratory and numerical investigations have been performed through finite element analysis. The proposed system design consists of a primary cantilevered flexible structure with an attached dual-mass cantilevered secondary dynamic vibration absorber arrangement. In addition, an unbalanced rotor system is attached to the tip of the flexible cantilevered structure to inspect the system response under harmonic excitations. Numerical findings and experimental observations have revealed that significant vibration reductions are possible with the proposed dual-mass, cantilevered dynamic vibration absorber on a flexible cantilevered platform carrying an unbalanced rotor system at its tip. The proposed system is efficient and it can be practically tuned for variety of design and operating conditions. The designed setup and the results in this paper can serve for practicing engineers, researchers and can be used for educational purposes.
The effect of rotor dynamics on a flywheel stack energy storage system
Jayaraman, Chaitanya P.; Kirk, James A.; Anand, Davinder K.
1988-01-01
The paper presents a dynamic analysis of a magnetic-bearing stack system consisting of a single flywheel supported by two magnetic bearings. Real-time plots from a computer simulation are used to show the effect of dynamic coupling on the torque response, and the frequency response is used to determine the resonance frequencies of the stack system. It is found that system stability depends on the flywheel speed.
Chen, Jinxin; Lai, Huanxin
2015-06-01
The self-induced unsteadiness in tip leakage flow (TLF) of a micro-axial fan rotor is numerically studied by solvingReynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. The micro-axial fan, which is widely used in cooling systems of electronic devices, has a tip clearance of 6% of the axial chord length of the blade. At the design rotation speed, four cases near the peak efficiency point (PEP) with self-induced unsteadiness and four steady cases which have much weaker pressure fluctuations are investigated Using the "interface" separating the incoming main flow and the TLF defined by Du et al. [1], an explanation based on the propagation of the low energy spot and its multi-passing through the high gradient zone of the relativetotal pressure, is proposed to clarify the originating mechanism of the unsteadiness. At the operating points near the PEP, the main flow is weaker than the TLF and the interface moves upstream. The low energy spot which propagates along in the close behind of the interface has opportunity to circulate in the circumferential direction and passes through the sensitive interfaces several times, a slight perturbation therefore may be magnified significantlyand develops into the self-induced unsteadiness. The explanation is demonstrated by numerical results
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rajat Gupta, Sukanta Roy, Agnimitra Biswas
2010-11-01
Full Text Available H-Darrieus rotor is a lift type device having two to three blades designed as airfoils. The blades are attached vertically to the central shaft through support arms. The support to vertical axis helps the rotor maintain its shape. In this paper, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD analysis of an airfoil shaped two-bladed H-Darrieus rotor using Fluent 6.2 software was performed. Based on the CFD results, a comparative study between experimental and computational works was carried out. The H-Darrieus rotor was 20cm in height, 5cm in chord and twisted with an angle of 30° at the trailing end. The blade material of rotor was Fiberglass Reinforced Plastic (FRP. The experiments were earlier conducted in a subsonic wind tunnel for various height-to-diameter (H/D ratios. A two dimensional computational modeling was done with the help of Gambit tool using unstructured grid. Realistic boundary conditions were provided for the model to have synchronization with the experimental conditions. Two dimensional steady-state segregated solver with absolute velocity formulation and cell based grid was considered, and a standard k-epsilon viscous model with standard wall functions was chosen. A first order upwind discretization scheme was adopted for pressure velocity coupling of the flow. The inlet velocities and rotor rotational speeds were taken from the experimental results. From the computational analysis, power coefficient (Cp and torque coefficient (Ct values at ten different H/D ratios namely 0.85, 1.0, 1.10, 1.33, 1.54, 1.72, 1.80, 1.92, 2.10 and 2.20 were calculated in order to predict the performances of the twisted H-rotor. The variations of Cp and Ct with tip speed ratios were analyzed and compared with the experimental results. The standard deviations of computational Cp and Ct from experimental Cp and Ct were obtained. From the computational analysis, the highest values of Cp and Ct were obtained at H/D ratios of 1.0 and 1.54 respectively. The
Dynamics of the interaction between the rotor and the induction zone
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mirzaei, Mahmood; Meyer Forsting, Alexander Raul; Troldborg, Niels
2016-01-01
measurements are affected by the presence of the wind turbine, due to its induction zone. In this work, the dynamic coupling between changes in the wind turbine operating point and the velocities inside the induction zone is studied. Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) simulations are used to investigate...... this interaction. Thereafter, system identification is used to fit first order dynamic models to the simulation results. The parameters of the model are given for the turbine induction zone. These results possibly reduce the uncertainty in lidar measurements, arising from wind turbine blockage....
Dynamic modelling of rotor in non-inertia system%转子在非惯性系中的动力学建模
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
惠旭升; 蔡安江; 张小龙
2009-01-01
以Jeffcott转子为模型,对其在非惯性系中进行了动力学研究.提出在非惯性系中,对于转子应考虑非惯性力和陀螺力矩的影响,采用包括陀螺近似原理在内的一些相关理论来分析.文中从非惯性参考系中质点的运动微分方程出发,推导出转子考虑非惯性力及陀螺力矩影响条件下的盘心运动分量方程函数.在模型建立过程中,还考虑了转子的偏心、初弯和阻尼力.这对进一步在非惯性系中研究转子的动力特性有一定的裨益.%Taking Jeffcott rotor as a model, the dynamics re-search of rotor in the non-inertia system was carried out. It has been brought forward that within the non-inertia system the rotor should be analyzed by adopting some oorrelated theories that includes the gyro approximation principle and with the consideration on the influ-ences of non-inertia force and gyro moment. Proceed from the mo-tion differential equation of particle in the non-inertia reference-system this paper derived the equation function of motion component of rotor' s disk center under the condition of considering the influ-ences of the non-inertia force and the gyro moment. The eccentrici-ty, initial bending and damping force of rotor had been considered as well during the course of model establishment. There exist cer-tain benefits on further study of the rotor' s dynamic characters in the non-inertia system.
Lateral Dynamics of Flexible Rotors Supported by Controllable Gas Bearings Theory & Experiment
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pierart Vásquez, Fabián Gonzalo; Santos, Ilmar
2015-01-01
Active gas bearings might represent a mechatronic answer to the growing industrial need for high performance turbomachinery. In this framework, the paper gives a theoretical and experimental contribution to the improvement of lateral dynamics of rotating machines. The work aims at demonstrating...... theoretically as well as experimentally the feasibility of applying active lubrication to gas journal bearings. The operation principle is to generate active forces by regulating the radial injection of a compressible lubricant (gas) by means of piezoelectric actuators mounted on the back of the bearing sleeve...
Shape memory alloys applied to improve rotor-bearing system dynamics - an experimental investigation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Enemark, Søren; Santos, Ilmar; Savi, Marcelo A.
2015-01-01
tor-bearing systems have critical speeds and to pass through them is an ongoing challenge in the field of mechanical engineering. The incorporation of shape memory alloys in rotating systems has an increasing importance to improve system performance and to avoid potential damaging situations when...... passing through critical speeds. In this work, the feasibility of applying shape memory alloys to a rotating system is experimentally investigated. Shape memory alloys can change their stiffness with temperature variations and thus they may change system dynamics. Shape memory alloys also exhibit...... hysteretic stress-strain relations which may be utilized for damping purposes. These ideas are tested in this study on a dedicated test-rig, consisting of a rigid shaft and disc held vertically by passive magnetic bearings, where the damping is low. The bearing housings is flexibly supported by shape memory...
Experimental study on high-speed turbine rotor dynamic balancing%高速透平转子的动平衡试验研究
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
程进杰; 孙郁; 孙立佳; 季伟; 张武
2014-01-01
对于工作转速高达10多万的透平膨胀机转子,转子的动平衡精度是透平膨胀机能否安全稳定运行的关键.由于从事氦透平膨胀机研制的需要,作者对采购的动平衡机进行了改造,采用气体轴承支撑和高压气体驱动,避免了传统的支撑和驱动结构的振动对动平衡精度的影响,使平衡转速提高到2万转每分钟,最小可达剩余不平衡度为0.063 μm.大大的提高了动平衡效果,为氦透平膨胀机的成功研制提供了强力的支撑.%For the operating speed of up to 10 × 104rpm turbo-expander rotor,the rotor dynamic balance accuracy is the key of the safe and stable operation of the turbo-expander rotor.For the requirement of the development of helium turbo-expander,we reformed the purchased dynamic balancing machine and adapted gas bearing support and high-pressure gas drive,avoiding the effect of traditional support and drive structure to the accuracy of dynamic balancing.The dynamic balancing speed was improved to 2 × 104rpm,the minimum achievable residual unbalance degree is 0.063μm.It greatly improved the balancing effect and will provide powerful support to the successfully development of the helium turbo-expander.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
高军龙; 胡国才; 吴靖
2016-01-01
Rotor mass unbanlance leads to dynamic unbalance of rotor-system, thus it causes helicopter vibration. Accord-ing to the faults of rotor dynamic unbalance, the dynamics model of helicopter was constructed to simulate and analyze mass unbalance of blade,and the relation was found out between the mass unbalance and adjusting weight . And then a methodology of rotor adjustment was presented based on the combination of BP neural network and genetic algorithm, and a model was established between the inputs and weights that included the flapping angles of 4 blades and the accelerations and phases of body roll and pitch. The model would predict the adjustment weights throught learning and training, so as to reduce the vibration of the helicopter, and solve the problem of rotor unbalance.%旋翼桨叶质量不平衡造成旋翼动不平衡,从而引起直升机振动.针对旋翼动不平衡故障,建立直升机动力学模型,对桨叶质量不平衡进行故障仿真及分析,建立质量不平衡故障与调整配重的对应关系;进而提出一种BP神经网络和遗传算法结合的旋翼调整方法,建立输入参数与桨叶配重之间的模型,将四片桨叶的挥舞角和机体横滚、俯仰2个方向的加速度值及相位作为网络输入,通过学习训练,根据输入数据预测调整配重,从而减小直升机振动,解决旋翼动不平衡问题.
Dynamic analysis of the mechanical seals of the rotor of the labyrinth screw pump
Lebedev, A. Y.; Andrenko, P. M.; Grigoriev, A. L.
2017-08-01
A mathematical model of the work of the mechanical seal with smooth rings made from cast tungsten carbide in the condition of liquid friction is drawn up. A special feature of this model is the allowance for the thermal expansion of a liquid in the gap between the rings; this effect acting in the conjunction with the frictional forces creates additional pressure and lift which in its turn depends on the width of the gap and the speed of sliding. The developed model displays the processes of separation, transportation and heat removal in the compaction elements and also the resistance to axial movement of the ring arising in the gap caused by the pumping effect and the friction in the flowing liquid; the inertia of this fluid is taken into account by the mass reduction method. The linearization of the model is performed and the dynamic characteristics of the transient processes and the forced oscillations of the device are obtained. The conditions imposed on the parameters of the mechanical seal are formulated to provide a regime of the liquid friction, which minimizes the wear.
A Study on the Dynamics of a Cracked Jeffcott Rotor%Jeffcott裂纹转子动力特性的研究
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
朱厚军; 赵玫; 王德洋
2001-01-01
The dynamic behavior of a horizontal cracked Jeffcott rotor is investigated in the paper.With the influence of whirl speed taken into account,the flexural stiffness matrix of the cracked shaft is derived.The equations of motion of the cracked rotor are derived and its dynamical behaviors are analyzed.Numerical analysis demonstrates that the responses of the vibration contain 2x,3x…exponents,reaching its maximum value when Ω=1/2,1/3…respectively.The components of high frequency almost disappear when the rotor runs in the supercritical region,but their phases change violently.β and influence mainly 1X component.The center of the motion orbit of the rotor changes because of the existence of crack.The crack keeps open or close when the rotor runs near the critical speed.Otherwise,it opens and closes by turns if is less than 1.%本文采用适当的裂纹开闭模型，导出了固定坐标系中裂纹轴的刚度矩阵，建立了水平Jeffcott裂纹转子的振动微分方程，并对其进行了仿真计算。数值仿真表明：裂纹转子的响应中出现2x、3x等倍频分量，并产生分数次共振现象。在超临界转速区，倍频分量很小，但在响应的相频特性图中2x、3x处相位变化很大。参数β和主要影响1x谐波分量，对2x、3x等倍频分量影响很小。由于裂纹的存在，转子轨迹的中心也发生偏移。在临界转速附近，转子运行过程中裂纹处于常开或常闭状态。一般情况，当转子的偏心小于1时，裂纹在转子运行过程中总是时开时闭的。这些结论将有助于转子裂纹故障的监测和诊断。
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
陆洋; 王超; 赵鑫
2013-01-01
首先基于Peters He广义动态尾迹理论,建立了电控旋翼动态尾迹入流模型,进一步结合电控旋翼襟翼操纵与桨叶变距之间的关系、桨叶挥舞运动方程和带襟翼翼型非定常气动力模型建立了适用于飞行力学分析的电控旋翼气动力模型.在此基础上,结合机身、尾桨、尾面的气动力模型,建立了完整的电控旋翼直升机飞行动力学分析模型.以Z-11直升机为基准改造为电控旋翼直升机作为算例,计算了前飞状态下电控旋翼直升机的诱导速度分布和桨盘迎角分布,对比了电控旋翼与常规旋翼的气动特性差异；在此基础上,进一步分析了电控旋翼直升机的配平特性随前飞速度的变化规律以及与常规直升机的差异.%Firstly,a dynamic inflow model for electrically controlled rotor (ECR) is developed based on the "Peters-He" generalized dynamic wake theory,and an accurate aerodynamics model of ECR,which is suited for the analysis of ECR helicopter flight dynamics,is built combined with the relationship between flap deflection and blade pitch,the blade flapping equation and the unsteady aerodynamic model of airfoil with trailing-edge flap.Then,on this basis,an ECR helicopter flight dynamics model is established combined with the aerodynamics models of airframe,tail rotor,horizontal and vertical tail.Taking Z-11 helicopter as a numerical example,the distributions of ECR induced velocity and angles of attack variations with advance speed are calculated and compared with the baseline rotor.Furthermore,the trim characteristics of the ECR helicopter is investigated.
Effect of wind turbine surge motion on rotor thrust and induced velocity
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vaal, J.B., de; Hansen, Martin Otto Laver; Moan, T.
2014-01-01
Offshore wind turbines on floating platforms will experience larger motions than comparable bottom fixed wind turbines—for which the majority of industry standard design codes have been developed and validated. In this paper, the effect of a periodic surge motion on the integrated loads and induc...
Bin Hassan, M. F.; Bonello, P.
2017-05-01
Recently-proposed techniques for the simultaneous solution of foil-air bearing (FAB) rotor dynamic problems have been limited to a simple bump foil model in which the individual bumps were modelled as independent spring-damper (ISD) subsystems. The present paper addresses this limitation by introducing a modal model of the bump foil structure into the simultaneous solution scheme. The dynamics of the corrugated bump foil structure are first studied using the finite element (FE) technique. This study is experimentally validated using a purpose-made corrugated foil structure. Based on the findings of this study, it is proposed that the dynamics of the full foil structure, including bump interaction and foil inertia, can be represented by a modal model comprising a limited number of modes. This full foil structure modal model (FFSMM) is then adapted into the rotordynamic FAB problem solution scheme, instead of the ISD model. Preliminary results using the FFSMM under static and unbalance excitation conditions are proven to be reliable by comparison against the corresponding ISD foil model results and by cross-correlating different methods for computing the deflection of the full foil structure. The rotor-bearing model is also validated against experimental and theoretical results in the literature.
Design of plywood and paper flywheel rotors
Hagen, D. L.
Technical and economic design factors of cellulosic rotors are compared with conventional materials for stationary flywheel energy storage systems. Wood species, operation in a vacuum, assembly and costs of plywood rotors are evaluated. Wound kraft paper, twine and veneer rotors are examined. Two bulb attachments are designed. Support stiffness is shown to be constrained by the material strength, rotor configuration and speed ratio. Plywood moisture equilibrium during manufacture and assembly is critical. Disk shaping and rotor assembly are described. Potential self-centering dynamic balancing methods and equipment are described. Detailed measurements of the distribution of strengths, densities and specific energy of conventional Finnish Birch plywood and of custom made hexagonal Birch plywood are detailed. High resolution tensile tests were performed while monitoring the acoustic emissions with micoprocessor controlled data acquisition. Preliminary duration of load tests were performed on vacuum dried hexagonal birch plywood. Economics of cellulosic and conventional rotors were examined.
HARP model rotor test at the DNW. [Hughes Advanced Rotor Program
Dawson, Seth; Jordan, David; Smith, Charles; Ekins, James; Silverthorn, Lou
1989-01-01
Data from a test of a dynamically scaled model of the Hughes Advanced Rotor Program (HARP) bearingless model main rotor and 369K tail rotor are reported. The history of the HARP program and its goals are reviewed, and the main and tail rotor models are described. The test facilities and instrumentation are described, and wind tunnel test data are presented on hover, forward flight performance, and blade-vortex interaction. Performance data, acoustic data, and dynamic data from near field/far field and shear layer studies are presented.
Vanyashov, A. D.; Karabanova, V. V.
2017-08-01
A mathematical description of the method for obtaining gas-dynamic characteristics of a centrifugal compressor stage is proposed, taking into account the control action by varying the rotor speed and the angle of rotation of the guide vanes relative to the "basic" characteristic, if the kinematic and dynamic similitude conditions are not met. The formulas of the correction terms for the non-dimensional coefficients of specific work, consumption and efficiency are obtained. A comparative analysis of the calculated gas-dynamic characteristics of a high-pressure centrifugal stage with experimental data is performed.
Fine tuning of molecular rotor function in photochemical molecular switches
ter Wiel, Matthijs K. J.; Feringa, Ben L.
2009-01-01
Molecular switches are used as scaffolds for the construction of controlled molecular rotors. The internal position of the switching entity in the molecule controls the dynamic behaviour of the rotor moiety in the molecule. Six new molecular motors with o-xylyl rotor moieties were prepared on the ba
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Peter W. Tse
2017-02-01
Full Text Available Bearings are widely used in various industries to support rotating shafts. Their failures accelerate failures of other adjacent components and may cause unexpected machine breakdowns. In recent years, nonlinear vibration responses collected from a dynamic rotor-bearing system have been widely analyzed for bearing diagnostics. Numerous methods have been proposed to identify different bearing faults. However, these methods are unable to predict the future health conditions of bearings. To extend bearing diagnostics to bearing prognostics, this paper reports the design of a state space formulation of nonlinear vibration responses collected from a dynamic rotor-bearing system in order to intelligently predict bearing remaining useful life (RUL. Firstly, analyses of nonlinear vibration responses were conducted to construct a bearing health indicator (BHI so as to assess the current bearing health condition. Secondly, a state space model of the BHI was developed to mathematically track the health evolution of the BHI. Thirdly, unscented particle filtering was used to predict bearing RUL. Lastly, a new bearing acceleration life testing setup was designed to collect natural bearing degradation data, which were used to validate the effectiveness of the proposed bearing prognostic method. Results show that the prediction accuracy of the proposed bearing prognostic method is promising and the proposed bearing prognostic method is able to reflect future bearing health conditions.
Bharadwaj, Sudarsh; Dullin, Holger R; Leung, Karen; Tong, William
2015-01-01
We present and analyse a simple model for the twisting somersault. The model is a rigid body with a rotor attached which can be switched on and off. This makes it simple enough to devise explicit analytical formulas whilst still maintaining sufficient complexity to preserve the shape-changing dynamics essential for twisting somersaults in springboard and platform diving. With `rotor on' and with `rotor off' the corresponding Euler-type equations can be solved, and the essential quantities characterising the dynamics, such as the periods and rotation numbers, can be computed in terms of complete elliptic integrals. Thus we arrive at explicit formulas for how to achieve a dive with m somersaults and n twists in a given total time. This can be thought of as a special case of a geometric phase formula due to Cabrera 2007.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Juing-Shian Chiou
2013-01-01
Full Text Available This paper has implemented nonlinear control strategy for the single tilt tri-rotor aerial robot. Based on Newton-Euler’s laws, the linear and nonlinear mathematical models of tri-rotor UAVs are obtained. A numerical analysis using Newton-Raphson method is chosen for finding hovering equilibrium point. Back-stepping nonlinear controller design is based on constructing Lyapunov candidate function for closed-loop system. By imitating the linguistic logic of human thought, fuzzy logic controllers (FLCs are designed based on control rules and membership functions, which are much less rigid than the calculations computers generally perform. Effectiveness of the controllers design scheme is shown through nonlinear simulation model on each channel.
Strange happenings at the quantum-classical boundary The delta-kicked rotor
Bhattacharya, T; Jacobs, K; Shizume, K; Bhattacharya, Tanmoy; Habib, Salman; Jacobs, Kurt; Shizume, Kosuke
2002-01-01
We investigate the quantum-classical transition in the delta-kicked rotor and the attainment of the classical limit in terms of measurement-induced state-localization. It is possible to study the transition by fixing the environmentally induced disturbance at a sufficiently small value, and examining the dynamics as the system is made more macroscopic. We show that the behavior of the rotor in the region of transition, characterized by the late-time momentum diffusion coefficient, can be strikingly different from both the quantum and classical behaviors, e.g., exhibiting a large increase in the diffusion coefficient. This transition regime is accessible in ongoing experiments.
Helicopter Rotor Blade Monitoring using Autonomous Wireless Sensor Network
Sanchez Ramirez, Andrea; Loendersloot, Richard; Tinga, Tiedo; Basu, B.
2013-01-01
The advancement on Wireless Sensor Networks for vibration monitoring presents important possibilities for helicopter rotor health and usage monitoring. While main rotor blades account for the main source of lift for helicopters, rotor induced vibration establishes an important source for understandi
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王少波; 孟成; 苏明
2013-01-01
重型燃气轮机通常采用拉杆转子结构,此类转子-支撑系统的临界转速的分析计算与整体结构转子不同.以Riccati传递矩阵法为框架,对某燃气轮机中心拉杆转子结构进行分析并离散,考虑轴承支撑以及端面齿啮合对转子动力学特性的影响,建立转子-支撑系统的动力学计算模型.利用该模型对临界转速以及相应的振型进行计算,并通过与试验台实测结果的对比,验证了计算模型和方法的正确性,该方法可应用于类似结构转子动力学特性的分析研究.%Rod fastening rotor is usually used in heavy duty gas turbine rotor-support system, of which critical speed calculation differs from that of the integral rotor. In the framework of Riccati transfer matrix method, discretization of central tie-rod fastening rotor structure with detailed analysis was conducted. Taking into account the impacts which are brought by bearing support and meshing face tooth on dynamic characteristics of rotor system, a computation model of rotor-support system was further established. In this way, critical speeds and the corresponding modes were obtained. The calculated result shows a good a-greement with the test measurement result, which implies that the method is accurate and computation model is reliable. This approach can also be applied to analyze dynamic characteristics of rotors with homogenous structure.
A Study of Coaxial Rotor Performance and Flow Field Characteristics
2016-01-22
A Study of Coaxial Rotor Performance and Flow Field Characteristics Natasha L. Barbely Aerospace Engineer NASA Ames Research Center Moffett Field...The pressure field generated by the two airfoils aided our interpretation of the more complex coaxial rotor system flow field. The pressure fields...velocity (ft/sec) Z vertical distance between rotors (ft) αS pitch angle (deg), negative pitch down κint coaxial rotor induced power interference
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Finstad, Paal Henrik Enger
2012-07-01
Hydropower, and especially Francis turbines, for electricity production has a history of more than 100 years and has proved to be one of the most efficient ways of utilizing renewable energy for electricity production. Yet, there are several problems to be solved regarding producing and running cost effective, high efficient and durable turbines. Secondary flow fields are all unwanted flow patterns present in the turbine. The major fluctuating flow fields in Francis turbines are caused by rotor-stator interaction when the runner vane passes the guide vane wake and the swirling flow in the draft tube at off-design operation. Such flow fields have a negative effect in terms of causing losses, vibrations, noise or damage to the turbine structure. The flow through a Francis turbine, especially at off-design operation is not optimal, and is characterized by a dynamic and fluctuating flow pattern. It is difficult, but important to understand the behavior of the dynamics to better predict the negative effects of the fluctuating flows, and also in order to minimize or remove the unwanted effects by e.g. geometry modifying or flow control.This work aims to introduce new methods helping to obtain a deeper understanding on the dynamics present in wake flow and in rotor-stator interaction. It is investigated whether vortex generators, VGs, can have a positive effect on the wake with respect to rotor-stator interaction. Experimental TRPIV (Transient Particle Image Velocimetry) wake data recorded at 10 000 Samples/sec from a cylinder in a stream at 1-6 m/s and hydrofoils in a stream at 9 m/s are studied. Both plain hydrofoils, and hydrofoils where Vortex Generators, VGs, are mounted are used in the study. The Reynolds number is in the range of 1.2x104, 7.3x105. The velocity fields from both the cylinder and the hydrofoils are used as inlet boundary condition in a 2D CFD-case simulating rotor-stator interaction. The characteristic frequencies of the system are the vortex shedding
Induced Unbalance as a Method for Improving the Dynamic Stability of High-Speed Turbochargers
Gordon Kirk, R.
2011-01-01
The high-speed diesel engine turbocharger is known to have subsynchronous vibrations for a wide speed range. The bearing fluid-film instability is the main source of the vibration. The nonlinear forces inside the bearings are causing the rotor to whirl in a limit cycle. This study presents a new method for improving the dynamic stability by inducing the turbocharger rotor unbalance in order to suppress the subsynchronous vibration. The finite-element model of the turbocharger with floating-ring bearings is numerically solved for the nonlinear time-transient response. Both compressor and turbine added unbalance are induced and the dynamic stability is computed. The turbocharger model with linearized floating-ring bearings is also solved for eigenvalues to predict the modes of instability. The linear analysis demonstrates that the forward whirling mode of the floating-ring at the compressor end also becomes unstable at the higher turbocharger speeds, in addition to the unstable forward conical and cylindrical modes. The numerical predictions are also compared to the former experimental results of a similar turbocharger. The results of the study show that the subsynchronous frequency amplitude of the dominant first mode is reduced when inducing either the compressor or the turbine unbalance at a certain level. © 2011 R. Gordon Kirk and Ali A. Alsaeed.
Chen, Shu-Cheng S.
2017-01-01
A Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) investigation is conducted over a two-dimensional axial-flow turbine rotor blade row to study the phenomena of turbine rotor discharge flow overexpansion at subcritical, critical, and supercritical conditions. Quantitative data of the mean-flow Mach numbers, mean-flow angles, the tangential blade pressure forces, the mean-flow mass flux, and the flow-path total pressure loss coefficients, averaged or integrated across the two-dimensional computational domain encompassing two blade-passages, are obtained over a series of 14 inlet-total to exit-static pressure ratios, from 1.5 (un-choked; subcritical condition) to 10.0 (supercritical with excessively high pressure ratio.) Detailed flow features over the full domain-of-computation, such as the streamline patterns, Mach contours, pressure contours, blade surface pressure distributions, etc. are collected and displayed in this paper. A formal, quantitative definition of the limit loading condition based on the channel flow theory is proposed and explained. Contrary to the comments made in the historical works performed on this subject, about the deficiency of the theoretical methods applied in analyzing this phenomena, using modern CFD method for the study of this subject appears to be quite adequate and successful. This paper describes the CFD work and its findings.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ramirez Solis, Jose Antonio; Munoz Quezada, Rodolfo; Franco Nava, Jose Manuel [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)
1993-01-01
At the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), the experimental modal tests were initiated in order to validate the numerical models used by computer programs for the study of the rotor dynamic behavior. In order to contribute to the application of the rotor balancing methods based in the calculation of their modal forms, currently the capacity to determine these modal forms and the natural frequencies of turbogenerator rotors, is being developed, through experimental modal tests. In this paper a short description is made of the technique and the results of its application in an experimental rotor and in one of the rotors of a turbogenerator, are presented. [Espanol] En el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), las pruebas modales experimentales se iniciaron con la finalidad de validar los modelos numericos empleados por programas de computo para el estudio del comportamiento dinamico de rotores. Con objeto de contribuir a la aplicacion de los metodos de balanceo de rotores basados en el calculo de sus formas modales, actualmente esta desarrollandose la capacidad para determinar esas formas modales y las frecuencias naturales de rotores de turbogeneradores, a traves de las pruebas modales experimentales. En este trabajo se describe brevemente la tecnica y se presentan los resultados de su aplicacion en un rotor experimental y en uno de los tres rotores de un turbogenerador.
Tang, Jiqiang; Xiang, Biao; Zhang, Yongbin
2014-07-01
For a magnetically suspended control moment gyroscope, stiffness and damping of magnetic bearing will influence modal frequency of a rotor. In this paper the relationship between modal frequency and stiffness and damping has been investigated. The mathematic calculation model of axial passive magnetic bearing (PMB) stiffness is developed. And PID control based on internal model control is introduced into control of radial active magnetic bearing (AMB), considering the radial coupling of axial PMB, a mathematic calculation model of stiffness and damping of radial AMB is established. According to modal analysis, the relationship between modal frequency and modal shapes is achieved. Radial vibration frequency is mainly influenced by stiffness of radial AMB; however, when stiffness increases, radial vibration will disappear and a high frequency bending modal will appear. Stiffness of axial PMB mainly affects the axial vibration mode, which will turn into high-order bending modal. Axial PMB causes bigger influence on torsion modal of the rotor. Copyright © 2014 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The Effect of Flowing Water on Turbine Rotor Vibrations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jansson, Ida
2010-07-01
There is a lack of standardized rules on how the fluid in the turbine should be included in rotor models of hydraulic machinery. This thesis is an attempt to shed some light on this issue. We approach the problem from two viewpoints, situated at place at a hydropower plant and by mathematical analysis. One goal of the thesis is to develop a measurement system that monitors the instantaneous pressure at several locations of a runner blade on a 10 MW Kaplan prototype in Porjus along Lule river. Paper A outlines the development of the measurement system and the instrumentation of the runner blade. Miniature piezo-resistive pressure transducers were mounted flush to the surface. If instrumentation is successful, the pressure field of the runner blade could be measured simultaneously as the loads and displacements of the guide bearings and the generator. The second objective is concerned with how the motion-induced fluid force affects the dynamic behaviour of the rotor. Inertia and angular momentum of the fluid and shrouding are expected to influence the dynamic behaviour of the turbine. Paper B scrutinizes this assumption by presenting a simple fluid-rotor model that captures the effects of inertia and angular momentum of the fluid on the motion of a confined cylinder. The simplicity of the model allows for powerful analytical solution methods. The results show that fluid inertia, angular momentum and shrouding of hydraulic turbines could have substantial effects on lateral rotor vibrations. This calls for further investigation with a more complex fluid-rotor model that accounts for flexural bending modes.
T700 power turbine rotor multiplane/multispeed balancing demonstration
Burgess, G.; Rio, R.
1979-01-01
Research was conducted to demonstrate the ability of influence coefficient based multispeed balancing to control rotor vibration through bending criticals. Rotor dynamic analyses were conducted of the General Electric T700 power turbine rotor. The information was used to generate expected rotor behavior for optimal considerations in designing a balance rig and a balance technique. The rotor was successfully balanced 9500 rpm. Uncontrollable coupling behavior prevented observations through the 16,000 rpm service speed. The balance technique is practical and with additional refinement it can meet production standards.
Van Zante, Dale E.; Rizzi, Stephen A.
2016-01-01
The ERA project executed a comprehensive test program for Open Rotor aerodynamic and acoustic performance. System studies used the data to estimate the fuel burn savings and acoustic margin for an aircraft system with open rotor propulsion. The acoustic measurements were used to produce an auralization that compares the legacy blades to the current generation of open rotor designs.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kang L. Wang
2012-08-01
Full Text Available The use of a functional molecular unit acting as a state variable provides an attractive alternative for the next generations of nanoscale electronics. It may help overcome the limits of conventional MOSFETd due to their potential scalability, low-cost, low variability, and highly integratable characteristics as well as the capability to exploit bottom-up self-assembly processes. This bottom-up construction and the operation of nanoscale machines/devices, in which the molecular motion can be controlled to perform functions, have been studied for their functionalities. Being triggered by external stimuli such as light, electricity or chemical reagents, these devices have shown various functions including those of diodes, rectifiers, memories, resonant tunnel junctions and single settable molecular switches that can be electronically configured for logic gates. Molecule-specific electronic switching has also been reported for several of these device structures, including nanopores containing oligo(phenylene ethynylene monolayers, and planar junctions incorporating rotaxane and catenane monolayers for the construction and operation of complex molecular machines. A specific electrically driven surface mounted molecular rotor is described in detail in this review. The rotor is comprised of a monolayer of redox-active ligated copper compounds sandwiched between a gold electrode and a highly-doped P^{+} Si. This electrically driven sandwich-type monolayer molecular rotor device showed an on/off ratio of approximately 10^{4}, a read window of about 2.5 V, and a retention time of greater than 10^{4} s. The rotation speed of this type of molecular rotor has been reported to be in the picosecond timescale, which provides a potential of high switching speed applications. Current-voltage spectroscopy (I-V revealed a temperature-dependent negative differential resistance (NDR associated with the device. The analysis of the device
汽轮机转子的热力耦合随机动态响应分析%The Coupled Stochastic Dynamic Response Analysis of the Steam Turbine Rotor
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
石磊; 周宗和; 杨自春
2013-01-01
Not only consider the steam turbine rotor under multiaxial stress influence,and consider the thermoelastoplastic of the rotor, based on the integral Laguerre stochastic finite element method ( LISFEM) , the random dynamic response characteristics of the turbine rotor are analyzed. Then,using the second development function of ANSYS - UIDL (user interface design language) , the dynamic response analysis of the turbine rotor is modally encapsulated, embedded in ANSYS software, and convenient for the operation.%不仅考虑汽轮机转子承受多轴应力的影响,并且考虑转子材料的热弹塑性,利用基于Laguerre积分的随机有限元方法(LISFEM)对汽轮机转子的随机动态响应特性进行分析.然后,利用ANSYS二次开发功能——UIDL(用户界面设计语言),对汽轮机转子的随机动态响应分析过程进行模块化封装,嵌入ANSYS软件当中,以方便用户操作分析.
Can Natural Sunlight Induce Coherent Exciton Dynamics?
Olšina, Jan; Wang, Chen; Cao, Jianshu
2014-01-01
Excitation of a model photosynthetic molecular aggregate by incoherent sunlight is systematically examined. For a closed system, the excited state coherence induced by the sunlight oscillates with an average amplitude that is inversely proportional to the excitonic gap, and reaches a stationary amplitude that depends on the temperature and coherence time of the radiation field. For an open system, the light-induced dynamical coherence relaxes to a static coherence determined by the non-canonical thermal distribution resulting from the entanglement with the phonon bath. The decay of the excited state population to the common ground state establishes a non-equilibrium steady-state flux driven by the sunlight, and it defines a time window to observe the transition from dynamical to static coherence. For the parameters relevant to photosynthetic systems, the exciton dynamics initiated by the sunlight exhibits a non-negligible amount of dynamical coherence (quantum beats) on the sub-picosecond timescale; however, ...
Numerical Analysis of Nonlinear Rotor-bearing-seal System
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHENG Mei; MENG Guang; JING Jian-ping
2008-01-01
The system state trajectory, Poincaré maps, largest Lyapunov exponents, frequency spectra and bifurcation diagrams were used to investigate the non-linear dynamic behaviors of a rotor-bearing-seal coupled system and to analyze the influence of the seal and bearing on the nonlinear characteristics of the rotor system. Various nonlinear phenomena in the rotor-bearing-seal system, such as periodic motion, double-periodicmotion, multi-periodic motion and quasi-periodic motion were investigated. The results may contribute to a further understanding of the non-linear dynamics of the rotor-bearing-seal coupled system.
Wang, Aiming; Cheng, Xiaohan; Meng, Guoying; Xia, Yun; Wo, Lei; Wang, Ziyi
2017-03-01
Identification of rotor unbalance is critical for normal operation of rotating machinery. The single-disc and single-span rotor, as the most fundamental rotor-bearing system, has attracted research attention over a long time. In this paper, the continuous single-disc and single-span rotor is modeled as a homogeneous and elastic Euler-Bernoulli beam, and the forces applied by bearings and disc on the shaft are considered as point forces. A fourth-order non-homogeneous partial differential equation set with homogeneous boundary condition is solved for analytical solution, which expresses the unbalance response as a function of position, rotor unbalance and the stiffness and damping coefficients of bearings. Based on this analytical method, a novel Measurement Point Vector Method (MPVM) is proposed to identify rotor unbalance while operating. Only a measured unbalance response registered for four selected cross-sections of the rotor-shaft under steady-state operating conditions is needed when using the method. Numerical simulation shows that the detection error of the proposed method is very small when measurement error is negligible. The proposed method provides an efficient way for rotor balancing without test runs and external excitations.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Breton, S.P.; Watters, C.S.; Masson, C. [Ecole de Technologie Superieure, Montreal, PQ (Canada)
2010-07-01
This presentation discussed the model rotor experiments under controlled conditions (MEXICO) project. The experiments are being conducted in the largest wind tunnel in Europe in order to determine optimal yaw and pitch angles for wind turbines as well as to test the performance of blade aerodynamic profiles and rotor instrumentation. Data obtained during the experiments are used to determine velocity component points in order to develop a greater understanding of wind turbine aerodynamics and improve calculation methods. Blade element momentum (BEM) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and vortex wake codes are used in the program, which includes an actuator surface method embedded in a customized CFD finite element method. To date, the project has validated various models with experimental data, and mapped the induced velocities upwind and downwind from rotors. Further research is being conducted to compare experimental results with other results in the literature related to blade loading, root bending moments, and detailed flow characteristics. Charts of experimental results were included. tabs., figs.
Applying Dynamic Wake Models to Induced Power Calculations for an Optimum Rotor
2009-08-01
will have the units of m2/sec2. Note that, for m+n odd, the pressure will be discontinuous across the disk since mnP is odd in that case... mnP . The other form of the He equations––the one with velocity expanded in terms of 1 mnP ––is easily recovered by a change of...3.8) The functions mnP are Legendre Functions of the first kind, and is related to the radial position be 21r . The
Forces exciting generation roll at rotor vibrations when rotor-to-stator rubbing
Shatokhin, V. F.
2017-07-01
The consequences of emergencies of turbosets for different application are revealed, the cause of forced shutdown and even catastrophic destructions of which many researchers consider the rotor-to-stator rubbing and development—to a greater or lesser extent—of the phenomena of the rotor generation roll over the stator. The synchronous or asynchronous generation roll is determined by the rotor precession direction, coinciding or not coinciding with the self-rotation direction of the rotor. Asynchronous generation roll is the most dangerous form of the rotor-stator contact interaction with the vibrations with rubbing. The basic equations of rotor vibrations are presented: symmetric rotor fixed on two supports and that fixed on several supports after abrupt imbalance with and without rotor coming in contact with a flexible stator. The vibration process is considered as the rotor motion in a backlash with subsequent contact with the stator, loss of contact, or development of generation roll. The latter essentially depends on the properties of the "rotor-support-stator" dynamic system. The stator stiffness characteristic is specified in "force-deformation" coordinates that make it possible to take into account damping in the supports and power loss in the stator. The diagram of elastic-damping device was presented, which makes it possible to ensure a certain level of power loss at the stator displacements. The exciting forces promoting development of self-exciting vibrations of the rotor in the form of asynchronous generation roll were compared with the exciting forces of oil film of sliding bearings and forces of aerodynamic excitation in the turbine flow path and sealings. For the rotor systems of high and medium pressure of a 300 MW capacity turboset, the simulation results of the process of development of asynchronous generation roll at the vibrations with rubbing were revealed, and the basic characteristics of development of generation roll in a span between
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
邓四二; 付金辉; 王燕霜; 杨海生
2013-01-01
The dynamic model of dual-rotor coupling system which included rolling bearing dynamics and rotor dynamics was established. Fine integral method and predict-correct Adams-Bashforth-Moulton multi-step method were used to solve the nonlinear dynamic equations of dual-rotor system. Then the influences of bearing structural parameters on dynamic response of rotors were studied. The result shows: (1) the displacement of rotors can be decreased and the stability of rotors can be improved by reducing radical clearance of inter-shaft bearing, but the slide ratio of cage would increase when the radial clearance decreases, so the radial clearance should be selected properly; the slide ratio of cage would decrease and the displacement of rotors would increase when the rollers of inter-shaft bearing are reduced; (2) the displacement and stability of rotors can be optimized when the groove curvature radius coefficients of rings and radial clearance of supporting bearings are decreased, and the stability of rotor would be improved when the rolling elements of bearings are increased.%在滚动轴承动力学和转子动力学分析基础上,建立了含滚动轴承动力学与转子动力学耦合以及高、低压转子间耦合的滚动轴承-双转子系统动力学方程,采用精细积分法和预估-校正Adams-Bashforth-Moulton多步法相结合的算法,对航空发动机滚动轴承-双转子系统非线性动力学方程进行求解,并对滚动轴承结构参数与转子动态特性的关系进行了理论分析.分析结果表明:①中介轴承径向游隙较小时转子系统振动量较小且转子运行较平稳,但中介轴承保持架打滑率会有所提高,应合理选取中介轴承的径向游隙值；中介轴承滚子数量对转子运转稳定性有较大影响,减小中介轴承滚子数量可降低保持架打滑率,但转子系统的振动量会增大；②支承轴承内、外沟曲率半径系数及径向游隙较小时转子系统的振动量较
Computational Study of Flow Interactions in Coaxial Rotors
Yoon, Seokkwan; Lee, Henry C.; Pulliam, Thomas H.
2016-01-01
account for multiple real-world constraints up front in design nor possible to know what performance is possible with a given design. Since unmanned vehicles are sized and optimized for the particular mission, a modern low-fidelity conceptual design and sizing tool that has been used for the design of large helicopters can be used for design of small coaxial rotorcraft. However, unlike most helicopters with single main rotor, the interactions between the upper and lower rotors emerge as an important factor to consider in design because an increase in performance of a multi-rotor system is not proportional to the number of rotors. Interference losses and differences in thrusts between the upper and lower rotors were investigated by theoretical methods as well as a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method using the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations. In this work, hybrid turbulence models are used to investigate the physics of interactions between coaxial rotors and a fuselage that are not well understood. Present study covers not only small-scale drones but also large-scale coaxial rotors for heavy-lifting missions. Considering the recently proposed FAA drone rules that require the flight only in visual line-of-sight, a large multirotor might be used as an airborne carrier for launch and recovery of unmanned aircraft systems with a human operator onboard. For applications to civil operations, their aerodynamic performance and noise levels need to be assessed. Noise is one of the largest limiting factors to rotorcraft operations in urban area. Since the high-frequency noise of multi-rotors may increase the annoyance, noise may turn out to be a key issue that must be addressed for market acceptability. One of the objectives of the present work is to study the effects of inter-rotor spacing and collectives on the performance, efficiency, and acoustics of coaxial rotor systems.
Investigation of rotor control system loads
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Sun Tao; Tan Jianfeng; Wang Haowen
2013-01-01
This paper concentrates on the aeroelasticity analysis of rotor blade and rotor control systems. A new multi-body dynamics model is established to predict both rotor pitch link loads and swashplate servo loads. Two helicopter rotors of UH-60A and SA349/2, both operating in two critical flight conditions, high-speed flight and high-thrust flight, are studied. The analysis shows good agreements with the flight test data and the calculation results using CAMRAD II. The mechanisms of rotor control loads are then analyzed in details based on the present predictions and the flight test data. In high-speed conditions, the pitch link loads are dominated by the integral of blade pitching moments, which are generated by cyclic pitch control. In high-thrust conditions, the positive pitching loads in the advancing side are caused by high collective pitch angle, and dynamic stall in the retreating side excites high-frequency responses. The swashplate servo loads are predominated by the rotor pitch link loads, and the inertia of the swashplate has significant effects on high-frequency harmonics of the servo loads.
Baqersad, Javad; Niezrecki, Christopher; Avitabile, Peter
2015-09-01
Health monitoring of rotating structures such as wind turbines and helicopter rotors is generally performed using conventional sensors that provide a limited set of data at discrete locations near or on the hub. These sensors usually provide no data on the blades or inside them where failures might occur. Within this paper, an approach was used to extract the full-field dynamic strain on a wind turbine assembly subject to arbitrary loading conditions. A three-bladed wind turbine having 2.3-m long blades was placed in a semi-built-in boundary condition using a hub, a machining chuck, and a steel block. For three different test cases, the turbine was excited using (1) pluck testing, (2) random impacts on blades with three impact hammers, and (3) random excitation by a mechanical shaker. The response of the structure to the excitations was measured using three-dimensional point tracking. A pair of high-speed cameras was used to measure displacement of optical targets on the structure when the blades were vibrating. The measured displacements at discrete locations were expanded and applied to the finite element model of the structure to extract the full-field dynamic strain. The results of the paper show an excellent correlation between the strain predicted using the proposed approach and the strain measured with strain-gages for each of the three loading conditions. The approach used in this paper to predict the strain showed higher accuracy than the digital image correlation technique. The new expansion approach is able to extract dynamic strain all over the entire structure, even inside the structure beyond the line of sight of the measurement system. Because the method is based on a non-contacting measurement approach, it can be readily applied to a variety of structures having different boundary and operating conditions, including rotating blades.
Real-time solution of nonlinear potential flow equations for lifting rotors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jianzhe HUANG
2017-06-01
Full Text Available Analysis of rotorcraft dynamics requires solution of the rotor induced flow field. Often, the appropriate model to be used for induced flow is nonlinear potential flow theory (which is the basis of vortex-lattice methods. These nonlinear potential flow equations sometimes must be solved in real time––such as for real-time flight simulation, when observers are needed for controllers, or in preliminary design computations. In this paper, the major effects of nonlinearities on induced flow are studied for lifting rotors in low-speed flight and hover. The approach is to use a nonlinear state-space model of the induced flow based on a Galerkin treatment of the potential flow equations.
Rotordynamics of Turbine Labyrinth Seals with Rotor Axial Shifting
Jinxiang Xi; Rhode, David L.
2006-01-01
Rotors in high-performance steam turbines experience a significant axial shifting during starting and stopping processes due to thermal expansion, for example. This axial shifting could significantly alter the flow pattern and the flow-induced rotordynamic forces in labyrinth seals, which in turn, can considerably affect the rotor-seal system performance. This paper investigates the influence of the rotor axial shifting on leakage rate as well as rotordynamic forces in hi...
2017-01-01
resonance (NMR) Spectral density functions Spin - spin relaxation Molecular dynamics Nuclear Overhauser effect Symmetric top rotor Spin -lattice relaxation...SYMMETRIC TOP ROTOR MODELS AND THE FLEXIBLE SYMMETRIC TOP ROTOR MODEL ECBC-TR-1428 Terry J. Henderson RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY DIRECTORATE...Symmetric Top Rotor Models and the Flexible Symmetric Top Rotor Model 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张世海; 刘雄彪; 李录平; 晋风华; 梁伟
2016-01-01
The 3D model of rotor system of a domestic 600MW steam turbine has been modeled by using the Solidworks software.The analysis of dynamic characteristics of rotors and shaft system of this unit are completed by using the FEA software Algor.The results shows that the arrangement of modal frequency values of each order of the shaft system is roughly in ascending order according to the modal frequency values of each single rotor .And the distribution of the modal shape of each order of the shaft system with the trend that each modal shape matches the single rotor ’ s one,if the modal frequency value close to the signal rotor's one.The natural frequencies of the rotors and the shaft system are satisfied with the requirements that the values are far from with the operating frequency value .The work of this article offered a reference for the 3D modeling concrete bodies and the analysis of dynamic characteristics of large turbo machines .The results of this study provides theoretical basis for operation of this unit .%采用Solidworks软件对国产某600MW汽轮发电机组转子系统进行三维实体建模。运用Algor有限元软件对该机组各转子及轴系进行了动力特性分析。结果表明：该机组轴系的各阶模态频率值有按照各单转子各阶模态频率值由小到大顺序排列、各阶模态振型相对应的分布趋势；该机组的各转子及轴系的固有频率均满足远离工作频率的要求。为大型汽轮发电机组转子系统的三维实体建模及其动力特性有限元分析提供了一定的参考，研究结果为该机组的运行提供了理论依据。
Numerical Simulation of Unsteady Flow Around Forward Flight Helicopter with Coaxial Rotors
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
XU Heyong; YE Zhengyin
2011-01-01
Three-dimensional unsteady Euler equations are numerically solved to simulate the unsteady flows around forward flight helicopter with coaxial rotors based on unstructured dynamic overset grids. The performances of the two coaxial rotors both become worse because of the aerodynamic interaction between them, and the influence of the top rotor on the bottom rotor is greater than that of the bottom rotor on the top rotor. The downwash velocity at the bottom rotor plane is much larger than that at the top rotor plane, and the downwash velocity at the top rotor plane is a little larger than that at an individual rotor plane. The downwash velocity and thrust coefficient both become larger when the collective angle of blades is added. When the spacing between the two coaxial rotors increases, the thrust coefficient of the top rotor increases, but the total thrust coefficient reduces a little,because the decrease of the bottom rotor thrust coefficient is larger than the increase of the top rotor thrust coefficient.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiangbo Xu
2015-08-01
Full Text Available Harmonic vibrations of high-speed rotors in momentum exchange devices are primary disturbances for attitude control of spacecraft. Active magnetic bearings (AMBs, offering the ability to control the AMB-rotor dynamic behaviors, are preferred in high-precision and micro-vibration applications, such as high-solution Earth observation satellites. However, undesirable harmonic displacements, currents, and vibrations also occur in the AMB-rotor system owing to the mixed rotor imbalances and sensor runout. To compensate the rotor imbalances and to suppress the harmonic vibrations, two control methods are presented. Firstly, a four degrees-of-freedom AMB-rotor model with the static imbalance, dynamic imbalance, and the sensor runout are described. Next, a synchronous current reduction approach with a variable-phase notch feedback is proposed, so that the rotor imbalances can be identified on-line through the analysis of the synchronous displacement relationships of the geometric, inertial, and rotational axes of the rotor. Then, the identified rotor imbalances, which can be represented at two prescribed balancing planes of the rotor, are compensated by discrete add-on weights whose masses are calculated in the vector form. Finally, a repetitive control algorithm is utilized to suppress the residual harmonic vibrations. The proposed field balancing and harmonic vibration suppression strategies are verified by simulations and experiments performed on a control moment gyro test rig with a rigid AMB-rotor system. Compared with existing methods, the proposed strategies do not require trial weights or an accurate model of the AMB-rotor system. Moreover, the harmonic displacements, currents, and vibrations can be well-attenuated simultaneously.
Xu, Xiangbo; Chen, Shao
2015-08-31
Harmonic vibrations of high-speed rotors in momentum exchange devices are primary disturbances for attitude control of spacecraft. Active magnetic bearings (AMBs), offering the ability to control the AMB-rotor dynamic behaviors, are preferred in high-precision and micro-vibration applications, such as high-solution Earth observation satellites. However, undesirable harmonic displacements, currents, and vibrations also occur in the AMB-rotor system owing to the mixed rotor imbalances and sensor runout. To compensate the rotor imbalances and to suppress the harmonic vibrations, two control methods are presented. Firstly, a four degrees-of-freedom AMB-rotor model with the static imbalance, dynamic imbalance, and the sensor runout are described. Next, a synchronous current reduction approach with a variable-phase notch feedback is proposed, so that the rotor imbalances can be identified on-line through the analysis of the synchronous displacement relationships of the geometric, inertial, and rotational axes of the rotor. Then, the identified rotor imbalances, which can be represented at two prescribed balancing planes of the rotor, are compensated by discrete add-on weights whose masses are calculated in the vector form. Finally, a repetitive control algorithm is utilized to suppress the residual harmonic vibrations. The proposed field balancing and harmonic vibration suppression strategies are verified by simulations and experiments performed on a control moment gyro test rig with a rigid AMB-rotor system. Compared with existing methods, the proposed strategies do not require trial weights or an accurate model of the AMB-rotor system. Moreover, the harmonic displacements, currents, and vibrations can be well-attenuated simultaneously.
Open Rotor Aeroacoustic Modelling
Envia, Edmane
2012-01-01
Owing to their inherent fuel efficiency, there is renewed interest in developing open rotor propulsion systems that are both efficient and quiet. The major contributor to the overall noise of an open rotor system is the propulsor noise, which is produced as a result of the interaction of the airstream with the counter-rotating blades. As such, robust aeroacoustic prediction methods are an essential ingredient in any approach to designing low-noise open rotor systems. To that end, an effort has been underway at NASA to assess current open rotor noise prediction tools and develop new capabilities. Under this effort, high-fidelity aerodynamic simulations of a benchmark open rotor blade set were carried out and used to make noise predictions via existing NASA open rotor noise prediction codes. The results have been compared with the aerodynamic and acoustic data that were acquired for this benchmark open rotor blade set. The emphasis of this paper is on providing a summary of recent results from a NASA Glenn effort to validate an in-house open noise prediction code called LINPROP which is based on a high-blade-count asymptotic approximation to the Ffowcs-Williams Hawkings Equation. The results suggest that while predicting the absolute levels may be difficult, the noise trends are reasonably well predicted by this approach.
Optimization of wind turbine rotors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nygaard, Tor Anders
1999-07-01
The Constrained Steepest Descent method has been applied to the optimization of wind turbine rotors through the development of a numerical model. The model consists of an optimization kernel, an aerodynamic model, a structural dynamic model of a rotating beam, and a cost model for the wind turbine. The cost of energy is minimized directly by varying the blade design, the rotational speed and the resulting design of the drive-train and tower. The aerodynamic model is a combination of a fast engineering model based on strip-theory and two and three-dimensional Euler solvers. The two-dimensional Euler solver is used for generation of pre-stall airfoil data. Comparisons with experimental data verify that the engineering model effectively approximates non-stalled flow, except at the blade tip. The three-dimensional Euler solver is in good agreement with the experimental data at the tip, and is therefore a useful supplement for corrections of the tip-loss model, and evaluation of an optimized design. The structural dynamic model evaluates stresses and deformations for the blade. It is based on constitutive relations for a slender beam that are solved with the equations of motions using a finite-difference method. The cost model evaluates the design change of the wind turbine and the resulting costs that occur when a change in blade design modifies the blade mass and the overall forces. The cost model is based on engineering design rules for the drive-train and tower. The model was applied using a Danish 600 kW wind turbine as a reference. Two rotors were optimized using traditional NACA airfoils and a new low-lift airfoil family developed specifically for wind turbine purposes. The cost of energy decreased four percent for the NACA rotor, and seven percent for the low-lift rotor. Optimizations with a high number of degrees of freedom show that a designer has considerable flexibility in choosing some primary parameters such as rated power and rotor diameter, if the rest
Performance investigation of the S-Rotors
Bhayo, B. A.; Al-Kayiem, H. H.; Yahaya, N. Z.
2015-12-01
This paper presents and discusses results from an experimental investigation of three models of wind S-rotors. Models 1 is modified from conventional Savonius rotor with a single stage and zero offsets zero overlaps; model 2 is three blade single stage wind rotor; and model 3 is double stage conventional Savonius rotor. The three models were designed, fabricated and characterized in terms of their coefficient of performance and dynamic torque coefficient. A special open wind simulator was designed for the test. The optimum parameters for the models were based on previous studies. The results showed that the model 1, model 2 and model 3 has the maximum power coefficient of 0.26, 0.17, and 0.21 at the correspondence tip speed ratio (TSR) of 0.42, 0.39 and 0.46, respectively. Model 1 is further optimized in terms of the aspect ratio resulting in improved power coefficient by 24%. The maximum dynamic torque coefficient of model 1, model 2 and model 3 was found as 0.81, 0.56 and 0.67 at the correspondence minimum TSR of 0.28, 0.21 and 0.17, respectively. It was noted that the all three models have high torque coefficient because the models were tested at higher applied torque on the rotors.
Tsirkunov, Yu. M.; Romanyuk, D. A.
2016-07-01
A dusty gas flow through two, moving and immovable, cascades of airfoils (blades) is studied numerically. In the mathematical model of two-phase gas-particle flow, the carrier gas is treated as a continuum and it is described by the Navier-Stokes equations (pseudo-DNS (direct numerical simulation) approach) or the Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations (unsteady RANS approach) with the Menter k-ω shear stress transport (SST) turbulence model. The governing equations in both cases are solved by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods. The dispersed phase is treated as a discrete set of solid particles, the behavior of which is described by the generalized kinetic Boltzmann equation. The effects of gas-particle interaction, interparticle collisions, and particle scattering in particle-blade collisions are taken into account. The direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method is used for computational simulation of the dispersed phase flow. The effects of interparticle collisions and particle scattering are discussed.
Effect of Rotor Diameter on the Thermal Stresses of a Turbine Rotor Model
Dávalos, J. O.; García, J. C.; Urquiza, G.; Castro-Gómez, L. L.; Rodríguez, J. A.; De Santiago, O.
2016-04-01
Thermal stresses in a simplified steam turbine rotor model during a cold startup are analyzed using finite element analysis (FEA). In order to validate the numerical model, an experimental array is developed in which a hollow cylinder is heated with hot air in the external surface. At the thick wall of the cylinder, temperature distribution is measured in real time, while at the same time an algorithm computes thermal stresses. Additional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculations are made to obtain magnitudes of velocity and pressure in order to compute convective heat transfer coefficient. The experimental results show good agreement with the FEA computations. To evaluate the effect of rotor diameter size, FEA computations with variation in external and internal diameters are performed. Results show that thermal stresses are proportional to rotor diameter size. Also, zones of higher stress concentration are found in the external and internal surfaces of the rotor.
Wettability Induced Crack Dynamics and Morphology
Ghosh, Udita Uday; Bhandari, Aditya Bikram; Chakraborty, Suman; DasGupta, Sunando
2014-01-01
Substrate wettability alteration induced control over crack formation process in thin colloidal films has been addressed in the present study. Colloidal nanosuspension (53nm, mean particle diameter) droplets have been subjected to natural drying to outline the effects of substrate surface energies over the dry-out characteristics with emphasis on crack dynamics, crack morphology and underlying particle arrangements. Experimental findings indicate that number of cracks formed decreases with increase in substrate hydrophobicity. These physical phenomena have been explained based on the magnitude of stress dissipation incurred by the substrate. DLVO predictions are also found to be in tune with the reported experimental investigations.
Coupled Thermal Field of the Rotor of Liquid Floated Gyroscope
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wang Zhengjun
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Inertial navigation devices include star sensor, GPS, and gyroscope. Optical fiber and laser gyroscopes provide high accuracy, and their manufacturing costs are also high. Magnetic suspension rotor gyroscope improves the accuracy and reduces the production cost of the device because of the influence of thermodynamic coupling. Therefore, the precision of the gyroscope is reduced and drift rate is increased. In this study, the rotor of liquid floated gyroscope, particularly the dished rotor gyroscope, was placed under a thermal field, which improved the measurement accuracy of the gyroscope. A dynamic theory of the rotor of liquid floated gyroscope was proposed, and the thermal field of the rotor was simulated. The maximum stress was in x, 1.4; y, 8.43; min 97.23; and max 154.34. This stress occurred at the border of the dished rotor at a high-speed rotation. The secondary flow reached 5549 r/min, and the generated heat increased. Meanwhile, the high-speed rotation of the rotor was volatile, and the dished rotor movement was unstable. Thus, nanomaterials must be added to reduce the thermal coupling fluctuations in the dished rotor and improve the accuracy of the measurement error and drift rate.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王弢; 帅健; 刘焰明
2012-01-01
The dynamic systems, such as generator rotors and ship propulsion shafts, include transmission shafts, bearings and seals, which is a typical rotor-bearing-seal dynamic system. When the system is running, some factors, including shaft mass eccentricity, bearing lubrication properties and seal force, change the system running stability and make it into different movement conditions. The dynamic equations are given in the paper. With the numerical integral method, the influences of shaft mass eccentricity, bearing lubrication properties and seal force on the dynamic system are investigated. Some relationships between the factors with the system running stability are offered in the paper, which are very significant in theory.%建立了转子-轴承-密封动力学模型,通过数值积分模拟方法,研究了轴系对中偏心、轴承支承润滑特性、密封力等动态因素对系统振动的影响,其运动行为和各因素对系统运动稳定性的影响,得出了各种因素与系统运动行为之间的相互关系.
Comandi, G L; Chiofalo, M L; Nobili, A M; Polacco, E; Toncelli, R
2006-01-01
Recent theoretical work suggests that violation of the Equivalence Principle might be revealed in a measurement of the fractional differential acceleration $\\eta$ between two test bodies -of different composition, falling in the gravitational field of a source mass- if the measurement is made to the level of $\\eta\\simeq 10^{-13}$ or better. This being within the reach of ground based experiments, gives them a new impetus. However, while slowly rotating torsion balances in ground laboratories are close to reaching this level, only an experiment performed in low orbit around the Earth is likely to provide a much better accuracy. We report on the progress made with the "Galileo Galilei on the Ground" (GGG) experiment, which aims to compete with torsion balances using an instrument design also capable of being converted into a much higher sensitivity space test. In the present and following paper (Part I and Part II), we demonstrate that the dynamical response of the GGG differential accelerometer set into superc...
Federal Laboratory Consortium — This test apparatus, when combined with the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex, produces a thorough, full-scale test capability. The Large Rotor Test Apparatus...
异步电机转子IGBT斩波调阻调速的准动态模型%Quasi-dynamic model of the rotor IGBT chopper controlled induction motor
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
沈天飞; 陈伯时; 龚幼民
2001-01-01
转子斩波调阻是异步电机一种简便有效的调速方法，本文提出了一种新型的采用IGBT作斩波管的具有吸收保护作用的斩波回路拓扑结构，并对该系统整流回路的准动态过程进行了详细研究，推导出斩波管占空比与等效电阻之间的非线性函数关系，给出了外接电阻阻值的选择方法。%Rotor chopper control is a simple and effective speed regulation method for induc tion motor. A novel IGBT chopper topology, which can both adjust rotor resistance and protect IGBT efficiently, is presented in this paper. A thorough investigation on the quasi transient state of the rotor rectifying circuit is made, and a nonlinear mapping between the equivalent resistance and the duty cycle is deduced. Furthermore, the method of determining the magnitude of the external resistor is introduced.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
胡堃; 樊贝; 薛冰
2012-01-01
The structural characteristics and working principle of brushless doubly-fed machine were introduced firstly in this paper. Then Ansoft/Maxwell was used to establish the models of doubly-fed brushless machine, which contain the cage rotor and the reluctance rotor with blocked-magnetic layers. The 2-D transient electromagnetic fields of brushless doubly-fed machine (BDFM) were calculated by finite element method. The magnetic force line and air-gap magnetic fields were got. The air-gap magnetic fields were analysed by the harmonic spectrum. As a result, the blocked-magnetic reluctance rotor contains a better magnetic field modulation effects. The dynamic characteristics of the different BDFMs were researched under the states of single-fed asynchronous operation to natural synchronous, under-synchronous and over-synchronous operations. And the torque and speed had a change with variation in load. The results show that the blocked-magnetic reluctance rotor has a better dynamic characteristics in pulling in three states, and a better stability under load change. And it provide the foundation for the rotor structure design optimization and operating stability intensive research of BDFM.%简要介绍了无刷双馈电机( BDFM)的结构特点和工作原理,利用Ansoft/Maxwell建立笼型转子和磁障式磁阻转子的BDFM模型,进行了二维瞬态电磁场有限元计算,得出电机磁力线分布、气隙磁通密度波形,通过对气隙磁通密度波形的谐波频谱分析,得到了磁障式磁阻转子结构具有较好磁场调制效果.研究了由单馈异步牵入自然同步、亚同步和超同步运行状态的动态响应能力和机械负载突变时的转速转矩变化情况.结果表明磁障式磁阻转子BDFM在由单馈异步牵入自然同步、亚同步和超同步运行状态下,具有较好的动态响应能力,同时在加载时稳定性也较好,为进一步深入研究BDFM转子的优化设计和运行稳定性提供了参考.
Rotor Wake Development During the First Revolution
McAlister, Kenneth W.
2003-01-01
The wake behind a two-bladed model rotor in light climb was measured using particle image velocimetry, with particular emphasis on the development of the trailing vortex during the first revolution of the rotor. The distribution of vorticity was distinguished from the slightly elliptical swirl pattern. Peculiar dynamics within the void region may explain why the peak vorticity appeared to shift away from the center as the vortex aged, suggesting the onset of instability. The swirl and axial velocities (which reached 44 and 12 percent of the rotor-tip speed, respectively) were found to be asymmetric relative to the vortex center. In particular, the axial flow was composed of two concentrated zones moving in opposite directions. The radial distribution of the circulation rapidly increased in magnitude until reaching a point just beyond the core radius, after which the rate of growth decreased significantly. The core-radius circulation increased slightly with wake age, but the large-radius circulation appeared to remain relatively constant. The radial distributions of swirl velocity and vorticity exhibit self-similar behaviors, especially within the core. The diameter of the vortex core was initially about 10 percent of the rotor-blade chord, but more than doubled its size after one revolution of the rotor. According to vortex models that approximate the measured data, the core-radius circulation was about 79 percent of the large-radius circulation, and the large-radius circulation was about 67 percent of the maximum bound circulation on the rotor blade. On average, about 53 percent of the maximum bound circulation resides within the vortex core during the first revolution of the rotor.
Rotor Vibration Reduction via Active Hybrid Bearings
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nicoletti, Rodrigo; Santos, Ilmar
2002-01-01
The use of fluid power to reduce and control rotor vibration in rotating machines is investigated. An active hybrid bearing is studied, whose main objective is to reduce wear and vibration between rotating and stationary machinery parts. By injecting pressurised oil into the oil film, through...... orifices machined in the bearing pads, one can alter the machine dynamic characteristics, thus enhancing its operational range. A mathematical model of the rotor-bearing system, as well as of the hydraulic system, is presented. Numerical results of the system frequency response show good agreement...
Helicopter Rotor Load Prediction Using a Geometrically Exact Beam with Multicomponent Model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lee, Hyun-Ku; Viswamurthy, S.R.; Park, Sang Chul
2010-01-01
rotor-blade/control-system model was loosely coupled with various inflow and wake models in order to simulate both hover and forward-flight conditions. The resulting rotor blade response and pitch link loads are in good agreement with those predicted byCAMRADII. The present analysis features both model......In this paper, an accurate structural dynamic analysis was developed for a helicopter rotor system including rotor control components, which was coupled to various aerodynamic and wake models in order to predict an aeroelastic response and the loads acting on the rotor. Its blade analysis was based...... on an intrinsic formulation of moving beams implemented in the time domain. The rotor control system was modeled as a combination of rigid and elastic components. A multicomponent analysis was then developed by coupling the beam finite element model with the rotor control system model to obtain a complete rotor-blade/control...
STABILITY OF ROTOR-BEARING SYSTEMS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Uğur YÜCEL
2003-03-01
Full Text Available In various industrial applications there is a need for higher speed, yet reliably operating rotating machinery. A key factor in achieving this type of machinery continues to be the ability to accurately predict the dynamic response and stability of a rotor-bearing system. This paper introduces and explains the nature of rotordynamic phenomena from comparatively simple analytic models. Starting with the most simple rotor model that is supported in two rigid bearings at its ends, the more realistic and more involved cases are considered by incorporating the effects of flexible bearings. Knowledge of these phenomena is fundamental to an understanding of the behavior of complex models, which corresponds to the real rotors of turbomachines.
Eigenfrequency sensitivity analysis of flexible rotors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Šašek J.
2007-10-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with sensitivity analysis of eigenfrequencies from the viewpoint of design parameters. The sensitivity analysis is applied to a rotor which consists of a shaft and a disk. The design parameters of sensitivity analysis are the disk radius and the disk width. The shaft is modeled as a 1D continuum using shaft finite elements. The disks of rotating systems are commonly modeled as rigid bodies. The presented approach to the disk modeling is based on a 3D flexible continuum discretized using hexahedral finite elements. The both components of the rotor are connected together by special proposed couplings. The whole rotor is modeled in rotating coordinate system with considering rotation influences (gyroscopic and dynamics stiffness matrices.
Kirk, R. G.; Simpson, M.
1985-01-01
The results for in-plant full load testing of a 13.4 MW (18000 HP) gas turbine driven centrifugal compressor are presented and compared to analytical predictions of compressor rotor stability. Unique problems from both oil seals and labyrinth gas seals were encountered during the testing. The successful resolution of these problems are summarized.
Analysis of Permanent Magnets Bearings in Flywheel Rotor Designs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Prince Owusu-Ansah
2016-04-01
Full Text Available This paper discusses analysis of permanent magnet bearing in flywheel rotor designs. This work focuses on the advantages of using permanent magnets in flywheel rotor design as compared to that of the convectional mode of levitating the rotor position. The use of permanent magnet in magnetic bearing design to generate the steady state position of the magnetic field results in less variation of the force exerted on the rotor when it deviates from the nominal position than when an electrical coil is used for the same purpose. Theresults of the analysis shows that the magnetic bearing dynamics as well as its load carryingcapacity improves when the rotor is offset from its central position. The use of permanent magnet compared to current-carrying coils results in smaller overall size of magnetic bearing leading to a more compact system design resulting in improved rotordynamic performance
Wave-induced dynamics of flexible blades
Luhar, M
2015-01-01
We present an experimental and numerical study that describes the motion of flexible blades, scaled to be dynamically similar to natural aquatic vegetation, forced by wave-induced oscillatory flows. For the conditions tested, blade motion is governed primarily by two dimensionless variables: (i) the Cauchy number, $Ca$, which represents the ratio of the hydrodynamic forcing to the restoring force due to blade stiffness, and (ii) the ratio of the blade length to the wave orbital excursion, $L$. For flexible blades with $Ca \\gg 1$, the relationship between drag and velocity can be described by two different scaling laws at the large- and small-excursion limits. For large excursions ($L \\ll 1$), the flow resembles a unidirectional current and the scaling laws developed for steady-flow reconfiguration studies hold. For small excursions ($L \\gg 1$), the beam equations may be linearized and a different scaling law for drag applies. The experimental force measurements suggest that the small-excursion scaling applies...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
谷效斌
2011-01-01
目的:总结动力髋螺钉(DHS)治疗股骨转子间骨折临床经验.方法:使用闭合或开放复位,DHS内周定治疗股骨转子间骨折84例,其中男51例,女33例;年龄48～92岁,平均71岁.结果:84例患者随访6～24月,平均14月,所有病例骨愈合,愈合时间3～6月,平均4.5月.其中髋内翻畸形4例,内固定失效1例.结论:动力髋螺钉内固定是治疗股骨转子间骨折的有效方法.%Objective:Summary dynamic hip screw (DHS) treatment between the femoral fractures rotor clinical experience.Methods:Using closed or open reduction, DHS internal fixation for femoral fractures between 84 cases of rotor, including male 51 cases,female 33 cases;Age 48～92 years,average 71.Results:84 patients were followed up for 6～24 months,average 14 months,all cases bone healing,healing time is 3～6 months,an average of 4.5 months. Including hip cubitus varus within 4 cases,1 case fixation failure. Conclusion:Dynamic hip screw internal fixation is between the femoral fractures of the rotor treatment method.
Contemporary research of dynamically induced phase transitions
Hull, L. M.
2017-01-01
Dynamically induced phase transitions in metals, within the present discussion, are those that take place within a time scale characteristic of the shock waves and any reflections or rarefactions involved in the loading structure along with associated plastic flow. Contemporary topics of interest include the influence of loading wave shape, the effect of shear produced by directionality of the loading relative to the sample dimensions and initial velocity field, and the loading duration (kinetic effects, hysteresis) on the appearance and longevity of a transformed phase. These topics often arise while considering the loading of parts of various shapes with high explosives, are typically two or three-dimensional, and are often selected because of the potential of the transformed phase to significantly modify the motion. In this paper, we look at current work on phase transitions in metals influenced by shear reported in the literature, and relate recent work conducted at Los Alamos on iron's epsilon phase transition that indicates a significant response to shear produced by reflected elastic waves. A brief discussion of criteria for the occurrence of stress induced phase transitions is provided. Closing remarks regard certain physical processes, such as fragmentation and jet formation, which may be strongly influenced by phase transitions.
Effects of rotor location, coning, and tilt on critical loads in large wind turbines
Spera, D. A.; Janetzke, D. C.
1978-01-01
Several large (1500 kW) horizontal rotor configurations were analyzed to determine the effects on dynamic loads of upwind downwind rotor locations, coned and radial blade positions, and tilted and horizontal rotor axis positions. Loads were calculated for a range of wind velocities at three locations in the structure: (1) the blade shank; (2) the hub shaft; and (3) the yaw drive. Blade axis coning and rotor axis tilt were found to have minor effects on loads. However, locating the rotor upwind of the tower significantly reduced loads at all locations analyzed.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIU Rui-ge; SONG Feng; LIU Rui-ying
2012-01-01
Non-spherical of rotor was described with solution method. Electrostatically suspended gyroscope＇s hollow spherical rotor＇s structure was presented. The simulative analysis of static deformation, dynamic deformation and synthesize deformation of rotor under different working conditions using the finite element software were carried out. Its deformation law and volume were obtained. The structural parameters of the rotor were optimized. The value of pressure required when the rotor was machined was calculated. The analysis has important theoretical reference value to the design for hollow spherical rotor in electrostatically suspended gyroscope.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K. Siva Kumar
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Problem statement: The Rotor reactance control by inclusion of external capacitance in the rotor circuit has been in recent research for improving the performances of Wound Rotor Induction Motor (WRIM. The rotor capacitive reactance is adjusted such that for any desired load torque the efficiency of the WRIM is maximized. The rotor external capacitance can be controlled using a dynamic capacitor in which the duty ratio is varied for emulating the capacitance value. This study presents a novel technique for tracking maximum efficiency point in the entire operating range of WRIM using Artificial Neural Network (ANN. The data for ANN training were obtained on a three phase WRIM with dynamic capacitor control and rotor short circuit at different speed and load torque values. Approach: A novel neural network model based on the back-propagation algorithm has been developed and trained in determining the maximum efficiency of the motor with no prior knowledge of the machine parameters. The input variables to the ANN are stator current (Is, Speed (N and Torque (Tm and the output variable is the duty ratio (D. Results: The target is pre-set and the accuracy of the ANN model is measured using Mean Square Error (MSE and R2 parameters. The result of R2 value of the proposed ANN model is found to be 0.99980. Conclusion: The optimal duty ratio and corresponding optimal rotor capacitance for improving the performances of the motor are predicted for low, medium and full loads by using proposed ANN model.
Applications of Fluorogens with Rotor Structures in Solar Cells.
Ong, Kok-Haw; Liu, Bin
2017-05-29
Solar cells are devices that convert light energy into electricity. To drive greater adoption of solar cell technologies, higher cell efficiencies and reductions in manufacturing cost are necessary. Fluorogens containing rotor structures may be helpful in addressing some of these challenges due to their unique twisted structures and photophysics. In this review, we discuss the applications of rotor-containing molecules as dyes for luminescent down-shifting layers and luminescent solar concentrators, where their aggregation-induced emission properties and large Stokes shifts are highly desirable. We also discuss the applications of molecules containing rotors in third-generation solar cell technologies, namely dye-sensitized solar cells and organic photovoltaics, where the twisted 3-dimensional rotor structures are used primarily for aggregation control. Finally, we discuss perspectives on the future role of molecules containing rotor structures in solar cell technologies.
Applications of Fluorogens with Rotor Structures in Solar Cells
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kok-Haw Ong
2017-05-01
Full Text Available Solar cells are devices that convert light energy into electricity. To drive greater adoption of solar cell technologies, higher cell efficiencies and reductions in manufacturing cost are necessary. Fluorogens containing rotor structures may be helpful in addressing some of these challenges due to their unique twisted structures and photophysics. In this review, we discuss the applications of rotor-containing molecules as dyes for luminescent down-shifting layers and luminescent solar concentrators, where their aggregation-induced emission properties and large Stokes shifts are highly desirable. We also discuss the applications of molecules containing rotors in third-generation solar cell technologies, namely dye-sensitized solar cells and organic photovoltaics, where the twisted 3-dimensional rotor structures are used primarily for aggregation control. Finally, we discuss perspectives on the future role of molecules containing rotor structures in solar cell technologies.
Rotor balancing apparatus and system
Lyman, Frank (Inventor); Lyman, Joseph (Inventor)
1976-01-01
Rotor balancing apparatus and a system comprising balance probes for measuring unbalance at the ends of a magnetically suspended rotor are disclosed. Each balance probe comprises a photocell which is located in relationship to the magnetically suspended rotor such that unbalance of the rotor changes the amount of light recorded by each photocell. The signal from each photocell is electrically amplified and displayed by a suitable device, such as an oscilloscope.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
宁喜; 王维民; 张娅; 吴炯; 杨佳丽
2013-01-01
The stability of a centrifugal compressor is the key point in compressor design.The circumferential nonuniform pressure distribution due to fluid flow in seal clearance causes rotor instability.Adopting a numerical simulation method to predict the dynamic characteristic of seals is helpful for strengthening understanding of sealing mechanism,realizing sealing structure optimization and improving the rotor stability and the design reliability.Here,a numerical simulation method was used and the parametric programs were developed to build models of annular seals and the software ANSYS was used to predict the dynamic characteristic of seals and sealing properties.The study results showed that hole-pattern seal and honeycomb seal can provide larger stiffness and damping,and have better sealing properties than labyrinth seal's.Furthermore,the different structural parameters of hole pattern seals were compared,the basic laws of dynamic parameters of damping seals were found.Last,a 9-stage compressor rotor was taken as an example,the effects of different types of seal on the rotor stability were compared.The results of CFD simulation predicted the dynamic properties of seals and the effect of their structural parameters on rotor dynamic characteristics,and guided design of more stable compressors.%稳定性问题是离心压缩机在向高端化方向发展过程中遇到的主要瓶颈,密封间隙内流体周向流动导致的压力在圆周方向不均匀分布是导致失稳的主要原因.采用数值模拟的方法预测密封的动力特性系数,有助于加强对密封机理的理解,实现密封结构的优化进而提高转子的稳定性和设计的可靠性.使用数值模拟的方法,首先基于ANSYS AP-DL语言,开发了参数化程序来构建迷宫密封、孔式阻尼密封及蜂窝密封的几何模型,采用ANSYS CFX软件,计算并比较三种密封的刚度及阻尼等动力学特性参数,研究结果表明孔式阻尼密封及蜂窝密封相对于
Schmied, J.; Pradetto, J. C.
1994-01-01
The combination of a high-speed motor, dry gas seals, and magnetic bearings realized in this unit facilitates the elimination of oil. The motor is coupled with a quill shaft to the compressor. This yields higher natural frequencies of the rotor than with the use of a diaphragm coupling and helps to maintain a sufficient margin of the maximum speed to the frequency of the second compressor bending mode. However, the controller of each bearing then has to take the combined modes of both machines into account. The requirements for the controller to ensure stability and sufficient damping of all critical speeds are designed and compared with the implemented controller. The calculated closed loop behavior was confirmed experimentally, except the stability of some higher modes due to slight frequency deviations of the rotor model to the actual rotor. The influence of a mechanical damper as a device to provide additional damping to high models is demonstrated theoretically. After all, it was not necessary to install the damper, since all modes cold be stabilized by the controller.
Thermally induced dynamics in ultrathin magnetic tunnel junctions
Ogrodnik, P.; Bauer, G.E.W.; Xia, K.
2013-01-01
We consider the magnetization dynamics induced by thermally induced spin transfer torques in thin Fe|MgO|Fe tunnel junctions. The magnetization dynamics is described by the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation, including the thermal torques as computed from first principles. We show that the angular ske
Finite element analysis of two disk rotor system
Dixit, Harsh Kumar
2016-05-01
A finite element model of simple horizontal rotor system is developed for evaluating its dynamic behaviour. The model is based on Timoshenko beam element and accounts for the effect of gyroscopic couple and other rotational forces. Present rotor system consists of single shaft which is supported by bearings at both ends and two disks are mounted at different locations. The natural frequencies, mode shapes and orbits of rotating system for a specific range of rotation speed are obtained by developing a MATLAB code for solving the finite element equations of rotary system. Consequently, Campbell diagram is plotted for finding a relationship between natural whirl frequencies and rotation of the rotor.
Dipolar rotors orderly aligned in mesoporous fluorinated organosilica architectures
Bracco, Silvia
2015-02-16
New mesoporous covalent frameworks, based on hybrid fluorinated organosilicas, were prepared to realize a periodic architecture of fast molecular rotors containing dynamic dipoles in their structure. The mobile elements, designed on the basis of fluorinated p-divinylbenzene moieties, were integrated into the robust covalent structure through siloxane bonds, and showed not only the rapid dynamics of the aromatic rings (ca. 108 Hz at 325 K), as detected by solid-state NMR spectroscopy, but also a dielectric response typical of a fast dipole reorientation under the stimuli of an applied electric field. Furthermore, the mesochannels are open and accessible to diffusing in gas molecules, and rotor mobility could be individually regulated by I2 vapors. The iodine enters the channels of the periodic structure and reacts with the pivotal double bonds of the divinyl-fluoro-phenylene rotors, affecting their motion and the dielectric properties. Oriented molecular rotors: Fluorinated molecular rotors (see picture) were engineered in mesoporous hybrid organosilica architectures with crystalline order in their walls. The rotor dynamics was established by magic angle spinning NMR and dielectric measurements, indicating a rotational correlation time as short as 10-9 s at 325 K. The dynamics was modulated by I2 vapors entering the pores.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Muhammad Ramzan Luhur
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This contribution provides the development of a stochastic lift and drag model for an airfoil FX 79-W-151A under unsteady wind inflow based on wind tunnel measurements. Here we present the integration of the stochastic model into a well-known standard BEM (Blade Element Momentum model to obtain the corresponding aerodynamic forces on a rotating blade element. The stochastic model is integrated as an alternative to static tabulated data used by classical BEM. The results show that in comparison to classical BEM, the BEM with stochastic approach additionally reflects the local force dynamics and therefore provides more information on aerodynamic forces that can be used by wind turbine simulation codes
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
房建成; 张会娟; 刘虎
2014-01-01
By the virtue of active magnetic bearing, magnetically suspended inertia actuators can make micro-vibration come true through active vibration control. However, there still exist vibrations with some frequencies in magnetically suspended inertia actuators. Firstly, the vibration mechanism of Magnet Runout is analyzed based on the analysis of rotor unbalance and Sensor Runout, then the dynamic model of the magnetically suspended rigid rotor system composing of three vibration sources is developed and divided into translational motion and torsional motion. The analysis dedicates that rotor unbalance, Magnet Runout and Sensor Runout will arise vibrations through different channels, and that the vibrations include the fundamental frequencies and their harmonics. Lastly, the requirements of active vibration control are proposed for the magnetically suspended rigid rotor system, and are useful for the future research.%磁悬浮惯性执行机构采用磁轴承支承，可通过主动控制实现极微振动，但磁悬浮惯性执行机构仍存在频谱分量丰富的振动。首先在转子动静不平衡和Sensor Runout振动机理分析的基础上，重点分析了Magnet Runout产生振动机理；然后，建立包含多振动源的系统动力学建模，并将整个动力学模型分解为平动和转动子系统，分析表明转子动静不平衡、Sensor Runout和Magnet Runout是通过不同的途径产生振动，不仅产生同频振动还包含倍频振动；最后，提出磁悬浮刚性转子系统主动振动控制的要求，为以后的主动振动控制研究奠定基础。
Unified continuum damage model for matrix cracking in composite rotor blades
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pollayi, Hemaraju; Harursampath, Dineshkumar [Nonlinear Multifunctional Composites - Analysis and Design Lab (NMCAD Lab) Department of Aerospace Engineering Indian Institute of Science Bangalore - 560012, Karnataka (India)
2015-03-10
This paper deals with modeling of the first damage mode, matrix micro-cracking, in helicopter rotor/wind turbine blades and how this effects the overall cross-sectional stiffness. The helicopter/wind turbine rotor system operates in a highly dynamic and unsteady environment leading to severe vibratory loads present in the system. Repeated exposure to this loading condition can induce damage in the composite rotor blades. These rotor/turbine blades are generally made of fiber-reinforced laminated composites and exhibit various competing modes of damage such as matrix micro-cracking, delamination, and fiber breakage. There is a need to study the behavior of the composite rotor system under various key damage modes in composite materials for developing Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) system. Each blade is modeled as a beam based on geometrically non-linear 3-D elasticity theory. Each blade thus splits into 2-D analyzes of cross-sections and non-linear 1-D analyzes along the beam reference curves. Two different tools are used here for complete 3-D analysis: VABS for 2-D cross-sectional analysis and GEBT for 1-D beam analysis. The physically-based failure models for matrix in compression and tension loading are used in the present work. Matrix cracking is detected using two failure criterion: Matrix Failure in Compression and Matrix Failure in Tension which are based on the recovered field. A strain variable is set which drives the damage variable for matrix cracking and this damage variable is used to estimate the reduced cross-sectional stiffness. The matrix micro-cracking is performed in two different approaches: (i) Element-wise, and (ii) Node-wise. The procedure presented in this paper is implemented in VABS as matrix micro-cracking modeling module. Three examples are presented to investigate the matrix failure model which illustrate the effect of matrix cracking on cross-sectional stiffness by varying the applied cyclic load.
A New Single-blade Based Hybrid CFD Method for Hovering and Forward-flight Rotor Computation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
SHI Yongjie; ZHAO Qijun; FAN Feng; XU Guohua
2011-01-01
A hybrid Euler/full potential/Lagrangian wake method, based on single-blade simulation, for predicting unsteady aerodynamic flow around helicopter rotors in hover and forward flight has been developed. In this method, an Euler solver is used to model the near wake evolution and transonic flow phenomena in the vicinity of the blade, and a full potential equation (FPE) is used to model the isentropic potential flow region far away from the rotor, while the wake effects of other blades and the far wake are incorporated into the flow solution as an induced inflow distribution using a Lagrangian based wake analysis. To further reduce the execution time, the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solution and rotor wake analysis (including induced velocity update) are conducted parallelly, and a load balancing strategy is employed to account for the information exchange between two solvers. By the developed method, several hover and forward-flight cases on Caradonna-Tung and Helishape 7A rotors are performed. Good agreements of the loadings on blade surface with available measured data demonstrate the validation of the method. Also, the CPU time required for different computation runs is compared in the paper, and the results show that the present hybrid method is superior to conventional CFD method in time cost, and will be more efficient with the number of blades increasing.
Comandi, G. L.; Toncelli, R.; Chiofalo, M. L.; Bramanti, D.; Nobili, A. M.
2006-03-01
"Galileo Galilei on the ground" (GGG) is a fast rotating differential accelerometer designed to test the equivalence principle (EP). Its sensitivity to differential effects, such as the effect of an EP violation, depends crucially on the capability of the accelerometer to reject all effects acting in common mode. By applying the theoretical and simulation methods reported in Part I of this work, and tested therein against experimental data, we predict the occurrence of an enhanced common mode rejection of the GGG accelerometer. We demonstrate that the best rejection of common mode disturbances can be tuned in a controlled way by varying the spin frequency of the GGG rotor.
Rotor Design for Diffuser Augmented Wind Turbines
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Søren Hjort
2015-09-01
Full Text Available Diffuser augmented wind turbines (DAWTs can increase mass flow through the rotor substantially, but have often failed to fulfill expectations. We address high-performance diffusers, and investigate the design requirements for a DAWT rotor to efficiently convert the available energy to shaft energy. Several factors can induce wake stall scenarios causing significant energy loss. The causality between these stall mechanisms and earlier DAWT failures is discussed. First, a swirled actuator disk CFD code is validated through comparison with results from a far wake swirl corrected blade-element momentum (BEM model, and horizontal-axis wind turbine (HAWT reference results. Then, power efficiency versus thrust is computed with the swirled actuator disk (AD code for low and high values of tip-speed ratios (TSR, for different centerbodies, and for different spanwise rotor thrust loading distributions. Three different configurations are studied: The bare propeller HAWT, the classical DAWT, and the high-performance multi-element DAWT. In total nearly 400 high-resolution AD runs are generated. These results are presented and discussed. It is concluded that dedicated DAWT rotors can successfully convert the available energy to shaft energy, provided the identified design requirements for swirl and axial loading distributions are satisfied.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Hamidreza SHIRAZI; Jalal NAZARZADEH
2014-01-01
In a modern electrical driver, rotor field oriented control (RFOC) method has been used to achieve a good performance and an appropriate transient response. In this method, the space vector of the rotor flux comes handy by the rotor resistance value. The rotor resistance is one of the important parameters which varies according to motor speed and room temperature alteration. In this paper, a new on-line estimation method is utilized to obtain the rotor resistance by using Walsh functions domain. The Walsh functions are one of the most applicable functions in piecewise constant basis functions (PCBF) to solve dynamic equations. On the other hand, an integral operational matrix is used to simplify the process and speed of the computation algorithm. The simulations results show that the proposed method is capable of solving the dynamic equations in an electrical machine on a time interval which robustly estimates the rotor resistance in contrast with injection noises.
Rotor for a pyrolysis centrifuge reactor
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
2015-01-01
The present invention relates to a rotor for a pyrolysis centrifuge reactor, said rotor comprising a rotor body having a longitudinal centre axis, and at least one pivotally mounted blade being adapted to pivot around a pivot axis under rotation of the rotor body around the longitudinal centre axis....... Moreover, the present invention relates to a pyrolysis centrifuge reactor applying such a rotor....
Limit cases for rotor theories with Betz optimization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Okulov, Valery
2014-01-01
pitch is independent from velocities induced by the wake; the pitch depends on the induced velocities in the far wake; the pitch depends on the induced velocities in the rotor plane) was considered by a comparison with the main restriction of the actuator disk theory – the Betz-Joukowsky limit...
Data Acquisition and Processing Method for High-Speed Dynamic Balancing of Rotors%转子高速动平衡数据采集与处理方法研究
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
陈曦; 廖明夫; 王四季; 易毅
2016-01-01
For the presence of characteristics including high speed,excessive vibration and phase fluctua-tions in the process of rotor high-speed dynamic balancing,a method of data acquisition and processing for high-speed dynamic balancing was proposed. Based on multithreading technology,the rotational speed signal was ac-curately measured and vibration signals were synchronously collected. Both the transient state and steady state could be quickly switched to each other according to the variation of rotational speed,which can reduce switch-ing time,facilitate operation and improve testing efficiency. Using the pulse signal of rotational speed as a bench-mark, vibration signals were divided into several integral periods. Interpolation was conducted towards the sam-pling points per period and balance records were averaged multiple times in order to solve the unstable problems of amplitude and phase when speed fluctuated. A rotor model for experiments is established,and dynamic char-acteristics of the rotor are calculated and tested. The results suggest that the relative error between calculated and measured values of the first critical speed is less than 1%,and the relative error of unbalance response does not exceed 10%. Thus the simulating calculation is consistent with the testing outcome. In addition,the algorithms of phase processing improve the accuracy and stability of phase measurement. The data acquisition and process-ing system has practical significance of engineering application for rotor dynamic balancing.%针对转子高速动平衡过程转速高、振动问题突出以及相位波动等特点,提出了一种高速动平衡的数据采集与处理方法,运用多线程技术准确测量转速信号并且同步采集振动信号.根据转速变化情况迅速切换暂态与稳态,减少状态切换时间,方便测试人员操作,提高试车的效率.以转速脉冲信号为基准,对振动信号进行整周期截取与插值处理,并对平衡记录进行多
齿轮耦合的转子-轴承系统的非线性模型%A Nonlinear Model for Dynamic Analysis of a Geared Rotor-Bearing System
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张锁怀; 石守红; 丘大谋
2001-01-01
在考虑滑动轴承非线性油膜力、齿轮时变啮 合刚度、齿面间的摩擦力以及齿侧间隙的情况下，推导出了齿轮耦合的转子-轴承系统的非 线性动力学模型，该模型是一个包含强非线性项的非自治系统，蕴含着丰富的动力学内容。%Considering nonlinear fluid film forces of a journal bearing, the time-varying mesh stiffness of the gears, friction effect between tooth pairs, and backlash clearance, a geared rotor-bearing system is modeled. It is shown that the motion equation of the system is a nonautonomous differential equation with strong nonlinearity. It contains plenty of dynamic phenomena.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
胡国才; 向锦武; 张晓谷
2003-01-01
为了准确反映直升机旋翼/机体耦合系统的动稳定性,建立了旋翼/机体耦合非线性动力学微分方程,在时域内求解微分方程得到各片桨叶的挥舞、摆振及机体的响应用以对系统进行数值模拟;为了获得系统稳定性的定量值,用快速傅立叶变换(FFT)确定模态频率,用基于傅立叶级数的移动矩形窗方法得到模态阻尼.地面共振分析表明,时域分析与特征值分析结果具有良好的相关性,并与试验值吻合,从而验证了该方法的有效性.大总距时,用时域分析得到的模态阻尼与试验值吻合得更好,该方法可用于具有非线性减摆器的直升机旋翼/机体耦合系统的动稳定性分析.%In order to accurately predict the dynamic instabilities of a helicopter rotor/fuselage coupled system, nonlinear differential equations are derived and integrated in the time domain to yield responses of rotor blade flapping, lead-lag and fuselage motions to simulate the behavior of the system numerically. To obtain quantitative instabilities, Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) is conducted to estimate the modal frequencies, and Fourier series based moving-block analysis is employed in the predictions of the modal damping in terms of the response time history. Study on the helicopter ground resonance exhibits excellent correlation among the time-domain (TD) analytical results, eigenvalues and wind tunnel test data, thus validating the methodology of the paper. With a large collective pitch set, the predictions of regressive lag modal damping from TD analysis correlate with the experimental data better than from eigen analysis. TD analysis can be applied in the dynamic stability analysis of helicopter rotor/fuselage coupled systems incorporated with nonlinear blade lag dampers.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
J.D.Denton
1997-01-01
NASA rotor 37 was used as a blind test case for turbomachinery CFD by the Turbomachinery Committee of the IGTI.The rotor is a transonic compressor with a tip speed of 454 m/s(1500ft/s)and a relatively high pressure ratio of 2.1.It was tested in isolation with a circumferentially uniform inlet flow so that the flow through it should be steady apart from and effects of passage to passage geometry variation and mechanical vibration.As such it represents the simplest possible type of test for three-dimensional turbomachinery flow solvers.Howerver,the rotor still presents a real challenge to 3D viscous flow solvers because the shock wave-boudary layer interaction is strong and the effects of viscosity are dominant in determining the flow deviation and hence the pressure ration.Eleven blind solutions were submittewd and in addition a non-blind solution was used to prepare for the exercies.This paper reviews the flow in the test case and the comparisons of the CFD solutions with the test data.Lessons for both the Flow physics in transonic fans and for the application of CFD to such machines are pointed out.
Numerical modeling of a rotor misalignment; Modelado numerico del desalineamiento de un rotor
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Leon Pina, Roberto
2009-12-15
In the turbo-machinery area after an unbalancing, the misalignment is the fault that most frequently appears, and this one has been little studied compared to the unbalance. The misalignment appears when the geometric centers of two shafts and/or bearings do not coincide, these differences take place by different factors such as: incorrect installation of the bearings or rotors, thermal effects, or rotor weight, to mention some of them. The of the misalignment diagnosis continues being an area little studied, since the effects it generates are complex and include diverse physical processes reason why it presents/displays similar symptoms to those of other faults; thus, one of the methods that are used to diagnose this fault, is based on analyzing the vibration phantoms but this works only under particular conditions. In order to reproduce the dynamic behavior of a misaligned rotor, in the present work non-linear simplified models of the supports are used, whose objective is to contribute to facilitate future studies of the flow-dynamic behavior of the bearing, helping to identify the type and magnitude of the existing non-linearity in the supports and leaning in the analysis of the vibratory behavior of misaligned rotors observed in the field. [Spanish] En el area de turbomaquinaria despues del desbalance, el desalineamiento es la falla que se presenta con mayor frecuencia, y esta se ha estudiado poco comparada con el desbalance. El desalineamiento se presenta cuando los centros geometricos de dos flechas y/o chumaceras no coinciden, estas diferencias se producen por diferentes factores como: instalacion incorrecta de las chumaceras o rotores, efectos termicos, o el peso del rotor, por mencionar algunos. El diagnostico del desalineamiento sigue siendo una area poco estudiada, ya que los efectos que genera son complejos y abarcan diversos procesos fisicos por lo que presenta sintomas similares a los de otras fallas; asi, uno de los metodos que se utilizan para
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
L. Vergara
2005-01-01
Full Text Available Se presenta el desarrollo de un programa computacional para simular y determinar las características dinámicas de rotores. Estos juegan un rol importante tanto en el diseño, como en la producción, la operación y el mantenimiento de maquinaria rotativa. El modelado y análisis de una maquinaria con componentes rotativos requieren la determinación de las características dinámicas del sistema, representadas por frecuencias naturales, modos de vibración, velocidades críticas y respuesta armónica del sistema. El modelo es analizado de manera automática con la ayuda de un programa comercial de elementos finitos, y los resultados son tomados y presentados al usuario de forma conveniente. Con el fin de validar el programa, se comparan sus resultados con los obtenidos experimentalmente y con otros disponibles en la literatura.A computer program to simulate and to determine the dynamic characteristics of rotors is presented. These characteristics play an important role in the design, production, operation and maintenance of rotating machinery. The modeling and analysis of machinery with rotating components require the determination of the dynamic characteristics of the system, represented by natural frequencies, vibration modes, critical speeds and harmonic response of the system. The model is analyzed in an automatic way, with the help of a commercial program of finite elements, and the results are taken and presented to the user in a convenient way. To validate the program, the results are compared with those obtained experimentally and with others reported in the literature.
Transverse vibration of a rotor system driven by a Cardan joint
Iwatsubo, T.; Saigo, M.
1984-07-01
The transverse vibration of a rotor system driven by a Cardan joint is analyzed and the effect of the transmitted torque on the dynamic stability of the system evaluated. As a result of the analysis, the following facts are proved: when the driving shaft and driven shaft (rotor shaft) are included, both parametric and self-excited vibrations arise due to transmitted torque; asymmetrical stiffness of the rotor supports has the effect of stabilizing this self-excited vibration.
A Computational Model for Rotor-Fuselage Interactional Aerodynamics
Boyd, D. Douglas, Jr.; Barnwell, Richard W.; Gorton, Susan Althoff
2000-01-01
A novel unsteady rotor-fuselage interactional aerodynamics model has been developed. This model loosely couples a Generalized Dynamic Wake Theory (GDWT) to a thin-layer Navier-Stokes solution procedure. This coupling is achieved using an unsteady pressure jump boundary condition in the Navier-Stokes model. The new unsteady pressure jump boundary condition models each rotor blade as a moving pressure jump which travels around the rotor azimuth and is applied between two adjacent planes in a cylindrical, non-rotating grid. Comparisons are made between measured and predicted time-averaged and time-accurate rotor inflow ratios. Additional comparisons are made between measured and predicted unsteady surface pressures on the top centerline and sides of the fuselage.
Assessment of Scaled Rotors for Wind Tunnel Experiments.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Maniaci, David Charles [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kelley, Christopher Lee [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Chiu, Phillip [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
2015-07-01
Rotor design and analysis work has been performed to support the conceptualization of a wind tunnel test focused on studying wake dynamics. This wind tunnel test would serve as part of a larger model validation campaign that is part of the Department of Energy Wind and Water Power Program’s Atmosphere to electrons (A2e) initiative. The first phase of this effort was directed towards designing a functionally scaled rotor based on the same design process and target full-scale turbine used for new rotors for the DOE/SNL SWiFT site. The second phase focused on assessing the capabilities of an already available rotor, the G1, designed and built by researchers at the Technical University of München.
Fuzzy control of attitude of four - rotor UAV
Zhang, Zexiang; Hu, Shengbin
2017-08-01
The four - rotor unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is the object of study, in this paper. In order to solve the problem of poor robustness and low control precision of the four-rotor unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) control system, and realized the stability control problem of the four-rotor UAV attitude. First, the dynamic model of the four-rotor unmanned aerial vehicle is established. And on this basis, a fuzzy controller is designed, and used to control the channel. Then, the simulation platform is built by Matlab / Simulink simulation software, and the performance of the designed fuzzy controller is analyzed comprehensively. It is also determined whether the algorithm can control the attitude of the four rotor unmanned aerial vehicle. The simulation results fully verify the accuracy of the model, and proved fuzzy controller has better dynamic performance and robustness under appropriate parameters so that UAVs can fly stable. The algorithm can improve the anti-jamming performance and control accuracy of the system, it has a certain significance for the actual four-rotor aircraft attitude control.
Homopolar motor with dual rotors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hsu, John S. (Oak Ridge, TN)
1998-01-01
A homopolar motor (10) has a field rotor (15) mounted on a frame (11) for rotation in a first rotational direction and for producing an electromagnetic field, and an armature rotor (17) mounted for rotation on said frame (11) within said electromagnetic field and in a second rotational direction counter to said first rotational direction of said field rotor (15). The two rotors (15, 17) are coupled through a 1:1 gearing mechanism (19), so as to travel at the same speed but in opposite directions. This doubles the output voltage and output power, as compared to a motor in which only the armature is rotated. Several embodiments are disclosed.
Homopolar motor with dual rotors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hsu, J.S.
1998-12-01
A homopolar motor has a field rotor mounted on a frame for rotation in a first rotational direction and for producing an electromagnetic field, and an armature rotor mounted for rotation on said frame within said electromagnetic field and in a second rotational direction counter to said first rotational direction of said field rotor. The two rotors are coupled through a 1:1 gearing mechanism, so as to travel at the same speed but in opposite directions. This doubles the output voltage and output power, as compared to a motor in which only the armature is rotated. Several embodiments are disclosed. 7 figs.
Rotor/body aerodynamic interactions
Betzina, M. D.; Smith, C. A.; Shinoda, P.
1985-01-01
A wind tunnel investigation was conducted in which independent, steady state aerodynamic forces and moments were measured on a 2.24 m diam. two bladed helicopter rotor and on several different bodies. The mutual interaction effects for variations in velocity, thrust, tip-path-plane angle of attack, body angle of attack, rotor/body position, and body geometry were determined. The results show that the body longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics are significantly affected by the presence of a rotor and hub, and that the hub interference may be a major part of such interaction. The effects of the body on the rotor performance are presented.
Variable Speed Rotor System Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Variable speed rotors will give helicopters several advantages: higher top speed, greater fuel efficiency, momentary emergency over-power, resonance detuning...
Laser-induced vibrational dynamics of ozone in solid argon
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Flemming Yssing; Amstrup, B.; Henriksen, Niels Engholm
1997-01-01
We consider the vibrational dynamics, induced by an intense infrared laser pulse, in an ozone molecule with isotopic substitution, that is, (OOO)-O-16-O-16-O-18 and compare the dynamics in the gas phase and in solid ar on. not perturbed by argon on a time-scale of a few picoseconds and selective...
Smart Rotor Modeling: Aero-Servo-Elastic Modeling of a Smart Rotor with Adaptive Trailing Edge Flaps
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bergami, Leonardo
This book presents the formulation of an aero-servo-elastic model for a wind turbine rotor equipped with Adaptive Trailing Edge Flaps (ATEF), a smart rotor configuration. As the name suggests, an aero-servo-elastic model consists of three main components: an aerodynamic model, a structural model......, and a control model. The book first presents an engineering type of aerodynamic model that accounts for the dynamic effects of flap deflection. The aerodynamic model is implemented in a Blade Element Momentum framework, and coupled with a multi-body structural model in the aero-servoelastic simulation code HAWC...... the trailing edge flap deflection to actively reduce the fatigue loads on the structure. The performance of the smart rotor configuration and its control algorithms are finally quantified by aero-servo-elastic simulations of the smart rotor turbine operating in a standard turbulent wind field....
Counter Rotating Open Rotor Animation using Particle Image Velocimetry
Roosenboom, E W M; Geisler, R; Pallek, D; Agocs, J; Neitzke, K -P
2011-01-01
This article describes the two accompanying fluid dynamics videos for the "Counter rotating open rotor flow field investigation using stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry" presented at the 64th Annual Meeting of the APS Division of Fluid Dynamics in Baltimore, Maryland, November 20-22, 2011.
Dynamic Analysis of Axial Magnetic Forces for DVD Spindle Motors
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2000-01-01
The axial magnetic force, induced by the complicated flux linkage distribution from rotor magnet and stator slotted, is constructed by different relative heights and calculated by 3D finite element method (FEM) to analyze the dynamic characteristics for a DVD spindle motor. The axial magnetic force is designed to provide an axial stiffness and govern the natural frequency of the dynamic performance. According to the simulation results and experimental measurements, the dynamic behaviors are significantly improved with a variation of relative height of rotor magnet and stator slotted on a DVD spindle motor.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
罗贵火; 周海仑; 王飞; 杨喜关
2012-01-01
The dual rotor-hall bearing-stator coupling dynamic model was established for the aero-engine with dual rotor as to research object. The model concerned the coupling effect of inter-rotor bearing between the low pressure rotor and high pressure rotor, between the outer race of ball bearing and bearing housing, and between the flexible support and squeeze film damper. In the model of ball bearings, the clearance of bearing, nonlinear Hertzian contract force between balls and races and the varying compliance vibration were considered. The beat vibration response and whirl orbit of co-rotating or counter-rotating dual-rotor system were analyzed by using the model. The results show that the beat vibration response occurs obviously when two rotors operate at approximate speed, the whirl orbit of the counter-rotating dual-rotor system will be the petal shape. Finally, the results of numerical integral and the model were validated with the experiments of the dual rotor rig.%以双转子航空发动机为研究对象，建立了航空发动机双转子一滚动轴承一机匣耦合动力学模型．模型中考虑了低压转子与高压转子的中介轴承耦合作用，滚动轴承模型中考虑了滚动轴承间隙、非线性赫兹接触力以及变柔性VC（varying compliance）振动等因素．利用仿真模型，进行了同向和反向旋转双转子系统的拍振响应分析，结果表明当高低压转子的转速差较小时，双转子系统的拍振响应明显．同时研究了同转和反转双转子系统轴心轨迹响应的差异，研究表明反向旋转双转子系统的轴心轨迹会形成“花瓣”状．最后，利用双转子试验器验证了仿真结果的正确性，进一步验证本文所建模型的正确性．
CFD simulations of the MEXICO rotor
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bechmann, Andreas; Sørensen, Niels N.; Zahle, Frederik
2011-01-01
The wake behind a wind turbine model is investigated using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), and results are compared with measurements. The turbine investigated is the three‐bladed test rotor (D = 4.5 m) used in the Model Experiments in Controlled Conditions (MEXICO) wind tunnel experiment....... During the MEXICO experiment, particle image velocimetry measurements of the induction upstream and downstream of the rotor were performed for different operating conditions, giving a unique dataset to verify theoretical models and CFD models. The present paper first describes the efforts in reproducing...... the experimental results using the Reynold‐Averaged Navier‐Stokes method. Second, three‐dimensional airfoil characteristics are extracted that allow simulations with simpler wake models. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....
Egolf, T. A.; Landgrebe, A. J.
1982-01-01
A user's manual is provided which includes the technical approach for the Prescribed Wake Rotor Inflow and Flow Field Prediction Analysis. The analysis is used to provide the rotor wake induced velocities at the rotor blades for use in blade airloads and response analyses and to provide induced velocities at arbitrary field points such as at a tail surface. This analysis calculates the distribution of rotor wake induced velocities based on a prescribed wake model. Section operating conditions are prescribed from blade motion and controls determined by a separate blade response analysis. The analysis represents each blade by a segmented lifting line, and the rotor wake by discrete segmented trailing vortex filaments. Blade loading and circulation distributions are calculated based on blade element strip theory including the local induced velocity predicted by the numerical integration of the Biot-Savart Law applied to the vortex wake model.
APPLICATION OF WAVELET TIME-FR EQUENCY ANALYSIS TO IDENTIFICATION OF CRACKED ROTOR
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2003-01-01
Based on the simple hinge crack model and the local flexibility theorem, the corresponding dynamic equation of the cracked rotor is modelled, the numerical simulation solutions of the cracked rotor and the uncracked rotor are obtained. By the continuous wavelet time-frequency transform, the wavelet time-frequency properties of the uncracked rotor and the cracked rotor are discussed. A new detection algorithm that uses the wavelet time-frequency transform to identify the crack is proposed. The influence of the sampling frequency on the wavelet time-frequency transform is analyzed by the numerical simulation research. The valid sampling frequency is suggested. Experiments demonstrate the validity and availability of the proposed algorithm in identification of the cracked rotor for engineering practices.
Correlated rotational switching in two-dimensional self-assembled molecular rotor arrays
Wasio, Natalie A.; Slough, Diana P.; Smith, Zachary C.; Ivimey, Christopher J.; Thomas, Samuel W., III; Lin, Yu-Shan; Sykes, E. Charles H.
2017-07-01
Molecular devices are capable of performing a number of functions from mechanical motion to simple computation. Their utility is somewhat limited, however, by difficulties associated with coupling them with either each other or with interfaces such as electrodes. Self-assembly of coupled molecular devices provides an option for the construction of larger entities that can more easily integrate with existing technologies. Here we demonstrate that ordered organometallic arrays can be formed spontaneously by reaction of precursor molecular rotor molecules with a metal surface. Scanning tunnelling microscopy enables individual rotors in the arrays to be switched and the resultant switches in neighbouring rotors imaged. The structure and dimensions of the ordered molecular rotor arrays dictate the correlated switching properties of the internal submolecular rotor units. Our results indicate that self-assembly of two-dimensional rotor crystals produces systems with correlated dynamics that would not have been predicted a priori.
Radiation induced dynamic mutations and transgenerational effects.
Niwa, Ohtsura
2006-01-01
Many studies have confirmed that radiation can induce genomic instability in whole body systems. Although the molecular mechanisms underlying induced genomic instability are not known at present, this interesting phenomenon could be the manifestation of a cellular fail-safe system in which fidelity of repair and replication is down-regulated to tolerate DNA damage. Two features of genomic instability namely, delayed mutation and untargeted mutation, require two mechanisms of ;damage memory' and ;damage sensing, signal transduction and execution' to induce mutations at a non damaged-site. In this report, the phenomenon of transgenerational genomic instability and possible mechanisms are discussed using mouse data collected in our laboratory as the main bases.
Development of a Wind Turbine Rotor Flow Panel Method
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Van Garrel, A. [ECN Wind Energy, Petten (Netherlands)
2011-12-15
The ongoing trend towards larger wind turbines intensifies the demand for more physically realistic wind turbine rotor aerodynamics models that can predict the detailed transient pressure loadings on the rotor blades better than current engineering models. In this report the mathematical, numerical, and practical aspects of a new wind turbine rotor flow simulation code is described. This wind turbine simulation code is designated ROTORFLOW. In this method the fluid dynamics problem is solved through a boundary integral equation which reduces the problem to the surface of the configuration. The derivation of the integral equations is described as well as the assumptions made to arrive at them starting with the full Navier-Stokes equations. The basic numerical aspects in the solution method are described and a verification study is performed to confirm the validity of the implementation. Example simulations with the code show the flow solutions for a stationary wing and for a rotating wing in yawed conditions. With the ROTORFLOW code developed in this project it is possible to simulate the unsteady flow around wind turbine rotors in yawed conditions and obtain detailed pressure distributions, and thus blade loadings, at the surface of the blades. General rotor blade geometries can be handled, opening the way to the detailed flow analysis of winglets, partial span flaps, swept blade tips, etc. The ROTORFLOW solver only requires a description of the rotor surface which keeps simulation preparation time short, and makes it feasible to use the solver in the design iteration process.
Test rig for investigations of force excited and synchrocoupling loaded rotor
Rauch, Adam
1987-10-01
The main topics of test rig based rotor investigations are: dynamic relations of a rotor bearing foundation system, shaft cracking, torsional simulation of rotor-generator hunting, flexural-torsional coupling of vibrations, and other areas of rotor dynamics including balancing, maintenance and modal analysis of a rotor. The present paper describes a general purpose rotor test rig capable of handling a great number of these areas. The test rig simulates a heavy, power-loaded rotor mounted on a flexible foundation. Five forms of excitation are provided: oscillating or impact torque, impact force, step force, bearing and foundation excitation. They can be combined if necessary. New research facilities offered by the rig are: external flexural force loading, driving torque loading by synchrocoupling with a full recovery of brake energy, bending release of rotor ends by pivoting, and multi-pulse impact force excitation. The most remarkable is the synchroaxle principle, called SAP for short, which is described in detail. Test rig features have been proved to be successful by research of shaft cracking and rotor-foundation vibrations. This presentation concerns only the general description, calculation and application aspects of the rig.
Compositeness Condition for Dynamically Induced Gauge Theories
Akama, K; Akama, Keiichi; Hattori, Takashi
1997-01-01
We show that the compositeness condition for the induced gauge boson in the four-fermion interaction theory actually works beyond the one-loop approximation. The next-to-leading contributions are calculated, and turn out to be reasonably suppressed, so that the leading-order approximation is justified.
Dynamic optically induced planar terahertz quasioptics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cooke, David; Jepsen, Peter Uhd
2009-01-01
that photoexcitations with sufficient conductivity can induce a partial reflection, capable of steering the pulse inside the two-dimensional waveguide. A beamsplitter is demonstrated as proof of principle and is used to delay the arrival of the reflected terahertz pulse at the detector by several picoseconds by moving...
Modeling of glutamate-induced dynamical patterns
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Faurby-Bentzen, Christian Krefeld; Zhabotinsky, A.M.; Laugesen, Jakob Lund
2009-01-01
Based on established physiological mechanisms, the paper presents a detailed computer model, which supports the hypothesis that temporal lobe epilepsy may be caused by failure of glutamate reuptake from the extracellular space. The elevated glutamate concentration causes an increased activation o...... of NMDA receptors in pyramidal neurons, which in turn leads to neuronal dynamics that is qualitatively identical to epileptiform activity. We identify by chaos analysis a surprising possibility that muscarinergic receptors can help the system out of a chaotic regime....
Design of Dynamic Strain Measurement System of Rotor Blades Impacted by Bird%旋转叶片鸟撞动态应变测量系统设计
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
马坚刚; 张天宏; 孙健国
2013-01-01
In order to solve the difficulties of dynamic strain measurement of rotor blades impacted by bird,a method based on on-line detection and high-speed temporary storage is put forward.Through the real-time online detection,the strain data of bird impact in the whole process is collected and stored in a non-volatile SRAM.A multi-channel dynamic strain measurement system is designed mainly,including the detection and storage unit and the ground auxiliary device,which can meet the requirements of accuracy and speed,and realize the functions of on-line detection,high-speed storage and wireless data transmission.The tests indicate that the system has high accuracy and can detect the bird impact in real-time,and the speed of collection and storage is 200 kHz with 6 channels,and the test is convenient by using radio communication,which satisfies the dynamic strain measurement of rotor blades impacted by bird.%为了解决旋转叶片鸟撞时动态应变测量困难的问题,提出一种基于在线检测和高速暂存的测量方法.通过实时在线检测,将鸟撞发生时全过程的应变量采集并高速存储在非易失性存储器中.重点设计多通道动态应变测量系统,包括检测存储单元和地面辅助装置,满足精度、速率要求,实现在线检测、高速存储和无线数据传输等功能.试验表明,系统具有较高的测量精度,能实时检测到鸟撞发生,最快以6通道200 kHz的速率采集和存储,并利用无线数据传输,满足旋转叶片鸟撞动态应变测量要求.
Robust stabilization of rotor-active magnetic bearing systems
Li, Guoxin
Active magnetic bearings (AMBs) are emerging as a beneficial technology for high-speed and high-performance suspensions in rotating machinery applications. A fundamental feedback control problem is robust stabilization in the presence of uncertain destabilizing mechanisms in aeroelastic, hydroelastic dynamics, and AMB feedback. As rotating machines are evolving in achieving high speed, high energy density, and high performance, the rotor and the support structure become increasingly flexible, and highly coupled. This makes rotor-AMB system more challenging to stabilize. The primary objective of this research is to develop a systematic control synthesis procedure for achieving highly robust stabilization of rotor-AMB systems. Of special interest is the stabilization of multivariable systems such as the AMB supported flexible rotors and gyroscopic rotors, where the classical control design may encounter difficulties. To this end, we first developed a systematic modeling procedure. This modeling procedure exploited the best advantages of technology developed in rotordynamics and the unique system identification tool provided by the AMBs. A systematic uncertainty model for rotor-AMB systems was developed, eliminating the iterative process of selecting uncertainty structures. The consequences of overestimation or underestimation of uncertainties were made transparent to control engineers. To achieve high robustness, we explored the fundamental performance/robustness limitations due to rotor-AMB system unstable poles. We examined the mixed sensitivity performance that is closely related to the unstructured uncertainty. To enhance transparency of the synthesis, we analyzed multivariable controllers from classical control perspectives. Based on these results, a systematic robust control synthesis procedure was established. For a strong gyroscopic rotor over a wide speed range, we applied the advanced gain-scheduled synthesis, and compared two synthesis frameworks in
Stopped-Rotor Cyclocopter for Venus Exploration
Husseyin, Sema; Warmbrodt, William G.
2016-01-01
The cyclocopter system can use two or more rotating blades to create lift, propulsion and control. This system is explored for its use in a mission to Venus. Cyclocopters are not limited to speed and altitude and can provide 360 degrees of vector thrusting which is favorable for good maneuverability. The novel aspect of this study is that no other cyclocopter configuration has been previously proposed for Venus or any (terrestrial or otherwise) exploration application where the cyclocopters rotating blades are stopped, and act as fixed wings. The design considerations for this unique planetary aerial vehicle are discussed in terms of implementing the use of a cyclorotor blade system combined with a fixed wing and stopped rotor mechanism. This proposed concept avoids many of the disadvantages of conventional-rotor stopped-rotor concepts and accounts for the high temperature, pressure and atmospheric density present on Venus while carrying out the mission objectives. The fundamental goal is to find an ideal design that implements the combined use of cyclorotors and fixed wing surfaces. These design concepts will be analyzed with the computational fluid dynamics tool RotCFD for aerodynamic assessment. Aspects of the vehicle design is 3D printed and tested in a small water tunnel or wind tunnel.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张涛; 王建军; 吴勇军
2015-01-01
考虑齿轮-转子系统各部件的弹性，基于接触有限元理论提出一种能够高保真模拟齿轮副连续啮合过程的动态特性分析方法。该方法利用实体有限元进行系统建模，可体现各部件的结构特征；基于接触有限元进行啮合过程仿真，可模拟系统的时变刚度、啮合冲击等真实激励进而得到全面准确的响应信息。以一直齿轮-转子系统为例进行啮合过程的数值仿真，利用中心差分法求得系统各动力学参量在时域上的响应，通过中心距偏差、动态传递误差、动态接触力等参数分析系统的弯曲振动、扭转振动、齿轮副的啮合特性及其耦合关系。研究结果表明：考虑各部件尤其是转子的弹性后，系统的非线性振动特性显著，齿轮副啮合存在明显的双边冲击及脱啮现象。%Considering each component’s elasticity of geared rotor system, a method to simulate the continuous engagement of gear pairs is proposed based on the contact finite analysis. The model is built by solid finite element to analyze structural vibration characteristics. By using the contact finite analysis method to simulate the engagement, the actual excitation like time-varying mesh stiffness, meshing contact can be included in the model, then more comprehensive, accurate response characteristics can be obtained. Solid finite model of a spur geared rotor system is built to simulate the dynamic engagement of gear pairs based on the contact finite element analysis method; the time-domain response of kinetic parameters such as contact force is achieved by resolving the equation of motion. The deviation of center distance, dynamic transmission error and the contact force is used to study the lateral vibration, torsional vibration, the engagement characteristic and coupling relationships of these. The results show that the elasticity of each component especially the rotors have great affection on the dynamic behavior
2010-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rotor speed. 27.1509 Section 27.1509... Rotor speed. (a) Maximum power-off (autorotation). The maximum power-off rotor speed must be established... minimum power-off rotor speed must be established so that it is not less than 105 percent of the...
2010-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rotor speed. 29.1509 Section 29.1509....1509 Rotor speed. (a) Maximum power-off (autorotation). The maximum power-off rotor speed must be... minimum power-off rotor speed must be established so that it is not less than 105 percent of the...
Performance tests on helical Savonius rotors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kamoji, M.A.; Kedare, S.B. [Department of Energy Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay (India); Prabhu, S.V. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay (India)
2009-03-15
Conventional Savonius rotors have high coefficient of static torque at certain rotor angles and a negative coefficient of static torque from 135 to 165 and from 315 to 345 in one cycle of 360 . In order to decrease this variation in static torque from 0 to 360 , a helical Savonius rotor with a twist of 90 is proposed. In this study, tests on helical Savonius rotors are conducted in an open jet wind tunnel. Coefficient of static torque, coefficient of torque and coefficient of power for each helical Savonius rotor are measured. The performance of helical rotor with shaft between the end plates and helical rotor without shaft between the end plates at different overlap ratios namely 0.0, 0.1 and 0.16 is compared. Helical Savonius rotor without shaft is also compared with the performance of the conventional Savonius rotor. The results indicate that all the helical Savonius rotors have positive coefficient of static torque at all the rotor angles. The helical rotors with shaft have lower coefficient of power than the helical rotors without shaft. Helical rotor without shaft at an overlap ratio of 0.0 and an aspect ratio of 0.88 is found to have almost the same coefficient of power when compared with the conventional Savonius rotor. Correlation for coefficient of torque and power is developed for helical Savonius rotor for a range of Reynolds numbers studied. (author)
Panel/full-span free-wake coupled method for unsteady aerodynamics of helicopter rotor blade
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Tan Jianfeng; Wang Haowen
2013-01-01
A full-span free-wake method is coupled with an unsteady panel method to accurately predict the unsteady aerodynamics of helicopter rotor blades in hover and forward flight.The unsteady potential-based panel method is used to consider aerodynamics of finite thickness multi-bladed rotors,and the full-span free-wake method is applied to simulating dynamics of rotor wake.These methods are tightly coupled through trailing-edge Kutta condition and by converting doublet-wake panels to full-span vortex filaments.A velocity-field integration technique is also adopted to overcome singularity problem during the interaction between the rotor wake and blades.Helicopter rotors including Caradonna-Tung,UH-60A,and AH-1G rotors,are simulated in hover and forward flight to validate the accuracy of this approach.The predicted aerodynamic loads of rotor blades agree well with available measured data and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) results,and the unsteady dynamics of rotor wake is also well simulated.Compared to CFD,the present method obtains accurate results more efficiently and is suitable to rotorcraft aeroelastic analysis.
QUANTITATIVE METHODOLOGY FOR STABILITY ANALYSIS OF NONLINEAR ROTOR SYSTEMS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHENG Hui-ping; XUE Yu-sheng; CHEN Yu-shu
2005-01-01
Rotor-bearings systems applied widely in industry are nonlinear dynamic systems of multi-degree-of-freedom. Modem concepts on design and maintenance call for quantitative stability analysis. Using trajectory based stability-preserving and dimensional-reduction, a quanttative stability analysis method for rotor systems is presented. At first, an n-dimensional nonlinear non-autonomous rotor system is decoupled into n subsystems after numerical integration. Each of them has only onedegree-of-freedom and contains time-varying parameters to represent all other state variables. In this way, n-dimensional trajectory is mapped into a set of one-dimensional trajectories. Dynamic central point (DCP) of a subsystem is then defined on the extended phase plane, namely, force-position plane. Characteristics of curves on the extended phase plane and the DCP's kinetic energy difference sequence for general motion in rotor systems are studied. The corresponding stability margins of trajectory are evaluated quantitatively. By means of the margin and its sensitivity analysis, the critical parameters of the period doubling bifurcation and the Hopf bifurcation in a flexible rotor supported by two short journal beatings with nonlinear suspensionare are determined.
Rotor blade assembly having internal loading features
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Soloway, Daniel David
2017-05-16
Rotor blade assemblies and wind turbines are provided. A rotor blade assembly includes a rotor blade having exterior surfaces defining a pressure side, a suction side, a leading edge and a trailing edge each extending between a tip and a root, the rotor blade defining a span and a chord, the exterior surfaces defining an interior of the rotor blade. The rotor blade assembly further includes a loading assembly, the loading assembly including a weight disposed within the interior and movable generally along the span of the rotor blade, the weight connected to a rotor blade component such that movement of the weight towards the tip causes application of a force to the rotor blade component by the weight. Centrifugal force due to rotation of the rotor blade biases the weight towards the tip.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Salazar San Andres, Octavio Ramon
1991-12-31
A theoretical and experimental research is conducted in order to determine the labyrinth seal forces, as well as the stiffness and damping coefficients for straight, convergent, divergent, and combined shapes on turbine and compressor rotors. The mathematical model is deduced on the basis of the single volume method and its solution is obtained by the perturbation procedure. The validation is achieved with published results. Experimental work carried out on a test bench is described in the text. This involved labyrinth seals with straight, convergent, and divergent profiles, as the published information relating to mixed type is sufficient to perform the evaluation. The conclusions demonstrate that the model is able to predict and determine the performance of labyrinth seals based on forces and rotordynamic coefficients for static and dynamic motions. Finally, tests on real steam turbines of 300 MW are recommended. In this case the high pressures and use of wheels with strips on the periphery and supported by the upper part of blades, increase the susceptibility of self excited subsynchronous vibrations. [Espanol] Se presenta una investigacion teorica-experimental relacionada con la obtencion y validacion de un modelo matematico capaz de predecir las fuerzas y los coeficientes de rigidez y amortiguamiento de los sellos de laberinto de tipo recto, convergente, divergente y mixto que se emplean en turbinas y compresores tanto terrestres como aereos. El modelo matematico propuesto se deduce a partir del metodo de un solo volumen y su solucion se obtiene a traves de metodos perturbatorios. La validacion del mismo se consigue al comparar con resultados experimentales publicados en revistas especializadas y con los datos medidos en un banco de pruebas cuya descripcion se incluye en el trabajo, cualculado para sellos rectos, convergentes y divergentes, ya que la informacion publicada respecto al tipo mixto o combinado es suficiente. Las conclusiones de la investigacion
Hybrid Configuration of Darrieus and Savonius Rotors for Stand-alone Power Systems
Wakui, Tetsuya; Tanzawa, Yoshiaki; Hashizume, Takumi; Nagao, Toshio
The suitable hybrid configuration of Darrieus lift-type and Savonius drag-type rotors for stand-alone wind turbine-generator systems is discussed using our dynamic simulation model. Two types of hybrid configurations are taken up: Type-A installs the Savonius rotor inside the Darrieus rotor and Type-B installs the Savonius rotor outside the Darrieus rotor. The computed results of the output characteristics and the dynamic behaviors of the system operated at the maximum power coefficient points show that Type-A, which has fine operating behavior to wind speed changes and can be compactly designed because of a shorter rotational shaft, is an effective way for self-controlled stand-alone small-scale systems.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rastogi Vikas
2016-09-01
Full Text Available The main focus of the paper is touted as effects of discrete damping on the dynamic analysis of rotating shaft. The whole analysis is being carried out through extended Lagrangian formulation for a discrete – continuous system. The variation formulation for this system is possible, considering the continuous system as one-dimensional. The generalized formulation for one dimensional continuous rotary shaft with discrete external damper has been obtained through principle of variation. Using this extended formulation, the invariance of umbra-Lagrangian density through extended Noether’s theorem is achieved. Rayleigh beam model is used to model the shaft. Amplitude equation of rotor is obtained theoretically and validated through simulation results. The simulation results reveal the important phenomena of limiting dynamics of the rotor shaft, which is due to an imbalance of material damping and stiffness of the rotor shaft. The regenerative energy in the rotor shaft, induced due to elasticity/stiffness of the rotor shaft, is dissipated partially through the in-span discrete damper and also through the dissipative coupling between drive and the rotor shaft. In such cases, the shaft speed will not increase with increase in excitation frequency of the rotor but the slip between the drive and the shaft increases due to loading of drive.
Rastogi, Vikas
2016-09-01
The main focus of the paper is touted as effects of discrete damping on the dynamic analysis of rotating shaft. The whole analysis is being carried out through extended Lagrangian formulation for a discrete - continuous system. The variation formulation for this system is possible, considering the continuous system as one-dimensional. The generalized formulation for one dimensional continuous rotary shaft with discrete external damper has been obtained through principle of variation. Using this extended formulation, the invariance of umbra-Lagrangian density through extended Noether's theorem is achieved. Rayleigh beam model is used to model the shaft. Amplitude equation of rotor is obtained theoretically and validated through simulation results. The simulation results reveal the important phenomena of limiting dynamics of the rotor shaft, which is due to an imbalance of material damping and stiffness of the rotor shaft. The regenerative energy in the rotor shaft, induced due to elasticity/stiffness of the rotor shaft, is dissipated partially through the in-span discrete damper and also through the dissipative coupling between drive and the rotor shaft. In such cases, the shaft speed will not increase with increase in excitation frequency of the rotor but the slip between the drive and the shaft increases due to loading of drive.
PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF A HELICAL SAVONIUS ROTOR WITHOUT SHAFT AT 45° TWIST ANGLE USING CFD
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bachu Deb
2013-06-01
Full Text Available Helical Savonius rotor exhibits better performance characteristics at all the rotor angles compared to conventional Savonius rotor. However studies related to the performance measurement and flow physics of such rotor are very scarce. Keeping this in view, in this paper, a three dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics analysis using commercial Fluent 6.2 software was done to predict the performance of a two-bucket helical Savonius rotor without shaft and with end plates in a complete cycle of rotation. A two-bucket helical Savonius rotor having height of 60 cm and diameter of 17 cm with 45° bucket twist angle was designed using Gambit. The buckets were connected at the top and bottom circular end plates, which are 1.1 times the rotor diameter. The k-ε turbulence model with second order upwind discretization scheme was adopted with standard wall condition. Power coefficients (Cp and torque coefficients (Ct at different tip speed ratios were evaluated at different rotor angles. From the investigation, it was observed that power coefficient increased with increase of tip speed ratio up to an optimum limit, but then decreased even further tip speed ratio was increased. Further investigation was done on the variations of Cp & Ct in a complete cycle of rotation from 0° to 360° in a step of 45° rotor corresponding to the optimum tip speed ratio. The value of Cp at all the rotor angles is positive. Moreover, velocity magnitude contours were analyzed for each rotor angle and it could be concluded that high aerodynamic torque and power can be expected when the rotor is positioned at 45º & 90º with respect to incoming flow.
PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF A HELICAL SAVONIUS ROTOR WITHOUT SHAFT AT 45° TWIST ANGLE USING CFD
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bachu Deb
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Helical Savonius rotor exhibits better performance characteristics at all the rotor angles compared to conventional Savonius rotor. However studies related to the performance measurement and flow physics of such rotor are very scarce. Keeping this in view, in this paper, a three dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics analysis using commercial Fluent 6.2 software was done to predict the performance of a two-bucket helical Savonius rotor without shaft and with end plates in a complete cycle of rotation. A two-bucket helical Savonius rotor having height of 60 cm and diameter of 17 cm with 45° bucket twist angle was designed using Gambit. The buckets were connected at the top and bottom circular end plates, which are 1.1 times the rotor diameter. The k- ε turbulence model with second order upwind discretization scheme was adopted with standard wall condition. Power coefficients (Cp and torque coefficients (Ct at different tip speed ratios were evaluated at different rotor angles. From the investigation, it was observed that power coefficient increased with increase of tip speed ratio up to an optimum limit, but then decreased even further tip speed ratio was increased. Further investigation was done on the variations of Cp & Ct in a complete cycle of rotation from 0° to 360° in a step of 45° rotor corresponding to the optimum tip speed ratio. The value of Cp at all the rotor angles is positive. Moreover, velocity magnitude contours were analyzed for each rotor angle and it could be concluded that high aerodynamic torque and power can be expected when the rotor is positioned at 45º & 90º with respect to incoming flow.
Dynamically Induced Planck Scale and Inflation
Kannike, Kristjan; Pizza, Liberato; Racioppi, Antonio; Raidal, Martti; Salvio, Alberto; Strumia, Alessandro
2015-01-01
Theories where the Planck scale is dynamically generated from dimensionless interactions provide predictive inflationary potentials and super-Planckian field variations. We first study the minimal single-field realisation in the low-energy effective field theory limit, finding the predictions $n_s \\approx 0.96$ for the spectral index and $r \\approx 0.13$ for the tensor-to-scalar ratio, close to those of a quadratic potential. Next we consider agravity as a dimensionless quantum gravity theory finding a multi-field inflation that converges towards an attractor trajectory that predicts $n_s\\approx 0.96$ and $0.003
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Inayat-Hussain, Jawaid I. [School of Engineering, Monash University Malaysia, No. 2, Jalan Kolej, Bandar Sunway, 46150 Petaling Jaya, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)]. E-mail: jawaid.inayat-hussain@eng.monash.edu.my
2007-02-15
This work reports on a numerical study undertaken to investigate the response of an imbalanced rigid rotor supported by active magnetic bearings. The mathematical model of the rotor-bearing system used in this study incorporates nonlinearity arising from the electromagnetic force-coil current-air gap relationship, and the effects of geometrical cross-coupling. The response of the rotor is observed to exhibit a rich variety of dynamical behavior including synchronous, sub-synchronous, quasi-periodic and chaotic vibrations. The transition from synchronous rotor response to chaos is via the torus breakdown route. As the rotor imbalance magnitude is increased, the synchronous rotor response undergoes a secondary Hopf bifurcation resulting in quasi-periodic vibration, which is characterized by a torus attractor. With further increase in the rotor imbalance magnitude, this attractor is seen to develop wrinkles and becomes unstable resulting in a fractal torus attractor. The fractal torus is eventually destroyed as the rotor imbalance magnitude is further increased. Quasi-periodic and frequency-locked sub-synchronous vibrations are seen to appear and disappear alternately before the emergence of chaos in the response of the rotor. The magnitude of rotor imbalance where sub-synchronous, quasi-periodic and chaotic vibrations are observed in this study, albeit being higher than the specified imbalance level for rotating machinery, may possibly occur due to a gradual degradation of the rotor balance quality during operation.
Dissipative Particle Dynamics of tension-induced membrane fusion
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Shillcock, Julian C.
2009-01-01
Recent studies of tension-induced membrane fusion using dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) simulations are briefly reviewed. The stochastic nature of the fusion process makes it necessary to simulate a large number of fusion attempts in order to obtain reliable fusion statistics and to extract...
Feedback Control of Rotor Overspeed
Churchill, G. B.
1984-01-01
Feedback system for automatically governing helicopter rotor speed promises to lessen pilot's workload, enhance maneuverability, and protect airframe. With suitable modifications, concept applied to control speed of electrical generators, automotive engines and other machinery.
Design of composite flywheel rotor
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yue BAI; Qingjia GAO; Haiwen LI; Yihui WU; Ming XUAN
2008-01-01
A design method for a flywheel rotor com-posed of a composite rim and a metal hub is proposed by studying the connection between the rotor and the driving machine. The influence of some factors such as the rotor material, configuration, connection, and frac-ture techniques on energy density is analyzed. The results show that the ratio of the inner radius to outer radius of the rim is the key factor, and is determined by the rim material. Optimizing the hub can further efficiently improve energy density. The composite flywheel rotor is produced and its rotation stress has been tested at the speed of 20 krpm. The emulation results are consistent with testing results, which proves that the introduced design method is useful.
General model and control of an n rotor helicopter
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sidea, Adriana-Gabriela; Brogaard, Rune Yding; Andersen, Nils Axel
2015-01-01
The purpose of this study was to create a dynamic, nonlinear mathematical model ofa multirotor that would be valid for different numbers of rotors. Furthermore, a set of SingleInput Single Output (SISO) controllers were implemented for attitude control. Both model andcontrollers were tested exper...
On Cup Anemometer Rotor Aerodynamics
Santiago Pindado; Sergio Avila-Sanchez; Javier Pérez
2012-01-01
The influence of anemometer rotor shape parameters, such as the cups’ front area or their center rotation radius on the anemometer’s performance was analyzed. This analysis was based on calibrations performed on two different anemometers (one based on magnet system output signal, and the other one based on an opto-electronic system output signal), tested with 21 different rotors. The results were compared to the ones resulting from classical analytical models. The results clearly showed a lin...
Current-induced dynamics in carbon atomic contacts
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lu, Jing Tao; Gunst, Tue; Brandbyge, Mads
2011-01-01
voltage, which can be used to explore current-induced vibrational instabilities due the NC/BP forces. Furthermore, using tight-binding and the Brenner potential we illustrate how Langevin-type molecular-dynamics calculations including the Joule heating effect for the carbon-chain systems can be performed...... of molecular-scale contacts. Systems based on molecules bridging electrically gated graphene electrodes may offer an interesting test-bed for these effects. Results: We employ a semi-classical Langevin approach in combination with DFT calculations to study the current-induced vibrational dynamics of an atomic...... carbon chain connecting electrically gated graphene electrodes. This illustrates how the device stability can be predicted solely from the modes obtained from the Langevin equation, including the current-induced forces. We point out that the gate offers control of the current, independent of the bias...
Extension-twist coupling optimization in composite rotor blades
Ozbay, Serkan
2005-07-01
For optimal rotor performance in a tiltrotor aircraft the difference in the inflow and the rotor speeds between the hover and cruise flight modes suggests different blade twist and chord distributions. The blade twist rates in current tiltrotor applications are defined based upon a compromise between the figure of merit in hover and propeller efficiency in airplane mode. However, when each operation mode is considered separately the optimum blade distributions are found to be considerably different. Passive blade twist control, which uses the inherent variation in centrifugal forces on a rotor blade to achieve optimum blade twist distributions in each flight mode through the use of extension-twist coupled composite rotor blades, has been considered for performance improvement of tiltrotor aircraft over the last two decades. The challenge for this concept is to achieve the desired twisting deformations in the rotor blade without altering the aeroelastic characteristics of the vehicle. A concept referred to as the sliding mass concept is proposed in this work in order to increase the twist change with rotor speed for a closed-cell composite rotor blade cross-section to practical levels for performance improvement in a tiltrotor aircraft. The concept is based on load path changes for the centrifugal forces by utilizing non-structural masses readily available on a conventional blade, such as the leading edge balancing mass. A multilevel optimization technique based on the simulated annealing method is applied to improve the performance of the XV15 tiltrotor aircraft. A cross-sectional analysis tool, VABS together with a multibody dynamics code, DYMORE are integrated into the optimization process. The optimization results revealed significant improvements in the power requirement in hover while preserving cruise efficiency. It is also shown that about 21% of the improvement is provided through the sliding mass concept pointing to the additional flexibility the concept
Effect of fluid damping on vibration response of immersed rotors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mahmud Rasheed Ismail, Mustafa Asaad Hussein
2016-01-01
Full Text Available As immersed rotors vibrate in a viscous media such as fluid, a considerable amount of damping may be generated due to the interaction phenomena between the rotor components and the fluid media.Such damping is depending on many factors such as; fluid drag,fluid friction,turbulence, vortex and so on. Immersed rotors find their application in many engineering fields such as Marines machines, gear box, turbine and pumps.In the presentwork, a mathematical modelis attempted to investigate the dynamical behaviorimmersed rotor.The model takes into account the effects of the most rotordynamic parameters, namely; fluid drag,damping and stiffness of bearing,unbalance and gyroscopic effects of the attacheddisc, and elastic bending and internal damping of rotor shaft.Four types of fluid are employed as a fluid immersing media which are; Air, Water, SAE 20 andSAE 40oils.The experimental apparatus includes a sample rotor with single disc and plastic fluid container.Two proximate sensors are employed for measuring the unbalance response and orbits shapes under different rotor speeds, and discs size and locations.Modal analysis is employed for solving the governing equation of vibration motion. To check the validity of the mathematical model the theoretical results are compared with the experimental results. It is found that; the theoretical results are in a good agreement with the experimental ones, where the maximum error is not exceeded (6.8 %, and that;the fluid damping can highly reduce the peak amplitude of the unbalance response (up to 60 % however, it has slight effect on the critical speeds which are highly affected by the size and location of the attached disc.
CFD simulation of a screw compressor including leakage flows and rotor heating
Spille-Kohoff, Andreas, Dr.; Hesse, Jan; El Shorbagy, Ahmed
2015-08-01
Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations have promising potential to become an important part in the development process of positive displacement (PD) machines. CFD delivers deep insights into the flow and thermodynamic behaviour of PD machines. However, the numerical simulation of such machines is more complex compared to dynamic pumps like turbines or fans. The fluid transport in size-changing chambers with very small clearances between the rotors, and between rotors and casing, demands complex meshes that change with each time step. Additionally, the losses due to leakage flows and the heat transfer to the rotors need high-quality meshes so that automatic remeshing is almost impossible. In this paper, setup steps and results for the simulation of a dry screw compressor are shown. The rotating parts are meshed with TwinMesh, a special hexahedral meshing program for gear pumps, gerotors, lobe pumps and screw compressors. In particular, these meshes include axial and radial clearances between housing and rotors, and beside the fluid volume the rotor solids are also meshed. The CFD simulation accounts for gas flow with compressibility and turbulence effects, heat transfer between gas and rotors, and leakage flows through the clearances. We show time- resolved results for torques, forces, interlobe pressure, mass flow, and heat flow between gas and rotors, as well as time- and space-resolved results for pressure, velocity, temperature etc. for different discharge ports and working points of the screw compressor. These results are also used as thermal loads for deformation simulations of the rotors.
Current-induced dynamics in carbon atomic contacts
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jing-Tao Lü
2011-12-01
Full Text Available Background: The effect of electric current on the motion of atoms still poses many questions, and several mechanisms are at play. Recently there has been focus on the importance of the current-induced nonconservative forces (NC and Berry-phase derived forces (BP with respect to the stability of molecular-scale contacts. Systems based on molecules bridging electrically gated graphene electrodes may offer an interesting test-bed for these effects.Results: We employ a semi-classical Langevin approach in combination with DFT calculations to study the current-induced vibrational dynamics of an atomic carbon chain connecting electrically gated graphene electrodes. This illustrates how the device stability can be predicted solely from the modes obtained from the Langevin equation, including the current-induced forces. We point out that the gate offers control of the current, independent of the bias voltage, which can be used to explore current-induced vibrational instabilities due the NC/BP forces. Furthermore, using tight-binding and the Brenner potential we illustrate how Langevin-type molecular-dynamics calculations including the Joule heating effect for the carbon-chain systems can be performed. Molecular dynamics including current-induced forces enables an energy redistribution mechanism among the modes, mediated by anharmonic interactions, which is found to be vital in the description of the electrical heating.Conclusion: We have developed a semiclassical Langevin equation approach that can be used to explore current-induced dynamics and instabilities. We find instabilities at experimentally relevant bias and gate voltages for the carbon-chain system.
A review of current finite difference rotor flow methods
Caradonna, F. X.; Tung, C.
1986-01-01
Rotary-wing computational fluid dynamics is reaching a point where many three-dimensional, unsteady, finite-difference codes are becoming available. This paper gives a brief review of five such codes, which treat the small disturbance, conservative and nonconservative full-potential, and Euler flow models. A discussion of the methods of applying these codes to the rotor environment (including wake and trim considerations) is followed by a comparison with various available data. These data include tests of advancing lifting and nonlifting, and hovering model rotors with significant supercritical flow regions. The codes are also compared for computational efficiency.
The Yarn Curve and Tension in Rotor Spinning
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2007-01-01
The effective way of finding the yarn curve shape and tension of OE(open end) yarn inside the rotor is carried out and treated by dividing the yarn curve into two parts, from which the trajectory of the yarn sliding on the navel surface is also obtained. It is pointed out that the yarn curve shape and tension will both fluctuate with the trajectory's revolving cycle inside the rotor. However, the fluctuation is not too great, so the motion can still be regarded as approximately steady for dynamic analysis.
Can Strange Nonchaotic Dynamics be induced through Stochastic Driving?
Prasad, A K; Prasad, Awadhesh; Ramaswamy, Ramakrishna
1999-01-01
Upon addition of noise, chaotic motion in low-dimensional dynamical systems can sometimes be transformed into nonchaotic dynamics: namely, the largest Lyapunov exponent can be made nonpositive. We study this phenomenon in model systems with a view to understanding the circumstances when such behaviour is possible. This technique for inducing ``order'' through stochastic driving works by modifying the invariant measure on the attractor: by appropriately increasing measure on those portions of the attractor where the dynamics is contracting, the overall dynamics can be made nonchaotic, however {\\it not} a strange nonchaotic attractor. Alternately, by decreasing measure on contracting regions, the largest Lyapunov exponent can be enhanced. A number of different chaos control and anticontrol techniques are known to function on this paradigm.
Three-dimensional flows in a transonic compressor rotor
Reid, Lonnie; Celestina, Mark L.; Dewitt, Kenneth; Keith, Theo
1991-01-01
This study involves an experimental and numerical investigation of the three-dimensional flows in a transonic compressor rotor. A variety of data which could be used, in a complementary fashion, to validate/calibrate the computational fluid dynamics turbomachinery code and improve understanding of the flow physics, were acquired. Detailed radial survey data which consisted of total pressure, total temperature, static pressure and flow angle were obtained at stations upstream and downstream of the rotor blade. Detailed velocity and turbulence profiles were obtained upstream of the rotor and used as the upstream boundary conditions for the numerical analysis. Calibrated flush-mounted hot film probes were used to measure wall shear stress on the hub and casing walls upstream of the rotor. The blade-to-blade shear-stress angle distributions were obtained at two axial locations on the rotor casing, using flush-mounted hot film probes. A numerical analysis conducted using a three-dimensional Navier-Stokes code was compared with the experimental results.
Prospects for Brushless ac Motors with HTS Rotors
McCulloch, M. D.; Jim, K.; Kawai, Y.; Dew-Hughes, D.; Morgan, C.; Goringe, M. J.; Grovenor, C. R. M.
1997-03-01
There is a superconducting equivalent for every type of brushless ac motor; permanent magnet, reluctance, hysteresis and induction (squirrel cage) motor. The particular advantage of superconducting versions of these machines is that they are expected to provide much higher power densities than their conventional equivalents. The behaviour of superconducting rotors fabricated in the form of (a) squirrell cages from silver coated with melt-processed Bi-2212, (b) tubes cast centifugally from Bi-2212, and (c) small cylinders of melt-processed and seeded YBCO has been studied in rotating magnetic fields provided by conventional motor coils. Measurements of static torque, and values of dynamic torque deduced from angular velocity and acceleration have been used to characterise the potential performance of these embryonic machines. Two broad types of behaviour have been observed. In the Bi-2212 rotors the torque decreases with increasing rotor speed; this behaviour is believed due to flux creep. By contrast the strong-pinning YBCO rotors maintain a constant torque up to synchronous speed. Mathematical modelling of flux penetration and distribution within the rotors is able to reproduce both types of the observed behaviour. Power densities some 5 to 10 times that of conventional machines are predicted to be achievable in optimised prototype machines.
Active control for performance enhancement of electrically controlled rotor
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Lu Yang; Wang Chao
2015-01-01
Electrically controlled rotor (ECR) system has the potential to enhance the rotor perfor-mance by applying higher harmonic flap inputs. In order to explore the feasibility and effectiveness for ECR performance enhancement using closed-loop control method, firstly, an ECR rotor perfor-mance analysis model based on helicopter flight dynamic model is established, which can reflect the performance characteristics of ECR helicopter at high advance ratio. Based on the simulation platform, an active control method named adaptive T-matrix algorithm is adopted to explore the feasibility and effectiveness for ECR performance enhancement. The simulation results verify the effectiveness of this closed-loop control method. For the sample ECR helicopter, about 3%rotor power reduction is obtained with the optimum 2/rev flap inputs at the advance ratio of 0.34. And through analyzing the distributions of attack of angle and drag in rotor disk, the underlying physical essence of ECR power reduction is cleared. Furthermore, the influence of the key control parameters, including convergence factor and weighting matrix, on the effectiveness of closed-loop control for ECR performance enhancement is explored. Some useful results are summarized, which can be used to direct the future active control law design of ECR performance enhancement.
Field Balancing of Magnetically Levitated Rotors without Trial Weights
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jiancheng Fang
2013-11-01
Full Text Available Unbalance in magnetically levitated rotor (MLR can cause undesirable synchronous vibrations and lead to the saturation of the magnetic actuator. Dynamic balancing is an important way to solve these problems. However, the traditional balancing methods, using rotor displacement to estimate a rotor’s unbalance, requiring several trial-runs, are neither precise nor efficient. This paper presents a new balancing method for an MLR without trial weights. In this method, the rotor is forced to rotate around its geometric axis. The coil currents of magnetic bearing, rather than rotor displacement, are employed to calculate the correction masses. This method provides two benefits when the MLR’s rotation axis coincides with the geometric axis: one is that unbalanced centrifugal force/torque equals the synchronous magnetic force/torque, and the other is that the magnetic force is proportional to the control current. These make calculation of the correction masses by measuring coil current with only a single start-up precise. An unbalance compensation control (UCC method, using a general band-pass filter (GPF to make the MLR spin around its geometric axis is also discussed. Experimental results show that the novel balancing method can remove more than 92.7% of the rotor unbalance and a balancing accuracy of 0.024 g mm kg−1 is achieved.
Control of flexible rotor systems with active magnetic bearings
Lei, Shuliang; Palazzolo, Alan
2008-07-01
An approach is presented for the analysis and design of magnetic suspension systems with large flexible rotordynamics models including dynamics, control, and simulation. The objective is to formulate and synthesize a large-order, flexible shaft rotordynamics model for a flywheel supported with magnetic bearings. A finite element model of the rotor system is assembled and then employed to develop a magnetic suspension compensator to provide good reliability and disturbance rejection. Stable operation over the complete speed range and optimization of the closed-loop rotordynamic properties are obtained via synthesis of eigenvalue analysis, Campbell plots, waterfall plots, and mode shapes. The large order of the rotor model and high spin speed of the rotor present a challenge for magnetic suspension control. A flywheel system is studied as an example for realizing a physical controller that provides stable rotor suspension and good disturbance rejection in all operating states. The baseline flywheel system control is determined from extensive rotordynamics synthesis and analysis for rotor critical speeds, mode shapes, frequency responses, and time responses.
Microtubule dynamics control HGF-induced lung endothelial barrier enhancement.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xinyong Tian
Full Text Available Microtubules (MT play a vital role in many cellular functions, but their role in peripheral actin cytoskeletal dynamics which is essential for control of endothelial barrier and monolayer integrity is less understood. We have previously described the enhancement of lung endothelial cell (EC barrier by hepatocyte growth factor (HGF which was associated with Rac1-mediated remodeling of actin cytoskeleton. This study investigated involvement of MT-dependent mechanisms in the HGF-induced enhancement of EC barrier. HGF-induced Rac1 activation was accompanied by phosphorylation of stathmin, a regulator of MT dynamics. HGF also stimulated MT peripheral growth monitored by time lapse imaging and tracking analysis of EB-1-decorated MT growing tips, and increased the pool of acetylated tubulin. These effects were abolished by EC pretreatment with HGF receptor inhibitor, downregulation of Rac1 pathway, or by expression of a stathmin-S63A phosphorylation deficient mutant. Expression of stathmin-S63A abolished the HGF protective effects against thrombin-induced activation of RhoA cascade, permeability increase, and EC barrier dysfunction. These results demonstrate a novel MT-dependent mechanism of HGF-induced EC barrier regulation via Rac1/PAK1/stathmin-dependent control of MT dynamics.
Rotor-Router Aggregation on the Comb
Huss, Wilfried; Sava, Ecaterina
2011-01-01
We prove a shape theorem for rotor-router aggregation on the comb, for a specific initial rotor configuration and clockwise rotor sequence for all vertices. Furthermore, as an application of rotor-router walks, we describe the harmonic measure of the rotor-router aggregate and related shapes, which is useful in the study of other growth models on the comb. We also identify the shape for which the harmonic measure is uniform. This gives the first known example where the rotor-router cluster ha...
Magnetization dynamics induced by Rashba effect in a Permalloy nanodisk
Li, Huanan; Hua, Zhong; Li, Dongfei
2017-02-01
Magnetic vortex dynamics mediated by spin-polarized ac current of different amplitudes and frequencies are investigated by micromagnetic simulations in a system lacking structure inversion symmetry. Micromagnetic calculations reveal that the critical current density required to induce vortex core reversal may be decreased to below 1010 A m-2 due to strong transverse magnetic field by Rashba effect. We also find the spin torque of ac current plays a trivial role in magnetic vortex dynamics in a broken inversion symmetry system when the current density is on the order of 1010 A m-2 and the current with frequency close to the vortex eigenfrequency is the most efficient for reversal.
Liquid Self-Balancing Device Effects on Flexible Rotor Stability
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Leonardo Urbiola-Soto
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Nearly a century ago, the liquid self-balancing device was first introduced by M. LeBlanc for passive balancing of turbine rotors. Although of common use in many types or rotating machines nowadays, little information is available on the unbalance response and stability characteristics of this device. Experimental fluid flow visualization evidences that radial and traverse circulatory waves arise due to the interaction of the fluid backward rotation and the baffle boards within the self-balancer annular cavity. The otherwise destabilizing force induced by trapped fluids in hollow rotors, becomes a stabilizing mechanism when the cavity is equipped with adequate baffle boards. Further experiments using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV enable to assess the active fluid mass fraction to be one-third of the total fluid mass. An analytical model is introduced to study the effects of the active fluid mass fraction on a flexible rotor supported by flexible supports excited by bwo different destabilizing mechanisms; rotor internal friction damping and aerodynamic cross-coupling. It is found that the fluid radial and traverse forces contribute to the balancing action and to improve the rotor stability, respectively.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lindholdt, Asger; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Yebra, D. M.;
2015-01-01
separate parts: one aged FCCs directly in seawater in a dynamic manner by simulating the exposure condition of a ship’s hull, and a second, laboratory part measured the torque (drag) of aged coatings in a rotary setup. From the spring to the autumn of 2013 and 2014, four commercial FCCs were exposed for 53...
Vibratory Loads Data from a Wind-Tunnel Test of Structurally Tailored Model Helicopter Rotors
Yeager, William T., Jr.; Hamouda, M-Nabil H.; Idol, Robert F.; Mirick, Paul H.; Singleton, Jeffrey D.; Wilbur, Matthew L.
1991-01-01
An experimental study was conducted in the Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel to investigate the use of a Bell Helicopter Textron (BHT) rotor structural tailoring concept, known as rotor nodalization, in conjunction with advanced blade aerodynamics as well as to evaluate rotor blade aerodynamic design methodologies. A 1/5-size, four-bladed bearingless hub, three sets of Mach-scaled model rotor blades were tested in forward flight from transition up to an advance ratio of 0.35. The data presented pertain only to the evaluation of the structural tailoring concept and consist of fixed-system and rotating system vibratory loads. These data will be useful for evaluating the effects of tailoring blade structural properties on fixed-system vibratory loads, as well as validating analyses used in the design of advanced rotor systems.
Development of Motor Model of Rotor Slot Harmonics for Speed Sensorless Control of Induction Motor
Okubo, Tatsuya; Ishida, Muneaki; Doki, Shinji
This paper proposes a novel mathematical dynamic model to represent steady-state and transient-state characteristics of rotor slot harmonics of an induction motor for sensorless control. Although it is well known that the rotor slot harmonics originate from the mechanical structure of the induction motor, a mathematical model that describes the relationship between stator/rotor currents of the induction motor and the slot harmonics has not yet been proposed. Therefore, in this paper, a three-phase model of the induction motor that depicts the rotor slot harmonics is developed by taking into consideration the magnetomotive force harmonics and the change in the magnetic air gap caused by the rotor slots. Moreover, the validity of the proposed model is verified by comparing the experimental results and the calculated values.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhentao Wang
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Fault detection and isolation (FDI in rotor systems often faces the problem that the system dynamics is dependent on the rotor rotary frequency because of the gyroscopic effect. In unbalance excited rotor systems, the continuously distributed unbalances are hard to be determined or estimated accurately. The unbalance forces as disturbances make fault detection more complicated. The aim of this paper is to develop linear time invariant (LTI FDI methods (i.e., with constant parameters for rotor systems under consideration of gyroscopic effect and disturbances. Two approaches to describe the gyroscopic effect, that is, as unknown inputs and as model uncertainties, are investigated. Based on these two approaches, FDI methods are developed and the results are compared regarding the resulting FDI performances. Results are obtained by the application in a rotor test rig. Restrictions for the application of these methods are discussed.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Inayat-Hussain, J I [School of Engineering, Monash University, Jalan Lagoon Selatan, 46150 Bandar Sunway, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)], E-mail: jawaid.inayat-hussain@eng.monash.edu.my
2008-02-15
Numerical results on the response of a flexible rotor supported by nonlinear active magnetic bearings are presented. Nonlinearity arising from the magnetic actuator forces that are nonlinear functions of the coil current and the air gap between the rotor and the stator, and from the geometric coupling of the magnetic actuators is incorporated into the mathematical model of the flexible rotor - active magnetic bearing system. For relatively large values of the geometric coupling parameter, the response of the rotor with the variation of the speed parameter within the range 0.05 {<=}{omega} {<=} 5.0 displayed a rich variety of nonlinear dynamical phenomena including sub-synchronous vibrations of periods -2, -3, -6, -9, and -17, quasi-periodicity and chaos. Numerical results also reveal the occurrence of bi-stable operation within certain ranges of the speed parameter where multiple attractors may co-exist at the same speed parameter value depending on the operating speed of the rotor.
Control of Rotor-Blade Coupled Vibrations Using Shaft-Based Actuation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christensen, Rene H.; Santos, Ilmar
2006-01-01
When implementing active control into bladed rotating machines aiming at reducing blade vibrations, it can be shown that blade as well as rotor vibrations can in fact be controlled by the use of only shaft-based actuation. Thus the blades have to be deliberately mistuned. This paper investigates...... of modal controllability and observability converge toward steady levels as the degree of mistuning is increased. Finally, experimental control results are presented to prove the theoretical conclusions and to show the feasibility of controlling rotor and blade vibrations by means of shaft-based actuation...... the dynamical characteristics of a mistuned bladed rotor and shows how, why and when a bladed rotor becomes controllable and observable if properly mistuned. As part of such investigation modal controllability and observability of a tuned as well as a mistuned coupled rotor-blade system are analysed...
Shock Wave Observation in Narrow Tubes for a Parametric Study on Micro Wave Rotor Design
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Koji Okamoto; Mikiya Araki
2008-01-01
Wave rotor is expected to improve the performance of micro gas turbines drastically. In the wave rotor design, the rotor speed is determined principally by the tube length. Therefore, a longer tube is preferable for miniaturized wave rotors to avoid the difficulty in bearings and lubrication system, while it may yield thicker wall boundary layer, shock wave dissipation and so on. In the present study, an experimental apparatus was built to visualize the wave rotor internal flow dynamics in a narrow tube by schlieren method and Laser Doppler Anemometry. In addition, different lengths of the tube were adopted and compared to investigate the effect of wall friction. Finally, 2D numerical simulation was performed and the results were compared with those of experiments.
a Uqp(u2) Rotor Model for Rotational Bands of Superdeformed Nuclei
Barbier, R.; Meyer, J.; Kibler, M.
A nonrigid rotor model is developed from the two-parameter quantum algebra Uqp(u2). (This model presents the Uqp(u2) symmetry and shall be refered to as the qp-rotor model.) A rotational energy formula as well as a qp-deformation of E2 reduced transition probabilities are derived. The qp-rotor model is applied (through fitting procedures) to twenty rotational bands of superdeformed nuclei in the A~130, 150, and 190 mass regions. Systematic comparisons between the qp-rotor model and the q-rotor model of Raychev, Roussev, and Smirnov, on one hand, and a basic three-parameter model, on the other, are performed on energy spectra, on dynamical moments of inertia and on B(E2) values. The physical significance of the deformation parameters q and p is discussed.
Smart helicopter rotors optimization and piezoelectric vibration control
Ganguli, Ranjan; Viswamurthy, Sathyamangalam Ramanarayanan
2016-01-01
Exploiting the properties of piezoelectric materials to minimize vibration in rotor-blade actuators, this book demonstrates the potential of smart helicopter rotors to achieve the smoothness of ride associated with jet-engined, fixed-wing aircraft. Vibration control is effected using the concepts of trailing-edge flaps and active-twist. The authors’ optimization-based approach shows the advantage of multiple trailing-edge flaps and algorithms for full-authority control of dual trailing-edge-flap actuators are presented. Hysteresis nonlinearity in piezoelectric stack actuators is highlighted and compensated by use of another algorithm. The idea of response surfaces provides for optimal placement of trailing-edge flaps. The concept of active twist involves the employment of piezoelectrically induced shear actuation in rotating beams. Shear is then demonstrated for a thin-walled aerofoil-section rotor blade under feedback-control vibration minimization. Active twist is shown to be significant in reducing vibra...
Dynamics of Coalescence-Induced Jumping Water Droplets
Miljkovic, Nenad; Enright, Ryan; Wang, Evelyn N
2013-01-01
This fluid dynamics video shows the different interaction mechanisms of coalescence-induced droplet jumping during condensation on a nanostructured superhydrophobic surface. High speed imaging was used to show jumping behavior on superhydrophobic copper oxide and carbon nanotube surfaces. Videos demonstrating multi-jumping droplets, jumping droplet return to the surface, and droplet-droplet electrostatic repulsions were analyzed. Experiments using external electric fields in conjunction with high speed imaging in a custom built experimental chamber were used to show that all coalescence-induced jumping droplets on superhydrophobic surfaces become positively charged upon leaving the surface, which is detailed in the video.
Applications of laser-induced gratings to spectroscopy and dynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rohlfing, E.A. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States)
1993-12-01
This program has traditionally emphasized two principal areas of research. The first is the spectroscopic characterization of large-amplitude motion on the ground-state potential surface of small, transient molecules. The second is the reactivity of carbonaceous clusters and its relevance to soot and fullerene formation in combustion. Motivated initially by the desire to find improved methods of obtaining stimulated emission pumping (SEP) spectra of transients, most of our recent work has centered on the use of laser-induced gratings or resonant four-wave mixing in free-jet expansions. These techniques show great promise for several chemical applications, including molecular spectroscopy and photodissociation dynamics. The author describes recent applications of two-color laser-induced grating spectroscopy (LIGS) to obtain background-free SEP spectra of transients and double resonance spectra of nonfluorescing species, and the use of photofragment transient gratings to probe photodissociation dynamics.
A coupling VWM/CFD/CSD method for rotor airload prediction
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yongjie Shi
2017-02-01
Full Text Available A coupling fluid-structure method with a combination of viscous wake model (VWM, computational fluid dynamics (CFD and comprehensive structural dynamics (CSD modules is developed in this paper for rotor unsteady airload prediction. The hybrid VWM/CFD solver is employed to model the nonlinear aerodynamic phenomena and complicated rotor wake dynamics; the moderate deflection beam theory is implemented to predict the blade structural deformation; the loose coupling strategy based on the ‘delt method’ is used to couple the fluid and structure solvers. Several cases of Helishape 7A rotor are performed first to investigate the effect of elastic deformation on airloads. Then, two challenging forward flight conditions of UH-60A helicopter rotor are investigated, and the simulated results of wake geometry, chordwise pressure distribution and sectional normal force show excellent agreement with available test data; a comparison with traditional CFD/CSD method is also presented to illustrate the efficiency of the developed method.
Development of a resonant trailing-edge flap actuation system for helicopter rotor vibration control
Kim, J.-S.; Wang, K. W.; Smith, E. C.
2007-12-01
A resonant trailing-edge flap actuation system for helicopter rotors is developed and evaluated experimentally. The concept involves deflecting each individual trailing-edge flap using a compact resonant piezoelectric actuation system. Each resonant actuation system yields high authority, while operating at a single frequency. By tailoring the natural frequencies of the actuation system (including the piezoelectric actuator and the related mechanical and electrical elements) to the required operating frequencies, one can increase the output authority. The robustness of the device can be enhanced by increasing the high authority bandwidth through electric circuitry design. Such a resonant actuation system (RAS) is analyzed for a full-scale piezoelectric induced-shear tube actuator, and bench-top testing is conducted to validate the concept. An adaptive feed-forward controller is developed to realize the electric network dynamics and adapt to phase variation. The control strategy is then implemented via a digital signal processor (DSP) system. Analysis is also performed to examine the rotor system dynamics in forward flight with piezoelectric resonant actuators, using a perturbation method to evaluate the system's time-varying characteristics. Numerical simulations reveal that the resonant actuator concept can be applied to forward flights as well as to hover conditions.
Pacemaker interactions induce reentrant wave dynamics in engineered cardiac culture
Borek, Bartłomiej; Shajahan, T. K.; Gabriels, James; Hodge, Alex; Glass, Leon; Shrier, Alvin
2012-09-01
Pacemaker interactions can lead to complex wave dynamics seen in certain types of cardiac arrhythmias. We use experimental and mathematical models of pacemakers in heterogeneous excitable media to investigate how pacemaker interactions can be a mechanism for wave break and reentrant wave dynamics. Embryonic chick ventricular cells are cultured invitro so as to create a dominant central pacemaker site that entrains other pacemakers in the medium. Exposure of those cultures to a potassium channel blocker, E-4031, leads to emergence of peripheral pacemakers that compete with each other and with the central pacemaker. Waves emitted by faster pacemakers break up over the slower pacemaker to form reentrant waves. Similar dynamics are observed in a modified FitzHugh-Nagumo model of heterogeneous excitable media with two distinct sites of pacemaking. These findings elucidate a mechanism of pacemaker-induced reentry in excitable media.
The dynamic transfer function for a cavitating inducer
Brennen, C.; Acosta, A. J.
1975-01-01
Knowledge of the dynamic performance of pumps is essential for the prediction of transient behavior and instabilities in hydraulic systems; the necessary information is in the form of a transfer function which relates the instantaneous or fluctuating pressure and mass flow rate at inlet to the same quantities in the discharge from the pump. The presence of cavitation within the pump can have a major effect on this transfer function since dynamical changes in the volume of cavitation contribute to the difference in the instantaneous inlet and discharge mass flow rates. The present paper utilizes results from free streamline cascade theory to evaluate the elements in the transfer function for a cavitating inducer and shows that the numerical results are consistent with the characteristics observed in some dynamic tests on rocket engine turbopumps.
Wind Tunnel Tests on a Different Phase Three-Stage Savonius Rotor
Hayashi, Tsutomu; Li, Yan; Hara, Yutaka
In order to decrease the torque variation of a Savonius rotor and improve the starting characteristics, a new type of Savonius rotor, which has three stages with 120-degree bucket phase shift between the adjacent stages, has been designed and made. Wind tunnel tests make it clear that both the static and dynamic torque variations in one revolution of this three-stage rotor have been greatly smoothed in comparison with an ordinary one-stage rotor, which means the improvement of the starting characteristics. The torque characteristics of the rotors with guide vanes were also measured. The guide vanes increased the torque coefficient on the average in the low tip speed ratio but decreased the torque coefficient in high tip speed ratio. Although the present three-stage rotor needs improvement of the aspect ratio of each stage, the three-stage rotor with no guide vane had better torque characteristics than the one-stage rotor with guide vanes for tip speed ratio larger than 0.8.
CFD simulation and analysis for Savonius rotors with different blade configuration
Lin, Ching-Huei; Klimina, Liubov A.
2014-12-01
Savonius rotor is seldom applied in wind power generation system due to its lower aerodynamic efficiency. But studies about Savonius rotor still continued since the rotor structure is simpler and the manufacturing cost is lower. Computational fluid dynamics simulations are adopted to compare the output power, torque and power coefficient (Cp) for the conventional two-blade Savonius rotors with three different aspect ratios but the same swept area under the same wind condition to investigate the optimum blade configuration. The rotor with tall and thin configuration is found to have the maximum output power and Cp. The rotor with short and wide configuration has the maximum torque but the minimum Cp. The current result suggests the optimum aspect ratio is 4/1. The influence related to the circular cover plates at two ends of rotor was studied also. It reveals that both the torque and power coefficient for Savonius rotor with end-plates are larger than that without end-plates.
Parvovirus induced alterations in nuclear architecture and dynamics.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Teemu O Ihalainen
Full Text Available The nucleus of interphase eukaryotic cell is a highly compartmentalized structure containing the three-dimensional network of chromatin and numerous proteinaceous subcompartments. DNA viruses induce profound changes in the intranuclear structures of their host cells. We are applying a combination of confocal imaging including photobleaching microscopy and computational methods to analyze the modifications of nuclear architecture and dynamics in parvovirus infected cells. Upon canine parvovirus infection, expansion of the viral replication compartment is accompanied by chromatin marginalization to the vicinity of the nuclear membrane. Dextran microinjection and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP studies revealed the homogeneity of this compartment. Markedly, in spite of increase in viral DNA content of the nucleus, a significant increase in the protein mobility was observed in infected compared to non-infected cells. Moreover, analysis of the dynamics of photoactivable capsid protein demonstrated rapid intranuclear dynamics of viral capsids. Finally, quantitative FRAP and cellular modelling were used to determine the duration of viral genome replication. Altogether, our findings indicate that parvoviruses modify the nuclear structure and dynamics extensively. Intranuclear crowding of viral components leads to enlargement of the interchromosomal domain and to chromatin marginalization via depletion attraction. In conclusion, parvoviruses provide a useful model system for understanding the mechanisms of virus-induced intranuclear modifications.
Rotor/Wing Interactions in Hover
Young, Larry A.; Derby, Michael R.
2002-01-01
Hover predictions of tiltrotor aircraft are hampered by the lack of accurate and computationally efficient models for rotor/wing interactional aerodynamics. This paper summarizes the development of an approximate, potential flow solution for the rotor-on-rotor and wing-on-rotor interactions. This analysis is based on actuator disk and vortex theory and the method of images. The analysis is applicable for out-of-ground-effect predictions. The analysis is particularly suited for aircraft preliminary design studies. Flow field predictions from this simple analytical model are validated against experimental data from previous studies. The paper concludes with an analytical assessment of the influence of rotor-on-rotor and wing-on-rotor interactions. This assessment examines the effect of rotor-to-wing offset distance, wing sweep, wing span, and flaperon incidence angle on tiltrotor inflow and performance.
On cup anemometer rotor aerodynamics.
Pindado, Santiago; Pérez, Javier; Avila-Sanchez, Sergio
2012-01-01
The influence of anemometer rotor shape parameters, such as the cups' front area or their center rotation radius on the anemometer's performance was analyzed. This analysis was based on calibrations performed on two different anemometers (one based on magnet system output signal, and the other one based on an opto-electronic system output signal), tested with 21 different rotors. The results were compared to the ones resulting from classical analytical models. The results clearly showed a linear dependency of both calibration constants, the slope and the offset, on the cups' center rotation radius, the influence of the front area of the cups also being observed. The analytical model of Kondo et al. was proved to be accurate if it is based on precise data related to the aerodynamic behavior of a rotor's cup.
Transonic Axial Splittered Rotor Tandem Stator Stage
2016-12-01
compressor rotor was designed incorporating a splitter vane between the principal blades . Historical experiments conducted by Dr. Arthur J...conventional rotor design . The stage is composed of the rotor and stator. The flow of the air passing through the rotor is turned, and the flow is required...derived results achieved the best blade geometry for design continuation. The best circumferential and axial placement for the splitter blade was
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Werner, Ulrich [Siemens AG, Nuernberg (Germany). Industry, Drive Technologies, Large Drives, Industry Development
2010-03-15
The paper shows a computational methodology for calculating the relative shaft vibrations in the sleeve bearings of two-pole induction machines regarding excitation due to an electromagnetic force, which is caused by static rotor eccentricity. For a worst case calculation concerning the height of exciting magnetic force electromagnetic field damping effects and magnetic resistance concerning the homopolar flux are neglected. The calculated magnetic force, acting on the rotor core with double supply frequency in direction of the smallest air gap, is implemented into a finite element rotor dynamic model. With this model the influence of the rotor speed as well as influence of the direction of the magnetic force on the relative shaft displacements can be analyzed. Therefore the paper shows a computational methodology to check, whether the rotor-bearing design is sensitive for electromagnetic excitations due to static rotor eccentricity and prepares therefore the possibility to introduce improvements during the design phase of the induction motor. (orig.)
Gayen, P K; Chatterjee, D; Goswami, S K
2016-05-01
In this paper, an enhanced low-voltage ride-through (LVRT) performance of a grid connected doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) has been presented with the usage of stator dynamic composite fault current limiter (SDCFCL). This protection circuit comprises of a suitable series resistor-inductor combination and parallel bidirectional semiconductor switch. The SDCFCL facilitates double benefits such as reduction of rotor induced open circuit voltage due to increased value of stator total inductance and concurrent increase of rotor impedance. Both effects will limit rotor circuit over current and over voltage situation more secured way in comparison to the conventional scheme like the dynamic rotor current limiter (RCL) during any type of fault situation. The proposed concept is validated through the simulation study of the grid integrated 2.0MW DFIG.
Efficient sensitivity analysis and optimization of a helicopter rotor
Lim, Joon W.; Chopra, Inderjit
1989-01-01
Aeroelastic optimization of a system essentially consists of the determination of the optimum values of design variables which minimize the objective function and satisfy certain aeroelastic and geometric constraints. The process of aeroelastic optimization analysis is illustrated. To carry out aeroelastic optimization effectively, one needs a reliable analysis procedure to determine steady response and stability of a rotor system in forward flight. The rotor dynamic analysis used in the present study developed inhouse at the University of Maryland is based on finite elements in space and time. The analysis consists of two major phases: vehicle trim and rotor steady response (coupled trim analysis), and aeroelastic stability of the blade. For a reduction of helicopter vibration, the optimization process requires the sensitivity derivatives of the objective function and aeroelastic stability constraints. For this, the derivatives of steady response, hub loads and blade stability roots are calculated using a direct analytical approach. An automated optimization procedure is developed by coupling the rotor dynamic analysis, design sensitivity analysis and constrained optimization code CONMIN.
Fluctuations-induced coexistence in public goods dynamics
Behar, H.; Brenner, N.; Ariel, G.; Louzoun, Y.
2016-10-01
Cooperative interactions between individuals in a population and their stability properties are central to population dynamics and evolution. We introduce a generic class of nonlinear dynamical systems describing such interactions between producers and non-producers of a rapidly equilibrating common resource extracted from a finite environment. In the deterministic mean field approximation, fast-growing non-producers drive the entire population to extinction. However, the presence of arbitrarily small perturbations destabilizes this fixed point into a stochastic attractor where both phenotypes can survive. Phase space arguments and moment closure are used to characterize the attractor and show that its properties are not determined by the noise amplitude or boundary conditions, but rather it is stabilized by the stochastic nonlinear dynamics. Spatial Monte Carlo simulations with demographic fluctuations and diffusion illustrate a similar effect, supporting the validity of the two-dimensional stochastic differential equation as an approximation. The functional distribution of the noise emerges as the main factor determining the dynamical outcome. Noise resulting from diffusion between different regions, or additive noise, induce coexistence while multiplicative or local demographic noise do not alter the outcome of deterministic dynamics. The results are discussed in a general context of the effect of noise on phase space structure.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Guntur, Srinivas; Sørensen, Niels N.
2015-01-01
This work presents an analysis of data from existing as well as new full-rotor computational fluid dynamics computations on the MEXICO rotor, with focus on the flow around the inboard parts of the blades. The boundary layer separation characteristics on the airfoil sections in the inboard parts...
Theodore, Colin R.; Tischler, Mark B.
2010-01-01
An automatic rotor trim control system was developed and successfully used during a wind tunnel test of a full-scale UH-60 rotor system with Individual Blade Control (IBC) actuators. The trim control system allowed rotor trim to be set more quickly, precisely and repeatably than in previous wind tunnel tests. This control system also allowed the rotor trim state to be maintained during transients and drift in wind tunnel flow, and through changes in IBC actuation. The ability to maintain a consistent rotor trim state was key to quickly and accurately evaluating the effect of IBC on rotor performance, vibration, noise and loads. This paper presents details of the design and implementation of the trim control system including the rotor system hardware, trim control requirements, and trim control hardware and software implementation. Results are presented showing the effect of IBC on rotor trim and dynamic response, a validation of the rotor dynamic simulation used to calculate the initial control gains and tuning of the control system, and the overall performance of the trim control system during the wind tunnel test.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
肖明杰; 黄金平; 李锋
2011-01-01
提出一种快速预测涡轮泵转子瞬态动力学特性的方法.在该方法中广义的涡轮泵转子系统转轴被盘和轴承等特征部件分成不同的轴段,每一轴段两端的状态向量通过该轴段的传递矩阵联系起来,经过轴承和特征盘后状态向量的变化以增量的形式给出,结合边界条件以及各特征盘/轴承之间的位移关系,可建立整个转子系统的瞬态运动方程.为了验证该方法的有效性,结合涡轮泵的实际工况,分别模拟不同启动过程(如匀角加速度、指数角加速度、分段升速)中转子的瞬态动力学特性.文中的研究工作可为涡轮泵转子系统动力学设计及结构修改提供一定的参考.%A fast method has been presented to analyze and predict the transient dynamic characteristics of the turbo-pump rotor. In this proposed method, the whole shaft of the generalized turbo-pump rotor system is required to be divided into different segments by the bearings and disks. The state vectors at the two end cross-sections of each divided shaft segment are associated by the corresponding local transfer matrix,and the variation of the state vector before and after the bearing or disk is given in the form of increment. On the basis of the local transfer matrix and the increment, a global transfer relationship of the rotor system can be established. Combining the boundary condition and the transverse displacement relationship between the disks/bearings, the equations of transient motion for a general rotor system are derived. The transient dynamic characteristics during different run-up processions(such as runs up in a constant,negative exponential and staged accelerations) and in contaminated speed have been simulated,which validate the efficiency and the practicability of the proposed method. These studying results can provide some help to the turbo-pump rotor system dynamic design and revision.
Nonlinear dynamical analysis of carbachol induced hippocampal oscillations in mice
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Metin AKAY; Kui WANG; Yasemin M AKAY; Andrei DRAGOMIR; Jie WU
2009-01-01
Aim: Hippocampal neuronal network and synaptic impairment underlie learning and memory deficit in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and animal models. In this paper, we analyzed the dynamics and complexity of hippocampal neuronal network synchronization induced by acute exposure to carbachol, a nicotinic and muscarinic receptor co-agonist, using the nonlinear dynamical model based on the Lempel-Ziv estimator. We compared the dynamics of hippocampal oscillations between wild-type (WT) and triple-transgenic (3xTg) mice, as an AD animal model. We also compared these dynamic alterations between different age groups (5 and 10 months). We hypothesize that there is an impairment of complexity of CCh-induced hippocampal oscillations in 3xTg AD mice compared to WT mice, and that this impairment is age-dependent. Methods: To test this hypothesis, we used electrophysiological recordings (field potential) in hippocampal slices. Results: Acute exposure to 100 nmol/L CCh induced field potential oscillations in hippocampal CA1 region, which exhibited three distinct patterns: (1) continuous neural firing, (2) repeated burst neural firing and (3) the mixed (continuous and burst) pattern in both WT and 3xTg AD mice. Based on Lempel-Ziv estimator, pattern (2) was significantly lower than patterns (1) and (3) in 3xTg AD mice compared to WT mice (P<0.001), and also in 10-month old WT mice compared to those in 5-month old WT mice (P<0.01).Conclusion: These results suggest that the burst pattern (theta oscillation) of hippocampal network is selectively impaired in 3xTg AD mouse model, which may reflect a learning and memory deficit in the AD patients.
Chaos control and impact suppression in rotor-bearing system using magnetorheological fluid
Piccirillo, V.; Balthazar, J. M.; Tusset, A. M.
2015-11-01
In this paper a general dynamic model of a rotor-bearing system using magnetorheological fluid (MR) is presented. The mathematical model of the rotor-bearing system results from a Jeffcott rotor with two-degrees of freedom and discontinuous supports. The effect of magnetorheological fluid on vibration is investigated based on a model of a modified LuGre dynamical friction model. A comparison with equivalent rotor-bearing system is made to verify the contribution of MR in this system. In this study two different implementations of the control procedure are presented, one eliminating the chaotic behavior and the second suppressing the unbalancing vibration so as to avoid impact in rotor-bearing system. First, to control the undesirable chaos in rotor-bearing system a damped passive control methodology is used. On the other hand, to suppressing the impact vibration, the Fuzzy Logic Control is considered. Results demonstrate that undesirable behaviors of rotor can be avoided by varying the damping force.
Dynamics of Multistage Gear Transmission with Effects of Gearbox Vibrations
Choy, F. K.; Tu, Y. K.; Zakrajsek, J. J.; Townsend, Dennis P.
1990-01-01
A comprehensive approach is presented in analyzing the dynamic behavior of multistage gear transmission systems with the effects of gearbox induced vibrations and mass imbalances of the rotor. The modal method, with undamped frequencies and planar mode shapes, is used to reduce the degrees of freedom of the gear system for time-transient dynamic analysis. Both the lateral and torsional vibration modes of each rotor-bearing-gear stage as well as the interstage vibrational characteristics are coupled together through localized gear mesh tooth interactions. In addition, gearbox vibrations are also coupled to the rotor-bearing-gear system dynamics through bearing support forces between the rotor and the gearbox. Transient and steady state dynamics of lateral and torsional vibrations of the geared system are examined in both time and frequency domains to develop interpretations of the overall modal dynamic characteristics under various operating conditions. A typical three-stage geared system is used as an example. Effects of mass imbalance and gearbox vibrations on the system dynamic behavior are presented in terms of modal excitation functions for both lateral and torsional vibrations. Operational characteristics and conclusions are drawn from the results presented.
Experimental Investigation of a Shrouded Rotor Micro Air Vehicle in Hover and in Edgewise Gusts
Hrishikeshavan, Vikram
Due to the hover capability of rotary wing Micro Air Vehicles (MAVs), it is of interest to improve their aerodynamic performance, and hence hover endurance (or payload capability). In this research, a shrouded rotor configuration is studied and implemented, that has the potential to offer two key operational benefits: enhanced system thrust for a given input power, and improved structural rigidity and crashworthiness of an MAV platform. The main challenges involved in realising such a system for a lightweight craft are: design of a lightweight and stiff shroud, and increased sensitivity to external flow disturbances that can affect flight stability. These key aspects are addressed and studied in order to assess the capability of the shrouded rotor as a platform of choice for MAV applications. A fully functional shrouded rotor vehicle (disk loading 60 N/ m2) was designed and constructed with key shroud design variables derived from previous studies on micro shrouded rotors. The vehicle weighed about 280 g (244 mm rotor diameter). The shrouded rotor had a 30% increase in power loading in hover compared to an unshrouded rotor. Due to the stiff, lightweight shroud construction, a net payload benefit of 20-30 g was achieved. The different components such as the rotor, stabilizer bar, yaw control vanes and the shroud were systematically studied for system efficiency and overall aerodynamic improvements. Analysis of the data showed that the chosen shroud dimensions was close to optimum for a design payload of 250 g. Risk reduction prototypes were built to sequentially arrive at the final configuration. In order to prevent periodic oscillations in ight, a hingeless rotor was incorporated in the shroud. The vehicle was successfully ight tested in hover with a proportional-integralderivative feedback controller. A flybarless rotor was incorporated for efficiency and control moment improvements. Time domain system identification of the attitude dynamics of the flybar and
Dynamical behavior of laser-induced nanoparticles during remote processing
Scholz, Tobias; Dickmann, Klaus; Ostendorf, Andreas
2014-02-01
Laser remote processing is used in a wide field of industrial applications. Among other things, it is characterized by flexible beam guidance in combination with high processing velocities. But in most cases process gas support in the interaction zone is omitted. Consequently, interaction mechanism between the vapor plume and the incident laser radiation can dynamically affect the process stability. Referring to remote welding with high brilliant laser sources having a wavelength around 1 μm, the interaction between the incident laser radiation and formed particles plays an important role. The presented work shows results of the investigation of the laser-induced particle formation during the laser welding of stainless steel with a 2 kW fiber laser under remote conditions. It is therefore concentrated on the dynamical behavior of the laser-induced particle formation and the dependence of the particle formation on the laser beam power. TEM images of formed particles were analyzed. In addition, the radiation of a LED was directed through the vapor plume. On the one hand, the dynamic of the attenuation was considered. On the other hand, the Rayleigh approximation was used in order to evaluate the detected signals.
Blade tip vortex measurements on actively twisted rotor blades
Bauknecht, André; Ewers, Benjamin; Schneider, Oliver; Raffel, Markus
2017-05-01
Active rotor control concepts, such as active twist actuation, have the potential to effectively reduce the noise and vibrations of helicopter rotors. The present study focuses on the experimental investigation of active twist for the reduction of blade-vortex interaction (BVI) effects on a model rotor. Results of a large-scale smart-twisting active rotor test under hover conditions are described. This test investigated the effects of individual blade twist control on the blade tip vortices. The rotor blades were actuated with peak torsion amplitudes of up to 2° and harmonic frequencies of 1-5/rev with different phase angles. Time-resolved stereoscopic particle image velocimetry was carried out to study the effects of active twist on the strength and trajectories of the tip vortices between ψ _ {v}= 3.6° and 45.7° of vortex age. The analysis of the vortex trajectories revealed that the 1/rev active twist actuation mainly caused a vertical deflection of the blade tip and the corresponding vortex trajectories of up to 1.3% of the rotor radius R above and -1%R below the unactuated condition. An actuation with frequencies of 2 and 3/rev significantly affected the shapes of the vortex trajectories and caused negative vertical displacements of the vortices relative to the unactuated case of up to 2%R within the first 35° of wake age. The 2 and 3/rev actuation also had the most significant effects on the vortex strength and altered the initial peak swirl velocity by up to -34 and +31% relative to the unactuated value. The present aerodynamic investigation reveals a high control authority of the active twist actuation on the strength and trajectories of the trailing blade tip vortices. The magnitude of the evoked changes indicates that the active twist actuation constitutes an effective measure for the mitigation of BVI-induced noise on helicopters.
A 5-DOF Model for Aeroengine Spindle Dual-rotor System Analysis
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HU Qinghua; DENG Sier; TENG Hongfei
2011-01-01
This paper develops a five degrees of freedom (5-DOF) model for aeroengine spindle dual-rotor system dynamic analysis.In this system, the dual rotors are supported on two angular contact ball bearings and two deep groove ball bearings, one of the latter-mentioned bearings works as the inter-shaft bearing.Driven by respective motors, the dual rotors have different co-rotating speeds.The proposed model mathematically formulates the nonlinear displacements, elastic deflections and contact forces of beatings with consideration of 5-DOF and coupling of dual rotors.The nonlinear equations of motions of dual rotors with 5-DOF are solved using Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg algorithm.In order to investigate the effect of the introduced 5-DOF and nonlinear dynamic bearing model, we compare the proposed model with two models: the 3-DOF model of this system only considering three translational degrees of freedom (Gupta, 1993, rotational freedom is neglected); the 5-DOF model where the deep groove ball bearings are simplified as linear elastic spring (Guskov, 2007).The simulation results verify Gupta's prediction (1993) and show that the rotational freedom of rotors and nonlinear dynamic model of bearings have great effect on the system dynamic simulation.The quantitative results are given as well.
Intraluminal bubble dynamics induced by lithotripsy shock wave
Song, Jie; Bai, Jiaming; Zhou, Yufeng
2016-12-01
Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) has been the first option in the treatment of calculi in the upper urinary tract since its introduction. ESWL-induced renal injury is also found after treatment and is assumed to associate with intraluminal bubble dynamics. To further understand the interaction of bubble expansion and collapse with the vessel wall, the finite element method (FEM) was used to simulate intraluminal bubble dynamics and calculate the distribution of stress in the vessel wall and surrounding soft tissue during cavitation. The effects of peak pressure, vessel size, and stiffness of soft tissue were investigated. Significant dilation on the vessel wall occurs after contacting with rapid and large bubble expansion, and then vessel deformation propagates in the axial direction. During bubble collapse, large shear stress is found to be applied to the vessel wall at a clinical lithotripter setting (i.e. 40 MPa peak pressure), which may be the mechanism of ESWL-induced vessel rupture. The decrease of vessel size and viscosity of soft tissue would enhance vessel deformation and, consequently, increase the generated shear stress and normal stresses. Meanwhile, a significantly asymmetric bubble boundary is also found due to faster axial bubble expansion and shrinkage than in radial direction, and deformation of the vessel wall may result in the formation of microjets in the axial direction. Therefore, this numerical work would illustrate the mechanism of ESWL-induced tissue injury in order to develop appropriate counteractive strategies for reduced adverse effects.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
崔立; 郑建荣; 周炜
2012-01-01
Considering coupling effects of dynamic performances of rolling bearings and a rotor system, dynamic equations were constructed by using the finite element method, the rolor system contained a shaft, bearings, and discs. The dynamic performances of rolling bearings were calculated with a quasi-dynamic model after the rotor system response reached a stable state. Taking dynamic load, stiffness, and spin-to-roll ratio as objectives, a multi-objective optimization design was developed based on the genetic algorithm NSGA Ⅱ, the effect of structural parameters on bearing dynamic performances was analyzed. Taking a rotor system supported with ball bearings as an example, the results showed that the dynamic load decreases, radial stiffness increases and spin-to-roll ratio increases when the outer groove curvature radius increases; the dynamic load decreases, radial stiffness decreases and spin-to-roll ratio decreases as the inner groove curvature radius increases; the dynamic load increases, radial stiffness increases and spin-to-roll ratio increases when the diameter of balls increases; the largest effect on the dynamic performance optimization results is inner groove curvature radius; in a high-speed rotor system, in order to obtain better support dynamic performance, the coupling effect of the rotor system should be considered in multi-objective optimization design of its bearings.%考虑滚动轴承与转子系统动态性能的耦合影响,使用有限单元法建立包含转轴、轴承、圆盘等单元的动力学方程组,转子响应达到稳定值后,再根据滚动轴承拟动力学模型计算滚动轴承的动态性能参数.以额定动负荷、支承刚度、旋滚比为目标,基于NSGA Ⅱ遗传算法进行多目标优化设计,分析结构参数对轴承动态性能的影响.以某转子系统的支承轴承为例进行计算,结果表明外圈沟曲率半径系数增大则额定动负荷减小、径向刚度增大、旋滚比增大；内圈沟曲率
Magnetization dynamics and spin pumping induced by standing elastic waves
Azovtsev, A. V.; Pertsev, N. A.
2016-11-01
The magnetization dynamics induced by standing elastic waves excited in a thin ferromagnetic film is described with the aid of micromagnetic simulations taking into account the magnetoelastic coupling between spins and lattice strains. Our calculations are based on the numerical solution of the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation comprising the damping term and the effective magnetic field with all relevant contributions. The simulations have been performed for 2-nm-thick F e81G a19 film dynamically strained by longitudinal and transverse standing waves with various frequencies, which span a wide range around the resonance frequency νres of coherent magnetization precession in unstrained F e81G a19 film. It is found that standing elastic waves give rise to complex local magnetization dynamics and spatially inhomogeneous dynamic patterns in the form of standing spin waves with the same wavelength. Remarkably, the amplitude of magnetization precession does not go to zero at nodes of these spin waves, which cannot be precisely described by simple analytical formulae. In the steady-state regime, magnetization oscillates with the frequency of the elastic wave, except in the case of longitudinal waves with frequencies well below νres, where the magnetization precesses with variable frequency strongly exceeding the wave frequency. The results obtained for the magnetization dynamics driven by elastic waves are used to calculate the spin current pumped from the dynamically strained ferromagnet into adjacent paramagnetic metal. Numerical calculations demonstrate that the transverse charge current in the paramagnetic layer, which is created by the spin current via inverse spin Hall effect, is high enough to be measured experimentally.
Genetics Home Reference: Rotor syndrome
... of these proteins. Without the function of either transport protein, bilirubin is less efficiently taken up by the ... Schinkel AH. Complete OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 deficiency causes human Rotor syndrome by interrupting conjugated bilirubin reuptake into ...
Quantum measurement corrections to chemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization
Kominis, I K
2013-01-01
Chemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization has emerged as a universal signature of spin order in photosynthetic reaction centers. Such polarization, significantly enhanced above thermal equilibrium, is known to result from the nuclear spin sorting inherent in the radical pair mechanism underlying long-lived charge-separated states in photosynthetic reaction centers. We will here show that the recently understood fundamental quantum dynamics of radical-ion-pair reactions open up a new and completely unexpected venue towards obtaining CIDNP signals. The fundamental decoherence mechanism inherent in the recombination process of radical pairs is shown to produce nuclear spin polarizations on the order of $10^4$ times or more higher than thermal equilibrium values at low fields relevant to natural photosynthesis in earth's magnetic field. This opens up the possibility of a fundamentally new exploration of the biological significance of high nuclear polarizations in photosynthesis.
THE INDUCED REPRESENTATION OF C＊-GROUPOID DYNAMIC SYSTEMS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
FANGXIAOCHUN
1996-01-01
Let G be a second countable locally compact groupoid with Haar system {λuH}, H be aclosed subgroupoid containing G0 with Haar system {λuH}. T.Masuda introduced the C*-Groupoid dynamic system (G, A, α) and its reduced crossed product Crea(G, A) in [2]： where A is C*-algebra α is the komomorphism G → Aut(A). In this paper the author introduces the C*-groupoid dynamic systems (H,A, α/H) and (H\\G2,A,-α) induced by (G,A,α) and proves that C*red(H, A) and C*red(H\\G2, A) are strongly Morita equivalent Moreover the inducedrepresentation from C*red(H, A) to C*red(G,A) is got.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
郜浩冬; 张以都; 吴琼; 高相胜
2013-01-01
考虑齿侧间隙、传动误差和时变啮合刚度等非线性因素,并同时考虑滑动轴承非线性油膜力和齿轮啮合力的耦合影响,建立了汇流传动齿轮-转子-轴承系统的动力学模型.从转速方面出发,研究了齿轮系统的非线性动态响应,分析了齿轮啮合力和非线性油膜力之间的耦合作用,判断了转速变化下的油膜稳定性.结果表明:随着转速变化,系统表现出周期一运动、周期二运动、拟周期运动,混沌等丰富的动力学特性,并发现了拟周期分岔通向混沌的道路；随着转速升高,非线性啮合力和菲线性油膜力先后对系统振动起到主要作用；油膜振动通过半频涡动失去了稳定性.%Considering nonlinear facters of backlash, transmission error,and time-varying mesh stiffness in a gear system, nonlinear mesh force of gear pairs and nonlinear oil film force of a journal bearing were considered synchronously, the dynamic model of a confluence transmission geared rotor bearing system was proposed. Starting from the variation of rotating speed, the nonlinear dynamic response of the gear system was studied, the coupling between the nonlinear gear mesh force and the nonlinear oil film force was discussed, the oil film's stability with the change of rotating speed was judged. The results indicated that with increase in rotating speed, the system reveals period one motion, period two motion,quasi- periodic motion and chaos motion, the way from quasi- periodic bifurcation to chaos was found; with increase in rotating speed, the nonlinear gear mesh force and the nonlinear oil film force affect the system vibration significantly; the oil film vibration loses stability through half frequency whirling motion.
Rotor damage detection by using piezoelectric impedance
Qin, Y.; Tao, Y.; Mao, Y. F.
2016-04-01
Rotor is a core component of rotary machinery. Once the rotor has the damage, it may lead to a major accident. Thus the quantitative rotor damage detection method based on piezoelectric impedance is studied in this paper. With the governing equation of piezoelectric transducer (PZT) in a cylindrical coordinate, the displacement along the radius direction is derived. The charge of PZT is calculated by the electric displacement. Then, by the use of the obtained displacement and charge, an analytic piezoelectric impedance model of the rotor is built. Given the circular boundary condition of a rotor, annular elements are used as the analyzed objects and spectral element method is used to set up the damage detection model. The Electro-Mechanical (E/M) coupled impedance expression of an undamaged rotor is deduced with the application of a low-cost impedance test circuit. A Taylor expansion method is used to obtain the approximate E/M coupled impedance expression for the damaged rotor. After obtaining the difference between the undamaged and damaged rotor impedance, a rotor damage detection method is proposed. This method can directly calculate the change of bending stiffness of the structural elements, it follows that the rotor damage can be effectively detected. Finally, a preset damage configuration is used for the numerical simulation. The result shows that the quantitative damage detection algorithm based on spectral element method and piezoelectric impedance proposed in this paper can identify the location and the severity of the damaged rotor accurately.
Comandi, G. L.; Chiofalo, M. L.; Toncelli, R.; Bramanti, D.; Polacco, E.; Nobili, A. M.
2006-03-01
Recent theoretical work suggests that violation of the equivalence principle might be revealed in a measurement of the fractional differential acceleration η between two test bodies—of different compositions, falling in the gravitational field of a source mass—if the measurement is made to the level of η ≃10-13 or better. This being within the reach of ground based experiments gives them a new impetus. However, while slowly rotating torsion balances in ground laboratories are close to reaching this level, only an experiment performed in a low orbit around the Earth is likely to provide a much better accuracy. We report on the progress made with the "Galileo Galilei on the ground" (GGG) experiment, which aims to compete with torsion balances using an instrument design also capable of being converted into a much higher sensitivity space test. In the present and following articles (Part I and Part II), we demonstrate that the dynamical response of the GGG differential accelerometer set into supercritical rotation—in particular, its normal modes (Part I) and rejection of common mode effects (Part II)—can be predicted by means of a simple but effective model that embodies all the relevant physics. Analytical solutions are obtained under special limits, which provide the theoretical understanding. A simulation environment is set up, obtaining a quantitative agreement with the available experimental data on the frequencies of the normal modes and on the whirling behavior. This is a needed and reliable tool for controlling and separating perturbative effects from the expected signal, as well as for planning the optimization of the apparatus.
Advances in tilt rotor noise prediction
George, A. R.; Coffen, C. D.; Ringler, T. D.
The two most serious tilt rotor external noise problems, hover noise and blade-vortex interaction noise, are studied. The results of flow visualization and inflow velocity measurements document a complex, recirculating highly unsteady and turbulent flow due to the rotor-wing-body interactions characteristic of tilt rotors. The wing under the rotor is found to obstruct the inflow, causing a deficit in the inflow velocities over the inboard region of the rotor. Discrete frequency harmonic thickness and loading noise mechanisms in hover are examined by first modeling tilt rotor hover aerodynamics and then applying various noise prediction methods using the WOPWOP code. The analysis indicates that the partial ground plane created by the wing below the rotor results in a primary sound source for hover.
Scale effects in the dynamic transfer functions for cavitating inducers
Brennen, C. E.; Meissner, C.; Lo, E. Y.; Hoffman, G. S.
1980-01-01
Dynamic transfer functions for two cavitating inducers of the same geometry but different size are presented, compared and discussed. The transfer functions for each inducer indicate similar trends as the cavitation number is decreased; only minor changes are noted with changes in the flow coefficient, the uniformity of the inlet flow or the temperature of the water (21-74 C). The non-dimensional results for the two sizes are compared with themselves and with theoretical calculations based on the bubbly flow model. All three sets of results compare well and lend further credence to the theoretical model. The best values of the two parameters in the model are evaluated and recommended for use in applications.
Uma Devi Kumaravelu; Sanavullah Mohamed Yakub
2012-01-01
A method of simulation and modeling outer rotor permanent magnet brushless DC (ORPMBLDC) motor under dynamic conditions using finite element method by FEMM 4.2 software package is presented. In the proposed simulation, the torque developed at various positions of the rotor, under a complete cycle of excitation of the stator, is analysed. A novel method of sinusoidal excitation is proposed to enhance the overall torque development of ORPMBLDC motor.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Uma Devi Kumaravelu
2012-01-01
Full Text Available A method of simulation and modeling outer rotor permanent magnet brushless DC (ORPMBLDC motor under dynamic conditions using finite element method by FEMM 4.2 software package is presented. In the proposed simulation, the torque developed at various positions of the rotor, under a complete cycle of excitation of the stator, is analysed. A novel method of sinusoidal excitation is proposed to enhance the overall torque development of ORPMBLDC motor.
CALCULATION OF HELICOPTER ROTOR FLAPPING ANGLES AND COMPARISON WITH MEASURED DATA
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2000-01-01
Helicopter rotor flapping angles from hover to low-speed forward flight are calculated and compared with the measured data in this paper. The analytical method is based on a second order lifting-line/full-span free wake model as well as a fully coupled rotor trim model. It is shown that, in order to accurately predict the lateral flapping angle at low advance ratio, it is necessary to use free wake analysis to account for the highly non-uniform inflow induced by the distorted wake geometry at rotor disc plane.
Relaxation and Diffusion for the Kicked Rotor
Khodas, M A
2000-01-01
The dynamics of the kicked-rotor, that is a paradigm for a mixed system, where the motion in some parts of phase space is chaotic and in other parts is regular is studied statistically. The evolution (Frobenius-Perron) operator of phase space densities in the chaotic component is calculated in presence of noise, and the limit of vanishing noise is taken is taken in the end of calculation. The relaxation rates (related to the Ruelle resonances) to the invariant equilibrium density are calculated analytically within an approximation that improves with increasing stochasticity. The results are tested numerically. The global picture of relaxation to the equilibrium density in the chaotic component when the system is bounded and of diffusive behavior when it is unbounded is presented.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Huang, Zhiwei; Zhou, Jianzhong; Yang, Mengqi; Zhang, Yongchuan [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, College of Hydraulic and Digitalization Engineering, Wuhan, Hubei Province (China)
2011-07-15
The object of this research aims at the hydraulic generator unit rotor system. According to fault problems of the generator rotor local rubbing caused by the parallel misalignment and mass eccentricity, a dynamic model for the rotor system coupled with misalignment and rub-impact is established. The dynamic behaviors of this system are investigated using numerical integral method, as the parallel misalignment, mass eccentricity and bearing stiffness vary. The nonlinear dynamic responses of the generator rotor and turbine rotor with coupling faults are analyzed by means of bifurcation diagrams, Poincare maps, axis orbits, time histories and amplitude spectrum diagrams. Various nonlinear phenomena in the system, such as periodic, three-periodic and quasi-periodic motions, are studied with the change of the parallel misalignment. The results reveal that vibration characteristics of the rotor system with coupling faults are extremely complex and there are some low frequencies with large amplitude in the 0.3-0.4 x components. As the increase in mass eccentricity, the interval of nonperiodic motions will be continuously moved forward. It suggests that the reduction in mass eccentricity or increase in bearing stiffness could preclude nonlinear vibration. These might provide some important theory references for safety operating and exact identification of the faults in rotating machinery. (orig.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ludwinek Krzysztof
2017-03-01
Full Text Available The paper presents a comparison of higher harmonics in induced phase voltages of a stator winding in the no-load state of a three-phase 5.5 kVA salient pole synchronous generator. The comparison is carried out for the synchronous generator with different salient pole rotor constructions: a non-skewed solid rotor, a non-skewed solid rotor with radial incisions, and a laminated electrotechnical steel rotor with skewed slots and damping bars. The calculations of higher harmonics are based on the magnetic field distributions in the air gap, which are carried out in a 2D model in a FEMM program and on the induced voltage waveforms in the stator windings registered during experimental investigations of the 5.5 kVA salient pole synchronous generator in the no-load state.
Transcription dynamics of inducible genes modulated by negative regulations.
Li, Yanyan; Tang, Moxun; Yu, Jianshe
2015-06-01
Gene transcription is a stochastic process in single cells, in which genes transit randomly between active and inactive states. Transcription of many inducible genes is also tightly regulated: It is often stimulated by extracellular signals, activated through signal transduction pathways and later repressed by negative regulations. In this work, we study the nonlinear dynamics of the mean transcription level of inducible genes modulated by the interplay of the intrinsic transcriptional randomness and the repression by negative regulations. In our model, we integrate negative regulations into gene activation process, and make the conventional assumption on the production and degradation of transcripts. We show that, whether or not the basal transcription is temporarily terminated when cells are stimulated, the mean transcription level grows in the typical up and down pattern commonly observed in immune response genes. With the help of numerical simulations, we clarify the delicate impact of the system parameters on the transcription dynamics, and demonstrate how our model generates the distinct temporal gene-induction patterns in mouse fibroblasts discerned in recent experiments.
The use of a curtain design to increase the performance level of a Savonius wind rotors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Altan, Burcin Deda; Atilgan, Mehmet [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Pamukkale University, Kinikli 20070 Denizli (Turkey)
2010-04-15
In this study, a curtain design has been arranged so as to improve the low performance levels of the Savonius wind rotors. Designed to prevent the negative torque on the convex blade of the rotor, this curtain has been placed in front of the rotor, and performance experiments have been carried out when the rotor is with and without curtain. It has been determined from here that a significant increase can be achieved in the rotor performance by means of the curtain design. Experiments of the curtain design have been conducted in three different dimensions when the Savonius wind rotor is static, and the highest values have been obtained with the curtain 1. Therefore, the curtain designs and curtain angles in which the highest values obtained have been analyzed numerically with Fluent 6.0 program and the results obtained experimentally have been supported with numerical analysis. Moreover, performance experiments have been made for the curtain 1 with which the best performance values have been obtained when the rotor is in its dynamic position, and the results obtained have been given in figures. (author)
Stoichiometry and Turnover of the Stator and Rotor.
Morimoto, Yusuke V; Minamino, Tohru
2017-01-01
Fluorescence imaging techniques using green fluorescent protein (GFP) and related fluorescent proteins are utilized to monitor and analyze a wide range of biological processes in living cells. Stepwise photobleaching experiments can determine the stoichiometry of protein complexes. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) experiments can reveal in vivo dynamics of biomolecules. In this chapter, we describe methods to detect the subcellular localization, stoichiometry, and turnovers of stator and rotor components of the Salmonella flagellar motor.
Analysis methods for Kevlar shield response to rotor fragments
Gerstle, J. H.
1977-01-01
Several empirical and analytical approaches to rotor burst shield sizing are compared and principal differences in metal and fabric dynamic behavior are discussed. The application of transient structural response computer programs to predict Kevlar containment limits is described. For preliminary shield sizing, present analytical methods are useful if insufficient test data for empirical modeling are available. To provide other information useful for engineering design, analytical methods require further developments in material characterization, failure criteria, loads definition, and post-impact fragment trajectory prediction.
General model and control of an n rotor helicopter
Sidea, A. G.; Yding Brogaard, R.; Andersen, N. A.; Ravn, O.
2014-12-01
The purpose of this study was to create a dynamic, nonlinear mathematical model of a multirotor that would be valid for different numbers of rotors. Furthermore, a set of Single Input Single Output (SISO) controllers were implemented for attitude control. Both model and controllers were tested experimentally on a quadcopter. Using the combined model and controllers, simple system simulation and control is possible, by replacing the physical values for the individual systems.
General model and control of an n rotor helicopter
2015-01-01
The purpose of this study was to create a dynamic, nonlinear mathematical model ofa multirotor that would be valid for different numbers of rotors. Furthermore, a set of SingleInput Single Output (SISO) controllers were implemented for attitude control. Both model andcontrollers were tested experimentally on a quadcopter. Using the combined model andcontrollers, simple system simulation and control is possible, by replacing the physical valuesfor the individual systems.
Bergquist, R. R.; Carlson, R. G.; Landgrebe, A. J.; Egolf, T. A.
1974-01-01
This User's Manual was prepared to provide the engineer with the information required to run the coupled mode version of the Normal Modes Rotor Aeroelastic Analysis Computer Program. The manual provides a full set of instructions for running the program, including calculation of blade modes, calculations of variable induced velocity distribution and the calculation of the time history of the response for either a single blade or a complete rotor with an airframe (the latter with constant inflow).
A Survey of Theoretical and Experimental Coaxial Rotor Aerodynamic Research
Coleman, Colin P.
1997-01-01
The recent appearance of the Kamov Ka-50 helicopter and the application of coaxial rotors to unmanned aerial vehicles have renewed international interest in the coaxial rotor configuration. This report addresses the aerodynamic issues peculiar to coaxial rotors by surveying American, Russian, Japanese, British, and German research. (Herein, 'coaxial rotors' refers to helicopter, not propeller, rotors. The intermeshing rotor system was not investigated.) Issues addressed are separation distance, load sharing between rotors, wake structure, solidity effects, swirl recovery, and the effects of having no tail rotor. A general summary of the coaxial rotor configuration explores the configuration's advantages and applications.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李园园; 陈国平; 王轲
2016-01-01
为提高直升机旋翼／机身反共振隔振器的隔振效率，对直升机主减隔振系统进行了优化设计。通过灵敏度分析，确定了以前后柔性梁的厚度和配重的密度作为优化设计变量，接着采用遗传算法对隔振效率和配重动能进行优化，考虑到仿真模型直接调用优化算法的计算效率较低问题，建立了基于响应面方法的优化近似模型。结果表明：优化后模型的某一阶反共振频率与激励频率一致，配重振动加大，力传递率下降，隔振效率大幅度提高。优化设计提高了动力反共振隔振器的隔振性能，可以为直升机隔振器的设计提供一定的指导。%To improve the isolation efficiency of helicopter rotor /fuselage anti-resonance isolator,optimization for the isolation system was conducted.The thickness of the front and rear flexible beams and their counterweight density were taken as the design variables through sensitivity analysis,and then the isolation efficiency and counterweight kinetic energy were optimized using genetic algorithms.Considering the lower computational efficiency problem due to simulation models directly calling the optimization algorithm,a surrogate model was established with the response surface method.The results showed that after optimization,a certain order anti-resonance frequency is consistent with the excitation frequency, counterweight vibration increases,force transmission rate decreases and vibration isolation efficiency is greatly improved;optimization design improves the dynamic isolators'anti-resonance isolation performance and can provide a guidance for the design of helicopter vibration isolators.
Fuzzy adaptive PID control for six rotor eppo UAV
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yongwei LI
2017-02-01
Full Text Available Six rotor eppo drones's load change itself in the job process will reduce the aircraft flight control performance and make the resistance to environmental disturbance being poor. In order to improve the six rotor eppo unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV control performance, the UAV in the process of spraying pesticide is analyzed and the model is constructed, then the eppo UAV time-varying dynamics mathematical model is deduced, and a fuzzy adaptive PID control algorithm is proposed. Fuzzy adaptive PID algorithm has good adaptability and the parameter setting is simple, which improves the system dynamic response and steady state performance, realizing the stability of the six rotor eppo UAV flight. With measured parameters of each sensor input in to the fuzzy adaptive PID algorithm, the corresponding control quality is obtained, and the stable operation of aircraft is realized. Through using Matlab to simulate the flight system and combining the practical experiments, it shows that the dynamic performance and stability of the system is improved effetively.
Falls, Jaye
This work studies the design of trailing edge controls for swashplateless helicopter primary control, and examines the impact of those controls on the performance of the rotor. The objective is to develop a comprehensive aeroelastic analysis for swashplateless rotors in steady level flight. The two key issues to be solved for this swashplateless control concept are actuation of the trailing edge controls and evaluating the performance of the swashplateless rotor compared to conventionally controlled helicopters. Solving the first requires simultaneous minimization of trailing flap control angles and hinge moments to reduce actuation power. The second issue requires not only the accurate assessment of swashplateless rotor power, but also similar or improved performance compared to conventional rotors. The analysis consists of two major parts, the structural model and the aerodynamic model. The inertial contributions of the trailing edge flap and tab are derived and added to the system equations in the structural model. Two different aerodynamic models are used in the analysis, a quasi-steady thin airfoil theory that includes arbitrary hinge positions for the flap and the tab, and an unsteady lifting line model with airfoil table lookup based on wind tunnel test data and computational fluid dynamics simulation. The design aspect of the problem is investigated through parametric studies of the trailing edge flap and tab for a Kaman-type conceptual rotor and a UH-60A swashplateless variant. The UH-60A model is not changed except for the addition of a trailing edge flap to the rotor blade, and the reduction of pitch link stiffness to imitate a soft root spring. Study of the uncoupled blade response identifies torsional stiffness and flap hinge stiffness as important design features of the swashplateless rotor. Important trailing edge flap and tab design features including index angle, aerodynamic overhang, chord and length are identified through examination of coupled
Laiho, Antti; Holopainen, Timo P.; Klinge, Paul; Arkkio, Antero
2007-05-01
In this work the effects of the electromechanical interaction on rotordynamics and vibration characteristics of cage rotor electrical machines were considered. An eccentric rotor motion distorts the electromagnetic field in the air-gap between the stator and rotor inducing a total force, the unbalanced magnetic pull, exerted on the rotor. In this paper a low-order parametric model for the unbalanced magnetic pull is coupled with a three-dimensional finite element structural model of the electrical machine. The main contribution of the work is to present a computationally efficient electromechanical model for vibration analysis of cage rotor machines. In this model, the interaction between the mechanical and electromagnetic systems is distributed over the air gap of the machine. This enables the inclusion of rotor and stator deflections into the analysis and, thus, yields more realistic prediction for the effects of electromechanical interaction. The model was tested by implementing it for two electrical machines with nominal speeds close to one of the rotor bending critical speeds. Rated machine data was used in order to predict the effects of the electromechanical interaction on vibration characteristics of the example machines.
Computational modeling of glow discharge-induced fluid dynamics
Jayaraman, Balaji
Glow discharge at atmospheric pressure using a dielectric barrier discharge can induce fluid flow and operate as an actuator for flow control. The largely isothermal surface plasma generation realized above can modify the near-wall flow structure by means of Lorentzian collisions between the ionized fluid and the neutral fluid. Such an actuator has advantages of no moving parts, performance at atmospheric conditions and devising complex control strategies through the applied voltage. However, the mechanism of the momentum coupling between the plasma and the fluid flow is not yet adequately understood. In the present work, a modeling framework is presented to simulate athermal, non-equilibrium plasma discharges in conjunction with low Mach number fluid dynamics at atmospheric pressure. The plasma and fluid species are treated as a two-fluid system exhibiting a few decades of length and time scales. The effect of the plasma dynamics on the fluid dynamics is devised via a body force treatment in the Navier-Stokes equations. Two different approaches of different degrees of fidelity are presented for modeling the plasma dynamics. The first approach, a phenomenological model, is based on a linearized force distribution approximating the discharge structure, and utilizing experimental guidance to deduce the empirical constants. A high fidelity approach is to model the plasma dynamics in a self-consistent manner using a first principle-based hydrodynamic plasma model. The atmospheric pressure regime of interest here enables us to employ local equilibrium assumptions, signifying efficient collisional energy exchange as against thermal heating from inelastic collision processes. The time scale ratios between convection, diffusion, and reaction/ionization mechanisms are O(107), making the system computationally stiff. To handle the stiffness, a sequential finite-volume operator-splitting algorithm capable of conserving space charge is developed; the approach can handle time
On Cup Anemometer Rotor Aerodynamics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Santiago Pindado
2012-05-01
Full Text Available The influence of anemometer rotor shape parameters, such as the cups’ front area or their center rotation radius on the anemometer’s performance was analyzed. This analysis was based on calibrations performed on two different anemometers (one based on magnet system output signal, and the other one based on an opto-electronic system output signal, tested with 21 different rotors. The results were compared to the ones resulting from classical analytical models. The results clearly showed a linear dependency of both calibration constants, the slope and the offset, on the cups’ center rotation radius, the influence of the front area of the cups also being observed. The analytical model of Kondo et al. was proved to be accurate if it is based on precise data related to the aerodynamic behavior of a rotor’s cup.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Mahdiuon-Rad
2013-08-01
Full Text Available This paper investigates both static and dynamic eccentricities in single phase brushless DC (BLDC motors and analyzes the effect of the PM magnetization field on unbalanced magnetic forces acting on the rotor. Three common types of PM magnetization field patterns including radial, parallel and sinusoidal magnetizations are considered. In both static and dynamic eccentricities, harmonic components of the unbalanced magnetic forces on the rotor are extracted and analyzed. Based on simulation results, the magnetization fields that produce the lowest and highest unbalanced magnetic forces are determined in rotor eccentricity conditions.
Rotor Embedded with Shape Memory Alloy Wires
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K. Gupta
2000-01-01
Full Text Available In the present analysis, the fundamental natural frequency of a Jeffcott and a two-mass rotor with fibre reinforced composite shaft embedded with shape memory alloy (SMA wires is evaluated by Rayleigh's procedure. The flexibility of rotor supports is taken into account. The effect of three factors, either singly or in combination with each other, on rotor critical speed is studied. The three factors are: (i increase in Young's modulus of SMA (NITINOL wires when activated, (ii tension in wires because of phase recovery stresses, and (iii variation of support stiffness by three times because of activation of SMA in rotor supports. It is shown by numerical examples that substantial variation in rotor critical speeds can be achieved by a combination of these factors which can be effectively used to avoid resonance during rotor coast up/down.
Control Law Design for Twin Rotor MIMO System with Nonlinear Control Strategy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Ilyas
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Modeling of complex air vehicles is a challenging task due to high nonlinear behavior and significant coupling effect between rotors. Twin rotor multi-input multioutput system (TRMS is a laboratory setup designed for control experiments, which resembles a helicopter with unstable, nonlinear, and coupled dynamics. This paper focuses on the design and analysis of sliding mode control (SMC and backstepping controller for pitch and yaw angle control of main and tail rotor of the TRMS under parametric uncertainty. The proposed control strategy with SMC and backstepping achieves all mentioned limitations of TRMS. Result analysis of SMC and backstepping control schemes elucidates that backstepping provides efficient behavior with the parametric uncertainty for twin rotor system. Chattering and oscillating behaviors of SMC are removed with the backstepping control scheme considering the pitch and yaw angle for TRMS.
Computation of Loads on the McDonnell Douglas Advanced Bearingless Rotor
Nguyen, Khanh; Lauzon, Dan; Anand, Vaidyanathan
1994-01-01
Computed results from UMARC and DART analyses are compared with the blade bending moments and vibratory hub loads data obtained from a full-scale wind tunnel test of the McDonnell Douglas five-bladed advanced bearingless rotor. The 5 per-rev vibratory hub loads data are corrected using results from a dynamic calibration of the rotor balance. The comparison between UMARC computed blade bending moments at different flight conditions are poor to fair, while DART results are fair to good. Using the free wake module, UMARC adequately computes the 5P vibratory hub loads for this rotor, capturing both magnitude and variations with forward speed. DART employs a uniform inflow wake model and does not adequately compute the 5P vibratory hub loads for this rotor.
Rotor speed estimation for indirect stator flux oriented induction motor drive based on MRAS scheme
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Youssef Agrebi
2007-09-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a conventional indirect stator flux oriented controlled (ISFOC induction motor drive is presented. In order to eliminate the speed sensor, an adaptation algorithm for tuning the rotor speed is proposed. Based on the model reference adaptive system (MRAS scheme, the rotor speed is tuned to obtain an exact ISFOC induction motor drive. The reference and adjustable models, developed in stationary stator reference frame, are used in the MRAS scheme to estimate induction rotor peed from measured terminal voltages and currents. The IP gains speed controller and PI gains current controller are calculated and tuned at each sampling time according to the new estimated rotor speed. The proposed algorithm has been tested by numerical simulation, showing the capability of driving active load; and stability is preserved. Experimental results obtained with a general-purpose 1-kW induction machine are presented showing the effectiveness of the proposed approach in terms of dynamic performance.
The Effects of Crack on the Transmission Matrix of Rotor Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Z.K. Peng
2011-01-01
Full Text Available The dynamic behavior of rotor containing crack is a subject of particular interest and has been extensively investigated by researchers. The effects of crack on the natural frequencies and modal shapes and motion orbits of rotor systems have already been well explored by researchers. In the present study, the infl uence of crack on the transmission matrices of the rotor systems is investigated by using the FEM (finite element method analysis and the HBM (harmonic balance method technique. It is for the first time revealed that there are differences between the transmission matrices for the fundamental frequency components and the transmission matrices for the super-harmonic components, and the differences are mainly determined by the crack location. The results are validated by numerical experiments where the system responses of a rotor system are obtained using Runge-Kutta method. The results are of significance for the development of effective crack detection methods in practice.
A regular Strouhal number for large-scale instability in the far wake of a rotor
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Okulov, Valery; Naumov, Igor V.; Mikkelsen, Robert Flemming;
2014-01-01
The flow behind a model of a wind turbine rotor is investigated experimentally in a water flume using particle image velocimetry (PIV) and laser Doppler anemometry (LDA). The study performed involves a three-bladed wind turbine rotor designed using the optimization technique of Glauert (Aerodynam...... visualizations and a reconstruction of the flow field using LDA and PIV measurements it is found that the wake dynamics is associated with a precession (rotation) of the helical vortex core....... Theory, vol. IV, 1935, pp. 169–360). The wake properties are studied for different tip speed ratios and free stream speeds. The data for the various rotor regimes show the existence of a regular Strouhal number associated with the development of an instability in the far wake of the rotor. From...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Cai-Wan Chang-Jian; Her-Terng Yau
2007-01-01
This study performs a dynamic analysis of a rotor supported by two squeeze couple stress fluid film journal bearings with nonlinear suspension. The numerical results show that the stability of the system varies with the non-dimensional speed ratios and the dimensionless parameter l*. It is found that the system is more stable with higher dimensionless parameter l*.Thus it can conclude that the rotor-bearing system lubricated with the couple stress fluid is more stable than that with the conventional Newtonian fluid. The modeling results thus obtained by using the method proposed in this paper can be used to predict the stability of the rotor-bearing system and the undesirable behavior of the rotor and bearing center can be avoided.
Design and Optimization Method of a Two-Disk Rotor System
Huang, Jingjing; Zheng, Longxi; Mei, Qing
2016-04-01
An integrated analytical method based on multidisciplinary optimization software Isight and general finite element software ANSYS was proposed in this paper. Firstly, a two-disk rotor system was established and the mode, humorous response and transient response at acceleration condition were analyzed with ANSYS. The dynamic characteristics of the two-disk rotor system were achieved. On this basis, the two-disk rotor model was integrated to the multidisciplinary design optimization software Isight. According to the design of experiment (DOE) and the dynamic characteristics, the optimization variables, optimization objectives and constraints were confirmed. After that, the multi-objective design optimization of the transient process was carried out with three different global optimization algorithms including Evolutionary Optimization Algorithm, Multi-Island Genetic Algorithm and Pointer Automatic Optimizer. The optimum position of the two-disk rotor system was obtained at the specified constraints. Meanwhile, the accuracy and calculation numbers of different optimization algorithms were compared. The optimization results indicated that the rotor vibration reached the minimum value and the design efficiency and quality were improved by the multidisciplinary design optimization in the case of meeting the design requirements, which provided the reference to improve the design efficiency and reliability of the aero-engine rotor.
Flywheel Rotor Safe-Life Technology
Ratner, J. K. H.; Chang, J. B.; Christopher, D. A.; McLallin, Kerry L. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
Since the 1960s, research has been conducted into the use of flywheels as energy storage systems. The-proposed applications include energy storage for hybrid and electric automobiles, attitude control and energy storage for satellites, and uninterruptible power supplies for hospitals and computer centers. For many years, however, the use of flywheels for space applications was restricted by the total weight of a system employing a metal rotor. With recent technological advances in the manufacturing of composite materials, however, lightweight composite rotors have begun to be proposed for such applications. Flywheels with composite rotors provide much higher power and energy storage capabilities than conventional chemical batteries. However, the failure of a high speed flywheel rotor could be a catastrophic event. For this reason, flywheel rotors are classified by the NASA Fracture Control Requirements Standard as fracture critical parts. Currently, there is no industry standard to certify a composite rotor for safe and reliable operation forth( required lifetime of the flywheel. Technical problems hindering the development of this standard include composite manufacturing inconsistencies, insufficient nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques for detecting defects and/or impact damage, lack of standard material test methods for characterizing composite rotor design allowables, and no unified proof (over-spin) test for flight rotors. As part of a flywheel rotor safe-life certification pro-ram funded b the government, a review of the state of the art in composite rotors is in progress. The goal of the review is to provide a clear picture of composite flywheel rotor technologies. The literature review has concentrated on the following topics concerning composites and composite rotors: durability (fatigue) and damage tolerance (safe-life) analysis/test methods, in-service NDE and health monitoring techniques, spin test methods/ procedures, and containment options
Dynamics of synchrotron VUV-induced intracluster reactions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Grover, J.R. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States)
1993-12-01
Photoionization mass spectrometry (PIMS) using the tunable vacuum ultraviolet radiation available at the National Synchrotron Light Source is being exploited to study photoionization-induced reactions in small van der Waals mixed complexes. The information gained includes the observation and classification of reaction paths, the measurement of onsets, and the determination of relative yields of competing reactions. Additional information is obtained by comparison of the properties of different reacting systems. Special attention is given to finding unexpected features, and most of the reactions investigated to date display such features. However, understanding these reactions demands dynamical information, in addition to what is provided by PIMS. Therefore the program has been expanded to include the measurement of kinetic energy release distributions.
Molecular Dynamics Simulations of a Pressure-induced Glass Transition
Shumway, S L; Jonsson, H; Shumway, Shelly L.; Clarke, Andrew S.
1994-01-01
We simulate the compression of a two-component Lennard-Jones liquid at a variety of constant temperatures using a molecular dynamics algorithm in an isobaric-isothermal ensemble. The viscosity of the liquid increases with pressure, undergoing a broadened transition into a structurally arrested, amorphous state. This transition, like the more familiar one induced by cooling, is correlated with a significant increase in icosahedral ordering. In fact, the structure of the final state, as measured by an analysis of the bonding, is essentially the same in the glassy, frozen state whether produced by squeezing or by cooling under pressure. We have computed an effective hard-sphere packing fraction at the transition, defining the transition pressure or temperature by a cutoff in the diffusion constant, analogous to the traditional laboratory definition of the glass transition by an arbitrary, low cutoff in viscosity. The packing fraction at this transition point is not constant, but is consistently higher for runs c...
Dynamically tunable plasmon induced transparency in graphene metamaterials
Fu, Guang-Lai; Zhai, Xiang; Li, Hong-Ju; Xia, Sheng-Xuan; Wang, Ling-Ling
2017-01-01
Plasmon induced transparency (PIT) with graphene metamaterials is investigated with the finite-difference time-domain method. Interestingly, the modulation of the PIT transparency window can be achieved by changing not only the gap distance between the two resonators but also the polarization angle of the excitation light. The three-level plasmonic system is employed to clearly explain the formation mechanism of the PIT effect. The analytical results show good consistency with the numerical calculations. Moreover, the PIT resonant wavelength and group delays of incident waves can be dynamically tuned by varying the Fermi energy of the graphene. Our designed graphene nanostructure is promising for the development of compact elements such as tunable sensors, switches and slow-light devices.
Noise-induced bifurcations in magnetization dynamics of uniaxial nanomagnets
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Serpico, C., E-mail: serpico@unina.it; Perna, S.; Quercia, A. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Elettrica e delle Tecnologie dell' Informazione, Università di Napoli “Federico II,” I-80125 Napoli (Italy); Bertotti, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica, I-10135 Torino (Italy); D' Aquino, M. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria, Università di Napoli “Parthenope,” I-80143 Napoli (Italy); Mayergoyz, I. D. [ECE Department and UMIACS, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)
2015-05-07
Stochastic magnetization dynamics in uniformly magnetized nanomagnets is considered. The system is assumed to have rotational symmetry as the anisotropy axis, the applied field, and the spin polarization are all aligned along an axis of symmetry. By appropriate integration of the Fokker-Planck equation associated to the problem, the stochastic differential equation governing the evolution of the angle between the magnetization orientation and the symmetry axis is derived. The drift terms present in this equation contain a noise-induced drift term, which, in combination with drift terms of deterministic origin, can be written as the derivative of an effective potential. Superparamagnetic-like transitions are studied in connections with the bifurcations of the effective potential as temperature and excitation conditions are varied.
Dynamic response of shear thickening fluid under laser induced shock
Wu, Xianqian; Zhong, Fachun; Yin, Qiuyun; Huang, Chenguang
2015-02-01
The dynamic response of the 57 vol./vol. % dense spherical silica particle-polyethylene glycol suspension at high pressure was investigated through short pulsed laser induced shock experiments. The measured back free surface velocities by a photonic Doppler velocimetry showed that the shock and the particle velocities decreased while the shock wave transmitted in the shear thickening fluid (STF), from which an equation of state for the STF was obtained. In addition, the peak stress decreased and the absorbed energy increased rapidly with increasing the thickness for a thin layer of the STF, which should be attributed to the impact-jammed behavior through compression of particle matrix, the deformation or crack of the hard-sphere particles, and the volume compression of the particles and the polyethylene glycol.
Anomaly-induced dynamical refringence in strong-field QED
Mueller, Niklas; Berges, Jürgen
2016-01-01
We investigate the impact of the Adler-Bell-Jackiw anomaly on the nonequilibrium evolution of strong-field quantum electrodynamics (QED) using real-time lattice gauge theory techniques. For field strengths exceeding the Schwinger limit for pair production, we encounter a highly absorptive medium with anomaly-induced dynamical refractive properties. In contrast to earlier expectations based on equilibrium properties, where net anomalous effects vanish because of the trivial vacuum structure, we find that out-of-equilibrium conditions can have dramatic consequences for the presence of quantum currents with distinctive macroscopic signatures. We observe an intriguing tracking behavior, where the system spends longest times near collinear field configurations with maximum anomalous current. Apart from the potential relevance of our findings for future laser experiments, similar phenomena related to the chiral magnetic effect are expected to play an important role for strong QED fields during initial stages of hea...
Energy from Swastika-Shaped Rotors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
McCulloch M. E.
2015-04-01
Full Text Available It is suggested here that a swastika-shaped rotor exposed to waves will rotate in the di- rection its arms are pointing (towards the arm-tips due to a sheltering effect. A formula is derived to predict the motion obtainable from swastika rotors of different sizes given the ocean wave height and phase speed and it is suggested that the rotor could provide a new, simpler method of wave energy generation. It is also proposed that the swastika rotor could generate energy on a smaller scale from sound waves and Brownian motion, and potentially the zero point field.
Rotor thermal stress monitoring in steam turbines
Antonín, Bouberle; Jan, Jakl; Jindřich, Liška
2015-11-01
One of the issues of steam turbines diagnostics is monitoring of rotor thermal stress that arises from nonuniform temperature field. The effort of steam turbine operator is to operate steam turbine in such conditions, that rotor thermal stress doesn't exceed the specified limits. If rotor thermal stress limits are exceeded for a long time during machine operation, the rotor fatigue life is shortened and this may lead to unexpected machine failure. Thermal stress plays important role during turbine cold startup, when occur the most significant differences of temperatures through rotor cross section. The temperature field can't be measured directly in the entire rotor cross section and standardly the temperature is measured by thermocouple mounted in stator part. From this reason method for numerical solution of partial differential equation of heat propagation through rotor cross section must be combined with method for calculation of temperature on rotor surface. In the first part of this article, the application of finite volume method for calculation of rotor thermal stress is described. The second part of article deals with optimal trend generation of thermal flux, that could be used for optimal machine loading.
Dynamics of laser induced micro bubble clusters on tissue phantoms
Fritz, Andreas; Zegelin, Andrea; Ptaszynski, Lars; Birngruber, Reginald; Brinkmann, Ralf
2011-03-01
Selective retina treatment (SRT) is a laser based method to treat retinal diseases associated with disorders of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) while preserving photoreceptors and choroid. Applying microsecond laser pulses to the 100- 200 strongly absorbing melanin granules inside the RPE cells induces transient micro bubbles which disrupt the cells. Aim of this work is to understand bubble dynamics in clusters with respect to the influence of the adjacent retina. Bubble dynamics were investigated in vitro on porcine RPE. An about 200 μm thick layer of agarose gel was applied to the RPE layer in order to simulate the mechanical properties of retina. Different laser pulse durations from 1 ns (532 nm, Nd:YAG) to 1.7 μs (527 nm, Nd:YLF) were used. The bubbles were investigated interferometrically (fiber interferometer @ 830 nm) and with fast flash photography (25 ns flash duration). Bubble lifetimes were measured. The results show that with retina phantoms the bubble formation threshold was reached at 2.5 times higher irradiation than without retina phantom for 1.7 μs laser pulses. The microbubbles generated with 1 ns laser pulses were almost not influenced by the agarose layer. Irradiation twofold over bubble formation threshold resulted in 3.5 times longer bubble lifetimes for μs and 2 times longer for ns pulse durations, respectively.
Disturbance induced dynamics of a tritrophic novel ecosystem.
Lakatos, K T; László, Z; Tóthmérész, B
2017-07-26
Novel ecosystems formed by invasive plants provide a good opportunity to get insight into early dynamics and pattern formation of these ecosystems. The invasive black locust as host plant, Bruchophagus robiniae as host-specific seed predator and its parasitoids were the components of the studied tritrophic system. To investigate disturbance-driven dynamics of this system we created seed-vacated host plant patches in a field experiment. We removed all pods from selected patches of black locust resulting in an induced local extinction of seed predators and their parasitoids. We hypothesized that disturbance enhances top-down control by parasitoids; this enhanced top-down control decreases seed predation, facilitating the host plant's spread. We found that disturbance modified only parasitism after controlling with year effect: in vacated patches median parasitism was higher than in control patches. Seed predation exceeded its initial level in vacated patches in the third year after the disturbance, but in the fourth year it dropped again presumably due to the strong top-down control. Our findings also suggested that the seed predator was also affected by the bottom-up control of its host plant's density. We found that in the studied new ecosystem the top-down control was strengthened by the disturbance. Since the host plant of the tritrophic system is an invasive species, partial habitat disturbance of such species may increase the severity of parasitoid top-down control, which may reduce seed predation by the herbivores.
Thermo-induced vesicular dynamics of membranes containing cholesterol derivatives.
Yoda, Tsuyoshi; Vestergaard, Mun'delanji C; Hamada, Tsutomu; Le, Phuc Thi Minh; Takagi, Masahiro
2012-08-01
Membrane structural organization is an intrinsic property of a cell membrane. Any changes in lipid composition, and/or any stimuli that affect molecular packing induce structural re-organization. It membrane dynamics provide a means by which changes in structure organization can be determined, upon a change in the membrane internal or external environment. Here, we report on the effect of thermo-stress on membranes containing cholesterol liquid crystal (LC) compounds cholesterol benzoate (BENZO) and oxidized cholesterols. We have (1) revealed that lipid vesicles containing this artificial cholesterol derivative (BENZO) is thermo-responsive, and that this thermo-sensitivity is significantly similar to naturally oxy-cholesterols (2) elucidated the mechanism behind the membrane perturbation. Using Langmuir monolayer experiments, we have demonstrated that membrane perturbation was due to an increase in the molecular surface area, (3) discussed the similarities between cholesterol benzoate in the cholesterol LC state and in lipid bilayer membranes. Last, (4) drawing from previously reported findings, our new data on membrane dynamics, and the discussion above, we propose that artificial cholesterol derivatives such as BENZO, open new possibilities for controlled and tailored design using model membrane systems. Examples could include the development of membrane technology and provide a trigger for progress in thermo-tropical liquid crystal engineering.
Extensional Flow-Induced Dynamic Phase Transitions in Isotactic Polypropylene.
Ju, Jianzhu; Wang, Zhen; Su, Fengmei; Ji, Youxin; Yang, Haoran; Chang, Jiarui; Ali, Sarmad; Li, Xiangyang; Li, Liangbin
2016-09-01
With a combination of fast extension rheometer and in situ synchrotron radiation ultra-fast small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering, flow-induced crystallization (FIC) of isotactic polypropylene (iPP) is studied at temperatures below and above the melting point of α crystals (Tmα). A flow phase diagram of iPP is constructed in strain rate-temperature space, composing of melt, non-crystalline shish, α and α&β coexistence regions, based on which the kinetic and dynamic competitions among these four phases are discussed. Above Tmα , imposing strong flow reverses thermodynamic stabilities of the disordered melt and the ordered phases, leading to the occurrence of FIC of β and α crystals as a dynamic phase transition. Either increasing temperature or stain rate favors the competiveness of the metastable β over the stable α crystals, which is attributed to kinetic rate rather than thermodynamic stability. The violent competitions among four phases near the boundary of crystal-melt may frustrate crystallization and result in the non-crystalline shish winning out.
Frequency Response Analysis of an Actively Lubricated Rotor/Tilting-Pad Bearing System
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nicoletti, Rodrigo; Santos, Ilmar
2004-01-01
In the present paper, the dynamic response of a rotor supported by an active lubricated tilting-pad bearing is investigated in the frequency domain. The theoretical part of the investigation is based on a mathematical model obtained by means of rigid body dynamics. The oil film forces are inserte...
Bifurcation and chaos of the bladed overhang rotor system with squeeze film dampers
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CAO DengQing; WANG LiGang; CHEN YuShu; HUANG WenHu
2009-01-01
To study the nonlinear dynamic behavior of the bladed overhang rotor system with squeeze film damper (SFD), a blade-overhang rotor-SFD model is formulated using the lumped mass method and the Lagrange approach. The cavitated short bearing model is employed to describe the nonlinear oil force of the SFD. To reduce the scale of the nonlinear coupling system, a set of orthogonal transformations is employed to decouple the one nodal diameter equations of blades, which are coupled with the dy-namical equations of the rotor, with other equations of blades. In this way, the original system with 16+4n (n≥3) degrees of freedom (DoF) is reduced to a system with 24 DoF only. Then the parametric excitation terms in the blade-overhang rotor-SFD model are simplified in terms of periodic transforma-tions. The coupling equations are numerically solved and the solutions are used to analyze the dy-trum plot. A variety of motion types are found such as multi-periodic, quasi-periodic, and chaotic mo-tions. Moreover, the typical nonlinear dynamic evolutions including the periodic-doubling bifurcation and reverse bifurcation are noted. It is noticed that there exist apparent differences in the dynamic behavior between the blade-overhang rotor-SFD models without and with considering the effect of blades.
ANALYTICAL APPROACH TO AERODYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE HELICOPTER ROTOR WITH ANHEDRAL TIP SHAPE
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
1998-01-01
A new analytical approach, based on a lifting surface model and a full-span free wake analysis using the curved vortex element on the circular arc, is established for evaluating the aerodynamic characteristics of the helicopter rotor with an anhedral blade-tip and is emphasized to be applicable to various blade-tip configurations, such as the tapered, swept, anhedral and combined shapes. Sample calculations on the rotor aerodynamic characteristics for different anhedral tips in both hover and forward flight are performed. The results on the induced velocity, blade section lift distribution, tip vortex path and rotor performance are presented so that the effect of the anhedral tip on the rotor aerodynamic characteristics is fully analyzed.
A Static Burst Test for Composite Flywheel Rotors
Hartl, Stefan; Schulz, Alexander; Sima, Harald; Koch, Thomas; Kaltenbacher, Manfred
2016-06-01
High efficient and safe flywheels are an interesting technology for decentralized energy storage. To ensure all safety aspects, a static test method for a controlled initiation of a burst event for composite flywheel rotors is presented with nearly the same stress distribution as in the dynamic case, rotating with maximum speed. In addition to failure prediction using different maximum stress criteria and a safety factor, a set of tensile and compressive tests is carried out to identify the parameters of the used carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) material. The static finite element (FE) simulation results of the flywheel static burst test (FSBT) compare well to the quasistatic FE-simulation results of the flywheel rotor using inertia loads. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the presented method is a very good controllable and observable possibility to test a high speed flywheel energy storage system (FESS) rotor in a static way. Thereby, a much more expensive and dangerous dynamic spin up test with possible uncertainties can be substituted.
Rotor-Flying Manipulator: Modeling, Analysis, and Control
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bin Yang
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Equipping multijoint manipulators on a mobile robot is a typical redesign scheme to make the latter be able to actively influence the surroundings and has been extensively used for many ground robots, underwater robots, and space robotic systems. However, the rotor-flying robot (RFR is difficult to be made such redesign. This is mainly because the motion of the manipulator will bring heavy coupling between itself and the RFR system, which makes the system model highly complicated and the controller design difficult. Thus, in this paper, the modeling, analysis, and control of the combined system, called rotor-flying multijoint manipulator (RF-MJM, are conducted. Firstly, the detailed dynamics model is constructed and analyzed. Subsequently, a full-state feedback linear quadratic regulator (LQR controller is designed through obtaining linearized model near steady state. Finally, simulations are conducted and the results are analyzed to show the basic control performance.
Ground and air resonance of bearingless rotors in hover
Jang, Jinseok; Chopra, Inderjit
1987-01-01
A finite element formulation is used to investigate ground and air resistence in hover for a bearingless rotor. Aerodynamic forces are studied using quasi-steady strip theory, and unsteady aerodynamic effects are introduced through an inflow dynamics model. Reasonable correlation was found between predicted ground and air resonance results and data obtained from measurements using a 1/8th Froude-scaled dynamic model. Systematic parametric studies of the effects of various design parameters were performed, and lag frequency was found to significantly influence ground resonance stability, whereas pitch-lag coupling, blade sweep and pitch link stiffness had powerful effects on air resonance stability.
Performance tests of a Benesh wind turbine rotor and a Savonius rotor
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Moutsoglou, A.; Yan Weng [South Dakota State Univ., Brookings, SD (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering
1995-12-31
A study was conducted to compare the performance of a Benesh rotor against a Savonius rotor as a wind power generating device. Rotors of similar dimensions were tested at the exit of a 1.22 m x 0.91 wind tunnel, at two different shaft heights above the ground. In all the tests, the maximum power coefficient for the Benesh rotor was considerably greater than for the Savonius and occurred at a lower tip speed ratio. The Benesh rotor also displayed better starting characteristics throughout. Finally, the present data compared very favourably with the experimental data of Backwell et al. (Author)
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wan Shuting; Li Heming; Li Yonggang; Tang Guiji
2005-01-01
Rotor vibration characteristics are first analyzed, which are that the rotor vibration of fundamental frequency will increase due to rotor winding inter-turn short circuit fault, air-gap dynamic eccentricity fault, or imbalance fault, and the vibration of the second frequency will increase when the air-gap static eccentricity fault occurs. Next, the characteristics of the stator winding parallel branches circulating current are analyzed, which are that the second harmonics circulating current will increase when the rotor winding inter-turn short circuit fault occurs, and the fundamental circulating current will increase when the air-gap eccentricity fault occurs, neither being strongly affected by the imbalance fault. Considering the differences of the rotor vibration and circulating current characteristics caused by different rotor faults, a method of generator vibration fault diagnosis, based on rotor vibration and circulating current characteristics, is developed. Finally, the rotor vibration and circulating current of a type SDF-9 generator is measured in the laboratory to verify the theoretical analysis presented above.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张义民; 朱丽莎; 唐乐; 卢昊
2011-01-01
以工程实际中具有复杂结构的非线性转子系统为研究对象,以有限元分析软件和多体动力学仿真软件为平台,建立参数化刚柔混合非线性转子动力学模型,对转子系统进行动力学仿真,并结合神经网络技术,随机摄动技术,可靠性设计和可靠性灵敏度设计相关理论,建立动态应力可靠性模型,提出对具有复杂结构的非线性转子系统的可靠性灵敏度设计的新方法,研究设计参数的改变对转子系统可靠性的影响,得到可靠性对基本随机变量均值和方差的灵敏度,在基本随机变量是混合变量的情况下对其灵敏度进行量纲一化,将各个基本随机变量对可靠性的影响程度进行排序,为产品在设计阶段提供理论参考,有着积极的现实意义和理论价值.%A nonlinear rotor system with complex structure in engineering is studied and the finite element analysis software and the multi-body dynamics simulation software are used to establish and analyze the parametric dynamic model of the rigid-flexible rotor system. The dynamic simulation of the rotor system is carried out and the dynamic stress model for reliability analysis is established on the basis of artificial neural network (ANN) technique, stochastic perturbation method, reliability design and reliability-based sensitivity design theory. Thus, an efficient method is proposed to compute the reliability-based sensitivity of the non-linear rotor system with complex structure. The influence degree of the designed parameters on the reliability of rotor system is discussed, and the sensitivity of reliability to the mean value and variance of original random parameters is obtained. On condition that the units of original random parameters are different, the sensitivity is transformed into dimensionless value and each basic random variable is then sequenced by the influence degree of reliability. The proposed method provides theoretical reference for the
Innovative multi rotor wind turbine designs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kale, S.A.; Sapali, S.N. [College of Engineering. Mechanical Engineering Dept, Pune (India)
2012-07-01
Among the renewable energy sources, today wind energy is the most recognized and cost effective. Developers and researchers in this sector are optimistic and continuously working innovatively to improve the technology. The wind power obtained is proportional to the swept area of wind turbine. The swept area is increased by using a single rotor of large diameter or multi rotors in array. The rotor size is growing continuously with mature technology. Multi rotor technology has a long history and the multi rotor concept persists in a variety of modern innovative systems but the concept has fallen out of consideration in mainstream design from the perception that is complex and unnecessary as very large single rotor units are now technically feasible. This work addresses the evaluation of different multi rotor wind turbine systems. These innovative wind turbines are evaluated on the basis of feasibility, technological advantages, security of expected power performance, cost, reliability, impact of innovative system, comparison with existing wind turbine design. The findings of this work will provide guidelines for the practical and economical ways for further research on the multi rotor wind turbines. (Author)
Rotor theories by Professor Joukowsky: Momentum theories
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
van Kuik, G. A. M.; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Okulov, V. L.
2015-01-01
This paper is the first of two papers on the history of rotor aerodynamics with special emphasis on the role of Joukowsky. The present one focuses on the development of the momentum theory while the second one surveys the development of vortex theory for rotors. Joukowsky has played a major role ...
Pneumatic boot for helicopter rotor deicing
Blaha, B. J.; Evanich, P. L.
1981-01-01
Pneumatic deicer boots for helicopter rotor blades were tested. The tests were conducted in the 6 by 9 ft icing research tunnel on a stationary section of a UH-IH helicopter main rotor blade. The boots were effective in removing ice and in reducing aerodynamic drag due to ice.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
谢振宇; 龙亚文; 徐欣
2013-01-01
建立5自由度磁悬浮轴承转子试验系统,分析有偏置和零偏置电流方式的工作原理,将5自由度零偏置电流方式应用于试验系统中,采用锤击法模态试验、基于频率响应函数的模型修正方法和系统高速旋转试验等方法研究该系统的动态性能,并与有偏置电流方式进行比较.研究结果表明,与有偏置电流方式相比,零偏置电流方式将导致控制参数的稳定区域、系统的模态阻尼以及磁轴承的刚度和阻尼明显减小,系统在各阶临界转速时的振幅较大,但系统仍然可以安全稳定越过第一阶弯曲临界转速.在实际应用中,合理的设计仍可保证零偏置电流磁悬浮轴承转子系统安全稳定运行,特别是在低速或载荷平稳等应用场合,零偏置电流方式能够使得系统具有较好的综合性能.%An experimental setup of five degree-of-freedom active magnetic bearing (AMB) rotor system is built up.The modes of bias current and zero bias current are presented.Dynamic characteristics of the system with zero bias current are investigated by stamping modal test,method of model updating based on frequency response function (FRF) and actual operation of the system,and compared with the results of the system with bias current.The results show that,for the system with zero bias current,the stability region of control parameters,modal damping and stiffness and damping of AMB are reduced obviously and its vibration amplitudes in motion on the critical speeds are larger than the system with bias current,however it can still get across the first bending critical speed safely.If the design of the system is proper,the mode of zero bias current can be adopted in actual application,especially in the application of low rotation speed and stable load,so that the system has better over-all properties.
Bifurcation and chaos of the bladed overhang rotor system with squeeze film dampers
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2009-01-01
To study the nonlinear dynamic behavior of the bladed overhang rotor system with squeeze film damper (SFD), a blade-overhang rotor-SFD model is formulated using the lumped mass method and the Lagrange approach. The cavitated short bearing model is employed to describe the nonlinear oil force of the SFD. To reduce the scale of the nonlinear coupling system, a set of orthogonal transformations is employed to decouple the one nodal diameter equations of blades, which are coupled with the dy- namical equations of the rotor, with other equations of blades. In this way, the original system with 16+4n (n≥3) degrees of freedom (DoF) is reduced to a system with 24 DoF only. Then the parametric excitation terms in the blade-overhang rotor-SFD model are simplified in terms of periodic transforma- tions. The coupling equations are numerically solved and the solutions are used to analyze the dy- namic behavior of the system in terms of the bifurcation diagram, whirl orbit, Poincaré map and spec- trum plot. A variety of motion types are found such as multi-periodic, quasi-periodic, and chaotic mo- tions. Moreover, the typical nonlinear dynamic evolutions including the periodic-doubling bifurcation and reverse bifurcation are noted. It is noticed that there exist apparent differences in the dynamic behavior between the blade-overhang rotor-SFD models without and with considering the effect of blades.
Calculation of rotor impedance for use in design analysis of helicopter airframe vibrations
Nygren, Kip P.
1990-01-01
Excessive vibration is one of the most prevalent technical obstacles encountered in the development of new rotorcraft. The inability to predict these vibrations is primarily due to deficiencies in analysis and simulation tools. The Langley Rotorcraft Structural Dynamics Program was instituted in 1984 to meet long term industry needs in the area of rotorcraft vibration prediction. As a part of the Langley program, this research endeavors to develop an efficient means of coupling the rotor to the airframe for preliminary design analysis of helicopter airframe vibrations. The main effort was to modify the existing computer program for modeling the dynamic and aerodynamic behavior of rotorcraft called DYSCO (DYnamic System COupler) to calculate the rotor impedance. DYSCO was recently developed for the U.S. Army and has proven to be adaptable for the inclusion of new solution methods. The solution procedure developed to use DYSCO for the calculation of rotor impedance is presented. Verification of the procedure by comparison with a known solution for a simple wind turbine model is about 75 percent completed, and initial results are encouraging. After the wind turbine impedance is confirmed, the verification effort will continue by comparison to solutions of a more sophisticated rotorcraft model. Future work includes determination of the sensitivity of the rotorcraft airframe vibrations to helicopter flight conditions and rotor modeling assumptions. When completed, this research will ascertain the feasibility and efficiency of the impedance matching method of rotor-airframe coupling for use in the analysis of airframe vibrations during the preliminary rotorcraft design process.
Random gust response statistics for coupled torsion-flapping rotor blade vibrations.
Gaonkar, G. H.; Hohenemser, K. H.; Yin, S. K.
1972-01-01
An analysis of coupled torsion-flapping rotor blade vibrations in response to atmospheric turbulence revealed that at high rotor advance ratios anticipated for future high speed pure or convertible rotorcraft both flapping and torsional vibrations can be severe. While appropriate feedback systems can alleviate flapping, they have little effect on torsion. Dynamic stability margins have also no substantial influence on dynamic torsion loads. The only effective means found to alleviate turbulence caused torsional vibrations and loads at high advance ratio was a substantial torsional stiffness margin with respect to local static torsional divergence of the retreating blade.
Rotor anisotropy as a blade damage indicator for wind turbine structural health monitoring systems
Tcherniak, Dmitri
2016-06-01
Structural damage of a rotor blade causes structural anisotropy of the rotor. In rotor dynamic, the anisotropy affects the symmetry of the rotor mode shapes, and the latter can be utilized to detect the blade damage. The mode shape symmetry can be characterized by relative blades' magnitude and phase. The study examines the potential use of these parameters as rotor damage indicators. Firstly the indicators are studied analytically using a simple 6 degrees-of-freedom model of a rotating rotor. Floquet analysis is used due to the time periodic nature of the considered system. Floquet analysis allows one to perform analytical modal decomposition of the system and study the sensitivity of the damage indicators to the amount of damage. Secondly, operational modal analysis (OMA) is involved to extract the same damage indicators from simulated experimental data, which was synthesized via numerical simulations. Finally, the same procedure was applied to operating Vestas V27 wind turbine, first using the simulated experimental data obtained by using aeroelastic simulation code HAWC2 and then using the data acquired during the measurement campaign on a real wind turbine. The study demonstrates that the proposed damage indicators are significantly more sensitive than the commonly used changes in natural frequency, and in contrast to the latter, can also pinpoint the faulty blade. It is also demonstrated that these indicators can be derived from blades vibration data obtained from real life experiment.
Magnetic resonance imaging of DNP enhancements in a rotor spinning at the magic angle.
Perras, Frédéric A; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Pruski, Marek
2016-03-01
Simulations performed on model, static, samples have shown that the microwave power is non-uniformly distributed in the magic angle spinning (MAS) rotor when using conventional dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) instrumentation. Here, we applied the stray-field magic angle spinning imaging (STRAFI-MAS) experiment to generate a spatial map of the DNP enhancements in a full rotor, which is spun at a low rate in a commercial DNP-MAS NMR system. Notably, we observed that the enhancement factors produced in the center of the rotor can be twice as large as those produced at the top of the rotor. Surprisingly, we observed that the largest enhancement factors are observed along the axis of the rotor as opposed to against its walls, which are most directly irradiated by the microwave beam. We lastly observed that the distribution of enhancement factors can be moderately improved by degassing the sample and increasing the microwave power. The inclusion of dielectric particles greatly amplifies the enhancement factors throughout the rotor. The STRAFI-MAS approach can provide useful guidance for optimizing the access of microwave power to the sample, and thereby lead to further increases in sensitivity of DNP-MAS NMR.
Magnetostatic analysis of a rotor system supported by radial active magnetic bearings
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ferfecki P.
2009-06-01
Full Text Available The development and the design of a radial active magnetic bearing (AMB reflects a complex process of the multidisciplinary rotor dynamics, electromagnetism and automatic control analysis. Modelling is performed by application of the physical laws from different areas, e.g. Newton's laws of motion and Maxwell's equations. The new approach in the numerical modelling of radial AMB and design methodology allowing automatic generation of primary dimensions of the radial AMB is proposed. Instead of the common way of computation of electromagnetic forces by linearizing at the centre position of the rotor with respect to rotor displacement and coil current, the finite element computation of electromagnetic forces is used. The heteropolar radial AMB consisting of eight pole shoes was designed by means of the built up algorithms for rotor system with two discs fixed on the cantilever shaft. A study of the influence of the nonlinear magnetization characteristics of a rotor and stator material on the equilibrium position of a rotor system is carried out. The performed numerical study shows that results obtained from the analytical nonlinear relation for electromagnetic forces can be considerably different from forces computed with magnetostatic finite element analysis.
Model updating of rotor systems by using Nonlinear least square optimization
Jha, A. K.; Dewangan, P.; Sarangi, M.
2016-07-01
Mathematical models of structure or machineries are always different from the existing physical system, because the approach of numerical predictions to the behavior of a physical system is limited by the assumptions used in the development of the mathematical model. Model updating is, therefore necessary so that updated model should replicate the physical system. This work focuses on the model updating of rotor systems at various speeds as well as at different modes of vibration. Support bearing characteristics severely influence the dynamics of rotor systems like turbines, compressors, pumps, electrical machines, machine tool spindles etc. Therefore bearing parameters (stiffness and damping) are considered to be updating parameters. A finite element model of rotor systems is developed using Timoshenko beam element. Unbalance response in time domain and frequency response function have been calculated by numerical techniques, and compared with the experimental data to update the FE-model of rotor systems. An algorithm, based on unbalance response in time domain is proposed for updating the rotor systems at different running speeds of rotor. An attempt has been made to define Unbalance response assurance criterion (URAC) to check the degree of correlation between updated FE model and physical model.
Computational Analysis of Multi-Rotor Flows
Yoon, Seokkwan; Lee, Henry C.; Pulliam, Thomas H.
2016-01-01
Interactional aerodynamics of multi-rotor flows has been studied for a quadcopter representing a generic quad tilt-rotor aircraft in hover. The objective of the present study is to investigate the effects of the separation distances between rotors, and also fuselage and wings on the performance and efficiency of multirotor systems. Three-dimensional unsteady Navier-Stokes equations are solved using a spatially 5th order accurate scheme, dual-time stepping, and the Detached Eddy Simulation turbulence model. The results show that the separation distances as well as the wings have significant effects on the vertical forces of quadroror systems in hover. Understanding interactions in multi-rotor flows would help improve the design of next generation multi-rotor drones.
Open Rotor - Analysis of Diagnostic Data
Envia, Edmane
2011-01-01
NASA is researching open rotor propulsion as part of its technology research and development plan for addressing the subsonic transport aircraft noise, emission and fuel burn goals. The low-speed wind tunnel test for investigating the aerodynamic and acoustic performance of a benchmark blade set at the approach and takeoff conditions has recently concluded. A high-speed wind tunnel diagnostic test campaign has begun to investigate the performance of this benchmark open rotor blade set at the cruise condition. Databases from both speed regimes will comprise a comprehensive collection of benchmark open rotor data for use in assessing/validating aerodynamic and noise prediction tools (component & system level) as well as providing insights into the physics of open rotors to help guide the development of quieter open rotors.
Optimal Aerodynamic Design of Conventional and Coaxial Helicopter Rotors in Hover and Forward Flight
Giovanetti, Eli B.
This dissertation investigates the optimal aerodynamic performance and design of conventional and coaxial helicopters in hover and forward flight using conventional and higher harmonic blade pitch control. First, we describe a method for determining the blade geometry, azimuthal blade pitch inputs, optimal shaft angle (rotor angle of attack), and division of propulsive and lifting forces among the components that minimize the total power for a given forward flight condition. The optimal design problem is cast as a variational statement that is discretized using a vortex lattice wake to model inviscid forces, combined with two-dimensional drag polars to model profile losses. The resulting nonlinear constrained optimization problem is solved via Newton iteration. We investigate the optimal design of a compound vehicle in forward flight comprised of a coaxial rotor system, a propeller, and optionally, a fixed wing. We show that higher harmonic control substantially reduces required power, and that both rotor and propeller efficiencies play an important role in determining the optimal shaft angle, which in turn affects the optimal design of each component. Second, we present a variational approach for determining the optimal (minimum power) torque-balanced coaxial hovering rotor using Blade Element Momentum Theory including swirl. We show that the optimal hovering coaxial rotor generates only a small percentage of its total thrust on the portion of the lower rotor operating in the upper rotor's contracted wake, resulting in an optimal design with very different upper and lower rotor twist and chord distributions. We also show that the swirl component of induced velocity has a relatively small effect on rotor performance at the disk loadings typical of helicopter rotors. Third, we describe a more refined model of the wake of a hovering conventional or coaxial rotor. We approximate the rotor or coaxial rotors as actuator disks (though not necessarily uniformly loaded
Rotors stress analysis and design
Vullo, Vincenzo
2013-01-01
Stress and strain analysis of rotors subjected to surface and body loads, as well as to thermal loads deriving from temperature variation along the radius, constitutes a classic subject of machine design. Nevertheless attention is limited to rotor profiles for which governing equations are solvable in closed form. Furthermore very few actual engineering issues may relate to structures for which stress and strain analysis in the linear elastic field and, even more, under non-linear conditions (i.e. plastic or viscoelastic conditions) produces equations to be solved in closed form. Moreover, when a product is still in its design stage, an analytical formulation with closed-form solution is of course simpler and more versatile than numerical methods, and it allows to quickly define a general configuration, which may then be fine-tuned using such numerical methods. In this view, all subjects are based on analytical-methodological approach, and some new solutions in closed form are presented. The analytical formul...
Modeling and dynamic simulation of ultraviolet induced growing interfaces
Flicstein, J.; Guillonneau, E.; Pata, S.; Kee Chun, L. S.; Palmier, J. F.; Daguet, C.; Courant, J. L.
1999-01-01
A solid-on-solid (SOS) model to simulate SiN:H dynamic surface characteristics in ultraviolet chemical vapor deposition (CVD) onto indium phosphide is presented. It is recognized that the nucleation process occurs at an UV induced active charged center on the surface of the substrate. Photolysis rates are determined using bond dissociation energies for molecular processes to generate active adsorbed species. The microscopic activation energy in elementary processes depends on the configuration of neighbouring atoms. Monte Carlo-Metropolis method using microscopic activation energy barriers is taken into account in molecular processes by a three-dimensional algorithm. The model includes lattice coordination and atom-atom interactions out to third-nearest neighbours. The molecular events are chosen with a probability of occurrence that depends on the kinetic rates at each atomic site. Stable incorporation of main species is enabled. Three-dimensional simulation of a growing interface indicates validation of a thermally activated rough-smooth transition for submicronic thick layers in the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang model.
Optically induced dynamic nuclear spin polarisation in diamond
Scheuer, Jochen; Schwartz, Ilai; Chen, Qiong; Schulze-Sünninghausen, David; Carl, Patrick; Höfer, Peter; Retzker, Alexander; Sumiya, Hitoshi; Isoya, Junichi; Luy, Burkhard; Plenio, Martin B.; Naydenov, Boris; Jelezko, Fedor
2016-01-01
The sensitivity of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) depends strongly on nuclear spin polarisation and, motivated by this observation, dynamical nuclear spin polarisation has recently been applied to enhance MRI protocols (Kurhanewicz et al 2011 Neoplasia 13 81). Nuclear spins associated with the 13C carbon isotope (nuclear spin I = 1/2) in diamond possess uniquely long spin lattice relaxation times (Reynhardt and High 2011 Prog. Nucl. Magn. Reson. Spectrosc. 38 37). If they are present in diamond nanocrystals, especially when strongly polarised, they form a promising contrast agent for MRI. Current schemes for achieving nuclear polarisation, however, require cryogenic temperatures. Here we demonstrate an efficient scheme that realises optically induced 13C nuclear spin hyperpolarisation in diamond at room temperature and low ambient magnetic field. Optical pumping of a nitrogen-vacancy centre creates a continuously renewable electron spin polarisation which can be transferred to surrounding 13C nuclear spins. Importantly for future applications we also realise polarisation protocols that are robust against an unknown misalignment between magnetic field and crystal axis.
Lattice dynamics and disorder-induced contraction in functionalized graphene
Feng Huang, Liang; Zeng, Zhi
2013-02-01
The lattice dynamics and disorder-induced contraction in hydrogenated, fluorinated, and chlorinated graphene are studied by first-principles simulation. The effects of the functionalization on the phonon dispersions, Grüneissen constants, vibrational thermodynamic functions (free energy, internal energy, entropy, and heat capacity), thermal-expansion coefficients, and bulk moduli are systematically investigated. Functionalization changes the chemical-bond length, mass, thickness, vibrational-mode symmetry, and mode number, and subsequently has significant effects on the phonon dispersions and Grüneissen constants. Functionalization generally increases the vibrational thermodynamic functions, and their temperature dependences all present conventional isotope effects. Functionalization suppresses (enhances) the thermal contraction (expansion) of the lattice, due to the increases in the system mass, membrane thickness, and the compressibility of the phonons. Both the lattice-constant variation and the phonon thermalization contribute to the temperature dependence of the bulk modulus. Both pristine and hydrogenated graphene can be viewed as two kinds of materials having the Invar and Elinvar properties. The contribution to the lattice contraction in functionalized graphene from the conformation disorder (about 2.0%) is much larger than that by thermalization (<0.1% at 300 K), which explains the mismatch between the experimental and theoretical lattice constants.
Chemical memory reactions induced bursting dynamics in gene expression.
Tian, Tianhai
2013-01-01
Memory is a ubiquitous phenomenon in biological systems in which the present system state is not entirely determined by the current conditions but also depends on the time evolutionary path of the system. Specifically, many memorial phenomena are characterized by chemical memory reactions that may fire under particular system conditions. These conditional chemical reactions contradict to the extant stochastic approaches for modeling chemical kinetics and have increasingly posed significant challenges to mathematical modeling and computer simulation. To tackle the challenge, I proposed a novel theory consisting of the memory chemical master equations and memory stochastic simulation algorithm. A stochastic model for single-gene expression was proposed to illustrate the key function of memory reactions in inducing bursting dynamics of gene expression that has been observed in experiments recently. The importance of memory reactions has been further validated by the stochastic model of the p53-MDM2 core module. Simulations showed that memory reactions is a major mechanism for realizing both sustained oscillations of p53 protein numbers in single cells and damped oscillations over a population of cells. These successful applications of the memory modeling framework suggested that this innovative theory is an effective and powerful tool to study memory process and conditional chemical reactions in a wide range of complex biological systems.
WAKE GEOMETRY CALCULATIONS FOR TILT-ROTOR USING VISCOUS VORTEX METHOD
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
魏鹏; 史勇杰; 徐国华
2013-01-01
A tilt-rotor unsteady flow analytical method has been developed based upon viscous vortex-particle meth-od .In this method ,the vorticity field is divided into small assembled vortex particles .Vortex motion and diffusion are obtained by solving the velocity-vorticity-formed incompressible Navier-Stokes equations using a grid-free La-grangian simulation method .Generation of the newly vortex particles is calculated by using the Weissinger-L lifting surface model .Furthermore ,in order to significantly improve computational efficiency ,a fast multiple method (FMM) is introduced into the calculation of induced velocity and its gradient .Finally ,the joint vertical experimen-tal (JVX) tilt-rotor is taken as numerical examples to analyze .The wake geometry and downwash are investigated for both hover and airplane modes .The proposed method for tilt-rotor flow analysis is verified by comparing its re-sults with those available measured data .Comparison indicates that the current method can accurately capture the complicated tilt-rotor wake variation and be suitable for aerodynamic interaction simulation in complex environ-ments .Additionally ,the aerodynamic interactional characteristics of dual-rotor wake are discussed in different ro-tor distance .Results show that there are significant differences on interactional characteristics between hover mode and airplane mode .
Measurements of wakes originated from 2-bladed and 3-bladed rotors
Wu, Yu-Ting; Lyu, Shao-Dong; Chen, Bo-Wei
2016-04-01
Measurements of wakes originated from 2-bladed and 3-bladed rotors were carried out using a hot-wire probe system in an open jet wind tunnel. Hot-wire anemometry was adopted to characterize the spanwise profiles of mean wind speed, turbulence intensity and momentum flux for downwind locations at 0.5, 1, 2, 3, and 4 rotor diameters. The results showed that the 2-bladed rotor spun faster than the 3-bladed one, where the ratio of the two blade angular velocities was 1.065:1 under the same inflow condition with a uniform distribution of 5.4 m/s flow velocity. The turbulence flow statistics of the rotor wakes showed that the wake originated from the 3-bladed rotor has larger velocity deficit, streamwise turbulence intensity, momentum flux magnitude, but smaller spanwise turbulence intensity. The velocity spectrum showed peaks associated with the presence of the blade-induced tip vortices in the near wake region (approximately within 3 rotor diameters).
Enhancing LVRT of DFIG by Using a Superconducting Current Limiter on Rotor Circuit
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Flávio Oliveira
2015-12-01
Full Text Available This paper have studied the dynamic of a 2.0 MW Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG during a severe voltage sag. Using the dynamic model of a DFIG, it was possible to determine the current, Electromagnetic Force and flux behavior during three-phase symmetrical voltage dip. Among the technologies of wind turbines the DFIG is widely employed; however, this machine is extremely susceptible to disturbances from the grid. In order to improve DFIG Low Voltage Ride-Through (LVRT, it is proposed a novel solution, using Superconducting Current Limiter (SCL in two arrangements: one, the SCL is placed between the machine rotor and the rotor side converter (RSC, and another placed in the RSC DC-link. The proposal is validated through simulation using PSCAD™/EMTDC™ and according to requirements of specific regulations. The analysis ensure that both SCL arrangements behave likewise, and are effective in decrement the rotor currents during the disturbance.
Bifurcation analysis of coupled lateral/torsional vibrations of rotor systems
Lee, Kyoung-Hyun; Han, Hyung-Suk; Park, Sungho
2017-01-01
This paper presents a numerical method to analyze the bifurcation of coupled lateral/torsional vibrations of rotor systems. Based on a Hamiltonian approach, a three degree-of-freedom dynamic model of a rotor is derived. Nonlinear ordinary differential equations are derived from the dynamic model. The stability of the equilibrium and linear normal modes (LNMs) are analyzed using a linearized matrix of the system equation. For bifurcation analysis of the periodic orbits, a nonlinear normal modes (NNMs) computation algorithm is performed using multiple shooting methods and pseudo-arclength continuation. Multiple shooting points are continued from LNMs near equilibrium, bifurcation points of the NNMs are detected from the stability change of the periodic orbits during the continuation. The proposed stability analysis, an NNMs computation of coupled lateral/torsional vibration, is demonstrated using two different rotor models: a system with strong eccentricity, and a system with weak eccentricity.
14 CFR 27.1461 - Equipment containing high energy rotors.
2010-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Equipment containing high energy rotors. 27... Equipment containing high energy rotors. (a) Equipment containing high energy rotors must meet paragraph (b), (c), or (d) of this section. (b) High energy rotors contained in equipment must be able to...
14 CFR 29.1461 - Equipment containing high energy rotors.
2010-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Equipment containing high energy rotors. 29... § 29.1461 Equipment containing high energy rotors. (a) Equipment containing high energy rotors must meet paragraph (b), (c), or (d) of this section. (b) High energy rotors contained in equipment must...
14 CFR 25.1461 - Equipment containing high energy rotors.
2010-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Equipment containing high energy rotors. 25... § 25.1461 Equipment containing high energy rotors. (a) Equipment containing high energy rotors must meet paragraph (b), (c), or (d) of this section. (b) High energy rotors contained in equipment must...
Wind rotor with vertical axis. Vindrotor med vertikal axel
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Colling, J.; Sjoenell, B.
1987-06-15
This rotor is of dual type i.e. a paddle wheel shaped rotor close to the vertical axis and a second rotor consisting of vertical blades with wing profile and attached to radial spokes which are fixed to the axis together with the paddle wheel rotor. (L.F.).
On the torque mechanism of Savonius rotors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fujisawa, N. (Dept. of Mechanical Univ., Kiryu (Japan))
1992-07-01
The aerodynamic performance and the flow fields of Savonius rotors at various overlap ratios have been investigated by measuring the pressure distributions on the blades and by visualizing the flow fields in and around the rotors with and without rotation. Experiments have been performed on four rotors having two semicircular blades but with different overlap ratios ranging 0 to 0.5. The static torque performance is improved by increasing the overlap ratio especially on the returning blade, which is due to the pressure recovery effect by the flow through the overlap. On the other hand, the torque and the power performance of the rotating rotor reaches a maximum at an overlap of 0.15. This effect is largely created by the Coanda-like flow on the convex side of the advancing blade, which is strengthened by the flow through the overlap at this small overlap ratio. However, this phenomena is weakened as the overlap ratio is further increased, suggesting a deteriorated performance of the rotor. Observations of the flow inside the rotor indicate an increased recirculation region at such large overlap ratios, which also suggests a reduced aerodynamic efficiency for rotors with large overlap. 11 figs., 16 refs.
Jonker, Jan B.; van Essen, T.G.; van Essen, T.G.
1997-01-01
A finite element based method has been developed for computing time-averaged fluid-induced radial excitation forces and rotor dynamic forces on a two-dimensional centrifugal impeller rotating and whirling in a volute casing. In this method potential flow theory is used, which implies the assumption
Jonker, J.B.; Essen, van T.G.
1997-01-01
A finite element based method has been developed for computing time-averaged fluid-induced radial excitation forces and rotor dynamic forces on a two-dimensional centrifugal impeller rotating and whirling in a volute casing. In this method potential flow theory is used, which implies the assumption
Pressure coefficient evolutions on the blades of a Savonius rotor
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chauvin, A.; Guignard, S. [UMRR 7343, Marseilles (France). Lab. IUSTI; Kamoun, B. [Faculte des Sciences de Sfax (Tunisia). Lab. de Physique
2012-07-01
Measurements of the pressure field distribution on the blades of a vertical axis Savonius wind machine are presented. The rotor used in the wind tunnel is a two blades cylindrical shape with a central gap. Pressure gauges are placed on each side of a blade, so the pressure jumps between intrados and extrados of a blade during a whole rotation are drawn. In the static configuration, the machine is disposed at various incidences. The determination of pressure jumps allows to calculate the static torque of the machine versus the incidence angle. In the dynamic situation the machine is rotating at various frequencies and gauges signals are varying dynamically of course with the incidence. The dynamic torque coefficient is calculated. Evolutions of the starting torque and starting conditions are then described and dynamic effects on torque evolution are presented. (orig.)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Salazar, Jorge Andrés González; Santos, Ilmar
2014-01-01
In this work, the feedback-controlled lubrication regime, based on a model-free designed proportional-derivative (PD) controller, is studied and experimentally tested in a flexible rotor mounted on an actively-lubricated tilting-pad journal bearing (active TPJB). With such a lubrication regime......-controlled lubrication regime featured via PD controllers. Good experimental results are obtained, and a significant improvement of the flexible rotor-bearing system dynamic performance can be experimentally demonstrated....
2015-04-23
Automation Recent computational fluid dynamics (CFD) studies at the Turbopropulsion Laboratory (TPL) have made extensive use of SolidWorks , a...Rotor gas path solid models were developed in SolidWorks and then imported into ANSYS CFX for performance analysis. The interface between... SolidWorks and ANSYS required manual intervention. Any changes to the rotor gas path solid model required human-in-the-loop modification followed by manual
Model-Based Degree Estimation of Unbalance and Misalignment in Flexible Coupling-rotor System
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI Changyou; XU Minqiang; GUO Song; WANG Yuewu; WANG Rixin
2009-01-01
The condition of rotor system must be assessed in order to develop condition-based maintenance for rotating machinery. It is determined by multiple variables such as unbalance degree, misalignment degree, the amount of bending deformation of the shaft, occurrence of shaft crack of rotor system and so on. The estimation of the degrees of unbalance and misalignment in flexible coupling-rotor system is discussed. The model-based approach is employed to solve this problem. The models of the equivalent external loads for unbalance and misalignment are derived and analyzed. Then, the degrees of unbalance and misalignment are estimated by analyzing the components of the equivalent external loads of which the frequencies are equal to the 1 and 2 times running frequency respectively. The equivalent external loads are calculated according to the dynamic equation of the original rotor system and the differences between the dynamical responses in normal case and the vibrations when the degree of unbalance or misalignment or both changes. The denoise method based on bandpass filter is used to decrease the effect of noise on the estimation accuracy. The numerical examples are given to show that the proposed approach can estimate the degrees of unbalance and misalignment of the flexible coupling-rotor system accurately.
Rotor blades echo mo deling and mechanism analysis of flashes phenomena%旋翼叶片回波建模与闪烁现象机理分析
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
陈永彬; 李少东; 杨军; 曹芙蓉
2016-01-01
Since the rotorcraft can easily be recognized by using the micro-Doppler (m-D) signature of rotor blades, the m-D effect induced by micro-motion dynamics plays an important role in target recognition and classification. However, the existing researches on the rotor blades pay little attention to the mechanism of the time-domain and time-frequency-domain flash phenomena. To comprehensively explain the flash phenomena from physics, the modeling of the rotor blades and the mechanism of the flash phenomena are studied in this paper. Firstly, for the rotor blades, the target cannot be represented as a rigid, homogeneous line nor several points. Taking the scattering coeﬃcients and the interval of adjacent scattering points (the scattering point distribution on the blade) into consideration, the scattering point model of the rotor blade echo is established, and the influence of the scattering point distribution on the radar echo is analyzed as well. The detailed mathematic analysis and comparison results show that the conventional integral model of the rotor blade is only a special case of the scattering point model. Furthermore, in the case where the scattering point model is approximately equivalent to the conventional integral model, the critical interval of adjacent scattering points is deduced by mathematic analysis. Secondly, on the basis of the proposed model above, the physical mechanism of the time-domain and time-frequency-domain flash phenomena is studied from the viewpoint of the electromagnetic (EM) scattering. On the one hand, considering the EM scattering and scattering point distribution, the mechanism of the time-domain flashes is analyzed. Ideally, when the rotor blade is at the vertical position relative to the radar line of sight, i.e., at the flash time, the blade has the strongest echo. At this moment, the radar echo consists of echoes of all scattering points, thus inducing the time-domain flashes. At the non-flash time, the scattering points at
Discrete analog computing with rotor-routers.
Propp, James
2010-09-01
Rotor-routing is a procedure for routing tokens through a network that can implement certain kinds of computation. These computations are inherently asynchronous (the order in which tokens are routed makes no difference) and distributed (information is spread throughout the system). It is also possible to efficiently check that a computation has been carried out correctly in less time than the computation itself required, provided one has a certificate that can itself be computed by the rotor-router network. Rotor-router networks can be viewed as both discrete analogs of continuous linear systems and deterministic analogs of stochastic processes.
Cyclic Control Optimization for a Smart Rotor
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bergami, Leonardo; Henriksen, Lars Christian
2012-01-01
The paper presents a method to determine cyclic control trajectories for a smart rotor undergoing periodic-deterministic load variations. The control trajectories result from a constrained optimization problem, where the cost function to minimize is given by the variation of the blade root flapwise...... bending moment within a rotor revolution. The method is applied to a rotor equipped with trailing edge flaps, and capable of individual blade pitching. Results show that the optimized cyclic control significantly alleviates the load variations from periodic disturbances; the combination of both cyclic...
Multiple piece turbine rotor blade
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kimmel, Keith D.; Plank, William L.
2016-07-19
A spar and shell turbine rotor blade with a spar and a tip cap formed as a single piece, the spar includes a bottom end with dovetail or fir tree slots that engage with slots on a top end of a root section, and a platform includes an opening on a top surface for insertion of the spar in which a shell made from an exotic high temperature resistant material is secured between the tip cap and the platform. The spar is tapered to form thinner walls at the tip end to further reduce the weight and therefore a pulling force due to blade rotation. The spar and tip cap piece is made from a NiAL material to further reduce the weight and the pulling force.
Study on wave rotor refrigerators
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yuqiang DAI; Dapeng HU; Meixia DING
2009-01-01
As a novel generation of a rotational gas wave machine, the wave rotor refrigerator (WRR) is an unsteady flow device used for refrigeration, in whose passages pressured streams directly contact and exchange energy due to the movement of pressure waves. In this paper, the working mechanism and refrigeration principle are inves-tigated based on the one-dimensional unsteady flow theory.A basic limitation on main structural parameters and operating parameters is deduced and the wave diagram of WRR to guide designing is sketched. The main influential factors are studied through an experiment. In the DUT Gas Wave Refrigeration Studying and Development Center (GWRSDC) lab, the isentropic efficiency can now reach about 65%. The results show that the WRR is a feasible and promising technology in pressured gas refrigeration cases.
Comparison of induced velocity models for helicopter flight mechanics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brown, R.E.; Houston, S.S.
2002-07-01
Modeling of rotor-induced velocity receives continued attention in the literature as the rotorcraft community addresses limitations in the fidelity of simulations of helicopter stability, control, and handling qualities. A comparison is presented of results obtained using a rigid-blade rotor-fuselage model configured with two induced velocity models: a conventional, first-order, finite state, dynamic inflow model and a wake model that solves a vorticity transport equation on a computational mesh enclosing the rotorcraft. Differences between the two models are quantified by comparing predictions of trimmed rotor blade flap, lag and feather angles, airframe pitch and roll attitudes, cross-coupling derivatives, response to control inputs, and airframe vibration. Results are presented in the context of measurements taken on a Puma aircraft in steady flight from hover to high speed. More accurate predictions of the cross-coupling derivatives, response to control, and airframe vibration obtained using the vorticity transport model suggest that incorporation of real flowfield effects is important to extending the bandwidth of applicability of helicopter simulation models. Unexpectedly small differences in some of the trim predictions obtained using the two wake models suggest that an overall improvement in simulation fidelity may not be achieved without equivalent attention to the rotor dynamic model. (Author)
Predesign study for a modern 4-bladed rotor for the NASA rotor systems research aircraft
Bishop, H. E.; Burkam, J. E.; Heminway, R. C.; Keys, C. N.; Smith, K. E.; Smith, J. H.; Staley, J. A.
1981-01-01
Trade-off study results and the rationale for the final selection of an existing modern four-bladed rotor system that can be adapted for installation on the Rotor Systems Research Aircraft (RSRA) are reported. The results of the detailed integration studies, parameter change studies, and instrumentation studies and the recommended plan for development and qualification of the rotor system is also given. Its parameter variants, integration on the RSRA, and support of ground and flight test programs are also discussed.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李启义; 高书图; 刘又文; 李建明; 王秋生; 王景辉
2011-01-01
目的:探讨动力髋螺钉(dynamic hip screw,DHS)治疗股骨转子间骨折失效的原因及对策.方法:2007年6月至2009年12月共收的15例股骨转子间骨折DHS内固定失效患者,通过对术前、术后X线片进行回顾,分析其失效原因并给予对症处理,其中10例重新行切开复位DHS再次固定,5例行全髋关节置换.结果:本组15例随访0.50-1.83 a,平均l a,根据髋关节功能Harris评分:优8例,良5例,中1例,差1例,优良率86.7%.结论:DHS内固定治疗股骨转子间骨折失效与术前适应证的选择及术中的操作技术有关,对于DHS内固定失效患者采取积极的再次手术治疗,术后可以获得较好的功能恢复和生活质量提高,疗效较满意.%Objective:To explore the dynamic motivation hip screw( hip screw rotor, while the femoral fracture failure treatment between the reasons and countermeasures. Methods:On June 2007 until 2009 on December 15 cases were gathered femoral fracture fixation DHS between rotor failure patients, through to the preoperative and postoperative X -ray are reviewed, analyzed its failure reason and give received alimta,including 10 routine to open reduction DHS again,5 underwent fixed total hip replacement. Results :Total 15 cases were followed up for 6 months -22 months,average 12 months, according to Harris hip score:optimal function in 8 cases, good in 5 cases,middle in 1 case, the difference in 1, dykes 86.7％. Conclusion: DHS internal fixation for femoral fracture failure between rotor with preoperative indications selection and art of operation for about technology, while the internal fixation failure patients take actively secondary surgery, and can obtain a good functional recovery and life quality improvement,curative effect is satisfactory.
The Savonius rotor. A construction guide. 11. ed.; Der Savonius-Rotor. Eine Bauanleitung
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schulz, Heinz
2009-07-01
The Savonius rotor is particularly suited for medium and low wind velocities and low capacities (up to 500 W). It can be constructed of commercial components and using simple techniques. It requires little wind to start, and the useful energy is transmitted via a shaft. In this lavishly illustrated book, the author describes the construction and operation of a robust Savonius rotor. He also shows how this rotor can be developed into a flow-through rotor for bigger plants, and he presents recommendations for appropriate machinery like pumps and slow generators.
Theory of 2 δ-kicked quantum rotors
Creffield, Charles E.; Fishman, S.; Monteiro, T. S.
2006-01-01
We examine the quantum dynamics of cold atoms subjected to pairs of closely spaced kicks from standing waves of light and find behavior quite unlike the well-studied quantum kicked rotor QKR. We show that the quantum phase space has a periodic, cellular structure arising from a unitary matrix with oscillating bandwidth. The corresponding eigenstates are exponentially localized, but scale with a fractional power L~ħ_(-0.75), in contrast to the QKR for which L~ħ_(-1). The effect of intercell...
Improved Rotor Speed Brushless DC Motor using Fuzzy Controller
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jafar Mostafapour
2016-03-01
Full Text Available A brushless DC (BLDC Motors have advantages over brushed, direct current (DC motors and Induction motor (IM. They have better speed verses torque characteristics, high dynamic response, high efficiency, long operating life, noiseless operation, higher speed ranges, and rugged construction. Also, torque delivered to motor size is higher, making it useful in application where space and weight are critical factors. With these advantages BLDC motors find wide spread application in automotive appliance, aerospace medical, and instrumentation and automation industries This paper can be seen as fuzzy controllers compared to PI control BLDC motor rotor speed has improved significantly and better result can be achieve.
Improved Rotor Speed Brushless DC Motor Using Fuzzy Controller
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jafar Mostafapour
2015-04-01
Full Text Available A brushless DC (BLDC Motors have advantages over brushed, Direct current (DC Motors and , Induction motor (IM. They have better speed verses torque characteristics, high dynamic response, high efficiency, long operating life, noiseless operation, higher speed ranges, and rugged construction. Also, torque delivered to motor size is higher, making it useful in application where space and weight are critical factors. With these advantages BLDC motors find wide spread application in automotive appliance, aerospace medical, and instrumentation and automation industries This paper can be seen as fuzzy controllers compared to PI control BLDC motor rotor speed has improved significantly and beter result can be achieve.
Rotor Field Oriented Control with adaptive Iron Loss Compensation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Henrik; Vadstrup, P.; Børsting, H.
1999-01-01
It is well known from the literature that iron loses in an induction motor implies field angle estimation errors and hence detuning problems. In this paper a new method for estimating the iron loss resistor in an induction motor is presented. The method is based on a traditional dynamic model...... of the motor referenced to the rotor magnetizing current, and with the extension of an iron loss resistor added in parallel to the magnetizing inductance. The resistor estimator is based on the observation that the actual applied stator voltages deviates from the voltage estimated, when a motor is current...
Efficient Beam-Type Structural Modeling of Rotor Blades
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Couturier, Philippe; Krenk, Steen
2015-01-01
The present paper presents two recently developed numerical formulations which enable accurate representation of the static and dynamic behaviour of wind turbine rotor blades using little modeling and computational effort. The first development consists of an intuitive method to extract fully...... coupled six by six cross-section stiffness matrices with limited meshing effort. Secondly, an equilibrium based beam element accepting directly the stiffness matrices and accounting for large variations in geometry and material along the blade is presented. The novel design tools are illustrated...
Aerodynamics of Rotor Blades for Quadrotors
Bangura, Moses; Naldi, Roberto; Mahony, Robert
2016-01-01
In this report, we present the theory on aerodynamics of quadrotors using the well established momentum and blade element theories. From a robotics perspective, the theoretical development of the models for thrust and horizontal forces and torque (therefore power) are carried out in the body fixed frame of the quadrotor. Using momentum theory, we propose and model the existence of a horizontal force along with its associated power. Given the limitations associated with momentum theory and the inadequacy of the theory to account for the different powers represented in a proposed bond graph lead to the use of blade element theory. Using this theory, models are then developed for the different quadrotor rotor geometries and aerodynamic properties including the optimum hovering rotor used on the majority of quadrotors. Though this rotor is proven to be the most optimum rotor, we show that geometric variations are necessary for manufacturing of the blades. The geometric variations are also dictated by a desired th...
Valve-aided twisted Savonius rotor
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jaya Rajkumar, M.; Saha, U.K.
2006-05-15
Accessories, such as end plates, deflecting plates, shielding and guide vanes, may increase the power of a Savonius rotor, but make the system structurally complex. In such cases, the rotor can develop a relatively large torque at small rotational speeds and is cheap to build, however it harnesses only a small fraction of the incident wind energy. Another proposition for increasing specific output is to place non-return valves inside the concave side of the blades. Such methods have been studied experimentally with a twisted-blade Thus improving a Savonius rotor's energy capture. This new concept has been named as the 'Valve-Aided Twisted Savonius'rotor. Tests were conducted in a low-speed wind tunnel to evaluate performance. This mechanism is found to be independent of flow direction, and shows potential for large machines. [Author].
1984-01-01
Various papers on helicopter rotor technology are presented. The subjects considered include: ground resonance analysis using a substructure modelling approach, aerolastic stability of a bearingless rotor, experimentally determined flutter from two and three-bladed model bearingless rotors in hover, lifting surface theory for a helicopter rotor in forward flight, aeroelastic considerations for torsionally soft rotors, and restructuring of a rotor analysis program. Also discussed are: dynamic inflow and its effect on experimental correlations, flap-lag-torsion instability in forward flight, dynamic stability of a bearingless circulation control rotor blade in hover, dynamic response characteristics of a circulation control rotor model pneumatic system, the relations between vibratory loads and airframe vibrations, coupled rotor body vibrations with in-plane degrees of freedom, helicopter vibration reduction concepts.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yang, Hua; Shen, Wen Zhong; Xu, Haoran
2013-01-01
some models before they can be used in a BEM code. In this article, the airfoil data for the MEXICO (Model EXperiments in Controlled cOnditions) rotor are extracted from CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) results. The azimuthally averaged velocity is used as the sectional velocity to define the angle...
Meshing Force of Misaligned Spline Coupling and the Influence on Rotor System
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Guang Zhao
2008-01-01
Full Text Available Meshing force of misaligned spline coupling is derived, dynamic equation of rotor-spline coupling system is established based on finite element analysis, the influence of meshing force on rotor-spline coupling system is simulated by numerical integral method. According to the theoretical analysis, meshing force of spline coupling is related to coupling parameters, misalignment, transmitting torque, static misalignment, dynamic vibration displacement, and so on. The meshing force increases nonlinearly with increasing the spline thickness and static misalignment or decreasing alignment meshing distance (AMD. Stiffness of coupling relates to dynamic vibration displacement, and static misalignment is not a constant. Dynamic behaviors of rotor-spline coupling system reveal the following: 1X-rotating speed is the main response frequency of system when there is no misalignment; while 2X-rotating speed appears when misalignment is present. Moreover, when misalignment increases, vibration of the system gets intricate; shaft orbit departs from origin, and magnitudes of all frequencies increase. Research results can provide important criterions on both optimization design of spline coupling and trouble shooting of rotor systems.
An Examination of a Pumping Rotor Blade Design for Brownout Mitigation
2015-05-18
negative thrust effect was mathe - 70 matically removed, all pumping blade designs were found to exhibit similar perfor- mance characteristics. 2. When the...Pneumodynamic Characteristics of a Circulation Control Rotor Model,” 2nd Decennial Specialist ’ Meeting on Ro- torcraft Dynamics, NASA Ames Research
Acceleration-induced nonlocality: kinetic memory versus dynamic memory
Chicone, C.; Mashhoon, B.
2001-01-01
The characteristics of the memory of accelerated motion in Minkowski spacetime are discussed within the framework of the nonlocal theory of accelerated observers. Two types of memory are distinguished: kinetic and dynamic. We show that only kinetic memory is acceptable, since dynamic memory leads to divergences for nonuniform accelerated motion.
Edge states of periodically kicked quantum rotors
Floß, Johannes
2015-01-01
We present a quantum localization phenomenon that exists in periodically kicked 3D rotors, but is absent in the commonly studied 2D ones: edge localization. We show that under the condition of a fractional quantum resonance there are states of the kicked rotor that are strongly localized near the edge of the angular momentum space at $J=0$. These states are analogs of surface states in crystalline solids, and they significantly affect resonant excitation of molecular rotation by laser pulse trains.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
El Arem, S.
2006-01-15
The aim of this work is to study the dynamic response of a cracked rotor to establish some possibilities for early on line crack detection. First, a review on experimental, numerical and analytical works on the dynamics of cracked rotors is given. Then, an original method of calculating the behavior of a cracked beam section in bending with shearing effects is presented. The nonlinear behavior relations are derived from a three-dimensional model taking into account the unilateral contact conditions on the crack's lips. Based on an energy formulation, this method could be applied to any geometry of crack. The exploration by different numerical integration methods of the vibratory response of some models of cracked rotors is presented in the third chapter of this thesis. The un-cracked parts of a rotor are represented by elements of bar or beam type, and the cracked section by a nonlinear spring taking into account the breathing mechanism of the cracks. At the end of this part, an original method of construction of a finite element of a cracked beam is presented. The final chapter is devoted to the analytical study of the system with 2 degrees of freedom. The breathing mechanism of the crack is taken into account by considering specific periodic variation of the global stiffness of the system. The differential equations system is solved using the harmonic balance method. The linear stability of the periodic solutions is studied by the Floquet theory. Some vibratory parameters are proposed as crack indicators. (author)
Characteristics of wind power on Savonius rotor using a guide-box tunnel
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Irabu, Kunio; Roy, Jitendro Nath [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of the Ryukyus, Senbaru-1, Nishihara, Okinawa 903-0213 (Japan)
2007-11-15
This study investigates to improve and adjust the output power of Savonius rotor under various wind power and suggests the method of prevention the rotor from strong wind disaster. In this study, as the appropriate device to achieve the purpose of it, a guide-box tunnel is employed. The guide-box tunnel is like a rectangular box as wind passage in which a test rotor is included. The area ratio between the inlet and exit of it is variable to adjust the inlet mass flow rate or input power. At first, the experiment was conducted to find the adequate configuration which would provide the best relative performance. The present experiment, however, does not include the test to retain the guide-box tunnel from the strong wind. The experiments include the static torque test of the fixed rotor at any phase angle and the dynamic torque test at rotation of them. Consequently, it was found that the maximum rotor rotational speed was achieved in the range of the guide-box area ratio between 0.3 and 0.7 and the value of the output power coefficient of the rotor with guide-box tunnel of the area ratio 0.43 increases about 1.5 times with three blades and 1.23 times with two blades greater than that without guide-box tunnel, respectively. It seemed that the performance of Savonius rotor within the guide-box tunnel is comparable enough with other methods for augmentation and control of the output. (author)
Effects of gear box vibration and mass imbalance on the dynamics of multistage gear transmission
Choy, F. K.; Tu, Y. K.; Zakrajsek, J. J.; Townsend, D. P.
1991-01-01
The dynamic behavior of multistage gear transmission system, with the effects of gear-box-induced vibrations and rotor mass-imbalances is analyzed. The model method, using undamped frequencies and planar mode shapes, is used to reduce the degree-of-freedom of the system. The various rotor-bearing stages as well as lateral and torsional vibrations of each individual stage are coupled through localized gear-mesh-tooth interactions. Gear-box vibrations are coupled to the gear stage dynamics through bearing support forces. Transient and steady state dynamics of lateral and torsional vibrations of the geared system are examined in both time and frequency domain. A typical three-staged geared system is used as an example. Effects of mass-imbalance and gear box vibrations on the system dynamic behavior are presented in terms of modal excitation functions for both lateral and torsional vibrations. Operational characteristics and conclusions are drawn from the results presented.
Higher harmonic control analysis for vibration reduction of helicopter rotor systems
Nguyen, Khanh Q.
1994-01-01
An advanced higher harmonic control (HHC) analysis has been developed and applied to investigate its effect on vibration reduction levels, blade and control system fatigue loads, rotor performance, and power requirements of servo-actuators. The analysis is based on a finite element method in space and time. A nonlinear time domain unsteady aerodynamic model, based on the indicial response formulation, is used to calculate the airloads. The rotor induced inflow is computed using a free wake model. The vehicle trim controls and blade steady responses are solved as one coupled solution using a modified Newton method. A linear frequency-domain quasi-steady transfer matrix is used to relate the harmonics of the vibratory hub loads to the harmonics of the HHC inputs. Optimal HHC is calculated from the minimization of the vibratory hub loads expressed in term of a quadratic performance index. Predicted vibratory hub shears are correlated with wind tunnel data. The fixed-gain HHC controller suppresses completely the vibratory hub shears for most of steady or quasi-steady flight conditions. HHC actuator amplitudes and power increase significantly at high forward speeds (above 100 knots). Due to the applied HHC, the blade torsional stresses and control loads are increased substantially. For flight conditions where the blades are stalled considerably, the HHC input-output model is quite nonlinear. For such cases, the adaptive-gain controller is effective in suppressing vibratory hub loads, even though HHC may actually increase stall areas on the rotor disk. The fixed-gain controller performs poorly for such flight conditions. Comparison study of different rotor systems indicates that a soft-inplane hingeless rotor requires less actuator power at high speeds (above 130 knots) than an articulated rotor, and a stiff-inplane hingeless rotor generally requires more actuator power than an articulated or a soft-inplane hingeless rotor. Parametric studies for a hingeless rotor
DRIFT MOTION OF FREE-ROTOR GYROSCOPE WITH RADIAL MASS-UNBALANCE
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘延柱; 薛纭
2004-01-01
The motion of a rigid body about fixed point with small radial mass-unbalance in homogeneous gravitational field was discussed. The dynamical equations described by state variables of the body were established, and approximate analytical solutions for a spinning body with high speed were obtained by use of the average method. The influence of the radial mass-unbalance of the rotor to the precession character of a free-rotor gyroscope was analyzed. And a physical explanation of the drift phenomenon of the gyro was given. An applicable formula of gyro' s constant drift in analytical form was obtained, which is perfectly coincident with the numerical calculation.
Field Oriented Control for Rotor Position Estimation of IPM Drives over a Wide Speed Range
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ekhlas Kadhum
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Field oriented control strategy of Interior Permanent Magnet IPM Synchronous Motor drives over a wide speed range applications is presented. Rotor position estimation using model reference adaptive system method for IPM Drive without using a mechanical sensor is illustrated considering the effects of cross-saturation between the d and q axes. The cross saturation between d and q axes has been calculated by finite-element analysis. The inductance measurement regards the cross saturation which is used to obtain the suitable id - characteristics in base and flux weakening regions. The simulation results show that rotor position estimation error accuracy was improved. Various dynamic conditions have been investigated
Liu, Z. J.; Li, J. T.; Jabbar, M. A.
2006-04-01
In design of permanent magnet motors for high-precision applications, it is sometimes necessary, early in the design stage, to have a detailed analysis of the effect of rotor eccentricity that may result from manufacturing imperfectness or use of fluid dynamic or aerodynamic bearings. This paper presents an analytical model for electromagnetic torque and forces in permanent magnet motors with rotor eccentricity. The model gives an insight to the relationship between the effect of the eccentricity and the other motor design parameters on the electromagnetic forces. It is shown that the calculated magnetic forces obtained from this model agree well with those obtained from numerical simulations that are very computationally demanding.
An Experimental Analysis of the Effect of Icing on Wind Turbine Rotor Blades
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Raja, Muhammad Imran; Hussain, Dil muhammed Akbar; Soltani, Mohsen
2016-01-01
are printed with 3D printer and tested one by one in a Wind Tunnel. Lift, drag and moment coefficients are calculated from the measured experimental data and program WT-Perf based on blade-element momentum (BEM) theory is used to predict the performance of wind turbine. Cp curves generated from the test......Wind Turbine is highly nonlinear plant whose dynamics changes with change in aerodynamics of the rotor blade. Power extracted from the wind turbine is a function of coefficient of power (Cp). Wind turbine installed in the cold climate areas has an icing on its rotor blade which might change its...
Adaptive Backstepping design of an Observer for the Rotor Speed and Field of an Induction Motor
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Henrik
2001-01-01
is de-veloped. The resulting scheme leads to a nonlinear full order observer for the rotor field. The rotor speed and the stator resis-tance are estimated by adaptive backstepping. Assuming motor parameters known the design achieves stability with guaran-teed region of attraction. The adaptive......High performance operation of speed controlled AC drives without mechanical speed/position sensors rely on the dynamic models for estimation of flux and speed. Using backstepping, which is a recursive nonlinear design method, a new approach for the design of observers for speed sensorless control...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Robert Porter
2016-11-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the development and implementation of a single tilting rotor multirotor helicopter. A single tilting rotor multirotor helicopter is proposed that allows for decoupled lateral acceleration and attitude states. A dynamics model of the proposed multirotor helicopter is established to enable control system development. A control system architecture and daisy chaining-based control allocation scheme is developed and implemented. The control architecture facilitates the control of decoupled lateral accelerations and attitudes. Further, a computational and experimental analysis is undertaken and offers evidence that the proposed multirotor helicopter and control system architecture enables the multirotor helicopter to achieve lateral accelerations without requiring attitude actuation.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Corren, Dean [Verdant Power, Inc.; Colby, Jonathan [Verdant Power, Inc.; Adonizio, Mary Ann [Verdant Power, Inc.
2013-01-29
Verdant Power, Inc, working in partnership with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and the University of Minnesota St. Anthony Falls Laboratory (SAFL), among other partners, used evolving Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and Finite Element Analysis (FEA) models and techniques to improve the structure and fabrication of large, high-power composite Kinetic Hydropower System (KHPS) rotor blades. The objectives of the project were to: design; analyze; develop for manufacture and fabricate; and thoroughly test, in the lab and at full scale in the water, the improved KHPS rotor blade.
STUDY ON INFLUENCE OF BENDING-TORSION COUPLING IN AN IMPACTING-RUB ROTOR SYSTEM
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
孙政策; 徐健学; 周桐; 谭宁
2003-01-01
A mathematical model of an impacting-rub rotor system with bending-torsion coupling was established. It was compared with the model without bending-torsion coupling through the nodern nonlinear dynamic theory. It is observed that periodical, chaotic,period adding phenomena in them and the two models have a similar bifurcation process in their bifurcation figures. But the influence of bending-torsion on the dynmaic characteristics of the system is not neglected. The results have considerable meanings to analyze and improve the characteristics of an impacting-rub rotor system.
DETECTION OF EARLY RUB-IMPACT IN ROTORS VIA HIGHER-ORDER TIME-FREQUENCY ENTROPY
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Chen Zhongsheng; Yang Yongmin; Hu Zheng; Shen Guoji
2004-01-01
Due to the calculation problem of classical methods (such as Lyapunov exponent) for chaotic behavior, a new method of identifying nonlinear dynamics with higher-order time-frequency entropy (HOTFE) based on time-frequency analysis and information theorem is proposed. Firstly, the meaning of HOTFE is defined, and then its validity is testified by numerical simulation. In the end vibration data from rotors are analyzed by HOTFE. The results demonstrate that it can indeed identify the early rub-impact chaotic behavior in rotors and also is simpler to calculate than previous methods.
CFD calculations on the unsteady aerodynamic characteristics of a tilt-rotor in a conversion mode
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Li Peng; Zhao Qijun; Zhu Qiuxian
2015-01-01
In order to calculate the unsteady aerodynamic characteristics of a tilt-rotor in a conver-sion mode, a virtual blade model (VBM) and an real blade model (RBM) are established respec-tively. A new multi-layer moving-embedded grid technique is proposed to reduce the numerical dissipation of the tilt-rotor wake in a conversion mode. In this method, a grid system generated abound the rotor accounts for rigid blade motions, and a new searching scheme named adaptive inverse map (AIM) is established to search corresponding donor elements in the present moving-embedded grid system to translate information among the different computational zones. A dual-time method is employed to fulfill unsteady calculations on the flowfield of the tilt-rotor, and a second-order centered difference scheme considering artificial viscosity is used to calculate the flux. In order to improve the computing efficiency, the single program multiple data (SPMD) model parallel acceleration technology is adopted, according to the characteristic of the current grid system. The lift and drag coefficients of an NACA0012 airfoil, the dynamic pressure distributions below a typical rotor plane, and the sectional pressure distributions on a three-bladed Branum–Tung tilt-rotor in hover flight are calculated respectively, and the present VBM and RBM are val-idated by comparing the calculated results with available experimental data. Then, unsteady aero-dynamic forces and flowfields of an XV-15 tilt-rotor in different modes, such as a fixed conversion mode at different tilt angles (15?, 30?, 60?) and a whole conversion mode which converses from 0? to 90?, are numerically simulated by the VBM and RBM respectively. By analyses and comparisons on the simulated results of unsteady aerodynamic forces of the tilt-rotor in different modes, some meaningful conclusions about distorted blade-tip vortex distribution and unsteady aerodynamic force variation in a conversion mode are obtained, and these investigation
Rotor scale model tests for power conversion unit of GT-MHR
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baxi, C.B., E-mail: baxicb1130@hotmail.com [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Telengator, A.; Razvi, J. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States)
2012-10-15
The gas turbine modular helium reactor (GT-MHR) combines a modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) nuclear heat source with a closed Brayton gas-turbine cycle power conversion unit (PCU) for thermal to electric energy conversion. The PCU has a vertical orientation and is supported on electromagnetic bearings (EMB). The rotor scale model (RSM) tests are intended to directly model the control of EMB and rotor dynamic characteristics of the full-scale GT-MHR turbo-machine (TM). The objectives of the RSM tests are to: Bullet Confirm the EMB control system design for the GT-MHR turbo machine over the full-range of operation. Bullet Confirm the redundancy and on-line maintainability features that have been specified for the EMBs. Bullet Provide a benchmark for validation of analytical tools that will be used for independent analyses of the EMB subsystem design. Bullet Provide experience with the installation, operation and maintenance of EMBs supporting multiple rotors with flexible couplings. As with the full-scale TM, the RSM incorporates two rotors that are joined by a flexible coupling. Each of the rotors is supported on one axial and two radial EMBs. Additional devices, similar in concept to radial EMBs, are installed to simulate magnetic and/or mechanical forces representing those that would be seen by the exciter, generator, compressors and turbine. Overall, the lengths of the RSM rotor is about 1/3rd that of the full-scale TM, while the diameters are approximately 1/5th scale. The design and sizing of the rotor is such that the number and values of critical speeds in the RSM are the same as in the full-scale TM. The EMBs are designed such that their response to rotor dynamic forces is representative of the full-scale TM. The fabrication and assembly of the RSM was completed at the end of 2008. All start up adjustments were finished in December 2009. To-date the generator rotor has been supported in the EMBs and rotated up to 1800 rpm. Final tests are
Lightweight rotor design by optimal spar cap offset
Croce, A.; Sartori, L.; Lunghini, M. S.; Clozza, L.; Bortolotti, P.; Bottasso, C. L.
2016-09-01
Bend-twist coupling behavior is induced in a blade by displacing the suction side spar cap towards the leading edge, and the pressure side one in the opposite direction. Additional couplings are introduced by rotating the spar cap fibers. The structural configuration of the blade is optimized using an automated design environment. The resulting blade shows significant benefits in terms of mass and loads when compared to the baseline uncoupled one. Finally, the lightweight design concept is used to increase the rotor size, resulting in a larger energy yield for the same hub loads.
Rotor-Bearing Dynamics Technology Design Guide. Part 1. Flexible Rotor Dynamics
1980-06-01
program, which replaces AFAPL/SFL Programs No. 100, 01l, and 1117. ha-, then cApabiity t0 perfllavar’iety of rotordynamics analyses. These analyses...released by the authors in November 1979. rI MI / ] iii : . o t"’V- TABLE OF CONTENTS Page I. INTRODUCTION 1 II, ROTORDYNAMIC ANALYSIS AND CAPABILITIES...Characteristics of the Bearings 11. 2.4 Producing the Rotordynamics Analyses 12 III. DESCRIPTION OF COMPUTER PROGRAM 15 3.1 Input Data 15 3.2 ’iTput Samples 35
Analysis of generator bearing vibration data for diagnosing rotor circuit malfunction in DFIGs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Skrimpas, Georgios Alexandros; Sweeney, Christian W.; Jensen, Bogi Bech
2014-01-01
. In this paper generator bearing vibration signature for a DFIG under operation with one rotor phase coil open is analysed and presented. Further this failure mode is compared to rotor dynamics fault, such as rotational looseness, and the difference in signature is discussed. Vibration data from a multi......Doubly fed induction generators (DFIGs) are the most popular configuration met in the wind energy sector occu- pying approximately 65 % of the total market share. Condition monitoring of wind turbine generators is performed based on vibration data collected from accelerometers mounted on the drive...... end and non-drive end bearings, meeting the requirements of numerous turbine operators for condition based maintenance. In a DFIG the voltage applied to the rotor is controlled by a converter, where electric connection between the two is accom- plished by using slip rings. Improper connection between...
Nonlinear Analysis of Rotors Supported by Air Foil Journal Bearings – Theory and Experiments
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Jon Steffen
Direct driven compressors supported by air foil bearings (AFB) are gaining increasing popularity, for example within the waste water treatment industry where the demand for larger machines up to 250 kW is growing. In order to keep production costs low, the shaft and bearing design need to be simple...... and allow manufacturing using conventional materials and production facilities. As a consequence, the assembled rotor weight can be up to 50 kg. The compressors are operated at variable speed and load and are subjected to several starts and stops per day. Therefore, the rotor bearing design must be robust...... with a good margin of rotordynamical stable operation. To ensure this, good mathematical models, capable of accurately predicting the dynamic behaviour of the rotor-bearing system, are required at the design stage. This thesis focuses on developing and improving existing mathematical models for predicting...
Loads and Performance Data from a Wind-Tunnel Test of Generic Model Helicopter Rotor Blades
Yeager, William T., Jr.; Wilbur, Matthew L.
2005-01-01
An investigation was conducted in the NASA Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel to acquire data for use in assessing the ability of current and future comprehensive analyses to predict helicopter rotating-system and fixed-system vibratory loads. The investigation was conducted with a generic model helicopter rotor system using blades with rectangular planform, no built-in twist, uniform radial distribution of mass and stiffnesses, and a NACA 0012 airfoil section. Rotor performance data, as well as mean and vibratory components of blade bending and torsion moments, fixed-system forces and moments, and pitch link loads were obtained at advance ratios up to 0.35 for various combinations of rotor shaft angle-of-attack and collective pitch. The data are presented without analysis.
Shape Optimization of Rotor Blade for Pulp Pressure Screen Based on FLUENT
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qu Qingwen
2013-10-01
Full Text Available The study got two modified blades by changing the structure and shape of the rotor blade of the pressure screen. Pulp flow field in the same condition is numerically simulated by the fluid dynamics software FLUENT. The pressure distribution is showed especially in the location of the sieve drum circle. The ideal blade structure is obtained by the pressure field compared with conventional blades. It has strong cleaning ability and not easy to blockage sieve drum. The shape of the rotor blade is optimized. The blade shape is analyzed to the influence law of energy consumption. It is proved that the new rotor has energy-saving advantages. It is significant to improve the performance of pulp screening equipment. The theoretical support for select of blade shape of bars is provided by analysis of flow field.
Wind energy conversion. Volume VI. Nonlinear response of wind turbine rotor
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chopra, I.
1978-09-01
The nonlinear equations of motor for a rigid rotor restrained by three flexible springs representing, respectively, the flapping, lagging, and feathering motions are derived using Lagrange's equations, for arbitrary angular rotations. These are reduced to a consistent set of nonlinear equations using nonlinear terms up to third order. The complete analysis is divided into three parts, A, B, and C. Part A consists of forced response of two-degree flapping-lagging rotor under the excitation of pure gravitational field (i.e., no aerodynamic forces). In Part B, the effect of aerodynamic forces on the dynamic response of two-degree flapping-lagging rotor is investigated. In Part C, the effect of third degree of motion, feathering, is considered.
Vibration transmission through rolling element bearings. Part III: Geared rotor system studies
Lim, T. C.; Singh, R.
1991-11-01
This paper extends the proposed bearing matrix formulation of Parts I and II to analyze the overall dynamics of a geared rotor system which includes a spur gear pair, shafts, rolling element bearing, a prime mover and a load (attached to the geared rotor system through flexible torsional couplings), a rigid or flexible casing, and compliant or massive mounts. Linear time-invariant, discrete dynamic models of a generic geared rotor system with proportional viscous damping are developed, by using lumped parameter and dynamic finite element techniques, which are then used to predict the vibration transmissibility through bearings and mounts, casing vibration motion, and dynamic response of the internal rotating system. Each rotating shaft is modeled as an Euler beam in the lumped parameter model and as a Timoshenko beam in the dynamic finite element model, but the gyroscopic moment is not included. Eigensolution and forced harmonic response studies due to rotating mass unbalance or kinematic transmission error excitation for the following example cases are obtained by using the formulation, and the results are compared with those of simple models currently available in the literature and/or experiment: case I, a single-stage rotor system with flexibly mounted rigid casing consisting of two bearings as a special case of the geared rotor system; case II, a spur gear pair drive supported by four bearings installed in a flexibly mounted rigid casing; and case III, an experimental set-up consisting of a high-precision gear and pinion, and four identical rolling element bearings contained in a flexible casing mounted rigidly on a massive foundation. Analytical predictions show that the theory is indeed capable of predicting bearing and mount moment transmissibilities in addition to the force transmissibilities. Also, flexural vibrations of the casing plate are predicted well as the theory is in good agreement with measurements made on case III; such predictions are not