WorldWideScience

Sample records for dynamic generalized linear

  1. Parametrizing linear generalized Langevin dynamics from explicit molecular dynamics simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gottwald, Fabian; Karsten, Sven; Ivanov, Sergei D., E-mail: sergei.ivanov@uni-rostock.de; Kühn, Oliver [Institute of Physics, Rostock University, Universitätsplatz 3, 18055 Rostock (Germany)

    2015-06-28

    Fundamental understanding of complex dynamics in many-particle systems on the atomistic level is of utmost importance. Often the systems of interest are of macroscopic size but can be partitioned into a few important degrees of freedom which are treated most accurately and others which constitute a thermal bath. Particular attention in this respect attracts the linear generalized Langevin equation, which can be rigorously derived by means of a linear projection technique. Within this framework, a complicated interaction with the bath can be reduced to a single memory kernel. This memory kernel in turn is parametrized for a particular system studied, usually by means of time-domain methods based on explicit molecular dynamics data. Here, we discuss that this task is more naturally achieved in frequency domain and develop a Fourier-based parametrization method that outperforms its time-domain analogues. Very surprisingly, the widely used rigid bond method turns out to be inappropriate in general. Importantly, we show that the rigid bond approach leads to a systematic overestimation of relaxation times, unless the system under study consists of a harmonic bath bi-linearly coupled to the relevant degrees of freedom.

  2. Parametrizing linear generalized Langevin dynamics from explicit molecular dynamics simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottwald, Fabian; Karsten, Sven; Ivanov, Sergei D.; Kühn, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Fundamental understanding of complex dynamics in many-particle systems on the atomistic level is of utmost importance. Often the systems of interest are of macroscopic size but can be partitioned into a few important degrees of freedom which are treated most accurately and others which constitute a thermal bath. Particular attention in this respect attracts the linear generalized Langevin equation, which can be rigorously derived by means of a linear projection technique. Within this framework, a complicated interaction with the bath can be reduced to a single memory kernel. This memory kernel in turn is parametrized for a particular system studied, usually by means of time-domain methods based on explicit molecular dynamics data. Here, we discuss that this task is more naturally achieved in frequency domain and develop a Fourier-based parametrization method that outperforms its time-domain analogues. Very surprisingly, the widely used rigid bond method turns out to be inappropriate in general. Importantly, we show that the rigid bond approach leads to a systematic overestimation of relaxation times, unless the system under study consists of a harmonic bath bi-linearly coupled to the relevant degrees of freedom

  3. Dynamic generalized linear models for monitoring endemic diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopes Antunes, Ana Carolina; Jensen, Dan; Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to use a Dynamic Generalized Linear Model (DGLM) based on abinomial distribution with a linear trend, for monitoring the PRRS (Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome sero-prevalence in Danish swine herds. The DGLM was described and its performance for monitoring control...... and eradication programmes based on changes in PRRS sero-prevalence was explored. Results showed a declining trend in PRRS sero-prevalence between 2007 and 2014 suggesting that Danish herds are slowly eradicating PRRS. The simulation study demonstrated the flexibility of DGLMs in adapting to changes intrends...... in sero-prevalence. Based on this, it was possible to detect variations in the growth model component. This study is a proof-of-concept, demonstrating the use of DGLMs for monitoring endemic diseases. In addition, the principles stated might be useful in general research on monitoring and surveillance...

  4. Coupling of linearized gravity to nonrelativistic test particles: Dynamics in the general laboratory frame

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speliotopoulos, A.D.; Chiao, Raymond Y.

    2004-01-01

    The coupling of gravity to matter is explored in the linearized gravity limit. The usual derivation of gravity-matter couplings within the quantum-field-theoretic framework is reviewed. A number of inconsistencies between this derivation of the couplings and the known results of tidal effects on test particles according to classical general relativity are pointed out. As a step towards resolving these inconsistencies, a general laboratory frame fixed on the worldline of an observer is constructed. In this frame, the dynamics of nonrelativistic test particles in the linearized gravity limit is studied, and their Hamiltonian dynamics is derived. It is shown that for stationary metrics this Hamiltonian reduces to the usual Hamiltonian for nonrelativistic particles undergoing geodesic motion. For nonstationary metrics with long-wavelength gravitational waves present (GWs), it reduces to the Hamiltonian for a nonrelativistic particle undergoing geodesic deviation motion. Arbitrary-wavelength GWs couple to the test particle through a vector-potential-like field N a , the net result of the tidal forces that the GW induces in the system, namely, a local velocity field on the system induced by tidal effects, as seen by an observer in the general laboratory frame. Effective electric and magnetic fields, which are related to the electric and magnetic parts of the Weyl tensor, are constructed from N a that obey equations of the same form as Maxwell's equations. A gedankin gravitational Aharonov-Bohm-type experiment using N a to measure the interference of quantum test particles is presented

  5. Optimal Stochastic Control Problem for General Linear Dynamical Systems in Neuroscience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers a d-dimensional stochastic optimization problem in neuroscience. Suppose the arm’s movement trajectory is modeled by high-order linear stochastic differential dynamic system in d-dimensional space, the optimal trajectory, velocity, and variance are explicitly obtained by using stochastic control method, which allows us to analytically establish exact relationships between various quantities. Moreover, the optimal trajectory is almost a straight line for a reaching movement; the optimal velocity bell-shaped and the optimal variance are consistent with the experimental Fitts law; that is, the longer the time of a reaching movement, the higher the accuracy of arriving at the target position, and the results can be directly applied to designing a reaching movement performed by a robotic arm in a more general environment.

  6. Dynamic Average Consensus and Consensusability of General Linear Multiagent Systems with Random Packet Dropout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Min Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the consensus problem of general linear discrete-time multiagent systems (MASs with random packet dropout that happens during information exchange between agents. The packet dropout phenomenon is characterized as being a Bernoulli random process. A distributed consensus protocol with weighted graph is proposed to address the packet dropout phenomenon. Through introducing a new disagreement vector, a new framework is established to solve the consensus problem. Based on the control theory, the perturbation argument, and the matrix theory, the necessary and sufficient condition for MASs to reach mean-square consensus is derived in terms of stability of an array of low-dimensional matrices. Moreover, mean-square consensusable conditions with regard to network topology and agent dynamic structure are also provided. Finally, the effectiveness of the theoretical results is demonstrated through an illustrative example.

  7. Dynamic Linear Models with R

    CERN Document Server

    Campagnoli, Patrizia; Petris, Giovanni

    2009-01-01

    State space models have gained tremendous popularity in as disparate fields as engineering, economics, genetics and ecology. Introducing general state space models, this book focuses on dynamic linear models, emphasizing their Bayesian analysis. It illustrates the fundamental steps needed to use dynamic linear models in practice, using R package.

  8. Examining secular trend  and seasonality in count data using dynamic generalized linear modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundbye-Christensen, Søren; Dethlefsen, Claus; Gorst-Rasmussen, Anders

    series regression model for Poisson counts. It differs in allowing the regression coefficients to vary gradually over time in a random fashion. Data  In the period January 1980 to 1999, 17,989 incidents of acute myocardial infarction were recorded in the county of Northern Jutland, Denmark. Records were......Aims  Time series of incidence counts often show secular trends and seasonal patterns. We present a model for incidence counts capable of handling a possible gradual change in growth rates and seasonal patterns, serial correlation and overdispersion. Methods  The model resembles an ordinary time...... updated daily. Results  The model with a seasonal pattern and an approximately linear trend was fitted to the data, and diagnostic plots indicate a good model fit. The analysis with the dynamic model revealed peaks coinciding with influenza epidemics. On average the peak-to-trough ratio is estimated...

  9. Generalized Linear Covariance Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, James R.; Markley, F. Landis

    2014-01-01

    This talk presents a comprehensive approach to filter modeling for generalized covariance analysis of both batch least-squares and sequential estimators. We review and extend in two directions the results of prior work that allowed for partitioning of the state space into solve-for'' and consider'' parameters, accounted for differences between the formal values and the true values of the measurement noise, process noise, and textita priori solve-for and consider covariances, and explicitly partitioned the errors into subspaces containing only the influence of the measurement noise, process noise, and solve-for and consider covariances. In this work, we explicitly add sensitivity analysis to this prior work, and relax an implicit assumption that the batch estimator's epoch time occurs prior to the definitive span. We also apply the method to an integrated orbit and attitude problem, in which gyro and accelerometer errors, though not estimated, influence the orbit determination performance. We illustrate our results using two graphical presentations, which we call the variance sandpile'' and the sensitivity mosaic,'' and we compare the linear covariance results to confidence intervals associated with ensemble statistics from a Monte Carlo analysis.

  10. Foundations of linear and generalized linear models

    CERN Document Server

    Agresti, Alan

    2015-01-01

    A valuable overview of the most important ideas and results in statistical analysis Written by a highly-experienced author, Foundations of Linear and Generalized Linear Models is a clear and comprehensive guide to the key concepts and results of linear statistical models. The book presents a broad, in-depth overview of the most commonly used statistical models by discussing the theory underlying the models, R software applications, and examples with crafted models to elucidate key ideas and promote practical model building. The book begins by illustrating the fundamentals of linear models,

  11. The covariant linear oscillator and generalized realization of the dynamical SU(1,1) symmetry algebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagramanov, E.D.; Nagiyev, Sh.M.; Mir-Kasimov, R.M.

    1989-03-01

    An exactly soluble problem for the finite-difference Schroedinger equation in the relativistic configurational space is considered. The appropriate finite-difference generalization of the factorization method is developed. The theory of new special functions ''the relativistic Hermite polynomials'', in which the solutions are expressed, is constructed. (author). 14 refs

  12. Two-step algorithm of generalized PAPA method applied to linear programming solution of dynamic matrix control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Yoshiaki

    1991-01-01

    In recent complicated nuclear systems, there are increasing demands for developing highly advanced procedures for various problems-solvings. Among them keen interests have been paid on man-machine communications to improve both safety and economy factors. Many optimization methods have been good enough to elaborate on these points. In this preliminary note, we will concern with application of linear programming (LP) for this purpose. First we will present a new superior version of the generalized PAPA method (GEPAPA) to solve LP problems. We will then examine its effectiveness when applied to derive dynamic matrix control (DMC) as the LP solution. The approach is to aim at the above goal through a quality control of process that will appear in the system. (author)

  13. Parametric Linear Dynamic Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Faymonville

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We introduce Parametric Linear Dynamic Logic (PLDL, which extends Linear Dynamic Logic (LDL by temporal operators equipped with parameters that bound their scope. LDL was proposed as an extension of Linear Temporal Logic (LTL that is able to express all ω-regular specifications while still maintaining many of LTL's desirable properties like an intuitive syntax and a translation into non-deterministic Büchi automata of exponential size. But LDL lacks capabilities to express timing constraints. By adding parameterized operators to LDL, we obtain a logic that is able to express all ω-regular properties and that subsumes parameterized extensions of LTL like Parametric LTL and PROMPT-LTL. Our main technical contribution is a translation of PLDL formulas into non-deterministic Büchi word automata of exponential size via alternating automata. This yields a PSPACE model checking algorithm and a realizability algorithm with doubly-exponential running time. Furthermore, we give tight upper and lower bounds on optimal parameter values for both problems. These results show that PLDL model checking and realizability are not harder than LTL model checking and realizability.

  14. Introduction to generalized linear models

    CERN Document Server

    Dobson, Annette J

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Background Scope Notation Distributions Related to the Normal Distribution Quadratic Forms Estimation Model Fitting Introduction Examples Some Principles of Statistical Modeling Notation and Coding for Explanatory Variables Exponential Family and Generalized Linear Models Introduction Exponential Family of Distributions Properties of Distributions in the Exponential Family Generalized Linear Models Examples Estimation Introduction Example: Failure Times for Pressure Vessels Maximum Likelihood Estimation Poisson Regression Example Inference Introduction Sampling Distribution for Score Statistics Taylor Series Approximations Sampling Distribution for MLEs Log-Likelihood Ratio Statistic Sampling Distribution for the Deviance Hypothesis Testing Normal Linear Models Introduction Basic Results Multiple Linear Regression Analysis of Variance Analysis of Covariance General Linear Models Binary Variables and Logistic Regression Probability Distributions ...

  15. Generalized, Linear, and Mixed Models

    CERN Document Server

    McCulloch, Charles E; Neuhaus, John M

    2011-01-01

    An accessible and self-contained introduction to statistical models-now in a modernized new editionGeneralized, Linear, and Mixed Models, Second Edition provides an up-to-date treatment of the essential techniques for developing and applying a wide variety of statistical models. The book presents thorough and unified coverage of the theory behind generalized, linear, and mixed models and highlights their similarities and differences in various construction, application, and computational aspects.A clear introduction to the basic ideas of fixed effects models, random effects models, and mixed m

  16. Dynamical systems and linear algebra

    OpenAIRE

    Colonius, Fritz (Prof.)

    2007-01-01

    Dynamical systems and linear algebra / F. Colonius, W. Kliemann. - In: Handbook of linear algebra / ed. by Leslie Hogben. - Boca Raton : Chapman & Hall/CRC, 2007. - S. 56,1-56,22. - (Discrete mathematics and its applications)

  17. Multivariate covariance generalized linear models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonat, W. H.; Jørgensen, Bent

    2016-01-01

    are fitted by using an efficient Newton scoring algorithm based on quasi-likelihood and Pearson estimating functions, using only second-moment assumptions. This provides a unified approach to a wide variety of types of response variables and covariance structures, including multivariate extensions......We propose a general framework for non-normal multivariate data analysis called multivariate covariance generalized linear models, designed to handle multivariate response variables, along with a wide range of temporal and spatial correlation structures defined in terms of a covariance link...... function combined with a matrix linear predictor involving known matrices. The method is motivated by three data examples that are not easily handled by existing methods. The first example concerns multivariate count data, the second involves response variables of mixed types, combined with repeated...

  18. Observer-based distributed adaptive fault-tolerant containment control of multi-agent systems with general linear dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Dan; Chen, Mengmeng; Li, Kui

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, we consider the distributed containment control problem of multi-agent systems with actuator bias faults based on observer method. The objective is to drive the followers into the convex hull spanned by the dynamic leaders, where the input is unknown but bounded. By constructing an observer to estimate the states and bias faults, an effective distributed adaptive fault-tolerant controller is developed. Different from the traditional method, an auxiliary controller gain is designed to deal with the unknown inputs and bias faults together. Moreover, the coupling gain can be adjusted online through the adaptive mechanism without using the global information. Furthermore, the proposed control protocol can guarantee that all the signals of the closed-loop systems are bounded and all the followers converge to the convex hull with bounded residual errors formed by the dynamic leaders. Finally, a decoupled linearized longitudinal motion model of the F-18 aircraft is used to demonstrate the effectiveness. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Linear versus non-linear supersymmetry, in general

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrara, Sergio [Theoretical Physics Department, CERN,CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); INFN - Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati,Via Enrico Fermi 40, I-00044 Frascati (Italy); Department of Physics and Astronomy, UniversityC.L.A.,Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Kallosh, Renata [SITP and Department of Physics, Stanford University,Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Proeyen, Antoine Van [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven,Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Wrase, Timm [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Technische Universität Wien,Wiedner Hauptstr. 8-10, A-1040 Vienna (Austria)

    2016-04-12

    We study superconformal and supergravity models with constrained superfields. The underlying version of such models with all unconstrained superfields and linearly realized supersymmetry is presented here, in addition to the physical multiplets there are Lagrange multiplier (LM) superfields. Once the equations of motion for the LM superfields are solved, some of the physical superfields become constrained. The linear supersymmetry of the original models becomes non-linearly realized, its exact form can be deduced from the original linear supersymmetry. Known examples of constrained superfields are shown to require the following LM’s: chiral superfields, linear superfields, general complex superfields, some of them are multiplets with a spin.

  20. Linear versus non-linear supersymmetry, in general

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrara, Sergio; Kallosh, Renata; Proeyen, Antoine Van; Wrase, Timm

    2016-01-01

    We study superconformal and supergravity models with constrained superfields. The underlying version of such models with all unconstrained superfields and linearly realized supersymmetry is presented here, in addition to the physical multiplets there are Lagrange multiplier (LM) superfields. Once the equations of motion for the LM superfields are solved, some of the physical superfields become constrained. The linear supersymmetry of the original models becomes non-linearly realized, its exact form can be deduced from the original linear supersymmetry. Known examples of constrained superfields are shown to require the following LM’s: chiral superfields, linear superfields, general complex superfields, some of them are multiplets with a spin.

  1. On the characterization of dynamic supramolecular systems: a general mathematical association model for linear supramolecular copolymers and application on a complex two-component hydrogen-bonding system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odille, Fabrice G J; Jónsson, Stefán; Stjernqvist, Susann; Rydén, Tobias; Wärnmark, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    A general mathematical model for the characterization of the dynamic (kinetically labile) association of supramolecular assemblies in solution is presented. It is an extension of the equal K (EK) model by the stringent use of linear algebra to allow for the simultaneous presence of an unlimited number of different units in the resulting assemblies. It allows for the analysis of highly complex dynamic equilibrium systems in solution, including both supramolecular homo- and copolymers without the recourse to extensive approximations, in a field in which other analytical methods are difficult. The derived mathematical methodology makes it possible to analyze dynamic systems such as supramolecular copolymers regarding for instance the degree of polymerization, the distribution of a given monomer in different copolymers as well as its position in an aggregate. It is to date the only general means to characterize weak supramolecular systems. The model was fitted to NMR dilution titration data by using the program Matlab, and a detailed algorithm for the optimization of the different parameters has been developed. The methodology is applied to a case study, a hydrogen-bonded supramolecular system, salen 4+porphyrin 5. The system is formally a two-component system but in reality a three-component system. This results in a complex dynamic system in which all monomers are associated to each other by hydrogen bonding with different association constants, resulting in homo- and copolymers 4n5m as well as cyclic structures 6 and 7, in addition to free 4 and 5. The system was analyzed by extensive NMR dilution titrations at variable temperatures. All chemical shifts observed at different temperatures were used in the fitting to obtain the DeltaH degrees and DeltaS degrees values producing the best global fit. From the derived general mathematical expressions, system 4+5 could be characterized with respect to above-mentioned parameters.

  2. Actuarial statistics with generalized linear mixed models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antonio, K.; Beirlant, J.

    2007-01-01

    Over the last decade the use of generalized linear models (GLMs) in actuarial statistics has received a lot of attention, starting from the actuarial illustrations in the standard text by McCullagh and Nelder [McCullagh, P., Nelder, J.A., 1989. Generalized linear models. In: Monographs on Statistics

  3. Beam dynamics in linear colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruth, R.D.

    1990-09-01

    In this paper, we discuss some basic beam dynamics issues related to obtaining and preserving the luminosity of a next generation linear collider. The beams are extracted from a damping ring and compressed in length by the first bunch compressor. They are then accelerated in a preaccelerator linac up to an energy appropriate for injection into a high gradient linac. In many designs this pre-acceleration is followed by another bunch compression to reach a short bunch. After acceleration in the linac, the bunches are finally focused transversely to a small spot. 27 refs., 1 fig

  4. Multivariate generalized linear mixed models using R

    CERN Document Server

    Berridge, Damon Mark

    2011-01-01

    Multivariate Generalized Linear Mixed Models Using R presents robust and methodologically sound models for analyzing large and complex data sets, enabling readers to answer increasingly complex research questions. The book applies the principles of modeling to longitudinal data from panel and related studies via the Sabre software package in R. A Unified Framework for a Broad Class of Models The authors first discuss members of the family of generalized linear models, gradually adding complexity to the modeling framework by incorporating random effects. After reviewing the generalized linear model notation, they illustrate a range of random effects models, including three-level, multivariate, endpoint, event history, and state dependence models. They estimate the multivariate generalized linear mixed models (MGLMMs) using either standard or adaptive Gaussian quadrature. The authors also compare two-level fixed and random effects linear models. The appendices contain additional information on quadrature, model...

  5. Nonoscillation of half-linear dynamic equations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matucci, S.; Řehák, Pavel

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 5 (2010), s. 1421-1429 ISSN 0898-1221 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB100190701 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA201/07/0145 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : half-linear dynamic equation * time scale * (non)oscillation * Riccati technique Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.472, year: 2010 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0898122110004384

  6. Linear and Generalized Linear Mixed Models and Their Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Jiming

    2007-01-01

    This book covers two major classes of mixed effects models, linear mixed models and generalized linear mixed models, and it presents an up-to-date account of theory and methods in analysis of these models as well as their applications in various fields. The book offers a systematic approach to inference about non-Gaussian linear mixed models. Furthermore, it has included recently developed methods, such as mixed model diagnostics, mixed model selection, and jackknife method in the context of mixed models. The book is aimed at students, researchers and other practitioners who are interested

  7. Non-Linear Dynamics and Fundamental Interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Khanna, Faqir

    2006-01-01

    The book is directed to researchers and graduate students pursuing an advanced degree. It provides details of techniques directed towards solving problems in non-linear dynamics and chos that are, in general, not amenable to a perturbative treatment. The consideration of fundamental interactions is a prime example where non-perturbative techniques are needed. Extension of these techniques to finite temperature problems is considered. At present these ideas are primarily used in a perturbative context. However, non-perturbative techniques have been considered in some specific cases. Experts in the field on non-linear dynamics and chaos and fundamental interactions elaborate the techniques and provide a critical look at the present status and explore future directions that may be fruitful. The text of the main talks will be very useful to young graduate students who are starting their studies in these areas.

  8. Generalized Cross-Gramian for Linear Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Hamid Reza

    2012-01-01

    The cross-gramian is a well-known matrix with embedded controllability and observability information. The cross-gramian is related to the Hankel operator and the Hankel singular values of a linear square system and it has several interesting properties. These properties make the cross...... square symmetric systems, the ordinary cross-gramian does not exist. To cope with this problem, a new generalized cross-gramian is introduced in this paper. In contrast to the ordinary cross-gramian, the generalized cross-gramian can be easily obtained for general linear systems and therefore can be used...

  9. General relativistic chaos and nonlinear dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrow, J.D.

    1982-01-01

    How new ideas in dynamical systems theory find application in the description of general relativistic systems is described. The concept of dynamical entropy is explained and the associated invariant evaluated for the Mixmaster cosmological model. The description of cosmological models as measure preserving dynamical systems leads to a number of interconnections with new ideas in non-linear dynamics. This may provide a new avenue of approach to ascertaining the nature of the general solution to Einstein's equations. (author)

  10. General relativistic chaos and nonlinear dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrow, J D [California Univ., Berkeley (USA). Dept. of Physics

    1982-06-01

    How new ideas in dynamical systems theory find application in the description of general relativistic systems is described. The concept of dynamical entropy is explained and the associated invariant evaluated for the Mixmaster cosmological model. The description of cosmological models as measure preserving dynamical systems leads to a number of interconnections with new ideas in non-linear dynamics. This may provide a new avenue of approach to ascertaining the nature of the general solution to Einstein's equations.

  11. Black hole dynamics in general relativity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Basic features of dynamical black holes in full, non-linear general relativity are summarized in a pedagogical fashion. Qualitative properties of the evolution of various horizons follow directly from the celebrated Raychaudhuri equation.

  12. Generalized non-linear Schroedinger hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aratyn, H.; Gomes, J.F.; Zimerman, A.H.

    1994-01-01

    The importance in studying the completely integrable models have became evident in the last years due to the fact that those models present an algebraic structure extremely rich, providing the natural scenery for solitons description. Those models can be described through non-linear differential equations, pseudo-linear operators (Lax formulation), or a matrix formulation. The integrability implies in the existence of a conservation law associated to each of degree of freedom. Each conserved charge Q i can be associated to a Hamiltonian, defining a time evolution related to to a time t i through the Hamilton equation ∂A/∂t i =[A,Q i ]. Particularly, for a two-dimensions field theory, infinite degree of freedom exist, and consequently infinite conservation laws describing the time evolution in space of infinite times. The Hamilton equation defines a hierarchy of models which present a infinite set of conservation laws. This paper studies the generalized non-linear Schroedinger hierarchy

  13. General solution of linear vector supersymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blasi, Alberto; Maggiore, Nicola

    2007-01-01

    We give the general solution of the Ward identity for the linear vector supersymmetry which characterizes all topological models. Such a solution, whose expression is quite compact and simple, greatly simplifies the study of theories displaying a supersymmetric algebraic structure, reducing to a few lines the proof of their possible finiteness. In particular, the cohomology technology, usually involved for the quantum extension of these theories, is completely bypassed. The case of Chern-Simons theory is taken as an example

  14. Examining secular trends and seasonality in count data using dynamic generalized linear modelling: a new methodological approach illustrated with hospital discharge data on myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundbye-Christensen, S; Dethlefsen, C; Gorst-Rasmussen, A; Fischer, T; Schønheyder, H C; Rothman, K J; Sørensen, H T

    2009-01-01

    Time series of incidence counts often show secular trends and seasonal patterns. We present a model for incidence counts capable of handling a possible gradual change in growth rates and seasonal patterns, serial correlation, and overdispersion. The model resembles an ordinary time series regression model for Poisson counts. It differs in allowing the regression coefficients to vary gradually over time in a random fashion. During the 1983-1999 period, 17,989 incidents of acute myocardial infarction were recorded in the Hospital Discharge Registry for the county of North Jutland, Denmark. Records were updated daily. A dynamic model with a seasonal pattern and an approximately linear trend was fitted to the data, and diagnostic plots indicated a good model fit. The analysis conducted with the dynamic model revealed peaks coinciding with above-average influenza A activity. On average the dynamic model estimated a higher peak-to-trough ratio than traditional models, and showed gradual changes in seasonal patterns. Analyses conducted with this model provide insights not available from more traditional approaches.

  15. Identification of general linear mechanical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirlin, S. W.; Longman, R. W.; Juang, J. N.

    1983-01-01

    Previous work in identification theory has been concerned with the general first order time derivative form. Linear mechanical systems, a large and important class, naturally have a second order form. This paper utilizes this additional structural information for the purpose of identification. A realization is obtained from input-output data, and then knowledge of the system input, output, and inertia matrices is used to determine a set of linear equations whereby we identify the remaining unknown system matrices. Necessary and sufficient conditions on the number, type and placement of sensors and actuators are given which guarantee identificability, and less stringent conditions are given which guarantee generic identifiability. Both a priori identifiability and a posteriori identifiability are considered, i.e., identifiability being insured prior to obtaining data, and identifiability being assured with a given data set.

  16. The general dynamic model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borregaard, Michael K.; Matthews, Thomas J.; Whittaker, Robert James

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Island biogeography focuses on understanding the processes that underlie a set of well-described patterns on islands, but it lacks a unified theoretical framework for integrating these processes. The recently proposed general dynamic model (GDM) of oceanic island biogeography offers a step...... towards this goal. Here, we present an analysis of causality within the GDM and investigate its potential for the further development of island biogeographical theory. Further, we extend the GDM to include subduction-based island arcs and continental fragment islands. Location: A conceptual analysis...... of evolutionary processes in simulations derived from the mechanistic assumptions of the GDM corresponded broadly to those initially suggested, with the exception of trends in extinction rates. Expanding the model to incorporate different scenarios of island ontogeny and isolation revealed a sensitivity...

  17. Nonlinear dynamics between linear and impact limits

    CERN Document Server

    Pilipchuk, Valery N; Wriggers, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This book examines nonlinear dynamic analyses based on the existence of strongly nonlinear but simple counterparts to the linear models and tools. Discusses possible application to periodic elastic structures with non-smooth or discontinuous characteristics.

  18. Dynamics and acceleration in linear structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Duff, J.

    1985-06-01

    Basic methods of linear acceleration are reviewed. Both cases of non relativistic and ultra relativistic particles are considered. Induction linac, radiofrequency quadrupole are mentioned. Fundamental parameters of accelerating structures are recalled; they are transit time factor, shunt impedance, quality factor and stored energy, phase velocity and group velocity, filling time, space harmonics in loaded waveguides. Energy gain in linear accelerating structures is considered through standing wave structures and travelling wave structures. Then particle dynamics in linear accelerators is studied: longitudinal motion, transverse motion and dynamics in RFQ

  19. Beam dynamics issues for linear colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruth, R.D.

    1987-09-01

    In this paper we discuss various beam dynamics issues for linear colliders. The emphasis is to explore beam dynamics effects which lead to an effective dilution of the emittance of the beam and thus to a loss of luminosity. These considerations lead to various tolerances which are evaluated for a particular parameter set

  20. Canonical perturbation theory in linearized general relativity theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzales, R.; Pavlenko, Yu.G.

    1986-01-01

    Canonical perturbation theory in linearized general relativity theory is developed. It is shown that the evolution of arbitrary dynamic value, conditioned by the interaction of particles, gravitation and electromagnetic fields, can be presented in the form of a series, each member of it corresponding to the contribution of certain spontaneous or induced process. The main concepts of the approach are presented in the approximation of a weak gravitational field

  1. Gravitational Wave in Linear General Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubillos, D. J.

    2017-07-01

    General relativity is the best theory currently available to describe the interaction due to gravity. Within Albert Einstein's field equations this interaction is described by means of the spatiotemporal curvature generated by the matter-energy content in the universe. Weyl worked on the existence of perturbations of the curvature of space-time that propagate at the speed of light, which are known as Gravitational Waves, obtained to a first approximation through the linearization of the field equations of Einstein. Weyl's solution consists of taking the field equations in a vacuum and disturbing the metric, using the Minkowski metric slightly perturbed by a factor ɛ greater than zero but much smaller than one. If the feedback effect of the field is neglected, it can be considered as a weak field solution. After introducing the disturbed metric and ignoring ɛ terms of order greater than one, we can find the linearized field equations in terms of the perturbation, which can then be expressed in terms of the Dalambertian operator of the perturbation equalized to zero. This is analogous to the linear wave equation in classical mechanics, which can be interpreted by saying that gravitational effects propagate as waves at the speed of light. In addition to this, by studying the motion of a particle affected by this perturbation through the geodesic equation can show the transversal character of the gravitational wave and its two possible states of polarization. It can be shown that the energy carried by the wave is of the order of 1/c5 where c is the speed of light, which explains that its effects on matter are very small and very difficult to detect.

  2. Aspects of general linear modelling of migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congdon, P

    1992-01-01

    "This paper investigates the application of general linear modelling principles to analysing migration flows between areas. Particular attention is paid to specifying the form of the regression and error components, and the nature of departures from Poisson randomness. Extensions to take account of spatial and temporal correlation are discussed as well as constrained estimation. The issue of specification bears on the testing of migration theories, and assessing the role migration plays in job and housing markets: the direction and significance of the effects of economic variates on migration depends on the specification of the statistical model. The application is in the context of migration in London and South East England in the 1970s and 1980s." excerpt

  3. Linear dynamic coupling in geared rotor systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, J. W.; Mitchell, L. D.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of high frequency oscillations caused by the gear mesh, on components of a geared system that can be modeled as rigid discs are analyzed using linear dynamic coupling terms. The coupled, nonlinear equations of motion for a disc attached to a rotating shaft are presented. The results of a trial problem analysis show that the inclusion of the linear dynamic coupling terms can produce significant changes in the predicted response of geared rotor systems, and that the produced sideband responses are greater than the unbalanced response. The method is useful in designing gear drives for heavy-lift helicopters, industrial speed reducers, naval propulsion systems, and heavy off-road equipment.

  4. Correlated Levy Noise in Linear Dynamical Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srokowski, T.

    2011-01-01

    Linear dynamical systems, driven by a non-white noise which has the Levy distribution, are analysed. Noise is modelled by a specific stochastic process which is defined by the Langevin equation with a linear force and the Levy distributed symmetric white noise. Correlation properties of the process are discussed. The Fokker-Planck equation driven by that noise is solved. Distributions have the Levy shape and their width, for a given time, is smaller than for processes in the white noise limit. Applicability of the adiabatic approximation in the case of the linear force is discussed. (author)

  5. Testing for one Generalized Linear Single Order Parameter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Niels Langager; Christensen, Tage Emil; Dyre, Jeppe

    We examine a linear single order parameter model for thermoviscoelastic relaxation in viscous liquids, allowing for a distribution of relaxation times. In this model the relaxation of volume and entalpy is completely described by the relaxation of one internal order parameter. In contrast to prior...... work the order parameter may be chosen to have a non-exponential relaxation. The model predictions contradict the general consensus of the properties of viscous liquids in two ways: (i) The model predicts that following a linear isobaric temperature step, the normalized volume and entalpy relaxation...... responses or extrapolate from measurements of a glassy state away from equilibrium. Starting from a master equation description of inherent dynamics, we calculate the complex thermodynamic response functions. We device a way of testing for the generalized single order parameter model by measuring 3 complex...

  6. Generalized Linear Models in Vehicle Insurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvie Kafková

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Actuaries in insurance companies try to find the best model for an estimation of insurance premium. It depends on many risk factors, e.g. the car characteristics and the profile of the driver. In this paper, an analysis of the portfolio of vehicle insurance data using a generalized linear model (GLM is performed. The main advantage of the approach presented in this article is that the GLMs are not limited by inflexible preconditions. Our aim is to predict the relation of annual claim frequency on given risk factors. Based on a large real-world sample of data from 57 410 vehicles, the present study proposed a classification analysis approach that addresses the selection of predictor variables. The models with different predictor variables are compared by analysis of deviance and Akaike information criterion (AIC. Based on this comparison, the model for the best estimate of annual claim frequency is chosen. All statistical calculations are computed in R environment, which contains stats package with the function for the estimation of parameters of GLM and the function for analysis of deviation.

  7. Evaluating the double Poisson generalized linear model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yaotian; Geedipally, Srinivas Reddy; Lord, Dominique

    2013-10-01

    The objectives of this study are to: (1) examine the applicability of the double Poisson (DP) generalized linear model (GLM) for analyzing motor vehicle crash data characterized by over- and under-dispersion and (2) compare the performance of the DP GLM with the Conway-Maxwell-Poisson (COM-Poisson) GLM in terms of goodness-of-fit and theoretical soundness. The DP distribution has seldom been investigated and applied since its first introduction two decades ago. The hurdle for applying the DP is related to its normalizing constant (or multiplicative constant) which is not available in closed form. This study proposed a new method to approximate the normalizing constant of the DP with high accuracy and reliability. The DP GLM and COM-Poisson GLM were developed using two observed over-dispersed datasets and one observed under-dispersed dataset. The modeling results indicate that the DP GLM with its normalizing constant approximated by the new method can handle crash data characterized by over- and under-dispersion. Its performance is comparable to the COM-Poisson GLM in terms of goodness-of-fit (GOF), although COM-Poisson GLM provides a slightly better fit. For the over-dispersed data, the DP GLM performs similar to the NB GLM. Considering the fact that the DP GLM can be easily estimated with inexpensive computation and that it is simpler to interpret coefficients, it offers a flexible and efficient alternative for researchers to model count data. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Generalized chiral membrane dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordero, R.; Rojas, E.

    2003-01-01

    We develop the dynamics of the chiral superconducting membranes (with null current) in an alternative geometrical approach. Besides of this, we show the equivalence of the resulting description with the one known Dirac-Nambu-Goto (DNG) case. Integrability for chiral string model is obtained using a proposed light-cone gauge. In a similar way, domain walls are integrated by means of a simple Ansatz. (Author)

  9. General Relativistic Plasma Dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moortgat, J.B.

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis I discuss the importance of general relativity on plasma physics in several astrophysical and cosmological contexts. The first chapters show how gravitational waves can excite all three fundamental low frequency magnetohydrodynamic plasma modes, the Alfven, slow and fast

  10. Parallel beam dynamics simulation of linear accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiang, Ji; Ryne, Robert D.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we describe parallel particle-in-cell methods for the large scale simulation of beam dynamics in linear accelerators. These techniques have been implemented in the IMPACT (Integrated Map and Particle Accelerator Tracking) code. IMPACT is being used to study the behavior of intense charged particle beams and as a tool for the design of next-generation linear accelerators. As examples, we present applications of the code to the study of emittance exchange in high intensity beams and to the study of beam transport in a proposed accelerator for the development of accelerator-driven waste transmutation technologies

  11. A Note on the Identifiability of Generalized Linear Mixed Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Labouriau, Rodrigo

    2014-01-01

    I present here a simple proof that, under general regularity conditions, the standard parametrization of generalized linear mixed model is identifiable. The proof is based on the assumptions of generalized linear mixed models on the first and second order moments and some general mild regularity...... conditions, and, therefore, is extensible to quasi-likelihood based generalized linear models. In particular, binomial and Poisson mixed models with dispersion parameter are identifiable when equipped with the standard parametrization...

  12. MEMS linear and nonlinear statics and dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Younis, Mohammad I

    2011-01-01

    MEMS Linear and Nonlinear Statics and Dynamics presents the necessary analytical and computational tools for MEMS designers to model and simulate most known MEMS devices, structures, and phenomena. This book also provides an in-depth analysis and treatment of the most common static and dynamic phenomena in MEMS that are encountered by engineers. Coverage also includes nonlinear modeling approaches to modeling various MEMS phenomena of a nonlinear nature, such as those due to electrostatic forces, squeeze-film damping, and large deflection of structures. The book also: Includes examples of nume

  13. Orbit dynamics for unstable linear motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parzen, G.

    1997-01-01

    A treatment is given of the orbit dynamics for linear unstable motion that allows for the zeros in the beta function and makes no assumptions about the realness of the betatron and phase functions. The phase shift per turn is shown to be related to the beta function and the number of zeros the beta function goes through per turn. The solutions of the equations of motion are found in terms of the beta function

  14. Orbit dynamics for unstable linear motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parzen, G.

    1996-04-01

    A treatment is given of the orbit dynamics for linear unstable motion that allows for the zeros in the beta function and makes no assumption about the realness of the betatron and phase functions. The phase shift per turn is shown to be related to the beta function and the number of zeros the beta function goes through per turn. The solutions of the equations of motion are found in terms of the beta function

  15. Dynamical structure of linearized GL(4) gravities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aragone, C.; Restuccia, A.

    1978-01-01

    The physical content of the three more natural models of GL(4) gravity is analyzed, for the case of weak fields. It is shown that the first model is the linearized version of Yang's one-tensor-field gravity and is a scalar-tensor theory, with its scalar part contained in a symmetric tensor. The second and the third linearized models, which can both be derived from the fourth-order action postulated by Yang, are two-tensor decoupled systems. In both cases one of the tensors is the symmetric weak metric gravity tensor field. the second tensor appearing in these two models, representing the GL(4)-gauge field, is either a linearized symmetric affinity (in the second model) or a linearized but nonsymmetric affinity (for the third model). It is shown that in these last two cases the affinity contains a helicity-3 propagating field. Owing to the presence of helicity-3 fields it is shown that it is better to regard Yang's action as an action for a two-tensor system instead of trying to recover from a pure gravity (one-tensor-field) action. Finally, it is shown what is the dynamical structure of the second and third linearized two-tensor models which can be derived from Yang's action. (author)

  16. Non-Linear Dynamics of Saturn's Rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, L. W.

    2016-12-01

    Non-linear processes can explain why Saturn's rings are so active and dynamic. Ring systems differ from simple linear systems in two significant ways: 1. They are systems of granular material: where particle-to-particle collisions dominate; thus a kinetic, not a fluid description needed. Stresses are strikingly inhomogeneous and fluctuations are large compared to equilibrium. 2. They are strongly forced by resonances: which drive a non-linear response, that push the system across thresholds that lead to persistent states. Some of this non-linearity is captured in a simple Predator-Prey Model: Periodic forcing from the moon causes streamline crowding; This damps the relative velocity. About a quarter phase later, the aggregates stir the system to higher relative velocity and the limit cycle repeats each orbit, with relative velocity ranging from nearly zero to a multiple of the orbit average. Summary of Halo Results: A predator-prey model for ring dynamics produces transient structures like `straw' that can explain the halo morphology and spectroscopy: Cyclic velocity changes cause perturbed regions to reach higher collision speeds at some orbital phases, which preferentially removes small regolith particles; surrounding particles diffuse back too slowly to erase the effect: this gives the halo morphology; this requires energetic collisions (v ≈ 10m/sec, with throw distances about 200km, implying objects of scale R ≈ 20km).Transform to Duffing Eqn : With the coordinate transformation, z = M2/3, the Predator-Prey equations can be combined to form a single second-order differential equation with harmonic resonance forcing.Ring dynamics and history implications: Moon-triggered clumping explains both small and large particles at resonances. We calculate the stationary size distribution using a cell-to-cell mapping procedure that converts the phase-plane trajectories to a Markov chain. Approximating it as an asymmetric random walk with reflecting boundaries

  17. Generalized 2-vector spaces and general linear 2-groups

    OpenAIRE

    Elgueta, Josep

    2008-01-01

    In this paper a notion of {\\it generalized 2-vector space} is introduced which includes Kapranov and Voevodsky 2-vector spaces. Various kinds of generalized 2-vector spaces are considered and examples are given. The existence of non free generalized 2-vector spaces and of generalized 2-vector spaces which are non Karoubian (hence, non abelian) categories is discussed, and it is shown how any generalized 2-vector space can be identified with a full subcategory of an (abelian) functor category ...

  18. Parameter identifiability of linear dynamical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, K.; Willems, J. C.

    1974-01-01

    It is assumed that the system matrices of a stationary linear dynamical system were parametrized by a set of unknown parameters. The question considered here is, when can such a set of unknown parameters be identified from the observed data? Conditions for the local identifiability of a parametrization are derived in three situations: (1) when input/output observations are made, (2) when there exists an unknown feedback matrix in the system and (3) when the system is assumed to be driven by white noise and only output observations are made. Also a sufficient condition for global identifiability is derived.

  19. Smooth generalized linear models for aggregated data

    OpenAIRE

    Ayma Anza, Diego Armando

    2016-01-01

    Mención Internacional en el título de doctor Aggregated data commonly appear in areas such as epidemiology, demography, and public health. Generally, the aggregation process is done to protect the privacy of patients, to facilitate compact presentation, or to make it comparable with other coarser datasets. However, this process may hinder the visualization of the underlying distribution that follows the data. Also, it prohibits the direct analysis of relationships between ag...

  20. Generalized local homology and cohomology for linearly compact modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Tuan Nam

    2006-07-01

    We study generalized local homology for linearly compact modules. By duality, we get some properties of generalized local cohomology modules and extend well-known properties of local cohomology of A. Grothendieck. (author)

  1. A variational formulation for linear models in coupled dynamic thermoelasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feijoo, R.A.; Moura, C.A. de.

    1981-07-01

    A variational formulation for linear models in coupled dynamic thermoelasticity which quite naturally motivates the design of a numerical scheme for the problem, is studied. When linked to regularization or penalization techniques, this algorithm may be applied to more general models, namely, the ones that consider non-linear constraints associated to variational inequalities. The basic postulates of Mechanics and Thermodynamics as well as some well-known mathematical techniques are described. A thorough description of the algorithm implementation with the finite-element method is also provided. Proofs for existence and uniqueness of solutions and for convergence of the approximations are presented, and some numerical results are exhibited. (Author) [pt

  2. Linear Dynamics Model for Steam Cooled Fast Power Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vollmer, H

    1968-04-15

    A linear analytical dynamic model is developed for steam cooled fast power reactors. All main components of such a plant are investigated on a general though relatively simple basis. The model is distributed in those parts concerning the core but lumped as to the external plant components. Coolant is considered as compressible and treated by the actual steam law. Combined use of analogue and digital computer seems most attractive.

  3. Linearized supergravity with a dynamical preferred frame

    CERN Document Server

    Marakulin, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    We study supersymmetric extension of the Einstein-aether gravitational model where local Lorentz invariance is broken down to the subgroup of spatial rotations by a vacuum expectation value of a timelike vector field. By restricting to the level of linear perturbations around Lorentz-violating vacuum and using the superfield formalism we construct the most general action invariant under the linearized supergravity transformations. We show that, unlike its non-supersymmetric counterpart, the model contains only a single free dimensionless parameter, besides the usual dimensionful gravitational coupling. This makes the model highly predictive. An analysis of the spectrum of physical excitations reveal superluminal velocity of gravitons. The latter property leads to the extension of the gravitational multiplet by additional fermonic and bosonic states with helicities $\\pm 3/2$ and $\\pm 1$. We outline the observational constraints on the model following from its low-energy phenomenology.

  4. Double generalized linear compound poisson models to insurance claims data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Daniel Arnfeldt; Bonat, Wagner Hugo

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the specification, estimation and comparison of double generalized linear compound Poisson models based on the likelihood paradigm. The models are motivated by insurance applications, where the distribution of the response variable is composed by a degenerate distribution...... implementation and illustrate the application of double generalized linear compound Poisson models using a data set about car insurances....

  5. Generalized Multicarrier CDMA: Unification and Linear Equalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Zhengdao

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Relying on block-symbol spreading and judicious design of user codes, this paper builds on the generalized multicarrier (GMC quasisynchronous CDMA system that is capable of multiuser interference (MUI elimination and intersymbol interference (ISI suppression with guaranteed symbol recovery, regardless of the wireless frequency-selective channels. GMC-CDMA affords an all-digital unifying framework, which encompasses single-carrier and several multicarrier (MC CDMA systems. Besides the unifying framework, it is shown that GMC-CDMA offers flexibility both in full load (maximum number of users allowed by the available bandwidth and in reduced load settings. A novel blind channel estimation algorithm is also derived. Analytical evaluation and simulations illustrate the superior error performance and flexibility of uncoded GMC-CDMA over competing MC-CDMA alternatives especially in the presence of uplink multipath channels.

  6. Non-linear dynamics in Parkinsonism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier eDarbin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the last 30 years, the functions (and dysfunctions of the sensory-motor circuitry have been mostly conceptualized using linear modelizations which have resulted in two main models: the "rate hypothesis" and the "oscillatory hypothesis". In these two models, the basal ganglia data stream is envisaged as a random temporal combination of independent simple patterns issued from its probability distribution of interval interspikes or its spectrum of frequencies respectively.More recently, non-linear analyses have been introduced in the modelization of motor circuitry activities, and they have provided evidences that complex temporal organizations exist in basal ganglia neuronal activities. Regarding movement disorders, these complex temporal organizations in the basal ganglia data stream differ between conditions (i.e. parkinsonism, dyskinesia, healthy control and are responsive to treatments (i.e. L-DOPA,DBS. A body of evidence has reported that basal ganglia neuronal entropy (a marker for complexity/irregularity in time series is higher in hypokinetic state. In line with these findings, an entropy-based model has been recently formulated to introduce basal ganglia entropy as a marker for the alteration of motor processing and a factor of motor inhibition. Importantly, non-linear features have also been identified as a marker of condition and/or treatment effects in brain global signals (EEG, muscular activities (EMG or kinetic of motor symptoms (tremor, gait of patients with movement disorders. It is therefore warranted that the non-linear dynamics of motor circuitry will contribute to a better understanding of the neuronal dysfunctions underlying the spectrum of parkinsonian motor symptoms including tremor, rigidity and hypokinesia.

  7. Non Linear Beam Dynamics Studies at SPEAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terebilo, A.; Pellegrini, C.; Cornacchia, M.; Corbett, J.; Martin, D.

    2011-01-01

    The frequency map analysis of a Hamiltonian system recently introduced to accelerators physics in combination with turn-by-turn phase space measurements opens new experimental opportunities for studying non linear dynamic in storage rings. In this paper we report on the experimental program at SPEAR having the goal of measuring the frequency map of the machine. In this paper we discuss the accuracy of the instantaneous tune extraction from experimental data and demonstrate the possibility of the frequency map measurement. The instantaneous tune extraction technique can be applied to experimental tracking data with reasonable accuracy. Frequency map can be experimentally determined using the existing turn-by-turn phase space measurement techniques and NAFF instantaneous tune extraction.

  8. Generalized Linear Models with Applications in Engineering and the Sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Myers, Raymond H; Vining, G Geoffrey; Robinson, Timothy J

    2012-01-01

    Praise for the First Edition "The obvious enthusiasm of Myers, Montgomery, and Vining and their reliance on their many examples as a major focus of their pedagogy make Generalized Linear Models a joy to read. Every statistician working in any area of applied science should buy it and experience the excitement of these new approaches to familiar activities."-Technometrics Generalized Linear Models: With Applications in Engineering and the Sciences, Second Edition continues to provide a clear introduction to the theoretical foundations and key applications of generalized linear models (GLMs). Ma

  9. On-line validation of linear process models using generalized likelihood ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tylee, J.L.

    1981-12-01

    A real-time method for testing the validity of linear models of nonlinear processes is described and evaluated. Using generalized likelihood ratios, the model dynamics are continually monitored to see if the process has moved far enough away from the nominal linear model operating point to justify generation of a new linear model. The method is demonstrated using a seventh-order model of a natural circulation steam generator

  10. Constraining Relativistic Generalizations of Modified Newtonian Dynamics with Gravitational Waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesler, Paul M; Loeb, Abraham

    2017-07-21

    In the weak-field limit of general relativity, gravitational waves obey linear equations and propagate at the speed of light. These properties of general relativity are supported by the observation of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays as well as by LIGO's recent detection of gravitation waves. We argue that two existing relativistic generalizations of modified Newtonian dynamics, namely, the generalized Einstein-aether theory and bimetric modified Newtonian dynamics, display fatal inconsistencies with these observations.

  11. Testing Parametric versus Semiparametric Modelling in Generalized Linear Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Härdle, W.K.; Mammen, E.; Müller, M.D.

    1996-01-01

    We consider a generalized partially linear model E(Y|X,T) = G{X'b + m(T)} where G is a known function, b is an unknown parameter vector, and m is an unknown function.The paper introduces a test statistic which allows to decide between a parametric and a semiparametric model: (i) m is linear, i.e.

  12. Minimal solution of general dual fuzzy linear systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasbandy, S.; Otadi, M.; Mosleh, M.

    2008-01-01

    Fuzzy linear systems of equations, play a major role in several applications in various area such as engineering, physics and economics. In this paper, we investigate the existence of a minimal solution of general dual fuzzy linear equation systems. Two necessary and sufficient conditions for the minimal solution existence are given. Also, some examples in engineering and economic are considered

  13. Dynamic linearization system for a radiation gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panarello, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    The linearization system and process converts a high resolution non-linear analog input signal, representative of the thickness of an object, into a high resolution linear analog output signal suitable for use in driving a variety of output devices. The system requires only a small amount of memory for storing pre-calculated non-linear correction coefficients. The system channels the input signal to separate circuit paths so that it may be used directly to; locate an appropriate correction coefficient; develop a correction term after an appropriate correction coefficient is located; and develop a linearized signal having the same high resolution inherent in the input signal. The system processes the linearized signal to compensate for the possible errors introduced by radiation source noise. The processed linearized signal is the high resolution linear analog output signal which accurately represents the thickness of the object being gauged

  14. From linear to generalized linear mixed models: A case study in repeated measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compared to traditional linear mixed models, generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs) can offer better correspondence between response variables and explanatory models, yielding more efficient estimates and tests in the analysis of data from designed experiments. Using proportion data from a designed...

  15. About one non linear generalization of the compression reflection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Both cases of stage and spiral iterations are considered. A geometrical interpretation of a convergence of a generalize method of iteration is brought, the case of stage and spiral iterations are considered. The formula for the non linear generalize compression reflection operator as a function from one variable is obtained.

  16. McDonald Generalized Linear Failure Rate Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Elbatal

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We introduce in this paper a new six-parameters generalized version of the generalized linear failure rate (GLFR distribution which is called McDonald Generalized Linear failure rate (McGLFR distribution. The new distribution is quite flexible and can be used effectively in modeling survival data and reliability problems. It can have a constant, decreasing, increasing, and upside down bathtub-and bathtub shaped failure rate function depending on its parameters. It includes some well-known lifetime distributions as special sub-models. Some structural properties of the new distribution are studied. Moreover we discuss maximum likelihood estimation of the unknown parameters of the new model.

  17. Extending the linear model with R generalized linear, mixed effects and nonparametric regression models

    CERN Document Server

    Faraway, Julian J

    2005-01-01

    Linear models are central to the practice of statistics and form the foundation of a vast range of statistical methodologies. Julian J. Faraway''s critically acclaimed Linear Models with R examined regression and analysis of variance, demonstrated the different methods available, and showed in which situations each one applies. Following in those footsteps, Extending the Linear Model with R surveys the techniques that grow from the regression model, presenting three extensions to that framework: generalized linear models (GLMs), mixed effect models, and nonparametric regression models. The author''s treatment is thoroughly modern and covers topics that include GLM diagnostics, generalized linear mixed models, trees, and even the use of neural networks in statistics. To demonstrate the interplay of theory and practice, throughout the book the author weaves the use of the R software environment to analyze the data of real examples, providing all of the R commands necessary to reproduce the analyses. All of the ...

  18. Non-linear dynamic response of reactor containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takemori, T.; Sotomura, K.; Yamada, M.

    1975-01-01

    A computer program was developed to investigate the elasto-plastic behavior of structures. This program is outlined and the problems of non-linear response of structures are discussed. Since the mode superposition method is only valid in an elastic analysis, the direct integration method was adopted here. As the sample model, an actual reactor containment (reactor building) of PWR plant was adopted. This building consists of three components, that is, a concrete internal structure, a steel containment vessel and a concrete outer shield wall. These components are resting on a rigid foundation mat. Therefore they were modeled with a lumped mass model respectively and coupled on the foundation. The following assumptions were employed to establish the properties of dynamic model: rocking and swaying springs of soil can be obtained from an elastic half-space solution, and the hysteretic characteristic of springs is bi-linear; springs connecting each mass are dealt with shear beams so that both bending and shear deflections can be included (Hysteretic characteristics of springs are linear, bi-linear and tri-linear for the internal structure, the containment vessel and the outer shield wall, respectively); generally, each damping coefficient is given for each mode in modal superposition (However, a damping matrix must be made directly in a non-linear response). Therefore the damping matrix of the model was made by combining the damping matrices [C] of each component obtained by Caughy's method and a damping value of the rocking and swaying by the half-space solution. On the basis of above conditions, the non-linear response of the structure was obtained and the difference between elastic and elasto-plastic analysis is presented

  19. Estimation and variable selection for generalized additive partial linear models

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Li

    2011-08-01

    We study generalized additive partial linear models, proposing the use of polynomial spline smoothing for estimation of nonparametric functions, and deriving quasi-likelihood based estimators for the linear parameters. We establish asymptotic normality for the estimators of the parametric components. The procedure avoids solving large systems of equations as in kernel-based procedures and thus results in gains in computational simplicity. We further develop a class of variable selection procedures for the linear parameters by employing a nonconcave penalized quasi-likelihood, which is shown to have an asymptotic oracle property. Monte Carlo simulations and an empirical example are presented for illustration. © Institute of Mathematical Statistics, 2011.

  20. Linearized dynamical approach to current algebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scadron, M.D.

    1995-07-01

    We study the original motivations searching for a nonlinear chiral Lagrangian to replace the linear sigma model while manifesting all the successful properties of current algebra and partial conservation of axial currents (PCAC). (author). 26 refs

  1. Single Particle Linear and Nonlinear Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Y

    2004-06-25

    I will give a comprehensive review of existing particle tracking tools to assess long-term particle stability for small and large accelerators in the presence of realistic magnetic imperfections and machine misalignments. The emphasis will be on the tracking and analysis tools based upon the differential algebra, Lie operator, and ''polymorphism''. Using these tools, a uniform linear and non-linear analysis will be outlined as an application of the normal form.

  2. Single Particle Linear and Nonlinear Dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Y

    2004-01-01

    I will give a comprehensive review of existing particle tracking tools to assess long-term particle stability for small and large accelerators in the presence of realistic magnetic imperfections and machine misalignments. The emphasis will be on the tracking and analysis tools based upon the differential algebra, Lie operator, and ''polymorphism''. Using these tools, a uniform linear and non-linear analysis will be outlined as an application of the normal form

  3. An implicit spectral formula for generalized linear Schroedinger equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulze-Halberg, A.; Garcia-Ravelo, J.; Pena Gil, Jose Juan

    2009-01-01

    We generalize the semiclassical Bohr–Sommerfeld quantization rule to an exact, implicit spectral formula for linear, generalized Schroedinger equations admitting a discrete spectrum. Special cases include the position-dependent mass Schroedinger equation or the Schroedinger equation for weighted energy. Requiring knowledge of the potential and the solution associated with the lowest spectral value, our formula predicts the complete spectrum in its exact form. (author)

  4. Solution of generalized shifted linear systems with complex symmetric matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sogabe, Tomohiro; Hoshi, Takeo; Zhang, Shao-Liang; Fujiwara, Takeo

    2012-01-01

    We develop the shifted COCG method [R. Takayama, T. Hoshi, T. Sogabe, S.-L. Zhang, T. Fujiwara, Linear algebraic calculation of Green’s function for large-scale electronic structure theory, Phys. Rev. B 73 (165108) (2006) 1–9] and the shifted WQMR method [T. Sogabe, T. Hoshi, S.-L. Zhang, T. Fujiwara, On a weighted quasi-residual minimization strategy of the QMR method for solving complex symmetric shifted linear systems, Electron. Trans. Numer. Anal. 31 (2008) 126–140] for solving generalized shifted linear systems with complex symmetric matrices that arise from the electronic structure theory. The complex symmetric Lanczos process with a suitable bilinear form plays an important role in the development of the methods. The numerical examples indicate that the methods are highly attractive when the inner linear systems can efficiently be solved.

  5. New Implicit General Linear Method | Ibrahim | Journal of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A New implicit general linear method is designed for the numerical olution of stiff differential Equations. The coefficients matrix is derived from the stability function. The method combines the single-implicitness or diagonal implicitness with property that the first two rows are implicit and third and fourth row are explicit.

  6. Confidence Intervals for Assessing Heterogeneity in Generalized Linear Mixed Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagler, Amy E.

    2014-01-01

    Generalized linear mixed models are frequently applied to data with clustered categorical outcomes. The effect of clustering on the response is often difficult to practically assess partly because it is reported on a scale on which comparisons with regression parameters are difficult to make. This article proposes confidence intervals for…

  7. Penalized Estimation in Large-Scale Generalized Linear Array Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Adam; Vincent, Martin; Hansen, Niels Richard

    2017-01-01

    Large-scale generalized linear array models (GLAMs) can be challenging to fit. Computation and storage of its tensor product design matrix can be impossible due to time and memory constraints, and previously considered design matrix free algorithms do not scale well with the dimension...

  8. On the dynamic analysis of piecewise-linear networks

    OpenAIRE

    Heemels, W.P.M.H.; Camlibel, M.K.; Schumacher, J.M.

    2002-01-01

    Piecewise-linear (PL) modeling is often used to approximate the behavior of nonlinear circuits. One of the possible PL modeling methodologies is based on the linear complementarity problem, and this approach has already been used extensively in the circuits and systems community for static networks. In this paper, the object of study will be dynamic electrical circuits that can be recast as linear complementarity systems, i.e., as interconnections of linear time-invariant differential equatio...

  9. Topology Identification of General Dynamical Network with Distributed Time Delays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao-Yan, Wu; Xin-Chu, Fu

    2009-01-01

    General dynamical networks with distributed time delays are studied. The topology of the networks are viewed as unknown parameters, which need to be identified. Some auxiliary systems (also called the network estimators) are designed to achieve this goal. Both linear feedback control and adaptive strategy are applied in designing these network estimators. Based on linear matrix inequalities and the Lyapunov function method, the sufficient condition for the achievement of topology identification is obtained. This method can also better monitor the switching topology of dynamical networks. Illustrative examples are provided to show the effectiveness of this method. (general)

  10. Computation of Optimal Monotonicity Preserving General Linear Methods

    KAUST Repository

    Ketcheson, David I.

    2009-07-01

    Monotonicity preserving numerical methods for ordinary differential equations prevent the growth of propagated errors and preserve convex boundedness properties of the solution. We formulate the problem of finding optimal monotonicity preserving general linear methods for linear autonomous equations, and propose an efficient algorithm for its solution. This algorithm reliably finds optimal methods even among classes involving very high order accuracy and that use many steps and/or stages. The optimality of some recently proposed methods is verified, and many more efficient methods are found. We use similar algorithms to find optimal strong stability preserving linear multistep methods of both explicit and implicit type, including methods for hyperbolic PDEs that use downwind-biased operators.

  11. Neural Generalized Predictive Control of a non-linear Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Paul Haase; Nørgård, Peter Magnus; Ravn, Ole

    1998-01-01

    The use of neural network in non-linear control is made difficult by the fact the stability and robustness is not guaranteed and that the implementation in real time is non-trivial. In this paper we introduce a predictive controller based on a neural network model which has promising stability qu...... detail and discuss the implementation difficulties. The neural generalized predictive controller is tested on a pneumatic servo sys-tem.......The use of neural network in non-linear control is made difficult by the fact the stability and robustness is not guaranteed and that the implementation in real time is non-trivial. In this paper we introduce a predictive controller based on a neural network model which has promising stability...... qualities. The controller is a non-linear version of the well-known generalized predictive controller developed in linear control theory. It involves minimization of a cost function which in the present case has to be done numerically. Therefore, we develop the numerical algorithms necessary in substantial...

  12. Genetic parameters for racing records in trotters using linear and generalized linear models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suontama, M; van der Werf, J H J; Juga, J; Ojala, M

    2012-09-01

    Heritability and repeatability and genetic and phenotypic correlations were estimated for trotting race records with linear and generalized linear models using 510,519 records on 17,792 Finnhorses and 513,161 records on 25,536 Standardbred trotters. Heritability and repeatability were estimated for single racing time and earnings traits with linear models, and logarithmic scale was used for racing time and fourth-root scale for earnings to correct for nonnormality. Generalized linear models with a gamma distribution were applied for single racing time and with a multinomial distribution for single earnings traits. In addition, genetic parameters for annual earnings were estimated with linear models on the observed and fourth-root scales. Racing success traits of single placings, winnings, breaking stride, and disqualifications were analyzed using generalized linear models with a binomial distribution. Estimates of heritability were greatest for racing time, which ranged from 0.32 to 0.34. Estimates of heritability were low for single earnings with all distributions, ranging from 0.01 to 0.09. Annual earnings were closer to normal distribution than single earnings. Heritability estimates were moderate for annual earnings on the fourth-root scale, 0.19 for Finnhorses and 0.27 for Standardbred trotters. Heritability estimates for binomial racing success variables ranged from 0.04 to 0.12, being greatest for winnings and least for breaking stride. Genetic correlations among racing traits were high, whereas phenotypic correlations were mainly low to moderate, except correlations between racing time and earnings were high. On the basis of a moderate heritability and moderate to high repeatability for racing time and annual earnings, selection of horses for these traits is effective when based on a few repeated records. Because of high genetic correlations, direct selection for racing time and annual earnings would also result in good genetic response in racing success.

  13. Behavioral modeling of the dominant dynamics in input-output transfer of linear(ized) circuits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beelen, T.G.J.; Maten, ter E.J.W.; Sihaloho, H.J.; Eijndhoven, van S.J.L.

    2010-01-01

    We present a powerful procedure for determining both the dominant dynamics of the inputoutput transfer and the corresponding most influential circuit parameters of a linear(ized) circuit. The procedure consists of several steps in which a specific (sub)problem is solved and its solution is used in

  14. A Non-Gaussian Spatial Generalized Linear Latent Variable Model

    KAUST Repository

    Irincheeva, Irina

    2012-08-03

    We consider a spatial generalized linear latent variable model with and without normality distributional assumption on the latent variables. When the latent variables are assumed to be multivariate normal, we apply a Laplace approximation. To relax the assumption of marginal normality in favor of a mixture of normals, we construct a multivariate density with Gaussian spatial dependence and given multivariate margins. We use the pairwise likelihood to estimate the corresponding spatial generalized linear latent variable model. The properties of the resulting estimators are explored by simulations. In the analysis of an air pollution data set the proposed methodology uncovers weather conditions to be a more important source of variability than air pollution in explaining all the causes of non-accidental mortality excluding accidents. © 2012 International Biometric Society.

  15. A Non-Gaussian Spatial Generalized Linear Latent Variable Model

    KAUST Repository

    Irincheeva, Irina; Cantoni, Eva; Genton, Marc G.

    2012-01-01

    We consider a spatial generalized linear latent variable model with and without normality distributional assumption on the latent variables. When the latent variables are assumed to be multivariate normal, we apply a Laplace approximation. To relax the assumption of marginal normality in favor of a mixture of normals, we construct a multivariate density with Gaussian spatial dependence and given multivariate margins. We use the pairwise likelihood to estimate the corresponding spatial generalized linear latent variable model. The properties of the resulting estimators are explored by simulations. In the analysis of an air pollution data set the proposed methodology uncovers weather conditions to be a more important source of variability than air pollution in explaining all the causes of non-accidental mortality excluding accidents. © 2012 International Biometric Society.

  16. Practical likelihood analysis for spatial generalized linear mixed models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonat, W. H.; Ribeiro, Paulo Justiniano

    2016-01-01

    We investigate an algorithm for maximum likelihood estimation of spatial generalized linear mixed models based on the Laplace approximation. We compare our algorithm with a set of alternative approaches for two datasets from the literature. The Rhizoctonia root rot and the Rongelap are......, respectively, examples of binomial and count datasets modeled by spatial generalized linear mixed models. Our results show that the Laplace approximation provides similar estimates to Markov Chain Monte Carlo likelihood, Monte Carlo expectation maximization, and modified Laplace approximation. Some advantages...... of Laplace approximation include the computation of the maximized log-likelihood value, which can be used for model selection and tests, and the possibility to obtain realistic confidence intervals for model parameters based on profile likelihoods. The Laplace approximation also avoids the tuning...

  17. Beam dynamics in stripline linear induction accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    Stripline (parallel plate transmission line) pulsed power modules have been considered for application to advanced high current linear accelerators. Some advantages of the stripline designs include compact size, easy maintenance, and most importantly, the small number of switches required (one switch per 2 MeV). The principle drawback of stripline designs is that they impart a NET transverse force to particles in the gap. This is shown to result in randomized transverse momentum, and NET, constructive transverse guiding center motion. In this paper, a semi-quantitative analysis of several facets of the problem is presented

  18. A linear model of population dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lushnikov, A. A.; Kagan, A. I.

    2016-08-01

    The Malthus process of population growth is reformulated in terms of the probability w(n,t) to find exactly n individuals at time t assuming that both the birth and the death rates are linear functions of the population size. The master equation for w(n,t) is solved exactly. It is shown that w(n,t) strongly deviates from the Poisson distribution and is expressed in terms either of Laguerre’s polynomials or a modified Bessel function. The latter expression allows for considerable simplifications of the asymptotic analysis of w(n,t).

  19. Design of advanced materials for linear and nonlinear dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Niels Morten Marslev

    to reveal the fundamental dynamic characteristics and thus the relevant design parameters.The thesis is built around the characterization of two one-dimensional, periodic material systems. The first is a nonlinear mass-spring chain with periodically varying material properties, representing a simple......The primary catalyst of this PhD project has been an ambition to design advanced materials and structural systems including, and possibly even exploiting, nonlinear phenomena such as nonlinear modal interaction leading to energy conversion between modes. An important prerequisite for efficient...... but general model of inhomogeneous structural materials with nonlinear material characteristics. The second material system is an “engineered” material in the sense that a classical structural element, a linear elastic and homogeneous rod, is “enhanced” by applying a mechanism on its surface, amplifying...

  20. Linear relativistic gyrokinetic equation in general magnetically confined plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, S.T.; Van Dam, J.W.; Chen, L.

    1983-08-01

    The gyrokinetic formalism for linear electromagnetic waves of arbitrary frequency in general magnetic-field configurations is extended to include full relativistic effects. The derivation employs the small adiabaticity parameter rho/L 0 where rho is the Larmor radius and L 0 the equilibrium scale length. The effects of the plasma and magnetic field inhomogeneities and finite Larmor-radii effects are also contained

  1. A general method for enclosing solutions of interval linear equations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rohn, Jiří

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 4 (2012), s. 709-717 ISSN 1862-4472 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/09/1957; GA ČR GC201/08/J020 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : interval linear equations * solution set * enclosure * absolute value inequality Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.654, year: 2012

  2. General treatment of a non-linear gauge condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malleville, C.

    1982-06-01

    A non linear gauge condition is presented in the frame of a non abelian gauge theory broken with the Higgs mechanism. It is shown that this condition already introduced for the standard SU(2) x U(1) model can be generalized for any gauge model with the same type of simplification, namely the suppression of any coupling of the form: massless gauge boson, massive gauge boson, unphysical Higgs [fr

  3. Electromagnetic axial anomaly in a generalized linear sigma model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fariborz, Amir H.; Jora, Renata

    2017-06-01

    We construct the electromagnetic anomaly effective term for a generalized linear sigma model with two chiral nonets, one with a quark-antiquark structure, the other one with a four-quark content. We compute in the leading order of this framework the decays into two photons of six pseudoscalars: π0(137 ), π0(1300 ), η (547 ), η (958 ), η (1295 ) and η (1760 ). Our results agree well with the available experimental data.

  4. Non-linear wave packet dynamics of coherent states

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In recent years, the non-linear quantum dynamics of these states have revealed some striking features. It was found that under the action of a Hamil- tonian which is a non-linear function of the photon operator(s) only, an initial coherent state loses its coherent structure quickly due to quantum dephasing induced by the non-.

  5. Dynamics of unsymmetric piecewise-linear/non-linear systems using finite elements in time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu

    1995-08-01

    The dynamic response and stability of a single-degree-of-freedom system with unsymmetric piecewise-linear/non-linear stiffness are analyzed using the finite element method in the time domain. Based on a Hamilton's weak principle, this method provides a simple and efficient approach for predicting all possible fundamental and sub-periodic responses. The stability of the steady state response is determined by using Floquet's theory without any special effort for calculating transition matrices. This method is applied to a number of examples, demonstrating its effectiveness even for a strongly non-linear problem involving both clearance and continuous stiffness non-linearities. Close agreement is found between available published findings and the predictions of the finite element in time approach, which appears to be an efficient and reliable alternative technique for non-linear dynamic response and stability analysis of periodic systems.

  6. Li-Yorke chaos in linear dynamics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bernardes Jr., N.C.; Bonilla, A.; Müller, Vladimír; Peris, A.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 6 (2015), s. 1723-1745 ISSN 0143-3857 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/09/0473; GA AV ČR IAA100190903 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Li-York chaos * Banach space * Fréchet space Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.983, year: 2015 http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=9884748&fileId=S0143385714000200

  7. Energy conserving, linear scaling Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawkwell, M J; Niklasson, Anders M N

    2012-10-07

    Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics simulations with long-term conservation of the total energy and a computational cost that scales linearly with system size have been obtained simultaneously. Linear scaling with a low pre-factor is achieved using density matrix purification with sparse matrix algebra and a numerical threshold on matrix elements. The extended Lagrangian Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics formalism [A. M. N. Niklasson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 123004 (2008)] yields microcanonical trajectories with the approximate forces obtained from the linear scaling method that exhibit no systematic drift over hundreds of picoseconds and which are indistinguishable from trajectories computed using exact forces.

  8. Thurstonian models for sensory discrimination tests as generalized linear models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brockhoff, Per B.; Christensen, Rune Haubo Bojesen

    2010-01-01

    as a so-called generalized linear model. The underlying sensory difference 6 becomes directly a parameter of the statistical model and the estimate d' and it's standard error becomes the "usual" output of the statistical analysis. The d' for the monadic A-NOT A method is shown to appear as a standard......Sensory discrimination tests such as the triangle, duo-trio, 2-AFC and 3-AFC tests produce binary data and the Thurstonian decision rule links the underlying sensory difference 6 to the observed number of correct responses. In this paper it is shown how each of these four situations can be viewed...

  9. A Graphical User Interface to Generalized Linear Models in MATLAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Dunn

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Generalized linear models unite a wide variety of statistical models in a common theoretical framework. This paper discusses GLMLAB-software that enables such models to be fitted in the popular mathematical package MATLAB. It provides a graphical user interface to the powerful MATLAB computational engine to produce a program that is easy to use but with many features, including offsets, prior weights and user-defined distributions and link functions. MATLAB's graphical capacities are also utilized in providing a number of simple residual diagnostic plots.

  10. General mirror pairs for gauged linear sigma models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aspinwall, Paul S.; Plesser, M. Ronen [Departments of Mathematics and Physics, Duke University,Box 90320, Durham, NC 27708-0320 (United States)

    2015-11-05

    We carefully analyze the conditions for an abelian gauged linear σ-model to exhibit nontrivial IR behavior described by a nonsingular superconformal field theory determining a superstring vacuum. This is done without reference to a geometric phase, by associating singular behavior to a noncompact space of (semi-)classical vacua. We find that models determined by reflexive combinatorial data are nonsingular for generic values of their parameters. This condition has the pleasant feature that the mirror of a nonsingular gauged linear σ-model is another such model, but it is clearly too strong and we provide an example of a non-reflexive mirror pair. We discuss a weaker condition inspired by considering extremal transitions, which is also mirror symmetric and which we conjecture to be sufficient. We apply these ideas to extremal transitions and to understanding the way in which both Berglund-Hübsch mirror symmetry and the Vafa-Witten mirror orbifold with discrete torsion can be seen as special cases of the general combinatorial duality of gauged linear σ-models. In the former case we encounter an example showing that our weaker condition is still not necessary.

  11. General mirror pairs for gauged linear sigma models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aspinwall, Paul S.; Plesser, M. Ronen

    2015-01-01

    We carefully analyze the conditions for an abelian gauged linear σ-model to exhibit nontrivial IR behavior described by a nonsingular superconformal field theory determining a superstring vacuum. This is done without reference to a geometric phase, by associating singular behavior to a noncompact space of (semi-)classical vacua. We find that models determined by reflexive combinatorial data are nonsingular for generic values of their parameters. This condition has the pleasant feature that the mirror of a nonsingular gauged linear σ-model is another such model, but it is clearly too strong and we provide an example of a non-reflexive mirror pair. We discuss a weaker condition inspired by considering extremal transitions, which is also mirror symmetric and which we conjecture to be sufficient. We apply these ideas to extremal transitions and to understanding the way in which both Berglund-Hübsch mirror symmetry and the Vafa-Witten mirror orbifold with discrete torsion can be seen as special cases of the general combinatorial duality of gauged linear σ-models. In the former case we encounter an example showing that our weaker condition is still not necessary.

  12. Polymorphic Uncertain Linear Programming for Generalized Production Planning Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinbo Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A polymorphic uncertain linear programming (PULP model is constructed to formulate a class of generalized production planning problems. In accordance with the practical environment, some factors such as the consumption of raw material, the limitation of resource and the demand of product are incorporated into the model as parameters of interval and fuzzy subsets, respectively. Based on the theory of fuzzy interval program and the modified possibility degree for the order of interval numbers, a deterministic equivalent formulation for this model is derived such that a robust solution for the uncertain optimization problem is obtained. Case study indicates that the constructed model and the proposed solution are useful to search for an optimal production plan for the polymorphic uncertain generalized production planning problems.

  13. Generalized space and linear momentum operators in quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Bruno G. da; Borges, Ernesto P.

    2014-01-01

    We propose a modification of a recently introduced generalized translation operator, by including a q-exponential factor, which implies in the definition of a Hermitian deformed linear momentum operator p ^ q , and its canonically conjugate deformed position operator x ^ q . A canonical transformation leads the Hamiltonian of a position-dependent mass particle to another Hamiltonian of a particle with constant mass in a conservative force field of a deformed phase space. The equation of motion for the classical phase space may be expressed in terms of the generalized dual q-derivative. A position-dependent mass confined in an infinite square potential well is shown as an instance. Uncertainty and correspondence principles are analyzed

  14. Non-cooperative stochastic differential game theory of generalized Markov jump linear systems

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Cheng-ke; Zhou, Hai-ying; Bin, Ning

    2017-01-01

    This book systematically studies the stochastic non-cooperative differential game theory of generalized linear Markov jump systems and its application in the field of finance and insurance. The book is an in-depth research book of the continuous time and discrete time linear quadratic stochastic differential game, in order to establish a relatively complete framework of dynamic non-cooperative differential game theory. It uses the method of dynamic programming principle and Riccati equation, and derives it into all kinds of existence conditions and calculating method of the equilibrium strategies of dynamic non-cooperative differential game. Based on the game theory method, this book studies the corresponding robust control problem, especially the existence condition and design method of the optimal robust control strategy. The book discusses the theoretical results and its applications in the risk control, option pricing, and the optimal investment problem in the field of finance and insurance, enriching the...

  15. Wave dynamics of generalized continua

    CERN Document Server

    Bagdoev, Alexander G; Shekoyan, Ashot V

    2016-01-01

    This monograph is devoted to problems of propagation and stability of linear and nonlinear waves in continuous media with complex structure. It considers the different media, such as solid with cavities, preliminary deformed disperse medium, solid with porosity filled by the electrically conductive and non-conductive liquid, magnetoelastic, piezo-semiconductors, crystals with dislocations, composites with inclusions, an electrically conductive asymmetrical liquid, a mixture of gas with a drop liquid. The book also considers the propagation of a laser beam through a two-level medium. The presented results are based on methods of evolution and modulation equations that were developed by the authors. The book is intended for scientific and technical researchers, students and post-graduate students specializing in mechanics of continuous media, physical acoustics, and physics of the solid state.

  16. Dynamical symmetries of semi-linear Schrodinger and diffusion equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoimenov, Stoimen; Henkel, Malte

    2005-01-01

    Conditional and Lie symmetries of semi-linear 1D Schrodinger and diffusion equations are studied if the mass (or the diffusion constant) is considered as an additional variable. In this way, dynamical symmetries of semi-linear Schrodinger equations become related to the parabolic and almost-parabolic subalgebras of a three-dimensional conformal Lie algebra (conf 3 ) C . We consider non-hermitian representations and also include a dimensionful coupling constant of the non-linearity. The corresponding representations of the parabolic and almost-parabolic subalgebras of (conf 3 ) C are classified and the complete list of conditionally invariant semi-linear Schrodinger equations is obtained. Possible applications to the dynamical scaling behaviour of phase-ordering kinetics are discussed

  17. Structure Learning in Stochastic Non-linear Dynamical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, R. D.; Smelyanskiy, V. N.; Luchinsky, D. G.

    2005-12-01

    A great many systems can be modeled in the non-linear dynamical systems framework, as x˙ = f(x) + ξ(t), where f(x) is the potential function for the system, and ξ(t) is the driving noise. Modeling the potential using a set of basis functions, we derive the posterior for the basis coefficients. A more challenging problem is to determine the set of basis functions that are required to model a particular system. We show that using the Bayesian Information Criteria (BIC) to rank models, and the beam search technique, that we can accurately determine the structure of simple non-linear dynamical system models, and the structure of the coupling between non-linear dynamical systems where the individual systems are known. This last case has important ecological applications, for example in predator-prey systems, where the very structure of the coupling between predator-prey pairs can have great ecological significance.

  18. A method for evaluating dynamical friction in linear ball bearings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Yusaku; Maru, Koichi; Jin, Tao; Yupapin, Preecha P; Mitatha, Somsak

    2010-01-01

    A method is proposed for evaluating the dynamical friction of linear bearings, whose motion is not perfectly linear due to some play in its internal mechanism. In this method, the moving part of a linear bearing is made to move freely, and the force acting on the moving part is measured as the inertial force given by the product of its mass and the acceleration of its centre of gravity. To evaluate the acceleration of its centre of gravity, the acceleration of two different points on it is measured using a dual-axis optical interferometer.

  19. Bayesian Subset Modeling for High-Dimensional Generalized Linear Models

    KAUST Repository

    Liang, Faming

    2013-06-01

    This article presents a new prior setting for high-dimensional generalized linear models, which leads to a Bayesian subset regression (BSR) with the maximum a posteriori model approximately equivalent to the minimum extended Bayesian information criterion model. The consistency of the resulting posterior is established under mild conditions. Further, a variable screening procedure is proposed based on the marginal inclusion probability, which shares the same properties of sure screening and consistency with the existing sure independence screening (SIS) and iterative sure independence screening (ISIS) procedures. However, since the proposed procedure makes use of joint information from all predictors, it generally outperforms SIS and ISIS in real applications. This article also makes extensive comparisons of BSR with the popular penalized likelihood methods, including Lasso, elastic net, SIS, and ISIS. The numerical results indicate that BSR can generally outperform the penalized likelihood methods. The models selected by BSR tend to be sparser and, more importantly, of higher prediction ability. In addition, the performance of the penalized likelihood methods tends to deteriorate as the number of predictors increases, while this is not significant for BSR. Supplementary materials for this article are available online. © 2013 American Statistical Association.

  20. Explicit estimating equations for semiparametric generalized linear latent variable models

    KAUST Repository

    Ma, Yanyuan

    2010-07-05

    We study generalized linear latent variable models without requiring a distributional assumption of the latent variables. Using a geometric approach, we derive consistent semiparametric estimators. We demonstrate that these models have a property which is similar to that of a sufficient complete statistic, which enables us to simplify the estimating procedure and explicitly to formulate the semiparametric estimating equations. We further show that the explicit estimators have the usual root n consistency and asymptotic normality. We explain the computational implementation of our method and illustrate the numerical performance of the estimators in finite sample situations via extensive simulation studies. The advantage of our estimators over the existing likelihood approach is also shown via numerical comparison. We employ the method to analyse a real data example from economics. © 2010 Royal Statistical Society.

  1. A general treatment of dynamic integrity constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Brock, EO

    This paper introduces a general, set-theoretic model for expressing dynamic integrity constraints, i.e., integrity constraints on the state changes that are allowed in a given state space. In a managerial context, such dynamic integrity constraints can be seen as representations of "real world"

  2. A linear evolution for non-linear dynamics and correlations in realistic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, E.; Lublinsky, M.

    2004-01-01

    A new approach to high energy evolution based on a linear equation for QCD generating functional is developed. This approach opens a possibility for systematic study of correlations inside targets, and, in particular, inside realistic nuclei. Our results are presented as three new equations. The first one is a linear equation for QCD generating functional (and for scattering amplitude) that sums the 'fan' diagrams. For the amplitude this equation is equivalent to the non-linear Balitsky-Kovchegov equation. The second equation is a generalization of the Balitsky-Kovchegov non-linear equation to interactions with realistic nuclei. It includes a new correlation parameter which incorporates, in a model-dependent way, correlations inside the nuclei. The third equation is a non-linear equation for QCD generating functional (and for scattering amplitude) that in addition to the 'fan' diagrams sums the Glauber-Mueller multiple rescatterings

  3. Analysis of Nonlinear Dynamics in Linear Compressors Driven by Linear Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liangyuan

    2018-03-01

    The analysis of dynamic characteristics of the mechatronics system is of great significance for the linear motor design and control. Steady-state nonlinear response characteristics of a linear compressor are investigated theoretically based on the linearized and nonlinear models. First, the influence factors considering the nonlinear gas force load were analyzed. Then, a simple linearized model was set up to analyze the influence on the stroke and resonance frequency. Finally, the nonlinear model was set up to analyze the effects of piston mass, spring stiffness, driving force as an example of design parameter variation. The simulating results show that the stroke can be obtained by adjusting the excitation amplitude, frequency and other adjustments, the equilibrium position can be adjusted by adjusting the DC input, and to make the more efficient operation, the operating frequency must always equal to the resonance frequency.

  4. Lie Algebraic Treatment of Linear and Nonlinear Beam Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alex J. Dragt; Filippo Neri; Govindan Rangarajan; David Douglas; Liam M. Healy; Robert D. Ryne

    1988-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a summary of new methods, employing Lie algebraic tools, for characterizing beam dynamics in charged-particle optical systems. These methods are applicable to accelerator design, charged-particle beam transport, electron microscopes, and also light optics. The new methods represent the action of each separate element of a compound optical system, including all departures from paraxial optics, by a certain operator. The operators for the various elements can then be concatenated, following well-defined rules, to obtain a resultant operator that characterizes the entire system. This paper deals mostly with accelerator design and charged-particle beam transport. The application of Lie algebraic methods to light optics and electron microscopes is described elsewhere (1, see also 44). To keep its scope within reasonable bounds, they restrict their treatment of accelerator design and charged-particle beam transport primarily to the use of Lie algebraic methods for the description of particle orbits in terms of transfer maps. There are other Lie algebraic or related approaches to accelerator problems that the reader may find of interest (2). For a general discussion of linear and nonlinear problems in accelerator physics see (3).

  5. Construction of exact invariants of time-dependent linear nonholonomic dynamical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Jingli; Jimenez, Salvador; Tang Yifa; Vazquez, Luis

    2008-01-01

    In this work, we build exact dynamical invariants for time-dependent, linear, nonholonomic Hamiltonian systems in two dimensions. Our aim is to obtain an additional insight into the theoretical understanding of generalized Hamilton canonical equations. In particular, we investigate systems represented by a quadratic Hamiltonian subject to linear nonholonomic constraints. We use a Lie algebraic method on the systems to build the invariants. The role and scope of these invariants is pointed out

  6. Construction of exact invariants of time-dependent linear nonholonomic dynamical systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu Jingli [Institute of Mathematical Physics, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Hangzhou 310018 (China)], E-mail: sqfujingli@163.com; Jimenez, Salvador [Departamento de Matematica Aplicada TTII, E.T.S.I. Telecomunicacion, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Tang Yifa [State Key Laboratory of Scientific and Engineering Computing, ICMSEC, Academy of Mathematics and Systems Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, PO Box 2719, Beijing 100080 (China); Vazquez, Luis [Departamento de Matematica Aplicada Facultad de Informatica, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Centro de Astrobiologia (CSIC-INTA), Torrejon de Ardoz, 28850 Madrid (Spain)

    2008-03-03

    In this work, we build exact dynamical invariants for time-dependent, linear, nonholonomic Hamiltonian systems in two dimensions. Our aim is to obtain an additional insight into the theoretical understanding of generalized Hamilton canonical equations. In particular, we investigate systems represented by a quadratic Hamiltonian subject to linear nonholonomic constraints. We use a Lie algebraic method on the systems to build the invariants. The role and scope of these invariants is pointed out.

  7. Input design for linear dynamic systems using maxmin criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadegh, Payman; Hansen, Lars H.; Madsen, Henrik

    1998-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of input design for maximizing the smallest eigenvalue of the information matrix for linear dynamic systems. The optimization of the smallest eigenvalue is of interest in parameter estimation and parameter change detection problems. We describe a simple cutting...

  8. Spin dynamics in storage rings and linear accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irwin, J.

    1994-04-01

    The purpose of these lectures is to survey the subject of spin dynamics in accelerators: to give a sense of the underlying physics, the typical analytic and numeric methods used, and an overview of results achieved. Consideration will be limited to electrons and protons. Examples of experimental and theoretical results in both linear and circular machines are included

  9. Thermally driven molecular linear motors - A molecular dynamics study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zambrano, Harvey A; Walther, Jens Honore; Jaffe, Richard Lawrence

    2009-01-01

    We conduct molecular dynamics simulations of a molecular linear motor consisting of coaxial carbon nanotubes with a long outer carbon nanotube confining and guiding the motion of an inner short, capsule-like nanotube. The simulations indicate that the motion of the capsule can be controlled by th...

  10. Spin dynamics in storage rings and linear accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irwin, J. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1994-12-01

    The purpose of these lectures is to survey the subject of spin dynamics in accelerators: to give a sense of the underlying physics, the typical analytic and numeric methods used, and an overview of results achieved. Consideration will be limited to electrons and protons. Examples of experimental and theoretical results in both linear and circular machines are included.

  11. Static and dynamic behaviour of antiferromagnetic linear chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henkens, L.S.J.M.

    1977-01-01

    This thesis deals with an experimental study of the static and dynamic behaviour of s=1/2 heisenberg antiferromagnetic linear chains in the temperature range of 0,05K 4 , CuSeO 4 .5H 2 O, and CuBeF 4 .5H 2 O, all of which are isomorphic salts

  12. Criteria for stability of linear dynamical systems with multiple delays ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study we considered a linear Dynamical system with multiple delays and find suitable conditions on the systems parameters such that for a given initial function, we can define a mapping in a carefully chosen complete metric space on which the mapping has a unique fixed point. An asymptotic stability theory for the ...

  13. Beam dynamics simulation of a double pass proton linear accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kilean Hwang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A recirculating superconducting linear accelerator with the advantage of both straight and circular accelerator has been demonstrated with relativistic electron beams. The acceleration concept of a recirculating proton beam was recently proposed [J. Qiang, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A 795, 77 (2015NIMAER0168-900210.1016/j.nima.2015.05.056] and is currently under study. In order to further support the concept, the beam dynamics study on a recirculating proton linear accelerator has to be carried out. In this paper, we study the feasibility of a two-pass recirculating proton linear accelerator through the direct numerical beam dynamics design optimization and the start-to-end simulation. This study shows that the two-pass simultaneous focusing without particle losses is attainable including fully 3D space-charge effects through the entire accelerator system.

  14. Generalized linear longitudinal mixed models with linear covariance structure and multiplicative random effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, René; Jørgensen, Bent

    2015-01-01

    The paper proposes a versatile class of multiplicative generalized linear longitudinal mixed models (GLLMM) with additive dispersion components, based on explicit modelling of the covariance structure. The class incorporates a longitudinal structure into the random effects models and retains...... a marginal as well as a conditional interpretation. The estimation procedure is based on a computationally efficient quasi-score method for the regression parameters combined with a REML-like bias-corrected Pearson estimating function for the dispersion and correlation parameters. This avoids...... the multidimensional integral of the conventional GLMM likelihood and allows an extension of the robust empirical sandwich estimator for use with both association and regression parameters. The method is applied to a set of otholit data, used for age determination of fish....

  15. Peculiarities in power type comparison results for half-linear dynamic equations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řehák, Pavel

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 6 (2012), s. 1995-2013 ISSN 0035-7596 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB100190701 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : half-linear dynamic equation * time scale * comparison theorem Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.389, year: 2012 http://projecteuclid.org/euclid.rmjm/1361800616

  16. Perception of the dynamic visual vertical during sinusoidal linear motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomante, A; Selen, L P J; Medendorp, W P

    2017-10-01

    The vestibular system provides information for spatial orientation. However, this information is ambiguous: because the otoliths sense the gravitoinertial force, they cannot distinguish gravitational and inertial components. As a consequence, prolonged linear acceleration of the head can be interpreted as tilt, referred to as the somatogravic effect. Previous modeling work suggests that the brain disambiguates the otolith signal according to the rules of Bayesian inference, combining noisy canal cues with the a priori assumption that prolonged linear accelerations are unlikely. Within this modeling framework the noise of the vestibular signals affects the dynamic characteristics of the tilt percept during linear whole-body motion. To test this prediction, we devised a novel paradigm to psychometrically characterize the dynamic visual vertical-as a proxy for the tilt percept-during passive sinusoidal linear motion along the interaural axis (0.33 Hz motion frequency, 1.75 m/s 2 peak acceleration, 80 cm displacement). While subjects ( n =10) kept fixation on a central body-fixed light, a line was briefly flashed (5 ms) at different phases of the motion, the orientation of which had to be judged relative to gravity. Consistent with the model's prediction, subjects showed a phase-dependent modulation of the dynamic visual vertical, with a subject-specific phase shift with respect to the imposed acceleration signal. The magnitude of this modulation was smaller than predicted, suggesting a contribution of nonvestibular signals to the dynamic visual vertical. Despite their dampening effect, our findings may point to a link between the noise components in the vestibular system and the characteristics of dynamic visual vertical. NEW & NOTEWORTHY A fundamental question in neuroscience is how the brain processes vestibular signals to infer the orientation of the body and objects in space. We show that, under sinusoidal linear motion, systematic error patterns appear in the

  17. Linear and nonlinear dynamic systems in financial time series prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salim Lahmiri

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Autoregressive moving average (ARMA process and dynamic neural networks namely the nonlinear autoregressive moving average with exogenous inputs (NARX are compared by evaluating their ability to predict financial time series; for instance the S&P500 returns. Two classes of ARMA are considered. The first one is the standard ARMA model which is a linear static system. The second one uses Kalman filter (KF to estimate and predict ARMA coefficients. This model is a linear dynamic system. The forecasting ability of each system is evaluated by means of mean absolute error (MAE and mean absolute deviation (MAD statistics. Simulation results indicate that the ARMA-KF system performs better than the standard ARMA alone. Thus, introducing dynamics into the ARMA process improves the forecasting accuracy. In addition, the ARMA-KF outperformed the NARX. This result may suggest that the linear component found in the S&P500 return series is more dominant than the nonlinear part. In sum, we conclude that introducing dynamics into the ARMA process provides an effective system for S&P500 time series prediction.

  18. Multivariate statistical modelling based on generalized linear models

    CERN Document Server

    Fahrmeir, Ludwig

    1994-01-01

    This book is concerned with the use of generalized linear models for univariate and multivariate regression analysis. Its emphasis is to provide a detailed introductory survey of the subject based on the analysis of real data drawn from a variety of subjects including the biological sciences, economics, and the social sciences. Where possible, technical details and proofs are deferred to an appendix in order to provide an accessible account for non-experts. Topics covered include: models for multi-categorical responses, model checking, time series and longitudinal data, random effects models, and state-space models. Throughout, the authors have taken great pains to discuss the underlying theoretical ideas in ways that relate well to the data at hand. As a result, numerous researchers whose work relies on the use of these models will find this an invaluable account to have on their desks. "The basic aim of the authors is to bring together and review a large part of recent advances in statistical modelling of m...

  19. Generalized Functional Linear Models With Semiparametric Single-Index Interactions

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yehua

    2010-06-01

    We introduce a new class of functional generalized linear models, where the response is a scalar and some of the covariates are functional. We assume that the response depends on multiple covariates, a finite number of latent features in the functional predictor, and interaction between the two. To achieve parsimony, the interaction between the multiple covariates and the functional predictor is modeled semiparametrically with a single-index structure. We propose a two step estimation procedure based on local estimating equations, and investigate two situations: (a) when the basis functions are pre-determined, e.g., Fourier or wavelet basis functions and the functional features of interest are known; and (b) when the basis functions are data driven, such as with functional principal components. Asymptotic properties are developed. Notably, we show that when the functional features are data driven, the parameter estimates have an increased asymptotic variance, due to the estimation error of the basis functions. Our methods are illustrated with a simulation study and applied to an empirical data set, where a previously unknown interaction is detected. Technical proofs of our theoretical results are provided in the online supplemental materials.

  20. The linearized inversion of the generalized interferometric multiple imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Aldawood, Ali

    2016-09-06

    The generalized interferometric multiple imaging (GIMI) procedure can be used to image duplex waves and other higher order internal multiples. Imaging duplex waves could help illuminate subsurface zones that are not easily illuminated by primaries such as vertical and nearly vertical fault planes, and salt flanks. To image first-order internal multiple, the GIMI framework consists of three datuming steps, followed by applying the zero-lag cross-correlation imaging condition. However, the standard GIMI procedure yields migrated images that suffer from low spatial resolution, migration artifacts, and cross-talk noise. To alleviate these problems, we propose a least-squares GIMI framework in which we formulate the first two steps as a linearized inversion problem when imaging first-order internal multiples. Tests on synthetic datasets demonstrate the ability to localize subsurface scatterers in their true positions, and delineate a vertical fault plane using the proposed method. We, also, demonstrate the robustness of the proposed framework when imaging the scatterers or the vertical fault plane with erroneous migration velocities.

  1. Generalized Functional Linear Models With Semiparametric Single-Index Interactions

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yehua; Wang, Naisyin; Carroll, Raymond J.

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a new class of functional generalized linear models, where the response is a scalar and some of the covariates are functional. We assume that the response depends on multiple covariates, a finite number of latent features in the functional predictor, and interaction between the two. To achieve parsimony, the interaction between the multiple covariates and the functional predictor is modeled semiparametrically with a single-index structure. We propose a two step estimation procedure based on local estimating equations, and investigate two situations: (a) when the basis functions are pre-determined, e.g., Fourier or wavelet basis functions and the functional features of interest are known; and (b) when the basis functions are data driven, such as with functional principal components. Asymptotic properties are developed. Notably, we show that when the functional features are data driven, the parameter estimates have an increased asymptotic variance, due to the estimation error of the basis functions. Our methods are illustrated with a simulation study and applied to an empirical data set, where a previously unknown interaction is detected. Technical proofs of our theoretical results are provided in the online supplemental materials.

  2. Non-linear Dynamics of Speech in Schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusaroli, Riccardo; Simonsen, Arndis; Weed, Ethan

    (regularity and complexity) of speech. Our aims are (1) to achieve a more fine-grained understanding of the speech patterns in schizophrenia than has previously been achieved using traditional, linear measures of prosody and fluency, and (2) to employ the results in a supervised machine-learning process......-effects inference. SANS and SAPS scores were predicted using a 10-fold cross-validated multiple linear regression. Both analyses were iterated 1000 to test for stability of results. Results: Voice dynamics allowed discrimination of patients with schizophrenia from healthy controls with a balanced accuracy of 85...

  3. Note: A high dynamic range, linear response transimpedance amplifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckel, S; Sushkov, A O; Lamoreaux, S K

    2012-02-01

    We have built a high dynamic range (nine decade) transimpedance amplifier with a linear response. The amplifier uses junction-gate field effect transistors (JFETs) to switch between three different resistors in the feedback of a low input bias current operational amplifier. This allows for the creation of multiple outputs, each with a linear response and a different transimpedance gain. The overall bandwidth of the transimpedance amplifier is set by the bandwidth of the most sensitive range. For our application, we demonstrate a three-stage amplifier with transimpedance gains of approximately 10(9)Ω, 3 × 10(7)Ω, and 10(4)Ω with a bandwidth of 100 Hz.

  4. Synthesizing Dynamic Programming Algorithms from Linear Temporal Logic Formulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosu, Grigore; Havelund, Klaus

    2001-01-01

    The problem of testing a linear temporal logic (LTL) formula on a finite execution trace of events, generated by an executing program, occurs naturally in runtime analysis of software. We present an algorithm which takes an LTL formula and generates an efficient dynamic programming algorithm. The generated algorithm tests whether the LTL formula is satisfied by a finite trace of events given as input. The generated algorithm runs in linear time, its constant depending on the size of the LTL formula. The memory needed is constant, also depending on the size of the formula.

  5. Optimal Piecewise-Linear Approximation of the Quadratic Chaotic Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Petrzela

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the influence of piecewise-linear approximation on the global dynamics associated with autonomous third-order dynamical systems with the quadratic vector fields. The novel method for optimal nonlinear function approximation preserving the system behavior is proposed and experimentally verified. This approach is based on the calculation of the state attractor metric dimension inside a stochastic optimization routine. The approximated systems are compared to the original by means of the numerical integration. Real electronic circuits representing individual dynamical systems are derived using classical as well as integrator-based synthesis and verified by time-domain analysis in Orcad Pspice simulator. The universality of the proposed method is briefly discussed, especially from the viewpoint of the higher-order dynamical systems. Future topics and perspectives are also provided

  6. Solving Fully Fuzzy Linear System of Equations in General Form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yousefzadeh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we propose an approach for computing the positive solution of a fully fuzzy linear system where the coefficient matrix is a fuzzy $nimes n$ matrix. To do this, we use arithmetic operations on fuzzy numbers that introduced by Kaffman in and convert the fully fuzzy linear system into two $nimes n$ and $2nimes 2n$ crisp linear systems. If the solutions of these linear systems don't satisfy in positive fuzzy solution condition, we introduce the constrained least squares problem to obtain optimal fuzzy vector solution by applying the ranking function in given fully fuzzy linear system. Using our proposed method, the fully fuzzy linear system of equations always has a solution. Finally, we illustrate the efficiency of proposed method by solving some numerical examples.

  7. Structural Dynamic Analyses And Test Predictions For Spacecraft Structures With Non-Linearities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergniaud, Jean-Baptiste; Soula, Laurent; Newerla, Alfred

    2012-07-01

    The overall objective of the mechanical development and verification process is to ensure that the spacecraft structure is able to sustain the mechanical environments encountered during launch. In general the spacecraft structures are a-priori assumed to behave linear, i.e. the responses to a static load or dynamic excitation, respectively, will increase or decrease proportionally to the amplitude of the load or excitation induced. However, past experiences have shown that various non-linearities might exist in spacecraft structures and the consequences of their dynamic effects can significantly affect the development and verification process. Current processes are mainly adapted to linear spacecraft structure behaviour. No clear rules exist for dealing with major structure non-linearities. They are handled outside the process by individual analysis and margin policy, and analyses after tests to justify the CLA coverage. Non-linearities can primarily affect the current spacecraft development and verification process on two aspects. Prediction of flights loads by launcher/satellite coupled loads analyses (CLA): only linear satellite models are delivered for performing CLA and no well-established rules exist how to properly linearize a model when non- linearities are present. The potential impact of the linearization on the results of the CLA has not yet been properly analyzed. There are thus difficulties to assess that CLA results will cover actual flight levels. Management of satellite verification tests: the CLA results generated with a linear satellite FEM are assumed flight representative. If the internal non- linearities are present in the tested satellite then there might be difficulties to determine which input level must be passed to cover satellite internal loads. The non-linear behaviour can also disturb the shaker control, putting the satellite at risk by potentially imposing too high levels. This paper presents the results of a test campaign performed in

  8. Conserved linear dynamics of single-molecule Brownian motion

    KAUST Repository

    Serag, Maged F.

    2017-06-06

    Macromolecular diffusion in homogeneous fluid at length scales greater than the size of the molecule is regarded as a random process. The mean-squared displacement (MSD) of molecules in this regime increases linearly with time. Here we show that non-random motion of DNA molecules in this regime that is undetectable by the MSD analysis can be quantified by characterizing the molecular motion relative to a latticed frame of reference. Our lattice occupancy analysis reveals unexpected sub-modes of motion of DNA that deviate from expected random motion in the linear, diffusive regime. We demonstrate that a subtle interplay between these sub-modes causes the overall diffusive motion of DNA to appear to conform to the linear regime. Our results show that apparently random motion of macromolecules could be governed by non-random dynamics that are detectable only by their relative motion. Our analytical approach should advance broad understanding of diffusion processes of fundamental relevance.

  9. Conserved linear dynamics of single-molecule Brownian motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serag, Maged F.; Habuchi, Satoshi

    2017-06-01

    Macromolecular diffusion in homogeneous fluid at length scales greater than the size of the molecule is regarded as a random process. The mean-squared displacement (MSD) of molecules in this regime increases linearly with time. Here we show that non-random motion of DNA molecules in this regime that is undetectable by the MSD analysis can be quantified by characterizing the molecular motion relative to a latticed frame of reference. Our lattice occupancy analysis reveals unexpected sub-modes of motion of DNA that deviate from expected random motion in the linear, diffusive regime. We demonstrate that a subtle interplay between these sub-modes causes the overall diffusive motion of DNA to appear to conform to the linear regime. Our results show that apparently random motion of macromolecules could be governed by non-random dynamics that are detectable only by their relative motion. Our analytical approach should advance broad understanding of diffusion processes of fundamental relevance.

  10. Conserved linear dynamics of single-molecule Brownian motion

    KAUST Repository

    Serag, Maged F.; Habuchi, Satoshi

    2017-01-01

    Macromolecular diffusion in homogeneous fluid at length scales greater than the size of the molecule is regarded as a random process. The mean-squared displacement (MSD) of molecules in this regime increases linearly with time. Here we show that non-random motion of DNA molecules in this regime that is undetectable by the MSD analysis can be quantified by characterizing the molecular motion relative to a latticed frame of reference. Our lattice occupancy analysis reveals unexpected sub-modes of motion of DNA that deviate from expected random motion in the linear, diffusive regime. We demonstrate that a subtle interplay between these sub-modes causes the overall diffusive motion of DNA to appear to conform to the linear regime. Our results show that apparently random motion of macromolecules could be governed by non-random dynamics that are detectable only by their relative motion. Our analytical approach should advance broad understanding of diffusion processes of fundamental relevance.

  11. Dynamic logic architecture based on piecewise-linear systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Haipeng; Liu Fei; Li Lixiang; Yang Yixian; Wang Xue

    2010-01-01

    This Letter explores piecewise-linear systems to construct dynamic logic architecture. The proposed schemes can discriminate the two input signals and obtain 16 kinds of logic operations by different combinations of parameters and conditions for determining the output. Each logic cell performs more flexibly, that makes it possible to achieve complex logic operations more simply and construct computing architecture with less logic cells. We also analyze the various performances of our schemes under different conditions and the characteristics of these schemes.

  12. Feedback Linearized Aircraft Control Using Dynamic Cell Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, C. C.

    1998-01-01

    A Dynamic Cell Structure (DCS ) Neural Network was developed which learns a topology representing network (TRN) of F-15 aircraft aerodynamic stability and control derivatives. The network is combined with a feedback linearized tracking controller to produce a robust control architecture capable of handling multiple accident and off-nominal flight scenarios. This paper describes network and its performance for accident scenarios including differential stabilator lock, soft sensor failure, control, stability derivative variation, and turbulence.

  13. Simulation of dynamics of a permanent magnet linear actuator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yatchev, Ivan; Ritchie, Ewen

    2010-01-01

    Comparison of two approaches for the simulation of the dynamic behaviour of a permanent magnet linear actuator is presented. These are full coupled model, where the electromagnetic field, electric circuit and mechanical motion problems are solved simultaneously, and decoupled model, where first...... flexibility when the actuator response is required to be estimated for different external conditions, e.g. external circuit parameters or mechanical loads....

  14. STABILITY, BIFURCATIONS AND CHAOS IN UNEMPLOYMENT NON-LINEAR DYNAMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pagliari Carmen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The traditional analysis of unemployment in relation to real output dynamics is based on some empirical evidences deducted from Okun’s studies. In particular the so called Okun’s Law is expressed in a linear mathematical formulation, which cannot explain the fluctuation of the variables involved. Linearity is an heavy limit for macroeconomic analysis and especially for every economic growth study which would consider the unemployment rate among the endogenous variables. This paper deals with an introductive study about the role of non-linearity in the investigation of unemployment dynamics. The main idea is the existence of a non-linear relation between the unemployment rate and the gap of GDP growth rate from its trend. The macroeconomic motivation of this idea moves from the consideration of two concatenate effects caused by a variation of the unemployment rate on the real output growth rate. These two effects are concatenate because there is a first effect that generates a secondary one on the same variable. When the unemployment rate changes, the first effect is the variation in the level of production in consequence of the variation in the level of such an important factor as labour force; the secondary effect is a consecutive variation in the level of production caused by the variation in the aggregate demand in consequence of the change of the individual disposal income originated by the previous variation of production itself. In this paper the analysis of unemployment dynamics is carried out by the use of the logistic map and the conditions for the existence of bifurcations (cycles are determined. The study also allows to find the range of variability of some characteristic parameters that might be avoided for not having an absolute unpredictability of unemployment dynamics (deterministic chaos: unpredictability is equivalent to uncontrollability because of the total absence of information about the future value of the variable to

  15. On the representation of contextual probabilistic dynamics in the complex Hilbert space: Linear and nonlinear evolutions, Schrodinger dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khrennikov, A.

    2005-01-01

    We constructed the representation of contextual probabilistic dynamics in the complex Hilbert space. Thus dynamics of the wave function can be considered as Hilbert space projection of realistic dynamics in a pre space. The basic condition for representing the pre space-dynamics is the law of statistical conservation of energy-conservation of probabilities. The construction of the dynamical representation is an important step in the development of contextual statistical viewpoint of quantum processes. But the contextual statistical model is essentially more general than the quantum one. Therefore in general the Hilbert space projection of the pre space dynamics can be nonlinear and even irreversible (but it is always unitary). There were found conditions of linearity and reversibility of the Hilbert space dynamical projection. We also found conditions for the conventional Schrodinger dynamics (including time-dependent Hamiltonians). We remark that in general even the Schrodinger dynamics is based just on the statistical conservation of energy; for individual systems the law of conservation of energy can be violated (at least in our theoretical model)

  16. 77 FR 41808 - General Dynamics Itronix Corporation, a Subsidiary of General Dynamics Corporation, Including...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-81,448] General Dynamics Itronix Corporation, a Subsidiary of General Dynamics Corporation, Including Remote Workers Reporting to Sunrise, FL..., 2012, a State Workforce Office requested administrative reconsideration of the negative determination...

  17. A general digital computer procedure for synthesizing linear automatic control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cummins, J.D.

    1961-10-01

    The fundamental concepts required for synthesizing a linear automatic control system are considered. A generalized procedure for synthesizing automatic control systems is demonstrated. This procedure has been programmed for the Ferranti Mercury and the IBM 7090 computers. Details of the programmes are given. The procedure uses the linearized set of equations which describe the plant to be controlled as the starting point. Subsequent computations determine the transfer functions between any desired variables. The programmes also compute the root and phase loci for any linear (and some non-linear) configurations in the complex plane, the open loop and closed loop frequency responses of a system, the residues of a function of the complex variable 's' and the time response corresponding to these residues. With these general programmes available the design of 'one point' automatic control systems becomes a routine scientific procedure. Also dynamic assessments of plant may be carried out. Certain classes of multipoint automatic control problems may also be solved with these procedures. Autonomous systems, invariant systems and orthogonal systems may also be studied. (author)

  18. Minimal agent based model for financial markets II. Statistical properties of the linear and multiplicative dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfi, V.; Cristelli, M.; Pietronero, L.; Zaccaria, A.

    2009-02-01

    We present a detailed study of the statistical properties of the Agent Based Model introduced in paper I [Eur. Phys. J. B, DOI: 10.1140/epjb/e2009-00028-4] and of its generalization to the multiplicative dynamics. The aim of the model is to consider the minimal elements for the understanding of the origin of the stylized facts and their self-organization. The key elements are fundamentalist agents, chartist agents, herding dynamics and price behavior. The first two elements correspond to the competition between stability and instability tendencies in the market. The herding behavior governs the possibility of the agents to change strategy and it is a crucial element of this class of models. We consider a linear approximation for the price dynamics which permits a simple interpretation of the model dynamics and, for many properties, it is possible to derive analytical results. The generalized non linear dynamics results to be extremely more sensible to the parameter space and much more difficult to analyze and control. The main results for the nature and self-organization of the stylized facts are, however, very similar in the two cases. The main peculiarity of the non linear dynamics is an enhancement of the fluctuations and a more marked evidence of the stylized facts. We will also discuss some modifications of the model to introduce more realistic elements with respect to the real markets.

  19. Cavity characterization for general use in linear electron accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza Neto, M.V. de.

    1985-01-01

    The main objective of this work is to is to develop measurement techniques for the characterization of microwave cavities used in linear electron accelerators. Methods are developed for the measurement of parameters that are essential to the design of an accelerator structure using conventional techniques of resonant cavities at low power. Disk-loaded cavities were designed and built, similar to those in most existing linear electron accelerators. As a result, the methods developed and the estimated accuracy were compared with those from other investigators. The results of this work are relevant for the design of cavities with the objective of developing linear electron accelerators. (author) [pt

  20. Invariant of dynamical systems: A generalized entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meson, A.M.; Vericat, F.

    1996-01-01

    In this work the concept of entropy of a dynamical system, as given by Kolmogorov, is generalized in the sense of Tsallis. It is shown that this entropy is an isomorphism invariant, being complete for Bernoulli schemes. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  1. A Dynamic Linear Modeling Approach to Public Policy Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loftis, Matthew; Mortensen, Peter Bjerre

    2017-01-01

    Theories of public policy change, despite their differences, converge on one point of strong agreement. The relationship between policy and its causes can and does change over time. This consensus yields numerous empirical implications, but our standard analytical tools are inadequate for testing...... them. As a result, the dynamic and transformative relationships predicted by policy theories have been left largely unexplored in time-series analysis of public policy. This paper introduces dynamic linear modeling (DLM) as a useful statistical tool for exploring time-varying relationships in public...... policy. The paper offers a detailed exposition of the DLM approach and illustrates its usefulness with a time series analysis of U.S. defense policy from 1957-2010. The results point the way for a new attention to dynamics in the policy process and the paper concludes with a discussion of how...

  2. Multimodal tuned dynamic absorber for split Stirling linear cryocooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veprik, A.; Tuito, A.

    2017-02-01

    Forthcoming low size, weight, power and price split Stirling linear cryocoolers may rely on electro-dynamically driven single-piston compressors and pneumatically driven expanders interconnected by the configurable transfer line. For compactness, compressor and expander units may be placed in a side-by-side manner, thus producing tonal vibration export comprising force and moment components. In vibration sensitive applications, this may result in excessive angular line of sight jitter and translational defocusing affecting the image quality. The authors present Multimodal Tuned Dynamic Absorber (MTDA), having one translational and two tilting modes essentially tuned to the driving frequency. The dynamic reactions (force and moment) produced by such a MTDA are simultaneously counterbalancing force and moment vibration export produced by the cryocooler. The authors reveal the design details, the method of fine modal tuning and outcomes of numerical simulation on attainable performance.

  3. Non-Linear Dynamics of Saturn’s Rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Larry W.

    2015-11-01

    Non-linear processes can explain why Saturn’s rings are so active and dynamic. Ring systems differ from simple linear systems in two significant ways: 1. They are systems of granular material: where particle-to-particle collisions dominate; thus a kinetic, not a fluid description needed. We find that stresses are strikingly inhomogeneous and fluctuations are large compared to equilibrium. 2. They are strongly forced by resonances: which drive a non-linear response, pushing the system across thresholds that lead to persistent states.Some of this non-linearity is captured in a simple Predator-Prey Model: Periodic forcing from the moon causes streamline crowding; This damps the relative velocity, and allows aggregates to grow. About a quarter phase later, the aggregates stir the system to higher relative velocity and the limit cycle repeats each orbit.Summary of Halo Results: A predator-prey model for ring dynamics produces transient structures like ‘straw’ that can explain the halo structure and spectroscopy: This requires energetic collisions (v ≈ 10m/sec, with throw distances about 200km, implying objects of scale R ≈ 20km).Transform to Duffing Eqn : With the coordinate transformation, z = M2/3, the Predator-Prey equations can be combined to form a single second-order differential equation with harmonic resonance forcing.Ring dynamics and history implications: Moon-triggered clumping at perturbed regions in Saturn’s rings creates both high velocity dispersion and large aggregates at these distances, explaining both small and large particles observed there. We calculate the stationary size distribution using a cell-to-cell mapping procedure that converts the phase-plane trajectories to a Markov chain. Approximating the Markov chain as an asymmetric random walk with reflecting boundaries allows us to determine the power law index from results of numerical simulations in the tidal environment surrounding Saturn. Aggregates can explain many dynamic aspects

  4. Identification of linear error-models with projected dynamical systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krejčí, Pavel; Kuhnen, K.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 1 (2004), s. 59-91 ISSN 1387-3954 Keywords : identification * error models * projected dynamical systems Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.292, year: 2004 http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/content~db=all~content=a713682517

  5. SiGe HBT linear-in-dB high dynamic range RF envelope detectors and wideband high linearity amplifiers

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Hsuan-yu

    2010-01-01

    This research work aims on exploiting SiGe HBT technologies in high dynamic range wideband RF linear-in- dB envelope detectors and linear amplifiers. First, an improved all-npn broadband highly linear SiGe HBT differential amplifier is presented based on a variation of Caprio's Quad. A broadband linear amplifier with 46dBm OIP₃ at 20MHz, 34dBm OIP₃ at 1GHz, 6dB noise figure and 10.3dBm P₁dB is demonstrated. Second, an improved exact dynamic model of a fast-settling linear-in-dB Automatic Gain...

  6. Generalization of the linear algebraic method to three dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, D.L.; Schneider, B.I.

    1991-01-01

    We present a numerical method for the solution of the Lippmann-Schwinger equation for electron-molecule collisions. By performing a three-dimensional numerical quadrature, this approach avoids both a basis-set representation of the wave function and a partial-wave expansion of the scattering potential. The resulting linear equations, analogous in form to the one-dimensional linear algebraic method, are solved with the direct iteration-variation method. Several numerical examples are presented. The prospect for using this numerical quadrature scheme for electron-polyatomic molecules is discussed

  7. Linear dynamical quantum systems analysis, synthesis, and control

    CERN Document Server

    Nurdin, Hendra I

    2017-01-01

    This monograph provides an in-depth treatment of the class of linear-dynamical quantum systems. The monograph presents a detailed account of the mathematical modeling of these systems using linear algebra and quantum stochastic calculus as the main tools for a treatment that emphasizes a system-theoretic point of view and the control-theoretic formulations of quantum versions of familiar problems from the classical (non-quantum) setting, including estimation and filtering, realization theory, and feedback control. Both measurement-based feedback control (i.e., feedback control by a classical system involving a continuous-time measurement process) and coherent feedback control (i.e., feedback control by another quantum system without the intervention of any measurements in the feedback loop) are treated. Researchers and graduates studying systems and control theory, quantum probability and stochastics or stochastic control whether from backgrounds in mechanical or electrical engineering or applied mathematics ...

  8. A methodology for evaluation of parent-mutant competition using a generalized non-linear ecosystem model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond L. Czaplewski

    1973-01-01

    A generalized, non-linear population dynamics model of an ecosystem is used to investigate the direction of selective pressures upon a mutant by studying the competition between parent and mutant populations. The model has the advantages of considering selection as operating on the phenotype, of retaining the interaction of the mutant population with the ecosystem as a...

  9. Admissible Estimators in the General Multivariate Linear Model with Respect to Inequality Restricted Parameter Set

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shangli Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available By using the methods of linear algebra and matrix inequality theory, we obtain the characterization of admissible estimators in the general multivariate linear model with respect to inequality restricted parameter set. In the classes of homogeneous and general linear estimators, the necessary and suffcient conditions that the estimators of regression coeffcient function are admissible are established.

  10. Study on sampling of continuous linear system based on generalized Fourier transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huiguang

    2003-09-01

    In the research of signal and system, the signal's spectrum and the system's frequency characteristic can be discussed through Fourier Transform (FT) and Laplace Transform (LT). However, some singular signals such as impulse function and signum signal don't satisfy Riemann integration and Lebesgue integration. They are called generalized functions in Maths. This paper will introduce a new definition -- Generalized Fourier Transform (GFT) and will discuss generalized function, Fourier Transform and Laplace Transform under a unified frame. When the continuous linear system is sampled, this paper will propose a new method to judge whether the spectrum will overlap after generalized Fourier transform (GFT). Causal and non-causal systems are studied, and sampling method to maintain system's dynamic performance is presented. The results can be used on ordinary sampling and non-Nyquist sampling. The results also have practical meaning on research of "discretization of continuous linear system" and "non-Nyquist sampling of signal and system." Particularly, condition for ensuring controllability and observability of MIMO continuous systems in references 13 and 14 is just an applicable example of this paper.

  11. An algorithm for the solution of dynamic linear programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psiaki, Mark L.

    1989-01-01

    The algorithm's objective is to efficiently solve Dynamic Linear Programs (DLP) by taking advantage of their special staircase structure. This algorithm constitutes a stepping stone to an improved algorithm for solving Dynamic Quadratic Programs, which, in turn, would make the nonlinear programming method of Successive Quadratic Programs more practical for solving trajectory optimization problems. The ultimate goal is to being trajectory optimization solution speeds into the realm of real-time control. The algorithm exploits the staircase nature of the large constraint matrix of the equality-constrained DLPs encountered when solving inequality-constrained DLPs by an active set approach. A numerically-stable, staircase QL factorization of the staircase constraint matrix is carried out starting from its last rows and columns. The resulting recursion is like the time-varying Riccati equation from multi-stage LQR theory. The resulting factorization increases the efficiency of all of the typical LP solution operations over that of a dense matrix LP code. At the same time numerical stability is ensured. The algorithm also takes advantage of dynamic programming ideas about the cost-to-go by relaxing active pseudo constraints in a backwards sweeping process. This further decreases the cost per update of the LP rank-1 updating procedure, although it may result in more changes of the active set that if pseudo constraints were relaxed in a non-stagewise fashion. The usual stability of closed-loop Linear/Quadratic optimally-controlled systems, if it carries over to strictly linear cost functions, implies that the saving due to reduced factor update effort may outweigh the cost of an increased number of updates. An aerospace example is presented in which a ground-to-ground rocket's distance is maximized. This example demonstrates the applicability of this class of algorithms to aerospace guidance. It also sheds light on the efficacy of the proposed pseudo constraint relaxation

  12. Generalizing a Categorization of Students' Interpretations of Linear Kinematics Graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollen, Laurens; De Cock, Mieke; Zuza, Kristina; Guisasola, Jenaro; van Kampen, Paul

    2016-01-01

    We have investigated whether and how a categorization of responses to questions on linear distance-time graphs, based on a study of Irish students enrolled in an algebra-based course, could be adopted and adapted to responses from students enrolled in calculus-based physics courses at universities in Flanders, Belgium (KU Leuven) and the Basque…

  13. Linearly convergent stochastic heavy ball method for minimizing generalization error

    KAUST Repository

    Loizou, Nicolas; Richtarik, Peter

    2017-01-01

    In this work we establish the first linear convergence result for the stochastic heavy ball method. The method performs SGD steps with a fixed stepsize, amended by a heavy ball momentum term. In the analysis, we focus on minimizing the expected loss

  14. General guidelines solution for linear programming with fuzzy coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Gerardo de los Cobos Silva

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This work introduce to the Possibilistic Programming and the Fuzzy Programming as paradigms that allow to resolve problems of linear programming when the coefficients of the model or the restrictions on the same are presented as fuzzy numbers, rather than exact numbers (crisp. This work presents some examples based on [1].

  15. A General Linear Method for Equating with Small Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albano, Anthony D.

    2015-01-01

    Research on equating with small samples has shown that methods with stronger assumptions and fewer statistical estimates can lead to decreased error in the estimated equating function. This article introduces a new approach to linear observed-score equating, one which provides flexible control over how form difficulty is assumed versus estimated…

  16. General Linearized Theory of Quantum Fluctuations around Arbitrary Limit Cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete-Benlloch, Carlos; Weiss, Talitha; Walter, Stefan; de Valcárcel, Germán J

    2017-09-29

    The theory of Gaussian quantum fluctuations around classical steady states in nonlinear quantum-optical systems (also known as standard linearization) is a cornerstone for the analysis of such systems. Its simplicity, together with its accuracy far from critical points or situations where the nonlinearity reaches the strong coupling regime, has turned it into a widespread technique, being the first method of choice in most works on the subject. However, such a technique finds strong practical and conceptual complications when one tries to apply it to situations in which the classical long-time solution is time dependent, a most prominent example being spontaneous limit-cycle formation. Here, we introduce a linearization scheme adapted to such situations, using the driven Van der Pol oscillator as a test bed for the method, which allows us to compare it with full numerical simulations. On a conceptual level, the scheme relies on the connection between the emergence of limit cycles and the spontaneous breaking of the symmetry under temporal translations. On the practical side, the method keeps the simplicity and linear scaling with the size of the problem (number of modes) characteristic of standard linearization, making it applicable to large (many-body) systems.

  17. Essential uncontrollability of discrete linear, time-invariant, dynamical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliff, E. M.

    1975-01-01

    The concept of a 'best approximating m-dimensional subspace' for a given set of vectors in n-dimensional whole space is introduced. Such a subspace is easily described in terms of the eigenvectors of an associated Gram matrix. This technique is used to approximate an achievable set for a discrete linear time-invariant dynamical system. This approximation characterizes the part of the state space that may be reached using modest levels of control. If the achievable set can be closely approximated by a proper subspace of the whole space then the system is 'essentially uncontrollable'. The notion finds application in studies of failure-tolerant systems, and in decoupling.

  18. Network Traffic Monitoring Using Poisson Dynamic Linear Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merl, D. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2011-05-09

    In this article, we discuss an approach for network forensics using a class of nonstationary Poisson processes with embedded dynamic linear models. As a modeling strategy, the Poisson DLM (PoDLM) provides a very flexible framework for specifying structured effects that may influence the evolution of the underlying Poisson rate parameter, including diurnal and weekly usage patterns. We develop a novel particle learning algorithm for online smoothing and prediction for the PoDLM, and demonstrate the suitability of the approach to real-time deployment settings via a new application to computer network traffic monitoring.

  19. The dynamics of two linearly coupled Goodwin oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonova, A. O.; Reznik, S. N.; Todorov, M. D.

    2017-10-01

    In this paper the Puu model of the interaction of Goodwin's business cycles for two regions is reconsidered. We investigated the effect of the accelerator coefficients and the Hicksian 'ceiling' and 'floor' parameters on the time dynamics of incomes for different values of marginal propensity to import. The cases when the periods of isolated Goodwin's cycles are close, and when they differ approximately twice are considered. By perturbation theory we obtained the formulas for slowly varying amplitudes and phase difference of weakly nonlinear coupled Goodwin oscillations. The coupled oscillations of two Goodwin's cycles with piecewise linear accelerators with only 'floor' are considered.

  20. Non-linear calculation of PCRV using dynamic relaxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnellenbach, G.

    1979-01-01

    A brief review is presented of a numerical method called the dynamic relaxation method for stress analysis of the concrete in prestressed concrete pressure vessels. By this method the three-dimensional elliptic differential equations of the continuum are changed into the four-dimensional hyperbolic differential equations known as wave equations. The boundary value problem of the static system is changed into an initial and boundary value problem for which a solution exists if the physical system is defined at time t=0. The effect of non-linear stress-strain behaviour of the material as well as creep and cracking are considered

  1. Identification of Nonlinear Dynamic Systems Possessing Some Non-linearities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. N. Pavlov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this work is the problem of identification of nonlinear dynamic systems based on the experimental data obtained by applying test signals to the system. The goal is to determinate coefficients of differential equations of systems by experimental frequency hodographs and separate similar, but different, in essence, forces: dissipative forces with the square of the first derivative in the motion equations and dissipative force from the action of dry friction. There was a proposal to use the harmonic linearization method to approximate each of the nonlinearity of "quadratic friction" and "dry friction" by linear friction with the appropriate harmonic linearization coefficient.Assume that a frequency transfer function of the identified system has a known form. Assume as well that there are disturbances while obtaining frequency characteristics of the realworld system. As a result, the points of experimentally obtained hodograph move randomly. Searching for solution of the identification problem was in the hodograph class, specified by the system model, which has the form of the frequency transfer function the same as the form of the frequency transfer function of the system identified. Minimizing a proximity criterion (measure of the experimentally obtained system hodograph and the system hodograph model for all the experimental points described and previously published by one of the authors allowed searching for the unknown coefficients of the frequenc ransfer function of the system model. The paper shows the possibility to identify a nonlinear dynamic system with multiple nonlinearities, obtained on the experimental samples of the frequency system hodograph. The proposed algorithm allows to select the nonlinearity of the type "quadratic friction" and "dry friction", i.e. also in the case where the nonlinearity is dependent on the same dynamic parameter, in particular, on the derivative of the system output value. For the dynamic

  2. Modeling and analysis of linearized wheel-rail contact dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soomro, Z.

    2014-01-01

    The dynamics of the railway vehicles are nonlinear and depend upon several factors including vehicle speed, normal load and adhesion level. The presence of contaminants on the railway track makes them unpredictable too. Therefore in order to develop an effective control strategy it is important to analyze the effect of each factor on dynamic response thoroughly. In this paper a linearized model of a railway wheel-set is developed and is later analyzed by varying the speed and adhesion level by keeping the normal load constant. A wheel-set is the wheel-axle assembly of a railroad car. Patch contact is the study of the deformation of solids that touch each other at one or more points. (author)

  3. Linear Parameter Varying Versus Linear Time Invariant Reduced Order Controller Design of Turboprop Aircraft Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widowati

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The applicability of parameter varying reduced order controllers to aircraft model is proposed. The generalization of the balanced singular perturbation method of linear time invariant (LTI system is used to reduce the order of linear parameter varying (LPV system. Based on the reduced order model the low-order LPV controller is designed by using synthesis technique. The performance of the reduced order controller is examined by applying it to lateral-directional control of aircraft model having 20th order. Furthermore, the time responses of the closed loop system with reduced order LPV controllers and reduced order LTI controller is compared. From the simulation results, the 8th order LPV controller can maintain stability and to provide the same level of closed-loop systems performance as the full-order LPV controller. It is different with the reduced-order LTI controller that cannot maintain stability and performance for all allowable parameter trajectories.

  4. Generalized dynamics of moving dislocations in quasicrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agiasofitou, Eleni; Lazar, Markus; Kirchner, Helmut

    2010-01-01

    A theoretical framework for dislocation dynamics in quasicrystals is provided according to the continuum theory of dislocations. Firstly, we present the fundamental theory for moving dislocations in quasicrystals giving the dislocation density tensors and introducing the dislocation current tensors for the phonon and phason fields, including the Bianchi identities. Next, we give the equations of motion for the incompatible elastodynamics as well as for the incompatible elasto-hydrodynamics of quasicrystals. We continue with the derivation of the balance law of pseudomomentum thereby obtaining the generalized forms of the Eshelby stress tensor, the pseudomomentum vector, the dynamical Peach-Koehler force density and the Cherepanov force density for quasicrystals. The form of the dynamical Peach-Koehler force for a straight dislocation is obtained as well. Moreover, we deduce the balance law of energy that gives rise to the generalized forms of the field intensity vector and the elastic power density of quasicrystals. The above balance laws are produced for both models. The differences between the two models and their consequences are revealed. The influences of the phason fields as well as of the dynamical terms are also discussed.

  5. Chaotic dynamics and diffusion in a piecewise linear equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahrear, Pabel; Glass, Leon; Edwards, Rod

    2015-01-01

    Genetic interactions are often modeled by logical networks in which time is discrete and all gene activity states update simultaneously. However, there is no synchronizing clock in organisms. An alternative model assumes that the logical network is preserved and plays a key role in driving the dynamics in piecewise nonlinear differential equations. We examine dynamics in a particular 4-dimensional equation of this class. In the equation, two of the variables form a negative feedback loop that drives a second negative feedback loop. By modifying the original equations by eliminating exponential decay, we generate a modified system that is amenable to detailed analysis. In the modified system, we can determine in detail the Poincaré (return) map on a cross section to the flow. By analyzing the eigenvalues of the map for the different trajectories, we are able to show that except for a set of measure 0, the flow must necessarily have an eigenvalue greater than 1 and hence there is sensitive dependence on initial conditions. Further, there is an irregular oscillation whose amplitude is described by a diffusive process that is well-modeled by the Irwin-Hall distribution. There is a large class of other piecewise-linear networks that might be analyzed using similar methods. The analysis gives insight into possible origins of chaotic dynamics in periodically forced dynamical systems

  6. Chaotic dynamics and diffusion in a piecewise linear equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahrear, Pabel; Glass, Leon; Edwards, Rod

    2015-03-01

    Genetic interactions are often modeled by logical networks in which time is discrete and all gene activity states update simultaneously. However, there is no synchronizing clock in organisms. An alternative model assumes that the logical network is preserved and plays a key role in driving the dynamics in piecewise nonlinear differential equations. We examine dynamics in a particular 4-dimensional equation of this class. In the equation, two of the variables form a negative feedback loop that drives a second negative feedback loop. By modifying the original equations by eliminating exponential decay, we generate a modified system that is amenable to detailed analysis. In the modified system, we can determine in detail the Poincaré (return) map on a cross section to the flow. By analyzing the eigenvalues of the map for the different trajectories, we are able to show that except for a set of measure 0, the flow must necessarily have an eigenvalue greater than 1 and hence there is sensitive dependence on initial conditions. Further, there is an irregular oscillation whose amplitude is described by a diffusive process that is well-modeled by the Irwin-Hall distribution. There is a large class of other piecewise-linear networks that might be analyzed using similar methods. The analysis gives insight into possible origins of chaotic dynamics in periodically forced dynamical systems.

  7. On the Boundary between Nonlinear Jump Phenomenon and Linear Response of Hypoid Gear Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Wang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A nonlinear time-varying (NLTV dynamic model of a hypoid gear pair system with time-dependent mesh point, line-of-action vector, mesh stiffness, mesh damping, and backlash nonlinearity is formulated to analyze the transitional phase between nonlinear jump phenomenon and linear response. It is found that the classical jump discontinuity will occur if the dynamic mesh force exceeds the mean value of tooth mesh force. On the other hand, the propensity for the gear response to jump disappears when the dynamic mesh force is lower than the mean mesh force. Furthermore, the dynamic analysis is able to distinguish the specific tooth impact types from analyzing the behaviors of the dynamic mesh force. The proposed theory is general and also applicable to high-speed spur, helical and spiral bevel gears even though those types of gears are not the primary focus of this paper.

  8. Dark energy cosmology with generalized linear equation of state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babichev, E; Dokuchaev, V; Eroshenko, Yu

    2005-01-01

    Dark energy with the usually used equation of state p = wρ, where w const 0 ), where the constants α and ρ 0 are free parameters. This non-homogeneous linear equation of state provides the description of both hydrodynamically stable (α > 0) and unstable (α < 0) fluids. In particular, the considered cosmological model describes the hydrodynamically stable dark (and phantom) energy. The possible types of cosmological scenarios in this model are determined and classified in terms of attractors and unstable points by using phase trajectories analysis. For the dark energy case, some distinctive types of cosmological scenarios are possible: (i) the universe with the de Sitter attractor at late times, (ii) the bouncing universe, (iii) the universe with the big rip and with the anti-big rip. In the framework of a linear equation of state the universe filled with a phantom energy, w < -1, may have either the de Sitter attractor or the big rip

  9. Seismic evaluation of a large nuclear pump bearing using non-linear dynamic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, K.A.; Hugins, M.S.

    1983-01-01

    Hydrostatic bearings of a large vertical pump using sodium as the lubricant were critically examined to determine their ability to withstand seismic loads. Initial linear dynamics analyses predicted journal displacements to exceed bearing clearance by a ratio of 3:1. Equivalent time-history excitations were then developed from the response spectra to determine the number, magnitude, and duration of the bearing impact loads. Predicted loads were further reduced by 50% by modeling non-linear bearing characteristics normally present but not generally included in conventional linear analyses. Results are presented of the comprehensive design evaluation performed, based on these non-linear predictions, that assess stress, wear, and fatigue to demonstrate hydrostatic bearing integrity

  10. Linearly convergent stochastic heavy ball method for minimizing generalization error

    KAUST Repository

    Loizou, Nicolas

    2017-10-30

    In this work we establish the first linear convergence result for the stochastic heavy ball method. The method performs SGD steps with a fixed stepsize, amended by a heavy ball momentum term. In the analysis, we focus on minimizing the expected loss and not on finite-sum minimization, which is typically a much harder problem. While in the analysis we constrain ourselves to quadratic loss, the overall objective is not necessarily strongly convex.

  11. Generalizing a categorization of students' interpretations of linear kinematics graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Bollen, Laurens; De Cock, Mieke; Zuza, Kristina; Guisasola, Jenaro; van Kampen, Paul

    2016-01-01

    We have investigated whether and how a categorization of responses to questions on linear distance-time graphs, based on a study of Irish students enrolled in an algebra-based course, could be adopted and adapted to responses from students enrolled in calculus-based physics courses at universities in Flanders, Belgium (KU Leuven) and the Basque Country, Spain (University of the Basque Country). We discuss how we adapted the categorization to accommodate a much more diverse student cohort and ...

  12. Generalizing a categorization of students’ interpretations of linear kinematics graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurens Bollen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated whether and how a categorization of responses to questions on linear distance-time graphs, based on a study of Irish students enrolled in an algebra-based course, could be adopted and adapted to responses from students enrolled in calculus-based physics courses at universities in Flanders, Belgium (KU Leuven and the Basque Country, Spain (University of the Basque Country. We discuss how we adapted the categorization to accommodate a much more diverse student cohort and explain how the prior knowledge of students may account for many differences in the prevalence of approaches and success rates. Although calculus-based physics students make fewer mistakes than algebra-based physics students, they encounter similar difficulties that are often related to incorrectly dividing two coordinates. We verified that a qualitative understanding of kinematics is an important but not sufficient condition for students to determine a correct value for the speed. When comparing responses to questions on linear distance-time graphs with responses to isomorphic questions on linear water level versus time graphs, we observed that the context of a question influences the approach students use. Neither qualitative understanding nor an ability to find the slope of a context-free graph proved to be a reliable predictor for the approach students use when they determine the instantaneous speed.

  13. Generalizing a categorization of students' interpretations of linear kinematics graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollen, Laurens; De Cock, Mieke; Zuza, Kristina; Guisasola, Jenaro; van Kampen, Paul

    2016-06-01

    We have investigated whether and how a categorization of responses to questions on linear distance-time graphs, based on a study of Irish students enrolled in an algebra-based course, could be adopted and adapted to responses from students enrolled in calculus-based physics courses at universities in Flanders, Belgium (KU Leuven) and the Basque Country, Spain (University of the Basque Country). We discuss how we adapted the categorization to accommodate a much more diverse student cohort and explain how the prior knowledge of students may account for many differences in the prevalence of approaches and success rates. Although calculus-based physics students make fewer mistakes than algebra-based physics students, they encounter similar difficulties that are often related to incorrectly dividing two coordinates. We verified that a qualitative understanding of kinematics is an important but not sufficient condition for students to determine a correct value for the speed. When comparing responses to questions on linear distance-time graphs with responses to isomorphic questions on linear water level versus time graphs, we observed that the context of a question influences the approach students use. Neither qualitative understanding nor an ability to find the slope of a context-free graph proved to be a reliable predictor for the approach students use when they determine the instantaneous speed.

  14. General solutions of second-order linear difference equations of Euler type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akane Hongyo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to give general solutions of linear difference equations which are related to the Euler-Cauchy differential equation \\(y^{\\prime\\prime}+(\\lambda/t^2y=0\\ or more general linear differential equations. We also show that the asymptotic behavior of solutions of the linear difference equations are similar to solutions of the linear differential equations.

  15. One testing method of dynamic linearity of an accelerometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Jing-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To effectively test dynamic linearity of an accelerometer over a wide rang of 104 g to about 20 × 104g, one published patent technology is first experimentally verified and analysed, and its deficient is presented, then based on stress wave propagation theory on the thin long bar, the relation between the strain signal and the corresponding acceleration signal is obtained, one special link of two coaxial projectile is developed. These two coaxial metal cylinders (inner cylinder and circular tube are used as projectiles, to prevent their mutual slip inside the gun barrel during movement, the one end of two projectiles is always fastened by small screws. Ti6-AL4-V bar with diameter of 30 mm is used to propagate loading stress pulse. The resultant compression wave can be measured by the strain gauges on the bar, and a half –sine strain pulse is obtained. The measuring accelerometer is attached on the other end of the bar by a vacuum clamp. In this clamp, the accelerometer only bear compression wave, the reflected tension pulse make the accelerometer off the bar. Using this system, dynamic linearity measurement of accelerometer can be easily tested in wider range of acceleration values. And a really measuring results are presented.

  16. Riccati inequality, disconjugacy, and reciprocity principle for linear Hamiltonian dynamic systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hilscher, R.; Řehák, Pavel

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 1 (2003), s. 171-189 ISSN 1056-2176 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/01/0079; GA ČR GP201/01/P041 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1019905; CEZ:AV0Z1019905 Keywords : linear Hamiltonian dynamic systems * disconjugacy * Riccati inequality Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.256, year: 2002

  17. A linear dynamic model for rotor-spun composite yarn spinning process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, R H; Wang, S Y

    2008-01-01

    A linear dynamic model is established for the stable rotor-spun composite yarn spinning process. Approximate oscillating frequencies in the vertical and horizontal directions are obtained. By suitable choice of certain processing parameters, the mixture construction after the convergent point can be optimally matched. The presented study is expected to provide a general pathway to understand the motion of the rotor-spun composite yarn spinning process

  18. Beam dynamics problems for next generation linear colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoya, Kaoru

    1990-01-01

    The most critical issue for the feasibility of high-energy e + e - linear colliders is obviously the development of intense microwave power sources. Remaining problems, however, are not trivial and in fact some of them require several order-of-magnitude improvement from the existing SLC parameters. The present report summarizes the study status of the beam dynamics problems of high energy linear colliders with an exaggeration on the beam-beam phenomenon at the interaction region. There are four laboratories having linear collider plans, SLAC, CERN, Novosibirsk-Protovino, and KEK. The parameters of these projects scatter in some range but seem to converge slowly if one recalls the status five years ago. The beam energy will be below 500GeV. The basic requirements to the damping ring are the short damping time and small equilibrium emittance. All the proposed designs make use of tight focusing optics and strong wiggler magnets to meet these requirements and seem to have no major problems at least compared with other problems in the colliders. One of the major problems in the linac is the transverse beam blow-up due to the wake field created by the head of the bunch and, in the case of multiple bunches per pulse, by the preceeding bunches. (N.K.)

  19. Dose reduction using a dynamic, piecewise-linear attenuator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsieh, Scott S., E-mail: sshsieh@stanford.edu [Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 and Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Fleischmann, Dominik [Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Pelc, Norbert J. [Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 and Department of Bioengineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: The authors recently proposed a dynamic, prepatient x-ray attenuator capable of producing a piecewise-linear attenuation profile customized to each patient and viewing angle. This attenuator was intended to reduce scatter-to-primary ratio (SPR), dynamic range, and dose by redistributing flux. In this work the authors tested the ability of the attenuator to reduce dose and SPR in simulations. Methods: The authors selected four clinical applications, including routine full field-of-view scans of the thorax and abdomen, and targeted reconstruction tasks for an abdominal aortic aneurysm and the pancreas. Raw data were estimated by forward projection of the image volume datasets. The dynamic attenuator was controlled to reduce dose while maintaining peak variance by solving a convex optimization problem, assuminga priori knowledge of the patient anatomy. In targeted reconstruction tasks, the noise in specific regions was given increased weighting. A system with a standard attenuator (or “bowtie filter”) was used as a reference, and used either convex optimized tube current modulation (TCM) or a standard TCM heuristic. The noise of the scan was determined analytically while the dose was estimated using Monte Carlo simulations. Scatter was also estimated using Monte Carlo simulations. The sensitivity of the dynamic attenuator to patient centering was also examined by shifting the abdomen in 2 cm intervals. Results: Compared to a reference system with optimized TCM, use of the dynamic attenuator reduced dose by about 30% in routine scans and 50% in targeted scans. Compared to the TCM heuristics which are typically used withouta priori knowledge, the dose reduction is about 50% for routine scans. The dynamic attenuator gives the ability to redistribute noise and variance and produces more uniform noise profiles than systems with a conventional bowtie filter. The SPR was also modestly reduced by 10% in the thorax and 24% in the abdomen. Imaging with the dynamic

  20. Generalized linear mixed models modern concepts, methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Stroup, Walter W

    2012-01-01

    PART I The Big PictureModeling BasicsWhat Is a Model?Two Model Forms: Model Equation and Probability DistributionTypes of Model EffectsWriting Models in Matrix FormSummary: Essential Elements for a Complete Statement of the ModelDesign MattersIntroductory Ideas for Translating Design and Objectives into ModelsDescribing ""Data Architecture"" to Facilitate Model SpecificationFrom Plot Plan to Linear PredictorDistribution MattersMore Complex Example: Multiple Factors with Different Units of ReplicationSetting the StageGoals for Inference with Models: OverviewBasic Tools of InferenceIssue I: Data

  1. Dynamics of edge currents in a linearly quenched Haldane model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardanya, Sougata; Bhattacharya, Utso; Agarwal, Amit; Dutta, Amit

    2018-03-01

    In a finite-time quantum quench of the Haldane model, the Chern number determining the topology of the bulk remains invariant, as long as the dynamics is unitary. Nonetheless, the corresponding boundary attribute, the edge current, displays interesting dynamics. For the case of sudden and adiabatic quenches the postquench edge current is solely determined by the initial and the final Hamiltonians, respectively. However for a finite-time (τ ) linear quench in a Haldane nanoribbon, we show that the evolution of the edge current from the sudden to the adiabatic limit is not monotonic in τ and has a turning point at a characteristic time scale τ =τ0 . For small τ , the excited states lead to a huge unidirectional surge in the edge current of both edges. On the other hand, in the limit of large τ , the edge current saturates to its expected equilibrium ground-state value. This competition between the two limits lead to the observed nonmonotonic behavior. Interestingly, τ0 seems to depend only on the Semenoff mass and the Haldane flux. A similar dynamics for the edge current is also expected in other systems with topological phases.

  2. Linear dynamic analysis of arbitrary thin shells modal superposition by using finite element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves Filho, O.J.A.

    1978-11-01

    The linear dynamic behaviour of arbitrary thin shells by the Finite Element Method is studied. Plane triangular elements with eighteen degrees of freedom each are used. The general equations of movement are obtained from the Hamilton Principle and solved by the Modal Superposition Method. The presence of a viscous type damping can be considered by means of percentages of the critical damping. An automatic computer program was developed to provide the vibratory properties and the dynamic response to several types of deterministic loadings, including temperature effects. The program was written in FORTRAN IV for the Burroughs B-6700 computer. (author)

  3. A general algorithm for computing distance transforms in linear time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijster, A.; Roerdink, J.B.T.M.; Hesselink, W.H.; Goutsias, J; Vincent, L; Bloomberg, DS

    2000-01-01

    A new general algorithm fur computing distance transforms of digital images is presented. The algorithm consists of two phases. Both phases consist of two scans, a forward and a backward scan. The first phase scans the image column-wise, while the second phase scans the image row-wise. Since the

  4. Generalized Heisenberg algebra and (non linear) pseudo-bosons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagarello, F.; Curado, E. M. F.; Gazeau, J. P.

    2018-04-01

    We propose a deformed version of the generalized Heisenberg algebra by using techniques borrowed from the theory of pseudo-bosons. In particular, this analysis is relevant when non self-adjoint Hamiltonians are needed to describe a given physical system. We also discuss relations with nonlinear pseudo-bosons. Several examples are discussed.

  5. On the dynamics of generalized coherent states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolov, B.A.; Trifonov, D.A.

    1981-01-01

    The exact and stable evolutions of generalized coherent states (GCS) for quantum system are considered by making use of the time- dependent integrals of motion method and of the Klauder approach to the relationship between quantum and classical mechanics. It is shown that one can construct for any quantum system overcomplete family of states, related to the unitary representations of the Lie group G by means of integral of motion generators, and the possibility of using this group as a dynamic symmetry group is pointed out. The relation of the GCS with quantum measurement theory is also established [ru

  6. On modulated complex non-linear dynamical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, G.M.; Mohamed, A.A.; Rauh, A.

    1999-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the development of an approximate analytical method to investigate periodic solutions and their stability in the case of modulated non-linear dynamical systems whose equation of motion is describe. Such differential equations appear, for example, in problems of colliding particle beams in high-energy accelerators or one-mass systems with two or more degrees of freedom, e.g. rotors. The significance of periodic solutions lies on the fact that all non-periodic responses, if convergent, would approach to periodic solutions at the steady-state conditions. The example shows a good agreement between numerical and analytical results for small values of ε. The effect of the periodic modulation on the stability of the 2π-periodic solutions is discussed

  7. On the correspondence between the dynamics with odd and even brackets and generalized Nambu's mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makhaldiani, N.; Voskresenskaya, O.

    1998-01-01

    We consider selected problems of Hamiltonization and integrability of a general dynamical system described by a system of ordinary differential equations; odd and even symplectic structures; a new approach to the linearization of non-linear systems by the extended Hamiltonian and Nambu's mechanics

  8. A study of the linear free energy model for DNA structures using the generalized Hamiltonian formalism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yavari, M., E-mail: yavari@iaukashan.ac.ir [Islamic Azad University, Kashan Branch (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    We generalize the results of Nesterenko [13, 14] and Gogilidze and Surovtsev [15] for DNA structures. Using the generalized Hamiltonian formalism, we investigate solutions of the equilibrium shape equations for the linear free energy model.

  9. Increasing Linear Dynamic Range of a CMOS Image Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pain, Bedabrata

    2007-01-01

    A generic design and a corresponding operating sequence have been developed for increasing the linear-response dynamic range of a complementary metal oxide/semiconductor (CMOS) image sensor. The design provides for linear calibrated dual-gain pixels that operate at high gain at a low signal level and at low gain at a signal level above a preset threshold. Unlike most prior designs for increasing dynamic range of an image sensor, this design does not entail any increase in noise (including fixed-pattern noise), decrease in responsivity or linearity, or degradation of photometric calibration. The figure is a simplified schematic diagram showing the circuit of one pixel and pertinent parts of its column readout circuitry. The conventional part of the pixel circuit includes a photodiode having a small capacitance, CD. The unconventional part includes an additional larger capacitance, CL, that can be connected to the photodiode via a transfer gate controlled in part by a latch. In the high-gain mode, the signal labeled TSR in the figure is held low through the latch, which also helps to adapt the gain on a pixel-by-pixel basis. Light must be coupled to the pixel through a microlens or by back illumination in order to obtain a high effective fill factor; this is necessary to ensure high quantum efficiency, a loss of which would minimize the efficacy of the dynamic- range-enhancement scheme. Once the level of illumination of the pixel exceeds the threshold, TSR is turned on, causing the transfer gate to conduct, thereby adding CL to the pixel capacitance. The added capacitance reduces the conversion gain, and increases the pixel electron-handling capacity, thereby providing an extension of the dynamic range. By use of an array of comparators also at the bottom of the column, photocharge voltages on sampling capacitors in each column are compared with a reference voltage to determine whether it is necessary to switch from the high-gain to the low-gain mode. Depending upon

  10. Hydrodynamics of stratified epithelium: Steady state and linearized dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Wei-Ting; Chen, Hsuan-Yi

    2016-05-01

    A theoretical model for stratified epithelium is presented. The viscoelastic properties of the tissue are assumed to be dependent on the spatial distribution of proliferative and differentiated cells. Based on this assumption, a hydrodynamic description of tissue dynamics at the long-wavelength, long-time limit is developed, and the analysis reveals important insights into the dynamics of an epithelium close to its steady state. When the proliferative cells occupy a thin region close to the basal membrane, the relaxation rate towards the steady state is enhanced by cell division and cell apoptosis. On the other hand, when the region where proliferative cells reside becomes sufficiently thick, a flow induced by cell apoptosis close to the apical surface enhances small perturbations. This destabilizing mechanism is general for continuous self-renewal multilayered tissues; it could be related to the origin of certain tissue morphology, tumor growth, and the development pattern.

  11. Linear-time general decoding algorithm for the surface code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmawan, Andrew S.; Poulin, David

    2018-05-01

    A quantum error correcting protocol can be substantially improved by taking into account features of the physical noise process. We present an efficient decoder for the surface code which can account for general noise features, including coherences and correlations. We demonstrate that the decoder significantly outperforms the conventional matching algorithm on a variety of noise models, including non-Pauli noise and spatially correlated noise. The algorithm is based on an approximate calculation of the logical channel using a tensor-network description of the noisy state.

  12. Runway Scheduling Using Generalized Dynamic Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Justin; Wood, Zachary; Rathinam, Sivakumar

    2011-01-01

    A generalized dynamic programming method for finding a set of pareto optimal solutions for a runway scheduling problem is introduced. The algorithm generates a set of runway fight sequences that are optimal for both runway throughput and delay. Realistic time-based operational constraints are considered, including miles-in-trail separation, runway crossings, and wake vortex separation. The authors also model divergent runway takeoff operations to allow for reduced wake vortex separation. A modeled Dallas/Fort Worth International airport and three baseline heuristics are used to illustrate preliminary benefits of using the generalized dynamic programming method. Simulated traffic levels ranged from 10 aircraft to 30 aircraft with each test case spanning 15 minutes. The optimal solution shows a 40-70 percent decrease in the expected delay per aircraft over the baseline schedulers. Computational results suggest that the algorithm is promising for real-time application with an average computation time of 4.5 seconds. For even faster computation times, two heuristics are developed. As compared to the optimal, the heuristics are within 5% of the expected delay per aircraft and 1% of the expected number of runway operations per hour ad can be 100x faster.

  13. Structure and dynamics of ion clusters in linear octupole traps: Phase diagrams, chirality, and melting mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yurtsever, E.; Onal, E. D.; Calvo, F.

    2011-01-01

    The stable structures and melting dynamics of clusters of identical ions bound by linear octupole radiofrequency traps are theoretically investigated by global optimization methods and molecular dynamics simulations. By varying the cluster sizes in the range of 10-1000 ions and the extent of trap anisotropy by more than one order of magnitude, we find a broad variety of stable structures based on multiple rings at small sizes evolving into tubular geometries at large sizes. The binding energy of these clusters is well represented by two contributions arising from isotropic linear and octupolar traps. The structures generally exhibit strong size effects, and chiral arrangements spontaneously emerge in many crystals. Sufficiently large clusters form nested, coaxial tubes with different thermal stabilities. As in isotropic octupolar clusters, the inner tubes melt at temperatures that are lower than the overall melting point.

  14. Capturing spike variability in noisy Izhikevich neurons using point process generalized linear models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Jacob; Kramer, Mark A.; Eden, Uri T.

    2018-01-01

    current. We then fit these spike train datawith a statistical model (a generalized linear model, GLM, with multiplicative influences of past spiking). For different levels of noise, we show how the GLM captures both the deterministic features of the Izhikevich neuron and the variability driven...... by the noise. We conclude that the GLM captures essential features of the simulated spike trains, but for near-deterministic spike trains, goodness-of-fit analyses reveal that the model does not fit very well in a statistical sense; the essential random part of the GLM is not captured....... are separately applied; understanding the relationships between these modeling approaches remains an area of active research. In this letter, we examine this relationship using simulation. To do so, we first generate spike train data from a well-known dynamical model, the Izhikevich neuron, with a noisy input...

  15. The Morava E-theories of finite general linear groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattafirri, Sara

    block detector few centimeters in size is used. The resolution significantly improves with increasing energy of the photons and it degrades roughly linearly with increasing distance from the detector; Larger detection efficiency can be obtained at the expenses of resolution or via targeted configurations of the detector. Results pave the way for image reconstruction of practical gamma-ray emitting sources.

  16. Dynamical laws of superenergy in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez-Lobo, Alfonso GarcIa-Parrado

    2008-01-01

    The Bel and Bel-Robinson tensors were introduced nearly 50 years ago in an attempt to generalize to gravitation the energy-momentum tensor of electromagnetism. This generalization was successful from the mathematical point of view because these tensors share mathematical properties which are remarkably similar to those of the energy-momentum tensor of electromagnetism. However, the physical role of these tensors in general relativity has remained obscure and no interpretation has achieved wide acceptance. In principle, they cannot represent energy and the term superenergy has been coined for the hypothetical physical magnitude lying behind them. In this work, we try to shed light on the true physical meaning of superenergy by following the same procedure which enables us to give an interpretation of the electromagnetic energy. This procedure consists in performing an orthogonal splitting of the Bel and Bel-Robinson tensors and analyzing the different parts resulting from the splitting. In the electromagnetic case such splitting gives rise to the electromagnetic energy density, the Poynting vector and the electromagnetic stress tensor, each of them having a precise physical interpretation which is deduced from the dynamical laws of electromagnetism (Poynting theorem). The full orthogonal splitting of the Bel and Bel-Robinson tensors is more complex but, as expected, similarities with electromagnetism are present. Also the covariant divergence of the Bel tensor is analogous to the covariant divergence of the electromagnetic energy-momentum tensor and the orthogonal splitting of the former is found. The ensuing equations are to the superenergy what the Poynting theorem is to electromagnetism. Some consequences of these dynamical laws of superenergy are explored, among them the possibility of defining superenergy radiative states for the gravitational field

  17. Galaxy bias and non-linear structure formation in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldauf, Tobias; Seljak, Uroš; Senatore, Leonardo; Zaldarriaga, Matias

    2011-01-01

    Length scales probed by the large scale structure surveys are becoming closer and closer to the horizon scale. Further, it has been recently understood that non-Gaussianity in the initial conditions could show up in a scale dependence of the bias of galaxies at the largest possible distances. It is therefore important to take General Relativistic effects into account. Here we provide a General Relativistic generalization of the bias that is valid both for Gaussian and for non-Gaussian initial conditions. The collapse of objects happens on very small scales, while long-wavelength modes are always in the quasi linear regime. Around every small collapsing region, it is therefore possible to find a reference frame that is valid for arbitrary times and where the space time is almost flat: the Fermi frame. Here the Newtonian approximation is applicable and the equations of motion are the ones of the standard N-body codes. The effects of long-wavelength modes are encoded in the mapping from the cosmological frame to the local Fermi frame. At the level of the linear bias, the effect of the long-wavelength modes on the dynamics of the short scales is all encoded in the local curvature of the Universe, which allows us to define a General Relativistic generalization of the bias in the standard Newtonian setting. We show that the bias due to this effect goes to zero as the square of the ratio between the physical wavenumber and the Hubble scale for modes longer than the horizon, confirming the intuitive picture that modes longer than the horizon do not have any dynamical effect. On the other hand, the bias due to non-Gaussianities does not need to vanish for modes longer than the Hubble scale, and for non-Gaussianities of the local kind it goes to a constant. As a further application of our setup, we show that it is not necessary to perform large N-body simulations to extract information about long-wavelength modes: N-body simulations can be done on small scales and long

  18. Sub-optimal control of fuzzy linear dynamical systems under granular differentiability concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazandarani, Mehran; Pariz, Naser

    2018-05-01

    This paper deals with sub-optimal control of a fuzzy linear dynamical system. The aim is to keep the state variables of the fuzzy linear dynamical system close to zero in an optimal manner. In the fuzzy dynamical system, the fuzzy derivative is considered as the granular derivative; and all the coefficients and initial conditions can be uncertain. The criterion for assessing the optimality is regarded as a granular integral whose integrand is a quadratic function of the state variables and control inputs. Using the relative-distance-measure (RDM) fuzzy interval arithmetic and calculus of variations, the optimal control law is presented as the fuzzy state variables feedback. Since the optimal feedback gains are obtained as fuzzy functions, they need to be defuzzified. This will result in the sub-optimal control law. This paper also sheds light on the restrictions imposed by the approaches which are based on fuzzy standard interval arithmetic (FSIA), and use strongly generalized Hukuhara and generalized Hukuhara differentiability concepts for obtaining the optimal control law. The granular eigenvalues notion is also defined. Using an RLC circuit mathematical model, it is shown that, due to their unnatural behavior in the modeling phenomenon, the FSIA-based approaches may obtain some eigenvalues sets that might be different from the inherent eigenvalues set of the fuzzy dynamical system. This is, however, not the case with the approach proposed in this study. The notions of granular controllability and granular stabilizability of the fuzzy linear dynamical system are also presented in this paper. Moreover, a sub-optimal control for regulating a Boeing 747 in longitudinal direction with uncertain initial conditions and parameters is gained. In addition, an uncertain suspension system of one of the four wheels of a bus is regulated using the sub-optimal control introduced in this paper. Copyright © 2018 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Shear-transformation-zone theory of linear glassy dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchbinder, Eran; Langer, J S

    2011-06-01

    We present a linearized shear-transformation-zone (STZ) theory of glassy dynamics in which the internal STZ transition rates are characterized by a broad distribution of activation barriers. For slowly aging or fully aged systems, the main features of the barrier-height distribution are determined by the effective temperature and other near-equilibrium properties of the configurational degrees of freedom. Our theory accounts for the wide range of relaxation rates observed in both metallic glasses and soft glassy materials such as colloidal suspensions. We find that the frequency-dependent loss modulus is not just a superposition of Maxwell modes. Rather, it exhibits an α peak that rises near the viscous relaxation rate and, for nearly jammed, glassy systems, extends to much higher frequencies in accord with experimental observations. We also use this theory to compute strain recovery following a period of large, persistent deformation and then abrupt unloading. We find that strain recovery is determined in part by the initial barrier-height distribution, but that true structural aging also occurs during this process and determines the system's response to subsequent perturbations. In particular, we find by comparison with experimental data that the initial deformation produces a highly disordered state with a large population of low activation barriers, and that this state relaxes quickly toward one in which the distribution is dominated by the high barriers predicted by the near-equilibrium analysis. The nonequilibrium dynamics of the barrier-height distribution is the most important of the issues raised and left unresolved in this paper.

  20. Modelling the influence of sensory dynamics on linear and nonlinear driver steering control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, C. J.; Cole, D. J.

    2018-05-01

    A recent review of the literature has indicated that sensory dynamics play an important role in the driver-vehicle steering task, motivating the design of a new driver model incorporating human sensory systems. This paper presents a full derivation of the linear driver model developed in previous work, and extends the model to control a vehicle with nonlinear tyres. Various nonlinear controllers and state estimators are compared with different approximations of the true system dynamics. The model simulation time is found to increase significantly with the complexity of the controller and state estimator. In general the more complex controllers perform best, although with certain vehicle and tyre models linearised controllers perform as well as a full nonlinear optimisation. Various extended Kalman filters give similar results, although the driver's sensory dynamics reduce control performance compared with full state feedback. The new model could be used to design vehicle systems which interact more naturally and safely with a human driver.

  1. Low-Rank Linear Dynamical Systems for Motor Imagery EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenchang; Sun, Fuchun; Tan, Chuanqi; Liu, Shaobo

    2016-01-01

    The common spatial pattern (CSP) and other spatiospectral feature extraction methods have become the most effective and successful approaches to solve the problem of motor imagery electroencephalography (MI-EEG) pattern recognition from multichannel neural activity in recent years. However, these methods need a lot of preprocessing and postprocessing such as filtering, demean, and spatiospectral feature fusion, which influence the classification accuracy easily. In this paper, we utilize linear dynamical systems (LDSs) for EEG signals feature extraction and classification. LDSs model has lots of advantages such as simultaneous spatial and temporal feature matrix generation, free of preprocessing or postprocessing, and low cost. Furthermore, a low-rank matrix decomposition approach is introduced to get rid of noise and resting state component in order to improve the robustness of the system. Then, we propose a low-rank LDSs algorithm to decompose feature subspace of LDSs on finite Grassmannian and obtain a better performance. Extensive experiments are carried out on public dataset from "BCI Competition III Dataset IVa" and "BCI Competition IV Database 2a." The results show that our proposed three methods yield higher accuracies compared with prevailing approaches such as CSP and CSSP.

  2. Global Stability of Polytopic Linear Time-Varying Dynamic Systems under Time-Varying Point Delays and Impulsive Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. de la Sen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the stability properties of a class of dynamic linear systems possessing several linear time-invariant parameterizations (or configurations which conform a linear time-varying polytopic dynamic system with a finite number of time-varying time-differentiable point delays. The parameterizations may be timevarying and with bounded discontinuities and they can be subject to mixed regular plus impulsive controls within a sequence of time instants of zero measure. The polytopic parameterization for the dynamics associated with each delay is specific, so that (q+1 polytopic parameterizations are considered for a system with q delays being also subject to delay-free dynamics. The considered general dynamic system includes, as particular cases, a wide class of switched linear systems whose individual parameterizations are timeinvariant which are governed by a switching rule. However, the dynamic system under consideration is viewed as much more general since it is time-varying with timevarying delays and the bounded discontinuous changes of active parameterizations are generated by impulsive controls in the dynamics and, at the same time, there is not a prescribed set of candidate potential parameterizations.

  3. Linear and nonlinear dynamic analysis by boundary element method. Ph.D. Thesis, 1986 Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Shahid

    1991-01-01

    An advanced implementation of the direct boundary element method (BEM) applicable to free-vibration, periodic (steady-state) vibration and linear and nonlinear transient dynamic problems involving two and three-dimensional isotropic solids of arbitrary shape is presented. Interior, exterior, and half-space problems can all be solved by the present formulation. For the free-vibration analysis, a new real variable BEM formulation is presented which solves the free-vibration problem in the form of algebraic equations (formed from the static kernels) and needs only surface discretization. In the area of time-domain transient analysis, the BEM is well suited because it gives an implicit formulation. Although the integral formulations are elegant, because of the complexity of the formulation it has never been implemented in exact form. In the present work, linear and nonlinear time domain transient analysis for three-dimensional solids has been implemented in a general and complete manner. The formulation and implementation of the nonlinear, transient, dynamic analysis presented here is the first ever in the field of boundary element analysis. Almost all the existing formulation of BEM in dynamics use the constant variation of the variables in space and time which is very unrealistic for engineering problems and, in some cases, it leads to unacceptably inaccurate results. In the present work, linear and quadratic isoparametric boundary elements are used for discretization of geometry and functional variations in space. In addition, higher order variations in time are used. These methods of analysis are applicable to piecewise-homogeneous materials, such that not only problems of the layered media and the soil-structure interaction can be analyzed but also a large problem can be solved by the usual sub-structuring technique. The analyses have been incorporated in a versatile, general-purpose computer program. Some numerical problems are solved and, through comparisons

  4. A critical oscillation constant as a variable of time scales for half-linear dynamic equations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řehák, Pavel

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 2 (2010), s. 237-256 ISSN 0139-9918 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB100190701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : dynamic equation * time scale * half-linear equation * (non)oscillation criteria * Hille-Nehari criteria * Kneser criteria * critical constant * oscillation constant * Hardy inequality Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.316, year: 2010 http://link.springer.com/article/10.2478%2Fs12175-010-0009-7

  5. Sensitivity theory for general non-linear algebraic equations with constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oblow, E.M.

    1977-04-01

    Sensitivity theory has been developed to a high state of sophistication for applications involving solutions of the linear Boltzmann equation or approximations to it. The success of this theory in the field of radiation transport has prompted study of possible extensions of the method to more general systems of non-linear equations. Initial work in the U.S. and in Europe on the reactor fuel cycle shows that the sensitivity methodology works equally well for those non-linear problems studied to date. The general non-linear theory for algebraic equations is summarized and applied to a class of problems whose solutions are characterized by constrained extrema. Such equations form the basis of much work on energy systems modelling and the econometrics of power production and distribution. It is valuable to have a sensitivity theory available for these problem areas since it is difficult to repeatedly solve complex non-linear equations to find out the effects of alternative input assumptions or the uncertainties associated with predictions of system behavior. The sensitivity theory for a linear system of algebraic equations with constraints which can be solved using linear programming techniques is discussed. The role of the constraints in simplifying the problem so that sensitivity methodology can be applied is highlighted. The general non-linear method is summarized and applied to a non-linear programming problem in particular. Conclusions are drawn in about the applicability of the method for practical problems

  6. Mathematical and Numerical Methods for Non-linear Beam Dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herr, W

    2014-01-01

    Non-linear effects in accelerator physics are important for both successful operation of accelerators and during the design stage. Since both of these aspects are closely related, they will be treated together in this overview. Some of the most important aspects are well described by methods established in other areas of physics and mathematics. The treatment will be focused on the problems in accelerators used for particle physics experiments. Although the main emphasis will be on accelerator physics issues, some of the aspects of more general interest will be discussed. In particular, we demonstrate that in recent years a framework has been built to handle the complex problems in a consistent form, technically superior and conceptually simpler than the traditional techniques. The need to understand the stability of particle beams has substantially contributed to the development of new techniques and is an important source of examples which can be verified experimentally. Unfortunately, the documentation of these developments is often poor or even unpublished, in many cases only available as lectures or conference proceedings

  7. Efficient semiparametric estimation in generalized partially linear additive models for longitudinal/clustered data

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Guang; Zhou, Lan; Huang, Jianhua Z.

    2014-01-01

    We consider efficient estimation of the Euclidean parameters in a generalized partially linear additive models for longitudinal/clustered data when multiple covariates need to be modeled nonparametrically, and propose an estimation procedure based

  8. Doubly robust estimation of generalized partial linear models for longitudinal data with dropouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Huiming; Fu, Bo; Qin, Guoyou; Zhu, Zhongyi

    2017-12-01

    We develop a doubly robust estimation of generalized partial linear models for longitudinal data with dropouts. Our method extends the highly efficient aggregate unbiased estimating function approach proposed in Qu et al. (2010) to a doubly robust one in the sense that under missing at random (MAR), our estimator is consistent when either the linear conditional mean condition is satisfied or a model for the dropout process is correctly specified. We begin with a generalized linear model for the marginal mean, and then move forward to a generalized partial linear model, allowing for nonparametric covariate effect by using the regression spline smoothing approximation. We establish the asymptotic theory for the proposed method and use simulation studies to compare its finite sample performance with that of Qu's method, the complete-case generalized estimating equation (GEE) and the inverse-probability weighted GEE. The proposed method is finally illustrated using data from a longitudinal cohort study. © 2017, The International Biometric Society.

  9. Contact symmetries of general linear second-order ordinary differential equations: letter to the editor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martini, Ruud; Kersten, P.H.M.

    1983-01-01

    Using 1-1 mappings, the complete symmetry groups of contact transformations of general linear second-order ordinary differential equations are determined from two independent solutions of those equations, and applied to the harmonic oscillator with and without damping.

  10. Dynamical reduction models with general gaussian noises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassi, Angelo; Ghirardi, GianCarlo

    2002-02-01

    We consider the effect of replacing in stochastic differential equations leading to the dynamical collapse of the statevector, white noise stochastic processes with non white ones. We prove that such a modification can be consistently performed without altering the most interesting features of the previous models. One of the reasons to discuss this matter derives from the desire of being allowed to deal with physical stochastic fields, such as the gravitational one, which cannot give rise to white noises. From our point of view the most relevant motivation for the approach we propose here derives from the fact that in relativistic models the occurrence of white noises is the main responsible for the appearance of untractable divergences. Therefore, one can hope that resorting to non white noises one can overcome such a difficulty. We investigate stochastic equations with non white noises, we discuss their reduction properties and their physical implications. Our analysis has a precise interest not only for the above mentioned subject but also for the general study of dissipative systems and decoherence. (author)

  11. Dynamical reduction models with general Gaussian noises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassi, Angelo; Ghirardi, GianCarlo

    2002-01-01

    We consider the effect of replacing in stochastic differential equations leading to the dynamical collapse of the state vector, white-noise stochastic processes with nonwhite ones. We prove that such a modification can be consistently performed without altering the most interesting features of the previous models. One of the reasons to discuss this matter derives from the desire of being allowed to deal with physical stochastic fields, such as the gravitational one, which cannot give rise to white noises. From our point of view, the most relevant motivation for the approach we propose here derives from the fact that in relativistic models intractable divergences appear as a consequence of the white nature of the noises. Therefore, one can hope that resorting to nonwhite noises, one can overcome such a difficulty. We investigate stochastic equations with nonwhite noises, we discuss their reduction properties and their physical implications. Our analysis has a precise interest not only for the above-mentioned subject but also for the general study of dissipative systems and decoherence

  12. On the Convergence of Piecewise Linear Strategic Interaction Dynamics on Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Gharesifard, Bahman; Touri, Behrouz; Basar, Tamer; Shamma, Jeff S.

    2015-01-01

    We prove that the piecewise linear best-response dynamical systems of strategic interactions are asymptotically convergent to their set of equilibria on any weighted undirected graph. We study various features of these dynamical systems, including

  13. Non-linear dynamics of wind turbine wings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jesper Winther; Nielsen, Søren R.K.

    2006-01-01

    The paper deals with the formulation of non-linear vibrations of a wind turbine wing described in a wing fixed moving coordinate system. The considered structural model is a Bernoulli-Euler beam with due consideration to axial twist. The theory includes geometrical non-linearities induced...

  14. On the dynamic analysis of piecewise-linear networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heemels, WPMH; Camlibel, MK; Schumacher, JM

    Piecewise-linear (PL) modeling is often used to approximate the behavior of nonlinear circuits. One of the possible PL modeling methodologies is based on the linear complementarity problem, and this approach has already been used extensively in the circuits and systems community for static networks.

  15. Estimation of group means when adjusting for covariates in generalized linear models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Yongming; Luo, Junxiang

    2015-01-01

    Generalized linear models are commonly used to analyze categorical data such as binary, count, and ordinal outcomes. Adjusting for important prognostic factors or baseline covariates in generalized linear models may improve the estimation efficiency. The model-based mean for a treatment group produced by most software packages estimates the response at the mean covariate, not the mean response for this treatment group for the studied population. Although this is not an issue for linear models, the model-based group mean estimates in generalized linear models could be seriously biased for the true group means. We propose a new method to estimate the group mean consistently with the corresponding variance estimation. Simulation showed the proposed method produces an unbiased estimator for the group means and provided the correct coverage probability. The proposed method was applied to analyze hypoglycemia data from clinical trials in diabetes. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Knotted solutions for linear and nonlinear theories: Electromagnetism and fluid dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel W.F. Alves

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We examine knotted solutions, the most simple of which is the “Hopfion”, from the point of view of relations between electromagnetism and ideal fluid dynamics. A map between fluid dynamics and electromagnetism works for initial conditions or for linear perturbations, allowing us to find new knotted fluid solutions. Knotted solutions are also found to be solutions of nonlinear generalizations of electromagnetism, and of quantum-corrected actions for electromagnetism coupled to other modes. For null configurations, electromagnetism can be described as a null pressureless fluid, for which we can find solutions from the knotted solutions of electromagnetism. We also map them to solutions of Euler's equations, obtained from a type of nonrelativistic reduction of the relativistic fluid equations.

  17. Dynamic analysis of aircraft impact using the linear elastic finite element codes FINEL, SAP and STARDYNE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundsager, P.; Krenk, S.

    1975-08-01

    The static and dynamic response of a cylindrical/ spherical containment to a Boeing 720 impact is computed using 3 different linear elastic computer codes: FINEL, SAP and STARDYNE. Stress and displacement fields are shown together with time histories for a point in the impact zone. The main conclusions from this study are: - In this case the maximum dynamic load factors for stress and displacements were close to 1, but a static analysis alone is not fully sufficient. - More realistic load time histories should be considered. - The main effects seem to be local. The present study does not indicate general collapse from elastic stresses alone. - Further study of material properties at high rates is needed. (author)

  18. Dynamics of random Boolean networks under fully asynchronous stochastic update based on linear representation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Luo

    Full Text Available A novel algebraic approach is proposed to study dynamics of asynchronous random Boolean networks where a random number of nodes can be updated at each time step (ARBNs. In this article, the logical equations of ARBNs are converted into the discrete-time linear representation and dynamical behaviors of systems are investigated. We provide a general formula of network transition matrices of ARBNs as well as a necessary and sufficient algebraic criterion to determine whether a group of given states compose an attractor of length[Formula: see text] in ARBNs. Consequently, algorithms are achieved to find all of the attractors and basins in ARBNs. Examples are showed to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed scheme.

  19. Analysis by numerical simulations of non-linear phenomenons in vertical pump rotor dynamic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bediou, J.; Pasqualini, G.

    1992-01-01

    Controlling dynamical behavior of main coolant pumps shaftlines is an interesting subject for the user and the constructor. The first is mainly concerned by the interpretation of on field observed behavior, monitoring, reliability and preventive maintenance of his machines. The second must in addition manage with sometimes contradictory requirements related to mechanical design and performances optimization (shaft diameter reduction, clearance,...). The use of numerical modeling is now a classical technique for simple analysis (rough prediction of critical speeds for instance) but is still limited, in particular for vertical shaftline especially when equipped with hydrodynamic bearings, due to the complexity of encountered phenomenons in that type of machine. The vertical position of the shaftline seems to be the origin of non linear dynamical behavior, the analysis of which, as presented in the following discussion, requires specific modelization of fluid film, particularly for hydrodynamic bearings. The low static load generally no longer allows use of stiffness and damping coefficients classically calculated by linearizing fluid film equations near a stable static equilibrium position. For the analysis of such machines, specific numerical models have been developed at Electricite de France in a package for general rotordynamics analysis. Numerical models are briefly described. Then an example is precisely presented and discussed to illustrate some considered phenomenons and their consequences on machine behavior. In this example, the authors interpret the observed behavior by using numerical models, and demonstrate the advantage of such analysis for better understanding of vertical pumps rotordynamic

  20. Transfer matrix method for dynamics modeling and independent modal space vibration control design of linear hybrid multibody system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Bao; Rui, Xiaoting; Lu, Kun; Tao, Ling; Wang, Guoping; Ni, Xiaojun

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, an efficient method of dynamics modeling and vibration control design of a linear hybrid multibody system (MS) is studied based on the transfer matrix method. The natural vibration characteristics of a linear hybrid MS are solved by using low-order transfer equations. Then, by constructing the brand-new body dynamics equation, augmented operator and augmented eigenvector, the orthogonality of augmented eigenvector of a linear hybrid MS is satisfied, and its state space model expressed in each independent model space is obtained easily. According to this dynamics model, a robust independent modal space-fuzzy controller is designed for vibration control of a general MS, and the genetic optimization of some critical control parameters of fuzzy tuners is also presented. Two illustrative examples are performed, which results show that this method is computationally efficient and with perfect control performance.

  1. Dynamic Response Analysis of Linear Pulse Motor with Closed Loop Control

    OpenAIRE

    山本, 行雄; 山田, 一

    1989-01-01

    A linear pulse motor can translate digital signals into linear positions without a gear system. It is important to predict a dynamic response in order to the motor that has the good performance. In this report the maximum pulse rate and the maximum speed on the linear pulse motor are obtained by using the sampling theory.

  2. Robust adaptive synchronization of general dynamical networks ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Robust adaptive synchronization; dynamical network; multiple delays; multiple uncertainties. ... Networks such as neural networks, communication transmission networks, social rela- tionship networks etc. ..... a very good effect. Pramana – J.

  3. An efficient method for generalized linear multiplicative programming problem with multiplicative constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yingfeng; Liu, Sanyang

    2016-01-01

    We present a practical branch and bound algorithm for globally solving generalized linear multiplicative programming problem with multiplicative constraints. To solve the problem, a relaxation programming problem which is equivalent to a linear programming is proposed by utilizing a new two-phase relaxation technique. In the algorithm, lower and upper bounds are simultaneously obtained by solving some linear relaxation programming problems. Global convergence has been proved and results of some sample examples and a small random experiment show that the proposed algorithm is feasible and efficient.

  4. Beam dynamics verification in linacs of linear colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeman, J.T.

    1989-01-01

    The SLAC two-mile linac has been upgraded to accelerate high current, low emittance electron and positron beams to be used in the SLAC Linear Collider (SLC). After the upgrade was completed, extensive beam studies were made to verify that the design criteria have been met. These tests involved the measurement of emittance, beam phase space orientation, energy dispersion, trajectory oscillations, bunch length, energy spectrum and wakefields. The methods, the systems and the data cross checks are compared for the various measurements. Implications for the next linear collider are discussed. 12 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs

  5. Dynamic problem of generalized thermoelastic diffusive medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Rajneesh; Kansal, Tarun [Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra (India)

    2010-01-15

    The equations of generalized thermoelastic diffusion, based on the theory of Lord and Shulman with one relaxation time, are derived for anisotropic media with rotation. The variational principle and reciprocity theorem for the governing equations are derived. The propagation of leaky Rayleigh waves in a viscous fluid layer overlying a homogeneous isotropic, generalized thermoelastic diffusive half space with rotating frame of reference is studied

  6. Tissue compensation using dynamic collimation on a linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaballa, Hani E.; Mitev, George; Zwicker, Robert D.; Ting, Joseph Y.; Tercilla, Oscar F.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: The availability of computer-controlled collimators on some accelerators has led to techniques for dynamic beam modification, mainly to simulate beam wedge filters. This work addresses the practical aspects of dynamic tissue compensation in one dimension using available treatment-planning software. Methods and Materials: Data derived from the treatment-planning program is used with an iterative calculational routine to determine the monitor unit settings needed for the collimator-controlling computer. The method was first tested by simulating a 60 deg. physical wedge. Further studies were carried out on a specially fabricated plastic phantom that modeled the sagittal contour of the upper torso, neck, and lower head regions. Results: Dynamic wedge point doses generated by the planning program agreed within 1% with the values directly measured in a polystyrene phantom. In the patient phantom, dynamic collimation achieved calculated dose uniformity within 0.5% in a reference plane near the phantom midline. A comparison of computer-generated and measured point doses in this case showed agreement within 3%. Conclusions: Dynamic collimation can provide effective compensation for contours that vary primarily along one direction. A conventional treatment-planning program can be used to plan dynamic collimation and deliver a prescribed dose with reliable accuracy

  7. Estimation of Physical Parameters in Linear and Nonlinear Dynamic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Morten

    variance and confidence ellipsoid is demonstrated. The relation is based on a new theorem on maxima of an ellipsoid. The procedure for input signal design and physical parameter estimation is tested on a number of examples, linear as well as nonlinear and simulated as well as real processes, and it appears...

  8. Estimation of failure probabilities of linear dynamic systems by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An iterative method for estimating the failure probability for certain time-variant reliability problems has been developed. In the paper, the focus is on the displacement response of a linear oscillator driven by white noise. Failure is then assumed to occur when the displacement response exceeds a critical threshold.

  9. 108 NUMERICAL CALCULATIONS IN THE GENERAL DYNAMICAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    Dynamical Principles and Laws and compare to construct a corresponding theory of Gravitational. Time Dilation and compute the ratio of the ... mass mi and passive and mass mp and active mass mA of a photon of frequency ν is given by. 2 ... Conservation of mechanical Energy in gravitational fields that the instantaneous ...

  10. Dynamics of elliptic breathers in saturable nonlinear media with linear anisotropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Guo; Guo, Qi; Shou, Qian; Ren, Zhanmei

    2014-01-01

    We have introduced a class of dynamic elliptic breathers in saturable nonlinear media with linear anisotropy. Two kinds of evolution behavior for the dynamic breathers, rotations and molecule-like librations, are both predicted by the variational approach, and confirmed in numerical simulations. The dynamic elliptic breathers can rotate even though they have no initial orbital angular momentum (OAM). As the media are linear anisotropic, OAM is no longer conserved, and hence the angular velocity is not constant but a periodic function of the propagation distance. When the linear anisotropy is large enough, the dynamic elliptic breathers librate like molecules. The dynamic elliptic breathers are present in media with not only saturable nonlinearity but also nonlocal nonlinearity; indeed, they are universal in nonlinear media with linear anisotropy. (paper)

  11. Short- and long-term variations in non-linear dynamics of heart rate variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanters, J K; Højgaard, M V; Agner, E

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the study was to investigate the short- and long-term variations in the non-linear dynamics of heart rate variability, and to determine the relationships between conventional time and frequency domain methods and the newer non-linear methods of characterizing heart rate...... rate and describes mainly linear correlations. Non-linear predictability is correlated with heart rate variability measured as the standard deviation of the R-R intervals and the respiratory activity expressed as power of the high-frequency band. The dynamics of heart rate variability changes suddenly...

  12. Dynamic slip of polydisperse linear polymers using partitioned plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Marzieh; Konaganti, Vinod Kumar; Hatzikiriakos, Savvas G.

    2018-03-01

    The slip velocity of an industrial grade high molecular weight high-density polyethylene (HDPE) is studied in steady and dynamic shear experiments using a stress/strain controlled rotational rheometer equipped with a parallel partitioned plate geometry. Moreover, fluoroalkyl silane-based coating is used to understand the effect of surface energy on slip in steady and dynamic conditions. The multimode integral Kaye-Bernstein-Kearsley-Zapas constitutive model is applied to predict the transient shear response of the HDPE melt obtained from rotational rheometer. It is found that a dynamic slip model with a slip relaxation time is needed to adequately predict the experimental data at large shear deformations. Comparison of the results before and after coating shows that the slip velocity is largely affected by surface energy. Decreasing surface energy by coating increases slip velocity and decreases the slip relaxation time.

  13. A dynamical theory for linearized massive superspin 3/2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gates, James S. Jr.; Koutrolikos, Konstantinos

    2014-01-01

    We present a new theory of free massive superspin Y=3/2 irreducible representation of the 4D, N=1 Super-Poincaré group, which has linearized non-minimal supergravity (superhelicity Y=3/2) as it’s massless limit. The new results will illuminate the underlying structure of auxiliary superfields required for the description of higher massive superspin systems

  14. Calculations of beam dynamics in Sandia linear electron accelerators, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poukey, J.W.; Coleman, P.D.

    1985-03-01

    A number of code and analytic studies were made during 1984 which pertain to the Sandia linear accelerators MABE and RADLAC. In this report the authors summarize the important results of the calculations. New results include a better understanding of gap-induced radial oscillations, leakage currents in a typical MABE gas, emittance growth in a beam passing through a series of gaps, some new diocotron results, and the latest diode simulations for both accelerators. 23 references, 30 figures, 1 table

  15. Non linear dynamics of magnetic islands in fusion plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meshcheriakov, D.

    2012-10-01

    In this thesis we investigate the issues of linear stability of the tearing modes in a presence of both curvature and diamagnetic rotation using the non linear full-MHD toroidal code XTOR-2F, which includes anisotropic heat transport, diamagnetic and geometrical effects. This analysis is applied to one of the fully non-inductive discharges on Tore-Supra. Such experiments are crucially important to demonstrate reactor scale steady state operation for the tokamak. The possibility of a full linear stabilization of the tearing modes by diamagnetic rotation in the presence of toroidal curvature is shown. The stabilization threshold does not follow the classical scaling law connecting the growth rate of islands to plasma conductivity, measured here by the Lundquist number (S). However, for numerical reasons, the conductivity used in the simulations is lower than that of the experiment, which raises the question of extrapolation of the obtained results to the experimental situation. The extrapolation of the obtained results requires simulations with several different conductivities. It predicts that the mode at q = 2 surface to be stable at value of diamagnetic frequency consistent with the experimental one at S = S(exp). In the linearly stable domain, the mode is metastable: saturation level depends on the seed island size. In the non linear regime, the saturation of n=1, m=2 mode is found to be strongly reduced by diamagnetic rotation and by Lundquist number. However, the extrapolation to the experimental situation shows that if the island is destabilized, it will saturate at a detectable level for the Tore Supra diagnostic. For a large plasma aspect ratio (i.e. weak curvature effects), the reduction of the saturated width by diamagnetic frequency takes the form of a jump reminiscent of multiple states evidenced in slab geometry case. The question of extrapolation of the obtained results towards future generation of fusion devices is also addressed. In particular, for

  16. Generalized linear elastic fracture mechanics: an application to a crack touching the bimaterial interface

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Náhlík, Luboš; Šestáková, L.; Hutař, Pavel; Knésl, Zdeněk

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 452-453, - (2011), s. 445-448 ISSN 1013-9826 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB200410803; GA ČR GA101/09/1821 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : generalized stress intensity factor * bimaterial interface * composite materials * strain energy density factor * fracture criterion * generalized linear elastic fracture mechanics Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics

  17. Generalized multivariate Fokker-Planck equations derived from kinetic transport theory and linear nonequilibrium thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, T.D.

    2002-01-01

    We study many particle systems in the context of mean field forces, concentration-dependent diffusion coefficients, generalized equilibrium distributions, and quantum statistics. Using kinetic transport theory and linear nonequilibrium thermodynamics we derive for these systems a generalized multivariate Fokker-Planck equation. It is shown that this Fokker-Planck equation describes relaxation processes, has stationary maximum entropy distributions, can have multiple stationary solutions and stationary solutions that differ from Boltzmann distributions

  18. Transverse beam dynamics in non-linear Fixed Field Alternating Gradient accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haj, Tahar M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Meot, F. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-03-02

    In this paper, we present some aspects of the transverse beam dynamics in Fixed Field Ring Accelerators (FFRA): we start from the basic principles in order to derive the linearized transverse particle equations of motion for FFRA, essentially FFAGs and cyclotrons are considered here. This is a simple extension of a previous work valid for linear lattices that we generalized by including the bending terms to ensure its correctness for FFAG lattice. The space charge term (contribution of the internal coulombian forces of the beam) is contained as well, although it is not discussed here. The emphasis is on the scaling FFAG type: a collaboration work is undertaken in view of better understanding the properties of the 150 MeV scaling FFAG at KURRI in Japan, and progress towards high intensity operation. Some results of the benchmarking work between different codes are presented. Analysis of certain type of field imperfections revealed some interesting features about this machine that explain some of the experimental results and generalize the concept of a scaling FFAG to a non-scaling one for which the tune variations obey a well-defined law.

  19. The theory of a general quantum system interacting with a linear dissipative system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feynman, R.P.; Vernon, F.L.

    2000-01-01

    A formalism has been developed, using Feynman's space-time formulation of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics whereby the behavior of a system of interest, which is coupled to other external quantum systems, may be calculated in terms of its own variables only. It is shown that the effect of the external systems in such a formalism can always be included in a general class of functionals (influence functionals) of the coordinates of the system only. The properties of influence functionals for general systems are examined. Then, specific forms of influence functionals representing the effect of definite and random classical forces, linear dissipative systems at finite temperatures, and combinations of these are analyzed in detail. The linear system analysis is first done for perfectly linear systems composed of combinations of harmonic oscillators, loss being introduced by continuous distributions of oscillators. Then approximately linear systems and restrictions necessary for the linear behavior are considered. Influence functionals for all linear systems are shown to have the same form in terms of their classical response functions. In addition, a fluctuation-dissipation theorem is derived relating temperature and dissipation of the linear system to a fluctuating classical potential acting on the system of interest which reduces to the Nyquist-Johnson relation for noise in the case of electric circuits. Sample calculations of transition probabilities for the spontaneous emission of an atom in free space and in a cavity are made. Finally, a theorem is proved showing that within the requirements of linearity all sources of noise or quantum fluctuation introduced by maser-type amplification devices are accounted for by a classical calculation of the characteristics of the maser

  20. On Extended Exponential General Linear Methods PSQ with S>Q ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is concerned with the construction and Numerical Analysis of Extended Exponential General Linear Methods. These methods, in contrast to other methods in literatures, consider methods with the step greater than the stage order (S>Q).Numerical experiments in this study, indicate that Extended Exponential ...

  1. More on Generalizations and Modifications of Iterative Methods for Solving Large Sparse Indefinite Linear Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen-Yuan Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Continuing from the works of Li et al. (2014, Li (2007, and Kincaid et al. (2000, we present more generalizations and modifications of iterative methods for solving large sparse symmetric and nonsymmetric indefinite systems of linear equations. We discuss a variety of iterative methods such as GMRES, MGMRES, MINRES, LQ-MINRES, QR MINRES, MMINRES, MGRES, and others.

  2. The microcomputer scientific software series 2: general linear model--regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harold M. Rauscher

    1983-01-01

    The general linear model regression (GLMR) program provides the microcomputer user with a sophisticated regression analysis capability. The output provides a regression ANOVA table, estimators of the regression model coefficients, their confidence intervals, confidence intervals around the predicted Y-values, residuals for plotting, a check for multicollinearity, a...

  3. Bayesian prediction of spatial count data using generalized linear mixed models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole Fredslund; Waagepetersen, Rasmus Plenge

    2002-01-01

    Spatial weed count data are modeled and predicted using a generalized linear mixed model combined with a Bayesian approach and Markov chain Monte Carlo. Informative priors for a data set with sparse sampling are elicited using a previously collected data set with extensive sampling. Furthermore, ...

  4. Modeling containment of large wildfires using generalized linear mixed-model analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark Finney; Isaac C. Grenfell; Charles W. McHugh

    2009-01-01

    Billions of dollars are spent annually in the United States to contain large wildland fires, but the factors contributing to suppression success remain poorly understood. We used a regression model (generalized linear mixed-model) to model containment probability of individual fires, assuming that containment was a repeated-measures problem (fixed effect) and...

  5. A generalized variational algebra and conserved densities for linear evolution equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abellanas, L.; Galindo, A.

    1978-01-01

    The symbolic algebra of Gel'fand and Dikii is generalized to the case of n variables. Using this algebraic approach a rigorous characterization of the polynomial kernel of the variational derivative is given. This is applied to classify all the conservation laws for linear polynomial evolution equations of arbitrary order. (Auth.)

  6. A differential-geometric approach to generalized linear models with grouped predictors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Augugliaro, Luigi; Mineo, Angelo M.; Wit, Ernst C.

    We propose an extension of the differential-geometric least angle regression method to perform sparse group inference in a generalized linear model. An efficient algorithm is proposed to compute the solution curve. The proposed group differential-geometric least angle regression method has important

  7. Regression Is a Univariate General Linear Model Subsuming Other Parametric Methods as Special Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Sherry

    Although the concept of the general linear model (GLM) has existed since the 1960s, other univariate analyses such as the t-test and the analysis of variance models have remained popular. The GLM produces an equation that minimizes the mean differences of independent variables as they are related to a dependent variable. From a computer printout…

  8. Robust adaptive synchronization of general dynamical networks ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 86; Issue 6. Robust ... A robust adaptive synchronization scheme for these general complex networks with multiple delays and uncertainties is established and raised by employing the robust adaptive control principle and the Lyapunov stability theory. We choose ...

  9. Particle Dynamics under Quasi-linear Interaction with Electromagnetic Waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castejon, F.; Eguilior, S.

    2003-07-01

    Langevin equations for quasi-linear wave particle interaction are obtained taking advantage of the unique vocal equivalence between Fokker-Plank equation and the former ones. Langevin equations are solved numerically and, hence, the evolution of a single particle embedded in an electromagnetic field in momentum space is obtained. The equations are relativistic and valid for any wave. It is also shown that the stochastic part of the equations is negligible in comparison with the deterministic term, except for the momentum to the resonance condition for the main parallel refractive index. (Author) 24 refs.

  10. Particle Dynamics under Quasi-linear Interaction with Electromagnetic Waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castejon, F.; Eguilior, S.

    2003-01-01

    Langevin equations for quasi-linear wave particle interaction are obtained taking advantage of the unique vocal equivalence between Fokker-Plank equation and the former ones. Langevin equations are solved numerically and, hence, the evolution of a single particle embedded in an electromagnetic field in momentum space is obtained. The equations are relativistic and valid for any wave. It is also shown that the stochastic part of the equations is negligible in comparison with the deterministic term, except for the momentum to the resonance condition for the main parallel refractive index. (Author) 24 refs

  11. Normal form analysis of linear beam dynamics in a coupled storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolski, Andrzej; Woodley, Mark D.

    2004-01-01

    The techniques of normal form analysis, well known in the literature, can be used to provide a straightforward characterization of linear betatron dynamics in a coupled lattice. Here, we consider both the beam distribution and the betatron oscillations in a storage ring. We find that the beta functions for uncoupled motion generalize in a simple way to the coupled case. Defined in the way that we propose, the beta functions remain well behaved (positive and finite) under all circumstances, and have essentially the same physical significance for the beam size and betatron oscillation amplitude as in the uncoupled case. Application of this analysis to the online modeling of the PEP-II rings is also discussed

  12. Approximating high-dimensional dynamics by barycentric coordinates with linear programming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirata, Yoshito, E-mail: yoshito@sat.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Aihara, Kazuyuki; Suzuki, Hideyuki [Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan); Department of Mathematical Informatics, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); CREST, JST, 4-1-8 Honcho, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Shiro, Masanori [Department of Mathematical Informatics, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Mathematical Neuroinformatics Group, Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Takahashi, Nozomu; Mas, Paloma [Center for Research in Agricultural Genomics (CRAG), Consorci CSIC-IRTA-UAB-UB, Barcelona 08193 (Spain)

    2015-01-15

    The increasing development of novel methods and techniques facilitates the measurement of high-dimensional time series but challenges our ability for accurate modeling and predictions. The use of a general mathematical model requires the inclusion of many parameters, which are difficult to be fitted for relatively short high-dimensional time series observed. Here, we propose a novel method to accurately model a high-dimensional time series. Our method extends the barycentric coordinates to high-dimensional phase space by employing linear programming, and allowing the approximation errors explicitly. The extension helps to produce free-running time-series predictions that preserve typical topological, dynamical, and/or geometric characteristics of the underlying attractors more accurately than the radial basis function model that is widely used. The method can be broadly applied, from helping to improve weather forecasting, to creating electronic instruments that sound more natural, and to comprehensively understanding complex biological data.

  13. Approximating high-dimensional dynamics by barycentric coordinates with linear programming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, Yoshito; Aihara, Kazuyuki; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Shiro, Masanori; Takahashi, Nozomu; Mas, Paloma

    2015-01-01

    The increasing development of novel methods and techniques facilitates the measurement of high-dimensional time series but challenges our ability for accurate modeling and predictions. The use of a general mathematical model requires the inclusion of many parameters, which are difficult to be fitted for relatively short high-dimensional time series observed. Here, we propose a novel method to accurately model a high-dimensional time series. Our method extends the barycentric coordinates to high-dimensional phase space by employing linear programming, and allowing the approximation errors explicitly. The extension helps to produce free-running time-series predictions that preserve typical topological, dynamical, and/or geometric characteristics of the underlying attractors more accurately than the radial basis function model that is widely used. The method can be broadly applied, from helping to improve weather forecasting, to creating electronic instruments that sound more natural, and to comprehensively understanding complex biological data

  14. Approximating high-dimensional dynamics by barycentric coordinates with linear programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Yoshito; Shiro, Masanori; Takahashi, Nozomu; Aihara, Kazuyuki; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Mas, Paloma

    2015-01-01

    The increasing development of novel methods and techniques facilitates the measurement of high-dimensional time series but challenges our ability for accurate modeling and predictions. The use of a general mathematical model requires the inclusion of many parameters, which are difficult to be fitted for relatively short high-dimensional time series observed. Here, we propose a novel method to accurately model a high-dimensional time series. Our method extends the barycentric coordinates to high-dimensional phase space by employing linear programming, and allowing the approximation errors explicitly. The extension helps to produce free-running time-series predictions that preserve typical topological, dynamical, and/or geometric characteristics of the underlying attractors more accurately than the radial basis function model that is widely used. The method can be broadly applied, from helping to improve weather forecasting, to creating electronic instruments that sound more natural, and to comprehensively understanding complex biological data.

  15. Quality of computerized blast load simulation for non-linear dynamic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quality of computerized blast load simulation for non-linear dynamic response ... commercial software system and a special-purpose, blast-specific software product to ... depend both on the analysis model of choice and the stand-off distances.

  16. A Regularized Linear Dynamical System Framework for Multivariate Time Series Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zitao; Hauskrecht, Milos

    2015-01-01

    Linear Dynamical System (LDS) is an elegant mathematical framework for modeling and learning Multivariate Time Series (MTS). However, in general, it is difficult to set the dimension of an LDS's hidden state space. A small number of hidden states may not be able to model the complexities of a MTS, while a large number of hidden states can lead to overfitting. In this paper, we study learning methods that impose various regularization penalties on the transition matrix of the LDS model and propose a regularized LDS learning framework (rLDS) which aims to (1) automatically shut down LDSs' spurious and unnecessary dimensions, and consequently, address the problem of choosing the optimal number of hidden states; (2) prevent the overfitting problem given a small amount of MTS data; and (3) support accurate MTS forecasting. To learn the regularized LDS from data we incorporate a second order cone program and a generalized gradient descent method into the Maximum a Posteriori framework and use Expectation Maximization to obtain a low-rank transition matrix of the LDS model. We propose two priors for modeling the matrix which lead to two instances of our rLDS. We show that our rLDS is able to recover well the intrinsic dimensionality of the time series dynamics and it improves the predictive performance when compared to baselines on both synthetic and real-world MTS datasets.

  17. Beam dynamics in a TeV linear collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoya, Kaoru

    1984-01-01

    The author's group at KEK has investigated the feasibility of an electron-positron linear collider of 1x1 TeV region using the Lasertron. In this report, three major problems are discussed. That is, beam-beam interaction; beam instability in the linac; and the damping ring. As the most important parameter, the luminosity of the linear collider is analyzed, taking into account the pinch effect and the beamstrahlung. The problems in the development of final focusing system are also considered. As for the wake field in the linac, the transverse wake field is more important than the longitudinal one. The misalignment of cavity is discussed as a cause of inducing the transverse wake field. Finally, the design requirement for the damping ring is considered, and the values of some important design parameters are given: These include energy, radius, bending radius, number of bunch, transverse damping time, natural emittance, vertical-horizontal coupling, the time constant of extraction kicker, and the structure of the FODO cell. (Aoki, K.)

  18. Formal First Integrals of General Dynamical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Jiao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is trying to make a complete study on the integrability for general analytic nonlinear systems by first integrals. We will firstly give an exhaustive discussion on analytic planar systems. Then a class of higher dimensional systems with invariant manifolds will be considered; we will develop several criteria for existence of formal integrals and give some applications to illustrate our results at last.

  19. Generalized linear models with random effects unified analysis via H-likelihood

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Youngjo; Pawitan, Yudi

    2006-01-01

    Since their introduction in 1972, generalized linear models (GLMs) have proven useful in the generalization of classical normal models. Presenting methods for fitting GLMs with random effects to data, Generalized Linear Models with Random Effects: Unified Analysis via H-likelihood explores a wide range of applications, including combining information over trials (meta-analysis), analysis of frailty models for survival data, genetic epidemiology, and analysis of spatial and temporal models with correlated errors.Written by pioneering authorities in the field, this reference provides an introduction to various theories and examines likelihood inference and GLMs. The authors show how to extend the class of GLMs while retaining as much simplicity as possible. By maximizing and deriving other quantities from h-likelihood, they also demonstrate how to use a single algorithm for all members of the class, resulting in a faster algorithm as compared to existing alternatives. Complementing theory with examples, many of...

  20. Soil non-linearity and its effect on the dynamic behaviour of offshore platform foundations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madshus, Christian

    1997-07-01

    This thesis focuses on non-linear soil response to the type of cyclic loading experienced under offshore gravity base platform foundations. These loads are dominated by a cyclic component around the main wave frequency, which may well mobilize soil non-linearity under severe sea-states. Superimposed on this main component are lower level higher frequency loads caused by resonant oscillations of the platform. The thesis presents results of specially designed triaxial tests to simulate this loading condition. The tests simultaneously applied two cyclic load components at different frequencies and amplitudes. The measured soil response to each component has been isolated through a frequency domain separation. It was found that the soil responds to the superimposed high frequency low level component as if the soil had a cyclically time-varying stiffness. If the superimposed component does not lead to load reversals, this stiffness variation is controlled by the frequency and amplitude of the main load component and by the hysteretic non-linearity of the soil. If the superimposed component causes reversals, the influence of the hysteretic non-linearity on the stiffness variation is reduced. The higher the degree of reversal, the more this influence it taken over by the variation in the instantaneous unloading-reloading stiffness of the soil. It was also found that this type of two-frequency cyclic soil testing is generally superior over conventional single-frequency testing in the way it enforces the soil to reveal several of its inherent properties not deducible from ordinary tests. Benefits of analyzing non-linear response in the frequency domain is demonstrated throughout this thesis. The ability of various theoretical soil models to simulate the observed soil behaviour under two-frequency cyclic loading has, been investigated through numerical analyses. It was found that only those models that are based on kinematic hardening are able to reproduce what was observed

  1. Linear and Nonlinear Analysis of Brain Dynamics in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajedi, Firoozeh; Ahmadlou, Mehran; Vameghi, Roshanak; Gharib, Masoud; Hemmati, Sahel

    2013-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine linear and nonlinear changes of brain dynamics and their relationships with the motor dysfunctions in CP children. For this purpose power of EEG frequency bands (as a linear analysis) and EEG fractality (as a nonlinear analysis) were computed in eyes-closed resting state and statistically compared between 26…

  2. Dynamics and thermodynamics of linear quantum open systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Esteban A; Paz, Juan Pablo

    2013-03-29

    We analyze the evolution of the quantum state of networks of quantum oscillators coupled with arbitrary external environments. We show that the reduced density matrix of the network always obeys a local master equation with a simple analytical solution. We use this to study the emergence of thermodynamical laws in the long time regime demonstrating two main results: First, we show that it is impossible to build a quantum absorption refrigerator using linear networks (thus, nonlinearity is an essential resource for such refrigerators recently studied by Levy and Kosloff [Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 070604 (2012)] and Levy et al. [Phys. Rev. B 85, 061126 (2012)]). Then, we show that the third law imposes constraints on the low frequency behavior of the environmental spectral densities.

  3. Modulated molecular beam mass spectrometry: A generalized expression for the ''reaction product vector'' for linear systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, H.; Weinberg, W.H.

    1977-01-01

    A generalized expression is developed that relates the ''reaction product vector'', epsilon exp(-iphi), to the kinetic parameters of a linear system. The formalism is appropriate for the analysis of modulated molecular beam mass spectrometry data and facilitates the correlation of experimental results to (proposed) linear models. A study of stability criteria appropriate for modulated molecular beam mass spectrometry experiments is also presented. This investigation has led to interesting inherent limitations which have not heretofore been emphasized, as well as a delineation of the conditions under which stable chemical oscillations may occur in the reacting system

  4. On the dynamics of generalized coherent states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolov, B.A.; Trifonov, D.A.

    1981-01-01

    Using the Klauder approach the stable evolution of generalized coherent states (GCS) for some groups (SU(2), SU(1.1) and U(N)) is considered and it is shown that one and the same classical solution z(t) can correctly characterize the quantum evolution for many different (in general nonequivalent) systems. As examples some concrete systems are treated in greater detail: it is obtained that the nonstationary systems of the singular oscillator, of the particle motion in a magnetic field and of the oscillator with a friction all have stable SU(1.1) GCS whose quantum evolution is determined by one and the same classical function z(t). The physical properties of the constructed SU(1.1)GCS are discussed and it is shown particularly that in the case of discrete series Dsub(k)sup((+)) they are those states for which the quantum mean value coincides with the statistical one for an oscillator in a thermostat [ru

  5. NMR with generalized dynamics of spin and spatial coordinates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chang Jae.

    1987-11-01

    This work is concerned with theoretical and experimental aspects of the generalized dynamics of nuclear spin and spatial coordinates under magnetic-field pulses and mechanical motions. The main text begins with an introduction to the concept of ''fictitious'' interactions. A systematic method for constructing fictitious spin-1/2 operators is given. The interaction of spins with a quantized-field is described. The concept of the fictitious interactions under the irradiation of multiple pulses is utilized to design sequences for selectively averaging linear and bilinear operators. Relations between the low-field sequences and high-field iterative schemes are clarified. These relations and the transformation properties of the spin operators are exploited to develop schemes for heteronuclear decoupling of multi-level systems. The resulting schemes are evaluated for heteronuclear decoupling of a dilute spin-1/2 from a spin-1 in liquid crystal samples and from a homonuclear spin-1/2 pair in liquids. A relation between the spin and the spatial variables is discussed. The transformation properties of the spin operators are applied to spatial coordinates and utilized to develop methods for removing the orientational dependence responsible for line broadening in a powder sample. Elimination of the second order quadrupole effects, as well as the first order anisotropies is discussed. It is shown that various sources of line broadening can effectively be eliminated by spinning and/or hopping the sample about judiciously chosen axes along with appropriate radio-frequency pulse sequences

  6. Impulsive generalized function synchronization of complex dynamical networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Qunjiao; Chen, Juan; Wan, Li

    2013-01-01

    This Letter investigates generalized function synchronization of continuous and discrete complex networks by impulsive control. By constructing the reasonable corresponding impulsively controlled response networks, some criteria and corollaries are derived for the generalized function synchronization between the impulsively controlled complex networks, continuous and discrete networks are both included. Furthermore, the generalized linear synchronization and nonlinear synchronization are respectively illustrated by several examples. All the numerical simulations demonstrate the correctness of the theoretical results

  7. Suppression of chaos at slow variables by rapidly mixing fast dynamics through linear energy-preserving coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramov, R. V.

    2011-12-01

    Chaotic multiscale dynamical systems are common in many areas of science, one of the examples being the interaction of the low-frequency dynamics in the atmosphere with the fast turbulent weather dynamics. One of the key questions about chaotic multiscale systems is how the fast dynamics affects chaos at the slow variables, and, therefore, impacts uncertainty and predictability of the slow dynamics. Here we demonstrate that the linear slow-fast coupling with the total energy conservation property promotes the suppression of chaos at the slow variables through the rapid mixing at the fast variables, both theoretically and through numerical simulations. A suitable mathematical framework is developed, connecting the slow dynamics on the tangent subspaces to the infinite-time linear response of the mean state to a constant external forcing at the fast variables. Additionally, it is shown that the uncoupled dynamics for the slow variables may remain chaotic while the complete multiscale system loses chaos and becomes completely predictable at the slow variables through increasing chaos and turbulence at the fast variables. This result contradicts the common sense intuition, where, naturally, one would think that coupling a slow weakly chaotic system with another much faster and much stronger chaotic system would result in general increase of chaos at the slow variables.

  8. Dynamics of linear perturbations in f(R) gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bean, Rachel; Bernat, David; Pogosian, Levon; Silvestri, Alessandra; Trodden, Mark

    2007-01-01

    We consider predictions for structure formation from modifications to general relativity in which the Einstein-Hilbert action is replaced by a general function of the Ricci scalar. We work without fixing a gauge, as well as in explicit popular coordinate choices, appropriate for the modification of existing cosmological code. We present the framework in a comprehensive and practical form that can be directly compared to standard perturbation analyses. By considering the full evolution equations, we resolve perceived instabilities previously suggested, and instead find a suppression of perturbations. This result presents significant challenges for agreement with current cosmological structure formation observations. The findings apply to a broad range of forms of f(R) for which the modification becomes important at low curvatures, disfavoring them in comparison with the ΛCDM scenario. As such, these results provide a powerful method to rule out a wide class of modified gravity models aimed at providing an alternative explanation to the dark energy problem

  9. Application of the dynamical interpretation of general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deumens, E.

    1981-01-01

    The paper argues that the gravitational field seen in the fully dynamical way, described here, is a useful tool for understanding some fundamental results in a coherent general relativistic way. (author)

  10. Non-linear optical studies of adsorbates: Spectroscopy and dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Xiangdong.

    1989-08-01

    In the first part of this thesis, we have established a systematic procedure to apply the surface optical second-harmonic generation (SHG) technique to study surface dynamics of adsorbates. In particular, we have developed a novel technique for studies of molecular surface diffusions. In this technique, the laser-induced desorption with two interfering laser beams is used to produce a monolayer grating of adsorbates. The monolayer grating is detected with diffractions of optical SHG. By monitoring the first-order second-harmonic diffraction, we can follow the time evolution of the grating modulation from which we are able to deduce the diffusion constant of the adsorbates on the surface. We have successfully applied this technique to investigate the surface diffusion of CO on Ni(111). The unique advantages of this novel technique will enable us to readily study anisotropy of a surface diffusion with variable grating orientation, and to investigate diffusion processes of a large dynamic range with variable grating spacings. In the second part of this work, we demonstrate that optical infrared-visible sum-frequency generation (SFG) from surfaces can be used as a viable surface vibrational spectroscopic technique. We have successfully recorded the first vibrational spectrum of a monolayer of adsorbates using optical infrared-visible SFG. The qualitative and quantitative correlation of optical SFG with infrared absorption and Raman scattering spectroscopies are examined and experimentally demonstrated. We have further investigated the possibility to use transient infrared-visible SFG to probe vibrational transients and ultrafast relaxations on surfaces. 146 refs

  11. Non-linear optical studies of adsorbates: Spectroscopy and dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Xiangdong.

    1989-08-01

    In the first part of this thesis, we have established a systematic procedure to apply the surface optical second-harmonic generation (SHG) technique to study surface dynamics of adsorbates. In particular, we have developed a novel technique for studies of molecular surface diffusions. In this technique, the laser-induced desorption with two interfering laser beams is used to produce a monolayer grating of adsorbates. The monolayer grating is detected with diffractions of optical SHG. By monitoring the first-order second-harmonic diffraction, we can follow the time evolution of the grating modulation from which we are able to deduce the diffusion constant of the adsorbates on the surface. We have successfully applied this technique to investigate the surface diffusion of CO on Ni(111). The unique advantages of this novel technique will enable us to readily study anisotropy of a surface diffusion with variable grating orientation, and to investigate diffusion processes of a large dynamic range with variable grating spacings. In the second part of this work, we demonstrate that optical infrared-visible sum-frequency generation (SFG) from surfaces can be used as a viable surface vibrational spectroscopic technique. We have successfully recorded the first vibrational spectrum of a monolayer of adsorbates using optical infrared-visible SFG. The qualitative and quantitative correlation of optical SFG with infrared absorption and Raman scattering spectroscopies are examined and experimentally demonstrated. We have further investigated the possibility to use transient infrared-visible SFG to probe vibrational transients and ultrafast relaxations on surfaces. 146 refs.

  12. An analogue of Morse theory for planar linear networks and the generalized Steiner problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpunin, G A

    2000-01-01

    A study is made of the generalized Steiner problem: the problem of finding all the locally minimal networks spanning a given boundary set (terminal set). It is proposed to solve this problem by using an analogue of Morse theory developed here for planar linear networks. The space K of all planar linear networks spanning a given boundary set is constructed. The concept of a critical point and its index is defined for the length function l of a planar linear network. It is shown that locally minimal networks are local minima of l on K and are critical points of index 1. The theorem is proved that the sum of the indices of all the critical points is equal to χ(K)=1. This theorem is used to find estimates for the number of locally minimal networks spanning a given boundary set

  13. Linear electrical circuits. Definitions - General theorems; Circuits electriques lineaires. Definitions - Theoremes generaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escane, J.M. [Ecole Superieure d' Electricite, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2005-04-01

    The first part of this article defines the different elements of an electrical network and the models to represent them. Each model involves the current and the voltage as a function of time. Models involving time functions are simple but their use is not always easy. The Laplace transformation leads to a more convenient form where the variable is no more directly the time. This transformation leads also to the notion of transfer function which is the object of the second part. The third part aims at defining the fundamental operation rules of linear networks, commonly named 'general theorems': linearity principle and superimposition theorem, duality principle, Thevenin theorem, Norton theorem, Millman theorem, triangle-star and star-triangle transformations. These theorems allow to study complex power networks and to simplify the calculations. They are based on hypotheses, the first one is that all networks considered in this article are linear. (J.S.)

  14. Linear Dynamics and Control of a Kinematic Wobble–Yoke Stirling Engine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alvarez–Aguirre, Alejandro; García–Canseco, Eloísa; Scherpen, Jacquelien M.A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a control systems approach for the modeling and control of a kinematic wobble–yoke Stirling engine. The linear dynamics of the Stirling engine are analyzed based on the dynamical model of the system, developed by these authors. We show that the Stirling engine can be viewed as a

  15. Linear dynamics and control of a kinematic wobble-yoke Stirling engine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alvarez Aguirre, A.; Garcia Canseco, E.; Scherpen, J.M.A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a control systems approachfor the modeling and control of a kinematic wobbleyokeStirling engine. The linear dynamics of the Stirling engine are analyzed based on the dynamical model of the system, developed by the authors in [1]. We show that the Stirling engine can be viewed as

  16. Analysis of interactive fixed effects dynamic linear panel regression with measurement error

    OpenAIRE

    Nayoung Lee; Hyungsik Roger Moon; Martin Weidner

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies a simple dynamic panel linear regression model with interactive fixed effects in which the variable of interest is measured with error. To estimate the dynamic coefficient, we consider the least-squares minimum distance (LS-MD) estimation method.

  17. A cautionary note on generalized linear models for covariance of unbalanced longitudinal data

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Jianhua Z.

    2012-03-01

    Missing data in longitudinal studies can create enormous challenges in data analysis when coupled with the positive-definiteness constraint on a covariance matrix. For complete balanced data, the Cholesky decomposition of a covariance matrix makes it possible to remove the positive-definiteness constraint and use a generalized linear model setup to jointly model the mean and covariance using covariates (Pourahmadi, 2000). However, this approach may not be directly applicable when the longitudinal data are unbalanced, as coherent regression models for the dependence across all times and subjects may not exist. Within the existing generalized linear model framework, we show how to overcome this and other challenges by embedding the covariance matrix of the observed data for each subject in a larger covariance matrix and employing the familiar EM algorithm to compute the maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters and their standard errors. We illustrate and assess the methodology using real data sets and simulations. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  18. Generalized prolate spheroidal wave functions for optical finite fractional Fourier and linear canonical transforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Soo-Chang; Ding, Jian-Jiun

    2005-03-01

    Prolate spheroidal wave functions (PSWFs) are known to be useful for analyzing the properties of the finite-extension Fourier transform (fi-FT). We extend the theory of PSWFs for the finite-extension fractional Fourier transform, the finite-extension linear canonical transform, and the finite-extension offset linear canonical transform. These finite transforms are more flexible than the fi-FT and can model much more generalized optical systems. We also illustrate how to use the generalized prolate spheroidal functions we derive to analyze the energy-preservation ratio, the self-imaging phenomenon, and the resonance phenomenon of the finite-sized one-stage or multiple-stage optical systems.

  19. Linear relations in microbial reaction systems: a general overview of their origin, form, and use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorman, H J; Heijnen, J J; Ch A M Luyben, K

    1991-09-01

    In microbial reaction systems, there are a number of linear relations among net conversion rates. These can be very useful in the analysis of experimental data. This article provides a general approach for the formation and application of the linear relations. Two type of system descriptions, one considering the biomass as a black box and the other based on metabolic pathways, are encountered. These are defined in a linear vector and matrix algebra framework. A correct a priori description can be obtained by three useful tests: the independency, consistency, and observability tests. The independency are different. The black box approach provides only conservations relations. They are derived from element, electrical charge, energy, and Gibbs energy balances. The metabolic approach provides, in addition to the conservation relations, metabolic and reaction relations. These result from component, energy, and Gibbs energy balances. Thus it is more attractive to use the metabolic description than the black box approach. A number of different types of linear relations given in the literature are reviewed. They are classified according to the different categories that result from the black box or the metabolic system description. Validation of hypotheses related to metabolic pathways can be supported by experimental validation of the linear metabolic relations. However, definite proof from biochemical evidence remains indispensable.

  20. Use of multivariate extensions of generalized linear models in the analysis of data from clinical trials

    OpenAIRE

    ALONSO ABAD, Ariel; Rodriguez, O.; TIBALDI, Fabian; CORTINAS ABRAHANTES, Jose

    2002-01-01

    In medical studies the categorical endpoints are quite often. Even though nowadays some models for handling this multicategorical variables have been developed their use is not common. This work shows an application of the Multivariate Generalized Linear Models to the analysis of Clinical Trials data. After a theoretical introduction models for ordinal and nominal responses are applied and the main results are discussed. multivariate analysis; multivariate logistic regression; multicategor...

  1. Log-normal frailty models fitted as Poisson generalized linear mixed models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Katharina; Wienke, Andreas; Kuss, Oliver

    2016-12-01

    The equivalence of a survival model with a piecewise constant baseline hazard function and a Poisson regression model has been known since decades. As shown in recent studies, this equivalence carries over to clustered survival data: A frailty model with a log-normal frailty term can be interpreted and estimated as a generalized linear mixed model with a binary response, a Poisson likelihood, and a specific offset. Proceeding this way, statistical theory and software for generalized linear mixed models are readily available for fitting frailty models. This gain in flexibility comes at the small price of (1) having to fix the number of pieces for the baseline hazard in advance and (2) having to "explode" the data set by the number of pieces. In this paper we extend the simulations of former studies by using a more realistic baseline hazard (Gompertz) and by comparing the model under consideration with competing models. Furthermore, the SAS macro %PCFrailty is introduced to apply the Poisson generalized linear mixed approach to frailty models. The simulations show good results for the shared frailty model. Our new %PCFrailty macro provides proper estimates, especially in case of 4 events per piece. The suggested Poisson generalized linear mixed approach for log-normal frailty models based on the %PCFrailty macro provides several advantages in the analysis of clustered survival data with respect to more flexible modelling of fixed and random effects, exact (in the sense of non-approximate) maximum likelihood estimation, and standard errors and different types of confidence intervals for all variance parameters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The regression-calibration method for fitting generalized linear models with additive measurement error

    OpenAIRE

    James W. Hardin; Henrik Schmeidiche; Raymond J. Carroll

    2003-01-01

    This paper discusses and illustrates the method of regression calibration. This is a straightforward technique for fitting models with additive measurement error. We present this discussion in terms of generalized linear models (GLMs) following the notation defined in Hardin and Carroll (2003). Discussion will include specified measurement error, measurement error estimated by replicate error-prone proxies, and measurement error estimated by instrumental variables. The discussion focuses on s...

  3. Synthesis of general linear networks using causal and J-isometric dilations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Attellis, C.E.

    1977-06-01

    The problem of the synthesis of linear systems characterized by their scattering operator is studied. This problem is considered solved once an adequate dilation for the operator is obtained, from which the synthesis is performed following the method of Saeks (35) and Levan (19). Known results appear sistematized and generalized in this paper, obtaining an unique method of synthesis for different caterories of operators. (Author) [es

  4. A General Construction of Linear Differential Equations with Solutions of Prescribed Properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Neuman, František

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 1 (2004), s. 71-76 ISSN 0893-9659 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1019902; GA ČR GA201/99/0295 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1019905 Keywords : construction of linear differential equations * prescribed qualitative properties of solutions Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.414, year: 2004

  5. Predicting non-linear dynamics by stable local learning in a recurrent spiking neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilra, Aditya; Gerstner, Wulfram

    2017-11-27

    The brain needs to predict how the body reacts to motor commands, but how a network of spiking neurons can learn non-linear body dynamics using local, online and stable learning rules is unclear. Here, we present a supervised learning scheme for the feedforward and recurrent connections in a network of heterogeneous spiking neurons. The error in the output is fed back through fixed random connections with a negative gain, causing the network to follow the desired dynamics. The rule for Feedback-based Online Local Learning Of Weights (FOLLOW) is local in the sense that weight changes depend on the presynaptic activity and the error signal projected onto the postsynaptic neuron. We provide examples of learning linear, non-linear and chaotic dynamics, as well as the dynamics of a two-link arm. Under reasonable approximations, we show, using the Lyapunov method, that FOLLOW learning is uniformly stable, with the error going to zero asymptotically.

  6. Interactions in Generalized Linear Models: Theoretical Issues and an Application to Personal Vote-Earning Attributes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-han Tsai

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available There is some confusion in political science, and the social sciences in general, about the meaning and interpretation of interaction effects in models with non-interval, non-normal outcome variables. Often these terms are casually thrown into a model specification without observing that their presence fundamentally changes the interpretation of the resulting coefficients. This article explains the conditional nature of reported coefficients in models with interactions, defining the necessarily different interpretation required by generalized linear models. Methodological issues are illustrated with an application to voter information structured by electoral systems and resulting legislative behavior and democratic representation in comparative politics.

  7. Path integral solution of linear second order partial differential equations I: the general construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaChapelle, J.

    2004-01-01

    A path integral is presented that solves a general class of linear second order partial differential equations with Dirichlet/Neumann boundary conditions. Elementary kernels are constructed for both Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. The general solution can be specialized to solve elliptic, parabolic, and hyperbolic partial differential equations with boundary conditions. This extends the well-known path integral solution of the Schroedinger/diffusion equation in unbounded space. The construction is based on a framework for functional integration introduced by Cartier/DeWitt-Morette

  8. Extending Local Canonical Correlation Analysis to Handle General Linear Contrasts for fMRI Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingwu Jin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Local canonical correlation analysis (CCA is a multivariate method that has been proposed to more accurately determine activation patterns in fMRI data. In its conventional formulation, CCA has several drawbacks that limit its usefulness in fMRI. A major drawback is that, unlike the general linear model (GLM, a test of general linear contrasts of the temporal regressors has not been incorporated into the CCA formalism. To overcome this drawback, a novel directional test statistic was derived using the equivalence of multivariate multiple regression (MVMR and CCA. This extension will allow CCA to be used for inference of general linear contrasts in more complicated fMRI designs without reparameterization of the design matrix and without reestimating the CCA solutions for each particular contrast of interest. With the proper constraints on the spatial coefficients of CCA, this test statistic can yield a more powerful test on the inference of evoked brain regional activations from noisy fMRI data than the conventional t-test in the GLM. The quantitative results from simulated and pseudoreal data and activation maps from fMRI data were used to demonstrate the advantage of this novel test statistic.

  9. Efficient Brownian Dynamics of rigid colloids in linear flow fields based on the grand mobility matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanisamy, Duraivelan; den Otter, Wouter K.

    2018-05-01

    We present an efficient general method to simulate in the Stokesian limit the coupled translational and rotational dynamics of arbitrarily shaped colloids subject to external potential forces and torques, linear flow fields, and Brownian motion. The colloid's surface is represented by a collection of spherical primary particles. The hydrodynamic interactions between these particles, here approximated at the Rotne-Prager-Yamakawa level, are evaluated only once to generate the body's (11 × 11) grand mobility matrix. The constancy of this matrix in the body frame, combined with the convenient properties of quaternions in rotational Brownian Dynamics, enables an efficient simulation of the body's motion. Simulations in quiescent fluids yield correct translational and rotational diffusion behaviour and sample Boltzmann's equilibrium distribution. Simulations of ellipsoids and spherical caps under shear, in the absence of thermal fluctuations, yield periodic orbits in excellent agreement with the theories by Jeffery and Dorrepaal. The time-varying stress tensors provide the Einstein coefficient and viscosity of dilute suspensions of these bodies.

  10. Koopman Invariant Subspaces and Finite Linear Representations of Nonlinear Dynamical Systems for Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunton, Steven L; Brunton, Bingni W; Proctor, Joshua L; Kutz, J Nathan

    2016-01-01

    In this wIn this work, we explore finite-dimensional linear representations of nonlinear dynamical systems by restricting the Koopman operator to an invariant subspace spanned by specially chosen observable functions. The Koopman operator is an infinite-dimensional linear operator that evolves functions of the state of a dynamical system. Dominant terms in the Koopman expansion are typically computed using dynamic mode decomposition (DMD). DMD uses linear measurements of the state variables, and it has recently been shown that this may be too restrictive for nonlinear systems. Choosing the right nonlinear observable functions to form an invariant subspace where it is possible to obtain linear reduced-order models, especially those that are useful for control, is an open challenge. Here, we investigate the choice of observable functions for Koopman analysis that enable the use of optimal linear control techniques on nonlinear problems. First, to include a cost on the state of the system, as in linear quadratic regulator (LQR) control, it is helpful to include these states in the observable subspace, as in DMD. However, we find that this is only possible when there is a single isolated fixed point, as systems with multiple fixed points or more complicated attractors are not globally topologically conjugate to a finite-dimensional linear system, and cannot be represented by a finite-dimensional linear Koopman subspace that includes the state. We then present a data-driven strategy to identify relevant observable functions for Koopman analysis by leveraging a new algorithm to determine relevant terms in a dynamical system by ℓ1-regularized regression of the data in a nonlinear function space; we also show how this algorithm is related to DMD. Finally, we demonstrate the usefulness of nonlinear observable subspaces in the design of Koopman operator optimal control laws for fully nonlinear systems using techniques from linear optimal control.ork, we explore finite

  11. Dynamic Response of Non-Linear Inelsatic Systems to Poisson-Driven Stochastic Excitations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren R. K.; Iwankiewicz, R.

    of an equivalent linearization techni que and substituting the non-analytical non-linearity in the original system by the cubic form in the pertinent state variables. The response moments are evaluated for the equivalent systems with the help of a generalized Ito's differential rule. The analytical results...

  12. Koopman Invariant Subspaces and Finite Linear Representations of Nonlinear Dynamical Systems for Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunton, Steven L.; Brunton, Bingni W.; Proctor, Joshua L.; Kutz, J. Nathan

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we explore finite-dimensional linear representations of nonlinear dynamical systems by restricting the Koopman operator to an invariant subspace spanned by specially chosen observable functions. The Koopman operator is an infinite-dimensional linear operator that evolves functions of the state of a dynamical system. Dominant terms in the Koopman expansion are typically computed using dynamic mode decomposition (DMD). DMD uses linear measurements of the state variables, and it has recently been shown that this may be too restrictive for nonlinear systems. Choosing the right nonlinear observable functions to form an invariant subspace where it is possible to obtain linear reduced-order models, especially those that are useful for control, is an open challenge. Here, we investigate the choice of observable functions for Koopman analysis that enable the use of optimal linear control techniques on nonlinear problems. First, to include a cost on the state of the system, as in linear quadratic regulator (LQR) control, it is helpful to include these states in the observable subspace, as in DMD. However, we find that this is only possible when there is a single isolated fixed point, as systems with multiple fixed points or more complicated attractors are not globally topologically conjugate to a finite-dimensional linear system, and cannot be represented by a finite-dimensional linear Koopman subspace that includes the state. We then present a data-driven strategy to identify relevant observable functions for Koopman analysis by leveraging a new algorithm to determine relevant terms in a dynamical system by ℓ1-regularized regression of the data in a nonlinear function space; we also show how this algorithm is related to DMD. Finally, we demonstrate the usefulness of nonlinear observable subspaces in the design of Koopman operator optimal control laws for fully nonlinear systems using techniques from linear optimal control. PMID:26919740

  13. The topology of non-linear global carbon dynamics: from tipping points to planetary boundaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderies, J M; Carpenter, S R; Steffen, Will; Rockström, Johan

    2013-01-01

    We present a minimal model of land use and carbon cycle dynamics and use it to explore the relationship between non-linear dynamics and planetary boundaries. Only the most basic interactions between land cover and terrestrial, atmospheric, and marine carbon stocks are considered in the model. Our goal is not to predict global carbon dynamics as it occurs in the actual Earth System. Rather, we construct a conceptually reasonable heuristic model of a feedback system between different carbon stocks that captures the qualitative features of the actual Earth System and use it to explore the topology of the boundaries of what can be called a ‘safe operating space’ for humans. The model analysis illustrates the existence of dynamic, non-linear tipping points in carbon cycle dynamics and the potential complexity of planetary boundaries. Finally, we use the model to illustrate some challenges associated with navigating planetary boundaries. (letter)

  14. The topology of non-linear global carbon dynamics: from tipping points to planetary boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderies, J. M.; Carpenter, S. R.; Steffen, Will; Rockström, Johan

    2013-12-01

    We present a minimal model of land use and carbon cycle dynamics and use it to explore the relationship between non-linear dynamics and planetary boundaries. Only the most basic interactions between land cover and terrestrial, atmospheric, and marine carbon stocks are considered in the model. Our goal is not to predict global carbon dynamics as it occurs in the actual Earth System. Rather, we construct a conceptually reasonable heuristic model of a feedback system between different carbon stocks that captures the qualitative features of the actual Earth System and use it to explore the topology of the boundaries of what can be called a ‘safe operating space’ for humans. The model analysis illustrates the existence of dynamic, non-linear tipping points in carbon cycle dynamics and the potential complexity of planetary boundaries. Finally, we use the model to illustrate some challenges associated with navigating planetary boundaries.

  15. Normality of raw data in general linear models: The most widespread myth in statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kery, Marc; Hatfield, Jeff S.

    2003-01-01

    In years of statistical consulting for ecologists and wildlife biologists, by far the most common misconception we have come across has been the one about normality in general linear models. These comprise a very large part of the statistical models used in ecology and include t tests, simple and multiple linear regression, polynomial regression, and analysis of variance (ANOVA) and covariance (ANCOVA). There is a widely held belief that the normality assumption pertains to the raw data rather than to the model residuals. We suspect that this error may also occur in countless published studies, whenever the normality assumption is tested prior to analysis. This may lead to the use of nonparametric alternatives (if there are any), when parametric tests would indeed be appropriate, or to use of transformations of raw data, which may introduce hidden assumptions such as multiplicative effects on the natural scale in the case of log-transformed data. Our aim here is to dispel this myth. We very briefly describe relevant theory for two cases of general linear models to show that the residuals need to be normally distributed if tests requiring normality are to be used, such as t and F tests. We then give two examples demonstrating that the distribution of the response variable may be nonnormal, and yet the residuals are well behaved. We do not go into the issue of how to test normality; instead we display the distributions of response variables and residuals graphically.

  16. The potential in general linear electrodynamics. Causal structure, propagators and quantization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siemssen, Daniel [Department of Mathematical Methods in Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw (Poland); Pfeifer, Christian [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Leibniz Universitaet Hannover (Germany); Center of Applied Space Technology and Microgravity (ZARM), Universitaet Bremen (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    From an axiomatic point of view, the fundamental input for a theory of electrodynamics are Maxwell's equations dF=0 (or F=dA) and dH=J, and a constitutive law H=F, which relates the field strength 2-form F and the excitation 2-form H. In this talk we consider general linear electrodynamics, the theory of electrodynamics defined by a linear constitutive law. The best known application of this theory is the effective description of electrodynamics inside (linear) media (e.g. birefringence). We analyze the classical theory of the electromagnetic potential A before we use methods familiar from mathematical quantum field theory in curved spacetimes to quantize it. Our analysis of the classical theory contains the derivation of retarded and advanced propagators, the analysis of the causal structure on the basis of the constitutive law (instead of a metric) and a discussion of the classical phase space. This classical analysis sets the stage for the construction of the quantum field algebra and quantum states, including a (generalized) microlocal spectrum condition.

  17. On non-linear dynamics of a coupled electro-mechanical system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darula, Radoslav; Sorokin, Sergey

    2012-01-01

    Electro-mechanical devices are an example of coupled multi-disciplinary weakly non-linear systems. Dynamics of such systems is described in this paper by means of two mutually coupled differential equations. The first one, describing an electrical system, is of the first order and the second one...... excitation. The results are verified using a numerical model created in MATLAB Simulink environment. Effect of non-linear terms on dynamical response of the coupled system is investigated; the backbone and envelope curves are analyzed. The two phenomena, which exist in the electro-mechanical system: (a......, for mechanical system, is of the second order. The governing equations are coupled via linear and weakly non-linear terms. A classical perturbation method, a method of multiple scales, is used to find a steadystate response of the electro-mechanical system exposed to a harmonic close-resonance mechanical...

  18. Analytical study of dynamic aperture for storage ring by using successive linearization method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Jiancheng; Xia Jiawen; Wu Junxia; Xia Guoxing; Liu Wei; Yin Xuejun

    2004-01-01

    The determination of dynamic aperture is a critical issue in circular accelerator. In this paper, authors solved the equation of motion including non-linear forces by using successive linearization method and got a criterion for the determining of the dynamic aperture of the machine. Applying this criterion, a storage ring with FODO lattice has been studied. The results are agree well with the tracking results in a large range of linear turn (Q). The purpose is to improve our understanding of the mechanisms driving the particle motion in the presence of non-linear forces and got another mechanism driving instability of particle in storage ring-parametric resonance caused by 'fluctuating transfer matrices' at small amplification

  19. Characterising non-linear dynamics in nocturnal breathing patterns of healthy infants using recurrence quantification analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrill, Philip I; Wilson, Stephen J; Suresh, Sadasivam; Cooper, David M; Dakin, Carolyn

    2013-05-01

    Breathing dynamics vary between infant sleep states, and are likely to exhibit non-linear behaviour. This study applied the non-linear analytical tool recurrence quantification analysis (RQA) to 400 breath interval periods of REM and N-REM sleep, and then using an overlapping moving window. The RQA variables were different between sleep states, with REM radius 150% greater than N-REM radius, and REM laminarity 79% greater than N-REM laminarity. RQA allowed the observation of temporal variations in non-linear breathing dynamics across a night's sleep at 30s resolution, and provides a basis for quantifying changes in complex breathing dynamics with physiology and pathology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Dynamic imperfections and optimized feedback design in the Compact Linear Collider main linac

    CERN Document Server

    Eliasson, Peder

    2008-01-01

    The Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) main linac is sensitive to dynamic imperfections such as element jitter, injected beam jitter, and ground motion. These effects cause emittance growth that, in case of ground motion, has to be counteracted by a trajectory feedback system. The feedback system itself will, due to jitter effects and imperfect beam position monitors (BPMs), indirectly cause emittance growth. Fast and accurate simulations of both the direct and indirect effects are desirable, but due to the many elements of the CLIC main linac, simulations may become very time consuming. In this paper, an efficient way of simulating linear (or nearly linear) dynamic effects is described. The method is also shown to facilitate the analytic determination of emittance growth caused by the different dynamic imperfections while using a trajectory feedback system. Emittance growth expressions are derived for quadrupole, accelerating structure, and beam jitter, for ground motion, and for noise in the feedback BPMs. Fina...

  1. Non-Gaussian lineshapes and dynamics of time-resolved linear and nonlinear (correlation) spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinpajooh, Mohammadhasan; Matyushov, Dmitry V

    2014-07-17

    Signatures of nonlinear and non-Gaussian dynamics in time-resolved linear and nonlinear (correlation) 2D spectra are analyzed in a model considering a linear plus quadratic dependence of the spectroscopic transition frequency on a Gaussian nuclear coordinate of the thermal bath (quadratic coupling). This new model is contrasted to the commonly assumed linear dependence of the transition frequency on the medium nuclear coordinates (linear coupling). The linear coupling model predicts equality between the Stokes shift and equilibrium correlation functions of the transition frequency and time-independent spectral width. Both predictions are often violated, and we are asking here the question of whether a nonlinear solvent response and/or non-Gaussian dynamics are required to explain these observations. We find that correlation functions of spectroscopic observables calculated in the quadratic coupling model depend on the chromophore's electronic state and the spectral width gains time dependence, all in violation of the predictions of the linear coupling models. Lineshape functions of 2D spectra are derived assuming Ornstein-Uhlenbeck dynamics of the bath nuclear modes. The model predicts asymmetry of 2D correlation plots and bending of the center line. The latter is often used to extract two-point correlation functions from 2D spectra. The dynamics of the transition frequency are non-Gaussian. However, the effect of non-Gaussian dynamics is limited to the third-order (skewness) time correlation function, without affecting the time correlation functions of higher order. The theory is tested against molecular dynamics simulations of a model polar-polarizable chromophore dissolved in a force field water.

  2. Optimal Linear Responses for Markov Chains and Stochastically Perturbed Dynamical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antown, Fadi; Dragičević, Davor; Froyland, Gary

    2018-03-01

    The linear response of a dynamical system refers to changes to properties of the system when small external perturbations are applied. We consider the little-studied question of selecting an optimal perturbation so as to (i) maximise the linear response of the equilibrium distribution of the system, (ii) maximise the linear response of the expectation of a specified observable, and (iii) maximise the linear response of the rate of convergence of the system to the equilibrium distribution. We also consider the inhomogeneous, sequential, or time-dependent situation where the governing dynamics is not stationary and one wishes to select a sequence of small perturbations so as to maximise the overall linear response at some terminal time. We develop the theory for finite-state Markov chains, provide explicit solutions for some illustrative examples, and numerically apply our theory to stochastically perturbed dynamical systems, where the Markov chain is replaced by a matrix representation of an approximate annealed transfer operator for the random dynamical system.

  3. Analysis of dental caries using generalized linear and count regression models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javali M. Phil

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Generalized linear models (GLM are generalization of linear regression models, which allow fitting regression models to response data in all the sciences especially medical and dental sciences that follow a general exponential family. These are flexible and widely used class of such models that can accommodate response variables. Count data are frequently characterized by overdispersion and excess zeros. Zero-inflated count models provide a parsimonious yet powerful way to model this type of situation. Such models assume that the data are a mixture of two separate data generation processes: one generates only zeros, and the other is either a Poisson or a negative binomial data-generating process. Zero inflated count regression models such as the zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP, zero-inflated negative binomial (ZINB regression models have been used to handle dental caries count data with many zeros. We present an evaluation framework to the suitability of applying the GLM, Poisson, NB, ZIP and ZINB to dental caries data set where the count data may exhibit evidence of many zeros and over-dispersion. Estimation of the model parameters using the method of maximum likelihood is provided. Based on the Vuong test statistic and the goodness of fit measure for dental caries data, the NB and ZINB regression models perform better than other count regression models.

  4. Analytical vs. Simulation Solution Techniques for Pulse Problems in Non-linear Stochastic Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwankiewicz, R.; Nielsen, Søren R. K.

    Advantages and disadvantages of available analytical and simulation techniques for pulse problems in non-linear stochastic dynamics are discussed. First, random pulse problems, both those which do and do not lead to Markov theory, are presented. Next, the analytical and analytically-numerical tec......Advantages and disadvantages of available analytical and simulation techniques for pulse problems in non-linear stochastic dynamics are discussed. First, random pulse problems, both those which do and do not lead to Markov theory, are presented. Next, the analytical and analytically...

  5. Extension to linear dynamics for hybrid stress finite element formulation based on additional displacements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumihara, K.

    Based upon legitimate variational principles, one microscopic-macroscopic finite element formulation for linear dynamics is presented by Hybrid Stress Finite Element Method. The microscopic application of Geometric Perturbation introduced by Pian and the introduction of infinitesimal limit core element (Baby Element) have been consistently combined according to the flexible and inherent interpretation of the legitimate variational principles initially originated by Pian and Tong. The conceptual development based upon Hybrid Finite Element Method is extended to linear dynamics with the introduction of physically meaningful higher modes.

  6. Application of Dynamic Systems Family for Synthesis of Fuzzy Control with Account of Non-linearities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andriy Lozynskyy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic system with nonlinearities has been considered. This system has been divided into a set of linear subsystems. A fuzzy controller of the considered system has been synthesized. It takes into account nonlinearities of the system and provides smooth switching between controllers of the linear subsystems. An unstable subsystem has been utilized, which provides better dynamic characteristics of the considered system. Comparison with traditional controller has been conducted. Corresponding qualitative and quantitative estimates have been provided. They testify the expediency of the proposed approach.

  7. Projective Synchronization of Chaotic Discrete Dynamical Systems via Linear State Error Feedback Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baogui Xin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A projective synchronization scheme for a kind of n-dimensional discrete dynamical system is proposed by means of a linear feedback control technique. The scheme consists of master and slave discrete dynamical systems coupled by linear state error variables. A kind of novel 3-D chaotic discrete system is constructed, to which the test for chaos is applied. By using the stability principles of an upper or lower triangular matrix, two controllers for achieving projective synchronization are designed and illustrated with the novel systems. Lastly some numerical simulations are employed to validate the effectiveness of the proposed projective synchronization scheme.

  8. Position Control of Linear Synchronous Motor Drives with Exploitation of Forced Dynamics Control Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Vittek

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Closed-loop position control of mechanisms directly driven by linear synchronous motors with permanent magnets is presented. The control strategy is based on forced dynamic control, which is a form of feedback linearisation, yielding a non-liner multivariable control law to obtain a prescribed linear speed dynamics together with the vector control condition of mutal orthogonality between the stator current and magnetic flux vectors (assuming perfect estimates of the plant parameters. Outer position control loop is closed via simple feedback with proportional gain. Simulations of the design control sysstem, including the drive with power electronic switching, predict the intended drive performance.

  9. Study on non-linear bistable dynamics model based EEG signal discrimination analysis method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Xiaoguo; Lin, Han; Hui, Guohua

    2015-01-01

    Electroencephalogram (EEG) is the recording of electrical activity along the scalp. EEG measures voltage fluctuations generating from ionic current flows within the neurons of the brain. EEG signal is looked as one of the most important factors that will be focused in the next 20 years. In this paper, EEG signal discrimination based on non-linear bistable dynamical model was proposed. EEG signals were processed by non-linear bistable dynamical model, and features of EEG signals were characterized by coherence index. Experimental results showed that the proposed method could properly extract the features of different EEG signals.

  10. Linear hypergeneralization of learned dynamics across movement speeds reveals anisotropic, gain-encoding primitives for motor adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joiner, Wilsaan M; Ajayi, Obafunso; Sing, Gary C; Smith, Maurice A

    2011-01-01

    The ability to generalize learned motor actions to new contexts is a key feature of the motor system. For example, the ability to ride a bicycle or swing a racket is often first developed at lower speeds and later applied to faster velocities. A number of previous studies have examined the generalization of motor adaptation across movement directions and found that the learned adaptation decays in a pattern consistent with the existence of motor primitives that display narrow Gaussian tuning. However, few studies have examined the generalization of motor adaptation across movement speeds. Following adaptation to linear velocity-dependent dynamics during point-to-point reaching arm movements at one speed, we tested the ability of subjects to transfer this adaptation to short-duration higher-speed movements aimed at the same target. We found near-perfect linear extrapolation of the trained adaptation with respect to both the magnitude and the time course of the velocity profiles associated with the high-speed movements: a 69% increase in movement speed corresponded to a 74% extrapolation of the trained adaptation. The close match between the increase in movement speed and the corresponding increase in adaptation beyond what was trained indicates linear hypergeneralization. Computational modeling shows that this pattern of linear hypergeneralization across movement speeds is not compatible with previous models of adaptation in which motor primitives display isotropic Gaussian tuning of motor output around their preferred velocities. Instead, we show that this generalization pattern indicates that the primitives involved in the adaptation to viscous dynamics display anisotropic tuning in velocity space and encode the gain between motor output and motion state rather than motor output itself.

  11. Application of the Hyper-Poisson Generalized Linear Model for Analyzing Motor Vehicle Crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazraee, S Hadi; Sáez-Castillo, Antonio Jose; Geedipally, Srinivas Reddy; Lord, Dominique

    2015-05-01

    The hyper-Poisson distribution can handle both over- and underdispersion, and its generalized linear model formulation allows the dispersion of the distribution to be observation-specific and dependent on model covariates. This study's objective is to examine the potential applicability of a newly proposed generalized linear model framework for the hyper-Poisson distribution in analyzing motor vehicle crash count data. The hyper-Poisson generalized linear model was first fitted to intersection crash data from Toronto, characterized by overdispersion, and then to crash data from railway-highway crossings in Korea, characterized by underdispersion. The results of this study are promising. When fitted to the Toronto data set, the goodness-of-fit measures indicated that the hyper-Poisson model with a variable dispersion parameter provided a statistical fit as good as the traditional negative binomial model. The hyper-Poisson model was also successful in handling the underdispersed data from Korea; the model performed as well as the gamma probability model and the Conway-Maxwell-Poisson model previously developed for the same data set. The advantages of the hyper-Poisson model studied in this article are noteworthy. Unlike the negative binomial model, which has difficulties in handling underdispersed data, the hyper-Poisson model can handle both over- and underdispersed crash data. Although not a major issue for the Conway-Maxwell-Poisson model, the effect of each variable on the expected mean of crashes is easily interpretable in the case of this new model. © 2014 Society for Risk Analysis.

  12. Stochastic linearization of turbulent dynamics of dispersive waves in equilibrium and non-equilibrium state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Shixiao W; Lu, Haihao; Zhou, Douglas; Cai, David

    2016-01-01

    Characterizing dispersive wave turbulence in the long time dynamics is central to understanding of many natural phenomena, e.g., in atmosphere ocean dynamics, nonlinear optics, and plasma physics. Using the β -Fermi–Pasta–Ulam nonlinear system as a prototypical example, we show that in thermal equilibrium and non-equilibrium steady state the turbulent state even in the strongly nonlinear regime possesses an effective linear stochastic structure in renormalized normal variables. In this framework, we can well characterize the spatiotemporal dynamics, which are dominated by long-wavelength renormalized waves. We further demonstrate that the energy flux is nearly saturated by the long-wavelength renormalized waves in non-equilibrium steady state. The scenario of such effective linear stochastic dynamics can be extended to study turbulent states in other nonlinear wave systems. (paper)

  13. More LNG ship orders for GD (General Dynamics Corp. )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-09-01

    General Dynamics Corp. has been awarded a contract for two LNG tankers to transport LNG from Algeria to Lake Charles, La., with the U.S. Maritime Administration funding 25.5% of the $155 million cost of each vessel. The two ships are being built for Lachmar Inc., of Delaware, a partnership composed of Morgas Inc., Pantheon Inc., and Pelmar Inc., subsidiaries respectively of Moore-McCormack Bulk Transport Inc., General Dynamics Corp., and Panhandle Eastern Pipe Line Co. Upon completion in Dec. 1979 and Mar. 1980, the ships will be operated by Gastrans Inc. of Delaware, which is also a subsidiary of Moore-McCormack.

  14. A generalization of Dirac non-linear electrodynamics, and spinning charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues Junior, W.A.; Vaz Junior, J.; Recami, E.

    1992-08-01

    The Dirac non-linear electrodynamics is generalized by introducing two potentials (namely, the vector potential a and the pseudo-vector potential γ 5 B of the electromagnetic theory with charges and magnetic monopoles), and by imposing the pseudoscalar part of the product W W * to BE zero, with W = A + γ 5 B. Also, is demonstrated that the field equations of such a theory posses a soliton-like solution which can represent a priori a charged particle. (L.C.J.A.)

  15. Analysis of positron lifetime spectra using quantified maximum entropy and a general linear filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, A.; Peter, M.; Hoffmann, L.

    1993-01-01

    Two new approaches are used to analyze positron annihilation lifetime spectra. A general linear filter is designed to filter the noise from lifetime data. The quantified maximum entropy method is used to solve the inverse problem of finding the lifetimes and intensities present in data. We determine optimal values of parameters needed for fitting using Bayesian methods. Estimates of errors are provided. We present results on simulated and experimental data with extensive tests to show the utility of this method and compare it with other existing methods. (orig.)

  16. General formulae for polarization observables in deuteron electrodisintegration and linear relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arenhoevel, H.; Leidemann, W.; Tomusiak, E.L.

    1993-01-01

    Formal expressions are derived for all possible polarization observables in deuteron electrodisintegration with longitudinally polarized incoming electrons, oriented deuteron targets and polarization analysis of outgoing nucleons. They are given in terms of general structure functions which can be determined experimentally. These structure functions are Hermitean forms of the T-matrix elements which, in principle, allow the determination of all T-matrix elements up to an arbitrary common phase. Since the set of structure functions is overcomplete, linear relations among various structure functions exist which are derived explicitly

  17. New conditions on synchronization of networks of linearly coupled dynamical systems with non-Lipschitz right-hand sides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Lu, Wenlian; Chen, Tianping

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we study synchronization of networks of linearly coupled dynamical systems. The node dynamics of the network can be very general, which may not satisfy the QUAD condition. We derive sufficient conditions for synchronization, which can be regarded as extensions of previous results. These results can be employed to networks of coupled systems, of which, in particular, the node dynamics have non-Lipschitz or even discontinuous right-hand sides. We also give several corollaries where the synchronization of some specific non-QUAD systems can be deduced. As an application, we propose a scheme to realize synchronization of coupled switching systems via coupling the signals which drive the switchings. Examples with numerical simulations are also provided to illustrate the theoretical results. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A guide to developing resource selection functions from telemetry data using generalized estimating equations and generalized linear mixed models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Koper

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Resource selection functions (RSF are often developed using satellite (ARGOS or Global Positioning System (GPS telemetry datasets, which provide a large amount of highly correlated data. We discuss and compare the use of generalized linear mixed-effects models (GLMM and generalized estimating equations (GEE for using this type of data to develop RSFs. GLMMs directly model differences among caribou, while GEEs depend on an adjustment of the standard error to compensate for correlation of data points within individuals. Empirical standard errors, rather than model-based standard errors, must be used with either GLMMs or GEEs when developing RSFs. There are several important differences between these approaches; in particular, GLMMs are best for producing parameter estimates that predict how management might influence individuals, while GEEs are best for predicting how management might influence populations. As the interpretation, value, and statistical significance of both types of parameter estimates differ, it is important that users select the appropriate analytical method. We also outline the use of k-fold cross validation to assess fit of these models. Both GLMMs and GEEs hold promise for developing RSFs as long as they are used appropriately.

  19. Detecting treatment-subgroup interactions in clustered data with generalized linear mixed-effects model trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fokkema, M; Smits, N; Zeileis, A; Hothorn, T; Kelderman, H

    2017-10-25

    Identification of subgroups of patients for whom treatment A is more effective than treatment B, and vice versa, is of key importance to the development of personalized medicine. Tree-based algorithms are helpful tools for the detection of such interactions, but none of the available algorithms allow for taking into account clustered or nested dataset structures, which are particularly common in psychological research. Therefore, we propose the generalized linear mixed-effects model tree (GLMM tree) algorithm, which allows for the detection of treatment-subgroup interactions, while accounting for the clustered structure of a dataset. The algorithm uses model-based recursive partitioning to detect treatment-subgroup interactions, and a GLMM to estimate the random-effects parameters. In a simulation study, GLMM trees show higher accuracy in recovering treatment-subgroup interactions, higher predictive accuracy, and lower type II error rates than linear-model-based recursive partitioning and mixed-effects regression trees. Also, GLMM trees show somewhat higher predictive accuracy than linear mixed-effects models with pre-specified interaction effects, on average. We illustrate the application of GLMM trees on an individual patient-level data meta-analysis on treatments for depression. We conclude that GLMM trees are a promising exploratory tool for the detection of treatment-subgroup interactions in clustered datasets.

  20. Generalization of Asaoka method to linearly anisotropic scattering: benchmark data in cylindrical geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, Richard.

    1975-11-01

    The Integral Transform Method for the neutron transport equation has been developed in last years by Asaoka and others. The method uses Fourier transform techniques in solving isotropic one-dimensional transport problems in homogeneous media. The method has been extended to linearly anisotropic transport in one-dimensional homogeneous media. Series expansions were also obtained using Hembd techniques for the new anisotropic matrix elements in cylindrical geometry. Carlvik spatial-spherical harmonics method was generalized to solve the same problem. By applying a relation between the isotropic and anisotropic one-dimensional kernels, it was demonstrated that anisotropic matrix elements can be calculated by a linear combination of a few isotropic matrix elements. This means in practice that the anisotropic problem of order N with the N+2 isotropic matrix for the plane and spherical geometries, and N+1 isotropic matrix for cylindrical geometries can be solved. A method of solving linearly anisotropic one-dimensional transport problems in homogeneous media was defined by applying Mika and Stankiewicz observations: isotropic matrix elements were computed by Hembd series and anisotropic matrix elements then calculated from recursive relations. The method has been applied to albedo and critical problems in cylindrical geometries. Finally, a number of results were computed with 12-digit accuracy for use as benchmarks [fr

  1. Charge and pairing dynamics in the attractive Hubbard model: Mode coupling and the validity of linear-response theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bünemann, Jörg; Seibold, Götz

    2017-12-01

    Pump-probe experiments have turned out as a powerful tool in order to study the dynamics of competing orders in a large variety of materials. The corresponding analysis of the data often relies on standard linear-response theory generalized to nonequilibrium situations. Here we examine the validity of such an approach for the charge and pairing response of systems with charge-density wave and (or) superconducting (SC) order. Our investigations are based on the attractive Hubbard model which we study within the time-dependent Hartree-Fock approximation. In particular, we calculate the quench and pump-probe dynamics for SC and charge order parameters in order to analyze the frequency spectra and the coupling of the probe field to the specific excitations. Our calculations reveal that the "linear-response assumption" is justified for small to moderate nonequilibrium situations (i.e., pump pulses) in the case of a purely charge-ordered ground state. However, the pump-probe dynamics on top of a superconducting ground state is determined by phase and amplitude modes which get coupled far from the equilibrium state indicating the failure of the linear-response assumption.

  2. Dynamical CP violation of the generalized Yang-Mills model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Dianfu; Chang Xiaojing; Sun Xiaoyu

    2011-01-01

    Starting from the generalized Yang-Mills model which contains, besides the vector part V μ , also a scalar part S and a pseudoscalar part P . It is shown, in terms of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) mechanism, that CP violation can be realized dynamically. The combination of the generalized Yang-Mills model and the NJL mechanism provides a new way to explain CP violation. (authors)

  3. Generalized Hitchin system, spectral curve and N=1 dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Dan; Yonekura, Kazuya [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study,1 Einstein Drive, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States)

    2014-01-02

    A generalized Hitchin equation was proposed as the BPS equation for a large class of four dimensional N=1 theories engineered using M5 branes. In this paper, we show how to write down the spectral curve for the moduli space of generalized Hitchin equations, and extract interesting N=1 dynamics out of it, such as deformed modui space, chiral ring relation, SUSY breaking, etc. Holomorphy plays a crucial role in our construction.

  4. Vector generalized linear and additive models with an implementation in R

    CERN Document Server

    Yee, Thomas W

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a statistical framework that expands generalized linear models (GLMs) for regression modelling. The framework shared in this book allows analyses based on many semi-traditional applied statistics models to be performed as a coherent whole. This is possible through the approximately half-a-dozen major classes of statistical models included in the book and the software infrastructure component, which makes the models easily operable.    The book’s methodology and accompanying software (the extensive VGAM R package) are directed at these limitations, and this is the first time the methodology and software are covered comprehensively in one volume. Since their advent in 1972, GLMs have unified important distributions under a single umbrella with enormous implications. The demands of practical data analysis, however, require a flexibility that GLMs do not have. Data-driven GLMs, in the form of generalized additive models (GAMs), are also largely confined to the exponential family. This book ...

  5. Prospects of measuring general Higgs couplings at e{sup +}e{sup -} linear colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagiwara, K. [KEK, Ibaraki (Japan). Theory Group; Ishihara, S. [KEK, Ibaraki (Japan). Theory Group; Department of Physics, Hyogo University of Education, 941-1 Shimokume, Yashiro, Kato, Hyogo 673-1494 (Japan); Kamoshita, J. [Department of Physics, Ochanomizu University, 2-1-1 Otsuka, Bunkyo, Tokyo 112-8610 (Japan); Kniehl, B.A. [II. Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Hamburg, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg (Germany)

    2000-06-01

    We examine how accurately the general HZV couplings, with V=Z{gamma}, may be determined by studying e{sup +}e{sup -}{yields}Hf anti f processes at future e{sup +}e{sup -} linear colliders. By using the optimal-observable method, which makes use of all available experimental information, we find out which combinations of the various HZV coupling terms may be constrained most efficiently with high luminosity. We also assess the benefits of measuring the tau-lepton helicities, identifying the bottom-hadron charges, polarizing the electron beam and running at two different collider energies. The HZZ couplings are generally found to be well constrained, even without these options, while the HZ{gamma} couplings are not. The constraints on the latter may be significantly improved by beam polarization. (orig.)

  6. Spatial variability in floodplain sedimentation: the use of generalized linear mixed-effects models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Cabezas

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Sediment, Total Organic Carbon (TOC and total nitrogen (TN accumulation during one overbank flood (1.15 y return interval were examined at one reach of the Middle Ebro River (NE Spain for elucidating spatial patterns. To achieve this goal, four areas with different geomorphological features and located within the study reach were examined by using artificial grass mats. Within each area, 1 m2 study plots consisting of three pseudo-replicates were placed in a semi-regular grid oriented perpendicular to the main channel. TOC, TN and Particle-Size composition of deposited sediments were examined and accumulation rates estimated. Generalized linear mixed-effects models were used to analyze sedimentation patterns in order to handle clustered sampling units, specific-site effects and spatial self-correlation between observations. Our results confirm the importance of channel-floodplain morphology and site micro-topography in explaining sediment, TOC and TN deposition patterns, although the importance of other factors as vegetation pattern should be included in further studies to explain small-scale variability. Generalized linear mixed-effect models provide a good framework to deal with the high spatial heterogeneity of this phenomenon at different spatial scales, and should be further investigated in order to explore its validity when examining the importance of factors such as flood magnitude or suspended sediment concentration.

  7. Testing concordance of instrumental variable effects in generalized linear models with application to Mendelian randomization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, James Y.; Chan, Kwun Chuen Gary; Hsu, Li

    2014-01-01

    Instrumental variable regression is one way to overcome unmeasured confounding and estimate causal effect in observational studies. Built on structural mean models, there has been considerale work recently developed for consistent estimation of causal relative risk and causal odds ratio. Such models can sometimes suffer from identification issues for weak instruments. This hampered the applicability of Mendelian randomization analysis in genetic epidemiology. When there are multiple genetic variants available as instrumental variables, and causal effect is defined in a generalized linear model in the presence of unmeasured confounders, we propose to test concordance between instrumental variable effects on the intermediate exposure and instrumental variable effects on the disease outcome, as a means to test the causal effect. We show that a class of generalized least squares estimators provide valid and consistent tests of causality. For causal effect of a continuous exposure on a dichotomous outcome in logistic models, the proposed estimators are shown to be asymptotically conservative. When the disease outcome is rare, such estimators are consistent due to the log-linear approximation of the logistic function. Optimality of such estimators relative to the well-known two-stage least squares estimator and the double-logistic structural mean model is further discussed. PMID:24863158

  8. Robust-BD Estimation and Inference for General Partially Linear Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunming Zhang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The classical quadratic loss for the partially linear model (PLM and the likelihood function for the generalized PLM are not resistant to outliers. This inspires us to propose a class of “robust-Bregman divergence (BD” estimators of both the parametric and nonparametric components in the general partially linear model (GPLM, which allows the distribution of the response variable to be partially specified, without being fully known. Using the local-polynomial function estimation method, we propose a computationally-efficient procedure for obtaining “robust-BD” estimators and establish the consistency and asymptotic normality of the “robust-BD” estimator of the parametric component β o . For inference procedures of β o in the GPLM, we show that the Wald-type test statistic W n constructed from the “robust-BD” estimators is asymptotically distribution free under the null, whereas the likelihood ratio-type test statistic Λ n is not. This provides an insight into the distinction from the asymptotic equivalence (Fan and Huang 2005 between W n and Λ n in the PLM constructed from profile least-squares estimators using the non-robust quadratic loss. Numerical examples illustrate the computational effectiveness of the proposed “robust-BD” estimators and robust Wald-type test in the appearance of outlying observations.

  9. Adaptive dynamic programming for discrete-time linear quadratic regulation based on multirate generalised policy iteration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Tae Yoon; Lee, Jae Young; Park, Jin Bae; Choi, Yoon Ho

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, we propose two multirate generalised policy iteration (GPI) algorithms applied to discrete-time linear quadratic regulation problems. The proposed algorithms are extensions of the existing GPI algorithm that consists of the approximate policy evaluation and policy improvement steps. The two proposed schemes, named heuristic dynamic programming (HDP) and dual HDP (DHP), based on multirate GPI, use multi-step estimation (M-step Bellman equation) at the approximate policy evaluation step for estimating the value function and its gradient called costate, respectively. Then, we show that these two methods with the same update horizon can be considered equivalent in the iteration domain. Furthermore, monotonically increasing and decreasing convergences, so called value iteration (VI)-mode and policy iteration (PI)-mode convergences, are proved to hold for the proposed multirate GPIs. Further, general convergence properties in terms of eigenvalues are also studied. The data-driven online implementation methods for the proposed HDP and DHP are demonstrated and finally, we present the results of numerical simulations performed to verify the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

  10. Zero-dynamics principle for perfect quantum memory in linear networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Naoki; James, Matthew R

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we study a general linear networked system that contains a tunable memory subsystem; that is, it is decoupled from an optical field for state transportation during the storage process, while it couples to the field during the writing or reading process. The input is given by a single photon state or a coherent state in a pulsed light field. We then completely and explicitly characterize the condition required on the pulse shape achieving the perfect state transfer from the light field to the memory subsystem. The key idea to obtain this result is the use of zero-dynamics principle, which in our case means that, for perfect state transfer, the output field during the writing process must be a vacuum. A useful interpretation of the result in terms of the transfer function is also given. Moreover, a four-node network composed of atomic ensembles is studied as an example, demonstrating how the input field state is transferred to the memory subsystem and what the input pulse shape to be engineered for perfect memory looks like. (paper)

  11. Zero-dynamics principle for perfect quantum memory in linear networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Naoki; James, Matthew R.

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, we study a general linear networked system that contains a tunable memory subsystem; that is, it is decoupled from an optical field for state transportation during the storage process, while it couples to the field during the writing or reading process. The input is given by a single photon state or a coherent state in a pulsed light field. We then completely and explicitly characterize the condition required on the pulse shape achieving the perfect state transfer from the light field to the memory subsystem. The key idea to obtain this result is the use of zero-dynamics principle, which in our case means that, for perfect state transfer, the output field during the writing process must be a vacuum. A useful interpretation of the result in terms of the transfer function is also given. Moreover, a four-node network composed of atomic ensembles is studied as an example, demonstrating how the input field state is transferred to the memory subsystem and what the input pulse shape to be engineered for perfect memory looks like.

  12. A Generalized Dynamic Model of Geared System: Establishment and Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Liu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to make the dynamic characteristic simulation of the ordinary and planetary gears drive more accurate and more efficient , a generalized dynamic model of geared system is established including internal and external mesh gears in this paper. It is used to build a mathematical model, which achieves the auto judgment of the gear mesh state. We do not need to concern about active or passive gears any more, and the complicated power flow analysis can be avoided. With the numerical integration computation, the axis orbits diagram and dynamic gear mesh force characteristic are acquired and the results show that the dynamic response of translational displacement is greater when contacting line direction change is considered, and with the quickly change of direction of contacting line, the amplitude of mesh force would be increased, which easily causes the damage to the gear tooth. Moreover, compared with ordinary gear, dynamic responses of planetary gear would be affected greater by the gear backlash. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the generalized dynamic model and the mathematical model.

  13. Dynamic optimal control of groundwater remediation with management periods: Linearized and quasi-Newton approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culver, T.B.

    1991-01-01

    Several modifications of the linear-quadratic regulator (LQR) optimization algorithm are developed, and the computational efficiency of each algorithm with respect to groundwater remediation is evaluated. In each case, the optimization model is combined with a finite element groundwater flow and transport simulation model to determine the optimal time-varying pump-and-treat policy. The first modification of the LQR algorithm incorporated management periods, which are groups of simulation time steps during which the pumping policy remains constant. Management periods reduced the total computational demand, as measured by the CPU time, by as much as 85% compared to the time needed for the LQR solution without management periods. Complexity analysis revealed that computational savings of equal or greater magnitude can be expected in general for groundwater remediation applications and for many other applications of dynamic control. The LQR algorithm with management periods was further modified by assuming steady-state hydraulics within a management period (SSLQR), which simplifies the derivatives of the transition equation. A quasi-Newton differential dynamic programming (QNDDP) was formulated by approximating the complicated second derivatives of the transition equation using a Broyden rank-one approximation. QNDDP converged to the optimal policy for the test problem significantly faster than the LQR algorithm, requiring approximately half the computational time. With the test problem expanded to include the capacity of the treatment facility as a state variable, QNDDP with management periods can determine the optimal treatment facility capacity. With many management periods, the addition of the capital costs of the treatment facility changed the optimal policy so that the required treatment facility capacity was reduced

  14. Pricing decisions in an experimental dynamic stochastic general equilibrium economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noussair, C.N.; Pfajfar, D.; Zsiros, J.

    We construct experimental economies, populated with human subjects, with a structure based on a nonlinear version of the New Keynesian dynamic stochastic general equilibrium (DSGE) model. We analyze the behavior of firms’ pricing decisions in four different experimental economies. We consider how

  15. General problems of dynamics and control of vibratory gyroscopes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Shatalov, MY

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available A general model of operation of vibratory gyroscopes, which is applicable to a broad class of instruments, including cylindrical, disc and micro-machined gyros, is formulated on the basis of analysis of dynamics and control of a hemispherical...

  16. Hardy inequality on time scales and its application to half-linear dynamic equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Řehák Pavel

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A time-scale version of the Hardy inequality is presented, which unifies and extends well-known Hardy inequalities in the continuous and in the discrete setting. An application in the oscillation theory of half-linear dynamic equations is given.

  17. Reference-tracking feedforward control design for linear dynamical systems through signal decomposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kasemsinsup, Y.; Romagnoli, R.; Heertjes, M.F.; Weiland, S.; Butler, H.

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we study a novel approach towards the reference-tracking feedforward control design for linear dynamical systems. By utilizing the superposition property and exploiting signal decomposition together with a quadratic optimization process, we obtain a feedforward design procedure for

  18. On the dynamical mass generation in gauge-invariant non-linear σ-models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, A.; Helayel-Neto, J.A.; Smith, A.W.

    1987-12-01

    We argue that external gauge fields coupled in a gauge-invariant way to both the bosonic and supersymmetric two-dimensional non-linear σ-models acquire a dynamical mass term whenever the target space is restricted to be a group manifold. (author). 11 refs

  19. Dynamics of complexation of a charged dendrimer by linear polyelectrolyte: Computer modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lyulin, S.V.; Darinskii, A.A.; Lyulin, A.V.

    2007-01-01

    Brownian-dynamics simulations have been performed for complexes formed by a charged dendrimer and a long oppositely charged linear polyelectrolyte when overcharging phenomenon is always observed. After a complex formation the orientational mobility of the individual dendrimer bonds, the fluctuations

  20. On a p-adic Cubic Generalized Logistic Dynamical System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhamedov, Farrukh; Rozali, Wan Nur Fairuz Alwani Wan

    2013-01-01

    Applications of p-adic numbers mathematical physics, quantum mechanics stimulated increasing interest in the study of p-adic dynamical system. One of the interesting investigations is p-adic logistics map. In this paper, we consider a new generalization, namely we study a dynamical system of the form f a (x) = ax(1−x 2 ). The paper is devoted to the investigation of a trajectory of the given system. We investigate the generalized logistic dynamical system with respect to parameter a and we restrict ourselves for the investigation of the case |a| p < 1. We study the existence of the fixed points and their behavior. Moreover, we describe their size of attractors and Siegel discs since the structure of the orbits of the system is related to the geometry of the p-adic Siegel discs.

  1. On the Generalization of the Timoshenko Beam Model Based on the Micropolar Linear Theory: Static Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Nobili

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Three generalizations of the Timoshenko beam model according to the linear theory of micropolar elasticity or its special cases, that is, the couple stress theory or the modified couple stress theory, recently developed in the literature, are investigated and compared. The analysis is carried out in a variational setting, making use of Hamilton’s principle. It is shown that both the Timoshenko and the (possibly modified couple stress models are based on a microstructural kinematics which is governed by kinosthenic (ignorable terms in the Lagrangian. Despite their difference, all models bring in a beam-plane theory only one microstructural material parameter. Besides, the micropolar model formally reduces to the couple stress model upon introducing the proper constraint on the microstructure kinematics, although the material parameter is generally different. Line loading on the microstructure results in a nonconservative force potential. Finally, the Hamiltonian form of the micropolar beam model is derived and the canonical equations are presented along with their general solution. The latter exhibits a general oscillatory pattern for the microstructure rotation and stress, whose behavior matches the numerical findings.

  2. Gradient descent learning algorithm overview: a general dynamical systems perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldi, P

    1995-01-01

    Gives a unified treatment of gradient descent learning algorithms for neural networks using a general framework of dynamical systems. This general approach organizes and simplifies all the known algorithms and results which have been originally derived for different problems (fixed point/trajectory learning), for different models (discrete/continuous), for different architectures (forward/recurrent), and using different techniques (backpropagation, variational calculus, adjoint methods, etc.). The general approach can also be applied to derive new algorithms. The author then briefly examines some of the complexity issues and limitations intrinsic to gradient descent learning. Throughout the paper, the author focuses on the problem of trajectory learning.

  3. Dynamics of a linear system coupled to a chain of light nonlinear oscillators analyzed through a continuous approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlemagne, S.; Ture Savadkoohi, A.; Lamarque, C.-H.

    2018-07-01

    The continuous approximation is used in this work to describe the dynamics of a nonlinear chain of light oscillators coupled to a linear main system. A general methodology is applied to an example where the chain has local nonlinear restoring forces. The slow invariant manifold is detected at fast time scale. At slow time scale, equilibrium and singular points are sought around this manifold in order to predict periodic regimes and strongly modulated responses of the system. Analytical predictions are in good accordance with numerical results and represent a potent tool for designing nonlinear chains for passive control purposes.

  4. Econometric testing on linear and nonlinear dynamic relation between stock prices and macroeconomy in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borjigin, Sumuya; Yang, Yating; Yang, Xiaoguang; Sun, Leilei

    2018-03-01

    Many researchers have realized that there is a strong correlation between stock prices and macroeconomy. In order to make this relationship clear, a lot of studies have been done. However, the causal relationship between stock prices and macroeconomy has still not been well explained. A key point is that, most of the existing research adopts linear and stable models to investigate the correlation of stock prices and macroeconomy, while the real causality of that may be nonlinear and dynamic. To fill this research gap, we investigate the nonlinear and dynamic causal relationships between stock prices and macroeconomy. Based on the case of China's stock prices and acroeconomy measures from January 1992 to March 2017, we compare the linear Granger causality test models with nonlinear ones. Results demonstrate that the nonlinear dynamic Granger causality is much stronger than linear Granger causality. From the perspective of nonlinear dynamic Granger causality, China's stock prices can be viewed as "national economic barometer". On the one hand, this study will encourage researchers to take nonlinearity and dynamics into account when they investigate the correlation of stock prices and macroeconomy; on the other hand, our research can guide regulators and investors to make better decisions.

  5. Generalized reconfigurable memristive dynamical system (MDS) for neuromorphic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavandpour, Mohammad; Soleimani, Hamid; Linares-Barranco, Bernabé; Abbott, Derek; Chua, Leon O

    2015-01-01

    This study firstly presents (i) a novel general cellular mapping scheme for two dimensional neuromorphic dynamical systems such as bio-inspired neuron models, and (ii) an efficient mixed analog-digital circuit, which can be conveniently implemented on a hybrid memristor-crossbar/CMOS platform, for hardware implementation of the scheme. This approach employs 4n memristors and no switch for implementing an n-cell system in comparison with 2n (2) memristors and 2n switches of a Cellular Memristive Dynamical System (CMDS). Moreover, this approach allows for dynamical variables with both analog and one-hot digital values opening a wide range of choices for interconnections and networking schemes. Dynamical response analyses show that this circuit exhibits various responses based on the underlying bifurcation scenarios which determine the main characteristics of the neuromorphic dynamical systems. Due to high programmability of the circuit, it can be applied to a variety of learning systems, real-time applications, and analytically indescribable dynamical systems. We simulate the FitzHugh-Nagumo (FHN), Adaptive Exponential (AdEx) integrate and fire, and Izhikevich neuron models on our platform, and investigate the dynamical behaviors of these circuits as case studies. Moreover, error analysis shows that our approach is suitably accurate. We also develop a simple hardware prototype for experimental demonstration of our approach.

  6. Application of generalized function to dynamic analysis of thick plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, D.; Weng, Z.

    1987-01-01

    The structures with thick plates have been used extensively in national defence, mechanical engineering, chemical engineering, nuclear engineering, civil engineering, etc.. Various theories have been established to deal with the problems of elastic plates, which include the classical theory of thin plates, the improved theory of thick plates, three-dimensional elastical theory. In this paper, the derivative of δ-function is handled by using the generalized function. The dynamic analysis of thick plates subjected the concentrated load is presented. The improved Donnell's equation of thick plates is deduced and employed as the basic equation. The generalized coordinates are solved by using the method of MWR. The general expressions for the dynamic response of elastic thick plates subjected the concentrated load are given. The numerical results for rectangular plates are given herein. The results are compared with those obtained from the improved theory and the classical theory of plates. (orig./GL)

  7. Simple estimating method of damages of concrete gravity dam based on linear dynamic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, T.; Kanenawa, K.; Yamaguchi, Y. [Public Works Research Institute, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan). Hydraulic Engineering Research Group

    2004-07-01

    Due to the occurrence of large earthquakes like the Kobe Earthquake in 1995, there is a strong need to verify seismic resistance of dams against much larger earthquake motions than those considered in the present design standard in Japan. Problems exist in using nonlinear analysis to evaluate the safety of dams including: that the influence which the set material properties have on the results of nonlinear analysis is large, and that the results of nonlinear analysis differ greatly according to the damage estimation models or analysis programs. This paper reports the evaluation indices based on a linear dynamic analysis method and the characteristics of the progress of cracks in concrete gravity dams with different shapes using a nonlinear dynamic analysis method. The study concludes that if simple linear dynamic analysis is appropriately conducted to estimate tensile stress at potential locations of initiating cracks, the damage due to cracks would be predicted roughly. 4 refs., 1 tab., 13 figs.

  8. Non linear dynamic of Langmuir and electromagnetic waves in space plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guede, Jose Ricardo Abalde

    1995-11-01

    The aim of this work is to study the nonlinear dynamics of Langmuir and electromagnetic waves in space plasmas. Firstly, the generalized Zakharov equations are derived which are used to study the hybrid parametric instability involving the generation of daughter Langmuir, electromagnetic and ion-acoustic waves induced by two counter-propagating Langmuir pump waves with different amplitudes based on a coupled dispersion relation. Secondly, starting from the generalized Zakharov equations the linear and nonlinear coupled mode theories of three-wave and four-wave parametric interactions are developed, respectively. In three-waves processes, a Langmuir wave decays into another Langmuir wave and an ion-acoustic wave (electrostatic parametric decay) or into an electromagnetic wave and an ion-acoustic wave (electromagnetic parametric decay). In four-wave (modulational) processes, the interaction involves two wave triplets: in the decay triplet a pump wave couples with a low-frequency wave to generate a Stokes wave, and in the fusion triplets: in the decay triplet a pump wave couples with a low-frequency wave to generate a Stokes wave, and in the fusion triplet the coupling of a pump wave with a low-frequency wave generate an anti-Stokes wave. These modulational processes are convective and resonant processes wherein the low-frequency modes are Eigenmodes of plasma and are known as the stimulated modulational processes. Four such processes are investigated in this thesis: two with Langmuir pump waves (electrostatic and hybrid stimulated modulation processes) and the other two with electromagnetic pump waves (stimulated modulation Brillouin scattering and electromagnetic stimulated modulation process). Applications of the theoretical results in space plasmas are discussed. In particular, it is shown that the electrostatic and electromagnetic parametric decay processes of Langmuir waves can model the generation and modulation of radio emissions and Langmuir waves in the

  9. A canonical form of the equation of motion of linear dynamical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawano, Daniel T.; Salsa, Rubens Goncalves; Ma, Fai; Morzfeld, Matthias

    2018-03-01

    The equation of motion of a discrete linear system has the form of a second-order ordinary differential equation with three real and square coefficient matrices. It is shown that, for almost all linear systems, such an equation can always be converted by an invertible transformation into a canonical form specified by two diagonal coefficient matrices associated with the generalized acceleration and displacement. This canonical form of the equation of motion is unique up to an equivalence class for non-defective systems. As an important by-product, a damped linear system that possesses three symmetric and positive definite coefficients can always be recast as an undamped and decoupled system.

  10. Predicting oropharyngeal tumor volume throughout the course of radiation therapy from pretreatment computed tomography data using general linear models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yock, Adam D; Rao, Arvind; Dong, Lei; Beadle, Beth M; Garden, Adam S; Kudchadker, Rajat J; Court, Laurence E

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this work was to develop and evaluate the accuracy of several predictive models of variation in tumor volume throughout the course of radiation therapy. Nineteen patients with oropharyngeal cancers were imaged daily with CT-on-rails for image-guided alignment per an institutional protocol. The daily volumes of 35 tumors in these 19 patients were determined and used to generate (1) a linear model in which tumor volume changed at a constant rate, (2) a general linear model that utilized the power fit relationship between the daily and initial tumor volumes, and (3) a functional general linear model that identified and exploited the primary modes of variation between time series describing the changing tumor volumes. Primary and nodal tumor volumes were examined separately. The accuracy of these models in predicting daily tumor volumes were compared with those of static and linear reference models using leave-one-out cross-validation. In predicting the daily volume of primary tumors, the general linear model and the functional general linear model were more accurate than the static reference model by 9.9% (range: -11.6%-23.8%) and 14.6% (range: -7.3%-27.5%), respectively, and were more accurate than the linear reference model by 14.2% (range: -6.8%-40.3%) and 13.1% (range: -1.5%-52.5%), respectively. In predicting the daily volume of nodal tumors, only the 14.4% (range: -11.1%-20.5%) improvement in accuracy of the functional general linear model compared to the static reference model was statistically significant. A general linear model and a functional general linear model trained on data from a small population of patients can predict the primary tumor volume throughout the course of radiation therapy with greater accuracy than standard reference models. These more accurate models may increase the prognostic value of information about the tumor garnered from pretreatment computed tomography images and facilitate improved treatment management.

  11. The dynamics of general developmental mechanisms : From Piaget and Vygotsky to dynamic systems models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Geert, P

    Dynamic systems theory conceives of development as a self-organizational process. Both complexity and order emerge as a product of elementary principles of interaction between components involved in the developmental process. This article presents a dynamic systems model based on a general dual

  12. Border Collision Bifurcations in a Generalized Model of Population Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilia M. Ladino

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the dynamics of a generalized discrete time population model of a two-stage species with recruitment and capture. This generalization, which is inspired by other approaches and real data that one can find in literature, consists in considering no restriction for the value of the two key parameters appearing in the model, that is, the natural death rate and the mortality rate due to fishing activity. In the more general case the feasibility of the system has been preserved by posing opportune formulas for the piecewise map defining the model. The resulting two-dimensional nonlinear map is not smooth, though continuous, as its definition changes as any border is crossed in the phase plane. Hence, techniques from the mathematical theory of piecewise smooth dynamical systems must be applied to show that, due to the existence of borders, abrupt changes in the dynamic behavior of population sizes and multistability emerge. The main novelty of the present contribution with respect to the previous ones is that, while using real data, richer dynamics are produced, such as fluctuations and multistability. Such new evidences are of great interest in biology since new strategies to preserve the survival of the species can be suggested.

  13. The most general cosmological dynamics for ELKO matter fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabbri, Luca

    2011-01-01

    Not long ago, the definition of eigenspinors of charge-conjugation belonging to a special Wigner class has lead to the unexpected theoretical discovery of a form of matter with spin 1/2 and mass dimension 1, called ELKO matter field; ELKO matter fields defined in flat spacetimes have been later extended to curved and twisted spacetimes, in order to include in their dynamics the coupling to gravitational fields possessing both metric and torsional degrees of freedom: the inclusion of non-commuting spinorial covariant derivatives allows for the introduction of more general dynamical terms influencing the behaviour of ELKO matter fields. In this Letter, we shall solve the theoretical problem of finding the most general dynamics for ELKO matter, and we will face the phenomenological issue concerning how the new dynamical terms may affect the behavior of ELKO matter; we will see that new effects will arise for which the very existence of ELKO matter will be endangered, due to the fact that ELKOs will turn incompatible with the cosmological principle. Thus we have that anisotropic universes must be taken into account if ELKOs are to be considered in their most general form.

  14. Efficient semiparametric estimation in generalized partially linear additive models for longitudinal/clustered data

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Guang

    2014-02-01

    We consider efficient estimation of the Euclidean parameters in a generalized partially linear additive models for longitudinal/clustered data when multiple covariates need to be modeled nonparametrically, and propose an estimation procedure based on a spline approximation of the nonparametric part of the model and the generalized estimating equations (GEE). Although the model in consideration is natural and useful in many practical applications, the literature on this model is very limited because of challenges in dealing with dependent data for nonparametric additive models. We show that the proposed estimators are consistent and asymptotically normal even if the covariance structure is misspecified. An explicit consistent estimate of the asymptotic variance is also provided. Moreover, we derive the semiparametric efficiency score and information bound under general moment conditions. By showing that our estimators achieve the semiparametric information bound, we effectively establish their efficiency in a stronger sense than what is typically considered for GEE. The derivation of our asymptotic results relies heavily on the empirical processes tools that we develop for the longitudinal/clustered data. Numerical results are used to illustrate the finite sample performance of the proposed estimators. © 2014 ISI/BS.

  15. General Critical Properties of the Dynamics of Scientific Discovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bettencourt, L. M. A. (LANL); Kaiser, D. I. (MIT)

    2011-05-31

    Scientific fields are difficult to define and compare, yet there is a general sense that they undergo similar stages of development. From this point of view it becomes important to determine if these superficial similarities can be translated into a general framework that would quantify the general advent and subsequent dynamics of scientific ideas. Such a framework would have important practical applications of allowing us to compare fields that superficially may appear different, in terms of their subject matter, research techniques, typical collaboration size, etc. Particularh' important in a field's history is the moment at which conceptual and technical unification allows widespread exchange of ideas and collaboration, at which point networks of collaboration show the analog of a percolation phenomenon, developing a giant connected component containing most authors. Here we investigate the generality of this topological transition in the collaboration structure of scientific fields as they grow and become denser. We develop a general theoretical framework in which each scientific field is an instantiation of the same large-scale topological critical phenomenon. We consider whether the evidence from a variety of specific fields is consistent with this picture, and estimate critical exponents associated with the transition. We then discuss the generality of the phenomenon and to what extent we may expect other scientific fields — including very large ones — to follow the same dynamics.

  16. An Efficient Test for Gene-Environment Interaction in Generalized Linear Mixed Models with Family Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazo Lopera, Mauricio A; Coombes, Brandon J; de Andrade, Mariza

    2017-09-27

    Gene-environment (GE) interaction has important implications in the etiology of complex diseases that are caused by a combination of genetic factors and environment variables. Several authors have developed GE analysis in the context of independent subjects or longitudinal data using a gene-set. In this paper, we propose to analyze GE interaction for discrete and continuous phenotypes in family studies by incorporating the relatedness among the relatives for each family into a generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) and by using a gene-based variance component test. In addition, we deal with collinearity problems arising from linkage disequilibrium among single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) by considering their coefficients as random effects under the null model estimation. We show that the best linear unbiased predictor (BLUP) of such random effects in the GLMM is equivalent to the ridge regression estimator. This equivalence provides a simple method to estimate the ridge penalty parameter in comparison to other computationally-demanding estimation approaches based on cross-validation schemes. We evaluated the proposed test using simulation studies and applied it to real data from the Baependi Heart Study consisting of 76 families. Using our approach, we identified an interaction between BMI and the Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor Gamma ( PPARG ) gene associated with diabetes.

  17. Diagnostics for generalized linear hierarchical models in network meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hong; Hodges, James S; Carlin, Bradley P

    2017-09-01

    Network meta-analysis (NMA) combines direct and indirect evidence comparing more than 2 treatments. Inconsistency arises when these 2 information sources differ. Previous work focuses on inconsistency detection, but little has been done on how to proceed after identifying inconsistency. The key issue is whether inconsistency changes an NMA's substantive conclusions. In this paper, we examine such discrepancies from a diagnostic point of view. Our methods seek to detect influential and outlying observations in NMA at a trial-by-arm level. These observations may have a large effect on the parameter estimates in NMA, or they may deviate markedly from other observations. We develop formal diagnostics for a Bayesian hierarchical model to check the effect of deleting any observation. Diagnostics are specified for generalized linear hierarchical NMA models and investigated for both published and simulated datasets. Results from our example dataset using either contrast- or arm-based models and from the simulated datasets indicate that the sources of inconsistency in NMA tend not to be influential, though results from the example dataset suggest that they are likely to be outliers. This mimics a familiar result from linear model theory, in which outliers with low leverage are not influential. Future extensions include incorporating baseline covariates and individual-level patient data. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. DIESYS—dynamically non-linear dielectric elastomer energy generating synergetic structures: perspectives and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoniadis, I A; Venetsanos, D T; Papaspyridis, F G

    2013-01-01

    Dielectric elastomer based generators (DEGs) offer some unique properties over energy generators based on other materials. These properties include high energy density, high efficiency over a broad range of frequencies, low compliance, the ability to produce high strain, large area, low cost films with no toxic materials and wide range environmental tolerance. As further shown in this paper, DEG materials can also exhibit a non-linear dynamic behavior, enhancing broad-band energy transfer. More specifically, dielectric elastomer (DE) energy generating synergetic structures (DIESYS) are considered as dynamic energy absorbers. Two elementary characteristic DIESYS design concepts are examined, leading to a typical antagonistic configuration for in-plane oscillations and a typical synagonistic configuration for out-of-plane oscillations. Originally, all the DE elements of the structure are assumed to be always in tension during all the phases of the harvesting cycle, conforming to the traditional concept of operation of DE structures. As shown in this paper, the traditional always-in-tension concept results in a linear dynamic system response, despite the fact that the implemented (DE) parts are considered to have been made of a non-linear (hyperelastic) material. In contrast, the proposed loose-part concept ensures the appearance of a non-linear broad-band system response, enhancing energy transfer from the environmental source. (paper)

  19. Regional differences of outpatient physician supply as a theoretical economic and empirical generalized linear model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Stefan; Graf von der Schulenburg, Johann-Matthias; Greiner, Wolfgang

    2015-11-17

    Regional differences in physician supply can be found in many health care systems, regardless of their organizational and financial structure. A theoretical model is developed for the physicians' decision on office allocation, covering demand-side factors and a consumption time function. To test the propositions following the theoretical model, generalized linear models were estimated to explain differences in 412 German districts. Various factors found in the literature were included to control for physicians' regional preferences. Evidence in favor of the first three propositions of the theoretical model could be found. Specialists show a stronger association to higher populated districts than GPs. Although indicators for regional preferences are significantly correlated with physician density, their coefficients are not as high as population density. If regional disparities should be addressed by political actions, the focus should be to counteract those parameters representing physicians' preferences in over- and undersupplied regions.

  20. Compact tunable silicon photonic differential-equation solver for general linear time-invariant systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiayang; Cao, Pan; Hu, Xiaofeng; Jiang, Xinhong; Pan, Ting; Yang, Yuxing; Qiu, Ciyuan; Tremblay, Christine; Su, Yikai

    2014-10-20

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate an all-optical temporal differential-equation solver that can be used to solve ordinary differential equations (ODEs) characterizing general linear time-invariant (LTI) systems. The photonic device implemented by an add-drop microring resonator (MRR) with two tunable interferometric couplers is monolithically integrated on a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer with a compact footprint of ~60 μm × 120 μm. By thermally tuning the phase shifts along the bus arms of the two interferometric couplers, the proposed device is capable of solving first-order ODEs with two variable coefficients. The operation principle is theoretically analyzed, and system testing of solving ODE with tunable coefficients is carried out for 10-Gb/s optical Gaussian-like pulses. The experimental results verify the effectiveness of the fabricated device as a tunable photonic ODE solver.

  1. A generalized linear factor model approach to the hierarchical framework for responses and response times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenaar, Dylan; Tuerlinckx, Francis; van der Maas, Han L J

    2015-05-01

    We show how the hierarchical model for responses and response times as developed by van der Linden (2007), Fox, Klein Entink, and van der Linden (2007), Klein Entink, Fox, and van der Linden (2009), and Glas and van der Linden (2010) can be simplified to a generalized linear factor model with only the mild restriction that there is no hierarchical model at the item side. This result is valuable as it enables all well-developed modelling tools and extensions that come with these methods. We show that the restriction we impose on the hierarchical model does not influence parameter recovery under realistic circumstances. In addition, we present two illustrative real data analyses to demonstrate the practical benefits of our approach. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  2. Generalized Partially Linear Regression with Misclassified Data and an Application to Labour Market Transitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dlugosz, Stephan; Mammen, Enno; Wilke, Ralf

    2017-01-01

    Large data sets that originate from administrative or operational activity are increasingly used for statistical analysis as they often contain very precise information and a large number of observations. But there is evidence that some variables can be subject to severe misclassification...... or contain missing values. Given the size of the data, a flexible semiparametric misclassification model would be good choice but their use in practise is scarce. To close this gap a semiparametric model for the probability of observing labour market transitions is estimated using a sample of 20 m...... observations from Germany. It is shown that estimated marginal effects of a number of covariates are sizeably affected by misclassification and missing values in the analysis data. The proposed generalized partially linear regression extends existing models by allowing a misclassified discrete covariate...

  3. A Fuzzy Approach Using Generalized Dinkelbach’s Algorithm for Multiobjective Linear Fractional Transportation Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurdan Cetin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a multiobjective linear fractional transportation problem (MLFTP with several fractional criteria, such as, the maximization of the transport profitability like profit/cost or profit/time, and its two properties are source and destination. Our aim is to introduce MLFTP which has not been studied in literature before and to provide a fuzzy approach which obtain a compromise Pareto-optimal solution for this problem. To do this, first, we present a theorem which shows that MLFTP is always solvable. And then, reducing MLFTP to the Zimmermann’s “min” operator model which is the max-min problem, we construct Generalized Dinkelbach’s Algorithm for solving the obtained problem. Furthermore, we provide an illustrative numerical example to explain this fuzzy approach.

  4. Solving a class of generalized fractional programming problems using the feasibility of linear programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Peiping; Zhang, Tongli; Wang, Chunfeng

    2017-01-01

    This article presents a new approximation algorithm for globally solving a class of generalized fractional programming problems (P) whose objective functions are defined as an appropriate composition of ratios of affine functions. To solve this problem, the algorithm solves an equivalent optimization problem (Q) via an exploration of a suitably defined nonuniform grid. The main work of the algorithm involves checking the feasibility of linear programs associated with the interesting grid points. It is proved that the proposed algorithm is a fully polynomial time approximation scheme as the ratio terms are fixed in the objective function to problem (P), based on the computational complexity result. In contrast to existing results in literature, the algorithm does not require the assumptions on quasi-concavity or low-rank of the objective function to problem (P). Numerical results are given to illustrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  5. Generalizing, optimizing, and inventing numerical algorithms for the fractional Fourier, Fresnel, and linear canonical transforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennelly, Bryan M.; Sheridan, John T.

    2005-05-01

    By use of matrix-based techniques it is shown how the space-bandwidth product (SBP) of a signal, as indicated by the location of the signal energy in the Wigner distribution function, can be tracked through any quadratic-phase optical system whose operation is described by the linear canonical transform. Then, applying the regular uniform sampling criteria imposed by the SBP and linking the criteria explicitly to a decomposition of the optical matrix of the system, it is shown how numerical algorithms (employing interpolation and decimation), which exhibit both invertibility and additivity, can be implemented. Algorithms appearing in the literature for a variety of transforms (Fresnel, fractional Fourier) are shown to be special cases of our general approach. The method is shown to allow the existing algorithms to be optimized and is also shown to permit the invention of many new algorithms.

  6. A distributed-memory hierarchical solver for general sparse linear systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chao [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Inst. for Computational and Mathematical Engineering; Pouransari, Hadi [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Rajamanickam, Sivasankaran [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Center for Computing Research; Boman, Erik G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Center for Computing Research; Darve, Eric [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Inst. for Computational and Mathematical Engineering and Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2017-12-20

    We present a parallel hierarchical solver for general sparse linear systems on distributed-memory machines. For large-scale problems, this fully algebraic algorithm is faster and more memory-efficient than sparse direct solvers because it exploits the low-rank structure of fill-in blocks. Depending on the accuracy of low-rank approximations, the hierarchical solver can be used either as a direct solver or as a preconditioner. The parallel algorithm is based on data decomposition and requires only local communication for updating boundary data on every processor. Moreover, the computation-to-communication ratio of the parallel algorithm is approximately the volume-to-surface-area ratio of the subdomain owned by every processor. We also provide various numerical results to demonstrate the versatility and scalability of the parallel algorithm.

  7. A simple method for identifying parameter correlations in partially observed linear dynamic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pu; Vu, Quoc Dong

    2015-12-14

    Parameter estimation represents one of the most significant challenges in systems biology. This is because biological models commonly contain a large number of parameters among which there may be functional interrelationships, thus leading to the problem of non-identifiability. Although identifiability analysis has been extensively studied by analytical as well as numerical approaches, systematic methods for remedying practically non-identifiable models have rarely been investigated. We propose a simple method for identifying pairwise correlations and higher order interrelationships of parameters in partially observed linear dynamic models. This is made by derivation of the output sensitivity matrix and analysis of the linear dependencies of its columns. Consequently, analytical relations between the identifiability of the model parameters and the initial conditions as well as the input functions can be achieved. In the case of structural non-identifiability, identifiable combinations can be obtained by solving the resulting homogenous linear equations. In the case of practical non-identifiability, experiment conditions (i.e. initial condition and constant control signals) can be provided which are necessary for remedying the non-identifiability and unique parameter estimation. It is noted that the approach does not consider noisy data. In this way, the practical non-identifiability issue, which is popular for linear biological models, can be remedied. Several linear compartment models including an insulin receptor dynamics model are taken to illustrate the application of the proposed approach. Both structural and practical identifiability of partially observed linear dynamic models can be clarified by the proposed method. The result of this method provides important information for experimental design to remedy the practical non-identifiability if applicable. The derivation of the method is straightforward and thus the algorithm can be easily implemented into a

  8. A Linear Dynamical Systems Approach to Streamflow Reconstruction Reveals History of Regime Shifts in Northern Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hung T. T.; Galelli, Stefano

    2018-03-01

    Catchment dynamics is not often modeled in streamflow reconstruction studies; yet, the streamflow generation process depends on both catchment state and climatic inputs. To explicitly account for this interaction, we contribute a linear dynamic model, in which streamflow is a function of both catchment state (i.e., wet/dry) and paleoclimatic proxies. The model is learned using a novel variant of the Expectation-Maximization algorithm, and it is used with a paleo drought record—the Monsoon Asia Drought Atlas—to reconstruct 406 years of streamflow for the Ping River (northern Thailand). Results for the instrumental period show that the dynamic model has higher accuracy than conventional linear regression; all performance scores improve by 45-497%. Furthermore, the reconstructed trajectory of the state variable provides valuable insights about the catchment history—e.g., regime-like behavior—thereby complementing the information contained in the reconstructed streamflow time series. The proposed technique can replace linear regression, since it only requires information on streamflow and climatic proxies (e.g., tree-rings, drought indices); furthermore, it is capable of readily generating stochastic streamflow replicates. With a marginal increase in computational requirements, the dynamic model brings more desirable features and value to streamflow reconstructions.

  9. Hydrodynamic theory for quantum plasmonics: Linear-response dynamics of the inhomogeneous electron gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Wei

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the hydrodynamic theory of metals, offering systematic studies of the linear-response dynamics for an inhomogeneous electron gas. We include the quantum functional terms of the Thomas-Fermi kinetic energy, the von Weizsa¨cker kinetic energy, and the exchange-correlation Coulomb...... energies under the local density approximation. The advantages, limitations, and possible improvements of the hydrodynamic theory are transparently demonstrated. The roles of various parameters in the theory are identified. We anticipate that the hydrodynamic theory can be applied to investigate the linear...... response of complex metallic nanostructures, including quantum effects, by adjusting theory parameters appropriately....

  10. Linear stability analysis of detonations via numerical computation and dynamic mode decomposition

    KAUST Repository

    Kabanov, Dmitry; Kasimov, Aslan R.

    2018-01-01

    We introduce a new method to investigate linear stability of gaseous detonations that is based on an accurate shock-fitting numerical integration of the linearized reactive Euler equations with a subsequent analysis of the computed solution via the dynamic mode decomposition. The method is applied to the detonation models based on both the standard one-step Arrhenius kinetics and two-step exothermic-endothermic reaction kinetics. Stability spectra for all cases are computed and analyzed. The new approach is shown to be a viable alternative to the traditional normal-mode analysis used in detonation theory.

  11. Linear stability analysis of detonations via numerical computation and dynamic mode decomposition

    KAUST Repository

    Kabanov, Dmitry I.

    2017-12-08

    We introduce a new method to investigate linear stability of gaseous detonations that is based on an accurate shock-fitting numerical integration of the linearized reactive Euler equations with a subsequent analysis of the computed solution via the dynamic mode decomposition. The method is applied to the detonation models based on both the standard one-step Arrhenius kinetics and two-step exothermic-endothermic reaction kinetics. Stability spectra for all cases are computed and analyzed. The new approach is shown to be a viable alternative to the traditional normal-mode analysis used in detonation theory.

  12. Linear stability analysis of detonations via numerical computation and dynamic mode decomposition

    KAUST Repository

    Kabanov, Dmitry

    2018-03-20

    We introduce a new method to investigate linear stability of gaseous detonations that is based on an accurate shock-fitting numerical integration of the linearized reactive Euler equations with a subsequent analysis of the computed solution via the dynamic mode decomposition. The method is applied to the detonation models based on both the standard one-step Arrhenius kinetics and two-step exothermic-endothermic reaction kinetics. Stability spectra for all cases are computed and analyzed. The new approach is shown to be a viable alternative to the traditional normal-mode analysis used in detonation theory.

  13. An EM Algorithm for Double-Pareto-Lognormal Generalized Linear Model Applied to Heavy-Tailed Insurance Claims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Calderín-Ojeda

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Generalized linear models might not be appropriate when the probability of extreme events is higher than that implied by the normal distribution. Extending the method for estimating the parameters of a double Pareto lognormal distribution (DPLN in Reed and Jorgensen (2004, we develop an EM algorithm for the heavy-tailed Double-Pareto-lognormal generalized linear model. The DPLN distribution is obtained as a mixture of a lognormal distribution with a double Pareto distribution. In this paper the associated generalized linear model has the location parameter equal to a linear predictor which is used to model insurance claim amounts for various data sets. The performance is compared with those of the generalized beta (of the second kind and lognorma distributions.

  14. Spreading dynamics on complex networks: a general stochastic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noël, Pierre-André; Allard, Antoine; Hébert-Dufresne, Laurent; Marceau, Vincent; Dubé, Louis J

    2014-12-01

    Dynamics on networks is considered from the perspective of Markov stochastic processes. We partially describe the state of the system through network motifs and infer any missing data using the available information. This versatile approach is especially well adapted for modelling spreading processes and/or population dynamics. In particular, the generality of our framework and the fact that its assumptions are explicitly stated suggests that it could be used as a common ground for comparing existing epidemics models too complex for direct comparison, such as agent-based computer simulations. We provide many examples for the special cases of susceptible-infectious-susceptible and susceptible-infectious-removed dynamics (e.g., epidemics propagation) and we observe multiple situations where accurate results may be obtained at low computational cost. Our perspective reveals a subtle balance between the complex requirements of a realistic model and its basic assumptions.

  15. Generalized decompositions of dynamic systems and vector Lyapunov functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, M.; Siljak, D. D.

    1981-10-01

    The notion of decomposition is generalized to provide more freedom in constructing vector Lyapunov functions for stability analysis of nonlinear dynamic systems. A generalized decomposition is defined as a disjoint decomposition of a system which is obtained by expanding the state-space of a given system. An inclusion principle is formulated for the solutions of the expansion to include the solutions of the original system, so that stability of the expansion implies stability of the original system. Stability of the expansion can then be established by standard disjoint decompositions and vector Lyapunov functions. The applicability of the new approach is demonstrated using the Lotka-Volterra equations.

  16. The dynamic response of a linear brushless D.C. motor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moghani, J.S.; Eastham, J.F. [Univ. of Bath (United Kingdom). School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering

    1995-12-31

    The paper describes the use of the Matlab Analogue Simulation Toolbox SIMULINK for the closed loop dynamic modeling of a linear brushless dc motor which is supplied from a delta-modulated inverter. The work is validated by experimental results taken from a large test rig. Linear version of all rotating machines are possible; a rotating machine can be notionally cut along a radial plane and unrolled to yield a linear version. The most popular form of linear machine, as judged by the quantities that have been produced is the linear induction motor. This has the advantage of first an inexpensive secondary that is often a simple iron backed conducting plate, and secondly the possibility of simple voltage control. The linear brushless synchronous motor is potentially more expensive to produce than its induction counterpart because of the permanent magnets which provide the excitation mmf and the necessity of an inverter supply. However the machine has a power factor efficiency product which can be double that of an induction motor together with about twice the tractive force per pole area.

  17. Adaptive Control for Linear Uncertain Systems with Unmodeled Dynamics Revisited via Optimal Control Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nhan

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the optimal control modification for linear uncertain plants. The Lyapunov analysis shows that the modification parameter has a limiting value depending on the nature of the uncertainty. The optimal control modification exhibits a linear asymptotic property that enables it to be analyzed in a linear time invariant framework for linear uncertain plants. The linear asymptotic property shows that the closed-loop plants in the limit possess a scaled input-output mapping. Using this property, we can derive an analytical closed-loop transfer function in the limit as the adaptive gain tends to infinity. The paper revisits the Rohrs counterexample problem that illustrates the nature of non-robustness of model-reference adaptive control in the presence of unmodeled dynamics. An analytical approach is developed to compute exactly the modification parameter for the optimal control modification that stabilizes the plant in the Rohrs counterexample. The linear asymptotic property is also used to address output feedback adaptive control for non-minimum phase plants with a relative degree 1.

  18. Non-linear general instability of ring-stiffened conical shells under external hydrostatic pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, C T F; Kubelt, C; McLaughlin, I; Etheridge, A; Turner, K; Paraskevaides, D; Little, A P F

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents the experimental results for 15 ring-stiffened circular steel conical shells, which failed by non-linear general instability. The results of these investigations were compared with various theoretical analyses, including an ANSYS eigen buckling analysis and another ANSYS analysis; which involved a step-by-step method until collapse; where both material and geometrical nonlinearity were considered. The investigation also involved an analysis using BS5500 (PD 5500), together with the method of Ross of the University of Portsmouth. The ANSYS eigen buckling analysis tended to overestimate the predicted buckling pressures; whereas the ANSYS nonlinear results compared favourably with the experimental results. The PD5500 analysis was very time consuming and tended to grossly underestimate the experimental buckling pressures and in some cases, overestimate them. In contrast to PD5500 and ANSYS, the design charts of Ross of the University of Portsmouth were the easiest of all these methods to use and generally only slightly underestimated the experimental collapse pressures. The ANSYS analyses gave some excellent graphical displays.

  19. Identifiability of large-scale non-linear dynamic network models applied to the ADM1-case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimmegeers, Philippe; Lauwers, Joost; Telen, Dries; Logist, Filip; Impe, Jan Van

    2017-06-01

    In this work, both the structural and practical identifiability of the Anaerobic Digestion Model no. 1 (ADM1) is investigated, which serves as a relevant case study of large non-linear dynamic network models. The structural identifiability is investigated using the probabilistic algorithm, adapted to deal with the specifics of the case study (i.e., a large-scale non-linear dynamic system of differential and algebraic equations). The practical identifiability is analyzed using a Monte Carlo parameter estimation procedure for a 'non-informative' and 'informative' experiment, which are heuristically designed. The model structure of ADM1 has been modified by replacing parameters by parameter combinations, to provide a generally locally structurally identifiable version of ADM1. This means that in an idealized theoretical situation, the parameters can be estimated accurately. Furthermore, the generally positive structural identifiability results can be explained from the large number of interconnections between the states in the network structure. This interconnectivity, however, is also observed in the parameter estimates, making uncorrelated parameter estimations in practice difficult. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Novel developments in linear modal description of piping system dynamic behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revesz, Z.

    1989-01-01

    Novel developments in dynamic analysis of piping systems are described. The ASME BPV Codes, 1986 describes methods that are considered as adequate to analyze piping systems under dynamic loading, and also states that the method described in the codes are not the only acceptable ones. With straightforward application of the principles and methods laid down in the code novel numerical techniques can be developed. These techniques allow to obtain correct, conservative estimates of the piping system response and to reduce the computed stresses the same time. Beyond that, the particular algorithm which is presented is also suitable to analyze systems which include non-linear (viscous) damping elements

  1. On the Convergence of Piecewise Linear Strategic Interaction Dynamics on Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Gharesifard, Bahman

    2015-09-11

    We prove that the piecewise linear best-response dynamical systems of strategic interactions are asymptotically convergent to their set of equilibria on any weighted undirected graph. We study various features of these dynamical systems, including the uniqueness and abundance properties of the set of equilibria and the emergence of unstable equilibria. We also introduce the novel notions of social equivalence and social dominance on directed graphs, and demonstrate some of their interesting implications, including their correspondence to consensus and chromatic number of partite graphs. Examples illustrate our results.

  2. Dynamical simulation of a linear sigma model near the critical point

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wesp, Christian; Meistrenko, Alex; Greiner, Carsten [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt, Max-von-Laue-Strasse 1, D-60438 Frankfurt (Germany); Hees, Hendrik van [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Ruth-Moufang-Strasse 1, D-60438 Frankfurt (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    The intention of this study is the search for signatures of the chiral phase transition. To investigate the impact of fluctuations, e.g. of the baryon number, on the transition or a critical point, the linear sigma model is treated in a dynamical 3+1D numerical simulation. Chiral fields are approximated as classical fields, quarks are described by quasi particles in a Vlasov equation. Additional dynamic is implemented by quark-quark and quark-sigma-field interaction. For a consistent description of field-particle interactions, a new Monte-Carlo-Langevin-like formalism has been developed and is discussed.

  3. Particle-in-Cell Code BEAMPATH for Beam Dynamics Simulations in Linear Accelerators and Beamlines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batygin, Y.

    2004-01-01

    A code library BEAMPATH for 2 - dimensional and 3 - dimensional space charge dominated beam dynamics study in linear particle accelerators and beam transport lines is developed. The program is used for particle-in-cell simulation of axial-symmetric, quadrupole-symmetric and z-uniform beams in a channel containing RF gaps, radio-frequency quadrupoles, multipole lenses, solenoids and bending magnets. The programming method includes hierarchical program design using program-independent modules and a flexible combination of modules to provide the most effective version of the structure for every specific case of simulation. Numerical techniques as well as the results of beam dynamics studies are presented

  4. Particle-in-Cell Code BEAMPATH for Beam Dynamics Simulations in Linear Accelerators and Beamlines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batygin, Y.

    2004-10-28

    A code library BEAMPATH for 2 - dimensional and 3 - dimensional space charge dominated beam dynamics study in linear particle accelerators and beam transport lines is developed. The program is used for particle-in-cell simulation of axial-symmetric, quadrupole-symmetric and z-uniform beams in a channel containing RF gaps, radio-frequency quadrupoles, multipole lenses, solenoids and bending magnets. The programming method includes hierarchical program design using program-independent modules and a flexible combination of modules to provide the most effective version of the structure for every specific case of simulation. Numerical techniques as well as the results of beam dynamics studies are presented.

  5. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of a Linear Nanomotor Driven by Thermophoretic Forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zambrano, Harvey A; Walther, Jens Honore; Jaffe, Richard L.

    Molecular Dynamics of a Linear Nanomotor Driven by Thermophoresis Harvey A. Zambrano1, Jens H. Walther1,2 and Richard L. Jaffe3 1Department of Mechanical Engineering, Fluid Mechanics, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Lyngby, Denmark; 2Computational Science and Engineering Laboratory, ETH...... future molecular machines a complete understanding of the friction forces involved on the transport process at the molecular level have to be addressed.18 In this work we perform Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations using the MD package FASTTUBE19 to study a molecular linear motor consisting of coaxial...... the valence forces within the CNT using Morse, harmonic angle and torsion potentials.19We include a nonbonded carbon-carbon Lennard-Jones potential to describe the vdW interaction between the carbon atoms within the double wall portion of the system. We equilibrate the system at 300K for 0.1 ns, by coupling...

  6. Robust control of uncertain dynamic systems a linear state space approach

    CERN Document Server

    Yedavalli, Rama K

    2014-01-01

    This textbook aims to provide a clear understanding of the various tools of analysis and design for robust stability and performance of uncertain dynamic systems. In model-based control design and analysis, mathematical models can never completely represent the “real world” system that is being modeled, and thus it is imperative to incorporate and accommodate a level of uncertainty into the models. This book directly addresses these issues from a deterministic uncertainty viewpoint and focuses on the interval parameter characterization of uncertain systems. Various tools of analysis and design are presented in a consolidated manner. This volume fills a current gap in published works by explicitly addressing the subject of control of dynamic systems from linear state space framework, namely using a time-domain, matrix-theory based approach. This book also: Presents and formulates the robustness problem in a linear state space model framework Illustrates various systems level methodologies with examples and...

  7. Self-consistent field theory based molecular dynamics with linear system-size scaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richters, Dorothee [Institute of Mathematics and Center for Computational Sciences, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Staudinger Weg 9, D-55128 Mainz (Germany); Kühne, Thomas D., E-mail: kuehne@uni-mainz.de [Institute of Physical Chemistry and Center for Computational Sciences, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55128 Mainz (Germany); Technical and Macromolecular Chemistry, University of Paderborn, Warburger Str. 100, D-33098 Paderborn (Germany)

    2014-04-07

    We present an improved field-theoretic approach to the grand-canonical potential suitable for linear scaling molecular dynamics simulations using forces from self-consistent electronic structure calculations. It is based on an exact decomposition of the grand canonical potential for independent fermions and does neither rely on the ability to localize the orbitals nor that the Hamilton operator is well-conditioned. Hence, this scheme enables highly accurate all-electron linear scaling calculations even for metallic systems. The inherent energy drift of Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics simulations, arising from an incomplete convergence of the self-consistent field cycle, is circumvented by means of a properly modified Langevin equation. The predictive power of the present approach is illustrated using the example of liquid methane under extreme conditions.

  8. Object-Oriented Parallel Particle-in-Cell Code for Beam Dynamics Simulation in Linear Accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiang, J.; Ryne, R.D.; Habib, S.; Decky, V.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we present an object-oriented three-dimensional parallel particle-in-cell code for beam dynamics simulation in linear accelerators. A two-dimensional parallel domain decomposition approach is employed within a message passing programming paradigm along with a dynamic load balancing. Implementing object-oriented software design provides the code with better maintainability, reusability, and extensibility compared with conventional structure based code. This also helps to encapsulate the details of communications syntax. Performance tests on SGI/Cray T3E-900 and SGI Origin 2000 machines show good scalability of the object-oriented code. Some important features of this code also include employing symplectic integration with linear maps of external focusing elements and using z as the independent variable, typical in accelerators. A successful application was done to simulate beam transport through three superconducting sections in the APT linac design

  9. Summary goodness-of-fit statistics for binary generalized linear models with noncanonical link functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canary, Jana D; Blizzard, Leigh; Barry, Ronald P; Hosmer, David W; Quinn, Stephen J

    2016-05-01

    Generalized linear models (GLM) with a canonical logit link function are the primary modeling technique used to relate a binary outcome to predictor variables. However, noncanonical links can offer more flexibility, producing convenient analytical quantities (e.g., probit GLMs in toxicology) and desired measures of effect (e.g., relative risk from log GLMs). Many summary goodness-of-fit (GOF) statistics exist for logistic GLM. Their properties make the development of GOF statistics relatively straightforward, but it can be more difficult under noncanonical links. Although GOF tests for logistic GLM with continuous covariates (GLMCC) have been applied to GLMCCs with log links, we know of no GOF tests in the literature specifically developed for GLMCCs that can be applied regardless of link function chosen. We generalize the Tsiatis GOF statistic originally developed for logistic GLMCCs, (TG), so that it can be applied under any link function. Further, we show that the algebraically related Hosmer-Lemeshow (HL) and Pigeon-Heyse (J(2) ) statistics can be applied directly. In a simulation study, TG, HL, and J(2) were used to evaluate the fit of probit, log-log, complementary log-log, and log models, all calculated with a common grouping method. The TG statistic consistently maintained Type I error rates, while those of HL and J(2) were often lower than expected if terms with little influence were included. Generally, the statistics had similar power to detect an incorrect model. An exception occurred when a log GLMCC was incorrectly fit to data generated from a logistic GLMCC. In this case, TG had more power than HL or J(2) . © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/London School of Economics.

  10. A Dantzig-Wolfe decomposition algorithm for linear economic model predictive control of dynamically decoupled subsystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sokoler, Leo Emil; Standardi, Laura; Edlund, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a warm-started Dantzig–Wolfe decomposition algorithm tailored to economic model predictive control of dynamically decoupled subsystems. We formulate the constrained optimal control problem solved at each sampling instant as a linear program with state space constraints, input...... limits, input rate limits, and soft output limits. The objective function of the linear program is related directly to the cost of operating the subsystems, and the cost of violating the soft output constraints. Simulations for large-scale economic power dispatch problems show that the proposed algorithm...... is significantly faster than both state-of-the-art linear programming solvers, and a structure exploiting implementation of the alternating direction method of multipliers. It is also demonstrated that the control strategy presented in this paper can be tuned using a weighted ℓ1-regularization term...

  11. Diagnostic usefulness of segmental and linear enhancement in dynamic breast MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morakkabati-Spitz, N.; Leutner, C.; Schild, H.; Traeber, F.; Kuhl, C.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was the evaluation of the diagnostic usefulness of ductal or segmental enhancement in dynamic breast MRI. Segmental and ductal enhancement have been established as the breast MRI hallmarks of intraductal breast cancer (DCIS); however, the positive predictive value of this imaging finding is still unknown. In our study, we analysed the overall prevalence of a segmental or a linear enhancement pattern on breast MRI for an unselected cohort of patients. The aim was to evaluate the diagnostic usefulness of segmental or linear enhancement. Second, we asked whether biopsy was necessary also in the absence of mammographic findings suggestive of DCIS. Prospective, consecutive evaluation of 1,003 patients undergoing bilateral dynamic breast MRI. Studies were interpreted by two experienced breast radiologists. A diagnostic or screening two-view mammogram was available for all patients. Biopsy or short-term breast MRI follow-up was recommended for patients showing a segmental or a linear enhancement pattern on breast MRI. The patients' final diagnoses were established by imaging guided excisional or core biopsy or by clinical plus conventional imaging follow-up for a period of 2 years. The prevalence of segmental or linear enhancement was determined for patients with a final diagnosis of benign breast disease compared with those with a diagnosis of breast cancer. One hundred twenty patients had invasive breast cancer, 24 patients had DCIS and 859 patients had unsuspicious breast MRI or benign breast disease. A segmental or a linear enhancement pattern was found for 50/1,003 (5%) patients (17 DCIS, 33 benign breast diseases). Accordingly, the positive predictive value of segmental and linear enhancement is 34% (17/50); the specificity of this criterion is 96% (826/859). For 4/24 (17%) patients, DCIS was visible as segmental or linear enhancement on dynamic breast MRI, whereas no abnormalities were visible on the corresponding mammogram. The overall

  12. Dynamic stability of a vertically excited non-linear continuous system

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Náprstek, Jiří; Fischer, Cyril

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 155, July (2015), s. 106-114 ISSN 0045-7949 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-01035S Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : non-linear systems * auto-parametric systems * semi-trivial solution * dynamic stability * system recovery * post- critical response Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering Impact factor: 2.425, year: 2015 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0045794915000024

  13. On the internal stability of non-linear dynamic inversion: application to flight control

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Alam, M.; Čelikovský, Sergej

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 12 (2017), s. 1849-1861 ISSN 1751-8644 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-04682S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : flight control * non-linear dynamic inversion * stability Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory OBOR OECD: Automation and control systems Impact factor: 2.536, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2017/TR/celikovsky-0476150.pdf

  14. Efficiency Improvement of a High Dynamic BLDC Linear Motor by Multiphase Control

    OpenAIRE

    Lemmens, Joris; Vanvlasselaer, Kris; Mulier, Kristof; Goossens, Stijn; Symens, Wim; Driesen, Johan

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a multiphase control strategy for a high dynamic brushless DC linear motor as an alternative for conventional three-phase field-oriented control. Analysis of the magnetic field waveforms shows that three-phase control is not optimal for the 6-slot 7-pole motor topology. Therefore, a multiphase control strategy is elaborated which injects currents proportional to the electromotive force into each of the nine stator coil groups. This results in a maximal alignment force ...

  15. A generalized linear model for estimating spectrotemporal receptive fields from responses to natural sounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Calabrese

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the auditory system, the stimulus-response properties of single neurons are often described in terms of the spectrotemporal receptive field (STRF, a linear kernel relating the spectrogram of the sound stimulus to the instantaneous firing rate of the neuron. Several algorithms have been used to estimate STRFs from responses to natural stimuli; these algorithms differ in their functional models, cost functions, and regularization methods. Here, we characterize the stimulus-response function of auditory neurons using a generalized linear model (GLM. In this model, each cell's input is described by: 1 a stimulus filter (STRF; and 2 a post-spike filter, which captures dependencies on the neuron's spiking history. The output of the model is given by a series of spike trains rather than instantaneous firing rate, allowing the prediction of spike train responses to novel stimuli. We fit the model by maximum penalized likelihood to the spiking activity of zebra finch auditory midbrain neurons in response to conspecific vocalizations (songs and modulation limited (ml noise. We compare this model to normalized reverse correlation (NRC, the traditional method for STRF estimation, in terms of predictive power and the basic tuning properties of the estimated STRFs. We find that a GLM with a sparse prior predicts novel responses to both stimulus classes significantly better than NRC. Importantly, we find that STRFs from the two models derived from the same responses can differ substantially and that GLM STRFs are more consistent between stimulus classes than NRC STRFs. These results suggest that a GLM with a sparse prior provides a more accurate characterization of spectrotemporal tuning than does the NRC method when responses to complex sounds are studied in these neurons.

  16. Generalization in adaptation to stable and unstable dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelhamid Kadiallah

    Full Text Available Humans skillfully manipulate objects and tools despite the inherent instability. In order to succeed at these tasks, the sensorimotor control system must build an internal representation of both the force and mechanical impedance. As it is not practical to either learn or store motor commands for every possible future action, the sensorimotor control system generalizes a control strategy for a range of movements based on learning performed over a set of movements. Here, we introduce a computational model for this learning and generalization, which specifies how to learn feedforward muscle activity in a function of the state space. Specifically, by incorporating co-activation as a function of error into the feedback command, we are able to derive an algorithm from a gradient descent minimization of motion error and effort, subject to maintaining a stability margin. This algorithm can be used to learn to coordinate any of a variety of motor primitives such as force fields, muscle synergies, physical models or artificial neural networks. This model for human learning and generalization is able to adapt to both stable and unstable dynamics, and provides a controller for generating efficient adaptive motor behavior in robots. Simulation results exhibit predictions consistent with all experiments on learning of novel dynamics requiring adaptation of force and impedance, and enable us to re-examine some of the previous interpretations of experiments on generalization.

  17. Forced fluid dynamics from blackfolds in general supergravity backgrounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armas, Jay [Physique Théorique et Mathématique,Université Libre de Bruxelles and International Solvay Institutes,ULB-Campus Plaine CP231, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Gath, Jakob [Centre de Physique Théorique, École Polytechnique,CNRS UMR 7644, Université Paris-Saclay,F-91128 Palaiseau (France); Niarchos, Vasilis [Crete Center for Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical and Computational Physics,Crete Center for Quantum Complexity and Nanotechnology,Department of Physics, University of Crete,Heraklion, 71303 (Greece); Obers, Niels A.; Pedersen, Andreas Vigand [The Niels Bohr Institute, Copenhagen University,Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø (Denmark)

    2016-10-27

    We present a general treatment of the leading order dynamics of the collective modes of charged dilatonic p-brane solutions of (super)gravity theories in arbitrary backgrounds. To this end we employ the general strategy of the blackfold approach which is based on a long-wavelength derivative expansion around an exact or approximate solution of the (super)gravity equations of motion. The resulting collective mode equations are formulated as forced hydrodynamic equations on dynamically embedded hypersurfaces. We derive them in full generality (including all possible asymptotic fluxes and dilaton profiles) in a far-zone analysis of the (super)gravity equations and in representative examples in a near-zone analysis. An independent treatment based on the study of external couplings in hydrostatic partition functions is also presented. Special emphasis is given to the forced collective mode equations that arise in type IIA/B and eleven-dimensional supergravities, where besides the standard Lorentz force couplings our analysis reveals additional couplings to the background, including terms that arise from Chern-Simons interactions. We also present a general overview of the blackfold approach and some of the key conceptual issues that arise when applied to arbitrary backgrounds.

  18. Robust control and linear parameter varying approaches application to vehicle dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Gaspar, Peter; Bokor, József

    2013-01-01

    Vehicles are complex systems (non-linear, multi-variable) where the abundance of embedded controllers should ensure better security. This book aims at emphasizing the interest and potential of Linear Parameter Varying methods within the framework of vehicle dynamics, e.g.   ·          proposed control-oriented model, complex enough to handle some system non linearities but still simple for control or observer design,   ·          take into account the adaptability of the vehicle's response to driving situations, to the driver request and/or to the road sollicitations,   ·          manage interactions between various actuators to optimize the dynamic behavior of vehicles.   This book results from the 32th International Summer School in Automatic that held in Grenoble, France, in September 2011, where recent methods (based on robust control and LPV technics), then applied to the control of vehicle dynamics, have been presented. After some theoretical background and a view on so...

  19. Dynamic imperfections and optimized feedback design in the Compact Linear Collider main linac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peder Eliasson

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The Compact Linear Collider (CLIC main linac is sensitive to dynamic imperfections such as element jitter, injected beam jitter, and ground motion. These effects cause emittance growth that, in case of ground motion, has to be counteracted by a trajectory feedback system. The feedback system itself will, due to jitter effects and imperfect beam position monitors (BPMs, indirectly cause emittance growth. Fast and accurate simulations of both the direct and indirect effects are desirable, but due to the many elements of the CLIC main linac, simulations may become very time consuming. In this paper, an efficient way of simulating linear (or nearly linear dynamic effects is described. The method is also shown to facilitate the analytic determination of emittance growth caused by the different dynamic imperfections while using a trajectory feedback system. Emittance growth expressions are derived for quadrupole, accelerating structure, and beam jitter, for ground motion, and for noise in the feedback BPMs. Finally, it is shown how the method can be used to design a feedback system that is optimized for the optics of the machine and the ground motion spectrum of the particular site. This feedback system gives an emittance growth rate that is approximately 10 times lower than that of traditional trajectory feedbacks. The robustness of the optimized feedback system is studied for a number of additional imperfections, e.g., dipole corrector imperfections and faulty knowledge about the machine optics, with promising results.

  20. Dynamic imperfections and optimized feedback design in the Compact Linear Collider main linac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliasson, Peder

    2008-05-01

    The Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) main linac is sensitive to dynamic imperfections such as element jitter, injected beam jitter, and ground motion. These effects cause emittance growth that, in case of ground motion, has to be counteracted by a trajectory feedback system. The feedback system itself will, due to jitter effects and imperfect beam position monitors (BPMs), indirectly cause emittance growth. Fast and accurate simulations of both the direct and indirect effects are desirable, but due to the many elements of the CLIC main linac, simulations may become very time consuming. In this paper, an efficient way of simulating linear (or nearly linear) dynamic effects is described. The method is also shown to facilitate the analytic determination of emittance growth caused by the different dynamic imperfections while using a trajectory feedback system. Emittance growth expressions are derived for quadrupole, accelerating structure, and beam jitter, for ground motion, and for noise in the feedback BPMs. Finally, it is shown how the method can be used to design a feedback system that is optimized for the optics of the machine and the ground motion spectrum of the particular site. This feedback system gives an emittance growth rate that is approximately 10 times lower than that of traditional trajectory feedbacks. The robustness of the optimized feedback system is studied for a number of additional imperfections, e.g., dipole corrector imperfections and faulty knowledge about the machine optics, with promising results.

  1. A Bivariate Generalized Linear Item Response Theory Modeling Framework to the Analysis of Responses and Response Times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenaar, Dylan; Tuerlinckx, Francis; van der Maas, Han L J

    2015-01-01

    A generalized linear modeling framework to the analysis of responses and response times is outlined. In this framework, referred to as bivariate generalized linear item response theory (B-GLIRT), separate generalized linear measurement models are specified for the responses and the response times that are subsequently linked by cross-relations. The cross-relations can take various forms. Here, we focus on cross-relations with a linear or interaction term for ability tests, and cross-relations with a curvilinear term for personality tests. In addition, we discuss how popular existing models from the psychometric literature are special cases in the B-GLIRT framework depending on restrictions in the cross-relation. This allows us to compare existing models conceptually and empirically. We discuss various extensions of the traditional models motivated by practical problems. We also illustrate the applicability of our approach using various real data examples, including data on personality and cognitive ability.

  2. Generalized Langevin Theory Of The Brownian Motion And The Dynamics Of Polymers In Solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tothova, J.; Lisy, V.

    2015-01-01

    The review deals with a generalization of the Rouse and Zimm bead-spring models of the dynamics of flexible polymers in dilute solutions. As distinct from these popular theories, the memory in the polymer motion is taken into account. The memory naturally arises as a consequence of the fluid and bead inertia within the linearized Navier-Stokes hydrodynamics. We begin with a generalization of the classical theory of the Brownian motion, which forms the basis of any theory of the polymer dynamics. The random force driving the Brownian particles is not the white one as in the Langevin theory, but “colored”, i.e., statistically correlated in time, and the friction force on the particles depends on the history of their motion. An efficient method of solving the resulting generalized Langevin equations is presented and applied to the solution of the equations of motion of polymer beads. The memory effects lead to several peculiarities in the time correlation functions used to describe the dynamics of polymer chains. So, the mean square displacement of the polymer coils contains algebraic long-time tails and at short times it is ballistic. It is shown how these features reveal in the experimentally observable quantities, such as the dynamic structure factors of the scattering or the viscosity of polymer solutions. A phenomenological theory is also presented that describes the dependence of these quantities on the polymer concentration in solution. (author)

  3. Comparison of linear intrascan and interscan dynamic ranges of Orbitrap and ion-mobility time-of-flight mass spectrometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Anton; Walker, Stephan

    2017-11-30

    The linear intrascan and interscan dynamic ranges of mass spectrometers are important in metabolome and residue analysis. A large linear dynamic range is mandatory if both low- and high-abundance ions have to be detected and quantitated in heavy matrix samples. These performance criteria, as provided by modern high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS), were systematically investigated. The comparison included two generations of Orbitraps, and an ion mobility quadrupole time-of-flight (QTOF) system In addition, different scan modes, as provided by the utilized instruments, were investigated. Calibration curves of different compounds covering a concentration range of five orders of magnitude were measured to evaluate the linear interscan dynamic range. The linear intrascan dynamic range and the resulting mass accuracy were evaluated by repeating these measurements in the presence of a very intense background. Modern HRMS instruments can show linear dynamic ranges of five orders of magnitude. Often, however, the linear dynamic range is limited by the detection capability (sensitivity and selectivity) and by the electrospray ionization. Orbitraps, as opposed to TOF instruments, show a reduced intrascan dynamic range. This is due to the limited C-trap and Orbitrap capacity. The tested TOF instrument shows poorer mass accuracies than the Orbitraps. In contrast, hyphenation with an ion-mobility device seems not to affect the linear dynamic range. The linear dynamic range of modern HRMS instrumentation has been significantly improved. This also refers to the virtual absence of systematic mass shifts at high ion abundances. The intrascan dynamic range of the current Orbitrap technology may still be a limitation when analyzing complex matrix extracts. On the other hand, the linear dynamic range is not only limited by the detector technology, but can also be shortened by peripheral devices, where the ionization and transfer of ions take place. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley

  4. A generalized linear-quadratic model incorporating reciprocal time pattern of radiation damage repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Zhibin; Mayr, Nina A.; Lo, Simon S.; Wang, Jian Z.; Jia Guang; Yuh, William T. C.; Johnke, Roberta

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: It has been conventionally assumed that the repair rate for sublethal damage (SLD) remains constant during the entire radiation course. However, increasing evidence from animal studies suggest that this may not the case. Rather, it appears that the repair rate for radiation-induced SLD slows down with increasing time. Such a slowdown in repair would suggest that the exponential repair pattern would not necessarily accurately predict repair process. As a result, the purpose of this study was to investigate a new generalized linear-quadratic (LQ) model incorporating a repair pattern with reciprocal time. The new formulas were tested with published experimental data. Methods: The LQ model has been widely used in radiation therapy, and the parameter G in the surviving fraction represents the repair process of sublethal damage with T r as the repair half-time. When a reciprocal pattern of repair process was adopted, a closed form of G was derived analytically for arbitrary radiation schemes. The published animal data adopted to test the reciprocal formulas. Results: A generalized LQ model to describe the repair process in a reciprocal pattern was obtained. Subsequently, formulas for special cases were derived from this general form. The reciprocal model showed a better fit to the animal data than the exponential model, particularly for the ED50 data (reduced χ 2 min of 2.0 vs 4.3, p = 0.11 vs 0.006), with the following gLQ parameters: α/β = 2.6-4.8 Gy, T r = 3.2-3.9 h for rat feet skin, and α/β = 0.9 Gy, T r = 1.1 h for rat spinal cord. Conclusions: These results of repair process following a reciprocal time suggest that the generalized LQ model incorporating the reciprocal time of sublethal damage repair shows a better fit than the exponential repair model. These formulas can be used to analyze the experimental and clinical data, where a slowing-down repair process appears during the course of radiation therapy.

  5. Non-Linear Structural Dynamics Characterization using a Scanning Laser Vibrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, P. F.; Lee, S.-Y.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the use of a scanning laser vibrometer and a signal decomposition method to characterize non-linear dynamics of highly flexible structures. A Polytec PI PSV-200 scanning laser vibrometer is used to measure transverse velocities of points on a structure subjected to a harmonic excitation. Velocity profiles at different times are constructed using the measured velocities, and then each velocity profile is decomposed using the first four linear mode shapes and a least-squares curve-fitting method. From the variations of the obtained modal \\ielocities with time we search for possible non-linear phenomena. A cantilevered titanium alloy beam subjected to harmonic base-excitations around the second. third, and fourth natural frequencies are examined in detail. Influences of the fixture mass. gravity. mass centers of mode shapes. and non-linearities are evaluated. Geometrically exact equations governing the planar, harmonic large-amplitude vibrations of beams are solved for operational deflection shapes using the multiple shooting method. Experimental results show the existence of 1:3 and 1:2:3 external and internal resonances. energy transfer from high-frequency modes to the first mode. and amplitude- and phase- modulation among several modes. Moreover, the existence of non-linear normal modes is found to be questionable.

  6. On generally covariant quantum field theory and generalized causal and dynamical structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bannier, U.

    1988-01-01

    We give an example of a generally covariant quasilocal algebra associated with the massive free field. Maximal, two-sided ideals of this algebra are algebraic representatives of external metric fields. In some sense, this algebra may be regarded as a concrete realization of Ekstein's ideas of presymmetry in quantum field theory. Using ideas from our example and from usual algebraic quantum field theory, we discuss a generalized scheme, in which maximal ideals are viewed as algebraic representatives of dynamical equations or Lagrangians. The considered frame is no quantum gravity, but may lead to further insight into the relation between quantum theory and space-time geometry. (orig.)

  7. Suppression of chaos at slow variables by rapidly mixing fast dynamics through linear energy-preserving coupling

    OpenAIRE

    Abramov, Rafail V.

    2011-01-01

    Chaotic multiscale dynamical systems are common in many areas of science, one of the examples being the interaction of the low-frequency dynamics in the atmosphere with the fast turbulent weather dynamics. One of the key questions about chaotic multiscale systems is how the fast dynamics affects chaos at the slow variables, and, therefore, impacts uncertainty and predictability of the slow dynamics. Here we demonstrate that the linear slow-fast coupling with the total energy conservation prop...

  8. A general science-based framework for dynamical spatio-temporal models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikle, C.K.; Hooten, M.B.

    2010-01-01

    Spatio-temporal statistical models are increasingly being used across a wide variety of scientific disciplines to describe and predict spatially-explicit processes that evolve over time. Correspondingly, in recent years there has been a significant amount of research on new statistical methodology for such models. Although descriptive models that approach the problem from the second-order (covariance) perspective are important, and innovative work is being done in this regard, many real-world processes are dynamic, and it can be more efficient in some cases to characterize the associated spatio-temporal dependence by the use of dynamical models. The chief challenge with the specification of such dynamical models has been related to the curse of dimensionality. Even in fairly simple linear, first-order Markovian, Gaussian error settings, statistical models are often over parameterized. Hierarchical models have proven invaluable in their ability to deal to some extent with this issue by allowing dependency among groups of parameters. In addition, this framework has allowed for the specification of science based parameterizations (and associated prior distributions) in which classes of deterministic dynamical models (e. g., partial differential equations (PDEs), integro-difference equations (IDEs), matrix models, and agent-based models) are used to guide specific parameterizations. Most of the focus for the application of such models in statistics has been in the linear case. The problems mentioned above with linear dynamic models are compounded in the case of nonlinear models. In this sense, the need for coherent and sensible model parameterizations is not only helpful, it is essential. Here, we present an overview of a framework for incorporating scientific information to motivate dynamical spatio-temporal models. First, we illustrate the methodology with the linear case. We then develop a general nonlinear spatio-temporal framework that we call general quadratic

  9. Controllability of Free-piston Stirling Engine/linear Alternator Driving a Dynamic Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kankam, M. David; Rauch, Jeffrey S.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents the dynamic behavior of a Free-Piston Stirling Engine/linear alternator (FPSE/LA) driving a single-phase fractional horse-power induction motor. The controllability and dynamic stability of the system are discussed by means of sensitivity effects of variations in system parameters, engine controller, operating conditions, and mechanical loading on the induction motor. The approach used expands on a combined mechanical and thermodynamic formulation employed in a previous paper. The application of state-space technique and frequency domain analysis enhances understanding of the dynamic interactions. Engine-alternator parametric sensitivity studies, similar to those of the previous paper, are summarized. Detailed discussions are provided for parametric variations which relate to the engine controller and system operating conditions. The results suggest that the controllability of a FPSE-based power system is enhanced by proper operating conditions and built-in controls.

  10. Characterizing the performance of the Conway-Maxwell Poisson generalized linear model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Royce A; Geedipally, Srinivas Reddy; Guikema, Seth D; Dhavala, Soma Sekhar; Lord, Dominique; LaRocca, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Count data are pervasive in many areas of risk analysis; deaths, adverse health outcomes, infrastructure system failures, and traffic accidents are all recorded as count events, for example. Risk analysts often wish to estimate the probability distribution for the number of discrete events as part of doing a risk assessment. Traditional count data regression models of the type often used in risk assessment for this problem suffer from limitations due to the assumed variance structure. A more flexible model based on the Conway-Maxwell Poisson (COM-Poisson) distribution was recently proposed, a model that has the potential to overcome the limitations of the traditional model. However, the statistical performance of this new model has not yet been fully characterized. This article assesses the performance of a maximum likelihood estimation method for fitting the COM-Poisson generalized linear model (GLM). The objectives of this article are to (1) characterize the parameter estimation accuracy of the MLE implementation of the COM-Poisson GLM, and (2) estimate the prediction accuracy of the COM-Poisson GLM using simulated data sets. The results of the study indicate that the COM-Poisson GLM is flexible enough to model under-, equi-, and overdispersed data sets with different sample mean values. The results also show that the COM-Poisson GLM yields accurate parameter estimates. The COM-Poisson GLM provides a promising and flexible approach for performing count data regression. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.

  11. Setting a generalized functional linear model (GFLM for the classification of different types of cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Flores

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to classify the DNA sequences of healthy and malignant cancer respectively. For this, supervised and unsupervised classification methods from a functional context are used; i.e. each strand of DNA is an observation. The observations are discretized, for that reason different ways to represent these observations with functions are evaluated. In addition, an exploratory study is done: estimating the mean and variance of each functional type of cancer. For the unsupervised classification method, hierarchical clustering with different measures of functional distance is used. On the other hand, for the supervised classification method, a functional generalized linear model is used. For this model the first and second derivatives are used which are included as discriminating variables. It has been verified that one of the advantages of working in the functional context is to obtain a model to correctly classify cancers by 100%. For the implementation of the methods it has been used the fda.usc R package that includes all the techniques of functional data analysis used in this work. In addition, some that have been developed in recent decades. For more details of these techniques can be consulted Ramsay, J. O. and Silverman (2005 and Ferraty et al. (2006.

  12. Population decoding of motor cortical activity using a generalized linear model with hidden states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawhern, Vernon; Wu, Wei; Hatsopoulos, Nicholas; Paninski, Liam

    2010-06-15

    Generalized linear models (GLMs) have been developed for modeling and decoding population neuronal spiking activity in the motor cortex. These models provide reasonable characterizations between neural activity and motor behavior. However, they lack a description of movement-related terms which are not observed directly in these experiments, such as muscular activation, the subject's level of attention, and other internal or external states. Here we propose to include a multi-dimensional hidden state to address these states in a GLM framework where the spike count at each time is described as a function of the hand state (position, velocity, and acceleration), truncated spike history, and the hidden state. The model can be identified by an Expectation-Maximization algorithm. We tested this new method in two datasets where spikes were simultaneously recorded using a multi-electrode array in the primary motor cortex of two monkeys. It was found that this method significantly improves the model-fitting over the classical GLM, for hidden dimensions varying from 1 to 4. This method also provides more accurate decoding of hand state (reducing the mean square error by up to 29% in some cases), while retaining real-time computational efficiency. These improvements on representation and decoding over the classical GLM model suggest that this new approach could contribute as a useful tool to motor cortical decoding and prosthetic applications. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A new approach in simulating RF linacs using a general, linear real-time signal processor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, A.; Jachim, S.P.

    1991-01-01

    Strict requirements on the tolerances of the amplitude and phase of the radio frequency (RF) cavity field are necessary to advance the field of accelerator technology. Due to these stringent requirements upon modern accelerators,a new approach of modeling and simulating is essential in developing and understanding their characteristics. This paper describes the implementation of a general, linear model of an RF cavity which is used to develop a real-time signal processor. This device fully emulates the response of an RF cavity upon receiving characteristic parameters (Q 0 , ω 0 , Δω, R S , Z 0 ). Simulating an RF cavity with a real-time signal processor is beneficial to an accelerator designer because the device allows one to answer fundamental questions on the response of the cavity to a particular stimulus without operating the accelerator. In particular, the complex interactions between the RF power and the control systems, the beam and cavity fields can simply be observed in a real-time domain. The signal processor can also be used upon initialization of the accelerator as a diagnostic device and as a dummy load for determining the closed-loop error of the control system. In essence, the signal processor is capable of providing information that allows an operator to determine whether the control systems and peripheral devices are operating properly without going through the tedious procedure of running the beam through a cavity

  14. Determination of a Differential Item Functioning Procedure Using the Hierarchical Generalized Linear Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tülin Acar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to compare the result of the differential item functioning (DIF determining with hierarchical generalized linear model (HGLM technique and the results of the DIF determining with logistic regression (LR and item response theory–likelihood ratio (IRT-LR techniques on the test items. For this reason, first in this research, it is determined whether the students encounter DIF with HGLM, LR, and IRT-LR techniques according to socioeconomic status (SES, in the Turkish, Social Sciences, and Science subtest items of the Secondary School Institutions Examination. When inspecting the correlations among the techniques in terms of determining the items having DIF, it was discovered that there was significant correlation between the results of IRT-LR and LR techniques in all subtests; merely in Science subtest, the results of the correlation between HGLM and IRT-LR techniques were found significant. DIF applications can be made on test items with other DIF analysis techniques that were not taken to the scope of this research. The analysis results, which were determined by using the DIF techniques in different sample sizes, can be compared.

  15. Population Decoding of Motor Cortical Activity using a Generalized Linear Model with Hidden States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawhern, Vernon; Wu, Wei; Hatsopoulos, Nicholas G.; Paninski, Liam

    2010-01-01

    Generalized linear models (GLMs) have been developed for modeling and decoding population neuronal spiking activity in the motor cortex. These models provide reasonable characterizations between neural activity and motor behavior. However, they lack a description of movement-related terms which are not observed directly in these experiments, such as muscular activation, the subject's level of attention, and other internal or external states. Here we propose to include a multi-dimensional hidden state to address these states in a GLM framework where the spike count at each time is described as a function of the hand state (position, velocity, and acceleration), truncated spike history, and the hidden state. The model can be identified by an Expectation-Maximization algorithm. We tested this new method in two datasets where spikes were simultaneously recorded using a multi-electrode array in the primary motor cortex of two monkeys. It was found that this method significantly improves the model-fitting over the classical GLM, for hidden dimensions varying from 1 to 4. This method also provides more accurate decoding of hand state (lowering the Mean Square Error by up to 29% in some cases), while retaining real-time computational efficiency. These improvements on representation and decoding over the classical GLM model suggest that this new approach could contribute as a useful tool to motor cortical decoding and prosthetic applications. PMID:20359500

  16. Spatial generalized linear mixed models of electric power outages due to hurricanes and ice storms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Haibin; Davidson, Rachel A.; Apanasovich, Tatiyana V.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents new statistical models that predict the number of hurricane- and ice storm-related electric power outages likely to occur in each 3 kmx3 km grid cell in a region. The models are based on a large database of recent outages experienced by three major East Coast power companies in six hurricanes and eight ice storms. A spatial generalized linear mixed modeling (GLMM) approach was used in which spatial correlation is incorporated through random effects. Models were fitted using a composite likelihood approach and the covariance matrix was estimated empirically. A simulation study was conducted to test the model estimation procedure, and model training, validation, and testing were done to select the best models and assess their predictive power. The final hurricane model includes number of protective devices, maximum gust wind speed, hurricane indicator, and company indicator covariates. The final ice storm model includes number of protective devices, ice thickness, and ice storm indicator covariates. The models should be useful for power companies as they plan for future storms. The statistical modeling approach offers a new way to assess the reliability of electric power and other infrastructure systems in extreme events

  17. Reconstruction of X-rays spectra of clinical linear accelerators using the generalized simulated annealing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manrique, John Peter O.; Costa, Alessandro M.

    2016-01-01

    The spectral distribution of megavoltage X-rays used in radiotherapy departments is a fundamental quantity from which, in principle, all relevant information required for radiotherapy treatments can be determined. To calculate the dose delivered to the patient who make radiation therapy, are used treatment planning systems (TPS), which make use of convolution and superposition algorithms and which requires prior knowledge of the photon fluence spectrum to perform the calculation of three-dimensional doses and thus ensure better accuracy in the tumor control probabilities preserving the normal tissue complication probabilities low. In this work we have obtained the photon fluence spectrum of X-ray of the SIEMENS ONCOR linear accelerator of 6 MV, using an character-inverse method to the reconstruction of the spectra of photons from transmission curves measured for different thicknesses of aluminum; the method used for reconstruction of the spectra is a stochastic technique known as generalized simulated annealing (GSA), based on the work of quasi-equilibrium statistic of Tsallis. For the validation of the reconstructed spectra we calculated the curve of percentage depth dose (PDD) for energy of 6 MV, using Monte Carlo simulation with Penelope code, and from the PDD then calculate the beam quality index TPR_2_0_/_1_0. (author)

  18. Integrable Floquet dynamics, generalized exclusion processes and "fused" matrix ansatz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanicat, Matthieu

    2018-04-01

    We present a general method for constructing integrable stochastic processes, with two-step discrete time Floquet dynamics, from the transfer matrix formalism. The models can be interpreted as a discrete time parallel update. The method can be applied for both periodic and open boundary conditions. We also show how the stationary distribution can be built as a matrix product state. As an illustration we construct parallel discrete time dynamics associated with the R-matrix of the SSEP and of the ASEP, and provide the associated stationary distributions in a matrix product form. We use this general framework to introduce new integrable generalized exclusion processes, where a fixed number of particles is allowed on each lattice site in opposition to the (single particle) exclusion process models. They are constructed using the fusion procedure of R-matrices (and K-matrices for open boundary conditions) for the SSEP and ASEP. We develop a new method, that we named "fused" matrix ansatz, to build explicitly the stationary distribution in a matrix product form. We use this algebraic structure to compute physical observables such as the correlation functions and the mean particle current.

  19. Robustness of pinning a general complex dynamical network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lei; Sun Youxian

    2010-01-01

    This Letter studies the robustness problem of pinning a general complex dynamical network toward an assigned synchronous evolution. Several synchronization criteria are presented to guarantee the convergence of the pinning process locally and globally by construction of Lyapunov functions. In particular, if a pinning strategy has been designed for synchronization of a given complex dynamical network, then no matter what uncertainties occur among the pinned nodes, synchronization can still be guaranteed through the pinning. The analytical results show that pinning control has a certain robustness against perturbations on network architecture: adding, deleting and changing the weights of edges. Numerical simulations illustrated by scale-free complex networks verify the theoretical results above-acquired.

  20. Improved dynamic equations for the generally configured Stewart platform manipulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedrammehr, Siamak; Mahboubkhah, Mehran; Khani, Navid

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a Newton-Euler approach is utilized to generate the improved dynamic equations of the generally configured Stewart platform. Using the kinematic model of the universal joint, the rotational degree of freedom of the pods around the axial direction is taken into account in the formulation. The justifiable direction of the reaction moment on each pod is specified and considered in deriving the dynamic equations. Considering the theorem of parallel axes, the inertia tensors for different elements of the manipulator are obtained in this study. From a theoretical point, the improved formulation is more accurate in comparison with previous ones, and the necessity of the improvement is clear evident from significant differences in the simulation results for the improved model and the model without improvement. In addition to more feasibility of the structure and higher accuracy, the model is highly compatible with computer arithmetic and suitable for online applications for loop control problems in hardware

  1. A general modeling framework for describing spatially structured population dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sample, Christine; Fryxell, John; Bieri, Joanna; Federico, Paula; Earl, Julia; Wiederholt, Ruscena; Mattsson, Brady; Flockhart, Tyler; Nicol, Sam; Diffendorfer, James E.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Erickson, Richard A.; Norris, D. Ryan

    2017-01-01

    Variation in movement across time and space fundamentally shapes the abundance and distribution of populations. Although a variety of approaches model structured population dynamics, they are limited to specific types of spatially structured populations and lack a unifying framework. Here, we propose a unified network-based framework sufficiently novel in its flexibility to capture a wide variety of spatiotemporal processes including metapopulations and a range of migratory patterns. It can accommodate different kinds of age structures, forms of population growth, dispersal, nomadism and migration, and alternative life-history strategies. Our objective was to link three general elements common to all spatially structured populations (space, time and movement) under a single mathematical framework. To do this, we adopt a network modeling approach. The spatial structure of a population is represented by a weighted and directed network. Each node and each edge has a set of attributes which vary through time. The dynamics of our network-based population is modeled with discrete time steps. Using both theoretical and real-world examples, we show how common elements recur across species with disparate movement strategies and how they can be combined under a unified mathematical framework. We illustrate how metapopulations, various migratory patterns, and nomadism can be represented with this modeling approach. We also apply our network-based framework to four organisms spanning a wide range of life histories, movement patterns, and carrying capacities. General computer code to implement our framework is provided, which can be applied to almost any spatially structured population. This framework contributes to our theoretical understanding of population dynamics and has practical management applications, including understanding the impact of perturbations on population size, distribution, and movement patterns. By working within a common framework, there is less chance

  2. Structural dynamic analysis with generalized damping models analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Adhikari , Sondipon

    2013-01-01

    Since Lord Rayleigh introduced the idea of viscous damping in his classic work ""The Theory of Sound"" in 1877, it has become standard practice to use this approach in dynamics, covering a wide range of applications from aerospace to civil engineering. However, in the majority of practical cases this approach is adopted more for mathematical convenience than for modeling the physics of vibration damping. Over the past decade, extensive research has been undertaken on more general ""non-viscous"" damping models and vibration of non-viscously damped systems. This book, along with a related book

  3. The architecture of Newton, a general-purpose dynamics simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremer, James F.; Stewart, A. James

    1989-01-01

    The architecture for Newton, a general-purpose system for simulating the dynamics of complex physical objects, is described. The system automatically formulates and analyzes equations of motion, and performs automatic modification of this system equations when necessitated by changes in kinematic relationships between objects. Impact and temporary contact are handled, although only using simple models. User-directed influence of simulations is achieved using Newton's module, which can be used to experiment with the control of many-degree-of-freedom articulated objects.

  4. Hamiltonian Dynamics and Positive Energy in General Relativity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deser, S. [Physics Department, Brandeis University, Waltham, MA (United States)

    1969-07-15

    A review is first given of the Hamiltonian formulation of general relativity; the gravitational field is a self-interacting massless spin-two system within the framework of ordinary Lorentz covariant field theory. The recently solved problem of positive-definiteness of the field energy is then discussed. The latter, a conserved functional of the dynamical variables, is shown to have only one extremum, a local minimum, which is the vacuum state (flat space). This implies positive energy for the field, with the vacuum as ground-state. Similar results hold when minimally coupled matter is present. (author)

  5. Vibrational mechanics nonlinear dynamic effects, general approach, applications

    CERN Document Server

    Blekhman, Iliya I

    2000-01-01

    This important book deals with vibrational mechanics - the new, intensively developing section of nonlinear dynamics and the theory of nonlinear oscillations. It offers a general approach to the study of the effect of vibration on nonlinear mechanical systems.The book presents the mathematical apparatus of vibrational mechanics which is used to describe such nonlinear effects as the disappearance and appearance under vibration of stable positions of equilibrium and motions (i.e. attractors), the change of the rheological properties of the media, self-synchronization, self-balancing, the vibrat

  6. Predicting oropharyngeal tumor volume throughout the course of radiation therapy from pretreatment computed tomography data using general linear models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yock, Adam D.; Kudchadker, Rajat J.; Rao, Arvind; Dong, Lei; Beadle, Beth M.; Garden, Adam S.; Court, Laurence E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this work was to develop and evaluate the accuracy of several predictive models of variation in tumor volume throughout the course of radiation therapy. Methods: Nineteen patients with oropharyngeal cancers were imaged daily with CT-on-rails for image-guided alignment per an institutional protocol. The daily volumes of 35 tumors in these 19 patients were determined and used to generate (1) a linear model in which tumor volume changed at a constant rate, (2) a general linear model that utilized the power fit relationship between the daily and initial tumor volumes, and (3) a functional general linear model that identified and exploited the primary modes of variation between time series describing the changing tumor volumes. Primary and nodal tumor volumes were examined separately. The accuracy of these models in predicting daily tumor volumes were compared with those of static and linear reference models using leave-one-out cross-validation. Results: In predicting the daily volume of primary tumors, the general linear model and the functional general linear model were more accurate than the static reference model by 9.9% (range: −11.6%–23.8%) and 14.6% (range: −7.3%–27.5%), respectively, and were more accurate than the linear reference model by 14.2% (range: −6.8%–40.3%) and 13.1% (range: −1.5%–52.5%), respectively. In predicting the daily volume of nodal tumors, only the 14.4% (range: −11.1%–20.5%) improvement in accuracy of the functional general linear model compared to the static reference model was statistically significant. Conclusions: A general linear model and a functional general linear model trained on data from a small population of patients can predict the primary tumor volume throughout the course of radiation therapy with greater accuracy than standard reference models. These more accurate models may increase the prognostic value of information about the tumor garnered from pretreatment computed tomography

  7. Brain-heart linear and nonlinear dynamics during visual emotional elicitation in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenza, G; Greco, A; Gentili, C; Lanata, A; Toschi, N; Barbieri, R; Sebastiani, L; Menicucci, D; Gemignani, A; Scilingo, E P

    2016-08-01

    This study investigates brain-heart dynamics during visual emotional elicitation in healthy subjects through linear and nonlinear coupling measures of EEG spectrogram and instantaneous heart rate estimates. To this extent, affective pictures including different combinations of arousal and valence levels, gathered from the International Affective Picture System, were administered to twenty-two healthy subjects. Time-varying maps of cortical activation were obtained through EEG spectral analysis, whereas the associated instantaneous heartbeat dynamics was estimated using inhomogeneous point-process linear models. Brain-Heart linear and nonlinear coupling was estimated through the Maximal Information Coefficient (MIC), considering EEG time-varying spectra and point-process estimates defined in the time and frequency domains. As a proof of concept, we here show preliminary results considering EEG oscillations in the θ band (4-8 Hz). This band, indeed, is known in the literature to be involved in emotional processes. MIC highlighted significant arousal-dependent changes, mediated by the prefrontal cortex interplay especially occurring at intermediate arousing levels. Furthermore, lower and higher arousing elicitations were associated to not significant brain-heart coupling changes in response to pleasant/unpleasant elicitations.

  8. A high linearity current mode multiplier/divider with a wide dynamic range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao Pengfei; Luo Ping; Zhang Bo; Li Zhaoji

    2012-01-01

    A high linearity current mode multiplier/divider (CMM/D) with a wide dynamic range is presented. The proposed CMM/D is based on the voltage—current characteristic of the diode, thus wide dynamic range is achieved. In addition, high linearity is achieved because high accuracy current mirrors are adopted and the output current is insensitive to the temperature and device parameters of the fabrication process. Furthermore, no extra bias current for all input signals is required and thus power saving is realized. With proper selection of establishing the input terminal, the proposed circuit can perform as a multifunction circuit to be operated as a multiplier/divider, without changing its topology. The proposed circuit is implemented in a 0.25 μm BCD process and the chip area is 0.26 × 0.24 mm 2 . The simulation and measurement results show that the maximum static linearity error is ±1.8% and the total harmonic distortion is 0.4% while the input current ranges from 0 to 200 μA. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  9. Impact of quadratic non-linearity on the dynamics of periodic solutions of a wave equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolesov, Andrei Yu; Rozov, Nikolai Kh

    2002-01-01

    For the non-linear telegraph equation with homogeneous Dirichlet or Neumann conditions at the end-points of a finite interval the question of the existence and the stability of time-periodic solutions bifurcating from the zero equilibrium state is considered. The dynamics of these solutions under a change of the diffusion coefficient (that is, the coefficient of the second derivative with respect to the space variable) is investigated. For the Dirichlet boundary conditions it is shown that this dynamics substantially depends on the presence - or the absence - of quadratic terms in the non-linearity. More precisely, it is shown that a quadratic non-linearity results in the occurrence, under an unbounded decrease of diffusion, of an infinite sequence of bifurcations of each periodic solution. En route, the related issue of the limits of applicability of Yu.S. Kolesov's method of quasinormal forms to the construction of self-oscillations in singularly perturbed hyperbolic boundary value problems is studied

  10. Analytical researches on the accelerating structures, wakefields, and beam dynamics for future linear colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, J.

    1996-01-01

    The research works presented in this memoir are oriented not only to the R and D programs towards future linear colliders, but also to the pedagogic purposes. The first part of this memoir (from Chapter 2 to Chapter 9) establishes an analytical framework of the disk-loaded slow wave accelerating structures with can be served as the advanced courses for the students who have got some basic trainings in the linear accelerator theories. The analytical formulae derived in this part describe clearly the properties of the disk-loaded accelerating structures, such as group velocity, shunt impedance, coupling coefficients κ and β, loss factors, and wake fields. The second part (from Chapter 11 to Chapter 13) gives the beam dynamics simulations and the final proposal of an S-Band Superconducting Linear Collider (SSLC) which is aimed to avoid the dark current problem in TESLA project. This memoir has not included all the works conducted since April 1992, such as beam dynamics simulations for CLIC Test Facility (CFT-2) and the design of High Charge Structures (HCS) (11π/12 mode) for CFT-2, in order to make this memoir more harmonious, coherent and continuous. (author)

  11. Quantifying temporal trends in fisheries abundance using Bayesian dynamic linear models: A case study of riverine Smallmouth Bass populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schall, Megan K.; Blazer, Vicki S.; Lorantas, Robert M.; Smith, Geoffrey; Mullican, John E.; Keplinger, Brandon J.; Wagner, Tyler

    2018-01-01

    Detecting temporal changes in fish abundance is an essential component of fisheries management. Because of the need to understand short‐term and nonlinear changes in fish abundance, traditional linear models may not provide adequate information for management decisions. This study highlights the utility of Bayesian dynamic linear models (DLMs) as a tool for quantifying temporal dynamics in fish abundance. To achieve this goal, we quantified temporal trends of Smallmouth Bass Micropterus dolomieu catch per effort (CPE) from rivers in the mid‐Atlantic states, and we calculated annual probabilities of decline from the posterior distributions of annual rates of change in CPE. We were interested in annual declines because of recent concerns about fish health in portions of the study area. In general, periods of decline were greatest within the Susquehanna River basin, Pennsylvania. The declines in CPE began in the late 1990s—prior to observations of fish health problems—and began to stabilize toward the end of the time series (2011). In contrast, many of the other rivers investigated did not have the same magnitude or duration of decline in CPE. Bayesian DLMs provide information about annual changes in abundance that can inform management and are easily communicated with managers and stakeholders.

  12. Structure dynamics with regard to non-linear support behavior; Dynamische Strukturberechnung unter Beruecksichtigung nichtlinearen Lagerverhaltens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Driessen, W. [Technischer Ueberwachungs-Verein Nord e.V., Hamburg (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    Because of modifications to a feed-water line of a power plant structural calculations of the pipework were performed. As a result of a linear (modal) analysis very high restraint forces on the supports were calculated. In order to reduce conservatisms in the calculation the model was optimized with regard to the support stiffnesses and nonlinear behavior of slide bearings, guides and shock absorbers were taken into account. The main result of the non-linear analysis, which was performed by methods of direct-integration, was that nonlinearity yields evident differences in structural frequencies and in energy dissipation (damping) in comparison to the linear analysis. The high restraint forces on the supports became smaller for most of the supports but at some points the forces of the non-linear analysis were even higher. So the conservatism of the linear analysis is not fully valid for the whole structure. The relevance of the non-linear effects in dynamic piping calculations is shown by comparing the calculation result with measurements which were performed on structures in the plant. (orig.) [German] Im Rahmen der Aenderung der Speisewasserleitung einer Kraftwerksanlage wurde die Struktur neu berechnet. Die Analysen mit einem linearen Modell (modal), das ueblicherweise verwendet wird, ergaben hohe Lasten an Halterungen. Zum Abbau von Konservativitaeten wurde eine realistischere Modellierung durch die Beruecksichtigung des nichtlinearen Verhaltens der in der Anlage befindlichen Gleitlager, Fuehrungen und Stossbremsen in der Berechnung vorgenommen. Die Untersuchungen haben ergeben, dass durch die Nichtlinearitaet das Frequenzverhalten der Struktur und die Dissipation von Energie durch Reibvorgaenge wesentlich beeinflusst werden. Des Weiteren ist festzustellen, dass aus linearen Analysen nicht uneingeschraenkt konservative Ergebnisse gewonnen werden. Die Relevanz der Beruecksichtigung des nichtlinearen Lagerverhaltens bei einer dynamischen Strukturberechnung wird

  13. Quadratic temporal finite element method for linear elastic structural dynamics based on mixed convolved action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Kyu; Kim, Dong Keon

    2016-01-01

    A common approach for dynamic analysis in current practice is based on a discrete time-integration scheme. This approach can be largely attributed to the absence of a true variational framework for initial value problems. To resolve this problem, a new stationary variational principle was recently established for single-degree-of-freedom oscillating systems using mixed variables, fractional derivatives and convolutions of convolutions. In this mixed convolved action, all the governing differential equations and initial conditions are recovered from the stationarity of a single functional action. Thus, the entire description of linear elastic dynamical systems is encapsulated. For its practical application to structural dynamics, this variational formalism is systemically extended to linear elastic multidegree- of-freedom systems in this study, and a corresponding weak form is numerically implemented via a quadratic temporal finite element method. The developed numerical method is symplectic and unconditionally stable with respect to a time step for the underlying conservative system. For the forced-damped vibration, a three-story shear building is used as an example to investigate the performance of the developed numerical method, which provides accurate results with good convergence characteristics

  14. Impact of Cross-Axis Structural Dynamics on Validation of Linear Models for Space Launch System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Jing; Derry, Stephen D.; Zhou Zhiqiang; Newsom, Jerry R.

    2014-01-01

    A feasibility study was performed to examine the advisability of incorporating a set of Programmed Test Inputs (PTIs) during the Space Launch System (SLS) vehicle flight. The intent of these inputs is to provide validation to the preflight models for control system stability margins, aerodynamics, and structural dynamics. During October 2009, Ares I-X program was successful in carrying out a series of PTI maneuvers which provided a significant amount of valuable data for post-flight analysis. The resulting data comparisons showed excellent agreement with the preflight linear models across the frequency spectrum of interest. However unlike Ares I-X, the structural dynamics associated with the SLS boost phase configuration are far more complex and highly coupled in all three axes. This presents a challenge when implementing this similar system identification technique to SLS. Preliminary simulation results show noticeable mismatches between PTI validation and analytical linear models in the frequency range of the structural dynamics. An alternate approach was examined which demonstrates the potential for better overall characterization of the system frequency response as well as robustness of the control design.

  15. Quadratic temporal finite element method for linear elastic structural dynamics based on mixed convolved action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Kyu [School of Architecture and Architectural Engineering, Hanyang University, Ansan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong Keon [Dept. of Architectural Engineering, Dong A University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    A common approach for dynamic analysis in current practice is based on a discrete time-integration scheme. This approach can be largely attributed to the absence of a true variational framework for initial value problems. To resolve this problem, a new stationary variational principle was recently established for single-degree-of-freedom oscillating systems using mixed variables, fractional derivatives and convolutions of convolutions. In this mixed convolved action, all the governing differential equations and initial conditions are recovered from the stationarity of a single functional action. Thus, the entire description of linear elastic dynamical systems is encapsulated. For its practical application to structural dynamics, this variational formalism is systemically extended to linear elastic multidegree- of-freedom systems in this study, and a corresponding weak form is numerically implemented via a quadratic temporal finite element method. The developed numerical method is symplectic and unconditionally stable with respect to a time step for the underlying conservative system. For the forced-damped vibration, a three-story shear building is used as an example to investigate the performance of the developed numerical method, which provides accurate results with good convergence characteristics.

  16. Predicting the multi-domain progression of Parkinson's disease: a Bayesian multivariate generalized linear mixed-effect model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming; Li, Zheng; Lee, Eun Young; Lewis, Mechelle M; Zhang, Lijun; Sterling, Nicholas W; Wagner, Daymond; Eslinger, Paul; Du, Guangwei; Huang, Xuemei

    2017-09-25

    It is challenging for current statistical models to predict clinical progression of Parkinson's disease (PD) because of the involvement of multi-domains and longitudinal data. Past univariate longitudinal or multivariate analyses from cross-sectional trials have limited power to predict individual outcomes or a single moment. The multivariate generalized linear mixed-effect model (GLMM) under the Bayesian framework was proposed to study multi-domain longitudinal outcomes obtained at baseline, 18-, and 36-month. The outcomes included motor, non-motor, and postural instability scores from the MDS-UPDRS, and demographic and standardized clinical data were utilized as covariates. The dynamic prediction was performed for both internal and external subjects using the samples from the posterior distributions of the parameter estimates and random effects, and also the predictive accuracy was evaluated based on the root of mean square error (RMSE), absolute bias (AB) and the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. First, our prediction model identified clinical data that were differentially associated with motor, non-motor, and postural stability scores. Second, the predictive accuracy of our model for the training data was assessed, and improved prediction was gained in particularly for non-motor (RMSE and AB: 2.89 and 2.20) compared to univariate analysis (RMSE and AB: 3.04 and 2.35). Third, the individual-level predictions of longitudinal trajectories for the testing data were performed, with ~80% observed values falling within the 95% credible intervals. Multivariate general mixed models hold promise to predict clinical progression of individual outcomes in PD. The data was obtained from Dr. Xuemei Huang's NIH grant R01 NS060722 , part of NINDS PD Biomarker Program (PDBP). All data was entered within 24 h of collection to the Data Management Repository (DMR), which is publically available ( https://pdbp.ninds.nih.gov/data-management ).

  17. Generalized master equations for non-Poisson dynamics on networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Till; Porter, Mason A; Lambiotte, Renaud

    2012-10-01

    The traditional way of studying temporal networks is to aggregate the dynamics of the edges to create a static weighted network. This implicitly assumes that the edges are governed by Poisson processes, which is not typically the case in empirical temporal networks. Accordingly, we examine the effects of non-Poisson inter-event statistics on the dynamics of edges, and we apply the concept of a generalized master equation to the study of continuous-time random walks on networks. We show that this equation reduces to the standard rate equations when the underlying process is Poissonian and that its stationary solution is determined by an effective transition matrix whose leading eigenvector is easy to calculate. We conduct numerical simulations and also derive analytical results for the stationary solution under the assumption that all edges have the same waiting-time distribution. We discuss the implications of our work for dynamical processes on temporal networks and for the construction of network diagnostics that take into account their nontrivial stochastic nature.

  18. Predicting stem borer density in maize using RapidEye data and generalized linear models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Rahman, Elfatih M.; Landmann, Tobias; Kyalo, Richard; Ong'amo, George; Mwalusepo, Sizah; Sulieman, Saad; Ru, Bruno Le

    2017-05-01

    Average maize yield in eastern Africa is 2.03 t ha-1 as compared to global average of 6.06 t ha-1 due to biotic and abiotic constraints. Amongst the biotic production constraints in Africa, stem borers are the most injurious. In eastern Africa, maize yield losses due to stem borers are currently estimated between 12% and 21% of the total production. The objective of the present study was to explore the possibility of RapidEye spectral data to assess stem borer larva densities in maize fields in two study sites in Kenya. RapidEye images were acquired for the Bomet (western Kenya) test site on the 9th of December 2014 and on 27th of January 2015, and for Machakos (eastern Kenya) a RapidEye image was acquired on the 3rd of January 2015. Five RapidEye spectral bands as well as 30 spectral vegetation indices (SVIs) were utilized to predict per field maize stem borer larva densities using generalized linear models (GLMs), assuming Poisson ('Po') and negative binomial ('NB') distributions. Root mean square error (RMSE) and ratio prediction to deviation (RPD) statistics were used to assess the models performance using a leave-one-out cross-validation approach. The Zero-inflated NB ('ZINB') models outperformed the 'NB' models and stem borer larva densities could only be predicted during the mid growing season in December and early January in both study sites, respectively (RMSE = 0.69-1.06 and RPD = 8.25-19.57). Overall, all models performed similar when all the 30 SVIs (non-nested) and only the significant (nested) SVIs were used. The models developed could improve decision making regarding controlling maize stem borers within integrated pest management (IPM) interventions.

  19. Node-Splitting Generalized Linear Mixed Models for Evaluation of Inconsistency in Network Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu-Kang, Tu

    2016-12-01

    Network meta-analysis for multiple treatment comparisons has been a major development in evidence synthesis methodology. The validity of a network meta-analysis, however, can be threatened by inconsistency in evidence within the network. One particular issue of inconsistency is how to directly evaluate the inconsistency between direct and indirect evidence with regard to the effects difference between two treatments. A Bayesian node-splitting model was first proposed and a similar frequentist side-splitting model has been put forward recently. Yet, assigning the inconsistency parameter to one or the other of the two treatments or splitting the parameter symmetrically between the two treatments can yield different results when multi-arm trials are involved in the evaluation. We aimed to show that a side-splitting model can be viewed as a special case of design-by-treatment interaction model, and different parameterizations correspond to different design-by-treatment interactions. We demonstrated how to evaluate the side-splitting model using the arm-based generalized linear mixed model, and an example data set was used to compare results from the arm-based models with those from the contrast-based models. The three parameterizations of side-splitting make slightly different assumptions: the symmetrical method assumes that both treatments in a treatment contrast contribute to inconsistency between direct and indirect evidence, whereas the other two parameterizations assume that only one of the two treatments contributes to this inconsistency. With this understanding in mind, meta-analysts can then make a choice about how to implement the side-splitting method for their analysis. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Generalized functional linear models for gene-based case-control association studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ruzong; Wang, Yifan; Mills, James L; Carter, Tonia C; Lobach, Iryna; Wilson, Alexander F; Bailey-Wilson, Joan E; Weeks, Daniel E; Xiong, Momiao

    2014-11-01

    By using functional data analysis techniques, we developed generalized functional linear models for testing association between a dichotomous trait and multiple genetic variants in a genetic region while adjusting for covariates. Both fixed and mixed effect models are developed and compared. Extensive simulations show that Rao's efficient score tests of the fixed effect models are very conservative since they generate lower type I errors than nominal levels, and global tests of the mixed effect models generate accurate type I errors. Furthermore, we found that the Rao's efficient score test statistics of the fixed effect models have higher power than the sequence kernel association test (SKAT) and its optimal unified version (SKAT-O) in most cases when the causal variants are both rare and common. When the causal variants are all rare (i.e., minor allele frequencies less than 0.03), the Rao's efficient score test statistics and the global tests have similar or slightly lower power than SKAT and SKAT-O. In practice, it is not known whether rare variants or common variants in a gene region are disease related. All we can assume is that a combination of rare and common variants influences disease susceptibility. Thus, the improved performance of our models when the causal variants are both rare and common shows that the proposed models can be very useful in dissecting complex traits. We compare the performance of our methods with SKAT and SKAT-O on real neural tube defects and Hirschsprung's disease datasets. The Rao's efficient score test statistics and the global tests are more sensitive than SKAT and SKAT-O in the real data analysis. Our methods can be used in either gene-disease genome-wide/exome-wide association studies or candidate gene analyses. © 2014 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  1. The Spike-and-Slab Lasso Generalized Linear Models for Prediction and Associated Genes Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zaixiang; Shen, Yueping; Zhang, Xinyan; Yi, Nengjun

    2017-01-01

    Large-scale "omics" data have been increasingly used as an important resource for prognostic prediction of diseases and detection of associated genes. However, there are considerable challenges in analyzing high-dimensional molecular data, including the large number of potential molecular predictors, limited number of samples, and small effect of each predictor. We propose new Bayesian hierarchical generalized linear models, called spike-and-slab lasso GLMs, for prognostic prediction and detection of associated genes using large-scale molecular data. The proposed model employs a spike-and-slab mixture double-exponential prior for coefficients that can induce weak shrinkage on large coefficients, and strong shrinkage on irrelevant coefficients. We have developed a fast and stable algorithm to fit large-scale hierarchal GLMs by incorporating expectation-maximization (EM) steps into the fast cyclic coordinate descent algorithm. The proposed approach integrates nice features of two popular methods, i.e., penalized lasso and Bayesian spike-and-slab variable selection. The performance of the proposed method is assessed via extensive simulation studies. The results show that the proposed approach can provide not only more accurate estimates of the parameters, but also better prediction. We demonstrate the proposed procedure on two cancer data sets: a well-known breast cancer data set consisting of 295 tumors, and expression data of 4919 genes; and the ovarian cancer data set from TCGA with 362 tumors, and expression data of 5336 genes. Our analyses show that the proposed procedure can generate powerful models for predicting outcomes and detecting associated genes. The methods have been implemented in a freely available R package BhGLM (http://www.ssg.uab.edu/bhglm/). Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  2. Accounting for misclassification in electronic health records-derived exposures using generalized linear finite mixture models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Rebecca A; Johnson, Eric; Chubak, Jessica; Wernli, Karen J; Kamineni, Aruna; Bogart, Andy; Rutter, Carolyn M

    2017-06-01

    Exposures derived from electronic health records (EHR) may be misclassified, leading to biased estimates of their association with outcomes of interest. An example of this problem arises in the context of cancer screening where test indication, the purpose for which a test was performed, is often unavailable. This poses a challenge to understanding the effectiveness of screening tests because estimates of screening test effectiveness are biased if some diagnostic tests are misclassified as screening. Prediction models have been developed for a variety of exposure variables that can be derived from EHR, but no previous research has investigated appropriate methods for obtaining unbiased association estimates using these predicted probabilities. The full likelihood incorporating information on both the predicted probability of exposure-class membership and the association between the exposure and outcome of interest can be expressed using a finite mixture model. When the regression model of interest is a generalized linear model (GLM), the expectation-maximization algorithm can be used to estimate the parameters using standard software for GLMs. Using simulation studies, we compared the bias and efficiency of this mixture model approach to alternative approaches including multiple imputation and dichotomization of the predicted probabilities to create a proxy for the missing predictor. The mixture model was the only approach that was unbiased across all scenarios investigated. Finally, we explored the performance of these alternatives in a study of colorectal cancer screening with colonoscopy. These findings have broad applicability in studies using EHR data where gold-standard exposures are unavailable and prediction models have been developed for estimating proxies.

  3. Use of generalized linear models and digital data in a forest inventory of Northern Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moisen, Gretchen G.; Edwards, Thomas C.

    1999-01-01

    Forest inventories, like those conducted by the Forest Service's Forest Inventory and Analysis Program (FIA) in the Rocky Mountain Region, are under increased pressure to produce better information at reduced costs. Here we describe our efforts in Utah to merge satellite-based information with forest inventory data for the purposes of reducing the costs of estimates of forest population totals and providing spatial depiction of forest resources. We illustrate how generalized linear models can be used to construct approximately unbiased and efficient estimates of population totals while providing a mechanism for prediction in space for mapping of forest structure. We model forest type and timber volume of five tree species groups as functions of a variety of predictor variables in the northern Utah mountains. Predictor variables include elevation, aspect, slope, geographic coordinates, as well as vegetation cover types based on satellite data from both the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and Thematic Mapper (TM) platforms. We examine the relative precision of estimates of area by forest type and mean cubic-foot volumes under six different models, including the traditional double sampling for stratification strategy. Only very small gains in precision were realized through the use of expensive photointerpreted or TM-based data for stratification, while models based on topography and spatial coordinates alone were competitive. We also compare the predictive capability of the models through various map accuracy measures. The models including the TM-based vegetation performed best overall, while topography and spatial coordinates alone provided substantial information at very low cost.

  4. Reduced-order modelling of parameter-dependent, linear and nonlinear dynamic partial differential equation models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, A A; Xing, W W; Triantafyllidis, V

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, we develop reduced-order models for dynamic, parameter-dependent, linear and nonlinear partial differential equations using proper orthogonal decomposition (POD). The main challenges are to accurately and efficiently approximate the POD bases for new parameter values and, in the case of nonlinear problems, to efficiently handle the nonlinear terms. We use a Bayesian nonlinear regression approach to learn the snapshots of the solutions and the nonlinearities for new parameter values. Computational efficiency is ensured by using manifold learning to perform the emulation in a low-dimensional space. The accuracy of the method is demonstrated on a linear and a nonlinear example, with comparisons with a global basis approach.

  5. A Solvable Dynamic Principal-Agent Model with Linear Marginal Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We study how to design an optimal contract which provides incentives for agent to put forth the desired effort in a continuous time dynamic moral hazard model with linear marginal productivity. Using exponential utility and linear production, three different information structures, full information, hidden actions and hidden savings, are considered in the principal-agent model. Applying the stochastic maximum principle, we solve the model explicitly, where the agent’s optimization problem becomes the principal’s problem of choosing an optimal contract. The explicit solutions to our model allow us to analyze the distortion of allocations. The main effect of hidden actions is a reduction of effort, but the a smaller effect is on the consumption allocation. In the hidden saving case, the consumption distortion almost vanishes but the effort distortion is expanded. In our setting, the agent’s optimal effort is also reduced with the decline of marginal productivity.

  6. Mixed integer linear programming model for dynamic supplier selection problem considering discounts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Wicaksono Purnawan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Supplier selection is one of the most important elements in supply chain management. This function involves evaluation of many factors such as, material costs, transportation costs, quality, delays, supplier capacity, storage capacity and others. Each of these factors varies with time, therefore, supplier identified for one period is not necessarily be same for the next period to supply the same product. So, mixed integer linear programming (MILP was developed to overcome the dynamic supplier selection problem (DSSP. In this paper, a mixed integer linear programming model is built to solve the lot-sizing problem with multiple suppliers, multiple periods, multiple products and quantity discounts. The buyer has to make a decision for some products which will be supplied by some suppliers for some periods cosidering by discount. To validate the MILP model with randomly generated data. The model is solved by Lingo 16.

  7. Linear and nonlinear dynamics of electron temperature gradient mode in non-Maxwellian plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakir, U.; Qamar, A. [Institute of Physics and Electronics, University of Peshawar, Peshawar (Pakistan); Haque, Q. [Theoretical Plasma Physics Division, PINSTECH, Islamabad (Pakistan); National Centre for Physics, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2013-05-15

    The effect of non-Maxwellian distributed ions on electron temperature gradient mode is investigated. The linear dispersion relation of η{sub e}−mode is obtained which shows that the behavior of this mode changes in the presence of superthermal ions. The growth rate of η{sub e}−mode driven linear instability is found and is observed to modify due to nonthermal ions. However, it is found that this leaves the electron energy transport coefficient unchanged. In the nonlinear regime, a dipolar vortex solution is derived which indicates that the dynamic behavior of the vortices changes with the inclusion of kappa distributed ions. The importance of present study with respect to space and laboratory plasmas is also pointed out.

  8. Compression dynamics of quasi-spherical wire arrays with different linear mass profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitrofanov, K. N.; Aleksandrov, V. V.; Gritsuk, A. N.; Grabovski, E. V.; Frolov, I. N.; Laukhin, Ya. N.; Oleinik, G. M.; Ol’khovskaya, O. G.

    2016-01-01

    Results of experimental studies of the implosion of quasi-spherical wire (or metalized fiber) arrays are presented. The goal of the experiments was to achieve synchronous three-dimensional compression of the plasma produced in different regions of a quasi-spherical array into its geometrical center. To search for optimal synchronization conditions, quasi-spherical arrays with different initial profiles of the linear mass were used. The following dependences of the linear mass on the poloidal angle were used: m_l(θ) ∝ sin"–"1θ and m_l(θ) ∝ sin"–"2θ. The compression dynamics of such arrays was compared with that of quasi-spherical arrays without linear mass profiling, m_l(θ) = const. To verify the experimental data, the spatiotemporal dynamics of plasma compression in quasi-spherical arrays was studied using various diagnostics. The experiments on three-dimensional implosion of quasi-spherical arrays made it possible to study how the frozen-in magnetic field of the discharge current penetrates into the array. By measuring the magnetic field in the plasma of a quasi-spherical array, information is obtained on the processes of plasma production and formation of plasma flows from the wire/fiber regions with and without an additionally deposited mass. It is found that penetration of the magnetic flux depends on the initial linear mass profile m_l(θ) of the quasi-spherical array. From space-resolved spectral measurements and frame imaging of plasma X-ray emission, information is obtained on the dimensions and shape of the X-ray source formed during the implosion of a quasi-spherical array. The intensity of this source is estimated and compared with that of the Z-pinch formed during the implosion of a cylindrical array.

  9. Accuracy assessment of the linear Poisson-Boltzmann equation and reparametrization of the OBC generalized Born model for nucleic acids and nucleic acid-protein complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogolari, Federico; Corazza, Alessandra; Esposito, Gennaro

    2015-04-05

    The generalized Born model in the Onufriev, Bashford, and Case (Onufriev et al., Proteins: Struct Funct Genet 2004, 55, 383) implementation has emerged as one of the best compromises between accuracy and speed of computation. For simulations of nucleic acids, however, a number of issues should be addressed: (1) the generalized Born model is based on a linear model and the linearization of the reference Poisson-Boltmann equation may be questioned for highly charged systems as nucleic acids; (2) although much attention has been given to potentials, solvation forces could be much less sensitive to linearization than the potentials; and (3) the accuracy of the Onufriev-Bashford-Case (OBC) model for nucleic acids depends on fine tuning of parameters. Here, we show that the linearization of the Poisson Boltzmann equation has mild effects on computed forces, and that with optimal choice of the OBC model parameters, solvation forces, essential for molecular dynamics simulations, agree well with those computed using the reference Poisson-Boltzmann model. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Assessing the Tangent Linear Behaviour of Common Tracer Transport Schemes and Their Use in a Linearised Atmospheric General Circulation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdaway, Daniel; Kent, James

    2015-01-01

    The linearity of a selection of common advection schemes is tested and examined with a view to their use in the tangent linear and adjoint versions of an atmospheric general circulation model. The schemes are tested within a simple offline one-dimensional periodic domain as well as using a simplified and complete configuration of the linearised version of NASA's Goddard Earth Observing System version 5 (GEOS-5). All schemes which prevent the development of negative values and preserve the shape of the solution are confirmed to have nonlinear behaviour. The piecewise parabolic method (PPM) with certain flux limiters, including that used by default in GEOS-5, is found to support linear growth near the shocks. This property can cause the rapid development of unrealistically large perturbations within the tangent linear and adjoint models. It is shown that these schemes with flux limiters should not be used within the linearised version of a transport scheme. The results from tests using GEOS-5 show that the current default scheme (a version of PPM) is not suitable for the tangent linear and adjoint model, and that using a linear third-order scheme for the linearised model produces better behaviour. Using the third-order scheme for the linearised model improves the correlations between the linear and non-linear perturbation trajectories for cloud liquid water and cloud liquid ice in GEOS-5.

  11. Evaluation of linearly solvable Markov decision process with dynamic model learning in a mobile robot navigation task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinjo, Ken; Uchibe, Eiji; Doya, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    Linearly solvable Markov Decision Process (LMDP) is a class of optimal control problem in which the Bellman's equation can be converted into a linear equation by an exponential transformation of the state value function (Todorov, 2009b). In an LMDP, the optimal value function and the corresponding control policy are obtained by solving an eigenvalue problem in a discrete state space or an eigenfunction problem in a continuous state using the knowledge of the system dynamics and the action, state, and terminal cost functions. In this study, we evaluate the effectiveness of the LMDP framework in real robot control, in which the dynamics of the body and the environment have to be learned from experience. We first perform a simulation study of a pole swing-up task to evaluate the effect of the accuracy of the learned dynamics model on the derived the action policy. The result shows that a crude linear approximation of the non-linear dynamics can still allow solution of the task, despite with a higher total cost. We then perform real robot experiments of a battery-catching task using our Spring Dog mobile robot platform. The state is given by the position and the size of a battery in its camera view and two neck joint angles. The action is the velocities of two wheels, while the neck joints were controlled by a visual servo controller. We test linear and bilinear dynamic models in tasks with quadratic and Guassian state cost functions. In the quadratic cost task, the LMDP controller derived from a learned linear dynamics model performed equivalently with the optimal linear quadratic regulator (LQR). In the non-quadratic task, the LMDP controller with a linear dynamics model showed the best performance. The results demonstrate the usefulness of the LMDP framework in real robot control even when simple linear models are used for dynamics learning.

  12. Efficient Estimation of Non-Linear Dynamic Panel Data Models with Application to Smooth Transition Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gørgens, Tue; Skeels, Christopher L.; Wurtz, Allan

    This paper explores estimation of a class of non-linear dynamic panel data models with additive unobserved individual-specific effects. The models are specified by moment restrictions. The class includes the panel data AR(p) model and panel smooth transition models. We derive an efficient set...... of moment restrictions for estimation and apply the results to estimation of panel smooth transition models with fixed effects, where the transition may be determined endogenously. The performance of the GMM estimator, both in terms of estimation precision and forecasting performance, is examined in a Monte...

  13. Classical linear-control analysis applied to business-cycle dynamics and stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingrove, R. C.

    1983-01-01

    Linear control analysis is applied as an aid in understanding the fluctuations of business cycles in the past, and to examine monetary policies that might improve stabilization. The analysis shows how different policies change the frequency and damping of the economic system dynamics, and how they modify the amplitude of the fluctuations that are caused by random disturbances. Examples are used to show how policy feedbacks and policy lags can be incorporated, and how different monetary strategies for stabilization can be analytically compared. Representative numerical results are used to illustrate the main points.

  14. BEAMPATH: a program library for beam dynamics simulation in linear accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batygin, Y.K.

    1992-01-01

    A structured programming technique was used to develop software for space charge dominated beams investigation in linear accelerators. The method includes hierarchical program design using program independent modules and a flexible combination of modules to provide a most effective version of structure for every specific case of simulation. A modular program BEAMPATH was developed for 2D and 3D particle-in-cell simulation of beam dynamics in a structure containing RF gaps, radio-frequency quadrupoles (RFQ), multipole lenses, waveguides, bending magnets and solenoids. (author) 5 refs.; 2 figs

  15. Intelligent control of non-linear dynamical system based on the adaptive neurocontroller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, E.; Kovalev, I. V.; Kobezhicov, V.

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents an adaptive neuro-controller for intelligent control of non-linear dynamical system. The formed as the fuzzy selective neural net the adaptive neuro-controller on the base of system's state, creates the effective control signal under random perturbations. The validity and advantages of the proposed adaptive neuro-controller are demonstrated by numerical simulations. The simulation results show that the proposed controller scheme achieves real-time control speed and the competitive performance, as compared to PID, fuzzy logic controllers.

  16. A linear model for estimation of neurotransmitter response profiles from dynamic PET data

    OpenAIRE

    Normandin, M.D.; Schiffer, W.K.; Morris, E.D.

    2011-01-01

    The parametric ntPET model (p-ntPET) estimates the kinetics of neurotransmitter release from dynamic PET data with receptor-ligand radiotracers. Here we introduce a linearization (lp-ntPET) that is computationally efficient and can be applied to single-scan data. lp-ntPET employs a non-invasive reference region input function and extends the LSRRM of Alpert et al. (2003) using basis functions to characterize the time course of neurotransmitter activation. In simulation studies, the temporal p...

  17. Evaluation of linearly solvable Markov decision process with dynamic model learning in a mobile robot navigation task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken eKinjo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Linearly solvable Markov Decision Process (LMDP is a class of optimal control problem in whichthe Bellman’s equation can be converted into a linear equation by an exponential transformation ofthe state value function (Todorov, 2009. In an LMDP, the optimal value function and the correspondingcontrol policy are obtained by solving an eigenvalue problem in a discrete state space or an eigenfunctionproblem in a continuous state using the knowledge of the system dynamics and the action, state, andterminal cost functions.In this study, we evaluate the effectiveness of the LMDP framework in real robot control, in whichthe dynamics of the body and the environment have to be learned from experience. We first perform asimulation study of a pole swing-up task to evaluate the effect of the accuracy of the learned dynam-ics model on the derived the action policy. The result shows that a crude linear approximation of thenonlinear dynamics can still allow solution of the task, despite with a higher total cost.We then perform real robot experiments of a battery-catching task using our Spring Dog mobile robotplatform. The state is given by the position and the size of a battery in its camera view and two neck jointangles. The action is the velocities of two wheels, while the neck joints were controlled by a visual servocontroller. We test linear and bilinear dynamic models in tasks with quadratic and Guassian state costfunctions. In the quadratic cost task, the LMDP controller derived from a learned linear dynamics modelperformed equivalently with the optimal linear quadratic controller (LQR. In the non-quadratic task, theLMDP controller with a linear dynamics model showed the best performance. The results demonstratethe usefulness of the LMDP framework in real robot control even when simple linear models are usedfor dynamics learning.

  18. Dynamics and control of quadcopter using linear model predictive control approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M.; Okasha, M.; Idres, M. M.

    2017-12-01

    This paper investigates the dynamics and control of a quadcopter using the Model Predictive Control (MPC) approach. The dynamic model is of high fidelity and nonlinear, with six degrees of freedom that include disturbances and model uncertainties. The control approach is developed based on MPC to track different reference trajectories ranging from simple ones such as circular to complex helical trajectories. In this control technique, a linearized model is derived and the receding horizon method is applied to generate the optimal control sequence. Although MPC is computer expensive, it is highly effective to deal with the different types of nonlinearities and constraints such as actuators’ saturation and model uncertainties. The MPC parameters (control and prediction horizons) are selected by trial-and-error approach. Several simulation scenarios are performed to examine and evaluate the performance of the proposed control approach using MATLAB and Simulink environment. Simulation results show that this control approach is highly effective to track a given reference trajectory.

  19. Spatiotemporal dynamics of Bose-Einstein condensates in linear- and circular-chain optical lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukada, N.

    2002-01-01

    We investigate the spatiotemporal dynamics of Bose-Einstein condensates in optical lattices that have a linear-or a circular-chain configuration with the tunneling couplings between nearest-neighbor lattice sites. A discrete nonlinear Schroedinger equation has been solved for various initial conditions and for a definite range of repulsive and attractive interatomic interactions. It is shown that the diversity of the spatiotemporal dynamics of the atomic population distribution such as a macroscopic self-trapping, bright and dark solitons, and symmetry breaking is derived from the positive and negative interatomic interactions. For the circular-chain configuration, two types of rotational modes are obtained as we introduce a definite relation for the initial phase conditions

  20. A high sensitive 66 dB linear dynamic range receiver for 3-D laser radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Rui; Zheng, Hao; Zhu, Zhangming

    2017-08-01

    This study presents a CMOS receiver chip realized in 0.18 μm standard CMOS technology and intended for high precision 3-D laser radar. The chip includes an adjustable gain transimpedance pre-amplifier, a post-amplifier and two timing comparators. An additional feedback is employed in the regulated cascode transimpedance amplifier to decrease the input impedance, and a variable gain transimpedance amplifier controlled by digital switches and analog multiplexer is utilized to realize four gain modes, extending the input dynamic range. The measurement shows that the highest transimpedance of the channel is 50 k {{Ω }}, the uncompensated walk error is 1.44 ns in a wide linear dynamic range of 66 dB (1:2000), and the input referred noise current is 2.3 pA/\\sqrt{{Hz}} (rms), resulting in a very low detectable input current of 1 μA with SNR = 5.

  1. Rail Brake System Using a Linear Induction Motor for Dynamic Braking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Yasuaki; Kashiwagi, Takayuki; Tanaka, Minoru; Hasegawa, Hitoshi; Sasakawa, Takashi; Fujii, Nobuo

    One type of braking system for railway vehicles is the eddy current brake. Because this type of brake has the problem of rail heating, it has not been used for practical applications in Japan. Therefore, we proposed the use of a linear induction motor (LIM) for dynamic braking in eddy current brake systems. The LIM reduces rail heating and uses an inverter for self excitation. In this paper, we estimated the performance of an LIM from experimental results of a fundamental test machine and confirmed that the LIM generates an approximately constant braking force under constant current excitation. At relatively low frequencies, this braking force remains unaffected by frequency changes. The reduction ratio of rail heating is also approximately proportional to the frequency. We also confirmed that dynamic braking resulting in no electrical output can be used for drive control of the LIM. These characteristics are convenient for the realization of the LIM rail brake system.

  2. Quantum dynamics of a vibronically coupled linear chain using a surrogate Hamiltonian approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Myeong H., E-mail: myeong.lee@warwick.ac.uk; Troisi, Alessandro [Department of Chemistry and Centre for Scientific Computing, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)

    2016-06-07

    Vibronic coupling between the electronic and vibrational degrees of freedom has been reported to play an important role in charge and exciton transport in organic photovoltaic materials, molecular aggregates, and light-harvesting complexes. Explicitly accounting for effective vibrational modes rather than treating them as a thermal environment has been shown to be crucial to describe the effect of vibronic coupling. We present a methodology to study dissipative quantum dynamics of vibronically coupled systems based on a surrogate Hamiltonian approach, which is in principle not limited by Markov approximation or weak system-bath interaction, using a vibronic basis. We apply vibronic surrogate Hamiltonian method to a linear chain system and discuss how different types of relaxation process, intramolecular vibrational relaxation and intermolecular vibronic relaxation, influence population dynamics of dissipative vibronic systems.

  3. Linear dynamical modes as new variables for data-driven ENSO forecast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilov, Andrey; Seleznev, Aleksei; Mukhin, Dmitry; Loskutov, Evgeny; Feigin, Alexander; Kurths, Juergen

    2018-05-01

    A new data-driven model for analysis and prediction of spatially distributed time series is proposed. The model is based on a linear dynamical mode (LDM) decomposition of the observed data which is derived from a recently developed nonlinear dimensionality reduction approach. The key point of this approach is its ability to take into account simple dynamical properties of the observed system by means of revealing the system's dominant time scales. The LDMs are used as new variables for empirical construction of a nonlinear stochastic evolution operator. The method is applied to the sea surface temperature anomaly field in the tropical belt where the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is the main mode of variability. The advantage of LDMs versus traditionally used empirical orthogonal function decomposition is demonstrated for this data. Specifically, it is shown that the new model has a competitive ENSO forecast skill in comparison with the other existing ENSO models.

  4. Analysis of Instantaneous Linear, Nonlinear and Complex Cardiovascular Dynamics from Videophotoplethysmography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenza, Gaetano; Iozzia, Luca; Cerina, Luca; Mainardi, Luca; Barbieri, Riccardo

    2018-05-01

    There is a fast growing interest in the use of non-contact devices for health and performance assessment in humans. In particular, the use of non-contact videophotoplethysmography (vPPG) has been recently demonstrated as a feasible way to extract cardiovascular information. Nevertheless, proper validation of vPPG-derived heartbeat dynamics is still missing. We aim to an in-depth validation of time-varying, linear and nonlinear/complex dynamics of the pulse rate variability extracted from vPPG. We apply inhomogeneous pointprocess nonlinear models to assess instantaneous measures defined in the time, frequency, and bispectral domains as estimated through vPPG and standard ECG. Instantaneous complexity measures, such as the instantaneous Lyapunov exponents and the recently defined inhomogeneous point-process approximate and sample entropy, were estimated as well. Video recordings were processed using our recently proposed method based on zerophase principal component analysis. Experimental data were gathered from 60 young healthy subjects (age: 24±3 years) undergoing postural changes (rest-to-stand maneuver). Group averaged results show that there is an overall agreement between linear and nonlinear/complexity indices computed from ECG and vPPG during resting state conditions. However, important differences are found, particularly in the bispectral and complexity domains, in recordings where the subjects has been instructed to stand up. Although significant differences exist between cardiovascular estimates from vPPG and ECG, it is very promising that instantaneous sympathovagal changes, as well as time-varying complex dynamics, were correctly identified, especially during resting state. In addition to a further improvement of the video signal quality, more research is advocated towards a more precise estimation of cardiovascular dynamics by a comprehensive nonlinear/complex paradigm specifically tailored to the non-contact quantification. Schattauer GmbH.

  5. Vertical distribution of paracalanus crassirostris (copepoda, calanoidea: analysis by the general linear model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Milstein

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available The vertical distribution of each developmental stage of Paracalanus crassirostris was studied in a shallow water station at Ubatuba, SP, Brazil (23º30'S-45º07'W. Samples were collected monthly at the surface, 2m and near bottom levels . Salinity, temperature, dissolved oxygen, tide height, light penetration arid solar radiation were also recorded. Data were analysed by the general linear model. It showed that the amount of individuals at any developmental stage is affected diversely by hour, depth, hour-depth interaction and environmental factors throughout the year and that these effects are stronger in summer. All developmental stages were spread in the water column showing no regular vertical migrations. On the other hand, the number of organisms caught in a particular hour seemed to dependmore on the tide than on the animals behaviour. The results of the present paper showed, as observed by some other authors, the lack of vertical migration of a coastal copepod which is a grazer of fine particles throughout its life.A distribuição vertical dos diferentes estádios de desenvolvimento de P. crassirostris foi estudada durante um ano (junho 1976 - maio 1977, numa estação pouco profunda (5 m em Ubatuba. As amostras foram coletadas mensalmente, em tres profundidades, cada quatro horas, com garrafa van Dorn de 9 l registrando-se dados ambientais. Os dados foram processados com a técnica dos Mínimos Quadrados, na forma de uma Aralise de Regressão de um Modelo Linear que inclui covariáveis. O modelo foi construído a priori, considerando densidade de organismos por amostra, fatores ambientais, diferenças entre amostras procedentes de diferentes profundidades e horas, também como interações entre hora e profundidade. Para cada estádio de P. crassirostris, o modelo foi repetido 9 vezes, com os dados de dois meses cada vez, a fim de obter a variação das respostas no ano. Os resultados do modelo indicaram que a quantidade de indiv

  6. Fluorescence profiles and cooling dynamics of laser-cooled Mg+ ions in a linear rf ion trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Xianzhen; Ryjkov, Vladimir L.; Schuessler, Hans A.

    2006-01-01

    Fluorescence line profiles and their implications on the cooling dynamics of the Mg + ions stored in a linear rf trap are studied. The line profile is dictated by the temperature of the ion cloud at different laser detunings. The upper bound of the lowest temperature was estimated for different values of the rf trapping potential amplitude and the buffer gas pressure. A general trend of this ultimate temperature to increase with the rf trapping voltage and buffer gas pressure is expected, with an abrupt change at some critical value corresponding to the transition to and from a strongly correlated liquid or crystal state. While on the one hand this expectation was confirmed when the buffer gas pressure was varied; on the other hand the influence of the amplitude of the trapping voltage on the ultimate temperature shows an interesting new feature of first dipping down before the sharp increase occurs

  7. Effect of spatial variability of ground motion on non-linear dynamic behavior of cable stayed bridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ouanani Mouloud

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This present paper summarizes the main results of incoherence of Spatial Variability of Ground Motion (SVGM component on the non-linear dynamic behavior of a Mila cable stayed bridge. The Hindy and Novack coherence model is developed for the present study in order to examine the SVGM on bridge responses, Nonlinear bridge responses are investigated in terms of transverse displacements and bending moments along the superstructure and substructure of the study bridge, as well as temporal variations of rotational ductility demands at the bridge piers ends under the incoherence SVGM component. The results are systematically compared with those obtained assuming uniform ground motion. As a general trend, it may be concluded that incoherence component of SVGM should be considered for the earthquake response assessments of cable-stayed bridges.

  8. Thermal conductivity of water: Molecular dynamics and generalized hydrodynamics results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolini, Davide; Tani, Alessandro

    1997-10-01

    Equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations have been carried out in the microcanonical ensemble at 300 and 255 K on the extended simple point charge (SPC/E) model of water [Berendsen et al., J. Phys. Chem. 91, 6269 (1987)]. In addition to a number of static and dynamic properties, thermal conductivity λ has been calculated via Green-Kubo integration of the heat current time correlation functions (CF's) in the atomic and molecular formalism, at wave number k=0. The calculated values (0.67+/-0.04 W/mK at 300 K and 0.52+/-0.03 W/mK at 255 K) are in good agreement with the experimental data (0.61 W/mK at 300 K and 0.49 W/mK at 255 K). A negative long-time tail of the heat current CF, more apparent at 255 K, is responsible for the anomalous decrease of λ with temperature. An analysis of the dynamical modes contributing to λ has shown that its value is due to two low-frequency exponential-like modes, a faster collisional mode, with positive contribution, and a slower one, which determines the negative long-time tail. A comparison of the molecular and atomic spectra of the heat current CF has suggested that higher-frequency modes should not contribute to λ in this temperature range. Generalized thermal diffusivity DT(k) decreases as a function of k, after an initial minor increase at k=kmin. The k dependence of the generalized thermodynamic properties has been calculated in the atomic and molecular formalisms. The observed differences have been traced back to intramolecular or intermolecular rotational effects and related to the partial structure functions. Finally, from the results we calculated it appears that the SPC/E model gives results in better agreement with experimental data than the transferable intermolecular potential with four points TIP4P water model [Jorgensen et al., J. Chem. Phys. 79, 926 (1983)], with a larger improvement for, e.g., diffusion, viscosities, and dielectric properties and a smaller one for thermal conductivity. The SPC/E model shares

  9. General background and approach to multibody dynamics for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santini, Paolo; Gasbarri, Paolo

    2009-06-01

    Multibody dynamics for space applications is dictated by space environment such as space-varying gravity forces, orbital and attitude perturbations, control forces if any. Several methods and formulations devoted to the modeling of flexible bodies undergoing large overall motions were developed in recent years. Most of these different formulations were aimed to face one of the main problems concerning the analysis of spacecraft dynamics namely the reduction of computer simulation time. By virtue of this, the use of symbolic manipulation, recursive formulation and parallel processing algorithms were proposed. All these approaches fall into two categories, the one based on Newton/Euler methods and the one based on Lagrangian methods; both of them have their advantages and disadvantages although in general, Newtonian approaches lend to a better understanding of the physics of problems and in particular of the magnitude of the reactions and of the corresponding structural stresses. Another important issue which must be addressed carefully in multibody space dynamics is relevant to a correct choice of kinematics variables. In fact, when dealing with flexible multibody system the resulting equations include two different types of state variables, the ones associated with large (rigid) displacements and the ones associated with elastic deformations. These two sets of variables have generally two different time scales if we think of the attitude motion of a satellite whose period of oscillation, due to the gravity gradient effects, is of the same order of magnitude as the orbital period, which is much bigger than the one associated with the structural vibration of the satellite itself. Therefore, the numerical integration of the equations of the system represents a challenging problem. This was the abstract and some of the arguments that Professor Paolo Santini intended to present for the Breakwell Lecture; unfortunately a deadly disease attacked him and shortly took him

  10. General methods for determining the linear stability of coronal magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, I. J. D.; Sneyd, A. D.; Mcclymont, A. N.

    1988-01-01

    A time integration of a linearized plasma equation of motion has been performed to calculate the ideal linear stability of arbitrary three-dimensional magnetic fields. The convergence rates of the explicit and implicit power methods employed are speeded up by using sequences of cyclic shifts. Growth rates are obtained for Gold-Hoyle force-free equilibria, and the corkscrew-kink instability is found to be very weak.

  11. High Order A-stable Continuous General Linear Methods for Solution of Systems of Initial Value Problems in ODEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dauda GuliburYAKUBU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Accurate solutions to initial value systems of ordinary differential equations may be approximated efficiently by Runge-Kutta methods or linear multistep methods. Each of these has limitations of one sort or another. In this paper we consider, as a middle ground, the derivation of continuous general linear methods for solution of stiff systems of initial value problems in ordinary differential equations. These methods are designed to combine the advantages of both Runge-Kutta and linear multistep methods. Particularly, methods possessing the property of A-stability are identified as promising methods within this large class of general linear methods. We show that the continuous general linear methods are self-starting and have more ability to solve the stiff systems of ordinary differential equations, than the discrete ones. The initial value systems of ordinary differential equations are solved, for instance, without looking for any other method to start the integration process. This desirable feature of the proposed approach leads to obtaining very high accuracy of the solution of the given problem. Illustrative examples are given to demonstrate the novelty and reliability of the methods.

  12. Spatial Modeling of Flood Duration in Amazonian Floodplains Through Radar Remote Sensing and Generalized Linear Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira-Ferreira, J.; Francisco, M. S.; Silva, T. S. F.

    2017-12-01

    Amazon floodplains play an important role in biodiversity maintenance and provide important ecosystem services. Flood duration is the prime factor modulating biogeochemical cycling in Amazonian floodplain systems, as well as influencing ecosystem structure and function. However, due to the absence of accurate terrain information, fine-scale hydrological modeling is still not possible for most of the Amazon floodplains, and little is known regarding the spatio-temporal behavior of flooding in these environments. Our study presents an new approach for spatial modeling of flood duration, using Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and Generalized Linear Modeling. Our focal study site was Mamirauá Sustainable Development Reserve, in the Central Amazon. We acquired a series of L-band ALOS-1/PALSAR Fine-Beam mosaics, chosen to capture the widest possible range of river stage heights at regular intervals. We then mapped flooded area on each image, and used the resulting binary maps as the response variable (flooded/non-flooded) for multiple logistic regression. Explanatory variables were accumulated precipitation 15 days prior and the water stage height recorded in the Mamirauá lake gauging station observed for each image acquisition date, Euclidean distance from the nearest drainage, and slope, terrain curvature, profile curvature, planform curvature and Height Above the Nearest Drainage (HAND) derived from the 30-m SRTM DEM. Model results were validated with water levels recorded by ten pressure transducers installed within the floodplains, from 2014 to 2016. The most accurate model included water stage height and HAND as explanatory variables, yielding a RMSE of ±38.73 days of flooding per year when compared to the ground validation sites. The largest disagreements were 57 days and 83 days for two validation sites, while remaining locations achieved absolute errors lower than 38 days. In five out of nine validation sites, the model predicted flood durations with

  13. Dynamics of pre-strained bi-material elastic systems linearized three-dimensional approach

    CERN Document Server

    Akbarov, Surkay D

    2015-01-01

    This book deals with dynamics of pre-stressed or pre-strained bi-material elastic systems consisting of stack of pre-stressed layers, stack of pre-stressed layers and pre-stressed half space (or half plane), stack of pre-stressed layers as well as absolute rigid foundation, pre-stressed compound solid and hollow cylinders and pre-stressed sandwich hollow cylinders. The problems considered in the book relate to the dynamics of a moving and oscillating moving load, forced vibration caused by linearly located or point located time-harmonic forces acting to the foregoing systems. Moreover, a considerable part of the book relate to the problems regarding the near surface, torsional and axisymmetric longitudinal waves propagation and dispersion in the noted above bi-material elastic systems. The book carries out the investigations within the framework of the piecewise homogeneous body model with the use of the Three-Dimensional Linearized Theory of Elastic Waves in Initially Stressed Bodies.

  14. Dynamic analysis and electronic circuit implementation of a novel 3D autonomous system without linear terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kengne, J.; Jafari, S.; Njitacke, Z. T.; Yousefi Azar Khanian, M.; Cheukem, A.

    2017-11-01

    Mathematical models (ODEs) describing the dynamics of almost all continuous time chaotic nonlinear systems (e.g. Lorenz, Rossler, Chua, or Chen system) involve at least a nonlinear term in addition to linear terms. In this contribution, a novel (and singular) 3D autonomous chaotic system without linear terms is introduced. This system has an especial feature of having two twin strange attractors: one ordinary and one symmetric strange attractor when the time is reversed. The complex behavior of the model is investigated in terms of equilibria and stability, bifurcation diagrams, Lyapunov exponent plots, time series and Poincaré sections. Some interesting phenomena are found including for instance, period-doubling bifurcation, antimonotonicity (i.e. the concurrent creation and annihilation of periodic orbits) and chaos while monitoring the system parameters. Compared to the (unique) case previously reported by Xu and Wang (2014) [31], the system considered in this work displays a more 'elegant' mathematical expression and experiences richer dynamical behaviors. A suitable electronic circuit (i.e. the analog simulator) is designed and used for the investigations. Pspice based simulation results show a very good agreement with the theoretical analysis.

  15. High Dynamic Range RF Front End with Noise Cancellation and Linearization for WiMAX Receivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-M. Wu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This research deals with verification of the high dynamic range for a heterodyne radio frequency (RF front end. A 2.6 GHz RF front end is designed and implemented in a hybrid microwave integrated circuit (HMIC for worldwide interoperability for microwave access (WiMAX receivers. The heterodyne RF front end consists of a low-noise amplifier (LNA with noise cancellation, an RF bandpass filter (BPF, a downconverter with linearization, and an intermediate frequency (IF BPF. A noise canceling technique used in the low-noise amplifier eliminates a thermal noise and then reduces the noise figure (NF of the RF front end by 0.9 dB. Use of a downconverter with diode linearizer also compensates for gain compression, which increases the input-referred third-order intercept point (IIP3 of the RF front end by 4.3 dB. The proposed method substantially increases the spurious-free dynamic range (DRf of the RF front end by 3.5 dB.

  16. Dynamic behavior of a nonlinear rational difference equation and generalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Qihong

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper is concerned about the dynamic behavior for the following high order nonlinear difference equation x n = (x n-k + x n-m + x n-l /(x n-k x n-m + x n-m x n-l +1 with the initial data { x - l , x - l + 1 , … , x - 1 } ∈ ℝ + l and 1 ≤ k ≤ m ≤ l. The convergence of solution to this equation is investigated by introducing a new sequence, which extends and includes corresponding results obtained in the references (Li in J Math Anal Appl 312:103-111, 2005; Berenhaut et al. Appl. Math. Lett. 20:54-58, 2007; Papaschinopoulos and Schinas J Math Anal Appl 294:614-620, 2004 to a large extent. In addition, some propositions for generalized equations are reported.

  17. Determination of the 20 MeV linear accelerator, new injector for the synchrotron Saturne. Choice of the electrical and dynamical particle parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prome, M.

    1968-12-01

    This report takes place in the general determination of the 20 MeV linear accelerator which will be the new Saturne injector; it deals with particle dynamics. Starting from beam requirements at the output of the linac, cells lengths with variable synchronous phase angle, buncher and de-buncher parameters, beam emittances at the output in several phase spaces are successively determined. (author) [fr

  18. The SR Approach: a new Estimation Method for Non-Linear and Non-Gaussian Dynamic Term Structure Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Martin Møller; Christensen, Bent Jesper

    This paper suggests a new and easy approach to estimate linear and non-linear dynamic term structure models with latent factors. We impose no distributional assumptions on the factors and they may therefore be non-Gaussian. The novelty of our approach is to use many observables (yields or bonds p...

  19. glmmTMB balances speed and flexibility among packages for Zero-inflated Generalized Linear Mixed Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brooks, Mollie Elizabeth; Kristensen, Kasper; van Benthem, Koen J.

    2017-01-01

    Count data can be analyzed using generalized linear mixed models when observations are correlated in ways that require random effects. However, count data are often zero-inflated, containing more zeros than would be expected from the typical error distributions. We present a new package, glmm...

  20. EVALUATING PREDICTIVE ERRORS OF A COMPLEX ENVIRONMENTAL MODEL USING A GENERAL LINEAR MODEL AND LEAST SQUARE MEANS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A General Linear Model (GLM) was used to evaluate the deviation of predicted values from expected values for a complex environmental model. For this demonstration, we used the default level interface of the Regional Mercury Cycling Model (R-MCM) to simulate epilimnetic total mer...