Dynamic pulsed-field-gradient NMR
Sørland, Geir Humborstad
2014-01-01
Dealing with the basics, theory and applications of dynamic pulsed-field-gradient NMR NMR (PFG NMR), this book describes the essential theory behind diffusion in heterogeneous media that can be combined with NMR measurements to extract important information of the system being investigated. This information could be the surface to volume ratio, droplet size distribution in emulsions, brine profiles, fat content in food stuff, permeability/connectivity in porous materials and medical applications currently being developed. Besides theory and applications it will provide the readers with background knowledge on the experimental set-ups, and most important, deal with the pitfalls that are numerously present in work with PFG-NMR. How to analyze the NMR data and some important basic knowledge on the hardware will be explained, too.
Cao, Quanliang; Li, Zhenhao; Wang, Zhen; Qi, Fan; Han, Xiaotao
2018-05-01
How to prevent particle aggregation in the magnetic separation process is of great importance for high-purity separation, while it is a challenging issue in practice. In this work, we report a novel method to solve this problem for improving the selectivity of size-based separation by use of a gradient alternating magnetic field. The specially designed magnetic field is capable of dynamically adjusting the magnetic field direction without changing the direction of magnetic gradient force acting on the particles. Using direct numerical simulations, we show that particles within a certain center-to-center distance are inseparable under a gradient static magnetic field since they are easy aggregated and then start moving together. By contrast, it has been demonstrated that alternating repulsive and attractive interaction forces between particles can be generated to avoid the formation of aggregations when the alternating gradient magnetic field with a given alternating frequency is applied, enabling these particles to be continuously separated based on size-dependent properties. The proposed magnetic separation method and simulation results have the significance for fundamental understanding of particle dynamic behavior and improving the separation efficiency.
Zakharov, A. V.; Maslennikov, P. V.
2018-05-01
We have considered a homogeneously oriented liquid crystal (HOLC) microvolume, confined between two infinitely long horizontal coaxial cylinders subjected to both a temperature gradient ∇T and a radially applied electric field E . We have investigated dynamic field pumping, i.e. studied the interactions between director, velocity, electric fields, as well as a radially applied temperature gradient, where the inner cylinder is kept at a lower temperature than the outer one. In order to elucidate the role of ∇T and E in producing hydrodynamic flow, we have carried out a numerical study of a system of hydrodynamic equations including director reorientation, fluid flow, and temperature redistribution across the HOLC cavity. Calculations show that, under the effect of the named perturbations and at high curvature of the inner cylinder, the HOLC microvolume settles down to a nonstandard pumping regime with maximum flow in the vicinity of the cooler inner cylinder.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tygier, S.; Appleby, R.B.; Garland, J.M.; Hock, K.; Owen, H.; Kelliher, D.J.; Sheehy, S.L.
2015-01-01
We present PyZgoubi, a framework that has been developed based on the tracking engine Zgoubi to model, optimise and visualise the dynamics in particle accelerators, especially fixed-field alternating-gradient (FFAG) accelerators. We show that PyZgoubi abstracts Zgoubi by wrapping it in an easy-to-use Python framework in order to allow simple construction, parameterisation, visualisation and optimisation of FFAG accelerator lattices. Its object oriented design gives it the flexibility and extensibility required for current novel FFAG design. We apply PyZgoubi to two example FFAGs; this includes determining the dynamic aperture of the PAMELA medical FFAG in the presence of magnet misalignments, and illustrating how PyZgoubi may be used to optimise FFAGs. We also discuss a robust definition of dynamic aperture in an FFAG and show its implementation in PyZgoubi
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tygier, S., E-mail: sam.tygier@hep.manchester.ac.uk [Cockcroft Accelerator Group, The University of Manchester (United Kingdom); Appleby, R.B., E-mail: robert.appleby@manchester.ac.uk [Cockcroft Accelerator Group, The University of Manchester (United Kingdom); Garland, J.M. [Cockcroft Accelerator Group, The University of Manchester (United Kingdom); Hock, K. [University of Liverpool (United Kingdom); Owen, H. [Cockcroft Accelerator Group, The University of Manchester (United Kingdom); Kelliher, D.J.; Sheehy, S.L. [STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (United Kingdom)
2015-03-01
We present PyZgoubi, a framework that has been developed based on the tracking engine Zgoubi to model, optimise and visualise the dynamics in particle accelerators, especially fixed-field alternating-gradient (FFAG) accelerators. We show that PyZgoubi abstracts Zgoubi by wrapping it in an easy-to-use Python framework in order to allow simple construction, parameterisation, visualisation and optimisation of FFAG accelerator lattices. Its object oriented design gives it the flexibility and extensibility required for current novel FFAG design. We apply PyZgoubi to two example FFAGs; this includes determining the dynamic aperture of the PAMELA medical FFAG in the presence of magnet misalignments, and illustrating how PyZgoubi may be used to optimise FFAGs. We also discuss a robust definition of dynamic aperture in an FFAG and show its implementation in PyZgoubi.
The geomagnetic field gradient tensor
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kotsiaros, Stavros; Olsen, Nils
2012-01-01
We develop the general mathematical basis for space magnetic gradiometry in spherical coordinates. The magnetic gradient tensor is a second rank tensor consisting of 3 × 3 = 9 spatial derivatives. Since the geomagnetic field vector B is always solenoidal (∇ · B = 0) there are only eight independent...... tensor elements. Furthermore, in current free regions the magnetic gradient tensor becomes symmetric, further reducing the number of independent elements to five. In that case B is a Laplacian potential field and the gradient tensor can be expressed in series of spherical harmonics. We present properties...... of the magnetic gradient tensor and provide explicit expressions of its elements in terms of spherical harmonics. Finally we discuss the benefit of using gradient measurements for exploring the Earth’s magnetic field from space, in particular the advantage of the various tensor elements for a better determination...
A rapid and robust gradient measurement technique using dynamic single-point imaging.
Jang, Hyungseok; McMillan, Alan B
2017-09-01
We propose a new gradient measurement technique based on dynamic single-point imaging (SPI), which allows simple, rapid, and robust measurement of k-space trajectory. To enable gradient measurement, we utilize the variable field-of-view (FOV) property of dynamic SPI, which is dependent on gradient shape. First, one-dimensional (1D) dynamic SPI data are acquired from a targeted gradient axis, and then relative FOV scaling factors between 1D images or k-spaces at varying encoding times are found. These relative scaling factors are the relative k-space position that can be used for image reconstruction. The gradient measurement technique also can be used to estimate the gradient impulse response function for reproducible gradient estimation as a linear time invariant system. The proposed measurement technique was used to improve reconstructed image quality in 3D ultrashort echo, 2D spiral, and multi-echo bipolar gradient-echo imaging. In multi-echo bipolar gradient-echo imaging, measurement of the k-space trajectory allowed the use of a ramp-sampled trajectory for improved acquisition speed (approximately 30%) and more accurate quantitative fat and water separation in a phantom. The proposed dynamic SPI-based method allows fast k-space trajectory measurement with a simple implementation and no additional hardware for improved image quality. Magn Reson Med 78:950-962, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.
Electric field gradients in metals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schatz, G.
1979-01-01
A review of the recent works on electric field gradient in metals is given. The main emphasis is put on the temperature dependence of the electric field gradient in nonmagnetic metals. Some methods of investigation of this effect using nuclear probes are described. One of them is nuclear accoustic resonance method. (S.B.)
Self-induced temperature gradients in Brownian dynamics
Devine, Jack; Jack, M. W.
2017-12-01
Brownian systems often surmount energy barriers by absorbing and emitting heat to and from their local environment. Usually, the temperature gradients created by this heat exchange are assumed to dissipate instantaneously. Here we relax this assumption to consider the case where Brownian dynamics on a time-independent potential can lead to self-induced temperature gradients. In the same way that externally imposed temperature gradients can cause directed motion, these self-induced gradients affect the dynamics of the Brownian system. The result is a coupling between the local environment and the Brownian subsystem. We explore the resulting dynamics and thermodynamics of these coupled systems and develop a robust method for numerical simulation. In particular, by focusing on one-dimensional situations, we show that self-induced temperature gradients reduce barrier-crossing rates. We also consider a heat engine and a heat pump based on temperature gradients induced by a Brownian system in a nonequilibrium potential.
The Price Equation, Gradient Dynamics, and Continuous Trait Game Theory.
Lehtonen, Jussi
2018-01-01
A recent article convincingly nominated the Price equation as the fundamental theorem of evolution and used it as a foundation to derive several other theorems. A major section of evolutionary theory that was not addressed is that of game theory and gradient dynamics of continuous traits with frequency-dependent fitness. Deriving fundamental results in these fields under the unifying framework of the Price equation illuminates similarities and differences between approaches and allows a simple, unified view of game-theoretical and dynamic concepts. Using Taylor polynomials and the Price equation, I derive a dynamic measure of evolutionary change, a condition for singular points, the convergence stability criterion, and an alternative interpretation of evolutionary stability. Furthermore, by applying the Price equation to a multivariable Taylor polynomial, the direct fitness approach to kin selection emerges. Finally, I compare these results to the mean gradient equation of quantitative genetics and the canonical equation of adaptive dynamics.
Vertical gradients of sunspot magnetic fields
Hagyard, M. J.; Teuber, D.; West, E. A.; Tandberg-Hanssen, E.; Henze, W., Jr.; Beckers, J. M.; Bruner, M.; Hyder, C. L.; Woodgate, B. E.
1983-01-01
The results of a Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) guest investigation to determine the vertical gradients of sunspot magnetic fields for the first time from coordinated observations of photospheric and transition-region fields are described. Descriptions are given of both the photospheric vector field of a sunspot, derived from observations using the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center vector magnetograph, and of the line-of-sight component in the transition region, obtained from the SMM Ultraviolet Spectrometer and Polarimeter instrument. On the basis of these data, vertical gradients of the line-of-sight magnetic field component are calculated using three methods. It is found that the vertical gradient of Bz is lower than values from previous studies and that the transition-region field occurs at a height of approximately 4000-6000 km above the photosphere.
Gradient Dynamics and Entropy Production Maximization
Janečka, Adam; Pavelka, Michal
2018-01-01
We compare two methods for modeling dissipative processes, namely gradient dynamics and entropy production maximization. Both methods require similar physical inputs-how energy (or entropy) is stored and how it is dissipated. Gradient dynamics describes irreversible evolution by means of dissipation potential and entropy, it automatically satisfies Onsager reciprocal relations as well as their nonlinear generalization (Maxwell-Onsager relations), and it has statistical interpretation. Entropy production maximization is based on knowledge of free energy (or another thermodynamic potential) and entropy production. It also leads to the linear Onsager reciprocal relations and it has proven successful in thermodynamics of complex materials. Both methods are thermodynamically sound as they ensure approach to equilibrium, and we compare them and discuss their advantages and shortcomings. In particular, conditions under which the two approaches coincide and are capable of providing the same constitutive relations are identified. Besides, a commonly used but not often mentioned step in the entropy production maximization is pinpointed and the condition of incompressibility is incorporated into gradient dynamics.
Tao, Shengzhen; Weavers, Paul T; Trzasko, Joshua D; Shu, Yunhong; Huston, John; Lee, Seung-Kyun; Frigo, Louis M; Bernstein, Matt A
2017-06-01
To develop a gradient pre-emphasis scheme that prospectively counteracts the effects of the first-order concomitant fields for any arbitrary gradient waveform played on asymmetric gradient systems, and to demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach using a real-time implementation on a compact gradient system. After reviewing the first-order concomitant fields that are present on asymmetric gradients, we developed a generalized gradient pre-emphasis model assuming arbitrary gradient waveforms to counteract their effects. A numerically straightforward, easily implemented approximate solution to this pre-emphasis problem was derived that was compatible with the current hardware infrastructure of conventional MRI scanners for eddy current compensation. The proposed method was implemented on the gradient driver subsystem, and its real-time use was tested using a series of phantom and in vivo data acquired from two-dimensional Cartesian phase-difference, echo-planar imaging, and spiral acquisitions. The phantom and in vivo results demonstrated that unless accounted for, first-order concomitant fields introduce considerable phase estimation error into the measured data and result in images with spatially dependent blurring/distortion. The resulting artifacts were effectively prevented using the proposed gradient pre-emphasis. We have developed an efficient and effective gradient pre-emphasis framework to counteract the effects of first-order concomitant fields of asymmetric gradient systems. Magn Reson Med 77:2250-2262, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.
Global correlation imaging of magnetic total field gradients
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guo, Lianghui; Meng, Xiaohong; Shi, Lei
2012-01-01
Firstly we introduce the correlation imaging approach for the x-, y- and z-gradients of a magnetic total field anomaly for deriving the distribution of equivalent magnetic sources of the subsurface. In this approach, the subsurface space is divided into a regular grid, and then a correlation coefficient function is computed at each grid node, based on the cross-correlation between the x-gradient (or y-gradient or z-gradient) of the observed magnetic total field anomaly and the x-gradient (or y-gradient or z-gradient) of the theoretical magnetic total field anomaly due to a magnetic dipole. The resultant correlation coefficient is used to describe the probability of a magnetic dipole occurring at the node. We then define a global correlation coefficient function for comprehensively delineating the probability of an occurrence of a magnetic dipole, which takes, at each node, the maximum positive value of the corresponding correlation coefficient function of the three gradients. We finally test the approach both on synthetic data and real data from a metallic deposit area in the middle-lower reaches of the Yangtze River, China. (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bjorgaard, J. A.; Velizhanin, K. A.; Tretiak, S.
2015-01-01
This study describes variational energy expressions and analytical excited state energy gradients for time-dependent self-consistent field methods with polarizable solvent effects. Linear response, vertical excitation, and state-specific solventmodels are examined. Enforcing a variational ground stateenergy expression in the state-specific model is found to reduce it to the vertical excitation model. Variational excited state energy expressions are then provided for the linear response and vertical excitation models and analytical gradients are formulated. Using semiempiricalmodel chemistry, the variational expressions are verified by numerical and analytical differentiation with respect to a static external electric field. Lastly, analytical gradients are further tested by performing microcanonical excited state molecular dynamics with p-nitroaniline
Soil Carbon Dynamics Along an Elevation Gradient in the Southern Appalachian Mountains
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Garten Jr., C.T.
2004-04-13
The role of soil C dynamics in the exchange of CO{sub 2} between the terrestrial biosphere and the atmosphere is at the center of many science questions related to global climate change. The purpose of this report is to summarize measured trends in environmental factors and ecosystem processes that affect soil C balance along elevation gradients in the southern Appalachian Mountains of eastern Tennessee and western North Carolina, USA. Three environmental factors that have potentially significant effects on soil C dynamics (temperature, precipitation, and soil N availability) vary in a predictable manner with altitude. Forest soil C stocks and calculated turnover times of labile soil C increase with elevation, and there is an apparent inverse relationship between soil C storage and mean annual temperature. Relationships between climate variables and soil C dynamics along elevation gradients must be interpreted with caution because litter chemistry, soil moisture, N availability, and temperature are confounded; all potentially interact in complex ways to regulate soil C storage through effects on decomposition. Some recommendations are presented for untangling these complexities. It is concluded that past studies along elevation gradients have contributed to a better but not complete understanding of environmental factors and processes that potentially affect soil C balance. Furthermore, there are advantages linked to the use of elevation gradients as an approach to climate change research when hypotheses are placed in a strong theoretical or mechanistic framework. Climate change research along elevation gradients can be both convenient and economical. More importantly, ecosystem processes and attributes affecting soil C dynamics along elevation gradients are usually the product of the long-term interactions between climate, vegetation, and soil type. Investigations along elevation gradients are a useful approach to the study of environmental change, and its effect
A high-resolution EPR-CT microscope using cavity-resonators equipped with small field gradient coils
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miki, T.; Murata, T.; Kumai, H.; Yamashiro, A.
1996-01-01
Cylindrical cavity resonators equipped with field gradient coils were developed for two-dimensional EPR-CT microscope systems. The field gradient coils lie in four (or six) thin metal tubes placed along the direction of the microwave magnetic field in the cavity to minimize impact on the resonator's quality factor. Two pairs of the tubes carry a 100 kHz current for magnetic field modulation. This cavity has high spin-detection sensitivity and can provide EPR images with submillimeter resolution. In order to reconstruct better images from fewer projections, we used an algebraic reconstruction technique (ART) for the two-dimensional image reconstruction. The ART method may be suitable for not only spectral-spatial two-dimensional EPR imaging, but also spatio-temporal EPR imaging in dynamic spin systems. (author)
Measurement of gradient magnetic field temporal characteristics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bartusek, K.; Jflek, B.
1994-01-01
We describe a technique of measuring the time dependence and field distortions of magnetic fields due to eddy currents (EC) produced by time-dependent magnetic field gradients. The EC measuring technique makes use of a large volume sample and selective RF excitation pulses and free induction decay (FID) (or a spin or gradient echo) to measure the out-of-phase component of the FID, which is proportional to γδB, i.e. the amount the signal is off resonance. The measuring technique is sensitive, easy to implement and interpret, and used for determining pre-emphasis compensation parameters
Precise measurements and shimming of magnetic field gradients in the low field regime
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Allmendinger, Fabian; Schmidt, Ulrich [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Heidelberg (Germany); Grasdijk, Olivier; Jungmann, Klaus; Willmann, Lorenz [University of Groningen (Netherlands); Heil, Werner; Karpuk, Sergei; Repetto, Maricel; Sobolev, Yuri; Zimmer, Stefan [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Mainz (Germany); Krause, Hans-Joachim; Offenhaeuser, Andreas [Peter Gruenberg Institut, Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany); Collaboration: MIXed-Collaboration
2016-07-01
For many experiments at the precision frontier of fundamental physics, the accurate measurement and knowledge of magnetic field gradients in particular in the low field regime (<μT) is a necessity: On the one hand, in the search for an Electric Dipole Moment (EDM) of free neutrons or atoms, field gradients contribute to geometric-phase-induced false EDM signals for particles in traps. On the other hand, clock comparison experiments like the {sup 3}He/{sup 129}Xe spin clock experiment suffer from gradients, since the coherent T{sub 2}*-time of free spin precession, and thus the measurement sensitivity, scales ∝ ∇ vector B{sup -2}. Here we report on a new and very effective method, to shim and to measure tiny magnetic field gradients in the range of pT/cm by using effective T{sub 2}*-measurement sequences in varying the currents of trim coils of known geometry.
Using axial magnetized permanent rings to build axial gradient magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peng Quanling
2003-01-01
Axial field produced by an axially magnetized permanent ring was studied. For two permanent magnet rings, if they are magnetized in the same direction, a nearly uniform axial field can be produced; if they are magnetized in opposite direction, an axial gradient field can be produced in the region between the two permanent rings, with the field strength changing from -B 0 to B 0 . A high gradient axial magnetic field has been built by using two axially magnetized permanent rings, the measured field results agree with the PANDIRA calculation very well. It is desirable that the field gradient can be varied to match various requirements. A method to produce the variable gradient field is presented. Axial gradient field can also be used as a beam focusing facility for linear accelerator if axial periodic field can be produced. Its magnetic field is similar to that of a solenoid, in which, large stray field will leak to the outside environment. A method for shielding the outside stray field is discussed
Stability of Gradient Field Corrections for Quantitative Diffusion MRI
Rogers, Baxter P.; Blaber, Justin; Welch, E. Brian; Ding, Zhaohua; Anderson, Adam W.; Landman, Bennett A.
2017-01-01
In magnetic resonance diffusion imaging, gradient nonlinearity causes significant bias in the estimation of quantitative diffusion parameters such as diffusivity, anisotropy, and diffusion direction in areas away from the magnet isocenter. This bias can be substantially reduced if the scanner- and coil-specific gradient field nonlinearities are known. Using a set of field map calibration scans on a large (29 cm diameter) phantom combined with a solid harmonic approximation of the gradient fie...
Magnetic field gradients and their uses in the study of the earth's magnetic field
Harrison, C. G. A.; Southam, J. R.
1991-01-01
Magnetic field gradients are discussed from the standpoint of their usefulness in modeling crustal magnetizations. The fact that gradients enhance shorter wavelength features helps reduce both the core signal and the signal from external fields in comparison with the crustal signal. If the gradient device can be oriented, then directions of lineation can be determined from single profiles, and anomalies caused by unlineated sources can be identified.
Sedimentation and aggregation of magnetite nanoparticles in water by a gradient magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Medvedeva, I.; Bakhteeva, Yu.; Zhakov, S.; Revvo, A.; Byzov, I.; Uimin, M.; Yermakov, A.; Mysik, A.
2013-01-01
Magnetite (γ-Fe 3 O 4 ) nanoparticles are promising effective sorbents for water cleaning of heavy metal, radionuclides, organic and biological materials. A good sorption capacity can be achieved due to their high specific surface area. Application of gradient magnetic fields helps to separate the magnetic nanoparticles from the water suspension, which is rather hard to do using the conventional mechanical filtration and sedimentation methods without coagulants. The sedimentation dynamics of magnetite nanoparticles with sizes of 10–20 nm in aqueous media in the presence of a gradient magnetic field was studied by optical and NMR relaxometry methods. The gradient magnetic field was produced by a series of strip permanent magnets with B ≤ 0.5 T, dB/dz ≤ 0.13 T/cm and in some cases enhanced by a steel grid with sharp edges (dB/dz ≤ 5 T/cm). Dynamic Light Scattering in the water suspension with different nanoparticle concentrations (c 0 = 0.1–1 g/l) revealed the characteristic features in the aggregate formation, which is reflected in the sedimentation behavior. The sedimentation rate of the nanoparticles in water and in magnetic fields is higher for less concentrated suspensions (c 0 = 0.1 g/l) than for more concentrated ones (c 0 = 1 g/l), which might be connected with the formation of a gel structures due to a strong magnetic attraction between ferromagnetic nanoparticles. In 180 min this resulted in the reduction of the iron concentration in water down to 0.4 mg/l, which is close to hygienic and environmental norms for drinking water and fishery
Stern-Gerlach effect without magnetic-field gradient
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zimmer, O.; Felber, J.; Schaerpf, O.
2001-01-01
The Stern-Gerlach effect is the well-known spin-dependent splitting of a neutral particle beam by a magnetic-field gradient. Guided by the pseudomagnetic analogy, we performed a similar experiment where no magnetic-field gradient is involved. The effect is due to the spin-dependence of neutron scattering from polarised nuclei, i.e. caused by the strong interaction between neutrons and nuclei. The beam splitting is proportional to the nuclear polarisation and to the spin-dependent part of the neutron scattering length. Thus it can be used to measure one of both quantities. (orig.)
Conjugate-Gradient Algorithms For Dynamics Of Manipulators
Fijany, Amir; Scheid, Robert E.
1993-01-01
Algorithms for serial and parallel computation of forward dynamics of multiple-link robotic manipulators by conjugate-gradient method developed. Parallel algorithms have potential for speedup of computations on multiple linked, specialized processors implemented in very-large-scale integrated circuits. Such processors used to stimulate dynamics, possibly faster than in real time, for purposes of planning and control.
Alignment dynamics of diffusive scalar gradient in a two-dimensional model flow
Gonzalez, M.
2018-04-01
The Lagrangian two-dimensional approach of scalar gradient kinematics is revisited accounting for molecular diffusion. Numerical simulations are performed in an analytic, parameterized model flow, which enables considering different regimes of scalar gradient dynamics. Attention is especially focused on the influence of molecular diffusion on Lagrangian statistical orientations and on the dynamics of scalar gradient alignment.
Magnetic field of longitudinal gradient bend
Aiba, Masamitsu; Böge, Michael; Ehrlichman, Michael; Streun, Andreas
2018-06-01
The longitudinal gradient bend is an effective method for reducing the natural emittance in light sources. It is, however, not a common element. We have analyzed its magnetic field and derived a set of formulae. Based on the derivation, we discuss how to model the longitudinal gradient bend in accelerator codes that are used for designing electron storage rings. Strengths of multipole components can also be evaluated from the formulae, and we investigate the impact of higher order multipole components in a very low emittance lattice.
Dynamics of Reactive Microbial Hotspots in Concentration Gradient.
Hubert, A.; Farasin, J.; Tabuteau, H.; Dufresne, A.; Meheust, Y.; Le Borgne, T.
2017-12-01
In subsurface environments, bacteria play a major role in controlling the kinetics of a broad range of biogeochemical reactions. In such environments, nutrients fluxes and solute concentrations needed for bacteria metabolism may be highly variable in space and intermittent in time. This can lead to the formation of reactive hotspots where and when conditions are favorable to particular microorganisms, hence inducing biogeochemical reaction kinetics that differ significantly from those measured in homogeneous model environments. To investigate the impact of chemical gradients on the spatial structure and temporal dynamics of subsurface microorganism populations, we develop microfluidic cells allowing for a precise control of flow and chemical gradient conditions, as well as quantitative monitoring of the bacteria's spatial distribution and biofilm development. Using the non-motile Escherichia coli JW1908-1 strain and Gallionella capsiferriformans ES-2 as model organisms, we investigate the behavior and development of bacteria over a range of single and double concentration gradients in the concentrations of nutrients, electron donors and electron acceptors. We measure bacterial activity and population growth locally in precisely known hydrodynamic and chemical environments. This approach allows time-resolved monitoring of the location and intensity of reactive hotspots in micromodels as a function of the flow and chemical gradient conditions. We compare reactive microbial hotspot dynamics in our micromodels to classic growth laws and well-known growth parameters for the laboratory model bacteria Escherichia coli.We also discuss consequences for the formation and temporal dynamics of biofilms in the subsurface.
Interplay between temperature gradients field and C - E transformation in solidifying rolls
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
W. Wołczyński
2009-07-01
Full Text Available At first step of simulation a temperature field for solidifying cast steel and cast iron roll has been performed. The calculation does not take into account the convection in the liquid since convection has no influence on the proposed model for the localization of the C-E (columnar to equiaxed grains transformation. However, it allows to study the dynamics of temperature field temporal behavior in the middle of a mould. It is postulated that for the C-E transition a full accumulation of the heat in the mould has been observed (plateau at the T(t curve. The temporal range of plateau existence corresponds to the incubation time for the full equiaxed grains formation. At the second step of simulation temporal behavior of the temperature gradient field has been studied. Three ranges within temperature gradients field have been distinguished for the operating point situated at the middle of mould: a/ for the formation of columnar grains zone, ( and high temperature gradient 0>>T&0//>>∂∂−∂∂∂∂−∂∂>EttEtrTrT. T - temperature, r - roll radius. It is evident that the heat transfer across the mould decides on the temporal appearance of incubation during which the solidification is significantly arrested and competition between columnar and equiaxed growth occurs. Moreover solidification with positive temperature gradient transforms into solidification with negative temperature gradient (locally after the incubation. A simulation has been performed for the cast steel and cast iron rolls solidifying as in industry condition. Since the incubation divides the roll into to parts (first with columnar structure, second with equiaxed structure some experiments dealing with solidification have been made in laboratory scale. Finally, observations of the macrosegregation or microsegregation and phase or structure appearance in the cast iron ingot / roll (made in laboratory has also been done in order to confront them with theoretical predictions
Near field plasmonic gradient effects on high vacuum tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy.
Fang, Yurui; Zhang, Zhenglong; Chen, Li; Sun, Mengtao
2015-01-14
Near field gradient effects in high vacuum tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (HV-TERS) are a recent developing ultra-sensitive optical and spectral analysis technology on the nanoscale, based on the plasmons and plasmonic gradient enhancement in the near field and under high vacuum. HV-TERS can not only be used to detect ultra-sensitive Raman spectra enhanced by surface plasmon, but also to detect clear molecular IR-active modes enhanced by strongly plasmonic gradient. Furthermore, the molecular overtone modes and combinational modes can also be experimentally measured, where the Fermi resonance and Darling-Dennison resonance were successfully observed in HV-TERS. Theoretical calculations using electromagnetic field theory firmly supported experimental observation. The intensity ratio of the plasmon gradient term over the linear plasmon term can reach values greater than 1. Theoretical calculations also revealed that with the increase in gap distance between tip and substrate, the decrease in the plasmon gradient was more significant than the decrease in plasmon intensity, which is the reason that the gradient Raman can be only observed in the near field. Recent experimental results of near field gradient effects on HV-TERS were summarized, following the section of the theoretical analysis.
ion in crossed gradient electric and magnetic fields
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Photodetachment cross-section for variousexternal fields and the laser polarization are calculated and displayed. A comparison with the photodetachment cross-section in crossed uniform electric and magnetic fields or in a single gradient electric field has been made.The agreement of our results with the above two special ...
Shear flow effect on ion temperature gradient vortices in plasmas with sheared magnetic field
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chakrabarti, N.; Juul Rasmussen, J.
1999-01-01
The effect of velocity shear on ion temperature gradient (ITG) driven vortices in a nonuniform plasma in a curved, sheared magnetic field is investigated. In absence of parallel ion dynamics, vortex solutions for the ITG mode are studied analytically. It is shown that under certain conditions...... and ultimately lead to a dominating monopolar form. The effects of magnetic shear indicate it may destroy these structures. (C) 1999 American Institute of Physics....
Integral Field Spectroscopy Surveys: Oxygen Abundance Gradients
Sánchez, S. F.; Sánchez-Menguiano, L.
2017-07-01
We present here the recent results on our understanding of oxygen abundance gradients derived using Integral Field Spectroscopic surveys. In particular we analyzed more than 2124 datacubes corresponding to individual objects observed by the CALIFA (˜ 734 objects) and the public data by MaNGA (˜ 1390 objects), deriving the oxygen abundance gradient for each galaxy. We confirm previous results that indicate that the shape of this gradient is very similar for all galaxies with masses above 109.5M⊙, presenting in average a very similar slope of ˜ -0.04 dex within 0.5-2.0 re, with a possible drop in the inner regions (r109.5M⊙) the gradient seems to be flatter than for more massive ones. All these results agree with an inside-out growth of massive galaxies and indicate that low mass ones may still be growing in an outside in phase.
Spin imaging in solids using synchronously rotating field gradients and samples
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wind, R.A.; Yannoni, C.S.
1983-01-01
A method for spin-imaging in solids using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is described. With this method, the spin density distribution of a two- or three-dimensional object such as a solid can be constructed resulting in an image of the sample. This method lends itself to computer control to map out an image of the object. This spin-imaging method involves the steps of placing a solid sample in the rf coil field and the external magnetic field of an NMR spectrometer. A magnetic field gradient is superimposed across the sample to provide a field gradient which results in a varying DC field that has different values over different parts of the sample. As a result, nuclei in different parts of the sample have different resonant NMR frequencies. The sample is rotated about an axis which makes a particular angle of 54.7 degrees with the static external magnetic field. The magnetic field gradient which has a spatial distribution related to the sample spinning axis is then rotated synchronously with the sample. Data is then collected while performing a solid state NMR line narrowing procedure. The next step is to change the phase relation between the sample rotation and the field gradient rotation. The data is again collected as before while the sample and field gradient are synchronously rotated. The phase relation is changed a number of times and data collected each time. The spin image of the solid sample is then reconstructed from the collected data
Plocková, J; Chmelík, J
2001-05-25
Gravitational field-flow fractionation (GFFF) utilizes the Earth's gravitational field as an external force that causes the settlement of particles towards the channel accumulation wall. Hydrodynamic lift forces oppose this action by elevating particles away from the channel accumulation wall. These two counteracting forces enable modulation of the resulting force field acting on particles in GFFF. In this work, force-field programming based on modulating the magnitude of hydrodynamic lift forces was implemented via changes of flow-rate, which was accomplished by a programmable pump. Several flow-rate gradients (step gradients, linear gradients, parabolic, and combined gradients) were tested and evaluated as tools for optimization of the separation of a silica gel particle mixture. The influence of increasing amount of sample injected on the peak resolution under flow-rate gradient conditions was also investigated. This is the first time that flow-rate gradients have been implemented for programming of the resulting force field acting on particles in GFFF.
Photodetachment of negative ion in a gradient electric field near a metal surface
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu Tian-Qi; Wang De-Hua; Han Cai; Liu Jiang; Liang Dong-Qi; Xie Si-Cheng
2012-01-01
Based on closed-orbit theory, the photodetachment of H − in a gradient electric field near a metal surface is studied. It is demonstrated that the gradient electric field has a significant influence on the photodetachment of negative ions near a metal surface. With the increase of the gradient of the electric field, the oscillation in the photodetachment cross section becomes strengthened. Besides, in contrast to the photodetachment of H − near a metal surface in a uniform electric field, the oscillating amplitude and the oscillating region in the cross section of a gradient electric field also become enlarged. Therefore, we can use the gradient electric field to control the photodetachment of negative ions near a metal surface. We hope that our results will be useful for understanding the photodetachment of negative ions in the vicinity of surfaces, cavities, and ion traps. (atomic and molecular physics)
Larmor labeling by time-gradient magnetic fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ioffe, Alexander; Bodnarchuk, Victor; Bussmann, Klaus; Mueller, Robert
2007-01-01
The Larmor labeling of neutrons, due to the Larmor precession of neutron spin in a magnetic field, opens the unique possibility for the development of neutron spin-echo (NSE) based on neutron scattering techniques, featuring an extremely high energy (momentum) resolution. Here, we present the experimental proof of a new method of the Larmor labeling using time-gradient magnetic fields
Dynamics of gradient formation by intracellular shuttling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Berezhkovskii, Alexander M. [Mathematical and Statistical Computing Laboratory, Division of Computational Bioscience, Center for Information Technology, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 (United States); Shvartsman, Stanislav Y. [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering and Lewis-Sigler Institute for Integrative Genomics, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States)
2015-08-21
A number of important cellular functions rely on the formation of intracellular protein concentration gradients. Experimental studies discovered a number of mechanisms for the formation of such gradients. One of the mechanisms relies on the intracellular shuttling of a protein that interconverts between the two states with different diffusivities, under the action of two enzymes, one of which is localized to the plasma membrane, whereas the second is uniformly distributed in the cytoplasm. Recent work reported an analytical solution for the steady state gradient in this mechanism, obtained in the framework of a one-dimensional reaction-diffusion model. Here, we study the dynamics in this model and derive analytical expressions for the Laplace transforms of the time-dependent concentration profiles in terms of elementary transcendental functions. Inverting these transforms numerically, one can obtain time-dependent concentration profiles of the two forms of the protein.
Dynamic load-balancing-extended gradient mechanism: Graphic representation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Muniz, Francisco J.
2017-01-01
Load-balancing methods are quite well described in the open literature (hundreds of articles can be found about this subject). In particularly, about the Dynamic Load-balancing mechanism Extended Gradient (EG), several articles of the author are available. Even though, there are some overlap, each one of them is focused on a particular aspect of the mechanism, in a complementary way. In this article, a graphic representation of the Extended Gradient mechanism is done: this representation way had not yet been explored. However, for an in-depth knowledge of the Extended Gradient mechanism, at least, some other articles should to be read. In the CDTN, Clusters are used, mainly, in deterministic methods (CFD) and non-deterministic methods (Monte Carlo). (author)
Dynamic load-balancing-extended gradient mechanism: Graphic representation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Muniz, Francisco J., E-mail: muniz@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)
2017-07-01
Load-balancing methods are quite well described in the open literature (hundreds of articles can be found about this subject). In particularly, about the Dynamic Load-balancing mechanism Extended Gradient (EG), several articles of the author are available. Even though, there are some overlap, each one of them is focused on a particular aspect of the mechanism, in a complementary way. In this article, a graphic representation of the Extended Gradient mechanism is done: this representation way had not yet been explored. However, for an in-depth knowledge of the Extended Gradient mechanism, at least, some other articles should to be read. In the CDTN, Clusters are used, mainly, in deterministic methods (CFD) and non-deterministic methods (Monte Carlo). (author)
Effects of high-gradient magnetic fields on living cell machinery
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zablotskii, V; Lunov, O; Kubinova, S; Polyakova, T; Dejneka, A; Sykova, E
2016-01-01
A general interest in biomagnetic effects is related to fundamental studies of the influence of magnetic fields on living objects on the cellular and whole organism levels. Emerging technologies offer new directions for the use of high-gradient magnetic fields to control cell machinery and to understand the intracellular biological processes of the emerging field of nanomedicine. In this review we aim at highlighting recent advances made in identifying fundamental mechanisms by which magnetic gradient forces act on cell fate specification and cell differentiation. The review also provides an analysis of the currently available magnetic systems capable of generating magnetic fields with spatial gradients of up to 10 MT m −1 , with the focus on their suitability for use in cell therapy. Relationships between experimental factors and underlying biophysical mechanisms and assumptions that would ultimately lead to a deeper understanding of cell machinery and the development of more predictive models for the evaluation of the effects of magnetic fields on cells, tissue and organisms are comprehensively discussed. (topical review)
Electron dynamics in inhomogeneous magnetic fields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nogaret, Alain, E-mail: A.R.Nogaret@bath.ac.u [Department of Physics, University of Bath, Bath BA2 7AY (United Kingdom)
2010-06-30
This review explores the dynamics of two-dimensional electrons in magnetic potentials that vary on scales smaller than the mean free path. The physics of microscopically inhomogeneous magnetic fields relates to important fundamental problems in the fractional quantum Hall effect, superconductivity, spintronics and graphene physics and spins out promising applications which will be described here. After introducing the initial work done on electron localization in random magnetic fields, the experimental methods for fabricating magnetic potentials are presented. Drift-diffusion phenomena are then described, which include commensurability oscillations, magnetic channelling, resistance resonance effects and magnetic dots. We then review quantum phenomena in magnetic potentials including magnetic quantum wires, magnetic minibands in superlattices, rectification by snake states, quantum tunnelling and Klein tunnelling. The third part is devoted to spintronics in inhomogeneous magnetic fields. This covers spin filtering by magnetic field gradients and circular magnetic fields, electrically induced spin resonance, spin resonance fluorescence and coherent spin manipulation. (topical review)
Estimation of the magnetic field gradient tensor using the Swarm constellation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kotsiaros, Stavros; Finlay, Chris; Olsen, Nils
2014-01-01
For the first time, part of the magnetic field gradient tensor is estimated in space by the Swarm mission. We investigate the possibility of a more complete estimation of the gradient tensor exploiting the Swarm constellation. The East-West gradients can be approximated by observations from...... deviations compared to conventional vector observations at almost all latitudes. Analytical and numerical analysis of the spectral properties of the gradient tensor shows that specific combinations of the East-West and North-South gradients have almost identical signal content to the radial gradient...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xu, Fei [Key Laboratory of Fiber Optic Sensing Technology and Information Processing, Ministry of Education, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Huang, Jiahao, E-mail: hjiahao@mail2.sysu.edu.cn [TianQin Research Center & School of Physics and Astronomy, Sun Yat-Sen University, SYSU Zhuhai Campus, Zhuhai 519082 (China); Liu, Quan [Key Laboratory of Fiber Optic Sensing Technology and Information Processing, Ministry of Education, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China)
2017-03-03
Highlights: • A scheme for detecting magnetic field gradients via a double-well two-component Bose–Einstein condensate interferometer. • The magnetic field gradient can be extracted by either the spin population or the external state. • Our proposal is potentially sensitive to weak magnetic field inhomogeneity due to its small sensor size. - Abstract: We have proposed a scheme to detect magnetic field gradients via an interferometer based on a double-well two-component Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC). Utilizing a sequence of quantum control operations on both external and internal degree of the BEC, one can extract the magnetic field gradients by measuring either the population in one component or the fidelity between the final external state and the initial ground state. Our scheme can be implemented by current experimental techniques of manipulating ultracold atoms.
Dynamical interplay between fluctuations, electric fields and transport in fusion plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hidalgo, C.; Pedrosa, M.A.; Goncalves, B.
2003-01-01
A view of recent experimental results and progress in the characterization of the statistical properties of electrostatic turbulence in magnetically confined devices is given. An empirical similarity in the scaling properties of the probability distribution function (PDF) of turbulent transport has been observed in the plasma edge region in fusion plasmas. The investigation of the dynamical interplay between fluctuation in gradients, turbulent transport and radial electric fields has shows that these parameters are strongly coupled both in tokamak and stellarator plasmas. The bursty behaviour of turbulent transport is linked with a departure from the most probable radial gradient. The dynamical relation between fluctuations in gradients and transport is strongly affected by the presence of sheared poloidal flows which organized themselves near marginal stability. These results emphasize the importance of the statistical description of transport processes in fusion plasmas as an alternative approach to the traditional way to characterize transport based on the computation of effective transport coefficients. (author)
Two dimensional dynamic analysis of sandwich plates with gradient foam cores
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mu, Lin; Xiao, Deng Bao; Zhao, Guiping [State Key Laboratory for Mechanical structure Strength and Vibration, School of AerospaceXi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China); Cho, Chong Du [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Inha University, Inchon (Korea, Republic of)
2016-09-15
Present investigation is concerned about dynamic response of composite sandwich plates with the functionally gradient foam cores under time-dependent impulse. The analysis is based on a model of the gradient sandwich plate, in which the face sheets and the core adopt the Kirchhoff theory and a [2, 1]-order theory, respectively. The material properties of the gradient foam core vary continuously along the thickness direction. The gradient plate model is validated with the finite element code ABAQUS®. And the results show that the proposed model can predict well the free vibration of composite sandwich plates with gradient foam cores. The influences of gradient foam cores on the natural frequency, deflection and energy absorbing of the sandwich plates are also investigated.
Efficient conjugate gradient algorithms for computation of the manipulator forward dynamics
Fijany, Amir; Scheid, Robert E.
1989-01-01
The applicability of conjugate gradient algorithms for computation of the manipulator forward dynamics is investigated. The redundancies in the previously proposed conjugate gradient algorithm are analyzed. A new version is developed which, by avoiding these redundancies, achieves a significantly greater efficiency. A preconditioned conjugate gradient algorithm is also presented. A diagonal matrix whose elements are the diagonal elements of the inertia matrix is proposed as the preconditioner. In order to increase the computational efficiency, an algorithm is developed which exploits the synergism between the computation of the diagonal elements of the inertia matrix and that required by the conjugate gradient algorithm.
Three-dimensional magnetic nanoparticle imaging using small field gradient and multiple pickup coils
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sasayama, Teruyoshi, E-mail: sasayama@sc.kyushu-u.ac.jp; Tsujita, Yuya; Morishita, Manabu; Muta, Masahiro; Yoshida, Takashi; Enpuku, Keiji
2017-04-01
We propose a magnetic particle imaging (MPI) method based on third harmonic signal detection using a small field gradient and multiple pickup coils. First, we developed a system using two pickup coils and performed three-dimensional detection of two magnetic nanoparticle (MNP) samples, which were spaced 15 mm apart. In the experiments, an excitation field strength of 1.6 mT was used at an operating frequency of 3 kHz. A DC gradient field with a typical value of 0.2 T/m was also used to produce the so-called field-free line. A third harmonic signal generated by the MNP samples was detected using the two pickup coils, and the samples were then mechanically scanned to obtain field maps. The field maps were subsequently analyzed using the nonnegative least squares method to obtain three-dimensional position information for the MNP samples. The results show that the positions of the two MNP samples were estimated with good accuracy, despite the small field gradient used. Further improvement in MPI performance will be achieved by increasing the number of pickup coils used. - Highlights: • 3D magnetic particle imaging system combining field-free line and two pickup coils. • Imaging method based on third harmonic signal detection and small field gradient. • Nonnegative least squares method for 3D magnetic nanoparticle image reconstruction. • High spatial resolution despite use of small field gradient.
Electrical Field Guided Electrospray Deposition for Production of Gradient Particle Patterns.
Yan, Wei-Cheng; Xie, Jingwei; Wang, Chi-Hwa
2018-06-06
Our previous work demonstrated the uniform particle pattern formation on the substrates using electrical field guided electrospray deposition. In this work, we reported for the first time the fabrication of gradient particle patterns on glass slides using an additional point, line, or bar electrode based on our previous electrospray deposition configuration. We also demonstrated that the polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) coating could result in the formation of uniform particle patterns instead of gradient particle patterns on glass slides using the same experimental setup. Meanwhile, we investigated the effect of experimental configurations on the gradient particle pattern formation by computational simulation. The simulation results are in line with experimental observations. The formation of gradient particle patterns was ascribed to the gradient of electric field and the corresponding focusing effect. Cell patterns can be formed on the particle patterns deposited on PDMS-coated glass slides. The formed particle patterns hold great promise for high-throughput screening of biomaterial-cell interactions and sensing.
Control of colloids with gravity, temperature gradients, and electric fields
Sullivan, M; Harrison, C; Austin, R H; Megens, M; Hollingsworth, A; Russel, W B; Cheng Zhen; Mason, T; Chaikin, P M
2003-01-01
We have used a variety of different applied fields to control the density, growth, and structure of colloidal crystals. Gravity exerts a body force proportional to the buoyant mass and in equilibrium produces a height-dependent concentration profile. A similar body force can be obtained with electric fields on charged particles (electrophoresis), a temperature gradient on all particles, or an electric field gradient on uncharged particles (dielectrophoresis). The last is particularly interesting since its magnitude and sign can be changed by tuning the applied frequency. We study these effects in bulk (making 'dielectrophoretic bottles' or traps), to control concentration profiles during nucleation and growth and near surfaces. We also study control of non-spherical and optically anisotropic particles with the light field from laser tweezers.
Control of colloids with gravity, temperature gradients, and electric fields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sullivan, Matt [Department of Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States); Zhao Kun [Department of Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States); Harrison, Christopher [Department of Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States); Austin, Robert H [Department of Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States); Megens, Mischa [Department of Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States); Hollingsworth, Andrew [Department of Chemical Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States); Russel, William B [Department of Chemical Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States); Cheng Zhengdong [ExxonMobil Research, Annandale, NJ (United States); Mason, Thomas [ExxonMobil Research, Annandale, NJ (United States); Chaikin, P M [Department of Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States)
2003-01-15
We have used a variety of different applied fields to control the density, growth, and structure of colloidal crystals. Gravity exerts a body force proportional to the buoyant mass and in equilibrium produces a height-dependent concentration profile. A similar body force can be obtained with electric fields on charged particles (electrophoresis), a temperature gradient on all particles, or an electric field gradient on uncharged particles (dielectrophoresis). The last is particularly interesting since its magnitude and sign can be changed by tuning the applied frequency. We study these effects in bulk (making 'dielectrophoretic bottles' or traps), to control concentration profiles during nucleation and growth and near surfaces. We also study control of non-spherical and optically anisotropic particles with the light field from laser tweezers.
Adaptive dynamics on an environmental gradient that changes over a geological time-scale.
Fortelius, Mikael; Geritz, Stefan; Gyllenberg, Mats; Toivonen, Jaakko
2015-07-07
The standard adaptive dynamics framework assumes two timescales, i.e. fast population dynamics and slow evolutionary dynamics. We further assume a third timescale, which is even slower than the evolutionary timescale. We call this the geological timescale and we assume that slow climatic change occurs within this timescale. We study the evolution of our model population over this very slow geological timescale with bifurcation plots of the standard adaptive dynamics framework. The bifurcation parameter being varied describes the abiotic environment that changes over the geological timescale. We construct evolutionary trees over the geological timescale and observe both gradual phenotypic evolution and punctuated branching events. We concur with the established notion that branching of a monomorphic population on an environmental gradient only happens when the gradient is not too shallow and not too steep. However, we show that evolution within the habitat can produce polymorphic populations that inhabit steep gradients. What is necessary is that the environmental gradient at some point in time is such that the initial branching of the monomorphic population can occur. We also find that phenotypes adapted to environments in the middle of the existing environmental range are more likely to branch than phenotypes adapted to extreme environments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dynamic gradient descent learning algorithms for enhanced empirical modeling of power plants
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Parlos, A.G.; Atiya, Amir; Chong, K.T.
1991-01-01
A newly developed dynamic gradient descent-based learning algorithm is used to train a recurrent multilayer perceptron network for use in empirical modeling of power plants. The two main advantages of the proposed learning algorithm are its ability to consider past error gradient information for future use and the two forward passes associated with its implementation, instead of one forward and one backward pass of the backpropagation algorithm. The latter advantage results in computational time saving because both passes can be performed simultaneously. The dynamic learning algorithm is used to train a hybrid feedforward/feedback neural network, a recurrent multilayer perceptron, which was previously found to exhibit good interpolation and extrapolation capabilities in modeling nonlinear dynamic systems. One of the drawbacks, however, of the previously reported work has been the long training times associated with accurate empirical models. The enhanced learning capabilities provided by the dynamic gradient descent-based learning algorithm are demonstrated by a case study of a steam power plant. The number of iterations required for accurate empirical modeling has been reduced from tens of thousands to hundreds, thus significantly expediting the learning process
Synchrotron Intensity Gradients as Tracers of Interstellar Magnetic Fields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lazarian, A.; Yuen, Ka Ho; Lee, Hyeseung; Cho, J. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 2535 Sterling Hall, 475 North Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706-1507 (United States)
2017-06-10
On the basis of the modern understanding of MHD turbulence, we propose a new way of using synchrotron radiation: using synchrotron intensity gradients (SIGs) for tracing astrophysical magnetic fields. We successfully test the new technique using synthetic data obtained with 3D MHD simulations and provide the demonstration of the practical utility of the technique by comparing the directions of magnetic fields that are obtained with PLANCK synchrotron intensity data to the directions obtained with PLANCK synchrotron polarization data. We demonstrate that the SIGs can reliably trace magnetic fields in the presence of noise and can provide detailed maps of magnetic field directions. We also show that the SIGs are relatively robust for tracing magnetic fields while the low spatial frequencies of the synchrotron image are removed. This makes the SIGs applicable to the tracing of magnetic fields using interferometric data with single-dish measurement absent. We discuss the synergy of using the SIGs together with synchrotron polarization in order to find the actual direction of the magnetic fields and quantify the effects of Faraday rotation as well as with other ways of studying astrophysical magnetic fields. We test our method in the presence of noise and the resolution effects. We stress the complementary nature of the studies using the SIG technique and those employing the recently introduced velocity gradient techniques that trace magnetic fields using spectroscopic data.
Synchrotron Intensity Gradients as Tracers of Interstellar Magnetic Fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lazarian, A.; Yuen, Ka Ho; Lee, Hyeseung; Cho, J.
2017-01-01
On the basis of the modern understanding of MHD turbulence, we propose a new way of using synchrotron radiation: using synchrotron intensity gradients (SIGs) for tracing astrophysical magnetic fields. We successfully test the new technique using synthetic data obtained with 3D MHD simulations and provide the demonstration of the practical utility of the technique by comparing the directions of magnetic fields that are obtained with PLANCK synchrotron intensity data to the directions obtained with PLANCK synchrotron polarization data. We demonstrate that the SIGs can reliably trace magnetic fields in the presence of noise and can provide detailed maps of magnetic field directions. We also show that the SIGs are relatively robust for tracing magnetic fields while the low spatial frequencies of the synchrotron image are removed. This makes the SIGs applicable to the tracing of magnetic fields using interferometric data with single-dish measurement absent. We discuss the synergy of using the SIGs together with synchrotron polarization in order to find the actual direction of the magnetic fields and quantify the effects of Faraday rotation as well as with other ways of studying astrophysical magnetic fields. We test our method in the presence of noise and the resolution effects. We stress the complementary nature of the studies using the SIG technique and those employing the recently introduced velocity gradient techniques that trace magnetic fields using spectroscopic data.
Parallel conjugate gradient algorithms for manipulator dynamic simulation
Fijany, Amir; Scheld, Robert E.
1989-01-01
Parallel conjugate gradient algorithms for the computation of multibody dynamics are developed for the specialized case of a robot manipulator. For an n-dimensional positive-definite linear system, the Classical Conjugate Gradient (CCG) algorithms are guaranteed to converge in n iterations, each with a computation cost of O(n); this leads to a total computational cost of O(n sq) on a serial processor. A conjugate gradient algorithms is presented that provide greater efficiency using a preconditioner, which reduces the number of iterations required, and by exploiting parallelism, which reduces the cost of each iteration. Two Preconditioned Conjugate Gradient (PCG) algorithms are proposed which respectively use a diagonal and a tridiagonal matrix, composed of the diagonal and tridiagonal elements of the mass matrix, as preconditioners. Parallel algorithms are developed to compute the preconditioners and their inversions in O(log sub 2 n) steps using n processors. A parallel algorithm is also presented which, on the same architecture, achieves the computational time of O(log sub 2 n) for each iteration. Simulation results for a seven degree-of-freedom manipulator are presented. Variants of the proposed algorithms are also developed which can be efficiently implemented on the Robot Mathematics Processor (RMP).
Song, Dongxing; Jin, Hui; Jing, Dengwei; Wang, Xin
2018-03-01
Aggregation and migration of colloidal particles under the thermal gradient widely exists in nature and many industrial processes. In this study, dynamic properties of polydisperse colloidal particles in the presence of thermal gradient were studied by a modified Brownian dynamic model. Other than the traditional forces on colloidal particles, including Brownian force, hydrodynamic force, and electrostatic force from other particles, the electrostatic force from the asymmetric ionic diffusion layer under a thermal gradient has been considered and introduced into the Brownian dynamic model. The aggregation ratio of particles (R A), the balance time (t B) indicating the time threshold when {{R}A} becomes constant, the porosity ({{P}BA} ), fractal dimension (D f) and distributions of concentration (DISC) and aggregation (DISA) for the aggregated particles were discussed based on this model. The aggregated structures formed by polydisperse particles are less dense and the particles therein are loosely bonded. Also it showed a quite large compressibility as the increases of concentration and interparticle potential can significantly increase the fractal dimension. The thermal gradient can induce two competitive factors leading to a two-stage migration of particles. When t{{t}B} , the thermophoresis becomes dominant thus the migrations of particles are against the thermal gradient. The effect of thermophoresis on the aggregate structures was found to be similar to the effect of increasing particle concentration. This study demonstrates how the thermal gradient affects the aggregation of monodisperse and polydisperse particles and can be a guide for the biomimetics and precise control of colloid system under the thermal gradient. Moreover, our model can be easily extended to other more complex colloidal systems considering shear, temperature fluctuation, surfactant, etc.
Techniques for Ultra-high Magnetic Field Gradient NMR Diffusion Measurements
Sigmund, Eric E.; Mitrovic, Vesna F.; Calder, Edward S.; Will Thomas, G.; Halperin, William P.; Reyes, Arneil P.; Kuhns, Philip L.; Moulton, William G.
2001-03-01
We report on development and application of techniques for ultraslow diffusion coefficient measurements through nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) in high magnetic field gradients. We have performed NMR experiments in a steady fringe field gradient of 175 T/m from a 23 T resistive Bitter magnet, as well as in a gradient of 42 T/m from an 8 T superconducting magnet. New techniques to provide optimum sensitivity in these experiments are described. To eliminate parasitic effects of the temporal instability of the resistive magnet, we have introduced a passive filter: a highly conductive cryogen-cooled inductive shield. We show experimental demonstration of such a shield’s effect on NMR performed in the Bitter magnet. For enhanced efficiency, we have employed “frequency jumping” in our spectrometer system. Application of these methods has made possible measurements of diffusion coefficients as low as 10-10 cm^2/s, probing motion on a 250 nm length scale.
Kinetic equations within the formalism of non-equilibrium thermo field dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arimitsu, Toshihico
1988-01-01
After reviewing the real-time formalism of dissipative quantum field theory, i.e. non-equilibrium thermo field dynamics (NETFD), a kinetic equation, a self-consistent equation for the dissipation coefficient and a ''mass'' or ''chemical potential'' renormalization equation for non-equilibrium transient situations are extracted out of the two-point Green's function of the Heisenberg field, in their most general forms upon the basic requirements of NETFD. The formulation is applied to the electron-phonon system, as an example, where the gradient expansion and the quasi-particle approximation are performed. The formalism of NETFD is reinvestigated in connection with the kinetic equations. (orig.)
Mode I and mixed mode crack-tip fields in strain gradient plasticity
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Goutianos, Stergios
2011-01-01
Strain gradients develop near the crack-tip of Mode I or mixed mode cracks. A finite strain version of the phenomenological strain gradient plasticity theory of Fleck–Hutchinson (2001) is used here to quantify the effect of the material length scales on the crack-tip stress field for a sharp...... stationary crack under Mode I and mixed mode loading. It is found that for material length scales much smaller than the scale of the deformation gradients, the predictions converge to conventional elastic–plastic solutions. For length scales sufficiently large, the predictions converge to elastic solutions....... Thus, the range of length scales over which a strain gradient plasticity model is necessary is identified. The role of each of the three material length scales, incorporated in the multiple length scale theory, in altering the near-tip stress field is systematically studied in order to quantify...
An optimized target-field method for MRI transverse biplanar gradient coil design
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, Rui; Xu, Jing; Huang, Kefu; Zhang, Jue; Fang, Jing; Fu, Youyi; Li, Yangjing
2011-01-01
Gradient coils are essential components of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems. In this paper, we present an optimized target-field method for designing a transverse biplanar gradient coil with high linearity, low inductance and small resistance, which can well satisfy the requirements of permanent-magnet MRI systems. In this new method, the current density is expressed by trigonometric basis functions with unknown coefficients in polar coordinates. Following the standard procedures, we construct an objective function with respect to the total square errors of the magnetic field at all target-field points with the penalty items associated with the stored magnetic energy and the dissipated power. By adjusting the two penalty factors and minimizing the objective function, the appropriate coefficients of the current density are determined. Applying the stream function method to the current density, the specific winding patterns on the planes can be obtained. A novel biplanar gradient coil has been designed using this method to operate in a permanent-magnet MRI system. In order to verify the validity of the proposed approach, the gradient magnetic field generated by the resulted current density has been calculated via the Biot–Savart law. The results have demonstrated the effectiveness and advantage of this proposed method
Goora, Frédéric G; Colpitts, Bruce G; Balcom, Bruce J
2014-01-01
The time-varying magnetic fields used in magnetic resonance applications result in the induction of eddy currents on conductive structures in the vicinity of both the sample under investigation and the gradient coils. These eddy currents typically result in undesired degradations of image quality for MRI applications. Their ubiquitous nature has resulted in the development of various approaches to characterize and minimize their impact on image quality. This paper outlines a method that utilizes the magnetic field gradient waveform monitor method to directly measure the temporal evolution of the magnetic field gradient from a step-like input function and extracts the system impulse response. With the basic assumption that the gradient system is sufficiently linear and time invariant to permit system theory analysis, the impulse response is used to determine a pre-equalized (optimized) input waveform that provides a desired gradient response at the output of the system. An algorithm has been developed that calculates a pre-equalized waveform that may be accurately reproduced by the amplifier (is physically realizable) and accounts for system limitations including system bandwidth, amplifier slew rate capabilities, and noise inherent in the initial measurement. Significant improvements in magnetic field gradient waveform fidelity after pre-equalization have been realized and are summarized. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Estimation of geothermal gradients from single temperature log-field cases
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kutasov, I M; Eppelbaum, L V
2009-01-01
A geothermal gradient is one of the most frequently used parameters in logging geophysics. However, the drilling process greatly disturbs the temperature of the formations around the wellbore. For this reason, in order to determine with the required accuracy the formation temperatures and geothermal gradients, a certain length of shut-in time is required. It was shown earlier (Kutasov 1968 Freiberger Forshungshefte C 238 55–61, 1987 Geothermics 16 467–72) that at least two transient temperature surveys are needed to determine the geothermal gradient with adequate accuracy. However, in many cases only one temperature log is conducted in a shut-in borehole. For these cases, we propose an approximate method for the estimation of the geothermal gradient. The utilization of this method is demonstrated on four field examples
Transverse beam dynamics in non-linear Fixed Field Alternating Gradient accelerators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Haj, Tahar M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Meot, F. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
2016-03-02
In this paper, we present some aspects of the transverse beam dynamics in Fixed Field Ring Accelerators (FFRA): we start from the basic principles in order to derive the linearized transverse particle equations of motion for FFRA, essentially FFAGs and cyclotrons are considered here. This is a simple extension of a previous work valid for linear lattices that we generalized by including the bending terms to ensure its correctness for FFAG lattice. The space charge term (contribution of the internal coulombian forces of the beam) is contained as well, although it is not discussed here. The emphasis is on the scaling FFAG type: a collaboration work is undertaken in view of better understanding the properties of the 150 MeV scaling FFAG at KURRI in Japan, and progress towards high intensity operation. Some results of the benchmarking work between different codes are presented. Analysis of certain type of field imperfections revealed some interesting features about this machine that explain some of the experimental results and generalize the concept of a scaling FFAG to a non-scaling one for which the tune variations obey a well-defined law.
Dynamic Maternal Gradients Control Timing and Shift-Rates for Drosophila Gap Gene Expression
Verd, Berta; Crombach, Anton
2017-01-01
Pattern formation during development is a highly dynamic process. In spite of this, few experimental and modelling approaches take into account the explicit time-dependence of the rules governing regulatory systems. We address this problem by studying dynamic morphogen interpretation by the gap gene network in Drosophila melanogaster. Gap genes are involved in segment determination during early embryogenesis. They are activated by maternal morphogen gradients encoded by bicoid (bcd) and caudal (cad). These gradients decay at the same time-scale as the establishment of the antero-posterior gap gene pattern. We use a reverse-engineering approach, based on data-driven regulatory models called gene circuits, to isolate and characterise the explicitly time-dependent effects of changing morphogen concentrations on gap gene regulation. To achieve this, we simulate the system in the presence and absence of dynamic gradient decay. Comparison between these simulations reveals that maternal morphogen decay controls the timing and limits the rate of gap gene expression. In the anterior of the embyro, it affects peak expression and leads to the establishment of smooth spatial boundaries between gap domains. In the posterior of the embryo, it causes a progressive slow-down in the rate of gap domain shifts, which is necessary to correctly position domain boundaries and to stabilise the spatial gap gene expression pattern. We use a newly developed method for the analysis of transient dynamics in non-autonomous (time-variable) systems to understand the regulatory causes of these effects. By providing a rigorous mechanistic explanation for the role of maternal gradient decay in gap gene regulation, our study demonstrates that such analyses are feasible and reveal important aspects of dynamic gene regulation which would have been missed by a traditional steady-state approach. More generally, it highlights the importance of transient dynamics for understanding complex regulatory
Using elevation gradients to study climate controls on soil carbon dynamics
Trumbore, S.; Marzaioli, F.; Castanha, C.; Amundson, R.
2009-04-01
Elevation gradients provide the opportunity to study vegetation and climate gradients in a setting where other soil forming factors such as parent material and soil age are held constant. We use the observed changes in radiocarbon content of organic matter fractionated by density and other methods to infer the dynamics of soil carbon and how it varies with elevation along transects in the Sierra Nevada mountains in California, USA. In surface litter layers, changes in the radiocarbon content from 1992 to 2006 in litter layers show that these layers are more dynamic than originally inferred from a comparison based on changes between the 1950s and the 1990s. In mineral soils, fractions often considered to be the most slowly cycling (hydrolysis residue) showed large changes in 14C in the last decade. We use incubations to determine the mean age of carbon respired by microbes along the same gradients; these data are compared to incubations from other sites and show that climate and vegetation are a major controls of the mean age of fast-cycling carbon in litter and soils.
The photospheric vector magnetic field of a sunspot and its vertical gradient
Hagyard, M. J.; West, E. A.; Tandberg-Hanssen, E.; Smith, J. E.; Henze, W., Jr.; Beckers, J. M.; Bruner, E. C.; Hyder, C. L.; Gurman, J. B.; Shine, R. A.
1981-01-01
The results of direct comparisons of photospheric and transition region line-of-sight field observations of sunspots using the SMM UV spectrometer and polarimeter are reported. The analysis accompanying the data is concentrated on demonstrating that the sunspot concentrated magnetic field extends into the transition region. An observation of a sunspot on Oct. 23, 1980 at the S 18 E 03 location is used as an example. Maximum field strengths ranged from 2030-2240 gauss for large and small umbrae viewed and inclination of the field to the line-of-sight was determined for the photosphere and transition region. The distribution of the magnetic field over the sunspot and variation of the line-of-sight gradient are discussed, as are the magnitudes and gradients of the photospheric field across the penumbral-photospheric boundaries.
Samoudi, Amine M.; Van Audenhaege, Karen; Vermeeren, Günter; Verhoyen, Gregory; Martens, Luc; Van Holen, Roel; Joseph, Wout
2015-10-01
Combining single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) requires the insertion of highly conductive SPECT collimators inside the MRI scanner, resulting in an induced eddy current disturbing the combined system. We reduced the eddy currents due to the insert of a novel tungsten collimator inside transverse and longitudinal gradient coils. The collimator was produced with metal additive manufacturing, that is part of a microSPECT insert for a preclinical SPECT/MRI scanner. We characterized the induced magnetic field due to the gradient field and adapted the collimators to reduce the induced eddy currents. We modeled the x-, y-, and z-gradient coil and the different collimator designs and simulated them with FEKO, a three-dimensional method of moments / finite element methods (MoM/FEM) full-wave simulation tool. We used a time analysis approach to generate the pulsed magnetic field gradient. Simulation results show that the maximum induced field can be reduced by 50.82% in the final design bringing the maximum induced magnetic field to less than 2% of the applied gradient for all the gradient coils. The numerical model was validated with measurements and was proposed as a tool for studying the effect of a SPECT collimator within the MRI gradient coils.
First-principles calculation of electric field gradients in metals, semiconductors, and insulators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zwanziger, J.W. [Dalhousie Univ, Dept Chem, Halifax, NS (Canada); Dalhousie Univ, Inst Res Mat, Halifax, NS (Canada); Torrent, M. [CEA Bruyeres-le-Chatel, Dept Phys Theor and Appl, Bruyeres 91 (France)
2008-07-01
A scheme for computing electric field gradients within the projector augmented wave (PAW) formalism of density functional theory is presented. On the basis of earlier work (M. Profeta, F. Mauri, C.J. Pickard, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125, 541, 2003) the present implementation handles metallic cases as well as insulators and semiconductors with equal efficiency. Details of the implementation, as well as applications and the discussion of the limitations of the PAW method for computing electric field gradients are presented. (authors)
Feasibility of Imaging Tissue Electrical Conductivity by Switching Field Gradients with MRI.
Gibbs, Eric; Liu, Chunlei
2015-12-01
Tissue conductivity is a biophysical marker of tissue structure and physiology. Present methods of measuring tissue conductivity are limited. Electrical impedance tomography, and magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography rely on passing external current through the object being imaged, which prevents its use in most human imaging. Recently, the RF field used for MR excitation has been used to non-invasively measure tissue conductivity. This technique is promising, but conductivity at higher frequencies is less sensitive to tissue structure. Measuring tissue conductivity non-invasively at low frequencies remains elusive. It has been proposed that eddy currents generated during the rise and decay of gradient pulses could act as a current source to map low-frequency conductivity. This work centers on a gradient echo pulse sequence that uses large gradients prior to excitation to create eddy currents. The electric and magnetic fields during a gradient pulse are simulated by a finite-difference time-domain simulation. The sequence is also tested with a phantom and an animal MRI scanner equipped with gradients of high gradient strengths and slew rate. The simulation demonstrates that eddy currents in materials with conductivity similar to biological tissue decay with a half-life on the order of nanoseconds and any eddy currents generated prior to excitation decay completely before influencing the RF signal. Gradient-induced eddy currents can influence phase accumulation after excitation but the effect is too small to image. The animal scanner images show no measurable phase accumulation. Measuring low-frequency conductivity by gradient-induced eddy currents is presently unfeasible.
Gradient descent learning algorithm overview: a general dynamical systems perspective.
Baldi, P
1995-01-01
Gives a unified treatment of gradient descent learning algorithms for neural networks using a general framework of dynamical systems. This general approach organizes and simplifies all the known algorithms and results which have been originally derived for different problems (fixed point/trajectory learning), for different models (discrete/continuous), for different architectures (forward/recurrent), and using different techniques (backpropagation, variational calculus, adjoint methods, etc.). The general approach can also be applied to derive new algorithms. The author then briefly examines some of the complexity issues and limitations intrinsic to gradient descent learning. Throughout the paper, the author focuses on the problem of trajectory learning.
Gradient waveform synthesis for magnetic propulsion using MRI gradient coils
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Han, B H; Lee, S Y; Park, S
2008-01-01
Navigating an untethered micro device in a living subject is of great interest for both diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Magnetic propulsion of an untethered device carrying a magnetic core in it is one of the promising methods to navigate the device. MRI gradients coils are thought to be suitable for navigating the device since they are capable of magnetic propulsion in any direction while providing magnetic resonance images. For precise navigation of the device, especially in the peripheral region of the gradient coils, the concomitant gradient fields, as well as the linear gradient fields in the main magnetic field direction, should be considered in driving the gradient coils. For simple gradient coil configurations, the Maxwell coil in the z-direction and the Golay coil in the x- and y-directions, we have calculated the magnetic force fields, which are not necessarily the same as the conventional linear gradient fields of MRI. Using the calculated magnetic force fields, we have synthesized gradient waveforms to navigate the device along a desired path
Vortex dynamics equation in type-II superconductors in a temperature gradient
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vega Monroy, R.; Sarmiento Castillo, J.; Puerta Torres, D.
2010-01-01
In this work we determined a vortex dynamics equation in a temperature gradient in the frame of the time dependent Ginzburg-Landau equation. In this sense, we derived a local solvability condition, which governs the vortex dynamics. Also, we calculated the explicit form for the force coefficients, which are the keys for the understanding of the balance equation due to vortex interactions with the environment. (author)
Vortex dynamics equation in type-II superconductors in a temperature gradient
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vega Monroy, R.; Sarmiento Castillo, J. [Universidad del Atlantico, Barranquilla (Colombia). Facultad de Ciencias Basicas; Puerta Torres, D. [Universidad de Cartagena (Colombia). Facultad de Ciencias Exactas
2010-12-15
In this work we determined a vortex dynamics equation in a temperature gradient in the frame of the time dependent Ginzburg-Landau equation. In this sense, we derived a local solvability condition, which governs the vortex dynamics. Also, we calculated the explicit form for the force coefficients, which are the keys for the understanding of the balance equation due to vortex interactions with the environment. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fang Jian-Cheng; Wang Tao; Li Yang; Cai Hong-Wei; Zhang Hong
2015-01-01
A method of measuring in-situ magnetic field gradient is proposed in this paper. The magnetic shield is widely used in the atomic magnetometer. However, there is magnetic field gradient in the magnetic shield, which would lead to additional gradient broadening. It is impossible to use an ex-situ magnetometer to measure magnetic field gradient in the region of a cell, whose length of side is several centimeters. The method demonstrated in this paper can realize the in-situ measurement of the magnetic field gradient inside the cell, which is significant for the spin relaxation study. The magnetic field gradients along the longitudinal axis of the magnetic shield are measured by a spin-exchange relaxation-free (SERF) magnetometer by adding a magnetic field modulation in the probe beam’s direction. The transmissivity of the cell for the probe beam is always inhomogeneous along the pump beam direction, and the method proposed in this paper is independent of the intensity of the probe beam, which means that the method is independent of the cell’s transmissivity. This feature makes the method more practical experimentally. Moreover, the AC-Stark shift can seriously degrade and affect the precision of the magnetic field gradient measurement. The AC-Stark shift is suppressed by locking the pump beam to the resonance of potassium’s D1 line. Furthermore, the residual magnetic fields are measured with σ + - and σ – -polarized pump beams, which can further suppress the effect of the AC-Stark shift. The method of measuring in-situ magnetic field gradient has achieved a magnetic field gradient precision of better than 30 pT/mm. (paper)
Self-diffusion measurements in heterogeneous systems using NMR pulsed field gradient technique
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heink, W.; Kaerger, J.; Walter, A.
1978-01-01
The experimental pecularities of the NMR pulsed field gradient technique are critical surveyed in its application to zeolite adsorbate adsorbent systems. After a presentation of the different transport parameters accessible by this technique, the consequences of the existence of inner field gradients being inherent to heterogeneous systems are analyzed. Experimental conditions and consequences of an application of pulsed field gradients of high intensity which are necessary for the measurement of small intracrystalline self-diffusion coefficients, are discussed. Gradient pulses of 0.15 Tcm -1 with pulse widths of 2 ms maximum and relative deviations of less than 0.01 per mille can be realized. Since for a number of adsorbate adsorbent systems a distinct dependence of the intracrystalline self-diffusion coeffcients on adsorbate concentration is observed, determination of zeolite pore fiiling factor is of considerable importance for the interpretation of the diffusivities obtained. It is demonstrated that also this information can be obtained by NMR technique in a straightforward way with a mean error of less than 5 to 10 %. Applying this new method and using an optimum experimental device as described, pore filling factor dependences of the self-diffusion coefficients of alkanes in NaX zeolites can be followed over more than two orders of magnitude. (author)
Dynamic Pressure Gradient Model of Axial Piston Pump and Parameters Optimization
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shi Jian
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The unsteady pressure gradient can cause flow noise in prepressure rising of piston pump, and the fluid shock comes up due to the large pressure difference of the piston chamber and discharge port in valve plate. The flow fluctuation control is the optimization objective in previous study, which cannot ensure the steady pressure gradient. Our study is to stabilize the pressure gradient in prepressure rising and control the pressure of piston chamber approaching to the pressure in discharge port after prepressure rising. The models for nonoil shock and dynamic pressure of piston chamber in prepressure rising are established. The parameters of prepressure rising angle, cross angle, wrap angle of V-groove, vertex angle of V-groove, and opening angle of V-groove were optimized, based on which the pressure of the piston chamber approached the pressure in discharge port after prepressure rising, and the pressure gradient is more steady compared to the original parameters. The max pressure gradient decreased by 70.8% and the flow fluctuation declined by 21.4%, which showed the effectivness of optimization.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prykarpatsky, Yarema A.; Bogolubov, Nikolai N. Jr.; Prykarpatsky, Anatoliy K.; Samoylenko, Valeriy H.
2010-12-01
A gradient-holonomic approach for the Lax type integrability analysis of differential-discrete dynamical systems is devised. The asymptotical solutions to the related Lax equation are studied and the related gradient identity is stated. The integrability of a discrete nonlinear Schroedinger type dynamical system is treated in detail. The integrability of a generalized Riemann type discrete hydrodynamical system is discussed. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bai, Xian-Ming; Zhang, Yongfeng; Tonks, Michael R.
2015-01-01
Strong thermal gradients in low-thermal-conductivity ceramics may drive extended defects, such as grain boundaries and voids, to migrate in preferential directions. In this work, molecular dynamics simulations are conducted to study thermal gradient driven grain boundary migration and to verify a previously proposed thermal gradient driving force equation, using uranium dioxide as a model system. It is found that a thermal gradient drives grain boundaries to migrate up the gradient and the migration velocity increases under a constant gradient owing to the increase in mobility with temperature. Different grain boundaries migrate at very different rates due to their different intrinsic mobilities. The extracted mobilities from the thermal gradient driven simulations are compared with those calculated from two other well-established methods and good agreement between the three different methods is found, demonstrating that the theoretical equation of the thermal gradient driving force is valid, although a correction of one input parameter should be made. The discrepancy in the grain boundary mobilities between modeling and experiments is also discussed.
Gradient Learning in Spiking Neural Networks by Dynamic Perturbation of Conductances
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fiete, Ila R.; Seung, H. Sebastian
2006-01-01
We present a method of estimating the gradient of an objective function with respect to the synaptic weights of a spiking neural network. The method works by measuring the fluctuations in the objective function in response to dynamic perturbation of the membrane conductances of the neurons. It is compatible with recurrent networks of conductance-based model neurons with dynamic synapses. The method can be interpreted as a biologically plausible synaptic learning rule, if the dynamic perturbations are generated by a special class of 'empiric' synapses driven by random spike trains from an external source
González, Lina M; Ruder, Warren C; Mitchell, Aaron P; Messner, William C; LeDuc, Philip R
2015-06-01
Many motile unicellular organisms have evolved specialized behaviors for detecting and responding to environmental cues such as chemical gradients (chemotaxis) and oxygen gradients (aerotaxis). Magnetotaxis is found in magnetotactic bacteria and it is defined as the passive alignment of these cells to the geomagnetic field along with active swimming. Herein we show that Magnetospirillum magneticum (AMB-1) show a unique set of responses that indicates they sense and respond not only to the direction of magnetic fields by aligning and swimming, but also to changes in the magnetic field or magnetic field gradients. We present data showing that AMB-1 cells exhibit sudden motility reversals when we impose them to local magnetic field gradients. Our system employs permalloy (Ni(80)Fe(20)) islands to curve and diverge the magnetic field lines emanating from our custom-designed Helmholtz coils in the vicinity of the islands (creating a drop in the field across the islands). The three distinct movements we have observed as they approach the permalloy islands are: unidirectional, single reverse and double reverse. Our findings indicate that these reverse movements occur in response to magnetic field gradients. In addition, using a permanent magnet we found further evidence that supports this claim. Motile AMB-1 cells swim away from the north and south poles of a permanent magnet when the magnet is positioned less than ∼30 mm from the droplet of cells. All together, these results indicate previously unknown response capabilities arising from the magnetic sensing systems of AMB-1 cells. These responses could enable them to cope with magnetic disturbances that could in turn potentially inhibit their efficient search for nutrients.
Vertical orbit excursion fixed field alternating gradient accelerators
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stephen Brooks
2013-08-01
Full Text Available Fixed field alternating gradient (FFAG accelerators with vertical orbit excursion (VFFAGs provide a promising alternative design for rings with fixed-field superconducting magnets. They have a vertical magnetic field component that increases with height in the vertical aperture, yielding a skew quadrupole focusing structure. Scaling-type VFFAGs are found with fixed tunes and no intrinsic limitation on momentum range. This paper presents the first multiparticle tracking of such machines. Proton driver rings to accelerate the 800 MeV beam from the ISIS synchrotron are presented, in terms of both magnet field geometry and longitudinal behavior during acceleration with space charge. The 12 GeV ring produces an output power of at least 2.18 MW. Possible applications of VFFAGs to waste transmutation, hadron therapy, and energy-recovery electron accelerators are also discussed.
Yu, Long-Sheng; Fu, Yi-Fu; Yu, Huai-Yi; Li, Zhi-Qin
2011-01-01
In order to understand the landscape pattern gradient dynamics and desakota features in rapid urbanization area, this paper took the rapidly urbanizing Panyu District of Guangzhou City as a case, and analyzed its land use and land cover data, based on four Landsat TM images from 1990 to 2008. With the combination of gradient analysis and landscape pattern analysis, and by using the landscape indices in both class and landscape scales, the spatial dynamics and desakota feature of this rapidly urbanizing district were quantified. In the study district, there was a significant change in the landscape pattern, and a typical desakota feature presented along buffer gradient zones. Urban landscape increased and expanded annually, accompanied with serious fragmentation of agricultural landscape. The indices patch density, contagion, and landscape diversity, etc., changed regularly in the urbanization gradient, and the peak of landscape indices appeared in the gradient zone of 4-6 km away from the urban center. The landscape patterns at time series also reflected the differences among the dynamics in different gradient zones. The landscape pattern in desakota region was characterized by complex patch shape, high landscape diversity and fragmentation, and remarkable landscape dynamics. The peaks of landscape indices spread from the urban center to border areas, and desakota region was expanding gradually. The general trend of spatiotemporal dynamics in desakota region and its driving forces were discussed, which could be benefit to the regional land use policy-making and sustainable development planning.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fatnassi, Chemseddine; Boucenna, Rachid; Zaidi, Habib
2017-01-01
PURPOSE: In 3D gradient echo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), strong field gradients B0macro are visually observed at air/tissue interfaces. At low spatial resolution in particular, the respective field gradients lead to an apparent increase in intravoxel dephasing, and subsequently, to signal...... loss or inaccurate R2* estimates. If the strong field gradients are measured, their influence can be removed by postprocessing. METHODS: Conventional corrections usually assume a linear phase evolution with time. For high macroscopic gradient inhomogeneities near the edge of the brain...
Contribution of Field Strength Gradients to the Net Vertical Current of Active Regions
Vemareddy, P.
2017-12-01
We examined the contribution of field strength gradients for the degree of net vertical current (NVC) neutralization in active regions (ARs). We used photospheric vector magnetic field observations of AR 11158 obtained by Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on board SDO and Hinode. The vertical component of the electric current is decomposed into twist and shear terms. The NVC exhibits systematic evolution owing to the presence of the sheared polarity inversion line between rotating and shearing magnetic regions. We found that the sign of shear current distribution is opposite in dominant pixels (60%–65%) to that of twist current distribution, and its time profile bears no systematic trend. This result indicates that the gradient of magnetic field strength contributes to an opposite signed, though smaller in magnitude, current to that contributed by the magnetic field direction in the vertical component of the current. Consequently, the net value of the shear current is negative in both polarity regions, which when added to the net twist current reduces the direct current value in the north (B z > 0) polarity, resulting in a higher degree of NVC neutralization. We conjecture that the observed opposite signs of shear and twist currents are an indication, according to Parker, that the direct volume currents of flux tubes are canceled by their return currents, which are contributed by field strength gradients. Furthermore, with the increase of spatial resolution, we found higher values of twist, shear current distributions. However, the resolution effect is more useful in resolving the field strength gradients, and therefore suggests more contribution from shear current for the degree of NVC neutralization.
Galactic cosmic ray gradients, field-aligned and latitudinal, among Voyagers 1/2 and IMP-8
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roelof, E.C.; Decker, R.B.; Krimigis, S.M.; Venkatesan, D.; Lazarus, A.J.
1982-01-01
The tandem Earth-Jupiter trajectories of the Voyager 1/2 spacecraft, combined with baseline measurements from the earth-orbiting IMP-7/8 spacecraft, provide the first opportunity for unambiguously separating latitude from radial or field-aligned effects in galactic cosmic ray gradients. Anti-coincidence solid-state detectors on the Voyager 1/2 LECP experiment measure nucleons > or approximately 20 MeV/nuc with large (28 cm 2 ) omnidirectional geometry factors. Anti-coincidence scintillators on the IMP-7/8 CPME with omnidirectional geometry factors comparable to those on Voyager measure nucleons > or approximately 35 MeV/nuc. Because the Voyagers are well-connected via the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) to the near-Earth vicinity throughout their transit from 1-5 AU (September 1977 - February 1979), we obtained the first direct measurement of field-aligned gradients, i.e., those that do not depend upon ''corotation'' from one spacecraft to another over many days. Another new result is the unambiguous identification of nonuniform latitudinal gradients approximately 2-5% degree -1 in structures lasting 10-30 days. There is additional evidence for somewhat smaller latitudinal gradients, north to south and probably mixed with small field-aligned gradients -1 , which persist for several solar rotations
Measurement of asymmetric optical pumping of ions accelerating in a magnetic-field gradient
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sun Xuan; Scime, Earl; Miah, Mahmood; Cohen, Samuel; Skiff, Frederick
2004-01-01
We report observations of asymmetric optical pumping of argon ions accelerating in a magnetic-field gradient. The signature is a difference in the laser-induced-fluorescence emission amplitude from a pair of Zeeman-split states. A model that reproduces the dependence of the asymmetry on magnetic-field and ion-velocity gradients is described. With the model, the fluorescence intensity ratio provides a new method of measuring ion collisionality. This phenomenon has implications for interpreting stellar plasma spectroscopy data which often exhibit unequal Zeeman state intensities
Measurement of Asymmetric Optical Pumping of Ions Accelerating in a Magnetic-field Gradient
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xuan Sun; Earl Scime; Mahmood Miah; Samuel Cohen; Frederick Skiff
2004-10-28
We report observations of asymmetric optical pumping of argon ions accelerating in a magnetic field gradient. The signature is a difference in the laser-induced-fluorescence (LIF) emission amplitude from a pair of Zeeman-split states. A model that reproduces the dependence of the asymmetry on magnetic-field and ion-velocity gradients is described. With the model, the fluorescence intensity ratio provides a new method of measuring ion collisionality. This phenomenon has implications for interpreting stellar plasma spectroscopy data which often exhibit unequal Zeeman state intensities.
Measurement of Asymmetric Optical Pumping of Ions Accelerating in a Magnetic-field Gradient
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xuan Sun; Earl Scime; Mahmood Miah; Samuel Cohen; Frederick Skiff
2004-01-01
We report observations of asymmetric optical pumping of argon ions accelerating in a magnetic field gradient. The signature is a difference in the laser-induced-fluorescence (LIF) emission amplitude from a pair of Zeeman-split states. A model that reproduces the dependence of the asymmetry on magnetic-field and ion-velocity gradients is described. With the model, the fluorescence intensity ratio provides a new method of measuring ion collisionality. This phenomenon has implications for interpreting stellar plasma spectroscopy data which often exhibit unequal Zeeman state intensities
Lamarche, Leslie J.; Makarevich, Roman A.
2017-03-01
We present observations of plasma density gradients, electric fields, and small-scale plasma irregularities near a polar cap patch made by the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network radar at Rankin Inlet (RKN) and the northern face of Resolute Bay Incoherent Scatter Radar (RISR-N). RKN echo power and occurrence are analyzed in the context of gradient-drift instability (GDI) theory, with a particular focus on the previously uninvestigated 2-D dependencies on wave propagation, electric field, and gradient vectors, with the latter two quantities evaluated directly from RISR-N measurements. It is shown that higher gradient and electric field components along the wave vector generally lead to the higher observed echo occurrence, which is consistent with the expected higher GDI growth rate, but the relationship with echo power is far less straightforward. The RKN echo power increases monotonically as the predicted linear growth rate approaches zero from negative values but does not continue this trend into positive growth rate values, in contrast with GDI predictions. The observed greater consistency of echo occurrence with GDI predictions suggests that GDI operating in the linear regime can control basic plasma structuring, but measured echo strength may be affected by other processes and factors, such as multistep or nonlinear processes or a shear-driven instability.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kaufmann, Delia
2012-02-03
Strings of laser cooled ions stored in microstructured Paul traps (microtraps) have promising potential for quantum information science. They provide a system which can be screened from a decohering environment, accurately prepared, manipulated and state selectively detected with efficiency close to unity. Magnetic field gradients allow for addressing trapped ions in frequency space. Furthermore, coupling of the ions' motional and spin states and long range spin-spin coupling of the ions' internal states are induced by such a gradient. This method is called Magnetic Gradient Induced Coupling, MAGIC. In this thesis, the design, construction and first characterization of a novel microtrap with an integrated solenoid is reported. The solenoid is designed to create a high magnetic field gradient per dissipated heat. The microtrap consists of three layers stacked onto each other. The outer layers provide a trapping potential, while the inner layer creates the switchable magnetic field gradient. Another specialty of this trap is the 33 pairs of DC-electrodes, allowing to move the ions along the trap axis and to adjust the range and the strength of the ions' spin-spin interactions. The microtrap is fixed on top of a ceramic block that provides the necessary electrical connections via thick film printed wires, a technique adopted in the context of microtraps for the first time, and in addition acts as a vacuum interface. The volume of the vacuum chamber is quite small, allowing for pressures in the low 10{sup -11} mbar range. In this microtrap, {sup 172}Yb{sup +}-ions are trapped, cooled and shuttled over a distance of about 2 mm. Trapped ions are used as magnetic field gradient probes, with a relative magnetic field precision of {delta}B/B{sub 0}=7.10{sup -6}. The addressing of two ions with the MAGIC method in the solenoid's magnetic field gradient is demonstrated.
Temperature dependency of silicon structures for magnetic field gradient sensing
Dabsch, Alexander; Rosenberg, Christoph; Stifter, Michael; Keplinger, Franz
2018-02-01
This work describes the temperature dependence of two sensors for magnetic field gradient sensors and demonstrates a structure to compensate for the drift of resonance frequency over a wide temperature range. The temperature effect of the sensing element is based on internal stresses induced by the thermal expansion of material, therefore FEM is used to determine the change of the eigenvalues of the sensing structure. The experimental setup utilizes a Helmholtz coil system to generate the magnetic field and to excite the MEMS structure with Lorentz forces. The MEMS structure is placed on a plate heated with resistors and cooled by a Peltier element to control the plate temperature. In the second part, we describe how one can exploit temperature sensitivity for temperature measurements and we show the opportunity to include the temperature effect to increase the sensitivity of single-crystal silicon made flux density gradient sensors.
Fixed field alternating gradient accelerator with small orbit shift and tune excursion
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Suzanne L. Sheehy
2010-04-01
Full Text Available A new design principle of a nonscaling fixed field alternating gradient accelerator is proposed. It is based on optics that produce approximate scaling properties. A large field index k is chosen to squeeze the orbit shift as much as possible by setting the betatron oscillation frequency in the second stability region of Hill’s equation. Then, the lattice magnets and their alignment are simplified. To simplify the magnets, we expand the field profile of r^{k} into multipoles and keep only a few lower order terms. A rectangular-shaped magnet is assumed with lines of constant field parallel to the magnet axis. The lattice employs a triplet of rectangular magnets for focusing, which are parallel to one another to simplify alignment. These simplifications along with fringe fields introduce finite chromaticity and the fixed field alternating gradient accelerator is no longer a scaling one. However, the tune excursion of the whole ring can be within half an integer and we avoid the crossing of strong resonances.
Small-scale gradients of charged particles in the heliospheric magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guo, Fan; Giacalone, Joe
2014-01-01
Using numerical simulations of charged-particles propagating in the heliospheric magnetic field, we study small-scale gradients, or 'dropouts,' in the intensity of solar energetic particles seen at 1 AU. We use two turbulence models, the foot-point random motion model and the two-component model, to generate fluctuating magnetic fields similar to spacecraft observations at 1 AU. The turbulence models include a Kolmogorov-like magnetic field power spectrum containing a broad range of spatial scales from those that lead to large-scale field-line random walk to small scales leading to resonant pitch-angle scattering of energetic particles. We release energetic protons (20 keV-10 MeV) from a spatially compact and instantaneous source. The trajectories of energetic charged particles in turbulent magnetic fields are numerically integrated. Spacecraft observations are mimicked by collecting particles in small windows when they pass the windows at a distance of 1 AU. We show that small-scale gradients in the intensity of energetic particles and velocity dispersions observed by spacecraft can be reproduced using the foot-point random motion model. However, no dropouts are seen in simulations using the two-component magnetic turbulence model. We also show that particle scattering in the solar wind magnetic field needs to be infrequent for intensity dropouts to form.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhou, J. F.; Shao, C. L.; Gu, B. Q.
2016-01-01
Magnetic particles (MPs) are known to respond to a magnetic field and can be moved by magnetic force, which make them good carriers in bioengineering and pharmaceutical engineering. In this paper, a pose control method for the straight chain composed of MPs is proposed, and the chain with one pose can be moved to another position with another pose using alternately employed uniform and gradient magnetic fields. Based on computer simulations, it is revealed that in the uniform magnetic field, the MPs form a straight chain with the same separation space along the field lines, and once the uniform magnetic field rotates, the chain also rotates with the field. In the gradient magnetic field, the MPs move toward the higher field so that the translation of the chain can be realized. The simulation results indicate that while the uniform magnetic field is rotating, there exists certain hysteresis between the chain and the field, and the chain is not straight anymore. So the uniform magnetic field should rest at the target angle for a period to make the chain fully relax to be straight. For nanoMP, its magnetic moment directly determines the gradient magnetic force which is much smaller than the dipole–dipole force among MPs. Therefore, the translation of the chain is much more time-consuming than rotation. To enlarge the translational velocity, it is suggested to increase the size of MPs or the magnetic field gradient
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bardet, Rene; Consoli, Terenzio; Geller, Richard
1964-09-01
In the first part of the paper, the theory of the physical mechanism of ion dragging by accelerated electrons due to the superimposition of the gradient of a electromagnetic field and the gradient of a static magnetic field, is described. The resulting trajectory of the electrons is a helicoid and one shows the variations of the diameter and the path of the spirals along the axis as a function of the difference between the gyrofrequency and the applied R.F. frequency. The ion acceleration is due to an electron space charge effect. The grouping of the equations of the electronic and ionic fluid motions leads to the introduction of a tensor mass: along the x and y direction the transverse motion of the fluid is controlled by the relativistic mass of electrons whereas along the z direction the axial motion is determined by the ionic mass. Then we deduce physical consequences of the theoretical study and give three experimental evidences. The second part of the paper is devoted to the experimental device called Pleiade which allowed us to verify some of the theoretical predictions. Pleiade produces a D.C. operating plasma beam in which the electrons exhibit radially oriented energies whereas the ionic energy is mainly axial. The experimental results indicate that the energy of the particles is in the keV range. In the third part we deal with the reflecting properties of the device. We show that the R.F. static magnetic field gradients are not only capable of accelerating a Plasma beam along the axially decreasing magnetic field, but are also capable of stopping and reflecting such a beam when the latter is moving along an axially increasing magnetic field. We describe finally a plasma accumulation experiment in which two symmetric structures form simultaneously an accelerator and a 'dynamic mirror' for the particles. Evidence of accumulation is given. (authors) [fr
The Adjoint Method for Gradient-based Dynamic Optimization of UV Flash Processes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ritschel, Tobias Kasper Skovborg; Capolei, Andrea; Jørgensen, John Bagterp
2017-01-01
This paper presents a novel single-shooting algorithm for gradient-based solution of optimal control problems with vapor-liquid equilibrium constraints. Dynamic optimization of UV flash processes is relevant in nonlinear model predictive control of distillation columns, certain two-phase flow pro......-component flash process which demonstrate the importance of the optimization solver, the compiler, and the linear algebra software for the efficiency of dynamic optimization of UV flash processes....
How a high-gradient magnetic field could affect cell life
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Zablotskyy, Vitaliy A.; Polyakova, Tetyana; Lunov, Oleg; Dejneka, Alexandr
2016-01-01
Roč. 6, Nov (2016), 1-12, č. článku 37407. ISSN 2045-2322 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) Fellowship J. E. Purkyně Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : high-gradient magnetic field * cell Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016
Proposed gravity-gradient dynamics experiments in lunar orbit using the RAE-B spacecraft
Blanchard, D. L.; Walden, H.
1973-01-01
A series of seven gravity-gradient dynamics experiments is proposed utilizing the Radio Astronomy Explorer (RAE-B) spacecraft in lunar orbit. It is believed that none of the experiments will impair the spacecraft structure or adversely affect the continuation of the scientific mission of the satellite. The first experiment is designed to investigate the spacecraft dynamical behavior in the absence of libration damper action and inertia. It requires stable gravity-gradient capture of the spacecraft in lunar orbit with small amplitude attitude librations as a prerequisite. Four subsequent experiments involve partial retraction, ultimately followed by full redeployment, of one or two of the 230-meter booms forming the lunar-directed Vee-antenna. These boom length change operations will induce moderate amplitude angular librations of the spacecraft.
How a High-Gradient Magnetic Field Could Affect Cell Life
Zablotskii, Vitalii; Polyakova, Tatyana; Lunov, Oleg; Dejneka, Alexandr
2016-01-01
The biological effects of high-gradient magnetic fields (HGMFs) have steadily gained the increased attention of researchers from different disciplines, such as cell biology, cell therapy, targeted stem cell delivery and nanomedicine. We present a theoretical framework towards a fundamental understanding of the effects of HGMFs on intracellular processes, highlighting new directions for the study of living cell machinery: changing the probability of ion-channel on/off switching events by membrane magneto-mechanical stress, suppression of cell growth by magnetic pressure, magnetically induced cell division and cell reprograming, and forced migration of membrane receptor proteins. By deriving a generalized form for the Nernst equation, we find that a relatively small magnetic field (approximately 1 T) with a large gradient (up to 1 GT/m) can significantly change the membrane potential of the cell and thus have a significant impact on not only the properties and biological functionality of cells but also cell fate. PMID:27857227
How a High-Gradient Magnetic Field Could Affect Cell Life
Zablotskii, Vitalii; Polyakova, Tatyana; Lunov, Oleg; Dejneka, Alexandr
2016-11-01
The biological effects of high-gradient magnetic fields (HGMFs) have steadily gained the increased attention of researchers from different disciplines, such as cell biology, cell therapy, targeted stem cell delivery and nanomedicine. We present a theoretical framework towards a fundamental understanding of the effects of HGMFs on intracellular processes, highlighting new directions for the study of living cell machinery: changing the probability of ion-channel on/off switching events by membrane magneto-mechanical stress, suppression of cell growth by magnetic pressure, magnetically induced cell division and cell reprograming, and forced migration of membrane receptor proteins. By deriving a generalized form for the Nernst equation, we find that a relatively small magnetic field (approximately 1 T) with a large gradient (up to 1 GT/m) can significantly change the membrane potential of the cell and thus have a significant impact on not only the properties and biological functionality of cells but also cell fate.
Optimization in Quaternion Dynamic Systems: Gradient, Hessian, and Learning Algorithms.
Xu, Dongpo; Xia, Yili; Mandic, Danilo P
2016-02-01
The optimization of real scalar functions of quaternion variables, such as the mean square error or array output power, underpins many practical applications. Solutions typically require the calculation of the gradient and Hessian. However, real functions of quaternion variables are essentially nonanalytic, which are prohibitive to the development of quaternion-valued learning systems. To address this issue, we propose new definitions of quaternion gradient and Hessian, based on the novel generalized Hamilton-real (GHR) calculus, thus making a possible efficient derivation of general optimization algorithms directly in the quaternion field, rather than using the isomorphism with the real domain, as is current practice. In addition, unlike the existing quaternion gradients, the GHR calculus allows for the product and chain rule, and for a one-to-one correspondence of the novel quaternion gradient and Hessian with their real counterparts. Properties of the quaternion gradient and Hessian relevant to numerical applications are also introduced, opening a new avenue of research in quaternion optimization and greatly simplified the derivations of learning algorithms. The proposed GHR calculus is shown to yield the same generic algorithm forms as the corresponding real- and complex-valued algorithms. Advantages of the proposed framework are illuminated over illustrative simulations in quaternion signal processing and neural networks.
Effects of high-gradient magnetic fields on living cell machinery
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Zablotskyy, V.; Lunov, O.; Kubinová, Šárka; Polyakova, T.; Syková, Eva; Dejneka, A.
2016-01-01
Roč. 49, č. 2016 (2016), s. 493003 ISSN 0022-3727 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1309 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : living cell * magnetic gradient force * cell mechanics * stem cell * magnetic field Subject RIV: FP - Other Medical Disciplines Impact factor: 2.588, year: 2016
Photodetachment of H ion in crossed gradient electric and magnetic ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2016-10-13
Oct 13, 2016 ... ion in a gradient electric field, the Hamiltonian of the detached electron has three degrees of freedom, which makes the dynamical behaviour of the detached electron complex. Photodetachment cross-section for vari- ous external fields and the laser polarization are calculated and displayed. A comparison ...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dhavalikar, Rohan [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Florida, 1030 Center Drive, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Rinaldi, Carlos, E-mail: carlos.rinaldi@bme.ufl.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Florida, 1030 Center Drive, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); J. Crayton Pruitt Family Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Florida, 1275 Center Drive, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)
2016-12-01
Magnetic nanoparticles in alternating magnetic fields (AMFs) transfer some of the field's energy to their surroundings in the form of heat, a property that has attracted significant attention for use in cancer treatment through hyperthermia and in developing magnetic drug carriers that can be actuated to release their cargo externally using magnetic fields. To date, most work in this field has focused on the use of AMFs that actuate heat release by nanoparticles over large regions, without the ability to select specific nanoparticle-loaded regions for heating while leaving other nanoparticle-loaded regions unaffected. In parallel, magnetic particle imaging (MPI) has emerged as a promising approach to image the distribution of magnetic nanoparticle tracers in vivo, with sub-millimeter spatial resolution. The underlying principle in MPI is the application of a selection magnetic field gradient, which defines a small region of low bias field, superimposed with an AMF (of lower frequency and amplitude than those normally used to actuate heating by the nanoparticles) to obtain a signal which is proportional to the concentration of particles in the region of low bias field. Here we extend previous models for estimating the energy dissipation rates of magnetic nanoparticles in uniform AMFs to provide theoretical predictions of how the selection magnetic field gradient used in MPI can be used to selectively actuate heating by magnetic nanoparticles in the low bias field region of the selection magnetic field gradient. Theoretical predictions are given for the spatial decay in energy dissipation rate under magnetic field gradients representative of those that can be achieved with current MPI technology. These results underscore the potential of combining MPI and higher amplitude/frequency actuation AMFs to achieve selective magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH) guided by MPI. - Highlights: • SAR predictions based on a field-dependent magnetization relaxation model.
Álvarez, Gonzalo A.; Shemesh, Noam; Frydman, Lucio
2014-02-01
Dynamical decoupling, a generalization of the original NMR spin-echo sequence, is becoming increasingly relevant as a tool for reducing decoherence in quantum systems. Such sequences apply non-equidistant refocusing pulses for optimizing the coupling between systems, and environmental fluctuations characterized by a given noise spectrum. One such sequence, dubbed Selective Dynamical Recoupling (SDR) [P. E. S. Smith, G. Bensky, G. A. Álvarez, G. Kurizki, and L. Frydman, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 109, 5958 (2012)], allows one to coherently reintroduce diffusion decoherence effects driven by fluctuations arising from restricted molecular diffusion [G. A. Álvarez, N. Shemesh, and L. Frydman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 080404 (2013)]. The fully-refocused, constant-time, and constant-number-of-pulses nature of SDR also allows one to filter out "intrinsic" T1 and T2 weightings, as well as pulse errors acting as additional sources of decoherence. This article explores such features when the fluctuations are now driven by unrestricted molecular diffusion. In particular, we show that diffusion-driven SDR can be exploited to investigate the decoherence arising from the frequency fluctuations imposed by internal gradients. As a result, SDR presents a unique way of probing and characterizing these internal magnetic fields, given an a priori known free diffusion coefficient. This has important implications in studies of structured systems, including porous media and live tissues, where the internal gradients may serve as fingerprints for the system's composition or structure. The principles of this method, along with full analytical solutions for the unrestricted diffusion-driven modulation of the SDR signal, are presented. The potential of this approach is demonstrated with the generation of a novel source of MRI contrast, based on the background gradients active in an ex vivo mouse brain. Additional features and limitations of this new method are discussed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Álvarez, Gonzalo A.; Shemesh, Noam; Frydman, Lucio
2014-01-01
Dynamical decoupling, a generalization of the original NMR spin-echo sequence, is becoming increasingly relevant as a tool for reducing decoherence in quantum systems. Such sequences apply non-equidistant refocusing pulses for optimizing the coupling between systems, and environmental fluctuations characterized by a given noise spectrum. One such sequence, dubbed Selective Dynamical Recoupling (SDR) [P. E. S. Smith, G. Bensky, G. A. Álvarez, G. Kurizki, and L. Frydman, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 109, 5958 (2012)], allows one to coherently reintroduce diffusion decoherence effects driven by fluctuations arising from restricted molecular diffusion [G. A. Álvarez, N. Shemesh, and L. Frydman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 080404 (2013)]. The fully-refocused, constant-time, and constant-number-of-pulses nature of SDR also allows one to filter out “intrinsic” T 1 and T 2 weightings, as well as pulse errors acting as additional sources of decoherence. This article explores such features when the fluctuations are now driven by unrestricted molecular diffusion. In particular, we show that diffusion-driven SDR can be exploited to investigate the decoherence arising from the frequency fluctuations imposed by internal gradients. As a result, SDR presents a unique way of probing and characterizing these internal magnetic fields, given an a priori known free diffusion coefficient. This has important implications in studies of structured systems, including porous media and live tissues, where the internal gradients may serve as fingerprints for the system's composition or structure. The principles of this method, along with full analytical solutions for the unrestricted diffusion-driven modulation of the SDR signal, are presented. The potential of this approach is demonstrated with the generation of a novel source of MRI contrast, based on the background gradients active in an ex vivo mouse brain. Additional features and limitations of this new method are discussed
Image reconstruction in k-space from MR data encoded with ambiguous gradient fields.
Schultz, Gerrit; Gallichan, Daniel; Weber, Hans; Witschey, Walter R T; Honal, Matthias; Hennig, Jürgen; Zaitsev, Maxim
2015-02-01
In this work, the limits of image reconstruction in k-space are explored when non-bijective gradient fields are used for spatial encoding. The image space analogy between parallel imaging and imaging with non-bijective encoding fields is partially broken in k-space. As a consequence, it is hypothesized and proven that ambiguities can only be resolved partially in k-space, and not completely as is the case in image space. Image-space and k-space based reconstruction algorithms for multi-channel radiofrequency data acquisitions are programmed and tested using numerical simulations as well as in vivo measurement data. The hypothesis is verified based on an analysis of reconstructed images. It is found that non-bijective gradient fields have the effect that densely sampled autocalibration data, used for k-space reconstruction, provide less information than a separate scan of the receiver coil sensitivity maps, used for image space reconstruction. Consequently, in k-space only the undersampling artifact can be unfolded, whereas in image space, it is also possible to resolve aliasing that is caused by the non-bijectivity of the gradient fields. For standard imaging, reconstruction in image space and in k-space is nearly equivalent, whereas there is a fundamental difference with practical consequences for the selection of image reconstruction algorithms when non-bijective encoding fields are involved. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Measurement of magnetic field gradients using Raman spectroscopy in a fountain
Srinivasan, Arvind; Zimmermann, Matthias; Efremov, Maxim A.; Davis, Jon P.; Narducci, Frank A.
2017-02-01
In many experiments involving cold atoms, it is crucial to know the strength of the magnetic field and/or the magnetic field gradient at the precise location of a measurement. While auxiliary sensors can provide some of this information, the sensors are usually not perfectly co-located with the atoms and so can only provide an approximation to the magnetic field strength. In this article, we describe a technique to measure the magnetic field, based on Raman spectroscopy, using the same atomic fountain source that will be used in future magnetically sensitive measurements.
Radwan, Ahmed F.; Sobhy, Mohammed
2018-06-01
This work presents a nonlocal strain gradient theory for the dynamic deformation response of a single-layered graphene sheet (SLGS) on a viscoelastic foundation and subjected to a time harmonic thermal load for various boundary conditions. Material of graphene sheets is presumed to be orthotropic and viscoelastic. The viscoelastic foundation is modeled as Kelvin-Voigt's pattern. Based on the two-unknown plate theory, the motion equations are obtained from the dynamic version of the virtual work principle. The nonlocal strain gradient theory is established from Eringen nonlocal and strain gradient theories, therefore, it contains two material scale parameters, which are nonlocal parameter and gradient coefficient. These scale parameters have two different effects on the graphene sheets. The obtained deflection is compared with that predicted in the literature. Additional numerical examples are introduced to illustrate the influences of the two length scale coefficients and other parameters on the dynamic deformation of the viscoelastic graphene sheets.
Origin and orientation of electric field gradient in ordered FeNi
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guenzburger, D.J.R.; Ellis, D.E.
1987-01-01
The electronic structure of tetrataenite, the ordered phase of Fe Ni, has been studied in the molecular cluster approximation using local density theory. Clusters containing 13 and 19 atoms were embedded in the fcc host lattice and spin-unrestricted potentials were iterated to self-consistency. Local moments, magnetic hyperfine fields and electric field gradients (EFG) at the iron sites were determined for comparison with experiment. (Author) [pt
Fixed Field Alternating Gradient (FFAG)accelerators and their medical application in proton therapy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fourrier, J.
2008-10-01
Radiotherapy uses particle beams to irradiate and kill cancer tumors while sparing healthy tissues. Bragg peak shape of the proton energy loss in matter allows a ballistic improvement of the dose deposition compared with X rays. Thus, the irradiated volume can be precisely adjusted to the tumour. This thesis, in the frame of the RACCAM project, aims to the study and the design of a proton therapy installation based on a fixed field alternating gradient (FFAG) accelerator in order to build a spiral sector FFAG magnet for validation. First, we present proton therapy to define medical specifications leading to the technical specifications of a proton therapy installation. Secondly, we introduce FFAG accelerators through their past and on-going projects which are on their way around the world before developing the beam dynamic theories in the case of invariant focusing optics (scaling FFAG). We describe modelling and simulation tools developed to study the dynamics in a spiral scaling FFAG accelerator. Then we explain the spiral optic parameter search which has leaded to the construction of a magnet prototype. Finally, we describe the RACCAM project proton therapy installation starting from the injector cyclotron and ending with the extraction system. (author)
Policy Gradient Adaptive Dynamic Programming for Data-Based Optimal Control.
Luo, Biao; Liu, Derong; Wu, Huai-Ning; Wang, Ding; Lewis, Frank L
2017-10-01
The model-free optimal control problem of general discrete-time nonlinear systems is considered in this paper, and a data-based policy gradient adaptive dynamic programming (PGADP) algorithm is developed to design an adaptive optimal controller method. By using offline and online data rather than the mathematical system model, the PGADP algorithm improves control policy with a gradient descent scheme. The convergence of the PGADP algorithm is proved by demonstrating that the constructed Q -function sequence converges to the optimal Q -function. Based on the PGADP algorithm, the adaptive control method is developed with an actor-critic structure and the method of weighted residuals. Its convergence properties are analyzed, where the approximate Q -function converges to its optimum. Computer simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the PGADP-based adaptive control method.
Wu, Wei; Wang, Jin
2013-09-28
We established a potential and flux field landscape theory to quantify the global stability and dynamics of general spatially dependent non-equilibrium deterministic and stochastic systems. We extended our potential and flux landscape theory for spatially independent non-equilibrium stochastic systems described by Fokker-Planck equations to spatially dependent stochastic systems governed by general functional Fokker-Planck equations as well as functional Kramers-Moyal equations derived from master equations. Our general theory is applied to reaction-diffusion systems. For equilibrium spatially dependent systems with detailed balance, the potential field landscape alone, defined in terms of the steady state probability distribution functional, determines the global stability and dynamics of the system. The global stability of the system is closely related to the topography of the potential field landscape in terms of the basins of attraction and barrier heights in the field configuration state space. The effective driving force of the system is generated by the functional gradient of the potential field alone. For non-equilibrium spatially dependent systems, the curl probability flux field is indispensable in breaking detailed balance and creating non-equilibrium condition for the system. A complete characterization of the non-equilibrium dynamics of the spatially dependent system requires both the potential field and the curl probability flux field. While the non-equilibrium potential field landscape attracts the system down along the functional gradient similar to an electron moving in an electric field, the non-equilibrium flux field drives the system in a curly way similar to an electron moving in a magnetic field. In the small fluctuation limit, the intrinsic potential field as the small fluctuation limit of the potential field for spatially dependent non-equilibrium systems, which is closely related to the steady state probability distribution functional, is
Galactic cosmic ray gradients, field-aligned and latitudinal, among Voyagers 1/2 and IMP-8
Roelof, E. C.; Decker, R. B.; Krimigis, S. M.; Venkatesan, D.; Lazarus, A. J.
1982-01-01
The present investigation represents a summary of a comprehensive analysis of the same subject conducted by Roelof et al. (1981). It is pointed out that the tandem earth-Jupiter trajectories of the Voyager 1/2 spacecraft, combined with baseline measurements from the earth-orbiting IMP 7/8 spacecraft, provide the first opportunity for unambiguously separating latitude from radial or field-aligned effects in galactic cosmic ray gradients. Attention is given to the method of data analysis, and the separation of field-aligned and latitudinal gradients. It is found that latitudinal gradients approximately equal to or greater than 1 percent per deg in the cosmic ray intensity were a common feature of the interplanetary medium between 1 and 5 AU in 1977-78. Except in the most disturbed periods, cosmic ray intensities are well-ordered in field-aligned structures.
Stream carbon dynamics in low-gradient headwaters of a forested watershed
April Bryant-Mason; Y. Jun Xu; Johnny M. Grace
2013-01-01
Headwater streams drain more than 70 percent of the total watershed area in the United States. Understanding of carbon dynamics in the headwater systems is of particular relevance for developing best silvicultural practices to reduce carbon export. This study was conducted in a low-gradient, predominantly forested watershed located in the Gulf Coastal Plain region, to...
Effect of magnetic field gradient on power absorption in compact microwave plasma sources
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dey, Indranuj; Shamim, Md.; Bhattacharjee, Sudeep
2006-01-01
We study the effect of the change in magnetic field gradient at the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) point, on the generated plasma for two different cylindrical minimum B-field configurations, viz. the hexapole and the octupole. The plasma parameters such as the electron and ion density, electron temperature including the wave field characteristics (B-field and E-field) in the plasma will be measured and compared for the two configurations. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Trindade, Cassia; Silva, Leonardo P.; Martins, Lais P.; Garcia, Paulo L.; Santos, Maira R.; Bastista, Delano V.S.; Vieira, Anna Myrian M.T.L.; Rocha, Igor M., E-mail: cassiatr@gmail.com [Instituto Nacional de Cancer (INCA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)
2012-12-15
The radiotherapy has been used in a wild scale in breast cancer treatment. With this high demand, new technologies have been developed to improve the dose distribution in the target while reducing the dose delivered in critical organs. In this study, performed with one clinical case, three planning were done for comparison: 3D technique with dynamic filter, 3D with field-in-field technique (forward-planned IMRT) and 3D technique using electronic compensator (ECOMP). The planning were done with a 6MV photon beam using the Eclipse software, version 8.6 (Varian Medical Systems). The PTV was drawn covering the whole breast and the critical organs were: the lung on the irradiated side, the heart, the contralateral breast and the anterior descending coronary artery (LAD). The planning using the compensator technique permitted more homogeneous dose distribution in the target volume. The V20 value of the lung on the irradiated side was 8,3% for the electronic compensator technique, 8,9% for the field-in-field technique and 8,2% for the dynamic filter technique. For the heart the dose range was 15.7 - 139.9 cGy, 16.3 - 148.4 cGy for the dynamic filter technique and 19.6 - 157.0 cGy for the field-in-field technique. The dose gradient was 11% with compensator electronic, 15% dynamic filter technique and 13% with field-in-field. The application of electronic technique in breast cancer treatment allows better dose distribution while reduces dose in critical organs, but in the same time requires a quality assurance. (author)
Quantum dynamics manipulation using optimal control theory in the presence of laser field noise
Kumar, Praveen; Malinovskaya, Svetlana A.
2010-08-01
We discuss recent advances in optimal control theory (OCT) related to the investigation of the impact of control field noise on controllability of quantum dynamics. Two numerical methods, the gradient method and the iteration method, are paid particular attention. We analyze the problem of designing noisy control fields to maximize the vibrational transition probability in diatomic quantum systems, e.g. the HF and OH molecules. White noise is used as an additive random variable in the amplitude of the control field. It is demonstrated that the convergence is faster in the presence of noise and population transfer is increased by 0.04% for small values of noise compared to the field amplitude.
Pilling evaluation of patterned fabrics based on a gradient field method
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Techniková, L.; Tunák, M.; Janáček, Jiří
2016-01-01
Roč. 41, č. 1 (2016), s. 97-101 ISSN 0971-0426 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : 3D surface reconstruction * fabric pilling * gradient field method * patterned fabric * pills detection Subject RIV: JS - Reliability ; Quality Management, Testing Impact factor: 0.430, year: 2016
Magnetic field induced dynamical chaos.
Ray, Somrita; Baura, Alendu; Bag, Bidhan Chandra
2013-12-01
In this article, we have studied the dynamics of a particle having charge in the presence of a magnetic field. The motion of the particle is confined in the x-y plane under a two dimensional nonlinear potential. We have shown that constant magnetic field induced dynamical chaos is possible even for a force which is derived from a simple potential. For a given strength of the magnetic field, initial position, and velocity of the particle, the dynamics may be regular, but it may become chaotic when the field is time dependent. Chaotic dynamics is very often if the field is time dependent. Origin of chaos has been explored using the Hamiltonian function of the dynamics in terms of action and angle variables. Applicability of the present study has been discussed with a few examples.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sheridan, T. E.; Katschke, M. R.; Wells, K. D.
2007-01-01
A method for measuring the time-averaged vertical electric field and its gradient in the plasma sheath using clusters with n=2 or 3 floating microspheres of known mass is described. The particle charge q is found by determining the ratio of the breathing frequency to the center-of-mass frequency for horizontal (in-plane) oscillations. The electric field at the position of the particles is then calculated using the measured charge-to-mass ratio, and the electric-field gradient is determined from the vertical resonance frequency. The Debye length is also found. Experimental results are in agreement with a simple sheath model
Bouchard, Louis-Serge; Pines, Alexander; Demas, Vasiliki
2014-01-21
A system and method for Fourier encoding a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) signal is disclosed. A static magnetic field B.sub.0 is provided along a first direction. An NMR signal from the sample is Fourier encoded by applying a rotating-frame gradient field B.sub.G superimposed on the B.sub.0, where the B.sub.G comprises a vector component rotating in a plane perpendicular to the first direction at an angular frequency .omega.in a laboratory frame. The Fourier-encoded NMR signal is detected.
Pan, Zhao; Whitehead, Jared; Thomson, Scott; Truscott, Tadd
2016-08-01
Obtaining pressure field data from particle image velocimetry (PIV) is an attractive technique in fluid dynamics due to its noninvasive nature. The application of this technique generally involves integrating the pressure gradient or solving the pressure Poisson equation using a velocity field measured with PIV. However, very little research has been done to investigate the dynamics of error propagation from PIV-based velocity measurements to the pressure field calculation. Rather than measure the error through experiment, we investigate the dynamics of the error propagation by examining the Poisson equation directly. We analytically quantify the error bound in the pressure field, and are able to illustrate the mathematical roots of why and how the Poisson equation based pressure calculation propagates error from the PIV data. The results show that the error depends on the shape and type of boundary conditions, the dimensions of the flow domain, and the flow type.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pan, Zhao; Thomson, Scott; Whitehead, Jared; Truscott, Tadd
2016-01-01
Obtaining pressure field data from particle image velocimetry (PIV) is an attractive technique in fluid dynamics due to its noninvasive nature. The application of this technique generally involves integrating the pressure gradient or solving the pressure Poisson equation using a velocity field measured with PIV. However, very little research has been done to investigate the dynamics of error propagation from PIV-based velocity measurements to the pressure field calculation. Rather than measure the error through experiment, we investigate the dynamics of the error propagation by examining the Poisson equation directly. We analytically quantify the error bound in the pressure field, and are able to illustrate the mathematical roots of why and how the Poisson equation based pressure calculation propagates error from the PIV data. The results show that the error depends on the shape and type of boundary conditions, the dimensions of the flow domain, and the flow type. (paper)
Pan, Zhao; Whitehead, Jared; Thomson, Scott; Truscott, Tadd
2016-01-01
Obtaining pressure field data from particle image velocimetry (PIV) is an attractive technique in fluid dynamics due to its noninvasive nature. The application of this technique generally involves integrating the pressure gradient or solving the pressure Poisson equation using a velocity field measured with PIV. However, very little research has been done to investigate the dynamics of error propagation from PIV-based velocity measurements to the pressure field calculation. Rather than measure the error through experiment, we investigate the dynamics of the error propagation by examining the Poisson equation directly. We analytically quantify the error bound in the pressure field, and are able to illustrate the mathematical roots of why and how the Poisson equation based pressure calculation propagates error from the PIV data. The results show that the error depends on the shape and type of boundary conditions, the dimensions of the flow domain, and the flow type. PMID:27499587
Combining Step Gradients and Linear Gradients in Density.
Kumar, Ashok A; Walz, Jenna A; Gonidec, Mathieu; Mace, Charles R; Whitesides, George M
2015-06-16
Combining aqueous multiphase systems (AMPS) and magnetic levitation (MagLev) provides a method to produce hybrid gradients in apparent density. AMPS—solutions of different polymers, salts, or surfactants that spontaneously separate into immiscible but predominantly aqueous phases—offer thermodynamically stable steps in density that can be tuned by the concentration of solutes. MagLev—the levitation of diamagnetic objects in a paramagnetic fluid within a magnetic field gradient—can be arranged to provide a near-linear gradient in effective density where the height of a levitating object above the surface of the magnet corresponds to its density; the strength of the gradient in effective density can be tuned by the choice of paramagnetic salt and its concentrations and by the strength and gradient in the magnetic field. Including paramagnetic salts (e.g., MnSO4 or MnCl2) in AMPS, and placing them in a magnetic field gradient, enables their use as media for MagLev. The potential to create large steps in density with AMPS allows separations of objects across a range of densities. The gradients produced by MagLev provide resolution over a continuous range of densities. By combining these approaches, mixtures of objects with large differences in density can be separated and analyzed simultaneously. Using MagLev to add an effective gradient in density also enables tuning the range of densities captured at an interface of an AMPS by simply changing the position of the container in the magnetic field. Further, by creating AMPS in which phases have different concentrations of paramagnetic ions, the phases can provide different resolutions in density. These results suggest that combining steps in density with gradients in density can enable new classes of separations based on density.
Static high-gradient magnetic fields affect the functionality of monocytic cells
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Syrovets, T.; Schmidt, Z.; Buechele, B.; Zablotskyy, Vitaliy A.; Dejneka, Alexandr; Dempsey, N.; Simmet, T.
2014-01-01
Roč. 28, č. 1 (2014), s. 1-2 ISSN 0892-6638 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : static high-gradient * magnet ic fields * affect the functionality * monocytic cells Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnet ism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.)
ptchg: A FORTRAN program for point-charge calculations of electric field gradients (EFGs)
Spearing, Dane R.
1994-05-01
ptchg, a FORTRAN program, has been developed to calculate electric field gradients (EFG) around an atomic site in crystalline solids using the point-charge direct-lattice summation method. It uses output from the crystal structure generation program Atoms as its input. As an application of ptchg, a point-charge calculation of the EFG quadrupolar parameters around the oxygen site in SiO 2 cristobalite is demonstrated. Although point-charge calculations of electric field gradients generally are limited to ionic compounds, the computed quadrupolar parameters around the oxygen site in SiO 2 cristobalite, a highly covalent material, are in good agreement with the experimentally determined values from nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy.
Duijnhoven, van F.G.H.; Bastiaansen, C.W.M.
1999-01-01
A new method is presented to generate and to fixate compositional gradients in blends of two miscible and amorphous polymers. A compositional gradient is introduced into a solution of a polymer in a monomer by use of a centrifugal field, and this gradient is subsequently fixated by polymerization of
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Plocková, Jana; Chmelík, Josef
2001-01-01
Roč. 918, č. 2 (2001), s. 361-370 ISSN 0021-9673 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4031805 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4031919 Keywords : field-flow fractionation * field programming * flow-rate gradients Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.793, year: 2001
Effects of high-gradient magnetic fields on living cell machinery
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Zablotskyy, Vitaliy A.; Lunov, Oleg; Kubinová, Šárka; Polyakova, Tetyana; Syková, E.; Dejneka, Alexandr
2016-01-01
Roč. 49, č. 49 (2016), s. 1-23, č. článku 493003. ISSN 0022-3727 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LO1409 Grant - others:FUNBIO(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/21568 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : living cell * magnetic gradient force * cell mechanics * stem cell * magnetic field Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.588, year: 2016
The dynamics of arsenic in four paddy fields in the Bengal delta
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stroud, Jacqueline L.; Norton, Gareth J.; Islam, M. Rafiqul; Dasgupta, Tapash; White, Rodger P.; Price, Adam H.; Meharg, Andrew A.; McGrath, Steve P.; Zhao Fangjie
2011-01-01
Irrigation with arsenic contaminated groundwater in the Bengal Delta may lead to As accumulation in the soil and rice grain. The dynamics of As concentration and speciation in paddy fields during dry season (boro) rice cultivation were investigated at 4 sites in Bangladesh and West Bengal, India. Three sites which were irrigated with high As groundwater had elevated As concentrations in the soils, showing a significant gradient from the irrigation inlet across the field. Arsenic concentration and speciation in soil pore water varied temporally and spatially; higher As concentrations were associated with an increasing percentage of arsenite, indicating a reductive mobilization. Concentrations of As in rice grain varied by 2-7 fold within individual fields and were poorly related with the soil As concentration. A field site employing alternating flooded-dry irrigation produced the lowest range of grain As concentration, suggesting a lower soil As availability caused by periodic aerobic conditions. - Research highlights: → Irrigation with As-contaminated groundwater resulted in a gradient of As concentration in the soil. → Arsenic concentration in paddy standing water decreased as arsenite was oxidised to arsenate. → Soil pore water As increased with the %arsenite, suggesting reductive mobilisation. → Alternative flooded-dry conditions led to lowest range of As concentration in rice grain. - Spatial variations of arsenic concentrations in paddy soil and waters do not correlate to within-field variations of arsenic concentrations in rice grain.
Vlasov simulations of electron hole dynamics in inhomogeneous magnetic field
Kuzichev, Ilya; Vasko, Ivan; Agapitov, Oleksiy; Mozer, Forrest; Artemyev, Anton
2017-04-01
Electron holes (EHs) or phase space vortices are solitary electrostatic waves existing due to electrons trapped within EH electrostatic potential. Since the first direct observation [1], EHs have been widely observed in the Earth's magnetosphere: in reconnecting current sheets [2], injection fronts [3], auroral region [4], and many other space plasma systems. EHs have typical spatial scales up to tens of Debye lengths, electric field amplitudes up to hundreds of mV/m and propagate along magnetic field lines with velocities of about electron thermal velocity [5]. The role of EHs in energy dissipation and supporting of large-scale potential drops is under active investigation. The accurate interpretation of spacecraft observations requires understanding of EH evolution in inhomogeneous plasma. The critical role of plasma density gradients in EH evolution was demonstrated in [6] using PIC simulations. Interestingly, up to date no studies have addressed a role of magnetic field gradients in EH evolution. In this report, we use 1.5D gyrokinetic Vlasov code to demonstrate the critical role of magnetic field gradients in EH dynamics. We show that EHs propagating into stronger (weaker) magnetic field are decelerated (accelerated) with deceleration (acceleration) rate dependent on the magnetic field gradient. Remarkably, the reflection points of decelerating EHs are independent of the average magnetic field gradient in the system and depend only on the EH parameters. EHs are decelerated (accelerated) faster than would follow from the "quasi-particle" concept assuming that EH is decelerated (accelerated) entirely due to the mirror force acting on electrons trapped within EH. We demonstrate that EH propagation in inhomogeneous magnetic fields results in development of a net potential drop along an EH, which depends on the magnetic field gradient. The revealed features will be helpful for interpreting spacecraft observations and results of advanced particle simulations. In
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
E. Keil
2007-05-01
Full Text Available Nonscaling fixed field alternating gradient (FFAG rings for cancer hadron therapy offer reduced physical aperture and large dynamic aperture as compared to scaling FFAGs. The variation of tune with energy implies the crossing of resonances during acceleration. Our design avoids intrinsic resonances, although imperfection resonances must be crossed. We consider a system of three nonscaling FFAG rings for cancer therapy with 250 MeV protons and 400 MeV/u carbon ions. Hadrons are accelerated in a common radio frequency quadrupole and linear accelerator, and injected into the FFAG rings at v/c=0.1294. H^{+}/C^{6+} ions are accelerated in the two smaller/larger rings to 31 and 250 MeV/68.8 and 400 MeV/u kinetic energy, respectively. The lattices consist of doublet cells with a straight section for rf cavities. The gantry with triplet cells accepts the whole required momentum range at fixed field. This unique design uses either high-temperature superconductors or superconducting magnets reducing gantry magnet size and weight. Elements with a variable field at the beginning and at the end set the extracted beam at the correct position for a range of energies.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K. Bartušek
2003-01-01
Full Text Available This paper describes a method for measuring of the gradient magnetic field in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR tomography, which is one of the modern medical diagnostic methods. A very important prerequisite for high quality imaging is a gradient magnetic field in the instrument with exactly defined properties. Nuclear magnetic resonance enables us to measure the pulse gradient magnetic field characteristics with high accuracy. These interesting precise methods were designed, realised, and tested at the Institute of Scientific Instruments (ISI of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic. The first of them was the Instantaneous Frequency (IF method, which was developed into the Instantaneous Frequency of Spin Echo (IFSE and the Instantaneous Frequency of Spin Echo Series (IFSES methods. The above named methods are described in this paper and their a comparison is also presented.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yoon, Seokchan; Choi, Youngwoon; Park, Sangbum; Ji, Wangxi; Lee, Jai-Hyung; An, Kyungwon
2007-01-01
A quantitative study on characteristics of a magneto-optical trap with a single or a few atoms is presented. A very small number of 85 Rb atoms were trapped in a micron-size magneto-optical trap with a high magnetic-field gradient. In order to find the optimum condition for a single-atom trap, we have investigated how the number of atoms and the size of atomic cloud change as various experimental parameters, such as a magnetic-field gradient and the trapping laser intensity and detuning. The averaged number of atoms was measured very accurately with a calibration procedure based on the single-atom saturation curve of resonance fluorescence. In addition, the number of atoms in a trap could be controlled by suppressing stochastic loading events by means of a real-time active feedback on the magnetic-field gradient
Phase field modelling of dynamic thermal fracture in the context of irradiation damage
Schlüter, Alexander; Müller, Ralf; Tomut, Marilena; Trautmann , Christina; Weick, Helmut; Plate, Carolin
2015-01-01
This work presents a continuum mechanics approach to model fracturing processes in brittle materials that are subjected to rapidly applied high-temperature gradients. Such a type of loading typically occurs when a solid is exposed to an intense high-energy particle beam that deposits a large amount of energy into a small sample volume. Given the rapid energy deposition leading to a fast temperature increase, dynamic effects have to be considered. Our existing phase field model for dynamic fracture is thus extended in a way that allows modelling of thermally induced fracture. A finite element scheme is employed to solve the governing partial differential equations numerically. Finally, the functionality of our model is illustrated by two examples.
Optimal Weighting of Multi-Spacecraft Data to Estimate Gradients of Physical Fields
Chanteur, G. M.; Le Contel, O.; Sahraoui, F.; Retino, A.; Mirioni, L.
2016-12-01
Multi-spacecraft missions like the ESA mission CLUSTER and the NASA mission MMS are essential to improve our understanding of physical processes in space plasmas. Several methods were designed in the 90's during the preparation phase of the CLUSTER mission to estimate gradients of physical fields from simultaneous multi-points measurements [1, 2]. Both CLUSTER and MMS involve four spacecraft with identical full scientific payloads including various sensors of electromagnetic fields and different type of particle detectors. In the standard methods described in [1, 2], which are presently in use, data from the four spacecraft have identical weights and the estimated gradients are most reliable when the tetrahedron formed by the four spacecraft is regular. There are three types of errors affecting the estimated gradients (see chapter 14 in [1]) : i) truncature errors are due to local non-linearity of spatial variations, ii) physical errors are due to instruments, and iii) geometrical errors are due to uncertainties on the positions of the spacecraft. An assessment of truncature errors for a given observation requires a theoretical model of the measured field. Instrumental errors can easily be taken into account for a given geometry of the cluster but are usually less than the geometrical errors which diverge quite fast when the tetrahedron flattens, a circumstance occurring twice per orbit of the cluster. Hence reliable gradients can be estimated only on part of the orbit. Reciprocal vectors of the tetrahedron were presented in chapter 4 of [1], they have the advantage over other methods to treat the four spacecraft symmetrically and to allow a theoretical analysis of the errors (see chapters 4 of [1] and 4 of [2]). We will present Generalized Reciprocal Vectors for weighted data and an optimization procedure to improve the reliability of the estimated gradients when the tetrahedron is not regular. A brief example using CLUSTER or MMS data will be given. This approach
Spin dynamics on cyclic iron wheels in high magnetic fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schnelzer, Lars
2008-01-01
In the present thesis the spin dynamics of cyclic spin-cluster compounds, the so called ''ferric wheels'' were studied by means of the NMR. In the iron wheels Li/Na rate at Fe 6 (tea) 6 and Cs rate at Fe 8 (tea) 8 as probes of NMR both the protons and the centrally lying alkali atoms 7 Li, 23 Na, and 133 Cs were available. For this purpose measurements in the magnetic field region up to B=20 T and at temperatures between room temperature and T=50 mK were performed. The longitudinal relaxation rate was temperature dependently studied at two field values on the lithium cluster and a frequency independent maximum of the relaxation rate at a temperature of T∼30 K resulted. Different behaviour showed the measurement on the sodium cluster. the longitudinal relaxation rate slopes linearly with the temperature and shows no maximum. The two quadrupole satellites of the 23 Na could be resolved. From the distance of the satellites to the central transition both on the field gradient of the iron ring and on the orientation of the symmetry axis to the external magnetic field could be concluded. The determined field gradient of the Na rate at Fe 6 (tea) 6 of eq=4.78(11).10 20 V/m 2 was in very good agreement with the present theoretically calculated value. The orientation of the crystal was determined to θ(c,B)=62.8 . The very low splitting of the 7 Li NMR spectrum of the lithium cluster allows to give as upper limit for the value of the field gradient eq=1.82(11).10 20 V/m 2 . From the seven lines of the cesium spectrum theoretically to be expected five were resolved. The evaluation yielded for the cesium ring a value of eq=-1.3(1).10 21 V/m 2 . The study of the field-dependent line position of the 23 Na NMR line led to the determination of the parameter of the transferred hyperfine interaction to A tHf /2π=140 kHz. For the first time on a cyclic iron cluster a level crossing could be studied by means of the central ion. The temperature dependence of the longitudinal
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, C. K.; Seguin, F. H.; Frenje, J. A.; Manuel, M.; Casey, D.; Sinenian, N.; Petrasso, R. D.; Amendt, P. A.; Landen, O. L.; Rygg, J. R.; Town, R. P. J.; Betti, R.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Delettrez, J.; Knauer, J. P.; Marshall, F.; Sangster, T. C.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Soures, J. M.; Shvarts, D.
2009-01-01
Time-gated, monoenergetic-proton radiography provides unique measurements of the electric (E) and magnetic (B) fields produced in laser-foil interactions and during the implosion of inertial-confinement-fusion capsules. These experiments resulted in the first observations of several new and important features: (1) observations of the generation, decay dynamics, and instabilities of megagauss B fields in laser-driven planar plastic foils, (2) the observation of radial E fields inside an imploding capsule, which are initially directed inward, reverse direction during deceleration, and are likely related to the evolution of the electron pressure gradient, and (3) the observation of many radial filaments with complex electromagnetic field striations in the expanding coronal plasmas surrounding the capsule. The physics behind and implications of such observed fields are discussed.
Oval gradient coils for an open magnetic resonance imaging system with a vertical magnetic field.
Matsuzawa, Koki; Abe, Mitsushi; Kose, Katsumi; Terada, Yasuhiko
2017-05-01
Existing open magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems use biplanar gradient coils for the spatial encoding of signals. We propose using novel oval gradient coils for an open vertical-field MRI. We designed oval gradients for a 0.3T open MRI system and showed that such a system could outperform a traditional biplanar gradient system while maintaining adequate gradient homogeneity and subject accessibility. Such oval gradient coils would exhibit high efficiency, low inductance and resistance, and high switching capability. Although the designed oval Y and Z coils showed more heat dissipation and less cooling capability than biplanar coils with the same gap, they showed an efficient heat-dissipation path to the surrounding air, which would alleviate the heat problem. The performance of the designed oval-coil system was demonstrated experimentally by imaging a human hand. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Luo, Yao; Wu, Mei-Ping; Wang, Ping; Duan, Shu-Ling; Liu, Hao-Jun; Wang, Jin-Long; An, Zhan-Feng
2015-09-01
The full magnetic gradient tensor (MGT) refers to the spatial change rate of the three field components of the geomagnetic field vector along three mutually orthogonal axes. The tensor is of use to geological mapping, resources exploration, magnetic navigation, and others. However, it is very difficult to measure the full magnetic tensor gradient using existing engineering technology. We present a method to use triaxial aeromagnetic gradient measurements for deriving the full MGT. The method uses the triaxial gradient data and makes full use of the variation of the magnetic anomaly modulus in three dimensions to obtain a self-consistent magnetic tensor gradient. Numerical simulations show that the full MGT data obtained with the proposed method are of high precision and satisfy the requirements of data processing. We selected triaxial aeromagnetic gradient data from the Hebei Province for calculating the full MGT. Data processing shows that using triaxial tensor gradient data allows to take advantage of the spatial rate of change of the total field in three dimensions and suppresses part of the independent noise in the aeromagnetic gradient. The calculated tensor components have improved resolution, and the transformed full tensor gradient satisfies the requirement of geological mapping and interpretation.
Stochastic quasi-gradient based optimization algorithms for dynamic reliability applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bourgeois, F.; Labeau, P.E.
2001-01-01
On one hand, PSA results are increasingly used in decision making, system management and optimization of system design. On the other hand, when severe accidental transients are considered, dynamic reliability appears appropriate to account for the complex interaction between the transitions between hardware configurations, the operator behavior and the dynamic evolution of the system. This paper presents an exploratory work in which the estimation of the system unreliability in a dynamic context is coupled with an optimization algorithm to determine the 'best' safety policy. Because some reliability parameters are likely to be distributed, the cost function to be minimized turns out to be a random variable. Stochastic programming techniques are therefore envisioned to determine an optimal strategy. Monte Carlo simulation is used at all stages of the computations, from the estimation of the system unreliability to that of the stochastic quasi-gradient. The optimization algorithm is illustrated on a HNO 3 supply system
MR-based field-of-view extension in MR/PET: B0 homogenization using gradient enhancement (HUGE).
Blumhagen, Jan O; Ladebeck, Ralf; Fenchel, Matthias; Scheffler, Klaus
2013-10-01
In whole-body MR/PET, the human attenuation correction can be based on the MR data. However, an MR-based field-of-view (FoV) is limited due to physical restrictions such as B0 inhomogeneities and gradient nonlinearities. Therefore, for large patients, the MR image and the attenuation map might be truncated and the attenuation correction might be biased. The aim of this work is to explore extending the MR FoV through B0 homogenization using gradient enhancement in which an optimal readout gradient field is determined to locally compensate B0 inhomogeneities and gradient nonlinearities. A spin-echo-based sequence was developed that computes an optimal gradient for certain regions of interest, for example, the patient's arms. A significant distortion reduction was achieved outside the normal MR-based FoV. This FoV extension was achieved without any hardware modifications. In-plane distortions in a transaxially extended FoV of up to 600 mm were analyzed in phantom studies. In vivo measurements of the patient's arms lying outside the normal specified FoV were compared with and without the use of B0 homogenization using gradient enhancement. In summary, we designed a sequence that provides data for reducing the image distortions due to B0 inhomogeneities and gradient nonlinearities and used the data to extend the MR FoV. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Longitudinal wake field for an electron beam accelerated through a ultra-high field gradient
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Geloni, G.; Saldin, E.; Schneidmiller, E.; Yurkov, M.
2006-12-15
Electron accelerators with higher and higher longitudinal field gradients are desirable, as they allow for the production of high energy beams by means of compact and cheap setups. The new laser-plasma acceleration technique appears to constitute the more promising breakthrough in this direction, delivering unprecedent field gradients up to TV/m. In this article we give a quantitative description of the impact of longitudinal wake fields on the electron beam. Our paper is based on the solution of Maxwell's equations for the longitudinal field. Our conclusions are valid when the acceleration distance is much smaller than the the overtaking length, that is the length that electrons travel as a light signal from the tail of the bunch overtakes the head of the bunch. This condition is well verified for laser-plasma devices. We calculate a closed expression for the impedance and the wake function that may be evaluated numerically. It is shown that the rate of energy loss in the bunch due to radiative interaction is equal to the energy emitted through coherent radiation in the far-zone. Furthermore, an expression is found for the asymptotic limit of a large distance of the electron beam from the accelerator compared with the overtaking length. Such expression allows us to calculate analytical solutions for a Gaussian transverse and longitudinal bunch shape. Finally, we study the feasibility of Table-Top Free-Electron Lasers in the Vacuum Ultra-Violet (TT-VUV FEL) and X-ray range (TT-XFEL), respectively based on 100 MeV and 1 GeV laser-plasma accelerator drivers. Numerical estimations presented in this paper indicate that the effects of the time-dependent energy change induced by the longitudinal wake pose a serious threat to the operation of these devices. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kaennaelae, Sami; Toivo, Tim; Jokela, Kari [STUK-Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, PO Box 14, 00881 Helsinki (Finland); Alanko, Tommi [Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, New Technologies and Risks, Topeliuksenkatu 41a A, 00250 Helsinki (Finland)], E-mail: sami.kannala@stuk.fi
2009-04-07
Recent advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have increased occupational exposure to magnetic fields. In this study, we examined the assessment of occupational exposure to gradient magnetic fields and time-varying magnetic fields generated by motion in non-homogeneous static magnetic fields of MRI scanners. These magnetic field components can be measured simultaneously with an induction coil setup that detects the time rate of change of magnetic flux density (dB/dt). The setup developed was used to measure the field components around two MRI units (1 T open and 3 T conventional). The measured values can be compared with dB/dt reference levels derived from magnetic flux density reference levels given by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). The measured motion-induced dB/dt values were above the dB/dt reference levels for both MRI units. The measured values for the gradient fields (echo planar imaging (EPI) and fast field echo (FFE) sequences) also exceeded the dB/dt reference levels in positions where the medical staff may have access during interventional procedures. The highest motion-induced dB/dt values were 0.7 T s{sup -1} for the 1 T scanner and 3 T s{sup -1} for the 3 T scanner when only the static field was present. Even higher values (6.5 T s{sup -1}) were measured for simultaneous exposure to motion-induced and gradient fields in the vicinity of the 3 T scanner.
Optimal path-finding through mental exploration based on neural energy field gradients.
Wang, Yihong; Wang, Rubin; Zhu, Yating
2017-02-01
Rodent animal can accomplish self-locating and path-finding task by forming a cognitive map in the hippocampus representing the environment. In the classical model of the cognitive map, the system (artificial animal) needs large amounts of physical exploration to study spatial environment to solve path-finding problems, which costs too much time and energy. Although Hopfield's mental exploration model makes up for the deficiency mentioned above, the path is still not efficient enough. Moreover, his model mainly focused on the artificial neural network, and clear physiological meanings has not been addressed. In this work, based on the concept of mental exploration, neural energy coding theory has been applied to the novel calculation model to solve the path-finding problem. Energy field is constructed on the basis of the firing power of place cell clusters, and the energy field gradient can be used in mental exploration to solve path-finding problems. The study shows that the new mental exploration model can efficiently find the optimal path, and present the learning process with biophysical meaning as well. We also analyzed the parameters of the model which affect the path efficiency. This new idea verifies the importance of place cell and synapse in spatial memory and proves that energy coding is effective to study cognitive activities. This may provide the theoretical basis for the neural dynamics mechanism of spatial memory.
Ab-initio calculations of electric field gradient in Ru compounds and ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
S N Mishra
2017-07-11
Jul 11, 2017 ... with calculated electric field gradient (EFG) for a large number of Ru-based compounds. The ab-initio ... zz assumed to stem from geometric arrangement of ... tant nuclear probes for the measurements of quadrupole ... with the unit cell including the nucleus and no restriction is put on ..... The effect of on-site ...
Ab-initio calculations of electric field gradient in Ru compounds and ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 89; Issue 2. A b − i n i t i o calculations of electric field gradient in Ru compounds and their implication on the nuclear quadrupole moments of 99 Ru and 101 Ru. S N MISHRA. Research Article Volume 89 Issue 2 August 2017 Article ID 22 ...
The Pioneer 9 electric field experiment. III - Radial gradients and storm observations.
Scarf, F. L.; Green, I. M.; Burgess, J. S.
1973-01-01
We present a detailed analysis of the Pioneer 9 VLF electric field observations for 20 selected storm periods covering a heliocentric range extending from 0.754 AU to 0.99 AU. Although data from only two low frequency channels are available, the results of the present study tend to confirm the preliminary speculation by Scarf and Siscoe (1971) that the turbulent E-field spectrum in the disturbed solar wind has a significant radial gradient.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yao Huang
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Light scattering material with gradient refractive index was prepared under the electrical field by taking methyl methacrylate (MMA monomer as the matrix with the addition of a little preheated styrene (ST and peroxidation benzoin formyl (BPO. The material obtained under electrical field presented different transmittance and molecular weight at different parts of the cylindrical sample along the axis of the direction of electric field which led to the layering phenomenon and gradient refractive index. The disparity of molecular weight between different layers can be as much as 230 thousand. There were several peaks in the figure of GPC test of the sample under electric field. This proved that there were polymers with different molecular weights in the sample. Therefore, it can be concluded that electrical field has a significant effect on polymerization.
Wide-field schematic eye models with gradient-index lens.
Goncharov, Alexander V; Dainty, Chris
2007-08-01
We propose a wide-field schematic eye model, which provides a more realistic description of the optical system of the eye in relation to its anatomical structure. The wide-field model incorporates a gradient-index (GRIN) lens, which enables it to fulfill properties of two well-known schematic eye models, namely, Navarro's model for off-axis aberrations and Thibos's chromatic on-axis model (the Indiana eye). These two models are based on extensive experimental data, which makes the derived wide-field eye model also consistent with that data. A mathematical method to construct a GRIN lens with its iso-indicial contours following the optical surfaces of given asphericity is presented. The efficiency of the method is demonstrated with three variants related to different age groups. The role of the GRIN structure in relation to the lens paradox is analyzed. The wide-field model with a GRIN lens can be used as a starting design for the eye inverse problem, i.e., reconstructing the optical structure of the eye from off-axis wavefront measurements. Anatomically more accurate age-dependent optical models of the eye could ultimately help an optical designer to improve wide-field retinal imaging.
Sundström, Henrik; Mild, Kjell Hansson; Wilén, Jonna
2015-02-01
Knowledge of patient exposure during magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) procedures is limited, and the need for such knowledge has been demonstrated in recent in vitro and in vivo studies of the genotoxic effects of MRI. This study focuses on the dB/dt of the switched gradient field (SGF) and its geometric distribution. These values were characterized by measuring the peak dB/dt generated by a programmed gradient current of alternating triangles inside a 1.5T MR scanner. The maximum dB/dt exposure to the gradient field was 6-14 T/s, and this occurred at the edges of the field of view (FOV) 20-25 cm from the isocenter in the longitudinal direction. The dB/dt exposure dropped off to roughly half the maximum (3-7 T/s) at the edge of the bore. It was found that the dB/dt of the SGF was distorted by a 200 kHz ripple arising from the amplifier. The ripple is small in terms of B-field, but the high frequency content contributes to a peak dB/dt up to 18 times larger than that predicted by the slew rate (4 T/s m) and the distance from the isocenter. Measurements on a 3 T MRI scanner, however, revealed a much smaller filtered ripple of 100 kHz in dB/dt. These findings suggest that the gradient current to each coil together with information on the geometrical distribution of the gradient field and ripple effects could be used to assess the SGF exposure within an MRI bore. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chu, T.K.
1987-12-01
The interplay of electron cross-field thermal conduction and the reconnection of magnetic field lines around an m = 1 magnetic island prior to a sawtooth crash can generate a large pressure gradient in a boundary layer adjacent to the reconnecting surface, leading to an enhanced gradient of poloidal beta to satisfy the threshold condition for ideal MHD modes. This narrow boundary layer and the short onset time of a sawtooth crash can be supported by fine-grained turbulent processes in a tokamak plasma. 11 refs
Jiang, Limei; Xu, Xiaofei; Zhou, Yichun
2016-12-01
With the development of the integrated circuit technology and decreasing of the device size, ferroelectric films used in nano ferroelectric devices become thinner and thinner. Along with the downscaling of the ferroelectric film, there is an increasing influence of two strain gradient related terms. One is the strain gradient elasticity and the other one is flexoelectricity. To investigate the interrelationship between flexoelectricity and strain gradient elasticity and their combined effect on the domain structure in ferroelectric nanofilms, a phase field model of flexoelectricity and strain gradient elasticity on the ferroelectric domain evolution is developed based on Mindlin's theory of strain-gradient elasticity. Weak form is derived and implemented in finite element formulations for numerically solving the model equations. The simulation results show that upper bounds for flexoelectric coefficients can be enhanced by increasing strain gradient elasticity coefficients. While a large flexoelectricity that exceeds the upper bound can induce a transition from a ferroelectric state to a modulated/incommensurate state, a large enough strain gradient elasticity may lead to a conversion from an incommensurate state to a ferroelectric state. Strain gradient elasticity and the flexoelectricity have entirely opposite effects on polarization. The observed interrelationship between the strain gradient elasticity and flexoelectricity is rationalized by an analytical solution of the proposed theoretical model. The model proposed in this paper could help us understand the mechanism of phenomena observed in ferroelectric nanofilms under complex electromechanical loads and provide some guides on the practical application of ferroelectric nanofilms.
Buis, E.
2008-01-01
This research is entitled ‘Arid landscape dynamics along a precipitation gradient: addressing
vegetation – landscape structure – resource interactions at different time scales’ with as subtitle
‘A case study for the Northern Negev Desert of Israel’. Landscape dynamics describes the
Analytical free energy gradient for the molecular Ornstein-Zernike self-consistent-field method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N.Yoshida
2007-09-01
Full Text Available An analytical free energy gradient for the molecular Ornstein-Zernike self-consistent-field (MOZ-SCF method is presented. MOZ-SCF theory is one of the theories to considering the solvent effects on the solute electronic structure in solution. [Yoshida N. et al., J. Chem. Phys., 2000, 113, 4974] Molecular geometries of water, formaldehyde, acetonitrile and acetone in water are optimized by analytical energy gradient formula. The results are compared with those from the polarizable continuum model (PCM, the reference interaction site model (RISM-SCF and the three dimensional (3D RISM-SCF.
Evaporation Rate of Water as a Function of a Magnetic Field and Field Gradient
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Peng Shang
2012-12-01
Full Text Available The effect of magnetic fields on water is still a highly controversial topic despite the vast amount of research devoted to this topic in past decades. Enhanced water evaporation in a magnetic field, however, is less disputed. The underlying mechanism for this phenomenon has been investigated in previous studies. In this paper, we present an investigation of the evaporation of water in a large gradient magnetic field. The evaporation of pure water at simulated gravity positions (0 gravity level (ab. g, 1 g, 1.56 g and 1.96 g in a superconducting magnet was compared with that in the absence of the magnetic field. The results showed that the evaporation of water was indeed faster in the magnetic field than in the absence of the magnetic field. Furthermore, the amount of water evaporation differed depending on the position of the sample within the magnetic field. In particular, the evaporation at 0 g was clearly faster than that at other positions. The results are discussed from the point of view of the evaporation surface area of the water/air interface and the convection induced by the magnetization force due to the difference in the magnetic susceptibility of water vapor and the surrounding air.
Evaporation rate of water as a function of a magnetic field and field gradient.
Guo, Yun-Zhu; Yin, Da-Chuan; Cao, Hui-Ling; Shi, Jian-Yu; Zhang, Chen-Yan; Liu, Yong-Ming; Huang, Huan-Huan; Liu, Yue; Wang, Yan; Guo, Wei-Hong; Qian, Ai-Rong; Shang, Peng
2012-12-11
The effect of magnetic fields on water is still a highly controversial topic despite the vast amount of research devoted to this topic in past decades. Enhanced water evaporation in a magnetic field, however, is less disputed. The underlying mechanism for this phenomenon has been investigated in previous studies. In this paper, we present an investigation of the evaporation of water in a large gradient magnetic field. The evaporation of pure water at simulated gravity positions (0 gravity level (ab. g), 1 g, 1.56 g and 1.96 g) in a superconducting magnet was compared with that in the absence of the magnetic field. The results showed that the evaporation of water was indeed faster in the magnetic field than in the absence of the magnetic field. Furthermore, the amount of water evaporation differed depending on the position of the sample within the magnetic field. In particular, the evaporation at 0 g was clearly faster than that at other positions. The results are discussed from the point of view of the evaporation surface area of the water/air interface and the convection induced by the magnetization force due to the difference in the magnetic susceptibility of water vapor and the surrounding air.
Evaporation Rate of Water as a Function of a Magnetic Field and Field Gradient
Guo, Yun-Zhu; Yin, Da-Chuan; Cao, Hui-Ling; Shi, Jian-Yu; Zhang, Chen-Yan; Liu, Yong-Ming; Huang, Huan-Huan; Liu, Yue; Wang, Yan; Guo, Wei-Hong; Qian, Ai-Rong; Shang, Peng
2012-01-01
The effect of magnetic fields on water is still a highly controversial topic despite the vast amount of research devoted to this topic in past decades. Enhanced water evaporation in a magnetic field, however, is less disputed. The underlying mechanism for this phenomenon has been investigated in previous studies. In this paper, we present an investigation of the evaporation of water in a large gradient magnetic field. The evaporation of pure water at simulated gravity positions (0 gravity level (ab. g), 1 g, 1.56 g and 1.96 g) in a superconducting magnet was compared with that in the absence of the magnetic field. The results showed that the evaporation of water was indeed faster in the magnetic field than in the absence of the magnetic field. Furthermore, the amount of water evaporation differed depending on the position of the sample within the magnetic field. In particular, the evaporation at 0 g was clearly faster than that at other positions. The results are discussed from the point of view of the evaporation surface area of the water/air interface and the convection induced by the magnetization force due to the difference in the magnetic susceptibility of water vapor and the surrounding air. PMID:23443127
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Benelmekki, M., E-mail: benelmekki@fisica.uminho.p [Centro de Fisica, Universidade do Minho, Braga (Portugal); Montras, A. [Sepmag Tecnologies, Parc Tecnologic del Valles, Barcelona (Spain); Martins, A.J.; Coutinho, P.J.G. [Centro de Fisica, Universidade do Minho, Braga (Portugal); Martinez, Ll.M. [Sepmag Technologies, Atlanta, GA (United States)
2011-08-15
Magnetic separation of organic compounds, proteins, nucleic acids and other biomolecules, and cells from complex reaction mixtures is becoming the most suitable solution for large production in bioindustrial purification and extraction processes. Optimal magnetic properties can be achieved by the use of metals. However, they are extremely sensitive to oxidation and degradation under atmospheric conditions. In this work Ni nanoparticles are synthesised by conventional solution reduction process with the addition of a non-ionic surfactant as a surface agent. The nanoparticles were surfacted in citric acid and then coated with silica to form single core Ni nanobeads. A magnetophoresis study at different magnetic field gradients and at the different steps of synthesis route was performed using Horizontal Low Gradient Magnetic Field (HLGMF) systems. The reversible aggregation times are reduced to a few seconds, allowing a very fast separation process. - Research highlights: Monodispersed single core Ni-silica core-shell structures were prepared. Control of Ni nanoparticles size was achieved using a non-ionic surfactant. Magnetophoresis at different magnetic field gradients was monitored. Magnetophoresis at different steps of synthesis route was performed. Attractive magnetic interactions overcome electrostatic repulsions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guseinov, I I
2004-01-01
The new central and noncentral potential functions (CPFs and NCPFs) of a molecule depending on the coordinates of the nuclei are introduced. Using complete orthonormal sets of Ψ α -exponential-type orbitals (Ψ α -ETOs) introduced by the author, the series expansion formulae for the multicentre electronic attraction (EA), electric field (EF) and electric field gradient (EFG) integrals over Slater-type orbitals (STOs) in terms of CPFs and NCPFs are derived. The relationships obtained are valid for the arbitrary location, quantum numbers and screening constants of STOs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lin, H; Kirk, M; Zhai, H; Ding, X; Liu, H; Hill-Kayser, C; Lustig, R; Tochner, Z; Deville, C; Vapiwala, N; McDonough, J; Both, S [University Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)
2014-06-01
Purpose: To propose the gradient optimization(GO) approach in planning for matching proton PBS fields and present two commonly used applications in our institution. Methods: GO is employed for PBS field matching in the scenarios that when the size of the target is beyond the field size limit of the beam delivery system or matching is required for beams from different angles to either improve the sparing of important organs or to pass through a short and simple beam path. Overlap is designed between adjacent fields and in the overlapped junction, the dose was optimized such that it gradually decreases in one field and the decrease is compensated by increase from another field. Clinical applications of this approach on craniospinal irradiation(CSI) and whole pelvis treatment were presented. Mathematical model was developed to study the relationships between dose errors, setup errors and junction lengths. Results: Uniform and conformal dose coverage to the entire target volumes was achieved for both applications using GO approach. For CSI, the gradient matching (6.7cm junction) between fields overcame the complexity of planning associated with feathering match lines. A slow dose gradient in the junction area significantly reduced the sensitivity of the treatment to setup errors. For whole pelvis, gradient matching (4cm junction) between posterior fields for superior target and bilateral fields for inferior target provided dose sparing to organs such as bowel, bladder and rectum. For a setup error of 3 mm in longitudinal direction from one field, mathematical model predicted dose errors of 10%, 6% and 4.3% for junction length of 3, 5 and 7cm. Conclusion: This GO approach improves the quality of the PBS treatment plan with matching fields while maintaining the safety of treatment delivery relative to potential misalignments.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lin, H; Kirk, M; Zhai, H; Ding, X; Liu, H; Hill-Kayser, C; Lustig, R; Tochner, Z; Deville, C; Vapiwala, N; McDonough, J; Both, S
2014-01-01
Purpose: To propose the gradient optimization(GO) approach in planning for matching proton PBS fields and present two commonly used applications in our institution. Methods: GO is employed for PBS field matching in the scenarios that when the size of the target is beyond the field size limit of the beam delivery system or matching is required for beams from different angles to either improve the sparing of important organs or to pass through a short and simple beam path. Overlap is designed between adjacent fields and in the overlapped junction, the dose was optimized such that it gradually decreases in one field and the decrease is compensated by increase from another field. Clinical applications of this approach on craniospinal irradiation(CSI) and whole pelvis treatment were presented. Mathematical model was developed to study the relationships between dose errors, setup errors and junction lengths. Results: Uniform and conformal dose coverage to the entire target volumes was achieved for both applications using GO approach. For CSI, the gradient matching (6.7cm junction) between fields overcame the complexity of planning associated with feathering match lines. A slow dose gradient in the junction area significantly reduced the sensitivity of the treatment to setup errors. For whole pelvis, gradient matching (4cm junction) between posterior fields for superior target and bilateral fields for inferior target provided dose sparing to organs such as bowel, bladder and rectum. For a setup error of 3 mm in longitudinal direction from one field, mathematical model predicted dose errors of 10%, 6% and 4.3% for junction length of 3, 5 and 7cm. Conclusion: This GO approach improves the quality of the PBS treatment plan with matching fields while maintaining the safety of treatment delivery relative to potential misalignments
Space-time symmetries and the Yang-Mills gradient flow
Del Debbio, Luigi; Rago, Antonio
2013-01-01
The recent introduction of the gradient flow has provided a new tool to probe the dynamics of quantum field theories. The latest developments have shown how to use the gradient flow for the exploration of symmetries, and the definition of the corresponding renormalized Noether currents. In this paper we introduce infinitesimal translations along the gradient flow for gauge theories, and study the corresponding Ward identities. This approach is readily generalized to the case of gauge theories defined on a lattice, where the regulator breaks translation invariance. The Ward identities in this case lead to a nonperturbative renormalization of the energy-momentum tensor. We discuss an application of this method to the study of dilatations and scale invariance on the lattice.
Microfabricated physical spatial gradients for investigating cell migration and invasion dynamics.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michael Mak
Full Text Available We devise a novel assay that introduces micro-architectures into highly confining microchannels to probe the decision making processes of migrating cells. The conditions are meant to mimic the tight spaces in the physiological environment that cancer cells encounter during metastasis within the matrix dense stroma and during intravasation and extravasation through the vascular wall. In this study we use the assay to investigate the relative probabilities of a cell 1 permeating and 2 repolarizing (turning around when it migrates into a spatially confining region. We observe the existence of both states even within a single cell line, indicating phenotypic heterogeneity in cell migration invasiveness and persistence. We also show that varying the spatial gradient of the taper can induce behavioral changes in cells, and different cell types respond differently to spatial changes. Particularly, for bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs, higher spatial gradients induce more cells to permeate (60% than lower gradients (12%. Furthermore, highly metastatic breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231 demonstrate a more invasive and permeative nature (87% than non-metastatic breast epithelial cells (MCF-10A (25%. We examine the migration dynamics of cells in the tapered region and derive characteristic constants that quantify this transition process. Our data indicate that cell response to physical spatial gradients is both cell-type specific and heterogeneous within a cell population, analogous to the behaviors reported to occur during tumor progression. Incorporation of micro-architectures in confined channels enables the probing of migration behaviors specific to defined geometries that mimic in vivo microenvironments.
Momentum-weighted conjugate gradient descent algorithm for gradient coil optimization.
Lu, Hanbing; Jesmanowicz, Andrzej; Li, Shi-Jiang; Hyde, James S
2004-01-01
MRI gradient coil design is a type of nonlinear constrained optimization. A practical problem in transverse gradient coil design using the conjugate gradient descent (CGD) method is that wire elements move at different rates along orthogonal directions (r, phi, z), and tend to cross, breaking the constraints. A momentum-weighted conjugate gradient descent (MW-CGD) method is presented to overcome this problem. This method takes advantage of the efficiency of the CGD method combined with momentum weighting, which is also an intrinsic property of the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm, to adjust step sizes along the three orthogonal directions. A water-cooled, 12.8 cm inner diameter, three axis torque-balanced gradient coil for rat imaging was developed based on this method, with an efficiency of 2.13, 2.08, and 4.12 mT.m(-1).A(-1) along X, Y, and Z, respectively. Experimental data demonstrate that this method can improve efficiency by 40% and field uniformity by 27%. This method has also been applied to the design of a gradient coil for the human brain, employing remote current return paths. The benefits of this design include improved gradient field uniformity and efficiency, with a shorter length than gradient coil designs using coaxial return paths. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Bashir, Adil; Gropler, Robert; Ackerman, Joseph
2015-01-01
Purpose Absolute concentrations of high-energy phosphorus (31P) metabolites in liver provide more important insight into physiologic status of liver disease compared to resonance integral ratios. A simple method for measuring absolute concentrations of 31P metabolites in human liver is described. The approach uses surface spoiling inhomogeneous magnetic field gradient to select signal from liver tissue. The technique avoids issues caused by respiratory motion, chemical shift dispersion associated with linear magnetic field gradients, and increased tissue heat deposition due to radiofrequency absorption, especially at high field strength. Methods A method to localize signal from liver was demonstrated using superficial and highly non-uniform magnetic field gradients, which eliminate signal(s) from surface tissue(s) located between the liver and RF coil. A double standard method was implemented to determine absolute 31P metabolite concentrations in vivo. 8 healthy individuals were examined in a 3 T MR scanner. Results Concentrations of metabolites measured in eight healthy individuals are: γ-adenosine triphosphate (ATP) = 2.44 ± 0.21 (mean ± sd) mmol/l of wet tissue volume, α-ATP = 3.2 ± 0.63 mmol/l, β-ATP = 2.98 ± 0.45 mmol/l, inorganic phosphates (Pi) = 1.87 ± 0.25 mmol/l, phosphodiesters (PDE) = 10.62 ± 2.20 mmol/l and phosphomonoesters (PME) = 2.12 ± 0.51 mmol/l. All are in good agreement with literature values. Conclusions The technique offers robust and fast means to localize signal from liver tissue, allows absolute metabolite concentration determination, and avoids problems associated with constant field gradient (linear field variation) localization methods. PMID:26633549
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kolesnikov, R.A.; Krommes, J.A.
2005-01-01
The transition to collisionless ion-temperature-gradient-driven plasma turbulence is considered by applying dynamical systems theory to a model with 10 degrees of freedom. The study of a four-dimensional center manifold predicts a 'Dimits shift' of the threshold for turbulence due to the excitation of zonal flows and establishes (for the model) the exact value of that shift
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hahm, T.S.; Diamond, P.H.; Terry, P.W.; Garcia, L.; Carreras, B.A.
1986-03-01
The role of impurity dynamics in resistivity gradient driven turbulence is investigated in the context of modeling tokamak edge plasma phenomena. The effects of impurity concentration fluctuations and gradients on the linear behavior of rippling instabilities and on the nonlinear evolution and saturation of resistivity gradient driven turbulence are studied both analytically and computationally. At saturation, fluctuation levels and particle and thermal diffusivities are calculated. In particular, the mean-square turbulent radial velocity is given by 2 > = (E 0 L/sub s/B/sub z/) 2 (L/sub/eta/ -1 + L/sub z -1 ) 2 . Thus, edged peaked impurity concentrations tend to enhance the turbulence, while axially peaked concentrations tend to quench it. The theoretical predictions are in semi-quantitative agreement with experimental results from the TEXT, Caltech, and Tosca tokamaks. Finally, a theory of the density clamp observed during CO-NBI on the ISX-B tokamak is proposed
Chakraborty, Monojit; Chowdhury, Anamika; Bhusan, Richa; DasGupta, Sunando
2015-10-20
Droplet motion on a surface with chemical energy induced wettability gradient has been simulated using molecular dynamics (MD) simulation to highlight the underlying physics of molecular movement near the solid-liquid interface including the contact line friction. The simulations mimic experiments in a comprehensive manner wherein microsized droplets are propelled by the surface wettability gradient against forces opposed to motion. The liquid-wall Lennard-Jones interaction parameter and the substrate temperature are varied to explore their effects on the three-phase contact line friction coefficient. The contact line friction is observed to be a strong function of temperature at atomistic scales, confirming their experimentally observed inverse functionality. Additionally, the MD simulation results are successfully compared with those from an analytical model for self-propelled droplet motion on gradient surfaces.
Phase-field simulations of pore migration and morphology change in thermal gradients
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vance, Ian W.; Millett, Paul C., E-mail: pmillett@uark.edu
2017-07-15
Here we present a phase-field simulation model that captures the thermal-gradient-driven migration of pores in oxide fuel associated with fuel restructuring. The model utilizes a Cahn-Hilliard equation supplemented with an advection term to describe the vapor transport of fuel material through the pore interior due to gradients in vapor pressure. Simulations demonstrate that the model not only predicts pore migration towards the centerline of the fuel, but also a concurrent change in pore shape during migration from an initially isotropic morphology to either a lenticular morphology or a prolate morphology depending on the vapor transport conditions. This model is a necessary first step to conducting accurate simulations of the microscopic changes that occur during the complicated process of oxide fuel restructuring.
Organic matter dynamics along a salinity gradient in Siberian steppe soils
Bischoff, Norbert; Mikutta, Robert; Shibistova, Olga; Dohrmann, Reiner; Herdtle, Daniel; Gerhard, Lukas; Fritzsche, Franziska; Puzanov, Alexander; Silanteva, Marina; Grebennikova, Anna; Guggenberger, Georg
2018-01-01
Salt-affected soils will become more frequent in the next decades as arid and semiarid ecosystems are predicted to expand as a result of climate change. Nevertheless, little is known about organic matter (OM) dynamics in these soils, though OM is crucial for soil fertility and represents an important carbon sink. We aimed at investigating OM dynamics along a salinity and sodicity gradient in the soils of the southwestern Siberian Kulunda steppe (Kastanozem, non-sodic Solonchak, Sodic Solonchak) by assessing the organic carbon (OC) stocks, the quantity and quality of particulate and mineral-associated OM in terms of non-cellulosic neutral sugar contents and carbon isotopes (δ13C, 14C activity), and the microbial community composition based on phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) patterns. Aboveground biomass was measured as a proxy for plant growth and soil OC inputs. Our hypotheses were that (i) soil OC stocks decrease along the salinity gradient, (ii) the proportion and stability of particulate OM is larger in salt-affected Solonchaks compared to non-salt-affected Kastanozems, (iii) sodicity reduces the proportion and stability of mineral-associated OM, and (iv) the fungi : bacteria ratio is negatively correlated with salinity. Against our first hypothesis, OC stocks increased along the salinity gradient with the most pronounced differences between topsoils. In contrast to our second hypothesis, the proportion of particulate OM was unaffected by salinity, thereby accounting for only soil types, while mineral-associated OM contributed > 90 %. Isotopic data (δ13C, 14C activity) and neutral sugars in the OM fractions indicated a comparable degree of OM transformation along the salinity gradient and that particulate OM was not more persistent under saline conditions. Our third hypothesis was also rejected, as Sodic Solonchaks contained more than twice as much mineral-bound OC than the Kastanozems, which we ascribe to the flocculation of OM and mineral components under
Towards a string formulation of vortex dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Elsebeth Schroeder; Ola Toernkvist
1998-01-01
We derive an exact equation of motion for a non-relativistic vortex in two- and three-dimensional models with a complex field. The velocity is given in terms of gradients of the complex field at the vortex position. We discuss the problem of reducing the field dynamics to a closed dynamical system with non-locally interacting strings as the fundamental degrees of freedom
The Effect of a Spiral Gradient Magnetic Field on the Ionic Conductivity of Water
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Bartušek, Karel; Marcon, P.; Fiala, P.; Máca, J.; Dohnal, P.
2017-01-01
Roč. 9, č. 9 (2017), s. 1-8, č. článku 664. ISSN 2073-4441 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-00607S Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : gradient field * demineralized water * conductivity * ionic conductivity * magnetic field Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers OBOR OECD: Electrochemistry (dry cells, batteries, fuel cells, corrosion metals, electrolysis) Impact factor: 1.832, year: 2016
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Im, Sang Hyuk; Lee, Su Jin [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Duck Jong; Park, O Ok [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Moo Hyun [Woosuk University, Wanju (Korea, Republic of)
2015-07-15
We investigated whether a graded-index profile, specified by the polymer compositional gradient, could be formed using shear-induced polymer migration phenomenon in a polymer solution. For the presented model system, we generated a shear flow by rotating a glass rod at the center of a polystyrene/methylmethacrylate (PS/MMA) solution and measured the degree of polymer migration by the shear flow field by examining the concentration of polymer solution along the radial direction from the rotating axis to the periphery. Through model experiments, we formed a compositional gradient and controlled its profile in the solution by varying the concentration of polymer solution, molecular weight of polymer, and shear rate. Finally, we solidified the gradient profiles by the polymerization of the PS/MMA solution and confirmed that the gradient profiles were maintained with a compositional gradient twice larger than the mother PS/MMA solution.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jespersen, Sune Nørhøj; Lundell, Henrik; Sønderby, Casper Kaae
2013-01-01
Pulsed field gradient diffusion sequences (PFG) with multiple diffusion encoding blocks have been indicated to offer new microstructural tissue information, such as the ability to detect nonspherical compartment shapes in macroscopically isotropic samples, i.e. samples with negligible directional...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ki Hwan Kim
Full Text Available Neuronal oscillations produce oscillating magnetic fields. There have been trials to detect neuronal oscillations using MRI, but the detectability in in vivo is still in debate. Major obstacles to detecting neuronal oscillations are (i weak amplitudes, (ii fast oscillations, which are faster than MRI temporal resolution, and (iii random frequencies and on/off intervals. In this study, we proposed a new approach for direct detection of weak and fast oscillating magnetic fields. The approach consists of (i dynamic acquisitions using multiple times to repeats (TRs and (ii an expanded frequency spectral analysis. Gradient echo echo-planar imaging was used to test the feasibility of the proposed approach with a phantom generating oscillating magnetic fields with various frequencies and amplitudes and random on/off intervals. The results showed that the proposed approach could precisely detect the weak and fast oscillating magnetic fields with random frequencies and on/off intervals. Complex and phase spectra showed reliable signals, while no meaningful signals were observed in magnitude spectra. A two-TR approach provided an absolute frequency spectrum above Nyquist sampling frequency pixel by pixel with no a priori target frequency information. The proposed dynamic multiple-TR imaging and Fourier analysis are promising for direct detection of neuronal oscillations and potentially applicable to any pulse sequences.
M*/L gradients driven by IMF variation: large impact on dynamical stellar mass estimates
Bernardi, M.; Sheth, R. K.; Dominguez-Sanchez, H.; Fischer, J.-L.; Chae, K.-H.; Huertas-Company, M.; Shankar, F.
2018-06-01
Within a galaxy the stellar mass-to-light ratio ϒ* is not constant. Recent studies of spatially resolved kinematics of nearby early-type galaxies suggest that allowing for a variable initial mass function (IMF) returns significantly larger ϒ* gradients than if the IMF is held fixed. We show that ignoring such IMF-driven ϒ* gradients can have dramatic effect on dynamical (M_*^dyn), though stellar population (M_*^SP) based estimates of early-type galaxy stellar masses are also affected. This is because M_*^dyn is usually calibrated using the velocity dispersion measured in the central regions (e.g. Re/8) where stars are expected to dominate the mass (i.e. the dark matter fraction is small). On the other hand, M_*^SP is often computed from larger apertures (e.g. using a mean ϒ* estimated from colours). If ϒ* is greater in the central regions, then ignoring the gradient can overestimate M_*^dyn by as much as a factor of two for the most massive galaxies. Large ϒ*-gradients have four main consequences: First, M_*^dyn cannot be estimated independently of stellar population synthesis models. Secondly, if there is a lower limit to ϒ* and gradients are unknown, then requiring M_*^dyn=M_*^SP constrains them. Thirdly, if gradients are stronger in more massive galaxies, then accounting for this reduces the slope of the correlation between M_*^dyn/M_*^SP of a galaxy with its velocity dispersion. In particular, IMF-driven gradients bring M_*^dyn and M_*^SP into agreement, not by shifting M_*^SP upwards by invoking constant bottom-heavy IMFs, as advocated by a number of recent studies, but by revising M_*^dyn estimates in the literature downwards. Fourthly, accounting for ϒ* gradients changes the high-mass slope of the stellar mass function φ (M_*^dyn), and reduces the associated stellar mass density. These conclusions potentially impact estimates of the need for feedback and adiabatic contraction, so our results highlight the importance of measuring ϒ* gradients in
Kenjeres, S.; Zinsmeester, R.; Pyrda, L.; Fornalik-Wajs, E.; Szmyd, J.
2015-01-01
We present combined experimental and numerical studies of the heat transfer of paramagnetic or diamagnetic fluid inside a differentially heated cubical enclosure subjected to the magnetic field gradients of different strength and orientation. In contrast to the previously reported studies in
Magnetic field gradients inferred from multi-point measurements of Cluster FGM and EDI
Teubenbacher, Robert; Nakamura, Rumi; Giner, Lukas; Plaschke, Ferdinand; Baumjohann, Wolfgang; Magnes, Werner; Eichelberger, Hans; Steller, Manfred; Torbert, Roy
2013-04-01
We use Cluster data from fluxgate magnetometer (FGM) and electron drift instrument (EDI) to determine the magnetic field gradients in the near-Earth magnetotail. Here we use the magnetic field data from FGM measurements as well as the gyro-time data of electrons determined from the time of flight measurements of EDI. The results are compared with the values estimated from empirical magnetic field models for different magnetospheric conditions. We also estimated the spin axis offset of FGM based on comparison between EDI and FGM data and discuss the possible effect in determining the current sheet characteristics.
Pobachenko, S. V.; Sokolov, M. V.; Grigoriev, P. E.; Vasilieva, I. V.
2017-11-01
There are presented the results of experimental studies of the dynamics of indices of the functional state of a person located within the zones characterized by anomalous parameters of spatial distribution of magnetic field vector values. It is shown that these geophysical modifications have a pronounced effect on the dynamics of electrical activity indices of the human brain, regardless of geographic and climatic conditions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jang, Su; Mi, No Gin
2004-12-01
This book introduces coherent dynamics of internal state, spread of atoms wave speed, semiclassical atoms density matrix such as dynamics equation in both still and moving atoms, excitation of atoms in movement by light, dipole radiating power, quantum statistical mechanics by atoms in movement, semiclassical atoms in movement, atoms in movement in the uniform magnetic field including effects of uniform magnetic field, atom cooling using laser such as Doppler cooling, atom traps using laser and mirrors, radiant heat which particles receive, and near field interactions among atoms in laser light.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wong, Basil T.; Francoeur, Mathieu; Bong, Victor N.-S.; Mengüç, M. Pinar
2014-01-01
Near-field thermal radiative exchange between two objects is typically more effective than the far-field thermal radiative exchange as the heat flux can increase up to several orders higher in magnitudes due to tunneling of evanescent waves. Such an interesting phenomenon has started to gain its popularity in nanotechnology, especially in nano-gap thermophotovoltaic systems and near-field radiative cooling of micro-/nano-devices. Here, we explored the existence of thermal gradient within an n-doped silicon thin film when it is subjected to intensive near-field thermal radiative heating. The near-field radiative power density deposited within the film is calculated using the Maxwell equations combined with fluctuational electrodynamics. A phonon Monte Carlo simulation is then used to assess the temperature gradient by treating the near-field radiative power density as the heat source. Results indicated that it is improbable to have temperature gradient with the near-field radiative heating as a continuous source unless the source comprises of ultra-short radiative pulses with a strong power density. - Highlights: • This study investigates temperature distribution in an n-doped silicon thin film. • Near-field radiative heating is treated as a volumetric phenomenon. • The temperature gradient is computed using phonon MC simulation. • Temperature of thin film can be approximated as uniform for radiation calculations. • If heat source is a pulsed radiation, a temperature gradient can be established
Sun, Qi; Fu, Shujun
2017-09-20
Fringe orientation is an important feature of fringe patterns and has a wide range of applications such as guiding fringe pattern filtering, phase unwrapping, and abstraction. Estimating fringe orientation is a basic task for subsequent processing of fringe patterns. However, various noise, singular and obscure points, and orientation data degeneration lead to inaccurate calculations of fringe orientation. Thus, to deepen the understanding of orientation estimation and to better guide orientation estimation in fringe pattern processing, some advanced gradient-field-based orientation estimation methods are compared and analyzed. At the same time, following the ideas of smoothing regularization and computing of bigger gradient fields, a regularized singular-value decomposition (RSVD) technique is proposed for fringe orientation estimation. To compare the performance of these gradient-field-based methods, quantitative results and visual effect maps of orientation estimation are given on simulated and real fringe patterns that demonstrate that the RSVD produces the best estimation results at a cost of relatively less time.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Krasnov, V.M.; Oboznov, V.A.; Pedersen, Niels Falsig
1997-01-01
Fluxon dynamics in nonuniform Josephson junctions was studied both experimentally and theoretically. Two types of nonuniform junctions were considered: the first type had a nonuniform spatial distribution of critical and bias currents and the second had a temperature gradient applied along...... the junction. An analytical expression for the I-V curve in the presence of a temperature gradient or spatial nonuniformity was derived. It was shown that there is no static thermomagnetic Nernst effect due to Josephson fluxon motion despite the existence of a force pushing fluxons in the direction of smaller...
Electric field spikes formed by electron beam endash plasma interaction in plasma density gradients
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gunell, H.; Loefgren, T.
1997-01-01
In the electron beam endash plasma interaction at an electric double layer the beam density is much higher than in the classical beam endash plasma experiments. The wave propagation takes place along the density gradient that is present at the high potential side of the double layer. Such a case is studied experimentally by injecting the electron beam from a plane cathode, without any grids suppressing the gradient, and by particle simulations. The high frequency field concentrates in a sharp open-quotes spikeclose quotes with a half width of the order of one wavelength. The spike is found to be a standing wave surrounded by regions dominated by propagating waves. It forms at a position where its frequency is close to the local plasma frequency. The spike forms also when the electric field is well below the threshold for modulational instability, and long before a density cavity is formed in the simulations. Particle simulations reveal that, at the spike, there is a backward traveling wave that, when it is strongly damped, accelerates electrons back towards the cathode. In a simulation of a homogeneous plasma without the density gradient no spike is seen, and the wave is purely travelling instead of standing. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics
Tolman temperature gradients in a gravitational field
Santiago, Jessica; Visser, Matt
2018-01-01
Tolman's relation for the temperature gradient in an equilibrium self-gravitating general relativistic fluid is broadly accepted within the general relativity community. However, the concept of temperature gradients in thermal equilibrium continues to cause confusion in other branches of physics, since it contradicts naive versions of the laws of classical thermodynamics. In this paper we discuss the crucial role of the universality of free fall, and how thermodynamics emphasises the great di...
Baniamerian, Jamaledin; Liu, Shuang; Abbas, Mahmoud Ahmed
2018-04-01
The vertical gradient is an essential tool in interpretation algorithms. It is also the primary enhancement technique to improve the resolution of measured gravity and magnetic field data, since it has higher sensitivity to changes in physical properties (density or susceptibility) of the subsurface structures than the measured field. If the field derivatives are not directly measured with the gradiometers, they can be calculated from the collected gravity or magnetic data using numerical methods such as those based on fast Fourier transform technique. The gradients behave similar to high-pass filters and enhance the short-wavelength anomalies which may be associated with either small-shallow sources or high-frequency noise content in data, and their numerical computation is susceptible to suffer from amplification of noise. This behaviour can adversely affect the stability of the derivatives in the presence of even a small level of the noise and consequently limit their application to interpretation methods. Adding a smoothing term to the conventional formulation of calculating the vertical gradient in Fourier domain can improve the stability of numerical differentiation of the field. In this paper, we propose a strategy in which the overall efficiency of the classical algorithm in Fourier domain is improved by incorporating two different smoothing filters. For smoothing term, a simple qualitative procedure based on the upward continuation of the field to a higher altitude is introduced to estimate the related parameters which are called regularization parameter and cut-off wavenumber in the corresponding filters. The efficiency of these new approaches is validated by computing the first- and second-order derivatives of noise-corrupted synthetic data sets and then comparing the results with the true ones. The filtered and unfiltered vertical gradients are incorporated into the extended Euler deconvolution to estimate the depth and structural index of a magnetic
Evaluation of renal function with dynamic MRI-T2-weighted gradient echo technique
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kato, Katsuya
1995-01-01
To evaluate the usefulness of dynamic MRI of kidneys in healthy volunteers and patients with different 24-hour creatinine clearance (Ccr) levels, a dynamic study that employed the T2 weighted gradient echo technique (FLASH: TR/TE=34/25 msec, flip angle= 20 degrees) with single images during breathhold was performed on 10 healthy volunteers and 35 patients, all examined for the Ccr and suspected of having renal parenchymal disease after a phantom study. T1-weighted and dynamic MR imagings were obtained with a 1.5T imager. I analyzed the time-intensity curve of renal cortex and medulla, and defined a cortex decreased ratio (CDR) and medulla decreased ratio (MDR) in comparison with the Ccr. The cortico-medullary difference ratio (CMDR) of T1WI was also compared with the Ccr. The parameters of the T2 dynamic MRI study (CDR, MDR) better correlated with the Ccr than CMDR. Renal function can be quantitatively evaluated with the T2 dynamic MRI and there is a possibility that we can qualitatively evaluate the renal dysfunction and estimate its cause. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Recoskie, Bryan J; Chronik, Blaine A; Scholl, Timothy J
2009-01-01
Peripheral nerve stimulation (PNS) resulting from electric fields induced from the rapidly changing magnetic fields of gradient coils is a concern in MRI. Nerves exposed to either electric fields or changing magnetic fields would be expected to display consistent threshold characteristics, motivating the direct application of electric field exposure criteria from the literature to guide the development of gradient magnetic field exposure criteria for MRI. The consistency of electric and magnetic field exposures was tested by comparing chronaxie times for electric and magnetic PNS curves for 22 healthy human subjects. Electric and magnetic stimulation thresholds were measured for exposure of the forearm using both surface electrodes and a figure-eight magnetic coil, respectively. The average chronaxie times for the electric and magnetic field conditions were 109 ± 11 μs and 651 ± 53 μs (±SE), respectively. We do not propose that these results call into question the basic mechanism, namely that rapidly switched gradient magnetic fields induce electric fields in human tissues, resulting in PNS. However, this result does motivate us to suggest that special care must be taken when using electric field exposure data from the literature to set gradient coil PNS safety standards in MRI.
Projection and nested force-gradient methods for quantum field theories
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shcherbakov, Dmitry
2017-07-26
For the Hybrid Monte Carlo algorithm (HMC), often used to study the fundamental quantum field theory of quarks and gluons, quantum chromodynamics (QCD), on the lattice, one is interested in efficient numerical time integration schemes which preserve geometric properties of the flow and are optimal in terms of computational costs per trajectory for a given acceptance rate. High order numerical methods allow the use of larger step sizes, but demand a larger computational effort per step; low order schemes do not require such large computational costs per step, but need more steps per trajectory. So there is a need to balance these opposing effects. In this work we introduce novel geometric numerical time integrators, namely, projection and nested force-gradient methods in order to improve the efficiency of the HMC algorithm in application to the problems of quantum field theories.
B1 gradient coherence selection using a tapered stripline.
van Meerten, S G J; Tijssen, K C H; van Bentum, P J M; Kentgens, A P M
2018-01-01
Pulsed-field gradients are common in modern liquid state NMR pulse sequences. They are often used instead of phase cycles for the selection of coherence pathways, thereby decreasing the time required for the NMR experiment. Soft off-resonance pulses with a B 1 gradient result in a spatial encoding similar to that created by pulsed-field (B 0 ) gradients. In this manuscript we show that pulse sequences with pulsed-field gradients can easily be converted to one which uses off-resonance B 1 field gradient (OFFBEAT) pulses. The advantage of B 1 gradient pulses for coherence selection is that the chemical shift evolution during the pulses is (partially) suppressed. Therefore no refocusing echos are required to correct for evolution during the gradient pulses. A tapered stripline is shown to be a convenient tool for creating a well-defined gradient in the B 1 field strength. B 1 gradient coherence selection using a tapered stripline is a simple and cheap alternative to B 0 pulsed-field gradients. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gunell, H.; Loefgren, T.
1997-02-01
In the electron beam-plasma interaction at an electric double layer the beam density is much higher than in the classical beam-plasma experiments. The wave propagation takes place along the density gradient, that is present at the high potential side of the double layer. Such a case is studied experimentally by injecting the electron beam from a plane cathode, without any grids suppressing the gradient, and by particle simulations. The high frequency field concentrates in a sharp 'spike' with a half width of the order of one wavelength. The spike is found to be a standing wave surrounded by regions dominated by propagating waves. It forms at a position where its frequency is close to the local plasma frequency. The spike forms also when the electric field is well below the threshold for modulational instability, and long before a density cavity is formed in the simulations. Particle simulations reveal that, at the spike, there is a backward travelling wave that, when it is strongly damped, accelerates electrons back towards the cathode. In a simulation of a homogeneous plasma without the density gradient no spike is seen, and the wave is purely travelling instead of standing. 9 refs
Tune-stabilized, non-scaling, fixed-field, alternating gradient accelerator
Johnstone, Carol J [Warrenville, IL
2011-02-01
A FFAG is a particle accelerator having turning magnets with a linear field gradient for confinement and a large edge angle to compensate for acceleration. FODO cells contain focus magnets and defocus magnets that are specified by a number of parameters. A set of seven equations, called the FFAG equations relate the parameters to one another. A set of constraints, call the FFAG constraints, constrain the FFAG equations. Selecting a few parameters, such as injection momentum, extraction momentum, and drift distance reduces the number of unknown parameters to seven. Seven equations with seven unknowns can be solved to yield the values for all the parameters and to thereby fully specify a FFAG.
Organic matter dynamics along a salinity gradient in Siberian steppe soils
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N. Bischoff
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Salt-affected soils will become more frequent in the next decades as arid and semiarid ecosystems are predicted to expand as a result of climate change. Nevertheless, little is known about organic matter (OM dynamics in these soils, though OM is crucial for soil fertility and represents an important carbon sink. We aimed at investigating OM dynamics along a salinity and sodicity gradient in the soils of the southwestern Siberian Kulunda steppe (Kastanozem, non-sodic Solonchak, Sodic Solonchak by assessing the organic carbon (OC stocks, the quantity and quality of particulate and mineral-associated OM in terms of non-cellulosic neutral sugar contents and carbon isotopes (δ13C, 14C activity, and the microbial community composition based on phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA patterns. Aboveground biomass was measured as a proxy for plant growth and soil OC inputs. Our hypotheses were that (i soil OC stocks decrease along the salinity gradient, (ii the proportion and stability of particulate OM is larger in salt-affected Solonchaks compared to non-salt-affected Kastanozems, (iii sodicity reduces the proportion and stability of mineral-associated OM, and (iv the fungi : bacteria ratio is negatively correlated with salinity. Against our first hypothesis, OC stocks increased along the salinity gradient with the most pronounced differences between topsoils. In contrast to our second hypothesis, the proportion of particulate OM was unaffected by salinity, thereby accounting for only < 10 % in all three soil types, while mineral-associated OM contributed > 90 %. Isotopic data (δ13C, 14C activity and neutral sugars in the OM fractions indicated a comparable degree of OM transformation along the salinity gradient and that particulate OM was not more persistent under saline conditions. Our third hypothesis was also rejected, as Sodic Solonchaks contained more than twice as much mineral-bound OC than the Kastanozems, which we ascribe
Method of formation of a high gradient magnetic field and the device for division of substances
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Il'yashenko, E. I.; Glebov, V. A.; Skeltorp, A. T.
2005-01-01
Full text: The method and the device [1] are intended for use as a high-sensitivity magnetic separator for different types of paramagnetic substances and materials from diamagnetic ones, for division of paramagnetic substances and materials on the magnitudes of their paramagnetic susceptibility, for division of diamagnetic substances and materials on magnitudes of their diamagnetic susceptibility. Scopes: to produce pure and super pure substances and materials in electronics, metallurgy and chemistry, separation of biological objects (red blood cells, magnetic bacteria, etc.) in biology and medicine, water treatment removing heavy metals and organic impurities, etc. The main condition for magnetic separation is the magnetic force which acts on a particle of the substance and which is proportional to the magnetic susceptibility of the substance, magnetic induction B and gradient ∇B of the applied magnetic field. Therefore, to increase the sensitivity and selectivity of magnetic separation it will be required to use the largest possible values of the magnetic induction and the gradient of a magnetic field, or their product - B∇B. The device declared in the present work includes the magnetic system such as the open domain structure, consisting of permanent magnets with magnetic anisotropy much greater than the induction of a material of magnets. However, the declared device differs from the open domain structure in that [1]: *the surface of the neighbor poles of magnets is covered with a mask made from sheets of adjustable thickness of a soft magnetic material; *the soft magnetic material of the mask is selected on the basis of the magnitudes of the induction of saturation and magnetic permeability for achievement of the required magnitude of the induction and gradient of the magnetic field; *between the sheets of the mask there is an adjustable gap located symmetrically relative to the junction line of the magnets; *the size and the form of the gap between the
Zablotskii, Vitalii; Syrovets, Tatiana; Schmidt, Zoe W; Dejneka, Alexandr; Simmet, Thomas
2014-03-01
The influence of spatially modulated high gradient magnetic fields on cellular functions of human THP-1 leukemia cells is studied. We demonstrate that arrays of high-gradient micrometer-sized magnets induce i) cell swelling, ii) prolonged increased ROS production, and iii) inhibit cell proliferation, and iv) elicit apoptosis of THP-1 monocytic leukemia cells in the absence of chemical or biological agents. Mathematical modeling indicates that mechanical stress exerted on the cells by high magnetic gradient forces is responsible for triggering cell swelling and formation of reactive oxygen species followed by apoptosis. We discuss physical aspects of controlling cell functions by focused magnetic gradient forces, i.e. by a noninvasive and nondestructive physical approach. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Modeling chemical gradients in sediments under losing and gaining flow conditions: The GRADIENT code
Boano, Fulvio; De Falco, Natalie; Arnon, Shai
2018-02-01
Interfaces between sediments and water bodies often represent biochemical hotspots for nutrient reactions and are characterized by steep concentration gradients of different reactive solutes. Vertical profiles of these concentrations are routinely collected to obtain information on nutrient dynamics, and simple codes have been developed to analyze these profiles and determine the magnitude and distribution of reaction rates within sediments. However, existing publicly available codes do not consider the potential contribution of water flow in the sediments to nutrient transport, and their applications to field sites with significant water-borne nutrient fluxes may lead to large errors in the estimated reaction rates. To fill this gap, the present work presents GRADIENT, a novel algorithm to evaluate distributions of reaction rates from observed concentration profiles. GRADIENT is a Matlab code that extends a previously published framework to include the role of nutrient advection, and provides robust estimates of reaction rates in sediments with significant water flow. This work discusses the theoretical basis of the method and shows its performance by comparing the results to a series of synthetic data and to laboratory experiments. The results clearly show that in systems with losing or gaining fluxes, the inclusion of such fluxes is critical for estimating local and overall reaction rates in sediments.
A Genealogy of Convex Solids Via Local and Global Bifurcations of Gradient Vector Fields
Domokos, Gábor; Holmes, Philip; Lángi, Zsolt
2016-12-01
Three-dimensional convex bodies can be classified in terms of the number and stability types of critical points on which they can balance at rest on a horizontal plane. For typical bodies, these are non-degenerate maxima, minima, and saddle points, the numbers of which provide a primary classification. Secondary and tertiary classifications use graphs to describe orbits connecting these critical points in the gradient vector field associated with each body. In previous work, it was shown that these classifications are complete in that no class is empty. Here, we construct 1- and 2-parameter families of convex bodies connecting members of adjacent primary and secondary classes and show that transitions between them can be realized by codimension 1 saddle-node and saddle-saddle (heteroclinic) bifurcations in the gradient vector fields. Our results indicate that all combinatorially possible transitions can be realized in physical shape evolution processes, e.g., by abrasion of sedimentary particles.
Miehe, C; Teichtmeister, S; Aldakheel, F
2016-04-28
This work outlines a novel variational-based theory for the phase-field modelling of ductile fracture in elastic-plastic solids undergoing large strains. The phase-field approach regularizes sharp crack surfaces within a pure continuum setting by a specific gradient damage modelling. It is linked to a formulation of gradient plasticity at finite strains. The framework includes two independent length scales which regularize both the plastic response as well as the crack discontinuities. This ensures that the damage zones of ductile fracture are inside of plastic zones, and guarantees on the computational side a mesh objectivity in post-critical ranges. © 2016 The Author(s).
Gravity gradient preprocessing at the GOCE HPF
Bouman, J.; Rispens, S.; Gruber, T.; Schrama, E.; Visser, P.; Tscherning, C. C.; Veicherts, M.
2009-04-01
One of the products derived from the GOCE observations are the gravity gradients. These gravity gradients are provided in the Gradiometer Reference Frame (GRF) and are calibrated in-flight using satellite shaking and star sensor data. In order to use these gravity gradients for application in Earth sciences and gravity field analysis, additional pre-processing needs to be done, including corrections for temporal gravity field signals to isolate the static gravity field part, screening for outliers, calibration by comparison with existing external gravity field information and error assessment. The temporal gravity gradient corrections consist of tidal and non-tidal corrections. These are all generally below the gravity gradient error level, which is predicted to show a 1/f behaviour for low frequencies. In the outlier detection the 1/f error is compensated for by subtracting a local median from the data, while the data error is assessed using the median absolute deviation. The local median acts as a high-pass filter and it is robust as is the median absolute deviation. Three different methods have been implemented for the calibration of the gravity gradients. All three methods use a high-pass filter to compensate for the 1/f gravity gradient error. The baseline method uses state-of-the-art global gravity field models and the most accurate results are obtained if star sensor misalignments are estimated along with the calibration parameters. A second calibration method uses GOCE GPS data to estimate a low degree gravity field model as well as gravity gradient scale factors. Both methods allow to estimate gravity gradient scale factors down to the 10-3 level. The third calibration method uses high accurate terrestrial gravity data in selected regions to validate the gravity gradient scale factors, focussing on the measurement band. Gravity gradient scale factors may be estimated down to the 10-2 level with this method.
Universal field matching in craniospinal irradiation by a background-dose gradient-optimized method.
Traneus, Erik; Bizzocchi, Nicola; Fellin, Francesco; Rombi, Barbara; Farace, Paolo
2018-01-01
The gradient-optimized methods are overcoming the traditional feathering methods to plan field junctions in craniospinal irradiation. In this note, a new gradient-optimized technique, based on the use of a background dose, is described. Treatment planning was performed by RayStation (RaySearch Laboratories, Stockholm, Sweden) on the CT scans of a pediatric patient. Both proton (by pencil beam scanning) and photon (by volumetric modulated arc therapy) treatments were planned with three isocenters. An 'in silico' ideal background dose was created first to cover the upper-spinal target and to produce a perfect dose gradient along the upper and lower junction regions. Using it as background, the cranial and the lower-spinal beams were planned by inverse optimization to obtain dose coverage of their relevant targets and of the junction volumes. Finally, the upper-spinal beam was inversely planned after removal of the background dose and with the previously optimized beams switched on. In both proton and photon plans, the optimized cranial and the lower-spinal beams produced a perfect linear gradient in the junction regions, complementary to that produced by the optimized upper-spinal beam. The final dose distributions showed a homogeneous coverage of the targets. Our simple technique allowed to obtain high-quality gradients in the junction region. Such technique universally works for photons as well as protons and could be applicable to the TPSs that allow to manage a background dose. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Association of Physicists in Medicine.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. De Keyser
2007-05-01
Full Text Available This paper describes a general-purpose algorithm for computing the gradients in space and time of a scalar field, a vector field, or a divergence-free vector field, from in situ measurements by one or more spacecraft. The algorithm provides total error estimates on the computed gradient, including the effects of measurement errors, the errors due to a lack of spatio-temporal homogeneity, and errors due to small-scale fluctuations. It also has the ability to diagnose the conditioning of the problem. Optimal use is made of the data, in terms of exploiting the maximum amount of information relative to the uncertainty on the data, by solving the problem in a weighted least-squares sense. The method is illustrated using Cluster magnetic field and electron density data to compute various gradients during a traversal of the inner magnetosphere. In particular, Cluster is shown to cross azimuthal density structure, and the existence of field-aligned currents in the plasmasphere is demonstrated.
Huynh, Tan Vu; Messinger, Robert J.; Sarou-Kanian, Vincent; Fayon, Franck; Bouchet, Renaud; Deschamps, Michaël
2017-10-01
The intrinsic ionic conductivity of polyethylene oxide (PEO)-based block copolymer electrolytes is often assumed to be identical to the conductivity of the PEO homopolymer. Here, we use high-field 7Li nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxation and pulsed-field-gradient (PFG) NMR diffusion measurements to probe lithium ion dynamics over nanosecond and millisecond time scales in PEO and polystyrene (PS)-b-PEO-b-PS electrolytes containing the lithium salt LiTFSI. Variable-temperature longitudinal (T1) and transverse (T2) 7Li NMR relaxation rates were acquired at three magnetic field strengths and quantitatively analyzed for the first time at such fields, enabling us to distinguish two characteristic time scales that describe fluctuations of the 7Li nuclear electric quadrupolar interaction. Fast lithium motions [up to O (ns)] are essentially identical between the two polymer electrolytes, including sub-nanosecond vibrations and local fluctuations of the coordination polyhedra between lithium and nearby oxygen atoms. However, lithium dynamics over longer time scales [O (10 ns) and greater] are slower in the block copolymer compared to the homopolymer, as manifested experimentally by their different transverse 7Li NMR relaxation rates. Restricted dynamics and altered thermodynamic behavior of PEO chains anchored near PS domains likely explain these results.
Gradient waveform pre-emphasis based on the gradient system transfer function.
Stich, Manuel; Wech, Tobias; Slawig, Anne; Ringler, Ralf; Dewdney, Andrew; Greiser, Andreas; Ruyters, Gudrun; Bley, Thorsten A; Köstler, Herbert
2018-02-25
The gradient system transfer function (GSTF) has been used to describe the distorted k-space trajectory for image reconstruction. The purpose of this work was to use the GSTF to determine the pre-emphasis for an undistorted gradient output and intended k-space trajectory. The GSTF of the MR system was determined using only standard MR hardware without special equipment such as field probes or a field camera. The GSTF was used for trajectory prediction in image reconstruction and for a gradient waveform pre-emphasis. As test sequences, a gradient-echo sequence with phase-encoding gradient modulation and a gradient-echo sequence with a spiral read-out trajectory were implemented and subsequently applied on a structural phantom and in vivo head measurements. Image artifacts were successfully suppressed by applying the GSTF-based pre-emphasis. Equivalent results are achieved with images acquired using GSTF-based post-correction of the trajectory as a part of image reconstruction. In contrast, the pre-emphasis approach allows reconstruction using the initially intended trajectory. The artifact suppression shown for two sequences demonstrates that the GSTF can serve for a novel pre-emphasis. A pre-emphasis based on the GSTF information can be applied to any arbitrary sequence type. © 2018 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.
Aviat, Félix; Lagardère, Louis; Piquemal, Jean-Philip
2017-10-01
In a recent paper [F. Aviat et al., J. Chem. Theory Comput. 13, 180-190 (2017)], we proposed the Truncated Conjugate Gradient (TCG) approach to compute the polarization energy and forces in polarizable molecular simulations. The method consists in truncating the conjugate gradient algorithm at a fixed predetermined order leading to a fixed computational cost and can thus be considered "non-iterative." This gives the possibility to derive analytical forces avoiding the usual energy conservation (i.e., drifts) issues occurring with iterative approaches. A key point concerns the evaluation of the analytical gradients, which is more complex than that with a usual solver. In this paper, after reviewing the present state of the art of polarization solvers, we detail a viable strategy for the efficient implementation of the TCG calculation. The complete cost of the approach is then measured as it is tested using a multi-time step scheme and compared to timings using usual iterative approaches. We show that the TCG methods are more efficient than traditional techniques, making it a method of choice for future long molecular dynamics simulations using polarizable force fields where energy conservation matters. We detail the various steps required for the implementation of the complete method by software developers.
Ormondt, van D.; Andriessen, J.; Dam, J.A.M.; Ast, van M.A.; Hartog, den H.W.; Bijvank, E.J.
1979-01-01
The electric field gradients (EFG) Vzz and Vxx-Vyy at the nucleus of 157Gd3+ have been determined, using ENDOR, for CaF2:Gd3+M+(M+=Li,K+) and SrCl2:Gd3+Na+. The results are compared with the electronic zero-field splitting parameters of Gd3+, B20 and B22 for the same sites. A simple relation between
Schwarz, C.; Cox, T.; van Engeland, T.; van Oevelen, D.; van Belzen, J.; van de Koppel, J.; Soetaert, K.; Bouma, T. J.; Meire, P.; Temmerman, S.
2017-10-01
A short-term intensive measurement campaign focused on flow, turbulence, suspended particle concentration, floc dynamics and settling velocities were carried out in a brackish intertidal creek draining into the main channel of the Scheldt estuary. We compare in situ estimates of settling velocities between a laser diffraction (LISST) and an acoustic Doppler technique (ADV) at 20 and 40 cm above bottom (cmab). The temporal variation in settling velocity estimated were compared over one tidal cycle, with a maximum flood velocity of 0.46 m s-1, a maximum horizontal ebb velocity of 0.35 m s-1 and a maximum water depth at high water slack of 2.41 m. Results suggest that flocculation processes play an important role in controlling sediment transport processes in the measured intertidal creek. During high-water slack, particles flocculated to sizes up to 190 μm, whereas at maximum flood and maximum ebb tidal stage floc sizes only reached up to 55 μm and 71 μm respectively. These large differences indicate that flocculation processes are mainly governed by turbulence-induced shear rate. In this study, we specifically recognize the importance of along-channel gradients that places constraints on the application of the acoustic Doppler technique due to conflicts with the underlying assumptions. Along-channel gradients were assessed by additional measurements at a second location and scaling arguments which could be used as an indication whether the Reynolds-flux method is applicable. We further show the potential impact of along-channel advection of flocs out of equilibrium with local hydrodynamics influencing overall floc sizes.
New mechanism of cluster-field evaporation in rf breakdown
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Z. Insepov
2004-12-01
Full Text Available Using a simple field evaporation model and molecular dynamics simulations of nanoscale copper tip evolution in a high electric field gradient typical for linacs, we have studied a new mechanism for rf-field evaporation. The mechanism consists of simultaneous (collective field evaporation of a large group of tip atoms in high-gradient fields. Thus, evaporation of large clusters is energetically more favorable when compared with the conventional, “one-by-one” mechanism. The studied mechanism could also be considered a new mechanism for the triggering of rf-vacuum breakdown. This paper discusses the mechanism and the experimental data available for electric field evaporation of field-emission microscopy tips.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cordula V Mora
Full Text Available It has long been thought that birds may use the Earth's magnetic field not only as a compass for direction finding, but that it could also provide spatial information for position determination analogous to a map during navigation. Since magnetic field intensity varies systematically with latitude and theoretically could also provide longitudinal information during position determination, birds using a magnetic map should be able to discriminate magnetic field intensity cues in the laboratory. Here we demonstrate a novel behavioural paradigm requiring homing pigeons to identify the direction of a magnetic field intensity gradient in a "virtual magnetic map" during a spatial conditioning task. Not only were the pigeons able to detect the direction of the intensity gradient, but they were even able to discriminate upward versus downward movement on the gradient by differentiating between increasing and decreasing intensity values. Furthermore, the pigeons typically spent more than half of the 15 second sampling period in front of the feeder associated with the rewarded gradient direction indicating that they required only several seconds to make the correct choice. Our results therefore demonstrate for the first time that pigeons not only can detect the presence and absence of magnetic anomalies, as previous studies had shown, but are even able to detect and respond to changes in magnetic field intensity alone, including the directionality of such changes, in the context of spatial orientation within an experimental arena. This opens up the possibility for systematic and detailed studies of how pigeons could use magnetic intensity cues during position determination as well as how intensity is perceived and where it is processed in the brain.
Magnetoelectric Transverse Gradient Sensor with High Detection Sensitivity and Low Gradient Noise.
Zhang, Mingji; Or, Siu Wing
2017-10-25
We report, theoretically and experimentally, the realization of a high detection performance in a novel magnetoelectric (ME) transverse gradient sensor based on the large ME effect and the magnetic field gradient (MFG) technique in a pair of magnetically-biased, electrically-shielded, and mechanically-enclosed ME composites having a transverse orientation and an axial separation. The output voltage of the gradient sensor is directly obtained from the transverse MFG-induced difference in ME voltage between the two ME composites and is calibrated against transverse MFGs to give a high detection sensitivity of 0.4-30.6 V/(T/m), a strong common-mode magnetic field noise rejection rate of gradient noise of 0.16-620 nT/m/ Hz in a broad frequency range of 1 Hz-170 kHz under a small baseline of 35 mm. An analysis of experimental gradient noise spectra obtained in a magnetically-unshielded laboratory environment reveals the domination of the pink (1/ f ) noise, dielectric loss noise, and power-frequency noise below 3 kHz, in addition to the circuit noise above 3 kHz, in the gradient sensor. The high detection performance, together with the added merit of passive and direct ME conversion by the large ME effect in the ME composites, makes the gradient sensor suitable for the passive, direct, and broadband detection of transverse MFGs.
Nogueira d'Eurydice, Marcel; Galvosas, Petrik
2014-11-01
Single-sided NMR systems are becoming a relevant tool in industry and laboratory environments due to their low cost, low maintenance and capacity to evaluate quantity and quality of hydrogen based materials. The performance of such devices has improved significantly over the last decade, providing increased field homogeneity, field strength and even controlled static field gradients. For a class of these devices, the configuration of the permanent magnets provides a linear variation of the magnetic field and can be used in diffusion measurements. However, magnet design depends directly on its application and, according to the purpose, the field homogeneity may significantly be compromised. This may prevent the determination of diffusion properties of fluids based on the natural inhomogeneity of the field using known techniques. This work introduces a new approach that extends the applicability of diffusion-editing CPMG experiments to NMR devices with highly inhomogeneous magnetic fields, which do not vary linearly in space. Herein, we propose a method to determine a custom diffusion kernel based on the gradient distribution, which can be seen as a signature of each NMR device. This new diffusion kernel is then utilised in the 2D inverse Laplace transform (2D ILT) in order to determine diffusion-relaxation correlation maps of homogeneous multi-phasic fluids. The experiments were performed using NMR MObile Lateral Explore (MOLE), which is a single-sided NMR device designed to maximise the volume at the sweet spot with enhanced depth penetration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
HIGH-GRADIENT, HIGH-TRANSFORMER-RATIO, DIELECTRIC WAKE FIELD ACCELERATOR
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hirshfield, Jay L
2012-04-12
The Phase I work reported here responds to DoE'ss stated need "...to develop improved accelerator designs that can provide very high gradient (>200 MV/m for electrons...) acceleration of intense bunches of particles." Omega-P's approach to this goal is through use of a ramped train of annular electron bunches to drive a coaxial dielectric wakefield accelerator (CDWA) structure. This approach is a direct extension of the CDWA concept from acceleration in wake fields caused by a single drive bunch, to the more efficient acceleration that we predict can be realized from a tailored (or ramped) train of several drive bunches. This is possible because of a much higher transformer ratio for the latter. The CDWA structure itself has a number of unique features, including: a high accelerating gradient G, potentially with G > 1 GeV/m; continuous energy coupling from drive to test bunches without transfer structures; inherent transverse focusing forces for particles in the accelerated bunch; highly stable motion of high charge annular drive bunches; acceptable alignment tolerances for a multi-section system. What is new in the present approach is that the coaxial dielectric structure is now to be energized by-not one-but by a short train of ramped annular-shaped drive bunches moving in the outer coaxial channel of the structure. We have shown that this allows acceleration of an electron bunch traveling along the axis in the inner channel with a markedly higher transformer ratio T than for a single drive bunch. As described in this report, the structure will be a GHz-scale prototype with cm-scale transverse dimensions that is expected to confirm principles that can be applied to the design of a future THz-scale high gradient (> 500 MV/m) accelerator with mm-scale transverse dimensions. We show here a new means to significantly increase the transformer ratio T of the device, and thereby to significantly improve its suitability as a flexible and effective component in
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Olena Dubovyk
2016-07-01
Full Text Available Currently there is a lack of quantitative information regarding the driving factors of vegetation dynamics in post-Soviet Central Asia. Insufficient knowledge also exists concerning vegetation variability across sub-humid to arid climatic gradients as well as vegetation response to different land uses, from natural rangelands to intensively irrigated croplands. In this study, we analyzed the environmental drivers of vegetation dynamics in five Central Asian countries by coupling key vegetation parameter “overall greenness” derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI time series data, with its possible factors across various management and climatic gradients. We developed nine generalized least-squares random effect (GLS-RE models to analyze the relative impact of environmental factors on vegetation dynamics. The obtained results quantitatively indicated the extensive control of climatic factors on managed and unmanaged vegetation cover across Central Asia. The most diverse vegetation dynamics response to climatic variables was observed for “intensively managed irrigated croplands”. Almost no differences in response to these variables were detected for managed non-irrigated vegetation and unmanaged (natural vegetation across all countries. Natural vegetation and rainfed non-irrigated crop dynamics were principally associated with temperature and precipitation parameters. Variables related to temperature had the greatest relative effect on irrigated croplands and on vegetation cover within the mountainous zone. Further research should focus on incorporating the socio-economic factors discussed here in a similar analysis.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blum, A.S.; Mancebo, L.
1976-01-01
Direct energy converters for use on controlled fusion reactors utilize electrodes operated at elevated voltages and temperatures. The insulating elements that position these electrodes must support large voltages and under some circumstances large thermal gradients. It is shown that even modest thermal gradients can cause major alterations of the electric-field distribution within the insulating element
Separation Dynamics of Controlled Internal Flow in an Adverse Pressure Gradient
Peterson, C. J.; Vukasinovic, B.; Glezer, A.
2017-11-01
The effects of fluidic actuation on the dynamic evolution of aggressive internal flow separation is investigated at speeds up to M = 0.4 within a constant-width diffuser branching off of a primary flow duct. It is shown that a spanwise array of fluidic actuators upstream of the separation actively controls the flow constriction (and losses) within the diffuser and consequently the local pressure gradient at its entrance. The effectiveness of the actuation, as may be measured by the increased flow rate that is diverted through the diffuser, scales with its flow rate coefficient. In the presence of actuation (0.7% mass fraction), the mass flow rate in the primary duct increases by 10% while the fraction of the diverted mass flow rate in the diffuser increases by more than 45%. The flow dynamics near separation in the absence and presence of actuation are characterized using high speed particle image velocimetry and analyzed using proper orthogonal and spectral decompositions. In particular, the spectral contents of the incipient boundary layer separation are compared in the absence and presence of actuation with emphasis on the changes in local dynamics near separation as the characteristic cross stream scale of the boundary layer increases with separation delay.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Notake, Takashi; Inagaki, Shigeru; Tamura, Naoki
2008-01-01
In the nuclear fusion plasmas, both of thermal energy and particle transport governed by turbulent flow are anomalously enhanced more than neoclassical levels. Thus, to clarify a relationship between the turbulent flow and the anomalous transports has been the most worthwhile work. There are experimental results that the turbulent flow induces various phenomena on transport processes such as non-linearity, transition, hysteresis, multi-branches and non-locality. We are approaching these complicated problems by analyzing not conventional power balance but these phenomena directly. They are recognized as dynamical trajectories in the flux and gradient space and must be a clue to comprehend a physical mechanism of arcane anomalous transport. Especially, to elucidate the mechanism for electron thermal energy transport is critical in the fusion plasma researches because the burning plasmas will be sustained by alpha-particle heating. In large helical device, the dynamical relationships between electron thermal energy fluxes and electron temperature gradients are investigated by using modulated electron cyclotron resonance heating and modern electron cyclotron emission diagnostic systems. Some trajectories such as hysteresis loop or line segments with steep slope which represent non-linear property are observed in the experiment. (author)
Electric field gradient and electronic structure of linear-bonded halide compounds
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ellis, D.E.; Guenzburger, D.J.R.; Jansen, H.B.
1983-01-01
The importance of covalent metal-ligand interactions in determining hyperfine fields and energy-level structure of MX 2 linear-bonded halide compounds has been studied, using the self-consistent local density molecular orbital approach. Results for FeCl 2 , FeBr 2 and EuCl 2 obtained using the Discrete Variational Method with numerical basis sets are presented. The high spin configuration for the iron compounds, first predicted by Berkowitz, et al., is verified; a successful comparison with gas phase photoelectron spectra is made. Variation of the predicted electric field gradient with bond length R is found to be rapid; the need for an EXAFS measurement of R for the matrix isolated species and experimental determination of the spin of the EFG is seen to be crucial for more accurate determinations of the sub(57) Fe quadrupole moment. (Author) [pt
Lakhin, V. P.; Ilgisonis, V. I.; Smolyakov, A. I.; Sorokina, E. A.; Marusov, N. A.
2018-01-01
The gradient-drift instabilities of partially magnetized plasmas in plasma devices with crossed electric and magnetic fields are investigated in the framework of the two-fluid model with finite electron temperature in an inhomogeneous magnetic field. The finite electron Larmor radius (FLR) effects are also included via the gyroviscosity tensor taking into account the magnetic field gradient. This model correctly describes the electron dynamics for k⊥ρe>1 in the sense of Padé approximants (here, k⊥ and ρe are the wavenumber perpendicular to the magnetic field and the electron Larmor radius, respectively). The local dispersion relation for electrostatic plasma perturbations with the frequency in the range between the ion and electron cyclotron frequencies and propagating strictly perpendicular to the magnetic field is derived. The dispersion relation includes the effects of the equilibrium E ×B electron current, finite ion velocity, electron inertia, electron FLR, magnetic field gradients, and Debye length effects. The necessary and sufficient condition of stability is derived, and the stability boundary is found. It is shown that, in general, the electron inertia and FLR effects stabilize the short-wavelength perturbations. In some cases, such effects completely suppress the high-frequency short-wavelength modes so that only the long-wavelength low-frequency (with respect to the lower-hybrid frequency) modes remain unstable.
Magnetoelectric Transverse Gradient Sensor with High Detection Sensitivity and Low Gradient Noise
Zhang, Mingji; Or, Siu Wing
2017-01-01
We report, theoretically and experimentally, the realization of a high detection performance in a novel magnetoelectric (ME) transverse gradient sensor based on the large ME effect and the magnetic field gradient (MFG) technique in a pair of magnetically-biased, electrically-shielded, and mechanically-enclosed ME composites having a transverse orientation and an axial separation. The output voltage of the gradient sensor is directly obtained from the transverse MFG-induced difference in ME vo...
Uranium isotope separation by magnetic field gradient and visible light acting in a liquid medium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Borges, O.N.
1985-01-01
The literature shows that excited uranyl can assume the ''singlet'' and ''triplet'' states, with different magnetic properties. In an aqueous medium, without organic complexity (to hamper dismutation), the action of light reduces uranyl to U(V), which is a radical -ion that can assume the ''doublet'' and ''quartet'' states, also with different magnetic properties. Due to the different constants of velocity of uranium 235 and 238 in the reduction of excited uranyl and in the oxidation of U(V) to UO 2 2+ , there is the probability of forming an isotopic gradient, in the aqueous solution, subjected to a magnetic field gradient, with consequent appropriate extraction. 6 refs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sen, P.N.; Andre, A.; Axelrod, S.
1999-01-01
We study the influence of restriction on Carr - Purcell - Meiboom - Gill spin echoes response of magnetization of spins diffusing in a bounded region in the presence of a constant magnetic field gradient. Depending on three main length scales: L S pore size, L G dephasing length and L D diffusion length during half-echo time, three main regimes of decay have been identified: free, localization and motionally averaging regime. In localization regime, the decay exponent depends on a fractional power (2/3) of the gradient, denoting a strong breakdown of the second cumulant or the Gaussian phase approximation (GPA). In the other two regimes, the exponent depends on the gradient squared, and the GPA holds. We find that the transition from the localization to the motionally averaging regime happens when the magnetic field gradients approach special values, corresponding to branch points of the eigenvalues. Transition from one regime to another as a function of echo number for a certain range of parameters is discussed. In this transition region, the signal shows large oscillations with echo number. For large n, asymptotic behavior sets in as a function of n for the decay exponent per echo. This is true for all values of the parameters L S , L G , and L D . copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics
Evaluation of the Field Gradient Lattice Detector
AUTHOR|(CDS)2072983
A novel Micro Pattern Gas Detector, named the Field Gradient Lattice Detector, has been implemented using technologies available to CERN’s Printed Circuit Workshop. Numerous prototypes based on various materials were constructed in different geometries and their gain performance has been studied using 55Fe and 109Cd X-ray sources in Argon-CO2 gas mixtures. Two axis (2D) prototype structures have been shown to provide stable gains of around 1000 while a 3D design, based on the same polyimide foils used in other MPGD elements, holds a gain of 5000 for 8.9 keV X-rays even at high rates of 22 kHz/mm2. At a gain of 3100, the device has been tested up to 1 MHz/mm2 and shows no signs of degradation in performance. The energy resolution of the 3D-in-polyimide is modest, around 40% for 5.9 keV X-rays and 30% if the source is collimated indicating a variation in gain over the 3x3 cm2 active area. Having the most promise for future applications, the 3D-in-polyimide design has been selected for testing with a custom-bu...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jasinski, A.; Skorka, T.; Kwiecinski, S. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland)
1994-12-31
To obtain three-dimensional images in the computerized tomography a gradient of magnetic field should be generated. In this paper the analytical as well as computerized calculations of magnetic coils for such purposes are presented. 4 refs, 8 figs.
Measurement of time dependent fields in high gradient superconducting quadrupoles for the Tevatron
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lamm, M.J.; Coulter, K.; Gourlay, S.; Jaffery, T.S.
1990-10-01
Magnetic field measurements have been performed on prototype and production magnets from two high gradient superconducting quadrupoles designs. One design is a double shell quadrupole with 36 strand Rutherford cable. The other design is a single shell quadrupole with 5 individually monolithic strands connected in series. These magnets have similar bore diameters and cable dimensions. However, there are significant differences between the two designs, as well as differences between prototype and production magnets within each design, with regard to Cu to superconductor ratio, filament diameter and filament spacing to strand diameter. The time dependence of fixed currents of the measured magnetic fields is discussed. 9 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab
Kim, Joo-Hyun; Han, Singu; Jeong, Heejeong; Jang, Hayeong; Baek, Seolhee; Hu, Junbeom; Lee, Myungkyun; Choi, Byungwoo; Lee, Hwa Sung
2017-03-22
A thermal gradient distribution was applied to a substrate during the growth of a vacuum-deposited n-type organic semiconductor (OSC) film prepared from N,N'-bis(2-ethylhexyl)-1,7-dicyanoperylene-3,4:9,10-bis(dicarboxyimide) (PDI-CN2), and the electrical performances of the films deployed in organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) were characterized. The temperature gradient at the surface was controlled by tilting the substrate, which varied the temperature one-dimensionally between the heated bottom substrate and the cooled upper substrate. The vacuum-deposited OSC molecules diffused and rearranged on the surface according to the substrate temperature gradient, producing directional crystalline and grain structures in the PDI-CN2 film. The morphological and crystalline structures of the PDI-CN2 thin films grown under a vertical temperature gradient were dramatically enhanced, comparing with the structures obtained from either uniformly heated films or films prepared under a horizontally applied temperature gradient. The field effect mobilities of the PDI-CN2-FETs prepared using the vertically applied temperature gradient were as high as 0.59 cm 2 V -1 s -1 , more than a factor of 2 higher than the mobility of 0.25 cm 2 V -1 s -1 submitted to conventional thermal annealing and the mobility of 0.29 cm 2 V -1 s -1 from the horizontally applied temperature gradient.
Allmendinger, Fabian; Blümler, Peter; Doll, Michael; Grasdijk, Oliver; Heil, Werner; Jungmann, Klaus; Karpuk, Sergej; Krause, Hans-Joachim; Offenhäuser, Andreas; Repetto, Maricel; Schmidt, Ulrich; Sobolev, Yuri; Tullney, Kathlyne; Willmann, Lorenz; Zimmer, Stefan
2017-01-01
We report on precise measurements of magnetic field gradients extracted from transverse relaxation rates of precessing spin samples. The experimental approach is based on the free precession of gaseous, nuclear spin polarized He-3 and (12)9Xe atoms in a spherical cell inside a magnetic guiding field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, Chengmingyue; Gan, Xiaosong; Li, Xiangping; Gu, Min, E-mail: mgu@swin.edu.au [Centre for Micro-Photonics, Faculty of Science, Engineering and Technology, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, Victoria 3122 (Australia)
2015-09-21
We quantify the dynamic microscale temperature gradient in a gold nanorod solution using quantum-dot-based microscopic fluorescence nanothermometry. By incorporating CdSe quantum dots into the solution as a nanothermometer, precise temperature mapping with diffraction-limited spatial resolution and sub-degree temperature resolution is achieved. The acquired data on heat generation and dissipation show an excellent agreement with theoretical simulations. This work reveals an effective approach for noninvasive temperature regulation with localized nanoheaters in microfluidic environment.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kolesnikov, R.A.; Krommes, J.A.
2004-01-01
The transition to collisionless ion-temperature-gradient-driven plasma turbulence is considered by applying dynamical systems theory to a model with ten degrees of freedom. Study of a four-dimensional center manifold predicts a ''Dimits shift'' of the threshold for turbulence due to the excitation of zonal flows and establishes the exact value of that shift in terms of physical parameters. For insight into fundamental physical mechanisms, the method provides a viable alternative to large simulations
Mora, Cordula V.; Bingman, Verner P.
2013-01-01
It has long been thought that birds may use the Earth's magnetic field not only as a compass for direction finding, but that it could also provide spatial information for position determination analogous to a map during navigation. Since magnetic field intensity varies systematically with latitude and theoretically could also provide longitudinal information during position determination, birds using a magnetic map should be able to discriminate magnetic field intensity cues in the laboratory. Here we demonstrate a novel behavioural paradigm requiring homing pigeons to identify the direction of a magnetic field intensity gradient in a “virtual magnetic map” during a spatial conditioning task. Not only were the pigeons able to detect the direction of the intensity gradient, but they were even able to discriminate upward versus downward movement on the gradient by differentiating between increasing and decreasing intensity values. Furthermore, the pigeons typically spent more than half of the 15 second sampling period in front of the feeder associated with the rewarded gradient direction indicating that they required only several seconds to make the correct choice. Our results therefore demonstrate for the first time that pigeons not only can detect the presence and absence of magnetic anomalies, as previous studies had shown, but are even able to detect and respond to changes in magnetic field intensity alone, including the directionality of such changes, in the context of spatial orientation within an experimental arena. This opens up the possibility for systematic and detailed studies of how pigeons could use magnetic intensity cues during position determination as well as how intensity is perceived and where it is processed in the brain. PMID:24039812
Adiabatic theory in regions of strong field gradients. [in magnetosphere
Whipple, E. C.; Northrop, T. G.; Birmingham, T. J.
1986-01-01
The theory for the generalized first invariant for adiabatic motion of charged particles in regions where there are large gradients in magnetic or electric fields is developed. The general condition for an invariant to exist in such regions is that the potential well in which the particle oscillates change its shape slowly as the particle drifts. It is shown how the Kruskal (1962) procedure can be applied to obtain expressions for the invariant and for drift velocities that are asymptotic in a smallness parameter epsilon. The procedure is illustrated by obtaining the invariant and drift velocities for particles traversing a perpendicular shock, and the generalized invariant is compared with the magnetic moment, and the drift orbits with the actual orbits, for a particular case. In contrast to the magnetic moment, the generalized first invariant is better for large gyroradii (large kinetic energies) than for small gyroradii. Expressions for the invariant when an electrostatic potential jump is imposed across the perpendicular shock, and when the particle traverses a rotational shear layer with a small normal component of the magnetic field are given.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Albertazzi, B. [LULI, École Polytechnique, CNRS, CEA, UPMC, 91128 Palaiseau (France); INRS-EMT, 1650 bd L. Boulet, J3X1S2, Varennes, Québec (Canada); Graduate School of Engineering, University of Osaka, Suita, Osaka 565-087 (Japan); Chen, S. N.; Fuchs, J., E-mail: julien.fuchs@polytechnique.fr [LULI, École Polytechnique, CNRS, CEA, UPMC, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Institute of Applied Physics, 46 Ulyanov Street, 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Antici, P. [INRS-EMT, 1650 bd L. Boulet, J3X1S2, Varennes, Québec (Canada); Dept. SBAI, Universita di Roma “La Sapienza,” Via A. Scarpa 14, 00161 Rome (Italy); Böker, J.; Swantusch, M.; Willi, O. [Institut für Laser-und Plasmaphysik, Heinrich-Heine-Universität, Düsseldorf (Germany); Borghesi, M. [School of Mathematics and Physics, The Queen' s University, Belfast (United Kingdom); Breil, J.; Feugeas, J. L.; Nicolaï, Ph.; Tikhonchuk, V. T.; D' Humières, E. [CELIA, University of Bordeaux - CNRS - CEA, 33405 Talence (France); Dervieux, V.; Nakatsutsumi, M.; Romagnagni, L. [LULI, École Polytechnique, CNRS, CEA, UPMC, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Lancia, L. [Dept. SBAI, Universita di Roma “La Sapienza,” Via A. Scarpa 14, 00161 Rome (Italy); Shepherd, R. [LLNL, East Av., Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Sentoku, Y. [Department of Physics, University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada 89557-0058 (United States); Starodubtsev, M. [Institute of Applied Physics, 46 Ulyanov Street, 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); and others
2015-12-15
The dynamics of self-generated magnetic B-fields produced following the interaction of a high contrast, high intensity (I > 10{sup 19 }W cm{sup −2}) laser beam with thin (3 μm thick) solid (Al or Au) targets is investigated experimentally and numerically. Two main sources drive the growth of B-fields on the target surfaces. B-fields are first driven by laser-generated hot electron currents that relax over ∼10–20 ps. Over longer timescales, the hydrodynamic expansion of the bulk of the target into vacuum also generates B-field induced by non-collinear gradients of density and temperature. The laser irradiation of the target front side strongly localizes the energy deposition at the target front, in contrast to the target rear side, which is heated by fast electrons over a much larger area. This induces an asymmetry in the hydrodynamic expansion between the front and rear target surfaces, and consequently the associated B-fields are found strongly asymmetric. The sole long-lasting (>30 ps) B-fields are the ones growing on the target front surface, where they remain of extremely high strength (∼8–10 MG). These B-fields have been recently put by us in practical use for focusing laser-accelerated protons [B. Albertazzi et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86, 043502 (2015)]; here we analyze in detail their dynamics and structure.
Mapping and correcting respiration-induced field changes in the brain using fluorine field probes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Mads; Madsen, Kristoffer; Hanson, Lars G.
2014-01-01
strength values from signal phase by linear fitting. Ahead of imaging, the field probe positions were determined for each subject, by applying known gradients in all three dimensions while measuring with the field probes. Experiments: Measurements were performed in 4 male subjects instructed to hold...... software was updated with f0 and first order shim values, before the acquisition of every volume. Evaluation: To assess whether the dynamic field changes were captured by the field probe data, the field probe fitted fields were subtracted from the scanner B0 maps to model shimming. We then assessed whether......Purpose. Breathing induced dynamic B0 field perturbations in the head can lead to artefacts in ultra-high field MR by causing line broadening in spectroscopy and signal dropout, ghosting, displacement artifacts and blurring in imaging. It has recently been proposed to continuously stabilize...
Chen, Weitian; Sica, Christopher T; Meyer, Craig H
2008-11-01
Off-resonance effects can cause image blurring in spiral scanning and various forms of image degradation in other MRI methods. Off-resonance effects can be caused by both B0 inhomogeneity and concomitant gradient fields. Previously developed off-resonance correction methods focus on the correction of a single source of off-resonance. This work introduces a computationally efficient method of correcting for B0 inhomogeneity and concomitant gradients simultaneously. The method is a fast alternative to conjugate phase reconstruction, with the off-resonance phase term approximated by Chebyshev polynomials. The proposed algorithm is well suited for semiautomatic off-resonance correction, which works well even with an inaccurate or low-resolution field map. The proposed algorithm is demonstrated using phantom and in vivo data sets acquired by spiral scanning. Semiautomatic off-resonance correction alone is shown to provide a moderate amount of correction for concomitant gradient field effects, in addition to B0 imhomogeneity effects. However, better correction is provided by the proposed combined method. The best results were produced using the semiautomatic version of the proposed combined method.
Ponderomotive force effects on temperature-gradient-driven instabilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sundaram, A.K.; Hershkowitz, N.
1992-01-01
The modification of temperature-gradient-driven instabilities due to the presence of nonuniform radio-frequency fields near the ion cyclotron frequency is investigated in the linear regime. Employing the fluid theory, it is shown that the induced field line compression caused by ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) fields makes the net parallel compressibility positive, and thus provides a stabilizing influence on the ion-temperature-gradient-driven mode for an appropriately tailored profile of radio-frequency (rf) pressure. Concomitantly, the radial ponderomotive force generates an additional contribution via coupling between the perturbed fluid motion and the equilibrium ponderomotive force and this effect plays the role of dissipation to enhance or decrease the growth of temperature-gradient-driven modes depending upon the sign of rf pressure gradients. For decreased growth of temperature-gradient-driven instabilities, the plasma density gradients and rf pressure gradients must have opposite signs while enhancement in growth arises when both gradients have the same sign. Finally, the kinetic effects associated with these modes are briefly discussed
江原, 幸雄
2009-01-01
Shallow ground temperatures such as 1m depth temperature have been measured to delineate thermal anomalies of geothermal fields and also to estimate heat discharge rates from geothermal fields. As a result, a close linear relation between 1m depth temperature and average geothermal gradient at 75cm depth has been recognized in many geothermal fields and was used to estimate conductive heat discharge rates. However, such a linear relation may show that the shallow thermal regime in geothermal ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mitamura, Yoshinori; Okamoto, Eiji
2015-01-01
This study was carried out to clarify the effect of a high gradient magnetic field on pressure characteristics of blood in a hollow fiber membrane oxygenator in a solenoid coil by means of numerical analysis. Deoxygenated erythrocytes are paramagnetic, and oxygenated erythrocytes are diamagnetic. Blood changes its magnetic susceptibility depending on whether it is carrying oxygen or not. Motion of blood was analyzed by solving the continuous equation and the Navier–Stokes equation. It was confirmed that oxygenation of deoxygenated blood in the downstream side of the applied magnetic field was effective for pressure rise in a non-uniform magnetic field. The pressure rise was enhanced greatly by an increase in magnetic field intensity. The results suggest that a membrane oxygenator works as an actuator and there is a possibility of self-circulation of blood through an oxygenator in a non-uniform magnetic field. - Highlights: • Effects of a gradient magnetic field on erythrocytes in an oxygenator were analyzed. • Blood changes magnetic susceptibility depending on if it is carrying oxygen or not. • Oxygenation of deoxygenated blood is effective for pressure rise in a magnetic field. • A membrane oxygenator works as an actuator. • There is a possibility of self-circulation of blood through an oxygenator
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mitamura, Yoshinori, E-mail: ymitamura@par.odn.ne.jp; Okamoto, Eiji, E-mail: okamoto@tspirit.tokai-u.jp
2015-04-15
This study was carried out to clarify the effect of a high gradient magnetic field on pressure characteristics of blood in a hollow fiber membrane oxygenator in a solenoid coil by means of numerical analysis. Deoxygenated erythrocytes are paramagnetic, and oxygenated erythrocytes are diamagnetic. Blood changes its magnetic susceptibility depending on whether it is carrying oxygen or not. Motion of blood was analyzed by solving the continuous equation and the Navier–Stokes equation. It was confirmed that oxygenation of deoxygenated blood in the downstream side of the applied magnetic field was effective for pressure rise in a non-uniform magnetic field. The pressure rise was enhanced greatly by an increase in magnetic field intensity. The results suggest that a membrane oxygenator works as an actuator and there is a possibility of self-circulation of blood through an oxygenator in a non-uniform magnetic field. - Highlights: • Effects of a gradient magnetic field on erythrocytes in an oxygenator were analyzed. • Blood changes magnetic susceptibility depending on if it is carrying oxygen or not. • Oxygenation of deoxygenated blood is effective for pressure rise in a magnetic field. • A membrane oxygenator works as an actuator. • There is a possibility of self-circulation of blood through an oxygenator.
High Gradient Accelerator Research
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Temkin, Richard
2016-01-01
The goal of the MIT program of research on high gradient acceleration is the development of advanced acceleration concepts that lead to a practical and affordable next generation linear collider at the TeV energy level. Other applications, which are more near-term, include accelerators for materials processing; medicine; defense; mining; security; and inspection. The specific goals of the MIT program are: • Pioneering theoretical research on advanced structures for high gradient acceleration, including photonic structures and metamaterial structures; evaluation of the wakefields in these advanced structures • Experimental research to demonstrate the properties of advanced structures both in low-power microwave cold test and high-power, high-gradient test at megawatt power levels • Experimental research on microwave breakdown at high gradient including studies of breakdown phenomena induced by RF electric fields and RF magnetic fields; development of new diagnostics of the breakdown process • Theoretical research on the physics and engineering features of RF vacuum breakdown • Maintaining and improving the Haimson / MIT 17 GHz accelerator, the highest frequency operational accelerator in the world, a unique facility for accelerator research • Providing the Haimson / MIT 17 GHz accelerator facility as a facility for outside users • Active participation in the US DOE program of High Gradient Collaboration, including joint work with SLAC and with Los Alamos National Laboratory; participation of MIT students in research at the national laboratories • Training the next generation of Ph. D. students in the field of accelerator physics.
EDQNM model of a passive scalar with a uniform mean gradient
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Herr, S.; Wang, L.; Collins, L.R.
1996-01-01
Dynamic equations for the scalar autocorrelation and scalar-velocity cross correlation spectra have been derived for a passive scalar with a uniform mean gradient using the Eddy Damped Quasi Normal Markovian (EDQNM) theory. The presence of a mean gradient in the scalar field makes all correlations involving the scalar axisymmetric with respect to the axis pointing in the direction of the mean gradient. Equivalently, all scalar spectra will be functions of the wave number k and the cosine of the azimuthal angle designated as μ. In spite of this complication, it is shown that the cross correlation vector can be completely characterized by a single scalar function Q(k). The scalar autocorrelation spectrum, in contrast, has an unknown dependence on μ. However, this dependency can be expressed as an infinite sum of Legendre polynomials of μ, as first suggested by Herring [Phys. Fluids 17, 859 (1974)]. Furthermore, since the scalar field is initially zero, terms beyond the second order of the Legendre expansion are shown to be exactly zero. The energy, scalar autocorrelation, and scalar-velocity cross correlation were solved numerically from the EDQNM equations and compared to results from direct numerical simulations. The results show that the EDQNM theory is effective in describing single-point and spectral statistics of a passive scalar in the presence of a mean gradient. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michael D O'Connell
2015-04-01
Full Text Available In a developing embryo, the spatial distribution of a signaling molecule, or a morphogen gradient, has been hypothesized to carry positional information to pattern tissues. Recent measurements of morphogen distribution have allowed us to subject this hypothesis to rigorous physical testing. In the early Drosophila embryo, measurements of the morphogen Dorsal, which is a transcription factor responsible for initiating the earliest zygotic patterns along the dorsal-ventral axis, have revealed a gradient that is too narrow to pattern the entire axis. In this study, we use a mathematical model of Dorsal dynamics, fit to experimental data, to determine the ability of the Dorsal gradient to regulate gene expression across the entire dorsal-ventral axis. We found that two assumptions are required for the model to match experimental data in both Dorsal distribution and gene expression patterns. First, we assume that Cactus, an inhibitor that binds to Dorsal and prevents it from entering the nuclei, must itself be present in the nuclei. And second, we assume that fluorescence measurements of Dorsal reflect both free Dorsal and Cactus-bound Dorsal. Our model explains the dynamic behavior of the Dorsal gradient at lateral and dorsal positions of the embryo, the ability of Dorsal to regulate gene expression across the entire dorsal-ventral axis, and the robustness of gene expression to stochastic effects. Our results have a general implication for interpreting fluorescence-based measurements of signaling molecules.
Yu, Fengyi; Wei, Yanhong
2018-05-01
The effects of surface tension anisotropy and welding parameters on initial instability dynamics during gas tungsten arc welding of an Al-alloy are investigated by a quantitative phase-field model. The results show that the surface tension anisotropy and welding parameters affect the initial instability dynamics in different ways during welding. The surface tension anisotropy does not influence the solute diffusion process but does affect the stability of the solid/liquid interface during solidification. The welding parameters affect the initial instability dynamics by varying the growth rate and thermal gradient. The incubation time decreases, and the initial wavelength remains stable as the welding speed increases. When welding power increases, the incubation time increases and the initial wavelength slightly increases. Experiments were performed for the same set of welding parameters used in modeling, and the results of the experiments and simulations were in good agreement.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Kortunov, P.; Vasenkov, S.; Kärger, J.; Fé Elía, M.; Perez, M.; Stöcker, M.; Papadopoulos, G. K.; Theodorou, D.; Drescher, B.; McElhiney, G.; Bernauer, B.; Krystl, V.; Kočiřík, Milan; Zikánová, Arlette; Jirglová, Hana; Berger, C.; Gläser, R.; Weitkamp, J.; Hansen, E. W.
2005-01-01
Roč. 23, č. 2 (2005), s. 233-237 ISSN 0730-725X Grant - others:TROCAT project - European Community(DE) G5RD-CT-2001-00520 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : pulsed-field gradient * nuclear magnetic resonance * fluid catalytic cracking catalyst Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.361, year: 2005
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ertas, Mehmet [Department of Physics, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey); Institute of Science, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey); Deviren, Bayram [Department of Physics, Nevsehir University, 50300 Nevsehir (Turkey); Keskin, Mustafa, E-mail: keskin@erciyes.edu.tr [Department of Physics, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)
2012-03-15
The dynamic phase transitions are studied in the kinetic spin-2 Blume-Capel model under a time-dependent oscillating magnetic field using the effective-field theory with correlations. The effective-field dynamic equation for the average magnetization is derived by employing the Glauber transition rates and the phases in the system are obtained by solving this dynamic equation. The nature (first- or second-order) of the dynamic phase transition is characterized by investigating the thermal behavior of the dynamic magnetization and the dynamic phase transition temperatures are obtained. The dynamic phase diagrams are constructed in the reduced temperature and magnetic field amplitude plane and are of seven fundamental types. Phase diagrams contain the paramagnetic (P), ferromagnetic-2 (F{sub 2}) and three coexistence or mixed phase regions, namely the F{sub 2}+P, F{sub 1}+P and F{sub 2}+F{sub 1}+P, which strongly depend on the crystal-field interaction (D) parameter. The system also exhibits the dynamic tricritical behavior. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dynamic phase transitions are studied in spin-2 BC model using EFT. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dynamic phase diagrams are constructed in (T/zJ, h/zJ) plane. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Seven fundamental types of dynamic phase diagrams are found in the system. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer System exhibits dynamic tricritical behavior.
The stellar metallicity gradients in galaxy discs in a cosmological scenario
Tissera, Patricia B.; Machado, Rubens E. G.; Sanchez-Blazquez, Patricia; Pedrosa, Susana E.; Sánchez, Sebastián F.; Snaith, Owain; Vilchez, Jose
2016-08-01
Context. The stellar metallicity gradients of disc galaxies provide information on disc assembly, star formation processes, and chemical evolution. They also might store information on dynamical processes that could affect the distribution of chemical elements in the gas phase and the stellar components. Understanding their joint effects within a hierarchical clustering scenario is of paramount importance. Aims: We studied the stellar metallicity gradients of simulated discs in a cosmological simulation. We explored the dependence of the stellar metallicity gradients on stellar age and on the size and mass of the stellar discs. Methods: We used a catalogue of galaxies with disc components selected from a cosmological hydrodynamical simulation performed including a physically motivated supernova feedback and chemical evolution. Disc components were defined based on angular momentum and binding energy criteria. The metallicity profiles were estimated for stars with different ages. We confront our numerical findings with results from the Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area (CALIFA) Survey. Results: The simulated stellar discs are found to have metallicity profiles with slopes in global agreement with observations. Low stellar mass galaxies tend to have a larger variety of metallicity slopes. When normalized by the half-mass radius, the stellar metallicity gradients do not show any dependence and the dispersion increases significantly, regardless of the galaxy mass. Galaxies with stellar masses o f around 1010M⊙ show steeper negative metallicity gradients. The stellar metallicity gradients correlate with the half-mass radius. However, the correlation signal is not present when they are normalized by the half-mass radius. Stellar discs with positive age gradients are detected to have negative and positive metallicity gradients, depending on the relative importance of recent star formation activity in the central regions. Conclusions: Our results suggest that inside
Zheng, Wangzhi; Cleveland, Zackary I; Möller, Harald E; Driehuys, Bastiaan
2011-02-01
When hyperpolarized noble gases are brought into the bore of a superconducting magnet for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or spectroscopy studies, the gases must pass through substantial field gradients, which can cause rapid longitudinal relaxation. In this communication, we present a means of calculating this spatially dependent relaxation rate in the fringe field of typical magnets. We then compare these predictions to experimental measurements of (3)He relaxation at various positions near a medium-bore 2-T small animal MRI system. The calculated and measured relaxation rates on the central axis of the magnet agree well and show a maximum (3)He relaxation rate of 3.83×10(-3) s(-1) (T(1)=4.4 min) at a distance of 47 cm from the magnet isocenter. We also show that if this magnet were self-shielded, its minimum T(1) would drop to 1.2 min. In contrast, a typical self-shielded 1.5-T clinical MRI scanner will induce a minimum on-axis T(1) of 12 min. Additionally, we show that the cylindrically symmetric fields of these magnets enable gradient-induced relaxation to be calculated using only knowledge of the on-axis longitudinal field, which can either be measured directly or calculated from a simple field model. Thus, while most MRI magnets employ complex and proprietary current configurations, we show that their fringe fields and the resulting gradient-induced relaxation are well approximated by simple solenoid models. Finally, our modeling also demonstrates that relaxation rates can increase by nearly an order of magnitude at radial distances equivalent to the solenoid radius. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wang, Qingdong; Li, Yuzhi; Ma, Qingyu; Guo, Gepu; Tu, Juan; Zhang, Dong
2018-01-01
In order to improve the capability of particle trapping close to the source plane, theoretical and experimental studies on near-field multiple traps of paraxial acoustic vortices (AVs) with a strengthened acoustic gradient force (AGF) generated by a sector transducer array were conducted. By applying the integration of point source radiation, numerical simulations for the acoustic fields generated by the sector transducer array were conducted and compared with those produced by the circular transducer array. It was proved that strengthened AGFs of near-field multiple AVs with higher peak pressures and smaller vortex radii could be produced by the sector transducer array with a small topological charge. The axial distributions of the equivalent potential gradient indicated that the AGFs of paraxial AVs in the near field were much higher than those in the far field, and the distances at the near-field vortex antinodes were also proved to be the ideal trapping positions with relatively higher AGFs. With the established 8-channel AV generation system, theoretical studies were also verified by the experimental measurements of pressure and phase for AVs with various topological charges. The formation of near-field multiple paraxial AVs was verified by the cross-sectional circular pressure distributions with perfect phase spirals around central pressure nulls, and was also proved by the vortex nodes and antinodes along the center axis. The favorable results demonstrated the feasibility of generating near-field multiple traps of paraxial AVs with strengthened AGF using the sector transducer array, and suggested the potential applications of close-range particle trapping in biomedical engineering.
Wang, Y; Yin, D C; Liu, Y M; Shi, J Z; Lu, H M; Shi, Z H; Qian, A R; Shang, P
2011-03-01
A high-field superconducting magnet can provide both high-magnetic fields and large-field gradients, which can be used as a special environment for research or practical applications in materials processing, life science studies, physical and chemical reactions, etc. To make full use of a superconducting magnet, shared instruments (the operating platform, sample holders, temperature controller, and observation system) must be prepared as prerequisites. This paper introduces the design of a set of sample holders and a temperature controller in detail with an emphasis on validating the performance of the force and temperature sensors in the high-magnetic field.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kang Ma
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Coherent gradient sensing (CGS method can be used to measure the slope of a reflective surface, and has the merits of full-field, non-contact, and real-time measurement. In this study, the thermal stress field of thermal barrier coating (TBC structures is measured by CGS method. Two kinds of powders were sprayed onto Ni-based alloy using a plasma spraying method to obtain two groups of film–substrate specimens. The specimens were then heated with an oxy-acetylene flame. The resulting thermal mismatch between the film and substrate led to out-of-plane deformation of the specimen. The deformation was measured by the reflective CGS method and the thermal stress field of the structure was obtained through calibration with the help of finite element analysis. Both the experiment and numerical results showed that the thermal stress field of TBC structures can be successfully measured by CGS method.
Dosimetry and clinical implementation of dynamic wedge
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Klein, Eric E.; Low, Daniel A.; Meigooni, Ali S.; Purdy, James A.
1995-01-01
Purpose: Wedge-shaped isodoses are desired in a number of clinical situations. Physical wedge filters have provided nominal angled isodoses with dosimetric consequences of beam hardening, increased peripheral dosing, nonidealized gradients at deep depths, along with the practical consequences of filter handling and placement problems. Dynamic wedging uses a combination of a moving jaw and changing dose rate to achieve angled isodoses. The clinical implementation of dynamic wedge and an accompanying quality assurance program are discussed in detail. Methods and Materials: The accelerator at our facility has two photon energies (6 MV and 18 MV), currently with dynamic wedge angles of 15 deg. , 30 deg. , 45 deg. , and 60 deg. . The segmented treatment tables (STT) that drive the jaw in concert with a changing dose rate are unique for field sizes ranging from 4.0 cm to 20.0 cm in 05 cm steps, resulting in 256 STTs. Transmission wedge factors were measured for each STT with an ion chamber. Isodose profiles were accumulated with film after dose conversion. For treatment-planning purposes, d max orthogonal dose profiles were measured for open and dynamic fields. Physical filters were assigned empirically via the ratio of open and wedge profiles. Results: A nonlinear relationship with wedge factor and field size was found. The factors were found to be independent of the stationary field setting or second order blocking. Dynamic wedging provided more consistent gradients across the field compared with physical filters. Percent depth doses were found to be closer to open field. The created physical filters provided planned isodoses that closely resembled measured isodoses. Comparative isodose plans show improvement with dynamic wedging. Conclusions: Dynamic weding has practical and dosimetric advantages over physical filters. Table collisions with physical filters are alleviated. Treatment planning has been solved with an empirical solution. Dynamic wedge is a positive
Richard V. Pouyat; Margaret M. Carreiro
2003-01-01
Using reciprocal leaf litter transplants, we investigated the effects of contrasting environments (urban vs. rural) and intraspecific variations in oak leaf litter quality on mass loss rates and nitrogen (N) dynamics along an urban-rural gradient in the New York City metropolitan area. Differences in earthworm abundances and temperature had previously been documented...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zeng, L., E-mail: zeng@fusion.gat.com; Doyle, E. J.; Rhodes, T. L.; Wang, G.; Sung, C.; Peebles, W. A. [Physics and Astronomy Department, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Bobrek, M. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6006 (United States)
2016-11-15
A new model-based technique for fast estimation of the pedestal electron density gradient has been developed. The technique uses ordinary mode polarization profile reflectometer time delay data and does not require direct profile inversion. Because of its simple data processing, the technique can be readily implemented via a Field-Programmable Gate Array, so as to provide a real-time density gradient estimate, suitable for use in plasma control systems such as envisioned for ITER, and possibly for DIII-D and Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak. The method is based on a simple edge plasma model with a linear pedestal density gradient and low scrape-off-layer density. By measuring reflectometer time delays for three adjacent frequencies, the pedestal density gradient can be estimated analytically via the new approach. Using existing DIII-D profile reflectometer data, the estimated density gradients obtained from the new technique are found to be in good agreement with the actual density gradients for a number of dynamic DIII-D plasma conditions.
König, Jörg; Tschulik, Kristina; Büttner, Lars; Uhlemann, Margitta; Czarske, Jürgen
2013-03-19
To experimentally reveal the correlation between electrodeposited structure and electrolyte convection induced inside the concentration boundary layer, a highly inhomogeneous magnetic field, generated by a magnetized Fe-wire, has been applied to an electrochemical system. The influence of Lorentz and magnetic field gradient force to the local transport phenomena of copper ions has been studied using a novel two-component laser Doppler velocity profile sensor. With this sensor, the electrolyte convection within 500 μm of a horizontally aligned cathode is presented. The electrode-normal two-component velocity profiles below the electrodeposited structure show that electrolyte convection is induced and directed toward the rim of the Fe-wire. The measured deposited structure directly correlates to the observed boundary layer flow. As the local concentration of Cu(2+) ions is enhanced due to the induced convection, maximum deposit thicknesses can be found at the rim of the Fe-wire. Furthermore, a complex boundary layer flow structure was determined, indicating that electrolyte convection of second order is induced. Moreover, the Lorentz force-driven convection rapidly vanishes, while the electrolyte convection induced by the magnetic field gradient force is preserved much longer. The progress for research is the first direct experimental proof of the electrolyte convection inside the concentration boundary layer that correlates to the deposited structure and reveals that the magnetic field gradient force is responsible for the observed structuring effect.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Deviren, Bayram [Department of Physics, Nevsehir University, 50300 Nevsehir (Turkey); Institute of Science, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey); Keskin, Mustafa, E-mail: keskin@erciyes.edu.t [Department of Physics, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)
2010-07-12
Dynamic aspects of a two-sublattice Ising metamagnet on honeycomb, square and hexagonal lattices under the presence of a time-dependent oscillating external magnetic field are studied by using the effective-field theory with correlations. The set of effective-field dynamic equations is derived by employing Glauber transition rates. The phases in the system are obtained by solving these dynamic equations. The thermal behavior of the dynamic staggered magnetization, the hysteresis loop area and correlation are investigated in order to characterize the nature of the dynamic transitions and to obtain dynamic phase transition temperatures. The phase diagrams are constructed in two different planes, and exhibit dynamic tricritical behavior, which strongly depends on interaction parameters. In order to investigate the spin correlation effect on the dynamic phase diagrams of the system, the results are also given within the framework of the dynamic mean-field approximation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Deviren, Bayram; Keskin, Mustafa
2010-01-01
Dynamic aspects of a two-sublattice Ising metamagnet on honeycomb, square and hexagonal lattices under the presence of a time-dependent oscillating external magnetic field are studied by using the effective-field theory with correlations. The set of effective-field dynamic equations is derived by employing Glauber transition rates. The phases in the system are obtained by solving these dynamic equations. The thermal behavior of the dynamic staggered magnetization, the hysteresis loop area and correlation are investigated in order to characterize the nature of the dynamic transitions and to obtain dynamic phase transition temperatures. The phase diagrams are constructed in two different planes, and exhibit dynamic tricritical behavior, which strongly depends on interaction parameters. In order to investigate the spin correlation effect on the dynamic phase diagrams of the system, the results are also given within the framework of the dynamic mean-field approximation.
Flexoelectricity: strain gradient effects in ferroelectrics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ma Wenhui [Department of Physics, Shantou Unversity, Shantou, Guangdong 515063 (China)
2007-12-15
Mechanical strain gradient induced polarization effect or flexoelectricity in perovskite-type ferroelectric and relaxor ferroelectric ceramics was investigated. The flexoelectric coefficients measured at room temperature ranged from about 1 {mu} C m{sup -1} for lead zirconate titanate to 100 {mu} C m{sup -1} for barium strontium titanate. Flexoelectric effects were discovered to be sensitive to chemical makeup, phase symmetry, and domain structures. Based on phenomenological discussion and experimental data on flexoelectricity, the present study proposed that mechanical strain gradient field could influence polarization responses in a way analogous to electric field. Flexoelectric coefficients were found to be nonlinearly enhanced by dielectric permittivity and strain gradient. Interfacial mismatch in epitaxial thin films can give rise to high strain gradients, enabling flexoelectric effects to make a significant impact in properly engineered ferroelectric heterostructure systems.
Dynamical mass generation in QED with weak magnetic fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ayala, A.; Rojas, E.; Bashir, A.; Raya, A.
2006-01-01
We study the dynamical generation of masses for fundamental fermions in quenched quantum electrodynamics in the presence of magnetic fields using Schwinger-Dyson equations. We show that, contrary to the case where the magnetic field is strong, in the weak field limit eB << m(0)2, where m(0) is the value of the dynamically generated mass in the absence of the magnetic field, masses are generated above a critical value of the coupling and that this value is the same as in the case with no magnetic field. We carry out a numerical analysis to study the magnetic field dependence of the mass function above critical coupling and show that in this regime the dynamically generated mass and the chiral condensate for the lowest Landau level increase proportionally to (eB)2
Electric arc behaviour in dynamic magnetic fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Put'ko, V.F.
2000-01-01
The behaviour of an electric arc in different time-dependent (dynamic) magnetic fields was investigated. New possibilities were found for spatial and energy stabilisation of a discharge, for intensifying heat exchange, extending the electric arc and distributed control of electric arc plasma. Rotating, alternating and travelling magnetic fields were studied. It was found that under the effect of a relatively low frequency of variations of dynamic magnetic fields (f 1000 Hz) the arc stabilised at the axis of the discharge chamber, the pulsation level decreased and discharge stability increased. The borders between these two arc existence modes were formed by a certain critical field variation frequency the period of which was determined by the heat relaxation time of the discharge. (author)
Coupled dynamics of translation and collapse of acoustically driven microbubbles.
Reddy, Anil J; Szeri, Andrew J
2002-10-01
Pressure gradients drive the motion of microbubbles relative to liquids in which they are suspended. Examples include the hydrostatic pressure due to a gravitational field, and the pressure gradients in a sound field, useful for acoustic levitation. In this paper, the equations describing the coupled dynamics of radial oscillation and translation of a microbubble are given. The formulation is based on a recently derived expression for the hydrodynamic force on a bubble of changing size in an incompressible liquid [J. Magnaudet and D. Legendre, Phys. Fluids 10, 550-556 (1998)]. The complex interaction between radial and translation dynamics is best understood by examination of the added momentum associated with the liquid motion caused by the moving bubble. Translation is maximized when the bubble collapses violently. The new theory for coupled collapse and translation dynamics is compared to past experiments and to previous theories for decoupled translation dynamics. Special attention is paid to bubbles of relevance in biomedical applications.
Jamro, Ghulam Murtaza; Chang, Scott X; Naeth, M Anne; Duan, Min; House, Jason
2015-10-01
Open-pit mining activities in the oil sands region of Alberta, Canada, create disturbed lands that, by law, must be reclaimed to a land capability equivalent to that existed before the disturbance. Re-establishment of forest cover will be affected by the production and turnover rate of fine roots. However, the relationship between fine root dynamics and tree growth has not been studied in reclaimed oil sands sites. Fine root properties (root length density, mean surface area, total root biomass, and rates of root production, turnover, and decomposition) were assessed from May to October 2011 and 2012 using sequential coring and ingrowth core methods in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl.) and white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench.) Voss) stands. The pine and spruce stands were planted on peat mineral soil mix placed over tailings sand and overburden substrates, respectively, in reclaimed oil sands sites in Alberta. We selected stands that form a productivity gradient (low, medium, and high productivities) of each tree species based on differences in tree height and diameter at breast height (DBH) increments. In lodgepole pine stands, fine root length density and fine root production, and turnover rates were in the order of high > medium > low productivity sites and were positively correlated with tree height and DBH and negatively correlated with soil salinity (P < 0.05). In white spruce stands, fine root surface area was the only parameter that increased along the productivity gradient and was negatively correlated with soil compaction. In conclusion, fine root dynamics along the stand productivity gradients were closely linked to stand productivity and were affected by limiting soil properties related to the specific substrate used for reconstructing the reclaimed soil. Understanding the impact of soil properties on fine root dynamics and overall stand productivity will help improve land reclamation outcomes.
Gradients of electric fields and effective charges in alkali metal permanganates on NMR data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tarasov, V.P.; Kirakosyan, G.A.; Meladze, M.A.; German, K.Eh.
1993-01-01
Pulse method of 55 Mn, 39 K, 87 Rb, 133 Cs NMR in 7.04 T field was used to study polycrystal permanganates of alkali metals KMnO 4 , RbMnO 4 , CsMnO 4 in 100-440 K range. Qaudrupole bond constants, parameters of tensor asymmetry of electric field gradient (EFG) and isotropic values of chemical shifts were determined in result of analysis of resonance line shape. Cation positions in RbMnO 4 and CsMnO 4 are characterized by two nonequivalent states with 1:1 occupation. Effective charges on oxygen and manganese atoms were calculated in the framework of point charge model, using structural data and experimental EFG values on cation nuclei
Self-consistent Optomechanical Dynamics and Radiation Forces in Thermal Light Fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sonnleitner, M.
2014-01-01
We discuss two different aspects of the mechanical interaction between neutral matter and electromagnetic radiation.The first part addresses the complex dynamics of an elastic dielectric deformed by optical forces. To do so we use a one-dimensional model describing the medium by an array of beam splitters such that the interaction with the incident waves can be described with a transfer-matrix approach. Since the force on each individual beam splitter is known we thus obtain the correct volumetric force density inside the medium. Sending a light field through an initially homogeneous dielectric then results in density modulations which in turn alter the optical properties of this medium.The second part is concerned with mechanical light-effects on atoms in thermal radiation fields. At hand of a generic setup of an atom interacting with a hot sphere emitting blackbody radiation we show that the emerging gradient force may surpass gravity by several orders of magnitude. The strength of the repulsive scattering force strongly depends on the spectrum of the involved atoms and can be neglected in some setups. A special emphasis lies on possible implications on astrophysical scenarios where the interactions between heated dust and atoms, molecules or nanoparticles are of crucial interest. (author) [de
Strong field control of predissociation dynamics.
Corrales, María E; Balerdi, Garikoitz; Loriot, Vincent; de Nalda, Rebeca; Bañares, Luis
2013-01-01
Strong field control scenarios are investigated in the CH3I predissociation dynamics at the origin of the second absorption B-band, in which state-selective electronic predissociation occurs through the crossing with a valence dissociative state. Dynamic Stark control (DSC) and pump-dump strategies are shown capable of altering both the predissociation lifetime and the product branching ratio.
Xu, Xinpeng
2012-06-26
Using a continuum model capable of describing the one-component liquid-gas hydrodynamics down to the contact line scale, we carry out numerical simulation and physical analysis for the droplet motion driven by thermal singularity. For liquid droplets in one-component fluids on heated or cooled substrates, the liquid-gas interface is nearly isothermal. Consequently, a thermal singularity occurs at the contact line and the Marangoni effect due to temperature gradient is suppressed. Through evaporation or condensation in the vicinity of the contact line, the thermal singularity makes the contact angle increase with the increasing substrate temperature. This effect on the contact angle can be used to move the droplets on substrates with thermal gradients. Our numerical results for this kind of droplet motion are explained by a simple fluid dynamical model at the droplet length scale. Since the mechanism for droplet motion is based on the change of contact angle, a separation of length scales is exhibited through a comparison between the droplet motion induced by a wettability gradient and that by a thermal gradient. It is shown that the flow field at the droplet length scale is independent of the statics or dynamics at the contact line scale.
Xu, Xinpeng; Qian, Tiezheng
2012-01-01
Using a continuum model capable of describing the one-component liquid-gas hydrodynamics down to the contact line scale, we carry out numerical simulation and physical analysis for the droplet motion driven by thermal singularity. For liquid droplets in one-component fluids on heated or cooled substrates, the liquid-gas interface is nearly isothermal. Consequently, a thermal singularity occurs at the contact line and the Marangoni effect due to temperature gradient is suppressed. Through evaporation or condensation in the vicinity of the contact line, the thermal singularity makes the contact angle increase with the increasing substrate temperature. This effect on the contact angle can be used to move the droplets on substrates with thermal gradients. Our numerical results for this kind of droplet motion are explained by a simple fluid dynamical model at the droplet length scale. Since the mechanism for droplet motion is based on the change of contact angle, a separation of length scales is exhibited through a comparison between the droplet motion induced by a wettability gradient and that by a thermal gradient. It is shown that the flow field at the droplet length scale is independent of the statics or dynamics at the contact line scale.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Witte, K.; Bodnar, W.; Schell, N.; Lang, H.; Burkel, E.
2014-01-01
A functional gradient material with eleven layers composed of a dental ceramics and titanium was successfully consolidated using field assisted sintering technique in a two-step sintering process. High energy X-ray diffraction studies on the gradient were performed at High Energy Material Science beamline at Desy in Hamburg. Phase composition, crystal unit edges and lattice mismatch along the gradient were determined applying Rietveld refinement procedure. Phase analysis revealed that the main crystalline phase present in the gradient is α-Ti. Crystallinity increases stepwisely along the gradient with a decreasing increment between every next layer, following rather the weight fraction of titanium. The crystal unit edge a of titanium remains approximately constant with a value of 2.9686(1) Å, while c is reduced with increasing amount of titanium. In the layer with pure titanium the crystal unit edge c is constant with a value of 4.7174(2) Å. The lattice mismatch leading to an internal stress was calculated over the whole gradient. It was found that the maximal internal stress in titanium embedded in the studied gradient is significantly smaller than its yield strength, which implies that the structure of titanium along the whole gradient is mechanically stable. - Highlights: • High energy XRD studies of dental ceramics–Ti gradient material consolidated by FAST. • Phase composition, crystallinity and lattice parameters are determined. • Crystallinity increases stepwisely along the gradient following weight fraction of Ti. • Lattice mismatch leading to internal stress is calculated over the whole gradient. • Internal stress in α-Ti embedded in the gradient is smaller than its yield strength
Dynamics of Gauge Fields at High Temperature
Nauta, B.J.
2000-01-01
An effective description of dynamical Bose fields is provided by the classical (high-temperature) limit of thermal field theory. The main subject of this thesis is to improve the ensuing classical field theory, that is, to include the dominant quantum corrections and to add counter terms for the
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Speck, Thomas [Institut für Physik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Staudingerweg 7-9, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Menzel, Andreas M.; Bialké, Julian; Löwen, Hartmut [Institut für Theoretische Physik II, Heinrich-Heine-Universität, D-40225 Düsseldorf (Germany)
2015-06-14
Recently, we have derived an effective Cahn-Hilliard equation for the phase separation dynamics of active Brownian particles by performing a weakly non-linear analysis of the effective hydrodynamic equations for density and polarization [Speck et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 218304 (2014)]. Here, we develop and explore this strategy in more detail and show explicitly how to get to such a large-scale, mean-field description starting from the microscopic dynamics. The effective free energy emerging from this approach has the form of a conventional Ginzburg-Landau function. On the coarsest scale, our results thus agree with the mapping of active phase separation onto that of passive fluids with attractive interactions through a global effective free energy (motility-induced phase transition). Particular attention is paid to the square-gradient term necessary for the phase separation kinetics. We finally discuss results from numerical simulations corroborating the analytical results.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schaden, M.; Zhao, K. F.; Wu, Z.
2007-01-01
In an evanescent wave magnetometer the Zeeman polarization is probed at micrometer to submicrometer distances from the cell surface. The electron paramagnetic resonance lines of an evanescent wave magnetometer in the presence of a magnetic field gradient exhibit edge enhancement seen previously in nuclear magnetic resonance lines. We present a theoretical model that describes quantitatively the shape of the magnetic resonance lines of an evanescent wave magnetometer under a wide range of experimental conditions. It accounts for diffusion broadening in the presence of a magnetic field gradient as well as interactions of spin polarized Rb atoms with the coated Pyrex glass surfaces. Depending on the field gradient, cell thickness, and buffer gas pressure, the resonance line may have the form of a single asymmetric peak or two peaks localized near the front and back surfaces in frequency space. The double-peaked response depends on average characteristics of the surface interactions. Its shape is sensitive to the dwell time, relaxation probability, and average phase shift of adsorbed spin polarized Rb atoms
Derivation of mean-field dynamics for fermions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Petrat, Soeren
2014-01-01
In this work, we derive the time-dependent Hartree(-Fock) equations as an effective dynamics for fermionic many-particle systems. Our main results are the first for a quantum mechanical mean-field dynamics for fermions; in previous works, the mean-field limit is usually either coupled to a semiclassical limit, or the interaction is scaled down so much, that the system behaves freely for large particle number N. We mainly consider systems with total kinetic energy bounded by const.N and long-range interaction potentials, e.g., Coulomb interaction. Examples for such systems are large molecules or certain solid states. Our analysis also applies to attractive interactions, as, e.g., in fermionic stars. The fermionic Hartree(-Fock) equations are a standard tool to describe, e.g., excited states or chemical reactions of large molecules (like proteins). A deeper understanding of these equations as an approximation to the time evolution of a many body quantum system is thus highly relevant. We consider the fermionic Hartree equations (i.e., the Hartree-Fock equations without exchange term) in this work, since the exchange term is subleading in our setting. The main result is that the fermionic Hartree dynamics approximates the Schroedinger dynamics well for large N. This statement becomes exact in the thermodynamic limit N→∞. We give explicit values for the rates of convergence. We prove two types of results. The first type is very general and concerns arbitrary free Hamiltonians (e.g., relativistic, non-relativistic, with external fields) and arbitrary interactions. The theorems give explicit conditions on the solutions to the fermionic Hartree equations under which a derivation of the mean-field dynamics succeeds. The second type of results scrutinizes situations where the conditions are fulfilled. These results are about non-relativistic free Hamiltonians with external fields, systems with total kinetic energy bounded by const.N and with long-range interactions of
Electronic structure and electric fields gradients of crystalline Sn(II) and Sn(IV) compounds
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Terra, J.; Guenzburger, D.
1991-01-01
The electronic structures of clusters representing crystalline compounds of Sn(II) and Sn(IV) were investigated, employing the first-principles Discrete Variational method and Local Density theory. Densities of states and related parameters were obtained and compared with experimental measurements and with results from band structure calculations. Effects of cluster size and of cluster truncated bonds are discussed. Electric field gradients at the Sn nucleus were calculated; results are analysed in terms of charge distribution and chemical bonding in the crystals. (author)
Analysis of magnetic gradients to study gravitropism.
Hasenstein, Karl H; John, Susan; Scherp, Peter; Povinelli, Daniel; Mopper, Susan
2013-01-01
Gravitropism typically is generated by dense particles that respond to gravity. Experimental stimulation by high-gradient magnetic fields provides a new approach to selectively manipulate the gravisensing system. The movement of corn, wheat, and potato starch grains in suspension was examined with videomicroscopy during parabolic flights that generated 20 to 25 s of weightlessness. During weightlessness, a magnetic gradient was generated by inserting a wedge into a uniform, external magnetic field that caused repulsion of starch grains. The resultant velocity of movement was compared with the velocity of sedimentation under 1 g conditions. The high-gradient magnetic fields repelled the starch grains and generated a force of at least 0.6 g. Different wedge shapes significantly affected starch velocity and directionality of movement. Magnetic gradients are able to move diamagnetic compounds under weightless or microgravity conditions and serve as directional stimulus during seed germination in low-gravity environments. Further work can determine whether gravity sensing is based on force or contact between amyloplasts and statocyte membrane system.
Precision bounds for gradient magnetometry with atomic ensembles
Apellaniz, Iagoba; Urizar-Lanz, Iñigo; Zimborás, Zoltán; Hyllus, Philipp; Tóth, Géza
2018-05-01
We study gradient magnetometry with an ensemble of atoms with arbitrary spin. We calculate precision bounds for estimating the gradient of the magnetic field based on the quantum Fisher information. For quantum states that are invariant under homogeneous magnetic fields, we need to measure a single observable to estimate the gradient. On the other hand, for states that are sensitive to homogeneous fields, a simultaneous measurement is needed, as the homogeneous field must also be estimated. We prove that for the cases studied in this paper, such a measurement is feasible. We present a method to calculate precision bounds for gradient estimation with a chain of atoms or with two spatially separated atomic ensembles. We also consider a single atomic ensemble with an arbitrary density profile, where the atoms cannot be addressed individually, and which is a very relevant case for experiments. Our model can take into account even correlations between particle positions. While in most of the discussion we consider an ensemble of localized particles that are classical with respect to their spatial degree of freedom, we also discuss the case of gradient metrology with a single Bose-Einstein condensate.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dyshekov, A.A.; Khapachev, Yu.P.
1997-01-01
It is proposed to use qualitative investigation methods of the differential Takagi equation solutions for the analysis of general properties of wave fields in deformed crystals. The physical interpretation of possible types of the Takagi equation solutions is considered briefly from the viewpoint of the stability theory. The type of solutions are defined by ratios between parameters involved in the equations set. For the Takagi equation these parameters are prescribed by the angular tuning from the precise Bragg angle as well as structural characteristics of the crystal and the deformation profile. The qualitative analysis for the problem of the dynamic X-ray diffraction is carried out for films with the variable deformation gradient and superlattices [ru
Tree Carbohydrate Dynamics Across a Rainfall Gradient in Panama During the 2016 ENSO
Dickman, L. T.; Xu, C.; Behar, H.; McDowell, N.
2017-12-01
Non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) provide a measure of the carbon supply available to support respiration, growth, and defense. Support for a role of carbon starvation - or depletion of NSC stores - in drought induced tree mortality is varied without consensus for the tropics. The 2016 ENSO drought provided a unique opportunity to capture drought impacts on tropical forest carbohydrate dynamics. To quantify these impacts, we collected monthly NSC samples across a rainfall gradient in Panama for the duration of the ENSO. We observed high variability in foliar NSC among species within sites. Foliage contained very little starch, indicating that total NSC dynamics are driven by soluble sugars. Foliar NSC depletion did not progress with drought duration as predicted, but showed little variation over course of the ENSO. Foliar NSC did, however, increase with rainfall, suggesting NSC depletion may occur with longer-term drought. These results suggest that, while short-term droughts like the 2016 ENSO may not have a significant impact on carbon dynamics, we may observe greater impacts as drought progresses over longer timescales. These results will be used to evaluate whether the current implementation of carbon starvation in climate models are capturing observed trends in tropical forest carbon allocation and mortality, and to tune model parameters for improved predictive capability.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, Limei; Trakic, Adnan; Sanchez-Lopez, Hector; Liu, Feng; Crozier, Stuart
2014-01-01
MRI-LINAC is a new image-guided radiotherapy treatment system that combines magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with a linear accelerator (LINAC) in a single unit. One drawback is that the pulsing of the split gradient coils of the system induces an electric field and currents in the patient which need to be predicted and evaluated for patient safety. In this novel numerical study the in situ electric fields and associated current densities were evaluated inside tissue-accurate male and female human voxel models when a number of different split-geometry gradient coils were operated. The body models were located in the MRI-LINAC system along the axial and radial directions in three different body positions. Each model had a region of interest (ROI) suitable for image-guided radiotherapy. The simulation results show that the amplitudes and distributions of the field and current density induced by different split x-gradient coils were similar with one another in the ROI of the body model, but varied outside of the region. The fields and current densities induced by a split classic coil with the surface unconnected showed the largest deviation from those given by the conventional non-split coils. Another finding indicated that the distributions of the peak current densities varied when the body position, orientation or gender changed, while the peak electric fields mainly occurred in the skin and fat tissues. (paper)
Strong-field dissociation dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
DiMauro, L.F.; Yang, Baorui.
1993-01-01
The strong-field dissociation behavior of diatomic molecules is examined under two distinctive physical scenarios. In the first scenario, the dissociation of the isolated hydrogen and deuterium molecular ions is discussed. The dynamics of above-threshold dissociation (ATD) are investigated over a wide range of green and infrared intensities and compared to a dressed-state model. The second situation arises when strong-field neutral dissociation is followed by ionization of the atomic fragments. The study results in a direct measure of the atomic fragment's ac-Stark shift by observing the intensity-dependent shifts in the electron or nuclear fragment kinetic energy. 8 figs., 14 refs
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIU Qi-bin; ZOU Long-jiang; ZHU Wei-dong; LI Hai-tao; DONG Chuang
2004-01-01
The gradient bioceramic coating was prepared on the surface of titanium alloy using wide-band laser cladding. The dynamics of gradient bioceramic composite coating containing hydroxyapatite (HA) prepared with mixture of CaHPO4*2H2O and CaCO3 under the condition of wide-band laser was studied theoretically. The corresponding mathematical model and its numerical solution were presented. The examination experiment showed that HA bioceramic composite coatings can be obtained by appropriately choosing wide-band laser cladding parameters. The microstructure and surface morphology of HA bioceramic coating were observed by SEM and X-ray diffraction. The experimental results showed that the bioceramic coating is composed of HA, β-TCP, CaO, CaTiO3 and TiO2. The surface of bioceramic coating takes coral-shaped structure or short-rod piled structure, which helps osteoblast grow into bioceramic and improves the biocompatibility.
Dynamics of classical and quantum fields an introduction
Setlur, Girish S
2014-01-01
Dynamics of Classical and Quantum Fields: An Introduction focuses on dynamical fields in non-relativistic physics. Written by a physicist for physicists, the book is designed to help readers develop analytical skills related to classical and quantum fields at the non-relativistic level, and think about the concepts and theory through numerous problems. In-depth yet accessible, the book presents new and conventional topics in a self-contained manner that beginners would find useful. A partial list of topics covered includes: Geometrical meaning of Legendre transformation in classical mechanics Dynamical symmetries in the context of Noether's theorem The derivation of the stress energy tensor of the electromagnetic field, the expression for strain energy in elastic bodies, and the Navier Stokes equation Concepts of right and left movers in case of a Fermi gas explained Functional integration is interpreted as a limit of a sequence of ordinary integrations Path integrals for one and two quantum particles and for...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Arcisauskaité, Vaida; Knecht, Stefan; Sauer, Stephan P. A.
2012-01-01
We investigate the magnitude and interplay of relativistic and electron correlation effects on the electric field gradient (EFG) at the position of Hg in linear and bent HgL2 (L=CH3, Cl, Br, I) and trigonal planar [HgCl3]- complexes using four-component relativistic Dirac-Coulomb (DC) and non...
A stochastic phase-field model determined from molecular dynamics
von Schwerin, Erik
2010-03-17
The dynamics of dendritic growth of a crystal in an undercooled melt is determined by macroscopic diffusion-convection of heat and by capillary forces acting on the nanometer scale of the solid-liquid interface width. Its modelling is useful for instance in processing techniques based on casting. The phase-field method is widely used to study evolution of such microstructural phase transformations on a continuum level; it couples the energy equation to a phenomenological Allen-Cahn/Ginzburg-Landau equation modelling the dynamics of an order parameter determining the solid and liquid phases, including also stochastic fluctuations to obtain the qualitatively correct result of dendritic side branching. This work presents a method to determine stochastic phase-field models from atomistic formulations by coarse-graining molecular dynamics. It has three steps: (1) a precise quantitative atomistic definition of the phase-field variable, based on the local potential energy; (2) derivation of its coarse-grained dynamics model, from microscopic Smoluchowski molecular dynamics (that is Brownian or over damped Langevin dynamics); and (3) numerical computation of the coarse-grained model functions. The coarse-grained model approximates Gibbs ensemble averages of the atomistic phase-field, by choosing coarse-grained drift and diffusion functions that minimize the approximation error of observables in this ensemble average. © EDP Sciences, SMAI, 2010.
A stochastic phase-field model determined from molecular dynamics
von Schwerin, Erik; Szepessy, Anders
2010-01-01
The dynamics of dendritic growth of a crystal in an undercooled melt is determined by macroscopic diffusion-convection of heat and by capillary forces acting on the nanometer scale of the solid-liquid interface width. Its modelling is useful for instance in processing techniques based on casting. The phase-field method is widely used to study evolution of such microstructural phase transformations on a continuum level; it couples the energy equation to a phenomenological Allen-Cahn/Ginzburg-Landau equation modelling the dynamics of an order parameter determining the solid and liquid phases, including also stochastic fluctuations to obtain the qualitatively correct result of dendritic side branching. This work presents a method to determine stochastic phase-field models from atomistic formulations by coarse-graining molecular dynamics. It has three steps: (1) a precise quantitative atomistic definition of the phase-field variable, based on the local potential energy; (2) derivation of its coarse-grained dynamics model, from microscopic Smoluchowski molecular dynamics (that is Brownian or over damped Langevin dynamics); and (3) numerical computation of the coarse-grained model functions. The coarse-grained model approximates Gibbs ensemble averages of the atomistic phase-field, by choosing coarse-grained drift and diffusion functions that minimize the approximation error of observables in this ensemble average. © EDP Sciences, SMAI, 2010.
Reduced dielectric response in spatially varying electric fields
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Jesper Schmidt
2015-01-01
relations between the flux and the gradient of the polarization. Comparison between the theory and molecular dynamics simulations confirms this effect. The effect is significant for small length scale electric field variations and the inclusion of the flux is thus important in nanoscale modeling......In this paper, the dynamical equation for polarization is derived. From this the dielectric response to a spatially varying electric field is analyzed showing a reduced response due to flux of polarization in the material. This flux is modeled as a diffusive process through linear constitutive...
Large Airborne Full Tensor Gradient Data Inversion Based on a Non-Monotone Gradient Method
Sun, Yong; Meng, Zhaohai; Li, Fengting
2018-03-01
Following the development of gravity gradiometer instrument technology, the full tensor gravity (FTG) data can be acquired on airborne and marine platforms. Large-scale geophysical data can be obtained using these methods, making such data sets a number of the "big data" category. Therefore, a fast and effective inversion method is developed to solve the large-scale FTG data inversion problem. Many algorithms are available to accelerate the FTG data inversion, such as conjugate gradient method. However, the conventional conjugate gradient method takes a long time to complete data processing. Thus, a fast and effective iterative algorithm is necessary to improve the utilization of FTG data. Generally, inversion processing is formulated by incorporating regularizing constraints, followed by the introduction of a non-monotone gradient-descent method to accelerate the convergence rate of FTG data inversion. Compared with the conventional gradient method, the steepest descent gradient algorithm, and the conjugate gradient algorithm, there are clear advantages of the non-monotone iterative gradient-descent algorithm. Simulated and field FTG data were applied to show the application value of this new fast inversion method.
Self-organization of intracellular gradients during mitosis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fuller Brian G
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract Gradients are used in a number of biological systems to transmit spatial information over a range of distances. The best studied are morphogen gradients where information is transmitted over many cell lengths. Smaller mitotic gradients reflect the need to organize several distinct events along the length of the mitotic spindle. The intracellular gradients that characterize mitosis are emerging as important regulatory paradigms. Intracellular gradients utilize intrinsic auto-regulatory feedback loops and diffusion to establish stable regions of activity within the mitotic cytosol. We review three recently described intracellular mitotic gradients. The Ran GTP gradient with its elaborate cascade of nuclear transport receptors and cargoes is the best characterized, yet the dynamics underlying the robust gradient of Ran-GTP have received little attention. Gradients of phosphorylation have been observed on Aurora B kinase substrates both before and after anaphase onset. In both instances the phosphorylation gradient appears to result from a soluble gradient of Aurora B kinase activity. Regulatory properties that support gradient formation are highlighted. Intracellular activity gradients that regulate localized mitotic events bare several hallmarks of self-organizing biologic systems that designate spatial information during pattern formation. Intracellular pattern formation represents a new paradigm in mitotic regulation.
Electric field gradient calculation at atomic site of In implanted ZnO samples
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abreu, Y.; Cruz, C. M.; Leyva, A.; Pinnera; Van Espen, P.; Perez, C.
2011-01-01
The electric field gradient (EFG) calculated for 111 In→ 111 Cd implanted ZnO samples is reported. The study was made for ideal hexagonal ZnO structures and super-cells considering the In implantation environment at the cation site using the 'WIEN2k' code within the GGA(+U) approximation. The obtained EFG values are in good agreement with the experimental reports for ideal ZnO and 111 In→ 111 Cd implanted structures; measured by perturbed angular correlation (PAC) and Moessbauer spectroscopy. The attribution of substitutional incorporation of 111 In at the ZnO cation site after annealing was confirmed. (Author)
Effect of Crustal Density Structures on GOCE Gravity Gradient Observables
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Robert Tenzer Pavel Novák
2013-01-01
Full Text Available We investigate the gravity gradient components corrected for major known anomalous density structures within the Earth¡¦s crust. Heterogeneous mantle density structures are disregarded. The gravimetric forward modeling technique is utilized to compute the gravity gradients based on methods for a spherical harmonic analysis and synthesis of a gravity field. The Earth¡¦s gravity gradient components are generated using the global geopotential model GOCO-03s. The topographic and stripping gravity corrections due to the density contrasts of the ocean and ice are computed from the global topographic/bathymetric model DTM2006.0 (which also includes the ice-thickness dataset. The discrete data of sediments and crust layers taken from the CRUST2.0 global crustal model are then used to apply the additional stripping corrections for sediments and remaining anomalous crustal density structures. All computations are realized globally on a one arc-deg geographical grid at a mean satellite elevation of 255 km. The global map of the consolidated crust-stripped gravity gradients reveals distinctive features which are attributed to global tectonics, lithospheric plate configuration, lithosphere structure and mantle dynamics (e.g., glacial isostatic adjustment, mantle convection. The Moho signature, which is the most pronounced signal in these refined gravity gradients, is superimposed over a weaker gravity signal of the lithospheric mantle. An interpretational quality of the computed (refined gravity gradient components is mainly limited by a low accuracy and resolution of the CRUST2.0 sediment and crustal layer data and unmodeled mantle structures.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ertaş, Mehmet; Keskin, Mustafa; Deviren, Bayram
2012-01-01
Using an effective field theory with correlations, we study a kinetic spin-5/2 Blume–Capel model with bilinear exchange interaction and single-ion crystal field on a square lattice. The effective-field dynamic equation is derived by employing the Glauber transition rates. First, the phases in the kinetic system are obtained by solving this dynamic equation. Then, the thermal behavior of the dynamic magnetization, the hysteresis loop area and correlation are investigated in order to characterize the nature of the dynamic transitions and to obtain dynamic phase transition temperatures. Finally, we present the phase diagrams in two planes, namely (T/zJ, h 0 /zJ) and (T/zJ, D/zJ), where T absolute temperature, h 0 , the amplitude of the oscillating field, D, crystal field interaction or single-ion anisotropy constant and z denotes the nearest-neighbor sites of the central site. The phase diagrams exhibit four fundamental phases and ten mixed phases which are composed of binary, ternary and tetrad combination of fundamental phases, depending on the crystal field interaction parameter. Moreover, the phase diagrams contain a dynamic tricritical point (T), a double critical end point (B), a multicritical point (A) and zero-temperature critical point (Z). - Highlights: ► The effective-field theory is used to study the kinetic spin-5/2 Ising Blume–Capel model. ► Time variations of average order parameter have been studied to find phases in the system. ► The dynamic magnetization, hysteresis loop area and correlation have been calculated. ► The dynamic phase boundaries of the system depend on D/zJ. ► The dynamic phase diagrams are presented in the (T/zJ, h 0 /zJ) and (D/zJ, T/zJ) planes.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ertas, Mehmet [Department of Physics, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey); Keskin, Mustafa, E-mail: keskin@erciyes.edu.tr [Department of Physics, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey); Deviren, Bayram [Department of Physics, Nevsehir University, 50300 Nevsehir (Turkey)
2012-04-15
Using an effective field theory with correlations, we study a kinetic spin-5/2 Blume-Capel model with bilinear exchange interaction and single-ion crystal field on a square lattice. The effective-field dynamic equation is derived by employing the Glauber transition rates. First, the phases in the kinetic system are obtained by solving this dynamic equation. Then, the thermal behavior of the dynamic magnetization, the hysteresis loop area and correlation are investigated in order to characterize the nature of the dynamic transitions and to obtain dynamic phase transition temperatures. Finally, we present the phase diagrams in two planes, namely (T/zJ, h{sub 0}/zJ) and (T/zJ, D/zJ), where T absolute temperature, h{sub 0}, the amplitude of the oscillating field, D, crystal field interaction or single-ion anisotropy constant and z denotes the nearest-neighbor sites of the central site. The phase diagrams exhibit four fundamental phases and ten mixed phases which are composed of binary, ternary and tetrad combination of fundamental phases, depending on the crystal field interaction parameter. Moreover, the phase diagrams contain a dynamic tricritical point (T), a double critical end point (B), a multicritical point (A) and zero-temperature critical point (Z). - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effective-field theory is used to study the kinetic spin-5/2 Ising Blume-Capel model. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Time variations of average order parameter have been studied to find phases in the system. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The dynamic magnetization, hysteresis loop area and correlation have been calculated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The dynamic phase boundaries of the system depend on D/zJ. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The dynamic phase diagrams are presented in the (T/zJ, h{sub 0}/zJ) and (D/zJ, T/zJ) planes.
Field gradient calculation of HTS double-pancake coils considering the slanted turns and the splice
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baek, Geon Woo; Kim, Jin Sub; Song, Seung Hyun; Ko, Tae Kuk [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Woo Seung [JH ENGINEERING CO., LTD., Gunpo (Korea, Republic of); Lee, On You [Korea National University of Transportation, Chungju (Korea, Republic of)
2017-03-15
To obtain Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) measurement of membrane protein, an NMR magnet is required to generate high intensity, homogeneity, and stability of field. A High-Temperature Superconducting (HTS) magnet is a promising alternative to a conventional Low-Temperature Superconducting (LTS) NMR magnet for high field, current density, and stability margin. Conventionally, an HTS coil has been wound by several winding techniques such as Single-Pancake (SP), Double-Pancake (DP), and layer-wound. The DP winding technique has been frequently used for a large magnet because long HTS wire is generally difficult to manufacture, and maintenance of magnet is convenient. However, magnetic field generated by the slanted turns and the splice leads to field inhomogeneity in Diameter of Spherical Volume (DSV). The field inhomogeneity degrades performance of NMR spectrometer and thus effect of the slanted turns and the splice should be analyzed. In this paper, field gradient of HTS double-pancake coils considering the slanted turns and the splice was calculated using Biot-Savart law and numerical integration. The calculation results showed that magnetic field produced by the slanted turns and the splice caused significant inhomogeneity of field.
Conjugate Gradient Algorithms For Manipulator Simulation
Fijany, Amir; Scheid, Robert E.
1991-01-01
Report discusses applicability of conjugate-gradient algorithms to computation of forward dynamics of robotic manipulators. Rapid computation of forward dynamics essential to teleoperation and other advanced robotic applications. Part of continuing effort to find algorithms meeting requirements for increased computational efficiency and speed. Method used for iterative solution of systems of linear equations.
Field-based dynamic light scattering microscopy: theory and numerical analysis.
Joo, Chulmin; de Boer, Johannes F
2013-11-01
We present a theoretical framework for field-based dynamic light scattering microscopy based on a spectral-domain optical coherence phase microscopy (SD-OCPM) platform. SD-OCPM is an interferometric microscope capable of quantitative measurement of amplitude and phase of scattered light with high phase stability. Field-based dynamic light scattering (F-DLS) analysis allows for direct evaluation of complex-valued field autocorrelation function and measurement of localized diffusive and directional dynamic properties of biological and material samples with high spatial resolution. In order to gain insight into the information provided by F-DLS microscopy, theoretical and numerical analyses are performed to evaluate the effect of numerical aperture of the imaging optics. We demonstrate that sharp focusing of fields affects the measured diffusive and transport velocity, which leads to smaller values for the dynamic properties in the sample. An approach for accurately determining the dynamic properties of the samples is discussed.
Temperature dependence of the electric field gradient in AgPd and AgPt alloys
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krolas, K.
1977-07-01
The measurements of temperature dependence of the electric field gradient (EFG) on 111 Cd nuclei in AgPd and AgPt alloys were performed using the time dependent perturbed angular correlation method. The EFG caused by impurities distributed in further coordination shells decrease stronaer with increasing temperature than the EFG due to single impurity being the nearest neighbour of the probe atom. These results were explained assuming different modes of thermal vibrations of single impurity atoms and impurity complexes in silver host lattice. (author)
Inflationary dynamics of kinetically-coupled gauge fields
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ferreira, Ricardo J. Z.; Ganc, Jonathan
2015-01-01
We investigate the inflationary dynamics of two kinetically-coupled massless U(1) gauge fields with time-varying kinetic-term coefficients. Ensuring that the system does not have strongly coupled regimes shrinks the parameter space. Also, we further restrict ourselves to systems that can be quant......We investigate the inflationary dynamics of two kinetically-coupled massless U(1) gauge fields with time-varying kinetic-term coefficients. Ensuring that the system does not have strongly coupled regimes shrinks the parameter space. Also, we further restrict ourselves to systems that can...... be quantized using the standard creation, annihilation operator algebra. This second constraint limits us to scenarios where the system can be diagonalized into the sum of two decoupled, massless, vector fields with a varying kinetic-term coefficient. Such a system might be interesting for magnetogenesis...... because of how the strong coupling problem generalizes. We explore this idea by assuming that one of the gauge fields is the Standard Model U(1) field and that the other dark gauge field has no particles charged under its gauge group. We consider whether it would be possible to transfer a magnetic field...
Preprocessing of gravity gradients at the GOCE high-level processing facility
Bouman, Johannes; Rispens, Sietse; Gruber, Thomas; Koop, Radboud; Schrama, Ernst; Visser, Pieter; Tscherning, Carl Christian; Veicherts, Martin
2009-07-01
One of the products derived from the gravity field and steady-state ocean circulation explorer (GOCE) observations are the gravity gradients. These gravity gradients are provided in the gradiometer reference frame (GRF) and are calibrated in-flight using satellite shaking and star sensor data. To use these gravity gradients for application in Earth scienes and gravity field analysis, additional preprocessing needs to be done, including corrections for temporal gravity field signals to isolate the static gravity field part, screening for outliers, calibration by comparison with existing external gravity field information and error assessment. The temporal gravity gradient corrections consist of tidal and nontidal corrections. These are all generally below the gravity gradient error level, which is predicted to show a 1/ f behaviour for low frequencies. In the outlier detection, the 1/ f error is compensated for by subtracting a local median from the data, while the data error is assessed using the median absolute deviation. The local median acts as a high-pass filter and it is robust as is the median absolute deviation. Three different methods have been implemented for the calibration of the gravity gradients. All three methods use a high-pass filter to compensate for the 1/ f gravity gradient error. The baseline method uses state-of-the-art global gravity field models and the most accurate results are obtained if star sensor misalignments are estimated along with the calibration parameters. A second calibration method uses GOCE GPS data to estimate a low-degree gravity field model as well as gravity gradient scale factors. Both methods allow to estimate gravity gradient scale factors down to the 10-3 level. The third calibration method uses high accurate terrestrial gravity data in selected regions to validate the gravity gradient scale factors, focussing on the measurement band. Gravity gradient scale factors may be estimated down to the 10-2 level with this
Gradient effects in a new class of electro-elastic bodies
Arvanitakis, Antonios
2018-06-01
Continuum theories for electro-elastic solids suggest the development of electric field or polarization-based models. Advanced versions of these models are the so-called gradient models, i.e., polarization gradient and electric field gradient models, which prove to be more than capable of explaining the behavior of a continuum in a wider range of length scales. In this work, implicit constitutive relations for electro-elastic bodies are considered with the introduction of polarization and electric field gradient effects. In this sense, the new class of electro-elastic bodies extends even further to account for nonlocality in constitutive equations, besides strain-limiting behavior and polarization saturation for large values of stresses and electric field, respectively. Nonlocality in constitutive equations is essential in modeling various phenomena.
Dynamic shielding of the magnetic fields
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
RAU, M.
2010-11-01
Full Text Available The paper presents a comparative study of the methods used to control and compensate the direct and alternative magnetic fields. Two frequently used methods in the electromagnetic compatibility of the complex biomagnetism installations were analyzed. The two methods refer to the use of inductive magnetic field sensors (only for alternative fields and of fluxgate magnetometers as active transducers which measures both the direct and alternative components of the magnetic field. The applications of the dynamic control of the magnetic field are: control of the magnetic field of the military ships, control of parasite magnetic field produced by power transformers and the electrical networks, protection of the mass spectrometers, electronic microscopes, SQUID and optical pumping magnetometers for applications in biomagnetism.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nguyen, Thien Duy; Wells, John Craig; Mokhasi, Paritosh; Rempfer, Dietmar
2010-01-01
In this paper, particle image velocimetry (PIV) results from the recirculation zone of a backward-facing step flow, of which the Reynolds number is 2800 based on bulk velocity upstream of the step and step height (h = 16.5 mm), are used to demonstrate the capability of proper orthogonal decomposition (POD)-based measurement models. Three-component PIV velocity fields are decomposed by POD into a set of spatial basis functions and a set of temporal coefficients. The measurement models are built to relate the low-order POD coefficients, determined from an ensemble of 1050 PIV fields by the 'snapshot' method, to the time-resolved wall gradients, measured by a near-wall measurement technique called stereo interfacial PIV. These models are evaluated in terms of reconstruction and prediction of the low-order temporal POD coefficients of the velocity fields. In order to determine the estimation coefficients of the measurement models, linear stochastic estimation (LSE), quadratic stochastic estimation (QSE), principal component regression (PCR) and kernel ridge regression (KRR) are applied. We denote such approaches as LSE-POD, QSE-POD, PCR-POD and KRR-POD. In addition to comparing the accuracy of measurement models, we introduce multi-time POD-based estimations in which past and future information of the wall-gradient events is used separately or combined. The results show that the multi-time estimation approaches can improve the prediction process. Among these approaches, the proposed multi-time KRR-POD estimation with an optimized window of past wall-gradient information yields the best prediction. Such a multi-time KRR-POD approach offers a useful tool for real-time flow estimation of the velocity field based on wall-gradient data
High Resolution Studies Of Lensed z ∼ 2 Galaxies: Kinematics And Metal Gradients
Leethochawalit, Nicha
2016-09-01
We use the OSIRIS integral field unit (IFU) spectograph to secure spatially-resolved strong emission lines of 15 gravitationally-lensed star-forming galaxies at redshift z ∼ 2. With the aid of gravitational lensing and Keck laser-assisted adaptive optics, the spatial resolution of these sub-luminous galaxies is at a few hundred parsecs. First, we demonstrate that high spatial resolution is crucial in diagnosing the kinematic properties and dynamical maturity of z ∼ 2 galaxies. We observe a significantly lower fraction of rotationally-supported systems than what has been claimed in lower spatial resolution surveys. Second, we find a much larger fraction of z ∼ 2 galaxies with weak metallicity gradients, contrary to the simple picture suggested by earlier studies that well-ordered rotation develops concurrently with established steep metal gradients in all but merging systems. Comparing our observations with the predictions of hydronamical simulations, strong feedback is likely to play a key role in flattening metal gradients in early star-forming galaxies.
Fractional dynamics of charged particles in magnetic fields
Coronel-Escamilla, A.; Gómez-Aguilar, J. F.; Alvarado-Méndez, E.; Guerrero-Ramírez, G. V.; Escobar-Jiménez, R. F.
2016-02-01
In many physical applications the electrons play a relevant role. For example, when a beam of electrons accelerated to relativistic velocities is used as an active medium to generate Free Electron Lasers (FEL), the electrons are bound to atoms, but move freely in a magnetic field. The relaxation time, longitudinal effects and transverse variations of the optical field are parameters that play an important role in the efficiency of this laser. The electron dynamics in a magnetic field is a means of radiation source for coupling to the electric field. The transverse motion of the electrons leads to either gain or loss energy from or to the field, depending on the position of the particle regarding the phase of the external radiation field. Due to the importance to know with great certainty the displacement of charged particles in a magnetic field, in this work we study the fractional dynamics of charged particles in magnetic fields. Newton’s second law is considered and the order of the fractional differential equation is (0;1]. Based on the Grünwald-Letnikov (GL) definition, the discretization of fractional differential equations is reported to get numerical simulations. Comparison between the numerical solutions obtained on Euler’s numerical method for the classical case and the GL definition in the fractional approach proves the good performance of the numerical scheme applied. Three application examples are shown: constant magnetic field, ramp magnetic field and harmonic magnetic field. In the first example the results obtained show bistability. Dissipative effects are observed in the system and the standard dynamic is recovered when the order of the fractional derivative is 1.
Classification of networks of automata by dynamical mean field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burda, Z.; Jurkiewicz, J.; Flyvbjerg, H.
1990-01-01
Dynamical mean field theory is used to classify the 2 24 =65,536 different networks of binary automata on a square lattice with nearest neighbour interactions. Application of mean field theory gives 700 different mean field classes, which fall in seven classes of different asymptotic dynamics characterized by fixed points and two-cycles. (orig.)
Karoly, Kis; Taylor, Patrick T.; Geza, Wittmann
2014-01-01
We computed magnetic field gradients at satellite altitude, over Europe with emphasis on the Kursk Magnetic Anomaly (KMA). They were calculated using the CHAMP satellite total magnetic anomalies. Our computations were done to determine how the magnetic anomaly data from the new ESA/Swarm satellites could be utilized to determine the structure of the magnetization of the Earths crust, especially in the region of the KMA. Since the ten years of 2 CHAMP data could be used to simulate the Swarm data. An initial East magnetic anomaly gradient map of Europe was computed and subsequently the North, East and Vertical magnetic gradients for the KMA region were calculated. The vertical gradient of the KMA was determined using Hilbert transforms. Inversion of the total KMA was derived using Simplex and Simulated Annealing algorithms. Our resulting inversion depth model is a horizontal quadrangle with upper 300-329 km and lower 331-339 km boundaries.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ertaş, Mehmet; Keskin, Mustafa
2012-01-01
The dynamic magnetic behavior of the mixed Ising bilayer system (σ=2 and S=5/2), with a crystal-field interaction in an oscillating field are studied, within the mean-field approach, by using the Glauber-type stochastic dynamics for both ferromagnetic/ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic/ferromagnetic interactions. The time variations of average magnetizations and the temperature dependence of the dynamic magnetizations are investigated. The dynamic phase diagrams are presented in the reduced temperature and magnetic field amplitude plane and they exhibit several ordered phases, coexistence phase regions and critical points as well as a re-entrant behavior depending on interaction parameters. -- Highlights: ► Dynamic magnetic behavior of the mixed Ising bilayer system is investigated within the Glauber-type stochastic dynamics. ► The time variations of average magnetizations are studied to find the phases. ► The temperature dependence of the dynamic magnetizations is investigated to obtain the dynamic phase transition points. ► The dynamic phase diagrams are presented and they exhibit several ordered phases, coexistence phase regions and critical points as well as a re-entrant behavior.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ertaş, Mehmet [Department of Physics, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey); Keskin, Mustafa, E-mail: keskin@erciyes.edu.tr [Department of Physics, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)
2012-07-23
The dynamic magnetic behavior of the mixed Ising bilayer system (σ=2 and S=5/2), with a crystal-field interaction in an oscillating field are studied, within the mean-field approach, by using the Glauber-type stochastic dynamics for both ferromagnetic/ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic/ferromagnetic interactions. The time variations of average magnetizations and the temperature dependence of the dynamic magnetizations are investigated. The dynamic phase diagrams are presented in the reduced temperature and magnetic field amplitude plane and they exhibit several ordered phases, coexistence phase regions and critical points as well as a re-entrant behavior depending on interaction parameters. -- Highlights: ► Dynamic magnetic behavior of the mixed Ising bilayer system is investigated within the Glauber-type stochastic dynamics. ► The time variations of average magnetizations are studied to find the phases. ► The temperature dependence of the dynamic magnetizations is investigated to obtain the dynamic phase transition points. ► The dynamic phase diagrams are presented and they exhibit several ordered phases, coexistence phase regions and critical points as well as a re-entrant behavior.
Dark-Bright Soliton Dynamics Beyond the Mean-Field Approximation
Katsimiga, Garyfallia; Koutentakis, Georgios; Mistakidis, Simeon; Kevrekidis, Panagiotis; Schmelcher, Peter; Theory Group of Fundamental Processes in Quantum Physics Team
2017-04-01
The dynamics of dark bright solitons beyond the mean-field approximation is investigated. We first examine the case of a single dark-bright soliton and its oscillations within a parabolic trap. Subsequently, we move to the setting of collisions, comparing the mean-field approximation to that involving multiple orbitals in both the dark and the bright component. Fragmentation is present and significantly affects the dynamics, especially in the case of slower solitons and in that of lower atom numbers. It is shown that the presence of fragmentation allows for bipartite entanglement between the distinguishable species. Most importantly the interplay between fragmentation and entanglement leads to the decay of each of the initial mean-field dark-bright solitons into fast and slow fragmented dark-bright structures. A variety of excitations including dark-bright solitons in multiple (concurrently populated) orbitals is observed. Dark-antidark states and domain-wall-bright soliton complexes can also be observed to arise spontaneously in the beyond mean-field dynamics. Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) in the framework of the SFB 925 ``Light induced dynamics and control of correlated quantum systems''.
Linear and nonlinear dynamics of electron temperature gradient mode in non-Maxwellian plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zakir, U.; Qamar, A. [Institute of Physics and Electronics, University of Peshawar, Peshawar (Pakistan); Haque, Q. [Theoretical Plasma Physics Division, PINSTECH, Islamabad (Pakistan); National Centre for Physics, Islamabad (Pakistan)
2013-05-15
The effect of non-Maxwellian distributed ions on electron temperature gradient mode is investigated. The linear dispersion relation of η{sub e}−mode is obtained which shows that the behavior of this mode changes in the presence of superthermal ions. The growth rate of η{sub e}−mode driven linear instability is found and is observed to modify due to nonthermal ions. However, it is found that this leaves the electron energy transport coefficient unchanged. In the nonlinear regime, a dipolar vortex solution is derived which indicates that the dynamic behavior of the vortices changes with the inclusion of kappa distributed ions. The importance of present study with respect to space and laboratory plasmas is also pointed out.
van der Voort, T. S.; Hagedorn, F.; Mannu, U.; Walthert, L.; McIntyre, C.; Eglinton, T. I.
2016-12-01
Soil carbon constitutes the largest terrestrial reservoir of organic carbon, and therefore quantifying soil organic matter dynamics (carbon turnover, stocks and fluxes) across spatial gradients is essential for an understanding of the carbon cycle and the impacts of global change. In particular, links between soil carbon dynamics and different climatic and compositional factors remains poorly understood. Radiocarbon constitutes a powerful tool for unraveling soil carbon dynamics. Temporally-resolved radiocarbon measurements, which take advantage of "bomb-radiocarbon"-driven changes in atmospheric 14C, enable further constraints to be placed on C turnover times. These in turn can yield more precise flux estimates for both upper and deeper soil horizons. This project combines bulk radiocarbon measurements on a suite of soil profiles spanning strong climatic (MAT 1.3-9.2°C, MAP 600 to 2100 mm m-2y-1) and geologic gradients with a more in-depth approach for a subset of locations. For this subset, temporal and carbon-fraction specific radiocarbon data has been acquired for both topsoil and deeper soils. These well-studied sites are part of the Long-Term Forest Ecosystem Research (LWF) program of the Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape research (WSL). Resulting temporally-resolved turnover estimates are coupled to carbon stocks, fluxes across this wide range of forest ecosystems and are examined in the context of environmental drivers (temperature, precipitation, primary production and soil moisture) as well as composition (sand, silt and clay content). Statistical analysis on the region-scale - correlating radiocarbon signature with climatic variables such as temperature, precipitation, primary production and elevation - indicates that composition rather than climate is a key driver of Δ14C signatures. Estimates of carbon turnover, stocks and fluxes derived from temporally-resolved measurements highlight the pivotal role of soil moisture as a
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ertas, Mehmet; Keskin, Mustafa; Deviren, Bayram
2010-01-01
The dynamic phase transitions are studied in the spin-2 Ising model under a time-dependent oscillating magnetic field by using the effective-field theory with correlations. The effective-field dynamic equation is derived by employing the Glauber transition rates and the phases in the system are obtained by solving this dynamic equation. The nature (first- or second-order) of the dynamic phase transition is characterized by investigating the thermal behavior of the dynamic order parameter and the dynamic phase transition temperatures are obtained. The dynamic phase diagrams are presented in (T/zJ, h/zJ) plane.
Diffusiophoresis in one-dimensional solute gradients
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ault, Jesse T.; Warren, Patrick B.; Shin, Sangwoo; Stone, Howard A.
2017-01-01
Here, the diffusiophoretic motion of suspended colloidal particles under one-dimensional solute gradients is solved using numerical and analytical techniques. Similarity solutions are developed for the injection and withdrawal dynamics of particles into semi-infinite pores. Furthermore, a method of characteristics formulation of the diffusion-free particle transport model is presented and integrated to realize particle trajectories. Analytical solutions are presented for the limit of small particle diffusiophoretic mobility Γ p relative to the solute diffusivity D s for particle motions in both semi-infinite and finite domains. Results confirm the build up of local maxima and minima in the propagating particle front dynamics. The method of characteristics is shown to successfully predict particle motions and the position of the particle front, although it fails to accurately predict suspended particle concentrations in the vicinity of sharp gradients, such as at the particle front peak seen in some injection cases, where particle diffusion inevitably plays an important role. Results inform the design of applications in which the use of applied solute gradients can greatly enhance particle injection into and withdrawal from pores.
Modeling emotional dynamics : currency versus field.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sallach, D .L.; Decision and Information Sciences; Univ. of Chicago
2008-08-01
Randall Collins has introduced a simplified model of emotional dynamics in which emotional energy, heightened and focused by interaction rituals, serves as a common denominator for social exchange: a generic form of currency, except that it is active in a far broader range of social transactions. While the scope of this theory is attractive, the specifics of the model remain unconvincing. After a critical assessment of the currency theory of emotion, a field model of emotion is introduced that adds expressiveness by locating emotional valence within its cognitive context, thereby creating an integrated orientation field. The result is a model which claims less in the way of motivational specificity, but is more satisfactory in modeling the dynamic interaction between cognitive and emotional orientations at both individual and social levels.
Testing the limits of gradient sensing.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vinal Lakhani
2017-02-01
Full Text Available The ability to detect a chemical gradient is fundamental to many cellular processes. In multicellular organisms gradient sensing plays an important role in many physiological processes such as wound healing and development. Unicellular organisms use gradient sensing to move (chemotaxis or grow (chemotropism towards a favorable environment. Some cells are capable of detecting extremely shallow gradients, even in the presence of significant molecular-level noise. For example, yeast have been reported to detect pheromone gradients as shallow as 0.1 nM/μm. Noise reduction mechanisms, such as time-averaging and the internalization of pheromone molecules, have been proposed to explain how yeast cells filter fluctuations and detect shallow gradients. Here, we use a Particle-Based Reaction-Diffusion model of ligand-receptor dynamics to test the effectiveness of these mechanisms and to determine the limits of gradient sensing. In particular, we develop novel simulation methods for establishing chemical gradients that not only allow us to study gradient sensing under steady-state conditions, but also take into account transient effects as the gradient forms. Based on reported measurements of reaction rates, our results indicate neither time-averaging nor receptor endocytosis significantly improves the cell's accuracy in detecting gradients over time scales associated with the initiation of polarized growth. Additionally, our results demonstrate the physical barrier of the cell membrane sharpens chemical gradients across the cell. While our studies are motivated by the mating response of yeast, we believe our results and simulation methods will find applications in many different contexts.
Accelerating deep neural network training with inconsistent stochastic gradient descent.
Wang, Linnan; Yang, Yi; Min, Renqiang; Chakradhar, Srimat
2017-09-01
Stochastic Gradient Descent (SGD) updates Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) with a noisy gradient computed from a random batch, and each batch evenly updates the network once in an epoch. This model applies the same training effort to each batch, but it overlooks the fact that the gradient variance, induced by Sampling Bias and Intrinsic Image Difference, renders different training dynamics on batches. In this paper, we develop a new training strategy for SGD, referred to as Inconsistent Stochastic Gradient Descent (ISGD) to address this problem. The core concept of ISGD is the inconsistent training, which dynamically adjusts the training effort w.r.t the loss. ISGD models the training as a stochastic process that gradually reduces down the mean of batch's loss, and it utilizes a dynamic upper control limit to identify a large loss batch on the fly. ISGD stays on the identified batch to accelerate the training with additional gradient updates, and it also has a constraint to penalize drastic parameter changes. ISGD is straightforward, computationally efficient and without requiring auxiliary memories. A series of empirical evaluations on real world datasets and networks demonstrate the promising performance of inconsistent training. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ozcan, Aydin; Perego, Claudio; Salvalaglio, Matteo; Parrinello, Michele; Yazaydin, Ozgur
2017-05-01
In this study, we introduce a new non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulation method to perform simulations of concentration driven membrane permeation processes. The methodology is based on the application of a non-conservative bias force controlling the concentration of species at the inlet and outlet of a membrane. We demonstrate our method for pure methane, ethane and ethylene permeation and for ethane/ethylene separation through a flexible ZIF-8 membrane. Results show that a stationary concentration gradient is maintained across the membrane, realistically simulating an out-of-equilibrium diffusive process, and the computed permeabilities and selectivity are in good agreement with experimental results.
Directional phytoscreening: contaminant gradients in trees for plume delineation.
Limmer, Matt A; Shetty, Mikhil K; Markus, Samantha; Kroeker, Ryan; Parker, Beth L; Martinez, Camilo; Burken, Joel G
2013-08-20
Tree sampling methods have been used in phytoscreening applications to delineate contaminated soil and groundwater, augmenting traditional investigative methods that are time-consuming, resource-intensive, invasive, and costly. In the past decade, contaminant concentrations in tree tissues have been shown to reflect the extent and intensity of subsurface contamination. This paper investigates a new phytoscreening tool: directional tree coring, a concept originating from field data that indicated azimuthal concentrations in tree trunks reflected the concentration gradients in the groundwater around the tree. To experimentally test this hypothesis, large diameter trees were subjected to subsurface contaminant concentration gradients in a greenhouse study. These trees were then analyzed for azimuthal concentration gradients in aboveground tree tissues, revealing contaminant centroids located on the side of the tree nearest the most contaminated groundwater. Tree coring at three field sites revealed sufficiently steep contaminant gradients in trees reflected nearby groundwater contaminant gradients. In practice, trees possessing steep contaminant gradients are indicators of steep subsurface contaminant gradients, providing compass-like information about the contaminant gradient, pointing investigators toward higher concentration regions of the plume.
Mean-field theory of nuclear structure and dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Negele, J.W.
1982-01-01
The physical and theoretical foundations are presented for the mean-field theory of nuclear structure and dynamics. Salient features of the many-body theory of stationary states are reviewed to motivate the time-dependent mean-field approximation. The time-dependent Hartree-Fock approximation and its limitations are discussed and general theoretical formulations are presented which yield time-dependent mean-field equations in lowest approximation and provide suitable frameworks for overcoming various conceptual and practical limitations of the mean-field theory. Particular emphasis is placed on recent developments utilizing functional integral techniques to obtain a quantum mean-field theory applicable to quantized eigenstates, spontaneous fission, the nuclear partition function, and scattering problems. Applications to a number of simple, idealized systems are presented to verify the approximations for solvable problems and to elucidate the essential features of mean-field dynamics. Finally, calculations utilizing moderately realistic geometries and interactions are reviewed which address heavy-ion collisions, fusion, strongly damped collisions, and fission
Finite temperature dynamics of a Holstein polaron: The thermo-field dynamics approach
Chen, Lipeng; Zhao, Yang
2017-12-01
Combining the multiple Davydov D2 Ansatz with the method of thermo-field dynamics, we study finite temperature dynamics of a Holstein polaron on a lattice. It has been demonstrated, using the hierarchy equations of motion method as a benchmark, that our approach provides an efficient, robust description of finite temperature dynamics of the Holstein polaron in the simultaneous presence of diagonal and off-diagonal exciton-phonon coupling. The method of thermo-field dynamics handles temperature effects in the Hilbert space with key numerical advantages over other treatments of finite-temperature dynamics based on quantum master equations in the Liouville space or wave function propagation with Monte Carlo importance sampling. While for weak to moderate diagonal coupling temperature increases inhibit polaron mobility, it is found that off-diagonal coupling induces phonon-assisted transport that dominates at high temperatures. Results on the mean square displacements show that band-like transport features dominate the diagonal coupling cases, and there exists a crossover from band-like to hopping transport with increasing temperature when including off-diagonal coupling. As a proof of concept, our theory provides a unified treatment of coherent and incoherent transport in molecular crystals and is applicable to any temperature.
Ozarslan, Evren; Shemesh, Noam; Basser, Peter J
2009-03-14
Based on a description introduced by Robertson, Grebenkov recently introduced a powerful formalism to represent the diffusion-attenuated NMR signal for simple pore geometries such as slabs, cylinders, and spheres analytically. In this work, we extend this multiple correlation function formalism by allowing for possible variations in the direction of the magnetic field gradient waveform. This extension is necessary, for example, to incorporate the effects of imaging gradients in diffusion-weighted NMR imaging scans and in characterizing anisotropy at different length scales via double pulsed field gradient (PFG) experiments. In cylindrical and spherical pores, respectively, two- and three-dimensional vector operators are employed whose form is deduced from Grebenkov's results via elementary operator algebra for the case of cylinders and the Wigner-Eckart theorem for the case of spheres. The theory was validated by comparison with known findings and with experimental double-PFG data obtained from water-filled microcapillaries.
Özarslan, Evren; Shemesh, Noam; Basser, Peter J.
2009-03-01
Based on a description introduced by Robertson, Grebenkov recently introduced a powerful formalism to represent the diffusion-attenuated NMR signal for simple pore geometries such as slabs, cylinders, and spheres analytically. In this work, we extend this multiple correlation function formalism by allowing for possible variations in the direction of the magnetic field gradient waveform. This extension is necessary, for example, to incorporate the effects of imaging gradients in diffusion-weighted NMR imaging scans and in characterizing anisotropy at different length scales via double pulsed field gradient (PFG) experiments. In cylindrical and spherical pores, respectively, two- and three-dimensional vector operators are employed whose form is deduced from Grebenkov's results via elementary operator algebra for the case of cylinders and the Wigner-Eckart theorem for the case of spheres. The theory was validated by comparison with known findings and with experimental double-PFG data obtained from water-filled microcapillaries.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rebreyend, D.; Pignol, G.; Baeßler, S.; Nesvizhevsky, V. V.; Protasov, K.; Voronin, A.
2014-01-01
Gravitational resonance spectroscopy consists in measuring the energy spectrum of bouncing ultracold neutrons above a mirror by inducing resonant transitions between different discrete quantum levels. We discuss how to induce the resonances with a flow through arrangement in the GRANIT spectrometer, excited by an oscillating magnetic field gradient. The spectroscopy could be realized in two distinct modes (so called DC and AC) using the same device to produce the magnetic excitation. We present calculations demonstrating the feasibility of the newly proposed AC mode
2016-01-01
Asters nucleated by Microtubule (MT) organizing centers (MTOCs) converge on chromosomes during spindle assembly in mouse oocytes undergoing meiosis I. Time-lapse imaging suggests that this centripetal motion is driven by a biased ‘search-and-capture’ mechanism. Here, we develop a model of a random walk in a drift field to test the nature of the bias and the spatio-temporal dynamics of the search process. The model is used to optimize the spatial field of drift in simulations, by comparison to experimental motility statistics. In a second step, this optimized gradient is used to determine the location of immobilized dynein motors and MT polymerization parameters, since these are hypothesized to generate the gradient of forces needed to move MTOCs. We compare these scenarios to self-organized mechanisms by which asters have been hypothesized to find the cell-center- MT pushing at the cell-boundary and clustering motor complexes. By minimizing the error between simulation outputs and experiments, we find a model of “pulling” by a gradient of dynein motors alone can drive the centripetal motility. Interestingly, models of passive MT based “pushing” at the cortex, clustering by cross-linking motors and MT-dynamic instability gradients alone, by themselves do not result in the observed motility. The model predicts the sensitivity of the results to motor density and stall force, but not MTs per aster. A hybrid model combining a chromatin-centered immobilized dynein gradient, diffusible minus-end directed clustering motors and pushing at the cell cortex, is required to comprehensively explain the available data. The model makes experimentally testable predictions of a spatial bias and self-organized mechanisms by which MT asters can find the center of a large cell. PMID:27706163
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
ChunPing Ren
2017-01-01
Full Text Available We propose a novel mathematical algorithm to offer a solution for the inverse random dynamic force identification in practical engineering. Dealing with the random dynamic force identification problem using the proposed algorithm, an improved maximum entropy (IME regularization technique is transformed into an unconstrained optimization problem, and a novel conjugate gradient (NCG method was applied to solve the objective function, which was abbreviated as IME-NCG algorithm. The result of IME-NCG algorithm is compared with that of ME, ME-CG, ME-NCG, and IME-CG algorithm; it is found that IME-NCG algorithm is available for identifying the random dynamic force due to smaller root mean-square-error (RMSE, lower restoration time, and fewer iterative steps. Example of engineering application shows that L-curve method is introduced which is better than Generalized Cross Validation (GCV method and is applied to select regularization parameter; thus the proposed algorithm can be helpful to alleviate the ill-conditioned problem in identification of dynamic force and to acquire an optimal solution of inverse problem in practical engineering.
Dynamic characterization of oil fields, complex stratigraphically using genetic algorithms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gonzalez, Santiago; Hidrobo, Eduardo A
2004-01-01
A novel methodology is presented in this paper for the characterization of highly heterogeneous oil fields by integration of the oil fields dynamic information to the static updated model. The objective of the oil field's characterization process is to build an oil field model, as realistic as possible, through the incorporation of all the available information. The classical approach consists in producing a model based in the oil field's static information, having as the process final stage the validation model with the dynamic information available. It is important to clarify that the term validation implies a punctual process by nature, generally intended to secure the required coherence between productive zones and petrophysical properties. The objective of the proposed methodology is to enhance the prediction capacity of the oil field's model by previously integrating, parameters inherent to the oil field's fluid dynamics by a process of dynamic data inversion through an optimization procedure based on evolutionary computation. The proposed methodology relies on the construction of the oil field's high-resolution static model, escalated by means of hybrid techniques while aiming to preserve the oil field's heterogeneity. Afterwards, using an analytic simulator as reference, the scaled model is methodically modified by means of an optimization process that uses genetic algorithms and production data as conditional information. The process's final product is a model that observes the static and dynamic conditions of the oil field with the capacity to minimize the economic impact that generates production historical adjustments to the simulation tasks. This final model features some petrophysical properties (porosity, permeability and water saturation), as modified to achieve a better adjustment of the simulated production's history versus the real one history matching. Additionally, the process involves a slight modification of relative permeability, which has
Primordial vorticity and gradient expansion
Giovannini, Massimo
2012-01-01
The evolution equations of the vorticities of the electrons, ions and photons in a pre-decoupling plasma are derived, in a fully inhomogeneous geometry, by combining the general relativistic gradient expansion and the drift approximation within the Adler-Misner-Deser decomposition. The vorticity transfer between the different species is discussed in this novel framework and a set of general conservation laws, connecting the vorticities of the three-component plasma with the magnetic field intensity, is derived. After demonstrating that a source of large-scale vorticity resides in the spatial gradients of the geometry and of the electromagnetic sources, the total vorticity is estimated to lowest order in the spatial gradients and by enforcing the validity of the momentum constraint. By acknowledging the current bounds on the tensor to scalar ratio in the (minimal) tensor extension of the $\\Lambda$CDM paradigm the maximal comoving magnetic field induced by the total vorticity turns out to be, at most, of the or...
Dynamic scattering theory for dark-field electron holography of 3D strain fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lubk, Axel; Javon, Elsa; Cherkashin, Nikolay; Reboh, Shay; Gatel, Christophe; Hÿtch, Martin
2014-01-01
Dark-field electron holography maps strain in crystal lattices into reconstructed phases over large fields of view. Here we investigate the details of the lattice strain–reconstructed phase relationship by applying dynamic scattering theory both analytically and numerically. We develop efficient analytic linear projection rules for 3D strain fields, facilitating a straight-forward calculation of reconstructed phases from 3D strained materials. They are used in the following to quantify the influence of various experimental parameters like strain magnitude, specimen thickness, excitation error and surface relaxation. - Author-Highlights: • We derive a simple dynamic scattering formalism for dark field electron holography based on a perturbative two-beam theory. • The formalism facilitates the projection of 3D strain fields by a simple weighting integral. • The weighted projection depends analytically on the diffraction order, the excitation error and the specimen thickness. • The weighting integral formalism represents an important prerequisite towards the development of tomographic strain reconstruction techniques
Ab initio molecular dynamics in a finite homogeneous electric field.
Umari, P; Pasquarello, Alfredo
2002-10-07
We treat homogeneous electric fields within density functional calculations with periodic boundary conditions. A nonlocal energy functional depending on the applied field is used within an ab initio molecular dynamics scheme. The reliability of the method is demonstrated in the case of bulk MgO for the Born effective charges, and the high- and low-frequency dielectric constants. We evaluate the static dielectric constant by performing a damped molecular dynamics in an electric field and avoiding the calculation of the dynamical matrix. Application of this method to vitreous silica shows good agreement with experiment and illustrates its potential for systems of large size.
The most general cosmological dynamics for ELKO matter fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fabbri, Luca
2011-01-01
Not long ago, the definition of eigenspinors of charge-conjugation belonging to a special Wigner class has lead to the unexpected theoretical discovery of a form of matter with spin 1/2 and mass dimension 1, called ELKO matter field; ELKO matter fields defined in flat spacetimes have been later extended to curved and twisted spacetimes, in order to include in their dynamics the coupling to gravitational fields possessing both metric and torsional degrees of freedom: the inclusion of non-commuting spinorial covariant derivatives allows for the introduction of more general dynamical terms influencing the behaviour of ELKO matter fields. In this Letter, we shall solve the theoretical problem of finding the most general dynamics for ELKO matter, and we will face the phenomenological issue concerning how the new dynamical terms may affect the behavior of ELKO matter; we will see that new effects will arise for which the very existence of ELKO matter will be endangered, due to the fact that ELKOs will turn incompatible with the cosmological principle. Thus we have that anisotropic universes must be taken into account if ELKOs are to be considered in their most general form.
Crombé, K; Andrew, Y; Brix, M; Giroud, C; Hacquin, S; Hawkes, N C; Murari, A; Nave, M F F; Ongena, J; Parail, V; Van Oost, G; Voitsekhovitch, I; Zastrow, K-D
2005-10-07
Results from the first measurements of a core plasma poloidal rotation velocity (upsilontheta) across internal transport barriers (ITB) on JET are presented. The spatial and temporal evolution of the ITB can be followed along with the upsilontheta radial profiles, providing a very clear link between the location of the steepest region of the ion temperature gradient and localized spin-up of upsilontheta. The upsilontheta measurements are an order of magnitude higher than the neoclassical predictions for thermal particles in the ITB region, contrary to the close agreement found between the determined and predicted particle and heat transport coefficients [K.-D. Zastrow, Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 46, B255 (2004)]. These results have significant implications for the understanding of transport barrier dynamics due to their large impact on the measured radial electric field profile.
Dynamical similarity of geomagnetic field reversals.
Valet, Jean-Pierre; Fournier, Alexandre; Courtillot, Vincent; Herrero-Bervera, Emilio
2012-10-04
No consensus has been reached so far on the properties of the geomagnetic field during reversals or on the main features that might reveal its dynamics. A main characteristic of the reversing field is a large decrease in the axial dipole and the dominant role of non-dipole components. Other features strongly depend on whether they are derived from sedimentary or volcanic records. Only thermal remanent magnetization of lava flows can capture faithful records of a rapidly varying non-dipole field, but, because of episodic volcanic activity, sequences of overlying flows yield incomplete records. Here we show that the ten most detailed volcanic records of reversals can be matched in a very satisfactory way, under the assumption of a common duration, revealing common dynamical characteristics. We infer that the reversal process has remained unchanged, with the same time constants and durations, at least since 180 million years ago. We propose that the reversing field is characterized by three successive phases: a precursory event, a 180° polarity switch and a rebound. The first and third phases reflect the emergence of the non-dipole field with large-amplitude secular variation. They are rarely both recorded at the same site owing to the rapidly changing field geometry and last for less than 2,500 years. The actual transit between the two polarities does not last longer than 1,000 years and might therefore result from mechanisms other than those governing normal secular variation. Such changes are too brief to be accurately recorded by most sediments.
Whitmore, Stephen A.; Petersen, Brian J.; Scott, David D.
1996-01-01
This paper develops a dynamic model for pressure sensors in continuum and rarefied flows with longitudinal temperature gradients. The model was developed from the unsteady Navier-Stokes momentum, energy, and continuity equations and was linearized using small perturbations. The energy equation was decoupled from momentum and continuity assuming a polytropic flow process. Rarefied flow conditions were accounted for using a slip flow boundary condition at the tubing wall. The equations were radially averaged and solved assuming gas properties remain constant along a small tubing element. This fundamental solution was used as a building block for arbitrary geometries where fluid properties may also vary longitudinally in the tube. The problem was solved recursively starting at the transducer and working upstream in the tube. Dynamic frequency response tests were performed for continuum flow conditions in the presence of temperature gradients. These tests validated the recursive formulation of the model. Model steady-state behavior was analyzed using the final value theorem. Tests were performed for rarefied flow conditions and compared to the model steady-state response to evaluate the regime of applicability. Model comparisons were excellent for Knudsen numbers up to 0.6. Beyond this point, molecular affects caused model analyses to become inaccurate.
Nutrient dynamics across a dissolved organic carbon and burn gradient in central Siberia
Rodriguez-Cardona, B.; Coble, A. A.; Prokishkin, A. S.; Kolosov, R.; Spencer, R. G.; Wymore, A.; McDowell, W. H.
2016-12-01
In stream ecosystems, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nitrogen (N) processing are tightly linked. In temperate streams, greater DOC concentrations and higher DOC:NO3- ratios promote the greatest nitrate (NO3-) uptake. However, less is known about this relationship in other biomes including the arctic which is undergoing changes due to climate change contributing to thawing of permafrost and alterations in biogeochemical cycles in soils and streams. Headwater streams draining into the N. Tunguska River in the central Siberian plateau are affected by forest fires but little is known about the aquatic biogeochemical implications in both a thawing and burning landscape. There are clear patterns between carbon concentration and fire history where generally DOC concentration in streams decrease after fires and older burn sites have shown greater DOC concentrations and more bioavailable DOC that could promote greater heterotrophic uptake of NO3-. However, the relationship between nutrient dynamics, organic matter composition, and fire history in streams is not very clear. In order to assess the influence of organic matter composition and DOC concentration on nutrient uptake in arctic streams, we conducted a series of short-term nutrient addition experiments following the tracer addition for spiraling curve characterization (TASCC) method, consisting of NO3- and NH4++PO43- additions, across 4 streams that comprise a fire gradient that spans 3- >100 years since the last burn with DOC concentrations ranging between 12-23 mg C/L. We hypothesized that nutrient uptake would be greatest in older burn sites due to greater DOC concentrations and availability. We will specifically examine how nutrient uptake relates to DOC concentration and OM composition (analyzed via FTICR-MS) across the burn gradient. Across the four sites DOC concentration and DOC:NO3- ratios decreased from old burn sites to recently burned sites. Results presented here can elucidate on the potential impacts
Canonical trivialization of gravitational gradients
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Niedermaier, Max
2017-01-01
A one-parameter family of canonical transformations is constructed that reduces the Hamiltonian form of the Einstein–Hilbert action to its strong coupling limit where dynamical spatial gradients are absent. The parameter can alternatively be viewed as the overall scale of the spatial metric or as a fractional inverse power of Newton’s constant. The generating function of the canonical transformation is constructed iteratively as a powerseries in the parameter to all orders. The algorithm draws on Lie–Deprit transformation theory and defines a ‘trivialization map’ with several bonus properties: (i) Trivialization of the Hamiltonian constraint implies that of the action while the diffeomorphism constraint is automatically co-transformed. (ii) Only a set of ordinary differential equations needs to be solved to drive the iteration via a homological equation where no gauge fixing is required. (iii) In contrast to (the classical limit of) a Lagrangian trivialization map the algorithm also produces series solutions of the field equations. (iv) In the strong coupling theory temporal gauge variations are abelian, nevertheless the map intertwines with the respective gauge symmetries on the action, the field equations, and their solutions. (paper)
Canonical trivialization of gravitational gradients
Niedermaier, Max
2017-06-01
A one-parameter family of canonical transformations is constructed that reduces the Hamiltonian form of the Einstein-Hilbert action to its strong coupling limit where dynamical spatial gradients are absent. The parameter can alternatively be viewed as the overall scale of the spatial metric or as a fractional inverse power of Newton’s constant. The generating function of the canonical transformation is constructed iteratively as a powerseries in the parameter to all orders. The algorithm draws on Lie-Deprit transformation theory and defines a ‘trivialization map’ with several bonus properties: (i) Trivialization of the Hamiltonian constraint implies that of the action while the diffeomorphism constraint is automatically co-transformed. (ii) Only a set of ordinary differential equations needs to be solved to drive the iteration via a homological equation where no gauge fixing is required. (iii) In contrast to (the classical limit of) a Lagrangian trivialization map the algorithm also produces series solutions of the field equations. (iv) In the strong coupling theory temporal gauge variations are abelian, nevertheless the map intertwines with the respective gauge symmetries on the action, the field equations, and their solutions.
Mean-field theory of active electrolytes: Dynamic adsorption and overscreening
Frydel, Derek; Podgornik, Rudolf
2018-05-01
We investigate active electrolytes within the mean-field level of description. The focus is on how the double-layer structure of passive, thermalized charges is affected by active dynamics of constituting ions. One feature of active dynamics is that particles adhere to hard surfaces, regardless of chemical properties of a surface and specifically in complete absence of any chemisorption or physisorption. To carry out the mean-field analysis of the system that is out of equilibrium, we develop the "mean-field simulation" technique, where the simulated system consists of charged parallel sheets moving on a line and obeying active dynamics, with the interaction strength rescaled by the number of sheets. The mean-field limit becomes exact in the limit of an infinite number of movable sheets.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nogueira, S.R.; Vugman, N.V.; Guenzburger, D.
1988-01-01
Semi-empirical Molecular Orbital calculations were performed for the paramagnetic complex ions [Ir(CN) 5 ] 3- , [Ir(CN) 5 Cl] 4- and [Ir(CN) 4 Cl 2 ] 4- . Energy levels schemes and Mulliken-type populations were obtained. The distribution of the unpaired spin over the atoms in the complexes was derived, and compared to data obtained from Electron Paramagnetic Resonance spectra with the aid of a Ligand Field model. The electric field gradients at the Ir nucleus were calculated and compared to experiment. The results are discussed in terms of the chemical bonds formed by Ir and the ligands. (author) [pt
Thermo field dynamics: a quantum field theory at finite temperature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mancini, F.; Marinaro, M.; Matsumoto, H.
1988-01-01
A brief review of the theory of thermo field dynamics (TFD) is presented. TFD is introduced and developed by Umezawa and his coworkers at finite temperature. The most significant concept in TFD is that of a thermal vacuum which satisfies some conditions denoted as thermal state conditions. The TFD permits to reformulate theories at finite temperature. There is no need in an additional principle to determine particle distributions at T ≠ 0. Temperature and other macroscopic parameters are introduced in the definition of the vacuum state. All operator formalisms used in quantum field theory at T=0 are preserved, although the field degrees of freedom are doubled. 8 refs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ertaş, Mehmet; Kantar, Ersin; Keskin, Mustafa
2014-01-01
The dynamic phase transitions (DPTs) and dynamic phase diagrams of the kinetic spin-1/2 bilayer system in the presence of a time-dependent oscillating external magnetic field are studied by using Glauber-type stochastic dynamics based on the effective-field theory with correlations for the ferromagnetic/ferromagnetic (FM/FM), antiferromagnetic/ferromagnetic (AFM/FM) and antiferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic (AFM/AFM) interactions. The time variations of average magnetizations and the temperature dependence of the dynamic magnetizations are investigated. The dynamic phase diagrams for the amplitude of the oscillating field versus temperature were presented. The results are compared with the results of the same system within Glauber-type stochastic dynamics based on the mean-field theory. - Highlights: • The Ising bilayer system is investigated within the Glauber dynamics based on EFT. • The time variations of average order parameters to find phases are studied. • The dynamic phase diagrams are found for the different interaction parameters. • The system displays the critical points as well as a re-entrant behavior
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ertaş, Mehmet; Kantar, Ersin, E-mail: ersinkantar@erciyes.edu.tr; Keskin, Mustafa
2014-05-01
The dynamic phase transitions (DPTs) and dynamic phase diagrams of the kinetic spin-1/2 bilayer system in the presence of a time-dependent oscillating external magnetic field are studied by using Glauber-type stochastic dynamics based on the effective-field theory with correlations for the ferromagnetic/ferromagnetic (FM/FM), antiferromagnetic/ferromagnetic (AFM/FM) and antiferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic (AFM/AFM) interactions. The time variations of average magnetizations and the temperature dependence of the dynamic magnetizations are investigated. The dynamic phase diagrams for the amplitude of the oscillating field versus temperature were presented. The results are compared with the results of the same system within Glauber-type stochastic dynamics based on the mean-field theory. - Highlights: • The Ising bilayer system is investigated within the Glauber dynamics based on EFT. • The time variations of average order parameters to find phases are studied. • The dynamic phase diagrams are found for the different interaction parameters. • The system displays the critical points as well as a re-entrant behavior.
Pressure gradients fail to predict diffusio-osmosis
Liu, Yawei; Ganti, Raman; Frenkel, Daan
2018-05-01
We present numerical simulations of diffusio-osmotic flow, i.e. the fluid flow generated by a concentration gradient along a solid-fluid interface. In our study, we compare a number of distinct approaches that have been proposed for computing such flows and compare them with a reference calculation based on direct, non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. As alternatives, we consider schemes that compute diffusio-osmotic flow from the gradient of the chemical potentials of the constituent species and from the gradient of the component of the pressure tensor parallel to the interface. We find that the approach based on treating chemical potential gradients as external forces acting on various species agrees with the direct simulations, thereby supporting the approach of Marbach et al (2017 J. Chem. Phys. 146 194701). In contrast, an approach based on computing the gradients of the microscopic pressure tensor does not reproduce the direct non-equilibrium results.
Determination of boundaries between ranges of high and low gradient of beam profile.
Wendykier, Jacek; Bieniasiewicz, Marcin; Grządziel, Aleksandra; Jedynak, Tadeusz; Kośniewski, Wiktor; Reudelsdorf, Marta; Wendykier, Piotr
2016-01-01
This work addresses the problem of treatment planning system commissioning by introducing a new method of determination of boundaries between high and low gradient in beam profile. The commissioning of a treatment planning system is a very important task in the radiation therapy. One of the main goals of this task is to compare two field profiles: measured and calculated. Applying points of 80% and 120% of nominal field size can lead to the incorrect determination of boundaries, especially for small field sizes. The method that is based on the beam profile gradient allows for proper assignment of boundaries between high and low gradient regions even for small fields. TRS 430 recommendations for commissioning were used. The described method allows a separation between high and low gradient, because it directly uses the value of the gradient of a profile. For small fields, the boundaries determined by the new method allow a commissioning of a treatment planning system according to the TRS 430, while the point of 80% of nominal field size is already in the high gradient region. The method of determining the boundaries by using the beam profile gradient can be extremely helpful during the commissioning of the treatment planning system for Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy or for other techniques which require very small field sizes.
Dynamics of solutions and fluid mixtures by NMR
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Delpuech, J.J.
1994-01-01
After a short introduction to NMR spectroscopy, with a special emphasis on dynamical aspects, an overview on two fundamental aspects of molecular dynamics, NMR relaxation and its relationship with molecular reorientation, and magnetization transfer phenomena induced by molecular rate processes (dynamic NMR) is presented, followed by specific mechanisms of relaxation encountered in paramagnetic systems or with quadrupolar nuclei. Application fields are then reviewed: solvent exchange on metal ions with a variable pressure NMR approach, applications of field gradients in NMR, aggregation phenomena and micro-heterogeneity in surfactant solutions, polymers and biopolymers in the liquid state, liquid-like molecules in rigid matrices and in soft matter (swollen polymers and gels, fluids in and on inorganic materials, food)
On fracture in finite strain gradient plasticity
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Martínez Pañeda, Emilio; Niordson, Christian Frithiof
2016-01-01
In this work a general framework for damage and fracture assessment including the effect of strain gradients is provided. Both mechanism-based and phenomenological strain gradient plasticity (SGP) theories are implemented numerically using finite deformation theory and crack tip fields are invest......In this work a general framework for damage and fracture assessment including the effect of strain gradients is provided. Both mechanism-based and phenomenological strain gradient plasticity (SGP) theories are implemented numerically using finite deformation theory and crack tip fields...... are investigated. Differences and similarities between the two approaches within continuum SGP modeling are highlighted and discussed. Local strain hardening promoted by geometrically necessary dislocations (GNDs) in the vicinity of the crack leads to much higher stresses, relative to classical plasticity...... in the multiple parameter version of the phenomenological SGP theory. Since this also dominates the mechanics of indentation testing, results suggest that length parameters characteristic of mode I fracture should be inferred from nanoindentation....
Coupling of hydraulic and electric gradients in sandy soils
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gregolec, G.; Zorn, R.; Kurzbach, A.; Roehl, K.E.; Czurda, K. [Dept. of Applied Geology, Univ. Karlsruhe (Germany)
2001-07-01
Laboratory studies were conducted to investigate the influence of hydraulic gradient on the migration of ions caused by an applied dc electric field. The model soil used was a uniform sand which was placed into an electrokinetic cell and saturated with sodium chloride solution. Applying only an electric gradient, steady state conditions are reached where the concentration distribution of sodium and chloride coincides with a theoretical model. The combination of electric and hydraulic gradients shows that it is possible to hinder ions from moving with the groundwater flow by applying an electric field. (orig.)
Formation and field-driven dynamics of nematic spheroids.
Fu, Fred; Abukhdeir, Nasser Mohieddin
2017-07-19
Unlike the canonical application of liquid crystals (LCs), LC displays, emerging technologies based on LC materials are increasingly leveraging the presence of nanoscale defects. The inherent nanoscale characteristics of LC defects present both significant opportunities as well as barriers for the application of this fascinating class of materials. Simulation-based approaches to the study of the effects of confinement and interface anchoring conditions on LC domains has resulted in significant progress over the past decade, where simulations are now able to access experimentally-relevant length scales while simultaneously capturing nanoscale defect structures. In this work, continuum simulations were performed in order to study the dynamics of micron-scale nematic LC spheroids of varying shape. Nematic spheroids are one of the simplest inherently defect-containing LC structures and are relevant to polymer-dispersed LC-based "smart" window technology. Simulation results include nematic phase formation and external field-switching dynamics of nematic spheroids ranging in shape from oblate to prolate. Results include both qualitative and quantitative insight into the complex coupling of nanoscale defect dynamics and structure transitions to micron-scale reorientation. Dynamic mechanisms are presented and related to structural transitions in LC defects present in the nematic domain. Domain-averaged metrics including order parameters and response times are determined for a range of experimentally-accessible electric field strengths. These results have both fundamental and technological relevance, in that increased understanding of LC dynamics in the presence of defects is a key barrier to continued advancement in the field.
Fast-forward of quantum adiabatic dynamics in electro-magnetic field
Masuda, Shumpei; Nakamura, Katsuhiro
2010-01-01
We show a method to accelerate quantum adiabatic dynamics of wavefunctions under electro-magnetic field by developing the previous theory (Masuda & Nakamura 2008 and 2010). Firstly we investigate the orbital dynamics of a charged particle. We derive the driving field which accelerates quantum adiabatic dynamics in order to obtain the final adiabatic states except for the spatially uniform phase such as the adiabatic phase in any desired short time. Fast-forward of adiabatic squeezing and tran...
Diffusiophoresis in one-dimensional solute gradients
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ault, Jesse T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Warren, Patrick B. [Unilever R& D Port Sunlight, Bebington (United Kingdom); Shin, Sangwoo [Univ. of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI (United States); Stone, Howard A. [Princeton Univ., Princeton, NJ (United States)
2017-11-06
Here, the diffusiophoretic motion of suspended colloidal particles under one-dimensional solute gradients is solved using numerical and analytical techniques. Similarity solutions are developed for the injection and withdrawal dynamics of particles into semi-infinite pores. Furthermore, a method of characteristics formulation of the diffusion-free particle transport model is presented and integrated to realize particle trajectories. Analytical solutions are presented for the limit of small particle diffusiophoretic mobility Γ_{p} relative to the solute diffusivity D_{s} for particle motions in both semi-infinite and finite domains. Results confirm the build up of local maxima and minima in the propagating particle front dynamics. The method of characteristics is shown to successfully predict particle motions and the position of the particle front, although it fails to accurately predict suspended particle concentrations in the vicinity of sharp gradients, such as at the particle front peak seen in some injection cases, where particle diffusion inevitably plays an important role. Results inform the design of applications in which the use of applied solute gradients can greatly enhance particle injection into and withdrawal from pores.
Destabilization of drift waves due to nonuniform density gradient
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hirose, A.; Ishihara, O.
1985-01-01
It is shown that the conventional mode differential equation for low frequency electrostatic waves in a tokamak does not contain full ion dynamics. Both electrons and ions contribute to the ballooning term, which is subject to finite ion Larmor radius effects. Also, both fluid ion approximation and kinetic ion model yield the same correction. Reexamined are the density gradient universal mode and ion temperature gradient instability employing the lowest order Pearlstein-Berk type radial eigenfunctions. No unstable, bounded, energy outgoing eigenfunctions have been found. In particular, a large ion temperature gradient (eta/sub i/) tends to further stabilize the temperature gradient driven mode
Gradient Learning Algorithms for Ontology Computing
Gao, Wei; Zhu, Linli
2014-01-01
The gradient learning model has been raising great attention in view of its promising perspectives for applications in statistics, data dimensionality reducing, and other specific fields. In this paper, we raise a new gradient learning model for ontology similarity measuring and ontology mapping in multidividing setting. The sample error in this setting is given by virtue of the hypothesis space and the trick of ontology dividing operator. Finally, two experiments presented on plant and humanoid robotics field verify the efficiency of the new computation model for ontology similarity measure and ontology mapping applications in multidividing setting. PMID:25530752
Gradient Learning Algorithms for Ontology Computing
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wei Gao
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The gradient learning model has been raising great attention in view of its promising perspectives for applications in statistics, data dimensionality reducing, and other specific fields. In this paper, we raise a new gradient learning model for ontology similarity measuring and ontology mapping in multidividing setting. The sample error in this setting is given by virtue of the hypothesis space and the trick of ontology dividing operator. Finally, two experiments presented on plant and humanoid robotics field verify the efficiency of the new computation model for ontology similarity measure and ontology mapping applications in multidividing setting.
Dynamical Mean Field Approximation Applied to Quantum Field Theory
Akerlund, Oscar; Georges, Antoine; Werner, Philipp
2013-12-04
We apply the Dynamical Mean Field (DMFT) approximation to the real, scalar phi^4 quantum field theory. By comparing to lattice Monte Carlo calculations, perturbation theory and standard mean field theory, we test the quality of the approximation in two, three, four and five dimensions. The quantities considered in these tests are the critical coupling for the transition to the ordered phase and the associated critical exponents nu and beta. We also map out the phase diagram in four dimensions. In two and three dimensions, DMFT incorrectly predicts a first order phase transition for all bare quartic couplings, which is problematic, because the second order nature of the phase transition of lattice phi^4-theory is crucial for taking the continuum limit. Nevertheless, by extrapolating the behaviour away from the phase transition, one can obtain critical couplings and critical exponents. They differ from those of mean field theory and are much closer to the correct values. In four dimensions the transition is sec...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ertaş, Mehmet [Department of Physics, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey); Kocakaplan, Yusuf [Institute of Science, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey); Keskin, Mustafa, E-mail: keskin@erciyes.edu.tr [Department of Physics, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)
2013-12-15
Dynamic phase diagrams are presented for the kinetic spin-3/2 Blume–Capel model under a time oscillating longitudinal field by use of the effective-field theory with correlations. The dynamic equation of the average magnetization is obtained for the square lattice by utilizing the Glauber-type stochastic process. Dynamic phase diagrams are presented in the reduced temperature and the magnetic field amplitude plane. We also investigated the effect of longitudinal field frequency. Finally, the discussion and comparison of the phase diagrams are given. - Highlights: • Dynamic behaviors in the spin-3/2 Blume–Capel system is investigated by the effective-field theory based on the Glauber-type stochastic dynamics. • The dynamic phase transitions and dynamic phase diagrams are obtained. • The effects of the longitudinal field frequency on the dynamic phase diagrams of the system are investigated. • Dynamic phase diagrams exhibit several ordered phases, coexistence phase regions and several critical points as well as a re-entrant behavior.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ertaş, Mehmet; Kocakaplan, Yusuf; Keskin, Mustafa
2013-01-01
Dynamic phase diagrams are presented for the kinetic spin-3/2 Blume–Capel model under a time oscillating longitudinal field by use of the effective-field theory with correlations. The dynamic equation of the average magnetization is obtained for the square lattice by utilizing the Glauber-type stochastic process. Dynamic phase diagrams are presented in the reduced temperature and the magnetic field amplitude plane. We also investigated the effect of longitudinal field frequency. Finally, the discussion and comparison of the phase diagrams are given. - Highlights: • Dynamic behaviors in the spin-3/2 Blume–Capel system is investigated by the effective-field theory based on the Glauber-type stochastic dynamics. • The dynamic phase transitions and dynamic phase diagrams are obtained. • The effects of the longitudinal field frequency on the dynamic phase diagrams of the system are investigated. • Dynamic phase diagrams exhibit several ordered phases, coexistence phase regions and several critical points as well as a re-entrant behavior
Dynamics of dissociation versus ionization in strong laser fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
DiMauro, L.F.; Yang, B.
1993-01-01
In this paper, experimental results are presented which clearly demonstrate the effectiveness that an external field has in altering the dissociation dynamics. The experiment examines the strong-field dissociation dynamics of molecular hydrogen ions and its deuterated isotopes. These studies involve multiphoton excitation in the intensity regime of 10 11-14 W/cm 2 with the fundamental and second harmonic of a ND:YAG or ND:YLF laser system. Measurements include energy resolved electron and mass spectroscopy which provide useful probes in elucidating the interaction dynamics predicted by existing models. The example this in this paper, examines the strong-field dissociation of H 2 + , HD + , and D 2 + at green (0.5 μm) and (1μm) frequencies. The diatomic ions are formed via multiphonon ionization of the neutral precursor which is physically separable from the dissociation process. This study provides the first observation of the dynamics associated with the above threshold dissociation (ATD) process and analogies will be made with the more familiar above threshold ionization (ATI) phenomenon
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Decking, W.
1995-11-01
In this thesis I analyze the effects of wiggler and undulator magnetic fields on the beam dynamics of electron/positron storage rings. DORIS III, DESY's synchrotron radiation source is taken as an example. Wigglers and undulators are used for the production of synchrotron radiation or to control beam sizes in storage rings. Their introduction in the lattices of storage rings causes some problems due to the strong nonlinearities of the magnetic fields. Therefore a detailed analysis of the particle dynamics under the influence of wiggler magnetic fields and their field errors is necessary. This thesis provides such an analysis. The problem will be attacked analytically, numerically and experimentally. The analytic approach is based on the treatment of the appropriate Hamiltonian with perturbation theory. The magnetic fields are described with a Fourier series, which covers the main characteristics of wiggler and undulator fields. The main effect of wigglers and undulators is the excitation of fourth order synchro-betatron resonances. The description of field errors and other details of the magnetic fields is achieved by integrating over appropriately distributed current sheets. This allows the modeling of different parameters such as magnet pole width, periodicity errors and errors in the field gradients. (orig./WL)ons of motion in the fields calculated with this method can only be integrated numerically. This would be much too slow to be used in particle tracking codes. Therefore a transfer map b
Spatial gradient tuning in metamaterials
Driscoll, Tom; Goldflam, Michael; Jokerst, Nan; Basov, Dimitri; Smith, David
2011-03-01
Gradient Index (GRIN) metamaterials have been used to create devices inspired by, but often surpassing the potential of, conventional GRIN optics. The unit-cell nature of metamaterials presents the opportunity to exert much greater control over spatial gradients than is possible in natural materials. This is true not only during the design phase but also offers the potential for real-time reconfiguration of the metamaterial gradient. This ability fits nicely into the picture of transformation-optics, in which spatial gradients can enable an impressive suite of innovative devices. We discuss methods to exert control over metamaterial response, focusing on our recent demonstrations using Vanadium Dioxide. We give special attention to role of memristance and mem-capacitance observed in Vanadium Dioxide, which simplify the demands of stimuli and addressing, as well as intersecting metamaterials with the field of memory-materials.
Orbit and optics distortion in fixed field alternating gradient muon accelerators
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shinji Machida
2007-11-01
Full Text Available In a linear nonscaling fixed field alternating gradient (FFAG accelerator, betatron tunes vary over a wide range and a beam has to cross integer and half-integer tunes several times. Although it is plausible to say that integer and half-integer resonances are not harmful if the crossing speed is fast, no quantitative argument exists. With tracking simulation, we studied orbit and optics distortion due to alignment and magnet errors. It was found that the concept of integer and half-integer resonance crossing is irrelevant to explain beam behavior in a nonscaling FFAG when acceleration is fast and betatron tunes change quickly. In a muon FFAG accelerator, it takes 17 turns for acceleration and the betatron tunes change more than 10, for example. Instead, the orbit and optics distortion is excited by random dipole and quadrupole kicks. The latter causes beam size growth because the beam starts tumbling in phase space, but not necessarily with emittance growth.
Development and implementation of an 84-channel matrix gradient coil.
Littin, Sebastian; Jia, Feng; Layton, Kelvin J; Kroboth, Stefan; Yu, Huijun; Hennig, Jürgen; Zaitsev, Maxim
2018-02-01
Design, implement, integrate, and characterize a customized coil system that allows for generating spatial encoding magnetic fields (SEMs) in a highly-flexible fashion. A gradient coil with a high number of individual elements was designed. Dimensions of the coil were chosen to mimic a whole-body gradient system, scaled down to a head insert. Mechanical shape and wire layout of each element were optimized to increase the local gradient strength while minimizing eddy current effects and simultaneously considering manufacturing constraints. Resulting wire layout and mechanical design is presented. A prototype matrix gradient coil with 12 × 7 = 84 elements consisting of two element types was realized and characterized. Measured eddy currents are gradient strengths between 24 mT∕m and 78 mT∕m could be realized locally with maximum currents of 150 A. Initial proof-of-concept imaging experiments using linear and nonlinear encoding fields are demonstrated. A shielded matrix gradient coil setup capable of generating encoding fields in a highly-flexible manner was designed and implemented. The presented setup is expected to serve as a basis for validating novel imaging techniques that rely on nonlinear spatial encoding fields. Magn Reson Med 79:1181-1191, 2018. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.
Orbital effect of the magnetic field in dynamical mean-field theory
Acheche, S.; Arsenault, L.-F.; Tremblay, A.-M. S.
2017-12-01
The availability of large magnetic fields at international facilities and of simulated magnetic fields that can reach the flux-quantum-per-unit-area level in cold atoms calls for systematic studies of orbital effects of the magnetic field on the self-energy of interacting systems. Here we demonstrate theoretically that orbital effects of magnetic fields can be treated within single-site dynamical mean-field theory with a translationally invariant quantum impurity problem. As an example, we study the one-band Hubbard model on the square lattice using iterated perturbation theory as an impurity solver. We recover the expected quantum oscillations in the scattering rate, and we show that the magnetic fields allow the interaction-induced effective mass to be measured through the single-particle density of states accessible in tunneling experiments. The orbital effect of magnetic fields on scattering becomes particularly important in the Hofstadter butterfly regime.
Dynamics of binary mixtures in inhomogeneous temperatures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gonnella, G; Piscitelli, A [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Bari and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, via Amendola 173, 70126 Bari (Italy); Lamura, A [Istituto Applicazioni Calcolo, CNR, via Amendola 122/D, 70126 Bari (Italy)
2008-03-14
A dynamical description for fluid binary mixtures with variable temperature and concentration gradient contributions to entropy and internal energy is given. By using mass, momentum and energy balance equations together with the standard expression for entropy production, a generalized Gibbs-Duhem relation is obtained which takes into account thermal and concentration gradient contributions. Then an expression for the pressure tensor is derived. As examples of applications, interface behavior and phase separation have been numerically studied in two dimensions neglecting the contributions of the velocity field. In the simplest case with a constant thermal gradient, the growth exponent for the averaged size of domains is found to have the usual value z = 1/3 and the domains appear elongated in the direction of the thermal gradient. When the system is quenched by contact with external walls, the evolution of temperature profiles in the system is shown and the domain morphology is characterized by interfaces perpendicular to the thermal gradient.
Morphogengineering roots: comparing mechanisms of morphogen gradient formation
2012-01-01
Background In developmental biology, there has been a recent focus on the robustness of morphogen gradients as possible providers of positional information. It was shown that functional morphogen gradients present strong biophysical constraints and lack of robustness to noise. Here we explore how the details of the mechanism which underlies the generation of a morphogen gradient can influence those properties. Results We contrast three gradient-generating mechanisms, (i) a source-decay mechanism; and (ii) a unidirectional transport mechanism; and (iii) a so-called reflux-loop mechanism. Focusing on the dynamics of the phytohormone auxin in the root, we show that only the reflux-loop mechanism can generate a gradient that would be adequate to supply functional positional information for the Arabidopsis root, for biophysically reasonable kinetic parameters. Conclusions We argue that traits that differ in spatial and temporal time-scales can impose complex selective pressures on the mechanism of morphogen gradient formation used for the development of the particular organism. PMID:22583698
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ai-Rong Qian
Full Text Available The superconducting magnet generates a field and field gradient product that can levitate diamagnetic materials. In this study a specially designed superconducting magnet with a large gradient high magnetic field (LG-HMF, which can provide three apparent gravity levels (μ-g, 1-g, and 2-g, was used to simulate a space-like gravity environment. The effects of LG-HMF on the ultrastructure and function of osteoblast-like cells (MG-63 and MC3T3-E1 and the underlying mechanism were investigated by transmission electromicroscopy (TEM, MTT, and cell western (ICW assays. Under LG-HMF significant morphologic changes in osteoblast-like cells occurred, including expansion of endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria, an increased number of lysosomes, distorted microvilli, and aggregates of actin filaments. Compared to controls, cell viability and alkaline phosphatase (ALP secretion were significantly increased, and collagen I (col I, fibronectin (FN, vinculin, integrin α3, αv, and β1 expression were changed under LG-HMF conditions. In conclusion, LG-HMF affects osteoblast ultrastructure, cell viability, and ALP secretion, and the changes caused by LG-HMF may be related to disrupting col I or FN/αβ1 integrin.
String Analysis for Dynamic Field Access
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Madsen, Magnus; Andreasen, Esben
2014-01-01
domains to reason about dynamic field access in a static analysis tool. A key feature of the domains is that the equal, concatenate and join operations take Ο(1) time. Experimental evaluation on four common JavaScript libraries, including jQuery and Prototype, shows that traditional string domains...
Competitive ability, stress tolerance and plant interactions along stress gradients.
Qi, Man; Sun, Tao; Xue, SuFeng; Yang, Wei; Shao, DongDong; Martínez-López, Javier
2018-04-01
Exceptions to the generality of the stress-gradient hypothesis (SGH) may be reconciled by considering species-specific traits and stress tolerance strategies. Studies have tested stress tolerance and competitive ability in mediating interaction outcomes, but few have incorporated this to predict how species interactions shift between competition and facilitation along stress gradients. We used field surveys, salt tolerance and competition experiments to develop a predictive model interspecific interaction shifts across salinity stress gradients. Field survey and greenhouse tolerance tests revealed tradeoffs between stress tolerance and competitive ability. Modeling showed that along salinity gradients, (1) plant interactions shifted from competition to facilitation at high salinities within the physiological limits of salt-intolerant plants, (2) facilitation collapsed when salinity stress exceeded the physiological tolerance of salt-intolerant plants, and (3) neighbor removal experiments overestimate interspecific facilitation by including intraspecific effects. A community-level field experiment, suggested that (1) species interactions are competitive in benign and, facilitative in harsh condition, but fuzzy under medium environmental stress due to niche differences of species and weak stress amelioration, and (2) the SGH works on strong but not weak stress gradients, so SGH confusion arises when it is applied across questionable stress gradients. Our study clarifies how species interactions vary along stress gradients. Moving forward, focusing on SGH applications rather than exceptions on weak or nonexistent gradients would be most productive. © 2018 by the Ecological Society of America.
Diagonalization of propagators in thermo field dynamics for relativistic quantum fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Henning, P.A.; Umezawa, H.
1992-09-01
Two-point functions for interacting quantum fields in statistical systems can be diagnolized by matrix transformations. It is shown, that within the framework of time-dependent Thermo Field Dynamics this diagonalization can be understood as a thermal Bogoliubov transformation to non-interacting statistical quasi-particles. The condition for their unperturbed propagation relates these states to the thermodynamic properties of the system: It requires global equilibrium for stationary situations, or specifies the time evolution according to a kinetic equation. (orig.)
On dynamics of resonant charged particles in cyclotron electromagnetic wave field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shyutte, N.M.; Izhovkina, N.I.
1989-01-01
The model of time and spatial separation of resonance and nonresonance particles with quasimonochromatic wave packets during their propagation in the magnetosphere is presented. In regions with elevated geomagnetic field gradients and.or in waveguide channels such separation can result in diffusion increase of resonance particles by the pitch angle and create ''little peaks'' in the distribution function tail
Quantifying dynamic changes in plantar pressure gradient in diabetics with peripheral neuropathy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chi-Wen Lung
2016-07-01
Full Text Available Diabetic foot ulcers remain one of the most serious complications of diabetes. Peak plantar pressure (PPP and peak pressure gradient (PPG during walking have been shown to be associated with the development of diabetic foot ulcers. To gain further insight into the mechanical etiology of diabetic foot ulcers, examination of the pressure gradient angle (PGA has been recently proposed. The PGA quantifies directional variation or orientation of the pressure gradient during walking, and provides a measure of whether pressure gradient patterns are concentrated or dispersed along the plantar surface. We hypothesized that diabetics at risk of foot ulceration would have smaller PGA in key plantar regions, suggesting less movement of the pressure gradient over time. A total of 27 participants were studied, including 19 diabetics with peripheral neuropathy and 8 non-diabetic control subjects. A foot pressure measurement system was used to measure plantar pressures during walking. PPP, PPG and PGA were calculated for four foot regions - 1st toe (T1, 1st metatarsal head (M1, 2nd metatarsal head (M2, and heel (HL. Consistent with prior studies, PPP and PPG were significantly larger in the diabetic group compared to non-diabetic controls in the T1 and M1 regions, but not M2 or HL. For example, PPP was 165% (P=0.02 and PPG was 214% (P<0.001 larger in T1. PGA was found to be significantly smaller in the diabetic group in T1 (46%, P=0.04, suggesting a more concentrated pressure gradient pattern under the toe. The proposed PGA may improve our understanding of the role of pressure gradient on the risk of diabetic foot ulcers.
Biogeography of species richness gradients : Linking adaptive traits, demography and diversification
Carnicer, Jofre; Brotons, Lluis; Stefanescu, Constanti; Penuelas, Josep
Here we review how adaptive traits contribute to the emergence and maintenance of species richness gradients through their influence on demographic and diversification processes. We start by reviewing how demographic dynamics change along species richness gradients. Empirical studies show that
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Hua; Liu Feng; Crozier, Stuart; Xia Ling
2008-01-01
This paper presents a stabilized Bi-conjugate gradient algorithm (BiCGstab) that can significantly improve the performance of the impedance method, which has been widely applied to model low-frequency field induction phenomena in voxel phantoms. The improved impedance method offers remarkable computational advantages in terms of convergence performance and memory consumption over the conventional, successive over-relaxation (SOR)-based algorithm. The scheme has been validated against other numerical/analytical solutions on a lossy, multilayered sphere phantom excited by an ideal coil loop. To demonstrate the computational performance and application capability of the developed algorithm, the induced fields inside a human phantom due to a low-frequency hyperthermia device is evaluated. The simulation results show the numerical accuracy and superior performance of the method.
Wang, Hua; Liu, Feng; Xia, Ling; Crozier, Stuart
2008-11-21
This paper presents a stabilized Bi-conjugate gradient algorithm (BiCGstab) that can significantly improve the performance of the impedance method, which has been widely applied to model low-frequency field induction phenomena in voxel phantoms. The improved impedance method offers remarkable computational advantages in terms of convergence performance and memory consumption over the conventional, successive over-relaxation (SOR)-based algorithm. The scheme has been validated against other numerical/analytical solutions on a lossy, multilayered sphere phantom excited by an ideal coil loop. To demonstrate the computational performance and application capability of the developed algorithm, the induced fields inside a human phantom due to a low-frequency hyperthermia device is evaluated. The simulation results show the numerical accuracy and superior performance of the method.
A spiral, bi-planar gradient coil design for open magnetic resonance imaging.
Zhang, Peng; Shi, Yikai; Wang, Wendong; Wang, Yaohui
2018-01-01
To design planar gradient coil for MRI applications without discretization of continuous current density and loop-loop connection errors. In the new design method, the coil current is represented using a spiral curve function described by just a few control parameters. Using a proper parametric equation set, an ensemble of spiral contours is reshaped to satisfy the coil design requirements, such as gradient linearity, inductance and shielding. In the given case study, by using the spiral coil design, the magnetic field errors in the imaging area were reduced from 5.19% (non-spiral design) to 4.47% (spiral design) for the transverse gradient coils, and for the longitudinal gradient coil design, the magnetic field errors were reduced to 5.02% (spiral design). The numerical evaluation shows that when compared with conventional wire loop, the inductance and resistance of spiral coil was reduced by 11.55% and 8.12% for x gradient coil, respectively. A novel spiral gradient coil design for biplanar MRI systems, the new design offers better magnetic field gradients, smooth contours than the conventional connected counterpart, which improves manufacturability.
Dynamically important magnetic fields near accreting supermassive black holes.
Zamaninasab, M; Clausen-Brown, E; Savolainen, T; Tchekhovskoy, A
2014-06-05
Accreting supermassive black holes at the centres of active galaxies often produce 'jets'--collimated bipolar outflows of relativistic particles. Magnetic fields probably play a critical role in jet formation and in accretion disk physics. A dynamically important magnetic field was recently found near the Galactic Centre black hole. If this is common and if the field continues to near the black hole event horizon, disk structures will be affected, invalidating assumptions made in standard models. Here we report that jet magnetic field and accretion disk luminosity are tightly correlated over seven orders of magnitude for a sample of 76 radio-loud active galaxies. We conclude that the jet-launching regions of these radio-loud galaxies are threaded by dynamically important fields, which will affect the disk properties. These fields obstruct gas infall, compress the accretion disk vertically, slow down the disk rotation by carrying away its angular momentum in an outflow and determine the directionality of jets.
Steering Micro-Robotic Swarm by Dynamic Actuating Fields
Chao, Q.; Yu, J; Dai, C.; Xu, T; Zhang, L.; Wang, C.C.; Jin, X.
2016-01-01
We present a general solution for steering microrobotic
swarm by dynamic actuating fields. In our approach, the
motion of micro-robots is controlled by changing the actuating
direction of a field applied to them. The time-series sequence
of actuating field’s directions can be
The relativistic mean-field description of nuclei and nuclear dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reinhard, P.G.
1989-01-01
The relativistic mean-field model of the nucleus is reviewed. It describes the nucleus as a system of Dirac-Nucleons which interact in a relativistic covariant manner via meson fields. The meson fields are treated as mean fields, i.e. as non quantal c-number fields. The effects of the Dirac sea of the nucleons is neglected. The model is interpreted as a phenomenological ansatz providing a selfconsistent relativistic description of nuclei and nuclear dynamics. It is viewed, so to say, as the relativistic generalisation of the Skyrme-Hartree-Fock ansatz. The capability and the limitations of the model to describe nuclear properties are discussed. Recent applications to spherical and deformed nuclei and to nuclear dynamics are presented. (orig.)
Dynamic polarizability of a complex atom in strong laser fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rapoport, L.P.; Klinskikh, A.F.; Mordvinov, V.V.
1997-01-01
An asymptotic expansion of the dynamic polarizability of a complex atom in a strong circularly polarized light field is found for the case of high frequencies. The self-consistent approximation of the Hartree-Fock type for the ''atom+field'' system is developed, within the framework of which a numerical calculation of the dynamic polarizability of Ne, Kr, and Ar atoms in a strong radiation field is performed. The strong field effect is shown to manifest itself not only in a change of the energy spectrum and the character of behavior of the wave functions of atomic electrons, but also in a modification of the one-electron self-consistent potential for the atom in the field
Collisional transport in a plasma with steep gradients
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, W.; Okamoto, M.; Nakajima, N.; Murakami, S.
1999-06-01
The validity is given to the newly proposed two δf method for neoclassical transport calculation, which can be solve the drift kinetic equation considering effects of steep plasma gradients, large radial electric field, finite banana width, and an orbit topology near the axis. The new method is applied to the study of ion transport with steep plasma gradients. It is found that the ion thermal diffusivity decreases as the scale length of density gradient decreases, while the ion particle flux due to ion-ion self collisions increases with increasing gradient. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schnelzer, Lars
2008-02-15
In the present thesis the spin dynamics of cyclic spin-cluster compounds, the so called ''ferric wheels'' were studied by means of the NMR. In the iron wheels Li/Na rate at Fe{sub 6}(tea){sub 6} and Cs rate at Fe{sub 8}(tea){sub 8} as probes of NMR both the protons and the centrally lying alkali atoms {sup 7}Li, {sup 23}Na, and {sup 133}Cs were available. For this purpose measurements in the magnetic field region up to B=20 T and at temperatures between room temperature and T=50 mK were performed. The longitudinal relaxation rate was temperature dependently studied at two field values on the lithium cluster and a frequency independent maximum of the relaxation rate at a temperature of T{approx}30 K resulted. Different behaviour showed the measurement on the sodium cluster. the longitudinal relaxation rate slopes linearly with the temperature and shows no maximum. The two quadrupole satellites of the {sup 23}Na could be resolved. From the distance of the satellites to the central transition both on the field gradient of the iron ring and on the orientation of the symmetry axis to the external magnetic field could be concluded. The determined field gradient of the Na rate at Fe{sub 6}(tea){sub 6} of eq=4.78(11).10{sup 20} V/m{sup 2} was in very good agreement with the present theoretically calculated value. The orientation of the crystal was determined to {theta}(c,B)=62.8 . The very low splitting of the {sup 7}Li NMR spectrum of the lithium cluster allows to give as upper limit for the value of the field gradient eq=1.82(11).10{sup 20} V/m{sup 2}. From the seven lines of the cesium spectrum theoretically to be expected five were resolved. The evaluation yielded for the cesium ring a value of eq=-1.3(1).10{sup 21} V/m{sup 2}. The study of the field-dependent line position of the {sup 23}Na NMR line led to the determination of the parameter of the transferred hyperfine interaction to A{sub tHf}/2{pi}=140 kHz. For the first time on a cyclic iron
Dielectric-Lined High-Gradient Accelerator Structure
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jay L. Hirshfield
2012-04-24
Rectangular particle accelerator structures with internal planar dielectric elements have been studied, with a view towards devising structures with lower surface fields for a given accelerating field, as compared with structures without dielectrics. Success with this concept is expected to allow operation at higher accelerating gradients than otherwise on account of reduced breakdown probabilities. The project involves studies of RF breakdown on amorphous dielectrics in test cavities that could enable high-gradient structures to be built for a future multi-TeV collider. The aim is to determine what the limits are for RF fields at the surfaces of selected dielectrics, and the resulting acceleration gradient that could be achieved in a working structure. The dielectric of principal interest in this study is artificial CVD diamond, on account of its advertised high breakdown field ({approx}2 GV/m for dc), low loss tangent, and high thermal conductivity. Experimental studies at mm-wavelengths on materials and structures for achieving high acceleration gradient were based on the availability of the 34.3 GHz third-harmonic magnicon amplifier developed by Omega-P, and installed at the Yale University Beam Physics Laboratory. Peak power from the magnicon was measured to be about 20 MW in 0.5 {micro}s pulses, with a gain of 54 dB. Experiments for studying RF high-field effects on CVD diamond samples failed to show any evidence after more than 10{sup 5} RF pulses of RF breakdown up to a tangential surface field strength of 153 MV/m; studies at higher fields were not possible due to a degradation in magnicon performance. A rebuild of the tube is underway at this writing. Computed performance for a dielectric-loaded rectangular accelerator structure (DLA) shows highly competitive properties, as compared with an existing all-metal structure. For example, comparisons were made of a DLA structure having two planar CVD diamond elements with a all-metal CERN structure HDS
Dielectric-Lined High-Gradient Accelerator Structure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hirshfield, Jay L.
2012-01-01
Rectangular particle accelerator structures with internal planar dielectric elements have been studied, with a view towards devising structures with lower surface fields for a given accelerating field, as compared with structures without dielectrics. Success with this concept is expected to allow operation at higher accelerating gradients than otherwise on account of reduced breakdown probabilities. The project involves studies of RF breakdown on amorphous dielectrics in test cavities that could enable high-gradient structures to be built for a future multi-TeV collider. The aim is to determine what the limits are for RF fields at the surfaces of selected dielectrics, and the resulting acceleration gradient that could be achieved in a working structure. The dielectric of principal interest in this study is artificial CVD diamond, on account of its advertised high breakdown field (∼2 GV/m for dc), low loss tangent, and high thermal conductivity. Experimental studies at mm-wavelengths on materials and structures for achieving high acceleration gradient were based on the availability of the 34.3 GHz third-harmonic magnicon amplifier developed by Omega-P, and installed at the Yale University Beam Physics Laboratory. Peak power from the magnicon was measured to be about 20 MW in 0.5 (micro)s pulses, with a gain of 54 dB. Experiments for studying RF high-field effects on CVD diamond samples failed to show any evidence after more than 10 5 RF pulses of RF breakdown up to a tangential surface field strength of 153 MV/m; studies at higher fields were not possible due to a degradation in magnicon performance. A rebuild of the tube is underway at this writing. Computed performance for a dielectric-loaded rectangular accelerator structure (DLA) shows highly competitive properties, as compared with an existing all-metal structure. For example, comparisons were made of a DLA structure having two planar CVD diamond elements with a all-metal CERN structure HDS operating at 30
Advances in dynamic and mean field games theory, applications, and numerical methods
Viscolani, Bruno
2017-01-01
This contributed volume considers recent advances in dynamic games and their applications, based on presentations given at the 17th Symposium of the International Society of Dynamic Games, held July 12-15, 2016, in Urbino, Italy. Written by experts in their respective disciplines, these papers cover various aspects of dynamic game theory including mean-field games, stochastic and pursuit-evasion games, and computational methods for dynamic games. Topics covered include Pedestrian flow in crowded environments Models for climate change negotiations Nash Equilibria for dynamic games involving Volterra integral equations Differential games in healthcare markets Linear-quadratic Gaussian dynamic games Aircraft control in wind shear conditions Advances in Dynamic and Mean-Field Games presents state-of-the-art research in a wide spectrum of areas. As such, it serves as a testament to the continued vitality and growth of the field of dynamic games and their applications. It will be of interest to an interdisciplinar...
Considerations of ion temperature gradient driven turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cowley, S.C.; Kulsrud, R.M.
1991-02-01
The ion temperature gradient driven instability is considered in this paper. Physical pictures are presented to clarify the nature of the instability. The saturation of a single eddy is modeled by a simple nonlinear equation. We show that eddies which are elongated in the direction of the temperature gradient are the most unstable and have the highest saturation amplitudes. In a sheared magnetic field, such elongated eddies twist with the field lines. This structure is shown to be alternative to the usual Fourier mode picture in which the mode is localized around the surface where k parallel = 0. We show how these elongated twisting eddies, which are an integral part of the ''ballooning mode'' structure, could survive in a torus. The elongated eddies are shown to be unstable to secondary instabilities that are driven by the large gradients in the long eddy. We argue that this mechanism isotropizes ion temperature gradient turbulence. We further argue that the ''mixing length'' is set by this nonlinear process, not by a linear eigenmode width. 17 refs., 6 figs
Substrate curvature gradient drives rapid droplet motion.
Lv, Cunjing; Chen, Chao; Chuang, Yin-Chuan; Tseng, Fan-Gang; Yin, Yajun; Grey, Francois; Zheng, Quanshui
2014-07-11
Making small liquid droplets move spontaneously on solid surfaces is a key challenge in lab-on-chip and heat exchanger technologies. Here, we report that a substrate curvature gradient can accelerate micro- and nanodroplets to high speeds on both hydrophilic and hydrophobic substrates. Experiments for microscale water droplets on tapered surfaces show a maximum speed of 0.42 m/s, 2 orders of magnitude higher than with a wettability gradient. We show that the total free energy and driving force exerted on a droplet are determined by the substrate curvature and substrate curvature gradient, respectively. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we predict nanoscale droplets moving spontaneously at over 100 m/s on tapered surfaces.
Efficient and Enhanced Diffusion of Vector Field for Active Contour Model
Liu, Guoqi; Sun, Lin; Liu, Shangwang
2015-01-01
Gradient vector flow (GVF) is an important external force field for active contour models. Various vector fields based on GVF have been proposed. However, these vector fields are obtained with many iterations and have difficulty in capturing the whole image area. On the other hand, the ability to converge to deep and complex concavity with these vector fields is also needed to improve. In this paper, by analyzing the diffusion equation of GVF, a normalized set is defined and a dynamically nor...
On the relativistic particle dynamics in external gravitational fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuz'menkov, L.S.; Naumov, N.D.
1977-01-01
On the base of the Riemann metrics of an event space, leading to the Newton mechanics at nonrelativistic velocities and not obligatory weak gravitational fields relativistic particle dynamics in external gravitation fields has been considered. Found are trajectories, motion laws and light ray equations for the homogeneous and Newton fields
Application of computer picture processing to dynamic strain measurement under electromagnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yagawa, G.; Soneda, N.
1987-01-01
For the structural design of fusion reactors, it is very important to ensure the structural integrity of components under various dynamic loading conditions due to a solid-electromagnetic field interaction, an earthquake, MHD effects and so on. As one of the experimental approaches to assess the dynamic fracture, we consider the strain measurement near a crack tip under a transient electromagnetic field, which in general involves several experimental difficulties. The authors have developed a strain measurement method using a picture processing technique. In this method, locations of marks printed on a surface of specimen are determined by the picture processing. The displacement field is interpolated using the mark displacements and finite elements. Finally the strain distribution is calculated by differentiating the displacement field. In the present study, the method is improved and automated apply to the measurement of dynamic strain distribution under an electromagnetic field. Then the effects of dynamic loading on the strain distribution are investigated by comparing the dynamic results with the static ones. (orig./GL)
Delay Kalman Filter to Estimate the Attitude of a Mobile Object with Indoor Magnetic Field Gradients
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Christophe Combettes
2016-05-01
Full Text Available More and more services are based on knowing the location of pedestrians equipped with connected objects (smartphones, smartwatches, etc.. One part of the location estimation process is attitude estimation. Many algorithms have been proposed but they principally target open space areas where the local magnetic field equals the Earth’s field. Unfortunately, this approach is impossible indoors, where the use of magnetometer arrays or magnetic field gradients has been proposed. However, current approaches omit the impact of past state estimates on the current orientation estimate, especially when a reference field is computed over a sliding window. A novel Delay Kalman filter is proposed in this paper to integrate this time correlation: the Delay MAGYQ. Experimental assessment, conducted in a motion lab with a handheld inertial and magnetic mobile unit, shows that the novel filter better estimates the Euler angles of the handheld device with an 11.7° mean error on the yaw angle as compared to 16.4° with a common Additive Extended Kalman filter.
Superconducting niobium cavities with high gradients
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kneisel, P.; Saito, K.
1992-01-01
Present accelerator projects making use of superconducting cavity technology are constructed with design accelerating gradients E acc ranging between 5 MV/m and 8 MV/m and Q-values of several 10 9 . Future plans for upgrades of existing accelerators or for linear colliders call for gradients greater than 15 MV/m corresponding to peak surface electric fields above 30 MV/m. These demands challenge state-of-the-art production technology and require improvements in processing and handling of these cavities to overcome the major performance limitation of field emission loading. This paper reports on efforts to improve the performance of cavities made from niobium from different suppliers by using improved cleaning techniques after processing and ultrahigh vacuum annealing at temperatures of 1400 C. In single cell L-band cavities peak surface electric fields as high as 50 MV/m have been measured without significant field emission loading. (Author) 8 refs., fig
The dynamics of coupled atom and field assisted by continuous external pumping
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burlak, G.; Hernandez, J.A.; Starostenko, O.
2006-01-01
The dynamics of a coupled system comprising a two-level atom and cavity field assisted by a continuous external classical field (driving Jaynes-Cummings model) is studied. When the initial field is prepared in a coherent state, the dynamics strongly depends on the algebraic sum of both fields. If this sum is zero (the compensative case) in the system, only the vacuum Rabi oscillations occur. The results with dissipation and external field detuning from the cavity field are also discussed. (Author)
The dynamics of coupled atom and field assisted by continuous external pumping
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Burlak, G.; Hernandez, J.A. [Centro de Investigacion en Ingenieria y Ciencias Aplicadas, Universidad Autonoma de Morelos, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Starostenko, O. [Departamento de Fisica, Electronica, Sistemas y Mecatronica, Universidad de las Americas, 72820 Puebla (Mexico)
2006-07-01
The dynamics of a coupled system comprising a two-level atom and cavity field assisted by a continuous external classical field (driving Jaynes-Cummings model) is studied. When the initial field is prepared in a coherent state, the dynamics strongly depends on the algebraic sum of both fields. If this sum is zero (the compensative case) in the system, only the vacuum Rabi oscillations occur. The results with dissipation and external field detuning from the cavity field are also discussed. (Author)
Dynamical chaos of nonabelian gauge fields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Matinyan, S G
1985-01-01
A special class of the Yang - Mills field-the spatially homogeneous fields (Yan - Mills classical mechanics)-having no analog in the linear abelian electrodynamics is studied. Both the computer and analytical approaches show that such fields possess dynamical stochasticity, this allowing one to claim that the Yang - Mills classical equations without external sources represent a non-integrable system. The Higgs mechanism eliminates this stochasticity: at some expectation value of scalar field, a phase transition of disorder-order (confinement-deconfinement) type takes plce. The system with external sources behaves apparently analogously. A relation of the discovered stochasticity with the dimensional reduction mechanism in the macroscopic systems as well as with colour confinement is considered. It is shown that the presence of the random (Gaussian) currents in vacuum leads to confinement of fields generated by those currents. Attention is paid to the possible manifestation of the revealed stochasticity of the classical non-abelian gauge fields in the multiple hadrnoproduction processes which apparently reflect the universal stochastic regularities typical of the systems of quite different nature.
Dynamical chaos of nonabelian gauge fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matinyan, S.G.
1985-01-01
A special class of the Yang - Mills field-the spatially homogeneous fields (Yan - Mills classical mechanics)-having no analog in the linear abelian electrodynamics is studied. Both the computer and analytical approaches show that such fields possess dynamical stochasticity, this allowing one to claim that the Yang - Mills classical equations without external sources represent a non-integrable system. The Higgs mechanism eliminates this stochasticity: at some expectation value of scalar field, a phase transition of disorder-order (confinement-deconfinement) type takes plce. The system with external sources behaves apparently analogously. A relation of the discovered stochasticity with the dimensional reduction mechanism in the macroscopic systems as well as with colour confinement is considered. It is shown that the presence of the random (Gaussian) currents in vacuum leads to confinement of fields generated by those currents. Attention is paid to the possible manifestation of the revealed stochasticity of the classical non-abelian gauge fields in the multiple hadrnoproduction processes which apparently reflect the universal stochastic regularities typical of the systems of quite different nature
Computational Strain Gradient Crystal Plasticity
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Niordson, Christian Frithiof; Kysar, Jeffrey W.
2011-01-01
A model for strain gradient crystal visco-plasticity is formulated along the lines proposed by Fleck andWillis (2009) for isotropic plasticity. Size-effects are included in the model due to the addition of gradient terms in both the free energy as well as through a dissipation potential. A finite...... element solution method is presented, which delivers the slip-rate field and the velocity-field based on two minimum principles. Some plane deformation problems relevant for certain specific orientations of a face centered cubic crystal under plane loading conditions are studied, and effective in......-plane parameters are developed based on the crystallographic properties of the material. The problem of cyclic shear of a single crystal between rigid platens is studied as well as void growth of a cylindrical void....
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Haque, Q. [Theoretical Physics Division, PINSTECH, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); Zakir, U. [Department of Physics, University of Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtun Khwa 25000 (Pakistan); Department of Physics, University of Malakand, Khyber Pakhtun Khwa 18800 (Pakistan); Qamar, A. [Department of Physics, University of Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtun Khwa 25000 (Pakistan)
2015-12-15
Linear and nonlinear dynamics of electron temperature gradient mode along with parallel electron dynamics is investigated by considering hydrodynamic electrons and non-Maxwellian ions. It is noticed that the growth rate of η{sub e}-mode driven linear instability decreases by increasing the value of spectral index and increases by reducing the ion/electron temperature ratio along the magnetic field lines. The eigen mode dispersion relation is also found in the ballooning mode limit. Stationary solutions in the form of dipolar vortices are obtained for both circular and elliptic boundary conditions. It is shown that the dynamics of both circular and elliptic vortices changes with the inclusion of inhomogeneity and non-Maxwellian effects.
Haque, Q.; Zakir, U.; Qamar, A.
2015-12-01
Linear and nonlinear dynamics of electron temperature gradient mode along with parallel electron dynamics is investigated by considering hydrodynamic electrons and non-Maxwellian ions. It is noticed that the growth rate of ηe-mode driven linear instability decreases by increasing the value of spectral index and increases by reducing the ion/electron temperature ratio along the magnetic field lines. The eigen mode dispersion relation is also found in the ballooning mode limit. Stationary solutions in the form of dipolar vortices are obtained for both circular and elliptic boundary conditions. It is shown that the dynamics of both circular and elliptic vortices changes with the inclusion of inhomogeneity and non-Maxwellian effects.
Post-Newtonian celestial dynamics in cosmology: Field equations
Kopeikin, Sergei M.; Petrov, Alexander N.
2013-02-01
Post-Newtonian celestial dynamics is a relativistic theory of motion of massive bodies and test particles under the influence of relatively weak gravitational forces. The standard approach for development of this theory relies upon the key concept of the isolated astronomical system supplemented by the assumption that the background spacetime is flat. The standard post-Newtonian theory of motion was instrumental in the explanation of the existing experimental data on binary pulsars, satellite, and lunar laser ranging, and in building precise ephemerides of planets in the Solar System. Recent studies of the formation of large-scale structures in our Universe indicate that the standard post-Newtonian mechanics fails to describe more subtle dynamical effects in motion of the bodies comprising the astronomical systems of larger size—galaxies and clusters of galaxies—where the Riemann curvature of the expanding Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker universe interacts with the local gravitational field of the astronomical system and, as such, cannot be ignored. The present paper outlines theoretical principles of the post-Newtonian mechanics in the expanding Universe. It is based upon the gauge-invariant theory of the Lagrangian perturbations of cosmological manifold caused by an isolated astronomical N-body system (the Solar System, a binary star, a galaxy, and a cluster of galaxies). We postulate that the geometric properties of the background manifold are described by a homogeneous and isotropic Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker metric governed by two primary components—the dark matter and the dark energy. The dark matter is treated as an ideal fluid with the Lagrangian taken in the form of pressure along with the scalar Clebsch potential as a dynamic variable. The dark energy is associated with a single scalar field with a potential which is hold unspecified as long as the theory permits. Both the Lagrangians of the dark matter and the scalar field are
Vorticity and helicity decompositions and dynamics with real Schur form of the velocity gradient
Zhu, Jian-Zhou
2018-03-01
The real Schur form (RSF) of a generic velocity gradient field ∇u is exploited to expose the structures of flows, in particular, our field decomposition resulting in two vorticities with only mutual linkage as the topological content of the global helicity (accordingly decomposed into two equal parts). The local transformation to the RSF may indicate alternative (co)rotating frame(s) for specifying the objective argument(s) of the constitutive equation. When ∇u is uniformly of RSF in a fixed Cartesian coordinate frame, i.e., ux = ux(x, y) and uy = uy(x, y), but uz = uz(x, y, z), the model, with the decomposed vorticities both frozen-in to u, is for two-component-two-dimensional-coupled-with-one-component-three-dimensional flows in between two-dimensional-three-component (2D3C) and fully three-dimensional-three-component ones and may help curing the pathology in the helical 2D3C absolute equilibrium, making the latter effectively work in more realistic situations.
Djurabekova, Flyura; Pohjonen, Aarne; Nordlund, Kai
2011-01-01
The effect of electric fields on metal surfaces is fairly well studied, resulting in numerous analytical models developed to understand the mechanisms of ionization of surface atoms observed at very high electric fields, as well as the general behavior of a metal surface in this condition. However, the derivation of analytical models does not include explicitly the structural properties of metals, missing the link between the instantaneous effects owing to the applied field and the consequent response observed in the metal surface as a result of an extended application of an electric field. In the present work, we have developed a concurrent electrodynamic–molecular dynamic model for the dynamical simulation of an electric-field effect and subsequent modification of a metal surface in the framework of an atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) approach. The partial charge induced on the surface atoms by the electric field is assessed by applying the classical Gauss law. The electric forces acting on the partially...
Groundwater biofilm dynamics grown in situ along a nutrient gradient.
Williamson, Wendy M; Close, Murray E; Leonard, Margaret M; Webber, Judith B; Lin, Susan
2012-01-01
This paper describes the in situ response of groundwater biofilms in an alluvial gravel aquifer system on the Canterbury Plains, New Zealand. Biofilms were developed on aquifer gravel, encased in fine mesh bags and suspended in protective columns in monitoring wells for at least 20 weeks. Four sites were selected in the same groundwater system where previous analyses indicated a gradient of increasing nitrate down the hydraulic gradient from Sites 1 to 4. Measurements during the current study classified the groundwater as oligotrophic. Biofilm responses to the nutrient gradients were assessed using bioassays, with biomass determined using protein and cellular and nucleic acid staining and biofilm activity using enzyme assays for lipid, carbohydrate, phosphate metabolism, and cell viability. In general, biofilm activity decreased as nitrate levels increased from Sites 1 to 4, with the opposite relationship for carbon and phosphorus concentrations. These results showed that the groundwater system supported biofilm growth and that the upper catchment supported efficient and productive biofilms (high ratio of activity per unit biomass). © 2012, Institute of Environmental Science & Research Ltd (ESR). Ground Water © 2012, National Ground Water Association.
Iinuma, Takeshi
2018-04-01
A monitoring method to grasp the spatio-temporal change in the interplate coupling in a subduction zone based on the spatial gradients of surface displacement rate fields is proposed. I estimated the spatio-temporal change in the interplate coupling along the plate boundary in northeastern (NE) Japan by applying the proposed method to the surface displacement rates based on global positioning system observations. The gradient of the surface velocities is calculated in each swath configured along the direction normal to the Japan Trench for time windows such as 0.5, 1, 2, 3 and 5 yr being shifted by one week during the period of 1997-2016. The gradient of the horizontal velocities is negative and has a large magnitude when the interplate coupling at the shallow part (less than approximately 50 km in depth) beneath the profile is strong, and the sign of the gradient of the vertical velocity is sensitive to the existence of the coupling at the deep part (greater than approximately 50 km in depth). The trench-parallel variation of the spatial gradients of a displacement rate field clearly corresponds to the trench-parallel variation of the amplitude of the interplate coupling on the plate interface, as well as the rupture areas of previous interplate earthquakes. Temporal changes in the trench-parallel variation of the spatial gradient of the displacement rate correspond to the strengthening or weakening of the interplate coupling. We can monitor the temporal change in the interplate coupling state by calculating the spatial gradients of the surface displacement rate field to some extent without performing inversion analyses with applying certain constraint conditions that sometimes cause over- and/or underestimation at areas of limited spatial resolution far from the observation network. The results of the calculation confirm known interplate events in the NE Japan subduction zone, such as the post-seismic slip of the 2003 M8.0 Tokachi-oki and 2005 M7.2 Miyagi
Carbon and nitrogen dynamics of soil and litter along an altitudinal gradient in Atlantic Forest
Piccolo, M. D.; Martins, S. C.; Camargo, P. B.; Carmo, J. B.; Sousa Neto, E.; Martinelli, L. A.
2008-12-01
The Ombrophylus Dense Forest or Atlantic Forest is the second most important Biome in extension of Brazil, and it is considered a hot-spot in terms of biodiversity. It is localized in Brazilian Coast, and it covered originally 1.2 million km2, but currently only 8% of the original forest remains. The study was carried out in Sao Paulo State, Brazil (23° 24' S and 45° 11' W). The studied areas were: Restinga Vegetation (RV), 5 m above sea level; Low Altitude Ombrophylus Dense Forest (LAODF), 100 m asl; Submontane Ombrophylus Dense Forest (SODF), 600m asl and; Montane Ombrophylus Dense Forest (MODF), 1000 m asl. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of altitudinal gradient, with specific phytophysiognomies, on C and N dynamics in the soil and litter at Atlantic Forest. A sampling area of 1 ha was subdivided in contiguous sub- parcels (10 x 10 m). The forest floor litter accumulated (0.06 m2) was collected monthly (n=60), during 12 months, in each phytophysiognomies. Soils samples (0-0.05m depth) were collected (n=32) from square regular grids, 30 m away from each other. Changes in litter contents of C and N were not detected along the altitudinal gradient, and the values observed were 400 and 15g kg-1 for C and N, respectively. Litter ä13C values did not change significantly with the altitudinal gradient and were represented by C3 plants values. The C and N stocks were high in the clay soils (LAODF, SODF and MODF) when compared to sandy soil (RV). The soil C stocks (24 to 30 Mg ha-1) were similar among the altitudinal gradients, except RV (16 Mg ha-1). The areas of elevated altitude (MODF and SODF) showed high N stocks (2.3 Mg ha-1), followed by LAODF (1.8Mg ha-1) and RV (0.9Mg ha-1). In all altitudes there was 13C enrichment with soil depth, and it can be explained by the different fractions of the organic matter distributed along the soil profile, and also due the effect of the isotopic dilution between the forest floor litter and the soil.
Dynamical anisotropic response of black phosphorus under magnetic field
Liu, Xuefeng; Lu, Wei; Zhou, Xiaoying; Zhou, Yang; Zhang, Chenglong; Lai, Jiawei; Ge, Shaofeng; Sekhar, M. Chandra; Jia, Shuang; Chang, Kai; Sun, Dong
2018-04-01
Black phosphorus (BP) has emerged as a promising material candidate for next generation electronic and optoelectronic devices due to its high mobility, tunable band gap and highly anisotropic properties. In this work, polarization resolved ultrafast mid-infrared transient reflection spectroscopy measurements are performed to study the dynamical anisotropic optical properties of BP under magnetic fields up to 9 T. The relaxation dynamics of photoexcited carrier is found to be insensitive to the applied magnetic field due to the broadening of the Landau levels and large effective mass of carriers. While the anisotropic optical response of BP decreases with increasing magnetic field, its enhancement due to the excitation of hot carriers is similar to that without magnetic field. These experimental results can be well interpreted by the magneto-optical conductivity of the Landau levels of BP thin film, based on an effective k · p Hamiltonian and linear response theory. These findings suggest attractive possibilities of multi-dimensional control of anisotropic response (AR) of BP with light, electric and magnetic field, which further introduces BP to the fantastic magnetic field sensitive applications.
Gradient-based optimization in nonlinear structural dynamics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dou, Suguang
The intrinsic nonlinearity of mechanical structures can give rise to rich nonlinear dynamics. Recently, nonlinear dynamics of micro-mechanical structures have contributed to developing new Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS), for example, atomic force microscope, passive frequency divider......, frequency stabilization, and disk resonator gyroscope. For advanced design of these structures, it is of considerable value to extend current optimization in linear structural dynamics into nonlinear structural dynamics. In this thesis, we present a framework for modelling, analysis, characterization......, and optimization of nonlinear structural dynamics. In the modelling, nonlinear finite elements are used. In the analysis, nonlinear frequency response and nonlinear normal modes are calculated based on a harmonic balance method with higher-order harmonics. In the characterization, nonlinear modal coupling...
Some calculated contributions to the electric field gradient in nontransition metals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lodge, K.W.
1978-01-01
The electric field gradient (EFG) at a nucleus in the metals Be, Mg, Zn, Cd, In and Ga (both alpha and beta forms) has been calculated. Model potential theory has been used to represent the conduction electron distribution external to the ion core at whose nucleus the EFG is calculated. For the metals Be and Mg the local conduction electron effects have been obtained by orthogonalising the model wavefunctions to the occupied core states. The effect of the nuclear electric quadrupole moment (EQM) perturbing the conduction electrons has also been considered and the effect of self-consistently obtaining conduction electron and distorted core electron states has been discussed. The conduction electrons external to the core are found to produce an EFG which partly screens the ionic contribution. A large contribution is obtained from the orthogonalisation terms, substantially improving the agreement with experiment for Mg. The effect of including the nuclear EQM perturbation of the conduction electrons is found to be of the order of 10% of the calculated total EFG for Be and Mg. (author)
Mass balance gradients and climatic change
Oerlemans, J.; Hoogendoorn, N.C.
1989-01-01
It is generally assumed that the mass-balance gradient on glaciers is more or less conserved under climatic change. In studies of the dynamic response of glaciers to climatic change, one of the following assumptions is normally made: (i) the mass-balance perturbation is independent of altitude
Ultimate gradient in solid-state accelerators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Whittum, D.H.
1998-08-01
The authors recall the motivation for research in high-gradient acceleration and the problems posed by a compact collider. They summarize the phenomena known to appear in operation of a solid-state structure with large fields, and research relevant to the question of the ultimate gradient. They take note of new concepts, and examine one in detail, a miniature particle accelerator based on an active millimeter-wave circuit and parallel particle beams
Bigravity from gradient expansion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yamashita, Yasuho; Tanaka, Takahiro
2016-01-01
We discuss how the ghost-free bigravity coupled with a single scalar field can be derived from a braneworld setup. We consider DGP two-brane model without radion stabilization. The bulk configuration is solved for given boundary metrics, and it is substituted back into the action to obtain the effective four-dimensional action. In order to obtain the ghost-free bigravity, we consider the gradient expansion in which the brane separation is supposed to be sufficiently small so that two boundary metrics are almost identical. The obtained effective theory is shown to be ghost free as expected, however, the interaction between two gravitons takes the Fierz-Pauli form at the leading order of the gradient expansion, even though we do not use the approximation of linear perturbation. We also find that the radion remains as a scalar field in the four-dimensional effective theory, but its coupling to the metrics is non-trivial.
Fractional Dynamics Applications of Fractional Calculus to Dynamics of Particles, Fields and Media
Tarasov, Vasily E
2010-01-01
"Fractional Dynamics: Applications of Fractional Calculus to Dynamics of Particles, Fields and Media" presents applications of fractional calculus, integral and differential equations of non-integer orders in describing systems with long-time memory, non-local spatial and fractal properties. Mathematical models of fractal media and distributions, generalized dynamical systems and discrete maps, non-local statistical mechanics and kinetics, dynamics of open quantum systems, the hydrodynamics and electrodynamics of complex media with non-local properties and memory are considered. This book is intended to meet the needs of scientists and graduate students in physics, mechanics and applied mathematics who are interested in electrodynamics, statistical and condensed matter physics, quantum dynamics, complex media theories and kinetics, discrete maps and lattice models, and nonlinear dynamics and chaos. Dr. Vasily E. Tarasov is a Senior Research Associate at Nuclear Physics Institute of Moscow State University and...
Characterization and tuning of ultrahigh gradient permanent magnet quadrupoles
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Becker
2009-10-01
Full Text Available The application of quadrupole devices with high field gradients and small apertures requires precise control over higher order multipole field components. We present a new scheme for performance control and tuning, which allows the illumination of most of the quadrupole device aperture because of the reduction of higher order field components. Consequently, the size of the aperture can be minimized to match the beam size achieving field gradients of up to 500 T m^{-1} at good imaging quality. The characterization method based on a Hall probe measurement and a Fourier analysis was confirmed using the high quality electron beam at the Mainz Microtron MAMI.
Pressure Gradients in the Inner Surf and Outer Swash Zone
Kidwell, A.; Puleo, J. A.; Torres-Freyermuth, A.
2010-12-01
The swash zone is a highly dynamic region of the beach profile. Although there has been significant progression in understanding the complex hydrodynamics of the swash zone, an improvement in the understanding of the sediment transport mechanisms deserves further investigation. Prior studies have demonstrated that the existing formulations derived from the energetics-type formulation do not accurately and consistently predict sediment transport. Thus, measurements and numerical modeling can contribute in the improvement of the current predictive capability of sediment transport. A potential enhancement to nearshore sediment transport is the horizontal pressure gradient. However, measuring the dynamic pressure gradient in nearshore flows is a difficult task. For instance, standard pressure sensors are generally ill-suited for this type of measurement in shallow swash flows due to the obstructing size of the sensor and the potential for flow interference. With improved measurement apparati and techniques, it is possible to obtain measurements of the horizontal pressure gradient. Our current research includes laboratory and numerical model investigation of the horizontal pressure gradient in the inner surf and outer swash zone. An inexpensive differential pressure gauge is employed allowing for a pressure port on the order of 2 mm diameter. Four pressure sensor pairs are installed 1 cm above the bed with a cross-shore spacing of 8 cm. The sensors are deployed just outside of and at various locations within the outer swash zone to determine spatio-temporal pressure variations. The measurement of total pressure coupled with the corresponding free surface measurements from co-located capacitance wave gauges yields time series of the hydrostatic and dynamic pressure and pressure gradients. A VOF-type RANS model is employed in this investigation. Firstly, the numerical model is validated with swash measurements. Then, model simulations will be performed in order to
Spiral Gradient Coil Design for Use in Cylindrical MRI Systems.
Wang, Yaohui; Xin, Xuegang; Liu, Feng; Crozier, Stuart
2018-04-01
In magnetic resonance imaging, the stream function based method is commonly used in the design of gradient coils. However, this method can be prone to errors associated with the discretization of continuous current density and wire connections. In this paper, we propose a novel gradient coil design scheme that works directly in the wire space, avoiding the system errors that may appear in the stream function approaches. Specifically, the gradient coil pattern is described with dedicated spiral functions adjusted to allow the coil to produce the required field gradients in the imaging area, minimal stray field, and other engineering terms. The performance of a designed spiral gradient coil was compared with its stream-function counterpart. The numerical evaluation shows that when compared with the conventional solution, the inductance and resistance was reduced by 20.9 and 10.5%, respectively. The overall coil performance (evaluated by the figure of merit (FoM)) was improved up to 26.5% for the x -gradient coil design; for the z-gradient coil design, the inductance and resistance were reduced by 15.1 and 6.7% respectively, and the FoM was increased by 17.7%. In addition, by directly controlling the wire distributions, the spiral gradient coil design was much sparser than conventional coils.
Solar field control for desalination plants
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Roca, Lidia [Convenio Universidad de Almeria, Plataforma Solar de Almeria, Ctra. Senes s/n, 04200 Tabernas, Almeria (Spain); Berenguel, Manuel [Universidad de Almeria, Dpto. Lenguajes y Computacion, Ctra. Sacramento s/n, 04120 Almeria (Spain); Yebra, Luis; Alarcon-Padilla, Diego C. [CIEMAT, Plataforma Solar de Almeria, Ctra. Senes s/n, 04200 Tabernas, Almeria (Spain)
2008-09-15
This paper presents the development and application of a feedback linearization control strategy for a solar collector field supplying process heat to a multi-effect seawater distillation plant. Since one objective is to use as much as possible the solar resource, control techniques can be used to produce the maximum heat process in the solar field. The main purpose of the controller presented in this paper is to manipulate the water flow rate to maintain an outlet-inlet temperature gradient in the collectors, thereby ensuring continuous process heating, or in other words, continuous production of fresh water in spite of disturbances. The dynamic behaviour of this solar field was approximated by a simplified lumped-parameters nonlinear model based on differential equations, validated with real data and used in the feedback linearization control design. Experimental results in the seawater desalination plant at the Plataforma Solar de Almeria (Spain) show good agreement of the model and real data despite the approximations included. Moreover, by using feedback linearization control it is possible to track a constant gradient temperature reference in the solar field with good results. (author)
Tripolar vortex formation in dense quantum plasma with ion-temperature-gradients
Qamar, Anisa; Ata-ur-Rahman, Mirza, Arshad M.
2012-05-01
We have derived system of nonlinear equations governing the dynamics of low-frequency electrostatic toroidal ion-temperature-gradient mode for dense quantum magnetoplasma. For some specific profiles of the equilibrium density, temperature, and ion velocity gradients, the nonlinear equations admit a stationary solution in the form of a tripolar vortex. These results are relevant to understand nonlinear structure formation in dense quantum plasmas in the presence of equilibrium ion-temperature and density gradients.
Tripolar vortex formation in dense quantum plasma with ion-temperature-gradients
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Qamar, Anisa; Ata-ur-Rahman [Institute of Physics and Electronics, University of Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtoon Khwa 25000 (Pakistan); National Center for Physics Shahdrah Valley Road, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Mirza, Arshad M. [Theoretical Plasma Physics Group, Physics Department, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan)
2012-05-15
We have derived system of nonlinear equations governing the dynamics of low-frequency electrostatic toroidal ion-temperature-gradient mode for dense quantum magnetoplasma. For some specific profiles of the equilibrium density, temperature, and ion velocity gradients, the nonlinear equations admit a stationary solution in the form of a tripolar vortex. These results are relevant to understand nonlinear structure formation in dense quantum plasmas in the presence of equilibrium ion-temperature and density gradients.
Tripolar vortex formation in dense quantum plasma with ion-temperature-gradients
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Qamar, Anisa; Ata-ur-Rahman; Mirza, Arshad M.
2012-01-01
We have derived system of nonlinear equations governing the dynamics of low-frequency electrostatic toroidal ion-temperature-gradient mode for dense quantum magnetoplasma. For some specific profiles of the equilibrium density, temperature, and ion velocity gradients, the nonlinear equations admit a stationary solution in the form of a tripolar vortex. These results are relevant to understand nonlinear structure formation in dense quantum plasmas in the presence of equilibrium ion-temperature and density gradients.
Gradient index metamaterials realized by drilling hole arrays
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mei Zhonglei; Cui Tiejun; Bai Jing
2010-01-01
Gradient index metamaterials have wide applications in the microwave and optical fields. Based on the quasi-static theory, such materials at the microwave band have been realized by drilling hole arrays on ordinary dielectric materials. As applications of the gradient index metamaterials, novel devices including a 45 0 dielectric wave-bending structure, a 16 0 wave-steering lens and a microwave focusing lens are designed and fabricated. Field mapping measurements validate the proposed gradient index metamaterials and the device designs. The method can be directly and easily extended to the design of cloaks, various lenses, beam shifters and beam-steering devices. It can also be applied in the optical band as long as quasi-static conditions are satisfied. The method and the devices may find applications in integrated circuit systems.
Functional trait space and the latitudinal diversity gradient
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lamanna, Christine; Blonder, Benjamin; Violle, Cyrille
2014-01-01
The processes causing the latitudinal gradient in species richness remain elusive. Ecological theories for the origin of biodiversity gradients, such as competitive exclusion, neutral dynamics, and environmental filtering, make predictions for how functional diversity should vary at the alpha...... of trait combinations or that niche packing is stronger in the tropical zone. Although there are limitations in the data, our analyses suggest that multiple processes have shaped trait diversity in trees, reflecting no consistent support for any one theory....
Dutta, Jibitesh; Khyllep, Wompherdeiki; Tamanini, Nicola
2018-01-01
We consider scalar field models of dark energy interacting with dark matter through a coupling proportional to the contraction of the four-derivative of the scalar field with the four-velocity of the dark matter fluid. The coupling is realized at the Lagrangian level employing the formalism of Scalar-Fluid theories, which use a consistent Lagrangian approach for relativistic fluid to describe dark matter. This framework produces fully covariant field equations, from which we can derive unequivocal cosmological equations at both background and linear perturbations levels. The background evolution is analyzed in detail applying dynamical systems techniques, which allow us to find the complete asymptotic behavior of the universe given any set of model parameters and initial conditions. Furthermore we study linear cosmological perturbations investigating the growth of cosmic structures within the quasi-static approximation. We find that these interacting dark energy models give rise to interesting phenomenological dynamics, including late-time transitions from dark matter to dark energy domination, matter and accelerated scaling solutions and dynamical crossing of the phantom barrier. Moreover we obtain possible deviations from standard ΛCDM behavior at the linear perturbations level, which have an impact on the dynamics of structure formation and might provide characteristic observational signatures.
Kamau, Edwin Ngugi
2016-01-01
The generation and manipulation of electromagnetic field distributions plays an essential role in physics in general, and particularly in the vast field of physical optics. In the current state of the art, one of the most convenient methods of performing this task is provided by either static or dynamic diffractive as well as holographic optical elements. Currently available dynamic optical elements, such as spatial light modulators, do offer on the one hand high temporal flexibility. They ho...
Field theoretic approach to dynamical orbital localization in ab initio molecular dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thomas, Jordan W.; Iftimie, Radu; Tuckerman, Mark E.
2004-01-01
Techniques from gauge-field theory are employed to derive an alternative formulation of the Car-Parrinello ab initio molecular-dynamics method that allows maximally localized Wannier orbitals to be generated dynamically as the calculation proceeds. In particular, the Car-Parrinello Lagrangian is mapped onto an SU(n) non-Abelian gauge-field theory and the fictitious kinetic energy in the Car-Parrinello Lagrangian is modified to yield a fully gauge-invariant form. The Dirac gauge-fixing method is then employed to derive a set of equations of motion that automatically maintain orbital locality by restricting the orbitals to remain in the 'Wannier gauge'. An approximate algorithm for integrating the equations of motion that is stable and maintains orbital locality is then developed based on the exact equations of motion. It is shown in a realistic application (64 water molecules plus one hydrogen-chloride molecule in a periodic box) that orbital locality can be maintained with only a modest increase in CPU time. The ability to keep orbitals localized in an ab initio molecular-dynamics calculation is a crucial ingredient in the development of emerging linear scaling approaches
Electric-field gradient characterization at 181Ta impurities in sapphire single crystals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Renteria, M.; Darriba, G.N.; Errico, L.A.; Munoz, E.L.; Eversheim, P.D.
2005-01-01
We report Perturbed-Angular-Correlation (PAC) experiments on corundum Al 2 O 3 single crystals implanted with 181 Hf/ 181 Ta ions at the ISKP at Bonn and measured at La Plata with high efficiency and time-resolution. The magnitude, asymmetry, and orientation (with respect to the crystalline axes) of the electric-field gradient (EFG) tensor were determined measuring the spin-rotation curves as a function of different orientations of the single crystals relative to the detector system. These results are analyzed in the framework of point-charge model and ab initio Full-Potential Linearized-Augmented Plane Wave calculations, and compared with EFG results coming from PAC experiments with 111 In/ 111 Cd impurities. This combined study enables the determination of lattice relaxations induced by the presence of the impurity and the state of charge of a deep impurity donor level in the band gap of the semiconductor. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)
Role of the vertical pressure gradient in wave boundary layers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Karsten Lindegård; Sumer, B. Mutlu; Vittori, Giovanna
2014-01-01
By direct numerical simulation (DNS) of the flow in an oscillatory boundary layer, it is possible to obtain the pressure field. From the latter, the vertical pressure gradient is determined. Turbulent spots are detected by a criterion involving the vertical pressure gradient. The vertical pressure...... gradient is also treated as any other turbulence quantity like velocity fluctuations and statistical properties of the vertical pressure gradient are calculated from the DNS data. The presence of a vertical pressure gradient in the near bed region has significant implications for sediment transport....
Testud, Frederik; Gallichan, Daniel; Layton, Kelvin J; Barmet, Christoph; Welz, Anna M; Dewdney, Andrew; Cocosco, Chris A; Pruessmann, Klaas P; Hennig, Jürgen; Zaitsev, Maxim
2015-03-01
PatLoc (Parallel Imaging Technique using Localized Gradients) accelerates imaging and introduces a resolution variation across the field-of-view. Higher-dimensional encoding employs more spatial encoding magnetic fields (SEMs) than the corresponding image dimensionality requires, e.g. by applying two quadratic and two linear spatial encoding magnetic fields to reconstruct a 2D image. Images acquired with higher-dimensional single-shot trajectories can exhibit strong artifacts and geometric distortions. In this work, the source of these artifacts is analyzed and a reliable correction strategy is derived. A dynamic field camera was built for encoding field calibration. Concomitant fields of linear and nonlinear spatial encoding magnetic fields were analyzed. A combined basis consisting of spherical harmonics and concomitant terms was proposed and used for encoding field calibration and image reconstruction. A good agreement between the analytical solution for the concomitant fields and the magnetic field simulations of the custom-built PatLoc SEM coil was observed. Substantial image quality improvements were obtained using a dynamic field camera for encoding field calibration combined with the proposed combined basis. The importance of trajectory calibration for single-shot higher-dimensional encoding is demonstrated using the combined basis including spherical harmonics and concomitant terms, which treats the concomitant fields as an integral part of the encoding. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
A nonlinear dynamics for the scalar field in Randers spacetime
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Silva, J.E.G. [Universidade Federal do Cariri (UFCA), Instituto de formação de professores, Rua Olegário Emídio de Araújo, Brejo Santo, CE, 63.260.000 (Brazil); Maluf, R.V. [Universidade Federal do Ceará (UFC), Departamento de Física, Campus do Pici, Fortaleza, CE, C.P. 6030, 60455-760 (Brazil); Almeida, C.A.S., E-mail: carlos@fisica.ufc.br [Universidade Federal do Ceará (UFC), Departamento de Física, Campus do Pici, Fortaleza, CE, C.P. 6030, 60455-760 (Brazil)
2017-03-10
We investigate the properties of a real scalar field in the Finslerian Randers spacetime, where the local Lorentz violation is driven by a geometrical background vector. We propose a dynamics for the scalar field by a minimal coupling of the scalar field and the Finsler metric. The coupling is intrinsically defined on the Randers spacetime, and it leads to a non-canonical kinetic term for the scalar field. The nonlinear dynamics can be split into a linear and nonlinear regimes, which depend perturbatively on the even and odd powers of the Lorentz-violating parameter, respectively. We analyze the plane-waves solutions and the modified dispersion relations, and it turns out that the spectrum is free of tachyons up to second-order.
Electric field gradients at 181Ta sites in HfOx
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Darriba, G.N.; Rodriguez, A.M.; Saitovitch, H.; Silva, P.R.J.; Pasquevich, A.F.
2007-01-01
In the present work we report preliminary results about the possibility to study properties of the order-disorder transition in HfO x solid solutions via the determination of the electric field gradient (EFG) at 181 Ta radioactive probes. Oxygen solution into the metal was achieved by arc melting stoichiometric amounts of metallic Hf and HfO 2 under argon atmosphere. Samples of HfO x with x=0.1 and 0.2 were prepared. Two types of samples were used for the perturbed angular correlation (PAC) experiments by doping alternatively with 181 Ta, by neutron irradiation, the metallic Hf or the hafnium oxide. The PAC results on both samples were identical, with disappearing hyperfine signals of the metal and the oxide, showing a complete diffusion of the probes independent of the way of doping. The PAC signal of the HfO x solid solution consisted in a wide distribution of EFGs due to the oxygen disorder. This scheme held even after long thermal treatments at high temperature (several days at 1273K). Annealing treatments at moderate temperature (600K) were also made. In these cases the samples were cooling at a very low rate. These results, together with those obtained by measuring samples below and above the order temperature are reported
Avoiding vacuum arcs in high gradient normal conducting RF structures
Sjøbæk, Kyrre Ness; Adli, Erik; Grudiev, Alexej; Wuensch, Walter
In order to build the Compact LInear Collider (CLIC), accelerating structures reaching extremely high accelerating gradients are needed. Such structures have been built and tested using normal-conducting copper, powered by X-band RF power and reaching gradients of 100 MV/m and above. One phenomenon that must be avoided in order to reliably reach such gradients, is vacuum arcs or “breakdowns”. This can be accomplished by carefully designing the structure geometry such that high surface fields and large local power flows are avoided. The research presented in this thesis presents a method for optimizing the geometry of accelerating structures so that these breakdowns are made less likely, allowing the structure to operate reliably at high gradients. This was done primarily based on a phenomenological scaling model, which predicted the maximum gradient as a function of the break down rate, pulse length, and field distribution in the structure. The model is written in such a way that it allows direct comparis...
Nonlinear conjugate gradient methods in micromagnetics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. Fischbacher
2017-04-01
Full Text Available Conjugate gradient methods for energy minimization in micromagnetics are compared. The comparison of analytic results with numerical simulation shows that standard conjugate gradient method may fail to produce correct results. A method that restricts the step length in the line search is introduced, in order to avoid this problem. When the step length in the line search is controlled, conjugate gradient techniques are a fast and reliable way to compute the hysteresis properties of permanent magnets. The method is applied to investigate demagnetizing effects in NdFe12 based permanent magnets. The reduction of the coercive field by demagnetizing effects is μ0ΔH = 1.4 T at 450 K.
Electric-field gradients at Ta impurities in Sc{sub 2}O{sub 3} semiconductor
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Richard, Diego, E-mail: richard@fisica.unlp.edu.ar [Departamento de Fisica e Instituto de Fisica La Plata (IFLP, CONICET La Plata), Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, CC 67, 1900 La Plata, Argentina. (Argentina); Munoz, Emiliano L. [Departamento de Fisica e Instituto de Fisica La Plata (IFLP, CONICET La Plata), Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, CC 67, 1900 La Plata, Argentina. (Argentina); Errico, Leonardo A. [Departamento de Fisica e Instituto de Fisica La Plata (IFLP, CONICET La Plata), Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, CC 67, 1900 La Plata, Argentina. (Argentina); Universidad Nacional del Noroeste Bonaerense (UNNOBA), Monteagudo 2772, 2700 Pergamino, Argentina. (Argentina); Renteria, Mario [Departamento de Fisica e Instituto de Fisica La Plata (IFLP, CONICET La Plata), Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, CC 67, 1900 La Plata, Argentina. (Argentina)
2012-08-15
In this work we present an ab initio study of Ta-doped Sc{sub 2}O{sub 3} semiconductor. Calculations were performed at dilute Ta impurities located at both cationic sites of the host structure, using the Augmented Plane Wave plus Local Orbitals (APW+lo) method. The structural atomic relaxations and the electric-field gradients (EFG) were studied for different charge states of the cell in order to simulate different ionization states of the double-donor Ta impurity. From the results for the EFG tensor at Ta impurity sites and the comparison with experimental results obtained using the Time-Differential {gamma}-{gamma} Perturbed-Angular-Correlations technique we could determined the structural distortions induced by the Ta impurity and the electronic structure of the doped-semiconductor.
Electric field gradient in FeTiO3 by nuclear magnetic resonance and ab initio calculations.
Procházka, V; Stěpánková, H; Chlan, V; Tuček, J; Cuda, J; Kouřil, K; Filip, J; Zbořil, R
2011-05-25
Temperature dependence of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of (47)Ti and (49)Ti in polycrystalline ilmenite FeTiO(3) was measured in the range from 5 to 300 K under an external magnetic field of 9.401 T. NMR spectra collected between 300 and 77 K exhibit a resolved quadrupole splitting. The electric field gradient (EFG) tensor was evaluated for Ti nuclei and the ratio of (47)Ti and (49)Ti nuclear quadrupole moments was refined during the fitting procedure. Below 77 K, the fine structure of quadrupole splitting disappears due to the enormous increase of anisotropy. As a counterpart, ab initio calculations were performed using full potential augmented plane waves + local orbitals. The calculated EFG tensors for Ti and Fe were compared to the experimental ones evaluated from NMR and the Mössbauer spectroscopy experiments.
Electric Field Gradients at Hf and Fe Sites in Hf2Fe Recalculated
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Belosevic-Cavor, J.; Cekic, B.; Novakovic, N.; Koteski, V.; Milosevic, Z.
2004-01-01
The electric field gradients (EFG) of the Hf 2 Fe intermetallic compound were calculated using the full-potential linearized augmented plain-wave (FP-LAPW) method as embodied in the WIEN 97 code. The obtained values are compared with other ab-initio calculations and on a qualitative basis with the previously reported experimental data obtained from TDPAC. The calculated results, -23.1.10 21 V/m 2 and 2.7.10 21 V/m 2 for Hf 48f and Fe 32e position, respectively, are in excellent agreement with experimental data (23.4.10 21 V/m 2 and 2.7.10 21 V/m 2 ), better than those reported in earlier calculations. The calculated EFG for Hf 16c position (4.2.10 21 V/m 2 ) is stronger than the experimental one (1.1.10 21 V/m 2 ).
Davies, J K; Sherriff, N S
2014-03-01
This paper seeks to introduce and analyse the development of the Gradient Evaluation Framework (GEF) to facilitate evaluation of policy actions for their current or future use in terms of their 'gradient friendliness'. In particular, this means their potential to level-up the gradient in health inequalities by addressing the social determinants of health and thereby reducing decision-makers' chances of error when developing such policy actions. A qualitative developmental study to produce a policy-based evaluation framework. The scientific basis of GEF was developed using a comprehensive consensus-building process. This process followed an initial narrative review, based on realist review principles, which highlighted the need for production of a dedicated evaluation framework. The consensus-building process included expert workshops, a pretesting phase, and external peer review, together with support from the Gradient project Scientific Advisory Group and all Gradient project partners, including its Project Steering Committee. GEF is presented as a flexible policy tool resulting from a consensus-building process involving experts from 13 European countries. The theoretical foundations which underpin GEF are discussed, together with a range of practical challenges. The importance of systematic evaluation at each stage of the policy development and implementation cycle is highlighted, as well as the socio-political context in which policy actions are located. GEF offers potentially a major contribution to the public health field in the form of a practical, policy-relevant and common frame of reference for the evaluation of public health interventions that aim to level-up the social gradient in health inequalities. Further research, including the need for practical field testing of GEF and the exploration of alternative presentational formats, is recommended. Copyright © 2013 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Optimizing sampling approaches along ecological gradients
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schweiger, Andreas; Irl, Severin D. H.; Steinbauer, Manuel
2016-01-01
1. Natural scientists and especially ecologists use manipulative experiments or field observations along gradients to differentiate patterns driven by processes from those caused by random noise. A well-conceived sampling design is essential for identifying, analysing and reporting underlying...... patterns in a statistically solid and reproducible manner, given the normal restrictions in labour, time and money. However, a technical guideline about an adequate sampling design to maximize prediction success under restricted resources is lacking. This study aims at developing such a solid...... and reproducible guideline for sampling along gradients in all fields of ecology and science in general. 2. We conducted simulations with artificial data for five common response types known in ecology, each represented by a simple function (no response, linear, exponential, symmetric unimodal and asymmetric...
Dynamics of molecular superrotors in an external magnetic field
Korobenko, Aleksey; Milner, Valery
2015-08-01
We excite diatomic oxygen and nitrogen to high rotational states with an optical centrifuge and study their dynamics in an external magnetic field. Ion imaging is employed to directly visualize, and follow in time, the rotation plane of the molecular superrotors. The two different mechanisms of interaction between the magnetic field and the molecular angular momentum in paramagnetic oxygen and non-magnetic nitrogen lead to qualitatively different behaviour. In nitrogen, we observe the precession of the molecular angular momentum around the field vector. In oxygen, strong spin-rotation coupling results in faster and richer dynamics, encompassing the splitting of the rotation plane into three separate components. As the centrifuged molecules evolve with no significant dispersion of the molecular wave function, the observed magnetic interaction presents an efficient mechanism for controlling the plane of molecular rotation.
Analyses of Lattice Traffic Flow Model on a Gradient Highway
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gupta Arvind Kumar; Redhu Poonam; Sharma Sapna
2014-01-01
The optimal current difference lattice hydrodynamic model is extended to investigate the traffic flow dynamics on a unidirectional single lane gradient highway. The effect of slope on uphill/downhill highway is examined through linear stability analysis and shown that the slope significantly affects the stability region on the phase diagram. Using nonlinear stability analysis, the Burgers, Korteweg-deVries (KdV) and modified Korteweg-deVries (mKdV) equations are derived in stable, metastable and unstable region, respectively. The effect of reaction coefficient is examined and concluded that it plays an important role in suppressing the traffic jams on a gradient highway. The theoretical findings have been verified through numerical simulation which confirm that the slope on a gradient highway significantly influence the traffic dynamics and traffic jam can be suppressed efficiently by considering the optimal current difference effect in the new lattice model. (nuclear physics)
Real-Space Application of the Mean-Field Description of Spin-Glass Dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barrat, Alain; Berthier, Ludovic
2001-01-01
The out of equilibrium dynamics of finite dimensional spin glasses is considered from a point of view going beyond the standard 'mean-field theory' versus 'droplet picture' debate of the past decades. The main predictions of both theories concerning the spin-glass dynamics are discussed. It is shown, in particular, that predictions originating from mean-field ideas concerning the violations of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem apply quantitatively, provided one properly takes into account the role of a spin-glass coherence length, which plays a central role in the droplet picture. Dynamics in a uniform magnetic field is also briefly discussed
Arts, M.S.J.; Schill, R.O.; Knigge, T.; Eckwert, H.; Kammenga, J.E.; Köhler, H.R.
2004-01-01
Heat shock proteins (hsps) are potential biomarkers for monitoring environmental pollution. In this study, the use of hsps as biomarkers in field bioassays was evaluated in terrestrial invertebrates exposed to a metal gradient near Avonmouth, UK. We investigated the hsp70 response in resident and
Quench dynamics across quantum critical points
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sengupta, K.; Powell, Stephen; Sachdev, Subir
2004-01-01
We study the quantum dynamics of a number of model systems as their coupling constants are changed rapidly across a quantum critical point. The primary motivation is provided by the recent experiments of Greiner et al. [Nature (London) 415, 39 (2002)] who studied the response of a Mott insulator of ultracold atoms in an optical lattice to a strong potential gradient. In a previous work, it had been argued that the resonant response observed at a critical potential gradient could be understood by proximity to an Ising quantum critical point describing the onset of density wave order. Here we obtain numerical results on the evolution of the density wave order as the potential gradient is scanned across the quantum critical point. This is supplemented by studies of the integrable quantum Ising spin chain in a transverse field, where we obtain exact results for the evolution of the Ising order correlations under a time-dependent transverse field. We also study the evolution of transverse superfluid order in the three-dimensional case. In all cases, the order parameter is best enhanced in the vicinity of the quantum critical point
Dynamic scattering theory for dark-field electron holography of 3D strain fields.
Lubk, Axel; Javon, Elsa; Cherkashin, Nikolay; Reboh, Shay; Gatel, Christophe; Hÿtch, Martin
2014-01-01
Dark-field electron holography maps strain in crystal lattices into reconstructed phases over large fields of view. Here we investigate the details of the lattice strain-reconstructed phase relationship by applying dynamic scattering theory both analytically and numerically. We develop efficient analytic linear projection rules for 3D strain fields, facilitating a straight-forward calculation of reconstructed phases from 3D strained materials. They are used in the following to quantify the influence of various experimental parameters like strain magnitude, specimen thickness, excitation error and surface relaxation. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
High gradient lens for charged particle beam
Chen, Yu-Jiuan
2014-04-29
Methods and devices enable shaping of a charged particle beam. A dynamically adjustable electric lens includes a series of alternating a series of alternating layers of insulators and conductors with a hollow center. The series of alternating layers when stacked together form a high gradient insulator (HGI) tube to allow propagation of the charged particle beam through the hollow center of the HGI tube. A plurality of transmission lines are connected to a plurality of sections of the HGI tube, and one or more voltage sources are provided to supply an adjustable voltage value to each transmission line of the plurality of transmission lines. By changing the voltage values supplied to each section of the HGI tube, any desired electric field can be established across the HGI tube. This way various functionalities including focusing, defocusing, acceleration, deceleration, intensity modulation and others can be effectuated on a time varying basis.
Langenbach, K.; Heilig, M.; Horsch, M.; Hasse, H.
2018-03-01
A new method for predicting homogeneous bubble nucleation rates of pure compounds from vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) data is presented. It combines molecular dynamics simulation on the one side with density gradient theory using an equation of state (EOS) on the other. The new method is applied here to predict bubble nucleation rates in metastable liquid carbon dioxide (CO2). The molecular model of CO2 is taken from previous work of our group. PC-SAFT is used as an EOS. The consistency between the molecular model and the EOS is achieved by adjusting the PC-SAFT parameters to VLE data obtained from the molecular model. The influence parameter of density gradient theory is fitted to the surface tension of the molecular model. Massively parallel molecular dynamics simulations are performed close to the spinodal to compute bubble nucleation rates. From these simulations, the kinetic prefactor of the hybrid nucleation theory is estimated, whereas the nucleation barrier is calculated from density gradient theory. This enables the extrapolation of molecular simulation data to the whole metastable range including technically relevant densities. The results are tested against available experimental data and found to be in good agreement. The new method does not suffer from typical deficiencies of classical nucleation theory concerning the thermodynamic barrier at the spinodal and the bubble size dependence of surface tension, which is typically neglected in classical nucleation theory. In addition, the density in the center of critical bubbles and their surface tension is determined as a function of their radius. The usual linear Tolman correction to the capillarity approximation is found to be invalid.
Langenbach, K; Heilig, M; Horsch, M; Hasse, H
2018-03-28
A new method for predicting homogeneous bubble nucleation rates of pure compounds from vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) data is presented. It combines molecular dynamics simulation on the one side with density gradient theory using an equation of state (EOS) on the other. The new method is applied here to predict bubble nucleation rates in metastable liquid carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). The molecular model of CO 2 is taken from previous work of our group. PC-SAFT is used as an EOS. The consistency between the molecular model and the EOS is achieved by adjusting the PC-SAFT parameters to VLE data obtained from the molecular model. The influence parameter of density gradient theory is fitted to the surface tension of the molecular model. Massively parallel molecular dynamics simulations are performed close to the spinodal to compute bubble nucleation rates. From these simulations, the kinetic prefactor of the hybrid nucleation theory is estimated, whereas the nucleation barrier is calculated from density gradient theory. This enables the extrapolation of molecular simulation data to the whole metastable range including technically relevant densities. The results are tested against available experimental data and found to be in good agreement. The new method does not suffer from typical deficiencies of classical nucleation theory concerning the thermodynamic barrier at the spinodal and the bubble size dependence of surface tension, which is typically neglected in classical nucleation theory. In addition, the density in the center of critical bubbles and their surface tension is determined as a function of their radius. The usual linear Tolman correction to the capillarity approximation is found to be invalid.
Dynamic rheological properties of viscoelastic magnetic fluids in uniform magnetic fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Niu Xiaodong; Ye Xiaojiang; Li Mingjun; Iwamoto, Yuhiro
2012-01-01
The dynamic rheological properties of viscoelastic magnetic fluids in externally applied uniform magnetic fields are investigated by a laboratory-made cone-plate rheometer in this study. In particular, the effects of the magnetic field on the viscoelastic properties (the complex dynamic modulus) of the viscoelastic magnetic fluids are studied. In the investigation, three viscoelastic magnetic fluids are made by mixing a magnetic fluid and a viscoelastic fluid with different mass ratios. As a supplementation to the experimental investigation, a theoretical analysis is also presented. The present study shows that the viscosity and elasticity of the viscoelastic magnetic fluids are significantly influenced by the magnetic field and the concentrations of the magnetic particles in the test fluids. Theoretical analysis qualitatively explains the present findings. - Highlights: ► The dynamic rheological properties of the viscoelastic magnetic fluids in uniform magnetic fields are investigated. ► Both the magnetic field strength and the concentration of the magnetic particles in the fluids have significant effects on the viscosity and elasticity of the viscoelastic magnetic fluids. ► Theoretical prediction and analysis qualitatively explains the present findings.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bull, James N.; Fitchett, Christopher M.; Tennant, W. Craighead
2010-01-01
This paper reports the determination of the electric-field-gradient and mean-squared-displacement tensors in 57 Fe symmetry-related sites of 1-bar Laue class in monoclinic FeCl 2 .4H 2 O at room temperature by single-crystal Mössbauer spectroscopy. Contrary to all previous work, the mean-squared-displacement matrix (tensor), , is not constrained to be isotropic resulting in the determination of physically meaningful estimates of microscopic (local) electric-field gradient (efg) and tensors. As a consequence of anisotropy in the tensor the absorber recoilless fractions are also anisotropic. As expected of a low-symmetry site, Laue class 1-bar in this case, no two principal axes of the efg and tensors are coaxial, within the combined errors in the two. Further, no principal direction of the efg tensor seems related to bond directions in the unit cell. Within error, and in agreement with an earlier study of sodium nitroprusside, it appears that the tensor principal directions lie close to the crystallographic axes suggesting that they are determined by long wavelength (phonon) vibrations in the crystal rather than by approximate local symmetry about the 57 Fe nucleus. Concurrent with the Mössbauer measurements, we determined as part of a new X-ray structural determination, precise atomic displacement parameters (ADPs) leading to an alternative determination of the matrix (tensor). The average of the eigenvalues of the Mössbauer-determined exceeds that of the average of the X-ray-determined eigenvalues by a factor of around 2.2. Assuming isotropic absorber recoilless fractions leads to substantially the same (macroscopic) efg tensor as had been determined in earlier work. Taking 1/3 x the trace of the anisotropic absorber recoilless fractions leads to an isotropic value of 0.304 in good agreement with earlier single crystal studies where isotropy was assumed.
Coreless Concept for High Gradient Induction Cell
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krasnykh, Anatoly
2008-01-01
An induction linac cell for a high gradient is discussed. The proposed solid state coreless approach for the induction linac topology (SLIM(reg s ign)) is based on nanosecond mode operation. This mode may have an acceleration gradient comparable with gradients of rf- accelerator structures. The discussed induction system has the high electric efficiency. The key elements are a solid state semiconductor switch and a high electric density dielectric with a thin section length. The energy in the induction system is storied in the magnetic field. The nanosecond current break-up produces the high voltage. The induced voltage is used for acceleration. This manner of an operation allows the use of low voltage elements in the booster part and achieves a high accelerating gradient. The proposed topology was tested in POP (proof of principle) experiments
Uspenskaya, Yu. A.; Mamin, G. V.; Babunts, R. A.; Badalyan, A. G.; Edinach, E. V.; Asatryan, H. R.; Romanov, N. G.; Orlinskii, S. B.; Khanin, V. M.; Wieczorek, H.; Ronda, C.; Baranov, P. G.
2018-03-01
The presence of aluminum and gallium isotopes with large nuclear magnetic and quadrupole moments in the nearest environment of impurity ions Mn2+ and Ce3+ in garnets made it possible to use hyperfine and quadrupole interactions with these ions to determine the spatial distribution of the unpaired electron and the gradient of the electric field at the sites of aluminum and gallium in the garnet lattice. High-frequency (94 GHz) electron spin echo detected electron paramagnetic resonance and electron-nuclear double resonance measurements have been performed. Large difference in the electric field gradient and quadrupole splitting at octahedral and tetrahedral sites allowed identifying the positions of aluminum and gallium ions in the garnet lattice and proving that gallium first fills tetrahedral positions in mixed aluminum-gallium garnets. This should be taken into account in the development of garnet-based scintillators and lasers. It is shown that the electric field gradient at aluminum nuclei near Mn2+ possessing an excess negative charge in the garnet lattice is ca. 2.5 times larger than on aluminum nuclei near Ce3+.
Dynamics of molecular superrotors in an external magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Korobenko, Aleksey; Milner, Valery
2015-01-01
We excite diatomic oxygen and nitrogen to high rotational states with an optical centrifuge and study their dynamics in an external magnetic field. Ion imaging is employed to directly visualize, and follow in time, the rotation plane of the molecular superrotors. The two different mechanisms of interaction between the magnetic field and the molecular angular momentum in paramagnetic oxygen and non-magnetic nitrogen lead to qualitatively different behaviour. In nitrogen, we observe the precession of the molecular angular momentum around the field vector. In oxygen, strong spin–rotation coupling results in faster and richer dynamics, encompassing the splitting of the rotation plane into three separate components. As the centrifuged molecules evolve with no significant dispersion of the molecular wave function, the observed magnetic interaction presents an efficient mechanism for controlling the plane of molecular rotation. (paper)
Reza Barati, Mohammad
2017-09-01
For the first time, a vibrating porous double-nanoplate system under in-plane periodic loads is modeled via the generalized nonlocal strain gradient theory (NSGT). Based on the proposed theory, one can examine both stiffness-softening and stiffness-hardening effects for a more accurate analysis of nanoplates. Nanopores or nanovoids are incorporated to the model based on a modified rule of mixture. Modeling of porous double-layered nanoplate is conducted according to a refined four-variable plate theory with fewer field variables than first-order plate theory. The governing equations and related classical and nonclassical boundary conditions are derived based on Hamilton's principle. These equations are solved for hinged nanoplates via Galerkin's method. It is shown that porosities, nonlocal parameter, strain gradient parameter, material gradation, interlayer stiffness, elastic foundation, side-to-thickness and aspect ratios have a notable impact on the vibration behavior of nanoporous materials.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Danilov, Denis; Nestler, Britta; Guerdane, Mohammed; Teichler, Helmar
2009-01-01
Results are presented from phase-field modelling and molecular dynamics simulations concerning the relaxation dynamics in a finite-temperature two-phase crystal-liquid sample subjected to an abrupt temperature drop. Relaxation takes place by propagation of the solidification front under formation of a spatially varying concentration profile in the melt. The molecular dynamics simulations are carried out with an interatomic model appropriate for the NiZr alloy system and provide the thermophysical data required for setting up the phase-field simulations. Regarding the concentration profile and velocity of the solidification front, best agreement between the phase-field model and molecular dynamics simulation is obtained when increasing the apparent diffusion coefficients in the phase-field treatment by a factor of four against their molecular dynamics estimates.
Signal restoration for NMR imaging using time-dependent gradients
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frahm, J.; Haenicke, W.
1984-01-01
NMR imaging experiments that employ linear but time-dependent gradients for encoding spatial information in the time-domain signals result in distorted images when treated with conventional image reconstruction techniques. It is shown here that the phase and amplitude distortions can be entirely removed if the timeshape of the gradient is known. The method proposed is of great theoretical and experimental simplicity. It consists of a retransformation of the measured time-domain signal and corresponds to synchronisation of the signal sampling with the time-development of the gradient field strength. The procedure complements other treatments of periodically oscillating gradients in NMR imaging. (author)
Color Gradients Within Globular Clusters: Restricted Numerical Simulation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Young-Jong Sohn
1997-06-01
Full Text Available The results of a restricted numerical simulation for the color gradients within globular clusters have been presented. The standard luminosity function of M3 and Salpeter's initial mass functions were used to generate model clusters as a fundamental population. Color gradients with the sample clusters for both King and power law cusp models of surface brightness distributions are discussed in the case of using the standard luminosity function. The dependence of color gradients on several parameters for the simulations with Salpeter's initial mass functions, such as slope of initial mass functions, cluster ages, metallicities, concentration parameters of King model, and slopes of power law, are also discussed. No significant radial color gradients are shown to the sample clusters which are regenerated by a random number generation technique with various parameters in both of King and power law cusp models of surface brightness distributions. Dynamical mass segregation and stellar evolution of horizontal branch stars and blue stragglers should be included for the general case of model simulations to show the observed radial color gradients within globular clusters.
An Exploration of the System Dynamics Field : A Model-Based Policy Analysis
Rose, A.C.
2014-01-01
This report presents a first look study at the field of System Dynamics. The objective of the study is to perform a model-based policy analysis in order to investigate the future advancement of the System Dynamics field. The aim of this investigation is to determine what this advancement should look
Dynamics of coupled phantom and tachyon fields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shahalam, M. [Zhejiang University of Technology, Institute for Advanced Physics and Mathematics, Hangzhou (China); Pathak, S.D.; Li, Shiyuan [Shandong University, School of Physics, Jinan (China); Myrzakulov, R. [Eurasian National University, Department of General and Theoretical Physics, Eurasian International Center for Theoretical Physics, Astana (Kazakhstan); Wang, Anzhong [Zhejiang University of Technology, Institute for Advanced Physics and Mathematics, Hangzhou (China); Baylor University, Department of Physics, GCAP-CASPER, Waco, TX (United States)
2017-10-15
In this paper, we apply the dynamical analysis to a coupled phantom field with scaling potential taking particular forms of the coupling (linear and combination of linear), and present phase space analysis. We investigate if there exists a late time accelerated scaling attractor that has the ratio of dark energy and dark matter densities of the order one. We observe that the scrutinized couplings cannot alleviate the coincidence problem, however, they acquire stable late time accelerated solutions. We also discuss a coupled tachyon field with inverse square potential assuming linear coupling. (orig.)
Dynamics of coupled phantom and tachyon fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shahalam, M.; Pathak, S.D.; Li, Shiyuan; Myrzakulov, R.; Wang, Anzhong
2017-01-01
In this paper, we apply the dynamical analysis to a coupled phantom field with scaling potential taking particular forms of the coupling (linear and combination of linear), and present phase space analysis. We investigate if there exists a late time accelerated scaling attractor that has the ratio of dark energy and dark matter densities of the order one. We observe that the scrutinized couplings cannot alleviate the coincidence problem, however, they acquire stable late time accelerated solutions. We also discuss a coupled tachyon field with inverse square potential assuming linear coupling. (orig.)
Rovibrational dynamics of the RbCs molecule in static electric fields. Classical study
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Arnaiz, Pedro F.; Iñarrea, Manuel [Área de Física, Universidad de la Rioja, E-26006 Logroño (Spain); Salas, J. Pablo, E-mail: josepablo.salas@unirioja.es [Área de Física, Universidad de la Rioja, E-26006 Logroño (Spain)
2012-04-02
We study the classical dynamics of the RbCs molecule in the presence of a static electric field. Under the Born–Oppenheimer approximation, we perform a rovibrational investigation which includes the interaction of the field with the molecular polarizability. The stability of the equilibrium points and the phase space structure of the system are explored in detail. We find that, for strong electric fields or for energies close to the dissociation threshold, the molecular polarizability causes relevant effects on the system dynamics. -- Highlights: ► We study the classical rovibrational dynamics of the alkali polar dimer RbCs. ► In the model we consider the interaction of the field with the molecular polarizability. ► The potential energy surface is studied depending on the electric field strength. ► Using surfaces of section we study the phase space structure. ► We find that the molecular polarizability causes relevant effects on the system dynamics.
Rovibrational dynamics of the RbCs molecule in static electric fields. Classical study
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arnaiz, Pedro F.; Iñarrea, Manuel; Salas, J. Pablo
2012-01-01
We study the classical dynamics of the RbCs molecule in the presence of a static electric field. Under the Born–Oppenheimer approximation, we perform a rovibrational investigation which includes the interaction of the field with the molecular polarizability. The stability of the equilibrium points and the phase space structure of the system are explored in detail. We find that, for strong electric fields or for energies close to the dissociation threshold, the molecular polarizability causes relevant effects on the system dynamics. -- Highlights: ► We study the classical rovibrational dynamics of the alkali polar dimer RbCs. ► In the model we consider the interaction of the field with the molecular polarizability. ► The potential energy surface is studied depending on the electric field strength. ► Using surfaces of section we study the phase space structure. ► We find that the molecular polarizability causes relevant effects on the system dynamics.
Sound beam manipulation based on temperature gradients
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Qian, Feng [Key Laboratory of Modern Acoustics, Institute of Acoustics and School of Physics, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); School of Physics & Electronic Engineering, Changshu Institute of Technology, Changshu 215500 (China); Quan, Li; Liu, Xiaozhou, E-mail: xzliu@nju.edu.cn; Gong, Xiufen [Key Laboratory of Modern Acoustics, Institute of Acoustics and School of Physics, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)
2015-10-28
Previous research with temperature gradients has shown the feasibility of controlling airborne sound propagation. Here, we present a temperature gradients based airborne sound manipulation schemes: a cylindrical acoustic omnidirectional absorber (AOA). The proposed AOA has high absorption performance which can almost completely absorb the incident wave. Geometric acoustics is used to obtain the refractive index distributions with different radii, which is then utilized to deduce the desired temperature gradients. Since resonant units are not applied in the scheme, its working bandwidth is expected to be broadband. The scheme is temperature-tuned and easy to realize, which is of potential interest to fields such as noise control or acoustic cloaking.
Test Particle Energization and the Anisotropic Effects of Dynamical MHD Turbulence
González, C. A.; Dmitruk, P.; Mininni, P. D.; Matthaeus, W. H.
2017-11-01
In this paper, we analyze the effect of dynamical three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence on test particle acceleration and compare how this evolving system affects particle energization by current sheet interaction, as opposed to frozen-in-time fields. To do this, we analyze the ensemble particle acceleration for static electromagnetic fields extracted from direct numerical simulations of the MHD equations, and compare it with the dynamical fields. We show that a reduction in particle acceleration in the dynamical model results from particle trapping in field lines, which forces the particles to be advected by the flow and suppresses long exposures to the strong electric field gradients that take place between structures and generate (among other effects) an efficient particle acceleration in the static case. In addition, we analyze the effect of anisotropy caused by the mean magnetic field. It is well known that for sufficiently strong external fields, the system experiences a transition toward a two-dimensional flow. This causes an increment in the size of the coherent structures, resulting in a magnetized state of the particles and a reduction in particle energization.
Perron, Aurelien; Roehling, John D.; Turchi, Patrice E. A.; Fattebert, Jean-Luc; McKeown, Joseph T.
2018-01-01
A combination of dynamic transmission electron microscopy (DTEM) experiments and CALPHAD-informed phase-field simulations was used to study rapid solidification in Cu-Ni thin-film alloys. Experiments—conducted in the DTEM—consisted of in situ laser melting and determination of the solidification kinetics by monitoring the solid-liquid interface and the overall microstructure evolution (time-resolved measurements) during the solidification process. Modelling of the Cu-Ni alloy microstructure evolution was based on a phase-field model that included realistic Gibbs energies and diffusion coefficients from the CALPHAD framework (thermodynamic and mobility databases). DTEM and post mortem experiments highlighted the formation of microsegregation-free columnar grains with interface velocities varying from ˜0.1 to ˜0.6 m s-1. After an ‘incubation’ time, the velocity of the planar solid-liquid interface accelerated until solidification was complete. In addition, a decrease of the temperature gradient induced a decrease in the interface velocity. The modelling strategy permitted the simulation (in 1D and 2D) of the solidification process from the initially diffusion-controlled to the nearly partitionless regimes. Finally, results of DTEM experiments and phase-field simulations (grain morphology, solute distribution, and solid-liquid interface velocity) were consistent at similar time (μs) and spatial scales (μm).
Bent dark soliton dynamics in two spatial dimensions beyond the mean field approximation
Mistakidis, Simeon; Katsimiga, Garyfallia; Koutentakis, Georgios; Kevrekidis, Panagiotis; Schmelcher, Peter; Theory Group of Fundamental Processes in Quantum Physics Team
2017-04-01
The dynamics of a bented dark soliton embedded in two spatial dimensions beyond the mean-field approximation is explored. We examine the case of a single bented dark soliton comparing the mean-field approximation to a correlated approach that involves multiple orbitals. Fragmentation is generally present and significantly affects the dynamics, especially in the case of stronger interparticle interactions and in that of lower atom numbers. It is shown that the presence of fragmentation allows for the appearance of solitonic and vortex structures in the higher-orbital dynamics. In particular, a variety of excitations including dark solitons in multiple orbitals and vortex-antidark complexes is observed to arise spontaneously within the beyond mean-field dynamics. Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) in the framework of the SFB 925 ``Light induced dynamics and control of correlated quantum systems''.
Galactic abundance gradients from Cepheids : α and heavy elements in the outer disk
Lemasle, B.; Francois, P.; Genovali, K.; Kovtyukh, V. V.; Bono, G.; Inno, L.; Laney, C. D.; Kaper, L.; Bergemann, M.; Fabrizio, M.; Matsunaga, N.; Pedicelli, S.; Primas, F.; Romaniello, M.
2013-01-01
Context. Galactic abundance gradients set strong constraints to chemo-dynamical evolutionary models of the Milky Way. Given the period-luminosity relations that provide accurate distances and the large number of spectral lines, Cepheids are excellent tracers of the present-day abundance gradients.
Leem, Dohyun; Kim, Jin-Hwan; Barlat, Frédéric; Song, Jung Han; Lee, Myoung-Gyu
2018-03-01
An inverse approach based on the virtual fields method (VFM) is presented to identify the material hardening parameters under dynamic deformation. This dynamic-VFM (D-VFM) method does not require load information for the parameter identification. Instead, it utilizes acceleration fields in a specimen's gage region. To investigate the feasibility of the proposed inverse approach for dynamic deformation, the virtual experiments using dynamic finite element simulations were conducted. The simulation could provide all the necessary data for the identification such as displacement, strain, and acceleration fields. The accuracy of the identification results was evaluated by changing several parameters such as specimen geometry, velocity, and traction boundary conditions. The analysis clearly shows that the D-VFM which utilizes acceleration fields can be a good alternative to the conventional identification procedure that uses load information. Also, it was found that proper deformation conditions are required for generating sufficient acceleration fields during dynamic deformation to enhance the identification accuracy with the D-VFM.
Gradient networks on uncorrelated random scale-free networks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pan Guijun; Yan Xiaoqing; Huang Zhongbing; Ma Weichuan
2011-01-01
Uncorrelated random scale-free (URSF) networks are useful null models for checking the effects of scale-free topology on network-based dynamical processes. Here, we present a comparative study of the jamming level of gradient networks based on URSF networks and Erdos-Renyi (ER) random networks. We find that the URSF networks are less congested than ER random networks for the average degree (k)>k c (k c ∼ 2 denotes a critical connectivity). In addition, by investigating the topological properties of the two kinds of gradient networks, we discuss the relations between the topological structure and the transport efficiency of the gradient networks. These findings show that the uncorrelated scale-free structure might allow more efficient transport than the random structure.
Boon, Nico; Pycke, Benny F G; Marzorati, Massimo; Hammes, Frederik
2011-12-01
The quality of drinking water is ensured by hygienic barriers and filtration steps, such as ozonation and granular activated carbon (GAC) filtration. Apart from adsorption, GAC filtration involves microbial processes that remove biodegradable organic carbon from the ozonated ground or surface water and ensures biological stability of the treated water. In this study, microbial community dynamics in were monitored during the start-up and maturation of an undisturbed pilot-scale GAC filter at 4 depths (10, 45, 80 and 115 cm) over a period of 6 months. New ecological tools, based on 16S rRNA gene-DGGE, were correlated to filter performance and microbial activity and showed that the microbial gradients developing in the filter was of importance. At 10 cm from the top, receiving the freshly ozonated water with the highest concentration of nutrients, the microbial community dynamics were minimal and the species richness remained low. However, the GAC samples at 80-115 cm showed a 2-3 times higher species richness than the 10-45 cm samples. The highest biomass densities were observed at 45-80 cm, which corresponded with maximum removal of dissolved and assimilable organic carbon. Furthermore, the start-up period was clearly distinguishable using the Lorenz analysis, as after 80 days, the microbial community shifted to an apparent steady-state condition with increased evenness. This study showed that GAC biofilter performance is not necessarily correlated to biomass concentration, but rather that an elevated functionality can be the result of increased microbial community richness, evenness and dynamics. Copyright Â© 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Real time visualization of dynamic magnetic fields with a nanomagnetic ferrolens
Markoulakis, Emmanouil; Rigakis, Iraklis; Chatzakis, John; Konstantaras, Antonios; Antonidakis, Emmanuel
2018-04-01
Due to advancements in nanomagnetism and latest nanomagnetic materials and devices, a new potential field has been opened up for research and applications which was not possible before. We herein propose a new research field and application for nanomagnetism for the visualization of dynamic magnetic fields in real-time. In short, Nano Magnetic Vision. A new methodology, technique and apparatus were invented and prototyped in order to demonstrate and test this new application. As an application example the visualization of the dynamic magnetic field on a transmitting antenna was chosen. Never seen before high-resolution, photos and real-time color video revealing the actual dynamic magnetic field inside a transmitting radio antenna rod has been captured for the first time. The antenna rod is fed with six hundred volts, orthogonal pulses. This unipolar signal is in the very low frequency (i.e. VLF) range. The signal combined with an extremely short electrical length of the rod, ensures the generation of a relatively strong fluctuating magnetic field, analogue to the signal transmitted, along and inside the antenna. This field is induced into a ferrolens and becomes visible in real-time within the normal human eyes frequency spectrum. The name we have given to the new observation apparatus is, SPIONs Superparamagnetic Ferrolens Microscope (SSFM), a powerful passive scientific observation tool with many other potential applications in the near future.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, J.J.H.; Dubberley, J.R.
1989-01-01
Electromagnetic (EM) fields in a three-dimensional, arbitrarily shaped heterogeneous dielectric or biological body illuminated by a plane wave are computed by an iterative conjugate gradient method. The method is a generalized method of moments applied to the volume integral equation. Because no matrix is explicitly involved or stored, the present iterative method is capable of computing EM fields in objects an order of magnitude larger than those that can be handled by the conventional method of moments. Excellent numerical convergence is achieved. Perfect convergence to the result of the conventional moment method using the same basis and weighted with delta functions is consistently achieved in all the cases computed, indicating that these two algorithms (direct and interactive) are equivalent
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hadley, Austin; Ding, George X.
2014-01-01
Craniospinal irradiation (CSI) requires abutting fields at the cervical spine. Junction shifts are conventionally used to prevent setup error–induced overdosage/underdosage from occurring at the same location. This study compared the dosimetric differences at the cranial-spinal junction between a single-gradient junction technique and conventional multiple-junction shifts and evaluated the effect of setup errors on the dose distributions between both techniques for a treatment course and single fraction. Conventionally, 2 lateral brain fields and a posterior spine field(s) are used for CSI with weekly 1-cm junction shifts. We retrospectively replanned 4 CSI patients using a single-gradient junction between the lateral brain fields and the posterior spine field. The fields were extended to allow a minimum 3-cm field overlap. The dose gradient at the junction was achieved using dose painting and intensity-modulated radiation therapy planning. The effect of positioning setup errors on the dose distributions for both techniques was simulated by applying shifts of ± 3 and 5 mm. The resulting cervical spine doses across the field junction for both techniques were calculated and compared. Dose profiles were obtained for both a single fraction and entire treatment course to include the effects of the conventional weekly junction shifts. Compared with the conventional technique, the gradient-dose technique resulted in higher dose uniformity and conformity to the target volumes, lower organ at risk (OAR) mean and maximum doses, and diminished hot spots from systematic positioning errors over the course of treatment. Single-fraction hot and cold spots were improved for the gradient-dose technique. The single-gradient junction technique provides improved conformity, dose uniformity, diminished hot spots, lower OAR mean and maximum dose, and one plan for the entire treatment course, which reduces the potential human error associated with conventional 4-shifted plans
Non-ionic contributions to the electric-field gradient at 111Cd/181Ta impurities in bixbyites
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Renteria, Mario; Freitag, Kristian; Errico, Leonardo A.
1999-01-01
The electric-field-gradient (EFG) tensor at both cation sites of the bixbyite structure in 181 Hf-implanted Lu- and Sm-sesquioxides was determined by the PAC technique. The cumulated EFG data at Ta-impurity sites in binary oxides enable us to discuss the 'universal' character of the empirical correlation between local and ionic contributions to the EFG in these systems. An EFG factorization in terms of the electronic characteristics of the probe and the geometry of the cation coordination is proposed, which explains the experimental EFG results at Ta/Cd impurity sites in bixbyites and agrees with a simplified decomposition of the EFG valence contribution coming from ab-initio calculations
Confinement dynamics in the reversed field pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schoenberg, K.F.
1988-01-01
The study of basic transport and confinement dynamics is central to the development of the reversed field pinch (RFP) as a confinement concept. Thus, the goal of RFP research is to understand the connection between processes that sustain the RFP configuration and related transport/confinement properties. Recently, new insights into confinement have emerged from a detailed investigation of RFP electron and ion physics. These insights derive from the recognition that both magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) and electron kinetic effects play an important and strongly coupled role in RFP sustainment and confinement dynamics. In this paper, we summarize the results of these studies on the ZT-40M experiment. 8 refs
Review of new shapes for higher gradients
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Geng, R.L.
2006-01-01
High-gradient superconducting RF (SRF) cavities are needed for energy frontier superconducting accelerators. Progress has been made over the past decades and the accelerating gradient E acc has been increased from a few MV/m to ∼42 MV/m in SRF niobium cavities. The corresponding peak RF magnetic field H pk on the niobium cavity surface is approaching the intrinsic RF critical magnetic field H crit,RF , a hard physical limit at which superconductivity breaks down. Pushing the gradient envelope further by adopting new cavity shapes with a lower ratio of H pk /E acc has been recently proposed. For a reduced H pk /E acc , a higher ultimate E acc is sustained when H pk finally strikes H crit,RF . The new cavity geometry include the re-entrant shape conceived at Cornell University and the so-called 'Low-loss' shape proposed by a DESY/JLAB/KEK collaboration. Experimental work is being pursued at Cornell, KEK and JLAB. Results of single-cell cavities are encouraging. A record gradient of 47 MV/m was first demonstrated in a 1.3 GHz re-entrant niobium cavity at Cornell University. At the time of writing, a new record of 52 MV/m has been realized with another 1.3 GHz re-entrant cavity, designed and built at Cornell and processed and tested at KEK. Single-cell low-loss cavities have reached equally high gradients in the range of 45-51 MV/m at KEK and JLAB. Owing to their higher gradient potential and the encouraging single-cell cavity results, the new cavity shapes are becoming attractive for their possible use in the international linear collider (ILC). Experimental work on multi-cell niobium cavities of new shapes is currently under active exploration
Review of new shapes for higher gradients
Geng, R. L.
2006-07-01
High-gradient superconducting RF (SRF) cavities are needed for energy frontier superconducting accelerators. Progress has been made over the past decades and the accelerating gradient Eacc has been increased from a few MV/m to ∼42 MV/m in SRF niobium cavities. The corresponding peak RF magnetic field Hpk on the niobium cavity surface is approaching the intrinsic RF critical magnetic field Hcrit,RF, a hard physical limit at which superconductivity breaks down. Pushing the gradient envelope further by adopting new cavity shapes with a lower ratio of Hpk/ Eacc has been recently proposed. For a reduced Hpk/ Eacc, a higher ultimate Eacc is sustained when Hpk finally strikes Hcrit,RF. The new cavity geometry include the re-entrant shape conceived at Cornell University and the so-called “Low-loss” shape proposed by a DESY/JLAB/KEK collaboration. Experimental work is being pursued at Cornell, KEK and JLAB. Results of single-cell cavities are encouraging. A record gradient of 47 MV/m was first demonstrated in a 1.3 GHz re-entrant niobium cavity at Cornell University. At the time of writing, a new record of 52 MV/m has been realized with another 1.3 GHz re-entrant cavity, designed and built at Cornell and processed and tested at KEK. Single-cell low-loss cavities have reached equally high gradients in the range of 45-51 MV/m at KEK and JLAB. Owing to their higher gradient potential and the encouraging single-cell cavity results, the new cavity shapes are becoming attractive for their possible use in the international linear collider (ILC). Experimental work on multi-cell niobium cavities of new shapes is currently under active exploration.
A simplified dynamic method for field capacity estimation and its parameter analysis
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhen-tao CONG; Hua-fang LÜ; Guang-heng NI
2014-01-01
This paper presents a simplified dynamic method based on the definition of field capacity. Two soil hydraulic characteristics models, the Brooks-Corey (BC) model and the van Genuchten (vG) model, and four soil data groups were used in this study. The relative drainage rate, which is a unique parameter and independent of the soil type in the simplified dynamic method, was analyzed using the pressure-based method with a matric potential of−1/3 bar and the flux-based method with a drainage flux of 0.005 cm/d. As a result, the relative drainage rate of the simplified dynamic method was determined to be 3% per day. This was verified by the similar field capacity results estimated with the three methods for most soils suitable for cultivating plants. In addition, the drainage time calculated with the simplified dynamic method was two to three days, which agrees with the classical definition of field capacity. We recommend the simplified dynamic method with a relative drainage rate of 3% per day due to its simple application and clearly physically-based concept.
Enhanced Photovoltaic Properties of Gradient Doping Solar Cells
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Chun-Lei; Du Hui-Jing; Zhu Jian-Zhuo; Xu Tian-Fu; Fang Xiao-Yong
2012-01-01
An optimum design of a-Si:H(n)/a-Si:H(i)/c-Si(p) heterojunction solar cell is realized with 24.27% conversion efficiency by gradient doping of the a-Si:H(n) layer. The photovoltaic properties are simulated by the AFORSHET software. Besides the additional electric field caused by the gradient doping, the enhanced and widen spectral response also improves the solar cell performance compared with the uniform-doping mode. The simulation shows that the gradient doping is efficient to improve the photovoltaic performance of the solar cells. The study is valuable for the solar cell design with excellent performances
Modelling forest dynamics along climate gradients in Bolivia
Seiler, C.; Hutjes, R.W.A.; Kruijt, B.; Quispe, J.; Añez, S.; Arora, V.K.; Melton, J.R.; Hickler, T.; Kabat, P.
2014-01-01
Dynamic vegetation models have been used to assess the resilience of tropical forests to climate change, but the global application of these modeling experiments often misrepresents carbon dynamics at a regional level, limiting the validity of future projections. Here a dynamic vegetation model
First principles molecular dynamics without self-consistent field optimization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Souvatzis, Petros; Niklasson, Anders M. N.
2014-01-01
We present a first principles molecular dynamics approach that is based on time-reversible extended Lagrangian Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics [A. M. N. Niklasson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 123004 (2008)] in the limit of vanishing self-consistent field optimization. The optimization-free dynamics keeps the computational cost to a minimum and typically provides molecular trajectories that closely follow the exact Born-Oppenheimer potential energy surface. Only one single diagonalization and Hamiltonian (or Fockian) construction are required in each integration time step. The proposed dynamics is derived for a general free-energy potential surface valid at finite electronic temperatures within hybrid density functional theory. Even in the event of irregular functional behavior that may cause a dynamical instability, the optimization-free limit represents a natural starting guess for force calculations that may require a more elaborate iterative electronic ground state optimization. Our optimization-free dynamics thus represents a flexible theoretical framework for a broad and general class of ab initio molecular dynamics simulations
Impact of Dynamic Magnetic fields on the CLIC Main Beam
Snuverink, J; Jach, C; Jeanneret, JB; Schulte, D; Stulle, F
2010-01-01
The Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) accelerator has strong precision requirements on the position of the beam. The beam position will be sensitive to external dynamic magnetic fields (stray fields) in the nanotesla regime. The impact of these fields on the CLIC main beam has been studied by performing simulations on the lattices and tolerances have been determined. Several mitigation techniques will be discussed.
Electric-field gradient characterization at {sup 181}Ta impurities in sapphire single crystals
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Renteria, M.; Darriba, G.N.; Errico, L.A.; Munoz, E.L. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, CC 67, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Eversheim, P.D. [Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen-und Kernphysik (ISKP), Universitaet Bonn, Nussallee 14-16, 53115 Bonn (Germany)
2005-07-01
We report Perturbed-Angular-Correlation (PAC) experiments on corundum Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} single crystals implanted with {sup 181}Hf/{sup 181}Ta ions at the ISKP at Bonn and measured at La Plata with high efficiency and time-resolution. The magnitude, asymmetry, and orientation (with respect to the crystalline axes) of the electric-field gradient (EFG) tensor were determined measuring the spin-rotation curves as a function of different orientations of the single crystals relative to the detector system. These results are analyzed in the framework of point-charge model and ab initio Full-Potential Linearized-Augmented Plane Wave calculations, and compared with EFG results coming from PAC experiments with {sup 111}In/{sup 111}Cd impurities. This combined study enables the determination of lattice relaxations induced by the presence of the impurity and the state of charge of a deep impurity donor level in the band gap of the semiconductor. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)
Controlling the dynamics of a self-organized structure using a rf-field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Talasman, S.J.; Ignat, M.
2004-01-01
We investigate the influence of an external rf-field upon a plasma self-organized structure. We show that depending on the intensity of this field, though it is at very low values, the dynamics of the structure can be easily controlled over a wide range of the state parameters values. This could be considered as a non-feedback method of dynamics control
Improved alternating gradient transport and focusing of neutral molecules
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kalnins, Juris; Lambertson, Glen; Gould, Harvey
2001-01-01
Polar molecules, in strong-field seeking states, can be transported and focused by an alternating sequence of electric field gradients that focus in one transverse direction while defocusing in the other. We show by calculation and numerical simulation, how one may greatly improve the alternating gradient transport and focusing of molecules. We use a new optimized multipole lens design, a FODO lattice beam transport line, and lenses to match the beam transport line to the beam source and the final focus. We derive analytic expressions for the potentials, fields, and gradients that may be used to design these lenses. We describe a simple lens optimization procedure and derive the equations of motion for tracking molecules through a beam transport line. As an example, we model a straight beamline that transports a 560 m/s jet-source beam of methyl fluoride molecules 15 m from its source and focuses it to 2 mm diameter. We calculate the beam transport line acceptance and transmission, for a beam with velocity spread, and estimate the transmitted intensity for specified source conditions. Possible applications are discussed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Friedt, J.M.
1976-01-01
The change in the hyperfine line intensities is discussed for various Moessbauer transitions in cases involving axial vibrational lattice anisotropy and axial electric field gradient at the resonant nucleus. The change in the relative intensities of the spectral components has been calculed numerically for the different types of Moessbauer transitions. Polynomial expansions are given to describe the functional dependence of the relative intensities on the magnitude of the vibration anisotropy. They may be used to extract the relevant parameters from experimental data without requiring the numerical integrations implied in the description of the Goldanskii-Karyagin effect [fr
Nonequilibrium dynamical mean-field theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Eckstein, Martin
2009-12-21
The aim of this thesis is the investigation of strongly interacting quantum many-particle systems in nonequilibrium by means of the dynamical mean-field theory (DMFT). An efficient numerical implementation of the nonequilibrium DMFT equations within the Keldysh formalism is provided, as well a discussion of several approaches to solve effective single-site problem to which lattice models such as the Hubbard-model are mapped within DMFT. DMFT is then used to study the relaxation of the thermodynamic state after a sudden increase of the interaction parameter in two different models: the Hubbard model and the Falicov-Kimball model. In the latter case an exact solution can be given, which shows that the state does not even thermalize after infinite waiting times. For a slow change of the interaction, a transition to adiabatic behavior is found. The Hubbard model, on the other hand, shows a very sensitive dependence of the relaxation on the interaction, which may be called a dynamical phase transition. Rapid thermalization only occurs at the interaction parameter which corresponds to this transition. (orig.)
Nonequilibrium dynamical mean-field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eckstein, Martin
2009-01-01
The aim of this thesis is the investigation of strongly interacting quantum many-particle systems in nonequilibrium by means of the dynamical mean-field theory (DMFT). An efficient numerical implementation of the nonequilibrium DMFT equations within the Keldysh formalism is provided, as well a discussion of several approaches to solve effective single-site problem to which lattice models such as the Hubbard-model are mapped within DMFT. DMFT is then used to study the relaxation of the thermodynamic state after a sudden increase of the interaction parameter in two different models: the Hubbard model and the Falicov-Kimball model. In the latter case an exact solution can be given, which shows that the state does not even thermalize after infinite waiting times. For a slow change of the interaction, a transition to adiabatic behavior is found. The Hubbard model, on the other hand, shows a very sensitive dependence of the relaxation on the interaction, which may be called a dynamical phase transition. Rapid thermalization only occurs at the interaction parameter which corresponds to this transition. (orig.)
High-Fidelity Trapped-Ion Quantum Logic Using Near-Field Microwaves.
Harty, T P; Sepiol, M A; Allcock, D T C; Ballance, C J; Tarlton, J E; Lucas, D M
2016-09-30
We demonstrate a two-qubit logic gate driven by near-field microwaves in a room-temperature microfabricated surface ion trap. We introduce a dynamically decoupled gate method, which stabilizes the qubits against fluctuating energy shifts and avoids the need to null the microwave field. We use the gate to produce a Bell state with fidelity 99.7(1)%, after accounting for state preparation and measurement errors. The gate is applied directly to ^{43}Ca^{+} hyperfine "atomic clock" qubits (coherence time T_{2}^{*}≈50 s) using the oscillating magnetic field gradient produced by an integrated microwave electrode.
Bacterial Response to Antibiotic Gradients in a Porous Microfluidic Device
Deng, J.; Shechtman, L. A.; Sanford, R. A.; Dong, Y.; Werth, C. J.; Fouke, B. W.
2015-12-01
Microorganisms in nature have evolved survival strategies to cope with a wide variety of environmental stresses, including gradients in temperature, pH, substrate availability and aqueous chemistry. Microfluidic devices provide a consistently reliable real-time means to quantitatively measure, control and reproduce the dynamic nature of these stresses. As an example, accelerated adaptation from genetic mutations have been observed in E. coli as it responds to gradients of Ciprofloxacin (Zhang et. al. 2011). However, the mechanisms by which bacteria respond to antibiotic gradients, as well as the effect of changes in how the stressor is applied, have not been systematically studied. In this study, newly designed and fabricated microfluidic devices with porous media have been utilized to determine the chemical stress fields that enhance adaptation and thus to test how E. coli bacterial communities adapt to antibiotic stresses. By applying antibiotic and nutrient into inlet channels adjacent to either side of the porous media inoculated with E. coli, a gradient of antibiotic was formed. Hydrogel barriers were selectively photo-polymerized in between of the inlet channels and the porous media to prevent any undesired convection. Hence, chemical solute can only be transported by diffusion, creating a reproducible antibiotic gradient over the porous media. The bacteria were also constrained by the hydrogel boundary barriers from escaping the porous media. Preliminary results suggest that E. coli moves freely with respect to Ciprofloxacin concentrations. In addition, and unexpectedly, the E. coli colonies exhibit a concentric pulsed growth front radiating away from the point of inoculation within the micromodel ecosystem and pulse over the porous media containing antibiotic. The bacteria at the growth front grow into long filaments (up to 100μm) while the bacteria in the inner concentric area are normal size. We hypothesize that the frontier bacteria, which are first
Variability study of Si nanowire FETs with different junction gradients
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jun-Sik Yoon
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Random dopant fluctuation effects of gate-all-around Si nanowire field-effect transistors (FETs are investigated in terms of different diameters and junction gradients. The nanowire FETs with smaller diameters or shorter junction gradients increase relative variations of the drain currents and the mismatch of the drain currents between source-drain and drain-source bias change in the saturation regime. Smaller diameters decreased current drivability critically compared to standard deviations of the drain currents, thus inducing greater relative variations of the drain currents. Shorter junction gradients form high potential barriers in the source-side lightly-doped extension regions at on-state, which determines the magnitude of the drain currents and fluctuates the drain currents greatly under thermionic-emission mechanism. On the other hand, longer junction gradients affect lateral field to fluctuate the drain currents greatly. These physical phenomena coincide with correlations of the variations between drain currents and electrical parameters such as threshold voltages and parasitic resistances. The nanowire FETs with relatively-larger diameters and longer junction gradients without degrading short channel characteristics are suggested to minimize the relative variations and the mismatch of the drain currents.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mehralian, Fahimeh [Mechanical Engineering Department, Shahrekord University, Shahrekord (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Tadi Beni, Yaghoub, E-mail: tadi@eng.sku.ac.ir [Faculty of Engineering, Shahrekord University, Shahrekord (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Karimi Zeverdejani, Mehran [Mechanical Engineering Department, Shahrekord University, Shahrekord (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2017-06-01
Featured by two small length scale parameters, nonlocal strain gradient theory is utilized to investigate the free vibration of nanotubes. A new size-dependent shell model formulation is developed by using the first order shear deformation theory. The governing equations and boundary conditions are obtained using Hamilton's principle and solved for simply supported boundary condition. As main purpose of this study, since the values of two small length scale parameters are still unknown, they are calibrated by the means of molecular dynamics simulations (MDs). Then, the influences of different parameters such as nonlocal parameter, scale factor, length and thickness on vibration characteristics of nanotubes are studied. It is also shown that increase in thickness and decrease in length parameters intensify the effect of nonlocal parameter and scale factor.
On the dynamics of excited atoms in time dependent electromagnetic fields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Foerre, Morten
2004-06-01
This thesis is composed of seven scientific publications written in the period 2001-2004. The focus has been set on Rydberg atoms of hydrogen and lithium in relatively weak electromagnetic fields. Such atoms have been studied extensively during many years, both experimentally and theoretically, They are relatively easy to handle in the laboratory. Their willingness to react to conventional field sources and their long lifetimes, are two reasons for this. Much new insight into fundamental quantum mechanics has been extracted from such studies. By exciting a non-hydrogenic ground state atom or molecule into a highly excited state, many properties of atomic hydrogen are adopted. In many cases the dynamics of such systems can be accurately described by the hydrogenic theory, or alternatively by some slightly modified version like quantum defect theory. In such theories the Rydberg electron(s) of the non-hydrogenic Rydberg system is treated like it is confined in a modified Coulomb potential, which arises from the non-hydrogenic core. defined by the non-excited electrons and the nucleus. The more heavily bound core electrons are less influenced from external perturbations than the excited electrons, giving rise to the so-called frozen-core approximation. where the total effect of the core electrons is put into a modified Coulomb potential. A major part of this thesis has been allocated to the study of core effects in highly excited states of lithium. In collaboration with time experimental group of Erik Horsdal-Pedersen at Aarhus University, we have considered several hydrogenic and non-hydrogenic aspects of such states, when exposed to weak slowly varying electromagnetic fields. The dynamics was restricted to one principal shell (intrashell). Two general features were observed, either the hydrogenic theory applied or alternatively, in case of massive deviation, the dynamics was accurately described by quantum defect theory, clearly demonstrating the usefulness of such
On the dynamics of excited atoms in time dependent electromagnetic fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Foerre, Morten
2004-06-01
This thesis is composed of seven scientific publications written in the period 2001-2004. The focus has been set on Rydberg atoms of hydrogen and lithium in relatively weak electromagnetic fields. Such atoms have been studied extensively during many years, both experimentally and theoretically, They are relatively easy to handle in the laboratory. Their willingness to react to conventional field sources and their long lifetimes, are two reasons for this. Much new insight into fundamental quantum mechanics has been extracted from such studies. By exciting a non-hydrogenic ground state atom or molecule into a highly excited state, many properties of atomic hydrogen are adopted. In many cases the dynamics of such systems can be accurately described by the hydrogenic theory, or alternatively by some slightly modified version like quantum defect theory. In such theories the Rydberg electron(s) of the non-hydrogenic Rydberg system is treated like it is confined in a modified Coulomb potential, which arises from the non-hydrogenic core. defined by the non-excited electrons and the nucleus. The more heavily bound core electrons are less influenced from external perturbations than the excited electrons, giving rise to the so-called frozen-core approximation. where the total effect of the core electrons is put into a modified Coulomb potential. A major part of this thesis has been allocated to the study of core effects in highly excited states of lithium. In collaboration with time experimental group of Erik Horsdal-Pedersen at Aarhus University, we have considered several hydrogenic and non-hydrogenic aspects of such states, when exposed to weak slowly varying electromagnetic fields. The dynamics was restricted to one principal shell (intrashell). Two general features were observed, either the hydrogenic theory applied or alternatively, in case of massive deviation, the dynamics was accurately described by quantum defect theory, clearly demonstrating the usefulness of such
The Swarm Initial Field Model for the 2014 Geomagnetic Field
Olsen, Nils; Hulot, Gauthier; Lesur, Vincent; Finlay, Christopher C.; Beggan, Ciaran; Chulliat, Arnaud; Sabaka, Terence J.; Floberghagen, Rune; Friis-Christensen, Eigil; Haagmans, Roger
2015-01-01
Data from the first year of ESA's Swarm constellation mission are used to derive the Swarm Initial Field Model (SIFM), a new model of the Earth's magnetic field and its time variation. In addition to the conventional magnetic field observations provided by each of the three Swarm satellites, explicit advantage is taken of the constellation aspect by including east-west magnetic intensity gradient information from the lower satellite pair. Along-track differences in magnetic intensity provide further information concerning the north-south gradient. The SIFM static field shows excellent agreement (up to at least degree 60) with recent field models derived from CHAMP data, providing an initial validation of the quality of the Swarm magnetic measurements. Use of gradient data improves the determination of both the static field and its secular variation, with the mean misfit for east-west intensity differences between the lower satellite pair being only 0.12 nT.
Enhancement of the Accelerating Gradient in Superconducting Microwave Resonators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Checchin, Mattia [Fermilab; Grassellino, Anna [Fermilab; Martinello, Martina [IIT, Chicago; Posen, Sam [Fermilab; Romanenko, Alexander [Fermilab; Zasadzinski, John [IIT, Chicago (main)
2017-05-01
The accelerating gradient of superconducting resonators can be enhanced by engineering the thickness of a dirty layer grown at the cavity's rf surface. In this paper the description of the physics behind the accelerating gradient enhancement by meaning of the dirty layer is carried out by solving numerically the the Ginzburg-Landau (GL) equations for the layered system. The calculation shows that the presence of the dirty layer stabilizes the Meissner state up to the lower critical field of the bulk, increasing the maximum accelerating gradient.
Gradient coil system for nuclear magnetic resonance apparatus
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frese, G.; Siebold, H.
1984-01-01
A gradient coil system for an image-generating, nuclear magnetic resonance tomographic apparatus, particularly a zeugmatographic apparatus. The gradient coil system is arranged on a support body of rotational symmetry, illustratively a hollow cylindrical support body, having an axis which extends along the z-direction of an x, y, z coordinate system which has an origin in the center of imaging region. The gradient coil system contains two pairs of toroidal individual coils which are arranged symmetrically with respect to an x-y plane which extends through the center of the imaging region and which are arranged perpendicular to the z-axis. The direction of current flow in the individual coils of a coil pair is opposite to the direction of flow in the individual coils of the other coil pair. Moreover, further sets of coils are provided for generating field gradient Gx in the x-direction, and Gy in the y-direction. The hollow cylindrical shape of the support body on which the individual coils are arranged permit an imaging region having a substantially spherical volume with a substantially constant field gradient Gz to be achieved. Each of the coils has a predetermined linkage factor which corresponds to the product of the current flowing through the number of coil turns of the coil. Those coils which are arranged further from the plane of symmetry have a substantially larger linkage factor than the coils which are nearer to the plane of symmetry
Dynamics and fate of SOC in tidal marshes along a salinity gradient (Scheldt estuary, Belgium)
Van de Broek, Marijn; Temmermann, Stijn; Merckx, Roel; Wang, Zhengang; Govers, Gerard
2016-04-01
Coastal ecosystems have been attributed the potential to store large amounts of organic carbon (OC), often referred to as blue carbon, of which a considerable amount is stored in tidal marsh soils. Large uncertainties still exist with respect to the amount and controlling factors of soil organic carbon (SOC) stored in these ecosystems. Moreover, most research has focused on SOC dynamics of saltmarshes, while brackish and freshwater marshes are often even more productive and thus receive even larger organic carbon inputs. Therefore, in this study the OC dynamics of tidal marsh soils along an estuarine gradient are studied in order to contribute to our knowledge of 1) the stocks, 2) the controlling factors and 3) the fate of SOC in tidal marshes with different environmental characteristics. This research thus contributes to a better understanding of the potential of coastal environments to store organic carbon under future climatic changes. Soil and vegetation samples are collected in tidal salt-, brackish- and freshwater marshes in the Scheldt estuary (Belgium - The Netherlands). At each tidal marsh, three replicate soil cores up to 1.5m depth in 0.03m increments are collected at locations with both a low and a high elevation. These cores are analyzed for OC, stable C and N isotopes, bulk density and texture. Incubation experiments of topsoil samples were conducted and both aboveground and belowground biomass were collected. The results show that SOC stocks (range: 13,5 - 35,4 kg OC m-2), standing biomass (range: 2000 - 7930 g DW m-2) and potential soil respiration of CO2 (range: 0,03 - 0,12 % per unit OC per day) decrease with increasing salinity. This shows that both the amount of OC from local macrophytes and the quality of the organic matter are important factors controlling the SOC stocks. In addition, based on the analysis of stable C and N isotopes, it appears that when a significant fraction of SOC is derived from local macrophytes, higher SOC stocks are
Reza Barati, Mohammad
2017-10-01
Based on the generalized nonlocal strain gradient theory (NSGT), dynamic modeling and analysis of nanoporous inhomogeneous nanoplates is presented. Therefore, it is possible to capture both stiffness-softening and stiffness-hardening effects for a more accurate dynamic analysis of nanoplates. The nanoplate is in hygro-thermal environments and is subjected to an in-plane harmonic load. Porosities are incorporated to the model based on a modified rule of mixture. Modeling of the porous nanoplate is conducted according to a refined four-variable plate theory with fewer field variables than in the first-order plate theory. The governing equations and related classical and nonclassical boundary conditions are derived based on Hamilton's principle. These equations are solved for hinged nanoplates via Galerkin's method. It is shown that porosities, moisture rise, temperature rise, nonlocal parameter, strain gradient parameter, material gradation, elastic foundation and uniform dynamic load have a remarkable influence on the dynamic behavior of nanoscale plates.
From gas dynamics with large friction to gradient flows describing diffusion theories
Lattanzio, Corrado
2016-12-09
We study the emergence of gradient flows in Wasserstein distance as high friction limits of an abstract Euler flow generated by an energy functional. We develop a relative energy calculation that connects the Euler flow to the gradient flow in the diffusive limit regime. We apply this approach to prove convergence from the Euler-Poisson system with friction to the Keller-Segel system in the regime that the latter has smooth solutions. The same methodology is used to establish convergence from the Euler-Korteweg theory with monotone pressure laws to the Cahn-Hilliard equation.
From gas dynamics with large friction to gradient flows describing diffusion theories
Lattanzio, Corrado; Tzavaras, Athanasios
2016-01-01
We study the emergence of gradient flows in Wasserstein distance as high friction limits of an abstract Euler flow generated by an energy functional. We develop a relative energy calculation that connects the Euler flow to the gradient flow in the diffusive limit regime. We apply this approach to prove convergence from the Euler-Poisson system with friction to the Keller-Segel system in the regime that the latter has smooth solutions. The same methodology is used to establish convergence from the Euler-Korteweg theory with monotone pressure laws to the Cahn-Hilliard equation.
Natural image sequences constrain dynamic receptive fields and imply a sparse code.
Häusler, Chris; Susemihl, Alex; Nawrot, Martin P
2013-11-06
In their natural environment, animals experience a complex and dynamic visual scenery. Under such natural stimulus conditions, neurons in the visual cortex employ a spatially and temporally sparse code. For the input scenario of natural still images, previous work demonstrated that unsupervised feature learning combined with the constraint of sparse coding can predict physiologically measured receptive fields of simple cells in the primary visual cortex. This convincingly indicated that the mammalian visual system is adapted to the natural spatial input statistics. Here, we extend this approach to the time domain in order to predict dynamic receptive fields that can account for both spatial and temporal sparse activation in biological neurons. We rely on temporal restricted Boltzmann machines and suggest a novel temporal autoencoding training procedure. When tested on a dynamic multi-variate benchmark dataset this method outperformed existing models of this class. Learning features on a large dataset of natural movies allowed us to model spatio-temporal receptive fields for single neurons. They resemble temporally smooth transformations of previously obtained static receptive fields and are thus consistent with existing theories. A neuronal spike response model demonstrates how the dynamic receptive field facilitates temporal and population sparseness. We discuss the potential mechanisms and benefits of a spatially and temporally sparse representation of natural visual input. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Development and propagation of a pollution gradient in the marine ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The development and propagation of a pollution gradient in the marine boundary layer over the Arabian Sea during the Intensive Field Phase of the Indian Ocean Experiment (1999) is investigated. A hypothesis for the generation of the pollution gradient is presented. Infrared satellite images show the formation of the ...
Dynamical renormalization group approach to relaxation in quantum field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boyanovsky, D.; Vega, H.J. de
2003-01-01
The real time evolution and relaxation of expectation values of quantum fields and of quantum states are computed as initial value problems by implementing the dynamical renormalization group (DRG). Linear response is invoked to set up the renormalized initial value problem to study the dynamics of the expectation value of quantum fields. The perturbative solution of the equations of motion for the field expectation values of quantum fields as well as the evolution of quantum states features secular terms, namely terms that grow in time and invalidate the perturbative expansion for late times. The DRG provides a consistent framework to resum these secular terms and yields a uniform asymptotic expansion at long times. Several relevant cases are studied in detail, including those of threshold infrared divergences which appear in gauge theories at finite temperature and lead to anomalous relaxation. In these cases the DRG is shown to provide a resummation akin to Bloch-Nordsieck but directly in real time and that goes beyond the scope of Bloch-Nordsieck and Dyson resummations. The nature of the resummation program is discussed in several examples. The DRG provides a framework that is consistent, systematic, and easy to implement to study the non-equilibrium relaxational dynamics directly in real time that does not rely on the concept of quasiparticle widths
Effect of sample shape on nonlinear magnetization dynamics under an external magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vagin, Dmitry V.; Polyakov, Oleg P.
2008-01-01
Effect of sample shape on the nonlinear collective dynamics of magnetic moments in the presence of oscillating and constant external magnetic fields is studied using the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) approach. The uniformly magnetized sample is considered to be an ellipsoidal axially symmetric particle described by demagnetization factors and uniaxial crystallographic anisotropy formed some angle with an applied field direction. It is investigated as to how the change in particle shape affects its nonlinear magnetization dynamics. To produce a regular study, all results are presented in the form of bifurcation diagrams for all sufficient dynamics regimes of the considered system. In this paper, we show that the sample's (particle's) shape and its orientation with respect to the external field (system configuration) determine the character of magnetization dynamics: deterministic behavior and appearance of chaotic states. A simple change in the system's configuration or in the shapes of its parts can transfer it from chaotic to periodic or even static regime and back. Moreover, the effect of magnetization precession stall and magnetic moments alignment parallel or antiparallel to the external oscillating field is revealed and the way of control of such 'polarized' states is found. Our results suggest that varying the particle's shape and fields' geometry may provide a useful way of magnetization dynamics control in complex magnetic systems
The quest for high-gradient superconducting cavities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Padamsee, H.
1999-01-01
Superconducting RF cavities excel in applications requiring continuous waves or long pulse voltages. Since power losses in the walls of the cavity increase as the square of the accelerating voltage, copper cavities become uneconomical as demand for high continuous wave voltage grows with particle energy. For these reasons, RF superconductivity has become an important technology for high energy and high luminosity accelerators. The state of art in performance of sheet metal niobium cavities is best represented by the statistics of more than 300 5-cell, 1.5-GHz cavities built for CEBAF. Key aspects responsible for the outstanding performance of the CEBAF cavities set are the anti-multipactor, elliptical cell shape, good fabrication and welding techniques, high thermal conductivity niobium, and clean surface preparation. On average, field emission starts at the electric field of 8.7 MV/m, but there is a large spread, even though the cavities received nominally the same surface treatment and assembly procedures. In some cavities, field emission was detected as low as 3 MV/m. In others, it was found to be as high as 19 MV/m. As we will discuss, the reason for the large spread in the gradients is the large spread in emitter characteristics and the random occurrence of emitters on the surface. One important phenomenon that limits the achievable RF magnetic field is thermal breakdown of superconductivity, originating at sub-millimeter-size regions of high RF loss, called defects. Simulation reveal that if the defect is a normal conducting region of 200 mm radius, it will break down at 5 MV/m. Producing high gradients and high Q in superconducting cavities demands excellent control of material properties and surface cleanliness. The spread in gradients that arises from the random occurrence of defects and emitters must be reduced. It will be important to improve installation procedures to preserve the excellent gradients now obtained in laboratory test in vertical cryostats
Dynamical properties and extremes of Northern Hemisphere climate fields over the past 60 years
Faranda, Davide; Messori, Gabriele; Alvarez-Castro, M. Carmen; Yiou, Pascal
2017-12-01
Atmospheric dynamics are described by a set of partial differential equations yielding an infinite-dimensional phase space. However, the actual trajectories followed by the system appear to be constrained to a finite-dimensional phase space, i.e. a strange attractor. The dynamical properties of this attractor are difficult to determine due to the complex nature of atmospheric motions. A first step to simplify the problem is to focus on observables which affect - or are linked to phenomena which affect - human welfare and activities, such as sea-level pressure, 2 m temperature, and precipitation frequency. We make use of recent advances in dynamical systems theory to estimate two instantaneous dynamical properties of the above fields for the Northern Hemisphere: local dimension and persistence. We then use these metrics to characterize the seasonality of the different fields and their interplay. We further analyse the large-scale anomaly patterns corresponding to phase-space extremes - namely time steps at which the fields display extremes in their instantaneous dynamical properties. The analysis is based on the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data, over the period 1948-2013. The results show that (i) despite the high dimensionality of atmospheric dynamics, the Northern Hemisphere sea-level pressure and temperature fields can on average be described by roughly 20 degrees of freedom; (ii) the precipitation field has a higher dimensionality; and (iii) the seasonal forcing modulates the variability of the dynamical indicators and affects the occurrence of phase-space extremes. We further identify a number of robust correlations between the dynamical properties of the different variables.
Molecular dynamics in high electric fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Apostol, M.; Cune, L.C.
2016-01-01
Highlights: • New method for rotation molecular spectra in high electric fields. • Parametric resonances – new features in spectra. • New elementary excitations in polar solids from dipolar interaction (“dipolons”). • Discussion about a possible origin of the ferroelectricity from dipolar interactions. - Abstract: Molecular rotation spectra, generated by the coupling of the molecular electric-dipole moments to an external time-dependent electric field, are discussed in a few particular conditions which can be of some experimental interest. First, the spherical-pendulum molecular model is reviewed, with the aim of introducing an approximate method which consists in the separation of the azimuthal and zenithal motions. Second, rotation spectra are considered in the presence of a static electric field. Two particular cases are analyzed, corresponding to strong and weak fields. In both cases the classical motion of the dipoles consists of rotations and vibrations about equilibrium positions; this motion may exhibit parametric resonances. For strong fields a large macroscopic electric polarization may appear. This situation may be relevant for polar matter (like pyroelectrics, ferroelectrics), or for heavy impurities embedded in a polar solid. The dipolar interaction is analyzed in polar condensed matter, where it is shown that new polarization modes appear for a spontaneous macroscopic electric polarization (these modes are tentatively called “dipolons”); one of the polarization modes is related to parametric resonances. The extension of these considerations to magnetic dipoles is briefly discussed. The treatment is extended to strong electric fields which oscillate with a high frequency, as those provided by high-power lasers. It is shown that the effect of such fields on molecular dynamics is governed by a much weaker, effective, renormalized, static electric field.