A dynamic stall model for airfoils with deformable trailing edges
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Peter Bjørn; Gaunaa, Mac; Bak, Dan Christian
2007-01-01
on an airfoil section undergoing arbitrary motion in heave, lead-lag, pitch, Trailing Edge (TE) flapping. In the linear region, the model reduces to the inviscid model of Gaunaa [4], which includes the aerodynamic effect of a thin airfoil with a deformable camberline in inviscid flow. Therefore, the proposed......The present work contains an extension of the Beddoes-Leishman (B-L) type dynamic stall model, as described by Hansen et al. [7]. In this work a Deformable Trailing Edge Geometry (DTEG) has been added to the dynamic stall model. The model predicts the unsteady aerodynamic forces and moments...
A dynamic stall model for airfoils with deformable trailing edges
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Peter Bjørn; Gaunaa, Mac; Bak, Christian
2009-01-01
, lead-lag, pitch, trailing-edge flapping. In the linear region, the model reduces to the inviscid model, which includes the aerodynamic effect of a thin airfoil with a deformable camberline in inviscid flow. Therefore, the proposed model can be considered a crossover between the work of Gaunaa......The present work contains an extension of the Beddoes-Leishman-type dynamic stall model. In this work, a deformable trailing-edge flap has been added to the dynamic stall model. The model predicts the unsteady aerodynamic forces and moments on an airfoil section undergoing arbitrary motion in heave...... for the attached flow region and Hansen et al. The model is compared qualitatively to wind tunnel measurements of a Riso/ B1-18 blade section equipped with deformable trailing-edge flap devices in the form of piezoelectric devices. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....
Modeling shockwave deformation via molecular dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Holian, B.L.
1987-01-01
Molecular dynamics (MD), where the equations of motion of up to thousands of interacting atoms are solved on the computer, has proven to be a powerful tool for investigating a wide variety of nonequilibrium processes from the atomistic viewpoint. Simulations of shock waves in three-dimensional (3D) solids and fluids have shown conclusively that shear-stress relaxation is achieved through atomic rearrangement. In the case of fluids, the transverse motion is viscous, and the constitutive model of Navier-Stokes hydrodynamics has been shown to be accurate - even on the time and distance scales of MD experiments. For strong shocks in solids, the plastic flow that leads to shear-stress relaxation in MD is highly localized near the shock front, involving a slippage along close-packed planes. For shocks of intermediate strength, MD calculations exhibit an elastic precursor running out in front of the steady plastic wave, where slippage similar in character to that in the very strong shocks leads to shear-stress relaxation. An interesting correlation between the maximum shear stress and the Hugoniot pressure jump is observed for both 3D and fluid shockwave calculations, which may have some utility in modeling applications. At low shock strengths, the MD simulations show only elastic compression, with no permanent transverse atomic strains. The result for perfect 3D crystals is also seen in calculations for 1D chains. It is speculated that, if it were practical, a very large MD system containing dislocations could be expected to exhibit more realistic plastic flow for weak shock waves, too
Dynamic skin deformation simulation using musculoskeletal model and soft tissue dynamics
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Akihiko Murai; Q. Youn Hong; Katsu Yamane; Jessica K. Hodgins
2017-01-01
Deformation of skin and muscle is essential for bringing an animated character to life. This deformation is difficult to animate in a realistic fashion using traditional techniques because of the subtlety of the skin deformations that must move appropriately for the character design. In this paper, we present an algorithm that generates natural, dynamic, and detailed skin deformation (movement and jiggle) from joint angle data sequences. The algorithm has two steps: identification of parameters for a quasi-static muscle deformation model, and simulation of skin deformation. In the identification step, we identify the model parameters using a musculoskeletal model and a short sequence of skin deformation data captured via a dense marker set. The simulation step first uses the quasi-static muscle deformation model to obtain the quasi-static muscle shape at each frame of the given motion sequence (slow jump). Dynamic skin deformation is then computed by simulating the passive muscle and soft tissue dynamics modeled as a mass–spring–damper system. Having obtained the model parameters, we can simulate dynamic skin deformations for subjects with similar body types from new motion data. We demonstrate our method by creating skin deformations for muscle co-contraction and external impacts from four different behaviors captured as skeletal motion capture data. Experimental results show that the simulated skin deformations are quantitatively and qualitatively similar to measured actual skin deformations.
Dynamic skin deformation simulation using musculoskeletal model and soft tissue dynamics
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Akihiko Murai; Q.Youn Hong; Katsu Yamane; Jessica K.Hodgins
2017-01-01
Deformation of skin and muscle is essential for bringing an animated character to life. This deformation is difficult to animate in a realistic fashion using traditional techniques because of the subtlety of the skin deformations that must move appropriately for the character design. In this paper, we present an algorithm that generates natural, dynamic, and detailed skin deformation(movement and jiggle) from joint angle data sequences. The algorithm has two steps: identification of parameters for a quasi-static muscle deformation model, and simulation of skin deformation. In the identification step, we identify the model parameters using a musculoskeletal model and a short sequence of skin deformation data captured via a dense marker set. The simulation step first uses the quasi-static muscle deformation model to obtain the quasi-static muscle shape at each frame of the given motion sequence(slow jump). Dynamic skin deformation is then computed by simulating the passive muscle and soft tissue dynamics modeled as a mass–spring–damper system. Having obtained the model parameters, we can simulate dynamic skin deformations for subjects with similar body types from new motion data. We demonstrate our method by creating skin deformations for muscle co-contraction and external impacts from four different behaviors captured as skeletal motion capture data. Experimental results show that the simulated skin deformations are quantitatively and qualitatively similar to measured actual skin deformations.
A Dynamic Stall Model for Airfoils with Deformable Trailing Edges
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andersen, Peter Bjoern; Gaunaa, Mac; Bak, Christian; Hansen, Morten Hartvig
2007-01-01
The present work contains an extension of the Beddoes-Leishman (B-L) type dynamic stall model, as described by Hansen et al. In this work a Deformable Trailing Edge Geometry (DTEG) has been added to the dynamic stall model. The model predicts the unsteady aerodynamic forces and moments on an airfoil section undergoing arbitrary motion in heave, lead-lag, pitch, Trailing Edge (TE) flapping. In the linear region, the model reduces to the inviscid model of Gaunaa, which includes the aerodynamic effect of a thin airfoil with a deformable camberline in inviscid flow. Therefore, the proposed model can be considered a crossover between the work of Gaunaa for the attached flow region and Hansen et al. The model will be compared to wind tunnel measurements from Velux described by Bak et al
DISCRETE DEFORMATION WAVE DYNAMICS IN SHEAR ZONES: PHYSICAL MODELLING RESULTS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. A. Bornyakov
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Observations of earthquake migration along active fault zones [Richter, 1958; Mogi, 1968] and related theoretical concepts [Elsasser, 1969] have laid the foundation for studying the problem of slow deformation waves in the lithosphere. Despite the fact that this problem has been under study for several decades and discussed in numerous publications, convincing evidence for the existence of deformation waves is still lacking. One of the causes is that comprehensive field studies to register such waves by special tools and equipment, which require sufficient organizational and technical resources, have not been conducted yet.The authors attempted at finding a solution to this problem by physical simulation of a major shear zone in an elastic-viscous-plastic model of the lithosphere. The experiment setup is shown in Figure 1 (A. The model material and boundary conditions were specified in accordance with the similarity criteria (described in detail in [Sherman, 1984; Sherman et al., 1991; Bornyakov et al., 2014]. The montmorillonite clay-and-water paste was placed evenly on two stamps of the installation and subject to deformation as the active stamp (1 moved relative to the passive stamp (2 at a constant speed. The upper model surface was covered with fine sand in order to get high-contrast photos. Photos of an emerging shear zone were taken every second by a Basler acA2000-50gm digital camera. Figure 1 (B shows an optical image of a fragment of the shear zone. The photos were processed by the digital image correlation method described in [Sutton et al., 2009]. This method estimates the distribution of components of displacement vectors and strain tensors on the model surface and their evolution over time [Panteleev et al., 2014, 2015].Strain fields and displacements recorded in the optical images of the model surface were estimated in a rectangular box (220.00×72.17 mm shown by a dot-and-dash line in Fig. 1, A. To ensure a sufficient level of
Soft tissue deformation modelling through neural dynamics-based reaction-diffusion mechanics.
Zhang, Jinao; Zhong, Yongmin; Gu, Chengfan
2018-05-30
Soft tissue deformation modelling forms the basis of development of surgical simulation, surgical planning and robotic-assisted minimally invasive surgery. This paper presents a new methodology for modelling of soft tissue deformation based on reaction-diffusion mechanics via neural dynamics. The potential energy stored in soft tissues due to a mechanical load to deform tissues away from their rest state is treated as the equivalent transmembrane potential energy, and it is distributed in the tissue masses in the manner of reaction-diffusion propagation of nonlinear electrical waves. The reaction-diffusion propagation of mechanical potential energy and nonrigid mechanics of motion are combined to model soft tissue deformation and its dynamics, both of which are further formulated as the dynamics of cellular neural networks to achieve real-time computational performance. The proposed methodology is implemented with a haptic device for interactive soft tissue deformation with force feedback. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed methodology exhibits nonlinear force-displacement relationship for nonlinear soft tissue deformation. Homogeneous, anisotropic and heterogeneous soft tissue material properties can be modelled through the inherent physical properties of mass points. Graphical abstract Soft tissue deformation modelling with haptic feedback via neural dynamics-based reaction-diffusion mechanics.
ChainMail based neural dynamics modeling of soft tissue deformation for surgical simulation.
Zhang, Jinao; Zhong, Yongmin; Smith, Julian; Gu, Chengfan
2017-07-20
Realistic and real-time modeling and simulation of soft tissue deformation is a fundamental research issue in the field of surgical simulation. In this paper, a novel cellular neural network approach is presented for modeling and simulation of soft tissue deformation by combining neural dynamics of cellular neural network with ChainMail mechanism. The proposed method formulates the problem of elastic deformation into cellular neural network activities to avoid the complex computation of elasticity. The local position adjustments of ChainMail are incorporated into the cellular neural network as the local connectivity of cells, through which the dynamic behaviors of soft tissue deformation are transformed into the neural dynamics of cellular neural network. Experiments demonstrate that the proposed neural network approach is capable of modeling the soft tissues' nonlinear deformation and typical mechanical behaviors. The proposed method not only improves ChainMail's linear deformation with the nonlinear characteristics of neural dynamics but also enables the cellular neural network to follow the principle of continuum mechanics to simulate soft tissue deformation.
Dynamics modeling for a rigid-flexible coupling system with nonlinear deformation field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Deng Fengyan; He Xingsuo; Li Liang; Zhang Juan
2007-01-01
In this paper, a moving flexible beam, which incorporates the effect of the geometrically nonlinear kinematics of deformation, is investigated. Considering the second-order coupling terms of deformation in the longitudinal and transverse deflections, the exact nonlinear strain-displacement relations for a beam element are described. The shear strains formulated by the present modeling method in this paper are zero, so it is reasonable to use geometrically nonlinear deformation fields to demonstrate and simplify a flexible beam undergoing large overall motions. Then, considering the coupling terms of deformation in two dimensions, finite element shape functions of a beam element and Lagrange's equations are employed for deriving the coupling dynamical formulations. The complete expression of the stiffness matrix and all coupling terms are included in the formulations. A model consisting of a rotating planar flexible beam is presented. Then the frequency and dynamical response are studied, and the differences among the zero-order model, first-order coupling model and the new present model are discussed. Numerical examples demonstrate that a 'stiffening beam' can be obtained, when more coupling terms of deformation are added to the longitudinal and transverse deformation field. It is shown that the traditional zero-order and first-order coupling models may not provide an exact dynamic model in some cases
A grain-boundary diffusion model of dynamic grain growth during superplastic deformation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Byung-Nam; Hiraga, Keijiro; Sakka, Yoshio; Ahn, Byung-Wook
1999-01-01
Dynamic grain growth during superplastic deformation is modelled on the basis of a grain-boundary diffusion mechanism. On the grain boundary where a static and a dynamic potential difference coexist, matter transport along the boundary is assumed to contribute to dynamic grain growth through depositing the matter on the grain surface located opposite to the direction of grain-boundary migration. The amount of the diffusive matter during deformation is calculated for an aggregate of spherical grains and is converted to the increment of mean boundary migration velocity. The obtained relationship between the strain rate and the dynamic grain growth rate is shown to be independent of deformation mechanisms, provided that the grain growth is controlled by grain-boundary diffusion. The strain dependence, strain-rate dependence and temperature dependence of grain growth predicted from this model are consistent with those observed in superplastic ZrO 2 -dispersed Al 2 O 3
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Guoxing Li
2017-12-01
Full Text Available The friction pair of piston rings and cylinder liner is one of the most important friction couplings in an internal combustion engine. It influences engine efficiency and service life. Under the excitation of piston slaps, the dynamic deformation of cylinder liner is close to the surface roughness magnitudes, which can affect the friction and lubrication performance between the piston rings and cylinder assemblies. To investigate the potential influences of structural deformations to tribological behaviours of cylinder assemblies, the dynamic deformation of the inner surface due to pistons slaps is obtained by dynamic simulations, and then coupled into an improved lubrication model. Different from the traditional lubrication model which takes the pressure stress factor and shear stress factor to be constant, the model proposed in this paper calculated these factors in real time using numerical integration to achieve a more realistic simulation. Based on the improved piston rings and cylinder liner lubrication model, the minimum oil film thickness and friction force curves are obtained for an entire work cycle. It shows that the friction force obtained from the improved model manifests clear oscillations in each stoke, which is different from the smoothed profiles predicted traditionally. Moreover, the average amplitude of the friction forces also shows clear reduction.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kumar, K.
1980-01-01
The dynamic deformation model has been improved and applied to calculate the potential energies of deformation and the collective spectra of 16 O, 72 Se, and 240 Pu. A comprehensive view based on the dynamics of five-dimensional quadrupole motion is provided for three seemingly different types of shape coexistence: spherical (Op - Oh) and deformed (2p - 2h) shapes in 16 O, spherical and deformed minima in the potential energy surface of 72 Se, ground-state shape and the fission-isomer shape of 240 Pu. 5 figures, 3 tables
Dynamics of Coarse-grained Model of Filled Rubber Composite under Deformation
Hagita, Katsumi; Ueno, Shinichi; Bito, Yasumasa; Takano, Hiroshi; Doi, Masao; Morita, Hiroshi
2010-03-01
We presented a result of coarse-grained Molecular Dynamics simulation of filled polymer melts with Sulfur-crosslink under deformation based on the Kremer-Grest Model. Because all polymer chains are connected to one network gel, the size of simulation box under periodic boundary conditions (PBC) is set to about 33nm. We put 4 fillers, 80 polymer chains of 1024 particles, and many crosslink into the PBC box. One filler consists of 1280 particles of the C1280 fullerene structure. A repulsive force from the center of the filler is applied to the particles of C1280 in order to make a sphere whose diameter is about 15nm. Some patterns of distribution of the fillers are examined. The stress-strain curves estimated by applying a deformation to the system in simulations qualitatively agree with those in experiments. It is successful to show hysteresis on the S-S curve between elongation / release of the filled rubber.
On the modelling of the dynamics of elastically deformable floating structures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Seng, Sopheak; Malenica, Sime; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher
2015-01-01
In this paper we are reexamining the dynamic equations of an elastically deformable floating structure to identify and evaluate the contribution from the inertia cross coupling terms which commonly have been neglected due to the assumption of small structural deformation. Numerical experiments...... on two vessels, a flexible barge, and a full scale ultra large container vessel, are designed for revealing the magnitude of errors introduced into the numerical solutions when these inertia cross coupling terms have been ignored. The results shows that in realistic conditions with strong structural...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kumar, K.
1979-01-01
It has been shown that the gross features of the collective spectra of even-even nuclei ranging from 12 C to 240 Pu are reproduced by the dynamic deformation model without any fitting parameters. We apply another test to be same model in the present study. Can this single model explain three seemingly different types of shape co-existence proposed previously: spherical op-oh and deformed 2p-2h shapes in 16 O, spherical and prolate-deformed minima in the potential energy surface of 72 Se, ground state shape and fission isomer shape of 240 Pu. Of these three nuclei, only the nucleus 72 Se is off the line of beta-stability. The calculated potential energy surfaces and collective spectra of 16 O, 72 Se, and 240 Pu are discussed and compared with experiments. The three different kinds of shape coexistence proposed previously for 16 O, 72 Se, and 240 Pu are all reproduced by the present version of the dynamic deformation model within the same model and without any fitting parameters. We conclude that the combination of the dynamics of the nine-dimensional quadrupole and pairing motions with a large space microscopic calculation provides a rather powerful tool for studying practically all even-even nuclei
Nonlinear Deformable-body Dynamics
Luo, Albert C J
2010-01-01
"Nonlinear Deformable-body Dynamics" mainly consists in a mathematical treatise of approximate theories for thin deformable bodies, including cables, beams, rods, webs, membranes, plates, and shells. The intent of the book is to stimulate more research in the area of nonlinear deformable-body dynamics not only because of the unsolved theoretical puzzles it presents but also because of its wide spectrum of applications. For instance, the theories for soft webs and rod-reinforced soft structures can be applied to biomechanics for DNA and living tissues, and the nonlinear theory of deformable bodies, based on the Kirchhoff assumptions, is a special case discussed. This book can serve as a reference work for researchers and a textbook for senior and postgraduate students in physics, mathematics, engineering and biophysics. Dr. Albert C.J. Luo is a Professor of Mechanical Engineering at Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL, USA. Professor Luo is an internationally recognized scientist in the field of non...
Calculation model of non-linear dynamic deformation of composite multiphase rods
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mishchenko Andrey Viktorovich
2014-05-01
Full Text Available The method of formulating non-linear physical equations for multiphase rods is suggested in the article. Composite multiphase rods possess various structures, include shear, polar, radial and axial inhomogeneity. The Timoshenko’s hypothesis with the large rotation angles is used. The method is based on the approximation of longitudinal normal stress low by basic functions expansions regarding the linear viscosity low. The shear stresses are calculated with the equilibrium equation using the subsidiary function of the longitudinal shift force. The system of differential equations connecting the internal forces and temperature with abstract deformations are offered by the basic functions. The application of power functions with arbitrary index allows presenting the compact form equations. The functional coefficients in this system are the highest order rigidity characteristics. The whole multiphase cross-section rigidity characteristics are offered the sums of the rigidity characteristics of the same phases individually. The obtained system allows formulating the well-known particular cases. Among them: hard plasticity and linear elastic deformation, different module deformation and quadratic Gerstner’s low elastic deformation. The reform of differential equations system to the quasilinear is suggested. This system contains the secant variable rigidity characteristics depending on abstract deformations. This system includes the sum of the same uniform blocks of different order. The rods phases defined the various set of uniform blocks phase materials. The integration of dynamic, kinematic and physical equations taking into account initial and edge condition defines the full dynamical multiphase rods problem. The quasilinear physical equations allow getting the variable flexibility matrix of multiphase rod and rods system.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
T. Dembiczak
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Based on the research results, coefficients were determined in constitutive equations, describing the kinetics of dynamic recrystallization in high-carbon bainitic steel during hot deformation. The developed mathematical model takes into account the dependence of changing kinetics in the size evolution of the initial austenite grains, the value of strain, strain rate, temperature and time. Physical simulations were carried out on rectangular specimens measuring 10 × 15 × 20 mm. Compression tests with a plane state of deformation were carried out using a Gleeble 3800.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shen, Bo; Deng, Lei; Wang, Xinyun, E-mail: wangxy_hust@163.com
2015-02-11
The high-temperature deformation behaviour and microstructure evolution of an extruded Al-Cu-Li alloy were investigated by compression tests conducted at various temperatures (613, 673 and 733 K) with various strain rates (0.001, 0.01, and 0.1 s{sup -1}). The results indicated that the deformation activation energy increased from 208.7 kJ/mol to 255.7 kJ/mol with an increase in strain from 0.1 to 0.7. The electron backscatter diffraction maps indicated that a dynamic recrystallisation occurred during the high-temperature deformation. Two types of recrystallisation mechanisms, grain boundary bulging and a grain boundary transformation from low misorientation to high misorientation, were considered as the mechanisms for controlling the formation of the recrystallised grains. A new dynamic recrystallisation model containing these two mechanisms was proposed to describe the microstructure evolution of the extruded Al-Cu-Li alloy. At the early stage of the deformation, the recrystallised grains were formed by grain boundary bulging along the original grain boundaries. With increasing strain, recrystallised grains were gradually generated in the deformed grains due to the transformation from low angle boundaries to high angle boundaries.
Radwan, Ahmed F.; Sobhy, Mohammed
2018-06-01
This work presents a nonlocal strain gradient theory for the dynamic deformation response of a single-layered graphene sheet (SLGS) on a viscoelastic foundation and subjected to a time harmonic thermal load for various boundary conditions. Material of graphene sheets is presumed to be orthotropic and viscoelastic. The viscoelastic foundation is modeled as Kelvin-Voigt's pattern. Based on the two-unknown plate theory, the motion equations are obtained from the dynamic version of the virtual work principle. The nonlocal strain gradient theory is established from Eringen nonlocal and strain gradient theories, therefore, it contains two material scale parameters, which are nonlocal parameter and gradient coefficient. These scale parameters have two different effects on the graphene sheets. The obtained deflection is compared with that predicted in the literature. Additional numerical examples are introduced to illustrate the influences of the two length scale coefficients and other parameters on the dynamic deformation of the viscoelastic graphene sheets.
The Spherical Deformation Model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hobolth, Asgar
2003-01-01
Miller et al. (1994) describe a model for representing spatial objects with no obvious landmarks. Each object is represented by a global translation and a normal deformation of a sphere. The normal deformation is defined via the orthonormal spherical-harmonic basis. In this paper we analyse the s...
Numerical simulation of deformation of dynamic mesh in the human vocal tract model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Řidký Václav
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Numerical simulation of the acoustic signal generation in the human vocal tract is a very complex problem. The computational mesh is not static; it is deformed due to vibration of vocal folds. Movement of vocal folds is in this case prescribed as function of translation and rotation. A new boundary condition for the 2DOF motion of the vocal folds was implemented in OpenFOAM, an open-source software package based on finite volume method Work is focused on the dynamic mesh and deformation of structured meshes in the computation a package OpenFOAM. These methods are compared with focus onquality of the mesh (non-orthogonality, aspect ratio and skewness.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martin, M.; Shen, T.; Thadhani, N.N.
2008-01-01
Instrumented anvil-on-rod impact experiments were performed to access the applicability of this approach for validating a constitutive strength model for dynamic, transient-state deformation and elastic-plastic wave interactions in vanadium, 21-6-9 stainless steel, titanium, and Ti-6Al-4V. In addition to soft-catching the impacted rod-shaped samples, their transient deformation states were captured by high-speed imaging, and velocity interferometry was used to record the sample back (free) surface velocity and monitor elastic-plastic wave interactions. Simulations utilizing AUTODYN-2D hydrocode with Steinberg-Guinan constitutive equation were used to generate simulated free surface velocity traces and final/transient deformation profiles for comparisons with experiments. The simulations were observed to under-predict the radial strain for bcc vanadium and fcc steel, but over-predict the radial strain for hcp titanium and Ti-6Al-4V. The correlations illustrate the applicability of the instrumented anvil-on-rod impact test as a method for providing robust model validation based on the entire deformation event, and not just the final deformed state
Diffeomorphic Statistical Deformation Models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Michael Sass; Hansen, Mads/Fogtman; Larsen, Rasmus
2007-01-01
In this paper we present a new method for constructing diffeomorphic statistical deformation models in arbitrary dimensional images with a nonlinear generative model and a linear parameter space. Our deformation model is a modified version of the diffeomorphic model introduced by Cootes et al....... The modifications ensure that no boundary restriction has to be enforced on the parameter space to prevent folds or tears in the deformation field. For straightforward statistical analysis, principal component analysis and sparse methods, we assume that the parameters for a class of deformations lie on a linear...... with ground truth in form of manual expert annotations, and compared to Cootes's model. We anticipate applications in unconstrained diffeomorphic synthesis of images, e.g. for tracking, segmentation, registration or classification purposes....
Bouwhuis, W.
2015-01-01
Liquid drops play a dominant role in numerous industrial applications, such as spray coating, spray painting, inkjet printing, lithography processes, and spraying/sprinkling in agriculture or gardening. In all of these examples, the generation, flight, impact, and spreading of drops are separate stages of the corresponding industrial processes, which are all thoroughly studied for many years. This thesis focuses on drop dynamics, impact phenomena, Leidenfrost drops, and pouring flows. Based o...
Dislocation Dynamics During Plastic Deformation
Messerschmidt, Ulrich
2010-01-01
The book gives an overview of the dynamic behavior of dislocations and its relation to plastic deformation. It introduces the general properties of dislocations and treats the dislocation dynamics in some detail. Finally, examples are described of the processes in different classes of materials, i.e. semiconductors, ceramics, metals, intermetallic materials, and quasicrystals. The processes are illustrated by many electron micrographs of dislocations under stress and by video clips taken during in situ straining experiments in a high-voltage electron microscope showing moving dislocations. Thus, the users of the book also obtain an immediate impression and understanding of dislocation dynamics.
The Spherical Deformation Model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hobolth, Asgar
2003-01-01
Miller et al. (1994) describe a model for representing spatial objects with no obvious landmarks. Each object is represented by a global translation and a normal deformation of a sphere. The normal deformation is defined via the orthonormal spherical-harmonic basis. In this paper we analyse the s...... a single central section of the object. We use maximum-likelihood-based inference for this purpose and demonstrate the suggested methods on real data....
Smith, R. C.; Collins, G. S.; Hill, J.; Piggott, M. D.; Mouradian, S. L.
2015-12-01
Numerical modelling informs risk assessment of tsunami generated by submarine slides; however, for large-scale slides modelling can be complex and computationally challenging. Many previous numerical studies have approximated slides as rigid blocks that moved according to prescribed motion. However, wave characteristics are strongly dependent on the motion of the slide and previous work has recommended that more accurate representation of slide dynamics is needed. We have used the finite-element, adaptive-mesh CFD model Fluidity, to perform multi-material simulations of deformable submarine slide-generated waves at real world scales for a 2D scenario in the Gulf of Mexico. Our high-resolution approach represents slide dynamics with good accuracy, compared to other numerical simulations of this scenario, but precludes tracking of wave propagation over large distances. To enable efficient modelling of further propagation of the waves, we investigate an approach to extract information about the slide evolution from our multi-material simulations in order to drive a single-layer wave propagation model, also using Fluidity, which is much less computationally expensive. The extracted submarine slide geometry and position as a function of time are parameterised using simple polynomial functions. The polynomial functions are used to inform a prescribed velocity boundary condition in a single-layer simulation, mimicking the effect the submarine slide motion has on the water column. The approach is verified by successful comparison of wave generation in the single-layer model with that recorded in the multi-material, multi-layer simulations. We then extend this approach to 3D for further validation of this methodology (using the Gulf of Mexico scenario proposed by Horrillo et al., 2013) and to consider the effect of lateral spreading. This methodology is then used to simulate a series of hypothetical submarine slide events in the Arctic Ocean (based on evidence of historic
Dynamics of viscoplastic deformation in amorphous solids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Falk, M.L.; Langer, J.S.
1998-01-01
We propose a dynamical theory of low-temperature shear deformation in amorphous solids. Our analysis is based on molecular-dynamics simulations of a two-dimensional, two-component noncrystalline system. These numerical simulations reveal behavior typical of metallic glasses and other viscoplastic materials, specifically, reversible elastic deformation at small applied stresses, irreversible plastic deformation at larger stresses, a stress threshold above which unbounded plastic flow occurs, and a strong dependence of the state of the system on the history of past deformations. Microscopic observations suggest that a dynamically complete description of the macroscopic state of this deforming body requires specifying, in addition to stress and strain, certain average features of a population of two-state shear transformation zones. Our introduction of these state variables into the constitutive equations for this system is an extension of earlier models of creep in metallic glasses. In the treatment presented here, we specialize to temperatures far below the glass transition and postulate that irreversible motions are governed by local entropic fluctuations in the volumes of the transformation zones. In most respects, our theory is in good quantitative agreement with the rich variety of phenomena seen in the simulations. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society
Korsunsky, Alexander M; Hofmann, Felix; Song, Xu; Eve, Sophie; Collins, Steve P
2010-09-01
Materials characterization at the nano-scale is motivated by the desire to resolve the structural aspects and deformation behavior at length scales relevant to those mechanisms that define the novel and unusual properties of nano-structured materials. A range of novel techniques has recently become accessible with the help of synchrotron X-ray beams that can be focused down to spot sizes of less than a few microns on the sample. The unique combination of tunability (energy selection), parallelism and brightness of synchrotron X-ray beams allows their use for high resolution diffraction (determination of crystal structure and transformations, analysis of dislocation sub-structures, orientation and texture analysis, strain mapping); small angle X-ray scattering (analysis of nano-scale voids and defects; orientation analysis) and imaging (radiography and tomography). After a brief review of the state-of-the-art capabilities for monochromatic and white beam synchrotron diffraction, we consider the usefulness of these techniques for the task of bridging the gap between experiment and modeling. Namely, we discuss how the experiments can be configured to provide information relevant to the validation and improvement of modeling approaches, and also how the results of various simulations can be post-processed to improve the possibility of (more or less) direct comparison with experiments. Using the example of some recent experiments carried out on beamline 116 at Diamond Light Source near Oxford, we discuss how such experimental results can be interpreted in view and in conjunction with numerical deformation models, particularly those incorporating dislocation effects, e.g., finite-element based pseudo-continuum strain gradient formulations, and discrete dislocation simulations. Post-processing of FE and discrete dislocation simulations is described, illustrating the kind of information that can be extracted from comparisons between modeling and experimental data.
Mechanisms of dynamic deformation and dynamic failure in aluminum nitride
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hu Guangli; Chen, C.Q.; Ramesh, K.T.; McCauley, J.W.
2012-01-01
Uniaxial quasi-static, uniaxial dynamic and confined dynamic compression experiments have been performed to characterize the failure and deformation mechanisms of a sintered polycrystalline aluminum nitride using a servohydraulic machine and a modified Kolsky bar. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) are used to identify the fracture and deformation mechanisms under high rate and high pressure loading conditions. These results show that the fracture mechanisms are strong functions of confining stress and strain rate, with transgranular fracture becoming more common at high strain rates. Dynamic fracture mechanics and micromechanical models are used to analyze the observed fracture mechanisms. TEM characterization of fragments from the confined dynamic experiments shows that at higher pressures dislocation motion becomes a common dominant deformation mechanism in AlN. Prismatic slip is dominant, and pronounced microcrack–dislocation interactions are observed, suggesting that the dislocation plasticity affects the macroscopic fracture behavior in this material under high confining stresses.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ren, Mingmin; Dressel, Bernd
2009-01-01
The ability of the RCCA (Rod Control Cluster Assemblies) in a pressurized water reactor (PWR) to be fully inserted into the core and to reach the dashpot within a required time limit is one of the important safety requirements for quick shutdown. This kind of quick shutdown in a PWR is initiated by allowing the control rod with the drive rod together to fall into the core by gravity. During normal operation, the RCCA drop time is mainly influenced by the weight of control assembly, hydraulic resistance in the CRDM (Control Rod Drive Mechanism), control rod guide assembly and guide thimbles and by the mechanical friction forces between the RCCA and its surroundings. In the case of an accident, e.g. earthquake, an additional influence of horizontal vibrations of the RCCA and its surroundings has to be considered [1]. A coupled hydraulic and structure-dynamic model is presented in this paper for prediction of RCCA drop time down to dashpot under hypothetical fuel assembly (FA) deformations. This coupled model was verified by RCCA static and dynamic drop tests with a deformed FA and by RCCA drop tests under operational conditions. (orig.)
Dynamic deformation of soft soil media: Experimental studies and mathematical modeling
Balandin, V. V.; Bragov, A. M.; Igumnov, L. A.; Konstantinov, A. Yu.; Kotov, V. L.; Lomunov, A. K.
2015-05-01
A complex experimental-theoretical approach to studying the problem of high-rate strain of soft soil media is presented. This approach combines the following contemporary methods of dynamical tests: the modified Hopkinson-Kolsky method applied tomedium specimens contained in holders and the method of plane wave shock experiments. The following dynamic characteristics of sand soils are obtained: shock adiabatic curves, bulk compressibility curves, and shear resistance curves. The obtained experimental data are used to study the high-rate strain process in the system of a split pressure bar, and the constitutive relations of Grigoryan's mathematical model of soft soil medium are verified by comparing the results of computational and natural test experiments of impact and penetration.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ezaoui, A.
2008-06-01
In the first part, based on various works realized in situ, the author discusses the importance of a fine characterization of soils within the field of small and medium deformations. He also presents the rheological background on which the modelling will be based. Then, he presents the experimental device, a tri-axial apparatus, 'StaDy', which allows high precision measurements, possesses force sensors comprising a piezoelectric device to generate compression and shear waves. He also presents the different static and dynamic prompting systems. He reports the experimental campaign performed on a Hostun S28 sand, and the analysis of its results. He describes the procedure of determination of the elastic tensor, and analyses and discusses the evolutions of this tensor in terms of the stress-strain status. Viscous phenomena creep and relaxation stages, and plastic behaviours are quantified and discussed with respect to the loading status, the initial granular arrangement, and the efforts applied to the material. The small deformation modelling is then presented and predictions are compared with experimental results obtained in the literature about a bus station. A general analog formulation is introduced, which associates three components (elastic, plastic and viscous). Models are calibrated with triaxial test results, and simulations of viscous and plastic phenomena allow the proposed approaches to be validated
Red blood cell dynamics: from cell deformation to ATP release.
Wan, Jiandi; Forsyth, Alison M; Stone, Howard A
2011-10-01
The mechanisms of red blood cell (RBC) deformation under both static and dynamic, i.e., flow, conditions have been studied extensively since the mid 1960s. Deformation-induced biochemical reactions and possible signaling in RBCs, however, were proposed only fifteen years ago. Therefore, the fundamental relationship between RBC deformation and cellular signaling dynamics i.e., mechanotransduction, remains incompletely understood. Quantitative understanding of the mechanotransductive pathways in RBCs requires integrative studies of physical models of RBC deformation and cellular biochemical reactions. In this article we review the physical models of RBC deformation, spanning from continuum membrane mechanics to cellular skeleton dynamics under both static and flow conditions, and elaborate the mechanistic links involved in deformation-induced ATP release. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011
Huang, Da; Song, Yixiang; Cen, Duofeng; Fu, Guoyang
2016-12-01
Discontinuous deformation analysis (DDA) as an efficient technique has been extensively applied in the dynamic simulation of discontinuous rock mass. In the original DDA (ODDA), the Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion is employed as the judgment principle of failure between contact blocks, and the friction coefficient is assumed to be constant in the whole calculation process. However, it has been confirmed by a host of shear tests that the dynamic friction of rock joints degrades. Therefore, the friction coefficient should be gradually reduced during the numerical simulation of an earthquake-induced rockslide. In this paper, based on the experimental results of cyclic shear tests on limestone joints, exponential regression formulas are fitted for dynamic friction degradation, which is a function of the relative velocity, the amplitude of cyclic shear displacement and the number of its cycles between blocks with an edge-to-edge contact. Then, an improved DDA (IDDA) is developed by implementing the fitting regression formulas and a modified removing technique of joint cohesion, in which the cohesion is removed once the `sliding' or `open' state between blocks appears for the first time, into the ODDA. The IDDA is first validated by comparing with the theoretical solutions of the kinematic behaviors of a sliding block on an inclined plane under dynamic loading. Then, the program is applied to model the Donghekou landslide triggered by the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake in China. The simulation results demonstrate that the dynamic friction degradation of joints has great influences on the runout and velocity of sliding mass. Moreover, the friction coefficient possesses higher impact than the cohesion of joints on the kinematic behaviors of the sliding mass.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lin, Y.C.; Wen, Dong-Xu; Chen, Xiao-Min; Chen, Ming-Song
2016-01-01
In this study, a novel unified dislocation density-based model is presented for characterizing hot deformation behaviors in a nickel-based superalloy under dynamic recrystallization (DRX) conditions. In the Kocks-Mecking model, a new softening item is proposed to represent the impacts of DRX behavior on dislocation density evolution. The grain size evolution and DRX kinetics are incorporated into the developed model. Material parameters of the developed model are calibrated by a derivative-free method of MATLAB software. Comparisons between experimental and predicted results confirm that the developed unified dislocation density-based model can nicely reproduce hot deformation behavior, DRX kinetics, and grain size evolution in wide scope of initial grain size, strain rate, and deformation temperature. Moreover, the developed unified dislocation density-based model is well employed to analyze the time-variant forming processes of the studied superalloy. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lin, Y.C. [Central South University, School of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Changsha (China); Light Alloy Research Institute of Central South University, Changsha (China); State Key Laboratory of High Performance Complex Manufacturing, Changsha (China); Wen, Dong-Xu; Chen, Xiao-Min [Central South University, School of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Changsha (China); Chen, Ming-Song [Central South University, School of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Changsha (China); State Key Laboratory of High Performance Complex Manufacturing, Changsha (China)
2016-09-15
In this study, a novel unified dislocation density-based model is presented for characterizing hot deformation behaviors in a nickel-based superalloy under dynamic recrystallization (DRX) conditions. In the Kocks-Mecking model, a new softening item is proposed to represent the impacts of DRX behavior on dislocation density evolution. The grain size evolution and DRX kinetics are incorporated into the developed model. Material parameters of the developed model are calibrated by a derivative-free method of MATLAB software. Comparisons between experimental and predicted results confirm that the developed unified dislocation density-based model can nicely reproduce hot deformation behavior, DRX kinetics, and grain size evolution in wide scope of initial grain size, strain rate, and deformation temperature. Moreover, the developed unified dislocation density-based model is well employed to analyze the time-variant forming processes of the studied superalloy. (orig.)
Nayak, Alok R; Pandit, Rahul
2014-01-01
We carry out an extensive numerical study of the dynamics of spiral waves of electrical activation, in the presence of periodic deformation (PD) in two-dimensional simulation domains, in the biophysically realistic mathematical models of human ventricular tissue due to (a) ten-Tusscher and Panfilov (the TP06 model) and (b) ten-Tusscher, Noble, Noble, and Panfilov (the TNNP04 model). We first consider simulations in cable-type domains, in which we calculate the conduction velocity θ and the wavelength λ of a plane wave; we show that PD leads to a periodic, spatial modulation of θ and a temporally periodic modulation of λ; both these modulations depend on the amplitude and frequency of the PD. We then examine three types of initial conditions for both TP06 and TNNP04 models and show that the imposition of PD leads to a rich variety of spatiotemporal patterns in the transmembrane potential including states with a single rotating spiral (RS) wave, a spiral-turbulence (ST) state with a single meandering spiral, an ST state with multiple broken spirals, and a state SA in which all spirals are absorbed at the boundaries of our simulation domain. We find, for both TP06 and TNNP04 models, that spiral-wave dynamics depends sensitively on the amplitude and frequency of PD and the initial condition. We examine how these different types of spiral-wave states can be eliminated in the presence of PD by the application of low-amplitude pulses by square- and rectangular-mesh suppression techniques. We suggest specific experiments that can test the results of our simulations.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alok Ranjan Nayak
2014-06-01
Full Text Available We carry out an extensive numerical study of the dynamics of spiral waves of electrical activation, in the presence of periodic deformation (PD in two-dimensional simulation domains, in the biophysically realistic mathematical models of human ventricular tissue due to (a ten-Tusscher and Panfilov (the TP06 model and (b ten-Tusscher, Noble, Noble, and Panfilov (theTNNP04 model. We first consider simulations in cable-type domains, in which we calculate the conduction velocity $CV$ andthe wavelength $lambda$ of a plane wave; we show that PD leads to a periodic, spatial modulation of $CV$ and a temporallyperiodic modulation of $lambda$; both these modulations depend on the amplitude and frequency of the PD. We then examine three types of initial conditions for both TP06 and TNNP04 models and show that the imposition of PD leads to a rich variety ofspatiotemporal patterns in the transmembrane potential including states with a single rotating spiral (RS wave, a spiral-turbulence (ST state with a single meandering spiral, an ST state with multiple broken spirals, and a state SA in which all spirals are absorbed at the boundaries of our simulation domain. We find, for both TP06 and TNNP04 models, that spiral-wave dynamics depends sensitively on the amplitude and frequency of PD and the initial condition. We examine how these different types of spiral-wave states can be eliminated in the presence of PD by the application of low-amplitude pulses on square and rectangular control meshes. We suggest specific experiments that can test the results of our simulations.
Static and dynamic deformations of actinide nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rozmej, P.
1985-09-01
The zero-point quadrupole-hexadecapole vibrations have been taken into account to calculate dynamical deformations for even-even actinide nuclei. The collective and intrinsic motions are separated according to the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. The collective Hamiltonian is constructed using the macroscopic-microscopic method in the potential energy part and the cranking model in the kinetic energy part. The BCS theory with a modified oscillator potential is applied to describe the intrinsic motion of nucleons. A new set of Nilsson potential parameters, which produces a much better description of the properties of light actinide nuclei, has also been found. (orig.)
Compaction-Based Deformable Terrain Model as an Interface for Real-Time Vehicle Dynamics Simulations
2013-04-16
N.Y. [20] Wulfsohn, D., and Upadhyaya, S. K., 1992, "Prediction of traction and soil compaction using three-dimensional soil- tyre contact profile," Journal of Terramechanics, 29(6), pp. 541-564. ...the relative speedup of utilizing GPUs for computational acceleration. INTRODUCTION In order to enable off- road vehicle dynamics analysis...ANSI Std Z39-18 Page 2 of 8 Figure 2. Tire geometry used to determine collision points with the terrain In the context of off- road vehicle
Cardiac fluid dynamics meets deformation imaging.
Dal Ferro, Matteo; Stolfo, Davide; De Paris, Valerio; Lesizza, Pierluigi; Korcova, Renata; Collia, Dario; Tonti, Giovanni; Sinagra, Gianfranco; Pedrizzetti, Gianni
2018-02-20
Cardiac function is about creating and sustaining blood in motion. This is achieved through a proper sequence of myocardial deformation whose final goal is that of creating flow. Deformation imaging provided valuable contributions to understanding cardiac mechanics; more recently, several studies evidenced the existence of an intimate relationship between cardiac function and intra-ventricular fluid dynamics. This paper summarizes the recent advances in cardiac flow evaluations, highlighting its relationship with heart wall mechanics assessed through the newest techniques of deformation imaging and finally providing an opinion of the most promising clinical perspectives of this emerging field. It will be shown how fluid dynamics can integrate volumetric and deformation assessments to provide a further level of knowledge of cardiac mechanics.
Making Deformable Template Models Operational
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fisker, Rune
2000-01-01
for estimation of the model parameters, which applies a combination of a maximum likelihood and minimum distance criterion. Another contribution is a very fast search based initialization algorithm using a filter interpretation of the likelihood model. These two methods can be applied to most deformable template......Deformable template models are a very popular and powerful tool within the field of image processing and computer vision. This thesis treats this type of models extensively with special focus on handling their common difficulties, i.e. model parameter selection, initialization and optimization....... A proper handling of the common difficulties is essential for making the models operational by a non-expert user, which is a requirement for intensifying and commercializing the use of deformable template models. The thesis is organized as a collection of the most important articles, which has been...
Large Deformation Dynamic Bending of Composite Beams
Derian, E. J.; Hyer, M. W.
1986-01-01
Studies were conducted on the large deformation response of composite beams subjected to a dynamic axial load. The beams were loaded with a moderate eccentricity to promote bending. The study was primarily experimental but some finite element results were obtained. Both the deformation and the failure of the beams were of interest. The static response of the beams was also studied to determine potential differences between the static and dynamic failure. Twelve different laminate types were tested. The beams were loaded dynamically with a gravity driven impactor traveling at 19.6 ft/sec and quasi-static tests were conducted on identical beams in a displacement controlled manner. For laminates of practical interest, the failure modes under static and dynamic loadings were identical. Failure in most of the laminate types occurred in a single event involving 40% to 50% of the plies. However, failure in laminates with 30 deg or 15 deg off-axis plies occured in several events. All laminates exhibited bimodular elastic properties. Using empirically determined flexural properties, a finite element analysis was reasonably accurate in predicting the static and dynamic deformation response.
Q-deformed systems and constrained dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shabanov, S.V.
1993-01-01
It is shown that quantum theories of the q-deformed harmonic oscillator and one-dimensional free q-particle (a free particle on the 'quantum' line) can be obtained by the canonical quantization of classical Hamiltonian systems with commutative phase-space variables and a non-trivial symplectic structure. In the framework of this approach, classical dynamics of a particle on the q-line coincides with the one of a free particle with friction. It is argued that q-deformed systems can be treated as ordinary mechanical systems with the second-class constraints. In particular, second-class constrained systems corresponding to the q-oscillator and q-particle are given. A possibility of formulating q-deformed systems via gauge theories (first-class constrained systems) is briefly discussed. (orig.)
Interactive Character Deformation Using Simplified Elastic Models
Luo, Z.
2016-01-01
This thesis describes the results of our research into realistic skin and model deformation methods aimed at the field of character deformation and animation. The main contributions lie in the properties of our deformation scheme. Our approach preserves the volume of the deformed object while
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ezaoui, A
2008-06-15
In the first part, based on various works realized in situ, the author discusses the importance of a fine characterization of soils within the field of small and medium deformations. He also presents the rheological background on which the modelling will be based. Then, he presents the experimental device, a tri-axial apparatus, 'StaDy', which allows high precision measurements, possesses force sensors comprising a piezoelectric device to generate compression and shear waves. He also presents the different static and dynamic prompting systems. He reports the experimental campaign performed on a Hostun S28 sand, and the analysis of its results. He describes the procedure of determination of the elastic tensor, and analyses and discusses the evolutions of this tensor in terms of the stress-strain status. Viscous phenomena creep and relaxation stages, and plastic behaviours are quantified and discussed with respect to the loading status, the initial granular arrangement, and the efforts applied to the material. The small deformation modelling is then presented and predictions are compared with experimental results obtained in the literature about a bus station. A general analog formulation is introduced, which associates three components (elastic, plastic and viscous). Models are calibrated with triaxial test results, and simulations of viscous and plastic phenomena allow the proposed approaches to be validated.
Wagner, Martin G; Hatt, Charles R; Dunkerley, David A P; Bodart, Lindsay E; Raval, Amish N; Speidel, Michael A
2018-04-16
Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is a minimally invasive procedure in which a prosthetic heart valve is placed and expanded within a defective aortic valve. The device placement is commonly performed using two-dimensional (2D) fluoroscopic imaging. Within this work, we propose a novel technique to track the motion and deformation of the prosthetic valve in three dimensions based on biplane fluoroscopic image sequences. The tracking approach uses a parameterized point cloud model of the valve stent which can undergo rigid three-dimensional (3D) transformation and different modes of expansion. Rigid elements of the model are individually rotated and translated in three dimensions to approximate the motions of the stent. Tracking is performed using an iterative 2D-3D registration procedure which estimates the model parameters by minimizing the mean-squared image values at the positions of the forward-projected model points. Additionally, an initialization technique is proposed, which locates clusters of salient features to determine the initial position and orientation of the model. The proposed algorithms were evaluated based on simulations using a digital 4D CT phantom as well as experimentally acquired images of a prosthetic valve inside a chest phantom with anatomical background features. The target registration error was 0.12 ± 0.04 mm in the simulations and 0.64 ± 0.09 mm in the experimental data. The proposed algorithm could be used to generate 3D visualization of the prosthetic valve from two projections. In combination with soft-tissue sensitive-imaging techniques like transesophageal echocardiography, this technique could enable 3D image guidance during TAVR procedures. © 2018 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.
The Finite Deformation Dynamic Sphere Test Problem
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Versino, Daniele [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Brock, Jerry Steven [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2016-09-02
In this manuscript we describe test cases for the dynamic sphere problem in presence of finite deformations. The spherical shell in exam is made of a homogeneous, isotropic or transverse isotropic material and elastic and elastic-plastic material behaviors are considered. Twenty cases, (a) to (t), are thus defined combining material types and boundary conditions. The inner surface radius, the outer surface radius and the material's density are kept constant for all the considered test cases and their values are r_{i} = 10mm, r_{o} = 20mm and p = 1000Kg/m^{3} respectively.
Dynamic control of knee axial deformities
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
E. E. Malyshev
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The authors have evaluated the clinical examination of the patients with axial malalignments in the knee by the original method and device which was named varovalgometer. The measurements were conducted by tension of the cord through the spina iliaca anterior superior and the middle of the lower pole of patella. The deviation of the center of the ankle estimated by metal ruler which was positioned perpendicular to the lower leg axis on the level of the ankle joint line. The results of comparison of our method and computer navigation in 53 patients during the TKA show no statistically significant varieties but they differ by average 5° of valgus in clinical examination in comparison with mechanical axis which was identified by computer navigation. The dynamic control of axial malalignment can be used in clinical practice for estimation of the results of treatment of pathology with axial deformities in the knee; for the control of reduction and secondary displacement of the fractures around the knee; for assessment of instability; in planning of correctional osteotomies and intraoperative control of deformity correction; for estimation of Q angle in subluxation and recurrent dislocation of patella; in planning of TKA; during the growth of child it allows to assess the progression of deformity.
An electromechanical based deformable model for soft tissue simulation.
Zhong, Yongmin; Shirinzadeh, Bijan; Smith, Julian; Gu, Chengfan
2009-11-01
Soft tissue deformation is of great importance to surgery simulation. Although a significant amount of research efforts have been dedicated to simulating the behaviours of soft tissues, modelling of soft tissue deformation is still a challenging problem. This paper presents a new deformable model for simulation of soft tissue deformation from the electromechanical viewpoint of soft tissues. Soft tissue deformation is formulated as a reaction-diffusion process coupled with a mechanical load. The mechanical load applied to a soft tissue to cause a deformation is incorporated into the reaction-diffusion system, and consequently distributed among mass points of the soft tissue. Reaction-diffusion of mechanical load and non-rigid mechanics of motion are combined to govern the simulation dynamics of soft tissue deformation. An improved reaction-diffusion model is developed to describe the distribution of the mechanical load in soft tissues. A three-layer artificial cellular neural network is constructed to solve the reaction-diffusion model for real-time simulation of soft tissue deformation. A gradient based method is established to derive internal forces from the distribution of the mechanical load. Integration with a haptic device has also been achieved to simulate soft tissue deformation with haptic feedback. The proposed methodology does not only predict the typical behaviours of living tissues, but it also accepts both local and large-range deformations. It also accommodates isotropic, anisotropic and inhomogeneous deformations by simple modification of diffusion coefficients.
Deformations of the Almheiri-Polchinski model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kyono, Hideki; Okumura, Suguru; Yoshida, Kentaroh [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa Oiwake-cho, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)
2017-03-31
We study deformations of the Almheiri-Polchinski (AP) model by employing the Yang-Baxter deformation technique. The general deformed AdS{sub 2} metric becomes a solution of a deformed AP model. In particular, the dilaton potential is deformed from a simple quadratic form to a hyperbolic function-type potential similarly to integrable deformations. A specific solution is a deformed black hole solution. Because the deformation makes the spacetime structure around the boundary change drastically and a new naked singularity appears, the holographic interpretation is far from trivial. The Hawking temperature is the same as the undeformed case but the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy is modified due to the deformation. This entropy can also be reproduced by evaluating the renormalized stress tensor with an appropriate counter-term on the regularized screen close to the singularity.
Optical dynamic deformation measurements at translucent materials.
Philipp, Katrin; Koukourakis, Nektarios; Kuschmierz, Robert; Leithold, Christoph; Fischer, Andreas; Czarske, Jürgen
2015-02-15
Due to their high stiffness-to-weight ratio, glass fiber-reinforced polymers are an attractive material for rotors, e.g., in the aerospace industry. A fundamental understanding of the material behavior requires non-contact, in-situ dynamic deformation measurements. The high surface speeds and particularly the translucence of the material limit the usability of conventional optical measurement techniques. We demonstrate that the laser Doppler distance sensor provides a powerful and reliable tool for monitoring radial expansion at fast rotating translucent materials. We find that backscattering in material volume does not lead to secondary signals as surface scattering results in degradation of the measurement volume inside the translucent medium. This ensures that the acquired signal contains information of the rotor surface only, as long as the sample surface is rough enough. Dynamic deformation measurements of fast-rotating fiber-reinforced polymer composite rotors with surface speeds of more than 300 m/s underline the potential of the laser Doppler sensor.
Molecular dynamics simulation of deformation twin in rocksalt vanadium nitride
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fu, Tao; Peng, Xianghe; Zhao, Yinbo; Li, Tengfei; Li, Qibin; Wang, Zhongchang
2016-01-01
We perform molecular dynamics simulation of nano-indentation with a cylindrical indenter to investigate the formation mechanism of deformation twin in vanadium nitride (VN) with a rocksalt structure. We find that the deformation twins occur during the loading stage, and subsequently conduct a systematic analysis of nucleation, propagation and thickening of a deformation twin. We find that the nucleation of a partial dislocation and its propagation to form a stacking fault are premise of deformation twin formation. The sequential nucleation and propagation of partial dislocation on adjacent parallel {111} planes are found to cause the thickening of the deformation twin. Moreover, the deformation twins can exist in VN at room temperature. - Highlights: • MD simulations of indentation are performed to study the deformation twin in VN. • The deformation twins can occur in VN during the loading stage. • The nucleation, propagation and thickening of a deformation twin are analyzed. • The deformation twins can exist in VN at room temperature.
Hemdeep, Chopra, Sahila; Kaur, Arshdeep; Kaushal, Pooja; Gupta, Raj K.
2018-04-01
Background: The formation and decay of the *220Th compound nucleus (CN) formed via some entrance channels (16O+204Pb,40Ar+180Hf,48Ca+172Yb,82Se+138Ba ) at near barrier energies has been studied within the dynamical cluster-decay model (DCM) [Hemdeep et al. Phys. Rev. C 95, 014609 (2017), 10.1103/PhysRevC.95.044603], for quadrupole deformations (β2 i) and "optimum" orientations (θopt) of the two nuclei or decay fragments lying in the same plane (coplanar nuclei, Φ =0∘ ). Purpose: We aim to investigate the role of higher-multipole deformations, the octupole (β3 i) and hexadecupole (β4 i), and "compact" orientations (θc i) together with the noncoplanarity degree of freedom (Φc) in the noncompound nucleus (nCN) cross section, already observed in the above mentioned study with quadrupole deformations (β2 i) alone, the Φ =0∘ case. Methods: The dynamical cluster-decay model (DCM), based on the quantum mechanical fragmentation theory (QMFT), is used to analyze the decay channel cross sections σx n for various experimentally studied entrance channels. The parameter Ra (equivalently, the neck length Δ R in Ra=R1+R2+Δ R ), which fixes both the preformation and penetration paths, is used to best fit both unobserved (1 n ,2 n ) and observed (3 n -5 n ) decay channel cross sections, keeping the root-mean-square (r.m.s) deviation to the minimum, which allows us to predict the nCN effects, if any, and fusion-fission (ff) cross sections in various reactions at different CN excitation energies E*. Results: For the decay of CN *220Th, the mass fragmentation potential V (Ai ) and preformation yields P0( Ai ) show an asymmetric fission mass distribution, in agreement with one observed in experiments, independent of adding or not adding (β3 i,β4 i ), and irrespective of large changes (by 36° and 34°), respectively, in "compact" orientations θc i and noncoplanarity Φc, and also in the potential energy surface V (Ai ) in light mass (1 n -5 n ) decays. Whereas the 3 n
Fluctuating Nonlinear Spring Model of Mechanical Deformation of Biological Particles.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Olga Kononova
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The mechanical properties of virus capsids correlate with local conformational dynamics in the capsid structure. They also reflect the required stability needed to withstand high internal pressures generated upon genome loading and contribute to the success of important events in viral infectivity, such as capsid maturation, genome uncoating and receptor binding. The mechanical properties of biological nanoparticles are often determined from monitoring their dynamic deformations in Atomic Force Microscopy nanoindentation experiments; but a comprehensive theory describing the full range of observed deformation behaviors has not previously been described. We present a new theory for modeling dynamic deformations of biological nanoparticles, which considers the non-linear Hertzian deformation, resulting from an indenter-particle physical contact, and the bending of curved elements (beams modeling the particle structure. The beams' deformation beyond the critical point triggers a dynamic transition of the particle to the collapsed state. This extreme event is accompanied by a catastrophic force drop as observed in the experimental or simulated force (F-deformation (X spectra. The theory interprets fine features of the spectra, including the nonlinear components of the FX-curves, in terms of the Young's moduli for Hertzian and bending deformations, and the structural damage dependent beams' survival probability, in terms of the maximum strength and the cooperativity parameter. The theory is exemplified by successfully describing the deformation dynamics of natural nanoparticles through comparing theoretical curves with experimental force-deformation spectra for several virus particles. This approach provides a comprehensive description of the dynamic structural transitions in biological and artificial nanoparticles, which is essential for their optimal use in nanotechnology and nanomedicine applications.
Geometry and dynamics of particle emission from strongly deformed nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aleshin, V.P.
1995-01-01
By using our semiclassical approach to particle evaporation from deformed nuclei, we analyze the heuristic models of particle emission from deformed nuclei which are used in the codes GANES, ALICE, and EVAP. The calculations revealed that the heuristic models are reasonable for particle energy spectra but fail, at large deformations, to describe the angular distributions
Contour junctions defined by dynamic image deformations enhance perceptual transparency.
Kawabe, Takahiro; Nishida, Shin'ya
2017-11-01
The majority of work on the perception of transparency has focused on static images with luminance-defined contour junctions, but recent work has shown that dynamic image sequences with dynamic image deformations also provide information about transparency. The present study demonstrates that when part of a static image is dynamically deformed, contour junctions at which deforming and nondeforming contours are connected facilitate the deformation-based perception of a transparent layer. We found that the impression of a transparent layer was stronger when a dynamically deforming area was adjacent to static nondeforming areas than when presented alone. When contour junctions were not formed at the dynamic-static boundaries, however, the impression of a transparent layer was not facilitated by the presence of static surrounding areas. The effect of the deformation-defined junctions was attenuated when the spatial pattern of luminance contrast at the junctions was inconsistent with the perceived transparency related to luminance contrast, while the effect did not change when the spatial luminance pattern was consistent with it. In addition, the results showed that contour completions across the junctions were required for the perception of a transparent layer. These results indicate that deformation-defined junctions that involve contour completion between deforming and nondeforming regions enhance the perception of a transparent layer, and that the deformation-based perceptual transparency can be promoted by the simultaneous presence of appropriately configured luminance and contrast-other features that can also by themselves produce the sensation of perceiving transparency.
Deformation of wrought uranium: Experiments and modeling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
McCabe, R.J., E-mail: rmccabe@lanl.gov [Materials Science and Technology Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Capolungo, L. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)] [UMI 2958 Georgia Tech - CNRS, 57070 Metz (France); Marshall, P.E.; Cady, C.M.; Tome, C.N. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)
2010-09-15
The room temperature deformation behavior of wrought polycrystalline uranium is studied using a combination of experimental techniques and polycrystal modeling. Electron backscatter diffraction is used to analyze the primary deformation twinning modes for wrought alpha-uranium. The {l_brace}1 3 0{r_brace}<3 1 0> twinning mode is found to be the most prominent twinning mode, with minor contributions from the '{l_brace}1 7 2{r_brace}'<3 1 2> and {l_brace}1 1 2{r_brace}'<3 7 2>' twin modes. Because of the large number of deformation modes, each with limited deformation systems, a polycrystalline model is employed to identify and quantify the activity of each mode. Model predictions of the deformation behavior and texture development agree reasonably well with experimental measures and provide reliable information about deformation systems.
Parameter studies on the effect of pulse shape on the dynamic plastic deformation of a hexagon
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Youngdahl, C.K.
1973-10-01
Results of a parameter study on the dynamic plastic response of a hexagonal subassembly duct subjected to an internal pressure pulse of arbitrary shape are presented. Plastic distortion of the cross section and large-deformation geometric effects that result in redistribution of the internal forces between bending and membrane stresses in the hexagon wall are included in the analytical model. Correlation procedures are established for relating permanent plastic deformation to simple properties of the pressure pulse, for both the small- and large-deformation ranges. Characteristic response times are determined, and the dynamic load factor for large-deformation plastic response is computed
Deformation Models Tracking, Animation and Applications
Torres, Arnau; Gómez, Javier
2013-01-01
The computational modelling of deformations has been actively studied for the last thirty years. This is mainly due to its large range of applications that include computer animation, medical imaging, shape estimation, face deformation as well as other parts of the human body, and object tracking. In addition, these advances have been supported by the evolution of computer processing capabilities, enabling realism in a more sophisticated way. This book encompasses relevant works of expert researchers in the field of deformation models and their applications. The book is divided into two main parts. The first part presents recent object deformation techniques from the point of view of computer graphics and computer animation. The second part of this book presents six works that study deformations from a computer vision point of view with a common characteristic: deformations are applied in real world applications. The primary audience for this work are researchers from different multidisciplinary fields, s...
Dynamic Deformation and Collapse of Granular Columns
Uenishi, K.; Tsuji, K.; Doi, S.
2009-12-01
Large dynamic deformation of granular materials may be found in nature not only in the failure of slopes and cliffs — due to earthquakes, rock avalanches, debris flows and landslides — but also in earthquake faulting itself. Granular surface flows often consist of solid grains and intergranular fluid, but the effect of the fluid may be usually negligible because the volumetric concentration of grains is in many cases high enough for interparticle forces to dominate momentum transport. Therefore, the investigation of dry granular flow of a mass might assist in further understanding of the above mentioned geophysical events. Here, utilizing a high-speed digital video camera system, we perform a simple yet fully-controlled series of laboratory experiments related to the collapse of granular columns. We record, at an interval of some microseconds, the dynamic transient granular mass flow initiated by abrupt release of a tube that contains dry granular materials. The acrylic tube is partially filled with glass beads and has a cross-section of either a fully- or semi-cylindrical shape. Upon sudden removal of the tube, the granular solid may fragment under the action of its own weight and the particles spread on a rigid horizontal plane. This study is essentially the extension of the previous ones by Lajeunesse et al. (Phys. Fluids 2004) and Uenishi and Tsuji (JPGU 2008), but the striped layers of particles in a semi-cylindrical tube, newly introduced in this contribution, allow us to observe the precise particle movement inside the granular column: The development of slip lines inside the column and the movement of particles against each other can be clearly identified. The major controlling parameters of the spreading dynamics are the initial aspect ratio of the granular (semi-)cylindrical column, the frictional properties of the horizontal plane (substrate) and the size of beads. We show the influence of each parameter on the average flow velocity and final radius
Large shear deformation of particle gels studied by Brownian Dynamics simulations
Rzepiela, A.A.; Opheusden, van J.H.J.; Vliet, van T.
2004-01-01
Brownian Dynamics (BD) simulations have been performed to study structure and rheology of particle gels under large shear deformation. The model incorporates soft spherical particles, and reversible flexible bond formation. Two different methods of shear deformation are discussed, namely affine and
Investigation of deformation mechanisms of staggered nanocomposites using molecular dynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mathiazhagan, S., E-mail: smathi.research@gmail.com; Anup, S., E-mail: anupiist@gmail.com
2016-08-19
Biological materials with nanostructure of regularly or stair-wise staggered arrangements of hard platelets reinforced in a soft protein matrix have superior mechanical properties. Applications of these nanostructures to ceramic matrix composites could enhance their toughness. Using molecular dynamics simulations, mechanical behaviour of the bio-inspired nanocomposites is studied. Regularly staggered model shows better flow behaviour compared to stair-wise staggered model due to the symmetrical crack propagation along the interface. Though higher stiffness and strength are obtained for stair-wise staggered models, rapid crack propagation reduces the toughness. Arresting this crack propagation could lead to superior mechanical properties in stair-wise staggered models. - Highlights: • The deformation behaviour of staggered nanocomposites is studied. • Stair-wise staggered model has high stiffness and strength, but low toughness. • Rapid crack growth in overlap region causes this low toughness. • Toughness could be enhanced by arresting interfacial crack in the overlap.
Investigation of deformation mechanisms of staggered nanocomposites using molecular dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mathiazhagan, S.; Anup, S.
2016-01-01
Biological materials with nanostructure of regularly or stair-wise staggered arrangements of hard platelets reinforced in a soft protein matrix have superior mechanical properties. Applications of these nanostructures to ceramic matrix composites could enhance their toughness. Using molecular dynamics simulations, mechanical behaviour of the bio-inspired nanocomposites is studied. Regularly staggered model shows better flow behaviour compared to stair-wise staggered model due to the symmetrical crack propagation along the interface. Though higher stiffness and strength are obtained for stair-wise staggered models, rapid crack propagation reduces the toughness. Arresting this crack propagation could lead to superior mechanical properties in stair-wise staggered models. - Highlights: • The deformation behaviour of staggered nanocomposites is studied. • Stair-wise staggered model has high stiffness and strength, but low toughness. • Rapid crack growth in overlap region causes this low toughness. • Toughness could be enhanced by arresting interfacial crack in the overlap.
Deformable Models for Eye Tracking
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vester-Christensen, Martin; Leimberg, Denis; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær
2005-01-01
A deformable template method for eye tracking on full face images is presented. The strengths of the method are that it is fast and retains accuracy independently of the resolution. We compare the me\\$\\backslash\\$-thod with a state of the art active contour approach, showing that the heuristic...
Orientation sensitive deformation in Zr alloys: experimental and modeling studies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Srivastava, D.; Keskar, N.; Manikrishna, K.V.; Dey, G.K.; Jha, S.K.; Saibaba, N.
2016-01-01
Zirconium alloys are used for fuel cladding and other structural components in pressurised heavy water nuclear reactors (PHWR's). Currently there is a lot of interest in developing alloys for structural components for higher temperature reactor operation. There is also need for development of cladding material with better corrosion and mechanical property of cladding material for higher and extended burn up applications. The performance of the cladding material is primarily influenced by the microstructural features of the material such as constituent phases their morphology, precipitates characteristics, nature of defects etc. Therefore, the microstructure is tailored as per the performance requirement by through controlled additions of alloying elements, thermo-mechanical- treatments. In order to obtain the desired microstructure, it is important to know the deformation behaviour of the material. Orientation dependent deformation behavior was studied in Zr using a combination of experimental and modeling (both discrete and atomistic dislocation dynamics) methods. Under the conditions of plane strain deformation, it was observed that single phase Zr, had significant extent of deformation heterogeneity based on local orientations. Discrete dislocation dynamics simulations incorporating multi slip systems had captured the orientation sensitive deformation. MD dislocations on the other hand brought the fundamental difference in various crystallographic orientations in determining the nucleating stress for the dislocations. The deformed structure has been characterized using X-ray, electron and neutron diffraction techniques. The various operating deformation mechanism will be discussed in this presentation. (author)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jakobsen, Bo
2006-01-01
The main goal of the study presented in this thesis was to perform in-situ investigations on deformation structures in plastically deformed polycrystalline copper at low degrees of tensile deformation (model system for cell forming pure fcc metals. Anovel synchrotron...... grains in polycrystalline samples during tensile deformation. We have shown that the resulting 3D reciprocal space maps from tensile deformed copper comprise a pronounced structure, consisting of bright sharp peaks superimposed on a cloud of enhanced intensity. Based on the integrated intensity......, the width of the peaks, and spatial scanning experiments it is concluded that the individual peaks arise from individual dislocation-free regions (the subgrains) in the dislocation structure. The cloud is attributed to the dislocation rich walls. Samples deformed to 2% tensile strain were investigated under...
Deformation mechanisms in nanotwinned copper by molecular dynamics simulation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhao, Xing [School of Mechanical, Materials and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); State Key Laboratory of High Performance Complex Manufacturing, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Lu, Cheng, E-mail: chenglu@uow.edu.au [School of Mechanical, Materials and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Tieu, Anh Kiet; Pei, Linqing; Zhang, Liang; Su, Lihong [School of Mechanical, Materials and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Zhan, Lihua [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Complex Manufacturing, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China)
2017-02-27
Nanotwinned materials exhibit simultaneous ultrahigh strength and high ductility which is attributed to the interactions between dislocations and twin boundaries but the specific deformation mechanisms are rarely seen in experiments at the atomic level. Here we use large scale molecular dynamics simulations to explore this intricate interplay during the plastic deformation of nanotwinned Cu. We demonstrate that the dominant deformation mechanism transits dynamically from slip transfer to twin boundary migration to slip-twin interactions as the twin boundary orientation changes from horizontal to slant, and then to a vertical direction. Building on the fundamental physics of dislocation processes from computer simulations and combining the available experimental investigations, we unravel the underlying deformation mechanisms for nanotwinned Cu, incorporating all three distinct dislocation processes. Our results give insights into systematically engineering the nanoscale twins to fabricate nanotwinned metals or alloys that have high strength and considerable ductility.
Polymer deformation in Brownian ratchets: theory and molecular dynamics simulations.
Kenward, Martin; Slater, Gary W
2008-11-01
We examine polymers in the presence of an applied asymmetric sawtooth (ratchet) potential which is periodically switched on and off, using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with an explicit Lennard-Jones solvent. We show that the distribution of the center of mass for a polymer in a ratchet is relatively wide for potential well depths U0 on the order of several kBT. The application of the ratchet potential also deforms the polymer chains. With increasing U0 the Flory exponent varies from that for a free three-dimensional (3D) chain, nu=35 (U0=0), to that corresponding to a 2D compressed (pancake-shaped) polymer with a value of nu=34 for moderate U0. This has the added effect of decreasing a polymer's diffusion coefficient from its 3D value D3D to that of a pancaked-shaped polymer moving parallel to its minor axis D2D. The result is that a polymer then has a time-dependent diffusion coefficient D(t) during the ratchet off time. We further show that this suggests a different method to operate a ratchet, where the off time of the ratchet, toff, is defined in terms of the relaxation time of the polymer, tauR. We also derive a modified version of the Bader ratchet model [Bader, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 96, 13165 (1999)] which accounts for this deformation and we present a simple expression to describe the time dependent diffusion coefficient D(t). Using this model we then illustrate that polymer deformation can be used to modulate polymer migration in a ratchet potential.
Deformed Materials: Towards a Theory of Materials Morphology Dynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sethna, James P [Laboratory of Atomic and Solid State Physics, Cornell University
2017-06-28
This grant supported work on the response of crystals to external stress. Our primary work described how disordered structural materials break in two (statistical models of fracture in disordered materials), studied models of deformation bursts (avalanches) that mediate deformation on the microscale, and developed continuum dislocation dynamics models for plastic deformation (as when scooping ice cream bends a spoon, Fig. 9). Glass is brittle -- it breaks with almost atomically smooth fracture surfaces. Many metals are ductile -- when they break, the fracture surface is locally sheared and stretched, and it is this damage that makes them hard to break. Bone and seashells are made of brittle material, but they are strong because they are disordered -- lots of little cracks form as they are sheared and near the fracture surface, diluting the external force. We have studied materials like bone and seashells using simulations, mathematical tools, and statistical mechanics models from physics. In particular, we studied the extreme values of fracture strengths (how likely will a beam in a bridge break far below its design strength), and found that the traditional engineering tools could be improved greatly. We also studied fascinating crackling-noise precursors -- systems which formed microcracks of a broad range of sizes before they broke. Ductile metals under stress undergo irreversible plastic deformation -- the planes of atoms must slide across one another (through the motion of dislocations) to change the overall shape in response to the external force. Microscopically, the dislocations in crystals move in bursts of a broad range of sizes (termed 'avalanches' in the statistical mechanics community, whose motion is deemed 'crackling noise'). In this grant period, we resolved a longstanding mystery about the average shape of avalanches of fixed duration (using tools related to an emergent scale invariance), we developed the fundamental theory
Monitoring Bridge Dynamic Deformation in Vibration by Digital Photography
Yu, Chengxin; Zhang, Guojian; Liu, Xiaodong; Fan, Li; Hai, Hua
2018-01-01
This study adopts digital photography to monitor bridge dynamic deformation in vibration. Digital photography in this study is based on PST-TBPM (photographing scale transformation-time baseline parallax method). Firstly, we monitor the bridge in static as a zero image. Then, we continuously monitor the bridge in vibration as the successive images. Based on the reference points on each image, PST-TBPM is used to calculate the images to obtain the dynamic deformation values of these deformation points. Results show that the average measurement accuracies are 0.685 pixels (0.51mm) and 0.635 pixels (0.47mm) in X and Z direction, respectively. The maximal deformations in X and Z direction of the bridge are 4.53 pixels and 5.21 pixels, respectively. PST-TBPM is valid in solving the problem that the photographing direction is not perpendicular to the bridge. Digital photography in this study can be used to assess bridge health through monitoring the dynamic deformation of a bridge in vibration. The deformation trend curves also can warn the possible dangers over time.
Deformed baryons: constituent quark model vs. bag model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Iwamura, Y.; Nogami, Y.
1985-01-01
Recently Bhaduri et al. developed a nonrelativistic constituent quark model for deformed baryons. In that model the quarks move in a deformable mean field, and the deformation parameters are determined by minimizing the quark energy subject to the constraint of volume conservation. This constraint is an ad hoc assumption. It is shown that, starting with a bag model, a model similar to that of Bhaduri et al. can be constructed. The deformation parameters are determined by the pressure balance on the bag surface. There is, however, a distinct difference between the two models with respect to the state dependence of the ''volume''. Implications of this difference are discussed
Modelling deformation and fracture in confectionery wafers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mohammed, Idris K.; Charalambides, Maria N.; Williams, J. Gordon; Rasburn, John [Mechanical Engineering Department, Imperial College London, South Kensington, London, SW7 2AZ, United Kingdom and Nestec York Ltd., Nestlé Product Technology Centre, Haxby Road, PO Box 204, York YO91 1XY (United Kingdom)
2015-01-22
The aim of this research is to model the deformation and fracture behaviour of brittle wafers often used in chocolate confectionary products. Three point bending and compression experiments were performed on beam and circular disc samples respectively to determine the 'apparent' stress-strain curves in bending and compression. The deformation of the wafer for both these testing types was observed in-situ within an SEM. The wafer is modeled analytically and numerically as a composite material with a core which is more porous than the skins. X-ray tomography was used to generate a three dimensional volume of the wafer microstructure which was then meshed and used for quantitative analysis. A linear elastic material model, with a damage function and element deletion, was used and the XMT generated architecture was loaded in compression. The output from the FE simulations correlates closely to the load-deflection deformation observed experimentally.
Extendable linearised adjustment model for deformation analysis
Hiddo Velsink
2015-01-01
Author supplied: "This paper gives a linearised adjustment model for the affine, similarity and congruence transformations in 3D that is easily extendable with other parameters to describe deformations. The model considers all coordinates stochastic. Full positive semi-definite covariance matrices
Extendable linearised adjustment model for deformation analysis
Velsink, H.
2015-01-01
This paper gives a linearised adjustment model for the affine, similarity and congruence transformations in 3D that is easily extendable with other parameters to describe deformations. The model considers all coordinates stochastic. Full positive semi-definite covariance matrices and correlation
On parameter estimation in deformable models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fisker, Rune; Carstensen, Jens Michael
1998-01-01
Deformable templates have been intensively studied in image analysis through the last decade, but despite its significance the estimation of model parameters has received little attention. We present a method for supervised and unsupervised model parameter estimation using a general Bayesian form...
Constitutive model with time-dependent deformations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Krogsbøll, Anette
1998-01-01
are common in time as well as size. This problem is adressed by means of a new constitutive model for soils. It is able to describe the behavior of soils at different deformation rates. The model defines time-dependent and stress-related deformations separately. They are related to each other and they occur...... was the difference in time scale between the geological process of deposition (millions of years) and the laboratory measurements of mechanical properties (minutes or hours). In addition, the time scale relevant to the production history of the oil field was interesting (days or years)....
An Efficient Virtual Trachea Deformation Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cui Tong
2016-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we present a virtual tactile model with the physically based skeleton to simulate force and deformation between a rigid tool and the soft organ. When the virtual trachea is handled, a skeleton model suitable for interactive environments is established, which consists of ligament layers, cartilage rings and muscular bars. In this skeleton, the contact force goes through the ligament layer, and produces the load effects of the joints , which are connecting the ligament layer and cartilage rings. Due to the nonlinear shape deformation inside the local neighbourhood of a contact region, the RBF method is applied to modify the result of linear global shape deformation by adding the nonlinear effect inside. Users are able to handle the virtual trachea, and the results from the examples with the mechanical properties of the human trachea are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach.
Semantic modeling of plastic deformation of polycrystalline rock
Babaie, Hassan A.; Davarpanah, Armita
2018-02-01
We have developed the first iteration of the Plastic Rock Deformation (PRD) ontology by modeling the semantics of a selected set of deformational processes and mechanisms that produce, reconfigure, displace, and/or consume the material components of inhomogeneous polycrystalline rocks. The PRD knowledge model also classifies and formalizes the properties (relations) that hold between instances of the dynamic physical and chemical processes and the rock components, the complex physio-chemical, mathematical, and informational concepts of the plastic rock deformation system, the measured or calculated laboratory testing conditions, experimental procedures and protocols, the state and system variables, and the empirical flow laws that define the inter-relationships among the variables. The ontology reuses classes and properties from several existing ontologies that are built for physics, chemistry, biology, and mathematics. With its flexible design, the PRD ontology is well positioned to incrementally develop into a model that more fully represents the knowledge of plastic deformation of polycrystalline rocks in the future. The domain ontology will be used to consistently annotate varied data and information related to the microstructures and the physical and chemical processes that produce them at different spatial and temporal scales in the laboratory and in the solid Earth. The PRDKB knowledge base, when built based on the ontology, will help the community of experimental structural geologists and metamorphic petrologists to coherently and uniformly distribute, discover, access, share, and use their data through automated reasoning and integration and query of heterogeneous experimental deformation data that originate from autonomous rock testing laboratories.
Recrystallization kinetics of nanostructured copper processed by dynamic plastic deformation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lin, Fengxiang; Zhang, Yubin; Pantleon, Wolfgang
2012-01-01
The recrystallization kinetics of nanostructured copper samples processed by dynamic plastic deformation was investigated by electron backscatter diffraction. It was found that the evolution of the recrystallized volume fraction as a function of annealing time has a very low slope (n=0.37) when...
State diagram for adhesion dynamics of deformable capsules under shear flow.
Luo, Zheng Yuan; Bai, Bo Feng
2016-08-17
Due to the significance of understanding the underlying mechanisms of cell adhesion in biological processes and cell capture in biomedical applications, we numerically investigate the adhesion dynamics of deformable capsules under shear flow by using a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamic model. This model is based on the coupling of the front tracking-finite element method for elastic mechanics of the capsule membrane and the adhesion kinetics simulation for adhesive interactions between capsules and functionalized surfaces. Using this model, three distinct adhesion dynamic states are predicted, such as detachment, rolling and firm-adhesion. Specifically, the effects of capsule deformability quantified by the capillary number on the transitions of these three dynamic states are investigated by developing an adhesion dynamic state diagram for the first time. At low capillary numbers (e.g. Ca state no longer appears, since capsules exhibit large deviation from the spherical shape.
Dynamic Characterization of Thin Deformable PVDF Mirror
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Trad, Eric M
2005-01-01
... of -2.1 micro with a standard deviation of 0.33 micro when 400 volts are applied. The acquisition system was characterized for dynamic actuation of the surface and found to have a sample rate ranging from 4 to 14 Hz. This rate is found to be dependent upon the desired detail level of the surface description as calculated by the wavefront analysis software.
Numerical Modeling of Subglacial Sediment Deformation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Damsgaard, Anders
2015-01-01
may cause mass loss in the near future to exceed current best estimates. Ice flow in larger ice sheets focuses in fast-moving streams due to mechanical non-linearity of ice. These ice streams often move at velocities several magnitudes larger than surrounding ice and consequentially constitute...... glaciers move by deforming their sedimentary beds. Several modern ice streams, in particular, move as plug flows due to basal sediment deformation. An intense and long-winded discussion about the appropriate description for subglacial sediment mechanics followed this discovery, with good reason...... incompatible with commonly accepted till rheology models. Variation in pore-water pressure proves to cause reorganization in the internal stress network and leads to slow creeping deformation. The rate of creep is non-linearly dependent on the applied stresses. Granular creep can explain slow glacial...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hu, Dao-chun [College of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); College of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Taizhou Vocational & Technical College, Taizhou 318000 (China); Chen, Ming-he, E-mail: meemhchen@nuaa.edu.cn [College of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); Wang, Lei; Cheng, Hu [College of Mechanical Engineering, Taizhou University, Taizhou 318000 (China)
2016-01-01
High speed stamping process is used to high strength and high electrical conductivity phosphor bronze with extremely high strain rates more than 10{sup 3} s{sup −1}. This study on the dynamic tensile behaviour and deformational mechanism is to optimise the high speed stamping processes and improve geometrical precision in finished products. Thus, the tensile properties and deformation behaviour of C5191 phosphor bronze under quasi-static tensile condition at a strain rate of 0.001 s{sup −1} by electronic universal testing machine, and dynamic tensile condition at strain rate of 500, 1000 and 1500 s{sup −1} by split Hopkinson tensile bar (SHTB) apparatus were studied. The effects of strain rate and the deformation mechanism were investigated by means of SEM and TEM. The results showed that the yield strength and tensile strength of C5191 phosphor bronze under high strain rates deformation increased by 32.77% and 11.07% respectively compared with quasi-static condition, the strain hardening index increases from 0.075 to 0.251, and the strength of the material strain rates sensitivity index change from 0.005 to 0.022, which presented a clear sensitive to strain rates. Therefore, it is claimed that the dominant deformation mechanism was changed by the dislocation motion under different strain rates, and the ability of plastic deformation of C5191 phosphor bronze increased due to the number of movable dislocations increased significantly, started multi-line slip, and the soft effect of adiabatic temperature rise at the strain rate ranging from 500 to 1500 s{sup −1}.
Optimum Control for Nonlinear Dynamic Radial Deformation of Turbine Casing with Time-Varying LSSVM
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cheng-Wei Fei
2015-01-01
Full Text Available With the development of the high performance and high reliability of aeroengine, the blade-tip radial running clearance (BTRRC of high pressure turbine seriously influences the reliability and performance of aeroengine, wherein the radial deformation control of turbine casing has to be concerned in BTRRC design. To improve BTRRC design, the optimum control-based probabilistic optimization of turbine casing radial deformation was implemented using time-varying least square support vector machine (T-LSSVM by considering nonlinear material properties and dynamic thermal load. First the T-LSSVM method was proposed and its mathematical model was established. And then the nonlinear dynamic optimal control model of casing radial deformation was constructed with T-LSSVM. Thirdly, through the numerical experiments, the T-LSSVM method is demonstrated to be a promising approach in reducing additional design samples and improving computational efficiency with acceptable computational precision. Through the optimum control-based probabilistic optimization for nonlinear dynamic radial turbine casing deformation, the optimum radial deformation is 7.865 × 10−4 m with acceptable reliability degree 0.995 6, which is reduced by 7.86 × 10−5 m relative to that before optimization. These results validate the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed T-LSSVM method, which provides a useful insight into casing radial deformation, BTRRC control, and the development of gas turbine with high performance and high reliability.
Coordination of Cellular Dynamics Contributes to Tooth Epithelium Deformations
Morita, Ritsuko; Kihira, Miho; Nakatsu, Yousuke; Nomoto, Yohei; Ogawa, Miho; Ohashi, Kazumasa; Mizuno, Kensaku; Tachikawa, Tetsuhiko; Ishimoto, Yukitaka; Morishita, Yoshihiro; Tsuji, Takashi
2016-01-01
The morphologies of ectodermal organs are shaped by appropriate combinations of several deformation modes, such as invagination and anisotropic tissue elongation. However, how multicellular dynamics are coordinated during deformation processes remains to be elucidated. Here, we developed a four-dimensional (4D) analysis system for tracking cell movement and division at a single-cell resolution in developing tooth epithelium. The expression patterns of a Fucci probe clarified the region- and stage-specific cell cycle patterns within the tooth germ, which were in good agreement with the pattern of the volume growth rate estimated from tissue-level deformation analysis. Cellular motility was higher in the regions with higher growth rates, while the mitotic orientation was significantly biased along the direction of tissue elongation in the epithelium. Further, these spatio-temporal patterns of cellular dynamics and tissue-level deformation were highly correlated with that of the activity of cofilin, which is an actin depolymerization factor, suggesting that the coordination of cellular dynamics via actin remodeling plays an important role in tooth epithelial morphogenesis. Our system enhances the understanding of how cellular behaviors are coordinated during ectodermal organogenesis, which cannot be observed from histological analyses. PMID:27588418
Microstructure evolution during dynamic recrystallization of hot deformed superalloy 718
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Y.; Shao, W.Z.; Zhen, L.; Zhang, X.M.
2008-01-01
Microstructure evolution during dynamic recrystallization (DRX) of superalloy 718 was studied by optical microscope and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) technique. Compression tests were performed at different strains at temperatures from 950 deg. C to 1120 deg. C with a strain rate of 10 -1 s -1 . Microstructure observations show that the recrystallized grain size as well as the fraction of new grains increases with the increasing temperature. A power exponent relationship is obtained between the dynamically recrystallized grain size and the peak stress. It is found that different nucleation mechanisms for DRX are operated in hot deformed superalloy 718, which is closely related to deformation temperatures. DRX nucleation and development are discussed in consideration of subgrain rotation or twinning taking place near the original grain boundaries. Particular attention is also paid to the role of continuous dynamic recrystallization (CDRX) at both higher and lower temperatures
A deformable bag model of hadrons, 1
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ui, Haruo; Saito, Koich
1983-01-01
As a generalization of the MIT spherical bag model, we construct the spheroidal bag model of hadron with an arbitrary eccentricity. This generalization is made by slightly modifying the MIT linear boundary condition: The linear boundary condition is examined in detail. Our model always satisfies two necessary requirements of the MIT bag model - i.e., n.j = 0, no quark colour flux leaves the bag, and q-barq = 0, the scalar density of quark should vanish on the bag surface- and it reduces to the MIT spherical bag model in the limit of zero-eccentricity. Lagrangian formalism of our model is briefly described. The eigenfrequencies of a single massless quark confined in this spheroidal bag are numerically calculated. We obtain the level-splitting of the excited quark orbits, which is just analogous to the well-known Nilsson's splitting of single particle orbits in deformed nuclei. By using the numerical results of the lowest orbit, the effect of the bag-deformation on the mass of low-lying hadrons is estimated. It is found that, although the spherical bag is stable, the quark bag is extremely soft against the quadrupole deformation. Brief discussions are added on the mechanisms which make the spherical bag more stable. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prentice, H. J.; Proud, W. G.
2006-01-01
A technique has been developed to determine experimentally the three-dimensional displacement field on the rear surface of a dynamically deforming plate. The technique combines speckle analysis with stereoscopy, using a modified angular-lens method: this incorporates split-frame photography and a simple method by which the effective lens separation can be adjusted and calibrated in situ. Whilst several analytical models exist to predict deformation in extended or semi-infinite targets, the non-trivial nature of the wave interactions complicates the generation and development of analytical models for targets of finite depth. By interrogating specimens experimentally to acquire three-dimensional strain data points, both analytical and numerical model predictions can be verified more rigorously. The technique is applied to the quasi-static deformation of a rubber sheet and dynamically to Mild Steel sheets of various thicknesses
Dynamic Sensing of Cornea Deformation during an Air Puff
Yamada, Kenji; Yamasaki, Naoyuki; Gosho, Takumi; Kiuchi, Yoshiaki; Takenaka, Jouji; Higashimori, Mitsuru; Kaneko, Makoto
In early diagnosis of glancoma, intraocular pressure measurement is one of an important method. Non-contact method has measured eye pressure through the deformation of cornea during the increase of the force due to air puff. The deformation is influenced by the cornea stiffness as well as the eye internal pressure. Since the cornea stiffness is unknown in general, it is difficult to evaluate the ture eye pressure. The dynamic behavior of cornea under air puff may provide us with a good hint for evaluating the cornea stiffness appropriately. For this purpose, we develop the sensing system composed of a high speed camera, a mirror for producing a virtual camera, a non-contact tonometer and a slit light source. This system enables us to measure the cornea deformation under concave shape. We show the experimental data for human eyes as well as an artificial eye made by transparent material.
Planar dynamics of large-deformation rods under moving loads
Zhao, X. W.; van der Heijden, G. H. M.
2018-01-01
We formulate the problem of a slender structure (a rod) undergoing large deformation under the action of a moving mass or load motivated by inspection robots crawling along bridge cables or high-voltage power lines. The rod is described by means of geometrically exact Cosserat theory which allows for arbitrary planar flexural, extensional and shear deformations. The equations of motion are discretised using the generalised-α method. The formulation is shown to handle the discontinuities of the problem well. Application of the method to a cable and an arch problem reveals interesting nonlinear phenomena. For the cable problem we find that large deformations have a resonance detuning effect on cable dynamics. The problem also offers a compelling illustration of the Timoshenko paradox. For the arch problem we find a stabilising (delay) effect on the in-plane collapse of the arch, with failure suppressed entirely at sufficiently high speed.
q-deformed Weinberg-Salam model and q-deformed Maxwell equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alavi, S.A.; Sarbishaei, M.; Mokhtari, A.
2000-01-01
We study the q-deformation of the gauge part of the Weinberg-Salam model and show that the q-deformed theory involves new interactions. We then obtain q-deformed Maxwell equations from which magnetic monopoles appear naturally. (author)
Sequence-dependent DNA deformability studied using molecular dynamics simulations.
Fujii, Satoshi; Kono, Hidetoshi; Takenaka, Shigeori; Go, Nobuhiro; Sarai, Akinori
2007-01-01
Proteins recognize specific DNA sequences not only through direct contact between amino acids and bases, but also indirectly based on the sequence-dependent conformation and deformability of the DNA (indirect readout). We used molecular dynamics simulations to analyze the sequence-dependent DNA conformations of all 136 possible tetrameric sequences sandwiched between CGCG sequences. The deformability of dimeric steps obtained by the simulations is consistent with that by the crystal structures. The simulation results further showed that the conformation and deformability of the tetramers can highly depend on the flanking base pairs. The conformations of xATx tetramers show the most rigidity and are not affected by the flanking base pairs and the xYRx show by contrast the greatest flexibility and change their conformations depending on the base pairs at both ends, suggesting tetramers with the same central dimer can show different deformabilities. These results suggest that analysis of dimeric steps alone may overlook some conformational features of DNA and provide insight into the mechanism of indirect readout during protein-DNA recognition. Moreover, the sequence dependence of DNA conformation and deformability may be used to estimate the contribution of indirect readout to the specificity of protein-DNA recognition as well as nucleosome positioning and large-scale behavior of nucleic acids.
Numerical model for the deformation of nucleated cells by optical stretchers
Sraj, Ihab; Francois, Joshua; Marr, David W M; Eggleton, Charles D.
2015-01-01
In this paper, we seek to numerically study the deformation of nucleated cells by single diode-laser bar optical stretchers. We employ a recently developed computational model, the dynamic ray-tracing method, to determine the force distribution
Modeling plasticity by non-continuous deformation
Ben-Shmuel, Yaron; Altus, Eli
2017-10-01
Plasticity and failure theories are still subjects of intense research. Engineering constitutive models on the macroscale which are based on micro characteristics are very much in need. This study is motivated by the observation that continuum assumptions in plasticity in which neighbour material elements are inseparable at all-time are physically impossible, since local detachments, slips and neighbour switching must operate, i.e. non-continuous deformation. Material microstructure is modelled herein by a set of point elements (particles) interacting with their neighbours. Each particle can detach from and/or attach with its neighbours during deformation. Simulations on two- dimensional configurations subjected to uniaxial compression cycle are conducted. Stochastic heterogeneity is controlled by a single "disorder" parameter. It was found that (a) macro response resembles typical elasto-plastic behaviour; (b) plastic energy is proportional to the number of detachments; (c) residual plastic strain is proportional to the number of attachments, and (d) volume is preserved, which is consistent with macro plastic deformation. Rigid body displacements of local groups of elements are also observed. Higher disorder decreases the macro elastic moduli and increases plastic energy. Evolution of anisotropic effects is obtained with no additional parameters.
Deformations of Geometric Structures in Topological Sigma Models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bytsenko, A. A.
2010-01-01
We study a Lie algebra of formal vector fields W n with it application to the perturbative deformed holomorphic symplectic structure in the A-model, and a Calabi-Yau manifold with boundaries in the B-model. We show that equivalent classes of deformations are described by a Hochschild cohomology of the DG-algebra A = (A,Q), Q = ∂-bar+∂ deform, which is defined to be the cohomology of (-1) n Q+d Hoch . Here ∂-bar is the initial non-deformed BRST operator while ∂ deform is the deformed part whose algebra is a Lie algebra of linear vector fields gl n .
A General Polygon-based Deformable Model for Object Recognition
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Rune Fisker; Carstensen, Jens Michael
1999-01-01
We propose a general scheme for object localization and recognition based on a deformable model. The model combines shape and image properties by warping a arbitrary prototype intensity template according to the deformation in shape. The shape deformations are constrained by a probabilistic distr...
Dynamic Landslide Deformation Monitoring with Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors
Moore, J. R.; Gischig, V.; Button, E.; Loew, S.
2009-12-01
Fiber optic (FO) strain sensors are a promising new technology for in-situ landslide monitoring. General performance advantages include high resolution, fast sampling rate, and insensitivity to electrical disturbances. Here we describe a new FO monitoring system based on long-gage fiber Bragg grating sensors installed at the Randa Rockslide Laboratory in southern Switzerland. We highlight the advantages and disadvantages of the system, describe relevant first results, and compare FO data to that from traditional instruments already installed on site. The Randa rock slope has been the subject of intensive research since its failure in 1991. Around 5 million cubic meters of rock remains unstable today, moving at rates up to 20 mm / year. Traditional in-situ monitoring techniques have been employed to understand the mechanics and driving forces of the currently unstable rock mass, however these investigations are limited by the resolution and low sampling rate of the sensors. The new FO monitoring system has micro-strain resolution and offers the capability to detect sub-micrometer scale deformations in both triggered-dynamic and continuous measurements. Two types of sensors have been installed: fully-embedded borehole sensors encased in grout at depths of 38, 40, and 68 m, and surface extensometers spanning active tension cracks. Dynamic measurements are triggered by sensor deformation and recorded at 100 Hz, while continuous measurements are logged every 5 minutes. Since installation in August 2008, the FO monitoring system has been operational 90% of the time. Time series deformation data show movement rates consistent with previous borehole extensometer surveys. Accelerated displacements following installation are likely related to long-term curing and dewatering of the grout. A number of interesting transients have been recorded, which in some cases were large enough to trigger rapid sampling. The combination of short- and long-term observation offers new
Modeling knee joint endoprosthesis mode of deformation
Skeeba, V. Yu; Ivancivsky, V. V.
2018-03-01
The purpose of the work was to define the efficient design of the endoprosthesis, working in a multiple-cycle loading environment. Methodology and methods: triangulated surfaces of the base contact surfaces of endoprosthesis butt elements have been created using the PowerShape and SolidWorks software functional environment, and the assemblies of the possible combinations of the knee joint prosthetic designs have been prepared. The mode of deformation modeling took place in the multipurpose program complex ANSYS. Results and discussion: as a result of the numerical modeling, the following data were obtained for each of the developed knee joint versions: the distribution fields of absolute (total) and relative deformations; equivalent stress distribution fields; fatigue strength coefficient distribution fields. In the course of the studies, the following efficient design assembly has been established: 1) Ti-Al-V alloy composite femoral component with polymer inserts; 2) ceramic liners of the compound separator; 3) a Ti-Al-V alloy composite tibial component. The fatigue strength coefficient for the femoral component is 4.2; for the femoral component polymer inserts is 1.2; for the ceramic liners of the compound separator is 3.1; for the tibial component is 2.7. This promising endoprosthesis structure is recommended for further design and technological development.
Modelling Polymer Deformation during 3D Printing
McIlroy, Claire; Olmsted, Peter
Three-dimensional printing has the potential to transform manufacturing processes, yet improving the strength of printed parts, to equal that of traditionally-manufactured parts, remains an underlying issue. The fused deposition modelling technique involves melting a thermoplastic, followed by layer-by-layer extrusion to fabricate an object. The key to ensuring strength at the weld between layers is successful inter-diffusion. However, prior to welding, both the extrusion process and the cooling temperature profile can significantly deform the polymer micro-structure and, consequently, how well the polymers are able to ``re-entangle'' across the weld. In particular, polymer alignment in the flow can cause de-bonding of the layers and create defects. We have developed a simple model of the non-isothermal extrusion process to explore the effects that typical printing conditions and material rheology have on the conformation of a polymer melt. In particular, we incorporate both stretch and orientation using the Rolie-Poly constitutive equation to examine the melt structure as it flows through the nozzle, the subsequent alignment with the build plate and the resulting deformation due to the fixed nozzle height, which is typically less than the nozzle radius.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sun, Y.J.; Huang, Y.H.; Ma, F.; Ma, D.Y.; Hu, T.W.; Xu, K.W.
2014-01-01
Highlights: • Molecular dynamics simulation was performed to study the deformation behaviors of Zigzag Graphene Nano-Ribbons (ZGNRs). • The “phase transformation” from hexagonal to quasi-rectangular and the subsequent second elastic deformation were observed. • Related thermal effects model was built to predict fracture strain of ZGNRs, and was consistent with simulation results. -- Abstract: Molecular dynamics simulation was performed to study the deformation behaviors of Zigzag Graphene Nano-Ribbons (ZGNRs) 150 Å × 150 Å in size, and double-elastic deformation was observed at temperatures lower than 90 K. Essentially, at such a low temperature, the lattice vibration was significantly weakened and thus the lifetime of C-C bonds was prolonged considerably. Moreover, it was difficult for broken bonds to accumulate and resulted in the destructive fracture of ZGNRs at low temperature. As a result, the “phase transformation” from hexagonal to quasi-rectangular and subsequently the second elastic deformation took place. However, at higher temperatures, says, 300 K, brittle fracture was observed and the fracture strength decreased with temperature, which was consistent with previously reported results. Additionally at higher strain rate, the atoms could not respond to the external loading in time, the fracture strain and fracture strength were enhanced
Observing earthquakes triggered in the near field by dynamic deformations
Gomberg, J.; Bodin, P.; Reasenberg, P.A.
2003-01-01
We examine the hypothesis that dynamic deformations associated with seismic waves trigger earthquakes in many tectonic environments. Our analysis focuses on seismicity at close range (within the aftershock zone), complementing published studies of long-range triggering. Our results suggest that dynamic triggering is not confined to remote distances or to geothermal and volcanic regions. Long unilaterally propagating ruptures may focus radiated dynamic deformations in the propagation direction. Therefore, we expect seismicity triggered dynamically by a directive rupture to occur asymmetrically, with a majority of triggered earthquakes in the direction of rupture propagation. Bilaterally propagating ruptures also may be directive, and we propose simple criteria for assessing their directivity. We compare the inferred rupture direction and observed seismicity rate change following 15 earthquakes (M 5.7 to M 8.1) that occured in California and Idaho in the United States, the Gulf of Aqaba, Syria, Guatemala, China, New Guinea, Turkey, Japan, Mexico, and Antarctica. Nine of these mainshocks had clearly directive, unilateral ruptures. Of these nine, seven apparently induced an asymmetric increase in seismicity rate that correlates with the rupture direction. The two exceptions include an earthquake preceded by a comparable-magnitude event on a conjugate fault and another for which data limitations prohibited conclusive results. Similar (but weaker) correlations were found for the bilaterally rupturing earthquakes we studied. Although the static stress change also may trigger seismicity, it and the seismicity it triggers are expected to be similarly asymmetric only if the final slip is skewed toward the rupture terminus. For several of the directive earthquakes, we suggest that the seismicity rate change correlates better with the dynamic stress field than the static stress change.
Jafarian, Yaser; Ghorbani, Ali; Ahmadi, Omid
2014-09-01
Lateral deformation of liquefiable soil is a cause of much damage during earthquakes, reportedly more than other forms of liquefaction-induced ground failures. Researchers have presented studies in which the liquefied soil is considered as viscous fluid. In this manner, the liquefied soil behaves as non-Newtonian fluid, whose viscosity decreases as the shear strain rate increases. The current study incorporates computational fluid dynamics to propose a simplified dynamic analysis for the liquefaction-induced lateral deformation of earth slopes. The numerical procedure involves a quasi-linear elastic model for small to moderate strains and a Bingham fluid model for large strain states during liquefaction. An iterative procedure is considered to estimate the strain-compatible shear stiffness of soil. The post-liquefaction residual strength of soil is considered as the initial Bingham viscosity. Performance of the numerical procedure is examined by using the results of centrifuge model and shaking table tests together with some field observations of lateral ground deformation. The results demonstrate that the proposed procedure predicts the time history of lateral ground deformation with a reasonable degree of precision.
Modelling of deformation and recrystallisation microstructures in rocks and ice
Bons, Paul D.; Evans, Lynn A.; Gomez-Rivas, Enrique; Griera, Albert; Jessell, Mark W.; Lebensohn, Ricardo; Llorens, Maria-Gema; Peternell, Mark; Piazolo, Sandra; Weikusat, Ilka; Wilson, Chris J. L.
2015-04-01
Microstructures both record the deformation history of a rock and strongly control its mechanical properties. As microstructures in natural rocks only show the final "post-mortem" state, geologists have attempted to simulate the development of microstructures with experiments and later numerical models. Especially in-situ experiments have given enormous insight, as time-lapse movies could reveal the full history of a microstructure. Numerical modelling is an alternative approach to simulate and follow the change in microstructure with time, unconstrained by experimental limitations. Numerical models have been applied to a range of microstructural processes, such as grain growth, dynamic recrystallisation, porphyroblast rotation, vein growth, formation of mylonitic fabrics, etc. The numerical platform "Elle" (www.elle.ws) in particular has brought progress in the simulation of microstructural development as it is specifically designed to include the competition between simultaneously operating processes. Three developments significantly improve our capability to simulate microstructural evolution: (1) model input from the mapping of crystallographic orientation with EBSD or the automatic fabric analyser, (2) measurement of grain size and crystallographic preferred orientation evolution using neutron diffraction experiments and (3) the implementation of the full-field Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) solver for modelling anisotropic crystal-plastic deformation. The latter enables the detailed modelling of stress and strain as a function of local crystallographic orientation, which has a strong effect on strain localisation such as, for example, the formation of shear bands. These models can now be compared with the temporal evolution of crystallographic orientation distributions in in-situ experiments. In the last decade, the possibility to combine experiments with numerical simulations has allowed not only verification and refinement of the numerical simulation
Linking plate reconstructions with deforming lithosphere to geodynamic models
Müller, R. D.; Gurnis, M.; Flament, N.; Seton, M.; Spasojevic, S.; Williams, S.; Zahirovic, S.
2011-12-01
define the thickness of the thermal lithosphere for different continental types, with the exception of the deforming areas that are fully dynamic. Finally, we introduce a "slab assimilation" method in which the thermal structure of the slab, derived analytically, is progressively assimilated into the upper mantle through time. This method not only improves the continuity of slabs in forward models with imposed plate motions, but it also allows us to model flat slab segments that are particularly relevant for understanding dynamic surface topography. When it comes to post-processing and visualisation, GPlates allows the user to import time-dependent model output image stacks to visualise mantle properties (e.g. temperature) at a given depth through time, with plate boundaries and other data attached to plates overlain. This approach provides an avenue to simultaneously investigate the contributions of lithospheric deformation and mantle flow to surface topography. Currently GPlates is being used in conjunction with the codes CitcomS, Terra, BEMEarth and the adaptive mesh refinement code Rhea. A GPlates python plugin infrastructure makes it easy to extend interoperability with other geodynamic modelling codes.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yan, Yang; Yong-Liang, Yu; Bing-Gang, Tong; Guan-Hao, Wu
2008-01-01
We present (1) the dynamical equations of deforming body and (2) an integrated method for deforming body dynamics and unsteady fluid dynamics, to investigate a modelled freely self-propelled fish. The theoretical model and practical method is applicable for studies on the general mechanics of animal locomotion such as flying in air and swimming in water, particularly of free self-propulsion. The present results behave more credibly than the previous numerical studies and are close to the experimental results, and the aligned vortices pattern is discovered in cruising swimming
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wolf, D.; Yamakov, V.; Phillpot, S.R.; Mukherjee, A.; Gleiter, H.
2005-01-01
We review the results of recent molecular-dynamics simulations of the structure and deformation behavior of nanocrystalline materials, i.e., polycrystalline materials with a grain size of typically less than about 100 nm. These simulations have now become large enough and sophisticated enough that they are beginning to cover the entire range of grain sizes over which the experimentally suggested transition from a dislocation-based deformation mechanism to one involving GB processes takes place. Their atomic-level resolution provides novel insights into the intricate interplay between the dislocation and GB processes responsible for this crossover. These simulations also reveal how and why this crossover in the dominant mechanism leads to a transition in the mechanical behavior. However, in spite of these early successes, these simulations are inherently limited to rather idealized model microstructures and extremely high deformation rates. We therefore address the critical question as to the degree to which they begin to capture the experimentally observed, albeit controversial, deformation behavior of real nanocrystalline materials. (Supplementary material to this article, in the form of color graphs of some of the figures and several deformation-simulation movies, can be viewed at http://phillpot.mse.ufl.edu/review.html.)
Evolution of oxide nanoparticles during dynamic plastic deformation of ODS steel
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhang, Zhenbo; Mishin, Oleg; Tao, Nairong
2014-01-01
The microstructure as well as the deformation behavior of oxide nanoparticles has been analyzed in the ferritic ODS steel PM2000 after compression by dynamic plastic deformation (DPD) to different strains. A dislocation cell structure forms after deformation to a strain of 1.0. DPD to a strain of 2...
Soliton-like excitations in a deformable spin model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nguenang, Jean-Pierre; Kenfack, Aurelien J; Kofane, Timoleon C
2004-01-01
Nonlinear excitations in a one-dimensional deformable, discrete, classical, ferromagnetic chain are numerically investigated. In the continuum limit the equations of motion are reduced to a Klein-Gordon equation, with a Remoissenet-Peyrard substrate potential. From a numerical computation of the discrete system with a suitable choice of the deformability parameters, the soliton solutions are shown to exist and move both with a monotonic oscillating (i.e. nanopteron) and a monotonic nonoscillating tail, and also with a non-oscillating tail but with a splitting propagating shape. The stability of all these various soliton shapes is confirmed numerically in a range of the reduced magnetic fields greater than for a rigid magnetic chain i.e. 0 ≤ b ≤0.33. From a kink-antikink and a kink-kink colliding simulation, we found various effects, including a bound state of a kink and an antikink, as well as a moving kink profile with higher topological charge that appears to be the bound state of two kinks. For some values of the deformability parameter, with a suitable choice of the initial velocity, we observed that the presence of an internal mode leads to the combination of an attractive and a repulsive phenomenon, that arises when the kink-kink collision is engaged. The fact that this collision happens only in the centre of the magnetic chain with the presence of a minimal distance between the two kinks as long as the collision is produced is also a feature of the deformability effect in the dynamics of a magnetic chain. From our results, it appears that the value of the shape parameter of the substrate potential or the modified Zeeman energy is a factor of utmost importance when modelling magnetic chains
ACCUMULATED DEFORMATION MODELING OF PERMANENT WAY BASED ON ENTROPY SYSTEM
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. M. Kurhan
2015-07-01
Full Text Available Purpose. The work provides a theoretical research about the possibility of using methods that determine the lifetime of a railway track not only in terms of total stresses, and accounting its structure and dynamic characteristics. The aim of these studies is creation the model of deformations accumulation for assessment of service life of a railway track taking into account these features. Methodology. To simulate a gradual change state during the operation (accumulation of deformations the railway track is presented as a system that consists of many particles of different materials collected in a coherent design. It is appropriate to speak not about the appearance of deformations of a certain size in a certain section of the track, and the probability of such event on the site. If to operate the probability of occurrence of deviations, comfortable state of the system is characterized by the number of breaks of the conditional internal connections. The same state of the system may correspond to different combinations of breaks. The more breaks, the more the number of options changes in the structure of the system appropriate to its current state. Such a process can be represented as a gradual transition from an ordered state to a chaotic one. To describe the characteristics of the system used the numerical value of the entropy. Findings. Its entropy is constantly increasing at system aging. The growth of entropy is expressed by changes in the internal energy of the system, which can be determined using mechanical work forces, which leads to deformation. This gives the opportunity to show quantitative indication of breaking the bonds in the system as a consequence of performing mechanical work. According to the results of theoretical research methods for estimation of the timing of life cycles of railway operation considering such factors as the structure of the flow of trains, construction of the permanent way, the movement of trains at high
Dynamic visual cryptography on deformable finite element grids
Aleksiene, S.; Vaidelys, M.; Aleksa, A.; Ragulskis, M.
2017-07-01
Dynamic visual cryptography scheme based on time averaged moiré fringes on deformable finite element grids is introduced in this paper. A predefined Eigenshape function is used for the selection of the pitch of the moiré grating. The relationship between the pitch of moiré grating, the roots of the zero order Bessel function of the first kind and the amplitude of harmonic oscillations is derived and validated by computational experiments. Phase regularization algorithm is used in the entire area of the cover image in order to embed the secret image and to avoid large fluctuations of the moiré grating. Computational simulations are used to demonstrate the efficiency and the applicability of the proposed image hiding technique.
Soft tissue deformation for surgical simulation: a position-based dynamics approach.
Camara, Mafalda; Mayer, Erik; Darzi, Ara; Pratt, Philip
2016-06-01
To assist the rehearsal and planning of robot-assisted partial nephrectomy, a real-time simulation platform is presented that allows surgeons to visualise and interact with rapidly constructed patient-specific biomechanical models of the anatomical regions of interest. Coupled to a framework for volumetric deformation, the platform furthermore simulates intracorporeal 2D ultrasound image acquisition, using preoperative imaging as the data source. This not only facilitates the planning of optimal transducer trajectories and viewpoints, but can also act as a validation context for manually operated freehand 3D acquisitions and reconstructions. The simulation platform was implemented within the GPU-accelerated NVIDIA FleX position-based dynamics framework. In order to validate the model and determine material properties and other simulation parameter values, a porcine kidney with embedded fiducial beads was CT-scanned and segmented. Acquisitions for the rest position and three different levels of probe-induced deformation were collected. Optimal values of the cluster stiffness coefficients were determined for a range of different particle radii, where the objective function comprised the mean distance error between real and simulated fiducial positions over the sequence of deformations. The mean fiducial error at each deformation stage was found to be compatible with the level of ultrasound probe calibration error typically observed in clinical practice. Furthermore, the simulation exhibited unconditional stability on account of its use of clustered shape-matching constraints. A novel position-based dynamics implementation of soft tissue deformation has been shown to facilitate several desirable simulation characteristics: real-time performance, unconditional stability, rapid model construction enabling patient-specific behaviour and accuracy with respect to reference CT images.
Comparative Analysis of Bulge Deformation between 2D and 3D Finite Element Models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qin Qin
2014-02-01
Full Text Available Bulge deformation of the slab is one of the main factors that affect slab quality in continuous casting. This paper describes an investigation into bulge deformation using ABAQUS to model the solidification process. A three-dimensional finite element analysis model of the slab solidification process has been first established because the bulge deformation is closely related to slab temperature distributions. Based on slab temperature distributions, a three-dimensional thermomechanical coupling model including the slab, the rollers, and the dynamic contact between them has also been constructed and applied to a case study. The thermomechanical coupling model produces outputs such as the rules of bulge deformation. Moreover, the three-dimensional model has been compared with a two-dimensional model to discuss the differences between the two models in calculating the bulge deformation. The results show that the platform zone exists in the wide side of the slab and the bulge deformation is affected strongly by the ratio of width-to-thickness. The indications are also that the difference of the bulge deformation for the two modeling ways is little when the ratio of width-to-thickness is larger than six.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Desbat, L. [Universite Joseph Fourier, UMR CNRS 5525, 38 - Grenoble (France); Roux, S. [Universite Joseph Fourier, TIMC-IMAG, In3S, Faculte de Medecine, 38 - Grenoble (France)]|[CEA Grenoble, Lab. d' Electronique et de Technologie de l' Informatique (LETI), 38 (France); Grangeat, P. [CEA Grenoble, Lab. d' Electronique et de Technologie de l' Informatique (LETI), 38 (France)
2005-07-01
This work is a contribution to the compensation of motion in tomography. New classes of deformation are proposed, that compensates analytically by an algorithm of a F.B.P. type reconstruction. This work makes a generalisation of the known results for affine deformations, in parallel geometry and fan-beam, to deformation classes of infinite dimension able to include strong non linearities. (N.C.)
Preliminary deformation model for National Seismic Hazard map of Indonesia
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Meilano, Irwan; Gunawan, Endra; Sarsito, Dina; Prijatna, Kosasih; Abidin, Hasanuddin Z. [Geodesy Research Division, Faculty of Earth Science and Technology, Institute of Technology Bandung (Indonesia); Susilo,; Efendi, Joni [Agency for Geospatial Information (BIG) (Indonesia)
2015-04-24
Preliminary deformation model for the Indonesia’s National Seismic Hazard (NSH) map is constructed as the block rotation and strain accumulation function at the elastic half-space. Deformation due to rigid body motion is estimated by rotating six tectonic blocks in Indonesia. The interseismic deformation due to subduction is estimated by assuming coupling on subduction interface while deformation at active fault is calculated by assuming each of the fault‘s segment slips beneath a locking depth or in combination with creeping in a shallower part. This research shows that rigid body motion dominates the deformation pattern with magnitude more than 15 mm/year, except in the narrow area near subduction zones and active faults where significant deformation reach to 25 mm/year.
Intruder level and deformation in SD-pair shell model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Luo Yan'an; Ning Pingzhi; Pan Feng
2004-01-01
The influence of intruder level on nuclear deformation is studied within the framework of the nucleon-pair shell model truncated to an SD-pair subspace. The results suggest that the intruder level has a tendency to reduce the deformation and plays an important role in determining the onset of rotational behavior. (authors)
Deformations of vector-scalar models
Barnich, Glenn; Boulanger, Nicolas; Henneaux, Marc; Julia, Bernard; Lekeu, Victor; Ranjbar, Arash
2018-02-01
Abelian vector fields non-minimally coupled to uncharged scalar fields arise in many contexts. We investigate here through algebraic methods their consistent deformations ("gaugings"), i.e., the deformations that preserve the number (but not necessarily the form or the algebra) of the gauge symmetries. Infinitesimal consistent deformations are given by the BRST cohomology classes at ghost number zero. We parametrize explicitly these classes in terms of various types of global symmetries and corresponding Noether currents through the characteristic cohomology related to antifields and equations of motion. The analysis applies to all ghost numbers and not just ghost number zero. We also provide a systematic discussion of the linear and quadratic constraints on these parameters that follow from higher-order consistency. Our work is relevant to the gaugings of extended supergravities.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stelian Alaci
2014-06-01
Full Text Available The dynamical behavior study of robotic systems is obtained using multibody dynamics method. The joints met in robots are modeled in different manners. In a robotic joint the energy is lost via hysteretic work and plastic deformation work. The paper presents a comparative study for the results obtained by integration of the equations defining two limit models which describe the impact between two robot parts, modeled by the centric collision between two spheres with loss of energy. The motion equations characteristic for the two models are integrated and for a tangible situation, are presented comparatively, for different values of the coefficient of restitution, the time dependencies of impacting force between the two bodies as well as the hysteresis loops. Finally, an evaluation of the lost work during impact, for the whole range of coefficients of restitution, is completed, together with characteristic parameters of collision: approaching period, complete contact time, maximum approaching and plastic imprint.
Aleksandrov, A. S.; Dolgih, G. V.; Kalinin, A. L.
2017-11-01
It is established that under the influence of repeated loads the process of plastic deformation in soils and discrete materials is hereditary. To perform the mathematical modeling of plastic deformation, the authors applied the integral equation by solution of which they manage to obtain the power and logarithmic dependencies connecting plastic deformation with the number of repeated loads, the parameters of the material and components of the stress tensor in the principal axes. It is shown that these dependences generalize a number of models proposed earlier in Russia and abroad. Based on the analysis of the experimental data obtained during material testing in the dynamic devices of triaxial compression at different values of the stress deviator, the coefficients in the proposed models of deformation are determined. The authors determined the application domain for logarithmic and degree dependences.
Complex structure-induced deformations of σ-models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bykov, Dmitri [Max-Planck-Institut für Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Institut,Am Mühlenberg 1, D-14476 Potsdam-Golm (Germany); Steklov Mathematical Institute of Russ. Acad. Sci.,Gubkina str. 8, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation)
2017-03-24
We describe a deformation of the principal chiral model (with an even-dimensional target space G) by a B-field proportional to the Kähler form on the target space. The equations of motion of the deformed model admit a zero-curvature representation. As a simplest example, we consider the case of G=S{sup 1}×S{sup 3}. We also apply a variant of the construction to a deformation of the AdS{sub 3}×S{sup 3}×S{sup 1} (super-)σ-model.
New deformation model of grain boundary strengthening in polycrystalline metals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Trefilov, V.I.; Moiseev, V.F.; Pechkovskij, Eh.P.
1988-01-01
A new model explaining grain boundary strengthening in polycrystalline metals and alloys by strain hardening due to localization of plastic deformation in narrow bands near grain boundaries is suggested. Occurrence of localized deformation is caused by different flow stresses in grains of different orientation. A new model takes into account the active role of stress concentrator, independence of the strengthening coefficient on deformation, influence of segregations. Successful use of the model suggested for explanation of rhenium effect in molybdenum and tungsten is alloys pointed out
3D video-based deformation measurement of the pelvis bone under dynamic cyclic loading
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Freslier Marie
2011-07-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Dynamic three-dimensional (3D deformation of the pelvic bones is a crucial factor in the successful design and longevity of complex orthopaedic oncological implants. The current solutions are often not very promising for the patient; thus it would be interesting to measure the dynamic 3D-deformation of the whole pelvic bone in order to get a more realistic dataset for a better implant design. Therefore we hypothesis if it would be possible to combine a material testing machine with a 3D video motion capturing system, used in clinical gait analysis, to measure the sub millimetre deformation of a whole pelvis specimen. Method A pelvis specimen was placed in a standing position on a material testing machine. Passive reflective markers, traceable by the 3D video motion capturing system, were fixed to the bony surface of the pelvis specimen. While applying a dynamic sinusoidal load the 3D-movement of the markers was recorded by the cameras and afterwards the 3D-deformation of the pelvis specimen was computed. The accuracy of the 3D-movement of the markers was verified with 3D-displacement curve with a step function using a manual driven 3D micro-motion-stage. Results The resulting accuracy of the measurement system depended on the number of cameras tracking a marker. The noise level for a marker seen by two cameras was during the stationary phase of the calibration procedure ± 0.036 mm, and ± 0.022 mm if tracked by 6 cameras. The detectable 3D-movement performed by the 3D-micro-motion-stage was smaller than the noise level of the 3D-video motion capturing system. Therefore the limiting factor of the setup was the noise level, which resulted in a measurement accuracy for the dynamic test setup of ± 0.036 mm. Conclusion This 3D test setup opens new possibilities in dynamic testing of wide range materials, like anatomical specimens, biomaterials, and its combinations. The resulting 3D-deformation dataset can be used for a better
Investigation of deformation mechanisms of staggered nanocomposites using molecular dynamics
Mathiazhagan, S.; Anup, S.
2016-08-01
Biological materials with nanostructure of regularly or stair-wise staggered arrangements of hard platelets reinforced in a soft protein matrix have superior mechanical properties. Applications of these nanostructures to ceramic matrix composites could enhance their toughness. Using molecular dynamics simulations, mechanical behaviour of the bio-inspired nanocomposites is studied. Regularly staggered model shows better flow behaviour compared to stair-wise staggered model due to the symmetrical crack propagation along the interface. Though higher stiffness and strength are obtained for stair-wise staggered models, rapid crack propagation reduces the toughness. Arresting this crack propagation could lead to superior mechanical properties in stair-wise staggered models.
Deformation and failure response of 304L stainless steel SMAW joint under dynamic shear loading
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Woei-Shyan; Cheng, J.-I.; Lin, C.-F.
2004-01-01
The dynamic shear deformation behavior and fracture characteristics of 304L stainless steel shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) joint are studied experimentally with regard to the relations between mechanical properties and strain rate. Thin-wall tubular specimens are deformed at room temperature under strain rates in the range of 8 x 10 2 to 2.8 x 10 3 s -1 using a torsional split-Hopkinson bar. The results indicate that the strain rate has a significant influence on the mechanical properties and fracture response of the tested SMAW joints. It is found that the flow stress, total shear strain to failure, work hardening rate and strain rate sensitivity all increase with increasing strain rate, but that the activation volume decreases. The observed dynamic shear deformation behavior is modeled using the Kobayashi-Dodd constitutive law, and it is shown that the predicted results are in good agreement with the experimental data. Fractographic analysis using scanning electron microscopy reveals that the tested specimens all fracture within their fusion zones, and that the primary failure mechanism is one of the extensive localized shearing. The fracture surfaces are characterized by the presence of many dimples. A higher strain rate tends to reduce the size of the dimples and to increase their density. The observed fracture features are closely related to the preceding flow behavior
Dynamic deformation theory of spherical and deformed light and heavy nuclei with A = 12-240
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kumar, Krishna.
1979-01-01
Deformation dependent wave functions are calculated for different types of even-even nuclei (spherical, transitional, deformed; light, medium, heavy) without any fitting parameters. These wave functions are employed for the energies, B(E2)'s, quadrupole and magnetic moments of selected nuclei with A = 12-240 (with special emphasis on 56 Fe, 154 Gd), and for neutron cross sections of 148 Sm, 152 Sm
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhang, Zhenbo; Mishin, Oleg V.; Tao, N. R.
2015-01-01
after quasi- static compression. The microstructure after dynamic plastic deformation is however less stable than the microstructure after quasi- static compression. Annealing at 675 and 700 degrees C leads to structural coarsening and recrystallisation in each sample, but with recrystallisation...... occurring faster in the sample annealed after dynamic plastic deformation. The lower thermal stability of the microstructure produced by dynamic plastic deformation is attributed to a higher driving force for recrystallisation in the dynamically deformed material....
Gunn de Rosas, C. L.
2013-12-01
The Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat (SHV) is an active, mainly andesitic and well-studied stratovolcano situated at the northern end of the Lesser Antilles Arc subduction zone in the Caribbean Sea. The goal of our research is to create a high resolution 3D subsurface model of the shallow and deeper aspects of the magma storage and plumbing system at SHV. Our model will integrate inversions using continuous and campaign geodetic observations at SHV from 1995 to the present as well as local seismic records taken at various unrest intervals to construct a best-fit geometry, pressure point source and inflation rate and magnitude. We will also incorporate a heterogeneous media in the crust and use the most contemporary understanding of deep crustal- or even mantle-depth 'hot-zone' genesis and chemical evolution of silicic and intermediate magmas to inform the character of the deep edifice influx. Our heat transfer model will be constructed with a modified 'thin shell' enveloping the magma chamber to simulate the insulating or conducting influence of heat-altered chamber boundary conditions. The final forward model should elucidate observational data preceding and proceeding unrest events, the behavioral suite of magma transport in the subsurface environment and the feedback mechanisms that may contribute to eruption triggering. Preliminary hypotheses suggest wet, low-viscosity residual melts derived from 'hot zones' will ascend rapidly to shallower stall-points and that their products (eventually erupted lavas as well as stalled plutonic masses) will experience and display two discrete periods of shallow evolution; a rapid depressurization crystallization event followed by a slower conduction-controlled heat transfer and cooling crystallization. These events have particular implications for shallow magma behaviors, notably inflation, compressibility and pressure values. Visualization of the model with its inversion constraints will be affected with Com
Jaynes-Cummings model and the deformed-oscillator algebra
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Crnugelj, J.; Martinis, M.; Mikuta-Martinis, V.
1994-01-01
We study the time evolution of the deformed Jaynes-Cummings model (DJCM). It is shown that the standard JCM and its recent non-linear generalizations involving the intensity-dependent coupling and/or the multiphoton coupling are only particular cases of the DJCM. The time evolution of the mean phonon number and the population inversion are evaluated. A special case of the q-deformed JCM is analyzed explicitly. The long time quasi-periodic revival effects of the q-deformed JCM are observed for q∼1 and an initially large mean photon number. For other values of the deformation parameter q we observe chaotic-like behaviour of the population inversion. Photons are assumed to be initially in the deformed coherent state. ((orig.))
The conservation laws for deformed classical models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Klimek, M.
1994-01-01
The problem of deriving the conservation laws for deformed linear equations of motion is investigated. The conserved currents are obtained in explicit form and used in the construction of constants of motion. The equations for the set of non-interacting oscillators with arbitrary scale-time as well as the κ-Klein-Gordon equation are considered as an example of application of the method. (author) 9 refs
The multiphonon method as a dynamical approach to octupole correlations in deformed nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Piepenbring, R.
1986-09-01
The octupole correlations in nuclei are studied within the framework of the multiphonon method which is mainly the exact diagonalization of the total Hamiltonian in the space spanned by collective phonons. This treatment takes properly into account the Pauli principle. It is a microscopic approach based on a reflection symmetry of the potential. The spectroscopic properties of double even and odd-mass nuclei are nicely reproduced. The multiphonon method appears as a dynamical approach to octupole correlations in nuclei which can be compared to other models based on stable octupole deformation. 66 refs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Herda Yati Katman
2015-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the evaluation of permanent deformation of rubber-reinforced SMA asphalt mixtures by using dynamic creep test. The effect of trans-polyoctenamer as a cross-linking agent in permanent deformation of rubberized mixtures was also evaluated. Dynamic creep test was conducted at different stress levels (200 kPa, 400 kPa and temperatures (40°C, 50°C. Permanent deformation parameters such as dynamic creep curve, ultimate strain, and creep strain slope (CSS were used to analyse the results. Finally, the creep behaviour of the specimens was estimated by the Zhou three-stage creep model. The results show that crumb rubber and trans-polyoctenamer significantly affected the parameters especially at high stress and temperatures. Consistent findings were observed for all permanent deformation parameters. Moreover, based on Zhou model, it was concluded that resistance to permanent deformation was improved by application of crumb rubber and trans-polyoctenamer.
Silberschmidt, Vadim V.
2013-07-01
ranged from traditional ones such as metals, alloys, polymers and composites to advanced and emerging materials, such as foams, cellular materials and metallic glasses, as well as bio-materials. Within the framework of the Symposium, a Special Session 'Parametric Resonance, Vibro-impact and Related Phenomena' was organised by partners of the FP7 IAPP project PARM-2: 'Vibro-impact machines based on parametric resonance: Concepts, mathematical modelling, experimental verification and implementation.' The Session focused on the topics, directly related to the project: excitation, stabilization, control and applications of parametric resonance (PR); multiple degrees of freedom of PR-excited systems; basic principles of PR-based macro and micro tools; design and technological aspects of PR-based machines; vibro-assisted machining; fatigue under high-amplitude vibro-impact conditions and corresponding optimal design; localisation near defects in dynamic response of elastic lattices and structures; dispersive waves and dynamic fracture in non-uniform lattice systems; thermally induced surface-breaking cracks, etc. This issue presents a selection of research papers presented at the International Symposium on Dynamic Deformation and Fracture of Advanced Materials D2FAM 2013. The Symposium Organisers would like to acknowledge its sponsors: Institute of Physics, International Centre of Vibro-Impact Systems and Marie Curie Action: Industry-Academia Partnerships and Pathways of the Seventh Framework Programme (FP7) of the European Commission (PARM-2 consortium). The PARM-2 consortium sponsored twenty scholarships for early-stage researchers to participate in this Symposium.
A kinematical model for the plastic deformation of face-centred cubic polycrystals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leffers, T.
1975-01-01
During the plastic deformation of a polycrystalline material the deformation of the individual grain must be adjusted to the deformation of the surrounding grains so that material continuity is maintained. This continuity condition is the essential feature distinguishing polycrystal deformation from single-crystal deformation. In the present work it is attempted to explain how the continuity condition is fulfilled in face-centred cubic polycrystals. The early treatments of the plastic deformation of polycrystalline materials were aimed directly at the formulation of a ''dynamical'' theory, i.e. it was the intention to cover the magnitude of the stresses involved as well as the slip processes producing the deformation. It is argued that rolling texture is a good tool for a necessary intermediate stage of establishing a ''kinematical'' model describing the slip processes, but not the magnitude of the necessary stresses. Three aspects of rolling texture are considered: (a) the development of the rolling textures found experimentally in face-centred cubic materials can be computer-simulated on the basis of models for the plastic deformation that only involve (111) slip; (b) experimentally that the widely accepted twinning theory for the transition in f.c.c. rolling texture does not reflect the behaviour of real materials; and (c) it is shown that the texture transition is thermally activated with an activation energy corresponding to that of cross slip. An electron-microscopical investigation of the slip process operating during rolling of f.c.c. polycrystals is also included. On the basis of the computer simulation of the texture formation supplemented by the experimental results a kinematical model is developed for the plastic deformation of f.c.c. polycrystals by rolling. In the proposed model the material continuity is maintained by inhomogeneous slip processes, combined with homogeneous multiple glide when the cross-slip frequency is high. (author)
In situ nuclear magnetic resonance study of defect dynamics during deformation of materials
Murty, K.L.; Detemple, K.; Kanert, O.; Peters, G; de Hosson, J.T.M.
1996-01-01
Nuclear magnetic resonance techniques can be used to monitor in situ the dynamical behaviour of point and line defects in materials during deformation. These techniques are non-destructive and non-invasive. We report here the atomic transport, in particular the enhanced diffusion during deformation
Flat Knitting Loop Deformation Simulation Based on Interlacing Point Model
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Jiang Gaoming
2017-12-01
Full Text Available In order to create realistic loop primitives suitable for the faster CAD of the flat-knitted fabric, we have performed research on the model of the loop as well as the variation of the loop surface. This paper proposes an interlacing point-based model for the loop center curve, and uses the cubic Bezier curve to fit the central curve of the regular loop, elongated loop, transfer loop, and irregular deformed loop. In this way, a general model for the central curve of the deformed loop is obtained. The obtained model is then utilized to perform texture mapping, texture interpolation, and brightness processing, simulating a clearly structured and lifelike deformed loop. The computer program LOOP is developed by using the algorithm. The deformed loop is simulated with different yarns, and the deformed loop is applied to design of a cable stitch, demonstrating feasibility of the proposed algorithm. This paper provides a loop primitive simulation method characterized by lifelikeness, yarn material variability, and deformation flexibility, and facilitates the loop-based fast computer-aided design (CAD of the knitted fabric.
Numerical modeling of the Indo-Australian intraplate deformation
Brandon, Vincent; Royer, Jean-Yves
2014-05-01
The Indo-Australian plate is perhaps the best example of wide intraplate deformation within an oceanic plate. The deformation is expressed by an unusual level of intraplate seismicity, including magnitude Mw > 8 events, large-scale folding and deep faulting of the oceanic lithosphere and reactivation of extinct fracture zones. The deformation pattern and kinematic data inversions suggest that the Indo-Australian plate can be viewed as a composite plate made of three rigid component plates - India, Capricorn, Australia - separated by wide and diffuse boundaries undergoing either extensional or compressional deformation. We tested this model using the SHELLS numerical code (Kong & Bird, 1995). The Indo-Australian plate is modeled by a mesh of 5281 spherical triangular finite elements. Mesh edges parallel the major extinct fracture zones so that they can be reactivated by reducing their friction rates. Strength of the plate is defined by the age of the lithosphere and seafloor topography. Model boundary conditions are only defined by the plate velocities predicted by the rotation vectors between rigid components of the Indo-Australian plate and their neighboring plates. Since the mesh limits all belong to rigid plates with fully defined Euler vectors, no conditions are imposed on the location, extent and limits of the diffuse and deforming zones. Using MORVEL plate velocities (DeMets et al., 2010), predicted deformation patterns are very consistent with that observed. Pre-existing structures of the lithosphere play an important role in the intraplate deformation and its distribution. The Chagos Bank focuses most of the extensional deformation between the Indian and Capricorn plates. Agreement between models and observation improves by weakening fossil fracture zones relative to the surrounding crust; however only limited sections of FZ's accommodate deformation. The reactivation of the Eocene FZ's in the Central Indian Basin (CIB) and Wharton Basin (WB) explains the
Babaie, Hassan; Davarpanah, Armita
2016-04-01
We are semantically modeling the structural and dynamic process components of the plastic deformation of minerals and rocks in the Plastic Deformation Ontology (PDO). Applying the Ontology of Physics in Biology, the PDO classifies the spatial entities that participate in the diverse processes of plastic deformation into the Physical_Plastic_Deformation_Entity and Nonphysical_Plastic_Deformation_Entity classes. The Material_Physical_Plastic_Deformation_Entity class includes things such as microstructures, lattice defects, atoms, liquid, and grain boundaries, and the Immaterial_Physical_Plastic_Deformation_Entity class includes vacancies in crystals and voids along mineral grain boundaries. The objects under the many subclasses of these classes (e.g., crystal, lattice defect, layering) have spatial parts that are related to each other through taxonomic (e.g., Line_Defect isA Lattice_Defect), structural (mereological, e.g., Twin_Plane partOf Twin), spatial-topological (e.g., Vacancy adjacentTo Atom, Fluid locatedAlong Grain_Boundary), and domain specific (e.g., displaces, Fluid crystallizes Dissolved_Ion, Void existsAlong Grain_Boundary) relationships. The dynamic aspect of the plastic deformation is modeled under the dynamical Process_Entity class that subsumes classes such as Recrystallization and Pressure_Solution that define the flow of energy amongst the physical entities. The values of the dynamical state properties of the physical entities (e.g., Chemical_Potential, Temperature, Particle_Velocity) change while they take part in the deformational processes such as Diffusion and Dislocation_Glide. The process entities have temporal parts (phases) that are related to each other through temporal relations such as precedes, isSubprocessOf, and overlaps. The properties of the physical entities, defined under the Physical_Property class, change as they participate in the plastic deformational processes. The properties are categorized into dynamical, constitutive
A Full-Body Layered Deformable Model for Automatic Model-Based Gait Recognition
Lu, Haiping; Plataniotis, Konstantinos N.; Venetsanopoulos, Anastasios N.
2007-12-01
This paper proposes a full-body layered deformable model (LDM) inspired by manually labeled silhouettes for automatic model-based gait recognition from part-level gait dynamics in monocular video sequences. The LDM is defined for the fronto-parallel gait with 22 parameters describing the human body part shapes (widths and lengths) and dynamics (positions and orientations). There are four layers in the LDM and the limbs are deformable. Algorithms for LDM-based human body pose recovery are then developed to estimate the LDM parameters from both manually labeled and automatically extracted silhouettes, where the automatic silhouette extraction is through a coarse-to-fine localization and extraction procedure. The estimated LDM parameters are used for model-based gait recognition by employing the dynamic time warping for matching and adopting the combination scheme in AdaBoost.M2. While the existing model-based gait recognition approaches focus primarily on the lower limbs, the estimated LDM parameters enable us to study full-body model-based gait recognition by utilizing the dynamics of the upper limbs, the shoulders and the head as well. In the experiments, the LDM-based gait recognition is tested on gait sequences with differences in shoe-type, surface, carrying condition and time. The results demonstrate that the recognition performance benefits from not only the lower limb dynamics, but also the dynamics of the upper limbs, the shoulders and the head. In addition, the LDM can serve as an analysis tool for studying factors affecting the gait under various conditions.
Effect of orientation on deformation behavior of Fe nanowires: A molecular dynamics study
Sainath, G.; Srinivasan, V. S.; Choudhary, B. K.; Mathew, M. D.; Jayakumar, T.
2014-04-01
Molecular dynamics simulations have been carried out to study the effect of crystal orientation on tensile deformation behaviour of single crystal BCC Fe nanowires at 10 K. Two nanowires with an initial orientation of /{100} and /{111} have been chosen for this study. The simulation results show that the deformation mechanisms varied with crystal orientation. The nanowire with an initial orientation of /{100} deforms predominantly by twinning mechanism, whereas the nanowire oriented in /{111}, deforms by dislocation plasticity. In addition, the single crystal oriented in /{111} shows higher strength and elastic modulus than /{100} oriented nanowire.
Computer simulations of liquid crystals: Defects, deformations and dynamics
Billeter, Jeffrey Lee
1999-11-01
Computer simulations play an increasingly important role in investigating fundamental issues in the physics of liquid crystals. Presented here are the results of three projects which utilize the unique power of simulations to probe questions which neither theory nor experiment can adequately answer. Throughout, we use the (generalized) Gay-Berne model, a widely-used phenomenological potential which captures the essential features of the anisotropic mesogen shapes and interactions. First, we used a Molecular Dynamics simulation with 65536 Gay-Berne particles to study the behaviors of topological defects in a quench from the isotropic to the nematic phase. Twist disclination loops were the dominant defects, and we saw evidence for dynamical scaling. We observed the loops separating, combining and collapsing, and we also observed numerous non-singular type-1 lines which appeared to be intimately involved with many of the loop processes. Second, we used a Molecular Dynamics simulation of a sphere embedded in a system of 2048 Gay-Berne particles to study the effects of radial anchoring of the molecules at the sphere's surface. A saturn ring defect configuration was observed, and the ring caused a driven sphere (modelling the falling ball experiment) to experience an increased resistance as it moved through the nematic. Deviations from a linear relationship between the driving force and the terminal speed are attributed to distortions of the saturn ring which we observed. The existence of the saturn ring confirms theoretical predictions for small spheres. Finally, we constructed a model for wedge-shaped molecules and used a linear response approach in a Monte Carlo simulation to investigate the flexoelectric behavior of a system of 256 such wedges. Novel potential models as well as novel analytical and visualization techniques were developed for these projects. Once again, the emphasis throughout was to investigate questions which simulations alone can adequately answer.
Validity of scale modeling for large deformations in shipping containers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burian, R.J.; Black, W.E.; Lawrence, A.A.; Balmert, M.E.
1979-01-01
The principal overall objective of this phase of the continuing program for DOE/ECT is to evaluate the validity of applying scaling relationships to accurately assess the response of unprotected model shipping containers severe impact conditions -- specifically free fall from heights up to 140 ft onto a hard surface in several orientations considered most likely to produce severe damage to the containers. The objective was achieved by studying the following with three sizes of model casks subjected to the various impact conditions: (1) impact rebound response of the containers; (2) structural damage and deformation modes; (3) effect on the containment; (4) changes in shielding effectiveness; (5) approximate free-fall threshold height for various orientations at which excessive damage occurs; (6) the impact orientation(s) that tend to produce the most severe damage; and (7) vunerable aspects of the casks which should be examined. To meet the objective, the tests were intentionally designed to produce extreme structural damage to the cask models. In addition to the principal objective, this phase of the program had the secondary objectives of establishing a scientific data base for assessing the safety and environmental control provided by DOE nuclear shipping containers under impact conditions, and providing experimental data for verification and correlation with dynamic-structural-analysis computer codes being developed by the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory for DOE/ECT
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hartmaier, Alexander; Buehler, Markus J.; Gao, Huajian
2005-01-01
The time-dependent irreversible deformation of polycrystalline thin metal films on substrates is investigated using two-dimensional discrete dislocation dynamics models incorporating essential parameters determined from atomistic studies. The work is focused on the mechanical properties of uncapped films, where diffusive processes play an important role. The simulations incorporate dislocation climb along the grain boundary as well as conservative glide. Despite of severe limitations of the two-dimensional dislocation models, the simulation results are found to largely corroborate experimental findings on different dominant deformation mechanisms at different film thicknesses
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ge, Yuanyuan; O’Brien, Ricky T.; Shieh, Chun-Chien; Keall, Paul J., E-mail: paul.keall@sydney.edu.au [Radiation Physics Laboratory, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Booth, Jeremy T. [Northern Sydney Cancer Centre, Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney, NSW 2065 (Australia)
2014-06-15
Purpose: Intrafraction deformation limits targeting accuracy in radiotherapy. Studies show tumor deformation of over 10 mm for both single tumor deformation and system deformation (due to differential motion between primary tumors and involved lymph nodes). Such deformation cannot be adapted to with current radiotherapy methods. The objective of this study was to develop and experimentally investigate the ability of a dynamic multi-leaf collimator (DMLC) tracking system to account for tumor deformation. Methods: To compensate for tumor deformation, the DMLC tracking strategy is to warp the planned beam aperture directly to conform to the new tumor shape based on real time tumor deformation input. Two deformable phantoms that correspond to a single tumor and a tumor system were developed. The planar deformations derived from the phantom images in beam's eye view were used to guide the aperture warping. An in-house deformable image registration software was developed to automatically trigger the registration once new target image was acquired and send the computed deformation to the DMLC tracking software. Because the registration speed is not fast enough to implement the experiment in real-time manner, the phantom deformation only proceeded to the next position until registration of the current deformation position was completed. The deformation tracking accuracy was evaluated by a geometric target coverage metric defined as the sum of the area incorrectly outside and inside the ideal aperture. The individual contributions from the deformable registration algorithm and the finite leaf width to the tracking uncertainty were analyzed. Clinical proof-of-principle experiment of deformation tracking using previously acquired MR images of a lung cancer patient was implemented to represent the MRI-Linac environment. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment delivered with enabled deformation tracking was simulated and demonstrated. Results: The first
Geometric Aspects and Some Uses of Deformed Models of Thermostatistics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alexandre Gavrilik
2018-02-01
Full Text Available We consider diverse deformed Bose gas models (DBGMs focusing on distributions and correlations of any order, and also on deformed thermodynamics. For so-called μ -deformed Bose gas model ( μ -DBGM, main thermodynamic aspects are treated: total number of particles, deformed partition function, etc. Using a geometric approach, we confirm the existence of critical behavior—Bose-like condensation; we find the critical temperature T c ( μ depending on μ so that T c ( μ > T c ( Bose for μ > 0 . This fact and other advantages of μ -DBGM relative to the usual Bose gas, e.g., stronger effective inter-particle attraction (controlled by the parameter μ , allow us to consider the condensate in μ -DBGM as a candidate for modeling dark matter. As another, quite successful application we discuss the usage of the two-parameter ( μ ˜ , q -deformed BGM for effective description of the peculiar (non-Bose like behavior of two-pion correlations observed in the STAR experiment at RHIC (Brookhaven. Herein, we point out the transparent role of the two deformation parameters μ ˜ and q as being responsible for compositeness and (effective account of interactions of pions, respectively.
Ghanem, Bernard; Ahuja, Narendra
2013-01-01
This paper proposes the problem of modeling video sequences of dynamic swarms (DSs). We define a DS as a large layout of stochastically repetitive spatial configurations of dynamic objects (swarm elements) whose motions exhibit local spatiotemporal
Deformed Calogero-Sutherland model and fractional quantum Hall effect
Atai, Farrokh; Langmann, Edwin
2017-01-01
The deformed Calogero-Sutherland (CS) model is a quantum integrable system with arbitrary numbers of two types of particles and reducing to the standard CS model in special cases. We show that a known collective field description of the CS model, which is based on conformal field theory (CFT), is actually a collective field description of the deformed CS model. This provides a natural application of the deformed CS model in Wen's effective field theory of the fractional quantum Hall effect (FQHE), with the two kinds of particles corresponding to electrons and quasi-hole excitations. In particular, we use known mathematical results about super-Jack polynomials to obtain simple explicit formulas for the orthonormal CFT basis proposed by van Elburg and Schoutens in the context of the FQHE.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wei-Jen Chen
2005-07-01
Full Text Available Fibrous dysplasia, a condition in which the skeleton fails to develop normally, is characterized by fibroblastic stroma and immature bone. Bowing of the long bones occurs frequently in the polyostotic form, and stress fractures often result. Shepherd's crook deformity is a characteristic feature of fibrous dysplasia. The goal of its treatment is to obtain normal walking ability and relieve pain due to pathologic fracture secondary to the deformity; however, correction of the deformity is a surgical challenge. We present 2 cases of shepherd's crook deformity treated with corrective osteotomy and a dynamic hip screw. Both cases showed good bone healing and no recurrent deformity. The gross deformities were corrected, and both patients were pain-free after operation.
Geometry and dynamics of a tidally deformed black hole
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Poisson, Eric; Vlasov, Igor
2010-01-01
The metric of a nonrotating black hole deformed by a tidal interaction is calculated and expressed as an expansion in the strength of the tidal coupling. The expansion parameter is the inverse length scale R -1 , where R is the radius of curvature of the external spacetime in which the black hole moves. The expansion begins at order R -2 , and it is carried out through order R -4 . The metric is parametrized by a number of tidal multipole moments, which specify the black hole's tidal environment. The tidal moments are freely-specifiable functions of time that are related to the Weyl tensor of the external spacetime. At order R -2 the metric involves the tidal quadrupole moments E ab and B ab . At order R -3 it involves the time derivative of the quadrupole moments and the tidal octupole moments E abc and B abc . At order R -4 the metric involves the second time derivative of the quadrupole moments, the first time derivative of the octupole moments, the tidal hexadecapole moments E abcd and B abcd , and bilinear combinations of the quadrupole moments. The metric is presented in a light-cone coordinate system that possesses a clear geometrical meaning: The advanced-time coordinate v is constant on past light cones that converge toward the black hole; the angles θ and φ are constant on the null generators of each light cone; and the radial coordinate r is an affine parameter on each generator, which decreases as the light cones converge toward the black hole. The coordinates are well-behaved on the black-hole horizon, and they are adjusted so that the coordinate description of the horizon is the same as in the Schwarzschild geometry: r=2M+O(R -5 ). At the order of accuracy maintained in this work, the horizon is a stationary null hypersurface foliated by apparent horizons; it is an isolated horizon in the sense of Ashtekar and Krishnan. As an application of our results we examine the induced geometry and dynamics of the horizon, and calculate the rate at which the
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhang, Zhenbo; Tao, N. R.; Mishin, Oleg V.
2016-01-01
The microstructure, texture and mechanical properties have been studied in PM2000 compressed via dynamic plastic deformation to a strain of 2.1. It is found that dynamic plastic deformation results in a duplex 〈111〉 + 〈100〉 fibre texture and refines the initial microstructure by nanoscale lamellae...... in the deformed microstructure. This reduction is more pronounced in the 〈111〉-oriented regions. Orientation-dependent recrystallisation takes place in the recovered microstructure, leading to strengthening of the 〈111〉 fibre texture component at the expense of the 〈100〉 fibre texture component....
On the dynamic stability of shear deformable beams under a tensile load
Caddemi, S.; Caliò, I.; Cannizzaro, F.
2016-07-01
Loss of stability of beams in a linear static context due to the action of tensile loads has been disclosed only recently in the scientific literature. However, tensile instability in the dynamic regime has been only marginally covered. Several aspects concerning the role of shear deformation on the tensile dynamic instability on continuous and discontinuous beams are still to be addressed. It may appear as a paradox, but also for the case of the universally studied Timoshenko beam model, despite its old origin, frequency-axial load diagrams in the range of negative values of the load (i.e. tensile load) has never been brought to light. In this paper, for the first time, the influence of a conservative tensile axial loads on the dynamic behaviour of the Timoshenko model, according to the Haringx theory, is assessed. It is shown that, under increasing tensile loads, regions of positive/negative fundamental frequency variations can be distinguished. In addition, the beam undergoes eigen-mode changes, from symmetric to anti-symmetric shapes, until tensile instability of divergence type is reached. As a further original contribution on the subject, taking advantage of a new closed form solution, it is shown that the same peculiarities are recovered for an axially loaded Euler-Bernoulli vibrating beam with multiple elastic sliders. This latter model can be considered as the discrete counterpart of the Timoshenko beam-column in which the internal sliders concentrate the shear deformation that in the Timoshenko model is continuously distributed. Original aspects regarding the evolution of the vibration frequencies and the relevant mode shapes with the tensile load value are highlighted.
Erickson, Gary E.
2013-01-01
A video-based photogrammetric model deformation system was established as a dedicated optical measurement technique at supersonic speeds in the NASA Langley Research Center Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel. This system was used to measure the wing twist due to aerodynamic loads of two supersonic commercial transport airplane models with identical outer mold lines but different aeroelastic properties. One model featured wings with deflectable leading- and trailing-edge flaps and internal channels to accommodate static pressure tube instrumentation. The wings of the second model were of single-piece construction without flaps or internal channels. The testing was performed at Mach numbers from 1.6 to 2.7, unit Reynolds numbers of 1.0 million to 5.0 million, and angles of attack from -4 degrees to +10 degrees. The video model deformation system quantified the wing aeroelastic response to changes in the Mach number, Reynolds number concurrent with dynamic pressure, and angle of attack and effectively captured the differences in the wing twist characteristics between the two test articles.
Modeling steel deformation in the semi-solid state
Hojny, Marcin
2017-01-01
This book addresses selected aspects of steel-deformation modelling, both at very high temperatures and under the conditions in which the liquid and the solid phases coexist. Steel-deformation modelling with its simultaneous solidification is particularly difficult due to its specificity and complexity. With regard to industrial applications and the development of new, integrated continuous casting and rolling processes, the issues related to modelling are becoming increasingly important. Since the numerous industrial tests that are necessary when traditional methods are used to design the process of continuous casting immediately followed by rolling are expensive, new modelling concepts have been sought. Comprehensive tests were applied to solve problems related to the deformation of steel with a semi-solid core. Physical tests using specialist laboratory instruments (Gleeble 3800thermo-mechanical simulator, NANOTOM 180 N computer tomography, Zwick Z250 testing equipment, 3D blue-light scanning systems), and...
A Geometry Deformation Model for Braided Continuum Manipulators
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. M. Hadi Sadati
2017-06-01
Full Text Available Continuum manipulators have gained significant attention in the robotic community due to their high dexterity, deformability, and reachability. Modeling of such manipulators has been shown to be very complex and challenging. Despite many research attempts, a general and comprehensive modeling method is yet to be established. In this paper, for the first time, we introduce the bending effect in the model of a braided extensile pneumatic actuator with both stiff and bendable threads. Then, the effect of the manipulator cross-section deformation on the constant curvature and variable curvature models is investigated using simple analytical results from a novel geometry deformation method and is compared to experimental results. We achieve 38% mean reference error simulation accuracy using our constant curvature model for a braided continuum manipulator in presence of body load and 10% using our variable curvature model in presence of extensive external loads. With proper model assumptions and taking to account the cross-section deformation, a 7–13% increase in the simulation mean error accuracy is achieved compared to a fixed cross-section model. The presented models can be used for the exact modeling and design optimization of compound continuum manipulators by providing an analytical tool for the sensitivity analysis of the manipulator performance. Our main aim is the application in minimal invasive manipulation with limited workspaces and manipulators with regional tunable stiffness in their cross section.
Multiscale modeling of large deformations in 3-D polycrystals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lu Jing; Maniatty, Antoinette; Misiolek, Wojciech; Bandar, Alexander
2004-01-01
An approach for modeling 3-D polycrystals, linking to the macroscale, is presented. A Potts type model is used to generate a statistically representative grain structures with periodicity to allow scale-linking. The grain structures are compared to experimentally observed grain structures to validate that they are representative. A macroscale model of a compression test is compared against an experimental compression test for an Al-Mg-Si alloy to determine various deformation paths at different locations in the samples. These deformation paths are then applied to the experimental grain structure using a scale-bridging technique. Preliminary results from this work will be presented and discussed
Dynamic Latent Classification Model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhong, Shengtong; Martínez, Ana M.; Nielsen, Thomas Dyhre
as possible. Motivated by this problem setting, we propose a generative model for dynamic classification in continuous domains. At each time point the model can be seen as combining a naive Bayes model with a mixture of factor analyzers (FA). The latent variables of the FA are used to capture the dynamics...
Discrete element modeling of subglacial sediment deformation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Damsgaard, Anders; Egholm, David L.; Piotrowski, Jan A.
2013-01-01
The Discrete Element Method (DEM) is used in this study to explore the highly nonlinear dynamics of a granular bed when exposed to stress conditions comparable to those at the bed of warm-based glaciers. Complementary to analog experiments, the numerical approach allows a detailed analysis...
Discrete element modeling of subglacial sediment deformation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Damsgaard, Anders; Egholm, David L.; Piotrowski, Jan A.
The Discrete Element Method (DEM) is used to explore the highly nonlinear dynamics of a granular bed when exposed to stress conditions comparable to those at the bed of warm-based glaciers. In the DEM, the material is simulated on a grain-by-grain basis, and defining the micromechanical properties...
Numerical model for the deformation of nucleated cells by optical stretchers
Sraj, Ihab
2015-07-01
In this paper, we seek to numerically study the deformation of nucleated cells by single diode-laser bar optical stretchers. We employ a recently developed computational model, the dynamic ray-tracing method, to determine the force distribution induced by optical stretchers on a cell encapsulating a nucleus of different optical properties. These optical forces are shape dependent and can deform real non-rigid objects; thus resulting in dynamically changing distributions with cell and nucleus deformation. A Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell is a common biological cell that is of interest to the biomedical community because of its use in recombinant protein therapeutics and is an example of a nucleated cell. To this end, we model CHO cells as two concentric three-dimensional elastic capsules immersed in a fluid where the hydrodynamic forces are calculated using the immersed boundary method. We vary the inner capsule size to simulate different nucleus sizes. Our results show that the presence of a nucleus has a major effect on the force distribution on the cell surface and consequently on its net deformation. Scattering and gradient forces are reported for different nucleus sizes and the effect of nucleus size on the cell deformation is discussed quantitatively. © 2015 IOP Publishing Ltd.
Simulation of quasistatic deformations using discrete rod models
Linn, J.; Stephan, T.
2008-01-01
Recently we developed a discrete model of elastic rods with symmetric cross section suitable for a fast simulation of quasistatic deformations [33]. The model is based on Kirchhoff’s geometrically exact theory of rods. Unlike simple models of “mass & spring” type typically used in VR applications, our model provides a proper coupling of bending and torsion. The computational approach comprises a variational formulation combined with a finite difference discretization of the continuum model. A...
A Deformable Template Model, with Special Reference to Elliptical Templates
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hobolth, Asger; Pedersen, Jan; Jensen, Eva Bjørn Vedel
2002-01-01
This paper suggests a high-level continuous image model for planar star-shaped objects. Under this model, a planar object is a stochastic deformation of a star-shaped template. The residual process, describing the difference between the radius-vector function of the template and the object...
Molenaar, Peter C M
2017-01-01
Equivalences of two classes of dynamic models for weakly stationary multivariate time series are discussed: dynamic factor models and autoregressive models. It is shown that exploratory dynamic factor models can be rotated, yielding an infinite set of equivalent solutions for any observed series. It also is shown that dynamic factor models with lagged factor loadings are not equivalent to the currently popular state-space models, and that restriction of attention to the latter type of models may yield invalid results. The known equivalent vector autoregressive model types, standard and structural, are given a new interpretation in which they are conceived of as the extremes of an innovating type of hybrid vector autoregressive models. It is shown that consideration of hybrid models solves many problems, in particular with Granger causality testing.
Dynamic recrystallization mechanisms and twining evolution during hot deformation of Inconel 718
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Azarbarmas, M. [Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, 1999143344 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Aghaie-Khafri, M., E-mail: maghaei@kntu.ac.ir [Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, 1999143344 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Cabrera, J.M.; Calvo, J. [Departament de Ciència dels Materials i Enginyeria Metallúrgica, ETSEIB – Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Av. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)
2016-12-15
The hot deformation behavior of an IN718 superalloy was studied by isothermal compression tests under the deformation temperature range of 950–1100 °C and strain rate range of 0.001–1 s{sup −1} up to true strains of 0.05, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.7. Electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) technique was employed to investigate systematically the effects of strain, strain rate and deformation temperature on the subgrain structures, local and cumulative misorientations and twinning phenomena. The results showed that the occurrence of dynamic recrystallization (DRX) is promoted by increasing strain and deformation temperature and decreasing strain rate. The microstructural changes showed that discontinuous dynamic recrystallization (DDRX), characterized by grain boundary bulging, is the dominant nucleation mechanism in the early stages of deformation in which DRX nucleation occurs by twining behind the bulged areas. Twin boundaries of nuclei lost their ∑3 character with further deformation. However, many simple and multiple twins can be also regenerated during the growth of grains. The results showed that continuous dynamic recrystallization (CDRX) is promoted at higher strains and large strain rates, and lower temperatures, indicating that under certain conditions both DDRX and CDRX can occur simultaneously during the hot deformation of IN718.
Exploring of PST-TBPM in Monitoring Dynamic Deformation of Steel Structure in Vibration
Chen, Mingzhi; Zhao, Yongqian; Hai, Hua; Yu, Chengxin; Zhang, Guojian
2018-01-01
In order to monitor the dynamic deformation of steel structure in the real-time, digital photography is used in this paper. Firstly, the grid method is used correct the distortion of digital camera. Then the digital cameras are used to capture the initial and experimental images of steel structure to obtain its relative deformation. PST-TBPM (photographing scale transformation-time baseline parallax method) is used to eliminate the parallax error and convert the pixel change value of deformation points into the actual displacement value. In order to visualize the deformation trend of steel structure, the deformation curves are drawn based on the deformation value of deformation points. Results show that the average absolute accuracy and relative accuracy of PST-TBPM are 0.28mm and 1.1‰, respectively. Digital photography used in this study can meet accuracy requirements of steel structure deformation monitoring. It also can warn the safety of steel structure and provide data support for managers’ safety decisions based on the deformation curves on site.
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Clayton, J. D
2006-01-01
Presented is a constitutive framework for modeling the dynamic response of polycrystalline microstructures, posed in a thermodynamically consistent manner and accounting for finite deformation, strain...
Jadamec, M. A.; MacDougall, J.; Fischer, K. M.
2017-12-01
The viscosity structure of the Earth's interior is critically important, because it places a first order constraint on plate motion and mantle flow rates. Geodynamic models using a composite viscosity based on experimentally derived flow laws for olivine aggregates show that lateral viscosity variations emerge in the upper mantle due to the subduction dynamics. However, the length-scale of this transition is still not well understood. Two-dimensional numerical models of subduction are presented that investigate the effect of initial slab dip, maximum yield stress (slab strength), and viscosity formulation (Newtonian versus composite) on the emergent lateral viscosity variations in the upper-mantle and magnitude of slab-driven mantle flow velocity. Significant viscosity reductions occur in regions of large flow velocity gradients due to the weakening effect of the dislocation creep deformation mechanism. The dynamic reductions in asthenospheric viscosity (less than 1018 Pa s) occur within approximately 500 km from driving force of the slab, with peak flow velocities occurring in models with a lower yield stress (weaker slab) and higher stress exponent. This leads to a sharper definition of the rheological base of the lithosphere and implies lateral variability in tractions along the base of the lithosphere. As the dislocation creep mechanism also leads to mantle deformation fabric, we then examine the spatial variation in the LPO development in the asthenosphere and calculate synthetic shear wave splitting. The models show that olivine LPO fabric in the asthenosphere generally increases in alignment strength with increased proximity to the slab, but can be transient and spatially variable on small length scales. The vertical flow fields surrounding the slab tip can produce shear-wave splitting variations with back-azimuth that deviate from the predictions of uniform trench-normal anisotropy, a result that bears on the interpretation of complexity in shear
Zurek, Jeffrey; William-Jones, Glyn; Johnson, Dan; Eggers, Al
2012-10-01
Microgravity data were collected between 2002 and 2009 at the Three Sisters Volcanic Complex, Oregon, to investigate the causes of an ongoing deformation event west of South Sister volcano. Three different conceptual models have been proposed as the causal mechanism for the deformation event: (1) hydraulic uplift due to continual injection of magma at depth, (2) pressurization of hydrothermal systems and (3) viscoelastic response to an initial pressurization at depth. The gravitational effect of continual magma injection was modeled to be 20 to 33 μGal at the center of the deformation field with volumes based on previous deformation studies. The gravity time series, however, did not detect a mass increase suggesting that a viscoelactic response of the crust is the most likely cause for the deformation from 2002 to 2009. The crust, deeper than 3 km, in the Three Sisters region was modeled as a Maxwell viscoelastic material and the results suggest a dynamic viscosity between 1018 to 5 × 1019 Pa s. This low crustal viscosity suggests that magma emplacement or stall depth is controlled by density and not the brittle ductile transition zone. Furthermore, these crustal properties and the observed geochemical composition gaps at Three Sisters can be best explained by different melt sources and limited magma mixing rather than fractional crystallization. More generally, low intrusion rates, low crustal viscosity, and multiple melt sources could also explain the whole rock compositional gaps observed at other arc volcanoes.
Interactive collision detection for deformable models using streaming AABBs.
Zhang, Xinyu; Kim, Young J
2007-01-01
We present an interactive and accurate collision detection algorithm for deformable, polygonal objects based on the streaming computational model. Our algorithm can detect all possible pairwise primitive-level intersections between two severely deforming models at highly interactive rates. In our streaming computational model, we consider a set of axis aligned bounding boxes (AABBs) that bound each of the given deformable objects as an input stream and perform massively-parallel pairwise, overlapping tests onto the incoming streams. As a result, we are able to prevent performance stalls in the streaming pipeline that can be caused by expensive indexing mechanism required by bounding volume hierarchy-based streaming algorithms. At runtime, as the underlying models deform over time, we employ a novel, streaming algorithm to update the geometric changes in the AABB streams. Moreover, in order to get only the computed result (i.e., collision results between AABBs) without reading back the entire output streams, we propose a streaming en/decoding strategy that can be performed in a hierarchical fashion. After determining overlapped AABBs, we perform a primitive-level (e.g., triangle) intersection checking on a serial computational model such as CPUs. We implemented the entire pipeline of our algorithm using off-the-shelf graphics processors (GPUs), such as nVIDIA GeForce 7800 GTX, for streaming computations, and Intel Dual Core 3.4G processors for serial computations. We benchmarked our algorithm with different models of varying complexities, ranging from 15K up to 50K triangles, under various deformation motions, and the timings were obtained as 30 approximately 100 FPS depending on the complexity of models and their relative configurations. Finally, we made comparisons with a well-known GPU-based collision detection algorithm, CULLIDE [4] and observed about three times performance improvement over the earlier approach. We also made comparisons with a SW-based AABB
MULTISCALE SPARSE APPEARANCE MODELING AND SIMULATION OF PATHOLOGICAL DEFORMATIONS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rami Zewail
2017-08-01
Full Text Available Machine learning and statistical modeling techniques has drawn much interest within the medical imaging research community. However, clinically-relevant modeling of anatomical structures continues to be a challenging task. This paper presents a novel method for multiscale sparse appearance modeling in medical images with application to simulation of pathological deformations in X-ray images of human spine. The proposed appearance model benefits from the non-linear approximation power of Contourlets and its ability to capture higher order singularities to achieve a sparse representation while preserving the accuracy of the statistical model. Independent Component Analysis is used to extract statistical independent modes of variations from the sparse Contourlet-based domain. The new model is then used to simulate clinically-relevant pathological deformations in radiographic images.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shidong Feng
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The nanoscopic deformation behaviors in a ZrCu metallic glass model during loading-unloading process under uniaxial compression have been analyzed on the basis of the molecular dynamics (MD. The reversible degree of shear origin zones (SOZs is used as the structural indicator to distinguish the elastic deformation and inelastic deformation of ZrCu metallic glass at the atomic level. We find that the formation of SOZs is reversible at the elastic stage but irreversible at the inelastic stage during the loading and unloading processes. At the inelastic stage, the full-icosahedra fraction in SOZs is quickly reduced with increased strain and the decreasing process is also irreversible during the unloading processes.
Zhou, Jianyou; Jiang, Liying; Khayat, Roger E.
2018-01-01
Elastomers are known to exhibit viscoelastic behavior under deformation, which is linked to the diffusion processes of the highly mobile and flexible polymer chains. Inspired by the theories of polymer dynamics, a micro-macro constitutive model is developed to study the viscoelastic behaviors and the relaxation process of elastomeric materials under large deformation, in which the material parameters all have a microscopic foundation or a microstructural justification. The proposed model incorporates the nonlinear material viscosity into the continuum finite-deformation viscoelasticity theories which represent the polymer networks of elastomers with an elastic ground network and a few viscous subnetworks. The developed modeling framework is capable of adopting most of strain energy density functions for hyperelastic materials and thermodynamics evolution laws of viscoelastic solids. The modeling capacity of the framework is outlined by comparing the simulation results with the experimental data of three commonly used elastomeric materials, namely, VHB4910, HNBR50 and carbon black (CB) filled elastomers. The comparison shows that the stress responses and some typical behaviors of filled and unfilled elastomers can be quantitatively predicted by the model with suitable strain energy density functions. Particularly, the strain-softening effect of elastomers could be explained by the deformation-dependent (nonlinear) viscosity of the polymer chains. The presented modeling framework is expected to be useful as a modeling platform for further study on the performance of different type of elastomeric materials.
From Quantum Deformations of Relativistic Symmetries to Modified Kinematics and Dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lukierski, J.
2010-01-01
We present a short review describing the use of noncommutative spacetime in quantum-deformed dynamical theories: classical and quantum mechanics as well as classical and quantum field theory. We expose the role of Hopf algebras and their realizations (noncommutative modules) as important mathematical tool describing quantum-deformed symmetries: quantum Lie groups and quantum Lie algebras. We consider in some detail the most studied examples of noncommutative space-time geometry: the canonical and κ-deformed cases. Finally, we briefly describe the modifications of Einstein gravity obtained by introduction of noncommutative space-time coordinates. (author)
Resin flow/fiber deformation model for composites
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gutowski, T.G.
1985-01-01
This paper presents a resin flow/fiber deformation model that can be used to predict the behavior of composites during the molding cycle. The model can take into account time varying pressure and viscosity and output the time history of the fiber volume fraction. With this known, the composite thickness, resin pressure, and fiber pressure can all be determined as a function of time. The results of this model are in good agreement with experimentally measured values. 10 references, 9 figures
A stochastic large deformation model for computational anatomy
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Arnaudon, Alexis; Holm, Darryl D.; Pai, Akshay Sadananda Uppinakudru
2017-01-01
In the study of shapes of human organs using computational anatomy, variations are found to arise from inter-subject anatomical differences, disease-specific effects, and measurement noise. This paper introduces a stochastic model for incorporating random variations into the Large Deformation...
Modelling the deformation process of flexible stamps for nanoimprint lithography
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sonne, Mads Rostgaard
of PTFE against steel on micro-scale is presented. The 2D axisymmetric model is verified through an experiment, in which a PTFE sheet with a predefined square grid pattern on the surface is deformed by a steel sphere mounted in a uniaxial tensile test machine. Good agreement between simulations...
Deformed shell model studies of spectroscopic properties of Zn and ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2014-04-05
Apr 5, 2014 ... April 2014 physics pp. 757–767. Deformed shell model studies of ... experiments without isotopical enrichment thereby reducing the cost considerably. By taking a large mass of the sample because of its low cost, one can ...
Nuclear deformation in the configuration-interaction shell model
Alhassid, Y.; Bertsch, G. F.; Gilbreth, C. N.; Mustonen, M. T.
2018-02-01
We review a method that we recently introduced to calculate the finite-temperature distribution of the axial quadrupole operator in the laboratory frame using the auxiliary-field Monte Carlo technique in the framework of the configuration-interaction shell model. We also discuss recent work to determine the probability distribution of the quadrupole shape tensor as a function of intrinsic deformation β,γ by expanding its logarithm in quadrupole invariants. We demonstrate our method for an isotope chain of samarium nuclei whose ground states describe a crossover from spherical to deformed shapes.
A Survey On Physical Methods For Deformation Modeling
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Huda Basloom
2015-08-01
Full Text Available Much effort has been dedicated to achieving realism in the simulation of deformable objects such as cloth hair rubber sea water smoke and human soft tissue in surgical simulation. However the deformable object in these simulations will exhibit physically correct behaviors true to the behavior of real objects when any force is applied to it and sometimes this requires real-time simulation. No matter how complex the geometry is real-time simulation is still required in some applications. Surgery simulation is an example of the need for real-time simulation. This situation has attracted the attention of a wide community of researchers such as computer scientists mechanical engineers biomechanics and computational geometers. This paper presents a review of the existing techniques for modeling deformable objects which have been developed within the last three decades for different computer graphics interactive applications.
Fuzzy model for predicting the number of deformed wheels
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ž. Đorđević
2015-10-01
Full Text Available Deformation of the wheels damage cars and rails and affect on vehicle stability and safety. Repair and replacement cause high costs and lack of wagons. Planning of maintenance of wagons can not be done without estimates of the number of wheels that will be replaced due to wear and deformation in a given period of time. There are many influencing factors, the most important are: weather conditions, quality of materials, operating conditions, and distance between the two replacements. The fuzzy logic model uses the collected data as input variables to predict the output variable - number of deformed wheels for a certain type of vehicle in the defined period at a particular section of the railway.
Classical studies of the ellipsoidal shapes for dynamical deformation theories of the nucleus
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Remaud, B.
1978-01-01
The shape-dependent functions of the Liquid Drop and the Droplet Models are analytically calculated for an ellipsoid. Using the ellipsoidal symmetries, these functions (including the curvature function) are written in terms of three basic expressions. The nuclear deformation energy can be calculated in a simple way for axially symmetric and asymmetric ellipsoidal nuclei whatever the magnitude of the deformation is
Microstructural characterization of nickel subjected to dynamic plastic deformation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Luo, Z.P.; Mishin, Oleg; Zhang, Yubin
2012-01-01
Average microstructural parameters and the extent of microstructural heterogeneity in nickel deformed at a high strain rate have been characterized quantitatively and compared to those after compression at a quasi-static strain rate. The microstructure in the high strain rate sample was found to ...... to be more refined and less heterogeneous than that in the sample compressed at a low strain rate. The greater refinement in the former sample was achieved due to subdivision by a high frequency of finely spaced low-angle boundaries....
Thermal-mechanical deformation modelling of soft tissues for thermal ablation.
Li, Xin; Zhong, Yongmin; Jazar, Reza; Subic, Aleksandar
2014-01-01
Modeling of thermal-induced mechanical behaviors of soft tissues is of great importance for thermal ablation. This paper presents a method by integrating the heating process with thermal-induced mechanical deformations of soft tissues for simulation and analysis of the thermal ablation process. This method combines bio-heat transfer theories, constitutive elastic material law under thermal loads as well as non-rigid motion dynamics to predict and analyze thermal-mechanical deformations of soft tissues. The 3D governing equations of thermal-mechanical soft tissue deformation are discretized by using the finite difference scheme and are subsequently solved by numerical algorithms. Experimental results show that the proposed method can effectively predict the thermal-induced mechanical behaviors of soft tissues, and can be used for the thermal ablation therapy to effectively control the delivered heat energy for cancer treatment.
Models for Dynamic Applications
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sales-Cruz, Mauricio; Morales Rodriguez, Ricardo; Heitzig, Martina
2011-01-01
This chapter covers aspects of the dynamic modelling and simulation of several complex operations that include a controlled blending tank, a direct methanol fuel cell that incorporates a multiscale model, a fluidised bed reactor, a standard chemical reactor and finally a polymerisation reactor...... be applied to formulate, analyse and solve these dynamic problems and how in the case of the fuel cell problem the model consists of coupledmeso and micro scale models. It is shown how data flows are handled between the models and how the solution is obtained within the modelling environment....
Modeling of 3D Aluminum Polycrystals during Large Deformations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maniatty, Antoinette M.; Littlewood, David J.; Lu Jing; Pyle, Devin
2007-01-01
An approach for generating, meshing, and modeling 3D polycrystals, with a focus on aluminum alloys, subjected to large deformation processes is presented. A Potts type model is used to generate statistically representative grain structures with periodicity to allow scale-linking. The grain structures are compared to experimentally observed grain structures to validate that they are representative. A procedure for generating a geometric model from the voxel data is developed allowing for adaptive meshing of the generated grain structure. Material behavior is governed by an appropriate crystal, elasto-viscoplastic constitutive model. The elastic-viscoplastic model is implemented in a three-dimensional, finite deformation, mixed, finite element program. In order to handle the large-scale problems of interest, a parallel implementation is utilized. A multiscale procedure is used to link larger scale models of deformation processes to the polycrystal model, where periodic boundary conditions on the fluctuation field are enforced. Finite-element models, of 3D polycrystal grain structures will be presented along with observations made from these simulations
Deformation-induced structural changes of amorphous Ni0.5Zr0.5 in molecular-dynamic simulations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brinkmann, K.
2006-01-01
The present work investigates the plastic deformation of metallic glasses by the aid of molecular-dynamic simulations. The parameters for the model system are adapted to those for a NiZr-alloy. In particular, the composition Ni 0.5 Zr 0.5 is used. The analyzed deformation simulations are conducted for small systems with 5184 atoms and large systems with 17500 atoms in a periodic simulation cell. The deformation simulations of pre-deformed samples are carried out either at constant shear-rate or at constant load, the latter mode modeling a creep experiment. Stress-strain curves for pre-deformed samples show a less pronounced stress-overshoot phenomenon. Creep-simulations of samples deformed beyond the yield region indicate a drastically reduced viscosity in these systems when compared to samples pre-deformed only up to the linear regime of the stress-strain curve. From analyzing the local atomic topology it is found that the transition from the highly viscous, hard-to-deform state of the undeformed or only weakly strained system into the easy-to-deform flow-state, present if the system is strained far beyond the yielding regime of the stress-strain curve, is connected with the formation of a region containing atoms with massive changes in their topology which is oriented along a diagonal plane of the simulation cell. The degree of localization of these deformation bands is influenced by temperature and shear-rate. In subsequent deformations of pre-deformed samples the regions with massive changes in the atomic topology are again susceptible to changes in the local atomic topology. By using methods from statistics, a significant difference in the distribution of atomic properties for the group of atoms with massive topology changes on the one hand and the group of atoms without changes in their topology on the other gets quantitatively ascertainable. From the differences in structural properties, e.g. potential energy, cage volumes, angular order parameters or atomic
A discrete-element model for viscoelastic deformation and fracture of glacial ice
Riikilä, T. I.; Tallinen, T.; Åström, J.; Timonen, J.
2015-10-01
A discrete-element model was developed to study the behavior of viscoelastic materials that are allowed to fracture. Applicable to many materials, the main objective of this analysis was to develop a model specifically for ice dynamics. A realistic model of glacial ice must include elasticity, brittle fracture and slow viscous deformations. Here the model is described in detail and tested with several benchmark simulations. The model was used to simulate various ice-specific applications with resulting flow rates that were compatible with Glen's law, and produced under fragmentation fragment-size distributions that agreed with the known analytical and experimental results.
Comparison of models discribing cladding deformations during LOCA
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chakraborty, A.K.; Zipper, R.
1981-05-01
This report compares the important models for the determination of cladding deformations during LOCA. In addition to the comparisons of underlying assumptions of different models the same is done for the coefficients applied for the models. In order to assess the predictive capability of the models the calculated results are compared with the experimental results of the individual claddings. It was found out that the results of temperature ramp tests could be calculated better than that of the pressure ramp tests. The calculations revealed that even with the simplified assumption of the model used in TESPA the agreement of the calculated results with those of model NORA was relatively good. (orig.) [de
Deformation modeling and the strain transient dip test
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jones, W.B.; Rohde, R.W.; Swearengen, J.C.
1980-01-01
Recent efforts in material deformation modeling reveal a trend toward unifying creep and plasticity with a single rate-dependent formulation. While such models can describe actual material deformation, most require a number of different experiments to generate model parameter information. Recently, however, a new model has been proposed in which most of the requisite constants may be found by examining creep transients brought about through abrupt changes in creep stress (strain transient dip test). The critical measurement in this test is the absence of a resolvable creep rate after a stress drop. As a consequence, the result is extraordinarily sensitive to strain resolution as well as machine mechanical response. This paper presents the design of a machine in which these spurious effects have been minimized and discusses the nature of the strain transient dip test using the example of aluminum. It is concluded that the strain transient dip test is not useful as the primary test for verifying any micromechanical model of deformation. Nevertheless, if a model can be developed which is verifiable by other experimentts, data from a dip test machine may be used to generate model parameters
Creep model of unsaturated sliding zone soils and long-term deformation analysis of landslides
Zou, Liangchao; Wang, Shimei; Zhang, Yeming
2015-04-01
Sliding zone soil is a special soil layer formed in the development of a landslide. Its creep behavior plays a significant role in long-term deformation of landslides. Due to rainfall infiltration and reservoir water level fluctuation, the soils in the slide zone are often in unsaturated state. Therefore, the investigation of creep behaviors of the unsaturated sliding zone soils is of great importance for understanding the mechanism of the long-term deformation of a landslide in reservoir areas. In this study, the full-process creep curves of the unsaturated soils in the sliding zone in different net confining pressure, matric suctions and stress levels were obtained from a large number of laboratory triaxial creep tests. A nonlinear creep model for unsaturated soils and its three-dimensional form was then deduced based on the component model theory and unsaturated soil mechanics. This creep model was validated with laboratory creep data. The results show that this creep model can effectively and accurately describe the nonlinear creep behaviors of the unsaturated sliding zone soils. In order to apply this creep model to predict the long-term deformation process of landslides, a numerical model for simulating the coupled seepage and creep deformation of unsaturated sliding zone soils was developed based on this creep model through the finite element method (FEM). By using this numerical model, we simulated the deformation process of the Shuping landslide located in the Three Gorges reservoir area, under the cycling reservoir water level fluctuation during one year. The simulation results of creep displacement were then compared with the field deformation monitoring data, showing a good agreement in trend. The results show that the creeping deformations of landslides have strong connections with the changes of reservoir water level. The creep model of unsaturated sliding zone soils and the findings obtained by numerical simulations in this study are conducive to
CANDU fuel bundle deformation modelling with COMSOL multiphysics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bell, J.S.; Lewis, B.J.
2012-01-01
Highlights: ► The deformation behaviour of a CANDU fuel bundle was modelled. ► The model has been developed on a commercial finite-element platform. ► Pellet/sheath interaction and end-plate restraint effects were considered. ► The model was benchmarked against the BOW code and a variable-load experiment. - Abstract: A model to describe deformation behaviour of a CANDU 37-element bundle has been developed under the COMSOL Multiphysics finite-element platform. Beam elements were applied to the fuel elements (composed of fuel sheaths and pellets) and endplates in order to calculate the bowing behaviour of the fuel elements. This model is important to help assess bundle-deformation phenomena, which may lead to more restrictive coolant flow through the sub-channels of the horizontally oriented bundle. The bundle model was compared to the BOW code for the occurrence of a dry-out patch, and benchmarked against an out-reactor experiment with a variable load on an outer fuel element.
Semiautomated four-dimensional computed tomography segmentation using deformable models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ragan, Dustin; Starkschall, George; McNutt, Todd; Kaus, Michael; Guerrero, Thomas; Stevens, Craig W.
2005-01-01
The purpose of this work is to demonstrate a proof of feasibility of the application of a commercial prototype deformable model algorithm to the problem of delineation of anatomic structures on four-dimensional (4D) computed tomography (CT) image data sets. We acquired a 4D CT image data set of a patient's thorax that consisted of three-dimensional (3D) image data sets from eight phases in the respiratory cycle. The contours of the right and left lungs, cord, heart, and esophagus were manually delineated on the end inspiration data set. An interactive deformable model algorithm, originally intended for deforming an atlas-based model surface to a 3D CT image data set, was applied in an automated fashion. Triangulations based on the contours generated on each phase were deformed to the CT data set on the succeeding phase to generate the contours on that phase. Deformation was propagated through the eight phases, and the contours obtained on the end inspiration data set were compared with the original manually delineated contours. Structures defined by high-density gradients, such as lungs, cord, and heart, were accurately reproduced, except in regions where other gradient boundaries may have confused the algorithm, such as near bronchi. The algorithm failed to accurately contour the esophagus, a soft-tissue structure completely surrounded by tissue of similar density, without manual interaction. This technique has the potential to facilitate contour delineation in 4D CT image data sets; and future evolution of the software is expected to improve the process
Adiabatic Hamiltonian deformation, linear response theory, and nonequilibrium molecular dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hoover, W.G.
1980-01-01
Although Hamiltonians of various kinds have previously been used to derive Green-Kubo relations for the transport coefficients, the particular choice described is uniquely related to thermodynamics. This nonequilibrium Hamiltonian formulation of fluid flow provides pedagogically simple routes to nonequilibrium fluxes and distribution functions, to theoretical understanding of long-time effects, and to new numerical methods for simulating systems far from equilibrium. The same methods are now being applied to solid-phase problems. At the relatively high frequencies used in the viscous fluid calculations described, solids typically behave elastically. Lower frequencies lead to the formation of dislocations and other defects, making it possible to study plastic flow. A property of the nonequilibrium equations of motion which might be profitably explored is their effective irreversibility. Because only a few particles are necessary to generate irreversible behavior, simulations using adiabatic deformations of the kind described here could perhaps elucidate the instability in the equations of motion responsible for irreversibility
Stability and dynamics of fluid flow past deformable solid media
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
ББББББББББББББББББББББББ. ББББББББББББББББББББББББ. ВВВВВВВВВВВВВВВВВВВВВВВВ. ВВВВВВВВВВВВВВВВВВВВВВВВ. ВВВВВВВВВВВВВВВВВВВВВВВВ r = rc r = 1. O(Re ). −1/2. O(Re r = 0 r = H layer. FLUID. Critical. Wall layer. −1/3. ) DEFORMABLE WALL. Multiple solutions at leading order ...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Paul, Arya; Bhattacharya, Jayee; Sengupta, Surajit [S N Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, Block JD, Sector III, Salt Lake, Calcutta 700 098 (India); Rao, Madan [Raman Research Institute, C V Raman Avenue, Bangalore 560 080 (India)
2008-09-10
We study the nucleation dynamics of a model solid state transformation and the criterion for microstructure selection. Using a molecular dynamics (MD) simulation, we had shown that the dynamics of the solid is accompanied by the creation of transient non-affine zones (NAZ), which evolve with the rapidly moving transformation front. Guided by our MD results, we formulate a dynamical continuum theory of solid state transformation, which couples the elastic strain to the non-affine deformation. We demonstrate that our elastoplastic description recovers all qualitative features of the MD simulation. We construct a dynamical phase diagram for microstructure selection, including regimes where martensite or ferrite obtains, in addition to making several testable predictions.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andreasen, Martin Møller; Meldrum, Andrew
This paper studies whether dynamic term structure models for US nominal bond yields should enforce the zero lower bound by a quadratic policy rate or a shadow rate specification. We address the question by estimating quadratic term structure models (QTSMs) and shadow rate models with at most four...
Dynamic strain ageing of deformed nitrogen-alloyed AISI 316 stainless steels
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ehrnsten, U.; Toivonen, A.; Ivanchenko, M.; Nevdacha, V.; Yagozinskyy, Y.; Haenninen, H.
2004-01-01
Intergranular stress corrosion cracking has occurred in BWR environment in non-sensitized, deformed austenitic stainless steel materials. The affecting parameters are so far not fully known, but deformation mechanisms may be decisive. The effect of deformation and nitrogen content on the behaviour of austenitic stainless steels was investigated. The materials were austenitic stainless steels of AISI 316L type with different amounts of nitrogen (0.03 - 0.18%) and they were mechanically deformed 0, 5 and 20%. The investigations are focused on the dynamic strain ageing (DSA) behaviour. A few crack growth rate measurements are performed on nuclear grade AISI 316NG material with different degrees of deformation (0, 5 and 20%). The effects of DSA on mechanical properties of these materials are evaluated based on peaks in ultimate tensile strength and strain hardening coefficient and minimum in ductility in the DSA temperature range. Additionally, internal friction measurements have been performed in the temperature range of -100 to 600 deg. C for determining nitrogen interactions with other alloying elements and dislocations (cold-worked samples). The results show an effect of nitrogen on the stainless steel behaviour, e.g. clear indications of dynamic strain ageing and changes in the internal friction peaks as a function of nitrogen content and amount of deformation. (authors)
Role of rotational energy and deformations in the dynamics of {sup 6}Li+{sup 90}Zr reaction
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kaur, Gurvinder; Grover, Neha; Sandhu, Kirandeep; Sharma, Manoj K., E-mail: msharma@thapar.edu
2014-07-15
In reference to recent experimental data, the dynamical cluster-decay model (DCM) has been applied to study the neutron evaporation residue (ER) cross sections of intermediate mass nucleus {sup 96}Tc{sup ⁎} spread over a wide range of incident energy across the Coulomb barrier. In order to analyze the effect of rotational energy in the dynamics of {sup 6}Li+{sup 90}Zr reaction, the cross sections have been calculated using the sticking (I{sub S}) and the non-sticking (I{sub NS}) limits of moment of inertia with inclusion of quadrupole (β{sub 2}) deformation within optimum orientation approach. The effect of either of the two approaches on the angular momentum, and hence the rotational energy associated with it, is assessed through the fragment mass distribution, preformation factor and the barrier penetrability. Also, the role of deformations is studied through a comparative analysis of decay path for spherical and β{sub 2} deformed fragmentation. The calculated evaporation residue cross sections show excellent agreement with the reported data at all incident energies for both spherical and β{sub 2}-deformed approach. Finally, the incomplete fusion (ICF) process observed due to loosely bound projectile {sup 6}Li is addressed within the framework of DCM.
Large deformation analysis of adhesive by Eulerian method with new material model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maeda, K; Nishiguchi, K; Iwamoto, T; Okazawa, S
2010-01-01
The material model to describe large deformation of a pressure sensitive adhesive (PSA) is presented. A relationship between stress and strain of PSA includes viscoelasticity and rubber-elasticity. Therefore, we propose the material model for describing viscoelasticity and rubber-elasticity, and extend the presented material model to the rate form for three dimensional finite element analysis. After proposing the material model for PSA, we formulate the Eulerian method to simulate large deformation behavior. In the Eulerian calculation, the Piecewise Linear Interface Calculation (PLIC) method for capturing material surface is employed. By using PLIC method, we can impose dynamic and kinematic boundary conditions on captured material surface. The representative two computational examples are calculated to check validity of the present methods.
Microstructure based hygromechanical modelling of deformation of fruit tissue
Abera, M. K.; Wang, Z.; Verboven, P.; Nicolai, B.
2017-10-01
Quality parameters such as firmness and susceptibility to mechanical damage are affected by the mechanical properties of fruit tissue. Fruit tissue is composed of turgid cells that keep cell walls under tension, and intercellular gas spaces where cell walls of neighboring cells have separated. How the structure and properties of these complex microstructures are affecting tissue mechanics is difficult to unravel experimentally. In this contribution, a modelling methodology is presented to calculate the deformation of apple fruit tissue affected by differences in structure and properties of cells and cell walls. The model can be used to perform compression experiments in silico using a hygromechanical model that computes the stress development and water loss during tissue deformation, much like in an actual compression test. The advantage of the model is that properties and structure can be changed to test the influence on the mechanical deformation process. The effect of microstructure, turgor pressure, cell membrane permeability, wall thickness and damping) on the compressibility of the tissue was simulated. Increasing the turgor pressure and thickness of the cell walls results in increased compression resistance of apple tissue increases, as do decreasing cell size and porosity. Geometric variability of the microstructure of tissues plays a major role, affecting results more than other model parameters. Different fruit cultivars were compared, and it was demonstrated, that microstructure variations within a cultivar are so large that interpretation of cultivar-specific effects is difficult.
Study of phase transition of even and odd nuclei based on q-deforme SU(1,1) algebraic model
Jafarizadeh, M. A.; Amiri, N.; Fouladi, N.; Ghapanvari, M.; Ranjbar, Z.
2018-04-01
The q-deformed Hamiltonian for the SO (6) ↔ U (5) transitional case in s, d interaction boson model (IBM) can be constructed by using affine SUq (1 , 1) Lie algebra in the both IBM-1 and 2 versions and IBFM. In this research paper, we have studied the energy spectra of 120-128Xe isotopes and 123-131Xe isotopes and B(E2) transition probabilities of 120-128Xe isotopes in the shape phase transition region between the spherical and gamma unstable deformed shapes of the theory of quantum deformation. The theoretical results agree with the experimental data fairly well. It is shown that the q-deformed SO (6) ↔ U (5) transitional dynamical symmetry remains after deformation.
Chiral symmetry restoration and pion properties in a q-deformed NJL model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Timoteo, V.S.; Lima, C.L.
2006-01-01
We review the implementation of a q-deformed fermionic algebra in the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model (NJL). The gap equations obtained from a deformed condensate as well as from the deformation of the NJL Hamiltonian are discussed. The effect of both temperature and deformation in the chiral symmetry restoration process as well as in the pion properties is studied. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ilnytskyi, Jaroslav M.; Neher, Dieter; Saphiannikova, Marina
2011-01-01
Photo-induced deformations in azobenzene-containing polymers (azo-polymers) are central to a number of applications, such as optical storage and fabrication of diffractive elements. The microscopic nature of the underlying opto-mechanical coupling is yet not clear. In this study, we address the experimental finding that the scenario of the effects depends on molecular architecture of the used azo-polymer. Typically, opposite deformations in respect to the direction of light polarization are observed for liquid crystalline and amorphous azo-polymers. In this study, we undertake molecular dynamics simulations of two different models that mimic these two types of azo-polymers. We employ hybrid force field modeling and consider only trans-isomers of azobenzene, represented as Gay-Berne sites. The effect of illumination on the orientation of the chromophores is considered on the level of orientational hole burning and emphasis is given to the resulting deformation of the polymer matrix. We reproduce deformations of opposite sign for the two models being considered here and discuss the relevant microscopic mechanisms in both cases.
Lv, Ya-ping; Li, Shao-jun; Zhang, Xiao-yong; Li, Zhi-you; Zhou, Ke-chao
2018-04-01
Evolution for the dynamic recrystallization (DRX) volume fraction of Ti-5Al-5Mo-5V-3Cr-1Zr near β titanium alloy during hot deformation was characterized by using the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov (JMAK) equation. To determine the equation parameters, a series of thermal simulation experiments at the temperature of 1023-1098 K and strain rate of 0.001-1 s‒1 to the true strain of 0.7 were conducted to obtain the essential data about stress σ and strain ɛ. By further transforming the relationship of σ versus ɛ into the relationship of strain hardening rate dσ/dɛ versus σ, two characteristic strains at the beginning of DRX (critical strain ɛc) and at the peak stress (peak strain ɛp) were identified from the dσ/dɛ-σ curves. Sequentially, the parameters in the JMAK equation were determined from the linear fitting of the different relationships among critical strain ɛc, peak strain ɛp and deformation conditions (including temperature T, strain rate \\dot ɛ and strain ɛ). The as-obtained JMAK equation was expressed as XDRX=1-exp[-0.0053((ɛ-ɛc)/ɛc)2.1], where ɛc=0.6053ɛp and ɛp=0.0031 \\dot ɛ .0081exp(28,781/RT). Finally, the JMAK equation was implanted into finite element program to simulate the hot compression of thermal simulation experiments. The simulation predictions and experimental results about the DRX volume fraction distribution showed a good consistency.
TO THE MODELING ISSUES OF LIFE CYCLE OF DEFORMATION WORK OF THE RAILWAY TRACK ELEMENTS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
I. O. Bondarenko
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Purpose. This article highlightsthe operational cycle modeling of the railway track elements for the development processes study of deformability as the basis of creating a regulatory framework of the track while ensuring the reliability of the railways. Methodology.The basic theory of wave propagation process in describing the interaction of track and rolling stock are used to achieve the goal. Findings. The basic provisions concerning the concept «the operational cycle of the deformation track» were proposed and formulated. The method was set. On its base the algorithm for determining the dynamic effects of the rolling stock on the way was obtained. The basic principles for the calculation schemes of railway track components for process evaluation of the deformability of the way were formulated. An algorithm was developed, which allows getting the field values of stresses, strains and displacements of all points of the track design elements. Based on the fields of stress-strain state of the track, an algorithm to establish the dependence of the process of deformability and the amount of energy expended on the deformability of the track operation was created. Originality.The research of track reliability motivates the development of new models, provides an opportunity to consider it for some developments. There is a need to define the criteria on which the possibility of assessing and forecasting changes in the track states in the course of its operation. The paper proposed the basic principles, methods, algorithms, and the terms relating to the conduct of the study, questions the reliability of the track. Practical value. Analytical models, used to determine the parameters of strength and stability of tracks, fully meet its objectives, but cannot be applied to determine the parameters of track reliability. One of the main factors of impossibility to apply these models is a quasi-dynamic approach. Therefore, as a rule, not only one dynamic
PLASTICITY OF SELECTED METALLIC MATERIALS IN DYNAMIC DEFORMATION CONDITIONS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jacek PAWLICKI
2014-06-01
Full Text Available Characteristics of a modernized flywheel machine has been presented in the paper. The laboratory stand enables to perform dynamic tensile tests and impact bending with a linear velocity of the enforcing element in the range of 5÷40 m/s. A new data acquisition system, based on the tensometric sensors, allows for significant qualitative improvement of registered signals. Some preliminary dynamic forming tests were performed for the selected group of metallic materials. Subsequent microstructural examinations and identification of the fracture type enabled to describe a correlation between strain rate, strain and microstructure.
Research of dynamical Characteristics of slow deformation Waves as Massif Responses on Explosions
Hachay, Olga; Khachay, Oleg; Shipeev, Oleg
2013-04-01
The research of massif state with use of approaches of open system theory [1-3] was developed for investigation the criterions of dissipation regimes for real rock massifs, which are under heavy man-caused influence. For realization of that research we used the data of seismic catalogue of Tashtagol mine. As a result of the analyze of that data we defined character morphology of phase trajectories of massif response, which was locally in time in a stable state: on the phase plane with coordinates released by the massif during the dynamic event energy E and lg(dE/dt) there is a local area as a ball of twisted trajectories and some not great bursts from that ball, which are not greater than 105 joules. In some time intervals that burst can be larger, than 105 joules, achieving 106 joules and yet 109 joules. [3]. Evidently there are two reciprocal depend processes: the energy accumulation in the attracted phase trajectories area and resonance fault of the accumulated energy. But after the fault the system returns again to the same attracted phase trajectories area. For analyzing of the thin structure of the chaotic area we decided to add the method of processing of the seismic monitoring data by new parameters. We shall consider each point of explosion as a source of seismic or deformation waves. Using the kinematic approach of seismic information processing we shall each point of the massif response use as a time point of the first arrival of the deformation wave for calculation of the wave velocity, because additionally we know the coordinates of the fixed response and the coordinates of explosion. The use of additional parameter-velocity of slow deformation wave propagation allowed us with use method of phase diagrams identify their hierarchic structure, which allow us to use that information for modeling and interpretation the propagation seismic and deformation waves in hierarchic structures. It is researched with use of that suggested processing method the thin
A large deformation viscoelastic model for double-network hydrogels
Mao, Yunwei; Lin, Shaoting; Zhao, Xuanhe; Anand, Lallit
2017-03-01
We present a large deformation viscoelasticity model for recently synthesized double network hydrogels which consist of a covalently-crosslinked polyacrylamide network with long chains, and an ionically-crosslinked alginate network with short chains. Such double-network gels are highly stretchable and at the same time tough, because when stretched the crosslinks in the ionically-crosslinked alginate network rupture which results in distributed internal microdamage which dissipates a substantial amount of energy, while the configurational entropy of the covalently-crosslinked polyacrylamide network allows the gel to return to its original configuration after deformation. In addition to the large hysteresis during loading and unloading, these double network hydrogels also exhibit a substantial rate-sensitive response during loading, but exhibit almost no rate-sensitivity during unloading. These features of large hysteresis and asymmetric rate-sensitivity are quite different from the response of conventional hydrogels. We limit our attention to modeling the complex viscoelastic response of such hydrogels under isothermal conditions. Our model is restricted in the sense that we have limited our attention to conditions under which one might neglect any diffusion of the water in the hydrogel - as might occur when the gel has a uniform initial value of the concentration of water, and the mobility of the water molecules in the gel is low relative to the time scale of the mechanical deformation. We also do not attempt to model the final fracture of such double-network hydrogels.
Dynamic corneal deformation response and integrated corneal tomography
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marcella Q Salomão
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Measuring corneal biomechanical properties is still challenging. There are several clinical applications for biomechanical measurements, including the detection of mild or early forms of ectatic corneal diseases. This article reviews clinical applications for biomechanical measurements provided by the Corvis ST dynamic non contact tonometer
Odd-parity currents induced by dynamic deformations in graphene-like systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, Kai; Zhang, Erhu; Chen, Huawei; Zhang, Shengli
2016-01-01
Reduced (3 + 1)-dimensional Dirac systems with inter-pseudo-spin and inter-valley scattering are employed to investigate current responses to (chiral) gauge fields in graphene-like systems. From (chiral) current—(chiral) current correlation functions, we derive the current responses. Except for electric currents induced by external gauge fields, we find the inter-valley scattering can break the topological nature of odd-parity currents. Given the proper conditions, this property can help us realize valley-polarized electric currents. Through the dynamic deformations generating the chiral gauge fields, we find the vortex-like currents while their profiles can be tuned by superposition of some deformations. In particular, we find a more manageable approach to realize the topological electric current by choosing a linear dynamic deformation. (paper)
Description of deformed nuclei in the sdg boson model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, S.C.; Kuyucak, S.
1996-01-01
We present a study of deformed nuclei in the framework of the sdg interacting boson model utilizing both numerical diagonalization and analytical 1/N expansion techniques. The focus is on the description of high-spin states which have recently become computationally accessible through the use of computer algebra in the 1/N expansion formalism. A systematic study is made of high-spin states in rare-earth and actinide nuclei. (orig.)
Description of deformed nuclei in the sdg boson model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, S.C. [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia). Research School of Physical Sciences; Kuyucak, S. [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia). Research School of Physical Sciences
1996-07-15
We present a study of deformed nuclei in the framework of the sdg interacting boson model utilizing both numerical diagonalization and analytical 1/N expansion techniques. The focus is on the description of high-spin states which have recently become computationally accessible through the use of computer algebra in the 1/N expansion formalism. A systematic study is made of high-spin states in rare-earth and actinide nuclei. (orig.).
Description of deformed nuclei in the sdg boson model
Li, S. C.; Kuyucak, S.
1996-02-01
We present a study of deformed nuclei in the framework of the sdg interacting boson model utilizing both numerical diagonalization and analytical {1}/{N} expansion techniques. The focus is on the description of high-spin states which have recently become computationally accessible through the use of computer algebra in the {1}/{N} expansion formalism. A systematic study is made of high-spin states in rare-earth and actinide nuclei.
Gurses, Ercan; El Sayed, Tamer S.
2011-01-01
In this work, a viscoplastic constitutive model for nanocrystalline metals is presented. The model is based on competing grain boundary and grain interior deformation mechanisms. In particular, inelastic deformations caused by grain boundary
Liu, Ling; Onck, Patrick R.
2017-08-01
Azobenzene-embedded liquid crystal polymers can undergo mechanical deformation in response to ultraviolet (UV) light. The natural rodlike trans state azobenzene absorbs UV light and isomerizes to a bentlike cis state, which disturbs the order of the polymer network, leading to an anisotropic deformation. The current consensus is that the magnitude of the photoinduced deformation is related to the statistical building up of molecules in the cis state. However, a recent experimental study [Liu and Broer, Nat. Commun. 6 8334 (2015)., 10.1038/ncomms9334] shows that a drastic (fourfold) increase of the photoinduced deformation can be generated by exposing the samples simultaneously to 365 nm (UV) and 455 nm (visible) light. To elucidate the physical mechanism that drives this increase, we develop a two-light attenuation model and an optomechanical constitutive relation that not only accounts for the statistical accumulation of cis azobenzenes, but also for the dynamic trans-cis-trans oscillatory isomerization process. Our experimentally calibrated model predicts that the optimal single-wavelength exposure is 395 nm light, a pronounced shift towards the visible spectrum. In addition, we identify a range of optimal combinations of two-wavelength lights that generate a favorable response for a given amount of injected energy. Our model provides mechanistic insight into the different (multi)wavelength exposures used in experiments and, at the same time, opens new avenues towards enhanced, multiwavelength optomechanical behavior.
DeBenedictis, Andrew; Atherton, Timothy J.; Rodarte, Andrea L.; Hirst, Linda S.
2018-03-01
A micrometer-scale elastic shell immersed in a nematic liquid crystal may be deformed by the host if the cost of deformation is comparable to the cost of elastic deformation of the nematic. Moreover, such inclusions interact and form chains due to quadrupolar distortions induced in the host. A continuum theory model using finite elements is developed for this system, using mesh regularization and dynamic refinement to ensure quality of the numerical representation even for large deformations. From this model, we determine the influence of the shell elasticity, nematic elasticity, and anchoring condition on the shape of the shell and hence extract parameter values from an experimental realization. Extending the model to multibody interactions, we predict the alignment angle of the chain with respect to the host nematic as a function of aspect ratio, which is found to be in excellent agreement with experiments.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nishimura, Hiroshi.
1993-05-01
Object-Oriented Programming has been used extensively to model the LBL Advanced Light Source 1.5 GeV electron storage ring. This paper is on the present status of the class library construction with emphasis on a dynamic modeling
Bun, M.J.G.; Sarafidis, V.
2013-01-01
This Chapter reviews the recent literature on dynamic panel data models with a short time span and a large cross-section. Throughout the discussion we considerlinear models with additional endogenous covariates. First we give a broad overview of available inference methods placing emphasis on GMM.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhang, Zhenbo; Mishin, Oleg; Tao, N. R.
2014-01-01
The microstructure of an oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic PM2000 steel with a strong initial (100) texture has been investigated after compression by dynamic plastic deformation (DPD) at room temperature to a strain of 2.1. Measurements using electron backscatter diffraction and transmission...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhang, Zhenbo
fission and fusion reactors. In this study, two candidate steels for nuclear reactors, namely a ferritic/martensitic steel (modified 9Cr-1Mo steel) and an oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steel (PM2000), were nanostructured by dynamic plastic deformation (DPD). The resulting microstructure...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ye, Ting; Phan-Thien, Nhan; Khoo, Boo Cheong; Lim, Chwee Teck
2014-01-01
In this paper, we report simulation results assessing the deformation and aggregation of mixed healthy and malaria-infected red blood cells (RBCs) in a tube flow. A three dimensional particle model based on Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) is developed to predict the tube flow containing interacting cells. The cells are also modelled by DPD, with a Morse potential to characterize the cell-cell interaction. As validation tests, a single RBC in a tube flow and two RBCs in a static flow are simulated to examine the cell deformation and intercellular interaction, respectively. The study of two cells, one healthy and the other malaria-infected RBCs in a tube flow demonstrates that the malaria-infected RBC (in the leading position along flow direction) has different effects on the healthy RBC (in the trailing position) at the different stage of parasite development or at the different capillary number. With parasitic development, the malaria-infected RBC gradually loses its deformability, and in turn the corresponding trailing healthy RBC also deforms less due to the intercellular interaction. With increasing capillary number, both the healthy and malaria-infected RBCs are likely to undergo an axisymmetric motion. The minimum intercellular distance becomes small enough so that rouleaux is easily formed, i.e., the healthy and malaria-infected RBCs are difficultly disaggregated
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ye, Ting; Phan-Thien, Nhan, E-mail: Nhan@nus.edu.sg; Khoo, Boo Cheong; Lim, Chwee Teck [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 119260 (Singapore)
2014-11-15
In this paper, we report simulation results assessing the deformation and aggregation of mixed healthy and malaria-infected red blood cells (RBCs) in a tube flow. A three dimensional particle model based on Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) is developed to predict the tube flow containing interacting cells. The cells are also modelled by DPD, with a Morse potential to characterize the cell-cell interaction. As validation tests, a single RBC in a tube flow and two RBCs in a static flow are simulated to examine the cell deformation and intercellular interaction, respectively. The study of two cells, one healthy and the other malaria-infected RBCs in a tube flow demonstrates that the malaria-infected RBC (in the leading position along flow direction) has different effects on the healthy RBC (in the trailing position) at the different stage of parasite development or at the different capillary number. With parasitic development, the malaria-infected RBC gradually loses its deformability, and in turn the corresponding trailing healthy RBC also deforms less due to the intercellular interaction. With increasing capillary number, both the healthy and malaria-infected RBCs are likely to undergo an axisymmetric motion. The minimum intercellular distance becomes small enough so that rouleaux is easily formed, i.e., the healthy and malaria-infected RBCs are difficultly disaggregated.
Integrable higher order deformations of Heisenberg supermagnetic model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guo Jiafeng; Yan Zhaowen; Wang Shikun; Wu Ke; Zhao Weizhong
2009-01-01
The Heisenberg supermagnet model is an integrable supersymmetric system and has a close relationship with the strong electron correlated Hubbard model. In this paper, we investigate the integrable higher order deformations of Heisenberg supermagnet models with two different constraints: (i) S 2 =3S-2I for S is an element of USPL(2/1)/S(U(2)xU(1)) and (ii) S 2 =S for S is an element of USPL(2/1)/S(L(1/1)xU(1)). In terms of the gauge transformation, their corresponding gauge equivalent counterparts are derived.
Ghanem, Bernard
2013-01-01
This paper proposes the problem of modeling video sequences of dynamic swarms (DSs). We define a DS as a large layout of stochastically repetitive spatial configurations of dynamic objects (swarm elements) whose motions exhibit local spatiotemporal interdependency and stationarity, i.e., the motions are similar in any small spatiotemporal neighborhood. Examples of DS abound in nature, e.g., herds of animals and flocks of birds. To capture the local spatiotemporal properties of the DS, we present a probabilistic model that learns both the spatial layout of swarm elements (based on low-level image segmentation) and their joint dynamics that are modeled as linear transformations. To this end, a spatiotemporal neighborhood is associated with each swarm element, in which local stationarity is enforced both spatially and temporally. We assume that the prior on the swarm dynamics is distributed according to an MRF in both space and time. Embedding this model in a MAP framework, we iterate between learning the spatial layout of the swarm and its dynamics. We learn the swarm transformations using ICM, which iterates between estimating these transformations and updating their distribution in the spatiotemporal neighborhoods. We demonstrate the validity of our method by conducting experiments on real and synthetic video sequences. Real sequences of birds, geese, robot swarms, and pedestrians evaluate the applicability of our model to real world data. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Numerical modelling of stresses and deformations in casting processes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hattel, Jesper Henri
1997-01-01
Keywords: Stresses and deformations, casting, governing equations, thermal strain, control volume method......Keywords: Stresses and deformations, casting, governing equations, thermal strain, control volume method...
Heterogeneous Deformable Modeling of Bio-Tissues and Haptic Force Rendering for Bio-Object Modeling
Lin, Shiyong; Lee, Yuan-Shin; Narayan, Roger J.
This paper presents a novel technique for modeling soft biological tissues as well as the development of an innovative interface for bio-manufacturing and medical applications. Heterogeneous deformable models may be used to represent the actual internal structures of deformable biological objects, which possess multiple components and nonuniform material properties. Both heterogeneous deformable object modeling and accurate haptic rendering can greatly enhance the realism and fidelity of virtual reality environments. In this paper, a tri-ray node snapping algorithm is proposed to generate a volumetric heterogeneous deformable model from a set of object interface surfaces between different materials. A constrained local static integration method is presented for simulating deformation and accurate force feedback based on the material properties of a heterogeneous structure. Biological soft tissue modeling is used as an example to demonstrate the proposed techniques. By integrating the heterogeneous deformable model into a virtual environment, users can both observe different materials inside a deformable object as well as interact with it by touching the deformable object using a haptic device. The presented techniques can be used for surgical simulation, bio-product design, bio-manufacturing, and medical applications.
A meshless EFG-based algorithm for 3D deformable modeling of soft tissue in real-time.
Abdi, Elahe; Farahmand, Farzam; Durali, Mohammad
2012-01-01
The meshless element-free Galerkin method was generalized and an algorithm was developed for 3D dynamic modeling of deformable bodies in real time. The efficacy of the algorithm was investigated in a 3D linear viscoelastic model of human spleen subjected to a time-varying compressive force exerted by a surgical grasper. The model remained stable in spite of the considerably large deformations occurred. There was a good agreement between the results and those of an equivalent finite element model. The computational cost, however, was much lower, enabling the proposed algorithm to be effectively used in real-time applications.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marcisz J.
2017-12-01
Full Text Available Changes in the microstructure of nanostructured bainitic steel induced by quasi-static and dynamic deformation have been shown in the article. The method of deformation and strain rate have important impact on the microstructure changes especially due to strain localization. Microstructure of nanostructured steel Fe-0.6%C-1.9Mn-1.8Si-1.3Cr-0.7Mo consists of nanometer size carbide-free bainite laths and 20-30% volume fraction of retained austenite. Quasi-static and dynamic (strain rate up to 2×102 s−1 compression tests were realized using Gleeble simulator. Dynamic deformation at the strain rate up to 9×103 s−1 was realized by the Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar method (SHPB. Moreover high energy firing tests of plates made of the nanostructured bainitic steel were carried out to produce dynamically deformed material for investigation. Adiabatic shear bands were found as a result of localization of deformation in dynamic compression tests and in firing tests. Microstructure of the bands was examined and hardness changes in the vicinity of the bands were determined. The TEM examination of the ASBs showed the change from the internal shear band structure to the matrix structure to be gradual. This study clearly resolved that the interior (core of the band has an extremely fine grained structure with grain diameter ranging from 100 nm to 200 nm. Martensitic twins were found within the grains. No austenite and carbide reflections were detected in the diffraction patterns taken from the core of the band. Hardness of the core of the ASBs for examined variants of isothermal heat treatment was higher about 300 HV referring to steel matrix hardness.
Dynamics of Persistent and Acute Deformed Wing Virus Infections in Honey Bees, Apis mellifera
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jay D. Evans
2011-12-01
Full Text Available The dynamics of viruses are critical to our understanding of disease pathogenesis. Using honey bee Deformed wing virus (DWV as a model, we conducted field and laboratory studies to investigate the roles of abiotic and biotic stress factors as well as host health conditions in dynamics of virus replication in honey bees. The results showed that temperature decline could lead to not only significant decrease in the rate for pupae to emerge as adult bees, but also an increased severity of the virus infection in emerged bees, partly explaining the high levels of winter losses of managed honey bees, Apis mellifera, around the world. By experimentally exposing adult bees with variable levels of parasitic mite Varroa destructor, we showed that the severity of DWV infection was positively correlated with the density and time period of Varroa mite infestation, confirming the role of Varroa mites in virus transmission and activation in honey bees. Further, we showed that host conditions have a significant impact on the outcome of DWV infection as bees that originate from strong colonies resist DWV infection and replication significantly better than bee originating from weak colonies. The information obtained from this study has important implications for enhancing our understanding of host‑pathogen interactions and can be used to develop effective disease control strategies for honey bees.
Eakins, D. E.; Thadhani, N. N.
2006-10-01
Instrumented Taylor anvil-on-rod impact tests have been conducted on oxygen-free electronic copper to validate the accuracy of current strength models for predicting transient states during dynamic deformation events. The experiments coupled the use of high-speed digital photography to record the transient deformation states and laser interferometry to monitor the sample back (free surface) velocity as a measure of the elastic/plastic wave propagation through the sample length. Numerical continuum dynamics simulations of the impact and plastic wave propagation employing the Johnson-Cook [Proceedings of the Seventh International Symposium on Ballistics, 1983, The Netherlands (Am. Def. Prep. Assoc. (ADPA)), pp. 541-547], Zerilli-Armstrong [J. Appl. Phys. C1, 1816 (1987)], and Steinberg-Guinan [J. Appl. Phys. 51, 1498 (1980)] constitutive equations were used to generate transient deformation profiles and the free surface velocity traces. While these simulations showed good correlation with the measured free surface velocity traces and the final deformed sample shape, varying degrees of deviations were observed between the photographed and calculated specimen profiles at intermediate deformation states. The results illustrate the usefulness of the instrumented Taylor anvil-on-rod impact technique for validating constitutive equations that can describe the path-dependent deformation response and can therefore predict the transient and final deformation states.
Deformations of N=4 SYM and integrable spin chain models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berenstein, David; Cherkis, Sergey A.
2004-01-01
Beginning with the planar limit of N=4 SYM theory, we study planar diagrams for field theory deformations of N=4 which are marginal at the free field theory level. We show that the requirement of integrability of the full one-loop dilatation operator in the scalar sector, places very strong constraints on the field theory, so that the only soluble models correspond essentially to orbifolds of N=4 SYM. For these, the associated spin chain model gets twisted boundary conditions that depend on the length of the chain, but which are still integrable. We also show that theories with integrable subsectors appear quite generically, and it is possible to engineer integrable subsectors to have some specific symmetry, however these do not generally lead to full integrability. We also try to construct a theory whose spin chain has quantum group symmetry SOq(6) as a deformation of the SO(6) R-symmetry structure of N=4 SYM. We show that it is not possible to obtain a spin chain with that symmetry from deformations of the scalar potential of N=4 SYM.We also show that the natural context for these questions can be better phrased in terms of multi-matrix quantum mechanics rather than in four-dimensional field theories
Static response of deformable microchannels: a comparative modelling study
Shidhore, Tanmay C.; Christov, Ivan C.
2018-02-01
We present a comparative modelling study of fluid-structure interactions in microchannels. Through a mathematical analysis based on plate theory and the lubrication approximation for low-Reynolds-number flow, we derive models for the flow rate-pressure drop relation for long shallow microchannels with both thin and thick deformable top walls. These relations are tested against full three-dimensional two-way-coupled fluid-structure interaction simulations. Three types of microchannels, representing different elasticity regimes and having been experimentally characterized previously, are chosen as benchmarks for our theory and simulations. Good agreement is found in most cases for the predicted, simulated and measured flow rate-pressure drop relationships. The numerical simulations performed allow us to also carefully examine the deformation profile of the top wall of the microchannel in any cross section, showing good agreement with the theory. Specifically, the prediction that span-wise displacement in a long shallow microchannel decouples from the flow-wise deformation is confirmed, and the predicted scaling of the maximum displacement with the hydrodynamic pressure and the various material and geometric parameters is validated.
Modeling the behaviour of shape memory materials under large deformations
Rogovoy, A. A.; Stolbova, O. S.
2017-06-01
In this study, the models describing the behavior of shape memory alloys, ferromagnetic materials and polymers have been constructed, using a formalized approach to develop the constitutive equations for complex media under large deformations. The kinematic and constitutive equations, satisfying the principles of thermodynamics and objectivity, have been derived. The application of the Galerkin procedure to the systems of equations of solid mechanics allowed us to obtain the Lagrange variational equation and variational formulation of the magnetostatics problems. These relations have been tested in the context of the problems of finite deformation in shape memory alloys and ferromagnetic materials during forward and reverse martensitic transformations and in shape memory polymers during forward and reverse relaxation transitions from a highly elastic to a glassy state.
The strain path dependence of plastic deformation response of AA5754: Experiment and modeling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pham, Minh-Son; Hu, Lin; Iadicola, Mark; Creuziger, Adam; Rollett, Anthony D.
2013-01-01
This work presents modeling of experiments on a balanced biaxial (BB) pre-strained AA5754 alloy, subsequently reloaded uniaxially along the rolling direction and transverse direction. The material exhibits a complex plastic deformation response during the change in strain path due to 1) crystallographic texture, 2) aging (interactions between dislocations and Mg atoms) and 3) recovery (annihilation and re-arrangement of dislocations). With a BB prestrain of about 5 %, the aging process is dominant, and the yield strength for uniaxially deformed samples is observed to be higher than the flow stress during BB straining. The strain hardening rate after changing path is, however, lower than that for pre-straining. Higher degrees of pre-straining make the dynamic recovery more active. The dynamic recovery at higher strain levels compensates for the aging effect, and results in: 1) a reduction of the yield strength, and 2) an increase in the hardening rate of re-strained specimens along other directions. The yield strength of deformed samples is further reduced if these samples are left at room temperature to let static recovery occur. The synergistic influences of texture condition, aging and recovery processes on the material response make the modeling of strain path dependence of mechanical behavior of AA5754 challenging. In this study, the influence of crystallographic texture is taken into account by incorporating the latent hardening into a visco-plastic self-consistent model. Different strengths of dislocation glide interaction models in 24 slip systems are used to represent the latent hardening. Moreover, the aging and recovery effects are also included into the latent hardening model by considering strong interactions between dislocations and dissolved atom Mg and the microstructural evolution. These microstructural considerations provide a powerful capability to successfully describe the strain path dependence of plastic deformation behavior of AA5754
Quasiequilibrium models for triaxially deformed rotating compact stars
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huang Xing; Markakis, Charalampos; Sugiyama, Noriyuki; Uryu, Koji
2008-01-01
Quasiequilibrium models of rapidly rotating triaxially deformed stars are computed in general relativistic gravity, assuming a conformally flat spatial geometry (Isenberg-Wilson-Mathews formulation) and a polytropic equation of state. Highly deformed solutions are calculated on the initial slice covered by spherical coordinate grids, centered at the source, in all angular directions up to a large truncation radius. Constant rest mass sequences are calculated from nearly axisymmetric to maximally deformed triaxial configurations. Selected parameters are to model (proto-) neutron stars; the compactness is M/R=0.001, 0.1, 0.14, and 0.2 for polytropic index n=0.3 and M/R=0.001, 0.1, 0.12, and 0.14 for n=0.5, where M/R refers to that of a nonrotating spherical star having the same rest mass. We confirmed that the triaxial solutions exist for these parameters as in the case of Newtonian polytropes. However, it is also found that the triaxial sequences become shorter for higher compactness, and those disappear at a certain large compactness for the n=0.5 case. In the scenario of the contraction of proto-neutron stars being subject to strong viscosity and rapid cooling, it is plausible that, once the viscosity driven secular instability sets in during the contraction, the proto-neutron stars are always maximally deformed triaxial configurations, as long as the compactness and the equation of state parameters allow such triaxial sequences. Detection of gravitational waves from such sources may be used as another probe for the nuclear equation of state.
Wang, Peng; Zheng, Zhijun; Liao, Shenfei; Yu, Jilin
2018-02-01
The seemingly contradictory understandings of the initial crush stress of cellular materials under dynamic loadings exist in the literature, and a comprehensive analysis of this issue is carried out with using direct information of local stress and strain. Local stress/strain calculation methods are applied to determine the initial crush stresses and the strain rates at initial crush from a cell-based finite element model of irregular honeycomb under dynamic loadings. The initial crush stress under constant-velocity compression is identical to the quasi-static one, but less than the one under direct impact, i.e. the initial crush stresses under different dynamic loadings could be very different even though there is no strain-rate effect of matrix material. A power-law relation between the initial crush stress and the strain rate is explored to describe the strain-rate effect on the initial crush stress of irregular honeycomb when the local strain rate exceeds a critical value, below which there is no strain-rate effect of irregular honeycomb. Deformation mechanisms of the initial crush behavior under dynamic loadings are also explored. The deformation modes of the initial crush region in the front of plastic compaction wave are different under different dynamic loadings.
A nonaffine network model for elastomers undergoing finite deformations
Davidson, Jacob D.; Goulbourne, N. C.
2013-08-01
In this work, we construct a new physics-based model of rubber elasticity to capture the strain softening, strain hardening, and deformation-state dependent response of rubber materials undergoing finite deformations. This model is unique in its ability to capture large-stretch mechanical behavior with parameters that are connected to the polymer chemistry and can also be easily identified with the important characteristics of the macroscopic stress-stretch response. The microscopic picture consists of two components: a crosslinked network of Langevin chains and an entangled network with chains confined to a nonaffine tube. These represent, respectively, changes in entropy due to thermally averaged chain conformations and changes in entropy due to the magnitude of these conformational fluctuations. A simple analytical form for the strain energy density is obtained using Rubinstein and Panyukov's single-chain description of network behavior. The model only depends on three parameters that together define the initial modulus, extent of strain softening, and the onset of strain hardening. Fits to large stretch data for natural rubber, silicone rubber, VHB 4905 (polyacrylate rubber), and b186 rubber (a carbon black-filled rubber) are presented, and a comparison is made with other similar constitutive models of large-stretch rubber elasticity. We demonstrate that the proposed model provides a complete description of elastomers undergoing large deformations for different applied loading configurations. Moreover, since the strain energy is obtained using a clear set of physical assumptions, this model may be tested and used to interpret the results of computer simulation and experiments on polymers of known microscopic structure.
The dynamic deformation of a layered viscoelastic medium under surface excitation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aglyamov, Salavat R; Karpiouk, Andrei B; Emelianov, Stanislav Y; Wang, Shang; Li, Jiasong; Larin, Kirill V; Twa, Michael
2015-01-01
In this study the dynamic behavior of a layered viscoelastic medium in response to the harmonic and impulsive acoustic radiation force applied to its surface was investigated both theoretically and experimentally. An analytical solution for a layered viscoelastic compressible medium in frequency and time domains was obtained using the Hankel transform. A special incompressible case was considered to model soft biological tissues. To verify our theoretical model, experiments were performed using tissue-like gel-based phantoms with varying mechanical properties. A 3.5 MHz single-element focused ultrasound transducer was used to apply the radiation force at the surface of the phantoms. A phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography system was used to track the displacements of the phantom surface. Theoretically predicted displacements were compared with experimental measurements. The role of the depth dependence of the elastic properties of a medium in its response to an acoustic pulse at the surface was studied. It was shown that the low-frequency vibrations at the surface are more sensitive to the deep layers than high-frequency ones. Therefore, the proposed model in combination with spectral analysis can be used to evaluate depth-dependent distribution of the mechanical properties based on the measurements of the surface deformation. (paper)
An Efficient Mesh Generation Method for Fractured Network System Based on Dynamic Grid Deformation
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Shuli Sun
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Meshing quality of the discrete model influences the accuracy, convergence, and efficiency of the solution for fractured network system in geological problem. However, modeling and meshing of such a fractured network system are usually tedious and difficult due to geometric complexity of the computational domain induced by existence and extension of fractures. The traditional meshing method to deal with fractures usually involves boundary recovery operation based on topological transformation, which relies on many complicated techniques and skills. This paper presents an alternative and efficient approach for meshing fractured network system. The method firstly presets points on fractures and then performs Delaunay triangulation to obtain preliminary mesh by point-by-point centroid insertion algorithm. Then the fractures are exactly recovered by local correction with revised dynamic grid deformation approach. Smoothing algorithm is finally applied to improve the quality of mesh. The proposed approach is efficient, easy to implement, and applicable to the cases of initial existing fractures and extension of fractures. The method is successfully applied to modeling of two- and three-dimensional discrete fractured network (DFN system in geological problems to demonstrate its effectiveness and high efficiency.
Dynamics and deformability of α-, 310- and π-helices
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Narwani Tarun Jairaj
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Protein structures are often represented as seen in crystals as (i rigid macromolecules (ii with helices, sheets and coils. However, both definitions are partial because (i proteins are highly dynamic macromolecules and (ii the description of protein structures could be more precise. With regard to these two points, we analyzed and quantified the stability of helices by considering α-helices as well as 310- and π-helices. Molecular dynamic (MD simulations were performed on a large set of 169 representative protein domains. The local protein conformations were followed during each simulation and analyzed. The classical flexibility index (B-factor was confronted with the MD root mean square flexibility (RMSF index. Helical regions were classified according to their level of helicity from high to none. For the first time, a precise quantification showed the percentage of rigid and flexible helices that underlie unexpected behaviors. Only 76.4% of the residues associated with α-helices retain the conformation, while this tendency drops to 40.5% for 310-helices and is never observed for π-helices. α-helix residues that do not remain as an α-helix have a higher tendency to assume β-turn conformations than 310- or π-helices. The 310-helices that switch to the α-helix conformation have a higher B-factor and RMSF values than the average 310-helix but are associated with a lower accessibility. Rare π-helices assume a β-turn, bend and coil conformations, but not α- or 310-helices. The view on π-helices drastically changes with the new DSSP (Dictionary of Secondary Structure of Proteins assignment approach, leading to behavior similar to 310-helices, thus underlining the importance of secondary structure assignment methods.
Deformable object model and simulation. Application to lung cancer treatment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baudet, V.
2006-06-01
Ionising treatment against cancers such as conformal radiotherapy and hadron therapy are set with error margins that take into account statistics of tumour motions, for instance. We are looking for reducing these margins by searching deformable models that would simulate displacements occurring in lungs during a treatment. It must be personalized with the geometry obtained from CT scans of the patient and also it must be parameterized with physiological measures of the patient. In this Ph. D. thesis, we decided to use a mass-spring system to model lungs because of its fast and physically realist deformations obtained in animation. As a starting point, we chose the model proposed by Van Gelder in order to parameterize a mass-spring system with rheological characteristics of an homogeneous, linear elastic isotropic material in two dimensions (2D). However, we tested this model and proved it was false. Hence we did a Lagrangian study in order to obtain a parametric model with rectangular in 2D (cubic in 3D) elements. We also determined the robustness by testing with stretching, inflating, shearing and bending experiments and also by comparing results with other infinite element method. Thus, in this Ph.D. thesis, we explain how to obtain this parametric model, and how it will be linked to physiological data and how accurate it will be. (author)
Shi, Wenxiong; Huang, Xianfu; Liu, Zhanwei
2014-05-05
Quantitatively measuring a dynamic liquid surface often presents a challenge due to high transparency, fluidity and specular reflection. Here, a novel Transmission-Lattice based Geometric Phase Analysis (TLGPA) method is introduced. In this method, a special lattice is placed underneath a liquid to be tested and, when viewed from above, the phase of the transmission-lattice image is modulated by the deformation of the liquid surface. Combining this with multi-directional Newton iteration algorithms, the dynamic deformation field of the liquid surface can be calculated from the phase variation of a series of transmission-lattice images captured at different moments. The developed method has the advantage of strong self-adaption ability to initial lattice rotational errors and this is discussed in detail. Dynamic 3D ripples formation and propagation was investigated and the results obtained demonstrated the feasibility of the method.
Bevillard, Benoit; Richard, Guillaume; Raimbourg, Hugues
2017-04-01
Rocks are complex materials and particularly their rheological behavior under geological stresses remains a long-standing question in geodynamics. To test large scale lithosphere dynamics numerical modeling is the main tool but encounter substantial difficulties to account for this complexity. One major unknown is the origin and development of the localization of deformation. This localization is observed within a large range of scales and is commonly characterized by sharp grain size reduction. These considerations argues for a control of the microscopical scale over the largest ones through one predominant variable: the mean grain-size. However, the presence of second phase and broad grain-size distribution may also have a important impact on this phenomenon. To address this question, we built a model for ductile rocks deformation based on the two-phase damage theory of Bercovici & Ricard 2012. We aim to investigate the role of grain-size reduction but also phase mixing on strain localization. Instead of considering a Zener-pining effect on damage evolution, we propose to take into account the effect of the grain-boundary sliding (GBS)-induced nucleation mechanism which is better supported by experimental or natural observations (Precigout et al 2016). This continuum theory allows to represent a two mineral phases aggregate with explicit log-normal grain-size distribution as a reasonable approximation for polymineralic rocks. Quantifying microscopical variables using a statistical approach may allow for calibration at small (experimental) scale. The general set of evolutions equations remains up-scalable provided some conditions on the homogenization scale. Using the interface density as a measure of mixture quality, we assume unlike Bercovici & Ricard 2012 that it may depend for some part on grain-size . The grain-size independent part of it is being represented by a "contact fraction" variable, whose evolution may be constrained by the dominant deformation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baghaee Moghaddam, Taher; Soltani, Mehrtash; Karim, Mohamed Rehan
2014-01-01
Highlights: • Waste PET was utilized as modifier in asphalt mixture. • Deformation characteristics of asphalt mixtures were assessed. • Dynamic creep test was conducted at different temperatures and stress levels. • Permanent deformation models were introduced. - Abstract: One of the major types of plastics that can be found in Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) is Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) which is a non-biodegradable semi-crystalline thermoplastic polymer, and is considered as polyester material. Generating large amount of waste PET, mainly as bottles, would cause environmental hazards by disposing in landfills. This paper aims to evaluate effects of utilizing waste PET flakes as modifier in asphalt mixture as an alternative solution to overcome the potential risks arise from producing large amount of waste PET as well as evaluating the deformation characteristics of unmodified and PET modified asphalt mixtures. To achieve this aim, different percentages of PET were designated for this investigation, namely: 0%, 0.2%, 0.4%, 0.6%, 0.8% and 1% by weight of aggregate particles, and dynamic creep test was performed at different stress levels (300 kPa and 400 kPa) and temperatures (10 °C, 25 °C and 40 °C). Consequently, Zhou three-stage model was developed. The results showed that permanent deformation characteristics of asphalt mixture were considerably improved by utilization of PET modification, when the permanent strain was remarkably decreased in PET modified mixture compared to the conventional mixture at all stress levels and temperatures. Besides, based on Zhou model, it was concluded that elastic and visco-elastic properties of asphalt mixture were improved by application of PET modification
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Huabing Li
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Hot deformation behavior and microstructure evolution of 2707 hyper duplex stainless steel (HDSS were investigated through hot compression tests in the temperature range of 900–1250 °C and strain rate range of 0.01–10 s−1. The results showed that the flow behavior strongly depended on strain rate and temperature, and flow stress increased with increasing strain rate and decreasing temperature. At lower temperatures, many precipitates appeared in ferrite and distributed along the deformation direction, which could restrain processing of discontinuous dynamic recrystallization (DRX because of pinning grain boundaries. When the temperature increased to 1150 °C, the leading softening behaviors were dynamic recovery (DRV in ferrite and discontinuous DRX in austenite. When the temperature reached 1250 °C, softening behavior was mainly DRV in ferrite. The increase of strain rate was conducive to the occurrence of discontinuous DRX in austenite. A constitutive equation at peak strain was established and the results indicated that 2707 HDSS had a higher Q value (569.279 kJ·mol−1 than other traditional duplex stainless steels due to higher content of Cr, Mo, Ni, and N. Constitutive modeling considering strain was developed to model the hot deformation behavior of 2707 HDSS more accurately, and the correlation coefficient and average absolute relative error were 0.992 and 5.22%, respectively.
Facial Performance Transfer via Deformable Models and Parametric Correspondence.
Asthana, Akshay; de la Hunty, Miles; Dhall, Abhinav; Goecke, Roland
2012-09-01
The issue of transferring facial performance from one person's face to another's has been an area of interest for the movie industry and the computer graphics community for quite some time. In recent years, deformable face models, such as the Active Appearance Model (AAM), have made it possible to track and synthesize faces in real time. Not surprisingly, deformable face model-based approaches for facial performance transfer have gained tremendous interest in the computer vision and graphics community. In this paper, we focus on the problem of real-time facial performance transfer using the AAM framework. We propose a novel approach of learning the mapping between the parameters of two completely independent AAMs, using them to facilitate the facial performance transfer in a more realistic manner than previous approaches. The main advantage of modeling this parametric correspondence is that it allows a "meaningful" transfer of both the nonrigid shape and texture across faces irrespective of the speakers' gender, shape, and size of the faces, and illumination conditions. We explore linear and nonlinear methods for modeling the parametric correspondence between the AAMs and show that the sparse linear regression method performs the best. Moreover, we show the utility of the proposed framework for a cross-language facial performance transfer that is an area of interest for the movie dubbing industry.
Malafeyev, O. A.; Nemnyugin, S. A.; Rylow, D.; Kolpak, E. P.; Awasthi, Achal
2017-07-01
The corruption dynamics is analyzed by means of the lattice model which is similar to the three-dimensional Ising model. Agents placed at nodes of the corrupt network periodically choose to perfom or not to perform the act of corruption at gain or loss while making decisions based on the process history. The gain value and its dynamics are defined by means of the Markov stochastic process modelling with parameters established in accordance with the influence of external and individual factors on the agent's gain. The model is formulated algorithmically and is studied by means of the computer simulation. Numerical results are obtained which demonstrate asymptotic behaviour of the corruption network under various conditions.
Numerical Modelling of Metal-Elastomer Spring Nonlinear Response for Low-Rate Deformations
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Sikora Wojciech
2018-03-01
Full Text Available Advanced knowledge of mechanical characteristics of metal-elastomer springs is useful in their design process and selection. It can also be used in simulating dynamics of machine where such elements are utilized. Therefore this paper presents a procedure for preparing and executing FEM modelling of a single metal-elastomer spring, also called Neidhart’s spring, for low-rate deformations. Elastomer elements were made of SBR rubber of two hardness values: 50°Sh and 70°Sh. For the description of material behaviour the Bergström-Boyce model has been used.
Micromechanical modeling of the deformation of HCP metals
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Graff, S. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Materialforschung
2008-12-04
Nowadays, intense research is conducted to understand the relation between microstructural features and mechanical properties of hexagonal close-packed (hcp) metals. Due to their hexagonal structure, hcp metals exhibit mechanical properties such as strong anisotropy, which is more pronounced than for construction metals with cubic crystal structure, and tension/compression asymmetry. Deformation mechanisms in hcp metals, dislocation motion on specific slip systems and activation of twinning, are not yet completely understood. The purpose of this work is to link the physical mechanisms developing during deformation of magnesium (Mg) on the microscale with the macroscopic yielding properties of texture Mg samples. It will be shown that the mechanical behavior of hcp metals may be understood and reproduced with the help of a visco-plastic model for crystal plasticity and a phenomenological yield criterion with appropriate hardening behavior. The study of single crystal specimens subjected to channel die compression tests reveals the active slip systems and twinning systems of the material considered. The material anisotropy at mesoscale is reproduced by using adequate critical resolved shear stresses (CRSS) for the considered deformation mechanisms. In order to describe the macroscopic behavior, texture is incorporated into polycrystalline Representative Volume Elements (RVEs) and various mechanical properties of extruded bars and rolled plates can be predicted. For RVEs exhibiting the texture of rolled plates the numerical results reveal the plate's anisotropic yielding and hardening behavior on a mesoscale. In order to extend the modeling possibilities to process simulations and to allow for time-saving simulations of structural behavior, a phenomenological yield surface accounting for anisotropy and tension/compression asymmetry has been established and implemented in a finite element code. Its numerous model parameters are calibrated by an optimization
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Michelle S. Hoo Fatt
1996-01-01
Full Text Available A theoretical approach was developed for predicting the plastic deformation of a cylindrical shell subject to asymmetric dynamic loads. The plastic deformation of the leading generator of the shell is found by solving for the transverse deflections of a rigid-plastic beam/string-on-foundation. The axial bending moment and tensile force in the beam/string are equivalent to the longitudinal bending moments and membrane forces of the shell, while the plastic foundation force is equivalent to the shell circumferential bending moment and membrane resistances. Closed-form solutions for the transient and final deformation profile of an impulsive loaded shell when it is in a “string” state were derived using the eigenfunction expansion method. These results were compared to DYNA 3D predictions. The analytical predictions of the transient shell and final centerline deflections were within 25% of the DYNA 3D results.
Recent progress in modelling 3D lithospheric deformation
Kaus, B. J. P.; Popov, A.; May, D. A.
2012-04-01
Modelling 3D lithospheric deformation remains a challenging task, predominantly because the variations in rock types, as well as nonlinearities due to for example plastic deformation result in sharp and very large jumps in effective viscosity contrast. As a result, there are only a limited number of 3D codes available, most of which are using direct solvers which are computationally and memory-wise very demanding. As a result, the resolutions for typical model runs are quite modest, despite the use of hundreds of processors (and using much larger computers is unlikely to bring much improvement in this situation). For this reason we recently developed a new 3D deformation code,called LaMEM: Lithosphere and Mantle Evolution Model. LaMEM is written on top of PETSc, and as a result it runs on massive parallel machines and we have a large number of iterative solvers available (including geometric and algebraic multigrid methods). As it remains unclear which solver combinations work best under which conditions, we have implemented most currently suggested methods (such as schur complement reduction or Fully coupled iterations). In addition, we can use either a finite element discretization (with Q1P0, stabilized Q1Q1 or Q2P-1 elements) or a staggered finite difference discretization for the same input geometry, which is based on a marker and cell technique). This gives us he flexibility to test various solver methodologies on the same model setup, in terms of accuracy, speed, memory usage etc. Here, we will report on some features of LaMEM, on recent code additions, as well as on some lessons we learned which are important for modelling 3D lithospheric deformation. Specifically we will discuss: 1) How we combine a particle-and-cell method to make it work with both a finite difference and a (lagrangian, eulerian or ALE) finite element formulation, with only minor code modifications code 2) How finite difference and finite element discretizations compare in terms of
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kullig, Julius; Wiersig, Jan
2016-01-01
In optical microdisk cavities with boundary deformations the backscattering between clockwise and counter-clockwise propagating waves is in general asymmetric. The striking consequence of this asymmetry is that these apparently weakly open systems show pronounced non-Hermitian phenomena. The optical modes appear in non-orthogonal pairs, where both modes copropagate in a preferred sense of rotation, i.e. the modes exhibit a finite chirality. Full asymmetry in the backscattering results in a non-Hermitian degeneracy (exceptional point) where the deviation from closed system evolution is strongest. We study the effects of asymmetric backscattering in ray dynamics. For this purpose, we construct a finite approximation of the Frobenius–Perron operator for deformed microdisk cavities, which describes the dynamics of intensities in phase space. Eigenstates of the Frobenius–Perron operator show nice analogies to optical modes: they come in non-orthogonal copropagating pairs and have a finite chirality. We introduce a new cavity system with a smooth asymmetric boundary deformation where we demonstrate our results and we illustrate the main aspects with the help of a simple analytically solvable 1D model. (paper)
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Loktev Aleksey Alekseevich
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The authors present their findings associated with their modeling of a dynamic load damper. According to the authors, the damper is to be installed onto a structure or its element that may be exposed to impact, vibration or any other dynamic loading. The damper is composed of paralleled or consecutively connected viscous and elastic elements. The authors study the influence of viscosity and elasticity parameters of the damper produced onto the regular displacement of points of the structure to be protected and onto the regular acceleration transmitted immediately from the damper to the elements positioned below it.
Marginal deformations of heterotic G 2 sigma models
Fiset, Marc-Antoine; Quigley, Callum; Svanes, Eirik Eik
2018-02-01
Recently, the infinitesimal moduli space of heterotic G 2 compactifications was described in supergravity and related to the cohomology of a target space differential. In this paper we identify the marginal deformations of the corresponding heterotic nonlinear sigma model with cohomology classes of a worldsheet BRST operator. This BRST operator is nilpotent if and only if the target space geometry satisfies the heterotic supersymmetry conditions. We relate this to the supergravity approach by showing that the corresponding cohomologies are indeed isomorphic. We work at tree-level in α' perturbation theory and study general geometries, in particular with non-vanishing torsion.
Modeling and Simulation of Grasping of Deformable Objects
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fugl, Andreas Rune
Automated robot solutions have for decades been increasing productivity around the world. They are attractive for being fast, accurate and able to work in dangerous and repetitive environments. In traditional applications the grasped object is kinematically attached to the Tool Center Point....... The purpose of this thesis is to address the modeling and simulation of deformable objects, as applied to robotic grasping and manipulation. The main contributions of this work are: An evaluation of 3D linear elasticity used for robot grasping as implemented by a Finite Difference Method supporting regular...
Dynamics of deformation and pinch-off of a migrating compound droplet in a tube
Borthakur, Manash Pratim; Biswas, Gautam; Bandyopadhyay, Dipankar
2018-04-01
A computational fluid dynamic investigation has been carried out to study the dynamics of a moving compound droplet inside a tube. The motions associated with such a droplet is uncovered by solving the axisymmetric Navier-Stokes equations in which the spatiotemporal evolution of a pair of twin-deformable interfaces has been tracked employing the volume-of-fluid approach. The deformations at the interfaces and their subsequent dynamics are found to be stimulated by the subtle interplay between the capillary and viscous forces. The simulations uncover that when a compound drop composed of concentric inner and outer interfaces migrates inside a tube, initially in the unsteady domain of evolution, the inner drop shifts away from the concentric position to reach a morphology of constant eccentricity at the steady state. The coupled motions of the droplets in the unsteady regime causes a continuous deformation of the inner and outer interfaces to obtain a configuration with a (an) prolate (oblate) shaped outer (inner) interface. The magnitudes of capillary number and viscosity ratio are found to have significant influence on the temporal evolution of the interfacial deformations as well as the eccentricity of the droplets. Further, the simulations uncover that, following the asymmetric deformation of the interfaces, the migrating compound droplet can undergo an uncommon breakup stimulated by a rather irregular pinch-off of the outer shell. The breakup is found to initiate with the thinning of the outer shell followed by the pinch-off. Interestingly, the kinetics of the thinning of outer shell is found to follow two distinct power-law regimes—a swiftly thinning stage at the onset followed by a rate limiting stage before pinch-off, which eventually leads to the uncommon breakup of the migrating compound droplets.
Modeling and Control of Magnetic Fluid Deformable Mirrors for Adaptive Optics Systems
Wu, Zhizheng; Ben Amara, Foued
2013-01-01
Modeling and Control of Magnetic Fluid Deformable Mirrors for Adaptive Optics Systems presents a novel design of wavefront correctors based on magnetic fluid deformable mirrors (MFDM) as well as corresponding control algorithms. The presented wavefront correctors are characterized by their linear, dynamic response. Various mirror surface shape control algorithms are presented along with experimental evaluations of the performance of the resulting adaptive optics systems. Adaptive optics (AO) systems are used in various fields of application to enhance the performance of optical systems, such as imaging, laser, free space optical communication systems, etc. This book is intended for undergraduate and graduate students, professors, engineers, scientists and researchers working on the design of adaptive optics systems and their various emerging fields of application. Zhizheng Wu is an associate professor at Shanghai University, China. Azhar Iqbal is a research associate at the University of Toronto, Canada. Foue...
A model to accumulate fractionated dose in a deforming organ
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yan Di; Jaffray, D.A.; Wong, J.W.
1999-01-01
Purpose: Measurements of internal organ motion have demonstrated that daily organ deformation exists throughout the course of radiation treatment. However, a method of constructing the resultant dose delivered to the organ volume remains a difficult challenge. In this study, a model to quantify internal organ motion and a method to construct a cumulative dose in a deforming organ are introduced. Methods and Materials: A biomechanical model of an elastic body is used to quantify patient organ motion in the process of radiation therapy. Intertreatment displacements of volume elements in an organ of interest is calculated by applying an finite element method with boundary conditions, obtained from multiple daily computed tomography (CT) measurements. Therefore, by incorporating also the measurements of daily setup error, daily dose delivered to a deforming organ can be accumulated by tracking the position of volume elements in the organ. Furthermore, distribution of patient-specific organ motion is also predicted during the early phase of treatment delivery using the daily measurements, and the cumulative dose distribution in the organ can then be estimated. This dose distribution will be updated whenever a new measurement becomes available, and used to reoptimize the ongoing treatment. Results: An integrated process to accumulate dosage in a daily deforming organ was implemented. In this process, intertreatment organ motion and setup error were systematically quantified, and incorporated in the calculation of the cumulative dose. An example of the rectal wall motion in a prostate treatment was applied to test the model. The displacements of volume elements in the rectal wall, as well as the resultant doses, were calculated. Conclusion: This study is intended to provide a systematic framework to incorporate daily patient-specific organ motion and setup error in the reconstruction of the cumulative dose distribution in an organ of interest. The realistic dose
Dynamic Deformation Behavior of Soft Material Using Shpb Technique and Pulse Shaper
Lee, Ouk Sub; Cho, Kyu Sang; Kim, Sung Hyun; Han, Yong Hwan
This paper presents a modified Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB) technique to obtain compressive stress strain data for NBR rubber materials. An experimental technique with a modified the conventional SHPB has been developed for measuring the compressive stress strain responses of materials with low mechanical impedance and low compressive strengths, such as the rubber and the polymeric material. This paper uses an aluminum pressure bar to achieve a closer impedance match between the pressure bar and the specimen materials. In addition, a pulse shaper is utilized to lengthen the rising time of the incident pulse to ensure dynamic stress equilibrium and homogeneous deformation of NBR rubber materials. It is found that the modified technique can determine the dynamic deformation behavior of rubbers more accurately.
Dynamic wake meandering modeling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Larsen, Gunner C.; Aagaard Madsen, H.; Bingoel, F. (and others)
2007-06-15
We present a consistent, physically based theory for the wake meandering phenomenon, which we consider of crucial importance for the overall description of wind turbine loadings in wind farms. In its present version the model is confined to single wake situations. The model philosophy does, however, have the potential to include also mutual wake interaction phenomenons. The basic conjecture behind the dynamic wake meandering model is that wake transportation in the atmospheric boundary layer is driven by the large scale lateral- and vertical turbulence components. Based on this conjecture a stochastic model of the downstream wake meandering is formulated. In addition to the kinematic formulation of the dynamics of the 'meandering frame of reference', models characterizing the mean wake deficit as well as the added wake turbulence, described in the meandering frame of reference, are an integrated part the model complex. For design applications, the computational efficiency of wake deficit prediction is a key issue. Two computationally low cost models are developed for this purpose. The character of the added wake turbulence, generated by the up-stream turbine in the form of shed and trailed vorticity, has been approached by analytical as well as by numerical studies. The dynamic wake meandering philosophy has been verified by comparing model predictions with extensive full-scale measurements. These comparisons have demonstrated good agreement, both qualitatively and quantitatively, concerning both flow characteristics and turbine load characteristics. Contrary to previous attempts to model wake loading, the dynamic wake meandering approach opens for a unifying description in the sense that turbine power and load aspects can be treated simultaneously. This capability is a direct and attractive consequence of the model being based on the underlying physical process, and it potentially opens for optimization of wind farm topology, of wind farm operation as
Zhang, Dongwen; Zhu, Qingsong; Xiong, Jing; Wang, Lei
2014-04-27
In a deforming anatomic environment, the motion of an instrument suffers from complex geometrical and dynamic constraints, robot assisted minimally invasive surgery therefore requires more sophisticated skills for surgeons. This paper proposes a novel dynamic virtual fixture (DVF) to enhance the surgical operation accuracy of admittance-type medical robotics in the deforming environment. A framework for DVF on the Euclidean Group SE(3) is presented, which unites rotation and translation in a compact form. First, we constructed the holonomic/non-holonomic constraints, and then searched for the corresponded reference to make a distinction between preferred and non-preferred directions. Second, different control strategies are employed to deal with the tasks along the distinguished directions. The desired spatial compliance matrix is synthesized from an allowable motion screw set to filter out the task unrelated components from manual input, the operator has complete control over the preferred directions; while the relative motion between the surgical instrument and the anatomy structures is actively tracked and cancelled, the deviation relative to the reference is compensated jointly by the operator and DVF controllers. The operator, haptic device, admittance-type proxy and virtual deforming environment are involved in a hardware-in-the-loop experiment, human-robot cooperation with the assistance of DVF controller is carried out on a deforming sphere to simulate beating heart surgery, performance of the proposed DVF on admittance-type proxy is evaluated, and both human factors and control parameters are analyzed. The DVF can improve the dynamic properties of human-robot cooperation in a low-frequency (0 ~ 40 rad/sec) deforming environment, and maintain synergy of orientation and translation during the operation. Statistical analysis reveals that the operator has intuitive control over the preferred directions, human and the DVF controller jointly control the
Shell-model-based deformation analysis of light cadmium isotopes
Schmidt, T.; Heyde, K. L. G.; Blazhev, A.; Jolie, J.
2017-07-01
Large-scale shell-model calculations for the even-even cadmium isotopes 98Cd-108Cd have been performed with the antoine code in the π (2 p1 /2;1 g9 /2) ν (2 d5 /2;3 s1 /2;2 d3 /2;1 g7 /2;1 h11 /2) model space without further truncation. Known experimental energy levels and B (E 2 ) values could be well reproduced. Taking these calculations as a starting ground we analyze the deformation parameters predicted for the Cd isotopes as a function of neutron number N and spin J using the methods of model independent invariants introduced by Kumar [Phys. Rev. Lett. 28, 249 (1972), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.28.249] and Cline [Annu. Rev. Nucl. Part. Sci. 36, 683 (1986), 10.1146/annurev.ns.36.120186.003343].
Multi Scale Models for Flexure Deformation in Sheet Metal Forming
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Di Pasquale Edmondo
2016-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the application of multi scale techniques to the simulation of sheet metal forming using the one-step method. When a blank flows over the die radius, it undergoes a complex cycle of bending and unbending. First, we describe an original model for the prediction of residual plastic deformation and stresses in the blank section. This model, working on a scale about one hundred times smaller than the element size, has been implemented in SIMEX, one-step sheet metal forming simulation code. The utilisation of this multi-scale modeling technique improves greatly the accuracy of the solution. Finally, we discuss the implications of this analysis on the prediction of springback in metal forming.
Analysis of High Temperature Deformed Structure and Dynamic Precipitation in W9Mo3Cr4V Steel
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2001-01-01
With TEM、SEM, various high-temperature deformed structures inW9Mo3Cr4V steel were investigated. The sub-structures，recrystallized nuclei, as well as the dynamic precipitation were also studied and analyzed. The relationship between recrystallized structures and dynamic precipitation was discussed. The results showed that the deformed structures in W9Mo3Cr4V steel are more complicated than those in low alloy steels. Because W9Mo3Cr4V steel is a high-speed steel, there are a large number of residual carbides on the matrix. Also, much dynamic precipitating carbides will precipitate during deformation at high temperature.
Multi-view and 3D deformable part models.
Pepik, Bojan; Stark, Michael; Gehler, Peter; Schiele, Bernt
2015-11-01
As objects are inherently 3D, they have been modeled in 3D in the early days of computer vision. Due to the ambiguities arising from mapping 2D features to 3D models, 3D object representations have been neglected and 2D feature-based models are the predominant paradigm in object detection nowadays. While such models have achieved outstanding bounding box detection performance, they come with limited expressiveness, as they are clearly limited in their capability of reasoning about 3D shape or viewpoints. In this work, we bring the worlds of 3D and 2D object representations closer, by building an object detector which leverages the expressive power of 3D object representations while at the same time can be robustly matched to image evidence. To that end, we gradually extend the successful deformable part model [1] to include viewpoint information and part-level 3D geometry information, resulting in several different models with different level of expressiveness. We end up with a 3D object model, consisting of multiple object parts represented in 3D and a continuous appearance model. We experimentally verify that our models, while providing richer object hypotheses than the 2D object models, provide consistently better joint object localization and viewpoint estimation than the state-of-the-art multi-view and 3D object detectors on various benchmarks (KITTI [2] , 3D object classes [3] , Pascal3D+ [4] , Pascal VOC 2007 [5] , EPFL multi-view cars[6] ).
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Colanero, K.; Chu, M.-C.
2002-01-01
We study a dynamical chiral bag model, in which massless fermions are confined within an impenetrable but movable bag coupled to meson fields. The self-consistent motion of the bag is obtained by solving the equations of motion exactly assuming spherical symmetry. When the bag interacts with an external meson wave we find three different kinds of resonances: fermionic, geometric, and σ resonances. We discuss the phenomenological implications of our results
Model for macroevolutionary dynamics.
Maruvka, Yosef E; Shnerb, Nadav M; Kessler, David A; Ricklefs, Robert E
2013-07-02
The highly skewed distribution of species among genera, although challenging to macroevolutionists, provides an opportunity to understand the dynamics of diversification, including species formation, extinction, and morphological evolution. Early models were based on either the work by Yule [Yule GU (1925) Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 213:21-87], which neglects extinction, or a simple birth-death (speciation-extinction) process. Here, we extend the more recent development of a generic, neutral speciation-extinction (of species)-origination (of genera; SEO) model for macroevolutionary dynamics of taxon diversification. Simulations show that deviations from the homogeneity assumptions in the model can be detected in species-per-genus distributions. The SEO model fits observed species-per-genus distributions well for class-to-kingdom-sized taxonomic groups. The model's predictions for the appearance times (the time of the first existing species) of the taxonomic groups also approximately match estimates based on molecular inference and fossil records. Unlike estimates based on analyses of phylogenetic reconstruction, fitted extinction rates for large clades are close to speciation rates, consistent with high rates of species turnover and the relatively slow change in diversity observed in the fossil record. Finally, the SEO model generally supports the consistency of generic boundaries based on morphological differences between species and provides a comparator for rates of lineage splitting and morphological evolution.
Mechanical characterization of the P56 mouse brain under large-deformation dynamic indentation
MacManus, David B.; Pierrat, Baptiste; Murphy, Jeremiah G.; Gilchrist, Michael D.
2016-02-01
The brain is a complex organ made up of many different functional and structural regions consisting of different types of cells such as neurons and glia, as well as complex anatomical geometries. It is hypothesized that the different regions of the brain exhibit significantly different mechanical properties, which may be attributed to the diversity of cells and anisotropy of neuronal fibers within individual brain regions. The regional dynamic mechanical properties of P56 mouse brain tissue in vitro and in situ at velocities of 0.71-4.28 mm/s, up to a deformation of 70 μm are presented and discussed in the context of traumatic brain injury. The experimental data obtained from micro-indentation measurements were fit to three hyperelastic material models using the inverse Finite Element method. The cerebral cortex elicited a stiffer response than the cerebellum, thalamus, and medulla oblongata regions for all velocities. The thalamus was found to be the least sensitive to changes in velocity, and the medulla oblongata was most compliant. The results show that different regions of the mouse brain possess significantly different mechanical properties, and a significant difference also exists between the in vitro and in situ brain.
Modelling Polymer Deformation and Welding Behaviour during 3D Printing
McIlroy, Claire; Olmsted, Peter
2016-11-01
3D printing has the potential to transform manufacturing processes, yet improving the strength of printed parts, to equal that of traditionally-manufactured parts, remains an underlying issue. The most common method, fused deposition modelling, involves melting a thermoplastic, followed by layer-by-layer extrusion of the material to fabricate a three-dimensional object. The key to the ensuring strength at the weld between these layers is successful inter-diffusion. However, as the printed layer cools towards the glass transition temperature, the time available for diffusion is limited. In addition, the extrusion process significantly deforms the polymer micro-structure prior to welding and consequently affects how the polymers "re-entangle" across the weld. We have developed a simple model of the non-isothermal printing process to explore the effects that typical printing conditions and amorphous polymer rheology have on the ultimate weld structure. In particular, we incorporate both the stretch and orientation of the polymer using the Rolie-Poly constitutive equation to examine how the melt flows through the nozzle and is deposited onto the build plate. We then address how this deformation relaxes and contributes to the thickness and structure of the weld. National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) and Georgetown University.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dahmen, Karin A.; Ben-Zion, Yehuda; Uhl, Jonathan T.
2009-01-01
A basic micromechanical model for deformation of solids with only one tuning parameter (weakening ε) is introduced. The model can reproduce observed stress-strain curves, acoustic emissions and related power spectra, event statistics, and geometrical properties of slip, with a continuous phase transition from brittle to ductile behavior. Exact universal predictions are extracted using mean field theory and renormalization group tools. The results agree with recent experimental observations and simulations of related models for dislocation dynamics, material damage, and earthquake statistics.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McFadden, J.H.; Paulsen, M.P.; Gose, G.C.
1981-01-01
Thermal-hydraulic codes in general use for system calculations are based on extensive analyses of loss-of-coolant accidents following the postulated rupture of a large coolant pipe. In this study, time-dependent equation for the slip velocity in a two-phase flow condition has been incorporated into the RETRAN-02 computer code. This model addition was undertaken to remove a limitation in RETRAN-01 associated with the homogeneous equilibrium mixture model. The dynamic slip equation was derived from a set of two-fluid conservation equations. 18 refs
Non-proportional deformation paths for sheet metal: experiments and models
van den Boogaard, Antonius H.; van Riel, M.; Hora, P.
2009-01-01
For mild steel, after significant plastic deformation in one direction, a subsequent deformation in an orthogonal direction shows a typical stress overshoot compared to monotonic deformation. This phenomenon is investigated experimentally and numerically on a DC06 material. Two models that
In situ diffraction profile analysis during tensile deformation motivated by molecular dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Van Swygenhoven, H.; Budrovic, Z.; Derlet, P.M.; Froseth, A.G.; Van Petegem, S.
2005-01-01
Molecular dynamics simulations can provide insight into the slip mechanism at the atomic scale and suggest that in nanocrystalline metals dislocations are nucleated and absorbed by the grain boundaries. However, this technique is limited by very short simulation times. Using suggestions from molecular dynamics, we have developed a new in situ X-ray diffraction technique wherein the profile analysis of several Bragg diffraction peaks during tensile deformation is possible. Combining experiment and careful structural analysis the results confirm the suggestions from atomistic simulations
Glaese, John R.; Tobbe, Patrick A.
1986-01-01
The Space Station Mechanism Test Bed consists of a hydraulically driven, computer controlled six degree of freedom (DOF) motion system with which docking, berthing, and other mechanisms can be evaluated. Measured contact forces and moments are provided to the simulation host computer to enable representation of orbital contact dynamics. This report describes the development of a generalized math model which represents the relative motion between two rigid orbiting vehicles. The model allows motion in six DOF for each body, with no vehicle size limitation. The rotational and translational equations of motion are derived. The method used to transform the forces and moments from the sensor location to the vehicles' centers of mass is also explained. Two math models of docking mechanisms, a simple translational spring and the Remote Manipulator System end effector, are presented along with simulation results. The translational spring model is used in an attempt to verify the simulation with compensated hardware in the loop results.
Dynamic shape transitions in the sdg boson model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuyucak, S.
1992-01-01
The dynamic evolution of shapes in the sdg interacting boson model is investigated using the angular momentum projected mean field theory. Deformed nuclei are found to be quite stable against shape changes but transitional nuclei could exhibit dynamic shape transitions in the region L = 10-20. Conditions of existence and experimental signatures for dynamic shape transitions are discussed together with a likely candidate, 192 Os. 13 refs., 3 figs
Dynamic shape transitions in the sdg boson model
Kuyucak, S.
The dynamic evolution of shapes in the sdg interacting boson model is investigated using the angular momentum projected mean field theory. Deformed nuclei are found to be quite stable against shape changes but transitional nuclei could exhibit dynamic shape transitions in the region L = 10-20. Conditions of existence and experimental signatures for dynamic shape transitions are discussed together with a likely candidate, 192Os.
Dynamic shape transitions in the sdg boson model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kuyucak, S. (Melbourne Univ., Parkville (Australia). School of Physics)
1992-01-01
The dynamic evolution of shapes in the sdg interacting bosun model is investigated using the angular momentum projected mean field theory. Deformed nuclei are found to be quite stable against shape changes but transitional nuclei could exhibit dynamic shape transitions in the region L = 10-20. Conditions of existence and experimental signatures for dynamic shape transitions are discussed together with a likely candidate, {sup 192}Os. (author).
Mechanical modelling of the Singoe deformation zone. Site descriptive modelling Forsmark stage 2.1
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Glamheden, Rune; Maersk Hansen, Lars; Fredriksson, Anders; Bergkvist, Lars; Markstroem, Ingemar; Elfstroem, Mats [Golder Associates AB (Sweden)
2007-02-15
This project aims at demonstrating the theoretical approach developed by SKB for determination of mechanical properties of large deformation zones, in particular the Singoe deformation zone. Up to now, only bedrock and minor deformation zones have been characterized by means of this methodology, which has been modified for this project. The Singoe deformation zone is taken as a reference object to get a more comprehensive picture of the structure, which could be incorporated in a future version of the SDM of Forsmark. Furthermore, the Singoe Zone has been chosen because of available data from four tunnels. Scope of work has included compilation and analysis of geological information from site investigations and documentation of existing tunnels. Results have been analyzed and demonstrated by means of RVS-visualization. Numerical modelling has been used to obtain mechanical properties. Numerical modelling has also been carried out in order to verify the results by comparison of calculated and measured deformations. Compilation of various structures in the four tunnels coincides largely with a magnetic anomaly and also with the estimated width. Based on the study it is clear that the Singoe deformation zone has a heterogeneous nature. The number of fracture zones associated with the deformation zone varies on either side of the zone, as does the transition zone between host rock and the Singoe zone. The overall impression from the study is that the results demonstrate that the methodology used for simulating of equivalent mechanical properties is an applicable and adequate method, also in case of large deformation zones. Typical rock mechanical parameters of the Singoe deformations that can be used in the regional stress model considering the zone to be a single fracture are: 200 MPa/m in normal stiffness, 10-15 MPa/m in shear stiffness, 0.4 MPa in cohesion and 31.5 degrees in friction angle.
Mechanical modelling of the Singoe deformation zone. Site descriptive modelling Forsmark stage 2.1
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Glamheden, Rune; Maersk Hansen, Lars; Fredriksson, Anders; Bergkvist, Lars; Markstroem, Ingemar; Elfstroem, Mats
2007-02-01
This project aims at demonstrating the theoretical approach developed by SKB for determination of mechanical properties of large deformation zones, in particular the Singoe deformation zone. Up to now, only bedrock and minor deformation zones have been characterized by means of this methodology, which has been modified for this project. The Singoe deformation zone is taken as a reference object to get a more comprehensive picture of the structure, which could be incorporated in a future version of the SDM of Forsmark. Furthermore, the Singoe Zone has been chosen because of available data from four tunnels. Scope of work has included compilation and analysis of geological information from site investigations and documentation of existing tunnels. Results have been analyzed and demonstrated by means of RVS-visualization. Numerical modelling has been used to obtain mechanical properties. Numerical modelling has also been carried out in order to verify the results by comparison of calculated and measured deformations. Compilation of various structures in the four tunnels coincides largely with a magnetic anomaly and also with the estimated width. Based on the study it is clear that the Singoe deformation zone has a heterogeneous nature. The number of fracture zones associated with the deformation zone varies on either side of the zone, as does the transition zone between host rock and the Singoe zone. The overall impression from the study is that the results demonstrate that the methodology used for simulating of equivalent mechanical properties is an applicable and adequate method, also in case of large deformation zones. Typical rock mechanical parameters of the Singoe deformations that can be used in the regional stress model considering the zone to be a single fracture are: 200 MPa/m in normal stiffness, 10-15 MPa/m in shear stiffness, 0.4 MPa in cohesion and 31.5 degrees in friction angle
Modeling level structures of odd-odd deformed nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hoff, R.W.; Kern, J.; Piepenbring, R.; Boisson, J.P.
1984-01-01
A technique for modeling quasiparticle excitation energies and rotational parameters in odd-odd deformed nuclei has been applied to actinide species where new experimental data have been obtained by use of neutron-capture gamma-ray spectroscopy. The input parameters required for the calculation were derived from empirical data on single-particle excitations in neighboring odd-mass nuclei. Calculated configuration-specific values for the Gallagher-Moszkowski splittings were used. Calculated and experimental level structures for 238 Np, 244 Am, and 250 Bk are compared, as well as those for several nuclei in the rare-earth region. The agreement for the actinide species is excellent, with bandhead energies deviating 22 keV and rotational parameters 5%, on the average. Corresponding average deviations for five rare-earth nuclei are 47 keV and 7%. Several applications of this modeling technique are discussed. 18 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs
Analytic Intermodel Consistent Modeling of Volumetric Human Lung Dynamics.
Ilegbusi, Olusegun; Seyfi, Behnaz; Neylon, John; Santhanam, Anand P
2015-10-01
Human lung undergoes breathing-induced deformation in the form of inhalation and exhalation. Modeling the dynamics is numerically complicated by the lack of information on lung elastic behavior and fluid-structure interactions between air and the tissue. A mathematical method is developed to integrate deformation results from a deformable image registration (DIR) and physics-based modeling approaches in order to represent consistent volumetric lung dynamics. The computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation assumes the lung is a poro-elastic medium with spatially distributed elastic property. Simulation is performed on a 3D lung geometry reconstructed from four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) dataset of a human subject. The heterogeneous Young's modulus (YM) is estimated from a linear elastic deformation model with the same lung geometry and 4D lung DIR. The deformation obtained from the CFD is then coupled with the displacement obtained from the 4D lung DIR by means of the Tikhonov regularization (TR) algorithm. The numerical results include 4DCT registration, CFD, and optimal displacement data which collectively provide consistent estimate of the volumetric lung dynamics. The fusion method is validated by comparing the optimal displacement with the results obtained from the 4DCT registration.
Charco, María; González, Pablo J.; Galán del Sastre, Pedro
2017-04-01
The Kilauea volcano (Hawaii, USA) is one of the most active volcanoes world-wide and therefore one of the better monitored volcanoes around the world. Its complex system provides a unique opportunity to investigate the dynamics of magma transport and supply. Geodetic techniques, as Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) are being extensively used to monitor ground deformation at volcanic areas. The quantitative interpretation of such surface ground deformation measurements using geodetic data requires both, physical modelling to simulate the observed signals and inversion approaches to estimate the magmatic source parameters. Here, we use synthetic aperture radar data from Sentinel-1 radar interferometry satellite mission to image volcano deformation sources during the inflation along Kilauea's Southwest Rift Zone in April-May 2015. We propose a Finite Element Model (FEM) for the calculation of Green functions in a mechanically heterogeneous domain. The key aspect of the methodology lies in applying the reciprocity relationship of the Green functions between the station and the source for efficient numerical inversions. The search for the best-fitting magmatic (point) source(s) is generally conducted for an array of 3-D locations extending below a predefined volume region. However, our approach allows to reduce the total number of Green functions to the number of the observation points by using the, above mentioned, reciprocity relationship. This new methodology is able to accurately represent magmatic processes using physical models capable of simulating volcano deformation in non-uniform material properties distribution domains, which eventually will lead to better description of the status of the volcano.
Royer, J.; Brandon, V.
2011-12-01
The large-scale deformation observed in the Indo-Australian plate seems to challenge tenets of plate tectonics: plate rigidity and narrow oceanic plate boundaries. Its distribution along with kinematic data inversions however suggest that the Indo-Australian plate can be viewed as a composite plate made of three rigid component plates - India, Capricorn, Australia - separated by wide and diffuse boundaries either extensional or compressional. We tested this model using the SHELLS numerical code (Kong & Bird, 1995) where the Indo-Australian plate was meshed into 5281 spherical triangular finite elements. Model boundary conditions are defined only by the plate velocities of the rigid parts of the Indo-Australian plate relative to their neighboring plates. Different plate velocity models were tested. From these boundary conditions, and taking into account the age of the lithosphere, seafloor topography, and assumptions on the rheology of the oceanic lithosphere, SHELLS predicts strain rates within the plate. We also tested the role of fossil fracture zones as potential lithospheric weaknesses. In a first step, we considered different component plate pairs (India/Capricorn, Capricorn/Australia, India/Australia). Since the limits of their respective diffuse boundary (i.e. the limits of the rigid component plates) are not known, we let the corresponding edge free. In a second step, we merged the previous meshes to consider the whole Indo-Australian plate. In this case, the velocities on the model boundaries are all fully defined and were set relative to the Capricorn plate. Our models predict deformation patterns very consistent with that observed. Pre-existing structures of the lithosphere play an important role in the intraplate deformation and its distribution. The Chagos Bank focuses the extensional deformation between the Indian and Capricorn plates. Reactivation of fossil fracture zones may accommodate large part of the deformation both in extensional areas, off
Numerical modeling of intraplate seismicity with a deformable loading plate
So, B. D.; Capitanio, F. A.
2017-12-01
We use finite element modeling to investigate on the stress loading-unloading cycles and earthquakes occurrence in the plate interiors, resulting from the interactions of tectonic plates along their boundary. We model a visco-elasto-plastic plate embedding a single or multiple faults, while the tectonic stress is applied along the plate boundary by an external loading visco-elastic plate, reproducing the tectonic setting of two interacting lithospheres. Because the two plates deform viscously, the timescale of stress accumulation and release on the faults is self-consistently determined, from the boundary to the interiors, and seismic recurrence is an emerging feature. This approach overcomes the constraints on recurrence period imposed by stress (stress-drop) and velocity boundary conditions, while here it is unconstrained. We illustrate emerging macroscopic characteristics of this system, showing that the seismic recurrence period τ becomes shorter as Γ and Θ decreases, where Γ = ηI/ηL the viscosity ratio of the viscosities of the internal fault-embedded to external loading plates, respectively, and Θ = σY/σL the stress ratio of the elastic limit of the fault to far-field loading stress. When the system embeds multiple, randomly distributed faults, stress transfer results in recurrence period deviations, however the time-averaged recurrence period of each fault show the same dependence on Γ and Θ, illustrating a characteristic collective behavior. The control of these parameters prevails even when initial pre-stress was randomly assigned in terms of the spatial arrangement and orientation on the internal plate, mimicking local fluctuations. Our study shows the relevance of macroscopic rheological properties of tectonic plates on the earthquake occurrence in plate interiors, as opposed to local factors, proposing a viable model for the seismic behavior of continent interiors in the context of large-scale, long-term deformation of interacting tectonic
3D Face modeling using the multi-deformable method.
Hwang, Jinkyu; Yu, Sunjin; Kim, Joongrock; Lee, Sangyoun
2012-09-25
In this paper, we focus on the problem of the accuracy performance of 3D face modeling techniques using corresponding features in multiple views, which is quite sensitive to feature extraction errors. To solve the problem, we adopt a statistical model-based 3D face modeling approach in a mirror system consisting of two mirrors and a camera. The overall procedure of our 3D facial modeling method has two primary steps: 3D facial shape estimation using a multiple 3D face deformable model and texture mapping using seamless cloning that is a type of gradient-domain blending. To evaluate our method's performance, we generate 3D faces of 30 individuals and then carry out two tests: accuracy test and robustness test. Our method shows not only highly accurate 3D face shape results when compared with the ground truth, but also robustness to feature extraction errors. Moreover, 3D face rendering results intuitively show that our method is more robust to feature extraction errors than other 3D face modeling methods. An additional contribution of our method is that a wide range of face textures can be acquired by the mirror system. By using this texture map, we generate realistic 3D face for individuals at the end of the paper.
Constitutive modelling in the range of inelastic deformations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bruhns, O.T.; White, P.S.; Chaboche, J.L.; Eikhoff, J.V.D.
1988-01-01
The main objective of this report is to describe the state of the art in constitutive modelling in the range of inelastic deformations, with particular consideration of the practical use of these models in the field of fast reactors, rather than to formulate new models. An outline is given of the constitutive equations for high-temperature reactor materials developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Two forms of equations are considered, a semi-classical treatment in terms of separate plasticity and creep and unified equations in which the classical plasticity does not explicitly occur. The fraction model originally proposed by Besseling is described. The basic concept of this model is that the material is thought to be subdivided into a number of parallel fractions, each with simple conventional properties. The more complicated behaviour of real material is thus approximated by choosing a number of parallel fractions with suitable models and model parameters. Three time-independent formulations of plasticity are considered and compared. Attention is focused on the kinematic hardening in the multi-yield surface theory of Mroz and the non-linear kinematic rule intensively used at Enset and Onera. Some connections are pointed out with the two-surface model of Dafalias and Popov, and the range of applicability of the different models is studied in detail. Finally, the constitutive equations of the Interatom model are presented. They are mainly based on the concept of overstresses, expressing the rate-dependence of the material by the magnitude of these overstresses. This model furthermore comprises a combination of general non-linear isotropic and kinematic hardening, with a smooth transition from isotropic to kinematic hardening as a function of process time
Holographic superconductor in a deformed four-dimensional STU model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pourhassan, B.; Bagheri-Mohagheghi, M.M. [Damghan University, School of Physics, Damghan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2017-11-15
In this paper, we consider a deformed STU model in four dimensions including both electric and magnetic charges. Using the AdS/CFT correspondence, we study holographic superconductors and obtain transport properties like electrical and thermal conductivities. We obtain transport properties in terms of the magnetic charge of the black hole and interpret it as the magnetic monopole of dual field theory. We find that the presence of the magnetic charge is necessary to have maximum conductivities, and the existence of a magnetic monopole with a critical charge (137 e) to reach the maximum superconductivity is important. Also, we show that the thermal conductivity increases with increasing of the magnetic charge. It may be concluded that the origin of superconductivity is the magnetic monopole. (orig.)
Effect of dynamic strain aging on cyclic stress response and deformation behavior of Zircaloy-2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sudhakar Rao, G.; Verma, Preeti; Mahobia, G.S.; Santhi Srinivasa, N.C.; Singh, Vakil; Chakravartty, J.K.; Nudurupatic, Saibaba
2016-01-01
The effect of strain rate and temperature was studied on cyclic stress response and deformation behavior of annealed Zircaloy-2. Dynamic strain aging was exhibited under some test conditions. The cyclic stress response was found to be dependent on temperature and strain rate. At 300 °C, with decrease in strain rate, there was decrease in the rate as well as the degree of cyclic hardening. However, at 400°C, there was opposite trend and with decrease in strain rate both the rate as well as the degree of hardening increased. The deformation substructure showed dislocation bands, dislocation vein structure, PSB wall structure at both the temperatures. Irrespective of the temperature, there was dislocation loop structure, known as corduroy structure, at both the test temperatures. Based on the dislocation structure, the initial linear hardening is attributed to development of veins and PSB wall structure and the secondary hardening to the Corduroy structure. (author)
Plasticity and damage in aluminum syntactic foams deformed under dynamic and quasi-static conditions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Balch, Dorian K. [Northwestern University, Evanston, IL (United States); O' Dwyer, John G. [Waterford Institute of Technology (Ireland); Davis, Graham R. [Queen Mary, University of London (United Kingdom); Cady, Carl M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Gray, George T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dunand, David C. [Northwestern University, Evanston, IL (United States)]. E-mail: dunand@northwestern.edu
2005-01-25
Syntactic foams were fabricated by liquid metal infiltration of commercially pure and 7075 aluminum into preforms of hollow ceramic microspheres. The foams exhibited peak strengths during quasi-static compression ranging from -100 to -230 MPa, while dynamic compression loading showed a 10-30% increase in peak strength magnitude, with strain rate sensitivities similar to those of aluminum-matrix composite materials. X-ray tomographic investigation of the post-compression loaded foam microstructures revealed sharp differences in deformation modes, with the unalloyed-Al foam failing initially by matrix deformation, while the alloy-matrix foams failed more abruptly through the formation of sharp crush bands oriented at about 45 deg. to the compression axis. These foams displayed pronounced energy-absorbing capabilities, suggesting their potential use in packaging applications or for impact protection; proper tailoring of matrix and microsphere strengths would result in optimized syntactic foam properties.
Numerical simulation of flows around deformed aircraft model in a wind tunnel
Lysenkov, A. V.; Bosnyakov, S. M.; Glazkov, S. A.; Gorbushin, A. R.; Kuzmina, S. I.; Kursakov, I. A.; Matyash, S. V.; Ishmuratov, F. Z.
2016-10-01
To obtain accurate data of calculation method error requires detailed simulation of the experiment in wind tunnel with keeping all features of the model, installation and gas flow. Two examples of such detailed data comparison are described in this paper. The experimental characteristics of NASA CRM model obtained in the ETW wind tunnel (Cologne, Germany), and CFD characteristics of this model obtained with the use of EWT-TsAGI application package are compared. Following comparison is carried out for an airplane model in the T-128 wind tunnel (TsAGI, Russia). It is seen that deformation influence on integral characteristics grows with increasing Re number and, accordingly, the dynamic pressure. CFD methods application for problems of experimental research in the wind tunnel allows to separate viscosity and elasticity effects.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Borregaard, Michael K.; Matthews, Thomas J.; Whittaker, Robert James
2016-01-01
Aim: Island biogeography focuses on understanding the processes that underlie a set of well-described patterns on islands, but it lacks a unified theoretical framework for integrating these processes. The recently proposed general dynamic model (GDM) of oceanic island biogeography offers a step...... towards this goal. Here, we present an analysis of causality within the GDM and investigate its potential for the further development of island biogeographical theory. Further, we extend the GDM to include subduction-based island arcs and continental fragment islands. Location: A conceptual analysis...... of evolutionary processes in simulations derived from the mechanistic assumptions of the GDM corresponded broadly to those initially suggested, with the exception of trends in extinction rates. Expanding the model to incorporate different scenarios of island ontogeny and isolation revealed a sensitivity...
Research on geometrical model and mechanism for metal deformation based on plastic flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
An, H P; Li, X; Rui, Z Y
2015-01-01
Starting with general conditions of metal plastic deformation, it analyses the relation between the percentage spread and geometric parameters of a forming body with typical machining process are studied. A geometrical model of deforming metal is set up according to the characteristic of a flowing metal particle. Starting from experimental results, the effect of technological parameters and friction between workpiece and dies on plastic deformation of a material were studied and a slippage deformation model of mass points within the material was proposed. Finally, the computing methods for strain and deformation energy and temperature rise are derived from homogeneous deformation. The results can be used to select technical parameters and compute physical quantities such as strain, deformation energy, and temperature rise. (paper)
Modelling of reactive fluid transport in deformable porous rocks
Yarushina, V. M.; Podladchikov, Y. Y.
2009-04-01
One outstanding challenge in geology today is the formulation of an understanding of the interaction between rocks and fluids. Advances in such knowledge are important for a broad range of geologic settings including partial melting and subsequent migration and emplacement of a melt into upper levels of the crust, or fluid flow during regional metamorphism and metasomatism. Rock-fluid interaction involves heat and mass transfer, deformation, hydrodynamic flow, and chemical reactions, thereby necessitating its consideration as a complex process coupling several simultaneous mechanisms. Deformation, chemical reactions, and fluid flow are coupled processes. Each affects the others. Special effort is required for accurate modelling of the porosity field through time. Mechanical compaction of porous rocks is usually treated under isothermal or isoentropic simplifying assumptions. However, joint consideration of both mechanical compaction and reactive porosity alteration requires somewhat greater than usual care about thermodynamic consistency. Here we consider the modelling of multi-component, multi-phase systems, which is fundamental to the study of fluid-rock interaction. Based on the conservation laws for mass, momentum, and energy in the form adopted in the theory of mixtures, we derive a thermodynamically admissible closed system of equations describing the coupling of heat and mass transfer, chemical reactions, and fluid flow in a deformable solid matrix. Geological environments where reactive transport is important are located at different depths and accordingly have different rheologies. In the near surface, elastic or elastoplastic properties would dominate, whereas viscoplasticity would have a profound effect deeper in the lithosphere. Poorly understood rheologies of heterogeneous porous rocks are derived from well understood processes (i.e., elasticity, viscosity, plastic flow, fracturing, and their combinations) on the microscale by considering a
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Siswanto, W. A.; Nagentrau, M.; Tobi, A. L. Mohd; Tamin, M. N.
2016-01-01
We compared the quasi-static and dynamic simulation responses on elastic-plastic deformation of advanced alloys using Finite element (FE) method with an explicit numerical algorithm. A geometrical model consisting of a cylinder-on-flat surface contact under a normal load and sliding motion was examined. Two aeroengine materials, Ti-6Al-4V and Super CMV (Cr-Mo-V) alloy, were employed in the FE analysis. The FE model was validated by comparative magnitudes of the FE-predicted maximum contact pressure variation along the contact half-width length with the theoretical Hertzian contact solution. Results show that the (compressive) displacement of the initial contact surface steadily increases for the quasi-static load case, but accumulates at an increasing rate to the maximum level for the dynamic loading. However, the relatively higher stiffness and yield strength of the Super CMV alloy resulted in limited deformation and low plastic strain when compared to the Ti-6Al-4V alloy. The accumulated equivalent plastic strain of the material point at the initial contact position was nearly a thousand times higher for the dynamic load case (for example, 6.592 for Ti-6Al-4V, 1.0 kN) when compared to the quasi-static loading (only 0.0072). During the loading step, the von Mises stress increased with a decreasing and increasing rate for the quasi-static and dynamic load case, respectively. A sudden increase in the stress magnitude to the respective peak value was registered due to the additional constraint to overcome the static friction of the mating surfaces during the sliding step
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Siswanto, W. A.; Nagentrau, M.; Tobi, A. L. Mohd [Faculty of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Batu Pahat (Malaysia); Tamin, M. N. [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor Bahru (Malaysia)
2016-11-15
We compared the quasi-static and dynamic simulation responses on elastic-plastic deformation of advanced alloys using Finite element (FE) method with an explicit numerical algorithm. A geometrical model consisting of a cylinder-on-flat surface contact under a normal load and sliding motion was examined. Two aeroengine materials, Ti-6Al-4V and Super CMV (Cr-Mo-V) alloy, were employed in the FE analysis. The FE model was validated by comparative magnitudes of the FE-predicted maximum contact pressure variation along the contact half-width length with the theoretical Hertzian contact solution. Results show that the (compressive) displacement of the initial contact surface steadily increases for the quasi-static load case, but accumulates at an increasing rate to the maximum level for the dynamic loading. However, the relatively higher stiffness and yield strength of the Super CMV alloy resulted in limited deformation and low plastic strain when compared to the Ti-6Al-4V alloy. The accumulated equivalent plastic strain of the material point at the initial contact position was nearly a thousand times higher for the dynamic load case (for example, 6.592 for Ti-6Al-4V, 1.0 kN) when compared to the quasi-static loading (only 0.0072). During the loading step, the von Mises stress increased with a decreasing and increasing rate for the quasi-static and dynamic load case, respectively. A sudden increase in the stress magnitude to the respective peak value was registered due to the additional constraint to overcome the static friction of the mating surfaces during the sliding step.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Booth, Ivan; Fairhurst, Stephen
2007-01-01
We study the geometry and dynamics of both isolated and dynamical trapping horizons by considering the allowed variations of their foliating two-surfaces. This provides a common framework that may be used to consider both their possible evolutions and their deformations as well as derive the well-known flux laws. Using this framework, we unify much of what is already known about these objects as well as derive some new results. In particular we characterize and study the ''almost isolated'' trapping horizons known as slowly evolving horizons. It is for these horizons that a dynamical first law holds and this is analogous and closely related to the Hawking-Hartle formula for event horizons
Early-time particle dynamics and non-affine deformations during microstructure selection in solids
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sengupta, Surajit [Centre for Advanced Materials, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, 2A and 2B, Raja S C Mullick Road, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700032 (India); Rao, Madan [Raman Research Institute, C V Raman Avenue, Bangalore 560 080 (India); Bhattacharya, Jayee [S N Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, Block JD, Sector III, Salt Lake, Kolkata 700 098 (India)
2011-07-27
Solid-solid transitions are invariably associated with groups of particles whose deformations cannot be expressed as an affine strain about a reference configuration. The dynamics of these non-affine zones (NAZ) determine the subsequent microstructure, i.e. the mesoscale patterning resulting from the structural transition. Here, we focus on early-time dynamics of individual particles within an NAZ associated with a nucleation event. We show that the early-time behavior of these particles have distinctive characteristics depending on the transition temperature. The dynamics is heterogeneous, consisting of a few active particles exhibiting complex intermittent jamming and flow in response to internal stresses generated during the transformation. At low temperatures, the dynamics of these active particles is ballistic and the structural transformation proceeds via string-like correlated movement of active particles, along ridges in the potential energy topography set up by inactive particles. On increasing temperature, the dynamics of active particles show an abrupt transition from ballistic to diffusive behavior with a diffusion coefficient which appears to be independent of temperature. This dynamical transition in the nature of the trajectories of particles is coincident with a discontinuous transition in the microstructure of the solid. Finally, we characterize this transition in terms of a dynamical order parameter in the space of trajectories and discuss its connection with the glass transition and rheology of soft and granular matter.
Modeling of dislocation generation and interaction during high-speed deformation of metals
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schiøtz, J.; Leffers, T.; Singh, B.N.
2002-01-01
Recent experiments by Kiritani et al. [1] have revealed a surprisingly high rate of vacancy production during highspeed deformation of thin foils of fcc metals. Virtually no dislocations are seen after the deformation. This is interpreted as evidence for a dislocation-free deformation mechanism...... at very high strain rates. We have used molecular-dynamics simulations to investigate high-speed deformation of copper crystals. Even though no pre-existing dislocation sources are present in the initial system, dislocations are quickly nucleated and a very high dislocation density is reached during...... the deformation. Due to the high density of dislocations, many inelastic interactions occur between dislocations, resulting in the generation of vacancies. After the deformation, a very high density of vacancies is observed, in agreement with the experimental observations. The processes responsible...
Mathematical model of rolling an elastic wheel over deformable support base
Volskaia, V. N.; Zhileykin, M. M.; Zakharov, A. Y.
2018-02-01
One of the main direction of economic growth in Russia remains to be a speedy development of north and northeast regions that are the constituents of the 60 percent of the country territory. The further development of these territories requires new methods and technologies for solving transport and technological problems when off-road transportation of cargoes and people is conducting. One of the fundamental methods of patency prediction is imitation modeling of wheeled vehicles movement in different operating conditions. Both deformable properties of tires and physical and mechanical properties of the ground: normal tire deflection and gauge depth; variation of contact patch area depending on the load and pressure of air in the tire; existence of hysteresis losses in the tire material which are influencing on the rolling resistance due to friction processes between tire and ground in the contact patch; existence of the tangential reaction from the ground by entire contact area influence on the tractive patency. Nowadays there are two main trends in theoretical research of interaction wheeled propulsion device with ground: analytical method involving mathematical description of explored process and finite element method based on computational modeling. Mathematical models of interaction tire with the ground are used both in processes of interaction individual wheeled propulsion device with ground and researches of mobile vehicle dynamical models operated in specific road and climate conditions. One of the most significant imperfection of these models is the description of interaction wheel with flat deformable support base whereas profile of real support base surface has essential height of unevenness which is commensurate with radius of the wheel. The description of processes taking place in the ground under influence of the wheeled propulsion device using the finite element method is relatively new but most applicable lately. The application of this method allows
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sonne, Mads Rostgaard; Smistrup, K.; Hannibal, Morten
2015-01-01
-viscoplastic. This behavior was described in a temperature dependent constitutive model consisting of a Zenerbody for the viscoelastic deformation and the Johnson-Cook model for the description of the viscoplastic deformation. The constitutive model was implemented in the general purpose finite element software ABAQUS...
Soliton like excitations on a deformable spin model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nguenang, Jean-Pierre; Kenfack, Aurelien J.; Kofane, Timoleon C.
2003-07-01
We study numerically non-linear excitations on a one-dimensional deformable discrete classical ferromagnetic chain. In the continuum limits the equations of motion are reduced to a Klein-Gordon equation with a Remoissenet - Peyrard substrate potential. From a numerical computation of the discrete system with a suitable choice of the deformability parameters, the solitons solutions are shown to exist and move both with a monotonic oscillating (i.e. nanopteron) and a monotonic non- oscillating tails and also with a non- oscillating tails but with a splitting propagating shape. The stability of all these various solitons shape is confirmed numerically in a greater range of the reduced magnetic field 0≤b≤0.61 compared to the case of a rigid magnetic chain i.e. 0≤b≤0.33. From a kink- antikink and a kink-kink colliding simulation, we found various effects including a bound state of a kink and an antikink as well as a moving kink profile with higher topological charge that appears to be the bound state of two kinks. We also observed a three particles interaction that also arises from a kink-kink collision. The breather that intercalates between the two kinks has length that varies from its minimal value to the maximal one as far as the alternation between an attractive and a repulsive phenomenon is produced. From our results it appears that the value of the shape parameter of the substrate potential or the modified Zeeman energy is a factor of outmost importance when modelling magnetic chains. (author)
Hatt, Charles R.; Wagner, Martin; Raval, Amish N.; Speidel, Michael A.
2016-03-01
Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) requires navigation and deployment of a prosthetic valve within the aortic annulus under fluoroscopic guidance. To support improved device visualization in this procedure, this study investigates the feasibility of frame-by-frame 3D reconstruction of a moving and expanding prosthetic valve structure from simultaneous bi-plane x-ray views. In the proposed method, a dynamic 3D model of the valve is used in a 2D/3D registration framework to obtain a reconstruction of the valve. For each frame, valve model parameters describing position, orientation, expansion state, and deformation are iteratively adjusted until forward projections of the model match both bi-plane views. Simulated bi-plane imaging of a valve at different signal-difference-to-noise ratio (SDNR) levels was performed to test the approach. 20 image sequences with 50 frames of valve deployment were simulated at each SDNR. The simulation achieved a target registration error (TRE) of the estimated valve model of 0.93 +/- 2.6 mm (mean +/- S.D.) for the lowest SDNR of 2. For higher SDNRs (5 to 50) a TRE of 0.04 mm +/- 0.23 mm was achieved. A tabletop phantom study was then conducted using a TAVR valve. The dynamic 3D model was constructed from high resolution CT scans and a simple expansion model. TRE was 1.22 +/- 0.35 mm for expansion states varying from undeployed to fully deployed, and for moderate amounts of inter-frame motion. Results indicate that it is feasible to use bi-plane imaging to recover the 3D structure of deformable catheter devices.
Study on dynamic deformation synchronized measurement technology of double-layer liquid surfaces
Tang, Huiying; Dong, Huimin; Liu, Zhanwei
2017-11-01
Accurate measurement of the dynamic deformation of double-layer liquid surfaces plays an important role in many fields, such as fluid mechanics, biomechanics, petrochemical industry and aerospace engineering. It is difficult to measure dynamic deformation of double-layer liquid surfaces synchronously for traditional methods. In this paper, a novel and effective method for full-field static and dynamic deformation measurement of double-layer liquid surfaces has been developed, that is wavefront distortion of double-wavelength transmission light with geometric phase analysis (GPA) method. Double wavelength lattice patterns used here are produced by two techniques, one is by double wavelength laser, and the other is by liquid crystal display (LCD). The techniques combine the characteristics such as high transparency, low reflectivity and fluidity of liquid. Two color lattice patterns produced by laser and LCD were adjusted at a certain angle through the tested double-layer liquid surfaces simultaneously. On the basis of the refractive indexes difference of two transmitted lights, the double-layer liquid surfaces were decoupled with GPA method. Combined with the derived relationship between phase variation of transmission-lattice patterns and out-of plane heights of two surfaces, as well as considering the height curves of the liquid level, the double-layer liquid surfaces can be reconstructed successfully. Compared with the traditional measurement method, the developed method not only has the common advantages of the optical measurement methods, such as high-precision, full-field and non-contact, but also simple, low cost and easy to set up.
A simulation model for analysing brain structure deformations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bona, Sergio Di [Institute for Information Science and Technologies, Italian National Research Council (ISTI-8211-CNR), Via G Moruzzi, 1-56124 Pisa (Italy); Lutzemberger, Ludovico [Department of Neuroscience, Institute of Neurosurgery, University of Pisa, Via Roma, 67-56100 Pisa (Italy); Salvetti, Ovidio [Institute for Information Science and Technologies, Italian National Research Council (ISTI-8211-CNR), Via G Moruzzi, 1-56124 Pisa (Italy)
2003-12-21
Recent developments of medical software applications from the simulation to the planning of surgical operations have revealed the need for modelling human tissues and organs, not only from a geometric point of view but also from a physical one, i.e. soft tissues, rigid body, viscoelasticity, etc. This has given rise to the term 'deformable objects', which refers to objects with a morphology, a physical and a mechanical behaviour of their own and that reflects their natural properties. In this paper, we propose a model, based upon physical laws, suitable for the realistic manipulation of geometric reconstructions of volumetric data taken from MR and CT scans. In particular, a physically based model of the brain is presented that is able to simulate the evolution of different nature pathological intra-cranial phenomena such as haemorrhages, neoplasm, haematoma, etc and to describe the consequences that are caused by their volume expansions and the influences they have on the anatomical and neuro-functional structures of the brain.
Campagnoli, Patrizia; Petris, Giovanni
2009-01-01
State space models have gained tremendous popularity in as disparate fields as engineering, economics, genetics and ecology. Introducing general state space models, this book focuses on dynamic linear models, emphasizing their Bayesian analysis. It illustrates the fundamental steps needed to use dynamic linear models in practice, using R package.
GIS and dynamic phenomena modeling
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Klimešová, Dana
2006-01-01
Roč. 4, č. 4 (2006), s. 11-15 ISSN 0139-570X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : dynamic modelling * temporal analysis * dynamics evaluation * temporal space Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory
Non-proportional deformation paths for sheet metal: experiments and models
van den Boogaard, Antonius H.; van Riel, M.; Hora, P.
2009-01-01
For mild steel, after significant plastic deformation in one direction, a subsequent deformation in an orthogonal direction shows a typical stress overshoot compared to monotonic deformation. This phenomenon is investigated experimentally and numerically on a DC06 material. Two models that incorporate the observed overshoot are compared. In the Teodosiu-Hu model, pre-strain influences the rate of kinematic hardening by a rather complex set of evolution equations. The shape of the elastic doma...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kornienko, V.T.
1991-01-01
A method is suggested to estimate microstructural non-uniformity of deformation in metals by means of modelling. This method includes measurement of deformation in metals by small-dimensioned dividing grid cells as well as calculation of parameters by means of model representation of microdeformation distribution. It is shown that the method of modelling gives an opportunity to objectively estimate deformation non-uniformity in metals irrespective of the selected dimension of a dividing grid cells. New structural characteristics: base and wave of variations, reflecting a degree of dividing or uniting grains in metals according to the non-uniformity of deformation are introduced
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jian Sheng-Rui
2008-01-01
Full Text Available AbstractThis work presents the molecular dynamics approach toward mechanical deformation and phase transformation mechanisms of monocrystalline Si(100 subjected to nanoindentation. We demonstrate phase distributions during loading and unloading stages of both spherical and Berkovich nanoindentations. By searching the presence of the fifth neighboring atom within a non-bonding length, Si-III and Si-XII have been successfully distinguished from Si-I. Crystallinity of this mixed-phase was further identified by radial distribution functions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fujiwara, Yoshikazu; Hibino, Satoshi; Kanagawa, Tadashi; Komada, Hiroya; Nakagawa, Kameichiro
1984-01-01
The main structures of nuclear power plants are built on hard and soft rocks. The rock-dynamic properties used for investigating the stability of the structures have been determined so far by laboratory tests for soft rocks. In hard rocks, however, joints and cracks exist, and the test including these effects is not able to be performed in laboratories at present. Therefore, a dynamic repeating shearing test equipment to be used under the condition including the joints and cracks of actual ground has been made for a base rock of tuff breccia. In this paper, the test results are reported as follows. The geological features of the testing site and the arrangement of tested rocks, the preparation for tests, test equipment, loading method, measuring method, analysis, and the result and the examination. The results of dynamic deformation and failure characteristics were as follows: (1) the dynamic shear-elasticity-modulus Gd of the base rock showed greater values as the normal stress increased, while Gd decreased and showed the strain dependence as the dynamic shear strain amplitude γ increased; (2) the relationship between Gd and γ was well represented with the equation proposed by Hardin-Drnevich; (3) damping ratio increased as γ increased, and decreased as normal stress increased; (4) When a specimen was about to break, γ suddenly increased, and the dynamic shear strain amplitude at yield point was in the range of approximately (3.4 to 4.1) x 10 -3 . (Wakatsuki, Y.)
Exact reconstruction in 2D dynamic CT: compensation of time-dependent affine deformations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roux, Sebastien; Desbat, Laurent; Koenig, Anne; Grangeat, Pierre
2004-01-01
This work is dedicated to the reduction of reconstruction artefacts due to motion occurring during the acquisition of computerized tomographic projections. This problem has to be solved when imaging moving organs such as the lungs or the heart. The proposed method belongs to the class of motion compensation algorithms, where the model of motion is included in the reconstruction formula. We address two fundamental questions. First what conditions on the deformation are required for the reconstruction of the object from projections acquired sequentially during the deformation, and second how do we reconstruct the object from those projections. Here we answer these questions in the particular case of 2D general time-dependent affine deformations, assuming the motion parameters are known. We treat the problem of admissibility conditions on the deformation in the parallel-beam and fan-beam cases. Then we propose exact reconstruction methods based on rebinning or sequential FBP formulae for each of these geometries and present reconstructed images obtained with the fan-beam algorithm on simulated data
Liotard, Arnaud; Zamkotsian, Frédéric
2017-11-01
The micro-opto-electro-mechanical systems (MOEMS), based on mature technologies of micro-electronics, are essential in the design of future astronomical instruments. One of these key-components is the microdeformable mirror for wave-front correction. Very challenging topics like search of exo-planets could greatly benefit from this technology. Design, realization and characterization of micro-Deformable Mirrors are under way at Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille (LAM) in collaboration with Laboratoire d'Analyse et d'Architecture des Systèmes (LAAS). In order to measure the surface shape and the deformation parameters during operation of these devices, a high-resolution Twyman-Green interferometer has been developed. Measurements have been done on a tiltable micro-mirror (170*100μm2) designed by LAM-LAAS and realized by an American foundry, and also on an OKO deformable mirror (15mm diameter). Static characterization is made by phase shifting interferometry and dynamic measurements have been made by quantitative time-averaged interferometry. The OKO mirror has an actuator stroke of 370+/-10nm for 150V applied and its resonant frequency is 1170+/-50 Hz, and the tiltable mirror has a rotation cut-off frequency of 31+/-3 kHz.
Anisotropic deformation behavior of as-extruded 6063-T4 alloy under dynamic impact loading
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ye, Tuo [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Design and Manufacturing for Vehicle Body, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Li, Luoxing, E-mail: luoxing_li@yahoo.com [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Design and Manufacturing for Vehicle Body, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Joint Center for Intelligent New Energy Vehicle, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Liu, Xiao; Liu, Wenhui [Key Laboratory of High Temperature Wear Resistant Materials Preparation Technology of Hunan Province, Hunan University of Science and Technology, Xiangtan 411201 (China); Guo, Pengcheng; Tang, Xu [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Design and Manufacturing for Vehicle Body, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China)
2016-06-01
The deformation behavior of 6063-T4 aluminum alloy bar was investigated by compression tests conducted at a wide strain rate range of 10{sup −4} to 9×10{sup 3} s{sup −1} with loading directions at 0°, 45° and 90° to the axis of the extruded bar. It is found that the flow stresses of 0° specimens are always the highest and those of the 45° specimens are the lowest at the same conditions. The flow stress exhibits obvious strain rate sensitivity (SRS), which differs from static to dynamic deformation. The Schmid factors (SFs) for each type of texture components were calculated. For the {112}<111> texture component, the max Schmid factors are 0.27, 0.49 and 0.41 for 0°, 45° and 90° specimens. For the {110}<111> texture component, they are 0.27, 0.43 and 0.41 for the three directions. The initial texture changes significantly with increasing strain, the strain rate has slight influence on the texture evolution. The transmission electron microscope (TEM) observations indicate that as the strain rate increases, the density of the dislocation increases and its distribution becomes more homogeneous. It is necessary to consider the anisotropic deformation behavior and microstructure evolution in material selection and structure design for the impact components.
Metal cluster fission: jellium model and Molecular dynamics simulations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lyalin, Andrey G.; Obolensky, Oleg I.; Solov'yov, Ilia
2004-01-01
Fission of doubly charged sodium clusters is studied using the open-shell two-center deformed jellium model approximation and it ab initio molecular dynamic approach accounting for all electrons in the system. Results of calculations of fission reactions Na_10^2+ --> Na_7^+ + Na_3^+ and Na_18...
Large shear deformation of particle gels studied by Brownian Dynamics simulations
Rzepiela, A.A.; Opheusden, van J.H.J.; Vliet, van T.
2002-01-01
This paper focuses on shear deformation of particle gels. Two different methods of shear deformation are discussed, namely affine and non-affine deformation, the second being novel in simulation studies of gels. Non-affine deformation resulted in a slower increase of the stress at small deformation.
Constitutive Model for Hot Deformation of the Cu-Zr-Ce Alloy
Zhang, Yi; Sun, Huili; Volinsky, Alex A.; Wang, Bingjie; Tian, Baohong; Liu, Yong; Song, Kexing
2018-02-01
Hot compressive deformation behavior of the Cu-Zr-Ce alloy has been investigated according to the hot deformation tests in the 550-900 °C temperature range and 0.001-10 s-1 strain rate range. Based on the true stress-true strain curves, the flow stress behavior of the Cu-Zr-Ce alloy was investigated. Microstructure evolution was observed by optical microscopy. Based on the experimental results, a constitutive equation, which reflects the relationships between the stress, strain, strain rate and temperature, has been established. Material constants n, α, Q and ln A were calculated as functions of strain. The equation predicting the flow stress combined with these materials constants has been proposed. The predicted stress is consistent with experimental stress, indicating that developed constitutive equation can adequately predict the flow stress of the Cu-Zr-Ce alloy. Dynamic recrystallization critical strain was determined using the work hardening rate method. According to the dynamic material model, the processing maps for the Cu-Zr and Cu-Zr-Ce alloy were obtained at 0.4 and 0.5 strain. Based on the processing maps and microstructure observations, the optimal processing parameters for the two alloys were determined, and it was found that the addition of Ce can promote the hot workability of the Cu-Zr alloy.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cao, Yu; Di, Hongshuang; Zhang, Jiecen; Yang, Yaohua
2015-01-01
The objective of the study is to fundamentally understand the dynamic behavior of alloy 800H at moderate to high strain rate using hot compression tests and propose nucleation mechanism associated with dynamic crystallization (DRX). We firstly investigated the dynamic behavior of alloy 800H with industrial scale strain rates using hot compression tests and adiabatic correction was performed to correct as-measured flow curves. Secondly, a Johnson–Cook model was established by using the corrected data and could give a precise prediction of elevated temperature flow stress for the studied alloy. Finally, the nucleation mechanism of DRX grains at high strain rates was studied. The results showed that the predominant nucleation mechanism for DRX is the formation of “bulge” at parent grain boundary. Additionally, the fragmentation of original grain at low deformation temperatures and the twinning near the bulged regions at high deformation temperatures also accelerate the DRX process
Cao, Yu; Di, Hongshuang; Zhang, Jiecen; Yang, Yaohua
2015-01-01
The objective of the study is to fundamentally understand the dynamic behavior of alloy 800H at moderate to high strain rate using hot compression tests and propose nucleation mechanism associated with dynamic crystallization (DRX). We firstly investigated the dynamic behavior of alloy 800H with industrial scale strain rates using hot compression tests and adiabatic correction was performed to correct as-measured flow curves. Secondly, a Johnson-Cook model was established by using the corrected data and could give a precise prediction of elevated temperature flow stress for the studied alloy. Finally, the nucleation mechanism of DRX grains at high strain rates was studied. The results showed that the predominant nucleation mechanism for DRX is the formation of "bulge" at parent grain boundary. Additionally, the fragmentation of original grain at low deformation temperatures and the twinning near the bulged regions at high deformation temperatures also accelerate the DRX process.
A deformable surface model for real-time water drop animation.
Zhang, Yizhong; Wang, Huamin; Wang, Shuai; Tong, Yiying; Zhou, Kun
2012-08-01
A water drop behaves differently from a large water body because of its strong viscosity and surface tension under the small scale. Surface tension causes the motion of a water drop to be largely determined by its boundary surface. Meanwhile, viscosity makes the interior of a water drop less relevant to its motion, as the smooth velocity field can be well approximated by an interpolation of the velocity on the boundary. Consequently, we propose a fast deformable surface model to realistically animate water drops and their flowing behaviors on solid surfaces. Our system efficiently simulates water drop motions in a Lagrangian fashion, by reducing 3D fluid dynamics over the whole liquid volume to a deformable surface model. In each time step, the model uses an implicit mean curvature flow operator to produce surface tension effects, a contact angle operator to change droplet shapes on solid surfaces, and a set of mesh connectivity updates to handle topological changes and improve mesh quality over time. Our numerical experiments demonstrate a variety of physically plausible water drop phenomena at a real-time rate, including capillary waves when water drops collide, pinch-off of water jets, and droplets flowing over solid materials. The whole system performs orders-of-magnitude faster than existing simulation approaches that generate comparable water drop effects.
Xing, X.; Yuan, Z.; Chen, L. F.; Yu, X. Y.; Xiao, L.
2018-04-01
The stability control is one of the major technical difficulties in the field of highway subgrade construction engineering. Building deformation model is a crucial step for InSAR time series deformation monitoring. Most of the InSAR deformation models for deformation monitoring are pure empirical mathematical models, without considering the physical mechanism of the monitored object. In this study, we take rheology into consideration, inducing rheological parameters into traditional InSAR deformation models. To assess the feasibility and accuracy for our new model, both simulation and real deformation data over Lungui highway (a typical highway built on soft clay subgrade in Guangdong province, China) are investigated with TerraSAR-X satellite imagery. In order to solve the unknows of the non-linear rheological model, three algorithms: Gauss-Newton (GN), Levenberg-Marquarat (LM), and Genetic Algorithm (GA), are utilized and compared to estimate the unknown parameters. Considering both the calculation efficiency and accuracy, GA is chosen as the final choice for the new model in our case study. Preliminary real data experiment is conducted with use of 17 TerraSAR-X Stripmap images (with a 3-m resolution). With the new deformation model and GA aforementioned, the unknown rheological parameters over all the high coherence points are obtained and the LOS deformation (the low-pass component) sequences are generated.
Description of the hexadecapole deformation parameter in the sdg interacting boson model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu Yuxin; Sun Di; Wang Jiajun; Han Qizhi
1998-01-01
The hexadecapole deformation parameter β 4 of the rare-earth and actinide nuclei is investigated in the framework of the sdg interacting boson model. An explicit relation between the geometric hexadecapole deformation parameter β 4 and the intrinsic deformation parameters ε 4 , ε 2 are obtained. The deformation parameters β 4 of the rare-earths and actinides are determined without any free parameter. The calculated results agree with experimental data well. It also shows that the SU(5) limit of the sdg interacting boson model can describe the β 4 systematics as well as the SU(3) limit
Description of the Hexadecapole Deformation Parameter in the sdg Interacting Boson Model
Liu, Yu-xin; Sun, Di; Wang, Jia-jun; Han, Qi-zhi
1998-04-01
The hexadecapole deformation parameter β4 of the rare-earth and actinide nuclei is investigated in the framework of the sdg interacing boson model. An explicit relation between the geometric hexadecapole deformation parameter β4 and the intrinsic deformation parameters epsilon4, epsilon2 are obtained. The deformation parameters β4 of the rare-earths and actinides are determined without any free parameter. The calculated results agree with experimental data well. It also shows that the SU(5) limit of the sdg interacting boson model can describe the β4 systematics as well as the SU(3) limit.
Modelling dynamic roughness during floods
Paarlberg, Andries; Dohmen-Janssen, Catarine M.; Hulscher, Suzanne J.M.H.; Termes, A.P.P.
2007-01-01
In this paper, we present a dynamic roughness model to predict water levels during floods. Hysteresis effects of dune development are explicitly included. It is shown that differences between the new dynamic roughness model, and models where the roughness coefficient is calibrated, are most
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chakraborty, A.K.; Schubert, J.D.
1983-01-01
For calculation of clad ballooning from single rod and rod bundle experiments a model considering the influences of azimuthal temperature gradients due to the existing eccentricity of the pellets has been developed. This model is based on the secondary creep model of Norton and on the concentric deformation model ending in cladding burst as proposed by F. Erbacher. The new model considers the azimuthal temperature differences along the cladding and the resulting differences in deformations. With this model, calculations of cladding burst deformations from single rod and rod bundle experiments are performed with good agreement
The Simulation and Correction to the Brain Deformation Based on the Linear Elastic Model in IGS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
MU Xiao-lan; SONG Zhi-jian
2004-01-01
@@ The brain deformation is a vital factor affecting the precision of the IGS and it becomes a hotspot to simulate and correct the brain deformation recently.The research organizations, which firstly resolved the brain deformation with the physical models, have the Image Processing and Analysis department of Yale University, Biomedical Modeling Lab of Vanderbilt University and so on. The former uses the linear elastic model; the latter uses the consolidation model.The linear elastic model only needs to drive the model using the surface displacement of exposed brain cortex,which is more convenient to be measured in the clinic.
Petel, Oren E.; Ouellet, Simon
2017-07-01
The evolution of material strength within several dense particle suspensions impacted by a projectile is investigated and shown to be strongly dependent on the particle material in suspension. For stronger particles, such as silicon carbide, the shear strength of the fluid is shown to increase with the ballistic impact strength. For weaker particles, such as silica, the shear strength of the suspension is found to be independent of impact strength in this dynamic range of tests. A soft-capture technique is employed to collect ejecta samples of a silica-based shear thickening fluid, following a ballistic impact and penetration event. Ejecta samples that were collected from impacts at three different velocities are observed and compared to the benchmark particles using a Scanning Electron Microscope. The images show evidence of fractured and deformed silica particles recovered among the nominally 1 μm diameter monodisperse spheres. There is also evidence of particle fragments that appear to be the result of interparticle grinding. The trends observed in the shear strength estimates are interpreted with regards to the particle damage seen in the ejecta recovery experiments to develop a concept of the impact response of these fluids. The results suggest that particle slip through deformation is likely the dominant factor in limiting the transient impact strength of these fluids. Particularly, particle strength is important in the formation and collapse of dynamically jammed particle contact networks in the penetration process.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fanisovich Shmakov Arthur
2016-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the results of numerical modeling of deformation processes and the analysis of the fundamental frequencies of the construction of large-size fiberglass cooling tower fan. Obtain the components of the stress-strain state structure based on imported gas dynamic and thermal loads and the form of fundamental vibrations. The analysis of fundamental frequencies, the results of which have been proposed constructive solutions to reduce the probability of failure of the action of aeroelastic forces.
A Novel Method of Modeling the Deformation Resistance for Clad Sheet
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hu Jianliang; Yi Youping; Xie Mantang
2011-01-01
Because of the excellent thermal conductivity, the clad sheet (3003/4004/3003) of aluminum alloy is extensively used in various heat exchangers, such as radiator, motorcar air conditioning, evaporator, and so on. The deformation resistance model plays an important role in designing the process parameters of hot continuous rolling. However, the complex behaviors of the plastic deformation of the clad sheet make the modeling very difficult. In this work, a novel method for modeling the deformation resistance of clad sheet was proposed by combining the finite element analysis with experiments. The deformation resistance model of aluminum 3003 and 4004 was proposed through hot compression test on the Gleeble-1500 thermo-simulation machine. And the deformation resistance model of clad sheet was proposed through finite element analysis using DEFORM-2D software. The relationship between cladding ratio and the deformation resistance was discussed in detail. The results of hot compression simulation demonstrate that the cladding ratio has great effects on the resistance of the clad sheet. Taking the cladding ratio into consideration, the mathematical model of the deformation resistance for clad sheet has been proved to have perfect forecasting precision of different cladding ratio. Therefore, the presented model can be used to predict the rolling force of clad sheet during the hot continuous rolling process.
Morisaku, Toshinori; Yui, Hiroharu
2018-05-15
A laser-induced surface deformation (LISD) microscope is developed and applied to measurement of the dynamic relaxation responses of the plasma membrane in a living cell. A laser beam is tightly focused on an optional area of cell surface and the focused light induces microscopic deformation on the surface via radiation pressure. The LISD microscope not only allows non-contact and destruction-free measurement but provides power spectra of the surface responses depending on the frequency of the intensity of the laser beam. An optical system for the LISD is equipped via a microscope, allowing us to measure the relaxation responses in sub-cellular-sized regions of the plasma membrane. In addition, the forced oscillation caused by the radiation pressure for surface deformation extends the upper limit of the frequency range in the obtained power spectra to 106 Hz, which enables us to measure relaxation responses in local regions within the plasma membrane. From differences in power-law exponents at higher frequencies, it is realized that a cancerous cell obeys a weaker single power-law than a normal fibroblast cell. Furthermore, the power spectrum of a keratinocyte cell obeys a power-law with two exponents, indicating that alternative mechanical models to a conventional soft glassy rheology model (where single power-laws explain cells' responses below about 103 Hz) are needed for the understanding over a wider frequency range. The LISD microscope would contribute to investigation of microscopic cell rheology, which is important for clarifying the mechanisms of cell migration and tissue construction.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhang, Zhenbo; Mishin, Oleg; Tao, N.R.
2015-01-01
The microstructure, hardness and tensile properties of a modified 9Cr-1Mo steel processed by dynamic plastic deformation (DPD) to different strains (0.5 and 2.3) have been investigated in the as-deformed and annealed conditions. It is found that significant structural refinement and a high level...... in a loss of strength with only a small gain in ductility, coarsening combined with pronounced partial recrystallization enables a combination of appreciably increased ductility and comparatively high strength....
Application of the Periodic Average System Model in Dam Deformation Analysis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yueqian Shen
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Dams are among the most important hydraulic engineering facilities used for water supply, flood control, and hydroelectric power. Monitoring of dams is crucial since deformation might have occurred. How to obtain the deformation information and then judge the safe conditions is the key and difficult problem in dam deformation monitoring field. This paper proposes the periodic average system model and creates the concept of “settlement activity” based on the dam deformation issue. Long-term deformation monitoring data is carried out in a pumped-storage power station, this model combined with settlement activity is used to make the single point deformation analysis, and then the whole settlement activity profile is drawn by clustering analysis. Considering the cumulative settlement value of every point, the dam deformation trend is analyzed in an intuitive effect way. The analysis mode of combined single point with multipoints is realized. The results show that the key deformation information of the dam can be easily grasped by the application of the periodic average system model combined with the distribution diagram of settlement activity. And, above all, the ideas of this research provide an effective method for dam deformation analysis.
Development of zircaloy deformation model to describe the zircaloy-4 cladding tube during accidents
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Raff, S.
1978-01-01
The development of a high-temperature deformation model for Zircaloy-4 cans is primarily based on numerous well-parametrized tensile tests to get the material behaviour including statistical variance. It is shown that plastic deformation may be described by a power creep law, the coefficients of which show strong dependence on temperature in the relevant temperature region. These coefficients have been determined. A model based on these coefficients has been established which, apart from best estimate deformation, gives upper and lower bounds of possible deformation. The model derived from isothermal uniaxial tests is being verified against isothermal and transient tube burst tests. The influence of preoxidation and increased oxygen concentration during deformation is modeled on the basis of the pseudobinary Zircaloy-oxygen phase diagram. (author)
Ripepe, Maurizio; Donne, Dario Delle; Genco, Riccardo; Maggio, Giuseppe; Pistolesi, Marco; Marchetti, Emanuele; Lacanna, Giorgio; Ulivieri, Giacomo; Poggi, Pasquale
2015-05-18
Effusive eruptions are explained as the mechanism by which volcanoes restore the equilibrium perturbed by magma rising in a chamber deep in the crust. Seismic, ground deformation and topographic measurements are compared with effusion rate during the 2007 Stromboli eruption, drawing an eruptive scenario that shifts our attention from the interior of the crust to the surface. The eruption is modelled as a gravity-driven drainage of magma stored in the volcanic edifice with a minor contribution of magma supplied at a steady rate from a deep reservoir. Here we show that the discharge rate can be predicted by the contraction of the volcano edifice and that the very-long-period seismicity migrates downwards, tracking the residual volume of magma in the shallow reservoir. Gravity-driven magma discharge dynamics explain the initially high discharge rates observed during eruptive crises and greatly influence our ability to predict the evolution of effusive eruptions.
Effect of material property heterogeneity on biomechanical modeling of prostate under deformation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Samavati, Navid; McGrath, Deirdre M; Ménard, Cynthia; Jewett, Michael A S; Van der Kwast, Theo; Brock, Kristy K
2015-01-01
Biomechanical model based deformable image registration has been widely used to account for prostate deformation in various medical imaging procedures. Biomechanical material properties are important components of a biomechanical model. In this study, the effect of incorporating tumor-specific material properties in the prostate biomechanical model was investigated to provide insight into the potential impact of material heterogeneity on the prostate deformation calculations. First, a simple spherical prostate and tumor model was used to analytically describe the deformations and demonstrate the fundamental effect of changes in the tumor volume and stiffness in the modeled deformation. Next, using a clinical prostate model, a parametric approach was used to describe the variations in the heterogeneous prostate model by changing tumor volume, stiffness, and location, to show the differences in the modeled deformation between heterogeneous and homogeneous prostate models. Finally, five clinical prostatectomy examples were used in separately performed homogeneous and heterogeneous biomechanical model based registrations to describe the deformations between 3D reconstructed histopathology images and ex vivo magnetic resonance imaging, and examine the potential clinical impact of modeling biomechanical heterogeneity of the prostate. The analytical formulation showed that increasing the tumor volume and stiffness could significantly increase the impact of the heterogeneous prostate model in the calculated displacement differences compared to the homogeneous model. The parametric approach using a single prostate model indicated up to 4.8 mm of displacement difference at the tumor boundary compared to a homogeneous model. Such differences in the deformation of the prostate could be potentially clinically significant given the voxel size of the ex vivo MR images (0.3 × 0.3 × 0.3 mm). However, no significant changes in the registration accuracy were
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bae, Kyung Oh; Shin, Hyung Seop [Andong National Univ., Andong (Korea, Republic of)
2016-09-15
To ensure the reliability and safety of various mechanical systems in accordance with their high-speed usage, it is necessary to evaluate the dynamic deformation behavior of structural materials under impact load. However, it is not easy to understand the dynamic deformation behavior of the structural materials using experimental methods in the high strain-rate range exceeding 10{sup 4} s{sup -1}. In this study, the Taylor bar impact test was conducted to investigate the dynamic deformation behavior of metallic materials in the high strain-rate region, using a high-speed photography system. Numerical analysis of the Taylor bar impact test was performed using AUTODYN S/W. The results of the analysis were compared with the experimental results, and the material behavior in the high strain-rate region was discussed.
Hybrid dynamics for currency modeling
Theodosopoulos, Ted; Trifunovic, Alex
2006-01-01
We present a simple hybrid dynamical model as a tool to investigate behavioral strategies based on trend following. The multiplicative symbolic dynamics are generated using a lognormal diffusion model for the at-the-money implied volatility term structure. Thus, are model exploits information from derivative markets to obtain qualititative properties of the return distribution for the underlier. We apply our model to the JPY-USD exchange rate and the corresponding 1mo., 3mo., 6mo. and 1yr. im...
Dynamics of a slowly evaporating solvent-polymer mixture with a deformable upper surface
Hennessy, M. G.
2014-06-17
This paper examines how surface deformations affect the stability of a slowly evaporating solvent-polymer mixture. The destabilizing effect of surface-tension variations arising from evaporation-induced concentration gradients and the counteracting influence of mean gravity and surface tension are incorporated into the mathematical model. A linear stability analysis that takes advantage of the separation between the characteristic time scales of the slowly evolving base state and the perturbations is carried out in combination with numerical solutions of the linearized system. It is shown that the onset of instability can occur for Marangoni numbers that are much lower than the critical value for a non-deformable surface. Moreover, two types of Marangoni instabilities appear in the system: one is associated with the traditional stationary instability, and the other is an oscillatory instability that is not present for a non-deformable liquid surface. A region of the parameter space where the oscillatory instability dominates is identified and used to formulate appropriate conditions for future experiments. © 2014 The authors 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Mathematics and its Applications. All rights reserved.
Dynamics of a slowly evaporating solvent-polymer mixture with a deformable upper surface
Hennessy, M. G.; Munch, A.
2014-01-01
This paper examines how surface deformations affect the stability of a slowly evaporating solvent-polymer mixture. The destabilizing effect of surface-tension variations arising from evaporation-induced concentration gradients and the counteracting influence of mean gravity and surface tension are incorporated into the mathematical model. A linear stability analysis that takes advantage of the separation between the characteristic time scales of the slowly evolving base state and the perturbations is carried out in combination with numerical solutions of the linearized system. It is shown that the onset of instability can occur for Marangoni numbers that are much lower than the critical value for a non-deformable surface. Moreover, two types of Marangoni instabilities appear in the system: one is associated with the traditional stationary instability, and the other is an oscillatory instability that is not present for a non-deformable liquid surface. A region of the parameter space where the oscillatory instability dominates is identified and used to formulate appropriate conditions for future experiments. © 2014 The authors 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Mathematics and its Applications. All rights reserved.
Wang, Jizeng; Li, Long
2015-01-06
Molecular dynamic simulations and experiments have recently demonstrated how cylindrical nanoparticles (CNPs) with large aspect ratios penetrate animal cells and inevitably deform cytoskeletons. Thus, a coupled elasticity-diffusion model was adopted to elucidate this interesting biological phenomenon by considering the effects of elastic deformations of cytoskeleton and membrane, ligand-receptor binding and receptor diffusion. The mechanism by which the binding energy drives the CNPs with different orientations to enter host cells was explored. This mechanism involved overcoming the resistance caused by cytoskeleton and membrane deformations and the change in configurational entropy of the ligand-receptor bonds and free receptors. Results showed that deformation of the cytoskeleton significantly influenced the engulfing process by effectively slowing down and even hindering the entry of the CNPs. Additionally, the engulfing depth was determined quantitatively. CNPs preferred or tended to vertically attack target cells until they were stuck in the cytoskeleton as implied by the speed of vertically oriented CNPs that showed much faster initial engulfing speeds than horizontally oriented CNPs. These results elucidated the most recent molecular dynamics simulations and experimental observations on the cellular uptake of carbon nanotubes and phagocytosis of filamentous Escherichia coli bacteria. The most efficient engulfment showed the stiffness-dependent optimal radius of the CNPs. Cytoskeleton stiffness exhibited more significant influence on the optimal sizes of the vertical uptake than the horizontal uptake. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.
Wang, Jizeng; Li, Long
2015-01-01
Molecular dynamic simulations and experiments have recently demonstrated how cylindrical nanoparticles (CNPs) with large aspect ratios penetrate animal cells and inevitably deform cytoskeletons. Thus, a coupled elasticity–diffusion model was adopted to elucidate this interesting biological phenomenon by considering the effects of elastic deformations of cytoskeleton and membrane, ligand–receptor binding and receptor diffusion. The mechanism by which the binding energy drives the CNPs with different orientations to enter host cells was explored. This mechanism involved overcoming the resistance caused by cytoskeleton and membrane deformations and the change in configurational entropy of the ligand–receptor bonds and free receptors. Results showed that deformation of the cytoskeleton significantly influenced the engulfing process by effectively slowing down and even hindering the entry of the CNPs. Additionally, the engulfing depth was determined quantitatively. CNPs preferred or tended to vertically attack target cells until they were stuck in the cytoskeleton as implied by the speed of vertically oriented CNPs that showed much faster initial engulfing speeds than horizontally oriented CNPs. These results elucidated the most recent molecular dynamics simulations and experimental observations on the cellular uptake of carbon nanotubes and phagocytosis of filamentous Escherichia coli bacteria. The most efficient engulfment showed the stiffness-dependent optimal radius of the CNPs. Cytoskeleton stiffness exhibited more significant influence on the optimal sizes of the vertical uptake than the horizontal uptake. PMID:25411410
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Su, Yanqing [School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0340 (United States); Xu, Shuozhi, E-mail: shuozhixu@gatech.edu [GWW School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0405 (United States)
2016-12-15
Void growth is usually considered one of the most critical phases leading to dynamic fracture of ductile materials. Investigating the detailed process of void growth at the nanoscale aids in understanding the damage mechanism of metals. While most atomistic simulations by far assume circular or spherical voids for simplicity, recent studies highlight the significance of the initial void ellipticity in mechanical response of voided metals. In this work, we perform large scale molecular dynamics simulations with millions of atoms to investigate the void growth in plastic deformation of thin films in face-centered cubic Cu. It is found that the initial ellipticity and the initial orientation angle of the void have substantial impacts on the dislocation nucleation, the void evolution, and the stress-strain response. In particular, the initial dislocation emission sites and the sequence of slip plane activation vary with the initial void geometry. For the void size evolution, three regimes are identified: (I) the porosity increases relatively slowly in the absence of dislocations, (II) the porosity grows much more rapidly after dislocations start to glide on different slip planes, and (III) the rate of porosity variation becomes much more slowly when dislocations are saturated in the model, and the void surface becomes irregular, non-smooth. In terms of the stress-strain response, the effects of the initial orientation angle are more pronounced when the initial void ellipticity is large; the influence of the initial void ellipticity is different for different initial orientation angles. The effects of the temperature, the strain rate, the loading direction, and the initial porosity in the void growth are also explored. Our results reveal the underlying mechanisms of initial void geometry-dependent plastic deformation of metallic thin films and shed light on informing more accurate theoretical models.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Su, Yanqing; Xu, Shuozhi
2016-01-01
Void growth is usually considered one of the most critical phases leading to dynamic fracture of ductile materials. Investigating the detailed process of void growth at the nanoscale aids in understanding the damage mechanism of metals. While most atomistic simulations by far assume circular or spherical voids for simplicity, recent studies highlight the significance of the initial void ellipticity in mechanical response of voided metals. In this work, we perform large scale molecular dynamics simulations with millions of atoms to investigate the void growth in plastic deformation of thin films in face-centered cubic Cu. It is found that the initial ellipticity and the initial orientation angle of the void have substantial impacts on the dislocation nucleation, the void evolution, and the stress-strain response. In particular, the initial dislocation emission sites and the sequence of slip plane activation vary with the initial void geometry. For the void size evolution, three regimes are identified: (I) the porosity increases relatively slowly in the absence of dislocations, (II) the porosity grows much more rapidly after dislocations start to glide on different slip planes, and (III) the rate of porosity variation becomes much more slowly when dislocations are saturated in the model, and the void surface becomes irregular, non-smooth. In terms of the stress-strain response, the effects of the initial orientation angle are more pronounced when the initial void ellipticity is large; the influence of the initial void ellipticity is different for different initial orientation angles. The effects of the temperature, the strain rate, the loading direction, and the initial porosity in the void growth are also explored. Our results reveal the underlying mechanisms of initial void geometry-dependent plastic deformation of metallic thin films and shed light on informing more accurate theoretical models.
A Statistical Model of Head Asymmetry in Infants with Deformational Plagiocephaly
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lanche, Stéphanie; Darvann, Tron Andre; Ólafsdóttir, Hildur
2007-01-01
Deformational plagiocephaly is a term describing cranial asymmetry and deformation commonly seen in infants. The purpose of this work was to develop a methodology for assessment and modelling of head asymmetry. The clinical population consisted of 38 infants for whom 3-dimensional surface scans...... quantitative description of the asymmetry present in the dataset....
RAPS: Robust and Efficient Automatic Construction of Person-Specific Deformable Models
Sagonas, Christos; Panagakis, Yannis; Zafeiriou, Stefanos; Pantic, Maja
The construction of Facial Deformable Models (FDMs) is a very challenging computer vision problem, since the face is a highly deformable object and its appearance drastically changes under different poses, expressions, and illuminations. Although several methods for generic FDMs construction, have
Anelastic deformation processes in metallic glasses and activation energy spectrum model
Ocelik, [No Value; Csach, K; Kasardova, A; Bengus, VZ; Ocelik, Vaclav
1997-01-01
The isothermal kinetics of anelastic deformation below the glass transition temperature (so-called 'stress induced ordering' or 'creep recovery' deformation) was investigated in Ni-Si-B metallic glass. The relaxation time spectrum model and two recently developed methods for its calculation from the
Modelling and simulations in hot deformation of steels
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cabrera, J.M.
2002-01-01
Traditionally, hot forming has been employed to provide shape to metals. Nowadays, however, hot working not only produces the desired geometry, but also the mechanical characteristics required. An understanding of the thermomechanical behaviour of metals, and particularly steels, is essential in the simulation and control of the hot forming operations. Moreover, a right prediction of the final properties needs from accurate descriptions of the microstructural features occurring during the shaping step. For this purpose, the determination of constitutive equations describing the stress σ - strain ε relationships at a given strain rate ε, temperature T and initial microstructure, is a useful task. In this sense, computer simulations of hot working processes proportionate a benchmark to engineers and researchers and allow decreasing the cost of developing products and processes. With regard to the prediction of the final microstructure, the simulation of the hot plastic deformation usually gives unsatisfactory results. This is due to the inadequate constitutive equations employed by the conventional and commercial software available to describe the hot flow behaviour. There are scarce models which couple the typical hot working variables (temperature, strain and strain rate) with microstructural characteristics such as grain size. In this review work is presented how the latter limitation can be overcome by using physical-based constitutive equations, some of which have been partially developed by the present authors, where account of the interaction between microstructure and processing variables is taken. Moreover, a practical derivation of the latter expressions on an AISI-304 steel is presented. To conclude, some examples of industrial applications of the latter approach are also presented. Copyright (2002) AD-TECH - International Foundation for the Advancement of Technology Ltd
DEFORMATION DEPENDENT TUL MULTI-STEP DIRECT MODEL
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
WIENKE, H.; CAPOTE, R.; HERMAN, M.; SIN, M.
2007-01-01
The Multi-Step Direct (MSD) module TRISTAN in the nuclear reaction code EMPIRE has been extended in order to account for nuclear deformation. The new formalism was tested in calculations of neutron emission spectra emitted from the 232 Th(n,xn) reaction. These calculations include vibration-rotational Coupled Channels (CC) for the inelastic scattering to low-lying collective levels, ''deformed'' MSD with quadrupole deformation for inelastic scattering to the continuum, Multi-Step Compound (MSC) and Hauser-Feshbach with advanced treatment of the fission channel. Prompt fission neutrons were also calculated. The comparison with experimental data shows clear improvement over the ''spherical'' MSD calculations and JEFF-3.1 and JENDL-3.3 evaluations
Deformation dependent TUL multi-step direct model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wienke, H.; Capote, R.; Herman, M.; Sin, M.
2008-01-01
The Multi-Step Direct (MSD) module TRISTAN in the nuclear reaction code EMPIRE has been extended to account for nuclear deformation. The new formalism was tested in calculations of neutron emission spectra emitted from the 232 Th(n,xn) reaction. These calculations include vibration-rotational Coupled Channels (CC) for the inelastic scattering to low-lying collective levels, 'deformed' MSD with quadrupole deformation for inelastic scattering to the continuum, Multi-Step Compound (MSC) and Hauser-Feshbach with advanced treatment of the fission channel. Prompt fission neutrons were also calculated. The comparison with experimental data shows clear improvement over the 'spherical' MSD calculations and JEFF-3.1 and JENDL-3.3 evaluations. (authors)
Discrete element modeling of deformable particles in YADE
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Martin Haustein
2017-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper we describe the open-source discrete element framework YADE and the implementation of a new deformation engine. YADE is a highly expandable software package that allows the simulation of current industrial problems in the field of granular materials using particle-based numerical methods. The description of the compaction of powders and granular material like metal pellets is now possible with a pure and simple discrete element approach in a modern DEM-framework. The deformation is realized by expanding the radius of the spherical particles, depending on their overlap, so that the volume of the material is kept constant.
Recent Progress on Modeling Slip Deformation in Shape Memory Alloys
Sehitoglu, H.; Alkan, S.
2018-03-01
This paper presents an overview of slip deformation in shape memory alloys. The performance of shape memory alloys depends on their slip resistance often quantified through the Critical Resolved Shear Stress (CRSS) or the flow stress. We highlight previous studies that identify the active slip systems and then proceed to show how non- Schmid effects can be dominant in shape memory slip behavior. The work is mostly derived from our recent studies while we highlight key earlier works on slip deformation. We finally discuss the implications of understanding the role of slip on curtailing the transformation strains and also the temperature range over which superelasticity prevails.
An Efficient Data-driven Tissue Deformation Model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mosbech, Thomas Hammershaimb; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær; Christensen, Lars Bager
2009-01-01
empirical data; 10 pig carcasses are subjected to deformation from a controlled source imitating the cutting tool. The tissue deformation is quantified by means of steel markers inserted into the carcass as a three-dimensional lattice. For each subject marker displacements are monitored through two...... find an association between the first principal mode and the lateral movement. Furthermore, there is a link between this and the ratio of meat-fat quantity - a potentially very useful finding since existing tools for carcass grading and sorting measure equivalent quantities....
Recent Progress on Modeling Slip Deformation in Shape Memory Alloys
Sehitoglu, H.; Alkan, S.
2018-03-01
This paper presents an overview of slip deformation in shape memory alloys. The performance of shape memory alloys depends on their slip resistance often quantified through the Critical Resolved Shear Stress (CRSS) or the flow stress. We highlight previous studies that identify the active slip systems and then proceed to show how non-Schmid effects can be dominant in shape memory slip behavior. The work is mostly derived from our recent studies while we highlight key earlier works on slip deformation. We finally discuss the implications of understanding the role of slip on curtailing the transformation strains and also the temperature range over which superelasticity prevails.
Senses, Erkan; Tyagi, Madhusudan; Natarajan, Bharath; Narayanan, Suresh; Faraone, Antonio
2017-11-08
The effect of large deformation on the chain dynamics in attractive polymer nanocomposites was investigated using neutron scattering techniques. Quasi-elastic neutron backscattering measurements reveal a substantial reduction of polymer mobility in the presence of attractive, well-dispersed nanoparticles. In addition, large deformations are observed to cause a further slowing down of the Rouse rates at high particle loadings, where the interparticle spacings are slightly smaller than the chain dimensions, i.e. in the strongly confined state. No noticeable change, however, was observed for a lightly confined system. The reptation tube diameter, measured by neutron spin echo, remained unchanged after shear, suggesting that the level of chain-chain entanglements is not significantly affected. The shear-induced changes in the interparticle bridging reflect the slow nanoparticle motion measured by X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy. These results provide a first step for understanding how large shear can significantly affect the segmental motion in nanocomposites and open up new opportunities for designing mechanically responsive soft materials.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mays, Brian [AREVA Federal Services, Lynchburg, VA (United States); Jackson, R. Brian [TerraPower, Bellevue, WA (United States)
2017-03-08
The project, Toward a Longer Life Core: Thermal Hydraulic CFD Simulations and Experimental Investigation of Deformed Fuel Assemblies, DOE Project code DE-NE0008321, was a verification and validation project for flow and heat transfer through wire wrapped simulated liquid metal fuel assemblies that included both experiments and computational fluid dynamics simulations of those experiments. This project was a two year collaboration between AREVA, TerraPower, Argonne National Laboratory and Texas A&M University. Experiments were performed by AREVA and Texas A&M University. Numerical simulations of these experiments were performed by TerraPower and Argonne National Lab. Project management was performed by AREVA Federal Services. The first of a kind project resulted in the production of both local point temperature measurements and local flow mixing experiment data paired with numerical simulation benchmarking of the experiments. The project experiments included the largest wire-wrapped pin assembly Mass Index of Refraction (MIR) experiment in the world, the first known wire-wrapped assembly experiment with deformed duct geometries and the largest numerical simulations ever produced for wire-wrapped bundles.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chaussidon, Julien; Fivel, Marc; Robertson, Christian; Marini, Bernard
2010-01-01
Stress evolution in Fe laths undergoing plastic deformation is investigated using three-dimensional dislocation dynamics simulations adapted to body centred cubic crystals, in the ductile to brittle transition temperature range. The selected boundary conditions, applied stress tensor and initial dislocation structures account for the realistic microstructure observed in bainitic steels. The effective stress field projected in the three different {1 0 0}cleavage planes is calculated for two different temperatures (50 and 200 K) and presented quantitatively, in the form of stress/frequency diagrams. It is shown that plastic activity tends to relax the stress acting in certain cleavage planes (the (0 1 0) and (0 0 1) planes) while, at the same time, amplifying the stress acting in other cleavage planes (the (1 0 0) planes). The selective stress amplification in the latter planes depends on the applied load direction, in combination with the limited set of available slip systems and the lath geometry. In the examined configuration, this selection effect is more pronounced with decreasing temperature, emphasizing the role of thermally activated plasticity on deformation-induced stress concentrations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rezende, C.M.F.; Melo, E.G.; Lamas, M.C.S.; Silva, C.A.
2000-01-01
The clinical exam of a male mongrel dog, 4-month-old, and 5.7kg of live weight, showed that the dog supported with the elbows and it was observed accentuated bilateral rotacional deformity of the radius and ulna. Radiographs of the radius and ulna revealed proximal fracture of the radius. After clinical and radiographic evaluation it was indicated the corrective osteotomy and distraction osteogenesis of the left foremember. The surgical procedure consisted in osteotomy in the diaphysis of the radius and ulna, and the utilization of external fixators composed by four Kirschner’s pins and two metallic thread bars, configuring a fixator type II, bilateral uniplanar dynamic. Before the fixation of the pins with acrylic, the fractured bony fragments were separated in approximately 0.5cm. Starting 10 days post surgery, the radial osteotomy site was distracted at a rate of 1.0mm every day for 30 days. The consolidation of the osteotomy site was observed radiographically 67 days after the intervention, when the fixator was removed. Similar procedure was accomplished in the right foremember at the age of 16 months. At this moment, it was necessary to remove a coins bony of approximately 1.0cm for correction of the limb angulation. At present, the dog shows normal function and support of the left foremember and light valgus deformity of the right foremember due to the broken implants [pt
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cornu, T.
2001-01-01
The present work deals with three-dimensional deformation of sedimentary basins. The main goal of the work was to propose new ways to study tectonic deformation and to insert it into basin-modeling environment for hydrocarbon migration applications. To handle the complexity of the deformation, the model uses kinematic laws, a discrete approach, and the construction of a code that allows the greatest diversity in the deformation mechanisms we can take into account. The 3-D-volume deformation is obtained through the calculation of the behavior of the neutral surface of each basin layer. The main idea is to deform the neutral surface of each layer with the help of geometrical laws and to use the result to rebuild the volume deformation of the basin. The constitutive algorithm includes three characteristic features. The first one deals with the mathematical operator we use to describe the flexural-slip mechanism which is a combination of the translation of the neutral surface nodes and the rotation of the vertical edges attached to these nodes. This performs the reversibility that was required for the basin modeling. The second one is about. the use of a discrete approach, which gives a better description of the global deformation and offers to locally control volume evolutions. The knowledge of volume variations can become a powerful tool in structural geology analysis and the perfect complement for a field study. The last one concerns the modularity of the developed code. Indeed, the proposed model uses three main mechanisms of deformation. But the architecture of the code allows the insertion of new mechanisms or a better interaction between them. The model has been validated first with 2-D cases, then with 3-D natural cases. They give good results from a qualitative point of view. They also show the capacity of the model to provide a deformation path that is geologically acceptable, and its ability to control the volume variations of the basin through the
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nuha Salim Mashaan
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Today, rapid economic and industrial growth generates increasing amounts of waste materials such as waste tyre rubber. Attempts to inspire a green technology which is more environmentally friendly that can produce economic value are a major consideration in the utilization of waste materials. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of waste tyre rubber (crumb rubber modifier (CRM, in stone mastic asphalt (SMA 20 performance. The virgin bitumen (80/100 penetration grade was used, modified with crumb rubber at four different modification levels, namely, 6%, 12%, 16%, and 20% by weight of the bitumen. The testing undertaken on the asphalt mix comprises the indirect tensile (dynamic stiffness, dynamic creep, and wheel tracking tests. By the experimentation, the appropriate amount of CRM was found to be 16% by weight of bitumen. The results show that the addition of CRM into the mixture has an obvious significant effect on the performance properties of SMA which could improve the mixture's resistance against permanent deformation. Further, higher correlation coefficient was obtained between the rut depth and permanent strain as compared to resilient modulus; thus dynamic creep test might be a more reliable test in evaluating the rut resistance of asphalt mixture.
Mashaan, Nuha Salim; Karim, Mohamed Rehan
2013-01-01
Today, rapid economic and industrial growth generates increasing amounts of waste materials such as waste tyre rubber. Attempts to inspire a green technology which is more environmentally friendly that can produce economic value are a major consideration in the utilization of waste materials. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of waste tyre rubber (crumb rubber modifier (CRM)), in stone mastic asphalt (SMA 20) performance. The virgin bitumen (80/100) penetration grade was used, modified with crumb rubber at four different modification levels, namely, 6%, 12%, 16%, and 20% by weight of the bitumen. The testing undertaken on the asphalt mix comprises the indirect tensile (dynamic stiffness), dynamic creep, and wheel tracking tests. By the experimentation, the appropriate amount of CRM was found to be 16% by weight of bitumen. The results show that the addition of CRM into the mixture has an obvious significant effect on the performance properties of SMA which could improve the mixture's resistance against permanent deformation. Further, higher correlation coefficient was obtained between the rut depth and permanent strain as compared to resilient modulus; thus dynamic creep test might be a more reliable test in evaluating the rut resistance of asphalt mixture.
Deformation and fracture of Coarse-grained Model of Filled Rubber Composites
Hagita, Katsumi; Morita, Hiroshi; Doi, Masao; Takano, Hiroshi
2011-03-01
We presented a result of coarse-grained Molecular Dynamics simulation of filled polymer melts with Sulfur-crosslink under deformation based on the Kremer-Grest Model. Under uni-axial deformation (extension) by setting Poisson's ratio to less than 0.5, facture of this polymer nanocomoposites occurs due to volume increase for increasing the strain. In order to study facture behavior, we use the original Lennard Jones potential formula (with attractive part) as interaction between polymers. The size of simulation box under periodic boundary conditions (PBC) is set to about 133nm. We put 2048 fillers, 5120 polymer chains of 1024 particles, and many crosslink into the PBC box. Due to the crosslink, all polymer chains are connected to one network gel. One filler consists of 320 particles of the C320 fullerene structure. A repulsive force from the center of the filler is applied to the particles of C320 in order to make a sphere whose diameter is about 7nm. We can observe the fracture occurs due to void created near surface of fillers for the case that interaction between polymer and filler is relatively non- attractive. Various cases of Poisson's ratio and interaction between polymer and filler are examined.
Twisted supersymmetry in a deformed Wess-Zumino model in (2+1) dimensions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Palechor, C.; Ferrari, A.F.; Quinto, A.G. [Universidade Federal do ABC - UFABC,Avenida dos Estados 5001, 0910-580, Santo André, SP (Brazil)
2017-01-12
Non-anticommutative deformations have been studied in the context of supersymmetry (SUSY) in three and four space-time dimensions, and the general picture is that highly nontrivial to deform supersymmetry in a way that still preserves some of its important properties, both at the formal algebraic level (e.g., preserving the associativity of the deformed theory) as well as at the physical level (e.g., maintaining renormalizability). The Hopf algebra formalism allows the definition of algebraically consistent deformations of SUSY, but this algebraic consistency does not guarantee that physical models build upon these structures will be consistent from the physical point of view. We will investigate a deformation induced by a Drinfel’d twist of the N=1 SUSY algebra in three space-time dimensions. The use of the Hopf algebra formalism allows the construction of deformed N=1 SUSY algebras that should still preserve a deformed version of supersymmetry. We will construct the simplest deformed version of the Wess-Zumino model in this context, but we will show that despite the consistent algebraic structure, the model in question is not invariant under SUSY transformation and is not renormalizable. We will comment on the relation of these results with previous ones discussed in the literature regarding similar four-dimensional constructions.
Normal dynamic deformation characteristics of non-consecutive jointed rock masses under impact loads
Zeng, Sheng; Jiang, Bowei; Sun, Bing
2017-08-01
In order to study deformation characteristics of non-consecutive single jointed rock masses under impact loads, we used the cement mortar materials to make simulative jointed rock mass samples, and tested the samples under impact loads by the drop hammer. Through analyzing the time-history signal of the force and the displacement, first we find that the dynamic compression displacement of the jointed rock mass is significantly larger than that of the intact jointless rock mass, the compression displacement is positively correlated with the joint length and the impact height. Secondly, the vertical compressive displacement of the jointed rock mass is mainly due to the closure of opening joints under small impact loads. Finally, the peak intensity of the intact rock mass is larger than that of the non-consecutive jointed rock mass and negatively correlated with the joint length under the same impact energy.
Deformation of Ag clusters deposited on Au(111) - Experiment and molecular dynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Miroslawski, Natalie; Groenhagen, Niklas; Hoevel, Heinz [TU Dortmund, Experimentelle Physik I (Germany); Issendorff, Bernd von [Universitaet Freiburg, Fakultaet Physik (Germany); Jaervi, Tommi [Fraunhofer Institut fuer Werkstoffmechanik, Freiburg (Germany); Moseler, Michael [Universitaet Freiburg, Fakultaet Physik (Germany); Fraunhofer Institut fuer Werkstoffmechanik, Freiburg (Germany); Freiburger Materialforschungszentrum (Germany)
2011-07-01
Mass selected clusters from Ag{sup +}{sub 55} to Ag{sup +}{sub 147{+-}}{sub 2} were deposited with different deposition energies at 77 K on Au(111) and imaged with STM at 77 K. We observed a deformation of the cluster shape due to the strong metallic interaction between the cluster and the substrate. The clusters became epitaxial and developed a structure composed of several Ag monolayers. The number of these monolayers depends on the number of atoms in the cluster and the deposition energy. The larger the cluster mass the more monolayers the cluster develops on Au(111) and the larger the deposition energy the fewer monolayers occur. These results were verified by molecular dynamic simulations. Additionally the behaviour of Ag{sub N} clusters on Au(111) after different annealing steps was investigated.
Two Back Stress Hardening Models in Rate Independent Rigid Plastic Deformation
Yun, Su-Jin
In the present work, the constitutive relations based on the combination of two back stresses are developed using the Armstrong-Frederick, Phillips and Ziegler’s type hardening rules. Various evolutions of the kinematic hardening parameter can be obtained by means of a simple combination of back stress rate using the rule of mixtures. Thus, a wide range of plastic deformation behavior can be depicted depending on the dominant back stress evolution. The ultimate back stress is also determined for the present combined kinematic hardening models. Since a kinematic hardening rule is assumed in the finite deformation regime, the stress rate is co-rotated with respect to the spin of substructure obtained by incorporating the plastic spin concept. A comparison of the various co-rotational rates is also included. Assuming rigid plasticity, the continuum body consists of the elastic deformation zone and the plastic deformation zone to form a hybrid finite element formulation. Then, the plastic deformation behavior is investigated under various loading conditions with an assumption of the J2 deformation theory. The plastic deformation localization turns out to be strongly dependent on the description of back stress evolution and its associated hardening parameters. The analysis for the shear deformation with fixed boundaries is carried out to examine the deformation localization behavior and the evolution of state variables.
[Research progress on real-time deformable models of soft tissues for surgery simulation].
Xu, Shaoping; Liu, Xiaoping; Zhang, Hua; Luo, Jie
2010-04-01
Biological tissues generally exhibit nonlinearity, anisotropy, quasi-incompressibility and viscoelasticity about material properties. Simulating the behaviour of elastic objects in real time is one of the current objectives of virtual surgery simulation which is still a challenge for researchers to accurately depict the behaviour of human tissues. In this paper, we present a classification of the different deformable models that have been developed. We present the advantages and disadvantages of each one. Finally, we make a comparison of deformable models and perform an evaluation of the state of the art and the future of deformable models.
Computer Modelling of Dynamic Processes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
B. Rybakin
2000-10-01
Full Text Available Results of numerical modeling of dynamic problems are summed in the article up. These problems are characteristic for various areas of human activity, in particular for problem solving in ecology. The following problems are considered in the present work: computer modeling of dynamic effects on elastic-plastic bodies, calculation and determination of performances of gas streams in gas cleaning equipment, modeling of biogas formation processes.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Follin, Sven (SF GeoLogic AB, Taeby (SE)); Leven, Jakob (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (SE)); Hartley, Lee; Jackson, Peter; Joyce, Steve; Roberts, David; Swift, Ben (Serco Assurance, Harwell (GB))
2007-09-15
The work reported here collates the structural-hydraulic information gathered in 21 cored boreholes and 32 percussion-drilled boreholes belonging to Forsmark site description, modelling stage 2.2. The analyses carried out provide the hydrogeological input descriptions of the bedrock in Forsmark needed by the end users Repository Engineering, Safety Assessment and Environmental Impact Assessment; that is, hydraulic properties of deformation zones and fracture domains. The same information is also needed for constructing 3D groundwater flow models of the Forsmark site and surrounding area. The analyses carried out render the following conceptual model regarding the observed heterogeneity in deformation zone transmissivity: We find the geological division of the deterministically modelled deformation zones into eight categories (sets) useful from a hydrogeological point of view. Seven of the eight categories are steeply dipping, WNW, NW, NNW, NNE, NE, ENE and EW, and on is gently dipping, G. All deformation zones, regardless of orientation (strike and dip), are subjected to a substantial decrease in transmissivity with depth. The data gathered suggest a contrast of c. 20,000 times for the uppermost one kilometre of bedrock, i.e. more than four orders of magnitude. The hydraulic properties below this depth are not investigated. The lateral heterogeneity is also substantial but more irregular in its appearance. For instance, for a given elevation and deformation zone category (orientation), the spatial variability in transmissivity within a particular deformation zone appears to be as large as the variability between all deformation zones. This suggests that the lateral correlation length is shorter than the shortest distance between two adjacent observation points and shorter than the category spacing. The observation that the mean transmissivity of the gently-dipping deformation zones is c. one to two orders of magnitude greater than the mean transmissivities of all
Numerical modelling of river processes: flow and river bed deformation
Tassi, P.A.
2007-01-01
The morphology of alluvial river channels is a consequence of complex interaction among a number of constituent physical processes, such as flow, sediment transport and river bed deformation. This is, an alluvial river channel is formed from its own sediment. From time to time, alluvial river
Modeling polyolefin deformation resistance in a growing microparticle
Agarwal, U.S.
2004-01-01
When polyolefins are produced on heterogeneous catalysts, they encapsulate the catalyst fragments and present diffusional resistance to further monomer transport to the catalyst fragments. In addition, the deposited polymer layer brings in viscoelastic resistance, since it must be deformed to make
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ramazan-Ali Jafari-Talookolaei
2015-09-01
Full Text Available A finite element (FE model is developed to study the free vibration of a rotating laminated composite beam with a single delamination. The rotary inertia and shear deformation effects, as well as the bending–extension, bending–twist and extension–twist coupling terms are taken into account in the FE model. Comparison between the numerical results of the present model and the results published in the literature verifies the validity of the present model. Furthermore, the effects of various parameters, such as delamination size and location, fiber orientation, hub radius, material anisotropy and rotating speed, on the vibration of the beam are studied in detail. These results provide useful information in the study of the free vibration of rotating delaminated composite beams.
Modeling the Afferent Dynamics of the Baroreflex Control System
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ottesen, Johnny T.; Mahdi, Adam; Sturdy, Jacob
2013-01-01
of mechanoreceptors located in the BR nerve-endings, and modulation of the action potential frequency. The three sub-systems are modeled individually following well-established biological principles. The first submodel, predicting arterial wall deformation, uses blood pressure as an input and outputs circumferential...... demonstrate that our preferred model can exhibit all known dynamics and that it is advantageous to combine qualitative and quantitative analysis methods....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yaguchi, Masatsugu; Takahashi, Yukio
2001-01-01
A series of ratchetting deformation tests was conducted on modified 9Cr-1Mo steel at 550degC under uniaxial and multiaxial stress conditions. Ratchetting behavior depended on various parameters such as mean stress, stress/strain rate and those range, hold time and prior cyclic deformation. Under uniaxial conditions, untraditional ratchetting behavior was observed; the ratchetting deformation rate was the fastest when the stress ratio was equal to -1, while no ratchetting deformation was predicted by conventional constitutive models. In order to discuss the reason for this untraditional ratchetting behavior, a lot of monotonic compression tests were conducted and compared with tension data. The material showed a difference of deformation resistance of about 30 MPa between tension and compression at high strain rates. Furthermore, the authors' previous model and Ohno-Wang model were applied to the test conditions to evaluate their description capability for ratchetting behavior of the material. It was shown that the authors' model has a tendency to overestimate the ratchetting deformation and that the Ohno-Wang model has a tendency to underestimate the uniaxial ratchetting deformation at small stress rates. (author)
Sea-level and solid-Earth deformation feedbacks in ice sheet modelling
Konrad, Hannes; Sasgen, Ingo; Klemann, Volker; Thoma, Malte; Grosfeld, Klaus; Martinec, Zdeněk
2014-05-01
The interactions of ice sheets with the sea level and the solid Earth are important factors for the stability of the ice shelves and the tributary inland ice (e.g. Thomas and Bentley, 1978; Gomez et al, 2012). First, changes in ice extent and ice thickness induce viscoelastic deformation of the Earth surface and Earth's gravity field. In turn, global and local changes in sea level and bathymetry affect the grounding line and, subsequently, alter the ice dynamic behaviour. Here, we investigate these feedbacks for a synthetic ice sheet configuration as well as for the Antarctic ice sheet using a three-dimensional thermomechanical ice sheet and shelf model, coupled to a viscoelastic solid-Earth and gravitationally self-consistent sea-level model. The respective ice sheet undergoes a forcing from rising sea level, warming ocean, and/or changing surface mass balance. The coupling is realized by exchanging ice thickness, Earth surface deformation and sea level periodically. We apply several sets of viscoelastic Earth parameters to our coupled model, e.g. simulating a low-viscous upper mantle present at the Antarctic Peninsula (Ivins et al., 2011). Special focus of our study lies on the evolution of Earth surface deformation and local sea level changes, as well as on the accompanying grounding line evolution. N. Gomez, D. Pollard, J. X. Mitrovica, P. Huybers, and P. U. Clark 2012. Evolution of a coupled marine ice sheet-sea level model, J. Geophys. Res., 117, F01013, doi:10.1029/2011JF002128. E. R. Ivins, M. M. Watkins, D.-N. Yuan, R. Dietrich, G. Casassa, and A. Rülke 2011. On-land ice loss and glacial isostatic adjustment at the Drake Passage: 2003-2009, J. Geophys. Res. 116, B02403, doi: 10.1029/2010JB007607 R. H. Thomas and C. R. Bentley 1978. A model for Holocene retreat of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet, Quaternary Research, 10 (2), pages 150-170, doi: 10.1016/0033-5894(78)90098-4.
Crustal deformation mechanism in southeastern Tibetan Plateau: Insights from numerical modeling
Li, Y.; Liu, S.; Chen, L.
2017-12-01
The Indo-Asian collision developed the complicated crustal deformation around the southeastern Tibetan plateau. Numerous models have proposed to explain the crustal deformation, but the mechanism remains controversial, especially the increasing multi-geophysics data, which demonstrate the existence of lower velocity, lower resistivity and high conductivity, implying that lower crustal flow is responsible for the crustal deformation, arguing for the lower crust flow model. To address the relations between the crust flow and the surface deformation, we employ a three-dimensional viscoelastic finite model to investigate the possible influence on the surface deformation, and discuss the stress field distribution under the model. Our preliminary results suggest that lower crustal flow plays an important role in crustal deformation in southeastern Tibetan plateau. The best fitting is achieved when the flow velocity of the lower crust is approximately 10-11 mm/a faster than that of the upper crust. Crustal rheological properties affect regional crustal deformation, when the viscosity of the middle and lower crust in the South China block reaches 1022 and 1023 Pa.s, respectively; the predicted match observations well, especially for the magnitude within the South China block. The maximum principal stress field exhibits clear zoning, gradually shifting from an approximately east-west orientation in the northern Bayan Har block to southeast in the South China block, southwest in the western Yunnan block, and a radially divergent distribution in the Middle Yunnan and Southern Yunnan blocks.
Dembo, N.; Granot, R.; Hamiel, Y.
2017-12-01
The intraplate crustal deformation found in the northern part of the Sinai Microplate, located near the northern Dead Sea Fault plate boundary, is examined. Previous studies have suggested that distributed deformation in Lebanon is accommodated by regional uniform counterclockwise rigid block rotations. However, remanent magnetization directions observed near the Lebanese restraining bend are not entirely homogeneous suggesting that an unexplained and complex internal deformation pattern exists. In order to explain the variations in the amount of vertical-axis rotations we construct a mechanical model of the major active faults in the region that simulates the rotational deformation induced by motion along these faults. The rotational pattern calculated by the mechanical modeling predicts heterogeneous distribution of rotations around the faults. The combined rotation field that considers both the fault induced rotations and the already suggested regional block rotations stands in general agreement with the observed magnetization directions. Overall, the modeling results provide a more detailed and complete picture of the deformation pattern in this region and show that rotations induced by motion along the Dead Sea Fault act in parallel to rigid block rotations. Finally, the new modeling results unravel important insights as to the fashion in which crustal deformation is distributed within the northern part of the Sinai Microplate and propose an improved deformational mechanism that might be appropriate for other plate margins as well.
Simon, Anne-Laure; Lugade, Vipul; Bernhardt, Kathie; Larson, A Noelle; Kaufman, Kenton
2017-06-01
Daily living activities are dynamic, requiring spinal motion through space. Current assessment of spinal deformities is based on static measurements from full-spine standing radiographs. Tools to assess dynamic stability during gait might be useful to enhance the standard evaluation. The aim of this study was to evaluate gait dynamic imbalance in patients with spinal deformity using the dynamic stability margin (DSM). Twelve normal subjects and 17 patients with spinal deformity were prospectively recruited. A kinematic 3D gait analysis was performed for the control group (CG) and the spinal deformity group (SDG). The DSM (distance between the extrapolated center of mass and the base of support) and time-distance parameters were calculated for the right and left side during gait. The relationship between DSM and step length was assessed using three variables: gait stability, symmetry, and consistency. Variables' accuracy was validated by a discriminant analysis. Patients with spinal deformity exhibited gait instability according to the DSM (0.25m versus 0.31m) with decreased velocity (1.1ms -1 versus 1.3ms -1 ) and decreased step length (0.32m versus 0.38m). According to the discriminant analysis, gait stability was the more accurate variable (area under the curve AUC=0.98) followed by gait symmetry and consistency. However, gait consistency showed 100% of specificity, sensitivity, and accuracy of precision. The DSM showed that patients with spinal malalignment exhibit decreased gait stability, symmetry, and consistency besides gait time-distance parameter changes. Additional work is required to determine how to apply the DSM for preoperative and postoperative spinal deformity management. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Structural dynamic modifications via models
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The study shows that as many as half of the matrix ... the dynamicist's analytical modelling skill which would appear both in the numerator as. Figure 2. ..... Brandon J A 1990 Strategies for structural dynamic modification (New York: John Wiley).
Dynamic programming models and applications
Denardo, Eric V
2003-01-01
Introduction to sequential decision processes covers use of dynamic programming in studying models of resource allocation, methods for approximating solutions of control problems in continuous time, production control, more. 1982 edition.
Modeling, Calibration and Control for Extreme-Precision MEMS Deformable Mirrors, Phase I
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Iris AO will develop electromechanical models and actuator calibration methods to enable open-loop control of MEMS deformable mirrors (DMs) with unprecedented...
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Grishber, R
1997-01-01
A constitutive model for deformation of a novel laminated metal composite (LMC) which is comprised of 21 alternating layers of Al 5182 alloy and Al 6090/SiC/25p metal matrix composite (MMC) has been proposed...
On the applicability of deformed jellium model to the description of metal clusters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lyalin, Andrey G.; Matveentsev, Anton; Solov'yov, Ilia
2003-01-01
-density approximation deformed jellium model we have calculated the binding energies per atom, ionization potentials, deformation parameters and the optimized values of the Wigner-Seitz radii for neutral and singly charged sodium clusters with the number of atoms $N0$. These characteristics are compared...... shape deformations in the formation cluster properties and the quite reasonable level of applicability of the deformed jellium model.......This work is devoted to the elucidation the applicability of jellium model to the description of alkali cluster properties on the basis of comparison the jellium model results with those derived from experiment and within ab initio theoretical framework. On the basis of the Hartree-Fock and local...
Modeling for deformable mirrors and the adaptive optics optimization program
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Henesian, M.A.; Haney, S.W.; Trenholme, J.B.; Thomas, M.
1997-01-01
We discuss aspects of adaptive optics optimization for large fusion laser systems such as the 192-arm National Ignition Facility (NIF) at LLNL. By way of example, we considered the discrete actuator deformable mirror and Hartmann sensor system used on the Beamlet laser. Beamlet is a single-aperture prototype of the 11-0-5 slab amplifier design for NIF, and so we expect similar optical distortion levels and deformable mirror correction requirements. We are now in the process of developing a numerically efficient object oriented C++ language implementation of our adaptive optics and wavefront sensor code, but this code is not yet operational. Results are based instead on the prototype algorithms, coded-up in an interpreted array processing computer language
Mathematic modelling of circular cylinder deformation under inner grouwth
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. V. Siasiev
2009-09-01
Full Text Available A task on the intensive deformed state (IDS of a viscoelastic declivous cylinder, which is grown under the action of inner pressure, is considered. The process of continuous increase takes a place on an internal radius so, that a radius and pressure change on set to the given law. The special case of linear law of creeping is considered, and also numeral results are presented as the graphs of temporal dependence of tensions and moving for different points of cylinder.
On q-deformed supersymmetric classical mechanical models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Colatto, L.P.; Matheus Valle, J.L.
1995-10-01
Based on the idea of quantum groups and paragrassmann variables, we present a generalization of supersymmetric classical mechanics with a deformation parameter q=exp 2πi/k dealing with the k=3 case. The coordinates of the q-superspace are a commuting parameter t and a paragrassmann variable θ, where θ 3 =0. The generator and covariant derivative are obtained, as well as the action for some possible superfields. (author). 13 refs
Dynamical models of the Galaxy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
McMillan P.J.
2012-02-01
Full Text Available I discuss the importance of dynamical models for exploiting survey data, focusing on the advantages of “torus” models. I summarize a number of applications of these models to the study of the Milky Way, including the determination of the peculiar Solar velocity and investigation of the Hyades moving group.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Shun; Zhang Sijiong
2014-01-01
A numerical model is presented to simulate the influence function of deformable mirror actuators. The numerical model is formed by Bessel Fourier orthogonal functions, which are constituted of Bessel orthogonal functions and a Fourier basis. A detailed comparison is presented between the new Bessel Fourier model, the Zernike model, the Gaussian influence function and the modified Gaussian influence function. Numerical experiments indicate that the new numerical model is easy to use and more accurate compared with other numerical models. The new numerical model can be used for describing deformable mirror performances and numerical simulations of adaptive optics systems. (research papers)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Weizheng Liu
2016-01-01
Full Text Available A series of repeated load triaxial tests were conducted in this study to investigate the influences of compaction density and postcompaction moisture variation on the dynamic elastic modulus (Ed and plastic permanent strain (PPS of compacted lateritic soil. Specimens were compacted at optimum moisture content (OMC and three degrees of compaction (90%, 93%, and 96%. Then the specimens were dried or wetted to different moisture contents (OMC, OMC±3%, OMC±6%, and OMC+9% prior to testing for Ed and PPS. Results show that moisture content has greater influence on the Ed and PSS than compaction degree, and the increase in moisture content leads to a decrease of Ed and an increase of PPS. Furthermore, an empirical relationship between Ed and applied cyclic stress (σd is developed that incorporates density and moisture variations. Three different evolution types of PPS with number of load cycles, plastic stable, plastic creep, and incremental collapse, are identified as the increase of moisture content. In addition, the critical dynamic stress (σdc separating stable and unstable deformation is determined based on the shakedown concept. The envelope curves of σdc-moisture of lateritic soil with different degrees of compaction are also determined to provide reference for the pavement design.
Structural damping values as a function of dynamic response stress and deformation levels
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stevenson, J.D.
1980-01-01
Damping as it is normally defined is the means by which the response motion of a structural system is reduced as the result of energy losses. However, as used in the context of nuclear plant design, the effects of changes in structural stiffness, geometry, support configuration, and modulus of elasticity are also usually lumped under the general heading of damping in current design methods. For convenience in structural design, damping in usually assumed as viscous in nature and in recognition of its use in modal response spectrum dynamic analysis is normally expressed as a percent of critical. In general, it should be understood that damping as used in design or analysis of nuclear plants is an experimentally determined factor which is used to make the results of linear elasticity analysis of dynamic systems agree reasonably well with observed experimental results. In this paper, damping data existing in the open literature applicable to nuclear power plant structures and equipment is summarized and statistically analyzed. Results of this analysis are used to develop damping trend curves which predict applicable damping values to be used in design at various levels of stress or deformation. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Patra, Anirban [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wen, Wei [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Martinez Saez, Enrique [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Tome, Carlos [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2016-05-31
This report describes the implementation of a crystal plasticity framework (VPSC) for irradiation hardening and plastic deformation in the finite element code, MOOSE. Constitutive models for irradiation hardening and the crystal plasticity framework are described in a previous report [1]. Here we describe these models briefly and then describe an algorithm for interfacing VPSC with finite elements. Example applications of tensile deformation of a dog bone specimen and a 3D pre-irradiated bar specimen performed using MOOSE are demonstrated.
Non-affine deformation in microstructure selection in solids: I. Molecular dynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bhattacharya, Jayee; Paul, Arya; Sengupta, Surajit [S N Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, Block JD, Sector III, Salt Lake, Calcutta 700 098 (India); Rao, Madan [Raman Research Institute, C V Raman Avenue, Bangalore 560 080 (India)
2008-09-10
We study the nucleation dynamics and microstructure selection in a model two-dimensional solid undergoing a square to rhombic transformation, using coarse-grained molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. We find a range of microstructures depending on the depth of quench. The transformations are accompanied by the creation of transient and localized non-affine zones (NAZ), which evolve with the rapidly moving parent-product interface. These plastic regions are created beyond a threshold stress, at a rate proportional to the local stress. We show that the dynamics of NAZs determines the selection of microstructure, including the ferrite and martensite.
Computational implementation of the multi-mechanism deformation coupled fracture model for salt
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koteras, J.R.; Munson, D.E.
1996-01-01
The Multi-Mechanism Deformation (M-D) model for creep in rock salt has been used in three-dimensional computations for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a potential waste, repository. These computational studies are relied upon to make key predictions about long-term behavior of the repository. Recently, the M-D model was extended to include creep-induced damage. The extended model, the Multi-Mechanism Deformation Coupled Fracture (MDCF) model, is considerably more complicated than the M-D model and required a different technology from that of the M-D model for a computational implementation
Deformation data modeling through numerical models: an efficient method for tracking magma transport
Charco, M.; Gonzalez, P. J.; Galán del Sastre, P.
2017-12-01
Nowadays, multivariate collected data and robust physical models at volcano observatories are becoming crucial for providing effective volcano monitoring. Nevertheless, the forecast of volcanic eruption is notoriously difficult. Wthin this frame one of the most promising methods to evaluate the volcano hazard is the use of surface ground deformation and in the last decades many developments in the field of deformation modeling has been achieved. In particular, numerical modeling allows realistic media features such as topography and crustal heterogeneities to be included, although it is still very time cosuming to solve the inverse problem for near-real time interpretations. Here, we present a method that can be efficiently used to estimate the location and evolution of magmatic sources base on real-time surface deformation data and Finite Element (FE) models. Generally, the search for the best-fitting magmatic (point) source(s) is conducted for an array of 3-D locations extending below a predefined volume region and the Green functions for all the array components have to be precomputed. We propose a FE model for the pre-computation of Green functions in a mechanically heterogeneous domain which eventually will lead to a better description of the status of the volcanic area. The number of Green functions is reduced here to the number of observational points by using their reciprocity relationship. We present and test this methodology with an optimization method base on a Genetic Algorithm. Following synthetic and sensitivity test to estimate the uncertainty of the model parameters, we apply the tool for magma tracking during 2007 Kilauea volcano intrusion and eruption. We show how data inversion with numerical models can speed up the source parameters estimations for a given volcano showing signs of unrest.
Numerical modeling of bubble dynamics in magmas
Huber, Christian; Su, Yanqing; Parmigiani, Andrea
2014-05-01
Understanding the complex non-linear physics that governs volcanic eruptions is contingent on our ability to characterize the dynamics of bubbles and its effect on the ascending magma. The exsolution and migration of bubbles has also a great impact on the heat and mass transport in and out of magma bodies stored at shallow depths in the crust. Multiphase systems like magmas are by definition heterogeneous at small scales. Although mixture theory or homogenization methods are convenient to represent multiphase systems as a homogeneous equivalent media, these approaches do not inform us on possible feedbacks at the pore-scale and can be significantly misleading. In this presentation, we discuss the development and application of bubble-scale multiphase flow modeling to address the following questions : How do bubbles impact heat and mass transport in magma chambers ? How efficient are chemical exchanges between the melt and bubbles during magma decompression? What is the role of hydrodynamic interactions on the deformation of bubbles while the magma is sheared? Addressing these questions requires powerful numerical methods that accurately model the balance between viscous, capillary and pressure stresses. We discuss how these bubble-scale models can provide important constraints on the dynamics of magmas stored at shallow depth or ascending to the surface during an eruption.
Effects of Host-rock Fracturing on Elastic-deformation Source Models of Volcano Deflation.
Holohan, Eoghan P; Sudhaus, Henriette; Walter, Thomas R; Schöpfer, Martin P J; Walsh, John J
2017-09-08
Volcanoes commonly inflate or deflate during episodes of unrest or eruption. Continuum mechanics models that assume linear elastic deformation of the Earth's crust are routinely used to invert the observed ground motions. The source(s) of deformation in such models are generally interpreted in terms of magma bodies or pathways, and thus form a basis for hazard assessment and mitigation. Using discontinuum mechanics models, we show how host-rock fracturing (i.e. non-elastic deformation) during drainage of a magma body can progressively change the shape and depth of an elastic-deformation source. We argue that this effect explains the marked spatio-temporal changes in source model attributes inferred for the March-April 2007 eruption of Piton de la Fournaise volcano, La Reunion. We find that pronounced deflation-related host-rock fracturing can: (1) yield inclined source model geometries for a horizontal magma body; (2) cause significant upward migration of an elastic-deformation source, leading to underestimation of the true magma body depth and potentially to a misinterpretation of ascending magma; and (3) at least partly explain underestimation by elastic-deformation sources of changes in sub-surface magma volume.
Droplet dynamics of atomic nuclei - a parameter free description of collective deformations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vaz de Abreu Hiller, B.A.
1980-01-01
The dynamics of a fermion system can be represented under certain model assumption as classical motion in a potential surface for generalized coordinates (moments of the density distribution). The potential surface is calculated using the droplet model. It is applied to calculate the scattering of two nuclei. The effects of the model assumptions, the performed approximations, different moments of inertia, and the introduction of friction are extensively studied. (orig.) [de
A mechanical deformation model of metallic fuel pin under steady state conditions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, D. W.; Lee, B. W.; Kim, Y. I.; Han, D. H.
2004-01-01
As a mechanical deformation model of the MACSIS code predicts the cladding deformation due to the simple thin shell theory, it is impossible to predict the FCMI(Fuel-Cladding Mechanical Interaction). Therefore, a mechanical deformation model used the generalized plane strain is developed. The DEFORM is a mechanical deformation routine which is used to analyze the stresses and strains in the fuel and cladding of a metallic fuel pin of LMRs. The accuracy of the program is demonstrated by comparison of the DEFORM predictions with the result of another code calculations or experimental results in literature. The stress/strain distributions of elastic part under free thermal expansion condition are completely matched with the results of ANSYS code. The swelling and creep solutions are reasonably well agreed with the simulations of ALFUS and LIFE-M codes, respectively. The predicted cladding strains are under estimated than experimental data at the range of high burnup. Therefore, it is recommended that the fine tuning of the DEFORM based on various range of experimental data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McFadden, J.H.; Paulsen, M.P.; Gose, G.C.
1981-01-01
A time dependent equation for the slip velocity in a two-phase flow condition has been incorporated into a developmental version of the RETRAN computer code. This model addition has been undertaken to remove a limitation in RETRAN-01 associated with the homogeneous equilibrium mixture model. In this paper, the development of the slip model is summarized and the corresponding constitutive equations are discussed. Comparisons of RETRAN analyses with steady-state void fraction data and data from the Semiscale S-02-6 small break test are also presented
Modeling Propellant Tank Dynamics
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The main objective of my work will be to develop accurate models of self-pressurizing propellant tanks for use in designing hybrid rockets. The first key goal is to...
Platt, J. D.; Rice, J. R.
2013-12-01
Prior work in our group has shown how micron-scale strain rate localization can be explained using models for thermal pressurization and thermal decomposition in fluid-saturated gouge materials. Using parameters modeling a typical centroidal depth for a crustal seismogenic zone we predicted localized zone thicknesses in line with laboratory (Brantut et al., 2008; Kitajima et al., 2010) and field (Chester and Chester, 1998; Heermance et al., 2003; De Paola et al., 2008) observations. Further work has shown that the localized zone need not remain in a single location and may migrate across the gouge layer, in agreement with laboratory observations that show a thickening of the highly localized material with slip, and a distinct banded structure within the highly localized material (T. Mitchell, priv. comm.; Kitajima et al., 2010). We have identified two mechanisms that could cause migration. The first is a combination of thermal diffusion, hydraulic diffusion and thermal pressurization, which leads to the location of maximum pore pressure moving away from its initial position [Rice, 2006]. Since the maximum strain rate coincides with the maximum pore pressure, this causes the deforming zone to move across the gouge layer. The second mechanism is reactant depletion in a material undergoing thermal decomposition. Fluid pressurization and strain rate are slaved to the reaction, so as the reactant depletes the deforming zone will migrate towards fresh reactant. An additional symmetry breaking instability exists but is not discussed here. We have also explored how spatial variations in fault gouge properties may control the distribution of seismic shear. Since at seismic slip rates localization in a fluid-saturated material is controlled largely by pore pressure generation and hydraulic diffusion, regions that generate or trap pore pressures more efficiently will attract straining. Numerical simulations show that the deforming zone moves towards regions of low hydraulic
Modelling heat and mass transfer in bread baking with mechanical deformation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nicolas, V; Glouannec, P; Ploteau, J-P; Salagnac, P; Jury, V; Boillereaux, L
2012-01-01
In this paper, the thermo-hydric behaviour of bread during baking is studied. A numerical model has been developed with Comsol Multiphysics© software. The model takes into account the heat and mass transfers in the bread and the phenomenon of swelling. This model predicts the evolution of temperature, moisture, gas pressure and deformation in French 'baguette' during baking. Local deformation is included in equations using solid phase conservation and, global deformation is calculated using a viscous mechanic model. Boundary conditions are specified with the sole temperature model and vapour pressure estimation of the oven during baking. The model results are compared with experimental data for a classic baking. Then, the model is analysed according to physical properties of bread and solicitations for a better understanding of the interactions between different mechanisms within the porous matrix.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Becker, Stefan; Mang, Andreas; Toma, Alina; Buzug, Thorsten M. [University of Luebeck (Germany). Institute of Medical Engineering
2010-12-15
The present work introduces a novel method for approximating mass effect of primary brain tumors. The spatio-temporal dynamics of cancerous cells are modeled by means of a deterministic reaction-diffusion equation. Diffusion tensor information obtained from a probabilistic diffusion tensor imaging atlas is incorporated into the model to simulate anisotropic diffusion of cancerous cells. To account for the expansive nature of the tumor, the computed net cell density of malignant cells is linked to a parametric deformation model. This mass effect model is based on the so-called directly manipulated free form deformation. Spatial correspondence between two successive simulation steps is established by tracking landmarks, which are attached to the boundary of the gross tumor volume. The movement of these landmarks is used to compute the new configuration of the control points and, hence, determines the resulting deformation. To prevent a deformation of rigid structures (i.e. the skull), fixed shielding landmarks are introduced. In a refinement step, an adaptive landmark scheme ensures a dense sampling of the tumor isosurface, which in turn allows for an appropriate representation of the tumor shape. The influence of different parameters on the model is demonstrated by a set of simulations. Additionally, simulation results are qualitatively compared to an exemplary set of clinical magnetic resonance images of patients diagnosed with high-grade glioma. Careful visual inspection of the results demonstrates the potential of the implemented model and provides first evidence that the computed approximation of tumor mass effect is sensible. The shape of diffusive brain tumors (glioblastoma multiforme) can be recovered and approximately matches the observations in real clinical data. (orig.)
Channumsin, Sittiporn; Ceriotti, Matteo; Radice, Gianmarco
2018-02-01
A new type of space debris in near geosynchronous orbit (GEO) was recently discovered and later identified as exhibiting unique characteristics associated with high area-to-mass ratio (HAMR) objects, such as high rotation rates and high reflection properties. Observations have shown that this debris type is very sensitive to environmental disturbances, particularly solar radiation pressure, due to the fact that its motion depends on the actual effective area, orientation of that effective area, reflection properties and the area-to-mass ratio of the object is not stable over time. Previous investigations have modelled this type of debris as rigid bodies (constant area-to-mass ratios) or discrete deformed body; however, these simplifications will lead to inaccurate long term orbital predictions. This paper proposes a simple yet reliable model of a thin, deformable membrane based on multibody dynamics. The membrane is modelled as a series of flat plates, connected through joints, representing the flexibility of the membrane itself. The mass of the membrane, albeit low, is taken into account through lump masses at the joints. The attitude and orbital motion of this flexible membrane model is then propagated near GEO to predict its orbital evolution under the perturbations of solar radiation pressure, Earth's gravity field (J2), third body gravitational fields (the Sun and Moon) and self-shadowing. These results are then compared to those obtained for two rigid body models (cannonball and flat rigid plate). In addition, Monte Carlo simulations of the flexible model by varying initial attitude and deformation angle (different shape) are investigated and compared with the two rigid models (cannonball and flat rigid plate) over a period of 100 days. The numerical results demonstrate that cannonball and rigid flat plate are not appropriate to capture the true dynamical evolution of these objects, at the cost of increased computational time.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frija, M.; Hassine, T.; Fathallah, R.; Bouraoui, C.; Dogui, A.
2006-01-01
This paper presents a numerical simulation of the shot peening process using finite element method. The majority of the controlling parameters of the process have been taken into account. The shot peening loading has been characterised by using energy equivalence between the dynamic impact and a static indentation of a peening shot in the treated surface. The behaviour of the subjected material is supposed to be elastic plastic with damage. An integrated law of the damage proposed by Lemaitre and Chaboche has been used. The proposed model leads to obtain the residual stress, the plastic deformation profiles and the surface damage. An application on a shot peened Ni-based super alloy Waspaloy has been carried out. The comparison of the residual stresses, obtained by X-ray diffraction method and by finite element calculation, shows a good correlation. The in-depth profile of the plastic deformations and the superficial damage values are in good agreement with the experimental observations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schulze, V.; Voehringer, O.; Macherauch, E.
1998-01-01
Tensile and compressive stress-strain-curves of shot peened and unpeened specimens of quenched and tempered 42 CrMo 4 (AISI 4140) with a diameter of 5 mm only differ in the yield strengths and in the Lueders-deformation. In comparison to the core the regions close to the surface of shot peened cylindrical specimens bear relatively large axial and tangential residual stresses and show different deformation properties. A multi-layer-model was developed to describe both the tensile as well as the compressive deformation behaviour of shot peened cylindrical specimens quantitatively. The calculated transitions from the elastic to the elastic-plastic deformation state during tensile and compressive loading agree quite well with the experimental observations. Also the changes of axial and tangential macro residual stresses after distinct tensile or compressive deformations are in best agreement with the measurements. (orig.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Takashi Kanamaru
Full Text Available Corticopetal acetylcholine (ACh is released transiently from the nucleus basalis of Meynert (NBM into the cortical layers and is associated with top-down attention. Recent experimental data suggest that this release of ACh disinhibits layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons (PYRs via muscarinic presynaptic effects on inhibitory synapses. Together with other possible presynaptic cholinergic effects on excitatory synapses, this may result in dynamic and temporal modifications of synapses associated with top-down attention. However, the system-level consequences and cognitive relevance of such disinhibitions are poorly understood. Herein, we propose a theoretical possibility that such transient modifications of connectivity associated with ACh release, in addition to top-down glutamatergic input, may provide a neural mechanism for the temporal reactivation of attractors as neural correlates of memories. With baseline levels of ACh, the brain returns to quasi-attractor states, exhibiting transitive dynamics between several intrinsic internal states. This suggests that top-down attention may cause the attention-induced deformations between two types of attractor landscapes: the quasi-attractor landscape (Q-landscape, present under low-ACh, non-attentional conditions and the attractor landscape (A-landscape, present under high-ACh, top-down attentional conditions. We present a conceptual computational model based on experimental knowledge of the structure of PYRs and interneurons (INs in cortical layers 1 and 2/3 and discuss the possible physiological implications of our results.
Cracking and Deformation Modelling of Tensile RC Members Using Stress Transfer Approach
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ronaldas Jakubovskis
2016-12-01
Full Text Available The paper presents a modeling technique for bond, cracking and deformation analysis of RC members. The proposed mod-eling technique is not restricted by the geometrical dimensions of the analyzed member and may be applied for various load-ing conditions. Tensile as well as bending RC members may be analyzed using the proposed technique. Adequacy of the modeling strategy was evaluated by the developed numerical discrete crack algorithm, which allows modeling deformation and cracking behavior of tensile RC members. Comparison of experimental and numerical results proved the applicability of the proposed modeling strategy.
Modelling group dynamic animal movement
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Langrock, Roland; Hopcraft, J. Grant C.; Blackwell, Paul G.
2014-01-01
makes its movement decisions relative to the group centroid. The basic idea is framed within the flexible class of hidden Markov models, extending previous work on modelling animal movement by means of multi-state random walks. While in simulation experiments parameter estimators exhibit some bias......, to date, practical statistical methods which can include group dynamics in animal movement models have been lacking. We consider a flexible modelling framework that distinguishes a group-level model, describing the movement of the group's centre, and an individual-level model, such that each individual......Group dynamic movement is a fundamental aspect of many species' movements. The need to adequately model individuals' interactions with other group members has been recognised, particularly in order to differentiate the role of social forces in individual movement from environmental factors. However...
Soft tissue deformation using a Hierarchical Finite Element Model.
Faraci, Alessandro; Bello, Fernando; Darzi, Ara
2004-01-01
Simulating soft tissue deformation in real-time has become increasingly important in order to provide a realistic virtual environment for training surgical skills. Several methods have been proposed with the aim of rendering in real-time the mechanical and physiological behaviour of human organs, one of the most popular being Finite Element Method (FEM). In this paper we present a new approach to the solution of the FEM problem introducing the concept of parent and child mesh within the development of a hierarchical FEM. The online selection of the child mesh is presented with the purpose to adapt the mesh hierarchy in real-time. This permits further refinement of the child mesh increasing the detail of the deformation without slowing down the simulation and giving the possibility of integrating force feedback. The results presented demonstrate the application of our proposed framework using a desktop virtual reality (VR) system that incorporates stereo vision with integrated haptics co-location via a desktop Phantom force feedback device.
Modeling Internet Topology Dynamics
Haddadi, H.; Uhlig, S.; Moore, A.; Mortier, R.; Rio, M.
Despite the large number of papers on network topology modeling and inference, there still exists ambiguity about the real nature of the Internet AS and router level topology. While recent findings have illustrated the inaccuracies in maps inferred from BGP peering and traceroute measurements,
Generative Models of Conformational Dynamics
Langmead, Christopher James
2014-01-01
Atomistic simulations of the conformational dynamics of proteins can be performed using either Molecular Dynamics or Monte Carlo procedures. The ensembles of three-dimensional structures produced during simulation can be analyzed in a number of ways to elucidate the thermodynamic and kinetic properties of the system. The goal of this chapter is to review both traditional and emerging methods for learning generative models from atomistic simulation data. Here, the term ‘generative’ refers to a...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Christillin, P [Scuola Normale Superiore, Pisa (Italy); Lipparini, E; Stringari, S [Dipartimento Matematica e Fisica, Trento, Italy
1978-09-25
A sum-rule approach is used to study the influence of surface thickness upon the splitting of dipole and isoscalar quadrupole energies in deformed nuclei. It is shown that hydrodynamic model results are recovered in the case of a deformed skin thickness. A constant skin thickness leads in the dipole case to slightly different predictions which seem in better agreement with experiments. The splitting of the isoscalar quadrupole mode is not sensitive to the surface thickness shape.
Surrogate-driven deformable motion model for organ motion tracking in particle radiation therapy
Fassi, Aurora; Seregni, Matteo; Riboldi, Marco; Cerveri, Pietro; Sarrut, David; Battista Ivaldi, Giovanni; Tabarelli de Fatis, Paola; Liotta, Marco; Baroni, Guido
2015-02-01
The aim of this study is the development and experimental testing of a tumor tracking method for particle radiation therapy, providing the daily respiratory dynamics of the patient’s thoraco-abdominal anatomy as a function of an external surface surrogate combined with an a priori motion model. The proposed tracking approach is based on a patient-specific breathing motion model, estimated from the four-dimensional (4D) planning computed tomography (CT) through deformable image registration. The model is adapted to the interfraction baseline variations in the patient’s anatomical configuration. The driving amplitude and phase parameters are obtained intrafractionally from a respiratory surrogate signal derived from the external surface displacement. The developed technique was assessed on a dataset of seven lung cancer patients, who underwent two repeated 4D CT scans. The first 4D CT was used to build the respiratory motion model, which was tested on the second scan. The geometric accuracy in localizing lung lesions, mediated over all breathing phases, ranged between 0.6 and 1.7 mm across all patients. Errors in tracking the surrounding organs at risk, such as lungs, trachea and esophagus, were lower than 1.3 mm on average. The median absolute variation in water equivalent path length (WEL) within the target volume did not exceed 1.9 mm-WEL for simulated particle beams. A significant improvement was achieved compared with error compensation based on standard rigid alignment. The present work can be regarded as a feasibility study for the potential extension of tumor tracking techniques in particle treatments. Differently from current tracking methods applied in conventional radiotherapy, the proposed approach allows for the dynamic localization of all anatomical structures scanned in the planning CT, thus providing complete information on density and WEL variations required for particle beam range adaptation.
Bayesian estimation of regularization parameters for deformable surface models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cunningham, G.S.; Lehovich, A.; Hanson, K.M.
1999-01-01
In this article the authors build on their past attempts to reconstruct a 3D, time-varying bolus of radiotracer from first-pass data obtained by the dynamic SPECT imager, FASTSPECT, built by the University of Arizona. The object imaged is a CardioWest total artificial heart. The bolus is entirely contained in one ventricle and its associated inlet and outlet tubes. The model for the radiotracer distribution at a given time is a closed surface parameterized by 482 vertices that are connected to make 960 triangles, with nonuniform intensity variations of radiotracer allowed inside the surface on a voxel-to-voxel basis. The total curvature of the surface is minimized through the use of a weighted prior in the Bayesian framework, as is the weighted norm of the gradient of the voxellated grid. MAP estimates for the vertices, interior intensity voxels and background count level are produced. The strength of the priors, or hyperparameters, are determined by maximizing the probability of the data given the hyperparameters, called the evidence. The evidence is calculated by first assuming that the posterior is approximately normal in the values of the vertices and voxels, and then by evaluating the integral of the multi-dimensional normal distribution. This integral (which requires evaluating the determinant of a covariance matrix) is computed by applying a recent algorithm from Bai et. al. that calculates the needed determinant efficiently. They demonstrate that the radiotracer is highly inhomogeneous in early time frames, as suspected in earlier reconstruction attempts that assumed a uniform intensity of radiotracer within the closed surface, and that the optimal choice of hyperparameters is substantially different for different time frames
Soft object deformation monitoring and learning for model-based robotic hand manipulation.
Cretu, Ana-Maria; Payeur, Pierre; Petriu, Emil M
2012-06-01
This paper discusses the design and implementation of a framework that automatically extracts and monitors the shape deformations of soft objects from a video sequence and maps them with force measurements with the goal of providing the necessary information to the controller of a robotic hand to ensure safe model-based deformable object manipulation. Measurements corresponding to the interaction force at the level of the fingertips and to the position of the fingertips of a three-finger robotic hand are associated with the contours of a deformed object tracked in a series of images using neural-network approaches. The resulting model captures the behavior of the object and is able to predict its behavior for previously unseen interactions without any assumption on the object's material. The availability of such models can contribute to the improvement of a robotic hand controller, therefore allowing more accurate and stable grasp while providing more elaborate manipulation capabilities for deformable objects. Experiments performed for different objects, made of various materials, reveal that the method accurately captures and predicts the object's shape deformation while the object is submitted to external forces applied by the robot fingers. The proposed method is also fast and insensitive to severe contour deformations, as well as to smooth changes in lighting, contrast, and background.
Dynamics of defect-loaded grain boundary under shear deformation in alpha iron
Yang, L.; Zhou, H. L.; Liu, H.; Gao, F.; Zu, X. T.; Peng, S. M.; Long, X. G.; Zhou, X. S.
2018-02-01
Two symmetric tilt grain boundaries (GBs) (Σ3〈110〉{112} and Σ11〈110〉{332}) in alpha iron were performed to investigate the dynamics of defect-loaded GBs under shear deformation. The results show that the loaded self-interstitial atoms (SIAs) reduce the critical stress of the coupled GB motion in the Σ3 GB, but increase the critical stress in the Σ11 GB. The loaded SIAs in the Σ3 GB easily form 〈111〉 clusters and remain in the bulk when the GB moves away. However, the SIAs move along with the Σ11 GB and combine with the vacancies in the bulk, leading to the defect self-healing. The helium (He) atoms loaded into the GBs significantly affect the coupled GB motion. Once He clusters emit interstitials, the Σ11 GB carries those interstitials away but the Σ3 does not. The loaded He atoms reduce the critical stress of the Σ3 GB, but increase the critical stress of the Σ11 GB.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sun, Sheng; Yin, Guangyao; Lee, Yi-Kuen; Wong, Joseph T.Y.; Zhang, Tong-Yi
2011-01-01
Research highlights: → MD simulations show that deformability and thermal motion of membrane affect electroporation. → Stiffer membrane inhibits electroporation and makes water penetrate from both sides. → Higher temperature accelerates electroporation. -- Abstract: Effects of mechanical properties and thermal motion of POPE lipid membrane on electroporation were studied by molecular dynamics simulations. Among simulations in which specific atoms of lipids were artificially constrained at their equilibrium positions using a spring with force constant of 2.0 kcal/(mol A 2 ) in the external electric field of 1.4 kcal/(mol A e), only constraint on lateral motions of lipid tails prohibited electroporation while non-tail parts had little effects. When force constant decreased to 0.2 kcal/(mol A 2 ) in the position constraints on lipid tails in the external electric field of 2.0 kcal/(mol A e), water molecules began to enter the membrane. Position constraints of lipid tails allow water to penetrate from both sides of membrane. Thermal motion of lipids can induce initial defects in the hydrophobic core of membrane, which are favorable nucleation sites for electroporation. Simulations at different temperatures revealed that as the temperature increases, the time taken to the initial pore formation will decrease.
Vehicle dynamics modeling and simulation
Schramm, Dieter; Bardini, Roberto
2014-01-01
The authors examine in detail the fundamentals and mathematical descriptions of the dynamics of automobiles. In this context different levels of complexity will be presented, starting with basic single-track models up to complex three-dimensional multi-body models. A particular focus is on the process of establishing mathematical models on the basis of real cars and the validation of simulation results. The methods presented are explained in detail by means of selected application scenarios.
Zhuang, Jinda; Ju, Y Sungtaek
2015-09-22
The deformation and rupture of axisymmetric liquid bridges being stretched between two fully wetted coaxial disks are studied experimentally and theoretically. We numerically solve the time-dependent Navier-Stokes equations while tracking the deformation of the liquid-air interface using the arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) moving mesh method to fully account for the effects of inertia and viscous forces on bridge dynamics. The effects of the stretching velocity, liquid properties, and liquid volume on the dynamics of liquid bridges are systematically investigated to provide direct experimental validation of our numerical model for stretching velocities as high as 3 m/s. The Ohnesorge number (Oh) of liquid bridges is a primary factor governing the dynamics of liquid bridge rupture, especially the dependence of the rupture distance on the stretching velocity. The rupture distance generally increases with the stretching velocity, far in excess of the static stability limit. For bridges with low Ohnesorge numbers, however, the rupture distance stay nearly constant or decreases with the stretching velocity within certain velocity windows due to the relative rupture position switching and the thread shape change. Our work provides an experimentally validated modeling approach and experimental data to help establish foundation for systematic further studies and applications of liquid bridges.
Three-Dimensional Dynamics of a Flexible Marine Riser Undergoing Large Elastic Deformations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Raman-Nair, W.; Baddour, R.E.
2003-01-01
The equations of the three dimensional motion of a marine riser undergoing large elastic deformations are formulated using Kane's formalism. The riser is modeled using lumped masses connected by extensional and rotational springs including structural damping. Surface waves are described by Stokes? second-order wave theory. Fluid-structure coupling is achieved by application of the hydrodynamic loads via Morison's equation and added-mass coefficients using the instantaneous relative velocities and accelerations between the fluid field and the riser segments. In the same way, a model for incorporating the effects of vortex-induced lift forces is included. The effect of internal flow is included in the model. The detailed algorithm is presented and the equations are solved using a robust implementation of the Runge-Kutta method provided in MATLAB. The mathematical model and associated algorithm are validated by comparing the steady-state equilibrium configuration of the riser with special cases of an elastic catenary mooring line and large deflection statics of a cantilever beam. The results of sample simulations are presented
Modeling of macrosegregation caused by volumetric deformation in a coherent mushy zone
Nicolli, Lilia C.; Mo, Asbjørn; M'hamdi, Mohammed
2005-02-01
A two-phase volume-averaged continuum model is presented that quantifies macrosegregation formation during solidification of metallic alloys caused by deformation of the dendritic network and associated melt flow in the coherent part of the mushy zone. Also, the macrosegregation formation associated with the solidification shrinkage (inverse segregation) is taken into account. Based on experimental evidence established elsewhere, volumetric viscoplastic deformation (densification/dilatation) of the coherent dendritic network is included in the model. While the thermomechanical model previously outlined (M. M’Hamdi, A. Mo, and C.L. Martin: Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 2002, vol. 33A, pp. 2081-93) has been used to calculate the temperature and velocity fields associated with the thermally induced deformations and shrinkage driven melt flow, the solute conservation equation including both the liquid and a solid volume-averaged velocity is solved in the present study. In modeling examples, the macrosegregation formation caused by mechanically imposed as well as by thermally induced deformations has been calculated. The modeling results for an Al-4 wt pct Cu alloy indicate that even quite small volumetric strains (≈2 pct), which can be associated with thermally induced deformations, can lead to a macroscopic composition variation in the final casting comparable to that resulting from the solidification shrinkage induced melt flow. These results can be explained by the relatively large volumetric viscoplastic deformation in the coherent mush resulting from the applied constitutive model, as well as the relatively large difference in composition for the studied Al-Cu alloy in the solid and liquid phases at high solid fractions at which the deformation takes place.
How deformation enhances mobility in a polymer glass
Lacks, Daniel
2013-03-01
Recent experiments show that deformation of a polymer glass can lead to orders-of-magnitude enhancement in the atomic level dynamics. To determine why this change in dynamics occurs, we carry out molecular dynamics simulations and energy landscape analyses. The simulations address the coarse-grained polystyrene model of Kremer and co-workers, and the dynamics, as quantified by the van Hove function, are examined as the glass undergoes shear deformation. In agreement with experiment, the simulations find that deformation enhances the atomic mobility. The enhanced mobility is shown to arise from two mechanisms: First, active deformation continually reduces barriers for hopping events, and the importance of this mechanism is modulated by the rate of thermally activated transitions between adjacent energy minima. Second, deformation moves the system to higher-energy regions of the energy landscape, characterized by lower barriers. Both mechanisms enhance the dynamics during deformation, and the second mechanism is also relevant after deformation has ceased.
Yoshida, Masaki
2010-06-01
Characteristic tectonic structures such as young orogenic belts and suture zones in a continent are expected to be mechanically weaker than the stable part of the continental lithosphere with the cratonic root (or cratonic lithosphere) and yield lateral viscosity variations in the continental lithosphere. In the present-day Earth's lithosphere, the pre-existing, mechanically weak zones emerge as a diffuse plate boundary. However, the dynamic role of a weak (low-viscosity) continental margin (WCM) in the stability of continental lithosphere has not been understood in terms of geophysics. Here, a new numerical simulation model of mantle convection with a compositionally and rheologically heterogeneous, deformable, mobile continental lithosphere is presented for the first time by using three-dimensional regional spherical-shell geometry. A compositionally buoyant and highly viscous continental assemblage with pre-existing WCMs, analogous to the past supercontinent, is modeled and imposed on well-developed mantle convection whose vigor of convection, internal heating rate, and rheological parameters are appropriate for the Earth's mantle. The visco-plastic oceanic lithosphere and the associated subduction of oceanic plates are incorporated. The time integration of the advection of continental materials with zero chemical diffusion is performed by a tracer particle method. The time evolution of mantle convection after setting the model supercontinent is followed over 800 Myr. Earth-like continental drift is successfully reproduced, and the characteristic thermal interaction between the mantle and the continent/supercontinent is observed in my new numerical model. Results reveal that the WCM protects the cratonic lithosphere from being stretched by the convecting mantle and may play a significant role in the stability of the cratonic lithosphere during the geological timescale because it acts as a buffer that prevents the cratonic lithosphere from undergoing global
Yano, Taishi; Nishino, Koichi; Matsumoto, Satoshi; Ueno, Ichiro; Komiya, Atsuki; Kamotani, Yasuhiro; Imaishi, Nobuyuki
2018-04-01
This paper reports an overview and some important results of microgravity experiments called Dynamic Surf, which have been conducted on board the International Space Station from 2013 to 2016. The present project mainly focuses on the relations between the Marangoni instability in a high-Prandtl-number (Pr= 67 and 112) liquid bridge and the dynamic free surface deformation (DSD) as well as the interfacial heat transfer. The dynamic free surface deformations of large-scale liquid bridges (say, for diameters greater than 10 mm) are measured with good accuracy by an optical imaging technique. It is found that there are two causes of the dynamic free surface deformation in the present study: the first is the time-dependent flow behavior inside the liquid bridge due to the Marangoni instability, and the second is the external disturbance due to the residual acceleration of gravity, i.e., g-jitter. The axial distributions of DSD along the free surface are measured for several conditions. The critical parameters for the onset of oscillatory Marangoni convection are also measured for various aspect ratios (i.e., relative height to the diameter) of the liquid bridge and various thermal boundary conditions. The characteristics of DSD and the onset conditions of instability are discussed in this paper.
Containing Terrorism: A Dynamic Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Giti Zahedzadeh
2017-06-01
Full Text Available The strategic interplay between counterterror measures and terror activity is complex. Herein, we propose a dynamic model to depict this interaction. The model generates stylized prognoses: (i under conditions of inefficient counterterror measures, terror groups enjoy longer period of activity but only if recruitment into terror groups remains low; high recruitment shortens the period of terror activity (ii highly efficient counterterror measures effectively contain terror activity, but only if recruitment remains low. Thus, highly efficient counterterror measures can effectively contain terrorism if recruitment remains restrained. We conclude that the trajectory of the dynamics between counterterror measures and terror activity is heavily altered by recruitment.
Modeling Dynamic Fracture of Cryogenic Pellets
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Parks, Paul [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)
2016-06-30
This work is part of an investigation with the long-range objective of predicting the size distribution function and velocity dispersion of shattered pellet fragments after a large cryogenic pellet impacts a solid surface at high velocity. The study is vitally important for the shattered pellet injection (SPI) technique, one of the leading technologies being implemented at ORNL for the mitigation of disruption damage on current tokamaks and ITER. The report contains three parts that are somewhat interwoven. In Part I we formulated a self-similar model for the expansion dynamics and velocity dispersion of the debris cloud following pellet impact against a thick (rigid) target plate. Also presented in Part I is an analytical fracture model that predicts the nominal or mean size of the fragments in the debris cloud and agrees well with known SPI data. The aim of Part II is to gain an understanding of the pellet fracturing process when a pellet is shattered inside a miter tube with a sharp bend. Because miter tubes have a thin stainless steel (SS) wall a permanent deformation (dishing) of the wall is produced at the site of the impact. A review of the literature indicates that most projectile impact on thin plates are those for which the target is deformed and the projectile is perfectly rigid. Such impacts result in “projectile embedding” where the projectile speed is reduced to zero during the interaction so that all the kinetic energy (KE) of the projectile goes into the energy stored in plastic deformation. Much of the literature deals with perforation of the target. The problem here is quite different; the softer pellet easily undergoes complete material failure causing only a small transfer of KE to stored energy of wall deformation. For the real miter tube, we derived a strain energy function for the wall deflection using a non-linear (plastic) stress-strain relation for 304 SS. Using a dishing profile identical to the linear Kirchkoff-Love profile (for lack
Modelling the void deformation and closure by hot forging of ingot castings
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christiansen, Peter; Hattel, Jesper Henri; Kotas, Petr
2012-01-01
by mechanical deformation. The aim of this paper is to analyze numerically if and to what degree the voids areclosed by the forging. Using the commercial simulation software ABAQUS, both simplified model ingots and physically manufactured ingots containing prescribed void distributions are deformed and analyzed....... The analysis concernsboth the void density change and the location of the voids in the part after deformation. The latter can be important for the subsequent reliability of the parts, for instance regarding fatigue properties. The analysis incorporates the Gurson yield criterion for metals containing voids...... and focuses on how the voids deform depending on their size and distribution in the ingot as well ashow the forging forces are applied....
Virtual Deformation Control of the X-56A Model with Simulated Fiber Optic Sensors
Suh, Peter M.; Chin, Alexander W.; Mavris, Dimitri N.
2014-01-01
A robust control law design methodology is presented to stabilize the X-56A model and command its wing shape. The X-56A was purposely designed to experience flutter modes in its flight envelope. The methodology introduces three phases: the controller design phase, the modal filter design phase, and the reference signal design phase. A mu-optimal controller is designed and made robust to speed and parameter variations. A conversion technique is presented for generating sensor strain modes from sensor deformation mode shapes. The sensor modes are utilized for modal filtering and simulating fiber optic sensors for feedback to the controller. To generate appropriate virtual deformation reference signals, rigid-body corrections are introduced to the deformation mode shapes. After successful completion of the phases, virtual deformation control is demonstrated. The wing is deformed and it is shown that angle-ofattack changes occur which could potentially be used to an advantage. The X-56A program must demonstrate active flutter suppression. It is shown that the virtual deformation controller can achieve active flutter suppression on the X-56A simulation model.
A dynamical model of terrorism
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Firdaus Udwadia
2006-01-01
Full Text Available This paper develops a dynamical model of terrorism. We consider the population in a given region as being made up of three primary components: terrorists, those susceptible to both terrorist and pacifist propaganda, and nonsusceptibles, or pacifists. The dynamical behavior of these three populations is studied using a model that incorporates the effects of both direct military/police intervention to reduce the terrorist population, and nonviolent, persuasive intervention to influence the susceptibles to become pacifists. The paper proposes a new paradigm for studying terrorism, and looks at the long-term dynamical evolution in time of these three population components when such interventions are carried out. Many important features—some intuitive, others not nearly so—of the nature of terrorism emerge from the dynamical model proposed, and they lead to several important policy implications for the management of terrorism. The different circumstances in which nonviolent intervention and/or military/police intervention may be beneficial, and the specific conditions under which each mode of intervention, or a combination of both, may be useful, are obtained. The novelty of the model presented herein is that it deals with the time evolution of terrorist activity. It appears to be one of the few models that can be tested, evaluated, and improved upon, through the use of actual field data.
Rusinko, Andrew; Varga, Peter
2018-04-01
The paper deals with modelling of the plastic and creep deformation of metals coupled with current. The passage of DC manifests itself in the increase in creep deformation and leads to primary creep time shortening. With plastic deformation, a short electric impulse results in the step-wise decrease of stress (stress-drop) on the stress-strain diagram. To catch these phenomena, we utilize the synthetic theory of recoverable deformation. The constitutive equation of this theory is supplemented by a term taking into account the intensity of DC. Further, we introduce DC intensity into the function governing transient creep. As a result, we predict the parameters of transient creep and calculate the stress-drop as a function of current intensity. The model results show good agreement with experimental data.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Seo, Yong Seok; Lee, Yong Shin; Woo, Sung Choong; Kim, Tae Won
2015-01-01
We investigated the influence of heat treated microstructures, namely, equiaxed, bimodal and lamella types of Ti-6Al-4V alloy on the dynamic deformation characteristics. Four different heat treatment conditions were employed for the development of the microstructures. Static tensile and compressive deformation tests were preliminarily performed with hydraulic test equipment. Dynamic deformation tests at a high level of strain rate, 2700 s"-"1 ∼ 6400 s"-"1, together with high velocity impact tests were, respectively, conducted on the specimens through a compressive Split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) and a high pressure gas gun system. The dependence of flow stress on the strain rate associated with the corresponding microstructure was examined. The microstructural factors on the dynamic fracture characteristics were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. The static compressive tests showed that the flow stress was greatest in the lamella microstructure and decreased in the order of lamella, bimodal and equiaxed microstructures, whereas the ductility was largest in the bimodal microstructure and smallest in the lamellar microstructure. In dynamic compressive tests, a similar dependency of the flow stress on microstructures was observed: highest in the lamellar microstructure and lowest in the equiaxed microstructure. The ductility, such as strain at maximum stress or at failure, was highest in the equiaxed microstructure and lowest in the lamellar structure. In addition, the ductility for individual microstructure decreased as the strain rate increased. Every microstructure exhibited ductile fracture surfaces, and it seems that a large shear crack on the lateral surface in the specimen was the main factor inducing the final failure. The result of high velocity impact test exhibited that the resistance to fracture of equiaxed microstructure with superior dynamic toughness was much higher than that of lamella microstructure with inferior dynamic toughness. The
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Seo, Yong Seok; Lee, Yong Shin [Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Woo, Sung Choong; Kim, Tae Won [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2015-11-15
We investigated the influence of heat treated microstructures, namely, equiaxed, bimodal and lamella types of Ti-6Al-4V alloy on the dynamic deformation characteristics. Four different heat treatment conditions were employed for the development of the microstructures. Static tensile and compressive deformation tests were preliminarily performed with hydraulic test equipment. Dynamic deformation tests at a high level of strain rate, 2700 s{sup -1} ∼ 6400 s{sup -1}, together with high velocity impact tests were, respectively, conducted on the specimens through a compressive Split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) and a high pressure gas gun system. The dependence of flow stress on the strain rate associated with the corresponding microstructure was examined. The microstructural factors on the dynamic fracture characteristics were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. The static compressive tests showed that the flow stress was greatest in the lamella microstructure and decreased in the order of lamella, bimodal and equiaxed microstructures, whereas the ductility was largest in the bimodal microstructure and smallest in the lamellar microstructure. In dynamic compressive tests, a similar dependency of the flow stress on microstructures was observed: highest in the lamellar microstructure and lowest in the equiaxed microstructure. The ductility, such as strain at maximum stress or at failure, was highest in the equiaxed microstructure and lowest in the lamellar structure. In addition, the ductility for individual microstructure decreased as the strain rate increased. Every microstructure exhibited ductile fracture surfaces, and it seems that a large shear crack on the lateral surface in the specimen was the main factor inducing the final failure. The result of high velocity impact test exhibited that the resistance to fracture of equiaxed microstructure with superior dynamic toughness was much higher than that of lamella microstructure with inferior dynamic toughness
Lin, Bing; Huang, Minsheng; Zhao, Liguo; Roy, Anish; Silberschmidt, Vadim; Barnard, Nick; Whittaker, Mark; McColvin, Gordon
2018-06-01
Strain-controlled cyclic deformation of a nickel-based single crystal superalloy has been modelled using three-dimensional (3D) discrete dislocation dynamics (DDD) for both [0 0 1] and [1 1 1] orientations. The work focused on the interaction between dislocations and precipitates during cyclic plastic deformation at elevated temperature, which has not been well studied yet. A representative volume element with cubic γ‧-precipitates was chosen to represent the material, with enforced periodical boundary conditions. In particular, cutting of superdislocations into precipitates was simulated by a back-force method. The global cyclic stress-strain responses were captured well by the DDD model when compared to experimental data, particularly the effects of crystallographic orientation. Dislocation evolution showed that considerably high density of dislocations was produced for [1 1 1] orientation when compared to [0 0 1] orientation. Cutting of dislocations into the precipitates had a significant effect on the plastic deformation, leading to material softening. Contour plots of in-plane shear strain proved the development of heterogeneous strain field, resulting in the formation of shear-band embryos.
Wang, Shu-Fan; Lai, Shang-Hong
2011-10-01
Facial expression modeling is central to facial expression recognition and expression synthesis for facial animation. In this work, we propose a manifold-based 3D face reconstruction approach to estimating the 3D face model and the associated expression deformation from a single face image. With the proposed robust weighted feature map (RWF), we can obtain the dense correspondences between 3D face models and build a nonlinear 3D expression manifold from a large set of 3D facial expression models. Then a Gaussian mixture model in this manifold is learned to represent the distribution of expression deformation. By combining the merits of morphable neutral face model and the low-dimensional expression manifold, a novel algorithm is developed to reconstruct the 3D face geometry as well as the facial deformation from a single face image in an energy minimization framework. Experimental results on simulated and real images are shown to validate the effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed algorithm.
Generative Models of Conformational Dynamics
Langmead, Christopher James
2014-01-01
Atomistic simulations of the conformational dynamics of proteins can be performed using either Molecular Dynamics or Monte Carlo procedures. The ensembles of three-dimensional structures produced during simulation can be analyzed in a number of ways to elucidate the thermodynamic and kinetic properties of the system. The goal of this chapter is to review both traditional and emerging methods for learning generative models from atomistic simulation data. Here, the term ‘generative’ refers to a model of the joint probability distribution over the behaviors of the constituent atoms. In the context of molecular modeling, generative models reveal the correlation structure between the atoms, and may be used to predict how the system will respond to structural perturbations. We begin by discussing traditional methods, which produce multivariate Gaussian models. We then discuss GAMELAN (GrAphical Models of Energy LANdscapes), which produces generative models of complex, non-Gaussian conformational dynamics (e.g., allostery, binding, folding, etc) from long timescale simulation data. PMID:24446358
A Deformation Model of TRU Metal Dispersion Fuel Rod for HYPER
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Byoung Oon; Hwang, Woan; Park, Won S.
2002-01-01
Deformation analysis in fuel rod design is essential to assure adequate fuel performance and integrity under irradiation conditions. An in-reactor performance computer code for a dispersion fuel rod is being developed in the conceptual design stage of blanket fuel for HYPER. In this paper, a mechanistic deformation model was developed and the model was installed into the DIMAC program. The model was based on the elasto-plasticity theory and power-law creep theory. The preliminary deformation calculation results for (TRU-Zr)-Zr dispersion fuel predicted by DIMAC were compared with those of silicide dispersion fuel predicted by DIFAIR. It appeared that the deformation levels for (TRU-Zr)-Zr dispersion fuel were relatively higher than those of silicide fuel. Some experimental tests including in-pile and out-pile experiments are needed for verifying the predictive capability of the DIMAC code. An in-reactor performance analysis computer code for blanket fuel is being developed at the conceptual design stage of blanket fuel for HYPER. In this paper, a mechanistic deformation model was developed and the model was installed into the DIMAC program. The model was based on the elasto-plasticity theory and power-law creep theory. The preliminary deformation calculation results for (TRUZr)- Zr dispersion fuel predicted by DIMAC were compared with those of silicide dispersion fuel predicted by DIFAIR. It appears that the deformation by swelling within fuel meat is very large for both fuels, and the major deformation mechanism at cladding is creep. The swelling strain is almost constant within the fuel meat, and is assumed to be zero in the cladding made of HT9. It is estimated that the deformation levels for (TRU-Zr)-Zr dispersion fuel were relatively higher than those of silicide fuel, and the dispersion fuel performance may be limited by swelling. But the predicted volume change of the (TRU-Zr)-Zr dispersion fuel models is about 6.1% at 30 at.% burnup. The value of cladding
Experimental Modeling of Dynamic Systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Knudsen, Morten Haack
2006-01-01
An engineering course, Simulation and Experimental Modeling, has been developed that is based on a method for direct estimation of physical parameters in dynamic systems. Compared with classical system identification, the method appears to be easier to understand, apply, and combine with physical...
Fluctuating Nonlinear Spring Model of Mechanical Deformation of Biological Particles
Kononova, Olga; Snijder, Joost; Kholodov, Yaroslav; Marx, Kenneth A; Wuite, Gijs J L; Roos, Wouter H; Barsegov, Valeri
The mechanical properties of virus capsids correlate with local conformational dynamics in the capsid structure. They also reflect the required stability needed to withstand high internal pressures generated upon genome loading and contribute to the success of important events in viral infectivity,
Modelling of the PELE fragmentation dynamics
Verreault, J.
2014-05-01
The Penetrator with Enhanced Lateral Effect (PELE) is a type of explosive-free projectile that undergoes radial fragmentation upon an impact with a target plate. This type of projectile is composed of a brittle cylindrical shell (the jacket) filled in its core with a material characterized with a large Poisson's ratio. Upon an impact with a target, the axial compression causes the filling to expand in the radial direction. However, due to the brittleness of the jacket material, very little radial deformation can occur which creates a radial stress between the two materials and a hoop stress in the jacket. Fragmentation of the jacket occurs if the hoop stress exceeds the material's ultimate stress. The PELE fragmentation dynamics is explored via Finite-Element Method (FEM) simulations using the Autodyn explicit dynamics hydrocode. The numerical results are compared with an analytical model based on wave interactions, as well as with the experimental investigation of Paulus and Schirm (1996). The comparison is based on the mechanical stress in the filling and the qualitative fragmentation of the jacket.
Modelling of the PELE fragmentation dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Verreault, J
2014-01-01
The Penetrator with Enhanced Lateral Effect (PELE) is a type of explosive-free projectile that undergoes radial fragmentation upon an impact with a target plate. This type of projectile is composed of a brittle cylindrical shell (the jacket) filled in its core with a material characterized with a large Poisson's ratio. Upon an impact with a target, the axial compression causes the filling to expand in the radial direction. However, due to the brittleness of the jacket material, very little radial deformation can occur which creates a radial stress between the two materials and a hoop stress in the jacket. Fragmentation of the jacket occurs if the hoop stress exceeds the material's ultimate stress. The PELE fragmentation dynamics is explored via Finite-Element Method (FEM) simulations using the Autodyn explicit dynamics hydrocode. The numerical results are compared with an analytical model based on wave interactions, as well as with the experimental investigation of Paulus and Schirm (1996). The comparison is based on the mechanical stress in the filling and the qualitative fragmentation of the jacket.
Models of dynamical R-parity violation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Csáki, Csaba; Kuflik, Eric [Department of Physics, LEPP, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Slone, Oren; Volansky, Tomer [Raymond and Beverly Sackler School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 69978 (Israel)
2015-06-08
The presence of R-parity violating interactions may relieve the tension between existing LHC constraints and natural supersymmetry. In this paper we lay down the theoretical framework and explore models of dynamical R-parity violation in which the breaking of R-parity is communicated to the visible sector by heavy messenger fields. We find that R-parity violation is often dominated by non-holomorphic operators that have so far been largely ignored, and might require a modification of the existing searches at the LHC. The dynamical origin implies that the effects of such operators are suppressed by the ratio of either the light fermion masses or the supersymmetry breaking scale to the mediation scale, thereby providing a natural explanation for the smallness of R-parity violation. We consider various scenarios, classified by whether R-parity violation, flavor breaking and/or supersymmetry breaking are mediated by the same messenger fields. The most compact case, corresponding to a deformation of the so called flavor mediation scenario, allows for the mediation of supersymmetry breaking, R-parity breaking, and flavor symmetry breaking in a unified manner.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
E. I. Debolskaya
2013-01-01
Full Text Available This paper is devoted to investigation of the influence of river flow and of the temperature rise on the deformation of the coastal slopes composed of permafrost with the inclusion of ice layer. The method of investigation is the laboratory and mathematical modeling. The laboratory experiments have shown that an increase in water and air temperature changes in a laboratory analogue of permafrost causes deformation of the channel even without wave action, i.e. at steady-state flow and non-erosive water flow velocity. The previously developed model of the bed deformation was improved to account for long-term changes of soil structure with increasing temperature. The three-dimensional mathematical model of coastal slopes thermoerosion of the rivers flowing in permafrost regions, and its verification was based on the results of laboratory experiments conducted in the hydraulic tray. Analysis of the results of mathematical and laboratory modeling showed that bed deformation of the rivers flowing in the permafrost zone, significantly different from the deformation of channels composed of soils not susceptible to the influence of the phase transition «water-ice», and can occur even under the non-erosive velocity of the water flow.
Bridge Structure Deformation Prediction Based on GNSS Data Using Kalman-ARIMA-GARCH Model.
Xin, Jingzhou; Zhou, Jianting; Yang, Simon X; Li, Xiaoqing; Wang, Yu
2018-01-19
Bridges are an essential part of the ground transportation system. Health monitoring is fundamentally important for the safety and service life of bridges. A large amount of structural information is obtained from various sensors using sensing technology, and the data processing has become a challenging issue. To improve the prediction accuracy of bridge structure deformation based on data mining and to accurately evaluate the time-varying characteristics of bridge structure performance evolution, this paper proposes a new method for bridge structure deformation prediction, which integrates the Kalman filter, autoregressive integrated moving average model (ARIMA), and generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (GARCH). Firstly, the raw deformation data is directly pre-processed using the Kalman filter to reduce the noise. After that, the linear recursive ARIMA model is established to analyze and predict the structure deformation. Finally, the nonlinear recursive GARCH model is introduced to further improve the accuracy of the prediction. Simulation results based on measured sensor data from the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) deformation monitoring system demonstrated that: (1) the Kalman filter is capable of denoising the bridge deformation monitoring data; (2) the prediction accuracy of the proposed Kalman-ARIMA-GARCH model is satisfactory, where the mean absolute error increases only from 3.402 mm to 5.847 mm with the increment of the prediction step; and (3) in comparision to the Kalman-ARIMA model, the Kalman-ARIMA-GARCH model results in superior prediction accuracy as it includes partial nonlinear characteristics (heteroscedasticity); the mean absolute error of five-step prediction using the proposed model is improved by 10.12%. This paper provides a new way for structural behavior prediction based on data processing, which can lay a foundation for the early warning of bridge health monitoring system based on sensor data using sensing
Bridge Structure Deformation Prediction Based on GNSS Data Using Kalman-ARIMA-GARCH Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jingzhou Xin
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Bridges are an essential part of the ground transportation system. Health monitoring is fundamentally important for the safety and service life of bridges. A large amount of structural information is obtained from various sensors using sensing technology, and the data processing has become a challenging issue. To improve the prediction accuracy of bridge structure deformation based on data mining and to accurately evaluate the time-varying characteristics of bridge structure performance evolution, this paper proposes a new method for bridge structure deformation prediction, which integrates the Kalman filter, autoregressive integrated moving average model (ARIMA, and generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (GARCH. Firstly, the raw deformation data is directly pre-processed using the Kalman filter to reduce the noise. After that, the linear recursive ARIMA model is established to analyze and predict the structure deformation. Finally, the nonlinear recursive GARCH model is introduced to further improve the accuracy of the prediction. Simulation results based on measured sensor data from the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS deformation monitoring system demonstrated that: (1 the Kalman filter is capable of denoising the bridge deformation monitoring data; (2 the prediction accuracy of the proposed Kalman-ARIMA-GARCH model is satisfactory, where the mean absolute error increases only from 3.402 mm to 5.847 mm with the increment of the prediction step; and (3 in comparision to the Kalman-ARIMA model, the Kalman-ARIMA-GARCH model results in superior prediction accuracy as it includes partial nonlinear characteristics (heteroscedasticity; the mean absolute error of five-step prediction using the proposed model is improved by 10.12%. This paper provides a new way for structural behavior prediction based on data processing, which can lay a foundation for the early warning of bridge health monitoring system based on sensor data
Holden, L.; Cas, R.; Fournier, N.; Ailleres, L.
2017-09-01
The Okataina Volcanic Centre (OVC) is one of two large active rhyolite centres in the modern Taupo Volcanic Zone (TVZ) in the North Island of New Zealand. It is located in a complex section of the Taupo rift, a tectonically active section of the TVZ. The most recent volcanic unrest at the OVC includes the 1315 CE Kaharoa and 1886 Tarawera eruptions. Current monitoring activity at the OVC includes the use of continuous GPS receivers (cGPS), lake levelling and seismographs. The ground deformation patterns preceding volcanic activity the OVC are poorly constrained and restricted to predictions from basic modelling and comparison to other volcanoes worldwide. A better understanding of the deformation patterns preceding renewed volcanic activity is essential to determine if observed deformation is related to volcanic, tectonic or hydrothermal processes. Such an understanding also means that the ability of the present day cGPS network to detect these deformation patterns can also be assessed. The research presented here uses the finite element (FE) modelling technique to investigate ground deformation patterns associated with magma accumulation and diking processes at the OVC in greater detail. A number of FE models are produced and tested using Pylith software and incorporate characteristics of the 1315 CE Kaharoa and 1886 Tarawera eruptions, summarised from the existing body of research literature. The influence of a simple ring fault structure at the OVC on the modelled deformation is evaluated. The ability of the present-day continuous GPS (cGPS) GeoNet monitoring network to detect or observe the modelled deformation is also considered. The results show the modelled horizontal and vertical displacement fields have a number of key features, which include prominent lobe based regions extending northwest and southeast of the OVC. The results also show that the ring fault structure increases the magnitude of the displacements inside the caldera, in particular in the
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pan, L.M.; Ghosh, R.N.; McLean, M.
1993-01-01
A physics based model has been developed that accounts for the principal features of anisotropic creep deformation of single crystal superalloys. The present paper extends this model to simulate other types of high temperature deformation under strain controlled test conditions, such as stress relaxation and tension tests at constant strain rate in single crystals subject to axial loading along an arbitrary crystal direction. The approach is applied to the SRR99 single crystal superalloy where a model parameter database is available, determined via analysis of a database of constant stress creep curves. A software package has been generated to simulate the deformation behaviour under complex stress-strain conditions taking into account anisotropic elasticity. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huang, Qiuyan; Pan, Hucheng; Tang, Aitao; Ren, Yuping; Song, Bo; Qin, Gaowu; Zhang, Mingxing; Pan, Fusheng
2016-01-01
To further understand the deformation mechanism of magnesium alloys and expand their applications under dynamic conditions, the newly developed Mg-2Sn-1Ca alloy (TX21) is selected as the representative sample and tested under wide loading rate ranging from quasi-static to dynamic level (10"−"3–500/s). Both ultimate tensile strength and elongation of the as-extruded TX21 alloys increase with strain rate. Although twinning is accompanied due to the enhanced activity at higher strain rate, the preferential activation of dislocations is readily clarified and confirmed as the dominant deformation modes. Active interactions of pyramidal dislocations result in the higher strain hardening ability and could be correlated to the obviously positive strain-rate sensitivity for mechanical properties. Moreover, it is observed that the larger grain size and higher content of solute atoms dissolved in matrix would lead to the more active dislocations and twinning formations. The present results would provide insight into further understanding the deformation mechanism under dynamic rate loading and designing Mg alloy suitable for impact conditions.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Huang, Qiuyan [National Engineering Research Center for Magnesium Alloys, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Pan, Hucheng [Key Laboratory for Anisotropy and Texture of Materials (Ministry of Education), Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Tang, Aitao, E-mail: tat@cqu.edu.cn [National Engineering Research Center for Magnesium Alloys, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Ren, Yuping [Key Laboratory for Anisotropy and Texture of Materials (Ministry of Education), Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Song, Bo [Faculty of Materials and Energy, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Qin, Gaowu, E-mail: qingw@smm.neu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Anisotropy and Texture of Materials (Ministry of Education), Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Zhang, Mingxing [School of Mechanical and Mining Engineering, University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD 4072 (Australia); Pan, Fusheng [National Engineering Research Center for Magnesium Alloys, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)
2016-05-10
To further understand the deformation mechanism of magnesium alloys and expand their applications under dynamic conditions, the newly developed Mg-2Sn-1Ca alloy (TX21) is selected as the representative sample and tested under wide loading rate ranging from quasi-static to dynamic level (10{sup −3}–500/s). Both ultimate tensile strength and elongation of the as-extruded TX21 alloys increase with strain rate. Although twinning is accompanied due to the enhanced activity at higher strain rate, the preferential activation of dislocations is readily clarified and confirmed as the dominant deformation modes. Active interactions of pyramidal dislocations result in the higher strain hardening ability and could be correlated to the obviously positive strain-rate sensitivity for mechanical properties. Moreover, it is observed that the larger grain size and higher content of solute atoms dissolved in matrix would lead to the more active dislocations and twinning formations. The present results would provide insight into further understanding the deformation mechanism under dynamic rate loading and designing Mg alloy suitable for impact conditions.
A novel multitemporal insar model for joint estimation of deformation rates and orbital errors
Zhang, Lei; Ding, Xiaoli; Lu, Zhong; Jung, Hyungsup; Hu, Jun; Feng, Guangcai
2014-01-01
be corrected efficiently and reliably. We propose a novel model that is able to jointly estimate deformation rates and orbital errors based on the different spatialoral characteristics of the two types of signals. The proposed model is able to isolate a long
About the functions of the Wigner distribution for the q-deformed harmonic oscillator model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Atakishiev, N.M.; Nagiev, S.M.; Djafarov, E.I.; Imanov, R.M.
2005-01-01
Full text : A q-deformed model of the linear harmonic oscillator in the Wigner phase-space is studied. It was derived an explicit expression for the Wigner probability distribution function, as well as the Wigner distribution function of a thermodynamic equilibrium for this model
Repeatability of the Oxford Foot Model in children with foot deformity
McCahill, Jennifer; Stebbins, Julie; Koning, Bart; Harlaar, Jaap; Theologis, Tim
Introduction The Oxford Foot Model (OFM) is a multi-segment, kinematic model developed to assess foot motion. It has previously been assessed for repeatability in healthy populations. To determine the OFM's reliability for detecting foot deformity, it is important to know repeatability in
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Clausen, Bjørn; Lorentzen, Torben
1997-01-01
The uniaxial behavior of aluminum polycrystals is simulated using a rate-independent incremental self-consistent elastic-plastic polycrystal deformation model, and the results are evaluated by neutron diffraction measurements. The elastic strains deduced from the model show good agreement...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Volk, Brent L; Lagoudas, Dimitris C; Chen, Yi-Chao
2010-01-01
This study presents the analysis of the finite deformation response of a shape memory polymer (SMP). This two-part paper addresses the thermomechanical characterization of SMPs, the derivation of material parameters for a finite deformation phenomenological model, the numerical implementation of such a model, and the predictions from the model with comparisons to experimental data. Part II of this work presents the calibration of a previously developed thermoelastic constitutive model which is capable of handling finite deformations. The model is proposed in a general three-dimensional framework; however, this work focuses on reducing the model to one dimension and subsequently calibrating the model using experimental data obtained in part I. The one-dimensional numerical implementation of the model is presented, including the handling of the system of nonlinear equations and the integral term resulting from the constitutive model. The model is then used to predict the uniaxial shape memory effect. Results indicate good agreement between the model predictions and the experimental results, but the predictions do not capture the irrecoverable deformation present at the end of recovery
Physics-based deformable organisms for medical image analysis
Hamarneh, Ghassan; McIntosh, Chris
2005-04-01
Previously, "Deformable organisms" were introduced as a novel paradigm for medical image analysis that uses artificial life modelling concepts. Deformable organisms were designed to complement the classical bottom-up deformable models methodologies (geometrical and physical layers), with top-down intelligent deformation control mechanisms (behavioral and cognitive layers). However, a true physical layer was absent and in order to complete medical image segmentation tasks, deformable organisms relied on pure geometry-based shape deformations guided by sensory data, prior structural knowledge, and expert-generated schedules of behaviors. In this paper we introduce the use of physics-based shape deformations within the deformable organisms framework yielding additional robustness by allowing intuitive real-time user guidance and interaction when necessary. We present the results of applying our physics-based deformable organisms, with an underlying dynamic spring-mass mesh model, to segmenting and labelling the corpus callosum in 2D midsagittal magnetic resonance images.
Study of deformation of droplet in external force field by using liquid-gas model of lattice-gas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ebihara, Ken-ichi; Watanabe, Tadashi
2000-10-01
The deformation of the droplet by the external force which is assumed to be gravity is studied by using the liquid-gas model of lattice-gas. Two types of liquid-gas models, one is the minimal model and the other is the maximal model, which are distinguished from each other by the added long-range interactions are used for the simulation of the droplet deformation. The difference of the droplet deformation between the maximal model and the minimal model was observed. While the droplet of the minimal model elongates in the direction of the external force, the droplet of the maximal model elongates in the perpendicular direction to the external force. Therefore the droplet deformation in the external force field of the maximal model is more similar to the droplet deformation which is observed in experiments than that of the minimal model. (author)
Fission gas induced deformation model for FRAP-T6 and NSRR irradiated fuel test simulations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nakamura, Takehiko; Sasajima, Hideo; Fuketa, Toyoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Hosoyamada, Ryuji; Mori, Yukihide
1996-11-01
Pulse irradiation tests of irradiated fuels under simulated reactivity initiated accidents (RIAs) have been carried out at the Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSRR). Larger cladding diameter increase was observed in the irradiated fuel tests than in the previous fresh fuel tests. A fission gas induced cladding deformation model was developed and installed in a fuel behavior analysis code, FRAP-T6. The irradiated fuel tests were analyzed with the model in combination with modified material properties and fuel cracking models. In Test JM-4, where the cladding temperature rose to higher temperatures and grain boundary separation by the pulse irradiation was significant, the fission gas model described the cladding deformation reasonably well. The fuel had relatively flat radial power distribution and the grain boundary gas from the whole radius was calculated to contribute to the deformation. On the other hand, the power density in the irradiated LWR fuel rods in the pulse irradiation tests was remarkably higher at the fuel periphery than the center. A fuel thermal expansion model, GAPCON, which took account of the effect of fuel cracking by the temperature profile, was found to reproduce well the LWR fuel behavior with the fission gas deformation model. This report present details of the models and their NSRR test simulations. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Surowiec, Aa.; Pomorski, K.; Schmitt, Ch.; Bartel, J.
2002-01-01
The emission widths Γ n and Γ p for emission of neutrons and protons are calculated within the Thomas-Fermi model, which we have recently developed, and are compared with those obtained in the usual Weisskopf approach for the case of zero angular momentum. Both methods yield quite similar results at small deformations, but rather important differences are observed for very deformed shapes, in particular for charged particles. A possible generalization of the model for emission of α-particles is also discussed. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huang Mingxin; Rivera-Diaz-del-Castillo, Pedro E J; Zwaag, Sybrand van der; Bouaziz, Olivier
2009-01-01
Based on the theory of irreversible thermodynamics, the present work proposes a dislocation-based model to describe the plastic deformation of FCC metals over wide ranges of strain rates. The stress-strain behaviour and the evolution of the average dislocation density are derived. It is found that there is a transitional strain rate (∼ 10 4 s -1 ) over which the phonon drag effects appear, resulting in a significant increase in the flow stress and the average dislocation density. The model is applied to pure Cu deformed at room temperature and at strain rates ranging from 10 -5 to 10 6 s -1 showing good agreement with experimental results.
Meso-Scale Modelling of Deformation, Damage and Failure in Dual Phase Steels
Sari Sarraf, Iman
). The modified Rousselier model could successfully predict the dynamic behaviour, the onset of instability and damage progress in DP600 tensile test specimens. Also, the forming limit curve (FLC) as well as the final damage geometry in DP600 Marciniak specimens was successfully predicted and compared with experiments. A hybrid FE+CA model was utilized to predict the major fracture mode of DP600 and DP780 sheet specimens under different deformation conditions. This hybrid model is able to predict quasi-cleavage fracture in ultra-fine and coarse-grained DP600 and DP780 at low and high strain rates. The numerical results showed the capabilities of the proposed model to predict that higher martensite volume fraction, greater ferrite grain sizes and higher strain rates promote the brittle fracture mechanism whereas finer grain sizes and higher temperature alter the dominant fracture mechanism to ductile mode.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J Casey Olson
Full Text Available Early onset deformity of the spine and chest wall (initiated <8 years of age is associated with increased morbidity at adulthood relative to adolescent onset deformity of comparable severity. Presumably, inhibition of thoracic growth during late stage alveolarization leads to an irreversible loss of pulmonary growth and thoracic function; however the natural history of this disease from onset to adulthood has not been well characterized. In this study we establish a rabbit model of early onset scoliosis to establish the extent that thoracic deformity affects structural and functional respiratory development. Using a surgical right unilateral rib-tethering procedure, rib fusion with early onset scoliosis was induced in 10 young New Zealand white rabbits (3 weeks old. Progression of spine deformity, functional residual capacity, total lung capacity, and lung mass was tracked through longitudinal breath-hold computed tomography imaging up to skeletal maturity (28 weeks old. Additionally at maturity forced vital capacity and regional specific volume were calculated as functional measurements and histo-morphometry performed with the radial alveolar count as a measure of acinar complexity. Data from tethered rib rabbits were compared to age matched healthy control rabbits (N = 8. Results show unilateral rib-tethering created a progressive spinal deformity ranging from 30° to 120° curvature, the severity of which was strongly associated with pulmonary growth and functional outcomes. At maturity rabbits with deformity greater than the median (55° had decreased body weight (89%, right (59% and left (86% lung mass, right (74% and left (69% radial alveolar count, right lung volume at total lung capacity (60%, and forced vital capacity (75%. Early treatment of spinal deformity in children may prevent pulmonary complications in adulthood and these results provide a basis for the prediction of pulmonary development from thoracic structure. This model may
Business model dynamics and innovation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cavalcante, Sergio Andre; Kesting, Peter; Ulhøi, John Parm
2011-01-01
the impact of specific changes to a firm's business model. Such a tool would be particularly useful in identifying path dependencies and resistance at the process level, and would therefore allow a firm's management to take focused action on this in advance. Originality/value – The paper makes two main...... and specifies four different types of business model change: business model creation, extension, revision, and termination. Each type of business model change is associated with specific challenges. Practical implications – The proposed typology can serve as a basis for developing a management tool to evaluate......Purpose – This paper aims to discuss the need to dynamize the existing conceptualization of business model, and proposes a new typology to distinguish different types of business model change. Design/methodology/approach – The paper integrates basic insights of innovation, business process...
On whole Abelian model dynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chauca, J.; Doria, R. [CBPF, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Aprendanet, Petropolis, 25600 (Brazil)
2012-09-24
Physics challenge is to determine the objects dynamics. However, there are two ways for deciphering the part. The first one is to search for the ultimate constituents; the second one is to understand its behaviour in whole terms. Therefore, the parts can be defined either from elementary constituents or as whole functions. Historically, science has been moving through the first aspect, however, quarks confinement and complexity are interrupting this usual approach. These relevant facts are supporting for a systemic vision be introduced. Our effort here is to study on the whole meaning through gauge theory. Consider a systemic dynamics oriented through the U(1) - systemic gauge parameter which function is to collect a fields set {l_brace}A{sub {mu}I}{r_brace}. Derive the corresponding whole gauge invariant Lagrangian, equations of motion, Bianchi identities, Noether relationships, charges and Ward-Takahashi equations. Whole Lorentz force and BRST symmetry are also studied. These expressions bring new interpretations further than the usual abelian model. They are generating a systemic system governed by 2N+ 10 classical equations plus Ward-Takahashi identities. A whole dynamics based on the notions of directive and circumstance is producing a set determinism where the parts dynamics are inserted in the whole evolution. A dynamics based on state, collective and individual equations with a systemic interdependence.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nowotnik, Andrzej; Rokicki, Pawel; Mrowka-Nowotnik, Grazyna; Sieniawski, Jan [Rzeszow Univ. of Technology (Poland). Dept. of Material Science
2015-07-15
The authors performed uniaxial compression tests of nickel-based superalloys: single crystal CMSX-4, also precipitation hardened; Inconel 718 and X750, at temperatures below the γ' solvus, in order to study the effect of temperature and strain rate on their flow stress and microstructural development. On the basis of the obtained flow stress values, the activation energy of a high-temperature deformation process was estimated. Microstructural observations of the deformed samples at high temperatures, previously solution heat treated and aged CMSX-4 and Inconel alloys revealed non-uniform deformation effects. Distribution of either molybdenum- or niobium-rich carbides was found to be affected by localized flow within the investigated strain range at relatively low deformation temperatures, 720-850 C. Microstructural examination of the alloys also showed that shear banding and cavity growth were responsible for the decrease in flow stress and a specimen fracture at larger strains.
Relating structure and dynamics in organisation models
Jonkers, C.M.; Treur, J.
2002-01-01
To understand how an organisational structure relates to dynamics is an interesting fundamental challenge in the area of social modelling. Specifications of organisational structure usually have a diagrammatic form that abstracts from more detailed dynamics. Dynamic properties of agent systems,
Use of multiscale zirconium alloy deformation models in nuclear fuel behavior analysis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Montgomery, Robert, E-mail: robert.montgomery@pnnl.gov [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (United States); Tomé, Carlos, E-mail: tome@lanl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory (United States); Liu, Wenfeng, E-mail: wenfeng.liu@anatech.com [ANATECH Corporation (United States); Alankar, Alankar, E-mail: alankar.alankar@iitb.ac.in [Indian Institute of Technology Bombay (India); Subramanian, Gopinath, E-mail: gopinath.subramanian@usm.edu [University of Southern Mississippi (United States); Stanek, Christopher, E-mail: stanek@lanl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory (United States)
2017-01-01
Accurate prediction of cladding mechanical behavior is a key aspect of modeling nuclear fuel behavior, especially for conditions of pellet-cladding interaction (PCI), reactivity-initiated accidents (RIA), and loss of coolant accidents (LOCA). Current approaches to fuel performance modeling rely on empirical constitutive models for cladding creep, growth and plastic deformation, which are limited to the materials and conditions for which the models were developed. To improve upon this approach, a microstructurally-based zirconium alloy mechanical deformation analysis capability is being developed within the United States Department of Energy Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL). Specifically, the viscoplastic self-consistent (VPSC) polycrystal plasticity modeling approach, developed by Lebensohn and Tomé [1], has been coupled with the BISON engineering scale fuel performance code to represent the mechanistic material processes controlling the deformation behavior of light water reactor (LWR) cladding. A critical component of VPSC is the representation of the crystallographic nature (defect and dislocation movement) and orientation of the grains within the matrix material and the ability to account for the role of texture on deformation. A future goal is for VPSC to obtain information on reaction rate kinetics from atomistic calculations to inform the defect and dislocation behavior models described in VPSC. The multiscale modeling of cladding deformation mechanisms allowed by VPSC far exceed the functionality of typical semi-empirical constitutive models employed in nuclear fuel behavior codes to model irradiation growth and creep, thermal creep, or plasticity. This paper describes the implementation of an interface between VPSC and BISON and provides initial results utilizing the coupled functionality.
All-loop anomalous dimensions in integrable λ-deformed σ-models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
George Georgiou
2015-12-01
Full Text Available We calculate the all-loop anomalous dimensions of current operators in λ-deformed σ-models. For the isotropic integrable deformation and for a semi-simple group G we compute the anomalous dimensions using two different methods. In the first we use the all-loop effective action and in the second we employ perturbation theory along with the Callan–Symanzik equation and in conjunction with a duality-type symmetry shared by these models. Furthermore, using CFT techniques we compute the all-loop anomalous dimension of bilinear currents for the isotropic deformation case and a general G. Finally we work out the anomalous dimension matrix for the cases of anisotropic SU(2 and the two couplings, corresponding to the symmetric coset G/H and a subgroup H, splitting of a group G.
Recent improvements in modelling fission gas release and rod deformation on metallic fuel in LMR
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hwang, Woan; Lee, Byoung-Oon; Kim, Young Jin
2000-01-01
Metallic fuel design is a key feature to assure LMR core safety goals. To date, a large effort has been devoted to the development of the MACSIS code for metallic fuel rod design and the evaluation of operational limits under irradiation conditions. The updated models of fission gas release, fuel core swelling, and rod deformation are incorporated into the correspondence routines in MACSIS MOD1. The MACSIS MOD1 which is a new version of MACSIS, has been partly benchmarked on FGR, fuel swelling and rod deformation comparing with the results of U-Zr and U-Pu-Zr metal fuels irradiated in LMRs. The MACSIS MOD1 predicts, relatively well, the absolute magnitudes and trends of the gas release and rod deformations depending on burn-up, and it gives better agreement with the experimental data than the previous predictions of MACSIS and the results of the empirical model
Modelling MIZ dynamics in a global model
Rynders, Stefanie; Aksenov, Yevgeny; Feltham, Daniel; Nurser, George; Naveira Garabato, Alberto
2016-04-01
Exposure of large, previously ice-covered areas of the Arctic Ocean to the wind and surface ocean waves results in the Arctic pack ice cover becoming more fragmented and mobile, with large regions of ice cover evolving into the Marginal Ice Zone (MIZ). The need for better climate predictions, along with growing economic activity in the Polar Oceans, necessitates climate and forecasting models that can simulate fragmented sea ice with a greater fidelity. Current models are not fully fit for the purpose, since they neither model surface ocean waves in the MIZ, nor account for the effect of floe fragmentation on drag, nor include sea ice rheology that represents both the now thinner pack ice and MIZ ice dynamics. All these processes affect the momentum transfer to the ocean. We present initial results from a global ocean model NEMO (Nucleus for European Modelling of the Ocean) coupled to the Los Alamos sea ice model CICE. The model setup implements a novel rheological formulation for sea ice dynamics, accounting for ice floe collisions, thus offering a seamless framework for pack ice and MIZ simulations. The effect of surface waves on ice motion is included through wave pressure and the turbulent kinetic energy of ice floes. In the multidecadal model integrations we examine MIZ and basin scale sea ice and oceanic responses to the changes in ice dynamics. We analyse model sensitivities and attribute them to key sea ice and ocean dynamical mechanisms. The results suggest that the effect of the new ice rheology is confined to the MIZ. However with the current increase in summer MIZ area, which is projected to continue and may become the dominant type of sea ice in the Arctic, we argue that the effects of the combined sea ice rheology will be noticeable in large areas of the Arctic Ocean, affecting sea ice and ocean. With this study we assert that to make more accurate sea ice predictions in the changing Arctic, models need to include MIZ dynamics and physics.
Zhang, Yuzhou; Xu, Junbo; He, Xianfeng
2018-07-01
The behaviour of a single droplet in shear flow is a fundamental problem in immiscible liquid-liquid multiphase fluid systems. In this article, the deformation and inclination angle of single droplet covered with surfactants in shear flow at moderate Reynolds number, when both the inertial effects and interfacial tension are the key governing factors, were simulated by dissipative particle dynamics (DPD). Weber number We was adopted to indicate the force state of the droplet and a linear relationship between the deformation parameter D and We was found when Reynolds number Re is about 1-10, which is similar to the relation of D and Capillary number Ca when Re ≪ 1. When the surfactant concentration is lower than the critical micelle concentration (CMC), the distribution of surfactants, the droplet inclination angle θ and the droplet deformation parameter D were investigated at different surfactant density at interface ds and shear rate ?. When the droplet size is close to the characteristic size of surfactant molecules, phase interfaces of water in oil (W/O) and oil in water (O/W) systems have different microstructures, which result in differences in the surfactant distribution, the droplet inclination angle and deformation of the two systems.
Dynamic Deformation of ETNA Volcano Observed by GPS and SAR Interferometry
Lundgren, P.; Rosen, P.; Webb, F.; Tesauro, M.; Lanari, R.; Sansosi, E.; Puglisi, G.; Bonforte, A.; Coltelli, M.
1999-01-01
Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) interferometry and GPS have shown that during the quiescent period from 1993-1995 Mt. Etna volcano, Italy, inflated. Since the initiation of eruptive activity since late 1995 the deformation has been more contentious. We will explore the detailed deformation during the period from 1995-1996 spanning the late stages of inflation and the beginning of eruptive activity. We use SAR interferometry and GPS data to measure the volcano deformation. We invert the observed deformation for both simple point source. le crack elastic sources or if warranted for a spheroidal pressure So In particular, we will examine the evolution of the inflation and the transition to a lesser deflation observed at the end of 1995. We use ERS-1/2 SAR data from both ascending and descending passes to allow for dense temporal 'sampling of the deformation and to allow us to critically assess atmospheric noise. Preliminary results from interferometry suggest that the inflation rate accelerated prior to resumption of activity in 1995, while GPS data suggest a more steady inflation with some fluctuation following the start of activity. This study will compare and contrast the interferometric SAR and GPS results and will address the strengths and weaknesses of each technique towards volcano deformation studies.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wassilew, C.
1989-11-01
This report gives an overall evaluation of several in-reactor deformation and creep-rupture experiments performed in BR-2, FFTF, and Rapsodie on pressurised tubes of the stabilized austenitic stainless steels 1.4970, 1.4981, 1.4988, and the nickel base alloy Hastelloy-X. The irradiation induced deformation processes observed in the components operating in a neutron environment can be divided into two main groups: 1. volume conserving creep and 2. volumetric swelling. Since the observed deformation as well as damage accumulating phenomena are caused by the same constrained generated and free disposable point defects and helium atoms, it is obvious and advisable to analyze, and to model simultaneously the ensemble of the elementary mechanisms and processes effective at the same time. Phenomenological models based on the thermodynamics of irreversible processes have been developed, with the aim of: 1. grasping the partial relationships between the external variables and the response functions (creep, swelling, creep driven swelling, and time to rupture), 2. fathoming the rate-controlling mechanisms, 3. providing insight into the structural details and changes occurring during the deformation and the damage accumulating processes, 4. integrating the damage accumulating processes comprehensively, and 5. formulating the constitutive equations required to describe the elementary processes that generate plastic deformations as well as damage accumulation. (orig./MM)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Romashko Vasyl
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The main features of the deformation and force model of deformation of reinforced concrete elements and structures based on generalized diagrams of their state are considered in the article. Particular attention is focused on the basic methodological problems and shortcomings of modern "deformation" models. It is shown that in the most cases these problems can be solved by the generalized diagrams of reinforced concrete elements and structures real state. Thanks to these diagrams, the developed method: provides a single methodological approach to the calculation of reinforced concrete elements and structures normal sections for limit states; allows to reveal the internal static indeterminacy of heterogeneously deformable elements and structures in their ultimate limit state calculation; justifies the application of the basic and derived criteria of reinforced concrete elements and structures bearing capacity exhaustion; retains the essence of the physical processes of concrete and reinforced concrete structures deformation. The defining positions of the generalized (universal methodology for calculating reinforced concrete elements and structures are stated.
A Deformable Model for Bringing Particles in Focus
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dahl, Anders Lindbjerg; Jørgensen, Thomas Martini; Larsen, Rasmus
2010-01-01
and intensity, which enables an estimation of the out-of-focus blur of the particle. Using the particle model param- eters in a regression model we are able to infer 3D information about individual particles. Based on the defocus information we are able to infer the true size and shape of the particles. We...
Social Dynamics Modeling and Inference
2018-03-29
the experiment(s)/ theory and equipment or analyses. Development of innovative theoretical model and methodologies with experimental verifications...information. The methodology based on communication and information theory (thanks to leave at MIT supported by this research) is described in [J1], [C2...a dynamic system [C1] and as a social learning mechanism in details [J4]. Furthermore, by incentive seeding and rewiring connections, information
Analytical Modeling of the High Strain Rate Deformation of Polymer Matrix Composites
Goldberg, Robert K.; Roberts, Gary D.; Gilat, Amos
2003-01-01
The results presented here are part of an ongoing research program to develop strain rate dependent deformation and failure models for the analysis of polymer matrix composites subject to high strain rate impact loads. State variable constitutive equations originally developed for metals have been modified in order to model the nonlinear, strain rate dependent deformation of polymeric matrix materials. To account for the effects of hydrostatic stresses, which are significant in polymers, the classical 5 plasticity theory definitions of effective stress and effective plastic strain are modified by applying variations of the Drucker-Prager yield criterion. To verify the revised formulation, the shear and tensile deformation of a representative toughened epoxy is analyzed across a wide range of strain rates (from quasi-static to high strain rates) and the results are compared to experimentally obtained values. For the analyzed polymers, both the tensile and shear stress-strain curves computed using the analytical model correlate well with values obtained through experimental tests. The polymer constitutive equations are implemented within a strength of materials based micromechanics method to predict the nonlinear, strain rate dependent deformation of polymer matrix composites. In the micromechanics, the unit cell is divided up into a number of independently analyzed slices, and laminate theory is then applied to obtain the effective deformation of the unit cell. The composite mechanics are verified by analyzing the deformation of a representative polymer matrix composite (composed using the representative polymer analyzed for the correlation of the polymer constitutive equations) for several fiber orientation angles across a variety of strain rates. The computed values compare favorably to experimentally obtained results.
Nonlinear structural mechanics theory, dynamical phenomena and modeling
Lacarbonara, Walter
2013-01-01
Nonlinear Structural Mechanics: Theory, Dynamical Phenomena and Modeling offers a concise, coherent presentation of the theoretical framework of nonlinear structural mechanics, computational methods, applications, parametric investigations of nonlinear phenomena and their mechanical interpretation towards design. The theoretical and computational tools that enable the formulation, solution, and interpretation of nonlinear structures are presented in a systematic fashion so as to gradually attain an increasing level of complexity of structural behaviors, under the prevailing assumptions on the geometry of deformation, the constitutive aspects and the loading scenarios. Readers will find a treatment of the foundations of nonlinear structural mechanics towards advanced reduced models, unified with modern computational tools in the framework of the prominent nonlinear structural dynamic phenomena while tackling both the mathematical and applied sciences. Nonlinear Structural Mechanics: Theory, Dynamical Phenomena...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haste, T.J.
1982-07-01
The CANSWEL-2 code models cladding creep deformation under conditions relevant to a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) in a pressurised water reactor (PWR). It considers in detail the centre rod of a 3 x 3 nominally square array, taking into account azimuthal non-uniformities in cladding thickness and temperature, and the mechanical restraint imposed on contact with neighbouring rods. Any of the rods in the array may assume a non-circular shape. Models are included for primary and secondary creep, dynamic phase change and superplasticity when both alpha- and beta-phase Zircaloy are present. A simple treatment of oxidation strengthening is incorporated. Account is taken of the anisotropic creep behaviour of alpha-phase Zircaloy which leads to cladding bowing. The CANSWEL-2 model is used both as a stand-alone code and also as part of the LOCA analysis code MABEL-2. (author)
Verschoor, M.; Jalba, A.C.
2012-01-01
Elastically deformable models have found applications in various areas ranging from mechanical sciences and engineering to computer graphics. The method of Finite Elements has been the tool of choice for solving the underlying PDE, when accuracy and stability of the computations are more important
E4 properties in deformed nuclei and the sdg interacting boson model
Wu, H.C.; Dieperink, A. E. L.; Scholten, O.; Harakeh, M. N.; de Leo, R.; Pignanelli, M.; Morrison, I.
1988-01-01
The hexadecapole transition strength distribution is measured for the deformed nucleus 150Nd using the (p,p') reaction at Ep=30 MeV. The experimental information on B(E4) values in this nucleus and in 156Gd is interpreted in the framework of the sdg interacting boson model. It is found that the main
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jani, S
2014-01-01
Purpose For certain highly conformal treatment techniques, changes in patient anatomy due to weight loss and/or tumor shrinkage can result in significant changes in dose distribution. Recently, the Pinnacle treatment planning system added a Dynamic Planning module utilizing Deformable Image Registration (DIR). The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of this software in adapting to altered anatomy and adjusting treatment plans to account for it. Methods We simulated significant tumor response by changing patient thickness and altered chin positions using a commercially-available head and neck (H and N) phantom. In addition, we studied 23 CT image sets of fifteen (15) patients with H and N tumors and eight (8) patients with prostate cancer. In each case, we applied deformable image registration through Dynamic Planning module of our Pinnacle Treatment Planning System. The dose distribution of the original CT image set was compared to the newly computed dose without altering any treatment parameter. Result was a dose if we did not adjust the plan to reflect anatomical changes. Results For the H and N phantom, a tumor response of up to 3.5 cm was correctly deformed by the Pinnacle Dynamic module. Recomputed isodose contours on new anatomies were within 1 mm of the expected distribution. The Pinnacle system configuration allowed dose computations resulting from original plans on new anatomies without leaving the planning system. Original and new doses were available side-by-side with both CT image sets. Based on DIR, about 75% of H and N patients (11/15) required a re-plan using new anatomy. Among prostate patients, the DIR predicted near-correct bladder volume in 62% of the patients (5/8). Conclusions The Dynamic Planning module of the Pinnacle system proved to be an accurate and useful tool in our ability to adapt to changes in patient anatomy during a course of radiotherapy
Singh, Manpreet; Das, Anindya; Venugopalan, T.; Mukherjee, Krishnendu; Walunj, Mahesh; Nanda, Tarun; Kumar, B. Ravi
2018-02-01
The effects of microstructure parameters of dual-phase steels on tensile high strain dynamic deformation characteristic were examined in this study. Cold-rolled steel sheets were annealed using three different annealing process parameters to obtain three different dual-phase microstructures of varied ferrite and martensite phase fraction. The volume fraction of martensite obtained in two of the steels was near identical ( 19 pct) with a subtle difference in its spatial distribution. In the first microstructure variant, martensite was mostly found to be situated at ferrite grain boundaries and in the second variant, in addition to at grain boundaries, in-grain martensite was also observed. The third microstructure was very different from the above two with respect to martensite volume fraction ( 67 pct) and its morphology. In this case, martensite packets were surrounded by a three-dimensional ferrite network giving an appearance of core and shell type microstructure. All the three steels were tensile deformed at strain rates ranging from 2.7 × 10-4 (quasi-static) to 650 s-1 (dynamic range). Field-emission scanning electron microscope was used to characterize the starting as well as post-tensile deformed microstructures. Dual-phase steel consisting of small martensite volume fraction ( 19 pct), irrespective of its spatial distribution, demonstrated high strain rate sensitivity and on the other hand, steel with large martensite volume fraction ( 67 pct) displayed a very little strain rate sensitivity. Interestingly, total elongation was found to increase with increasing strain rate in the dynamic regime for steel with core-shell type of microstructure containing large martensite volume fraction. The observed enhancement in plasticity in dynamic regime was attributed to adiabatic heating of specimen. To understand the evolving damage mechanism, the fracture surface and the vicinity of fracture ends were studied in all the three dual-phase steels.
Wittek, Adam; Joldes, Grand; Couton, Mathieu; Warfield, Simon K; Miller, Karol
2010-12-01
Long computation times of non-linear (i.e. accounting for geometric and material non-linearity) biomechanical models have been regarded as one of the key factors preventing application of such models in predicting organ deformation for image-guided surgery. This contribution presents real-time patient-specific computation of the deformation field within the brain for six cases of brain shift induced by craniotomy (i.e. surgical opening of the skull) using specialised non-linear finite element procedures implemented on a graphics processing unit (GPU). In contrast to commercial finite element codes that rely on an updated Lagrangian formulation and implicit integration in time domain for steady state solutions, our procedures utilise the total Lagrangian formulation with explicit time stepping and dynamic relaxation. We used patient-specific finite element meshes consisting of hexahedral and non-locking tetrahedral elements, together with realistic material properties for the brain tissue and appropriate contact conditions at the boundaries. The loading was defined by prescribing deformations on the brain surface under the craniotomy. Application of the computed deformation fields to register (i.e. align) the preoperative and intraoperative images indicated that the models very accurately predict the intraoperative deformations within the brain. For each case, computing the brain deformation field took less than 4 s using an NVIDIA Tesla C870 GPU, which is two orders of magnitude reduction in computation time in comparison to our previous study in which the brain deformation was predicted using a commercial finite element solver executed on a personal computer. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cluster Dynamics Modeling with Bubble Nucleation, Growth and Coalescence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
de Almeida, Valmor F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Blondel, Sophie [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Bernholdt, David E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wirth, Brian D. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)
2017-06-01
The topic of this communication pertains to defect formation in irradiated solids such as plasma-facing tungsten submitted to helium implantation in fusion reactor com- ponents, and nuclear fuel (metal and oxides) submitted to volatile ssion product generation in nuclear reactors. The purpose of this progress report is to describe ef- forts towards addressing the prediction of long-time evolution of defects via continuum cluster dynamics simulation. The di culties are twofold. First, realistic, long-time dynamics in reactor conditions leads to a non-dilute di usion regime which is not accommodated by the prevailing dilute, stressless cluster dynamics theory. Second, long-time dynamics calls for a large set of species (ideally an in nite set) to capture all possible emerging defects, and this represents a computational bottleneck. Extensions beyond the dilute limit is a signi cant undertaking since no model has been advanced to extend cluster dynamics to non-dilute, deformable conditions. Here our proposed approach to model the non-dilute limit is to monitor the appearance of a spatially localized void volume fraction in the solid matrix with a bell shape pro le and insert an explicit geometrical bubble onto the support of the bell function. The newly cre- ated internal moving boundary provides the means to account for the interfacial ux of mobile species into the bubble, and the growth of bubbles allows for coalescence phenomena which captures highly non-dilute interactions. We present a preliminary interfacial kinematic model with associated interfacial di usion transport to follow the evolution of the bubble in any number of spatial dimensions and any number of bubbles, which can be further extended to include a deformation theory. Finally we comment on a computational front-tracking method to be used in conjunction with conventional cluster dynamics simulations in the non-dilute model proposed.
Deformation of the Engle-Livine-Pereira-Rovelli spin foam model by a cosmological constant
Bahr, Benjamin; Rabuffo, Giovanni
2018-04-01
In this article, we consider an ad hoc deformation of the Engle-Livine-Pereira-Rovelli model for quantum gravity by a cosmological constant term. This sort of deformation was first introduced by Han for the case of the 4-simplex. In this article, we generalize the deformation to the case of arbitrary vertices, and compute its large-j asymptotics. We show that, if the boundary data correspond to a four-dimensional polyhedron P , then the asymptotic formula gives the usual Regge action plus a cosmological constant term. We pay particular attention to the determinant of the Hessian matrix, and show that it can be related to that of the undeformed vertex.
Marginal deformations of 3d supersymmetric U(N) model and broken higher spin symmetry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hikida, Yasuaki [Center for Gravitational Physics, Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University,Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Wada, Taiki [Department of Physical Sciences, College of Science and Engineering, Ritsumeikan University,Shiga 525-8577 (Japan)
2017-03-08
We examine the marginal deformations of double-trace type in 3d supersymmetric U(N) model with N complex free bosons and fermions. We compute the anomalous dimensions of higher spin currents to the 1/N order but to all orders in the deformation parameters by mainly applying the conformal perturbation theory. The 3d field theory is supposed to be dual to 4d supersymmetric Vasiliev theory, and the marginal deformations are argued to correspond to modifying boundary conditions for bulk scalars and fermions. Thus the modification should break higher spin gauge symmetry and generate the masses of higher spin fields. We provide supports for the dual interpretation by relating bulk computation in terms of Witten diagrams to boundary one in conformal perturbation theory.
Marginal deformations of 3d supersymmetric U(N) model and broken higher spin symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hikida, Yasuaki; Wada, Taiki
2017-01-01
We examine the marginal deformations of double-trace type in 3d supersymmetric U(N) model with N complex free bosons and fermions. We compute the anomalous dimensions of higher spin currents to the 1/N order but to all orders in the deformation parameters by mainly applying the conformal perturbation theory. The 3d field theory is supposed to be dual to 4d supersymmetric Vasiliev theory, and the marginal deformations are argued to correspond to modifying boundary conditions for bulk scalars and fermions. Thus the modification should break higher spin gauge symmetry and generate the masses of higher spin fields. We provide supports for the dual interpretation by relating bulk computation in terms of Witten diagrams to boundary one in conformal perturbation theory.
A deformation of quantum affine algebra in squashed Wess-Zumino-Novikov-Witten models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kawaguchi, Io; Yoshida, Kentaroh [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)
2014-06-01
We proceed to study infinite-dimensional symmetries in two-dimensional squashed Wess-Zumino-Novikov-Witten models at the classical level. The target space is given by squashed S³ and the isometry is SU(2){sub L}×U(1){sub R}. It is known that SU(2){sub L} is enhanced to a couple of Yangians. We reveal here that an infinite-dimensional extension of U(1){sub R} is a deformation of quantum affine algebra, where a new deformation parameter is provided with the coefficient of the Wess-Zumino term. Then we consider the relation between the deformed quantum affine algebra and the pair of Yangians from the viewpoint of the left-right duality of monodromy matrices. The integrable structure is also discussed by computing the r/s-matrices that satisfy the extended classical Yang-Baxter equation. Finally, two degenerate limits are discussed.
Real-time model for simulating a tracked vehicle on deformable soils
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Martin Meywerk
2016-05-01
Full Text Available Simulation is one possibility to gain insight into the behaviour of tracked vehicles on deformable soils. A lot of publications are known on this topic, but most of the simulations described there cannot be run in real-time. The ability to run a simulation in real-time is necessary for driving simulators. This article describes an approach for real-time simulation of a tracked vehicle on deformable soils. The components of the real-time model are as follows: a conventional wheeled vehicle simulated in the Multi Body System software TRUCKSim, a geometric description of landscape, a track model and an interaction model between track and deformable soils based on Bekker theory and Janosi–Hanamoto, on one hand, and between track and vehicle wheels, on the other hand. Landscape, track model, soil model and the interaction are implemented in MATLAB/Simulink. The details of the real-time model are described in this article, and a detailed description of the Multi Body System part is omitted. Simulations with the real-time model are compared to measurements and to a detailed Multi Body System–finite element method model of a tracked vehicle. An application of the real-time model in a driving simulator is presented, in which 13 drivers assess the comfort of a passive and an active suspension of a tracked vehicle.
HERMES: A Model to Describe Deformation, Burning, Explosion, and Detonation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Reaugh, J E
2011-11-22
HERMES (High Explosive Response to MEchanical Stimulus) was developed to fill the need for a model to describe an explosive response of the type described as BVR (Burn to Violent Response) or HEVR (High Explosive Violent Response). Characteristically this response leaves a substantial amount of explosive unconsumed, the time to reaction is long, and the peak pressure developed is low. In contrast, detonations characteristically consume all explosive present, the time to reaction is short, and peak pressures are high. However, most of the previous models to describe explosive response were models for detonation. The earliest models to describe the response of explosives to mechanical stimulus in computer simulations were applied to intentional detonation (performance) of nearly ideal explosives. In this case, an ideal explosive is one with a vanishingly small reaction zone. A detonation is supersonic with respect to the undetonated explosive (reactant). The reactant cannot respond to the pressure of the detonation before the detonation front arrives, so the precise compressibility of the reactant does not matter. Further, the mesh sizes that were practical for the computer resources then available were large with respect to the reaction zone. As a result, methods then used to model detonations, known as {beta}-burn or program burn, were not intended to resolve the structure of the reaction zone. Instead, these methods spread the detonation front over a few finite-difference zones, in the same spirit that artificial viscosity is used to spread the shock front in inert materials over a few finite-difference zones. These methods are still widely used when the structure of the reaction zone and the build-up to detonation are unimportant. Later detonation models resolved the reaction zone. These models were applied both to performance, particularly as it is affected by the size of the charge, and to situations in which the stimulus was less than that needed for reliable
Deformation Measurements of Gabion Walls Using Image Based Modeling
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marek Fraštia
2014-06-01
Full Text Available The image based modeling finds use in applications where it is necessary to reconstructthe 3D surface of the observed object with a high level of detail. Previous experiments showrelatively high variability of the results depending on the camera type used, the processingsoftware, or the process evaluation. The authors tested the method of SFM (Structure fromMotion to determine the stability of gabion walls. The results of photogrammetricmeasurements were compared to precise geodetic point measurements.
Image-based Modeling of PSF Deformation with Application to Limited Angle PET Data
Matej, Samuel; Li, Yusheng; Panetta, Joseph; Karp, Joel S.; Surti, Suleman
2016-01-01
The point-spread-functions (PSFs) of reconstructed images can be deformed due to detector effects such as resolution blurring and parallax error, data acquisition geometry such as insufficient sampling or limited angular coverage in dual-panel PET systems, or reconstruction imperfections/simplifications. PSF deformation decreases quantitative accuracy and its spatial variation lowers consistency of lesion uptake measurement across the imaging field-of-view (FOV). This can be a significant problem with dual panel PET systems even when using TOF data and image reconstruction models of the detector and data acquisition process. To correct for the spatially variant reconstructed PSF distortions we propose to use an image-based resolution model (IRM) that includes such image PSF deformation effects. Originally the IRM was mostly used for approximating data resolution effects of standard PET systems with full angular coverage in a computationally efficient way, but recently it was also used to mitigate effects of simplified geometric projectors. Our work goes beyond this by including into the IRM reconstruction imperfections caused by combination of the limited angle, parallax errors, and any other (residual) deformation effects and testing it for challenging dual panel data with strongly asymmetric and variable PSF deformations. We applied and tested these concepts using simulated data based on our design for a dedicated breast imaging geometry (B-PET) consisting of dual-panel, time-of-flight (TOF) detectors. We compared two image-based resolution models; i) a simple spatially invariant approximation to PSF deformation, which captures only the general PSF shape through an elongated 3D Gaussian function, and ii) a spatially variant model using a Gaussian mixture model (GMM) to more accurately capture the asymmetric PSF shape in images reconstructed from data acquired with the B-PET scanner geometry. Results demonstrate that while both IRMs decrease the overall uptake
Collective dynamics of nuclear fusion: deformation changes and heating during the fusion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mikhailov, I.N.; Mikhailova, T.I.; Toro, M. di; Baran, V.; Briancon, C.
1996-01-01
The formalism developed elsewhere for the theoretical description of the dynamics involved in the heavy nucleus fusion is applied in this paper to study the history of the fusion of two identical heavy nuclei experiencing central collision. The evolution of the shape and of the temperature of symmetrical fusing systems is studied. The role of the elastoplasticity of nuclear matter in the nonmonotonical changes of the shape is elucidated in this way. A tentative explanation of the ''extra push'' phenomenon is given in terms of the competition between elastic properties of fusing systems driving to the re-separation of colliding nuclei and the dissipative (plastic) properties of nuclear matter transforming the energy of collective motion into the energy of statistical excitation and thus leading to the fusion. The fingerprints of the heavy-nucleus fusion history as it is depicted by the model are traced in the anisotropy of the dipole and quadrupole γ-radiation emitted during the fusion. The parallels in the description of the fusion dynamics given by the simple model used in this paper and by the more fundamental approaches based on the kinetic equation are emphasised. (orig.)
Aeroelastic Deformation Measurements of Flap, Gap, and Overhang on a Semispan Model
Burner, A. W.; Liu, Tian-Shu; Garg, Sanjay; Ghee, Terence A.; Taylor, Nigel J.
2001-01-01
Single-camera, single-view videogrammetry has been used for the first time to determine static aeroelastic deformation of a slotted flap configuration on a semispan model at the National Transonic Facility (NTF). Deformation was determined by comparing wind-off to wind-on spatial data from targets placed on the main element, shroud, and flap of the model. Digitized video images from a camera were recorded and processed to automatically determine target image plane locations that were then corrected for sensor, lens, and frame grabber spatial errors. The videogrammetric technique used for the measurements presented here has been established at NASA facilities as the technique of choice when high-volume static aeroelastic data with minimum impact on data taking is required. However, the primary measurement at the NTF with this technique in the past has been the measurement of the static aeroelastic wing twist of the main wing element on full span models rather than for the measurement of component deformation. Considerations for using the videogrammetric technique for semispan component deformation measurements as well as representative results are presented.
A novel approach to dynamical neutron diffraction by a deformed crystal
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kulda, J.
1984-01-01
The propagation of neutron waves in a deformed crystal is considered from the point of view of quantum mechanics. Instead of solving the Takagi-Taupin equations the probability of transitions, induced by the variation of the interaction potential, between quantum states corresponding to the two sheets of the dispersion surface is calculated. In this way transmission and reflection coefficients for an incident plane wave are obtained after a simple analytical calculation for a wide class of crystal deformations. The predictions of this theory are found to be in agreement with direct solutions of the Takagi-Taupin equations as well as with the experimental results. (Auth.)
Anomalous dimensions in deformed WZW models on supergroups
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Candu, Constantin [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Zuerich (Switzerland); Mitev, Vladimir [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Mathematik; Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Schomerus, Volker [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany). Gruppe Theorie
2012-11-15
We investigate a class of current-current, Gross-Neveu like, perturbations of WZW models in which the full left-right affine symmetry is broken to the diagonal global algebra only. Our analysis focuses on those supergroups for which such a perturbation preserves conformal invariance. A detailed calculation of the 2-point functions of affine primary operators to 3-loops is presented. Furthermore, we derive an exact formula for the anomalous dimensions of a large subset of fields to all orders in perturbation theory. Possible applications of our results, including the study of non-perturbative dualities, are outlined.
Pressure sintering and creep deformation: a joint modeling approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Notis, M.R.
1979-10-01
Work related to microchemical and microstructural aspects of the joint modeling of pressure sintering and creep in ceramic oxides is reported. Quantitative techniques for the microchemical analysis of ceramic oxides and for the examination of impurity segregation effects in polycrystalline ceramic materials were developed. This has included fundamental absorption corrections for the oxygen anion species as a function of foil thickness. The evolution in microstructure during the transition from intermediate stage to final stage densification during hot pressing of cobalt oxide and preliminary studies with doped oxides were studied. This work shows promise in using time-integrated microstructural effects to elucidate the role of impurities in the sintering of ceramic materials
Wasserman, Richard Marc
The radiation therapy treatment planning (RTTP) process may be subdivided into three planning stages: gross tumor delineation, clinical target delineation, and modality dependent target definition. The research presented will focus on the first two planning tasks. A gross tumor target delineation methodology is proposed which focuses on the integration of MRI, CT, and PET imaging data towards the generation of a mathematically optimal tumor boundary. The solution to this problem is formulated within a framework integrating concepts from the fields of deformable modelling, region growing, fuzzy logic, and data fusion. The resulting fuzzy fusion algorithm can integrate both edge and region information from multiple medical modalities to delineate optimal regions of pathological tissue content. The subclinical boundaries of an infiltrating neoplasm cannot be determined explicitly via traditional imaging methods and are often defined to extend a fixed distance from the gross tumor boundary. In order to improve the clinical target definition process an estimation technique is proposed via which tumor growth may be modelled and subclinical growth predicted. An in vivo, macroscopic primary brain tumor growth model is presented, which may be fit to each patient undergoing treatment, allowing for the prediction of future growth and consequently the ability to estimate subclinical local invasion. Additionally, the patient specific in vivo tumor model will be of significant utility in multiple diagnostic clinical applications.
A model to incorporate organ deformation in the evaluation of dose/volume relationship
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yan, D.; Jaffray, D.; Wong, J.; Brabbins, D.; Martinez, A. A.
1997-01-01
Purpose: Measurements of internal organ motion have demonstrated that daily organ deformation exists during the course of radiation treatment. However, a model to evaluate the resultant dose delivered to a daily deformed organ remains a difficult challenge. Current methods which model such organ deformation as rigid body motion in the dose calculation for treatment planning evaluation are incorrect and misleading. In this study, a new model for treatment planning evaluation is introduced which incorporates patient specific information of daily organ deformation and setup variation. The model was also used to retrospectively analyze the actual treatment data measured using daily CT scans for 5 patients with prostate treatment. Methods and Materials: The model assumes that for each patient, the organ of interest can be measured during the first few treatment days. First, the volume of each organ is delineated from each of the daily measurements and cumulated in a 3D bit-map. A tissue occupancy distribution is then constructed with the 50% isodensity representing the mean, or effective, organ volume. During the course of treatment, each voxel in the effective organ volume is assumed to move inside a local 3D neighborhood with a specific distribution function. The neighborhood and the distribution function are deduced from the positions and shapes of the organ in the first few measurements using the biomechanics model of viscoelastic body. For each voxel, the local distribution function is then convolved with the spatial dose distribution. The latter includes also the variation in dose due to daily setup error. As a result, the cumulative dose to the voxel incorporates the effects of daily setup variation and organ deformation. A ''variation adjusted'' dose volume histogram, aDVH, for the effective organ volume can then be constructed for the purpose of treatment evaluation and optimization. Up to 20 daily CT scans and daily portal images for 5 patients with prostate
Multiscale modeling of pedestrian dynamics
Cristiani, Emiliano; Tosin, Andrea
2014-01-01
This book presents mathematical models and numerical simulations of crowd dynamics. The core topic is the development of a new multiscale paradigm, which bridges the microscopic and macroscopic scales taking the most from each of them for capturing the relevant clues of complexity of crowds. The background idea is indeed that most of the complex trends exhibited by crowds are due to an intrinsic interplay between individual and collective behaviors. The modeling approach promoted in this book pursues actively this intuition and profits from it for designing general mathematical structures susceptible of application also in fields different from the inspiring original one. The book considers also the two most traditional points of view: the microscopic one, in which pedestrians are tracked individually, and the macroscopic one, in which pedestrians are assimilated to a continuum. Selected existing models are critically analyzed. The work is addressed to researchers and graduate students.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kingstedt, O.T.; Eftink, B.; Lambros, J.; Robertson, I.M.
2014-01-01
Nanostructured multilayered material systems offer an attractive method of increasing material strength. This work examines the response of a bulk eutectic silver–copper material (Ag 60 Cu 40 , subscripts indicating atomic percent) which has a hierarchical structure of alternating Ag and Cu layers with thicknesses down to 50 nm. The hierarchical structure consists of two primary arrangements of layers, eutectic colonies of parallel layers, most commonly found at the material interior, and “grains” consisting of alternating Ag and Cu layers which emanate from a central region in a radial pattern, most commonly found at the material exterior surface. We show that the hierarchical structure causes a significant increase in the measured strength response when comparing the Ag 60 Cu 40 response to that of the constituent materials in their bulk nanograined or micrograined form. The deformation mechanisms of this material are studied under compressive loading over the quasi-static and dynamic regime (10 −3 –10 3 s −1 ) with strain between 5% and 50%