Sample records for dynamic deceptive functions

  1. Dynamics of deceptive interactions in social networks

    CERN Document Server

    Barrio, Rafael A; Dunbar, Robin; Iñiguez, Gerardo; Kaski, Kimmo


    In this paper we examine the role of lies in human social relations by implementing some salient characteristics of deceptive interactions into an opinion formation model, so as to describe the dynamical behaviour of a social network more realistically. In this model we take into account such basic properties of social networks as the dynamics of the intensity of interactions, the influence of public opinion, and the fact that in every human interaction it might be convenient to deceive or withhold information depending on the instantaneous situation of each individual in the network. We find that lies shape the topology of social networks, especially the formation of tightly linked, small communities with loose connections between them. We also find that agents with a larger proportion of deceptive interactions are the ones that connect communities of different opinion, and in this sense they have substantial centrality in the network. We then discuss the consequences of these results for the social behaviou...

  2. Deception as a Derived Function of Language (United States)

    Oesch, Nathan


    Language may be one of most important attributes which separates humans from other animal species. It has been suggested by some commentators that the primary biological function of human language is to deceive and selfishly manipulate social competitors. However, despite the existence of a large body of relevant theoretical and empirical literature in favor of the social bonding hypothesis for language function, the ostensible evidence and arguments for the deception hypothesis have not been fully discussed. The following review analyses the evidence and theoretical arguments from human social behavior, comparative animal behavior, and developmental psychology and suggests that deception shows clear signs of a derived function for language. Furthermore, in addition to being used relatively infrequently across most human and non-human animal contexts, deception appears to be utilized just as often for prosocial and social bonding functions, as it is for antisocial purposes. Future studies should focus on theoretical and experimental investigations which explore interactions between deceptive and honest language use in the context of social bonding. PMID:27729895


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gong Jing; Sun Zhixin; Gu Qiang


    Aiming at the traditional passive deception models, this paper constructs a Decoy Platform based on Intelligent Agent (DPIA) to realize dynamic defense. The paper explores a new dynamic defense model based on active deception, introduces its architecture, and expatiates on communication methods and security guarantee in information transference. Simulation results show that the DPIA can attract hacker agility and activity, lead abnormal traffic into it, distribute a large number of attack data, and ensure real network security.

  4. The schema deceptiveness and deceptive problems of genetic algorithms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李敏强; 寇纪淞


    Genetic algorithms (GA) are a new type of global optimization methodology based on nature selection and heredity, and its power comes from the evolution process of the population of feasi ble solutions by using simple genetic operators. The past two decades saw a lot of successful industrial cases of GA application, and also revealed the urgency of practical theoretic guidance. This paper sets focus on the evolution dynamics of GA based on schema theorem and building block hypothesis (Schema Theory), which we thought would form the basis of profound theory of GA. The deceptiveness of GA in solving multi-modal optimization problems encoded on {0,1} was probed in detail. First,a series of new concepts are defined mathematically as the schemata containment, schemata competence. Then, we defined the schema deceptiveness and GA deceptive problems based on primary schemata competence, including fully deceptive problem, consistently deceptive problem, chronically deceptive problem, and fundamentally deceptive problem. Meanwhile, some novel propositions are formed on the basis of primary schemata competence. Finally, we use the trap function, a kind of bit unitation function, and a NiH function (needle-in-a-haystack) newly designed by the authors, to display the affections of schema deceptiveness on the searching behavior of GA.

  5. How Tactile and Function Information Affect Young Children's Ability to Understand the Nature of Food-Appearing, Deceptive Objects (United States)

    Krause, Christina Miles


    Preschool children's (N = 64) ability to use tactile information and function cues on less-realistic and more-realistic food-appearing, deceptive objects was examined before and after training on the function of deceptive objects. They also responded to appearance and reality questions about deceptive objects. Half of the children (F-S:…

  6. How Tactile and Function Information Affect Young Children's Ability to Understand the Nature of Food-Appearing, Deceptive Objects (United States)

    Krause, Christina Miles


    Preschool children's (N = 64) ability to use tactile information and function cues on less-realistic and more-realistic food-appearing, deceptive objects was examined before and after training on the function of deceptive objects. They also responded to appearance and reality questions about deceptive objects. Half of the children (F-S:…

  7. A Technique for Presenting a Deceptive Dynamic Network Topology (United States)


    Authority ICMP Internet Control Message Protocol IP Internet Protocol IPv4 Internet Protocol version 4 IPv6 Internet Protocol version 6 IO information...version 4 (IPv4) addresses exclusively. As the IPv4 address space reaches exhaustion, more organizations will begin using Internet Protocol version 6 ( IPv6 ...48]. Thus, for the deception implementation presented here to remain relevant, it should be modified to enable support for IPv6 addresses. 5.2.2

  8. Lying in the scanner: covert countermeasures disrupt deception by functional magnetic resonance imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ganis, G.; Rosenfeld, J.P.; Meixner, J.; Kievit, R.A.; Schendan, H.


    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have documented differences between deceptive and honest responses. Capitalizing on this research, companies marketing fMRI-based lie detection services have been founded, generating methodological and ethical concerns in scientific and legal comm

  9. Lying in the scanner: covert countermeasures disrupt deception detection by functional magnetic resonance imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ganis, G.; Rosenfeld, J.P.; Meixner, J.; Kievit, R.A.; Schendan, H.E.


    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have documented differences between deceptive and honest responses. Capitalizing on this research, companies marketing fMRI-based lie detection services have been founded, generating methodological and ethical concerns in scientific and legal comm


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno eVerschuere


    Full Text Available Background. By definition, lying involves withholding the truth. Response inhibition may therefore be the cognitive function at the heart of deception. Neuroimaging research has shown that the same brain region that is activated during response inhibition tasks, namely the inferior frontal region, is also activated during deception paradigms. This led to the hypothesis that the inferior frontal region is the neural substrate critically involved in withholding the truth. Objective. We critically examine the functional necessity of the inferior frontal region in withholding the truth during deception. Method. We experimentally manipulated the neural activity level in right inferior frontal sulcus (IFS by means of neuronavigated continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS. Individual structural magnetic resonance brain images (MRI were used to allow precise stimulation in each participant. Twenty-six participants answered autobiographical questions truthfully or deceptively before and after sham and real cTBS. Results. Deception was reliably associated with more errors, longer and more variable response times than truth telling. Despite the potential role of IFS in deception as suggested by neuroimaging data, the cTBS-induced disruption of right IFS did not affect response times or error rates, when compared to sham stimulation. Conclusions. The present findings do not support the hypothesis that the right inferior frontal sulcus is critically involved in deception.

  11. Floral trait variation and integration as a function of sexual deception in Gorteria diffusa. (United States)

    Ellis, Allan G; Brockington, Samuel F; de Jager, Marinus L; Mellers, Gregory; Walker, Rachel H; Glover, Beverley J


    Phenotypic integration, the coordinated covariance of suites of morphological traits, is critical for proper functioning of organisms. Angiosperm flowers are complex structures comprising suites of traits that function together to achieve effective pollen transfer. Floral integration could reflect shared genetic and developmental control of these traits, or could arise through pollinator-imposed stabilizing correlational selection on traits. We sought to expose mechanisms underlying floral trait integration in the sexually deceptive daisy, Gorteria diffusa, by testing the hypothesis that stabilizing selection imposed by male pollinators on floral traits involved in mimicry has resulted in tighter integration. To do this, we quantified patterns of floral trait variance and covariance in morphologically divergent G. diffusa floral forms representing a continuum in the levels of sexual deception. We show that integration of traits functioning in visual attraction of male pollinators increases with pollinator deception, and is stronger than integration of non-mimicry trait modules. Consistent patterns of within-population trait variance and covariance across floral forms suggest that integration has not been built by stabilizing correlational selection on genetically independent traits. Instead pollinator specialization has selected for tightened integration within modules of linked traits. Despite potentially strong constraint on morphological evolution imposed by developmental genetic linkages between traits, we demonstrate substantial divergence in traits across G. diffusa floral forms and show that divergence has often occurred without altering within-population patterns of trait correlations.

  12. Does the inferior frontal sulcus play a functional role in deception? A neuronavigated theta-burst transcranial magnetic stimulation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Verschuere; T. Schuhmann; A.T. Sack


    By definition, lying involves withholding the truth. Response inhibition may therefore be the cognitive function at the heart of deception. Neuroimaging research has shown that the same brain region that is activated during response inhibition tasks, namely the inferior frontal region, is also activ

  13. The functional anatomical distinction between truth telling and deception is preserved among people with schizophrenia. (United States)

    Kaylor-Hughes, Catherine J; Lankappa, Sudheer T; Fung, Robert; Hope-Urwin, Alexandra E; Wilkinson, Iain D; Spence, Sean A


    A recently emergent functional neuroimaging literature has described the functional anatomical correlates of deception among healthy volunteers, most often implicating the ventrolateral prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices. To date, there have been no such imaging studies of people with severe mental illness. To discover whether the brains of people with schizophrenia would manifest a similar functional anatomical distinction between the states of truthfulness and deceit. It is hypothesised that, as with healthy people, persons with schizophrenia will show activation in the ventrolateral prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices when lying. Fifty-two people satisfying Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder-IV criteria for schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging at 3 T while responding truthfully or with lies to questions concerning their recent actions. Half the sample was concurrently experiencing delusions. As hypothesised, patients exhibited greater activity in ventrolateral prefrontal cortices while lying. Truthful responses were not associated with any areas of relatively increased activation. The presence or absence of delusions did not substantially affect these findings, although subtle laterality effects were discernible upon post hoc analyses. As in healthy cohorts, the brains of people with schizophrenia exhibit a functional anatomical distinction between the states of truthfulness and deceit. Furthermore, this distinction pertains even in the presence of delusions. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Exploring time- and frequency- dependent functional connectivity and brain networks during deception with single-trial event-related potentials (United States)

    Gao, Jun-Feng; Yang, Yong; Huang, Wen-Tao; Lin, Pan; Ge, Sheng; Zheng, Hong-Mei; Gu, Ling-Yun; Zhou, Hui; Li, Chen-Hong; Rao, Ni-Ni


    To better characterize the cognitive processes and mechanisms that are associated with deception, wavelet coherence was employed to evaluate functional connectivity between different brain regions. Two groups of subjects were evaluated for this purpose: 32 participants were required to either tell the truth or to lie when facing certain stimuli, and their electroencephalogram signals on 12 electrodes were recorded. The experimental results revealed that deceptive responses elicited greater connectivity strength than truthful responses, particularly in the θ band on specific electrode pairs primarily involving connections between the prefrontal/frontal and central regions and between the prefrontal/frontal and left parietal regions. These results indicate that these brain regions play an important role in executing lying responses. Additionally, three time- and frequency-dependent functional connectivity networks were proposed to thoroughly reflect the functional coupling of brain regions that occurs during lying. Furthermore, the wavelet coherence values for the connections shown in the networks were extracted as features for support vector machine training. High classification accuracy suggested that the proposed network effectively characterized differences in functional connectivity between the two groups of subjects over a specific time-frequency area and hence could be a sensitive measurement for identifying deception.

  15. Cues to deception and ability to detect lies as a function of police interview styles. (United States)

    Vrij, Aldert; Mann, Samantha; Kristen, Susanne; Fisher, Ronald P


    In Experiment 1, we examined whether three interview styles used by the police, accusatory, information-gathering and behaviour analysis, reveal verbal cues to deceit, measured with the Criteria-Based Content Analysis (CBCA) and Reality Monitoring (RM) methods. A total of 120 mock suspects told the truth or lied about a staged event and were interviewed by a police officer employing one of these three interview styles. The results showed that accusatory interviews, which typically result in suspects making short denials, contained the fewest verbal cues to deceit. Moreover, RM distinguished between truth tellers and liars better than CBCA. Finally, manual RM coding resulted in more verbal cues to deception than automatic coding of the RM criteria utilising the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC) software programme. In Experiment 2, we examined the effects of the three police interview styles on the ability to detect deception. Sixty-eight police officers watched some of the videotaped interviews of Experiment 1 and made veracity and confidence judgements. Accuracy scores did not differ between the three interview styles; however, watching accusatory interviews resulted in more false accusations (accusing truth tellers of lying) than watching information-gathering interviews. Furthermore, only in accusatory interviews, judgements of mendacity were associated with higher confidence. We discuss the possible danger of conducting accusatory interviews.

  16. Geomorphological dynamics of Deception Island (Maritime Antarctic): a GIS based analysis of the Cerro de la Cruz - Crater Lake area (United States)

    Melo, R.; Vieira, G.; Rocha, J.; Caselli, A.; Batista, V.; Ramos, M.


    This study, based on field surveying from the austral summer of 2007-2008, presents the first results of the detailed geomorphological mapping of Deception Island (South Shetlands, Antarctic Peninsula). The main objective is to provide new geomorphological observations aiming to understand: i) how climate change is affecting permafrost, ii) the interactions between volcanoes and permafrost and also, iii) the present-day geomorphological dynamics in an area of high environmental sensitivity. The detailed geomorphological mapping was made in the area between the Argentinean base of Decepción and the Spanish Base Gabriel de Castilla, corresponding to 4 km2, as well as in the vicinity of the ruins of the Chilean Refuge. Mapping focused on landforms and deposits that may be indicators of permafrost dynamics, such as rockfalls, gullies, debris flows, thermokarst depressions and lag surfaces. Active layer thickness was monitored during the summer in two sites with different topographic conditions using mechanical probing. The spatial distribution of the geomorphological processes and landforms was studied using a GIS, with the objective to study the controls of several independent variables, such as altitude, aspect, slope, topographical parameters and net summer radiation.

  17. fNIRS-based online deception decoding (United States)

    Hu, Xiao-Su; Hong, Keum-Shik; Ge, Shuzhi Sam


    Deception involves complex neural processes in the brain. Different techniques have been used to study and understand brain mechanisms during deception. Moreover, efforts have been made to develop schemes that can detect and differentiate deception and truth-telling. In this paper, a functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS)-based online brain deception decoding framework is developed. Deploying dual-wavelength fNIRS, we interrogate 16 locations in the forehead when eight able-bodied adults perform deception and truth-telling scenarios separately. By combining preprocessed oxy-hemoglobin and deoxy-hemoglobin signals, we develop subject-specific classifiers using the support vector machine. Deception and truth-telling states are classified correctly in seven out of eight subjects. A control experiment is also conducted to verify the deception-related hemodynamic response. The average classification accuracy is over 83.44% from these seven subjects. The obtained result suggests that the applicability of fNIRS as a brain imaging technique for online deception detection is very promising.

  18. Mathematical analysis of deception.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, Deanna Tamae Koike (University of California at Davis, Davis, CA); Durgin, Nancy Ann


    This report describes the results of a three year research project about the use of deception in information protection. The work involved a collaboration between Sandia employees and students in the Center for Cyber Defenders (CCD) and at the University of California at Davis. This report includes a review of the history of deception, a discussion of some cognitive issues, an overview of previous work in deception, the results of experiments on the effects of deception on an attacker, and a mathematical model of error types associated with deception in computer systems.

  19. Functional Significance of Labellum Pattern Variation in a Sexually Deceptive Orchid (Ophrys heldreichii: Evidence of Individual Signature Learning Effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin Stejskal

    Full Text Available Mimicking female insects to attract male pollinators is an important strategy in sexually deceptive orchids of the genus Ophrys, and some species possess flowers with conspicuous labellum patterns. The function of the variation of the patterns remains unresolved, with suggestions that these enhance pollinator communication. We investigated the possible function of the labellum pattern in Ophrys heldreichii, an orchid species in which the conspicuous and complex labellum pattern contrasts with a dark background. The orchid is pollinated exclusively by males of the solitary bee, Eucera berlandi. Comparisons of labellum patterns revealed that patterns within inflorescences are more similar than those of other conspecific plants. Field observations showed that the males approach at a great speed and directly land on flowers, but after an unsuccessful copulation attempt, bees hover close and visually scan the labellum pattern for up to a minute. Learning experiments conducted with honeybees as an accessible model of bee vision demonstrated that labellum patterns of different plants can be reliably learnt; in contrast, patterns of flowers from the same inflorescence could not be discriminated. These results support the hypothesis that variable labellum patterns in O. heldreichii are involved in flower-pollinator communication which would likely help these plants to avoid geitonogamy.

  20. Functional Significance of Labellum Pattern Variation in a Sexually Deceptive Orchid (Ophrys heldreichii): Evidence of Individual Signature Learning Effects (United States)

    Stejskal, Kerstin; Streinzer, Martin; Dyer, Adrian; Paulus, Hannes F.; Spaethe, Johannes


    Mimicking female insects to attract male pollinators is an important strategy in sexually deceptive orchids of the genus Ophrys, and some species possess flowers with conspicuous labellum patterns. The function of the variation of the patterns remains unresolved, with suggestions that these enhance pollinator communication. We investigated the possible function of the labellum pattern in Ophrys heldreichii, an orchid species in which the conspicuous and complex labellum pattern contrasts with a dark background. The orchid is pollinated exclusively by males of the solitary bee, Eucera berlandi. Comparisons of labellum patterns revealed that patterns within inflorescences are more similar than those of other conspecific plants. Field observations showed that the males approach at a great speed and directly land on flowers, but after an unsuccessful copulation attempt, bees hover close and visually scan the labellum pattern for up to a minute. Learning experiments conducted with honeybees as an accessible model of bee vision demonstrated that labellum patterns of different plants can be reliably learnt; in contrast, patterns of flowers from the same inflorescence could not be discriminated. These results support the hypothesis that variable labellum patterns in O. heldreichii are involved in flower-pollinator communication which would likely help these plants to avoid geitonogamy. PMID:26571020

  1. Biometrics Technology: Understanding Dynamics Influencing Adoption for Control of Identification Deception within Nigeria (United States)

    Nwatu, Gideon U.


    One of the objectives of any government is the establishment of an effective solution to significantly control crime. Identity fraud in Nigeria has generated global attention and negative publicity toward its citizens. The research problem addressed in this study was the lack of understanding of the dynamics that influenced the adoption and…

  2. Self-deception in an evolutionary game. (United States)

    Byrne, C C; Kurland, J A


    From the perspective of philosophy, the idea of humans lying to themselves seems irrational and maladaptive, if even possible. However, the paradigm of cognitive modularity admits the possibility of self-deception. Trivers argues that self-deception can increase fitness by improving the effectiveness of inter-personal deception. Ramachandran criticizes Trivers' conjecture, arguing that the costs of self-deception outweigh its benefits. We first modify a well-known cognitive modularity model of Minsky to formalize a cognitive model of self-deception. We then use Byrne's multi-dimensional dynamic character meta-model to integrate the cognitive model into an evolutionary hawk-dove game in order to investigate Trivers' and Ramachandran's conjectures. By mapping the influence of game circumstances into cognitive states, and mapping the influence of multiple cognitive modules into player decisions, our cognitive definition of self-deception is extended to a behavioral definition of self-deception. Our cognitive modules, referred to as the hunger and fear daemons, assess the benefits and the cost of competition and generate player beliefs. Daemon-assessment of encounter benefits and costs may lead to inter-daemonic conflict, that is, ambivalence, about whether or not to fight. Player-types vary in the manner by which such inter-daemonic conflict is resolved, and varieties of self-deception are modeled as type-specific conflict-resolution mechanisms. In the display phase of the game, players signal to one another and update their beliefs before finally committing to a decision (hawk or dove). Self-deception can affect player beliefs, and hence player actions, before or after signaling. In support of Trivers' conjecture, the self-deceiving types do outperform the non-self-deceiving type. We analyse the sensitivity of this result to parameters of the cognitive model, specifically the cognitive resolution of the players and the influence of player signals on co-player beliefs.

  3. Interviewing to detect deception


    Vrij, Aldert


    DePaulo et al.’s (2003) meta-analysis of verbal and nonverbal cues to deception showed that cues to deception are faint and unreliable. If liars do not spontaneously display diagnostic cues to deceit, a logical step is to make sure that investigators elicit or enhance such cues in interviews through specific interview technique. Such interview techniques were scarce in the nonverbal and verbal cues to deception domain, but recently researchers have developed alternative protocols that have th...

  4. The Art of Deception and the Role of Intelligence Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitchell, Dr. William L.


    Is deception an art? And if so, what role might it have in military intelligence education? To offer some answers to the these questions, the paper draws upon the discovery phase of efforts to synchronize deception theory, research, practice, in order to develop a post-graduate military deception...... course for a military intelligence studies. In doing so, it reflects upon the recognition afforded from discovery to creativity, innovation, science, doctrine, and ethics, within the studies of deception and the construct of military deception itself. It follows with bridge building between theory...... and practice through the adaptive use of Boyds Observe-Orient-Decide-Act (OODA) and a target centric intelligence approach to explain the dynamics concerning military intelligence in warfighting. These initial findings suggest that deception, as part of a post-graduate military intelligence education, not only...

  5. Orchid pollination by sexual deception: pollinator perspectives. (United States)

    Gaskett, A C


    becoming well understood for some species, but visual and tactile signals such as colour, shape, and texture remain neglected. Experimental manipulations that test for function, multi-signal interactions, and pollinator perception of these signals are required. Furthermore, other forms of deception such as exploitation of pollinator sensory biases or mating preferences merit more comprehensive investigation. Application of molecular techniques adapted from model plants and animals is likely to deliver new insights into orchid signalling, and pollinator perception and behaviour. There is little current evidence that sexual deception drives any species-level selection on pollinators. Pollinators do learn to avoid deceptive orchids and their locations, but this is not necessarily a response specific to orchids. Even in systems where evidence suggests that orchids do interfere with pollinator mating opportunities, considerable further research is required to determine whether this is sufficient to impose selection on pollinators or generate antagonistic coevolution or an arms race between orchids and their pollinators. Botanists, taxonomists and chemical ecologists have made remarkable progress in the study of deceptive orchid pollination. Further complementary investigations from entomology and behavioural ecology perspectives should prove fascinating and engender a more complete understanding of the evolution and maintenance of such enigmatic plant-animal interactions.

  6. Deception: Theory and Practice (United States)


    67 Headquarters, Department of the Army, Field Manual 90-2: Battlefield Deception ( HTF ) (Washington, DC: Department of the Army, 1978), 1-1. 68...Manual 90-2: Battlefield Deception ( HTF ). Washington, DC: Department of the Army, 1978. ———. General Orders no. 20. Alexandria, VA: Department of

  7. Rules of Deception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhlin, Jonas

    planner, who strives to fight wars and conflicts in accordance with international customary law, and conventions. This paper seeks to examine the theory of deception in the light of the laws of armed conflict. It will show where and how the means of deception can collide with the law. The paper will do...

  8. Discrete Wigner function dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klimov, A B; Munoz, C [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Guadalajara, Revolucion 1500, 44410, Guadalajara, Jalisco (Mexico)


    We study the evolution of the discrete Wigner function for prime and the power of prime dimensions using the discrete version of the star-product operation. Exact and semiclassical dynamics in the limit of large dimensions are considered.

  9. A Note on Methods Used for Deception Analysis and Influence of Thinking Stimulus in Deception Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Bhuvaneswari


    Full Text Available Lie or deception analysis is a significant challenge for investigators especially in crime cases. Identifying liar from normal human behaviour has higher relevance with external behaviour and cognitive functionality of human brain. Methods such as polygraph, cognitive polygraph, facial electromyography, eye tracking, voice stress analysis and functional magnetic resonance imaging have been already developed for deception analysis. Even these methods has its own merits, all these methods faces a common issue of accuracy in deception detection ratio due to different kind of liars and learned criminals. Thinking is an internal stimulus having relationship with deception. Identifying thinking responses from brain is one of the measures used to detect deception. Electroencephalography is another modality to understand cognitive responses such as thinking from human brain and this method can be extended to detect liar from other people. Statistical features such as Power, Variance and Root Mean Square (RMS have been calculated for normal and thinking patterns of EEG signal. Primary objective of this paper is to focus various methods used for lie/deception analysis. This paper also explains influence of statistical features to discriminate thinking patterns from normal signal.

  10. Influence of the neuropsychological functions in theory of mind in schizophrenia: the false-belief/deception paradigm. (United States)

    Fernandez-Gonzalo, Sol; Pousa, Esther; Jodar, Merce; Turon, Marc; Duño, Roso; Palao, Diego


    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of neurocognition in a false-belief/deception theory of mind (ToM) task in a sample of patients with schizophrenia. In a cross-sectional study of 43 remitted patients, the implication of neurocognition in first- and second-order ToM stories was analyzed, controlling for clinical symptoms and duration of illness. None of the cognitive factors were associated with the first-order ToM stories. A logistic regression model with high specificity (96.3%) and sensitivity (75%) was obtained in the second-order ToM story "The Burglar," the Information subtest (odds ratio [OR], 0.783; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.62-0.99; p = 0.04) and the Block Design subtest (OR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.79-1; p = 0.056) of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III being the best predictive factors. Neurocognition was not related to first- or second-order ToM false-belief performance of the patients with schizophrenia. However, an influence of neuropsychological variables in the second-order ToM deception was observed. The clinical implications in the assessment of ToM are discussed.

  11. Hazard of deceptive advertising of athletic footwear. (United States)

    Robbins, S; Waked, E


    Athletic footwear are associated with frequent injury that are thought to result from repetitive impact. No scientific data suggest they protect well. Expensive athletic shoes are deceptively advertised to safeguard well through "cushioning impact", yet account for 123% greater injury frequency than the cheapest ones. This study tested the hypothesis that deceptive advertising creates a false sense of security with users of expensive athletic shoes, inducing attenuation of impact moderating behaviour, increased impact, and injury. Fifteen young healthy male volunteers confronted four surfaces: a bare force moment platform, and three with this platform covered by identical shoe sole material made to appear different and advertised divergently. Advertising messages suggested superior impact absorption and protection (deceptive message), poor impact absorption and high injury risk (warning message), and unknown impact absorption and safety (neutral message). Ground reaction forces were recorded for 10 barefoot footfalls, according to a protocol requiring stepping forward from perch to a surface 4.5 cm below. Impact varied as a function of advertising message (p Deceptive message equalled neutral message in eliciting higher impact than the warning message and the bare platform. Differences grew with repetitions (p deceptive advertising of protective devices may represent a public health hazard and may have to be eliminated presumably through regulation; (2) a tendency in humans to be less cautious when using new devices of unknown benefit because of overly positive attitudes associated with new technology and novel devices.

  12. Medicine, lies and deceptions. (United States)

    Benn, P


    This article offers a qualified defence of the view that there is a moral difference between telling lies to one's patients, and deceiving them without lying. However, I take issue with certain arguments offered by Jennifer Jackson in support of the same conclusion. In particular, I challenge her claim that to deny that there is such a moral difference makes sense only within a utilitarian framework, and I cast doubt on the aptness of some of her examples of non-lying deception. But I argue that lies have a greater tendency to damage trust than does non-lying deception, and suggest that since many doctors do believe there is a moral boundary between the two types of deception, encouraging them to violate that boundary may have adverse general effects on their moral sensibilities.

  13. Military Deception Reconsidered (United States)


    There is a sucker born every day.1 P.T. Barnum A. THESIS OVERVIEW –PROBLEM DEFINITION This thesis explores the elements of military deception and...of war through the ages . In recent times, however, deception has often been undervalued, as evidenced by the removal of Field Manual (FM) 90-2...beliefs and values. In psychology, a “motivated bias” or rather the enemy reads into a situation what he wants to and chooses to see what he wants

  14. The ubiquity of deception and the ethics of deceptive research. (United States)

    Benham, Bryan


    Does the fact that deception is widely practised - even though there is a general prohibition against deception - provide insight into the ethics of deceptive methods in research, especially for social-behavioral research? I answer in the affirmative. The ubiquity of deception argument, as I will call it, points to the need for a concrete and nuanced understanding of the variety of deceptive practices, and thus promises an alternative route of analysis for why some deception may be permissible in social-behavioral research. As an alternative argument it also promises to break the stalemate that emerges in debates on the ethics of deceptive methods in social-behavioral research. In the current paper I (1) motivate and articulate the ubiquity argument in order to clarify the significance of ubiquity and discharge some initial objections. Then, on the recommendations of the ubiquity argument, I (2) highlight the importance of interpersonal relationships for understanding the ethics of deception. Following this insight I (3) provide an analysis of several features of the researcher-participant relationship relevant to the understanding of the ethics of deception in research. I then (4) conclude the argument with some recommendations for the ethical use of deceptive methods in social-behavioral research.

  15. Getting back to the rough ground: deception and 'social living'. (United States)

    Reddy, Vasudevi


    At the heart of the social intelligence hypothesis is the central role of 'social living'. But living is messy and psychologists generally seek to avoid this mess in the interests of getting clean data and cleaner logical explanations. The study of deception as intelligent action is a good example of the dangers of such avoidance. We still do not have a full picture of the development of deceptive actions in human infants and toddlers or an explanation of why it emerges. This paper applies Byrne & Whiten's functional taxonomy of tactical deception to the social behaviour of human infants and toddlers using data from three previous studies. The data include a variety of acts, such as teasing, pretending, distracting and concealing, which are not typically considered in relation to human deception. This functional analysis shows the onset of non-verbal deceptive acts to be surprisingly early. Infants and toddlers seem to be able to communicate false information (about themselves, about shared meanings and about events) as early as true information. It is argued that the development of deception must be a fundamentally social and communicative process and that if we are to understand why deception emerges at all, the scientist needs to get 'back to the rough ground' as Wittgenstein called it and explore the messy social lives in which it develops.

  16. Informing consumers: Protection from deceptive advertising

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stanković Ljiljana; Đukić Suzana; Popović Ana


    ... is dedicated to defining advertising that can possibly lead to deception of consumers. Authors of this paper are focused on analysing legislation and theoretical explanations of deceptive advertising...

  17. Empathy, communication, deception. (United States)

    Janović, Tomislav; Ivković, Vladimir; Nazor, Damir; Grammer, Karl; Jovanović, Veljko


    Empathy is understood as a mode of understanding operating on a subconscious level of mental processing. The cognitive element can only abstractly be distinguished from its affective expression. When recognizing a fellow creature we involuntarily sympathize with it. Recognition of covert motivations of overt behavior is the first step in formation of a communication channel between two (or more) empathizing agents. Yet, since communication evolved in variably complex social environments it was subject to pressure of conflicting individual interests. Deception thus evolved as an adaptive evolutionary strategy. Empathic understanding does not necessarily entail recognition of agent's real intentions. Deception may be achieved on both conscious and unconscious processing levels. A sufficient degree of biopsychosocial maturity must be reached for a child to be able to independently recognize verbal and non-verbal communication finesses. Once this level has been attained, the prevailing emotional orientation determines his/her degree of empathizing competence.

  18. Organizing for Operational Deception (United States)


    the group pulled more than any one individual did, individual contribution actually declined. Ringelmann attributed his results to “ social loafing ...complex social organizations that make up general staffs. Its applicability and how to coordinate and integrate deceptive executions across multi...improve a commander’s ability to address complex problems, but it is at a cost of increasing social complexity within the organization itself. As the

  19. Deceptive pollination of orchids



    Mutualism, or a mutually beneficial interaction between two organisms, are ubiquitous in ecological systems. However, some “empty flowers”, which offer pollinators no any kinds of rewards, design different strategies to attract pollinators without providing rewards to the pollinators. These pollination mechanisms are called deceptive pollination. The family Orchidaceae, representing one of the largest groups in angiosperms, is distinguished by high floral diversity and intricate adaptations t...

  20. Deceptive Advertising: Unprotected and Unknown. (United States)

    Ducoffe, Robert Hal

    The Supreme Court tentatively extended First Amendment protection to commercial speech, but left the issue of defining and regulating deceptive advertising to the Federal Trade Commission (FTC), which has employed tools such as the cease-and-desist order, affirmative disclosure, and corrective advertising. The FTC Act did not define deception, but…

  1. Deception in plants: mimicry or perceptual exploitation? (United States)

    Schaefer, H Martin; Ruxton, Graeme D


    Mimicry involves adaptive resemblance between a mimic and a model. However, despite much recent research, it remains contentious in plants. Here, we review recent progress on studying deception by flowers, distinguishing between plants relying on mimicry to achieve pollination and those relying on the exploitation of the perceptual biases of animals. We disclose fundamental differences between both mechanisms and explain why the evolution of exploitation is less constrained than that of mimicry. Exploitation of perceptual biases might thus be a precursor for the gradual evolution of mimicry. Increasing knowledge on the sensory and cognitive filters in animals, and on the selective pressures that maintain them, should aid researchers in tracing the evolutionary dynamics of deception in plants.

  2. Statistical deception at work

    CERN Document Server

    Mauro, John


    Written to reveal statistical deceptions often thrust upon unsuspecting journalists, this book views the use of numbers from a public perspective. Illustrating how the statistical naivete of journalists often nourishes quantitative misinformation, the author's intent is to make journalists more critical appraisers of numerical data so that in reporting them they do not deceive the public. The book frequently uses actual reported examples of misused statistical data reported by mass media and describes how journalists can avoid being taken in by them. Because reports of survey findings seldom g

  3. Colour mimicry and sexual deception by Tongue orchids (Cryptostylis). (United States)

    Gaskett, A C; Herberstein, M E


    Typically, floral colour attracts pollinators by advertising rewards such as nectar, but how does colour function when pollinators are deceived, unrewarded, and may even suffer fitness costs? Sexually deceptive orchids are pollinated only by male insects fooled into mating with orchid flowers and inadvertently transferring orchid pollinia. Over long distances, sexually deceptive orchids lure pollinators with counterfeit insect sex pheromones, but close-range deception with colour mimicry is a tantalising possibility. Here, for the first time, we analyse the colours of four sexually deceptive Cryptostylis orchid species and the female wasp they mimic (Lissopimpla excelsa, Ichneumonidae), from the perspective of the orchids' single, shared pollinator, male Lissopimpla excelsa. Despite appearing different to humans, the colours of the orchids and female wasps were effectively identical when mapped into a hymenopteran hexagonal colour space. The orchids and wasps reflected predominantly red-orange wavelengths, but UV was also reflected by raised bumps on two orchid species and by female wasp wings. The orchids' bright yellow pollinia contrasted significantly with their overall red colour. Orchid deception may therefore involve accurate and species-specific mimicry of wavelengths reflected by female wasps, and potentially, exploitation of insects' innate attraction to UV and yellow wavelengths. In general, mimicry may be facilitated by exploiting visual vulnerabilities and evolve more readily at the peripheries of sensory perception. Many sexually deceptive orchids are predominantly red, green or white: colours that are all potentially difficult for hymenoptera to detect or distinguish from the background.

  4. Colour mimicry and sexual deception by Tongue orchids ( Cryptostylis) (United States)

    Gaskett, A. C.; Herberstein, M. E.


    Typically, floral colour attracts pollinators by advertising rewards such as nectar, but how does colour function when pollinators are deceived, unrewarded, and may even suffer fitness costs? Sexually deceptive orchids are pollinated only by male insects fooled into mating with orchid flowers and inadvertently transferring orchid pollinia. Over long distances, sexually deceptive orchids lure pollinators with counterfeit insect sex pheromones, but close-range deception with colour mimicry is a tantalising possibility. Here, for the first time, we analyse the colours of four sexually deceptive Cryptostylis orchid species and the female wasp they mimic ( Lissopimpla excelsa, Ichneumonidae), from the perspective of the orchids’ single, shared pollinator, male Lissopimpla excelsa. Despite appearing different to humans, the colours of the orchids and female wasps were effectively identical when mapped into a hymenopteran hexagonal colour space. The orchids and wasps reflected predominantly red-orange wavelengths, but UV was also reflected by raised bumps on two orchid species and by female wasp wings. The orchids’ bright yellow pollinia contrasted significantly with their overall red colour. Orchid deception may therefore involve accurate and species-specific mimicry of wavelengths reflected by female wasps, and potentially, exploitation of insects’ innate attraction to UV and yellow wavelengths. In general, mimicry may be facilitated by exploiting visual vulnerabilities and evolve more readily at the peripheries of sensory perception. Many sexually deceptive orchids are predominantly red, green or white: colours that are all potentially difficult for hymenoptera to detect or distinguish from the background.

  5. Information asymmetry and deception. (United States)

    Clots-Figueras, Irma; Hernán-González, Roberto; Kujal, Praveen


    Situations such as an entrepreneur overstating a project's value, or a superior choosing to under or overstate the gains from a project to a subordinate are common and may result in acts of deception. In this paper we modify the standard investment game in the economics literature to study the nature of deception. In this game a trustor (investor) can send a given amount of money to a trustee (or investee). The amount received is multiplied by a certain amount, k, and the investee then decides on how to divide the total amount received. In our modified game the information on the multiplier, k, is known only to the investee and she can send a non-binding message to the investor regarding its value. We find that 66% of the investees send false messages with both under and over, statement being observed. Investors are naive and almost half of them believe the message received. We find greater lying when the distribution of the multiplier is unknown by the investors than when they know the distribution. Further, messages make beliefs about the multiplier more pessimistic when the investors know the distribution of the multiplier, while the opposite is true when they do not know the distribution.

  6. Detecting deception via eyeblink frequency modulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon S. Perelman


    Full Text Available To assess the efficacy of using eyeblink frequency modulation to detect deception about a third party, 32 participants were sent on a mission to deliver a package to an interviewer. 17 of the participants lied to the interviewer about the details of their mock mission and 15 responded truthfully. During the interview, eyeblink frequency data were collected via electromyography and recorded video. Liars displayed eyeblink frequency suppression while lying, while truth tellers exhibited an increase in eyeblink frequency during the mission relevant questioning period. The compensatory flurry of eyeblinks following deception observed in previous studies was absent in the present study. A discriminant function using eyeblink suppression to predict lying correctly classified 81.3% of cases, with a sensitivity of 88.2% and a specificity of 73.3%. This technique, yielding a reasonable sensitivity, shows promise for future testing as, unlike polygraph, it is compatible with distance technology.

  7. Pollen transfer efficiency and its effect on inflorescence size in deceptive pollination strategies. (United States)

    Scopece, G; Schiestl, F P; Cozzolino, S


    Pollination systems differ in pollen transfer efficiency, a variable that may influence the evolution of flower number. Here we apply a comparative approach to examine the link between pollen transfer efficiency and the evolution of inflorescence size in food and sexually deceptive orchids. We examined pollination performance in nine food-deceptive, and eight sexually deceptive orchids by recording pollen removal and deposition in the field. We calculated correlations between reproductive success and flower number (as a proxy for resources allocated during reproductive process), and directional selection differentials were estimated on flower number for four species. Results indicate that sexually deceptive species experience decreased pollen loss compared to food-deceptive species. Despite producing fewer flowers, sexually deceptive species attained levels of overall pollination success (through male and female function) similar to food-deceptive species. Furthermore, a positive correlation between flower number and pollination success was observed in food-deceptive species, but this correlation was not detected in sexually deceptive species. Directional selection differentials for flower number were significantly higher in food compared to sexually deceptive species. We suggest that pollination systems with more efficient pollen transfer and no correlation between pollination success and number of flowers produced, such as sexual deception, may allow the production of inflorescences with fewer flowers that permit the plant to allocate fewer resources to floral displays and, at the same time, limit transpiration. This strategy can be particularly important for ecological success in Mediterranean water-deprived habitats, and might explain the high frequency of sexually deceptive species in these specialised ecosystems. © 2014 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  8. Deception: Spies, Lies and Forgeries



    We have entered a ‘post-truth era’, in which, Daniel J. Boorstin notes, ‘believability’ has become an acceptable substitute for ‘truth’, and ‘manifold deceptions of our culture’ are difficult to separate from ‘its few enduring truths’. In this era, communities and individuals may feel routinely duped, cheated or betrayed. Though truth may be considered intrinsically valuable, deception may sometimes be useful or necessary. Sometimes there is pleasure in the spectacle of deception. This volume...

  9. The contribution of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex to the preparation for deception and truth-telling. (United States)

    Ito, Ayahito; Abe, Nobuhito; Fujii, Toshikatsu; Hayashi, Akiko; Ueno, Aya; Mugikura, Shunji; Takahashi, Shoki; Mori, Etsuro


    Recent neuroimaging evidence suggests that the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is associated with creating deceptive responses. However, the neural basis of the preparatory processes that create deception has yet to be explored. Previous neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that the preparation for a certain task activates brain areas relevant to the execution of that task, leading to the question of whether dorsolateral prefrontal activity is observed during the preparation for deception. In the present study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to determine whether dorsolateral prefrontal activity, which increases during the execution of deception compared with the execution of truth-telling, also increases during the preparation for deception compared with the preparation for truth-telling. Our data show that the execution of deception was associated with increased activity in several brain regions, including the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, compared with truth-telling, confirming the contribution of this region to the production of deceptive responses. The results also reveal that the preparations for both deception and truth-telling were associated with increased activity in certain brain regions, including the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. These findings suggest that the preparations for truth-telling and deception make similar demands on the brain and that the dorsolateral prefrontal activity identified in the preparation phase is associated with general preparatory processes, regardless of whether one is telling a lie or the truth. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Interpersonal Deception Theory: Examining Deception From a Communication Perspective. (United States)


    personnel to keep In mind that the new technologies, with all their benefits, have some potential pitfalls for communicators. While micro- multimedia...model, though, accuracy is not so easily defined because it is a matter of degree. On the one hand, if receivers do not rate a deceptive message as...deception type mod•.rates the relationship between preinteractional or interactin .. fav-rs and perc~tnio.’s of success Since no significant moderating

  11. Placebo and deception: a commentary. (United States)

    Barnhill, Anne; Miller, Franklin G


    In a recent article in this Journal, Shlomo Cohen and Haim Shapiro (2013) introduce the concept of "comparable placebo treatments" (CPTs)--placebo treatments with biological effects similar to the drugs they replace--and argue that doctors are not being deceptive when they prescribe or administer CPTs without revealing that they are placebos. We critique two of Cohen and Shapiro's primary arguments. First, Cohen and Shapiro argue that offering undisclosed placebos is not lying to the patient, but rather is making a self-fulfilling prophecy--telling a "lie" that, ideally, will become true. We argue that offering undisclosed placebos is not a "lie" but is a straightforward case of deceptively misleading the patient. Second, Cohen and Shapiro argue that offering undisclosed CPTs is not equivocation. We argue that it typically is equivocation or deception of another sort. If justifiable, undisclosed placebo use will have to be justified as a practice that is deceptive in most instances.

  12. Identifying Deceptive Speech Across Cultures (United States)


    collection of deceptive and non-deceptive speech recorded from interviews between native speaker of Mandarin and of English instructed to, such as final, technical, interim, memorandum, master’s thesis , progress, quarterly, research, special, group study, etc. 3. DATES, e.g. 001; AFAPL30480105. 6. AUTHOR(S). Enter name(s) of person(s) responsible for writing the report, performing the research, or credited


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available I assess Tamar Gendler's (2007 account of self-deception according to which its characteristic state is not belief, but imaginative pretense. After giving an overview of the literature and presenting the conceptual puzzles engendered by the notion of self-deception, I introduce Gendler's account, which emerges as a rival to practically all extant accounts of self-deception. I object to it by first arguing that her argument for abandoning belief as the characteristic state of self-deception conflates the state of belief and the process of belief-formation when interpreting David Velleman's (2000 thesis that belief is an essentially truth-directed attitude. I then call attention to the fact that Velleman's argument for the identity of motivational role between belief and imagining, on which Gendler's argument for self-deception as pretense depends, conflates two senses of 'motivational role'-a stronger but implausible sense and a weaker but explanatorily irrelevant sense. Finally, I introduce Neil Van Leeuwen's (2009 argument to the effect that belief is the practical ground of all non-belief cognitive attitudes in circum-stances wherein the latter prompt action. I apply this framework to Gendler's account to ultimately show that imaginative pretense fails to explain the existence of voluntary actions which result from self-deception.

  14. Neural correlates of true memory, false memory, and deception. (United States)

    Abe, Nobuhito; Okuda, Jiro; Suzuki, Maki; Sasaki, Hiroshi; Matsuda, Tetsuya; Mori, Etsuro; Tsukada, Minoru; Fujii, Toshikatsu


    We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to determine whether neural activity can differentiate between true memory, false memory, and deception. Subjects heard a series of semantically related words and were later asked to make a recognition judgment of old words, semantically related nonstudied words (lures for false recognition), and unrelated new words. They were also asked to make a deceptive response to half of the old and unrelated new words. There were 3 main findings. First, consistent with the notion that executive function supports deception, 2 types of deception (pretending to know and pretending not to know) recruited prefrontal activity. Second, consistent with the sensory reactivation hypothesis, the difference between true recognition and false recognition was found in the left temporoparietal regions probably engaged in the encoding of auditorily presented words. Third, the left prefrontal cortex was activated during pretending to know relative to correct rejection and false recognition, whereas the right anterior hippocampus was activated during false recognition relative to correct rejection and pretending to know. These findings indicate that fMRI can detect the difference in brain activity between deception and false memory despite the fact that subjects respond with "I know" to novel events in both processes.

  15. Functional MRI analysis of deception among people with antisocial personality disorders%反社会人格障碍患者说谎的功能磁共振分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋伟雄; 廖坚; 刘华生; 唐艳; 王维


    Objective: To investigate the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data of deception in antisocial personality disorders (ASPD).Methods: A total of 32 criminals meeting the criteria for ASPD underwent fMRI at 1.5T while responding truthfully questions or lying. We compared the brain activities between truth-telling and lie-telling, and then computed the correlation coefficient between the contrast brain activities and the inclination to deception.Results: The left anterior cingulate gyrus, the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and left inferior parietal lobule were associated with the executive aspects of deception among people with ASPD. But with the greater inclination to deception, the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) activities in those regions decreased Conclusion: Evaluations of truthful and untruthful communications pertaining to ASPD subjects may be differentiated in terms of brain BOLD activities, though those activities may decrease in habitual liars, which remains a challenge to the diagnostic accuracy in lie detection.%目的:研究反社会人格的罪犯说谎时的功能磁共振情况.方法:对32个满足反社会人格标准的男性罪犯进行功能磁共振,分析他们在说真话和说假话时的脑区激活差异以及习惯性说谎程度与激活脑区强弱之间的关系.结果:反社会人格障碍患者左扣带回前部,双侧的背外侧前额叶,左顶下小叶与其欺骗行为的执行相关.并且随着善于说谎程度的加强,这些区域的激活强度呈下降趋势.结论:利用大脑的血氧水平依赖激活可对反社会人格障碍患者说谎和说真话行为进行识别,但是血氧水平依赖激活差异会随着善于说谎程度的增加而降低,这对测谎精确度提出了挑战.

  16. 16 CFR 20.1 - Deception generally. (United States)


    ..., RECONDITIONED AND OTHER USED AUTOMOBILE PARTS INDUSTRY § 20.1 Deception generally. (a) It is unfair or deceptive... previous use, reconstruction or repair of any industry product. (b) It is unfair or deceptive to offer for... used or contains used parts is made in advertising, sales promotional literature and invoices and on...

  17. Experimental economics' inconsistent ban on deception. (United States)

    Hersch, Gil


    According to what I call the 'argument from public bads', if a researcher deceived subjects in the past, there is a chance that subjects will discount the information that a subsequent researcher provides, thus compromising the validity of the subsequent researcher's experiment. While this argument is taken to justify an existing informal ban on explicit deception in experimental economics, it can also apply to implicit deception, yet implicit deception is not banned and is sometimes used in experimental economics. Thus, experimental economists are being inconsistent when they appeal to the argument from public bads to justify banning explicit deception but not implicit deception. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Darwin, deception, and facial expression. (United States)

    Ekman, Paul


    Darwin did not focus on deception. Only a few sentences in his book mentioned the issue. One of them raised the very interesting question of whether it is difficult to voluntarily inhibit the emotional expressions that are most difficult to voluntarily fabricate. Another suggestion was that it would be possible to unmask a fabricated expression by the absence of the difficult-to-voluntarily-generate facial actions. Still another was that during emotion body movements could be more easily suppressed than facial expression. Research relevant to each of Darwin's suggestions is reviewed, as is other research on deception that Darwin did not foresee.

  19. From Community Detection to Community Deception

    CERN Document Server

    Fionda, Valeria


    The community deception problem is about how to hide a target community C from community detection algorithms. The need for deception emerges whenever a group of entities (e.g., activists, police enforcements) want to cooperate while concealing their existence as a community. In this paper we introduce and formalize the community deception problem. To solve this problem, we describe algorithms that carefully rewire the connections of C's members. We experimentally show how several existing community detection algorithms can be deceived, and quantify the level of deception by introducing a deception score. We believe that our study is intriguing since, while showing how deception can be realized it raises awareness for the design of novel detection algorithms robust to deception techniques.

  20. Deceptive Business Practices: State Regulations. (United States)

    Rohrer, Daniel Morgan

    Although much has been done at the federal level to control deceptive advertising practices, many states have no criminal laws designed to regulate advertising, and several states recently repealed such laws. This paper examines states' efforts to balance the advertiser's freedom of speech with the consumer's need for information about products by…

  1. Deceptive Business Practices: Federal Regulations. (United States)

    Rohrer, Daniel Morgan

    Federal regulations to prevent deceptive advertising seek to balance the advertiser's freedom of speech with protection of the consumer. This paper discusses what the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) has done to regulate advertising and evaluates the adequacy of its controls. The commission uses cease-and-desist orders, affirmative disclosure,…

  2. Detecting Deception within Small Groups: A Literature Review (United States)

    Vernham, Zarah; Granhag, Pär-Anders; Mac Giolla, Erik


    Investigators often have multiple suspects to interview in order to determine whether they are guilty or innocent of a crime. Nevertheless, co-offending has been significantly neglected within the deception detection literature. The current review is the first of its kind to discuss co-offending and the importance of examining the detection of deception within groups. Groups of suspects can be interviewed separately (individual interviewing) or simultaneously (collective interviewing) and these differing interviewing styles are assessed throughout the review. The review emphasizes the differences between lone individuals and groups. It focuses on the theoretical implications of group deceit and the reasons why groups need to be understood in terms of investigative interviewing and deception detection if all types of crime-related incidents are to be recognized and dealt with appropriately. Group strategies, consistency within- and between-statements, joint memory, and group dynamics are referred to throughout the review and the importance of developing interview protocols specifically for groups is discussed. The review concludes by identifying the gaps in the literature and suggesting ideas for future research, highlighting that more research is required if we are to obtain a true understanding of the deception occurring within groups and how best to detect it. PMID:27445957

  3. When Pinocchio’s nose does not grow: Belief regarding lie detectability modulates production of deception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Ewa Sip


    Full Text Available Does the brain activity underlying the production of deception differ depending on whether or not one believes their deception can be detected? To address this question, we had participants commit a mock theft in a laboratory setting, and then interrogated them while they underwent functional MRI (fMRI scanning. Crucially, during some parts of the interrogation participants believed a lie detector was activated, whereas in other parts they were told it was switched off. We were thus able to examine the neural activity associated with the contrast between producing true versus false claims, as well as the independent contrast between believing that deception could and could not be detected. We found increased activation in the right amygdala and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG, as well as the left posterior cingulate cortex (PCC, during the production of false (compared to true claims. Importantly, there was a significant interaction between the effects of deception and belief in the left temporal pole and right hippocampus/parahippocampal gyrus, where activity increased during the production of deception when participants believed their false claims could be detected, but not when they believed the lie detector was switched off. As these regions are associated with binding socially complex perceptual input and memory retrieval, we conclude that producing deceptive behavior in a context in which one believes this deception can be detected is associated with a cognitively taxing effort to reconcile contradictions between one’s actions and recollections.

  4. Military Deception and Operational Art (United States)


    this age of advanced techonology , rapidity of battlefield engagement and maneuver. However, analysis of two major opportunities for the employment of...and development of maneuver, and the use of new technical means of struggle and combat and operational means. 10 5 While technology has largely obviated...settinR-up of new 32 radio circuits, was increased to support the deception. Thus the entire Fortitude effort was structured to play on German

  5. Cooperation and deception in primates. (United States)

    Hall, Katie; Brosnan, Sarah F


    Though competition and cooperation are often considered opposing forces in an arms race driving natural selection, many animals, including humans, cooperate in order to mitigate competition with others. Understanding others' psychological states, such as seeing and knowing, others' goals and intentions, and coordinating actions are all important for complex cooperation-as well as for predicting behavior in order to take advantage of others through tactical deception, a form of competition. We outline evidence of primates' understanding of how others perceive the world, and then consider how the evidence from both deception and cooperation fits this framework to give us a more complete understanding of the evolution of complex social cognition in primates. In experimental food competitions, primates flexibly manipulate group-mates' behavior to tactically deceive them. Deception can infiltrate cooperative interactions, such as when one takes an unfair share of meat after a coordinated hunt. In order to counter competition of this sort, primates maintain cooperation through partner choice, partner control, and third party punishment. Yet humans appear to stand alone in their ability to understand others' beliefs, which allows us not only to deceive others with the explicit intent to create a false belief, but it also allows us to put ourselves in others' shoes to determine when cheaters need to be punished, even if we are not directly disadvantaged by the cheater. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Invoking the Feigner in Us; Methodological Approaches for Investigating Deception in fMRI Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maral Yeganehdoost


    Full Text Available The attempt to find out if someone is telling a lie has been of human's interest. One of the techniques which is believed to be efficient in future is fMRI (functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging, using which the changes of regional blood flow during the designed paradigm can be recorded. This method has been considered as a better technique for studying lie and deception. For investigating the neural network associated with lying and deception, a task needs to be designed in which participants are instructed to participate in a lie-like situation. In this article, frequently used tasks have been reviewed with their merits and demerits. In addition, a summary of involved neural networks related to lie and deception, according to previous studies, is provided. The goal in future studies is to allocate brain regions associated with lie and deception that are independent of features related to the chosen task.

  7. Detecting deception: the scope and limits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sip, Kamila E; Roepstorff, Andreas; McGregor, William


    With the increasing interest in the neuroimaging of deception and its commercial application, there is a need to pay more attention to methodology. The weakness of studying deception in an experimental setting has been discussed intensively for over half a century. However, even though much effor...

  8. A Comparison of Approaches to Detect Deception (United States)


    noteworthy literature suggests that psychopathy tends to moderate deceptive responses (Phinney, 1992; Nunez, Casey, Egner, Hare, & Hirsch, 2005), little is...that psychopathy influences deceptive responses (Fullam, McKie, & Dolan, 2009; Nunez et al., 2005), little is known whether individual differences

  9. When it pays to cheat: Examining how generalized food deception increases male and female fitness in a terrestrial orchid (United States)


    Background Experimental manipulations of floral nectar in food deceptive species can reveal insights into the evolutionary consequences of the deceptive strategy. When coupled to pollen tracking, the effects of the deceptive pollination syndrome on both male and female reproductive success may be quantified. Attraction of pollinators in deceit-pollinated species often relies on producing a conspicuous floral display which may increase visibility to pollinators, but in-turn may increase within plant selfing. Methodology To understand the role of deception in Orchidaceae reproduction we studied Cypripedium candidum. All species of the Cypripedium genus employ a generalized food deceptive pollination strategy and have been suggested as a model system for the study of pollinator deception. We conducted a nectar addition experiment that randomly assigned the four plants closest to a transect point to receive one of four histochemical dyes. Two individuals selected for nectar addition in each of altogether 25 blocks received 2μl of 25% sucrose solution in the labellum of each flower, while two others received no artificial nectar. Number of fruits produced, fruit mass and fruit abortion were scored at the end of the four-month experiment. Results Nectar addition increased (ppollen discounting by nearly 3x, while plants not receiving nectar had greater (ppollen discounting. There was a non-significant (p = 0.0645) trend for deceptive plants to set more fruit, while presence of nectar did not affect pollen export. Conclusions This study demonstrates the adaptive advantages of food deception by showing a concurrent reduction in particular male and female functions when a food reward is restored to a deceptive flower. We found generalized food deception to not only decrease inbreeding depression in the system, but concurrently have no effect on pollinator attraction and fruit set when compared with rewarding flowers. PMID:28141838

  10. DNA functionalization by dynamic chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep Kanlidere


    Full Text Available Dynamic combinatorial chemistry (DCC is an attractive method to efficiently generate libraries of molecules from simpler building blocks by reversible reactions under thermodynamic control. Here we focus on the chemical modification of DNA oligonucleotides with acyclic diol linkers and demonstrate their potential for the deoxyribonucleic acid functionalization and generation of libraries of reversibly interconverting building blocks. The syntheses of phosphoramidite building blocks derived from D-threoninol are presented in two variants with protected amino or thiol groups. The threoninol building blocks were successfully incorporated via automated solid-phase synthesis into 13mer oligonucleotides. The amino group containing phosphoramidite was used together with complementary single-strand DNA templates that influenced the Watson–Crick base-pairing equilibrium in the mixture with a set of aldehyde modified nucleobases. A significant fraction of all possible base-pair mismatches was obtained, whereas, the highest selectivity (over 80% was found for the guanine aldehyde templated by the complementary cytosine containing DNA. The elevated occurrence of mismatches can be explained by increased backbone plasticity derived from the linear threoninol building block as a cyclic deoxyribose analogue.

  11. Deception dissociates from false belief reasoning in deaf children: implications for the implicit versus explicit theory of mind distinction. (United States)

    de Villiers, Peter A; de Villiers, Jill G


    Deception is a controversial aspect of theory of mind, and researchers disagree about whether it entails an understanding of the false beliefs of one's opponent. The present study asks whether children with delayed language and delayed explicit false belief reasoning can succeed on explicit deception tasks. Participants were 45 orally taught deaf children with varying language delays aged 4.5-8 years and 45 hearing children aged 3.5-6 years. Participants received a battery of language, executive function, deception, and both verbal and low-verbal false belief tasks. The result reveal a dissociation of deception and false belief tasks: the deaf children are on par with their hearing peers on deception games, but show significant delays in false belief tasks even when the language demands are made minimal. Furthermore, different skills are predictors of success for the two types of task in the deaf children: language, and in particular complement syntax, is the best predictor of false belief reasoning; but executive function skills, especially inhibitory control, are the best predictors of deception. It is argued that deception at this level can be handled by behaviour rules without reference to mental states.

  12. Molecular Dynamics and Protein Function

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    M. Karplus; J. Kuriyan; Bruce J. Berne


    .... Molecular dynamics simulations provide powerful tools for the exploration of the conformational energy landscape accessible to these molecules, and the rapid increase in computational power coupled...

  13. Are Celebrities Criminally Responsible For Deceptive Advertising?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The State Administration for Industry and Commerce recently said it has suggested the addition of an article in the Advertising Law to make celebrities who represent fake products in deceptive advertising criminally responsible for their actions if it is confirmed

  14. Informing consumers: Protection from deceptive advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Ljiljana


    Full Text Available It is widely accepted that only informed consumers are protected from potential violation of their consumer rights. Advertising represents one of the main ways of informing consumers, so it is of crutial importance for it to include adequate information that can facilitate decision making proces regarding the purchase. With aim of preventing violation of basic consumer rights, advertising is regulated by legislation, both on EU level and on national level in Republic of Serbia, and while so special attention is dedicated to defining advertising that can possibly lead to deception of consumers. Authors of this paper are focused on analysing legislation and theoretical explanations of deceptive advertising. Results of the research regarding advertising in Serbia and ability of consumers to protect themselves from deceptive advertising are presented. The main aim of the authors is to contribute to increasing level of consumers' self-protection through increasing level of their counciousness on deceptive advertising and its concequences.

  15. Subarray-based FDA radar to counteract deceptive ECM signals (United States)

    Abdalla, Ahmed; Wang, Wen-Qin; Yuan, Zhao; Mohamed, Suhad; Bin, Tang


    In recent years, the frequency diverse array (FDA) radar concept has attracted extensive attention, as it may benefit from a small frequency increment, compared to the carrier frequency across the array elements and thereby achieve an array factor that is a function of the angle, the time, and the range which is superior to the conventional phase array radar (PAR). However, limited effort on the subject of FDA in electronic countermeasure scenarios, especially in the presence of mainbeam deceptive jamming, has been published. Basic FDA is not desirable for anti-jamming applications, due to the range-angle coupling response of targets. In this paper, a novel method based on subarrayed FDA signal processing is proposed to counteract deceptive ECM signals. We divide the FDA array into multiple subarrays, each of which employs a distinct frequency increment. As a result, in the subarray-based FDA, the desired target can be distinguished at subarray level in joint range-angle-Doppler domain by utilizing the fact that the jammer generates false targets with the same ranges to each subarray without reparations. The performance assessment shows that the proposed solution is effective for deceptive ECM targets suppression. The effectiveness is verified by simulation results.

  16. An Improved Tarpit for Network Deception (United States)


    through deceit [14]. One deceptive strategy is to falsely plant information. The key to this deceptive strategy is to identify the attacker’s targeted...resource, plant falsities for the resource and underlying environment, determine desired consequences for the attacker’s interaction with the fake system...The Honeynet Project: Trapping the hackers,” IEEE Security & Privacy, no. 2, pp. 15–23, 2003. [17] S. O. Hunter , “Virtual Honeypots: Management

  17. Markers of Deception in Italian Speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katelyn eSpence


    Full Text Available Lying is a universal activity and the detection of lying a universal concern. Presently, there is great interest in determining objective measures of deception. The examination of speech, in particular, holds promise in this regard; yet, most of what we know about the relationship between speech and lying is based on the assessment of English-speaking participants. Few studies have examined indicators of deception in languages other than English. The world’s languages differ in significant ways, and cross-linguistic studies of deceptive communications are a research imperative. Here we review some of these differences amongst the world’s languages, and provide an overview of a number of recent studies demonstrating that cross-linguistic research is a worthwhile endeavour. In addition, we report the results of an empirical investigation of pitch, response latency, and speech rate as cues to deception in Italian speech. True and false opinions were elicited in an audio-taped interview. A within subjects analysis revealed no significant difference between the average pitch of the two conditions; however, speech rate was significantly slower, while response latency was longer, during deception compared with truth-telling. We explore the implications of these findings and propose directions for future research, with the aim of expanding the cross-linguistic branch of research on markers of deception.

  18. Investigating socio-cognitive processes in deception: a quantitative meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies. (United States)

    Lisofsky, Nina; Kazzer, Philipp; Heekeren, Hauke R; Prehn, Kristin


    Recent neuroimaging studies have found a broad network of brain regions involved in deception, including the prefrontal cortex, insula, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and inferior parietal lobule (IPL). Although deception can be conceptualized as the attempt to deliberately cause another person to accept a false belief, research to date has mainly focused on executive control processes when participants are instructed to lie under certain conditions. Recently, more ecologically valid and interactive experimental paradigms have been used in which subjects were also requested to take the perspective of another person, read his or her intentions, and make a self-determined decision to deceive that person and break a moral rule. To investigate the influence of these socio-cognitive processes on the neural network of deception, we performed a quantitative meta-analysis combining the data from 416 participants across 22 fMRI and two PET studies. Based on the description of the experimental paradigm, studies were divided in social interactive and non-interactive deception studies. Increased activation in the dorsal ACC, the right temporo-parietal junction (TPJ)/angular gyrus, and the bilateral temporal pole (TP) was found to be greater in social interactive than in non-interactive deception. These results demonstrate the important role of perspective taking, theory of mind, and moral reasoning processes in deception as well as conflict processing. In addition to the role of executive control processes determined by previous meta-analyses, our findings show the importance of these socio-cognitive processes in deception and give new insight into the function and interpretation of the brain regions involved.

  19. Dynamics and computation in functional shifts (United States)

    Namikawa, Jun; Hashimoto, Takashi


    We introduce a new type of shift dynamics as an extended model of symbolic dynamics, and investigate the characteristics of shift spaces from the viewpoints of both dynamics and computation. This shift dynamics is called a functional shift, which is defined by a set of bi-infinite sequences of some functions on a set of symbols. To analyse the complexity of functional shifts, we measure them in terms of topological entropy, and locate their languages in the Chomsky hierarchy. Through this study, we argue that considering functional shifts from the viewpoints of both dynamics and computation gives us opposite results about the complexity of systems. We also describe a new class of shift spaces whose languages are not recursively enumerable.

  20. Elements and modulation of functional dynamics. (United States)

    Gibbs, Alan C


    The existing structure-function paradigm of drug discovery has been evolving toward the essential incorporation of dynamics data. This new functional dynamics paradigm emphasizes conformational entropy as a driving force of protein function and intermolecular recognition. Conformational dynamics (a proxy of conformational entropy) impacts the degree of protein (dis)order and the constitution of the conformational ensemble, the mechanisms of allostery and drug resistance, and the free energy of ligand binding. Specific protein and ligand conformations facilitate favorable, reciprocal interactions. The number of protein and ligand conformers that exhibit favorable binding interactions will vary from system to system. All binding scenarios can modulate protein dynamics by various levels of enthalpic and entropic contribution, with significant influence on the functional dynamics of the system. Analysis and consideration of resulting changes of activity, signaling, catalysis, and subsequent phenotypic outcome are powerful motivations in the drug design process.

  1. Cooperation and deception recruit different subsets of the theory-of-mind network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silke Lissek

    Full Text Available The term "theory of mind" (ToM describes an evolved psychological mechanism that is necessary to represent intentions and expectations in social interaction. It is thus involved in determining the proclivity of others to cooperate or defect. While in cooperative settings between two parties the intentions and expectations of the protagonists match, they diverge in deceptive scenarios, in which one protagonist is intentionally manipulated to hold a false belief about the intention of the other. In a functional magnetic resonance imaging paradigm using cartoons showing social interactions (including the outcome of the interaction between two or three story characters, respectively, we sought to determine those brain areas of the ToM network involved in reasoning about cooperative versus deceptive interactions. Healthy volunteers were asked to reflect upon the protagonists' intentions and expectations in cartoons depicting cooperation, deception or a combination of both, where two characters cooperated to deceive a third. Reasoning about the mental states of the story characters yielded substantial differences in activation patterns: both deception and cooperation activated bilateral temporoparietal junction, parietal and cingulate regions, while deception alone additionally recruited orbitofrontal and medial prefrontal regions. These results indicate an important role for prefrontal cortex in processing a mismatch between a character's intention and another's expectations as required in complex social interactions.

  2. Dynamical Functional Theory for Compressed Sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cakmak, Burak; Opper, Manfred; Winther, Ole


    the Thouless Anderson-Palmer (TAP) equations corresponding to the ensemble. Using a dynamical functional approach we are able to derive an effective stochastic process for the marginal statistics of a single component of the dynamics. This allows us to design memory terms in the algorithm in such a way...

  3. Symbolic Tensor Calculus -- Functional and Dynamic Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Woszczyna, A; Czaja, W; Golda, Z A


    In this paper, we briefly discuss the dynamic and functional approach to computer symbolic tensor analysis. The ccgrg package for Wolfram Language/Mathematica is used to illustrate this approach. Some examples of applications are attached.

  4. Deceptive intent: physiological reactions in different interpersonal contexts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ströfer, Sabine


    This dissertation advanced the deception field by examining the psychological processes associated with deceptive intent. The main focus forms the intention to deceive and more specifically, whether cues to deception already can be measured during truth telling with the mere intention to lie. In ord

  5. Deception used for Cyber Defense of Control Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wayne F. Boyer; Miles A. McQueen


    Control system cyber security defense mechanisms may employ deception to make it more difficult for attackers to plan and execute successful attacks. These deceptive defense mechanisms are organized and initially explored according to a specific deception taxonomy and the seven abstract dimensions of security previously proposed as a framework for the cyber security of control systems.

  6. 16 CFR 24.2 - Deception as to composition. (United States)


    ... LEATHER AND IMITATION LEATHER PRODUCTS § 24.2 Deception as to composition. It is unfair or deceptive to... or deceptive to use the unqualified term “leather” or other unqualified terms suggestive of leather... advertising of such products irrespective of the media used whenever statements, representations, or...

  7. Deception in Advertising: A Receiver Oriented Approach to Understanding. (United States)

    Gardner, David M.

    The purpose of this paper is to examine deception in advertising from a behavioral perspective, and to attempt to formulate a definition that can guide both research and governmental regulation. Whether or not an advertisement is said to be "deceptive" depends on the definition of deception being used. The position advocated here is that…

  8. Understanding Microbial Communities: Function, Structure and Dynamics (United States)


    microbial communities: Function, structure and dynamics’, at the Isaac Newton Institute, University of Cambridge, United Kingdom, from August to...dynamics’, at the Isaac Newton Institute, University of Cambridge, United Kingdom, from August to December 2014. The programme involved over 150...Communities: Function, Structure and Dynamics’, at the Isaac Newton Institute, Cambridge University, UK, from 19th August 2014 – 19th December 2014

  9. The honest truth about deception: Demographic, cognitive, and neural correlates of child repeated deceptive behavior. (United States)

    Thijssen, Sandra; Wildeboer, Andrea; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H; Muetzel, Ryan L; Langeslag, Sandra J E; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Verhulst, Frank C; Tiemeier, Henning; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; White, Tonya


    This study examined situational, psychological, and neurobiological factors associated with deceptive behavior in 8-year-old children. By assessing deception in low- and high-risk conditions, we differentiated between children displaying some dishonesty and children who deceived repeatedly, and we assessed the correlates of deception in 163 children. A large majority of the children were deceptive in the low-risk condition (n=121, 74.2%), but most children refrained from deception when at risk for getting caught (69 of 121). Using an aggregate score, children who continued deceiving could be discriminated from other children based on gender, lower age, lower IQ, less effortful control, and lower educated mothers. Compared with honest children and high-risk deceivers, low-risk deceivers differed on an aggregate score, suggesting that they were more likely to be girls and to come from higher income families. Compared with the other children, high-risk deceivers showed decreased activation in the bilateral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and right frontal pole during the low-risk condition, suggesting decreased engagement in conflict monitoring and error detection during opportunities for deception. In high-risk deceivers, high-risk deception was associated with increased bilateral ACC and right paracingulate gyrus activation compared with low-risk deception. High-risk deceivers may require a higher level of risk to engage the ACC to the same degree as low-risk deceivers or honest children. Our results suggest that deceptive behavior in children seems to be largely dependent on the estimated likelihood of getting caught. High-risk deceivers form a distinct group with different cognitive and neurobiological characteristics compared with honest children and low-risk deceivers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Particle conservation in dynamical density functional theory. (United States)

    de Las Heras, Daniel; Brader, Joseph M; Fortini, Andrea; Schmidt, Matthias


    We present the exact adiabatic theory for the dynamics of the inhomogeneous density distribution of a classical fluid. Erroneous particle number fluctuations of dynamical density functional theory are absent, both for canonical and grand canonical initial conditions. We obtain the canonical free energy functional, which yields the adiabatic interparticle forces of overdamped Brownian motion. Using an exact and one of the most advanced approximate hard core free energy functionals, we obtain excellent agreement with simulations. The theory applies to finite systems in and out of equilibrium.

  11. Good Liars Are Neither 'Dark' Nor Self-Deceptive.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon R T Wright

    Full Text Available Deception is a central component of the personality 'Dark Triad' (Machiavellianism, Psychopathy and Narcissism. However, whether individuals exhibiting high scores on Dark Triad measures have a heightened deceptive ability has received little experimental attention. The present study tested whether the ability to lie effectively, and to detect lies told by others, was related to Dark Triad, Lie Acceptability, or Self-Deceptive measures of personality using an interactive group-based deception task. At a group level, lie detection accuracy was correlated with the ability to deceive others-replicating previous work. No evidence was found to suggest that Dark Triad traits confer any advantage either to deceive others, or to detect deception in others. Participants who considered lying to be more acceptable were more skilled at lying, while self-deceptive individuals were generally less credible and less confident when lying. Results are interpreted within a framework in which repeated practice results in enhanced deceptive ability.

  12. Deceptive Intentions: Can Cues to Deception Be Measured before a Lie Is Even Stated?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ströfer, S; Noordzij, Matthijs L; Ufkes, E.G; Giebels, Ellen


    .... Both are related to increased sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity. We hypothesized that SNS activity already rises during intentions to lie and, consequently, cues to deception can be detected before stating an actual lie...

  13. Deceptive Intentions: Can Cues to Deception Be Measured before a Lie Is Even Stated?: e0125237

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sabine Ströfer; Matthijs L Noordzij; Elze G Ufkes; Ellen Giebels


    .... Both are related to increased sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity. We hypothesized that SNS activity already rises during intentions to lie and, consequently, cues to deception can be detected before stating an actual lie...

  14. Trust and Deception in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Social Learning Perspective (United States)

    Yang, Yiying; Tian, Yuan; Fang, Jing; Lu, Haoyang; Wei, Kunlin; Yi, Li


    Previous research has demonstrated abnormal trust and deception behaviors in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), and we aimed to examine whether these abnormalities were primarily due to their specific deficits in social learning. We tested 42 high-functioning children with ASD and 38 age- and ability-matched typically developing (TD)…

  15. Deceptive behavior in plants: I. Pollination by sexual deception in Orchids: a host-parasite perspective



    Sexually deceptive orchids attract male insects as pollinators by mimicking the reproductive signals emitted by the targeted females. Since this mimicry system involves the imitation of female mating signals of certain insects, and since mating signals, especially sex pheromones, generally act on a species-specific basis, theory holds that each sexually deceptive orchid is usually pollinated by only one or a few male insect species. While these orchids rely exclusively on their specialized po...

  16. Deceptive behavior in plants: I. Pollination by sexual deception in Orchids: a host-parasite perspective


    Vereecken, Nicolas


    Sexually deceptive orchids attract male insects as pollinators by mimicking the reproductive signals emitted by the targeted females. Since this mimicry system involves the imitation of female mating signals of certain insects, and since mating signals, especially sex pheromones, generally act on a species-specific basis, theory holds that each sexually deceptive orchid is usually pollinated by only one or a few male insect species. While these orchids rely exclusively on their specialized po...

  17. Dynamics of inequalities in geometric function theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reich Simeon


    Full Text Available A domain in the complex plane which is star-like with respect to a boundary point can be approximated by domains which are star-like with respect to interior points. This approximation process can be viewed dynamically as an evolution of the null points of the underlying holomorphic functions from the interior of the open unit disk towards a boundary point. We trace these dynamics analytically in terms of the Alexander–Nevanlinna and Robertson inequalities by using the framework of complex dynamical systems and hyperbolic monotonicity.

  18. Dynamics of cavitating cascades. [transfer functions (United States)

    Brennen, C. E.; Acosta, A. J.


    The unsteady dynamics of cavitating cascades and inducer pumps were studied with a view to understanding (and possibly predicting) the dynamic characteristics of these devices. The chronology of the research is summarized as well as the final conculsions for each task. The construction of a dynamic pump test facility and its use in making experimental measurements of the transfer function is described as well as tests conducted using a scale model of the low pressure liquid oxygen turbopump inducer in the shuttle main engine. Auto-oscillation and unsteady inlet flow characteristics are discussed in addition to blade cavity influence and bubbly cavitation.

  19. Are Celebrities Criminally Responsible For Deceptive Advertising?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ The State Administration for Industry and Commerce recently said it has suggested the addition of an article in the Advertising Law to make celebrities who represent fake products in deceptive advertising criminally responsible for their actions if it is confirmed as a crime.Up to now,those who have endorsed products have only been required to bear administrative and civil responsibilities.

  20. Overcoming Deception in Evolution of Cognitive Behaviors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehman, Joel; Miikkulainen, Risto


    evolutionary robotics T-Maze domain is adapted in three separate ways to require agents to communicate, remember, and learn. Indicative of deception, evolution driven by objective-based fitness often converges upon simple non- cognitive behaviors. In contrast, evolution driven to explore novel behaviors, i...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail TOK


    Full Text Available In this work, we first,define the entropy function of the topological dynamical system and investigate basic properties of this function without going into details. Let (X,A,T be a probability measure space and consider P = { pl5p2,...,pn} a finite measurable partition of all sub-sets of topological dynamical system (X,T.Then,the quantity H (P = ^ zpt is called the i=1 entropy function of finite measurable partition P.Where f-1 log t if 0 0.If diam(P < s,then the quantity L^ (T = h^ (T - h^ (T,P is called a local entropy function of topological dynamical system (X,T . In conclusion, Let (X,T and (Y,S be two topological dynamical system. If TxS is a transformation defined on the product space (XxY,TxS with (TxS(x , y = (Tx,Sy for all (x,y X x Y.Then L ^^ (TxS = L^d(T + L (S .and, we prove some fundamental properties of this function.

  2. Dynamic Blowout Risk Analysis Using Loss Functions. (United States)

    Abimbola, Majeed; Khan, Faisal


    Most risk analysis approaches are static; failing to capture evolving conditions. Blowout, the most feared accident during a drilling operation, is a complex and dynamic event. The traditional risk analysis methods are useful in the early design stage of drilling operation while falling short during evolving operational decision making. A new dynamic risk analysis approach is presented to capture evolving situations through dynamic probability and consequence models. The dynamic consequence models, the focus of this study, are developed in terms of loss functions. These models are subsequently integrated with the probability to estimate operational risk, providing a real-time risk analysis. The real-time evolving situation is considered dependent on the changing bottom-hole pressure as drilling progresses. The application of the methodology and models are demonstrated with a case study of an offshore drilling operation evolving to a blowout. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  3. The face of an imposter: computer vision for deception detection research in progress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elkins, Aaron C.; Sun, Yijia; Zafeiriou, Stefanos; Pantic, Maja


    Using video analyzed from a novel deception experiment, this paper introduces computer vision research in progress that addresses two critical components to computational modeling of deceptive behavior: 1) individual nonverbal behavior differences, and 2) deceptive ground truth. Video interviews ana

  4. You can’t kid a kidder: Association between production and detection of deception in an interactive deception task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon R.T. Wright


    Full Text Available Both the ability to deceive others, and the ability to detect deception, have long been proposed to confer an evolutionary advantage. Deception detection has been studied extensively, and the finding that typical individuals fare little better than chance in detecting deception is one of the more robust in the behavioral sciences. Surprisingly, little research has examined individual differences in lie-production ability. As a consequence, as far as we are aware, no previous study has investigated whether there exists an association between the ability to lie successfully and the ability to detect lies. Furthermore, only a minority of studies have examined deception as it naturally occurs; in a social, interactive setting. The present study therefore explored the relationship between these two facets of deceptive behavior by employing a novel competitive interactive deception task. For the first time, signal-detection theory was used to measure performance in both the detection and production of deception. A significant relationship was found between the deception-related abilities; those who could accurately detect a lie were able to produce statements that others found difficult to classify as deceptive or truthful. Furthermore, neither ability was related to measures of intelligence or emotional ability. We therefore suggest the existence of an underlying deception-general ability that varies across individuals.

  5. Exact four-spinon dynamical correlation function

    CERN Document Server

    Abada, A; Si-Lakhal, B; Seba, S; Abada, As


    We discuss some properties of the exact four-spinon dynamical correlation function in the antiferromagnetic spin 1/2 XXX-model the expression of which we derived recently. We show that the region in which it is not identically zero is different from and larger than the spin-wave continuum. We discuss its behavior as a function of the neutron momentum transfer $k$ for fixed values of the neutron energy $\\omega$ and compare it to the one corresponding to the exact two-spinon dynamical correlation function. We show that the overall shapes are quite similar but there are differences that we discuss. Particular is the fact that the symmetry about the axis $k=\\pi$ present in the two-spinon case seems to be lost in the four-spinon one. We finish with concluding remarks.

  6. Robust transient dynamics and brain functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail I Rabinovich


    Full Text Available In the last few decades several concepts of Dynamical Systems Theory (DST have guided psychologists, cognitive scientists, and neuroscientists to rethink about sensory motor behavior and embodied cognition. A critical step in the progress of DST application to the brain (supported by modern methods of brain imaging and multi-electrode recording techniques has been the transfer of its initial success in motor behavior to mental function, i.e., perception, emotion, and cognition. Open questions from research in genetics, ecology, brain sciences, etc. have changed DST itself and lead to the discovery of a new dynamical phenomenon, i.e., reproducible and robust transients that are at the same time sensitive to informational signals. The goal of this review is to describe a new mathematical framework -heteroclinic sequential dynamics- to understand self-organized activity in the brain that can explain certain aspects of robust itinerant behavior. Specifically, we discuss a hierarchy of coarse-grain models of mental dynamics in the form of kinetic equations of modes. These modes compete for resources at three levels: (i within the same modality, (ii among different modalities from the same family (like perception, and (iii among modalities from different families (like emotion and cognition. The analysis of the conditions for robustness, i.e., the structural stability of transient (sequential dynamics, give us the possibility to explain phenomena like the finite capacity of our sequential working memory -a vital cognitive function-, and to find specific dynamical signatures -different kinds of instabilities- of several brain functions and mental diseases.

  7. Actin dynamics shape microglia effector functions. (United States)

    Uhlemann, Ria; Gertz, Karen; Boehmerle, Wolfgang; Schwarz, Tobias; Nolte, Christiane; Freyer, Dorette; Kettenmann, Helmut; Endres, Matthias; Kronenberg, Golo


    Impaired actin filament dynamics have been associated with cellular senescence. Microglia, the resident immune cells of the brain, are emerging as a central pathophysiological player in neurodegeneration. Microglia activation, which ranges on a continuum between classical and alternative, may be of critical importance to brain disease. Using genetic and pharmacological manipulations, we studied the effects of alterations in actin dynamics on microglia effector functions. Disruption of actin dynamics did not affect transcription of genes involved in the LPS-triggered classical inflammatory response. By contrast, in consequence of impaired nuclear translocation of phospho-STAT6, genes involved in IL-4 induced alternative activation were strongly downregulated. Functionally, impaired actin dynamics resulted in reduced NO secretion and reduced release of TNFalpha and IL-6 from LPS-stimulated microglia and of IGF-1 from IL-4 stimulated microglia. However, pathological stabilization of the actin cytoskeleton increased LPS-induced release of IL-1beta and IL-18, which belong to an unconventional secretory pathway. Reduced NO release was associated with decreased cytoplasmic iNOS protein expression and decreased intracellular arginine uptake. Furthermore, disruption of actin dynamics resulted in reduced microglia migration, proliferation and phagocytosis. Finally, baseline and ATP-induced [Ca(2+)]int levels were significantly increased in microglia lacking gelsolin, a key actin-severing protein. Together, the dynamic state of the actin cytoskeleton profoundly and distinctly affects microglia behaviours. Disruption of actin dynamics attenuates M2 polarization by inhibiting transcription of alternative activation genes. In classical activation, the role of actin remodelling is complex, does not relate to gene transcription and shows a major divergence between cytokines following conventional and unconventional secretion.

  8. Self-deception in terminal patients: belief system at stake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis E Echarte


    Full Text Available A substantial minority of patients with terminal illness hold unrealistically hopeful beliefs about the severity of their disease or the nature of its treatment, considering therapy as curative rather than palliative. We propose that this attitude may be understood as self-deception, following the current psychological theories about this topic. In this article we suggest that the reason these patients deceive themselves is to preserve their belief systems. According to some philosophical accounts, the human belief system (HBS is constituted as a web with a few stable central nodes –deep seated beliefs– intimately related with the self. We hypothesize that the mind may possess defensive mechanisms, mostly non-conscious, that reject certain sensory inputs (e.g., a fatal diagnosis that may undermine deep-seated beliefs. This interpretation is in line with the theory of cognitive dissonance. Following this reasoning, we also propose that HBS-related self-deception would entail a lower cognitive load than that associated with confronting the truth: whereas the latter would engage a myriad of high cognitive functions to re-configure crucial aspects of the self, including the setting of plans, goals, or even a behavioral output, the former would be mostly non-conscious. Overall, we believe that our research supports the hypothesis that in cases of terminal illness, (self-deceiving requires less effort than accepting the truth.

  9. Self-Deception in Terminal Patients: Belief System at Stake. (United States)

    Echarte, Luis E; Bernacer, Javier; Larrivee, Denis; Oron, J V; Grijalba-Uche, Miguel


    A substantial minority of patients with terminal illness hold unrealistically hopeful beliefs about the severity of their disease or the nature of its treatment, considering therapy as curative rather than palliative. We propose that this attitude may be understood as self-deception, following the current psychological theories about this topic. In this article we suggest that the reason these patients deceive themselves is to preserve their belief systems. According to some philosophical accounts, the human belief system (HBS) is constituted as a web with a few stable central nodes - deep-seated beliefs - intimately related with the self. We hypothesize that the mind may possess defensive mechanisms, mostly non-conscious, that reject certain sensory inputs (e.g., a fatal diagnosis) that may undermine deep-seated beliefs. This interpretation is in line with the theory of cognitive dissonance. Following this reasoning, we also propose that HBS-related self-deception would entail a lower cognitive load than that associated with confronting the truth: whereas the latter would engage a myriad of high cognitive functions to re-configure crucial aspects of the self, including the setting of plans, goals, or even a behavioral output, the former would be mostly non-conscious. Overall, we believe that our research supports the hypothesis that in cases of terminal illness, (self-)deceiving requires less effort than accepting the truth.

  10. Deception in medical and behavioral research: is it ever acceptable? (United States)

    Wendler, D


    Ethicists argue that deception is unacceptable, whereas researchers regard it as a necessary part of (certain kinds of) research. This impasse could be resolved by establishing the specific conditions under which deception in medical and behavioral research can be tolerated. An approach based on a consideration of the "Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct," one of the few writings on this topic, would satisfy the needs of both parties. It takes the form of a requirement that subjects be informed of the use of deception before enrolling in a deceptive study. This "second order consent" approach to acceptable deception represents our best chance for reconciling respect for subjects with the occasional scientific need for deceptive research.

  11. A functional calculus for the magnetization dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Tranchida, Julien; Nicolis, Stam


    A functional calculus approach is applied to the derivation of evolution equations for the moments of the magnetization dynamics of systems subject to stochastic fields. It allows us to derive a general framework for obtaining the master equation for the stochastic magnetization dynamics, that is applied to both, Markovian and non-Markovian dynamics. The formalism is applied for studying different kinds of interactions, that are of practical relevance and hierarchies of evolution equations for the moments of the distribution of the magnetization are obtained. In each case, assumptions are spelled out, in order to close the hierarchies. These closure assumptions are tested by extensive numerical studies, that probe the validity of Gaussian or non--Gaussian closure Ans\\"atze.

  12. Neural correlates of deception: lying about past events and personal beliefs. (United States)

    Ofen, Noa; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Chai, Xiaoqian J; Schwarzlose, Rebecca F; Gabrieli, John D E


    Although a growing body of literature suggests that cognitive control processes are involved in deception, much about the neural correlates of lying remains unknown. In this study, we tested whether brain activation associated with deception, as measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), can be detected either in preparation for or during the execution of a lie, and whether they depend on the content of the lie. We scanned participants while they lied or told the truth about either their personal experiences (episodic memories) or personal beliefs. Regions in the frontal and parietal cortex showed higher activation when participants lied compared with when they were telling the truth, regardless of whether they were asked about their past experiences or opinions. In contrast, lie-related activation in the right temporal pole, precuneus and the right amygdala differed by the content of the lie. Preparing to lie activated parietal and frontal brain regions that were distinct from those activated while participants executed lies. Our findings concur with previous reports on the involvement of frontal and parietal regions in deception, but specify brain regions involved in the preparation vs execution of deception, and those involved in deceiving about experiences vs opinions. © The Authors (2016). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email:

  13. Neural correlates of deception: lying about past events and personal beliefs (United States)

    Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Chai, Xiaoqian J.; Schwarzlose, Rebecca F.; Gabrieli, John D. E.


    Abstract Although a growing body of literature suggests that cognitive control processes are involved in deception, much about the neural correlates of lying remains unknown. In this study, we tested whether brain activation associated with deception, as measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), can be detected either in preparation for or during the execution of a lie, and whether they depend on the content of the lie. We scanned participants while they lied or told the truth about either their personal experiences (episodic memories) or personal beliefs. Regions in the frontal and parietal cortex showed higher activation when participants lied compared with when they were telling the truth, regardless of whether they were asked about their past experiences or opinions. In contrast, lie-related activation in the right temporal pole, precuneus and the right amygdala differed by the content of the lie. Preparing to lie activated parietal and frontal brain regions that were distinct from those activated while participants executed lies. Our findings concur with previous reports on the involvement of frontal and parietal regions in deception, but specify brain regions involved in the preparation vs execution of deception, and those involved in deceiving about experiences vs opinions. PMID:27798254

  14. Exploitative and Deceptive Resource Acquisition Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua J. Reynolds


    Full Text Available Life history strategy (LHS and life history contingencies (LHCs should theoretically influence the use of exploitative and deceptive resource acquisition strategies. However, little research has been done in this area. The purpose of the present work was to create measures of exploitative strategies and test the predictions of life history theory. Pilot studies developed and validated a behavioral measure of cheating called the Dot Game. The role of individual LHS and LHCs (manipulated via validated story primes on cheating was investigated in Study 1. Studies 2a through 2c were conducted to develop and validate a self-report measure called the Exploitative and Deceptive Resource Acquisition Strategy Scale (EDRASS. Finally, Study 3 investigated life history and EDRASS. Results indicated that while LHS influences exploitative strategies, life history contingences had little effect. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  15. Measuring Dynamic Transfer Functions of Cavitating Pumps (United States)

    Baun, Daniel


    A water-flow test facility has been built to enable measurement of dynamic transfer functions (DTFs) of cavitating pumps and of inducers in such pumps. Originally, the facility was intended for use in an investigation of the effects of cavitation in a rocket-engine low-pressure oxygen turbopump. The facility can also be used to measure DTFs of cavitating pumps in general

  16. Liar! Liar! Deception Detection in 2035 (United States)


    imaging of the face as described above is another. Drs. Paul Ekman and Maureen O‘Sullivan of the University of California, San Francisco and the...Francisco, CA: Chronicle Books LLC, 2000. Ekman , Paul . ―Why Don‘t We Catch Liars?‖ Social Research, vol. 63, no. 3 (Fall 1996): 801- 817. Ekman , Paul ...deception and apprehending criminals and terrorists before they can act. Thoughts from the Delphi Feasibility Dr. Ekman says it is possible to

  17. Event-Related Potentials in Deception Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgenij S. Isaychev


    Full Text Available The problem of lie detection has a long history. Main achievements in this field are concerned with registration of peripheral nervous system indicators. Our experiment provides possibility for development of a new lie detection technology, based on neurophysiology correlates of cognitive processes diagnostics that underlie deception. The experiments were conducted by "Audio-Visual Slider" soft¬ware (by Medicom MTD, which performed synchronized stimuli presentation and electrophysiological recording.

  18. Deceptively simple … The "deception-general" ability and the need to put the liar under the spotlight. (United States)

    Wright, Gordon R T; Berry, Christopher J; Bird, Geoffrey


    This Focused Review expands upon our original paper (You can't kid a kidder": Interaction between production and detection of deception in an interactive deception task. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 6:87). In that paper we introduced a new socially interactive, laboratory-based task, the Deceptive Interaction Task (DeceIT), and used it to measure individuals' ability to lie, their ability to detect the lies of others, and potential individual difference measures contributing to these abilities. We showed that the two skills were correlated; better liars made better lie detectors (a "deception general" ability) and this ability seemed to be independent of cognitive (IQ) and emotional (EQ) intelligence. Here, following the Focused Review format, we outline the method and results of the original paper and comment more on the value of lab-based experimental studies of deception, which have attracted criticism in recent years. While acknowledging that experimental paradigms may fail to recreate the full complexity and potential seriousness of real-world deceptive behavior, we suggest that lab-based deception paradigms can offer valuable insight into ecologically-valid deceptive behavior. The use of the DeceIT procedure enabled deception to be studied in an interactive setting, with motivated participants, and importantly allowed the study of both the liar and the lie detector within the same deceptive interaction. It is our thesis that by addressing deception more holistically-by bringing the liar into the "spotlight" which is typically trained exclusively on the lie detector-we may further enhance our understanding of deception.

  19. Deceptively simple… The deception-general ability and the need to put the liar under the spotlight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon R.T. Wright


    Full Text Available This Focused Review expands upon our original paper (You can’t kid a kidder": Interaction between production and detection of deception in an interactive deception task. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 6:87. In that paper we introduced a new socially interactive, laboratory-based task, the Deceptive Interaction Task (DeceIT, and used it to measure individuals’ ability to lie, their ability to detect the lies of others, and potential individual difference measures contributing to these abilities. We showed that the two skills were correlated; better liars made better lie detectors (a deception general ability and this ability seemed to be independent of cognitive (IQ and emotional (EQ intelligence. Here, following the Focused Review format, we outline the method and results of the original paper and comment more on the value of lab-based experimental studies of deception, which have attracted criticism in recent years. While acknowledging that experimental paradigms may fail to recreate the full complexity and potential seriousness of real-world deceptive behavior, we suggest that lab-based deception paradigms can offer valuable insight into ecologically-valid deceptive behavior. The use of the DeceIT procedure enabled deception to be studied in an interactive setting, with motivated participants, and importantly allowed the study of both the liar and the lie detector within the same deceptive interaction. It is our thesis that by addressing deception more holistically - by bringing the liar into the ‘spotlight’ which is typically trained exclusively on the lie detector – we may further enhance our understanding of deception.

  20. GPU accelerated dynamic functional connectivity analysis for functional MRI data. (United States)

    Akgün, Devrim; Sakoğlu, Ünal; Esquivel, Johnny; Adinoff, Bryon; Mete, Mutlu


    Recent advances in multi-core processors and graphics card based computational technologies have paved the way for an improved and dynamic utilization of parallel computing techniques. Numerous applications have been implemented for the acceleration of computationally-intensive problems in various computational science fields including bioinformatics, in which big data problems are prevalent. In neuroimaging, dynamic functional connectivity (DFC) analysis is a computationally demanding method used to investigate dynamic functional interactions among different brain regions or networks identified with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data. In this study, we implemented and analyzed a parallel DFC algorithm based on thread-based and block-based approaches. The thread-based approach was designed to parallelize DFC computations and was implemented in both Open Multi-Processing (OpenMP) and Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) programming platforms. Another approach developed in this study to better utilize CUDA architecture is the block-based approach, where parallelization involves smaller parts of fMRI time-courses obtained by sliding-windows. Experimental results showed that the proposed parallel design solutions enabled by the GPUs significantly reduce the computation time for DFC analysis. Multicore implementation using OpenMP on 8-core processor provides up to 7.7× speed-up. GPU implementation using CUDA yielded substantial accelerations ranging from 18.5× to 157× speed-up once thread-based and block-based approaches were combined in the analysis. Proposed parallel programming solutions showed that multi-core processor and CUDA-supported GPU implementations accelerated the DFC analyses significantly. Developed algorithms make the DFC analyses more practical for multi-subject studies with more dynamic analyses.

  1. Detecting deception in movement: the case of the side-step in rugby.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Brault

    Full Text Available Although coordinated patterns of body movement can be used to communicate action intention, they can also be used to deceive. Often known as deceptive movements, these unpredictable patterns of body movement can give a competitive advantage to an attacker when trying to outwit a defender. In this particular study, we immersed novice and expert rugby players in an interactive virtual rugby environment to understand how the dynamics of deceptive body movement influence a defending player's decisions about how and when to act. When asked to judge final running direction, expert players who were found to tune into prospective tau-based information specified in the dynamics of 'honest' movement signals (Centre of Mass, performed significantly better than novices who tuned into the dynamics of 'deceptive' movement signals (upper trunk yaw and out-foot placement (p<.001. These findings were further corroborated in a second experiment where players were able to move as if to intercept or 'tackle' the virtual attacker. An analysis of action responses showed that experts waited significantly longer before initiating movement (p<.001. By waiting longer and picking up more information that would inform about future running direction these experts made significantly fewer errors (p<.05. In this paper we not only present a mathematical model that describes how deception in body-based movement is detected, but we also show how perceptual expertise is manifested in action expertise. We conclude that being able to tune into the 'honest' information specifying true running action intention gives a strong competitive advantage.

  2. Dynamic Responsive Systems for Catalytic Function. (United States)

    Vlatković, Matea; Collins, Beatrice S L; Feringa, Ben L


    Responsive systems have recently gained much interest in the scientific community in attempts to mimic dynamic functions in biological systems. One of the fascinating potential applications of responsive systems lies in catalysis. Inspired by nature, novel responsive catalytic systems have been built that show analogy with allosteric regulation of enzymes. The design of responsive catalytic systems allows control of catalytic activity and selectivity. In this Review, advances in the field over the last four decades are discussed and a comparison is made amongst the dynamic responsive systems based on the principles underlying their catalytic mechanisms. The catalyst systems are sorted according to the triggers used to achieve control of the catalytic activity and the distinct catalytic reactions illustrated. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Proteins with Novel Structure, Function and Dynamics (United States)

    Pohorille, Andrew


    Recently, a small enzyme that ligates two RNA fragments with the rate of 10(exp 6) above background was evolved in vitro (Seelig and Szostak, Nature 448:828-831, 2007). This enzyme does not resemble any contemporary protein (Chao et al., Nature Chem. Biol. 9:81-83, 2013). It consists of a dynamic, catalytic loop, a small, rigid core containing two zinc ions coordinated by neighboring amino acids, and two highly flexible tails that might be unimportant for protein function. In contrast to other proteins, this enzyme does not contain ordered secondary structure elements, such as alpha-helix or beta-sheet. The loop is kept together by just two interactions of a charged residue and a histidine with a zinc ion, which they coordinate on the opposite side of the loop. Such structure appears to be very fragile. Surprisingly, computer simulations indicate otherwise. As the coordinating, charged residue is mutated to alanine, another, nearby charged residue takes its place, thus keeping the structure nearly intact. If this residue is also substituted by alanine a salt bridge involving two other, charged residues on the opposite sides of the loop keeps the loop in place. These adjustments are facilitated by high flexibility of the protein. Computational predictions have been confirmed experimentally, as both mutants retain full activity and overall structure. These results challenge our notions about what is required for protein activity and about the relationship between protein dynamics, stability and robustness. We hypothesize that small, highly dynamic proteins could be both active and fault tolerant in ways that many other proteins are not, i.e. they can adjust to retain their structure and activity even if subjected to mutations in structurally critical regions. This opens the doors for designing proteins with novel functions, structures and dynamics that have not been yet considered.

  4. An Exploration of Multiple Channel Evaluations in Attributions of Deception. (United States)


    the rhythm of speech). 59 57 Paul Ekman, Wallace V. Friesen and Klaus Scherer, "Body Movement and Pitch In Deceptive Interaction," Semiotica , Vol. 16...Friesen, W.V., and Scherer, K., "Body Movement and Pitch in Deceptive Interaction," Semiotica , Vol. 16:1, (1976), pp. 23-26. Ekman, P. and Oster, H

  5. 16 CFR 18.2 - Deception through use of names. (United States)


    ... distribution of an industry product, it is an unfair or deceptive act or practice for any industry member to... a generally recognized and well-established common name, it is an unfair or deceptive act or... section the Commission give consideration to the use of plant names listed in such works as Checklist...

  6. Magically Deceptive Biological Motion — The French Drop Sleight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flip ePhillips


    Full Text Available Intentional deception, as is common in the performance of magic tricks, can provide valuable insight into the mechanisms of perception and action. Much of the recent investigations into this form of deception revolve around the attention of the observer. Here, we present experiments designed to investigate the contributions of the performer to the act of deception. An experienced magician and a naïve novice performed a classic sleight known as the French Drop. Video recordings of the performance were used to measure the quality of the deception --- e.g. if a non-magician observer could discriminate instances where the sleight was performed (a deceptive performance from those where it was not (a veridical performace. During the performance we recorded the trajectory of the hands and measured muscle activity via EMG to help understand the biomechanical mechanisms of this deception. We show that expertise plays a major role in the quality of the deception and that there are significant variations in the motion and muscular behaviors between successful and unsuccessful performances. Smooth, minimal movements with an exaggerated faux-transfer of muscular tension were characteristic of better deception. This finding is consistent with anecdotal reports and the magic performance literature.

  7. Sensation-seeking, Internet dependency, and online interpersonal deception. (United States)

    Lu, Hung-Yi


    This study aimed to elaborate the relationships between sensation-seeking, Internet dependency, and online interpersonal deception. Of the 707 individuals recruited to this study, 675 successfully completed the survey. The results showed high sensation-seekers and high Internet dependents were more likely to engage in online interpersonal deception than were their counterparts.

  8. 16 CFR 444.3 - Unfair or deceptive cosigner practices. (United States)


    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Unfair or deceptive cosigner practices. 444.3 Section 444.3 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES CREDIT PRACTICES § 444.3 Unfair or deceptive cosigner practices. (a) In connection with the extension of credit...

  9. Deceptive Intentions: Can Cues to Deception Be Measured before a Lie Is Even Stated? (United States)

    Ströfer, Sabine; Noordzij, Matthijs L.; Ufkes, Elze G.; Giebels, Ellen


    Can deceitful intentions be discriminated from truthful ones? Previous work consistently demonstrated that deceiving others is accompanied by nervousness/stress and cognitive load. Both are related to increased sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity. We hypothesized that SNS activity already rises during intentions to lie and, consequently, cues to deception can be detected before stating an actual lie. In two experiments, controlling for prospective memory, we monitored SNS activity during lying, truth telling, and truth telling with the aim of lying at a later instance. Electrodermal activity (EDA) was used as an indicator of SNS. EDA was highest during lying, and compared to the truth condition, EDA was also raised during the intention to deceive. Moreover, the switch from truth telling toward lying in the intention condition evoked higher EDA than switching toward non-deception related tasks in the lie or truth condition. These results provide first empirical evidence that increased SNS activity related to deception can be monitored before a lie is stated. This implies that cues to deception are already present during the mere intention to lie. PMID:26018573

  10. Self-Deception, Delusion and the Boundaries of Folk Psychology. (United States)

    Bortolotti, Lisa; Mameli, Matteo


    To what extent do self-deception and delusion overlap? In this paper we argue that both self-deception and delusions can be understood in folk-psychological terms. "Motivated" delusions, just like self-deception, can be described as beliefs driven by personal interests. If self-deception can be understood folk-psychologically because of its motivational component, so can motivated delusions. Non-motivated delusions also fit (to a large extent) the folk-psychological notion of belief, since they can be described as hypotheses one endorses when attempting to make sense of unusual and powerful experiences. We suggest that there is continuity between the epistemic irrationality manifested in self-deception and in delusion.

  11. When deception influences memory: the implication of theory of mind. (United States)

    El Haj, Mohamad; Antoine, Pascal; Nandrino, Jean Louis


    When deceiving, one should remember to whom a falsified story was previously told; otherwise he or she may include inconsistencies, and the deception will probably be discovered. Bearing this in mind, we investigated the potential relationship between deception and the ability to remember to whom a piece of information was previously told (i.e., destination memory). Forty-one adults were given a destination memory task in which they had to decide to whom proverbs had previously been told. They were also given a questionnaire about deception (e.g., "I sometimes tell lies if I have to) and a cognitive theory of mind task in which they had to predict the behaviour of protagonists who hold a mistaken belief about the state of the world. Results showed a positive correlation between deception and destination memory (p memory. By showing the involvement of deception and theory of mind in destination memory, our findings emphasize the memory variations in social and interpersonal interactions.

  12. Combining Molecular Dynamics and Density Functional Theory (United States)

    Kaxiras, Efthimios


    The time evolution of a system consisting of electrons and ions is often treated in the Born-Oppenheimer approximation, with electrons in their instantaneous ground state. This approach cannot capture many interesting processes that involved excitation of electrons and its effects on the coupled electron-ion dynamics. The time scale needed to accurately resolve the evolution of electron dynamics is atto-seconds. This poses a challenge to the simulation of important chemical processes that typically take place on time scales of pico-seconds and beyond, such as reactions at surfaces and charge transport in macromolecules. We will present a methodology based on time-dependent density functional theory for electrons, and classical (Ehrenfest) dynamics for the ions, that successfully captures such processes. We will give a review of key features of the method and several applications. These illustrate how the atomic and electronic structure evolution unravels the elementary steps that constitute a chemical reaction. In collaboration with: G. Kolesov, D. Vinichenko, G. Tritsaris, C.M. Friend, Departments of Physics and of Chemistry and Chemical Biology.

  13. Biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in dynamic landscapes. (United States)

    Brose, Ulrich; Hillebrand, Helmut


    The relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning (BEF) and its consequence for ecosystem services has predominantly been studied by controlled, short-term and small-scale experiments under standardized environmental conditions and constant community compositions. However, changes in biodiversity occur in real-world ecosystems with varying environments and a dynamic community composition. In this theme issue, we present novel research on BEF in such dynamic communities. The contributions are organized in three sections on BEF relationships in (i) multi-trophic diversity, (ii) non-equilibrium biodiversity under disturbance and varying environmental conditions, and (iii) large spatial and long temporal scales. The first section shows that multi-trophic BEF relationships often appear idiosyncratic, while accounting for species traits enables a predictive understanding. Future BEF research on complex communities needs to include ecological theory that is based on first principles of species-averaged body masses, stoichiometry and effects of environmental conditions such as temperature. The second section illustrates that disturbance and varying environments have direct as well as indirect (via changes in species richness, community composition and species' traits) effects on BEF relationships. Fluctuations in biodiversity (species richness, community composition and also trait dominance within species) can severely modify BEF relationships. The third section demonstrates that BEF at larger spatial scales is driven by different variables. While species richness per se and community biomass are most important, species identity effects and community composition are less important than at small scales. Across long temporal scales, mass extinctions represent severe changes in biodiversity with mixed effects on ecosystem functions. Together, the contributions of this theme issue identify new research frontiers and answer some open questions on BEF relationships

  14. Pollination by brood-site deception. (United States)

    Urru, Isabella; Stensmyr, Marcus C; Hansson, Bill S


    Pollination is often regarded as a mutualistic relationship between flowering plants and insects. In such a relationship, both partners gain a fitness benefit as a result of their interaction. The flower gets pollinated and the insect typically gets a food-related reward. However, flower-insect communication is not always a mutualistic system, as some flowers emit deceitful signals. Insects are thus fooled by irresistible stimuli and pollination is accomplished. Such deception requires very fine tuning, as insects in their typically short life span, try to find mating/feeding breeding sites as efficiently as possible, and following deceitful signals thus is both costly and time-consuming. Deceptive flowers have thus evolved the ability to emit signals that trigger obligate innate or learned responses in the targeted insects. The behavior, and thus the signals, exploited are typically involved in reproduction, from attracting pheromones to brood/food-site cues. Chemical mimicry is one of the main modalities through which flowers trick their pollen vectors, as olfaction plays a pivotal role in insect-insect and insect-plant interactions. Here we focus on floral odors that specifically mimic an oviposition substrate, i.e., brood-site mimicry. The phenomenon is wide spread across unrelated plant lineages of Angiosperm, Splachnaceae and Phallaceae. Targeted insects are mainly beetles and flies, and flowers accordingly often emit, to the human nose, highly powerful and fetid smells that are conversely extremely attractive to the duped insects. Brood-site deceptive plants often display highly elaborate flowers and have evolved a trap-release mechanism. Chemical cues often act in unison with other sensory cues to refine the imitation.

  15. Functional thermo-dynamics: a generalization of dynamic density functional theory to non-isothermal situations. (United States)

    Anero, Jesús G; Español, Pep; Tarazona, Pedro


    We present a generalization of Density Functional Theory (DFT) to non-equilibrium non-isothermal situations. By using the original approach set forth by Gibbs in his consideration of Macroscopic Thermodynamics (MT), we consider a Functional Thermo-Dynamics (FTD) description based on the density field and the energy density field. A crucial ingredient of the theory is an entropy functional, which is a concave functional. Therefore, there is a one to one connection between the density and energy fields with the conjugate thermodynamic fields. The connection between the three levels of description (MT, DFT, FTD) is clarified through a bridge theorem that relates the entropy of different levels of description and that constitutes a generalization of Mermin's theorem to arbitrary levels of description whose relevant variables are connected linearly. Although the FTD level of description does not provide any new information about averages and correlations at equilibrium, it is a crucial ingredient for the dynamics in non-equilibrium states. We obtain with the technique of projection operators the set of dynamic equations that describe the evolution of the density and energy density fields from an initial non-equilibrium state towards equilibrium. These equations generalize time dependent density functional theory to non-isothermal situations. We also present an explicit model for the entropy functional for hard spheres.

  16. Cardiac mitochondria exhibit dynamic functional clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Tobias Kurz


    Full Text Available Multi-oscillatory behavior of mitochondrial inner membrane potential ΔΨm in self-organized cardiac mitochondrial networks can be triggered by metabolic or oxidative stress. Spatio-temporal analyses of cardiac mitochondrial networks have shown that mitochondria are heterogeneously organized in synchronously oscillating clusters in which the mean cluster frequency and size are inversely correlated, thus suggesting a modulation of cluster frequency through local inter-mitochondrial coupling. In this study, we propose a method to examine the mitochondrial network's topology through quantification of its dynamic local clustering coefficients. Individual mitochondrial ΔΨm oscillation signals were identified for each cardiac myocyte and cross-correlated with all network mitochondria using previously described methods (Kurz et al., 2010. Time-varying inter-mitochondrial connectivity, defined for mitochondria in the whole network whose signals are at least 90% correlated at any given time point, allowed considering functional local clustering coefficients. It is shown that mitochondrial clustering in isolated cardiac myocytes changes dynamically and is significantly higher than for random mitochondrial networks that are constructed using the Erdös-Rényi model based on the same sets of vertices. The network's time-averaged clustering coefficient for cardiac myocytes was found to be 0.500 ± 0.051 (N=9 versus 0.061 ± 0.020 for random networks, respectively. Our results demonstrate that cardiac mitochondria constitute a network with dynamically connected constituents whose topological organization is prone to clustering. Cluster partitioning in networks of coupled oscillators has been observed in scale-free and chaotic systems and is therefore in good agreement with previous models of cardiac mitochondrial networks (Aon et al., 2008.

  17. Brain regions concerned with the identification of deceptive soccer moves by higher-skilled and lower-skilled players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eWright


    Full Text Available Expert soccer players are able to utilize their opponents’ early body kinematics to predict the direction in which the opponent will move. We have previously demonstrated enhanced fMRI activation in experts in the motor components of an action observation network (AON during sports anticipation tasks. Soccer players often need to prevent opponents from successfully predicting their line of attack, and consequently may try to deceive them; for example, by performing a step-over. We examined how AON activations and expertise effects are modified by the presence of deception. Three groups of participants; higher-skilled males, lower-skilled males and lower-skilled females, viewed video clips in point-light format, from a defender’s perspective, of a player approaching and turning with the ball. The observer’s task in the scanner was to determine whether the move was normal or deceptive (involving a step-over, while whole-brain functional images were acquired. In a second counterbalanced block with identical stimuli the task was to predict the direction of the ball. Activations of AON for identification of deception overlapped with activations from the direction identification task. Higher-skilled players showed significantly greater activation than lower-skilled players in a subset of AON areas; and lower-skilled males in turn showed greater activation than lower-skilled females, but females showed more activation in visual cortex. Activation was greater for deception identification than for direction identification in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, medial frontal cortex, anterior insula, cingulate gyrus, and premotor cortex. Conversely, greater activation for direction than deception identification was found in anterior cingulate cortex and caudate nucleus. Results are consistent with the view that explicit identification of deceptive moves entails cognitive effort and also activates limbic structures associated with social cognition and

  18. Relativistic dynamics, Green function and pseudodifferential operators

    CERN Document Server

    Cirilo-Lombardo, Diego Julio


    The central role played by pseudodifferential operators in relativistic dynamics is very well know. In this work, operators as the Schrodinger one (e.g: square root) are treated from the point of view of the non-local pseudodifferential Green functions. Starting from the explicit construction of the Green (semigroup) theoretical kernel, a theorem linking the integrability conditions and their dependence on the spacetime dimensions is given. Relativistic wave equations with arbitrary spin and the causality problem are discussed with the algebraic interpretation of the radical operator and their relation with coherent and squeezed states. Also we perform by mean of pure theoretical procedures (based in physical concepts and symmetry) the relativistic position operator which satisfies the conditions of integrability : it is non-local, Lorentz invariant and does not have the same problems as the "local"position operator proposed by Newton and Wigner. Physical examples, as Zitterbewegung and rogue waves, are prese...

  19. Microtransitions and the dynamics of family functioning. (United States)

    Everri, Marina; Fruggeri, Laura; Molinari, Luisa


    This paper presents a qualitative observational study aimed at exploring microtransitions in the relational dynamics of family functioning when the children are adolescents. Three concurrent levels were considered central for family functioning in this period: the acknowledgment of emerging competences, the redefinition of the power structure, and the regulation of interpersonal distances. Twenty-eight non-clinical Italian families with at least one adolescent child were interviewed and video-recorded in their homes. A stance-taking process analysis was carried out on the family interactive sequences arising in the course of the interviews. This analysis was based on the stances taken by all family members in relation to their reciprocal evaluations, positions, and alignments, which allowed us to point out the interlocking of competences, power and distances. Out of all the possible theoretical combinations of these three dimensions, we identified four forms of interaction. In two forms, the emerging changes were not incorporated in the families' interactive repertoires by either reconfirming family stability or resisting family changes. In these ways of interacting competences, power, and distances were not reorganized. In the other two forms, instead, family microtransitions were observable in the extent to which family members either explored family changes or legitimated family reorganizations. In these processes, they could redefine and readdress their ways of interacting.

  20. Finding Deceptive Opinion Spam by Any Stretch of the Imagination

    CERN Document Server

    Ott, Myle; Cardie, Claire; Hancock, Jeffrey T


    Consumers increasingly rate, review and research products online. Consequently, websites containing consumer reviews are becoming targets of opinion spam. While recent work has focused primarily on manually identifiable instances of opinion spam, in this work we study deceptive opinion spam---fictitious opinions that have been deliberately written to sound authentic. Integrating work from psychology and computational linguistics, we develop and compare three approaches to detecting deceptive opinion spam, and ultimately develop a classifier that is nearly 90% accurate on our gold-standard opinion spam dataset. Based on feature analysis of our learned models, we additionally make several theoretical contributions, including revealing a relationship between deceptive opinions and imaginative writing.

  1. The Slow Decay and Quick Revival of Self-Deception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoe eChance


    Full Text Available People demonstrate an impressive ability to self-deceive, distorting misbehavior to reflect positively on themselves—for example, by cheating on a test and believing that their inflated performance reflects their true ability. But what happens to self-deception when self-deceivers must face reality, such as when taking another test on which they cannot cheat? We find that self-deception diminishes over time only when self-deceivers are repeatedly confronted with evidence of their true ability (Study 1; this learning, however, fails to make them less susceptible to future self-deception (Study 2.

  2. A deceptive pollination system targeting drosophilids through olfactory mimicry of yeast. (United States)

    Stökl, Johannes; Strutz, Antonia; Dafni, Amots; Svatos, Ales; Doubsky, Jan; Knaden, Markus; Sachse, Silke; Hansson, Bill S; Stensmyr, Marcus C


    In deceptive pollination, insects are bamboozled into performing nonrewarded pollination. A prerequisite for the evolutionary stability in such systems is that the plants manage to generate a perfect sensory impression of a desirable object in the insect nervous system [1]. The study of these plants can provide important insights into sensory preference of their visiting insects. Here, we present the first description of a deceptive pollination system that specifically targets drosophilid flies. We show that the examined plant (Arum palaestinum) accomplishes its deception through olfactory mimicry of fermentation, a strategy that represents a novel pollination syndrome. The lily odor is composed of volatiles characteristic of yeast, and produces in Drosophila melanogaster an antennal detection pattern similar to that elicited by a range of fermentation products. By functional imaging, we show that the lily odors target a specific subset of odorant receptors (ORs), which include the most conserved OR genes in the drosophilid olfactome. Furthermore, seven of eight visiting drosophilid species show a congruent olfactory response pattern to the lily, in spite of comprising species pairs separated by ∼40 million years [2], showing that the lily targets a basal function of the fly nose, shared by species with similar ecological preference.

  3. Dynamics of biomolecules, ligand binding & biological functions (United States)

    Yi, Myunggi

    Proteins are flexible and dynamic. One static structure alone does not often completely explain biological functions of the protein, and some proteins do not even have high resolution structures. In order to provide better understanding to the biological functions of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, Diphtheria toxin repressor and M2 proton channel, the dynamics of these proteins are investigated using molecular modeling and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. With absence of high resolution structure of alpha7 receptor, the homology models of apo and cobra toxin bound forms have been built. From the MD simulations of these model structures, we observed one subunit of apo simulation moved away from other four subunits. With local movement of flexible loop regions, the whole subunit tilted clockwise. These conformational changes occurred spontaneously, and were strongly correlated with the conformational change when the channel is activated by agonists. Unlike other computational studies, we directly compared our model of open conformation with the experimental data. However, the subunits of toxin bound form were stable, and conformational change is restricted by the bound cobra toxin. These results provide activation and inhibition mechanisms of alpha7 receptors and a possible explanation for intermediate conductance of the channel. Intramolecular complex of SH3-like domain with a proline-rich (Pr) peptide segment in Diphtheria toxin repressor (DtxR) is stabilized in inactive state. Upon activation of DtxR by transition metal binding, this intramolecular complex should be dissociated. The dynamics of this intramolecular complex is investigated using MD simulations and NMR spectroscopy. We observed spontaneous opening and closing motions of the Pr segment binding pockets in both Pr-SH3 and SH3 simulations. The MD simulation results and NMR relaxation data suggest that the Pr segment exhibits a binding ↔ unbinding equilibrium. Despite a wealth of experimental

  4. Dynamics and zeta functions on conformally compact manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Rowlett, Julie; Tapie, Samuel


    In this note, we study the dynamics and associated zeta functions of conformally compact manifolds with variable negative sectional curvatures. We begin with a discussion of a larger class of manifolds known as convex co-compact manifolds with variable negative curvature. Applying results from dynamics on these spaces, we obtain optimal meromorphic extensions of weighted dynamical zeta functions and asymptotic counting estimates for the number of weighted closed geodesics. A meromorphic extension of the standard dynamical zeta function and the prime orbit theorem follow as corollaries. Finally, we investigate interactions between the dynamics and spectral theory of these spaces.

  5. 兰科植物欺骗性传粉%Deceptive pollination of orchids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任宗昕; 王红; 罗毅波


    Mutualism, or a mutually beneficial interaction between two organisms, are ubiquitous in ecological systems. However, some "empty flowers", which offer pollinators no any kinds of rewards, design different strategies to attract pollinators without providing rewards to the pollinators. These pollination mechanisms are called deceptive pollination. The family Orchidaceae, representing one of the largest groups in an-giosperms, is distinguished by high floral diversity and intricate adaptations to pollinators. Darwin described and identified most of the functional floral morphology and biomechanics in orchid pollination. However, he never recognized that many of the flowers that he examined lacked food rewards for pollinators. Floral evolution in the Orchidaceae appears to be dominated by modes of deceptive pollination, and more than one third of orchid species are thought to be pollinated by deceit. Deceptive pollination is thought to be one of key roles which has lead to relatively high species diversity within the Orchidaceae. Deceptive orchids frequently exploit the food foraging, sexual, oviposition and sleep/warmth behaviors of insects. The most common deception mechanisms include generalized food deception, Batesian floral mimicry, sexual deception, brood-site imitation and shelter imitation. Additionally, floral color, morphology and fragrance play key roles to cheat target pollinators. Relationships between deceptive orchids and their pollinators possibly involve asynchronous evolution; therefore orchids track the diversification of their pollinators. However, deception has negative impacts on the pollinators, which may exert selection on the pollinators. Because duped pollinators tend to avoid rewardless flowers, deceptive orchids suffer low visitation rates and fruit set, various environment factors can affect the reproductive success of these orchids. Deceptive orchids depend largely on insect pollinators for reproduction, and the proclivity of these

  6. Message Encryption Using Deceptive Text and Randomized Hashing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In this paper a new approach for message encryption using the concept called deceptive text is proposed.In this scheme we don’t need send encrypted plain text to receiver, instead, we send a meaningful deceptive text and an encrypted special index file to message receiver.The original message is embedded in the meaningful deceptive text.The positions of the characters of the plain text in thedeceptive text are stored in the index file.The receiver decrypts the index file and gets back the original message from the received deceptive text. Authentication is achieved by verifying the hash value of the plaintext created by the Message Digest Algorithm at the receiver side.In order to prevent collision attcks on hashing algorithms that are intended for use with standard digital signature algorithms we provide an extra layer of security using randomized hashing method.

  7. An Annotated Bibliography of the Open Literature on Deception. (United States)


    Formation of Men’s Attitudes. New York: Vintage, 1965. Forward, John, Rachelle Canter, and Ned Kirsch , "Role-Enactment and Deception Methodologies...Monterey, CA: Naval Postgraduate School, January 1981, 65 pp. Heymont, Irving , Combat Intelligence in Modern Warfare. Harrisburg, PA: Stackpole, 1961...1975. Forward, John, Rachelle Canter, and Ned Kirsch , "Role-Enactment and Deception Methodologies: Alternative Paradigms?" American Psychologist, August

  8. Military Deception: Hiding the Real - Showing the Fake (United States)


    his breakfast while reading his morning paper and listening to the international news channel. Hearing the Balkans mentioned—his area renders the United States susceptible to deception. In the rush to be the first with late-breaking coverage, news networks sometimes skip analysis...has a fighting chance against future deception operations. As the general got up from his breakfast to respond to his pager, he knew it would not be

  9. Pollinator deception in the orchid mantis. (United States)

    O'Hanlon, James C; Holwell, Gregory I; Herberstein, Marie E


    Mimicry has evolved in contexts such as camouflage, predator deterrence, luring of prey, and pollinator attraction. Mimicry of flowers has until now been demonstrated only in angiosperms, yet it has been hypothesized that the Malaysian orchid mantis Hymenopus coronatus mimics a flower to attract pollinators as prey. Despite the popularity of this charismatic insect, this long-discussed hypothesis has never been experimentally investigated. We found that, as predicted for mimicry, the color of H. coronatus is indistinguishable from the color of sympatric flowers for hymenopteran pollinators. Field experiments show that isolated mantises attract wild pollinators at a rate even higher than flowers and capture these pollinators as prey items. After more than a century of conjecture, we provide the first experimental evidence of pollinator deception in the orchid mantis and the first description of a unique predatory strategy that has not been documented in any other animal species.

  10. Lies and Deception: A Failed Reconciliation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broncano-Berrocal, Fernando


    The traditional view of lying says that lying is a matter of intending to deceive others by making statements that one believes to be false. Jennifer Lackey has recently defended the following version of the traditional view: A lies to B just in case (i) A states that p to B, (ii) A believes that...... is false and (iii) A intends to be deceptive to B in stating that p. I argue that, despite all the virtues that Lackey ascribes to her view, conditions (i), (ii) and (iii) are not sufficient for lying.......The traditional view of lying says that lying is a matter of intending to deceive others by making statements that one believes to be false. Jennifer Lackey has recently defended the following version of the traditional view: A lies to B just in case (i) A states that p to B, (ii) A believes that p...

  11. Overcoming Deception in Evolution of Cognitive Behaviors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehman, Joel; Miikkulainen, Risto


    .e. evolution converges to a behavior unrelated to the desired solution. More specifically, cognitive behaviors often require accumulating neural structure that provides no immediate fitness benefit, and evolution often thus converges to non-cognitive solutions. To investigate this hypothesis, a common...... evolutionary robotics T-Maze domain is adapted in three separate ways to require agents to communicate, remember, and learn. Indicative of deception, evolution driven by objective-based fitness often converges upon simple non- cognitive behaviors. In contrast, evolution driven to explore novel behaviors, i.......e. novelty search, often evolves the desired cognitive behaviors. The conclusion is that open-ended methods of evolution may better recognize and reward the stepping stones that are necessary for cognitive behavior to emerge....

  12. Deception Detection, Transmission, & Modality in Age & Sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Dorothy Sweeney


    Full Text Available This study is the first to create and use spontaneous (i.e. unrehearsed pro-social lies in an ecological setting. Creation of the stimuli involved fifty-one older adult and forty-four college student senders who lied authentically in that their lies were spontaneous in the service of protecting a research assistant. In the main study, seventy-seven older adult and eighty-four college raters attempted to detect lies in the older adult and college senders in three modalities: audio, visual, and audiovisual. Raters of both age groups were best at detecting lies in the audiovisual and worst in the visual modalities. Overall, college students were better detectors than older adults. There was an age-matching effect for college students but not for older adults. Older adult males were the hardest to detect. The older the adult was the worse the ability to detect deception.

  13. Volcanic hazard assessment at Deception Island (United States)

    Bartolini, S.; Sobradelo, R.; Geyer, A.; Martí, J.


    Deception Island is the most active volcano of the South Shetland Islands (Antarctica) with more than twenty eruptions recognised over the past two centuries. The island was formed on the expansion axis of the Central Bransfield Strait and its evolution consists of constructive and destructive phases. A first a shield phase was followed by the construction of a central edifice and formation of the caldera with a final monogenetic volcanism along the caldera rim. The post-caldera magma composition varies from andesitic-basaltic to dacitic. The activity is characterised by monogenetic eruptions of low volume and short duration. The eruptions show a variable degree of explosivity, strombolian or phreatomagmatic, with a VEI 2 to 4, which have generated a wide variety of pyroclastic deposits and lavas. It is remarkable how many phases of phreatic explosive eruptions are associated to the emission of large ballistic blocks. Tephra record preserved in the glacier ice of Livingston Island or in marine sediments show the explosive power of the phreatomagmatic phases and the wide dispersal of its finest products in a great variety of directions of the prevailing winds. Also it is important to highlight the presence of different lahar deposits associated with some of these eruptions. In this contribution we present the guidelines to conduct a short-term and long-term volcanic hazard assessment at Deception Island. We apply probabilistic methods to estimate the susceptibility, statistical techniques to determine the eruption recurrence and eruptive scenario, and reproduce the effects of historical eruptions too. Volcanic hazard maps and scenarios are obtained using a Voris-based model tool (Felpeto et al., 2007) in a free Geographical Information System (GIS), a Quantum GIS.

  14. Self-deception as pseudo-rational regulation of belief. (United States)

    Michel, Christoph; Newen, Albert


    Self-deception is a special kind of motivational dominance in belief-formation. We develop criteria which set paradigmatic self-deception apart from related phenomena of auto-manipulation such as pretense and motivational bias. In self-deception rational subjects defend or develop beliefs of high subjective importance in response to strong counter-evidence. Self-deceivers make or keep these beliefs tenable by putting prima-facie rational defense-strategies to work against their established standards of rational evaluation. In paradigmatic self-deception, target-beliefs are made tenable via reorganizations of those belief-sets that relate relevant data to target-beliefs. This manipulation of the evidential value of relevant data goes beyond phenomena of motivated perception of data. In self-deception belief-defense is pseudo-rational. Self-deceivers will typically apply a dual standard of evaluation that remains intransparent to the subject. The developed model of self-deception as pseudo-rational belief-defense is empirically anchored. So, we hope to put forward a promising candidate. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Mechanisms and evolution of deceptive pollination in orchids. (United States)

    Jersáková, Jana; Johnson, Steven D; Kindlmann, Pavel


    The orchid family is renowned for its enormous diversity of pollination mechanisms and unusually high occurrence of non-rewarding flowers compared to other plant families. The mechanisms of deception in orchids include generalized food deception, food-deceptive floral mimicry, brood-site imitation, shelter imitation, pseudoantagonism, rendezvous attraction and sexual deception. Generalized food deception is the most common mechanism (reported in 38 genera) followed by sexual deception (18 genera). Floral deception in orchids has been intensively studied since Darwin, but the evolution of non-rewarding flowers still presents a major puzzle for evolutionary biology. The two principal hypotheses as to how deception could increase fitness in plants are (i) reallocation of resources associated with reward production to flowering and seed production, and (ii) higher levels of cross-pollination due to pollinators visiting fewer flowers on non-rewarding plants, resulting in more outcrossed progeny and more efficient pollen export. Biologists have also tried to explain why deception is overrepresented in the orchid family. These explanations include: (i) efficient removal and deposition of pollinaria from orchid flowers in a single pollinator visit, thus obviating the need for rewards to entice multiple visits from pollinators; (ii) efficient transport of orchid pollen, thus requiring less reward-induced pollinator constancy; (iii) low-density populations in many orchids, thus limiting the learning of associations of floral phenotypes and rewards by pollinators; (iv) packaging of pollen in pollinaria with limited carry-over from flower to flower, thus increasing the risks of geitonogamous self-pollination when pollinators visit many flowers on rewarding plants. All of these general and orchid-specific hypotheses are difficult to reconcile with the well-established pattern for rewardlessness to result in low pollinator visitation rates and consequently low levels of fruit

  16. The Dynamics of Semigroups of Transcendental Meromorphic Functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    This paper considers the dynamics associated with an arbitrary semigroup of transcendental meromorphic functions.Fatou-Julia theory was used to investigate the dynamics of these semigroups.Some results of the dynamics of a rational mapping on the Riemann sphere were extended to the case.

  17. Time evolution of the autocorrelation function in dynamical replica theory (United States)

    Sakata, A.


    Asynchronous dynamics given by the master equation in the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick (SK) spin-glass model is studied based on dynamical replica theory (DRT) with an extension to take into account the autocorrelation function. The dynamical behaviour of the system is approximately described by dynamical equations of the macroscopic quantities: magnetization, energy contributed by randomness and the autocorrelation function. The dynamical equations under the replica symmetry assumption are derived by introducing the subshell equipartitioning assumption and exploiting the replica method. The obtained dynamical equations are compared with Monte Carlo simulations, and it is demonstrated that the proposed formula describes well the time evolution of the autocorrelation function in some parameter regions. The study offers a reasonable description of the autocorrelation function in the SK spin-glass system.

  18. Functional evolutions for homogeneous stationary death-immigration spatial dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Finkelshtein, Dmitri


    We discover death-immigration non-equilibrium stochastic dynamics in the continuum also known as the Surgailis process. Explicit expression for the correlation functions is presented. Dynamics of states and their generating functionals are studied. Ergodic properties for the evolutions are considered.

  19. Automatically Discovering Relaxed Lyapunov Functions for Polynomial Dynamical Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jiang; Zhao, Hengjun


    The notion of Lyapunov function plays a key role in design and verification of dynamical systems, as well as hybrid and cyber-physical systems. In this paper, to analyze the asymptotic stability of a dynamical system, we generalize standard Lyapunov functions to relaxed Lyapunov functions (RLFs), by considering higher order Lie derivatives of certain functions along the system's vector field. Furthermore, we present a complete method to automatically discovering polynomial RLFs for polynomial dynamical systems (PDSs). Our method is complete in the sense that it is able to discover all polynomial RLFs by enumerating all polynomial templates for any PDS.

  20. Emotional intelligence and mismatching expressive and verbal messages: a contribution to detection of deception

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wojciechowski, Jerzy; Stolarski, Maciej; Matthews, Gerald


    ...). However, evidence on the role of gender and EI in detection of deception is mixed. A key issue is that the facial processing skills required to detect deception may not be the same as those required to identify facial emotion...

  1. Dynamics and function of compact nucleosome arrays. (United States)

    Poirier, Michael G; Oh, Eugene; Tims, Hannah S; Widom, Jonathan


    The packaging of eukaryotic DNA into chromatin sterically occludes polymerases, recombinases and repair enzymes. How chromatin structure changes to allow their actions is unknown. We constructed defined fluorescently labeled trinucleosome arrays, allowing analysis of chromatin conformational dynamics via fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). The arrays undergo reversible Mg2+-dependent folding similar to that of longer arrays studied previously. We define two intermediate conformational states in the reversible folding of the nucleosome arrays and characterize the microscopic rate constants. Nucleosome arrays are highly dynamic even when compact, undergoing conformational fluctuations on timescales in the second to microsecond range. Compact states of the arrays allow binding to DNA within the central nucleosome via site exposure. Protein binding can also drive decompaction of the arrays. Thus, our results reveal multiple modes by which spontaneous chromatin fiber dynamics allow for the invasion and action of DNA-processing protein complexes.

  2. Approaching self-deception: how Robert Audi and I part company. (United States)

    Mele, Alfred


    This article explores fundamental differences between Robert Audi's position on self-deception and mine. Although we both depart from a model of self-deception that is straightforwardly based on stereotypical interpersonal deception, we differ in how we do that. An important difference between us might be partly explained by a difference in how we understand the kind of deceiving that is most relevant to self-deception.

  3. Semigroups of transcendental entire functions and their dynamics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)



    We investigate the dynamics of semigroups of transcendental entire functions using Fatou–Julia theory. Several results of the dynamics associated with iteration of a transcendental entire function have been extended to transcendental semigroups. We provide some condition for connectivity of the Julia set of the transcendental semigroups. We also study finitely generated transcendental semigroups, abelian transcendental semigroups and limit functions of transcendental semigroups on its invariant Fatou components.

  4. 7 CFR 70.41 - Misrepresentation, deceptive, or fraudulent act or practice. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Misrepresentation, deceptive, or fraudulent act or... Products and Rabbit Products Denial of Service § 70.41 Misrepresentation, deceptive, or fraudulent act or practice. Any willful misrepresentation or any deceptive or fraudulent act or practice found to be made or...

  5. 9 CFR 354.46 - Misrepresentation; deceptive or fraudulent acts or practices. (United States)


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Misrepresentation; deceptive or... PRODUCTS THEREOF Violations § 354.46 Misrepresentation; deceptive or fraudulent acts or practices. Any willful misrepresentation or any deceptive or fraudulent act or practice made or committed by any person...

  6. 7 CFR 28.32 - Misrepresentation; deceptive or fraudulent acts or practices; violations. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Misrepresentation; deceptive or fraudulent acts or... Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Violations § 28.32 Misrepresentation; deceptive or... any or all benefits of the Act: (a) Any knowing misrepresentation or deceptive or fraudulent act or...

  7. Deception Detection: Accuracy Levels Among International Military Officers Using Content and Contextual Questioning Methods (United States)


    average, people are slightly better than fifty-fifty at detecting deception, as seen in a published Personality and Social Psychology Review detecting deception, as seen in a published Personality and Social Psychology Review article. Modern research ideology favors using diagnostic...BACKGROUND HISTORY / LITERATURE REVIEW ...............9 A. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF DECEPTION DETECTION

  8. 7 CFR 56.69 - Misrepresentation, deceptive, or fraudulent act or practice. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Misrepresentation, deceptive, or fraudulent act or... Misrepresentation, deceptive, or fraudulent act or practice. Any willful misrepresentation or any deceptive or... identification in the labeling or advertising of any product. [71 FR 42011, July 24, 2006] ...

  9. 16 CFR 18.8 - Deception as to origin or source of industry products. (United States)


    ... an unfair or deceptive act or practice to sell, offer for sale, or advertise an industry product by...,” “California Privet,” “Japanese Barberry,” etc.). (b) It is also an unfair or deceptive act or practice to advertise, sell, or offer for sale an industry product of foreign origin without adequate and non-deceptive...

  10. 16 CFR 254.6 - Deceptive use of diplomas, degrees, or certificates. (United States)


    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Deceptive use of diplomas, degrees, or... GUIDES FOR PRIVATE VOCATIONAL AND DISTANCE EDUCATION SCHOOLS § 254.6 Deceptive use of diplomas, degrees, or certificates. (a) It is deceptive for an industry member to issue a degree, diploma,...

  11. Self-deception can evolve under appropriate costs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan Camilo RAM(I)REZ; James A.R.MARSHALL


    Apparent biases in decision making by animals,including humans,seem to present an evolutionary puzzle,since one would expect decisions based on biased (unrealistic) information to be suboptimal.Although cognitive biases are hard to diagnose in real animals (Marshall et al.,2013b),we investigate Trivers' proposal that individuals should self-deceive first in order to better deceive others (Trivers,2011).Although this proposal has been scrutinized extensively (Bandura et al.,2011) it has not been formally modelled.We present the first model designed to investigate Trivers' proposal.We introduce an extension to a recent model of the evolution of self-deception (Johnson and Fowler,2011).In the extended model individuals make decisions by taking directly into account the benefits and costs of each outcome and by choosing the course of action that can be estimated as the best with the information available.It is shown that in certain circumstances self-deceiving decision-makers are the most evolutionarily successful,even when there is no deception between these.In a further extension of this model individuals additionally exhibit deception biases and Trivers' premise (that effective deception is less physiologically costly with the aid of self-deception) is incorporated.It is shown that under Trivers' hypothesis natural selection favors individuals that self-deceive as they deceive others [Current Zoology 61 (2):382-396,2015].

  12. Dynamic critical phenomena from spectral functions on the lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Berges, J; Sexty, D


    We investigate spectral functions in the vicinity of the critical temperature of a second-order phase transition. Since critical phenomena in quantum field theories are governed by classical dynamics, universal properties can be computed using real-time lattice simulations. For the example of a relativistic single-component scalar field theory in 2+1 dimensions, we compute the spectral function described by universal scaling functions and extract the dynamic critical exponent z. Together with exactly known static properties of this theory, we obtain a verification from first principles that the relativistic theory is well described by the dynamic universality class of relaxational models with conserved density (Model C).

  13. Functional connectivity change as shared signal dynamics (United States)

    Cole, Michael W.; Yang, Genevieve J.; Murray, John D.; Repovš, Grega; Anticevic, Alan


    Background An increasing number of neuroscientific studies gain insights by focusing on differences in functional connectivity – between groups, individuals, temporal windows, or task conditions. We found using simulations that additional insights into such differences can be gained by forgoing variance normalization, a procedure used by most functional connectivity measures. Simulations indicated that these functional connectivity measures are sensitive to increases in independent fluctuations (unshared signal) in time series, consistently reducing functional connectivity estimates (e.g., correlations) even though such changes are unrelated to corresponding fluctuations (shared signal) between those time series. This is inconsistent with the common notion of functional connectivity as the amount of inter-region interaction. New Method Simulations revealed that a version of correlation without variance normalization – covariance – was able to isolate differences in shared signal, increasing interpretability of observed functional connectivity change. Simulations also revealed cases problematic for non-normalized methods, leading to a “covariance conjunction” method combining the benefits of both normalized and non-normalized approaches. Results We found that covariance and covariance conjunction methods can detect functional connectivity changes across a variety of tasks and rest in both clinical and non-clinical functional MRI datasets. Comparison with Existing Method(s) We verified using a variety of tasks and rest in both clinical and non-clinical functional MRI datasets that it matters in practice whether correlation, covariance, or covariance conjunction methods are used. Conclusions These results demonstrate the practical and theoretical utility of isolating changes in shared signal, improving the ability to interpret observed functional connectivity change. PMID:26642966

  14. Deception in advertising and marketing: ethical applications in rehabilitation. (United States)

    Banja, J D


    A much discussed issue in contemporary discussions of health care reform is the considerable competition that is anticipated to occur among providers. An inevitable aspect of this competition will be the ways health care services are presented in the marketplace through advertising and other forms of promotional literature. Considerable concern has already emerged among certain rehabilitation professionals, however, that advertising and marketing practices in rehabilitation must cohere with ethical standards. This article will discuss certain aspects of those standards, particularly as they have evolved from the Federal Trade Commission's definition of and rulings on deceptive practices in advertising. Salient aspects of the Commission's 1983 definition of deception will be related to rehabilitation by way of examining instances of rehabilitation advertising and marketing that might satisfy the Commission's definition of deception. The article will conclude with certain recommendations, principally drawn from various Federal Trade Commission rulings, that might be useful to individuals or corporate entities who advertise or market rehabilitation services.

  15. The optimist within? Selective sampling and self-deception. (United States)

    van der Leer, Leslie; McKay, Ryan


    The nature and existence of self-deception is controversial. On a classic conception, self-deceived individuals carry two conflicting representations of reality. Proponents of an alternative, deflationary account dispute this, arguing that putative cases of self-deception simply reflect distorted information processing. To investigate these alternatives, we adapted a paradigm from the "crowd-within" literature. Participants provided two different estimates for each of a series of incentivized questions. Half of the questions were neutral in content, while half referred to undesirable future events. Whereas the first and second estimates for neutral questions did not differ systematically, second estimates for undesirable questions were more optimistic than first estimates. This result suggests that participants were sampling selectively from an internal probability distribution when providing estimates for undesirable events, implying they had access to a less rosy representation of their future prospects than their individual estimates conveyed. In short, self-deception is real.

  16. Deceptive body movements reverse spatial cueing in soccer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Wright

    Full Text Available The purpose of the experiments was to analyse the spatial cueing effects of the movements of soccer players executing normal and deceptive (step-over turns with the ball. Stimuli comprised normal resolution or point-light video clips of soccer players dribbling a football towards the observer then turning right or left with the ball. Clips were curtailed before or on the turn (-160, -80, 0 or +80 ms to examine the time course of direction prediction and spatial cueing effects. Participants were divided into higher-skilled (HS and lower-skilled (LS groups according to soccer experience. In experiment 1, accuracy on full video clips was higher than on point-light but results followed the same overall pattern. Both HS and LS groups correctly identified direction on normal moves at all occlusion levels. For deceptive moves, LS participants were significantly worse than chance and HS participants were somewhat more accurate but nevertheless substantially impaired. In experiment 2, point-light clips were used to cue a lateral target. HS and LS groups showed faster reaction times to targets that were congruent with the direction of normal turns, and to targets incongruent with the direction of deceptive turns. The reversed cueing by deceptive moves coincided with earlier kinematic events than cueing by normal moves. It is concluded that the body kinematics of soccer players generate spatial cueing effects when viewed from an opponent's perspective. This could create a reaction time advantage when anticipating the direction of a normal move. A deceptive move is designed to turn this cueing advantage into a disadvantage. Acting on the basis of advance information, the presence of deceptive moves primes responses in the wrong direction, which may be only partly mitigated by delaying a response until veridical cues emerge.

  17. Towards an Extended Evolutionary Game Theory with Survival Analysis and Agreement Algorithms for Modeling Uncertainty, Vulnerability, and Deception (United States)

    Ma, Zhanshan (Sam)

    Competition, cooperation and communication are the three fundamental relationships upon which natural selection acts in the evolution of life. Evolutionary game theory (EGT) is a 'marriage' between game theory and Darwin's evolution theory; it gains additional modeling power and flexibility by adopting population dynamics theory. In EGT, natural selection acts as optimization agents and produces inherent strategies, which eliminates some essential assumptions in traditional game theory such as rationality and allows more realistic modeling of many problems. Prisoner's Dilemma (PD) and Sir Philip Sidney (SPS) games are two well-known examples of EGT, which are formulated to study cooperation and communication, respectively. Despite its huge success, EGT exposes a certain degree of weakness in dealing with time-, space- and covariate-dependent (i.e., dynamic) uncertainty, vulnerability and deception. In this paper, I propose to extend EGT in two ways to overcome the weakness. First, I introduce survival analysis modeling to describe the lifetime or fitness of game players. This extension allows more flexible and powerful modeling of the dynamic uncertainty and vulnerability (collectively equivalent to the dynamic frailty in survival analysis). Secondly, I introduce agreement algorithms, which can be the Agreement algorithms in distributed computing (e.g., Byzantine Generals Problem [6][8], Dynamic Hybrid Fault Models [12]) or any algorithms that set and enforce the rules for players to determine their consensus. The second extension is particularly useful for modeling dynamic deception (e.g., asymmetric faults in fault tolerance and deception in animal communication). From a computational perspective, the extended evolutionary game theory (EEGT) modeling, when implemented in simulation, is equivalent to an optimization methodology that is similar to evolutionary computing approaches such as Genetic algorithms with dynamic populations [15][17].

  18. Deception in research: distinctions and solutions from the perspective of utilitarianism. (United States)

    Pittenger, David J


    The use of deception in psychological research continues to be a controversial topic. Using Rawls's explication of utilitarianism, I attempt to demonstrate how professional organizations, such as the American Psychological Association, can provide more specific standards that determine the permissibility of deception in research. Specifically, I argue that researchers should examine the costs and benefits of creating and applying specific rules governing deception. To that end, I offer 3 recommendations. First, that researchers who use deception provide detailed accounts of the procedures they used to minimize the harm created by deception in their research reports. Second, that the American Psychological Association offer a definition of deception that describes techniques commonly used in research. Finally, I recommend that the informed consent procedure be revised to indicate that the researcher may use deception as part of the study.

  19. Analysis of Uncertainty in Dynamic Processes Development of Banks Functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksei V. Korovyakovskii


    Full Text Available The paper offers the approach to measure of uncertainty estimation in dynamic processes of banks functioning, using statistic data of different banking operations indicators. To calculate measure of uncertainty in dynamic processes of banks functioning the phase images of relevant sets of statistic data are considered. Besides, it is shown that the form of phase image of the studied sets of statistic data can act as a basis of measure of uncertainty estimation in dynamic processes of banks functioning. The set of analytical characteristics are offered to formalize the form of phase image definition of the studied sets of statistic data. It is shown that the offered analytical characteristics consider inequality of changes in values of the studied sets of statistic data, which is one of the ways of uncertainty display in dynamic processes development. The invariant estimates of measure of uncertainty in dynamic processes of banks functioning, considering significant changes in absolute values of the same indicators for different banks were obtained. The examples of calculation of measure of uncertainty in dynamic processes of concrete banks functioning were cited.

  20. Dynamic reorganization of intrinsic functional networks in the mouse brain. (United States)

    Grandjean, Joanes; Preti, Maria Giulia; Bolton, Thomas A W; Buerge, Michaela; Seifritz, Erich; Pryce, Christopher R; Van De Ville, Dimitri; Rudin, Markus


    Functional connectivity (FC) derived from resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) allows for the integrative study of neuronal processes at a macroscopic level. The majority of studies to date have assumed stationary interactions between brain regions, without considering the dynamic aspects of network organization. Only recently has the latter received increased attention, predominantly in human studies. Applying dynamic FC (dFC) analysis to mice is attractive given the relative simplicity of the mouse brain and the possibility to explore mechanisms underlying network dynamics using pharmacological, environmental or genetic interventions. Therefore, we have evaluated the feasibility and research potential of mouse dFC using the interventions of social stress or anesthesia duration as two case-study examples. By combining a sliding-window correlation approach with dictionary learning, several dynamic functional states (dFS) with a complex organization were identified, exhibiting highly dynamic inter- and intra-modular interactions. Each dFS displayed a high degree of reproducibility upon changes in analytical parameters and across datasets. They fluctuated at different degrees as a function of anesthetic depth, and were sensitive indicators of pathology as shown for the chronic psychosocial stress mouse model of depression. Dynamic functional states are proposed to make a major contribution to information integration and processing in the healthy and diseased brain.

  1. Rain pollination provides reproductive assurance in a deceptive orchid (United States)

    Fan, Xu-Li; Barrett, Spencer C. H.; Lin, Hua; Chen, Ling-Ling; Zhou, Xiang; Gao, Jiang-Yun


    Background and Aims Abiotic pollination by wind or water is well established in flowering plants. In some species pollination by rain splashes, a condition known as ombrophily, has been proposed as a floral strategy. However, evidence for this type of abiotic pollination has remained controversial and many reported cases have subsequently been shown to be false. This study investigates ombrophily in the deceptive orchid Acampe rigida to determine the mechanism by which this species is able to maintain high fecundity, despite flowering during the rainy season in south-west China when pollinators are scarce. Methods The floral mechanisms promoting rain pollination in A. rigida were observed and described in detail. Controlled pollination experiments and observations of floral visitors were conducted. A field experiment using rain shelters at 14 sites in Guangxi, south-west China, evaluated the contribution of rain pollination to fruit-set. Key Results During rainfall, raindrops physically flicked away the anther cap exposing the pollinarium. Raindrops then caused pollinia to be ejected upwards with the strap-like stipe pulling them back and causing them to fall into the stigmatic cavity, resulting in self-pollination. Neither flower nor pollen function were damaged by water. Although A. rigida is self-compatible, it is incapable of autonomous self-pollination without the assistance of rain splashes. The results of the rain-sheltering experiment indicated that rain pollination contributed substantially to increasing fruit-set, although there was variation among sites in the intensity of this effect. Conclusions A. rigida flowers during the rainy season, when pollinators are scarce, and ombrophily functions to provide reproductive assurance without compromising opportunities for outcrossing. PMID:22851311

  2. On the success of a swindle: pollination by deception in orchids (United States)

    Schiestl, Florian P.


    A standing enigma in pollination ecology is the evolution of pollinator attraction without offering reward in about one third of all orchid species. Here I review concepts of pollination by deception, and in particular recent findings in the pollination syndromes of food deception and sexual deception in orchids. Deceptive orchids mimic floral signals of rewarding plants (food deception) or mating signals of receptive females (sexual deception) to attract pollen vectors. In some food deceptive orchids, similarities in the spectral reflectance visible to the pollinator in a model plant and its mimic, and increased reproductive success of the mimic in the presence of the model have been demonstrated. Other species do not mimic specific model plants but attract pollinators with general attractive floral signals. In sexually deceptive orchids, floral odor is the key trait for pollinator attraction, and behaviorally active compounds in the orchids are identical to the sex pheromone of the pollinator species. Deceptive orchids often show high variability in floral signals, which may be maintained by negative frequency-dependent selection, since pollinators can learn and subsequently avoid common deceptive morphs more quickly than rare ones. The evolution of obligate deception in orchids seems paradoxical in the light of the typically lower fruit set than in rewarding species. Pollination by deception, however, can reduce self-pollination and encourage pollen flow over longer distances, thus promoting outbreeding. Although some food deceptive orchids are isolated through postzygotic reproductive barriers, sexually deceptive orchids lack post-mating barriers and species isolation is achieved via specific pollinator attraction. Recent population genetic and phylogenetic investigations suggest gene-flow within subgeneric clades, but pollinator-mediated selection may maintain species-specific floral traits.

  3. Dynamic requirements for a functional protein hinge. (United States)

    Kempf, James G; Jung, Ju-Yeon; Ragain, Christina; Sampson, Nicole S; Loria, J Patrick


    The enzyme triosephosphate isomerase (TIM) is a model of catalytic efficiency. The 11 residue loop 6 at the TIM active site plays a major role in this enzymatic prowess. The loop moves between open and closed states, which facilitate substrate access and catalysis, respectively. The N and C-terminal hinges of loop 6 control this motion. Here, we detail flexibility requirements for hinges in a comparative solution NMR study of wild-type (WT) TIM and a quintuple mutant (PGG/GGG). The latter contained glycine substitutions in the N-terminal hinge at Val167 and Trp168, which follow the essential Pro166, and in the C-terminal hinge at Lys174, Thr175, and Ala176. Previous work demonstrated that PGG/GGG has a tenfold higher Km value and 10(3)-fold reduced k(cat) relative to WT with either d-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate or dihyrdroxyacetone phosphate as substrate. Our NMR results explain this in terms of altered loop-6 dynamics in PGG/GGG. In the mutant, loop 6 exhibits conformational heterogeneity with corresponding motional rates hinge design in proteins: structural rigidity is essential for focused motional freedom of active-site loops.

  4. Measurement of dynamic efficiency: a directional distance function parametric approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serra, T.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Stefanou, S.E.


    This research proposes a parametric estimation of the structural dynamic efficiency measures proposed by Silva and Oude Lansink (2009). Overall, technical and allocative efficiency measurements are derived based on a directional distance function and the duality between this function and the optimal

  5. 48 CFR 2103.570 - Misleading, Deceptive, or Unfair Advertising. (United States)


    ... Unfair Advertising. 2103.570 Section 2103.570 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL..., Deceptive, or Unfair Advertising. (a) OPM, or the Contractor with the approval of OPM, makes available to..., serves as certification of the employee's coverage under the FEGLI Program. Any...

  6. The Neural Basis of Deception in Strategic Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten G Volz


    Full Text Available Communication based on informational asymmetries abounds in politics, business, and almost any other form of social interaction. Informational asymmetries may create incentives for the better-informed party to exploit her advantage by misrepresenting information. Using a game-theoretic setting, we investigate the neural basis of deception in human interaction. Unlike in most previous fMRI research on deception, the participants decide themselves whether to lie or not. We find activation within the right temporo-parietal junction (rTPJ, the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, the (precuneus (CUN, and the anterior frontal gyrus (aFG when contrasting lying with truth telling. Notably, our design also allows for an investigation of the neural foundations of sophisticated deception through telling the truth—when the sender does not expect the receiver to believe her (true message. Sophisticated deception triggers activation within the same network as plain lies, i.e., we find activity within the rTPJ, the CUN, and aFG. We take this result to show that brain activation can reveal the sender’s veridical intention to deceive others, irrespective of whether in fact the sender utters the factual truth or not.

  7. Deception, Surprise and Attack: Operational Art for Air Superiority (United States)


    were told to prepare for operations in Gibraltar , North Africa and England. German deception efforts also utilized the diplomatic and press corps...first issuing an ultimatum as Hitler had done during prior invasions.19 German diplomatic, economic, and military relationships continued right until

  8. Detecting deception in a bluffing body: The role of expertise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sebanz, N.; Shiffrar, M.


    Studies of deception detection traditionally have focused on verbal communication. Nevertheless, people commonly deceive others through nonverbal cues. Previous research has shown that intentions can be inferred from the ways in which people move their bodies. Furthermore, motor expertise within a g

  9. Deception studies manipulating centrally acting performance modifiers: a review. (United States)

    Williams, Emily L; Jones, Hollie S; Sparks, Sandy; Marchant, David C; Micklewright, Dominic; McNaughton, Lars R


    Athletes anticipatorily set and continuously adjust pacing strategies before and during events to produce optimal performance. Self-regulation ensures maximal effort is exerted in correspondence with the end point of exercise, while preventing physiological changes that are detrimental and disruptive to homeostatic control. The integration of feedforward and feedback information, together with the proposed brain's performance modifiers is said to be fundamental to this anticipatory and continuous regulation of exercise. The manipulation of central, regulatory internal and external stimuli has been a key focus within deception research, attempting to influence the self-regulation of exercise and induce improvements in performance. Methods of manipulating performance modifiers such as unknown task end point, deceived duration or intensity feedback, self-belief, or previous experience create a challenge within research, as although they contextualize theoretical propositions, there are few ecological and practical approaches which integrate theory with practice. In addition, the different methods and measures demonstrated in manipulation studies have produced inconsistent results. This review examines and critically evaluates the current methods of how specific centrally controlled performance modifiers have been manipulated, within previous deception studies. From the 31 studies reviewed, 10 reported positive effects on performance, encouraging future investigations to explore the mechanisms responsible for influencing pacing and consequently how deceptive approaches can further facilitate performance. The review acts to discuss the use of expectation manipulation not only to examine which methods of deception are successful in facilitating performance but also to understand further the key components used in the regulation of exercise and performance.

  10. Operational Deception in the Littorals: Necessary and Achievable (United States)


    romantic view of operational deception. In preparation for Operation HUSKY, the landing on Sicily in World War II, Allied planners dropped a...adopted, existing methods are adapted, and new doctrine and training opportunities are developed. Advances in technology present new and novel ways to

  11. An Examination of Behavioral Responses to Stereotypical Deceptive Displays. (United States)

    Huddleston, Bill M.

    A study investigated whether receivers who detect senders behaving deceitfully will automatically become more resistent to the message being presented. By developing predictions derived from the Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM), the study hypothesized that only noninvolved receivers would respond negatively to deceptive nonverbal cues in a…

  12. Detecting deception in children: A meta-analysis. (United States)

    Gongola, Jennifer; Scurich, Nicholas; Quas, Jodi A


    Although research reveals that children as young as 3 can use deception and will take steps to obscure truth, research concerning how well others detect children's deceptive efforts remains unclear. Yet adults regularly assess whether children are telling the truth in a variety of contexts, including at school, in the home, and in legal settings, particularly in investigations of maltreatment. We conducted a meta-analysis to synthesize extant research concerning adults' ability to detect deceptive statements produced by children. We included 45 experiments involving 7,893 adult judges and 1,858 children. Overall, adults could accurately discriminate truths/lies at an average rate of 54%, which is slightly but significantly above chance levels. The average rate at which true statements were correctly classified as honest was higher (63.8%), whereas the rate at which lies were classified as dishonest was not different from chance (47.5%). A small positive correlation emerged between judgment confidence and judgment accuracy. Professionals (e.g., social workers, police officers, teachers) slightly outperformed laypersons (e.g., college undergraduates). Finally, exploratory analyses revealed that the child's age did not significantly affect the rate at which adults could discriminate truths/lies from chance. Future research aimed toward improving lie detection accuracy might focus more on individual differences in children's lie-telling abilities in order to uncover any reliable indicators of deception. (PsycINFO Database Record

  13. Games Con Men Play: The Semiosis of Deceptive Interaction. (United States)

    Hankiss, Agnes


    Analyzes some of the most frequent deceptive interactions as rendered through case histories of male con artists and their victims taken from police records. Discusses the recurrent elements in both the con-games strategies and victims' way of interpreting those strategies. (JMF)

  14. First Order Deceptive Problem of ACO and Its Performance Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Chen


    Full Text Available Ant colony optimization(ACO, which is one of the intelligential optimization algorithm, has been widely used to solve combinational optimization problems. Deceptive problems have been considered difficult for ant colony optimization. It was believed that ACO will fail to converge to global optima of deceptive problems. This paper proves that the first order deceptive problem of ant colony algorithm satisfies value convergence under certain initial pheromone distribution, but does not satisfy solution convergence. We also present a first attempt towards the value-convergence time complexity analysis of ACO on the first-order deceptive systems taking the n-bit trap problem as the test instance. We prove that time complexity of MMAS, which is an ACO with limitations of the pheromone on each edge, on n-bit trap problem is O(n2m.log n, here n is the size of the problem and m is the number of artificial ants. Our experimental results confirm the correctness of our analysis.

  15. Intrinsically disordered proteins: structural and functional dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallin S


    Full Text Available Stefan Wallin Department of Physics and Physical Oceanography, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John’s, NL, Canada Abstract: The classical view holds that proteins fold into essentially unique three-dimensional structures before becoming biologically active. However, studies over the last several years have provided broad and convincing evidence that some proteins do not adopt a single structure and yet are fully functional. These intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs have been found to be highly prevalent in many genomes, including human, and play key roles in central cellular processes, such as regulation of transcription and translation, cell cycle, and cell signaling. Moreover, IDPs are overrepresented among proteins implicated in disease, including various cancers and neurodegenerative disorders. Intense efforts, by using both experimental and computational approaches, are consequently under way to uncover the molecular mechanisms that underpin the roles of IDPs in biology and disease. This review provides an introduction to the general biophysical properties of IDPs and discusses some of the recent emerging areas in IDP research, including the roles of IDPs in allosteric regulation, regulatory unfolding, and formation of intracellular membrane-less organelles. In addition, recent attempts at therapeutic targeting of IDPs by small molecules, noting in particular that IDPs represent a potentially important source of new drug targets in light of their central role in protein–protein interaction networks, are also reviewed. Keywords: natively unfolded proteins, unstructured proteins, protein folding, protein–protein interaction, cell regulation, signaling, drug development, inhibitors

  16. Once an Impression Manager, Always an Impression Manager? Antecedents of Honest and Deceptive Impression Management Use and Variability across Multiple Job Interviews (United States)

    Roulin, Nicolas; Bourdage, Joshua S.


    Research has examined the antecedents of applicants' use of impression management (IM) tactics in employment interviews. All existing empirical studies have measured IM in one particular interview. Yet, applicants generally interview multiple times for different positions, and thus have multiple opportunities to engage in IM, before they can secure a job. Similarly, recent theoretical advances in personnel selection and IM research have suggested that applicant behaviors should be considered as dynamic and adaptive in nature. In line with this perspective, the present study is the first to examine the role of individual differences in both applicants' use of IM tactics and the variability in IM use across multiple interviews. It also highlights which honest and deceptive IM tactics remain stable vs. vary in consecutive interviews with different interviewers and organizations. Results suggest that applicants high in Extraversion or core self-evaluations tend to engage in more honest self-promotion but do not adapt their IM approach across interviews. In contrast, applicants who possess more undesirable personality traits (i.e., low on Honesty-Humility and Conscientiousness, but high on Machiavellianism, Narcissism, Psychopathy, or Competitive Worldviews) tend to use more deceptive IM (and especially image creation tactics) and are also more likely to adapt their IM strategy across interviews. Because deceptive IM users can obtain better evaluations from interviewers and the personality profile of those users is often associated with undesirable workplace outcomes, this study provides additional evidence for the claim that deceptive IM (or faking) is a potential threat for organizations. PMID:28174546

  17. Spontaneous innovation for future deception in a male chimpanzee. (United States)

    Osvath, Mathias; Karvonen, Elin


    The ability to invent means to deceive others, where the deception lies in the perceptually or contextually detached future, appears to require the coordination of sophisticated cognitive skills toward a single goal. Meanwhile innovation for a current situation has been observed in a wide range of species. Planning, on the one hand, and the social cognition required for deception on the other, have been linked to one another, both from a co-evolutionary and a neuroanatomical perspective. Innovation and deception have also been suggested to be connected in their nature of relying on novelty. We report on systematic observations suggesting innovation for future deception by a captive male chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes). As an extension of previously described behaviour--caching projectiles for later throwing at zoo visitors--the chimpanzee, again in advance, manufactured concealments from hay, as well as used naturally occurring concealments. All were placed near the visitors' observation area, allowing the chimpanzee to make throws before the crowd could back off. We observed what was likely the first instance of this innovation. Further observations showed that the creation of future-oriented concealments became the significantly preferred strategy. What is more, the chimpanzee appeared consistently to combine two deceptive strategies: hiding projectiles and inhibiting dominance display behaviour. The findings suggest that chimpanzees can represent the future behaviours of others while those others are not present, as well as take actions in the current situation towards such potential future behaviours. Importantly, the behaviour of the chimpanzee produced a future event, rather than merely prepared for an event that had been reliably re-occurring in the past. These findings might indicate that the chimpanzee recombined episodic memories in perceptual simulations.

  18. Spontaneous innovation for future deception in a male chimpanzee.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Osvath

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The ability to invent means to deceive others, where the deception lies in the perceptually or contextually detached future, appears to require the coordination of sophisticated cognitive skills toward a single goal. Meanwhile innovation for a current situation has been observed in a wide range of species. Planning, on the one hand, and the social cognition required for deception on the other, have been linked to one another, both from a co-evolutionary and a neuroanatomical perspective. Innovation and deception have also been suggested to be connected in their nature of relying on novelty. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We report on systematic observations suggesting innovation for future deception by a captive male chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes. As an extension of previously described behaviour--caching projectiles for later throwing at zoo visitors--the chimpanzee, again in advance, manufactured concealments from hay, as well as used naturally occurring concealments. All were placed near the visitors' observation area, allowing the chimpanzee to make throws before the crowd could back off. We observed what was likely the first instance of this innovation. Further observations showed that the creation of future-oriented concealments became the significantly preferred strategy. What is more, the chimpanzee appeared consistently to combine two deceptive strategies: hiding projectiles and inhibiting dominance display behaviour. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The findings suggest that chimpanzees can represent the future behaviours of others while those others are not present, as well as take actions in the current situation towards such potential future behaviours. Importantly, the behaviour of the chimpanzee produced a future event, rather than merely prepared for an event that had been reliably re-occurring in the past. These findings might indicate that the chimpanzee recombined episodic memories in perceptual simulations.

  19. Abstraction of Continuous Dynamical Systems Utilizing Lyapunov Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Christoffer; Wisniewski, Rafal


    This paper considers the development of a method for abstracting continuous dynamical systems by timed automata. The method is based on partitioning the state space of dynamical systems with invariant sets, which form cells representing locations of the timed automata. To enable verification...... of the dynamical system based on the abstraction, conditions for obtaining sound, complete, and refinable abstractions are set up. It is proposed to partition the state space utilizing sub-level sets of Lyapunov functions, since they are positive invariant sets. The existence of sound abstractions for Morse......-Smale systems and complete and refinable abstractions for linear systems are shown....

  20. Physiological and psychological effects of deception on pacing strategy and performance: a review. (United States)

    Jones, Hollie S; Williams, Emily L; Bridge, Craig A; Marchant, Dave; Midgley, Adrian W; Micklewright, Dominic; Mc Naughton, Lars R


    The aim of an optimal pacing strategy during exercise is to enhance performance whilst ensuring physiological limits are not surpassed, which has been shown to result in a metabolic reserve at the end of the exercise. There has been debate surrounding the theoretical models that have been proposed to explain how pace is regulated, with more recent research investigating a central control of exercise regulation. Deception has recently emerged as a common, practical approach to manipulate key variables during exercise. There are a number of ways in which deception interventions have been designed, each intending to gain particular insights into pacing behaviour and performance. Deception methodologies can be conceptualised according to a number of dimensions such as deception timing (prior to or during exercise), presentation frequency (blind, discontinuous or continuous) and type of deception (performance, biofeedback or environmental feedback). However, research evidence on the effects of deception has been perplexing and the use of complex designs and varied methodologies makes it difficult to draw any definitive conclusions about how pacing strategy and performance are affected by deception. This review examines existing research in the area of deception and pacing strategies, and provides a critical appraisal of the different methodological approaches used to date. It is hoped that this analysis will inform the direction and methodology of future investigations in this area by addressing the mechanisms through which deception impacts upon performance and by elucidating the potential application of deception techniques in training and competitive settings.

  1. The dynamic transfer function for a cavitating inducer (United States)

    Brennen, C.; Acosta, A. J.


    Knowledge of the dynamic performance of pumps is essential for the prediction of transient behavior and instabilities in hydraulic systems; the necessary information is in the form of a transfer function which relates the instantaneous or fluctuating pressure and mass flow rate at inlet to the same quantities in the discharge from the pump. The presence of cavitation within the pump can have a major effect on this transfer function since dynamical changes in the volume of cavitation contribute to the difference in the instantaneous inlet and discharge mass flow rates. The present paper utilizes results from free streamline cascade theory to evaluate the elements in the transfer function for a cavitating inducer and shows that the numerical results are consistent with the characteristics observed in some dynamic tests on rocket engine turbopumps.

  2. An information theory framework for dynamic functional domain connectivity. (United States)

    Vergara, Victor M; Miller, Robyn; Calhoun, Vince


    Dynamic functional network connectivity (dFNC) analyzes time evolution of coherent activity in the brain. In this technique dynamic changes are considered for the whole brain. This paper proposes an information theory framework to measure information flowing among subsets of functional networks call functional domains. Our method aims at estimating bits of information contained and shared among domains. The succession of dynamic functional states is estimated at the domain level. Information quantity is based on the probabilities of observing each dynamic state. Mutual information measurement is then obtained from probabilities across domains. Thus, we named this value the cross domain mutual information (CDMI). Strong CDMIs were observed in relation to the subcortical domain. Domains related to sensorial input, motor control and cerebellum form another CDMI cluster. Information flow among other domains was seldom found. Other methods of dynamic connectivity focus on whole brain dFNC matrices. In the current framework, information theory is applied to states estimated from pairs of multi-network functional domains. In this context, we apply information theory to measure information flow across functional domains. Identified CDMI clusters point to known information pathways in the basal ganglia and also among areas of sensorial input, patterns found in static functional connectivity. In contrast, CDMI across brain areas of higher level cognitive processing follow a different pattern that indicates scarce information sharing. These findings show that employing information theory to formally measured information flow through brain domains reveals additional features of functional connectivity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Crystallization induced by multiple seeds: dynamical density functional approach. (United States)

    Neuhaus, T; Schmiedeberg, M; Löwen, H


    Using microscopic dynamical density functional theory, we calculate the dynamical formation of polycrystals by following the crystal growth around multiple crystalline seeds imposed to an undercooled fluid. Depending on the undercooling and the size ratio as well as the relative crystal orientation of two neighboring seeds, three possibilities of the final state emerge, namely no crystallization at all, formation of a monocrystal, or two crystallites separated by a curved grain boundary. Our results, which are obtained for two-dimensional hard disk systems using a fundamental-measure density functional, shed new light on the particle-resolved structure and growth of polycrystalline material in general.

  4. Quantitative evaluation of the reticuloendothelial system function with dynamic MRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Liu

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the reticuloendothelial system (RES function by real-time imaging blood clearance as well as hepatic uptake of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle (SPIO using dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI with two-compartment pharmacokinetic modeling. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Kinetics of blood clearance and hepatic accumulation were recorded in young adult male 01b74 athymic nude mice by dynamic T2* weighted MRI after the injection of different doses of SPIO nanoparticles (0.5, 3 or 10 mg Fe/kg. Association parameter, Kin, dissociation parameter, Kout, and elimination constant, Ke, derived from dynamic data with two-compartment model, were used to describe active binding to Kupffer cells and extrahepatic clearance. The clodrosome and liposome were utilized to deplete macrophages and block the RES function to evaluate the capability of the kinetic parameters for investigation of macrophage function and density. RESULTS: The two-compartment model provided a good description for all data and showed a low sum squared residual for all mice (0.27±0.03. A lower Kin, a lower Kout and a lower Ke were found after clodrosome treatment, whereas a lower Kin, a higher Kout and a lower Ke were observed after liposome treatment in comparison to saline treatment (P<0.005. CONCLUSION: Dynamic SPIO-enhanced MR imaging with two-compartment modeling can provide information on RES function on both a cell number and receptor function level.

  5. Ab initio molecular dynamics using hybrid density functionals (United States)

    Guidon, Manuel; Schiffmann, Florian; Hutter, Jürg; Vandevondele, Joost


    Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations with hybrid density functionals have so far found little application due to their computational cost. In this work, an implementation of the Hartree-Fock exchange is presented that is specifically targeted at ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of medium sized systems. We demonstrate that our implementation, which is available as part of the CP2K/Quickstep program, is robust and efficient. Several prescreening techniques lead to a linear scaling cost for integral evaluation and storage. Integral compression techniques allow for in-core calculations on systems containing several thousand basis functions. The massively parallel implementation respects integral symmetry and scales up to hundreds of CPUs using a dynamic load balancing scheme. A time-reversible multiple time step scheme, exploiting the difference in computational efficiency between hybrid and local functionals, brings further time savings. With extensive simulations of liquid water, we demonstrate the ability to perform, for several tens of picoseconds, ab initio molecular dynamics based on hybrid functionals of systems in the condensed phase containing a few thousand Gaussian basis functions.

  6. Development of a transfer function method for dynamic stability measurement (United States)

    Johnson, W.


    Flutter testing method based on transfer function measurements is developed. The error statistics of several dynamic stability measurement methods are reviewed. It is shown that the transfer function measurement controls the error level by averaging the data and correlating the input and output. The method also gives a direct estimate of the error in the response measurement. An algorithm is developed for obtaining the natural frequency and damping ratio of low damped modes of the system, using integrals of the transfer function in the vicinity of a resonant peak. Guidelines are given for selecting the parameters in the transfer function measurement. Finally, the dynamic stability measurement technique is applied to data from a wind tunnel test of a proprotor and wing model.

  7. Dynamics Model Abstraction Scheme Using Radial Basis Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Tolu


    Full Text Available This paper presents a control model for object manipulation. Properties of objects and environmental conditions influence the motor control and learning. System dynamics depend on an unobserved external context, for example, work load of a robot manipulator. The dynamics of a robot arm change as it manipulates objects with different physical properties, for example, the mass, shape, or mass distribution. We address active sensing strategies to acquire object dynamical models with a radial basis function neural network (RBF. Experiments are done using a real robot’s arm, and trajectory data are gathered during various trials manipulating different objects. Biped robots do not have high force joint servos and the control system hardly compensates all the inertia variation of the adjacent joints and disturbance torque on dynamic gait control. In order to achieve smoother control and lead to more reliable sensorimotor complexes, we evaluate and compare a sparse velocity-driven versus a dense position-driven control scheme.

  8. Attempting to hide our real thoughts: electrophysiological evidence from truthful and deceptive responses during evaluation. (United States)

    Dong, Guangheng; Wu, Haiyan


    This study seeks to investigate neural activity during a deceptive evaluation process. Attractive and unattractive facial photos were presented to participants who were then asked to evaluate and respond to these photos according to different cues (truthfulness or deceptiveness). Behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) activities were recorded while participants offered their truthful or deceptive responses based on their evaluations. Consistent with previous results on the old/new paradigm, deceptive responses required greater cognitive endeavor, as indicated by a larger later positive component (LPC). Meanwhile, deceptive responses on attractive items were more easily offered than deceptive replies on unattractive items, as indicated by smaller LPCs. Truthfulness towards attractive items was more easily conveyed than truthfulness towards unattractive items, as indicated by the smaller contingent negative variation (CNV). The potential reasons for these results are discussed. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Self-Deception, Beliefs Systems and Self-knowledge’s Errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Fernández Acevedo


    Full Text Available Richard Holton has criticized the common idea that self-deception is deception by the self, and suggested it is rather deception about the self; self-deception must include necessarily erroneous beliefs about the self. In this article I claim that this condition is not necessary, based on two central traits of self-deception: its temporal character  and  its  bound  to  multiplication.  In  addition,  I  suggest  an  alternative condition in relation to the beliefs system implied in self-deception.

  10. Light-Front Dynamics and the 3He Spectral Function

    CERN Document Server

    Pace, Emanuele; Kaptari, Leonid; Rinaldi, Matteo; Salme', Giovanni; Scopetta, Sergio


    Two topics are presented. The first one is a novel approach for a Poincare' covariant description of nuclear dynamics based on light-front Hamiltonian dynamics. The key quantity is the light-front spectral function, where both normalization and momentum sum rule can be satisfied at the same time. Preliminary results are discussed for an initial analysis of the role of relativity in the EMC effect in 3He. A second issue, very challenging, is considered in a non-relativistic framework, namely a distorted spin-dependent spectral function for 3He in order to take care of the final state interaction between the observed pion and the remnant in semi-inclusive deep inelastic electron scattering off polarized 3He. The generalization of the analysis within the light-front dynamics is outlined.

  11. Population dynamics and mutualism: Functional responses of benefits and costs (United States)

    Holland, J. Nathaniel; DeAngelis, Donald L.; Bronstein, Judith L.


    We develop an approach for studying population dynamics resulting from mutualism by employing functional responses based on density‐dependent benefits and costs. These functional responses express how the population growth rate of a mutualist is modified by the density of its partner. We present several possible dependencies of gross benefits and costs, and hence net effects, to a mutualist as functions of the density of its partner. Net effects to mutualists are likely a monotonically saturating or unimodal function of the density of their partner. We show that fundamental differences in the growth, limitation, and dynamics of a population can occur when net effects to that population change linearly, unimodally, or in a saturating fashion. We use the mutualism between senita cactus and its pollinating seed‐eating moth as an example to show the influence of different benefit and cost functional responses on population dynamics and stability of mutualisms. We investigated two mechanisms that may alter this mutualism's functional responses: distribution of eggs among flowers and fruit abortion. Differences in how benefits and costs vary with density can alter the stability of this mutualism. In particular, fruit abortion may allow for a stable equilibrium where none could otherwise exist.

  12. From dynamics to structure and function of model biomolecular systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fontaine-Vive-Curtaz, F.


    The purpose of this thesis was to extend recent works on structure and dynamics of hydrogen bonded crystals to model biomolecular systems and biological processes. The tools that we have used are neutron scattering (NS) and density functional theory (DFT) and force field (FF) based simulation method

  13. Cognitive simplicity and self-deception are crucial in martyrdom and suicide terrorism. (United States)

    Fink, Bernhard; Trivers, Robert


    Suicide attacks and terrorism are characterized by cognitive simplicity, which is related to self-deception. In justifying violence in pursuit of ideologically and/or politically driven commitment, people with high religious commitment may be particularly prone to mechanisms of self-deception. Related megalomania and glorious self-perception are typical of self-deception, and are thus crucial in the emergence and expression of (suicide) terrorism.

  14. Pattern recognition-based method for radar anti-deceptive jamming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Xiaoyan; Qin Jiangmin; Li Jianxun


    In order to make the effective ECCM to the deceptive jamming, especially the angle deceptive jamming, this paper establishes a signal-processing model for anti-deceptive jamming firstly, in which two feature-extracting algorithms, i.e. the statistical algorithm and the neural network (NN) algorithm are presented, then uses the RBF NN as the classifier in the processing model. Finally the two algorithms are validated and compared through some simulations.

  15. Strategic Interviewing to Detect Deception: Cues to Deception across Repeated Interviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaume Masip


    Full Text Available Previous deception research on repeated interviews found that liars are not less consistent than truth tellers, presumably because liars use a repeat strategy to be consistent across interviews. The goal of this study was to design an interview procedure to overcome this strategy. Innocent participants (truth tellers and guilty participants (liars had to convince an interviewer that they had performed several innocent activities rather than committing a mock crime. The interview focused on the innocent activities (alibi, contained specific central and peripheral questions, and was repeated after one week without forewarning. Cognitive load was increased by asking participants to reply quickly. The liars’ answers in replying to both central and peripheral questions were significantly less accurate, less consistent, and more evasive than the truth tellers’ answers. Logistic regression analyses yielded classification rates ranging from around 70% (with consistency as the predictor variable, 85% (with evasive answers as the predictor variable, to over 90% (with an improved measure of consistency that incorporated evasive answers as the predictor variable, as well as with response accuracy as the predictor variable. These classification rates were higher than the interviewers’ accuracy rate (54%.

  16. Advances in automated deception detection in text-based computer-mediated communication (United States)

    Adkins, Mark; Twitchell, Douglas P.; Burgoon, Judee K.; Nunamaker, Jay F., Jr.


    The Internet has provided criminals, terrorists, spies, and other threats to national security a means of communication. At the same time it also provides for the possibility of detecting and tracking their deceptive communication. Recent advances in natural language processing, machine learning and deception research have created an environment where automated and semi-automated deception detection of text-based computer-mediated communication (CMC, e.g. email, chat, instant messaging) is a reachable goal. This paper reviews two methods for discriminating between deceptive and non-deceptive messages in CMC. First, Document Feature Mining uses document features or cues in CMC messages combined with machine learning techniques to classify messages according to their deceptive potential. The method, which is most useful in asynchronous applications, also allows for the visualization of potential deception cues in CMC messages. Second, Speech Act Profiling, a method for quantifying and visualizing synchronous CMC, has shown promise in aiding deception detection. The methods may be combined and are intended to be a part of a suite of tools for automating deception detection.

  17. Quantum Dynamics in Classical Time Evolution of Correlation Functions

    CERN Document Server

    Wetterich, C


    The time-dependence of correlation functions under the influence of cla= ssical equations of motion is described by an exact evolution equation. For conservative systems thermodynamic equilibrium is a fixed point of these equations. We show that this fixed point is not universally stable, since infinitely many conserved correlation functions obstruct the approach to equilibrium. Equilibrium can therefore be reached at most for suitably av= eraged quantities or for subsystems, similar to quantum statistics. The classica= l time evolution of correlation functions shows many dynamical features of quant= um mechanics.

  18. Comparison Criteria for Nonlinear Functional Dynamic Equations of Higher Order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taher S. Hassan


    Full Text Available We will consider the higher order functional dynamic equations with mixed nonlinearities of the form xnt+∑j=0Npjtϕγjxφjt=0, on an above-unbounded time scale T, where n≥2, xi(t≔ri(tϕαixi-1Δ(t,  i=1,…,n-1,   with  x0=x,  ϕβ(u≔uβsgn⁡u, and α[i,j]≔αi⋯αj. The function φi:T→T is a rd-continuous function such that limt→∞φi(t=∞ for j=0,1,…,N. The results extend and improve some known results in the literature on higher order nonlinear dynamic equations.

  19. Robot Lies in Health Care: When Is Deception Morally Permissible? (United States)

    Matthias, Andreas


    Autonomous robots are increasingly interacting with users who have limited knowledge of robotics and are likely to have an erroneous mental model of the robot's workings, capabilities, and internal structure. The robot's real capabilities may diverge from this mental model to the extent that one might accuse the robot's manufacturer of deceiving the user, especially in cases where the user naturally tends to ascribe exaggerated capabilities to the machine (e.g. conversational systems in elder-care contexts, or toy robots in child care). This poses the question, whether misleading or even actively deceiving the user of an autonomous artifact about the capabilities of the machine is morally bad and why. By analyzing trust, autonomy, and the erosion of trust in communicative acts as consequences of deceptive robot behavior, we formulate four criteria that must be fulfilled in order for robot deception to be morally permissible, and in some cases even morally indicated.

  20. Can Magic Deception Be Detected at an Unconscious Level? (United States)

    Kawakami, Naoaki; Miura, Emi


    Magicians present magic tricks that seem to defy the laws of nature, entertaining us by manipulating our attention, perception, and awareness. However, although we are unaware of these manipulations at the level of conscious experience, we may still be aware of them at an unconscious level. We examined whether people can detect a magic deception outside of conscious awareness using an indirect measure. In the present study, we used the Cups and Balls magic trick, which is the transposition of balls between two cups. Participants viewed a video of the magic performance and were required to indicate the position of the ball in a direct self-report measure and completed the Single Category Implicit Association Test as an indirect measure. The results showed that the indirect measure of trick detection had higher accuracy than the direct measure. Our results suggest that while humans cannot consciously detect the magic deception, they do have a sense of what occurred on an unconscious level.

  1. Pollination by sexual deception-it takes chemistry to work. (United States)

    Bohman, Björn; Flematti, Gavin R; Barrow, Russell A; Pichersky, Eran; Peakall, Rod


    Semiochemicals are of paramount importance in sexually deceptive plants. These plants sexually lure specific male insects as pollinators by chemical and physical mimicry of the female of the pollinator. The strategy has evolved repeatedly in orchids, with a wide diversity of insect groups exploited. Chemical communication systems confirmed by field bioassays include: alkenes and alkanes in bee pollinated Ophrys species, keto-acid and hydroxy-acids in scoliid wasp pollinated O. speculum, and cyclohexanediones and pyrazines in thynnine wasp pollinated Chiloglottis and Drakaea orchids, respectively. In Ophrys, stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase (SAD) enzymes have been confirmed to control species level variation in alkene double bond position. The production of cyclohexanediones in Chiloglottis unexpectedly depends on UVB light, a phenomenon unknown for other plant specialised metabolites. Potential biosynthetic pathways for other systems are explored, and alternative approaches to further accelerate chemical discovery in sexually deceptive plants are proposed.

  2. The Role of Power and Negotiation in Online Deception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad Albrecht


    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to advance theoretical understanding of the important role of both power and negotiation during online deception.  By so doing, the paper provides insight into the relationship between perpetrator and victim in Internet fraud. The growing prevalence of Internet Fraud continues to be a burden to both society and individuals. In an attempt to better understand Internet fraud and online deception, this article attempts to build an interactive model, based upon the dimensions of power and negotiation from the management and psychology literature. Using the model presented, the article examines the effects of the Internet on the communication process that takes place between perpetrator and victim. Finally, the article discusses some of the major tactics employed to appeal to each power type in predominant fraud forms, as well exploring future types of fraud.

  3. Dynamical density functional theory with hydrodynamic interactions in confined geometries (United States)

    Goddard, B. D.; Nold, A.; Kalliadasis, S.


    We study the dynamics of colloidal fluids in both unconfined geometries and when confined by a hard wall. Under minimal assumptions, we derive a dynamical density functional theory (DDFT) which includes hydrodynamic interactions (HI; bath-mediated forces). By using an efficient numerical scheme based on pseudospectral methods for integro-differential equations, we demonstrate its excellent agreement with the full underlying Langevin equations for systems of hard disks in partial confinement. We further use the derived DDFT formalism to elucidate the crucial effects of HI in confined systems.

  4. Employing Deceptive Dynamic Network Topology Through Software-Defined Networking (United States)


    Internetwork Operating System IP Internet Protocol IPID Internet Protocol Identification IPv4 Internet Protocol version 4 IPv6 Internet Protocol...techniques can be deceived in §2.3. 1.1.2 OpenFlow With the development of more advanced applications and mobile computing, to computer and network...the main criteria by which routers make their decision. The first field of interest is the IP version: IPv4 or Internet Protocol version 6 ( IPv6 ). As

  5. Allies in the Shadows: Why We Need Operational Deception (United States)


    deceivers executed elaborate campaigns throughout the rest of the war that often left Hitler puzzled about the actual size of allied forces; in fact...1941 through a complex deception system that took advantage of Stalin’s preexisting belief that Germany would not invade the Soviet Union. Hitler ... Enigma intercepts and human intelligence sources. Professional deceivers understand the capabilities and limitations of their art. At the strategic

  6. Assessment of Psychophysiological Detection of Deception (PDD) Pretest (United States)


    Lindsay, J. J., Malone, B. E., Muhlenbruck, L., Charlton, K., & Coo- per, H. (2003). Cues to deception. Psychological Bulletin, 129, 74-118. Ekman , P...O’Sullivan, M. (1991). Who can catch a liar? American Psychologist, 46, 913-920. Ekman , P., O’Sullivan, M., & Frank, M. G. (1999). A few can catch a...careful about revealing emotion (anger, shock, frustration) • Persistence and perseverance. • Sense of humor. • Being a Type A helps. • Must have the

  7. Discerning truth from deception: The sincere witness profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiorella Giusberti


    Full Text Available During the last twenty years, we have assisted to a growing interest in the detection of verbal cues under deception. In this context, we focused our attention on the truth vs. deception topic in adults. In particular, we were interested in discrepant findings concerning some verbal indicators. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether different experimental designs may yield different results regarding the presence or absence of CBCA criteria. Forty participants were shown a video of a robbery and were asked to give a truthful and a deceitful statement of the criminal event. The participants’ performances were recorded in order to analyze content of the reports. Results showed more changes in verbal behaviour under within-subjects design compared to between-subjects one, though the presence/absence of some criteria was the same across the two statistical procedures. The different results yielded by between- and within-subjects analyses can provide some hints as regards the discrepancy in deception literature on verbal cues. Implications for applied settings are discussed.

  8. Crossing the entropy barrier of dynamical zeta functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aurich, R.; Bolte, J.; Matthies, C.; Sieber, M.; Steiner, F. (Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik)


    Dynamical zeta functions are an important tool to quantize chaotic dynamical systems. The basic quantization rules require the computation of the zeta functions on the real energy axis, where the Euler product representations running over the classical periodic orbits usually do not converge due to the existence of the so-called entropy barrier determined by the topological entropy of the classical system. We shown that the convergence properties of the dynamical zeta functions rewritten as Dirichlet series are governed not only by the well-known topological and metric entropy, but depend crucially on subtle statistical properties of the Maslow indices and of the multiplicities of the periodic orbits that are measured by a new parameter for which we introduce the notion of a third entropy. If and only if the third entropy is nonvanishing, one can cross the entropy barrier; if it exceeds a certain value, one can even compute the zeta function in the physical region by means of a convergent Dirichlet series. A simple statistical model is presented which allows to compute the third entropy. Four examples of chaotic systems are studied in detail to test the model numerically. (orig.).

  9. Enzymes: An integrated view of structure, dynamics and function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agarwal Pratul K


    Full Text Available Abstract Microbes utilize enzymes to perform a variety of functions. Enzymes are biocatalysts working as highly efficient machines at the molecular level. In the past, enzymes have been viewed as static entities and their function has been explained on the basis of direct structural interactions between the enzyme and the substrate. A variety of experimental and computational techniques, however, continue to reveal that proteins are dynamically active machines, with various parts exhibiting internal motions at a wide range of time-scales. Increasing evidence also indicates that these internal protein motions play a role in promoting protein function such as enzyme catalysis. Moreover, the thermodynamical fluctuations of the solvent, surrounding the protein, have an impact on internal protein motions and, therefore, on enzyme function. In this review, we describe recent biochemical and theoretical investigations of internal protein dynamics linked to enzyme catalysis. In the enzyme cyclophilin A, investigations have lead to the discovery of a network of protein vibrations promoting catalysis. Cyclophilin A catalyzes peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerization in a variety of peptide and protein substrates. Recent studies of cyclophilin A are discussed in detail and other enzymes (dihydrofolate reductase and liver alcohol dehydrogenase where similar discoveries have been reported are also briefly discussed. The detailed characterization of the discovered networks indicates that protein dynamics plays a role in rate-enhancement achieved by enzymes. An integrated view of enzyme structure, dynamics and function have wide implications in understanding allosteric and co-operative effects, as well as protein engineering of more efficient enzymes and novel drug design.

  10. Dynamic density functional theory of solid tumor growth: Preliminary models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Chauviere


    Full Text Available Cancer is a disease that can be seen as a complex system whose dynamics and growth result from nonlinear processes coupled across wide ranges of spatio-temporal scales. The current mathematical modeling literature addresses issues at various scales but the development of theoretical methodologies capable of bridging gaps across scales needs further study. We present a new theoretical framework based on Dynamic Density Functional Theory (DDFT extended, for the first time, to the dynamics of living tissues by accounting for cell density correlations, different cell types, phenotypes and cell birth/death processes, in order to provide a biophysically consistent description of processes across the scales. We present an application of this approach to tumor growth.

  11. A Bayesian Algorithm for Functional Mapping of Dynamic Complex Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongling Wu


    Full Text Available Functional mapping of dynamic traits measured in a longitudinal study was originally derived within the maximum likelihood (ML context and implemented with the EM algorithm. Although ML-based functional mapping possesses many favorable statistical properties in parameter estimation, it may be computationally intractable for analyzing longitudinal data with high dimensions and high measurement errors. In this article, we derive a general functional mapping framework for quantitative trait locus mapping of dynamic traits within the Bayesian paradigm. Markov chain Monte Carlo techniques were implemented for functional mapping to estimate biologically and statistically sensible parameters that model the structures of time-dependent genetic effects and covariance matrix. The Bayesian approach is useful to handle difficulties in constructing confidence intervals as well as the identifiability problem, enhancing the statistical inference of functional mapping. We have undertaken simulation studies to investigate the statistical behavior of Bayesian-based functional mapping and used a real example with F2 mice to validate the utilization and usefulness of the model.

  12. Deception in Covert Nuclear Weapons Development: A Framework to Identify, Analyze, and Mitigate Future Long-Term Deception Efforts (United States)


    programs, but also read each draft chapter with great attentiveness and always responded with excellent feedback . Special thanks go to my outside reader...threats / regional / specific India A – Govt officials have spoken about the 1998 tests, less about previous efforts NPIHP; NTI; significant...known though past cooperation. 5) Feedback : this is an essential part of MILDEC and strategic deception, and one often overlooked. To conduct

  13. Deception Detection Process and Accuracy: An Examination of How International Military Officers Detect Deception in the Workplace (United States)


    to 10, what would you say they were in terms of difficulty? 5. Was teamwork much of a factor in your performance? 6. What would you say if I...different. Background: These clips are of interviews with college students who participated in a study about teamwork . Each subject had just played a...Retrieved from images /cost-of-fraud-infographic.pdf Bond, Jr., C., & DePaulo, B. M. (2006). Accuracy of deception judgments

  14. Dynamic Behavior of Axially Functionally Graded Pipes Conveying Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen An


    Full Text Available Dynamic behavior of axially functionally graded (FG pipes conveying fluid was investigated numerically by using the generalized integral transform technique (GITT. The transverse vibration equation was integral transformed into a coupled system of second-order differential equations in the temporal variable. The Mathematica’s built-in function, NDSolve, was employed to numerically solve the resulting transformed ODE system. Excellent convergence of the proposed eigenfunction expansions was demonstrated for calculating the transverse displacement at various points of axially FG pipes conveying fluid. The proposed approach was verified by comparing the obtained results with the available solutions reported in the literature. Moreover, parametric studies were performed to analyze the effects of Young’s modulus variation, material distribution, and flow velocity on the dynamic behavior of axially FG pipes conveying fluid.

  15. Dynamic Regulation and Function of Histone Monoubiquitination in Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing eFeng


    Full Text Available Polyubiquitin chain deposition on a target protein frequently leads to proteasome-mediated degradation whereas monoubiquitination modifies target protein property and function independent of proteolysis. Histone monoubiquitination occurs in chromatin and is in nowadays recognized as one critical type of epigenetic marks in eukaryotes. While H2A monoubiquitination (H2Aub1 is generally associated with transcription repression mediated by the Polycomb pathway, H2Bub1 is involved in transcription activation. H2Aub1 and H2Bub1 levels are dynamically regulated via deposition and removal by specific enzymes. We review knows and unknowns of dynamic regulation of H2Aub1 and H2Bub1 deposition and removal in plants and highlight the underlying crucial functions in gene transcription, cell proliferation/differentiation, and plant growth and development. We also discuss crosstalks existing between H2Aub1 or H2Bub1 and different histone methylations for an ample mechanistic understanding.

  16. Unveiling protein functions through the dynamics of the interaction network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Sendiña-Nadal

    Full Text Available Protein interaction networks have become a tool to study biological processes, either for predicting molecular functions or for designing proper new drugs to regulate the main biological interactions. Furthermore, such networks are known to be organized in sub-networks of proteins contributing to the same cellular function. However, the protein function prediction is not accurate and each protein has traditionally been assigned to only one function by the network formalism. By considering the network of the physical interactions between proteins of the yeast together with a manual and single functional classification scheme, we introduce a method able to reveal important information on protein function, at both micro- and macro-scale. In particular, the inspection of the properties of oscillatory dynamics on top of the protein interaction network leads to the identification of misclassification problems in protein function assignments, as well as to unveil correct identification of protein functions. We also demonstrate that our approach can give a network representation of the meta-organization of biological processes by unraveling the interactions between different functional classes.

  17. Subdiffusive dynamics of bump attractors: mechanisms and functional roles. (United States)

    Qi, Yang; Breakspear, Michael; Gong, Pulin


    Bump attractors are localized activity patterns that can self-sustain after stimulus presentation, and they are regarded as the neural substrate for a host of perceptual and cognitive processes. One of the characteristic features of bump attractors is that they are neutrally stable, so that noisy inputs cause them to drift away from their initial locations, severely impairing the accuracy of bump location-dependent neural coding. Previous modeling studies of such noise-induced drifting activity of bump attractors have focused on normal diffusive dynamics, often with an assumption that noisy inputs are uncorrelated. Here we show that long-range temporal correlations and spatial correlations in neural inputs generated by multiple interacting bumps cause them to drift in an anomalous subdiffusive way. This mechanism for generating subdiffusive dynamics of bump attractors is further analyzed based on a generalized Langevin equation. We demonstrate that subdiffusive dynamics can significantly improve the coding accuracy of bump attractors, since the variance of the bump displacement increases sublinearly over time and is much smaller than that of normal diffusion. Furthermore, we reanalyze existing psychophysical data concerning the spread of recalled cue position in spatial working memory tasks and show that its variance increases sublinearly with time, consistent with subdiffusive dynamics of bump attractors. Based on the probability density function of bump position, we also show that the subdiffusive dynamics result in a long-tailed decay of firing rate, greatly extending the duration of persistent activity.

  18. Infimal convolution of total generalized variation functionals for dynamic MRI. (United States)

    Schloegl, Matthias; Holler, Martin; Schwarzl, Andreas; Bredies, Kristian; Stollberger, Rudolf


    To accelerate dynamic MR applications using infimal convolution of total generalized variation functionals (ICTGV) as spatio-temporal regularization for image reconstruction. ICTGV comprises a new image prior tailored to dynamic data that achieves regularization via optimal local balancing between spatial and temporal regularity. Here it is applied for the first time to the reconstruction of dynamic MRI data. CINE and perfusion scans were investigated to study the influence of time dependent morphology and temporal contrast changes. ICTGV regularized reconstruction from subsampled MR data is formulated as a convex optimization problem. Global solutions are obtained by employing a duality based non-smooth optimization algorithm. The reconstruction error remains on a low level with acceleration factors up to 16 for both CINE and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI data. The GPU implementation of the algorithm suites clinical demands by reducing reconstruction times of one dataset to less than 4 min. ICTGV based dynamic magnetic resonance imaging reconstruction allows for vast undersampling and therefore enables for very high spatial and temporal resolutions, spatial coverage and reduced scan time. With the proposed distinction of model and regularization parameters it offers a new and robust method of flexible decomposition into components with different degrees of temporal regularity. Magn Reson Med 78:142-155, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  19. The dynamic mechanism of presenilin-function: Sensitive gate dynamics and loop unplugging control protein access

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Somavarapu, Arun Kumar; Kepp, Kasper Planeta


    molecular dynamics in an explicit membrane with particular account of the as yet unexplored loop dynamics. We find that mature PSEN1 contains multiple distinct conformational states whereas non-mature PSEN1 is a typical one-state protein. We confirm a previously suggested gating mechanism, and find......There is no molecular explanation for the many presenilin 1 (PSEN1) mutations causing Alzheimer's disease, but both gain of function relating to amyloid production and loss of isolated PSEN1 function have been implied. We report here the first detailed dynamic all-atom model of mature PSEN1 from...... that the 106-131 loop acts as a "hinge" for the TM2 and TM6 "doors". More importantly, we identify an unplugging mechanism of the Exon 9 loop associated only with mature PSEN1. Proper opening of both the "gate" and "plug" in the membrane produces channel-like morphologies and access to the catalytic aspartates...

  20. The 3He spectral function in light-front dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinaldi Matteo


    Full Text Available A distorted spin-dependent spectral function for 3He is considered for the extraction of the transverse-momentum dependent parton distributions in the neutron from semi-inclusive deep inelastic electron scattering off polarized 3He at finite momentum transfers, where final state interactions are taken into account. The generalization of the analysis to a Poincaré covariant framework within the light-front dynamics is outlined.

  1. The 3He spectral function in light-front dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Rinaldi, Matteo; Kaptari, Leonid; Pace, Emanuele; Salmè, Giovanni; Scopetta, Sergio


    A distorted spin-dependent spectral function for 3He is considered for the extraction of the transverse-momentum dependent parton distributions in the neutron from semi-inclusive deep inelastic electron scattering off polarized 3He at finite momentum transfers, where final state interactions are taken into account. The generalization of the analysis to a Poincar\\'e covariant framework within the light-front dynamics is outlined.

  2. Stratum corneum dynamic function measurements after moisturizer or irritant application. (United States)

    Treffel, P; Gabard, B


    Two simple tests were conducted which allowed the quantification of parameters that characterize the stratum corneum (SC) dynamic functions in vivo under physiological conditions after moisturizer applications for 1 h and after irritation with different concentrations of sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS; 0.5-4%) applied under occlusion for 15 min or 24 h. Both tests, the sorption-desorption test (SDT) and the moisture accumulation test (MAT), were performed with a Nova Dermal Phase Meter 9003. The following parameters were quantified: prehydration state (SDT, MAT), hygroscopicity, water-holding capacity (SDT), water accumulation velocity and water accumulation (MAT). These procedures allowed the demonstration of the water-holding effect of urea contained in moisturizers. Differences between the long and the short application time of SLS were characterized by differences in SC dynamic functions while the hydration state was not changed. An effect on transepidermal water loss (TEWL) was noted only after the long application time, although the MAT clearly showed dynamic parameters to be changed after 15 min of treatment. These tests were simple in practice and allowed the demonstration of functional modifications of the SC while other parameters remained unchanged. They gave insight into possible action mechanisms of urea and SLS in the SC.

  3. Dynamic reorganization of brain functional networks during cognition. (United States)

    Bola, Michał; Sabel, Bernhard A


    How does cognition emerge from neural dynamics? The dominant hypothesis states that interactions among distributed brain regions through phase synchronization give basis for cognitive processing. Such phase-synchronized networks are transient and dynamic, established on the timescale of milliseconds in order to perform specific cognitive operations. But unlike resting-state networks, the complex organization of transient cognitive networks is typically not characterized within the graph theory framework. Thus, it is not known whether cognitive processing merely changes the strength of functional connections or, conversely, requires qualitatively new topological arrangements of functional networks. To address this question, we recorded high-density EEG while subjects performed a visual discrimination task. We conducted an event-related network analysis (ERNA) where source-space weighted functional networks were characterized with graph measures. ERNA revealed rapid, transient, and frequency-specific reorganization of the network's topology during cognition. Specifically, cognitive networks were characterized by strong clustering, low modularity, and strong interactions between hub-nodes. Our findings suggest that dense and clustered connectivity between the hub nodes belonging to different modules is the "network fingerprint" of cognition. Such reorganization patterns might facilitate global integration of information and provide a substrate for a "global workspace" necessary for cognition and consciousness to occur. Thus, characterizing topology of the event-related networks opens new vistas to interpret cognitive dynamics in the broader conceptual framework of graph theory. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Dynamics of learning near singularities in radial basis function networks. (United States)

    Wei, Haikun; Amari, Shun-Ichi


    The radial basis function (RBF) networks are one of the most widely used models for function approximation in the regression problem. In the learning paradigm, the best approximation is recursively or iteratively searched for based on observed data (teacher signals). One encounters difficulties in such a process when two component basis functions become identical, or when the magnitude of one component becomes null. In this case, the number of the components reduces by one, and then the reduced component recovers as the learning process proceeds further, provided such a component is necessary for the best approximation. Strange behaviors, especially the plateau phenomena, have been observed in dynamics of learning when such reduction occurs. There exist singularities in the space of parameters, and the above reduction takes place at the singular regions. This paper focuses on a detailed analysis of the dynamical behaviors of learning near the overlap and elimination singularities in RBF networks, based on the averaged learning equation that is applicable to both on-line and batch mode learning. We analyze the stability on the overlap singularity by solving the eigenvalues of the Hessian explicitly. Based on the stability analysis, we plot the analytical dynamic vector fields near the singularity, which are then compared to those real trajectories obtained by a numeric method. We also confirm the existence of the plateaus in both batch and on-line learning by simulation.

  5. Operators versus functions: from quantum dynamical semigroups to tomographic semigroups (United States)

    Aniello, Paolo


    Quantum mechanics can be formulated in terms of phase-space functions, according to Wigner's approach. A generalization of this approach consists in replacing the density operators of the standard formulation with suitable functions, the so-called generalized Wigner functions or (group-covariant) tomograms, obtained by means of group-theoretical methods. A typical problem arising in this context is to express the evolution of a quantum system in terms of tomograms. In the case of a (suitable) open quantum system, the dynamics can be described by means of a quantum dynamical semigroup 'in disguise', namely, by a semigroup of operators acting on tomograms rather than on density operators. We focus on a special class of quantum dynamical semigroups, the twirling semigroups, that have interesting applications, e.g., in quantum information science. The 'disguised counterparts' of the twirling semigroups, i.e., the corresponding semigroups acting on tomograms, form a class of semigroups of operators that we call tomographic semigroups. We show that the twirling semigroups and the tomographic semigroups can be encompassed in a unique theoretical framework, a class of semigroups of operators including also the probability semigroups of classical probability theory, so achieving a deeper insight into both the mathematical and the physical aspects of the problem.

  6. Method and Apparatus Providing Deception and/or Altered Operation in an Information System Operating System (United States)

    Cohen, Fred; Rogers, Deanna T.; Neagoe, Vicentiu


    A method and/or system and/or apparatus providing deception and/or execution alteration in an information system. In specific embodiments, deceptions and/or protections are provided by intercepting and/or modifying operation of one or more system calls of an operating system.

  7. A Truth that's Told with Bad Intent: An ERP Study of Deception (United States)

    Carrion, Ricardo E.; Keenan, Julian P.; Sebanz, Natalie


    Human social cognition critically relies on the ability to deceive others. However, the cognitive and neural underpinnings of deception are still poorly understood. Why does lying place increased demands on cognitive control? The present study investigated whether cognitive control processes during deception are recruited due to the need to…

  8. 48 CFR 2152.203-70 - Misleading, deceptive, or unfair advertising. (United States)


    ... unfair advertising. 2152.203-70 Section 2152.203-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF..., deceptive, or unfair advertising. As prescribed in 2103.571, insert the following clause: Misleading, Deceptive, or Unfair Advertising (OCT 2005) The Contractor agrees that any advertising material...

  9. In Defense of Children's Lies: On Ethics and Methods of Studying Children's Communication of Deception. (United States)

    Feldman, Robert S.

    Studies of children's deceptive behavior have scientific merit and can be carried out in an ethically defensible manner. Many arguments against studies requiring children to deceive others in an experimental context are relatively easy to refute. It is true, though, that the debriefing phase of deception studies presents ethical problems,…

  10. A Truth that's Told with Bad Intent: An ERP Study of Deception (United States)

    Carrion, Ricardo E.; Keenan, Julian P.; Sebanz, Natalie


    Human social cognition critically relies on the ability to deceive others. However, the cognitive and neural underpinnings of deception are still poorly understood. Why does lying place increased demands on cognitive control? The present study investigated whether cognitive control processes during deception are recruited due to the need to…

  11. 16 CFR 20.2 - Deception as to identity of rebuilder, remanufacturer, reconditioner or reliner. (United States)


    ... unfair or deceptive to misrepresent the identity of the rebuilder, remanufacturer, reconditioner or..., reconditioned or relined by someone else, it is unfair or deceptive to fail to disclose such fact wherever the original manufacturer is identified in advertising and sales promotional literature concerning the product...

  12. Detecting Deception in the Military Infosphere: Improving and Integrating Human Detection Capabilities with Automated Tools (United States)


    military personnel have often shown little better than chance accuracy in detecting deception (Burgoon, Buller, Ebesu, & Rockwell, 1994; Ekman , Friesen...while observing feedback and other overt reactions such as emotional displays from listeners. Likewise, listeners are not passive message recipients...deceptive episodes are likewise concerned with such multiple goals as preserving good interpersonal relationships, masking inappropriate emotions , keeping

  13. Teachers' Beliefs about Cues to Deception and the Ability to Detect Deceit (United States)

    Ulatowska, Joanna


    This study aimed to test beliefs about cues to deception and the ability to detect lies in a group of teachers with different teaching experience. Their results were compared with the results of non-teachers matched in age and with the results of educational studies and psychology students. Both the beliefs of deception indicators and overall…

  14. Spatial modelling of periglacial phenomena in Deception Island (Maritime Antarctic): logistic regression and informative value method. (United States)

    Melo, Raquel; Vieira, Gonçalo; Caselli, Alberto; Ramos, Miguel


    Field surveying during the austral summer of 2007/08 and the analysis of a QuickBird satellite image, resulted on the production of a detailed geomorphological map of the Irizar and Crater Lake area in Deception Island (South Shetlands, Maritime Antarctic - 1:10 000) and allowed its analysis and spatial modelling of the geomorphological phenomena. The present study focus on the analysis of the spatial distribution and characteristics of hummocky terrains, lag surfaces and nivation hollows, complemented by GIS spatial modelling intending to identify relevant controlling geographical factors. Models of the susceptibility of occurrence of these phenomena were created using two statistical methods: logistical regression, as a multivariate method; and the informative value as a bivariate method. Success and prediction rate curves were used for model validation. The Area Under the Curve (AUC) was used to quantify the level of performance and prediction of the models and to allow the comparison between the two methods. Regarding the logistic regression method, the AUC showed a success rate of 71% for the lag surfaces, 81% for the hummocky terrains and 78% for the nivation hollows. The prediction rate was 72%, 68% and 71%, respectively. Concerning the informative value method, the success rate was 69% for the lag surfaces, 84% for the hummocky terrains and 78% for the nivation hollows, and with a correspondingly prediction of 71%, 66% and 69%. The results were of very good quality and demonstrate the potential of the models to predict the influence of independent variables in the occurrence of the geomorphological phenomena and also the reliability of the data. Key-words: present-day geomorphological dynamics, detailed geomorphological mapping, GIS, spatial modelling, Deception Island, Antarctic.

  15. Dynamics of Microbial Functional Groups in Rhizosphere of Spring Barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad Stoian


    Full Text Available Plant rhizosphere is the portion of soil which is in direct contact with the plant roots. From the microbiological point of view, this area is characterized by strong dynamic of functional groups with high specificity towards the substrate available. Spring barley is a crop with high requirements to the composition of the microflora in the rhizosphere, disturbances produced by agronomic inputs affecting the stability of rhizospheric contact interfaces and ultimately the plant growth. Analysis of changes within the microbial community was carried out with the purpose of defining the disruptive impact of mineral inputs and potential of zeolite to reduce these disruptions. Microbial functional groups were analyzed on the basis of the CO2 export under the specific conditions of soil inoculation on specific substrates over a time period of incubation. Microresp detection plates allow evaluation of a large number of samples under identical conditions of inoculation and the establishment of dynamics of the entire microbial community. The dynamics of the entire microbial communities (basal respiration is stimulated to increase in case of unilateral application of zeolite and zeolite as a buffer for urea fertilization. General growth trend of microbial communities follows proportional the associated application of zeolite with urea, the most powerful non-symbiotic nitrogen fixation processes being stimulated by this combination of fertilizers. Simultaneously, an increase in the dynamics of denitrifiers was observed, also the decomposition of lignin and cellulose and biological crust formation due to the proliferation of cyanobacteria. Rhizosphere of barley plants is characterized by the presence of actinomycetes as dominant in functional microbial community of all experimental variants analyzed with a high capacity for biological degradation and raised mineralization of organic matter.

  16. Real-time estimation of dynamic functional connectivity networks. (United States)

    Monti, Ricardo Pio; Lorenz, Romy; Braga, Rodrigo M; Anagnostopoulos, Christoforos; Leech, Robert; Montana, Giovanni


    Two novel and exciting avenues of neuroscientific research involve the study of task-driven dynamic reconfigurations of functional connectivity networks and the study of functional connectivity in real-time. While the former is a well-established field within neuroscience and has received considerable attention in recent years, the latter remains in its infancy. To date, the vast majority of real-time fMRI studies have focused on a single brain region at a time. This is due in part to the many challenges faced when estimating dynamic functional connectivity networks in real-time. In this work, we propose a novel methodology with which to accurately track changes in time-varying functional connectivity networks in real-time. The proposed method is shown to perform competitively when compared to state-of-the-art offline algorithms using both synthetic as well as real-time fMRI data. The proposed method is applied to motor task data from the Human Connectome Project as well as to data obtained from a visuospatial attention task. We demonstrate that the algorithm is able to accurately estimate task-related changes in network structure in real-time. Hum Brain Mapp 38:202-220, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Dynamical zeta functions for piecewise monotone maps of the interval

    CERN Document Server

    Ruelle, David


    Consider a space M, a map f:M\\to M, and a function g:M \\to {\\mathbb C}. The formal power series \\zeta (z) = \\exp \\sum ^\\infty _{m=1} \\frac {z^m}{m} \\sum _{x \\in \\mathrm {Fix}\\,f^m} \\prod ^{m-1}_{k=0} g (f^kx) yields an example of a dynamical zeta function. Such functions have unexpected analytic properties and interesting relations to the theory of dynamical systems, statistical mechanics, and the spectral theory of certain operators (transfer operators). The first part of this monograph presents a general introduction to this subject. The second part is a detailed study of the zeta functions associated with piecewise monotone maps of the interval [0,1]. In particular, Ruelle gives a proof of a generalized form of the Baladi-Keller theorem relating the poles of \\zeta (z) and the eigenvalues of the transfer operator. He also proves a theorem expressing the largest eigenvalue of the transfer operator in terms of the ergodic properties of (M,f,g).

  18. Lattice dynamics and disorder-induced contraction in functionalized graphene (United States)

    Feng Huang, Liang; Zeng, Zhi


    The lattice dynamics and disorder-induced contraction in hydrogenated, fluorinated, and chlorinated graphene are studied by first-principles simulation. The effects of the functionalization on the phonon dispersions, Grüneissen constants, vibrational thermodynamic functions (free energy, internal energy, entropy, and heat capacity), thermal-expansion coefficients, and bulk moduli are systematically investigated. Functionalization changes the chemical-bond length, mass, thickness, vibrational-mode symmetry, and mode number, and subsequently has significant effects on the phonon dispersions and Grüneissen constants. Functionalization generally increases the vibrational thermodynamic functions, and their temperature dependences all present conventional isotope effects. Functionalization suppresses (enhances) the thermal contraction (expansion) of the lattice, due to the increases in the system mass, membrane thickness, and the compressibility of the phonons. Both the lattice-constant variation and the phonon thermalization contribute to the temperature dependence of the bulk modulus. Both pristine and hydrogenated graphene can be viewed as two kinds of materials having the Invar and Elinvar properties. The contribution to the lattice contraction in functionalized graphene from the conformation disorder (about 2.0%) is much larger than that by thermalization (<0.1% at 300 K), which explains the mismatch between the experimental and theoretical lattice constants.

  19. How to Trick Your Opponent: A Review Article on Deceptive Actions in Interactive Sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Güldenpenning


    Full Text Available Performing deceptive actions is a wide-spread phenomenon in sports and it is of considerable practical relevance to know whether or not a fake or a disguised action decreases the opponents’ performance. Therefore, research on deceptive actions for various sport disciplines (e.g., cricket, rugby, martial arts, soccer, and basketball has been conducted. This research is scattered, both across time and scientific disciplines. Here, we aim to systematically review the empirical work on deceptive actions in interactive sports and want to give an overview about several issues investigated in the last decades. Three main topics of the detected literature were discussed here: (1 the role of expertise for the recognition of deceptive actions, (2 the cognitive mechanisms underlying the processing of deceptive actions, and (3 the pros and cons of in situ research designs. None of these themes seems to be settled and therefore, they should be considered in future research agendas.

  20. Effects of injustice sensitivity and sex on the P3 amplitude during deception. (United States)

    Leue, Anja; Beauducel, André


    In deception tasks, personality traits like the sensitivity to injustice (SI) modulate the P3 amplitude, which is an indicator of stimulus salience. Based on findings that demonstrated women to be more injustice sensitive than men, we expected sex to modulate effects of SI in deception tasks. We analyzed the P3 amplitudes of 57 participants in a deception task that comprised probe, target, and irrelevant pictures. Larger P3 amplitudes occurred for probes (known pictures that required deceptive responses) than for irrelevant pictures (unknown pictures that required truthful responses). Women with higher SI scores demonstrated larger P3 differences between probes and irrelevant stimuli. The findings suggest that women and men have different ways to process ethically-salient information and that SI modulates stimulus salience during deception. The effects of sex and personality have implications for the linkage between forensic psychophysiology and psychological assessment, because assessment is often based on individual differences.

  1. Functional data analysis for dynamical system identification of behavioral processes. (United States)

    Trail, Jessica B; Collins, Linda M; Rivera, Daniel E; Li, Runze; Piper, Megan E; Baker, Timothy B


    Efficient new technology has made it straightforward for behavioral scientists to collect anywhere from several dozen to several thousand dense, repeated measurements on one or more time-varying variables. These intensive longitudinal data (ILD) are ideal for examining complex change over time but present new challenges that illustrate the need for more advanced analytic methods. For example, in ILD the temporal spacing of observations may be irregular, and individuals may be sampled at different times. Also, it is important to assess both how the outcome changes over time and the variation between participants' time-varying processes to make inferences about a particular intervention's effectiveness within the population of interest. The methods presented in this article integrate 2 innovative ILD analytic techniques: functional data analysis and dynamical systems modeling. An empirical application is presented using data from a smoking cessation clinical trial. Study participants provided 42 daily assessments of pre-quit and post-quit withdrawal symptoms. Regression splines were used to approximate smooth functions of craving and negative affect and to estimate the variables' derivatives for each participant. We then modeled the dynamics of nicotine craving using standard input-output dynamical systems models. These models provide a more detailed characterization of the post-quit craving process than do traditional longitudinal models, including information regarding the type, magnitude, and speed of the response to an input. The results, in conjunction with standard engineering control theory techniques, could potentially be used by tobacco researchers to develop a more effective smoking intervention.

  2. Brownian dynamics without Green's functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delong, Steven; Donev, Aleksandar, E-mail: [Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University, New York, New York 10012 (United States); Usabiaga, Florencio Balboa; Delgado-Buscalioni, Rafael [Departamento de Física Teórica de la Materia Condensada and Condensed Matter Physics Center (IFIMAC), Univeridad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid 28049 (Spain); Griffith, Boyce E. [Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University, New York, New York 10012 (United States); Leon H. Charney Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York 10016 (United States)


    We develop a Fluctuating Immersed Boundary (FIB) method for performing Brownian dynamics simulations of confined particle suspensions. Unlike traditional methods which employ analytical Green's functions for Stokes flow in the confined geometry, the FIB method uses a fluctuating finite-volume Stokes solver to generate the action of the response functions “on the fly.” Importantly, we demonstrate that both the deterministic terms necessary to capture the hydrodynamic interactions among the suspended particles, as well as the stochastic terms necessary to generate the hydrodynamically correlated Brownian motion, can be generated by solving the steady Stokes equations numerically only once per time step. This is accomplished by including a stochastic contribution to the stress tensor in the fluid equations consistent with fluctuating hydrodynamics. We develop novel temporal integrators that account for the multiplicative nature of the noise in the equations of Brownian dynamics and the strong dependence of the mobility on the configuration for confined systems. Notably, we propose a random finite difference approach to approximating the stochastic drift proportional to the divergence of the configuration-dependent mobility matrix. Through comparisons with analytical and existing computational results, we numerically demonstrate the ability of the FIB method to accurately capture both the static (equilibrium) and dynamic properties of interacting particles in flow.

  3. Dynamic fracture of functionally graded magnetoelectroelastic composite materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoynov, Y. [Faculty of Applied Mathematics and Informatics, Technical University of Sofia (Bulgaria); Dineva, P. [Institute of Mechanics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria)


    The stress, magnetic and electric field analysis of multifunctional composites, weakened by impermeable cracks, is of fundamental importance for their structural integrity and reliable service performance. The aim is to study dynamic behavior of a plane of functionally graded magnetoelectroelastic composite with more than one crack. The coupled material properties vary exponentially in an arbitrary direction. The plane is subjected to anti-plane mechanical and in-plane electric and magnetic load. The boundary value problem described by the partial differential equations with variable coefficients is reduced to a non-hypersingular traction boundary integral equation based on the appropriate functional transform and frequency-dependent fundamental solution derived in a closed form by Radon transform. Software code based on the boundary integral equation method (BIEM) is developed, validated and inserted in numerical simulations. The obtained results show the sensitivity of the dynamic stress, magnetic and electric field concentration in the cracked plane to the type and characteristics of the dynamic load, to the location and cracks disposition, to the wave-crack-crack interactions and to the magnitude and direction of the material gradient.

  4. Multiscale functions, scale dynamics, and applications to partial differential equations (United States)

    Cresson, Jacky; Pierret, Frédéric


    Modeling phenomena from experimental data always begins with a choice of hypothesis on the observed dynamics such as determinism, randomness, and differentiability. Depending on these choices, different behaviors can be observed. The natural question associated to the modeling problem is the following: "With a finite set of data concerning a phenomenon, can we recover its underlying nature? From this problem, we introduce in this paper the definition of multi-scale functions, scale calculus, and scale dynamics based on the time scale calculus [see Bohner, M. and Peterson, A., Dynamic Equations on Time Scales: An Introduction with Applications (Springer Science & Business Media, 2001)] which is used to introduce the notion of scale equations. These definitions will be illustrated on the multi-scale Okamoto's functions. Scale equations are analysed using scale regimes and the notion of asymptotic model for a scale equation under a particular scale regime. The introduced formalism explains why a single scale equation can produce distinct continuous models even if the equation is scale invariant. Typical examples of such equations are given by the scale Euler-Lagrange equation. We illustrate our results using the scale Newton's equation which gives rise to a non-linear diffusion equation or a non-linear Schrödinger equation as asymptotic continuous models depending on the particular fractional scale regime which is considered.

  5. Hash function construction using weighted complex dynamical networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song Yu-Rong; Jiang Guo-Ping


    A novel scheme to construct a hash function based on a weighted complex dynamical network (WCDN) generated from an original message is proposed in this paper.First,the original message is divided into blocks.Then,each block is divided into components,and the nodes and weighted edges are well defined from these components and their relations.Namely,the WCDN closely related to the original message is established.Furthermore,the node dynamics of the WCDN are chosen as a chaotic map.After chaotic iterations,quantization and exclusive-or operations,the fixed-length hash value is obtained.This scheme has the property that any tiny change in message can be diffused rapidly through the WCDN,leading to very different hash values.Analysis and simulation show that the scheme possesses good statistical properties,excellent confusion and diffusion,strong collision resistance and high efficiency.

  6. Lying takes time: A meta-analysis on reaction time measures of deception. (United States)

    Suchotzki, Kristina; Verschuere, Bruno; Van Bockstaele, Bram; Ben-Shakhar, Gershon; Crombez, Geert


    Lie detection techniques are frequently used, but most of them have been criticized for the lack of empirical support for their predictive validity and presumed underlying mechanisms. This situation has led to increased efforts to unravel the cognitive mechanisms underlying deception and to develop a comprehensive theory of deception. A cognitive approach to deception has reinvigorated interest in reaction time (RT) measures to differentiate lies from truths and to investigate whether lying is more cognitively demanding than truth telling. Here, we provide the results of a meta-analysis of 114 studies (n = 3307) using computerized RT paradigms to assess the cognitive cost of lying. Results revealed a large standardized RT difference, even after correction for publication bias (d = 1.049; 95% CI [0.930; 1.169]), with a large heterogeneity amongst effect sizes. Moderator analyses revealed that the RT deception effect was smaller, yet still large, in studies in which participants received instructions to avoid detection. The autobiographical Implicit Association Test produced smaller effects than the Concealed Information Test, the Sheffield Lie Test, and the Differentiation of Deception paradigm. An additional meta-analysis (17 studies, n = 348) showed that, like other deception measures, RT deception measures are susceptible to countermeasures. Whereas our meta-analysis corroborates current cognitive approaches to deception, the observed heterogeneity calls for further research on the boundary conditions of the cognitive cost of deception. RT-based measures of deception may have potential in applied settings, but countermeasures remain an important challenge. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Multiscale simulations of anisotropic particles combining Brownian Dynamics and Green's Function Reaction Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Vijaykumar, Adithya; Wolde, Pieter Rein ten; Bolhuis, Peter G


    The modeling of complex reaction-diffusion processes in, for instance, cellular biochemical networks or self-assembling soft matter can be tremendously sped up by employing a multiscale algorithm which combines the mesoscopic Green's Function Reaction Dynamics (GFRD) method with explicit stochastic Brownian, Langevin, or deterministic Molecular Dynamics to treat reactants at the microscopic scale [A. Vijaykumar, P.G. Bolhuis and P.R. ten Wolde, J. Chem. Phys. {\\bf 43}, 21: 214102 (2015)]. Here we extend this multiscale BD-GFRD approach to include the orientational dynamics that is crucial to describe the anisotropic interactions often prevalent in biomolecular systems. We illustrate the novel algorithm using a simple patchy particle model. After validation of the algorithm we discuss its performance. The rotational BD-GFRD multiscale method will open up the possibility for large scale simulations of e.g. protein signalling networks.

  8. Dynamics of localized particles from density functional theory (United States)

    Reinhardt, J.; Brader, J. M.


    A fundamental assumption of the dynamical density functional theory (DDFT) of colloidal systems is that a grand-canonical free-energy functional may be employed to generate the thermodynamic driving forces. Using one-dimensional hard rods as a model system, we analyze the validity of this key assumption and show that unphysical self-interactions of the tagged particle density fields, arising from coupling to a particle reservoir, are responsible for the excessively fast relaxation predicted by the theory. Moreover, our findings suggest that even employing a canonical functional would not lead to an improvement for many-particle systems, if only the total density is considered. We present several possible schemes to suppress these effects by incorporating tagged densities. When applied to confined systems, we demonstrate, using a simple example, that DDFT necessarily leads to delocalized tagged particle density distributions, which do not respect the fundamental geometrical constraints apparent in Brownian dynamics simulation data. The implication of these results for possible applications of DDFT to treat the glass transition are discussed.

  9. Dynamic density functional theory with hydrodynamic interactions and fluctuations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donev, Aleksandar, E-mail:; Vanden-Eijnden, Eric, E-mail: [Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University, New York, New York 10012 (United States)


    We derive a closed equation for the empirical concentration of colloidal particles in the presence of both hydrodynamic and direct interactions. The ensemble average of our functional Langevin equation reproduces known deterministic Dynamic Density Functional Theory (DDFT) [M. Rex and H. Löwen, “Dynamical density functional theory with hydrodynamic interactions and colloids in unstable traps,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(14), 148302 (2008)], and, at the same time, it also describes the microscopic fluctuations around the mean behavior. We suggest separating the ideal (non-interacting) contribution from additional corrections due to pairwise interactions. We find that, for an incompressible fluid and in the absence of direct interactions, the mean concentration follows Fick's law just as for uncorrelated walkers. At the same time, the nature of the stochastic terms in fluctuating DDFT is shown to be distinctly different for hydrodynamically-correlated and uncorrelated walkers. This leads to striking differences in the behavior of the fluctuations around Fick's law, even in the absence of pairwise interactions. We connect our own prior work [A. Donev, T. G. Fai, and E. Vanden-Eijnden, “A reversible mesoscopic model of diffusion in liquids: from giant fluctuations to Fick's law,” J. Stat. Mech.: Theory Exp. (2014) P04004] on fluctuating hydrodynamics of diffusion in liquids to the DDFT literature, and demonstrate that the fluid cannot easily be eliminated from consideration if one wants to describe the collective diffusion in colloidal suspensions.

  10. Bacterial dynamics in steady-state biofilters: beyond functional stability. (United States)

    Cabrol, Léa; Malhautier, Luc; Poly, Franck; Lepeuple, Anne-Sophie; Fanlo, Jean-Louis


    The spatial and temporal dynamics of microbial community structure and function were surveyed in duplicated woodchip-biofilters operated under constant conditions for 231 days. The contaminated gaseous stream for treatment was representative of composting emissions, included ammonia, dimethyl disulfide and a mixture of five oxygenated volatile organic compounds. The community structure and diversity were investigated by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis on 16S rRNA gene fragments. During the first 42 days, microbial acclimatization revealed the influence of operating conditions and contaminant loading on the biofiltration community structure and diversity, as well as the limited impact of inoculum compared to the greater persistence of the endogenous woodchip community. During long-term operation, a high and stable removal efficiency was maintained despite a highly dynamic microbial community, suggesting the probable functional redundancy of the community. Most of the contaminant removal occurred in the first compartment, near the gas inlet, where the microbial diversity was the highest. The stratification of the microbial structures along the filter bed was statistically correlated to the longitudinal distribution of environmental conditions (selective pressure imposed by contaminant concentrations) and function (contaminant elimination capacity), highlighting the central role of the bacterial community. The reproducibility of microbial succession in replicates suggests that the community changes were presumably driven by a deterministic process.

  11. Deceptive-like behaviour in dogs (Canis familiaris). (United States)

    Heberlein, Marianne T E; Manser, Marta B; Turner, Dennis C


    Deception, the use of false signals to modify the behaviour of the receiver, occurs in low frequencies even in stable signalling systems. For example, it can be advantageous for subordinate individuals to deceive in competitive situations. We investigated in a three-way choice task whether dogs are able to mislead a human competitor, i.e. if they are capable of tactical deception. During training, dogs experienced the role of their owner, as always being cooperative, and two unfamiliar humans, one acting 'cooperatively' by giving food and the other being 'competitive' and keeping the food for themselves. During the test, the dog had the options to lead one of these partners to one of the three potential food locations: one contained a favoured food item, the other a non-preferred food item and the third remained empty. After having led one of the partners, the dog always had the possibility of leading its cooperative owner to one of the food locations. Therefore, a dog would have a direct benefit from misleading the competitive partner since it would then get another chance to receive the preferred food from the owner. On the first test day, the dogs led the cooperative partner to the preferred food box more often than expected by chance and more often than the competitive partner. On the second day, they even led the competitive partner less often to the preferred food than expected by chance and more often to the empty box than the cooperative partner. These results show that dogs distinguished between the cooperative and the competitive partner, and indicate the flexibility of dogs to adjust their behaviour and that they are able to use tactical deception.

  12. Moments of meson distribution functions with dynamical twisted mass fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Baron, R; Carbonell, J; Jansen, K; Liu, Z; Pène, O; Urbach, C


    We present our preliminary results on the lowest moment of quark distribution functions of the pion using two flavor dynamical simulations with Wilson twisted mass fermions at maximal twist. The calculation is done in a range of pion masses from 300 to 500 MeV. A stochastic source method is used to reduce inversions in calculating propagators. Finite volume effects at the lowest quark mass are examined by using two different lattice volumes. Our results show that we achieve statistical errors of only a few percent. We plan to compute renormalization constants non-perturbatively and extend the calculation to two more lattice spacings and to the nucleons.

  13. Dynamically Consistent Nonlinear Evaluations with Their Generating Functions in Lp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng HU


    In this paper,we study dynamically consistent nonlinear evaluations in Lp (1 < p < 2).One of our aim is to obtain the following result:under a domination condition,an Ft-consistent evaluation is an ∑g-evaluation in Lp.Furthermore,without the assumption that the generating function g(t,ω,y,z) is continuous with respect to t,we provide some useful characterizations of an εg-evaluation by g and give some applications.These results include and extend some existing results.

  14. Evolution of deceptive and true courtship songs in moths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakano, Ryo; Takanashi, Takuma; Surlykke, Annemarie


    Ultrasonic mating signals in moths are argued to have evolved via exploitation of the receivers' sensory bias towards bat echolocation calls. We have demonstrated that female moths of the Asian corn borer are unable to distinguish between the male courtship song and bat calls. Females react to both...... the male song and bat calls by "freezing", which males take advantage of in mating (deceptive courtship song). In contrast, females of the Japanese lichen moth are able to distinguish between the male song and bat calls by the structure of the sounds; females emit warning clicks against bats, but accept....../could distinguish, respectively, from bat calls....

  15. Enhancing Honeypot Deception Capability Through Network Service Fingerprinting (United States)

    Dahbul, R. N.; Lim, C.; Purnama, J.


    Honeypot is designed to lure attackers away from the computer resources the attackers are trying to compromise. In addition, honeypot also tracks attacker’s activities and helps researchers learn about their attack patterns. However, honeypot can also be identified by attackers using various fingerprinting methods. In this research, we use threat modeling to identify potential threats that reveal its existence which made honeypot ineffective. Various countermeasures are discussed and the proposed countermeasures have proved effective to enhance the deception capability of the honeypots we tested.

  16. Mining dynamic noteworthy functions in software execution sequences. (United States)

    Zhang, Bing; Huang, Guoyan; Wang, Yuqian; He, Haitao; Ren, Jiadong


    As the quality of crucial entities can directly affect that of software, their identification and protection become an important premise for effective software development, management, maintenance and testing, which thus contribute to improving the software quality and its attack-defending ability. Most analysis and evaluation on important entities like codes-based static structure analysis are on the destruction of the actual software running. In this paper, from the perspective of software execution process, we proposed an approach to mine dynamic noteworthy functions (DNFM)in software execution sequences. First, according to software decompiling and tracking stack changes, the execution traces composed of a series of function addresses were acquired. Then these traces were modeled as execution sequences and then simplified so as to get simplified sequences (SFS), followed by the extraction of patterns through pattern extraction (PE) algorithm from SFS. After that, evaluating indicators inner-importance and inter-importance were designed to measure the noteworthiness of functions in DNFM algorithm. Finally, these functions were sorted by their noteworthiness. Comparison and contrast were conducted on the experiment results from two traditional complex network-based node mining methods, namely PageRank and DegreeRank. The results show that the DNFM method can mine noteworthy functions in software effectively and precisely.

  17. Mining dynamic noteworthy functions in software execution sequences (United States)

    Huang, Guoyan; Wang, Yuqian; He, Haitao; Ren, Jiadong


    As the quality of crucial entities can directly affect that of software, their identification and protection become an important premise for effective software development, management, maintenance and testing, which thus contribute to improving the software quality and its attack-defending ability. Most analysis and evaluation on important entities like codes-based static structure analysis are on the destruction of the actual software running. In this paper, from the perspective of software execution process, we proposed an approach to mine dynamic noteworthy functions (DNFM)in software execution sequences. First, according to software decompiling and tracking stack changes, the execution traces composed of a series of function addresses were acquired. Then these traces were modeled as execution sequences and then simplified so as to get simplified sequences (SFS), followed by the extraction of patterns through pattern extraction (PE) algorithm from SFS. After that, evaluating indicators inner-importance and inter-importance were designed to measure the noteworthiness of functions in DNFM algorithm. Finally, these functions were sorted by their noteworthiness. Comparison and contrast were conducted on the experiment results from two traditional complex network-based node mining methods, namely PageRank and DegreeRank. The results show that the DNFM method can mine noteworthy functions in software effectively and precisely. PMID:28278276

  18. Mindfulness and dynamic functional neural connectivity in children and adolescents. (United States)

    Marusak, Hilary A; Elrahal, Farrah; Peters, Craig A; Kundu, Prantik; Lombardo, Michael V; Calhoun, Vince D; Goldberg, Elimelech K; Cohen, Cindy; Taub, Jeffrey W; Rabinak, Christine A


    Interventions that promote mindfulness consistently show salutary effects on cognition and emotional wellbeing in adults, and more recently, in children and adolescents. However, we lack understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms underlying mindfulness in youth that should allow for more judicious application of these interventions in clinical and educational settings. Using multi-echo multi-band fMRI, we examined dynamic (i.e., time-varying) and conventional static resting-state connectivity between core neurocognitive networks (i.e., salience/emotion, default mode, central executive) in 42 children and adolescents (ages 6-17). We found that trait mindfulness in youth relates to dynamic but not static resting-state connectivity. Specifically, more mindful youth transitioned more between brain states over the course of the scan, spent overall less time in a certain connectivity state, and showed a state-specific reduction in connectivity between salience/emotion and central executive networks. The number of state transitions mediated the link between higher mindfulness and lower anxiety, providing new insights into potential neural mechanisms underlying benefits of mindfulness on psychological health in youth. Our results provide new evidence that mindfulness in youth relates to functional neural dynamics and interactions between neurocognitive networks, over time. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Functional Loop Dynamics of the Streptavidin-Biotin Complex (United States)

    Song, Jianing; Li, Yongle; Ji, Changge; Zhang, John Z. H.


    Accelerated molecular dynamics (aMD) simulation is employed to study the functional dynamics of the flexible loop3-4 in the strong-binding streptavidin-biotin complex system. Conventional molecular (cMD) simulation is also performed for comparison. The present study reveals the following important properties of the loop dynamics: (1) The transition of loop3-4 from open to closed state is observed in 200 ns aMD simulation. (2) In the absence of biotin binding, the open-state streptavidin is more stable, which is consistent with experimental evidences. The free energy (ΔG) difference is about 5 kcal/mol between two states. But with biotin binding, the closed state is more stable due to electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions between the loop3-4 and biotin. (3) The closure of loop3-4 is concerted to the stable binding of biotin to streptavidin. When the loop3-4 is in its open-state, biotin moves out of the binding pocket, indicating that the interactions between the loop3-4 and biotin are essential in trapping biotin in the binding pocket. (4) In the tetrameric streptavidin system, the conformational change of the loop3-4 in each monomer is independent of each other. That is, there is no cooperative binding for biotin bound to the four subunits of the tetramer.

  20. Functional clustering algorithm for the analysis of dynamic network data (United States)

    Feldt, S.; Waddell, J.; Hetrick, V. L.; Berke, J. D.; Żochowski, M.


    We formulate a technique for the detection of functional clusters in discrete event data. The advantage of this algorithm is that no prior knowledge of the number of functional groups is needed, as our procedure progressively combines data traces and derives the optimal clustering cutoff in a simple and intuitive manner through the use of surrogate data sets. In order to demonstrate the power of this algorithm to detect changes in network dynamics and connectivity, we apply it to both simulated neural spike train data and real neural data obtained from the mouse hippocampus during exploration and slow-wave sleep. Using the simulated data, we show that our algorithm performs better than existing methods. In the experimental data, we observe state-dependent clustering patterns consistent with known neurophysiological processes involved in memory consolidation.

  1. Ephemeral penalty functions for contact-impact dynamics (United States)

    De La Fuente, Horacio M.; Felippa, Carlos A.


    The use of penalty functions to treat a class of structural contact-impact problems is investigated, with emphasis on ones in which the impact phenomena are primarily nondestructive in nature and in which only the gross characterization of the response is required. The dynamic equations of motion are integrated by the difference method. The penalty is represented as an ephemeral fictitious nonlinear spring that is inserted on anticipation of contact. The magnitude and variation of the penalty force is determined through energy balancing considerations. The 'bell shape' of the penalty force function for positive gap was found to be satisfactory, as it depends on only two parameters that can be directly assigned the physical meaning of force and distance. The determination of force law parameters by energy balance worked well. The incorporation of restitution coefficients by the area balancing method yielded excellent results, and no substantial modifications are anticipated. Extensional penalty springs are obviously sufficient for the simple examples treated.

  2. Diffusion of innovations dynamics, biological growth and catenary function (United States)

    Guseo, Renato


    The catenary function has a well-known role in determining the shape of chains and cables supported at their ends under the force of gravity. This enables design using a specific static equilibrium over space. Its reflected version, the catenary arch, allows the construction of bridges and arches exploiting the dual equilibrium property under uniform compression. In this paper, we emphasize a further connection with well-known aggregate biological growth models over time and the related diffusion of innovation key paradigms (e.g., logistic and Bass distributions over time) that determine self-sustaining evolutionary growth dynamics in naturalistic and socio-economic contexts. Moreover, we prove that the 'local entropy function', related to a logistic distribution, is a catenary and vice versa. This special invariance may be explained, at a deeper level, through the Verlinde's conjecture on the origin of gravity as an effect of the entropic force.

  3. Time-dependent density-functional description of nuclear dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Nakatsukasa, Takashi; Matsuo, Masayuki; Yabana, Kazuhiro


    We present the basic concepts and recent developments in the time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) for describing nuclear dynamics at low energy. The symmetry breaking is inherent in nuclear energy density functionals (EDFs), which provides a practical description of important correlations at the ground state. Properties of elementary modes of excitation are strongly influenced by the symmetry breaking and can be studied with TDDFT. In particular, a number of recent developments in the linear response calculation have demonstrated their usefulness in description of collective modes of excitation in nuclei. Unrestricted real-time calculations have also become available in recent years, with new developments for quantitative description of nuclear collision phenomena. There are, however, limitations in the real-time approach; for instance, it cannot describe the many-body quantum tunneling. Thus, we treat the quantum fluctuations associated with slow collective motions assuming that time evolution of...

  4. Scale effects in the dynamic transfer functions for cavitating inducers (United States)

    Brennen, C. E.; Meissner, C.; Lo, E. Y.; Hoffman, G. S.


    Dynamic transfer functions for two cavitating inducers of the same geometry but different size are presented, compared and discussed. The transfer functions for each inducer indicate similar trends as the cavitation number is decreased; only minor changes are noted with changes in the flow coefficient, the uniformity of the inlet flow or the temperature of the water (21-74 C). The non-dimensional results for the two sizes are compared with themselves and with theoretical calculations based on the bubbly flow model. All three sets of results compare well and lend further credence to the theoretical model. The best values of the two parameters in the model are evaluated and recommended for use in applications.

  5. Method and apparatus for monitoring dynamic cardiovascular function using n-dimensional representatives of critical functions (United States)

    Westinskow, Dwayne (Inventor); Agutter, James (Inventor); Syroid, Noah (Inventor); Strayer, David (Inventor); Albert, Robert (Inventor); Wachter, S. Blake (Inventor); Drews, Frank (Inventor)


    A method, system, apparatus and device for the monitoring, diagnosis and evaluation of the state of a dynamic pulmonary system is disclosed. This method and system provides the processing means for receiving sensed and/or simulated data, converting such data into a displayable object format and displaying such objects in a manner such that the interrelationships between the respective variables can be correlated and identified by a user. This invention provides for the rapid cognitive grasp of the overall state of a pulmonary critical function with respect to a dynamic system.

  6. A Comparative Study on Optimal Structural Dynamics Using Wavelet Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Hossein Mahdavi


    Full Text Available Wavelet solution techniques have become the focus of interest among researchers in different disciplines of science and technology. In this paper, implementation of two different wavelet basis functions has been comparatively considered for dynamic analysis of structures. For this aim, computational technique is developed by using free scale of simple Haar wavelet, initially. Later, complex and continuous Chebyshev wavelet basis functions are presented to improve the time history analysis of structures. Free-scaled Chebyshev coefficient matrix and operation of integration are derived to directly approximate displacements of the corresponding system. In addition, stability of responses has been investigated for the proposed algorithm of discrete Haar wavelet compared against continuous Chebyshev wavelet. To demonstrate the validity of the wavelet-based algorithms, aforesaid schemes have been extended to the linear and nonlinear structural dynamics. The effectiveness of free-scaled Chebyshev wavelet has been compared with simple Haar wavelet and two common integration methods. It is deduced that either indirect method proposed for discrete Haar wavelet or direct approach for continuous Chebyshev wavelet is unconditionally stable. Finally, it is concluded that numerical solution is highly benefited by the least computation time involved and high accuracy of response, particularly using low scale of complex Chebyshev wavelet.

  7. Multiscale functions, Scale dynamics and Applications to partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Cresson, Jacky


    Modeling phenomena from experimental data, always begin with a \\emph{choice of hypothesis} on the observed dynamics such as \\emph{determinism}, \\emph{randomness}, \\emph{derivability} etc. Depending on these choices, different behaviors can be observed. The natural question associated to the modeling problem is the following : \\emph{"With a finite set of data concerning a phenomenon, can we recover its underlying nature ?} From this problem, we introduce in this paper the definition of \\emph{multi-scale functions}, \\emph{scale calculus} and \\emph{scale dynamics} based on the \\emph{time-scale calculus} (see \\cite{bohn}). These definitions will be illustrated on the \\emph{multi-scale Okamoto's functions}. The introduced formalism explains why there exists different continuous models associated to an equation with different \\emph{scale regimes} whereas the equation is \\emph{scale invariant}. A typical example of such an equation, is the \\emph{Euler-Lagrange equation} and particularly the \\emph{Newton's equation} ...

  8. Predatory Personalities as Behavioral Mimics and Parasites: Mimicry-Deception Theory. (United States)

    Jones, Daniel N


    Humans use a variety of deceptive tactics to extract resources from unsuspecting others. In this article, I suggest that much can be learned about patterns of human deception from predatory nonhuman animal behavior and parasitic infections. Nonhuman animals and parasitic infections utilize deceptive tactics to extract resources through two overarching strategies: (a) complex deception, slow resource extraction, heavy integration into a host or community, and low risk of detection, or (b) superficial deception, immediate resource extraction, little host or community specificity, and increased risk of detection. Predatory and parasitic human personalities may operate in analogous ways. Guided by analogies derived from nonhuman animal mimicry (such as color or behavioral deception) and micro-organismic infections, I have developed a theoretical framework to better understand deceptive and parasitic human behaviors as well as the characteristics defining them. Although applicable to areas of predatory and parasitic human behavior, two specific traits (psychopathy and Machiavellianism) are highlighted that have dire consequences for financial fraud, interpersonal harm, and organizational misbehavior. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Self-deception as a mechanism for the maintenance of drug addiction. (United States)

    Martínez-González, José M; Vilar López, Raquel; Becoña Iglesias, Elisardo; Verdejo-García, Antonio


    This study was aimed at: (i) examining levels of self-deception in substance dependent individuals following addiction treatment, and (ii) examining the association between participants’ levels of self-deception and (a) personality disorders, (b) addiction-related beliefs, (c) duration of abstinence, and (d) estimates of craving. We administered self-report questionnaires of self-deception and mixtification, and core beliefs related to addiction and craving. The sample comprised 79 outpatients who were consecutively recruited at the Centro Provincial de Drogodependencias in Granada: 87.3% were males and the mean age was 37.68 years old. Thirty-four percent of participants were diagnosed with comorbid personality disorders. Results showed that individuals with substance dependence exhibit elevated scores of self-deception, particularly in the domains of active denial, selective amnesia, projection, and confabulation. Individuals with comorbid personality disorders display greater levels of self-deception compared to individuals without dual diagnosis. Moreover, there is a significant association between levels of self-deception and addiction-related beliefs and craving. In addition, there is a negative association between levels of self-deception and duration of abstinence.

  10. Volcanic hazard on Deception Island (South Shetland Islands, Antarctica) (United States)

    Bartolini, S.; Geyer, A.; Martí, J.; Pedrazzi, D.; Aguirre-Díaz, G.


    Deception Island is the most active volcano in the South Shetland Islands and has been the scene of more than twenty identified eruptions over the past two centuries. In this contribution we present the first comprehensive long-term volcanic hazard assessment for this volcanic island. The research is based on the use of probabilistic methods and statistical techniques to estimate volcanic susceptibility, eruption recurrence and the most likely future eruptive scenarios. We perform a statistical analysis of the time series of past eruptions and the spatial extent of their products, including lava flows, fallout, pyroclastic density currents and lahars. The Bayesian event tree statistical method HASSET is applied to calculate eruption recurrence, while the QVAST tool is used in an analysis of past activity to calculate the possibility that new vents will open (volcanic susceptibility). On the basis of these calculations, we identify a number of significant scenarios using the GIS-based VORIS 2.0.1 and LAHARZ software and evaluate the potential extent of the main volcanic hazards to be expected on the island. This study represents a step forward in the evaluation of volcanic hazard on Deception Island and the results obtained are potentially useful for long-term emergency planning.

  11. Hypergame Theory: A Model for Conflict, Misperception, and Deception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas S. Kovach


    Full Text Available When dealing with conflicts, game theory and decision theory can be used to model the interactions of the decision-makers. To date, game theory and decision theory have received considerable modeling focus, while hypergame theory has not. A metagame, known as a hypergame, occurs when one player does not know or fully understand all the strategies of a game. Hypergame theory extends the advantages of game theory by allowing a player to outmaneuver an opponent and obtaining a more preferred outcome with a higher utility. The ability to outmaneuver an opponent occurs in the hypergame because the different views (perception or deception of opponents are captured in the model, through the incorporation of information unknown to other players (misperception or intentional deception. The hypergame model more accurately provides solutions for complex theoretic modeling of conflicts than those modeled by game theory and excels where perception or information differences exist between players. This paper explores the current research in hypergame theory and presents a broad overview of the historical literature on hypergame theory.

  12. Multifrequency OFDM SAR in Presence of Deception Jamming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schuerger Jonathan


    Full Text Available Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM is considered in this paper from the perspective of usage in imaging radar scenarios with deception jamming. OFDM radar signals are inherently multifrequency waveforms, composed of a number of subbands which are orthogonal to each other. While being employed extensively in communications, OFDM has not found comparatively wide use in radar, and, particularly, in synthetic aperture radar (SAR applications. In this paper, we aim to show the advantages of OFDM-coded radar signals with random subband composition when used in deception jamming scenarios. Two approaches to create a radar signal by the jammer are considered: instantaneous frequency (IF estimator and digital-RF-memory- (DRFM- based reproducer. In both cases, the jammer aims to create a copy of a valid target image via resending the radar signal at prescribed time intervals. Jammer signals are derived and used in SAR simulations with three types of signal models: OFDM, linear frequency modulated (LFM, and frequency-hopped (FH. Presented results include simulated peak side lobe (PSL and peak cross-correlation values for random OFDM signals, as well as simulated SAR imagery with IF and DRFM jammers'-induced false targets.

  13. Registered Report: Measuring Unconscious Deception Detection by Skin Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Elisabeth Van 't Veer


    Full Text Available Findings from the deception detection literature suggest that although people are not skilled in consciously detecting a liar, they may intuit that something about the person telling a lie is off. In the current proposal, we argue that observing a liar influences the observer’s physiology even though the observer may not be consciously aware of being lied to (i.e., the observers’ direct deception judgment does not accurately differentiate between liars and truth-tellers. To test this hypothesis, participants’ finger temperature will be measured while they watch videos of persons who are either honest or dishonest about their identity. We hypothesize that skin temperature will be lower when observing a liar than when observing a truth-teller. Additionally, we test whether perceiving a liar influences finger skin temperature differently when an individual is, or is not, alerted to the possibility of deceit. We do this by varying participants’ awareness of the fact that they might be lied to. Next to measuring physiological responses to liars and truth-tellers, self-reported direct and indirect veracity judgments (i.e., trustworthiness and liking of the target persons will be assessed. We hypothesize that indirect veracity judgments will better distinguish between liars and truth-tellers than direct veracity judgments.

  14. Digging in the Dark Triad: A Replication of ``Machiavellianism and Dating: Deception and Intimacy''

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durand, Guillaume


    Full Text Available The present study is a replication and an extension of Dussault, Hojjat, and Boone (2013. Machiavellianism and dating: Deception and intimacy. Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal, 41(2, 283-294. The results support the positive association between Machiavellianism and the use of deceptive dating strategies, but fail to detect a correlation between Machiavellianism and perceived intimacy. The extension to the Dark Triad reveals that psychopathy is a stronger predictor than Machiavellianism to assess deceptive dating strategies, and supports a relationship between higher degrees of narcissism and history of intimate behaviors.

  15. What if I get busted? Deception, choice and decision-making in social interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sip, Kamila Ewa; Skewes, Joshua; Agustus, Jennifer L Marchant;


    Deception is an essentially social act, yet little is known about how social consequences affect the decision to deceive. In this study, participants played a computerized game of deception without constraints on whether or when to attempt to deceive their opponent. Participants were questioned...... by an opponent outside the scanner about their knowledge of the content of a display. Importantly, questions were posed so that, in some conditions, it was possible to be deceptive, while in other conditions it was not. To simulate a realistic interaction, participants could be confronted about their claims...... findings suggest the decision to deceive is affected by the potential risk of social confrontation rather than the claim itself....

  16. Functional dynamic factor models with application to yield curve forecasting

    KAUST Repository

    Hays, Spencer


    Accurate forecasting of zero coupon bond yields for a continuum of maturities is paramount to bond portfolio management and derivative security pricing. Yet a universal model for yield curve forecasting has been elusive, and prior attempts often resulted in a trade-off between goodness of fit and consistency with economic theory. To address this, herein we propose a novel formulation which connects the dynamic factor model (DFM) framework with concepts from functional data analysis: a DFM with functional factor loading curves. This results in a model capable of forecasting functional time series. Further, in the yield curve context we show that the model retains economic interpretation. Model estimation is achieved through an expectation- maximization algorithm, where the time series parameters and factor loading curves are simultaneously estimated in a single step. Efficient computing is implemented and a data-driven smoothing parameter is nicely incorporated. We show that our model performs very well on forecasting actual yield data compared with existing approaches, especially in regard to profit-based assessment for an innovative trading exercise. We further illustrate the viability of our model to applications outside of yield forecasting.

  17. Structure/Function/Dynamics of Photosystem II Plastoquinone Binding Sites (United States)

    Lambreva, Maya D.; Russo, Daniela; Polticelli, Fabio; Scognamiglio, Viviana; Antonacci, Amina; Zobnina, Veranika; Campi, Gaetano; Rea, Giuseppina


    Photosystem II (PSII) continuously attracts the attention of researchers aiming to unravel the riddle of its functioning and efficiency fundamental for all life on Earth. Besides, an increasing number of biotechnological applications have been envisaged exploiting and mimicking the unique properties of this macromolecular pigment-protein complex. The PSII organization and working principles have inspired the design of electrochemical water splitting schemes and charge separating triads in energy storage systems as well as biochips and sensors for environmental, agricultural and industrial screening of toxic compounds. An intriguing opportunity is the development of sensor devices, exploiting native or manipulated PSII complexes or ad hoc synthesized polypeptides mimicking the PSII reaction centre proteins as bio-sensing elements. This review offers a concise overview of the recent improvements in the understanding of structure and function of PSII donor side, with focus on the interactions of the plastoquinone cofactors with the surrounding environment and operational features. Furthermore, studies focused on photosynthetic proteins structure/function/dynamics and computational analyses aimed at rational design of high-quality bio-recognition elements in biosensor devices are discussed. PMID:24678671

  18. Function-valued adaptive dynamics and optimal control theory. (United States)

    Parvinen, Kalle; Heino, Mikko; Dieckmann, Ulf


    In this article we further develop the theory of adaptive dynamics of function-valued traits. Previous work has concentrated on models for which invasion fitness can be written as an integral in which the integrand for each argument value is a function of the strategy value at that argument value only. For this type of models of direct effect, singular strategies can be found using the calculus of variations, with singular strategies needing to satisfy Euler's equation with environmental feedback. In a broader, more mechanistically oriented class of models, the function-valued strategy affects a process described by differential equations, and fitness can be expressed as an integral in which the integrand for each argument value depends both on the strategy and on process variables at that argument value. In general, the calculus of variations cannot help analyzing this much broader class of models. Here we explain how to find singular strategies in this class of process-mediated models using optimal control theory. In particular, we show that singular strategies need to satisfy Pontryagin's maximum principle with environmental feedback. We demonstrate the utility of this approach by studying the evolution of strategies determining seasonal flowering schedules.

  19. Aircraft path planning for optimal imaging using dynamic cost functions (United States)

    Christie, Gordon; Chaudhry, Haseeb; Kochersberger, Kevin


    Unmanned aircraft development has accelerated with recent technological improvements in sensing and communications, which has resulted in an "applications lag" for how these aircraft can best be utilized. The aircraft are becoming smaller, more maneuverable and have longer endurance to perform sensing and sampling missions, but operating them aggressively to exploit these capabilities has not been a primary focus in unmanned systems development. This paper addresses a means of aerial vehicle path planning to provide a realistic optimal path in acquiring imagery for structure from motion (SfM) reconstructions and performing radiation surveys. This method will allow SfM reconstructions to occur accurately and with minimal flight time so that the reconstructions can be executed efficiently. An assumption is made that we have 3D point cloud data available prior to the flight. A discrete set of scan lines are proposed for the given area that are scored based on visibility of the scene. Our approach finds a time-efficient path and calculates trajectories between scan lines and over obstacles encountered along those scan lines. Aircraft dynamics are incorporated into the path planning algorithm as dynamic cost functions to create optimal imaging paths in minimum time. Simulations of the path planning algorithm are shown for an urban environment. We also present our approach for image-based terrain mapping, which is able to efficiently perform a 3D reconstruction of a large area without the use of GPS data.

  20. The influence of cholesterol on membrane protein structure, function, and dynamics studied by molecular dynamics simulations. (United States)

    Grouleff, Julie; Irudayam, Sheeba Jem; Skeby, Katrine K; Schiøtt, Birgit


    The plasma membrane, which encapsulates human cells, is composed of a complex mixture of lipids and embedded proteins. Emerging knowledge points towards the lipids as having a regulating role in protein function. Furthermore, insight from protein crystallography has revealed several different types of lipids intimately bound to membrane proteins and peptides, hereby possibly pointing to a site of action for the observed regulation. Cholesterol is among the lipid membrane constituents most often observed to be co-crystallized with membrane proteins, and the cholesterol levels in cell membranes have been found to play an essential role in health and disease. Remarkably little is known about the mechanism of lipid regulation of membrane protein function in health as well as in disease. Herein, we review molecular dynamics simulation studies aimed at investigating the effect of cholesterol on membrane protein and peptide properties. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Lipid-protein interactions. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Kinesiology tape does not promote vertical jumping performance: A deceptive crossover trial. (United States)

    Cheung, R T H; Yau, Q K C; Wong, K; Lau, P; So, A; Chan, N; Kwok, C; Poon, K Y; Yung, P S H


    Kinesiology tape (KINTAPE) is one of the most common adhesive therapeutic tapes. Apart from clinical applications, KINTAPE claims to be able to enhance functional performance by muscle activity facilitation. However, emerging evidence suggests that the isokinetic muscle strength remains similar when the placebo effect is eliminated. In view of the weak relationship between functional performance and isokinetic muscle strength, this study investigated the true effects of KINTAPE on functional performance. Deceptive, randomized, and crossover trial. Sixty four experienced volleyball players performed vertical jumping test under three taping conditions: true facilitative KINTAPE, sham KINTAPE, and no KINTAPE. Under the pretense of applying adhesive muscle sensors, KINTAPE was applied to their quadriceps and gastrocnemius in the first two conditions. Mean maximum jump height and peak jump power were averaged from three attempts. Within-subject comparisons were conducted by repeated measure ANOVA. Out of 64 participants, 30 of them were successfully deceived and they were ignorant about KINTAPE. No significant differences were found in both maximum jump height (η(2) = 0.001; p = 0.241) and peak jump power (η(2) = 0.001; p = 0.134) between three taping conditions. The results showed that KINTAPE did not facilitate muscle performance by generating higher jumping power or yielding a better jumping performance. These findings reinforce that previously reported muscle facilitatory effects or functional enhancement using KINTAPE may be attributed to placebo effects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Are computers effective lie detectors? A meta-analysis of linguistic cues to deception. (United States)

    Hauch, Valerie; Blandón-Gitlin, Iris; Masip, Jaume; Sporer, Siegfried L


    This meta-analysis investigates linguistic cues to deception and whether these cues can be detected with computer programs. We integrated operational definitions for 79 cues from 44 studies where software had been used to identify linguistic deception cues. These cues were allocated to six research questions. As expected, the meta-analyses demonstrated that, relative to truth-tellers, liars experienced greater cognitive load, expressed more negative emotions, distanced themselves more from events, expressed fewer sensory-perceptual words, and referred less often to cognitive processes. However, liars were not more uncertain than truth-tellers. These effects were moderated by event type, involvement, emotional valence, intensity of interaction, motivation, and other moderators. Although the overall effect size was small, theory-driven predictions for certain cues received support. These findings not only further our knowledge about the usefulness of linguistic cues to detect deception with computers in applied settings but also elucidate the relationship between language and deception.

  3. 16 CFR 18.5 - Deception as to blooming, fruiting, or growing ability. (United States)


    ... the sale, offering for sale, or distribution of industry products, it is an unfair or deceptive act or... consumer sale. A similar disclosure shall be made in all advertising and sales promotional literature...

  4. Assessing lexical, syntactic, and conceptual turn-by-turn alignment in conversations involving conflict and deception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duran, Nicholas; Fusaroli, Riccardo; Paxton, Alexandra


    can modulate alignment processes consistently across multiple levels of linguistic abstraction. Contrary to previous findings on non-verbal coordination (Duran and Fusaroli, under review), deception disrupts verbal alignment, and alignment generally decreases over time. Moreover, for a subset...

  5. Effects of deceptive packaging and product involvement on purchase intention: an elaboration likelihood model perspective. (United States)

    Lammers, H B


    From an Elaboration Likelihood Model perspective, it was hypothesized that postexposure awareness of deceptive packaging claims would have a greater negative effect on scores for purchase intention by consumers lowly involved rather than highly involved with a product (n = 40). Undergraduates who were classified as either highly or lowly (ns = 20 and 20) involved with M&Ms examined either a deceptive or non-deceptive package design for M&Ms candy and were subsequently informed of the deception employed in the packaging before finally rating their intention to purchase. As anticipated, highly deceived subjects who were low in involvement rated intention to purchase lower than their highly involved peers. Overall, the results attest to the robustness of the model and suggest that the model has implications beyond advertising effects and into packaging effects.

  6. Animal diversity and ecosystem functioning in dynamic food webs (United States)

    Schneider, Florian D.; Brose, Ulrich; Rall, Björn C.; Guill, Christian


    Species diversity is changing globally and locally, but the complexity of ecological communities hampers a general understanding of the consequences of animal species loss on ecosystem functioning. High animal diversity increases complementarity of herbivores but also increases feeding rates within the consumer guild. Depending on the balance of these counteracting mechanisms, species-rich animal communities may put plants under top-down control or may release them from grazing pressure. Using a dynamic food-web model with body-mass constraints, we simulate ecosystem functions of 20,000 communities of varying animal diversity. We show that diverse animal communities accumulate more biomass and are more exploitative on plants, despite their higher rates of intra-guild predation. However, they do not reduce plant biomass because the communities are composed of larger, and thus energetically more efficient, plant and animal species. This plasticity of community body-size structure reconciles the debate on the consequences of animal species loss for primary productivity.

  7. Functional diversity and evolutionary dynamics of thermoTRP channels. (United States)

    Saito, Shigeru; Tominaga, Makoto


    Animals have evolved sophisticated physiological systems for sensing ambient temperature since changes in environmental temperatures affect various biological processes. Thermosensitive transient receptor potential (thermoTRP) channels serve as thermal sensors in diverse animal species. They are multimodal receptors that are activated by temperature as well as other physical and chemical stimuli. Since thermoTRP channels are calcium permeable non-selective cation channels, their activation leads to an influx of calcium and sodium ions into the cell and triggers downstream signal transduction. ThermoTRP channels have been characterized in diverse animal species over the past several years, illuminating the diversification of thermoTRP channels in the course of evolution. The gene repertoires of thermoTRP channels differ among animal species. Additionally, in some cases, the temperature and chemical sensitivities among orthologous thermoTRP channels vary among species. The evolutionary flexibility of thermoTRP channels enabled them to contribute to unique physiological systems such as infrared sensation in snakes and bats and seasonal adaptation in silk moth. On the other hand, the functional differences of thermoTRP channels among species have been utilized for understanding the molecular basis for their activation (or inhibition) mechanisms, and amino acid residues (or domains) responsible for the respective channel properties have been identified in various thermoTRP channels. Here we summarize the current understanding of the functional diversity and evolutionary dynamics of thermoTRP channels.

  8. Green’s function molecular dynamics meets discrete dislocation plasticity (United States)

    Venugopalan, Syam P.; Müser, Martin H.; Nicola, Lucia


    Metals deform plastically at the asperity level when brought in contact with a counter body even when the nominal contact pressure is small. Modeling the plasticity of solids with rough surfaces is challenging due to the multi-scale nature of surface roughness and the length-scale dependence of plasticity. While discrete-dislocation plasticity (DDP) simulations capture size-dependent plasticity by keeping track of the motion of individual dislocations, only simple two-dimensional surface geometries have so far been studied with DDP. The main computational bottleneck in contact problems modeled by DDP is the calculation of the dislocation image fields. We address this issue by combining two-dimensional DDP with Green’s function molecular dynamics. The resulting method allows for an efficient boundary-value-method based treatment of elasticity in the presence of dislocations. We demonstrate that our method captures plasticity quantitatively from single to many dislocations and that it scales more favorably with system size than conventional methods. We also derive the relevant Green’s functions for elastic slabs of finite width allowing arbitrary boundary conditions on top and bottom surface to be simulated.

  9. Quantification of functional dynamics of membrane proteins reconstituted in nanodiscs membranes by single turnover functional readout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moses, Matias Emil; Hedegård, Per; Hatzakis, Nikos


    and quantification of the activity, abundance, and lifetime of multiple states and transient intermediates in the energy landscape that are typically averaged out in nonsynchronized ensemble measurements. Studying the function of membrane proteins at the single-molecule level remains a formidable challenge......, and to date there is limited number of available functional assays. In this chapter, we describe in detail our recently developed methodology to reconstitute membrane proteins such as the integral membrane protein cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase on membrane systems such as Nanodiscs and study their functional...... dynamics by recordings at the fundamental resolution of individual catalytic turnovers using prefluorescent substrate analogues. We initially describe the methodology for reconstitution, surface immobilization, and data acquisition of individual enzyme catalytic turnovers. We then explain in detail...

  10. Pre-adaptations and the evolution of pollination by sexual deception: Cope's rule of specialization revisited



    Pollination by sexual deception is arguably one of the most unusual liaisons linking plants and insects, and perhaps the most illustrative example of extreme floral specialization in angiosperms. While considerable progress has been made in understanding the floral traits involved in sexual deception, less is known about how this remarkable mimicry system might have arisen, the role of pre-adaptations in promoting its evolution and its extent as a pollination mechanism outside the few groups ...

  11. The evolution of floral deception in Epipactis veratrifolia (Orchidaceae): from indirect defense to pollination



    Background It is estimated that floral deception has evolved in at least 7500 species of angiosperms, of which two thirds are orchids. Epipactis veratrifolia (Orchidaceae) is a model system of aphid mimicry as aphidophagous hoverflies lay eggs on false brood sites on their flowers. To understand the evolutionary ecology of floral deception, we investigated the pollination biology of E. veratrifolia across 10 populations in the Eastern Himalayas. We reconstructed the phylogeny of Epipactis and...

  12. Staff Development, Deception Operations, and Force Projection: Lessons from the Normandy Invasion (United States)


    University Press, 1988), 104-105. 6 Roger Hesketh, Fortitude: The D-Day Deception Campaign, 19. 4 information about the actual invasion site and...Invasion. Westport: Preager Security International, 2007. Bastable, Jonathan. Voices from D-Day. Cincinnati: F&W Publications Inc., 2004. Bennett ...Hesketh, Roger . Fortitude: The D-Day Deception Campaign. London: St Ermin’s Publishing, 1999. 60 Hinsley, F.H. British Intelligence in the

  13. The counterfeit self: the deceptive costs of faking it. (United States)

    Gino, Francesca; Norton, Michael I; Ariely, Dan


    Although people buy counterfeit products to signal positive traits, we show that wearing counterfeit products makes individuals feel less authentic and increases their likelihood of both behaving dishonestly and judging others as unethical. In four experiments, participants wore purportedly fake or authentically branded sunglasses. Those wearing fake sunglasses cheated more across multiple tasks than did participants wearing authentic sunglasses, both when they believed they had a preference for counterfeits (Experiment 1a) and when they were randomly assigned to wear them (Experiment 1b). Experiment 2 shows that the effects of wearing counterfeit sunglasses extend beyond the self, influencing judgments of other people's unethical behavior. Experiment 3 demonstrates that the feelings of inauthenticity that wearing fake products engenders-what we term the counterfeit self-mediate the impact of counterfeits on unethical behavior. Finally, we show that people do not predict the impact of counterfeits on ethicality; thus, the costs of counterfeits are deceptive.

  14. Analysing deception in a psychopath's speech: a quantitative approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángela ALMELA


    Full Text Available Psychopathy involves a series of specific cognitive, social and emotional features which make the psychopath different from the general population; the two most significant characteristics are extreme selfishness and deep emotional deficit that is reflected in apathy. Notably, psychopaths are skilled communicators who that use language to lie. As there has been little examination of the speech associated specifically with psychopaths, especially in the Spanish language, the present study aims to contrast different veracious excerpts to others which are deceptive. The text analysis is framed within forensic computational linguistics, and complemented with some information related to the stylometric profile of the text. The investigation shows how the parameter mainly affected by the psychological condition of the psychopath subject is the distribution of grammatical persons; in addition, some further evidence includes the frequency of certainty adverbs and verbs related to cognitive processes.

  15. Theodramatic Rehearsal: Fighting Self-Deception through the Dramatic Imagination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett Vaden


    Full Text Available This paper seeks to appropriate the insights of dramatic theology for Christian psychology and soul care. According to Kevin Vanhoozer, Scripture is the ‘script’ for human beings’ fitting participation in the acts and deeds of God in the world (i.e., ‘theodrama’. Keeping with this dramatic paradigm, the author will explore what ‘rehearsal’ might entail by drawing from a branch of psychotherapy called ‘psychodrama.’ The main question to be addressed in this appropriation of dramatic theology is, “How might dramatic rehearsal combat self-deception?” The author will only begin to answer this question, but in the attempt it is hoped that further reflection and clarity will be induced.

  16. Effect of biofeedback on the detection of deception. (United States)

    Timm, H W


    This study examined the effect of audio electrodermal biofeedback training on the detection of deception. The subjects consisted of 68 volunteers enrolled in selected undergraduate college courses. Each subject was required to commit a mock murder, after which a polygraph examiner administered a series of five consecutive "lie detector" tests to ascertain the facts involved in his/her murder. Before testing, subjects were randomly assigned to either a biofeedback condition or to a control group. The detection efficiency associated with the subject's respiration responses was significantly enhanced by simultaneous auditory biofeedback given during the polygraph testing; however, the feedback's effect upon the detection rates associated with the electrodermal measures that it was reflecting was neither statistically significant nor in the same direction. The results support the premise that audio biofeedback might be useful in enhancing respiration's detection efficiency during polygraph testing.

  17. Eliminating deceptions and mistaken belief to infer conversational implicature

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, M; Lee, Mark; Wilks, Yorick


    Conversational implicatures are usually described as being licensed by the disobeying or flouting of some principle by the speaker in cooperative dialogue. However, such work has failed to distinguish cases of the speaker flouting such a principle from cases where the speaker is either deceptive or holds a mistaken belief. In this paper, we demonstrate how the three different cases can be distinguished in terms of the beliefs ascribed to the speaker of the utterance. We argue that in the act of distinguishing the speaker's intention and ascribing such beliefs, the intended inference can be made by the hearer. This theory is implemented in ViewGen, a pre-existing belief modelling system used in a medical counselling domain.

  18. A Frame Work for Frequent Pattern Mining Using Dynamic Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Joshi


    Full Text Available Discovering frequent objects (item sets, sequential patterns is one of the most vital fields in data mining. It is well understood that it require running time and memory for defining candidates and this is the motivation for developing large number of algorithm. Frequent patterns mining is the paying attention research issue in association rules analysis. Apriori algorithm is a standard algorithm of association rules mining. Plenty of algorithms for mining association rules and their mutations are projected on the foundation of Apriori Algorithm. Most of the earlier studies adopted Apriori-like algorithms which are based on generate-and-test candidates theme and improving algorithm approach and formation but no one give attention to the structure of database. Several modifications on apriori algorithms are focused on algorithm Strategy but no one-algorithm emphasis on least transaction and more attribute representation of database. We presented a new research trend on frequent pattern mining in which generate Transaction pair to lighten current methods from the traditional blockage, providing scalability to massive data sets and improving response time. In order to mine patterns in database with more columns than rows, we proposed a complete framework for the frequent pattern mining. A simple approach is if we generate pair of transaction instead of item id where attributes are much larger then transaction so result is very fast. Newly, different works anticipated a new way to mine patterns in transposed databases where there is a database with thousands of attributes but merely tens of stuff. We suggest a novel dynamic algorithm for frequent pattern mining in which generate transaction pair and for generating frequent pattern we find out by longest common subsequence using dynamic function. Our solutions give result more rapidly. A quantitative investigation of these tradeoffs is conducted through a wide investigational study on artificial and

  19. Deception detection with behavioral, autonomic, and neural measures: Conceptual and methodological considerations that warrant modesty. (United States)

    Meijer, Ewout H; Verschuere, Bruno; Gamer, Matthias; Merckelbach, Harald; Ben-Shakhar, Gershon


    The detection of deception has attracted increased attention among psychological researchers, legal scholars, and ethicists during the last decade. Much of this has been driven by the possibility of using neuroimaging techniques for lie detection. Yet, neuroimaging studies addressing deception detection are clouded by lack of conceptual clarity and a host of methodological problems that are not unique to neuroimaging. We review the various research paradigms and the dependent measures that have been adopted to study deception and its detection. In doing so, we differentiate between basic research designed to shed light on the neurocognitive mechanisms underlying deceptive behavior and applied research aimed at detecting lies. We also stress the distinction between paradigms attempting to detect deception directly and those attempting to establish involvement by detecting crime-related knowledge, and discuss the methodological difficulties and threats to validity associated with each paradigm. Our conclusion is that the main challenge of future research is to find paradigms that can isolate cognitive factors associated with deception, rather than the discovery of a unique (brain) correlate of lying. We argue that the Comparison Question Test currently applied in many countries has weak scientific validity, which cannot be remedied by using neuroimaging measures. Other paradigms are promising, but the absence of data from ecologically valid studies poses a challenge for legal admissibility of their outcomes.

  20. Federal Trade Commission's authority to regulate marketing to children: deceptive vs. unfair rulemaking. (United States)

    Pomeranz, Jennifer L


    Food and beverage marketing directed at children is of increasing concern to the public health and legal communities. The new administration at the Federal Trade Commission and abundant science on the topic make it a particularly opportune time for the government to reconsider regulating marketing directed at youth. This Article analyzes the Commission's authority to regulate food and beverage marketing directed at children under its jurisdiction over unfair and deceptive acts and practices to determine which avenue is most viable. The author finds that the Federal Trade Commission has the authority to regulate deceptive marketing practices directed at vulnerable populations. Although the Commission can issue individual orders, its remedial power to initiate rules would better address the pervasiveness of modern marketing practices. The Commission does not currently have the power to regulate unfair marketing to children; however, even if Congress reinstated this authority, the Commission's authority over deceptive marketing may be preferable to regulate these practices. Deceptive communications are not protected by the First Amendment and the deceptive standard matches the science associated with marketing to children. The Federal Trade Commission has the authority to initiate rulemaking in the realm of food and beverage marketing to children as deceptive communications in interstate commerce, in violation of the Federal Trade Commission Act. However, to effectuate this process, Congress would need to grant the Commission the authority to do so under the Administrative Procedures Act.

  1. Leaf and stem economics spectra drive diversity of functional plant traits in a dynamic global vegetation model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sakschewski, B.; Bloh, von W.; Boit, A.; Rammig, A.; Kattge, J.; Poorter, L.; Peñualeas, J.; Thonicke, K.


    Functional diversity is critical for ecosystem dynamics, stability and productivity. However, dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs) which are increasingly used to simulate ecosystem functions under global change, condense functional diversity to plant functional types (PFTs) with constant paramet

  2. Fast dynamics perturbation analysis for prediction of protein functional sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cohn Judith D


    Full Text Available Abstract Background We present a fast version of the dynamics perturbation analysis (DPA algorithm to predict functional sites in protein structures. The original DPA algorithm finds regions in proteins where interactions cause a large change in the protein conformational distribution, as measured using the relative entropy Dx. Such regions are associated with functional sites. Results The Fast DPA algorithm, which accelerates DPA calculations, is motivated by an empirical observation that Dx in a normal-modes model is highly correlated with an entropic term that only depends on the eigenvalues of the normal modes. The eigenvalues are accurately estimated using first-order perturbation theory, resulting in a N-fold reduction in the overall computational requirements of the algorithm, where N is the number of residues in the protein. The performance of the original and Fast DPA algorithms was compared using protein structures from a standard small-molecule docking test set. For nominal implementations of each algorithm, top-ranked Fast DPA predictions overlapped the true binding site 94% of the time, compared to 87% of the time for original DPA. In addition, per-protein recall statistics (fraction of binding-site residues that are among predicted residues were slightly better for Fast DPA. On the other hand, per-protein precision statistics (fraction of predicted residues that are among binding-site residues were slightly better using original DPA. Overall, the performance of Fast DPA in predicting ligand-binding-site residues was comparable to that of the original DPA algorithm. Conclusion Compared to the original DPA algorithm, the decreased run time with comparable performance makes Fast DPA well-suited for implementation on a web server and for high-throughput analysis.

  3. Boltzmann-conserving classical dynamics in quantum time-correlation functions: Matsubara dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Hele, Timothy J H; Muolo, Andrea; Althorpe, Stuart C


    We show that a single change in the derivation of the linearized semiclassical-initial value representation (LSC-IVR or classical Wigner approximation) results in a classical dynamics which conserves the quantum Boltzmann distribution. We rederive the (standard) LSC-IVR approach by writing the (exact) quantum time-correlation function in terms of the normal modes of a free ring-polymer (i.e. a discrete imaginary-time Feynman path), taking the limit that the number of polymer beads $N \\to \\infty$, such that the lowest normal-mode frequencies take their Matsubara values. The change we propose is to truncate the quantum Liouvillian, not explicitly in powers of $\\hbar^2$ at $\\hbar^0$ (which gives back the standard LSC-IVR approximation), but in the normal-mode derivatives corresponding to the lowest Matsubara frequencies. The resulting Matsubara dynamics is inherently classical (since all terms $\\mathcal{O}\\left(\\hbar^{2}\\right)$ disappear from the Matsubara Liouvillian in the limit $N \\to \\infty$), and conserves...

  4. A lagrangian dynamical theory for the mass function of cosmic structures; 1, dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Monaco, P


    A new theory for determining the mass function of cosmic structures is presented. It relies on a realistic treatment of collapse dynamics. Gravitational collapse is analyzed in the Lagrangian perturbative framework. Lagrangian perturbations provide an approximation of truncated type, i.e. small-scale structure is filtered out. The collapse time is suitably defined as the instant at which orbit crossing takes place. The convergence of the Lagrangian series in predicting the collapse time of a homogeneous ellipsoid is demonstrated; it is also shown that third-order calculations are necessary in predicting collapse. Then, the Lagrangian prediction, with a correction for quasi-spherical perturbations, can be used to determine the collapse time of a homogeneous ellipsoid in a very fast and precise way. Furthermore, ellipsoidal collapse can be considered as a particular truncation of the Lagrangian series. Gaussian fields with scale-free power spectra are then considered. The Lagrangian series for the collapse time...

  5. Dynamic behavior of chemical reactivity indices in density functional theory: A Bohn-Oppenheimer quantum molecular dynamics study

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shubin Liu


    Dynamic behaviors of chemical concepts in density functional theory such as frontier orbitals (HOMO/LUMO), chemical potential, hardness, and electrophilicity index have been investigated in this work in the context of Bohn-Oppenheimer quantum molecular dynamics in association with molecular conformation changes. Exemplary molecular systems like CH$^{+}_{5}$ , Cl- (H2O)30 and Ca2+ (H2O)15 are studied at 300 K in the gas phase, demonstrating that HOMO is more dynamic than LUMO, chemical potential and hardness often fluctuate concurrently. It is argued that DFT concepts and indices may serve as a good framework to understand molecular conformation changes as well as other dynamic phenomena.

  6. Dynamic heart phantom with functional mitral and aortic valves (United States)

    Vannelli, Claire; Moore, John; McLeod, Jonathan; Ceh, Dennis; Peters, Terry


    Cardiac valvular stenosis, prolapse and regurgitation are increasingly common conditions, particularly in an elderly population with limited potential for on-pump cardiac surgery. NeoChord©, MitraClipand numerous stent-based transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) devices provide an alternative to intrusive cardiac operations; performed while the heart is beating, these procedures require surgeons and cardiologists to learn new image-guidance based techniques. Developing these visual aids and protocols is a challenging task that benefits from sophisticated simulators. Existing models lack features needed to simulate off-pump valvular procedures: functional, dynamic valves, apical and vascular access, and user flexibility for different activation patterns such as variable heart rates and rapid pacing. We present a left ventricle phantom with these characteristics. The phantom can be used to simulate valvular repair and replacement procedures with magnetic tracking, augmented reality, fluoroscopy and ultrasound guidance. This tool serves as a platform to develop image-guidance and image processing techniques required for a range of minimally invasive cardiac interventions. The phantom mimics in vivo mitral and aortic valve motion, permitting realistic ultrasound images of these components to be acquired. It also has a physiological realistic left ventricular ejection fraction of 50%. Given its realistic imaging properties and non-biodegradable composition—silicone for tissue, water for blood—the system promises to reduce the number of animal trials required to develop image guidance applications for valvular repair and replacement. The phantom has been used in validation studies for both TAVI image-guidance techniques1, and image-based mitral valve tracking algorithms2.

  7. Abstraction of Continuous Dynamical Systems Utilizing Lyapunov Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Christoffer; Wisniewski, Rafal


    This paper considers the development of a method for abstracting continuous dynamical systems by timed automata. The method is based on partitioning the state space of dynamical systems with invariant sets, which form cells representing locations of the timed automata. To enable verification of t...

  8. Estimation of Response Functions Based on Variational Bayes Algorithm in Dynamic Images Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bowei Shan


    Full Text Available We proposed a nonparametric Bayesian model based on variational Bayes algorithm to estimate the response functions in dynamic medical imaging. In dynamic renal scintigraphy, the impulse response or retention functions are rather complicated and finding a suitable parametric form is problematic. In this paper, we estimated the response functions using nonparametric Bayesian priors. These priors were designed to favor desirable properties of the functions, such as sparsity or smoothness. These assumptions were used within hierarchical priors of the variational Bayes algorithm. We performed our algorithm on the real online dataset of dynamic renal scintigraphy. The results demonstrated that this algorithm improved the estimation of response functions with nonparametric priors.

  9. An Anticipatory and Deceptive AI Utilizing Bayesian Belief Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lake, Joe E [ORNL; Allgood, Glenn O [ORNL; Olama, Mohammed M [ORNL; Saffold, JAy [Research Network, Inc


    The U.S. military defines antiterrorism as the defensive posture taken against terrorist threats. Antiterrorism includes fostering awareness of potential threats, deterring aggressors, developing security measures, planning for future events, interdicting an event in progress, and ultimately mitigating and managing the consequences of an event. Recent events highlight the need for efficient tools for training our military and homeland security officers for anticipating threats posed by terrorists. These tools need to be easy enough so that they are readily usable without substantial training, but still maintain the complexity to allow for a level of deceptive reasoning on the part of the opponent. To meet this need, we propose to integrate a Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) model for threat anticipation and deceptive reasoning into training simulation environments currently utilized by several organizations within the Department of Defense (DoD). BBNs have the ability to deal with various types of uncertainties; such as identities, capabilities, target attractiveness, and the combinations of the previous. They also allow for disparate types of data to be fused in a coherent, analytically defensible, and understandable manner. A BBN has been developed by ORNL uses a network engineering process that treats the probability distributions of each node with in the broader context of the system development effort as a whole, and not in isolation. The network will be integrated into the Research Network Inc,(RNI) developed Game Distributed Interactive Simulation (GDIS) as a smart artificial intelligence module. GDIS is utilized by several DoD and civilian organizations as a distributed training tool for a multiplicity of reasons. It has garnered several awards for its realism, ease of use, and popularity. One area that it still has room to excel in, as most video training tools do, is in the area of artificial intelligence of opponent combatants. It is believed that by

  10. Neuroscience, neuropolitics and neuroethics: the complex case of crime, deception and FMRI. (United States)

    Henry, Stuart; Plemmons, Dena


    Scientific developments take place in a socio-political context but scientists often ignore the ways their innovations will be both interpreted by the media and used by policy makers. In the rush to neuroscientific discovery important questions are overlooked, such as the ways: (1) the brain, environment and behavior are related; (2) biological changes are mediated by social organization; (3) institutional bias in the application of technical procedures ignores race, class and gender dimensions of society; (4) knowledge is used to the advantage of the powerful; and (5) its applications may reinforce existing structures of power that pose ethical questions about distributive justice. The case of crime, deception and functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) shows the complexity, and the political and ethical challenges that confront those who seek to use neuroscience to explain the etiology of crime, and who base policy on its findings. An ethically grounded neuroscience needs to take account of existing structures of power and difference, and to develop a public neuropolitical consciousness that ensures that those subject to risk by the application of science and technology are participants in the decision-making processes involving the implementation of policies that affect them.

  11. Kinesiology tape does not facilitate muscle performance: A deceptive controlled trial. (United States)

    Poon, K Y; Li, S M; Roper, M G; Wong, M K M; Wong, O; Cheung, R T H


    Kinesiology tape (KinTape) is a therapeutic tape without much understanding of its mechanism. KinTape claims to increase cutaneous stimulation, which facilitates motor unit firing, and consequently improves functional performance; however these, benefits could be due to placebo effects. This study investigated the true effects of KinTape by a deceptive, randomized, and controlled trial. Thirty healthy participants performed isokinetic testing of three taping conditions: true facilitative KinTape, sham KinTape, and no KinTape. The participants were blindfolded during the evaluation. Under the pretense of applying adhesive muscle sensors, KinTape was applied to their quadriceps in the first two conditions. Normalized peak torque, normalized total work, and time to peak torque were measured at two angular speeds (60°/s and 180°/s) and analyzed with one-way repeated measures ANOVA. Participants were successfully deceived and they were ignorant about KinTape. No significant differences were found between normalized peak torque, normalized total work, and time to peak torque at 60°/s or 180°/s (p = 0.31-0.99) between three taping conditions. The results showed that KinTape did not facilitate muscle performance in generating higher peak torque, yielding a greater total work, or inducing an earlier onset of peak torque. These findings suggest that previously reported muscle facilitatory effects using KinTape may be attributed to placebo effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Dynamics of homegarden structure and function in Kerala, India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peyre, A.; Guidal, A.; Wiersum, K.F.; Bongers, F.J.J.M.


    Homegardens in Kerala have long been important multi-purpose agroforestry systems that combine ecological and socioeconomical sustainability. However, traditional homegardens are subject to different conversion processes linked to socioeconomic changes. These dynamics were studied in a survey of 30

  13. Dynamical model for biological functions of DNA molecules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PANGXiao-fengI; YANGYao


    We proposed a dynamic model of DNA to study its nonlinear excitation and duplication and transcription in the basis of molecular structure and changes of conformation of DNA under influence of bioenergy.

  14. Preliminary report: Dynamic stereopsis in patients with impaired binocular function. (United States)

    Mollenhauer, K A; Haase, W


    In this study, 46 strabismic patients aged between 9 and 58 years were tested for dynamic stereopsis in the peripheral visual field with up to 20 degrees eccentricity. Squint angles ranged from +30 to -36 degrees. The effect of surgical realignment of the visual axes on dynamic stereopsis was tested before and after surgery in 40 of these patients. Of the 46 patients, 23 had esotropia and 23 exotropia. A test device was used which presented two projected squares in polarized light (each square being perceived monocularly through a polarization filter) in horizontal motion, thus creating a three-dimensional impression. Patients were tested qualitatively for dynamically stereoactive fields of vision and quantitatively for the threshold value needed to create a three-dimensional impression. We found residual dynamic stereopsis in 30% of patients who had no central static stereopsis. 56% of the patients improved after surgery, either through a significant (p traffic and sports medicine, regardless of the effect on classical tests.

  15. Structural dynamics flexibility informs function and evolution at a proteome scale (United States)

    Nevin Gerek, Zeynep; Kumar, Sudhir; Banu Ozkan, Sefika


    Protein structures are dynamic entities with a myriad of atomic fluctuations, side-chain rotations, and collective domain movements. Although the importance of these dynamics to proper functioning of proteins is emerging in the studies of many protein families, there is a lack of broad evidence for the critical role of protein dynamics in shaping the biological functions of a substantial fraction of residues for a large number of proteins in the human proteome. Here, we propose a novel dynamic flexibility index (dfi) to quantify the dynamic properties of individual residues in any protein and use it to assess the importance of protein dynamics in 100 human proteins. Our analyses involving functionally critical positions, disease-associated and putatively neutral population variations, and the rate of interspecific substitutions per residue produce concordant patterns at a proteome scale. They establish that the preservation of dynamic properties of residues in a protein structure is critical for maintaining the protein/biological function. Therefore, structural dynamics needs to become a major component of the analysis of protein function and evolution. Such analyses will be facilitated by the dfi, which will also enable the integrative use of structural dynamics with evolutionary conservation in genomic medicine as well as functional genomics investigations. PMID:23745135

  16. A search for the volcanomagnetic signal at Deception volcano (South Shetland I., Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Ibáñez


    Full Text Available After the increase in seismic activity detected during the 1991-1992 summer survey at Deception Island, the continuous measurement of total magnetic intensity was included among the different techniques used to monitor this active volcano. The Polish geomagnetic observatory Arctowski, located on King George Island, served as a reference station, and changes in the differences between the daily mean values at both stations were interpreted as indicators of volcanomagnetic effects at Deception. A magnetic station in continuous recording mode was also installed during the 1993-1994 and 1994-1995 surveys. During the latter, a second magnetometer was deployed on Deception Island, and a third one in the vicinity of the Spanish Antarctic Station on Livingston Island (at a distance of 35 km and was used as a reference station. The results from the first survey suggest that a small magma injection, responsible for the seismic re-activation, could produce a volcanomagnetic effect, detected as a slight change in the difference between Deception and Arctowski. On the other hand, a long term variation starting at that moment seems to indicate a thermomagnetic effect. However the short register period of only two stations do not allow the sources to be modelled. The future deployment of a magnetic array during the austral summer surveys, throughout the volcano, and of a permanent geomagnetic observatory at Livingston I. is aimed at further observations of magnetic transients of volcanic origin at Deception Island.

  17. Impact of being primed with social deception upon observer responses to others' pain. (United States)

    De Ruddere, Lies; Goubert, Liesbet; Vervoort, Tine; Kappesser, Judith; Crombez, Geert


    This study examined whether priming with social deception affects responses (pain estimates, self-reported sympathy, inclination to help) towards others' pain. We further explored whether the priming effect is mediated by the valence of the patients (positive/negative), as indicated by the participants. First, participants (N=55) took part in an 'independent' delayed memory study in which they read either a neutral text about the use of the health care system (neutral condition) or a text about its misuse (social deception condition). Second, participants watched videos of pain patients performing pain-inducing activities. Participants rated the patients' pain, the sympathy felt for the patients, and the inclination to help the patients. Third, the participants re-estimated patients' pain when patients' self-report of pain was provided. Fourth, pictures of the patients were shown and participants indicated the valence of the patients (positive/negative). Results revealed no direct effect of priming with social deception. However, priming with social deception was related to less positive rating of the valence of the patients, that were related to lower ratings on pain and sympathy, and to larger discrepancies between the ratings of the patients and the observers. The results indicate that observers attribute less pain, feel less sympathy, and take patients' self-reported pain intensity less into account when the patients are evaluated less positively, which is likely to occur when a cognitive scheme of social deception is primed.

  18. Effects of individual and population parameters on reproductive success in three sexually deceptive orchid species. (United States)

    Vandewoestijne, S; Róis, A S; Caperta, A; Baguette, M; Tyteca, D


    Reproductive success (RS) in orchids in general, and in non-rewarding species specifically, is extremely low. RS is pollinator and pollination limited in food deceptive orchids, but this has rarely been studied in sexually deceptive orchid species. Here, we tested the effects of several individual (plant height, inflorescence size, nearest neighbour distance and flower position) and population (patch geometry, population density and size) parameters on RS in three sexually deceptive Ophrys (Orchidaceae) species. Inter-specific differences were observed in RS of flowers situated in the upper versus the lower part of the inflorescence, likely due to species-specific pollinator behaviour. For all three species examined, RS increased with increasing plant height, inflorescence size and nearest neighbour distance. RS generally increased with decreasing population density and increasing patch elongation. Given these results, we postulate that pollinator availability, rather than pollinator learning, is the most limiting factor in successful reproduction for sexually deceptive orchids. Our results also suggest that olfactory 'display' (i.e. versus optical display), in terms of inflorescence size (and co-varying plant height), plays a key role in individual RS of sexually deceptive orchids. In this regard, several hypotheses are suggested and discussed.

  19. 49 CFR 1103.32 - Discovery of imposition and deception and duty to report corrupt or dishonest conduct. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discovery of imposition and deception and duty to... Litigants and the Public § 1103.32 Discovery of imposition and deception and duty to report corrupt or... matter to the knowledge of the prosecuting authorities....

  20. 16 CFR 301.43 - Use of deceptive trade or corporate names, trademarks or graphic representations prohibited. (United States)


    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of deceptive trade or corporate names... Regulations § 301.43 Use of deceptive trade or corporate names, trademarks or graphic representations prohibited. No person shall use in labeling, invoicing or advertising any fur or fur product a trade name...

  1. The van Hove distribution function for brownian hard spheres: dynamical test particle theory and computer simulations for bulk dynamics. (United States)

    Hopkins, Paul; Fortini, Andrea; Archer, Andrew J; Schmidt, Matthias


    We describe a test particle approach based on dynamical density functional theory (DDFT) for studying the correlated time evolution of the particles that constitute a fluid. Our theory provides a means of calculating the van Hove distribution function by treating its self and distinct parts as the two components of a binary fluid mixture, with the "self " component having only one particle, the "distinct" component consisting of all the other particles, and using DDFT to calculate the time evolution of the density profiles for the two components. We apply this approach to a bulk fluid of Brownian hard spheres and compare to results for the van Hove function and the intermediate scattering function from Brownian dynamics computer simulations. We find good agreement at low and intermediate densities using the very simple Ramakrishnan-Yussouff [Phys. Rev. B 19, 2775 (1979)] approximation for the excess free energy functional. Since the DDFT is based on the equilibrium Helmholtz free energy functional, we can probe a free energy landscape that underlies the dynamics. Within the mean-field approximation we find that as the particle density increases, this landscape develops a minimum, while an exact treatment of a model confined situation shows that for an ergodic fluid this landscape should be monotonic. We discuss possible implications for slow, glassy, and arrested dynamics at high densities.

  2. Deception Detection: The Relationship of Levels of Trust and Perspective Taking in Real-Time Online and Offline Communication Environments. (United States)

    Friend, Catherine; Fox Hamilton, Nicola


    Where humans have been found to detect lies or deception only at the rate of chance in offline face-to-face communication (F2F), computer-mediated communication (CMC) online can elicit higher rates of trust and sharing of personal information than F2F. How do levels of trust and empathetic personality traits like perspective taking (PT) relate to deception detection in real-time CMC compared to F2F? A between groups correlational design (N = 40) demonstrated that, through a paired deceptive conversation task with confederates, levels of participant trust could predict accurate detection online but not offline. Second, participant PT abilities could not predict accurate detection in either conversation medium. Finally, this study found that conversation medium also had no effect on deception detection. This study finds support for the effects of the Truth Bias and online disinhibition in deception, and further implications in law enforcement are discussed.

  3. Students' Conceptions of Function Transformation in a Dynamic Mathematical Environment (United States)

    Daher, Wajeeh; Anabousy, Ahlam


    The study of function transformations helps students understand the function concept which is a basic and main concept in mathematics, but this study is problematic to school students as well as college students, especially when transformations are performed on non-basic functions. The current research tried to facilitate grade 9 students'…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca ZOLTAN


    Full Text Available In all kind of organization many activities are done by groups and teams. But how are they formed? What factors influence their existence and development? How members of groups and teams are selected? Which are the consequences in organizational context? In order to answer these questions, in the present paper we describe and analyze the main approaches regarding the formation of work groups and work teams (sociometric approach and group dynamics approach, the main factors that affects group dynamics and the FIRO model for evaluation the team members’ needs.

  5. Dynamic modelling of pectin extraction describing yield and functional characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nina Marianne; Cognet, T.; Santacoloma, P. A.


    A dynamic model of pectin extraction is proposed that describes pectin yield, degree of esterification and intrinsic viscosity. The dynamic model is one dimensional in the peel geometry and includes mass transport of pectin by diffusion and reaction kinetics of hydrolysis, degradation and de-esterification....... The model takes into account the effects of the process conditions such as temperature and acid concentration on extraction kinetics. It is shown that the model describes pectin bulk solution concentration, degree of esterification and intrinsic viscosity in pilot scale extractions from lime peel...

  6. Separating fact from fiction: an examination of deceptive self-presentation in online dating profiles. (United States)

    Toma, Catalina L; Hancock, Jeffrey T; Ellison, Nicole B


    This study examines self-presentation in online dating profiles using a novel cross-validation technique for establishing accuracy. Eighty online daters rated the accuracy of their online self-presentation. Information about participants' physical attributes was then collected (height, weight, and age) and compared with their online profile, revealing that deviations tended to be ubiquitous but small in magnitude. Men lied more about their height, and women lied more about their weight, with participants farther from the mean lying more. Participants' self-ratings of accuracy were significantly correlated with observed accuracy, suggesting that inaccuracies were intentional rather than self-deceptive. Overall, participants reported being the least accurate about their photographs and the most accurate about their relationship information. Deception patterns suggest that participants strategically balanced the deceptive opportunities presented by online self-presentation (e.g., the editability of profiles) with the social constraints of establishing romantic relationships (e.g., the anticipation of future interaction).

  7. Perceptual training effects on anticipation of direct and deceptive 7-m throws in handball. (United States)

    Alsharji, Khaled E; Wade, Michael G


    We examined the effectiveness of perceptual training on the performance of handball goalkeepers when anticipating the direction of both direct and deceptive 7-m throws. Skilled goalkeepers were assigned equally to three matched-ability groups based on their pre-test performance: a perceptual training group (n = 14) received video-based perceptual training, a placebo training group (n = 14) received video-based regular training and a control group received no training. Participants in the perceptual training group significantly improved their performance compared to both placebo and control groups; however, anticipation of deceptive throws improved less than for direct throws. The results confirm that although anticipating deception in handball is a challenging task for goalkeepers, task-specific perceptual training can minimise its effect and improve performance.

  8. When deception becomes easy: the effects of task switching and goal neglect on the truth proportion effect. (United States)

    Van Bockstaele, Bram; Wilhelm, Christine; Meijer, Ewout; Debey, Evelyne; Verschuere, Bruno


    Lying is typically more cognitively demanding than truth telling. Yet, recent cognitive models of lying propose that lying can be just as easy as truth telling, depending on contextual factors. In line with this idea, research has shown that the cognitive cost of deception decreases when people frequently respond deceptively, while it increases when people rarely respond deceptively (i.e., the truth proportion effect). In the present study, we investigated two possible underlying mechanisms of the truth proportion effect. In Experiment 1 (N = 121), we controlled for the impact of switch costs by keeping the number of switches between deceptive and truthful responses constant. We found that people who often responded deceptively made fewer errors when responding deceptively than people who only occasionally responded deceptively, replicating the truth proportion effect. Thus, while the truth proportion effect in earlier studies may be partially driven by the cost of switching between truthful and deceptive responses, we still found evidence for the truth proportion effect while controlling for switch costs. In Experiment 2 (N = 68), we assessed whether the truth proportion effect is influenced by goal neglect. According to this view, the truth proportion effect should be reduced if participants are cued to maintain the task goals, while it should be larger when participants are allowed to neglect the task goals. In line with this hypothesis, we found a smaller truth proportion effect when participants were cued with the task goals compared to when they were not cued. This study shows that the truth proportion effect is influenced by goal neglect, implying that frequent deceptive responding strengthens the goal of responding deceptively. Our findings imply that the accuracy of lie detection tests could be increased by using a majority of truth-items (i.e., induce the truth proportion effect), and that the truth proportion effect should be maximized by (1) increasing

  9. Multi-functional stage-scanning fluorescence micro/nanoscope for single-lipid dynamics (United States)

    Yang, Li-Ling; Hsieh, Chia-Fen; Chang, Yi-Ren; Shen, Jie-Pan; Chang, Yu-Chung; Chou, Chia-Fu


    We combine pulsed laser, supercontinuum radiation source and fast single-photon counting peripherals to obtain a multifunctional micro/nano-scope. This provides us with better spatial and temporal resolution to observe fast dynamics. Performing fluorescence correlation spectroscopy for fast dynamics (lipid dynamics in supported lipid bilayers and living cells is our goal. Lipid raft serves as a platform for recruiting signaling components of effective signal transduction. However, the dynamics of sub-200nm rapidly aggregated lipid rafts are still not elucidated in living cells. We here report our recent progress on the construction of this multi-functional stage-scanning fluorescence micro/nanoscope for single-lipid dynamics study.

  10. Nonparametric modeling of dynamic functional connectivity in fmri data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Føns Vind; Madsen, Kristoffer H.; Røge, Rasmus


    in Bayesian statistical modeling we use the predictive likelihood to investigate if the model can discriminate between a motor task and rest both within and across subjects. We further investigate what drives dynamic states using the model on the entire data collated across subjects and task/rest. We find...

  11. Simultaneous dynamic electrical and structural measurements of functional materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vecchini, C.; Stewart, M.; Muñiz-Piniella, A.; Wooldridge, J. [National Physical Laboratory, Hampton Road, Teddington TW11 0LW (United Kingdom); Thompson, P.; McMitchell, S. R. C.; Bouchenoire, L.; Brown, S.; Wermeille, D.; Lucas, C. A. [XMaS, The UK-CRG, ESRF-The European Synchrotron, CS40220, F-38043, Grenoble Cedex 09 (France); Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3BX (United Kingdom); Lepadatu, S. [National Physical Laboratory, Hampton Road, Teddington TW11 0LW (United Kingdom); Jeremiah Horrocks Institute, University of Central Lancashire, Preston PR1 2HE (United Kingdom); Bikondoa, O.; Hase, T. P. A. [XMaS, The UK-CRG, ESRF-The European Synchrotron, CS40220, F-38043, Grenoble Cedex 09 (France); Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Lesourd, M. [ESRF-The European Synchrotron, CS40220, F-38043, Grenoble Cedex 09 (France); Dontsov, D. [SIOS Meßtechnik GmbH, Am Vogelherd 46, 98693 Ilmenau (Germany); Cain, M. G. [National Physical Laboratory, Hampton Road, Teddington TW11 0LW (United Kingdom); Electrosciences Ltd., Farnham, Surrey GU9 9QT (United Kingdom)


    A new materials characterization system developed at the XMaS beamline, located at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility in France, is presented. We show that this new capability allows to measure the atomic structural evolution (crystallography) of piezoelectric materials whilst simultaneously measuring the overall strain characteristics and electrical response to dynamically (ac) applied external stimuli.

  12. Modeling dynamic functional connectivity using a wishart mixture model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Føns Vind; Madsen, Kristoffer Hougaard; Schmidt, Mikkel Nørgaard


    .e. the window length. In this work we use the Wishart Mixture Model (WMM) as a probabilistic model for dFC based on variational inference. The framework admits arbitrary window lengths and number of dynamic components and includes the static one-component model as a special case. We exploit that the WMM...

  13. An Electroencephalography Network and Connectivity Analysis for Deception in Instructed Lying Tasks (United States)

    Wang, Yue; Ng, Wu Chun; Ng, Khoon Siong; Yu, Ke; Wu, Tiecheng; Li, Xiaoping


    Deception is an impactful social event that has been the focus of an abundance of researches over recent decades. In this paper, an electroencephalography (EEG) study is presented regarding the cognitive processes of an instructed liar/truth-teller during the time window of stimulus (question) delivery period (SDP) prior to their deceptive/truthful responses towards questions related to authentic (WE: with prior experience) and fictional experience (NE: no prior experience). To investigate deception in non-experienced events, the subjects were given stimuli in a mock interview scenario that induced them to fabricate lies. To analyze the data, frequency domain network and connectivity analysis was performed in the source space in order to provide a more systematic level understanding of deception during SDP. This study reveals several groups of neuronal generators underlying both the instructed lying (IL) and the instructed truth-telling (IT) conditions for both tasks during the SDP. Despite the similarities existed in these group components, significant differences were found in the intra- and inter-group connectivity between the IL and IT conditions in either task. Additionally, the response time was found to be positively correlated with the clustering coefficient of the inferior frontal gyrus (44R) in the WE-IL condition and positively correlated with the clustering coefficient of the precuneus (7L) and the angular gyrus (39R) in the WE-IT condition. However, the response time was found to be marginally negatively correlated with the clustering coefficient of the secondary auditory cortex (42L) in the NE-IL condition and negatively correlated with the clustering coefficient of the somatosensory association cortex (5L, R) in the NE-IT condition. Therefore, these results provide complementary and intuitive evidence for the differences between the IL and IT conditions in SDP for two types of deception tasks, thus elucidating the electrophysiological mechanisms

  14. Comparison of the Internal Dynamics of Metalloproteases Provides New Insights on Their Function and Evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique F Carvalho

    Full Text Available Metalloproteases have evolved in a vast number of biological systems, being one of the most diverse types of proteases and presenting a wide range of folds and catalytic metal ions. Given the increasing understanding of protein internal dynamics and its role in enzyme function, we are interested in assessing how the structural heterogeneity of metalloproteases translates into their dynamics. Therefore, the dynamical profile of the clan MA type protein thermolysin, derived from an Elastic Network Model of protein structure, was evaluated against those obtained from a set of experimental structures and molecular dynamics simulation trajectories. A close correspondence was obtained between modes derived from the coarse-grained model and the subspace of functionally-relevant motions observed experimentally, the later being shown to be encoded in the internal dynamics of the protein. This prompted the use of dynamics-based comparison methods that employ such coarse-grained models in a representative set of clan members, allowing for its quantitative description in terms of structural and dynamical variability. Although members show structural similarity, they nonetheless present distinct dynamical profiles, with no apparent correlation between structural and dynamical relatedness. However, previously unnoticed dynamical similarity was found between the relevant members Carboxypeptidase Pfu, Leishmanolysin, and Botulinum Neurotoxin Type A, despite sharing no structural similarity. Inspection of the respective alignments shows that dynamical similarity has a functional basis, namely the need for maintaining proper intermolecular interactions with the respective substrates. These results suggest that distinct selective pressure mechanisms act on metalloproteases at structural and dynamical levels through the course of their evolution. This work shows how new insights on metalloprotease function and evolution can be assessed with comparison schemes that

  15. Extended Research on Detection of Deception Using Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Center for Human Reliability Studies


    A system that captures and analyzes volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from skin surfaces may offer a viable alternative method to the polygraph instrument currently in use for detecting deception in U.S. government settings. Like the involuntary autonomic central nervous system response data gathered during polygraph testing, VOC emissions from the skin may provide data that can be used to detect stress caused by deception. Detecting VOCs, then, may present a noninvasive, non-intrusive method for observing, recording, and quantifying evidence of stress or emotional change.

  16. Functional Nanostructures and Dynamic Materials through Self-Organization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jean-Marie; LEHN


    1 Results Supramolecular chemistry is actively exploring systems undergoing self-organization.The design of molecular information controlled,"programmed"and functional self-organizing systems provides an original approach to nanoscience and nanotechnology.The spontaneous but controlled generation of well-defined,functional molecular and supramolecular architectures of nanometric size through self-organization represents a means of performing programmed engineering and processing of functional nanostruct...

  17. Local influences of geothermal anomalies on permafrost distribution in an active volcanic island (Deception Island, Antarctica) (United States)

    Goyanes, G.; Vieira, G.; Caselli, A.; Cardoso, M.; Marmy, A.; Santos, F.; Bernardo, I.; Hauck, C.


    This study aims at understanding the spatial distribution and characteristics of the frozen and unfrozen terrain in an alluvial fan on Deception Island, which is an active strato-volcano located in the Bransfield Strait (South Shetland Islands) with recent eruptions in 1967, 1969 and 1970. The alluvial fan is dominated by debris-flow, run-off and rock fall processes and permafrost occurs in several parts in the vicinity of anomalous geothermal heat flux. The aim is to assess the ways volcanic activity controls permafrost development and associated geomorphic dynamics using shallow subsurface, surface and air temperature measurements as well as thaw depth and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) surveys. Results show a temperature increase with depth in the lower part of the fan reaching 13 °C at 0.80 m depth, without the presence of permafrost. The shallow borehole located at this site showed a stable thermal stratification all year-round, with only the upper 0.20 m reacting to meteorological forcing. In the upper part of the alluvial fan and debris cones, c. 100 m from the coast, frozen ground is present at c. 0.70 m depth. There, the shallow borehole shows a good coupling with air temperatures and the thermal regime favours the presence of permafrost. ERT shows the lowest resistivity values in the lower part of the alluvial fan and a highly resistivity zone in the upper sector of the fan and in the debris cones. These large variations in resistivity mark the presence of a saline water wedge from the sea into the fan, reaching frozen ground conditions about 100 m inland. It can be shown that the volcano-hydrothermal activity only inhibits frost development very locally, with frozen ground conditions occurring about 100 m away.

  18. Evidence for progenitor–derivative speciation in sexually deceptive orchids (United States)

    Schlüter, Philipp M.; Ruas, Paulo M.; Kohl, Gudrun; Ruas, Claudete F.; Stuessy, Tod F.; Paulus, Hannes F.


    Background and Aims Sexually deceptive orchids of the genus Ophrys use mimicry of pollinator females to attract specific pollinators. Pollinator shifts may drive speciation in Ophrys, since novel pollinators may in principle act as isolating factors immediately. It is thus possible that evolution of novel species occurs rapidly and with a progenitor–derivative pattern. The aims of this study are to compare genetic structure and diversity among widespread and geographically restricted Ophrys taxa, to test whether genetic structure is associated with specific pollinators, and to investigate whether any widespread species may have acted as a progenitor for the evolution of more restricted taxa. Methods Genetic differentiation and diversity were investigated in O. leucadica and O. cinereophila, the two taxa of the Ophrys fusca sensu lato complex widespread in the Aegean, and three geographically restricted taxa from Rhodes, O. attaviria, O. parvula and O. persephonae, all differing in their specific pollinators. This was done using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) DNA fingerprinting, and sequencing of the low-copy nuclear gene LEAFY (LFY). Key Results All taxa were found to be separate genetic entities, with O. leucadica forming two geographic groups from the west and east of the Aegean. Genetic structure was significantly shaped by pollinators and geography, and comparison of sequence and AFLP data revealed ancestral polymorphisms shared among several taxa. Among the sampled taxa, O. leucadica harbours the greatest genetic differentiation and geographic structure, and the highest genetic diversity. Part of the genome of O. parvula, endemic to Rhodes, may be derived from O. leucadica. Conclusions Pollinators probably influence the genetic structure of the investigated Ophrys species. The genetic pattern identified is consistent with O. leucadica being the oldest of the sampled taxa, making O. leucadica a candidate progenitor species from which more

  19. Dynamics of homegarden structure and function in Kerala, India


    PEYRE, A.; Guidal, A.; Wiersum, K.F.; Bongers, F.J.J.M.


    Homegardens in Kerala have long been important multi-purpose agroforestry systems that combine ecological and socioeconomical sustainability. However, traditional homegardens are subject to different conversion processes linked to socioeconomic changes. These dynamics were studied in a survey of 30 homegardens. On the basis of a cluster analysis of tree/shrub species density and subsequent further grouping using homegarden size as additional characteristic, six homegarden types were different...

  20. Simulation study and function analysis of the dynamic aortic valve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Dongdong; BAI Jing


    The dynamic aortic valve (DAV) is a new left ventricular assist device, a micro-axial blood pump implemented at the position of the aortic valve, pumping blood from the left ventricle into the aortic artery. The present dynamic aortic valve operates at 7 different rotation speeds, ranging from 3000 r/min (speed 1) to 9000 r/min (speed 7). Because in vivo experiments need a lot of live animals and take a long period of time, modeling and simulation have been widely used to simulate and analyze hydra-dynamic property of the DAV and its assisting effects. With the measurements from the mock circulatory loop, a mathematic model of the DAV is established and embedded into the previously developed canine circulatory system. Using this model, the effect of the DAV on the failing heart at each rotation speed level is investigated. The vital cardiac variables are computed and compared with in vivo experimental results, which are in good agreement with an acceptable difference mostly 15 %. The establishment of the DAV model and its simulation are useful for further improvement of the DAV device.

  1. Dynamic Colour Possibilities and Functional Properties of Thermochromic Printing Inks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahela Kulcar


    Full Text Available Thermochromic printing inks change their colour regarding the change in temperature and they are one of the major groups of colour-changing inks. One of the most frequently used thermochromic material in printing inks are leuco dyes. The colour of thermochromic prints is dynamic, it is not just temperature-dependent, but it also depends on thermal history. The effect is described by colour hysteresis. This paper aims at discussing general aspects of thermochromic inks, dynamic colorimetric properties of leuco dye-based thermochromic inks, their stability and principle of variable-temperature colour measurement. Thermochromic material is protected in round-shaped capsules. They are much larger than pigments in conventional inks. The polymer envelopes of pigment capsules are more stable against oxidation than the binder. If these envelopes are damaged, the dynamic colour is irreversibly lost. Our aim is to analyse the colorimetric properties of several reversible screen-printed UV-curing leuco dye thermochromic inks with different activation temperatures printed on paper. A small analysis of irreversible thermochromic inks will be presented for comparison with reversible thermochromic inks. Moreover, so as to show interesting possibilities, a combination of different inks was made, an irreversible thermochromic ink was printed on top of the red and blue reversible thermochromic inks. Special attention was given to the characterization of colour hysteresis and the meaning of activation temperature.

  2. Poisson structure and Casimir functions for a noncentral dynamical system in four-dimensional phase space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lou Zhi-Mei; Chen Zi-Dong; Wang Wen-Long


    In this paper, we express the differential equations of a noncentral dynamical system in Ermakov formalism to obtain the Ermakov invariant. In term of Hamiltonian theories and using the Ermakov invariant as the Hamiltonian,the Poisson structure of a noncentral dynamical system in four-dimensional phase space are constructed. The result indicates that the Poisson structure is degenerate and the noncentral dynamical system possesses four invariants: the Hamiltonian, the Ermakov invariant and two Casimir functions.

  3. Dynamic Function of the Alkyl Spacer of Acetogenins as Potent Inhibitors of Mitochondrial Complex I. A Molecular Dynamics Simulation Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abel Bombasaro, Jose; Barrera Guisasola, Exequiel Ernesto; Masman, Marcelo Fabricio; Angel Zamora, Miguel; Maria Rodriguez, Ana


    Acetogenins are among the most potent of the known inhibitors of complex I (NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase) in mitochondrial electron transfer system. Elucidation of the dynamic function of the alkyl spacer linking the two toxophores (i.e., the hydroxylated tetrahydrofuran and the gamma-lactone

  4. Differences in dynamic and static functional connectivity between young and elderly healthy adults. (United States)

    Park, Ji Eun; Jung, Seung Chai; Ryu, Kyeoung Hwa; Oh, Joo Young; Kim, Ho Sung; Choi, Choong-Gon; Kim, Sang Joon; Shim, Woo Hyun


    Brain connectivity is highly dynamic, but functional connectivity (FC) studies using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) assume it to be static. This study assessed differences in dynamic FC between young healthy adults (YH) and elderly healthy adults (EH) compared to static FC. Using rs-fMRI data from 12 YH and 31 EH, FC was assessed in six functional regions (subcortical, auditory [AUD], sensorimotor [SM], visuospatial [VS], cognitive control [CC], and default mode network [DMN]). Static FC was calculated as Fisher's z-transformed correlation coefficient. The sliding time window correlation (window size 30 s, step size 3 s) was applied for dynamic FC, and the standard deviation across sliding windows was calculated. Differences in static and dynamic FC between EH and YH were calculated and compared by region. EH showed decreased static FC in the subcortical, CC, and DMN regions (FDR corrected p = 0.0013; 74 regions), with no regions showing static FC higher than that in YH. EH showed increased dynamic FC in the subcortical, CC, and DMN regions, whereas decreased dynamic FC in CC and DMN regions (p static and dynamic FC. Dynamic FC exhibited differences from static FC in EH and YH, mainly in regions involved in cognitive control and the DMN. Altered dynamic FC demonstrated both qualitatively and quantitatively distinct patterns of transient brain activity and needs to be studied as an imaging biomarker in the aging process.


    Impacts of soil tillage and cover crops on soil carbon (C) dynamics and microbiological function were investigated in a vineyard grown in California’s Mediterranean climate. We 1) compared soil organic matter (SOM), C dynamics and microbiological activity of two cover crops [Trios 102 (Triticale x T...

  6. Transfer function analysis of dynamic cerebral autoregulation in humans (United States)

    Zhang, R.; Zuckerman, J. H.; Giller, C. A.; Levine, B. D.; Blomqvist, C. G. (Principal Investigator)


    To test the hypothesis that spontaneous changes in cerebral blood flow are primarily induced by changes in arterial pressure and that cerebral autoregulation is a frequency-dependent phenomenon, we measured mean arterial pressure in the finger and mean blood flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery (VMCA) during supine rest and acute hypotension induced by thigh cuff deflation in 10 healthy subjects. Transfer function gain, phase, and coherence function between changes in arterial pressure and VMCA were estimated using the Welch method. The impulse response function, calculated as the inverse Fourier transform of this transfer function, enabled the calculation of transient changes in VMCA during acute hypotension, which was compared with the directly measured change in VMCA during thigh cuff deflation. Beat-to-beat changes in VMCA occurred simultaneously with changes in arterial pressure, and the autospectrum of VMCA showed characteristics similar to arterial pressure. Transfer gain increased substantially with increasing frequency from 0.07 to 0.20 Hz in association with a gradual decrease in phase. The coherence function was > 0.5 in the frequency range of 0.07-0.30 Hz and transfer function with the quality of a high-pass filter in the frequency range of 0.07-0.30 Hz.

  7. Riemann zeta function from wave-packet dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mack, R.; Dahl, Jens Peder; Moya-Cessa, H.


    is governed by the temperature of the thermal phase state and tau is proportional to t. We use the JWKB method to solve the inverse spectral problem for a general logarithmic energy spectrum; that is, we determine a family of potentials giving rise to such a spectrum. For large distances, all potentials...... index of JWKB. We compare and contrast exact and approximate eigenvalues of purely logarithmic potentials. Moreover, we use a numerical method to find a potential which leads to exact logarithmic eigenvalues. We discuss possible realizations of Riemann zeta wave-packet dynamics using cold atoms...

  8. Vacuum energy as a c-function for theories with dynamically generated masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar, A.C., E-mail: [Federal University of ABC, CCNH, Rua Santa Adelia 166, 09210-170, Santo Andre (Brazil); Doff, A. [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana - UTFPR, COMAT, Via do Conhecimento Km 01, 85503-390, Pato Branco, PR (Brazil); Natale, A.A. [Instituto de Fisica Teorica, UNESP - Universidade Estadual Paulista, Rua Dr. Bento T. Ferraz, 271, Bloco II, 01140-070, Sao Paulo (Brazil)


    We argue that in asymptotically free non-Abelian gauge theories possessing the phenomenon of dynamical mass generation the {beta} function is negative up to a value of the coupling constant that corresponds to a non-trivial fixed point, in agreement with recent AdS/QCD analysis. This fixed point happens at the minimum of the vacuum energy ({Omega}), which, as a characteristic of theories with dynamical mass generation, has the properties of a c-function.

  9. Modeling dynamic functional information flows on large-scale brain networks. (United States)

    Lv, Peili; Guo, Lei; Hu, Xintao; Li, Xiang; Jin, Changfeng; Han, Junwei; Li, Lingjiang; Liu, Tianming


    Growing evidence from the functional neuroimaging field suggests that human brain functions are realized via dynamic functional interactions on large-scale structural networks. Even in resting state, functional brain networks exhibit remarkable temporal dynamics. However, it has been rarely explored to computationally model such dynamic functional information flows on large-scale brain networks. In this paper, we present a novel computational framework to explore this problem using multimodal resting state fMRI (R-fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data. Basically, recent literature reports including our own studies have demonstrated that the resting state brain networks dynamically undergo a set of distinct brain states. Within each quasi-stable state, functional information flows from one set of structural brain nodes to other sets of nodes, which is analogous to the message package routing on the Internet from the source node to the destination. Therefore, based on the large-scale structural brain networks constructed from DTI data, we employ a dynamic programming strategy to infer functional information transition routines on structural networks, based on which hub routers that most frequently participate in these routines are identified. It is interesting that a majority of those hub routers are located within the default mode network (DMN), revealing a possible mechanism of the critical functional hub roles played by the DMN in resting state. Also, application of this framework on a post trauma stress disorder (PTSD) dataset demonstrated interesting difference in hub router distributions between PTSD patients and healthy controls.

  10. Season physical functioning dynamic of men with different physical condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prushva O.B.


    Full Text Available Purpose: study season peculiarities of physical functioning of men with different physical condition. Material: in the research 53 men of 41-55 years’ age without chronic disease, who practiced healthy life style, participated. It was assessed: daily physical functioning of different intensity with the help of bio-register BASIS B1; body mass index; adaptation potential of Bayevskiy. Results: we determined that men with normal adaptation potential have less quantity of highly intensive steps than men with excessively tensed adaptation potential of cardio-vascular system. Men with tensed adaptation potential have less expressed season changes in physical functioning. Conclusions: We found the following optimal correlations: total quantity of steps per day; quantity of steps with average intensity (80-86 steps per min.; total run steps of high intensity (140-145 steps per min.; quantity of low intensity steps (8-10 steps per min..

  11. The nucleon wave function in light-front dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Karmanov, V A


    The general spin structure of the relativistic nucleon wave function in the $3q$-model is found. It contains 16 spin components, in contrast to 8 ones known previously, since in a many-body system the parity conservation does not reduce the number of the components. The explicitly covariant form of the wave function automatically takes into account the relativistic spin rotations, without introducing any Melosh rotation matrices. It also reduces the calculations to the standard routine of the Dirac matrices and of the trace techniques. In examples of the proton magnetic moment and of the axial nucleon form factor, with a particular wave function, we reproduce the results of the standard approach. Calculations beyond the standard assumptions give different results.

  12. Strong semiclassical approximation of Wigner functions for the Hartree dynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Athanassoulis, Agissilaos


    We consider the Wigner equation corresponding to a nonlinear Schrödinger evolution of the Hartree type in the semiclassical limit h → 0. Under appropriate assumptions on the initial data and the interaction potential, we show that the Wigner function is close in L 2 to its weak limit, the solution of the corresponding Vlasov equation. The strong approximation allows the construction of semiclassical operator-valued observables, approximating their quantum counterparts in Hilbert-Schmidt topology. The proof makes use of a pointwise-positivity manipulation, which seems necessary in working with the L 2 norm and the precise form of the nonlinearity. We employ the Husimi function as a pivot between the classical probability density and the Wigner function, which - as it is well known - is not pointwise positive in general.

  13. deFUME: Dynamic exploration of functional metagenomic sequencing data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Helm, Eric; Geertz-Hansen, Henrik Marcus; Genee, Hans Jasper


    Functional metagenomic selections represent a powerful technique that is widely applied for identification of novel genes from complex metagenomic sources. However, whereas hundreds to thousands of clones can be easily generated and sequenced over a few days of experiments, analyzing the data...... to a comprehensive visual data overview that facilitates effortless inspection of gene function, clustering and distribution. The webserver is available at the source code is distributed at

  14. Quantum power functional theory for many-body dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Matthias, E-mail: [Theoretische Physik II, Physikalisches Institut, Universität Bayreuth, D-95440 Bayreuth (Germany)


    We construct a one-body variational theory for the time evolution of nonrelativistic quantum many-body systems. The position- and time-dependent one-body density, particle current, and time derivative of the current act as three variational fields. The generating (power rate) functional is minimized by the true current time derivative. The corresponding Euler-Lagrange equation, together with the continuity equation for the density, forms a closed set of one-body equations of motion. Space- and time-nonlocal one-body forces are generated by the superadiabatic contribution to the functional. The theory applies to many-electron systems.

  15. Deception Undermines the Stability of Cooperation in Games of Indirect Reciprocity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szabolcs Számadó

    Full Text Available Indirect reciprocity is often claimed as one of the key mechanisms of human cooperation. It works only if there is a reputational score keeping and each individual can inform with high probability which other individuals were good or bad in the previous round. Gossip is often proposed as a mechanism that can maintain such coherence of reputations in the face of errors of transmission. Random errors, however, are not the only source of uncertainty in such situations. The possibility of deceptive communication, where the signallers aim to misinform the receiver cannot be excluded. While there is plenty of evidence for deceptive communication in humans the possibility of deception is not yet incorporated into models of indirect reciprocity. Here we show that when deceptive strategies are allowed in the population it will cause the collapse of the coherence of reputations and thus in turn it results the collapse of cooperation. This collapse is independent of the norms and the cost and benefit values. It is due to the fact that there is no selection for honest communication in the framework of indirect reciprocity. It follows that indirect reciprocity can be only proposed plausibly as a mechanism of human cooperation if additional mechanisms are specified in the model that maintains honesty.

  16. A truth that's told with bad intent: An ERP study of deception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carrion, R.E.; Keenan, J.P.; Sebanz, N.


    Human social cognition critically relies on the ability to deceive others. However, the cognitive and neural underpinnings of deception are still poorly understood. Why does lying place increased demands on cognitive control? The present study investigated whether cognitive control processes during

  17. 48 CFR 1652.203-70 - Misleading, deceptive, or unfair advertising. (United States)


    ... unfair advertising. 1652.203-70 Section 1652.203-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF... CLAUSES Texts of FEHBP Clauses 1652.203-70 Misleading, deceptive, or unfair advertising. As prescribed in... Unfair Advertising (JAN 1991) (a) The Carrier agrees that any advertising material, including...

  18. Destination memory and deception: when I lie to Barack Obama about the moon. (United States)

    Haj, Mohamad El; Saloppé, Xavier; Nandrino, Jean Louis


    This study investigates whether deceivers demonstrate high memory of the person to whom lies have been told (i.e., high destination memory). Participants were asked to tell true information (e.g., the heart is a vital organ) and false information (e.g., the moon is bigger than the sun) to pictures of famous people (e.g., Barack Obama) and, in a subsequent recognition test, they had to remember to whom each type of information had previously been told. Participants were also assessed on a deception scale to divide them into two populations (i.e., those with high vs. those with low deception). Participants with high tendency to deceive demonstrated similar destination memory for both false and true information, whereas those with low deception demonstrated higher destination memory for lies than for true information. Individuals with a high tendency to deceive seem to keep track of the destination of both true information and lies to be consistent in their future social interactions, and thus to avoid discovery of their deception. However, the inconsistency between deceiving and the moral standard of individuals with a low tendency to deceive may result in high destination memory in these individuals.

  19. 16 CFR 424.1 - Unfair or deceptive acts or practices. (United States)


    ... advertisement, if those stores do not have the advertised products in stock and readily available to customers... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Unfair or deceptive acts or practices. 424.1 Section 424.1 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES RETAIL FOOD...

  20. Anti Deceptive Jamming for MIMO Radar Based on Data Fusion and Notch Filtering (in English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wei


    Full Text Available Deceptive jamming can get vivid jamming effect on Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO radar with very low power. In order to remove those deceptive targets, one method based on signal jittering, data fusion and fake target notch filtering is proposed in this paper. Multiple orthogonal binary phase codes are used as transmitted signals, before each time of transmission each transmitter will choose one signal from all the orthogonal codes, images of echoes of all kinds of codes are detected with constant false alarm rate. Targets detected in images of echoes of all different signals are fused to determine to be real or not, fake targets will be nulled by notch filtering in the image, therefore, weak real targets can be detected in the next round of detection, in this way fusion and notch filtering are implemented again and again until no fake targets exist. The effect of deceptive jamming on radar will be removed completely. Simulation result testifies that the method based on signal jittering, data fusion and notch filtering can help MIMO radar remove deceptive jamming completely.

  1. DeceptiBike: Assessing the Perception of Speed Deception in a Virtual Reality Training Bike System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löchtefeld, Markus; Krüger, Antonio; Gellersen, Hans


    investigate the performance of participants exposed to speed deception in virtual reality environments controlled by a training bike. With DeceptiBike we created a bike simulator that allows to manipulate speed perception via visual- and haptic cues. Our results show that we effectively can increase the users...

  2. Advances in seismic monitoring at Deception Island volcano (Antarctica since the International Polar Year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Carmona


    Full Text Available Deception Island is an active volcano located in the south Shetland Islands, Antarctica. It constitutes a natural laboratory to test geophysical instruments in extreme conditions, since they have to endure not only the Antarctic climate but also the volcanic environment. Deception is one of the most visited places in Antarctica, both by scientists and tourists, which emphasize the importance of volcano monitoring. Seismic monitoring has been going on since 1986 during austral summer surveys. The recorded data include volcano-tectonic earthquakes, long-period events and volcanic tremor, among others. The level of seismicity ranges from quiet periods to seismic crises (e.g. 1992-1993, 1999. Our group has been involved in volcano monitoring at Deception Island since 1994. Based on this experience, in recent years we have made the most of the opportunities of the International Polar Year 2007-2008 to introduce advances in seismic monitoring along four lines: (1 the improvement of the seismic network installed for seismic monitoring during the summer surveys; (2 the development and improvement of seismic arrays for the detection and characterization of seismo-volcanic signals; (3 the design of automated event recognition tools, to simplify the process of data interpretation; and (4 the deployment of permanent seismic stations. These advances help us to obtain more data of better quality, and therefore to improve our interpretation of the seismo-volcanic activity at Deception Island, which is a crucial step in terms of hazards assessment.

  3. The use of the truth and deception in dementia care amongst general hospital staff. (United States)

    Turner, Alex; Eccles, Fiona; Keady, John; Simpson, Jane; Elvish, Ruth


    Deceptive practice has been shown to be endemic in long-term care settings. However, little is known about the use of deception in dementia care within general hospitals and staff attitudes towards this practice. This study aimed to develop understanding of the experiences of general hospital staff and explore their decision-making processes when choosing whether to tell the truth or deceive a patient with dementia. This qualitative study drew upon a constructivist grounded theory approach to analyse data gathered from semi-structured interviews with a range of hospital staff. A model, grounded in participant experiences, was developed to describe their decision-making processes. Participants identified particular triggers that set in motion the need for a response. Various mediating factors influenced how staff chose to respond to these triggers. Overall, hospital staff were reluctant to either tell the truth or to lie to patients. Instead, 'distracting' or 'passing the buck' to another member of staff were preferred strategies. The issue of how truth and deception are defined was identified. The study adds to the growing research regarding the use of lies in dementia care by considering the decision-making processes for staff in general hospitals. Various factors influence how staff choose to respond to patients with dementia and whether deception is used. Similarities and differences with long-term dementia care settings are discussed. Clinical and research implications include: opening up the topic for further debate, implementing staff training about communication and evaluating the impact of these processes.

  4. 75 FR 37435 - Fact Finding Investigation No. 27; Potentially Unlawful, Unfair or Deceptive Ocean Transportation... (United States)


    ... Fact Finding Investigation No. 27; Potentially Unlawful, Unfair or Deceptive Ocean Transportation... will use the information obtained in this investigation and recommendations of the Fact-Finding Officer... property in the oceanborne foreign commerce of the United States, in order to gather facts and establish a...

  5. Worthless donations: male deception and female counter play in a nuptial gift-giving spider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albo Maria J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In nuptial gift-giving species, benefits of acquiring a mate may select for male deception by donation of worthless gifts. We investigated the effect of worthless gifts on mating success in the spider Pisaura mirabilis. Males usually offer an insect prey wrapped in silk; however, worthless gifts containing inedible items are reported. We tested male mating success in the following experimental groups: protein enriched fly gift (PG, regular fly gift (FG, worthless gift (WG, or no gift (NG. Results Males that offered worthless gifts acquired similar mating success as males offering nutritional gifts, while males with no gift experienced reduced mating success. The results suggest that strong selection on the nuptial gift-giving trait facilitates male deception by donation of worthless gifts. Females terminated matings faster when males offered worthless donations; this demonstrate a cost of deception for the males as shorter matings lead to reduced sperm transfer and thus give the deceiving males a disadvantage in sperm competition. Conclusion We propose that the gift wrapping trait allows males to exploit female foraging preference by disguising the gift content thus deceiving females into mating without acquiring direct benefits. Female preference for a genuine prey gift combined with control over mating duration, however, counteracts the male deception.

  6. "It's not my fault!": Investigating the effects of the deceptive behaviour of a humanoid robot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnen, L.; Coenen, J.; Grzyb, B.J.


    We investigated the effects of the deceptive behaviour of a robot, hypothesising that a lying robot would be perceived as more intelligent and human-like, but less trust-worthy than a non-lying robot. The participants engaged in a collaborative task with the non-lying and lying humanoid robot NAO.

  7. REVIEW: Previous Deception detection methods and New proposed method using independent component analysis of EEG signals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshni D. Tale


    Full Text Available Deception detection has important legal and medical applications, but the reliability of methods for the differentiation between truthful and deceptive responses is still limited. Deception detection can be more accurately achieved by measuring the brain correlates of lying in an individual. For the evaluation of the method, several participants were gone through the designed concealed information test paradigm and their respective brain signals were recorded. The electroencephalogram (EEG signals were recorded and separated into many single trials. To enhance signal noise ratio (SNR of P3 components, the independent component analysis (ICA method was adopted to separate non-P3 (i.e. artifacts and P3 components from every single trial. Then the P3 waveforms with high SNR were reconstructed. And then group of features based on time, frequency, and amplitude were extracted from the reconstructed P3 waveforms. Finally, two different class of feature samples were used to train a support vector machine (SVM classifier because it has higher performance compared with several other classifiers. The method presented in this paper improves the efficiency of CIT and deception detection in comparison with previous reported methods.

  8. Multivariate Approaches for Exploring the Evaluation of Deception in Television Advertising. (United States)

    Permut, Steven Eli

    The objective of this study was to explore the semantic structure used by subjects in assessing (evaluating) a series of eight television commercials previously (but unofficially) rated for deceptiveness by FTC attorneys. Five local respondent groups were used: 158 undergraduate students enrolled in an introductory advertising course, 175…

  9. On Lying and Being Lied to: A Linguistic Analysis of Deception in Computer-Mediated Communication (United States)

    Hancock, Jeffrey T.; Curry, Lauren E.; Goorha, Saurabh; Woodworth, Michael


    This study investigated changes in both the liar's and the conversational partner's linguistic style across truthful and deceptive dyadic communication in a synchronous text-based setting. An analysis of 242 transcripts revealed that liars produced more words, more sense-based words (e.g., seeing, touching), and used fewer self-oriented but more…

  10. Children's Knowledge of Deceptive Gaze Cues and Its Relation to Their Actual Lying Behavior (United States)

    McCarthy, Anjanie; Lee, Kang


    Eye gaze plays a pivotal role during communication. When interacting deceptively, it is commonly believed that the deceiver will break eye contact and look downward. We examined whether children's gaze behavior when lying is consistent with this belief. In our study, 7- to 15-year-olds and adults answered questions truthfully ("Truth" questions)…

  11. 75 FR 68560 - Prohibition Against Fraud, Manipulation, and Deception in Connection With Security-Based Swaps (United States)


    ... rate cap; (IV) a rate collar; (V) a cross-currency rate swap; (VI) a basis swap; (VII) a currency swap... With Security-Based Swaps Agency: Securities and Exchange Commission. Action: Proposed rule. Summary... deception in connection with the offer, purchase or sale of any security-based swap, the exercise of...

  12. Cry me a river: identifying the behavioral consequences of extremely high-stakes interpersonal deception. (United States)

    Ten Brinke, Leanne; Porter, Stephen


    Deception evolved as a fundamental aspect of human social interaction. Numerous studies have examined behavioral cues to deception, but most have involved inconsequential lies and unmotivated liars in a laboratory context. We conducted the most comprehensive study to date of the behavioral consequences of extremely high-stakes, real-life deception--relative to comparable real-life sincere displays--via 3 communication channels: speech, body language, and emotional facial expressions. Televised footage of a large international sample of individuals (N = 78) emotionally pleading to the public for the return of a missing relative was meticulously coded frame-by-frame (30 frames/s for a total of 74,731 frames). About half of the pleaders eventually were convicted of killing the missing person on the basis of overwhelming evidence. Failed attempts to simulate sadness and leakage of happiness revealed deceptive pleaders' covert emotions. Liars used fewer words but more tentative words than truth-tellers, likely relating to increased cognitive load and psychological distancing. Further, each of these cues explained unique variance in predicting pleader sincerity.

  13. Using the Barnum Effect to Teach about Ethics and Deception in Research. (United States)

    Beins, Bernard C.


    Describes an instructional activity in which students are given false data in a research methods class. Finds that all students accepted the data but that seniors were more skeptical than sophomores or juniors. Determines that students agree that the approach helped them learn about the costs and benefits of deception in research. (CFR)

  14. Tactical deception to hide sexual behaviour : macaques use distance, not visibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overduin-de Vries, A. M.; Spruijt, B. M.; de Vries, H.; Sterck, E. H. M.


    Although tactical deception (TD) may be employed to hide sexual behaviour, there is as yet no firm evidence for it. Hiding may be guided by cognitive mechanisms consistent with either no, low or high level TD, such as exploiting male peripheral positions (no TD), creating distance (TD level 1) or hi

  15. Isolation and characterization of Campylobacter spp. from Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella) at Deception Island, Antarctica. (United States)

    García-Peña, F J; Pérez-Boto, D; Jiménez, C; San Miguel, E; Echeita, A; Rengifo-Herrera, C; García-Párraga, D; Ortega-Mora, L M; Pedraza-Díaz, S


    The presence of Campylobacter spp. was investigated in 41 Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella) and 9 Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii) at Deception Island, Antarctica. Infections were encountered in six Antarctic fur seals. The isolates, the first reported from marine mammals in the Antarctic region, were identified as Campylobacter insulaenigrae and Campylobacter lari.

  16. Organizational dynamics, functions, and pathobiological dysfunctions of neurofilaments. (United States)

    Shea, Thomas B; Chan, Walter K-H; Kushkuley, Jacob; Lee, Sangmook


    Neurofilament phosphorylation has long been considered to regulate their axonal transport rate, and in doing so it provides stability to mature axons. We evaluate the collective evidence to date regarding how neurofilament C-terminal phosphorylation may regulate axonal transport. We present a few suggestions for further experimentation in this area, and expand upon previous models for axonal NF dynamics. We present evidence that the NFs that display extended residence along axons are critically dependent upon the surrounding microtubules, and that simultaneous interaction with multiple microtubule motors provides the architectural force that regulates their distribution. Finally, we address how C-terminal phosphorylation is regionally and temporally regulated by a balance of kinase and phosphatase activities, and how misregulation of this balance might contribute to motor neuron disease.

  17. Measuring Dynamic Kidney Function in an Undergraduate Physiology Laboratory (United States)

    Medler, Scott; Harrington, Frederick


    Most undergraduate physiology laboratories are very limited in how they treat renal physiology. It is common to find teaching laboratories equipped with the capability for high-resolution digital recordings of physiological functions (muscle twitches, ECG, action potentials, respiratory responses, etc.), but most urinary laboratories still rely on…

  18. Analysis of dynamic pulmonary functions in air conditioned work environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anu T. E.


    Conclusions: The results of the study indicate that the subjects working in AC environment for a long duration are prone to develop restrictive lung diseases. Hence, study concludes that periodic pulmonary function assessment should be made mandatory. Further, regular maintenance of ACs is also recommended. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(7.000: 2661-2664

  19. Assessing Sensorimotor Function Following ISS with Computerized Dynamic Posturography. (United States)

    Wood, Scott J; Paloski, William H; Clark, Jonathan B


    Postflight postural ataxia reflects both the control strategies adopted for movement in microgravity and the direct effects of deconditioning. Computerized dynamic posturography (CDP) has been used during the first decade of the International Space Station (ISS) expeditions to quantify the initial postflight decrements and recovery of postural stability. The CDP data were obtained on 37 crewmembers as part of their pre- and postflight medical examinations. Sensory organization tests evaluated the ability to make effective use of (or suppress inappropriate) visual, vestibular, and somatosensory information for balance control. This report focuses on eyes closed conditions with either a fixed or sway-referenced base of support, with the head erect or during pitch-head tilts (± 20° at 0.33 Hz). Equilibrium scores were derived from peak-to-peak anterior-posterior sway. Motor-control tests were also used to evaluate a crewmember's ability to automatically recover from unexpected support-surface perturbations. The standard Romberg condition was the least sensitive. Dynamic head tilts led to increased incidence of falls and revealed significantly longer recovery than head-erect conditions. Improvements in postflight postural performance during the later expeditions may be attributable to higher preflight baselines and/or advanced exercise capabilities aboard the ISS. The diagnostic assessment of postural instability is more pronounced during unstable-support conditions requiring active head movements. In addition to supporting return-to-duty decisions by flight surgeons, the CDP provides a standardized sensorimotor measure that can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of countermeasures designed to either minimize deconditioning on orbit or promote reconditioning upon return to Earth.

  20. Pipeline for inferring protein function from dynamics using coarse-grained molecular mechanics forcefield. (United States)

    Bhadra, Pratiti; Pal, Debnath


    Dynamics is integral to the function of proteins, yet the use of molecular dynamics (MD) simulation as a technique remains under-explored for molecular function inference. This is more important in the context of genomics projects where novel proteins are determined with limited evolutionary information. Recently we developed a method to match the query protein's flexible segments to infer function using a novel approach combining analysis of residue fluctuation-graphs and auto-correlation vectors derived from coarse-grained (CG) MD trajectory. The method was validated on a diverse dataset with sequence identity between proteins as low as 3%, with high function-recall rates. Here we share its implementation as a publicly accessible web service, named DynFunc (Dynamics Match for Function) to query protein function from ≥1 µs long CG dynamics trajectory information of protein subunits. Users are provided with the custom-developed coarse-grained molecular mechanics (CGMM) forcefield to generate the MD trajectories for their protein of interest. On upload of trajectory information, the DynFunc web server identifies specific flexible regions of the protein linked to putative molecular function. Our unique application does not use evolutionary information to infer molecular function from MD information and can, therefore, work for all proteins, including moonlighting and the novel ones, whenever structural information is available. Our pipeline is expected to be of utility to all structural biologists working with novel proteins and interested in moonlighting functions.

  1. Observations of volcanic earthquakes and tremor at Deception Island - Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Morales


    Full Text Available Deception Island - South Shetlands, Antarctica is site of active volcanism. Since 1988 field surveys have been carried out with the aim of seismic monitoring, and in 1994 a seismic array was set up near the site of the Spanish summer base in order to better constrain the source location and spectral properties of the seismic events related to the volcanic activity. The array was maintained during the Antarctic summer of 1995 and the last field survey was carried out in 1996. Data show the existence of three different groups (or families of seismic events: 1 long period events, with a quasi-monochromatic spectral content (1-3 Hz peak frequency and a duration of more than 50 s, often occurring in small swarms lasting from several minutes to some day; 2 volcanic tremor, with a spectral shape similar to the long period events but with a duration of several minutes (2-10; 3 hybrid events, with a waveform characterised by the presence of a high frequency initial phase, followed by a low frequency phase with characteristics similar to those of the long period events. The high frequency phase of the hybrid events was analysed using polarisation techniques, showing the presence of P waves. This phase is presumably located at short epicentral distances and shallow source depth. All the analysed seismic events show back-azimuths between 120 and 330 degrees from north (corresponding to zones of volcanic activity showing no seismic activity in the middle of the caldera. Particle motion, Fourier spectral and spectrogram analysis show that the low frequency part of the three groups of the seismic signals have similar patterns. Moreover careful observations show that the high frequency phase which characterises the hybrid events is present in the long period and in the tremor events, even with lower signal to noise ratios. This evidence suggests that long period events are events in which the high frequency part is simply difficult to observe, due to a very

  2. Interacting relativistic quantum dynamics for multi-time wave functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lienert Matthias


    Full Text Available In this paper, we report on recent progress about a rigorous and manifestly covariant interacting model for two Dirac particles in 1+1 dimensions [9, 10]. It is formulated using the multi-time formalism of Dirac, Tomonaga and Schwinger. The mechanism of interaction is a relativistic generalization of contact interactions, and it is achieved going beyond the usual functional-analytic Hamiltonian method.

  3. Interacting relativistic quantum dynamics for multi-time wave functions (United States)

    Lienert, Matthias


    In this paper, we report on recent progress about a rigorous and manifestly covariant interacting model for two Dirac particles in 1+1 dimensions [9, 10]. It is formulated using the multi-time formalism of Dirac, Tomonaga and Schwinger. The mechanism of interaction is a relativistic generalization of contact interactions, and it is achieved going beyond the usual functional-analytic Hamiltonian method.

  4. Recovery of methanotrophs from disturbance: population dynamics, evenness and functioning. (United States)

    Ho, Adrian; Lüke, Claudia; Frenzel, Peter


    Biodiversity is claimed to be essential for ecosystem functioning, but is threatened by anthropogenic disturbances. Prokaryotes have been assumed to be functionally redundant and virtually inextinguishable. However, recent work indicates that microbes may well be sensitive to environmental disturbance. Focusing on methane-oxidizing bacteria as model organisms, we simulated disturbance-induced mortality by mixing native with sterilized paddy soil in two ratios, 1:4 and 1:40, representing moderate and severe die-offs. Disturbed microcosms were compared with an untreated control. Recovery of activity and populations was followed over 4 months by methane uptake measurements, pmoA-qPCR, pmoA-based terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism and a pmoA-based diagnostic microarray. Diversity and evenness of methanotrophs decreased in disturbed microcosms, but functioning was not compromised. We consistently observed distinctive temporal shifts between type I and type II methanotrophs, and a rapid population growth leading to even higher cell numbers comparing disturbed microcosms with the control. Overcompensating mortality suggested that population size in the control was limited by competition with other bacteria. Overall, methanotrophs showed a remarkable ability to compensate for die-offs.

  5. Linearization models for parabolic dynamical systems via Abel's functional equation

    CERN Document Server

    Elin, Mark; Reich, Simeon; Shoikhet, David


    We study linearization models for continuous one-parameter semigroups of parabolic type. In particular, we introduce new limit schemes to obtain solutions of Abel's functional equation and to study asymptotic behavior of such semigroups. The crucial point is that these solutions are univalent functions convex in one direction. In a parallel direction, we find analytic conditions which determine certain geometric properties of those functions, such as the location of their images in either a half-plane or a strip, and their containing either a half-plane or a strip. In the context of semigroup theory these geometric questions may be interpreted as follows: is a given one-parameter continuous semigroup either an outer or an inner conjugate of a group of automorphisms? In other words, the problem is finding a fractional linear model of the semigroup which is defined by a group of automorphisms of the open unit disk. Our results enable us to establish some new important analytic and geometric characteristics of t...

  6. Emotional intelligence and mismatching expressive and verbal messages: a contribution to detection of deception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Wojciechowski

    Full Text Available Processing facial emotion, especially mismatches between facial and verbal messages, is believed to be important in the detection of deception. For example, emotional leakage may accompany lying. Individuals with superior emotion perception abilities may then be more adept in detecting deception by identifying mismatch between facial and verbal messages. Two personal factors that may predict such abilities are female gender and high emotional intelligence (EI. However, evidence on the role of gender and EI in detection of deception is mixed. A key issue is that the facial processing skills required to detect deception may not be the same as those required to identify facial emotion. To test this possibility, we developed a novel facial processing task, the FDT (Face Decoding Test that requires detection of inconsistencies between facial and verbal cues to emotion. We hypothesized that gender and ability EI would be related to performance when cues were inconsistent. We also hypothesized that gender effects would be mediated by EI, because women tend to score as more emotionally intelligent on ability tests. Data were collected from 210 participants. Analyses of the FDT suggested that EI was correlated with superior face decoding in all conditions. We also confirmed the expected gender difference, the superiority of high EI individuals, and the mediation hypothesis. Also, EI was more strongly associated with facial decoding performance in women than in men, implying there may be gender differences in strategies for processing affective cues. It is concluded that integration of emotional and cognitive cues may be a core attribute of EI that contributes to the detection of deception.

  7. Emotional Intelligence and Mismatching Expressive and Verbal Messages: A Contribution to Detection of Deception (United States)

    Wojciechowski, Jerzy; Stolarski, Maciej; Matthews, Gerald


    Processing facial emotion, especially mismatches between facial and verbal messages, is believed to be important in the detection of deception. For example, emotional leakage may accompany lying. Individuals with superior emotion perception abilities may then be more adept in detecting deception by identifying mismatch between facial and verbal messages. Two personal factors that may predict such abilities are female gender and high emotional intelligence (EI). However, evidence on the role of gender and EI in detection of deception is mixed. A key issue is that the facial processing skills required to detect deception may not be the same as those required to identify facial emotion. To test this possibility, we developed a novel facial processing task, the FDT (Face Decoding Test) that requires detection of inconsistencies between facial and verbal cues to emotion. We hypothesized that gender and ability EI would be related to performance when cues were inconsistent. We also hypothesized that gender effects would be mediated by EI, because women tend to score as more emotionally intelligent on ability tests. Data were collected from 210 participants. Analyses of the FDT suggested that EI was correlated with superior face decoding in all conditions. We also confirmed the expected gender difference, the superiority of high EI individuals, and the mediation hypothesis. Also, EI was more strongly associated with facial decoding performance in women than in men, implying there may be gender differences in strategies for processing affective cues. It is concluded that integration of emotional and cognitive cues may be a core attribute of EI that contributes to the detection of deception. PMID:24658500

  8. Pre-adaptations and the evolution of pollination by sexual deception: Cope's rule of specialization revisited. (United States)

    Vereecken, Nicolas J; Wilson, Carol A; Hötling, Susann; Schulz, Stefan; Banketov, Sergey A; Mardulyn, Patrick


    Pollination by sexual deception is arguably one of the most unusual liaisons linking plants and insects, and perhaps the most illustrative example of extreme floral specialization in angiosperms. While considerable progress has been made in understanding the floral traits involved in sexual deception, less is known about how this remarkable mimicry system might have arisen, the role of pre-adaptations in promoting its evolution and its extent as a pollination mechanism outside the few groups of plants (primarily orchids) where it has been described to date. In the Euro-Mediterranean region, pollination by sexual deception is traditionally considered to be the hallmark of the orchid genus Ophrys. Here, we introduce two new cases outside of Ophrys, in plant groups dominated by generalized, shelter-mimicking species. On the basis of phylogenetic reconstructions of ancestral pollination strategies, we provide evidence for independent and bidirectional evolutionary transitions between generalized (shelter mimicry) and specialized (sexual deception) pollination strategies in three groups of flowering plants, and suggest that pseudocopulation has evolved from pre-adaptations (floral colours, shapes and odour bouquets) that selectively attract male pollinators through shelter mimicry. These findings, along with comparative analyses of floral traits (colours and scents), shed light on particular phenotypic changes that might have fuelled the parallel evolution of these extraordinary pollination strategies. Collectively, our results provide the first substantive insights into how pollination sexual deception might have evolved in the Euro-Mediterranean region, and demonstrate that even the most extreme cases of pollinator specialization can reverse to more generalized interactions, breaking 'Cope's rule of specialization'.

  9. Microfluidic strategy to investigate dynamics of small blood vessel function (United States)

    Yasotharan, Sanjesh; Bolz, Steffen-Sebastian; Guenther, Axel


    Resistance arteries (RAs, 30-300 microns in diameter) that are located within the terminal part of the vascular tree regulate the laminar perfusion of tissue with blood, via the peripheral vascular resistance, and hence controls the systemic blood pressure. The structure of RAs is adapted to actively controlling flow resistance by dynamically changing their diameter, which is non-linearly dependent on the temporal variation of the transmural pressure, perfusion flow rate and spatiotemporal changes in the chemical environment. Increases in systemic blood pressure (hypertension) resulting from pathologic changes in the RA response represent the primary risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. We use a microfluidic strategy to investigate small blood vessels by quantifying structural variations within the arterial wall, RA outer contour and diameter over time. First, we document the artery response to vasomotor drugs that were homogeneously applied at step-wise increasing concentration. Second, we investigate the response in the presence of well-defined axial and circumferential heterogeneities. Artery per- and superfusion is discussed based on microscale PIV measurements of the fluid velocity on both sides of the arterial wall. Structural changes in the arterial wall are quantified using cross-correlation and proper orthogonal decomposition analyses of bright-field micrographs.

  10. Functional verification of dynamically reconfigurable FPGA-based systems

    CERN Document Server

    Gong, Lingkan


    This book analyzes the challenges in verifying Dynamically Reconfigurable Systems (DRS) with respect to the user design and the physical implementation of such systems. The authors describe the use of a simulation-only layer to emulate the behavior of target FPGAs and accurately model the characteristic features of reconfiguration. Readers are enabled with this simulation-only layer to maintain verification productivity by abstracting away the physical details of the FPGA fabric.  Two implementations of the simulation-only layer are included: Extended ReChannel is a SystemC library that can be used to check DRS designs at a high level; ReSim is a library to support RTL simulation of a DRS reconfiguring both its logic and state. Through a number of case studies, the authors demonstrate how their approach integrates seamlessly with existing, mainstream DRS design flows and with well-established verification methodologies such as top-down modeling and coverage-driven verification. Provides researchers with an i...

  11. The dynamic dielectric at a brain functional site and an EM wave approach to functional brain imaging. (United States)

    Li, X P; Xia, Q; Qu, D; Wu, T C; Yang, D G; Hao, W D; Jiang, X; Li, X M


    Functional brain imaging has tremendous applications. The existing methods for functional brain imaging include functional Magnetic Resonant Imaging (fMRI), scalp electroencephalography (EEG), implanted EEG, magnetoencephalography (MEG) and Positron Emission Tomography (PET), which have been widely and successfully applied to various brain imaging studies. To develop a new method for functional brain imaging, here we show that the dielectric at a brain functional site has a dynamic nature, varying with local neuronal activation as the permittivity of the dielectric varies with the ion concentration of the extracellular fluid surrounding neurons in activation. Therefore, the neuronal activation can be sensed by a radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic (EM) wave propagating through the site as the phase change of the EM wave varies with the permittivity. Such a dynamic nature of the dielectric at a brain functional site provides the basis for an RF EM wave approach to detecting and imaging neuronal activation at brain functional sites, leading to an RF EM wave approach to functional brain imaging.

  12. Probing molecular mechanisms of the Hsp90 chaperone: biophysical modeling identifies key regulators of functional dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anshuman Dixit

    Full Text Available Deciphering functional mechanisms of the Hsp90 chaperone machinery is an important objective in cancer biology aiming to facilitate discovery of targeted anti-cancer therapies. Despite significant advances in understanding structure and function of molecular chaperones, organizing molecular principles that control the relationship between conformational diversity and functional mechanisms of the Hsp90 activity lack a sufficient quantitative characterization. We combined molecular dynamics simulations, principal component analysis, the energy landscape model and structure-functional analysis of Hsp90 regulatory interactions to systematically investigate functional dynamics of the molecular chaperone. This approach has identified a network of conserved regions common to the Hsp90 chaperones that could play a universal role in coordinating functional dynamics, principal collective motions and allosteric signaling of Hsp90. We have found that these functional motifs may be utilized by the molecular chaperone machinery to act collectively as central regulators of Hsp90 dynamics and activity, including the inter-domain communications, control of ATP hydrolysis, and protein client binding. These findings have provided support to a long-standing assertion that allosteric regulation and catalysis may have emerged via common evolutionary routes. The interaction networks regulating functional motions of Hsp90 may be determined by the inherent structural architecture of the molecular chaperone. At the same time, the thermodynamics-based "conformational selection" of functional states is likely to be activated based on the nature of the binding partner. This mechanistic model of Hsp90 dynamics and function is consistent with the notion that allosteric networks orchestrating cooperative protein motions can be formed by evolutionary conserved and sparsely connected residue clusters. Hence, allosteric signaling through a small network of distantly connected

  13. Structural and Dynamic Process Family Risk Factors: Consequences for Holistic Adolescent Functioning (United States)

    Matjasko, Jennifer L.; Grunden, Leslie N.; Ernst, Jody L.


    This study utilized a dynamic cumulative family risk model to explain changes in adolescent functioning. We used a person-centered approach to detect patterns of academic, emotional, and behavioral functioning and the stability of these patterns using two waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 10,173). Four adjustment…

  14. Localized Template-Driven Functionalization of Nanoparticles by Dynamic Combinatorial Chemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nowak, Piotr; Saggiomo, Vittorio; Salehian, Fatemeh; Colomb-Delsuc, Mathieu; Han, Yang; Otto, Sijbren


    We have developed a method for the localized functionalization of gold nanoparticles using imine-based dynamic combinatorial chemistry. By using DNA templates, amines were grafted on the aldehyde-functionalized nanoparticles only if and where the nanoparticles interacted with the template molecules.

  15. Localized Template-Driven Functionalization of Nanoparticles by Dynamic Combinatorial Chemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nowak, Piotr; Saggiomo, Vittorio; Salehian, Fatemeh; Colomb-Delsuc, Mathieu; Han, Yang; Otto, Sijbren


    We have developed a method for the localized functionalization of gold nanoparticles using imine-based dynamic combinatorial chemistry. By using DNA templates, amines were grafted on the aldehyde-functionalized nanoparticles only if and where the nanoparticles interacted with the template molecules.

  16. Structural and functional dynamics of Excitatory Amino Acid Transporters (EAAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Rauen


    Full Text Available Glutamate transporters control the glutamate homeostasis in the central nervous system, and, thus, are not only crucial for physiological excitatory synaptic signaling, but also for the prevention of a large number of neurodegenerative diseases that are associated with excessive and prolonged presence of the neurotransmitter glutamate in the extracellular space. Until now, five subtypes of high-affinity glutamate transporters (excitatory amino acid transporters, EAATs 1–5 have been identified. These 5 high-affinity glutamate transporter subtypes belong to the solute carrier 1 (SLC1 family of transmembrane proteins: EAAT1/GLAST (SLC1A3, EAAT2/GLT1 (SLC1A2, EAAT3/EAAC1 (SLC1A1, EAAT4 (SLC1A6 and EAAT5 (SLC1A7. EAATs are secondary-active transporters, taking up glutamate into the cell against a substantial concentration gradient. The driving force for concentrative uptake is provided by the co-transport of Na+ ions and the counter-transport of one K+ in a step independent of the glutamate translocation step. Due to the electrogenicity of transport, the transmembrane potential can also act as driving force. Glutamate transporters are also able to run in reverse, resulting in glutamate release from cells. Due to these important physiological functions, glutamate transporter expression and, therefore, the transport rate, are tightly regulated. The EAAT protein family are structurally expected to be highly similar, however, these transporters show a functional diversity that ranges from high capacity glutamate uptake systems (EAATs 1–3 to receptor-like glutamate activated anion channels (EAATs 4–5. Here, we provide an update on most recent progress made on EAAT’s molecular transport mechanism, structure-function relationships, pharmacology, and will add recent insights into mechanism of rapid membrane trafficking of glutamate transporters.

  17. Spontaneous Functional Network Dynamics and Associated Structural Substrates in the Human Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuhong eLiao


    Full Text Available Recent imaging connectomics studies have demonstrated that the spontaneous human brain functional networks derived from resting-state functional MRI (R-fMRI include many non-trivial topological properties, such as highly efficient small-world architecture and densely connected hub regions. However, very little is known about dynamic functional connectivity (D-FC patterns of spontaneous human brain networks during rest and about how these spontaneous brain dynamics are constrained by the underlying structural connectivity. Here, we combined sub-second multiband R-fMRI data with graph-theoretical approaches to comprehensively investigate the dynamic characteristics of the topological organization of human whole-brain functional networks, and then employed diffusion imaging data in the same participants to further explore the associated structural substrates. At the connection level, we found that human whole-brain D-FC patterns spontaneously fluctuated over time, while homotopic D-FC exhibited high connectivity strength and low temporal variability. At the network level, dynamic functional networks exhibited time-varying but evident small-world and assortativity architecture, with several regions (e.g., insula, sensorimotor cortex and medial prefrontal cortex emerging as functionally persistent hubs (i.e., highly connected regions while possessing large temporal variability in their degree centrality. Finally, the temporal characteristics (i.e., strength and variability of the connectional and nodal properties of the dynamic brain networks were significantly associated with their structural counterparts. Collectively, we demonstrate the economical, efficient and flexible characteristics of dynamic functional coordination in large-scale human brain networks during rest, and highlight their relationship with underlying structural connectivity, which deepens our understandings of spontaneous brain network dynamics in humans.

  18. Uniformly Almost Periodic Functions and Almost Periodic Solutions to Dynamic Equations on Time Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongkun Li


    Full Text Available Firstly, we propose a concept of uniformly almost periodic functions on almost periodic time scales and investigate some basic properties of them. When time scale T=ℝ or ℤ, our definition of the uniformly almost periodic functions is equivalent to the classical definitions of uniformly almost periodic functions and the uniformly almost periodic sequences, respectively. Then, based on these, we study the existence and uniqueness of almost periodic solutions and derive some fundamental conditions of admitting an exponential dichotomy to linear dynamic equations. Finally, as an application of our results, we study the existence of almost periodic solutions for an almost periodic nonlinear dynamic equations on time scales.

  19. Max-Sum Diversification, Monotone Submodular Functions and Dynamic Updates

    CERN Document Server

    Borodin, Allan; Ye, Yuli


    Result diversification has many important applications in databases, operations research, information retrieval, and finance. In this paper, we study and extend a particular version of result diversification, known as max-sum diversification. More specifically, we consider the setting where we are given a set of elements in a metric space and a set valuation function $f$ defined on every subset. For any given subset $S$, the overall objective is a linear combination of $f(S)$ and the sum of the distances induced by $S$. The goal is to find a subset $S$ satisfying some constraints that maximizes the overall objective. This problem is first studied by Gollapudi and Sharma for modular set functions and for sets satisfying a cardinality constraint. We consider an extension of the modular case to the monotone submodular case, for which the previous algorithm no longer applies. Interestingly, we are able to match the 2-approximation using a natural, but different greedy algorithm. We then further extend the problem...

  20. Dynamic functional brain networks involved in simple visual discrimination learning. (United States)

    Fidalgo, Camino; Conejo, Nélida María; González-Pardo, Héctor; Arias, Jorge Luis


    Visual discrimination tasks have been widely used to evaluate many types of learning and memory processes. However, little is known about the brain regions involved at different stages of visual discrimination learning. We used cytochrome c oxidase histochemistry to evaluate changes in regional brain oxidative metabolism during visual discrimination learning in a water-T maze at different time points during training. As compared with control groups, the results of the present study reveal the gradual activation of cortical (prefrontal and temporal cortices) and subcortical brain regions (including the striatum and the hippocampus) associated to the mastery of a simple visual discrimination task. On the other hand, the brain regions involved and their functional interactions changed progressively over days of training. Regions associated with novelty, emotion, visuo-spatial orientation and motor aspects of the behavioral task seem to be relevant during the earlier phase of training, whereas a brain network comprising the prefrontal cortex was found along the whole learning process. This study highlights the relevance of functional interactions among brain regions to investigate learning and memory processes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effective model hierarchies for dynamic and static classical density functional theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majaniemi, S [Department of Applied Physics, Aalto University School of Science and Technology, PO Box 11100, FI-00076 Aalto (Finland); Provatas, N [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, ON, L8S-4L7 (Canada); Nonomura, M, E-mail: maj@fyslab.hut.f [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Chiba University, 1-33 Yayoi-cho, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan)


    The origin and methodology of deriving effective model hierarchies are presented with applications to solidification of crystalline solids. In particular, it is discussed how the form of the equations of motion and the effective parameters on larger scales can be obtained from the more microscopic models. It will be shown that tying together the dynamic structure of the projection operator formalism with static classical density functional theories can lead to incomplete (mass) transport properties even though the linearized hydrodynamics on large scales is correctly reproduced. To facilitate a more natural way of binding together the dynamics of the macrovariables and classical density functional theory, a dynamic generalization of density functional theory based on the nonequilibrium generating functional is suggested.

  2. The dynamical system generated by the 3n+1 function

    CERN Document Server

    Wirsching, Günther J


    The 3n+1 function T is defined by T(n)=n/2 for n even, and T(n)=(3n+1)/2 for n odd. The famous 3n+1 conjecture, which remains open, states that, for any starting number n>0, iterated application of T to n eventually produces 1. After a survey of theorems concerning the 3n+1 problem, the main focus of the book are 3n+1 predecessor sets. These are analyzed using, e.g., elementary number theory, combinatorics, asymptotic analysis, and abstract measure theory. The book is written for any mathematician interested in the 3n+1 problem, and in the wealth of mathematical ideas employed to attack it.

  3. Behavior of the Escape Rate Function in Hyperbolic Dynamical Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Demers, Mark


    For a fixed initial reference measure, we study the dependence of the escape rate on the hole for a smooth or piecewise smooth hyperbolic map. First, we prove the existence and Holder continuity of the escape rate for systems with small holes admitting Young towers. Then we consider general holes for Anosov diffeomorphisms, without size or Markovian restrictions. We prove bounds on the upper and lower escape rates using the notion of pressure on the survivor set and show that a variational principle holds under generic conditions. However, we also show that the escape rate function forms a devil's staircase with jumps along sequences of regular holes and present examples to elucidate some of the difficulties involved in formulating a general theory.

  4. Neural network design for J function approximation in dynamic programming

    CERN Document Server

    Pang, X


    This paper shows that a new type of artificial neural network (ANN) -- the Simultaneous Recurrent Network (SRN) -- can, if properly trained, solve a difficult function approximation problem which conventional ANNs -- either feedforward or Hebbian -- cannot. This problem, the problem of generalized maze navigation, is typical of problems which arise in building true intelligent control systems using neural networks. (Such systems are discussed in the chapter by Werbos in K.Pribram, Brain and Values, Erlbaum 1998.) The paper provides a general review of other types of recurrent networks and alternative training techniques, including a flowchart of the Error Critic training design, arguable the only plausible approach to explain how the brain adapts time-lagged recurrent systems in real-time. The C code of the test is appended. As in the first tests of backprop, the training here was slow, but there are ways to do better after more experience using this type of network.

  5. Root structural and functional dynamics in terrestrial biosphere models--evaluation and recommendations. (United States)

    Warren, Jeffrey M; Hanson, Paul J; Iversen, Colleen M; Kumar, Jitendra; Walker, Anthony P; Wullschleger, Stan D


    There is wide breadth of root function within ecosystems that should be considered when modeling the terrestrial biosphere. Root structure and function are closely associated with control of plant water and nutrient uptake from the soil, plant carbon (C) assimilation, partitioning and release to the soils, and control of biogeochemical cycles through interactions within the rhizosphere. Root function is extremely dynamic and dependent on internal plant signals, root traits and morphology, and the physical, chemical and biotic soil environment. While plant roots have significant structural and functional plasticity to changing environmental conditions, their dynamics are noticeably absent from the land component of process-based Earth system models used to simulate global biogeochemical cycling. Their dynamic representation in large-scale models should improve model veracity. Here, we describe current root inclusion in models across scales, ranging from mechanistic processes of single roots to parameterized root processes operating at the landscape scale. With this foundation we discuss how existing and future root functional knowledge, new data compilation efforts, and novel modeling platforms can be leveraged to enhance root functionality in large-scale terrestrial biosphere models by improving parameterization within models, and introducing new components such as dynamic root distribution and root functional traits linked to resource extraction.

  6. A nonlinear correlation function for selecting the delay time in dynamical reconstructions (United States)

    Aguirre, Luis Antonio


    Numerical results discussed in this paper suggest that a function which detects nonlinear correlations in time series usually indicates shorter correlation times than the linear autocorrelation function which is often used for this purpose. The nonlinear correlation function can also detect changes in the data which cannot be distinguished by the linear counterpart. This affects a number of approaches for the selection of the delay time used in the reconstruction of nonlinear dynamics from a single time series based on time delay coordinates.

  7. Structure, dynamics, and function of the monooxygenase P450 BM-3: insights from computer simulations studies (United States)

    Roccatano, Danilo


    The monooxygenase P450 BM-3 is a NADPH-dependent fatty acid hydroxylase enzyme isolated from soil bacterium Bacillus megaterium. As a pivotal member of cytochrome P450 superfamily, it has been intensely studied for the comprehension of structure-dynamics-function relationships in this class of enzymes. In addition, due to its peculiar properties, it is also a promising enzyme for biochemical and biomedical applications. However, despite the efforts, the full understanding of the enzyme structure and dynamics is not yet achieved. Computational studies, particularly molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, have importantly contributed to this endeavor by providing new insights at an atomic level regarding the correlations between structure, dynamics, and function of the protein. This topical review summarizes computational studies based on MD simulations of the cytochrome P450 BM-3 and gives an outlook on future directions.

  8. Dynamic network participation of functional connectivity hubs assessed by resting-state fMRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander eSchaefer


    Full Text Available Network studies of large-scale brain connectivity have demonstrated that highly connected areas, or ‘hubs’, are a key feature of human functional and structural brain organization. We use resting-state functional MRI data and connectivity clustering to identify multi network hubs and show that while hubs can belong to multiple networks their degree of integration into these different networks varies dynamically over time. In addition, we found that these network dynamics were inversely related to positive self-generated thoughts reported by individuals and were further decreased with older age. Moreover, the left caudate varied its degree of participation between a default mode subnetwork and a limbic network. This variation was predictive of individual differences in the reports of past-related thoughts. These results support an association between ongoing thought processes and network dynamics and offer a new approach to investigate the brain dynamics underlying mental experience.

  9. [Functional magnetic resonance imaging and dynamic neuroanatomy of addictive disorders]. (United States)

    Mel'nikov, M E; Shtark, M B


    Research into the cerebral patterns that govern the formation and development of addictive behavior is one of the most interesting goals of neurophysiology. Authors of contemporary papers on the matter define a number of symptoms that are all part of substance or non-substance dependence, each one of them leading to abnormalities in the corresponding system of the brain. During the last twenty years the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMR1) technology has been instrumental in locating such abnormalities, identifying specific parts of the brain that, when dysfunctional, may enhance addiction and cause its positive or negative symptoms. This article reviews fMRI studies aimed toward locating areas in the brain that are responsible for cognitive, emotional, and motivational dysfunction. Cerebral correlatives of impulsiveness, behavior control, and drug cravings are reviewed separately. The article also contains an overview of possibilities to further investigate the Selves of those dependent on substances, identify previously unknown diagnostic markers of substance dependence, and evaluate the effectiveness of therapy. The research under review in this article provides data that points to a special role of the nucleus caudatus as well as the nucleus accumbens, the thalamus, the insular cortex (IC), the anterior cingulate, prefrontal and orbitofrontal areas in psychological disorders that are part of substance dependence. General findings of the article are in accordance with contemporary models of addictive pattern.

  10. Sea Surface Temperature Modeling using Radial Basis Function Networks With a Dynamically Weighted Particle Filter

    KAUST Repository

    Ryu, Duchwan


    The sea surface temperature (SST) is an important factor of the earth climate system. A deep understanding of SST is essential for climate monitoring and prediction. In general, SST follows a nonlinear pattern in both time and location and can be modeled by a dynamic system which changes with time and location. In this article, we propose a radial basis function network-based dynamic model which is able to catch the nonlinearity of the data and propose to use the dynamically weighted particle filter to estimate the parameters of the dynamic model. We analyze the SST observed in the Caribbean Islands area after a hurricane using the proposed dynamic model. Comparing to the traditional grid-based approach that requires a supercomputer due to its high computational demand, our approach requires much less CPU time and makes real-time forecasting of SST doable on a personal computer. Supplementary materials for this article are available online. © 2013 American Statistical Association.

  11. Dynamic functional connectivity analysis of Taichong (LR3) acupuncture effects in various brain regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenjuan Qiu; Bin Yan; Hongjian He; Li Tong; Jianxin Li


    The present study conducted a multi-scale dynamic functional connectivity analysis to evaluate dynamic behavior of acupuncture at Taichong (LR3) and sham acupoints surrounding Taichong. Results showed differences in wavelet transform coherence characteristic curves in the declive, precuneus, postcentral gyrus, supramarginal gyrus, and occipital lobe between acupuncture at Taichong and acupuncture at sham acupoints. The differences in characteristic curves revealed that the specific effect of acupuncture existed during the post-acupuncture rest state and lasted for 5 minutes.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐建国; 贾军国


    The dynamics, stability and control problem of a kind of infinite dimensional system are studied in the functional space with the method of modern mathematics. First,the dynamical control model of the distributed parameter system with multi-body flexible and multi-topological structure was established which has damping, gyroscopic parts and constrained damping. Secondly, the necessary and sufficient condition of controllability and observability, the stability theory and asymptotic property of the system were obtained.These results expand the theory of the field about the dynamics and control of the system with multi-body flexible structure, and have important engineering significance.

  13. When it pays to cheat: Examining how generalized food deception increases male and female fitness in a terrestrial orchid. (United States)

    Walsh, Ryan P; Michaels, Helen J


    Experimental manipulations of floral nectar in food deceptive species can reveal insights into the evolutionary consequences of the deceptive strategy. When coupled to pollen tracking, the effects of the deceptive pollination syndrome on both male and female reproductive success may be quantified. Attraction of pollinators in deceit-pollinated species often relies on producing a conspicuous floral display which may increase visibility to pollinators, but in-turn may increase within plant selfing. To understand the role of deception in Orchidaceae reproduction we studied Cypripedium candidum. All species of the Cypripedium genus employ a generalized food deceptive pollination strategy and have been suggested as a model system for the study of pollinator deception. We conducted a nectar addition experiment that randomly assigned the four plants closest to a transect point to receive one of four histochemical dyes. Two individuals selected for nectar addition in each of altogether 25 blocks received 2μl of 25% sucrose solution in the labellum of each flower, while two others received no artificial nectar. Number of fruits produced, fruit mass and fruit abortion were scored at the end of the four-month experiment. Nectar addition increased (pattraction and fruit set when compared with rewarding flowers.

  14. Dynamic remodeling of microbial biofilms by functionally distinct exopolysaccharides. (United States)

    Chew, Su Chuen; Kundukad, Binu; Seviour, Thomas; van der Maarel, Johan R C; Yang, Liang; Rice, Scott A; Doyle, Patrick; Kjelleberg, Staffan


    Biofilms are densely populated communities of microbial cells protected and held together by a matrix of extracellular polymeric substances. The structure and rheological properties of the matrix at the microscale influence the retention and transport of molecules and cells in the biofilm, thereby dictating population and community behavior. Despite its importance, quantitative descriptions of the matrix microstructure and microrheology are limited. Here, particle-tracking microrheology in combination with genetic approaches was used to spatially and temporally study the rheological contributions of the major exopolysaccharides Pel and Psl in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms. Psl increased the elasticity and effective cross-linking within the matrix, which strengthened its scaffold and appeared to facilitate the formation of microcolonies. Conversely, Pel reduced effective cross-linking within the matrix. Without Psl, the matrix becomes more viscous, which facilitates biofilm spreading. The wild-type biofilm decreased in effective cross-linking over time, which would be advantageous for the spreading and colonization of new surfaces. This suggests that there are regulatory mechanisms to control production of the exopolysaccharides that serve to remodel the matrix of developing biofilms. The exopolysaccharides were also found to have profound effects on the spatial organization and integration of P. aeruginosa in a mixed-species biofilm model of P. aeruginosa-Staphylococcus aureus. Pel was required for close association of the two species in mixed-species microcolonies. In contrast, Psl was important for P. aeruginosa to form single-species biofilms on top of S. aureus biofilms. Our results demonstrate that Pel and Psl have distinct physical properties and functional roles during biofilm formation. Importance: Most bacteria grow as biofilms in the environment or in association with eukaryotic hosts. Removal of biofilms that form on surfaces is a challenge in clinical

  15. Dynamic density functional theory of protein adsorption on polymer-coated nanoparticles

    CERN Document Server

    Angioletti-Uberti, Stefano; Dzubiella, Joachim


    We present a theoretical model for the description of the adsorption kinetics of globular proteins onto charged core-shell microgel particles based on Dynamic Density Functional Theory (DDFT). This model builds on a previous description of protein adsorption thermodynamics [Yigit \\textit{et al}, Langmuir 28 (2012)], shown to well interpret the available calorimetric experimental data of binding isotherms. In practice, a spatially-dependent free-energy functional including the same physical interactions is built, and used to study the kinetics via a generalised diffusion equation. To test this model, we apply it to the case study of Lysozyme adsorption on PNIPAM coated nanoparticles, and show that the dynamics obtained within DDFT is consistent with that extrapolated from experiments. We also perform a systematic study of the effect of various parameters in our model, and investigate the loading dynamics as a function of proteins' valence and hydrophobic adsorption energy, as well as their concentration and th...

  16. Statistical inference of dynamic resting-state functional connectivity using hierarchical observation modeling. (United States)

    Sojoudi, Alireza; Goodyear, Bradley G


    Spontaneous fluctuations of blood-oxygenation level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD fMRI) signals are highly synchronous between brain regions that serve similar functions. This provides a means to investigate functional networks; however, most analysis techniques assume functional connections are constant over time. This may be problematic in the case of neurological disease, where functional connections may be highly variable. Recently, several methods have been proposed to determine moment-to-moment changes in the strength of functional connections over an imaging session (so called dynamic connectivity). Here a novel analysis framework based on a hierarchical observation modeling approach was proposed, to permit statistical inference of the presence of dynamic connectivity. A two-level linear model composed of overlapping sliding windows of fMRI signals, incorporating the fact that overlapping windows are not independent was described. To test this approach, datasets were synthesized whereby functional connectivity was either constant (significant or insignificant) or modulated by an external input. The method successfully determines the statistical significance of a functional connection in phase with the modulation, and it exhibits greater sensitivity and specificity in detecting regions with variable connectivity, when compared with sliding-window correlation analysis. For real data, this technique possesses greater reproducibility and provides a more discriminative estimate of dynamic connectivity than sliding-window correlation analysis. Hum Brain Mapp 37:4566-4580, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Effective Boolean dynamics analysis to identify functionally important genes in large-scale signaling networks. (United States)

    Trinh, Hung-Cuong; Kwon, Yung-Keun


    Efficiently identifying functionally important genes in order to understand the minimal requirements of normal cellular development is challenging. To this end, a variety of structural measures have been proposed and their effectiveness has been investigated in recent literature; however, few studies have shown the effectiveness of dynamics-based measures. This led us to investigate a dynamic measure to identify functionally important genes, and the effectiveness of which was verified through application on two large-scale human signaling networks. We specifically consider Boolean sensitivity-based dynamics against an update-rule perturbation (BSU) as a dynamic measure. Through investigations on two large-scale human signaling networks, we found that genes with relatively high BSU values show slower evolutionary rate and higher proportions of essential genes and drug targets than other genes. Gene-ontology analysis showed clear differences between the former and latter groups of genes. Furthermore, we compare the identification accuracies of essential genes and drug targets via BSU and five well-known structural measures. Although BSU did not always show the best performance, it effectively identified the putative set of genes, which is significantly different from the results obtained via the structural measures. Most interestingly, BSU showed the highest synergy effect in identifying the functionally important genes in conjunction with other measures. Our results imply that Boolean-sensitive dynamics can be used as a measure to effectively identify functionally important genes in signaling networks.

  18. Toe functions have little effect on dynamic balance ability in elderly people. (United States)

    Yoshimoto, Yoshinobu; Oyama, Yukitsuna; Tanaka, Mamoru; Sakamoto, Asuka


    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the toe function of elderly people and the association with the dynamic balance ability for the developing effective fall-prevention measures. [Subjects and Methods] Seventy-eight participants in a community health service were included in this cross-sectional study. The Timed Up and Go Test and Four Square Step Test were used to test dynamic balance ability. The toe functions related to dynamic balance ability were toe flexion strength, presence or absence of restricted range of motion of the hallux, presence or absence of hallux pain, and hallux valgus angle. [Results] Factors related to the Timed Up and Go Test results were toe flexion strength, age, and presence or absence of hallux pain. Their standard partial regression coefficients were -0.400, 0.277, and -0.218, respectively. Factors related to the Four Square Step Test results were toe flexion strength and age. Their standard partial regression coefficients were -0.334 and 0.277, respectively. [Conclusion] Toe functions appear to have little impact on dynamic balance ability in elderly people who have mild toe dysfunction. Approaches that address not only the toes, but trunk functions, and other leg joints should be investigated for improving the dynamic balance ability.

  19. High transition frequencies of dynamic functional connectivity states in the creative brain (United States)

    Li, Junchao; Zhang, Delong; Liang, Aiying; Liang, Bishan; Wang, Zengjian; Cai, Yuxuan; Gao, Mengxia; Gao, Zhenni; Chang, Song; Jiao, Bingqing; Huang, Ruiwang; Liu, Ming


    Creativity is thought to require the flexible reconfiguration of multiple brain regions that interact in transient and complex communication patterns. In contrast to prior emphases on searching for specific regions or networks associated with creative performance, we focused on exploring the association between the reconfiguration of dynamic functional connectivity states and creative ability. We hypothesized that a high frequency of dynamic functional connectivity state transitions will be associated with creative ability. To test this hypothesis, we recruited a high-creative group (HCG) and a low-creative group (LCG) of participants and collected resting-state fMRI (R-fMRI) data and Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT) scores from each participant. By combining an independent component analysis with a dynamic network analysis approach, we discovered the HCG had more frequent transitions between dynamic functional connectivity (dFC) states than the LCG. Moreover, a confirmatory analysis using multiplication of temporal derivatives also indicated that there were more frequent dFC state transitions in the HCG. Taken together, these results provided empirical evidence for a linkage between the flexible reconfiguration of dynamic functional connectivity states and creative ability. These findings have the potential to provide new insights into the neural basis of creativity. PMID:28383052

  20. High transition frequencies of dynamic functional connectivity states in the creative brain. (United States)

    Li, Junchao; Zhang, Delong; Liang, Aiying; Liang, Bishan; Wang, Zengjian; Cai, Yuxuan; Gao, Mengxia; Gao, Zhenni; Chang, Song; Jiao, Bingqing; Huang, Ruiwang; Liu, Ming


    Creativity is thought to require the flexible reconfiguration of multiple brain regions that interact in transient and complex communication patterns. In contrast to prior emphases on searching for specific regions or networks associated with creative performance, we focused on exploring the association between the reconfiguration of dynamic functional connectivity states and creative ability. We hypothesized that a high frequency of dynamic functional connectivity state transitions will be associated with creative ability. To test this hypothesis, we recruited a high-creative group (HCG) and a low-creative group (LCG) of participants and collected resting-state fMRI (R-fMRI) data and Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT) scores from each participant. By combining an independent component analysis with a dynamic network analysis approach, we discovered the HCG had more frequent transitions between dynamic functional connectivity (dFC) states than the LCG. Moreover, a confirmatory analysis using multiplication of temporal derivatives also indicated that there were more frequent dFC state transitions in the HCG. Taken together, these results provided empirical evidence for a linkage between the flexible reconfiguration of dynamic functional connectivity states and creative ability. These findings have the potential to provide new insights into the neural basis of creativity.

  1. Dynamical density functional theory for molecular and colloidal fluids: a microscopic approach to fluid mechanics. (United States)

    Archer, A J


    In recent years, a number of dynamical density functional theories (DDFTs) have been developed for describing the dynamics of the one-body density of both colloidal and atomic fluids. In the colloidal case, the particles are assumed to have stochastic equations of motion and theories exist for both the case when the particle motion is overdamped and also in the regime where inertial effects are relevant. In this paper, we extend the theory and explore the connections between the microscopic DDFT and the equations of motion from continuum fluid mechanics. In particular, starting from the Kramers equation, which governs the dynamics of the phase space probability distribution function for the system, we show that one may obtain an approximate DDFT that is a generalization of the Euler equation. This DDFT is capable of describing the dynamics of the fluid density profile down to the scale of the individual particles. As with previous DDFTs, the dynamical equations require as input the Helmholtz free energy functional from equilibrium density functional theory (DFT). For an equilibrium system, the theory predicts the same fluid one-body density profile as one would obtain from DFT. Making further approximations, we show that the theory may be used to obtain the mode coupling theory that is widely used for describing the transition from a liquid to a glassy state.

  2. The Deceptively Simple N170 Reflects Network Information Processing Mechanisms Involving Visual Feature Coding and Transfer Across Hemispheres (United States)

    Ince, Robin A. A.; Jaworska, Katarzyna; Gross, Joachim; Panzeri, Stefano; van Rijsbergen, Nicola J.; Rousselet, Guillaume A.; Schyns, Philippe G.


    A key to understanding visual cognition is to determine “where”, “when”, and “how” brain responses reflect the processing of the specific visual features that modulate categorization behavior—the “what”. The N170 is the earliest Event-Related Potential (ERP) that preferentially responds to faces. Here, we demonstrate that a paradigmatic shift is necessary to interpret the N170 as the product of an information processing network that dynamically codes and transfers face features across hemispheres, rather than as a local stimulus-driven event. Reverse-correlation methods coupled with information-theoretic analyses revealed that visibility of the eyes influences face detection behavior. The N170 initially reflects coding of the behaviorally relevant eye contralateral to the sensor, followed by a causal communication of the other eye from the other hemisphere. These findings demonstrate that the deceptively simple N170 ERP hides a complex network information processing mechanism involving initial coding and subsequent cross-hemispheric transfer of visual features. PMID:27550865

  3. Dynamics of a family of transcendental meromorphic functions having rational Schwarzian derivative (United States)

    Sajid, M.; Kapoor, G. P.


    In the present paper, a class of critically finite transcendental meromorphic functions having rational Schwarzian derivative is introduced and the dynamics of functions in one parameter family is investigated. It is found that there exist two parameter values [lambda]*=[phi](0)>0 and , where and is the real root of [phi]'(x)=0, such that the Fatou sets of f[lambda](z) for [lambda]=[lambda]* and [lambda]=[lambda]** contain parabolic domains. A computationally useful characterization of the Julia set of the function f[lambda](z) as the complement of the basin of attraction of an attracting real fixed point of f[lambda](z) is established and applied for the generation of the images of the Julia sets of f[lambda](z). Further, it is observed that the Julia set of explodes to whole complex plane for [lambda]>[lambda]**. Finally, our results found in the present paper are compared with the recent results on dynamics of one parameter families [lambda]tanz, [R.L. Devaney, L. Keen, Dynamics of meromorphic maps: Maps with polynomial Schwarzian derivative, Ann. Sci. Ecole Norm. Sup. 22 (4) (1989) 55-79; L. Keen, J. Kotus, Dynamics of the family [lambda]tan(z), Conform. Geom. Dynam. 1 (1997) 28-57; G.M. Stallard, The Hausdorff dimension of Julia sets of meromorphic functions, J. London Math. Soc. 49 (1994) 281-295] and , [lambda]>0 [G.P. Kapoor, M. Guru Prem Prasad, Dynamics of : The Julia set and bifurcation, Ergodic Theory Dynam. Systems 18 (1998) 1363-1383].

  4. Dynamic functional connectivity and brain metastability during altered states of consciousness. (United States)

    Cavanna, Federico; Vilas, Martina G; Palmucci, Matías; Tagliazucchi, Enzo


    The scientific study of human consciousness has greatly benefited from the development of non-invasive brain imaging methods. The quest to identify the neural correlates of consciousness combined psychophysical experimentation with neuroimaging tools such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to map the changes in neural activity associated with conscious vs. unconscious percepts. Different neuroimaging methods have also been applied to characterize spontaneous brain activity fluctuations during altered states of consciousness, and to develop quantitative metrics for the level of consciousness. Most of these studies, however, have not explored the dynamic nature of the whole-brain imaging data provided by fMRI. A series of empirical and computational studies strongly suggests that the temporal fluctuations observed in this data present a non-trivial structure, and that this structure is compatible with the exploration of a discrete repertoire of states. In this review we focus on how dynamic neuroimaging can be used to address theoretical accounts of consciousness based on the hypothesis of a dynamic core, i.e. a constantly evolving and transiently stable set of coordinated neurons that constitute an integrated and differentiated physical substrate for each conscious experience. We review work exploring the possibility that metastability in brain dynamics leads to a repertoire of dynamic core states, and discuss how it might be modified during altered states of consciousness. This discussion prompts us to review neuroimaging studies aimed to map the dynamic exploration of the repertoire of states as a function of consciousness. Complementary studies of the dynamic core hypothesis using perturbative methods are also discussed. Finally, we propose that a link between metastability in brain dynamics and the level of consciousness could pave the way towards a mechanistic understanding of altered states of consciousness using tools from dynamical systems

  5. The Influence of Dynamic Orthosis Training on Upper Extremity Function after Stroke: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Cappato de Araújo


    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to assess the use of a dynamic orthosis on upper extremity function in chronic stroke patients. A case series approach was utilized, with provision of a training program (3x/week, 50 minutes/session for 8 weeks and employment of a dynamic orthosis. Six volunteers with persistent hemiparesis due to a single, unilateral stroke performed task-oriented movements with the aid of a dynamic orthosis. Tests were administered before and after training. Functional capacity was assessed using the TEMPA (Test d'Évaluation des Membres Supérieurs de Personnes Âgées test. The Wilcoxon test was used for pre-training and post-training comparisons of TEMPA scores. The volunteers showed significant improvement of upper extremity function in the performance of a bilateral task (p = 0.01 and three unilateral tasks (p = 0.04. This pilot study suggests that the dynamic orthosis associated with the performance of functional tasks can have positive outcomes regarding the improvement of functional capacity of upper extremity.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xu


    Quasicrystals have additional phason degrees of freedom not found in conventional crystals. In this paper, we present an exact solution for time-harmonic dynamic Green's function of one-dimensional hexagonal quasicrystals with the Laue classes 6/mh and 6/mhmm. Through the introduction of two new functions ψ and ψ, the original problem is reduced to the determination of Green's functions for two independent Helmholtz equations. The explicit expressions of displacement and stress fields are presented and their asymptotic behaviors are discussed. The static Green's function can be obtained by letting the circular frequency approach zero.


    Hoffmann, Diane; Schwartz, Jack


    This Article offers a thorough analysis of an important public health issue, namely how to confront the growing problem of deceptive claims regarding foods and dietary supplements, including increasingly prevalent but unverifiable claims. The authors call for the creation of a limited private right of action under the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) Act for deceptive health-related claims for these products. The proposal responds to the growing market for these products and the inadequacy of current laws and enforcement actions to prevent such claims. In crafting the limited private right of action, the authors attempt to enhance consumer protection without undermining federal agency primacy in enforcement. The Article ends with an appendix setting forth proposed language for a statutory amendment to the FTC Act incorporating the authors' proposal.

  8. Joseph Jastrow, the psychology of deception, and the racial economy of observation. (United States)

    Pettit, Michael


    This article reconstructs the recurring themes in the career of Joseph Jastrow, both inside and outside the laboratory. His psychology of deception provides the bridge between his experimental and popular pursuits. Furthermore, Jastrow's career illustrates the complex ways in which scientific psychology and pragmatist philosophy operated within the constraints of a moral economy deeply marked by notions of "race." Psychological investigations of deception were grafted onto two of the human sciences' leading tools: the evolutionary narrative and the statistical analysis of populations. Such associations abetted the racialization of the acts of deceiving and being deceived. These connections also were used to craft moral lessons about how individuals ought to behave in relationship to the aggregate population and natural selection's endowment.

  9. Waving the Red Flag: FTC Regulation of Deceptive Weight-Loss Advertising 1951-2009. (United States)

    Lellis, Julie C


    This article documents the historical role of the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) in regulating deceptive weight-loss advertising, which the commission began to prioritize in the 1990s after a dramatic rise in complaints. It also includes the results of a content analysis of more than 150 FTC complaints filed between 1951 and 2009, which were used to analyze trends in advertising content, liability for deceptive practices, and outcomes. Regulatory efforts may not have curbed the use of bogus weight-loss claims, which have only increased over time. The FTC has made attempts to apply broad liability, but advertisers and corporate leaders continue to be named most frequently over other respondents, including advertising agencies, media outlets, and product endorsers. Although the number of complaints that result in financial penalties is increasing, the FTC lacks systematic and specific policies to adequately deter advertisers and address what continues to be a growing problem.

  10. "Intuitive" lie detection of children's deception by law enforcement officials and university students. (United States)

    Leach, Amy-May; Talwar, Victoria; Lee, Kang; Bala, Nicholas; Lindsay, R C L


    Adults' ability to detect children's deception was examined. Police officers, customs officers, and university students attempted to differentiate between children who lied or told the truth about a transgression. When children were simply questioned about the event (Experiment 1), the adult groups could not distinguish between lie-tellers and truth-tellers. However, participants were more accurate when the children had participated in moral reasoning tasks (Experiment 2) or promised to tell the truth (Experiment 3) before being interviewed. Additional exposure to the children did not affect accuracy (Experiment 4). Customs officers were more certain about their judgments than other groups, but no more accurate. Overall, adults have a limited ability to identify children's deception, regardless of their experience with lie detection.

  11. The role of psychophysiology in forensic assessments: deception detection, ERPs, and virtual reality mock crime scenarios. (United States)

    Mertens, Ralf; Allen, John J B


    Few data are available to address whether the use of ERP-based deception detection alternatives have sufficient validity for applied use. The present study was designed to replicate and extend J. P. Rosenfeld, M. Soskins, G. Bosh, and A. Ryan's (2004) study by utilizing a virtual reality crime scenario to determine whether ERP-based procedures, including brain fingerprinting, can be rendered less effective by participant manipulation by employing a virtual reality crime scenario and multiple countermeasures. Bayesian and bootstrapping analytic approaches were used to classify individuals as guilty or innocent. Guilty subjects were detected significantly less frequently compared to previous studies; countermeasures further reduced the overall hit rates. Innocent participants remained protected from being falsely accused. Reaction times did not prove suitable for accurate classification. Results suggested that guilty verdicts from ERP-based deception detection approaches are likely to be accurate, but that innocent (or indeterminate) verdicts yield no useful interpretation in an applied setting.

  12. Too exhausted to see the truth: ego depletion and the ability to detect deception. (United States)

    Reinhard, Marc-André; Scharmach, Martin; Stahlberg, Dagmar


    In two experiments, recent findings showing the detrimental role of regulatory depletion in decision making are extended to the field of deception detection. In both experiments, the state of ego depletion was induced by having judges inhibit versus non-inhibit a dominant response while transcribing a text. Subsequently they judged true or deceptive messages of different stimulus persons with regard to their truthfulness. In both experiments, ego-depleted judges scored significantly lower on detection accuracy than control judges. Signal detection measures showed that this effect was not due to differences in judgmental bias between the two conditions. In Experiment 2, it was shown that the lower detection accuracy in the state of ego depletion was due to a feeling of difficulty of relying on verbal content information. Practical implications of the current findings are discussed.

  13. The abstracted and integrated Green functions and OOP of BEM in soil dynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    It has been generally recognized that Green function integrated with Boundary Element Method (BEM) has advantages in dimensional reduction, high accuracy and satisfaction of the radiation condition at infinity, etc. Recently, the computational technique has rapidly developed and the orient-object programming has been widely applied, whereas the attribute ofion and the integration of Green function employed in BEM have not been discovered yet. In this work the abstrac- tion and integration of Green function are carried out for soil dynamics problems, and the procedure of the object-oriented calculation method is presented. Based on the Green function developed for the two-phase saturated medium, the re- sponse of the wave field to tunnel subjected to dynamic loading is calculated, and the transient solution as well as the time history of response is obtained.

  14. Quantum statistics and classical mechanics: real time correlation functions from ring polymer molecular dynamics. (United States)

    Craig, Ian R; Manolopoulos, David E


    We propose an approximate method for calculating Kubo-transformed real-time correlation functions involving position-dependent operators, based on path integral (Parrinello-Rahman) molecular dynamics. The method gives the exact quantum mechanical correlation function at time zero, exactly satisfies the quantum mechanical detailed balance condition, and for correlation functions of the form C(Ax)(t) and C(xB)(t) it gives the exact result for a harmonic potential. It also works reasonably well at short times for more general potentials and correlation functions, as we illustrate with some example calculations. The method provides a consistent improvement over purely classical molecular dynamics that is most apparent in the low-temperature regime.

  15. Three applications of functional analysis with group dynamic cognitive behavioral group therapy. (United States)

    Scharwächter, Peter


    Case illustrations from group dynamic cognitive behavioral group therapy are presented to demonstrate three applications of functional analysis and the resulting cognitive behavioral interventions. The principles of group dynamic cognitive behavioral group therapy are explained. A functional analysis is applied first to the problem behavior of an individual group member. A clinical case illustrates how the group members help to change this individual group member's behavior from a learning theory perspective. Next, the circular interactional problem behavior between two group members is reduced to the individual functional analysis of each of the two member's problem behaviors. It is then illustrated how the two group member's problem behaviors, as well as feedback from others, contribute toward helping to change each others behavior. The paper concludes that functional analysis and ensuing behavioral interventions can be also applied to group as a whole behavior.

  16. Dynamic regulation of NMDAR function in the adult brain by the stress hormone corticosterone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiu Chung eTse


    Full Text Available Stress and corticosteroids dynamically modulate the expression of synaptic plasticity at glutamatergic synapses in the developed brain. Together with alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid receptors (AMPAR, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDAR are critical mediators of synaptic function and are essential for the induction of many forms of synaptic plasticity. Regulation of NMDAR function by cortisol/corticosterone (CORT may be fundamental to the effects of stress on synaptic plasticity. Recent reports of the efficacy of NMDAR antagonists in treating certain stress-associated psychopathologies further highlight the importance of understanding the regulation of NMDAR function by CORT. Knowledge of how corticosteroids regulate NMDAR function within the adult brain is relatively sparse, perhaps due to a common belief that NMDAR function is relatively stable in the adult brain. We review recent results from our laboratory and others demonstrating dynamic regulation of NMDAR function by CORT in the adult brain. In addition, we consider the issue of how differences in the early life environment may program differential sensitivity to modulation of NMDAR function by CORT and how this may influence synaptic function during stress. Findings from these studies demonstrate that NMDAR function in the adult hippocampus remains sensitive to even brief exposures to CORT and that the capacity for modulation of NMDAR may be programmed, in part, by the early life environment. Modulation of NMDAR function may contribute to dynamic regulation of synaptic plasticity and adaptation in the face of stress, however enhanced NMDAR function may be implicated in mechanisms of stress related psychopathologies including depression.

  17. Generation of Strategies for Environmental Deception in Two-Player Normal-Form Games (United States)


    strategy and the mark plays the equilibrium of the deceptive game. As described earlier, the games are structured so that the maxi - mum value in the...on the maxi - mum change to g as shown in Equation 31. ∙ ′ + ( + ) ∙ (1 − ′) < ∙ ′ + ∙ (1 − ′) ∙ ′ + + − ( + ...highlight their relative strengths and weaknesses , but combinations of multiple types are possible if cost is available. The effectiveness of each

  18. A sacred command of reason? Deceit, deception, and dishonesty in nurse education. (United States)

    Rolfe, Gary


    Kant (Grounding for the Metaphysics of Morals. Hackett, Indianapolis, 1797) described honesty as 'a sacred command of reason' which should be obeyed at all times and at any cost. This study inquires into the practice of dishonesty, deception, and deceit by universities in the UK in the pursuit of quality indicators such as league table positions, Research Excellence Framework (REF) scores, and student satisfaction survey results. Deception occurs when the metrics which inform these tables and surveys are manipulated to suggest an improvement in quality when, in fact, the raised scores are merely the result of clever strategic planning. Deceit occurs when these manipulated scores are deliberately and knowingly presented as real improvements in research and educational quality. It might be argued that, within the context of the artificial ivory tower world of academe, this is a game played by almost every academic in every higher education institution with no real losers and little wider consequence. However, this study suggests that some of the strategies employed by institutions to improve their scores without directly addressing the issue of quality can, in certain practice-based disciplines such as nursing, result in dire consequences for practitioners and service users. It concludes with a number of suggestions taken from personal experience to resolve the tension between the contractual demands placed on nurse academics by their employers and the moral and practical obligations of their professional body, most notably the use of subversion. The conclusion, contra Kant, is that the most effective strategy against dishonesty and deception is often more dishonesty and deception.

  19. Potential disruption of pollination in a sexually deceptive orchid by climatic change. (United States)

    Robbirt, Karen M; Roberts, David L; Hutchings, Michael J; Davy, Anthony J


    Warmer springs advance many phenological events, including flowering time in plants and the flight time of insects. Pollination by insects, an ecosystem service of immense economic and conservation importance, depends on synchrony between insect activity and flowering time. If plants and their pollinators show different phenological responses to climate warming, pollination could fail. Information about the effects of warming on specific plant-insect mutualisms is difficult to obtain from complex pollination networks. In contrast, the extraordinarily specific deceptions evolved by orchids that attract a very narrow range of pollinators allow direct examination of the potential for climatic warming to disrupt synchrony. Here we show that a sexually deceptive orchid and the solitary bee on which it depends for pollination will diverge in phenology with increasing spring temperature. Male bees inadvertently pollinate the orchid flowers during pseudocopulation. Analysis of museum specimens (1893-2007) and recent field-based records (1975-2009) showed that flight date of the solitary bee Andrena nigroaenea is advanced more by higher temperatures than is flowering date in the deceptive orchid Ophrys sphegodes. Male bees emerged slightly earlier than females, which attract male copulatory attentions away from the deceptive flowers. Warming by as little as 2°C increased both the probability of male flight and the proportion of females flying in the bee population before orchid flowering; this would reduce the frequency of pseudocopulation and thus lower pollination success rate in the orchid. Our results demonstrate a significant potential for coevolved plant-pollinator relationships to be disrupted by climatic warming. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. By Force or by Fraud: Optimizing U.S. Information Strategy With Deception (United States)


    Handel, “Intelligence and Deception,” The Journal of Strategic Studies 5, no. 1 (March 1982): 139. 14 Ibid. 6 truth in words and actions, is...Robert Thompson’s “five principles of counterinsurgency,” based on the experience of the British army in the Malayan insurgency, John A. Nagl... law ,” that is accepted by the populace.32 Narrative is measured according to the presence or absence of three sub-factors: a unified message, aligned

  1. The evolution of floral deception in Epipactis veratrifolia (Orchidaceae): from indirect defense to pollination. (United States)

    Jin, Xiao-Hua; Ren, Zong-Xin; Xu, Song-Zhi; Wang, Hong; Li, De-Zhu; Li, Zheng-Yu


    It is estimated that floral deception has evolved in at least 7500 species of angiosperms, of which two thirds are orchids. Epipactis veratrifolia (Orchidaceae) is a model system of aphid mimicry as aphidophagous hoverflies lay eggs on false brood sites on their flowers. To understand the evolutionary ecology of floral deception, we investigated the pollination biology of E. veratrifolia across 10 populations in the Eastern Himalayas. We reconstructed the phylogeny of Epipactis and mapped the known pollination systems of previously studied species onto the tree. Some inflorescences of E. veratrifolia were so infested with aphids while they were still in bud that the some larvae of hoverflies developed to the third instar while flower buds opened. This indicated that adult female hoverflies were partly rewarded for oviposition. Although flowers failed to secrete nectar, they mimicked both alarm pheromones and aphid coloring of to attract female hoverflies as their exclusive pollinators. Phylogenetic mapping indicate that pollination by aphidophagous hoverflies is likely an ancestral condition in the genus Epipactis. We suggest that the biological interaction of aphid (prey), orchid (primary producer) and hoverfly (predator) may represent an intermediate stage between mutualism and deception in the evolution of pollination-by-deceit in E. veratrifolia. Our analyses indicate that this intermediate stage may be used as a model system to interpret the origin of oviposition (brood site) mimicry in Epipactis. We propose the hypothesis that some deceptive pollination systems evolved directly from earlier (partly) mutualistic systems that maintained the fidelity of the original pollinator(s) even though rewards (nectar/ brood site) were lost.

  2. Deciphering Chinese Strategic Deception: The Middle Kingdom’s First Aircraft Carrier (United States)


    Andrew S. Erikson , “Implications of China’s Military Evacuation of Citizens from Libya,” James Town Foundation: China Brief, Volume 11 (4), 10 March... Eric . C. Anderson and Jeffrey G. Engstrom, China’s Use of Perception Management and Strategic Deception, U.S.-China Economic and Security Review...Aircraft carrier competition looms over Asia-Pacific.” The Korean Herald, 2 November 2007. Anderson, Eric . C. and Jeffrey G. Engstrom. China’s Use of

  3. Protection and Deception: Discovering Game Theory and Cyber Literacy through a Novel Board Game Experience



    Cyber literacy merits serious research attention because it addresses a confluence of specialization and generalization; cybersecurity is often conceived of as approachable only by a technological intelligentsia, yet its interdependent nature demands education for a broad population. Therefore, educational tools should lead participants to discover technical knowledge in an accessible and attractive framework. In this paper, we present Protection and Deception (P&G), a novel two-player board ...

  4. Robot Deception and Squirrel Behavior: A Case Study in Bio-inspired Robotics (United States)


    Introduction A common and essential behavior for survival in a variety of intelligent systems ranging from insects to human beings is deception. Many...role in providing an evolutionary advantage (Bond & Robinson, 1988). It appears in higher-level primates to involve a theory of mind mechanism...different animals ranging from insects to primates. The spider genus Portia, which preys primarily on other spiders, deceives their prey by vibrating

  5. Vibrational characteristics of diethyltoluenediamines (DETDA) functionalized carbon nanotubes using molecular dynamics simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ajori, S., E-mail:; Ansari, R., E-mail:


    Functionalization of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) can be viewed as an important process by which the dispersion and solubility of CNTs in the matrices of nanocomposites are improved. Covalent functionalization can affect the mechanical behavior of CNTs. In this paper, the vibrational behavior of diethyltoluenediamines (DETDA) functionalized CNTs is investigated utilizing molecular dynamics simulations in canonical ensemble at room temperature. The models of simulations are divided into two categories of functionalized CNTs with regular and random distributions of DETDA polymers. The results demonstrate that natural frequency of functionalized CNTs is lower than that of pristine ones. Also, it is observed that buckling phenomenon occurs during vibration for functionalized CNTs with regular distribution of polymers. It is further observed that polymer mass and van der Waals (vdW) forces are responsible for frequency changes in functionalized CNTs with random and regular distribution patterns of CNTs, respectively.

  6. Vibrational characteristics of diethyltoluenediamines (DETDA) functionalized carbon nanotubes using molecular dynamics simulations (United States)

    Ajori, S.; Ansari, R.


    Functionalization of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) can be viewed as an important process by which the dispersion and solubility of CNTs in the matrices of nanocomposites are improved. Covalent functionalization can affect the mechanical behavior of CNTs. In this paper, the vibrational behavior of diethyltoluenediamines (DETDA) functionalized CNTs is investigated utilizing molecular dynamics simulations in canonical ensemble at room temperature. The models of simulations are divided into two categories of functionalized CNTs with regular and random distributions of DETDA polymers. The results demonstrate that natural frequency of functionalized CNTs is lower than that of pristine ones. Also, it is observed that buckling phenomenon occurs during vibration for functionalized CNTs with regular distribution of polymers. It is further observed that polymer mass and van der Waals (vdW) forces are responsible for frequency changes in functionalized CNTs with random and regular distribution patterns of CNTs, respectively.

  7. Projector augmented wave method: ab initio molecular dynamics with full wave functions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Peter E Blöchl; Clemens J Först; Johannes Schimpl


    A brief introduction to the projector augmented wave method is given and recent developments are reviewed. The projector augmented wave method is an all-electron method for efficient ab initio molecular dynamics simulations with full wave functions. It extends and combines the traditions of existing augmented wave methods and the pseudopotential approach. Without sacrificing efficiency, the PAW method avoids transferability problems of the pseudopotential approach and it has been valuable to predict properties that depend on the full wave functions.

  8. Explicit symplectic algorithms based on generating functions for charged particle dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Ruili; Tang, Yifa; Liu, Jian; He, Yang; Xiao, Jianyuan


    Dynamics of a charged particle in the canonical coordinates is a Hamiltonian system, and the well-known symplectic algorithm has been regarded as the de facto method for numerical integration of Hamiltonian systems due to its long-term accuracy and fidelity. For long-term simulations with high efficiency, explicit symplectic algorithms are desirable. However, it is widely accepted that explicit symplectic algorithms are only available for sum-separable Hamiltonians, and that this restriction severely limits the application of explicit symplectic algorithms to charged particle dynamics. To overcome this difficulty, we combine the familiar sum-split method and a generating function method to construct second and third order explicit symplectic algorithms for dynamics of charged particle. The generating function method is designed to generate explicit symplectic algorithms for product-separable Hamiltonian with form of $H(\\mathbf{p},\\mathbf{q})=\\mathbf{p}_{i}f(\\mathbf{q})$ or $H(\\mathbf{p},\\mathbf{q})=\\mathbf{q}...

  9. Shedding light on protein folding, structural and functional dynamics by single molecule studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bavishi, Krutika; Hatzakis, Nikos


    The advent of advanced single molecule measurements unveiled a great wealth of dynamic information revolutionizing our understanding of protein dynamics and behavior in ways unattainable by conventional bulk assays. Equipped with the ability to record distribution of behaviors rather than the mean...... property of a population, single molecule measurements offer observation and quantification of the abundance, lifetime and function of multiple protein states. They also permit the direct observation of the transient and rarely populated intermediates in the energy landscape that are typically averaged out...... in non-synchronized ensemble measurements. Single molecule studies have thus provided novel insights about how the dynamic sampling of the free energy landscape dictates all aspects of protein behavior; from its folding to function. Here we will survey some of the state of the art contributions...

  10. Stability of dynamical systems on the role of monotonic and non-monotonic Lyapunov functions

    CERN Document Server

    Michel, Anthony N; Liu, Derong


    The second edition of this textbook provides a single source for the analysis of system models represented by continuous-time and discrete-time, finite-dimensional and infinite-dimensional, and continuous and discontinuous dynamical systems.  For these system models, it presents results which comprise the classical Lyapunov stability theory involving monotonic Lyapunov functions, as well as corresponding contemporary stability results involving non-monotonicLyapunov functions.Specific examples from several diverse areas are given to demonstrate the applicability of the developed theory to many important classes of systems, including digital control systems, nonlinear regulator systems, pulse-width-modulated feedback control systems, and artificial neural networks.   The authors cover the following four general topics:   -          Representation and modeling of dynamical systems of the types described above -          Presentation of Lyapunov and Lagrange stability theory for dynamical sy...

  11. Sex, lies and fMRI--gender differences in neural basis of deception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Marchewka

    Full Text Available Deception has always been a part of human communication as it helps to promote self-presentation. Although both men and women are equally prone to try to manage their appearance, their strategies, motivation and eagerness may be different. Here, we asked if lying could be influenced by gender on both the behavioral and neural levels. To test whether the hypothesized gender differences in brain activity related to deceptive responses were caused by differential socialization in men and women, we administered the Gender Identity Inventory probing the participants' subjective social sex role. In an fMRI session, participants were instructed either to lie or to tell the truth while answering a questionnaire focusing on general and personal information. Only for personal information, we found differences in neural responses during instructed deception in men and women. The women vs. men direct contrast revealed no significant differences in areas of activation, but men showed higher BOLD signal compared to women in the left middle frontal gyrus (MFG. Moreover, this effect remained unchanged when self-reported psychological gender was controlled for. Thus, our study showed that gender differences in the neural processes engaged during falsifying personal information might be independent from socialization.

  12. Good science, deceptive science, and fraud, plus a brief discussion of peer review (United States)

    Lundquist, Marjorie


    What makes scientific publication different from other types of publication? Traditionally, it was that scientists published not only their conclusions, but also their data (which enabled others wanting to re-evaluate the data to do so). Publishing their data helped keep scientists honest. In the mid-20th century the policies of scientific journals changed, partly because very large data sets were being evaluated via computer. Many (but not all) scientific journals paid homage to scientific tradition by establishing archives for data serving as the basis for published scientific papers, while only a description of the study and the conclusions were published in the peer-reviewed scientific journals. This set the stage for scientific deception and scientific fraud, which became widespread in certain fields of study during the latter part of the 20th century. Indeed, some organizations were established that appeared to be legitimate scientific societies, but in fact existed for the purpose of promoting the incorrect evaluation of scientific data and publishing deceptive studies masquerading as sound scientific studies. The field of medicine has also become more science than art, with its current emphasis on ``evidence-based medicine.'' The different types of scientific deceit/fraud are identified, and a lifetime of experience with the correction of scientific error, plus encounters with scientific deception and scientific fraud, is summarized.

  13. Deception and Cognitive Load: Expanding our Horizon with a Working Memory Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siegfried Ludwig Sporer


    Full Text Available Deception and Cognitive Load: Expanding our Horizon with a Working Memory ModelAbstractRecently, studies on deception and its detection have increased dramatically. Many of these studies rely on the cognitive load approach as the sole explanatory principle to understand deception. These studies have been exclusively on lies about negative actions (usually lies of suspects of [mock] crimes. Instead, we need to re-focus more generally on the cognitive processes involved in generating both lies and truths, not just on manipulations of cognitive load. Using Baddeley's (2000, 2007, 2012 working memory model, which integrates verbal and visual processes in working memory with retrieval from long-term memory and control of action, not only verbal content cues but also nonverbal, paraverbal and linguistic cues can be investigated within a single framework. The proposed model considers long-term semantic, episodic and autobiographical memory and their connections with working memory and action. It also incorporates ironic processes of mental control (Wegner, 1994, 2009, the role of scripts and schemata and retrieval cues and retrieval processes. Specific predictions of the model are outlined and support from selective studies is presented. The model is applicable to different types of reports, particularly about lies and truths about complex events, and to different modes of production (oral, hand-written, typed. Predictions regarding several moderator variables and methods to investigate them are proposed.

  14. Sex, Lies and fMRI—Gender Differences in Neural Basis of Deception (United States)

    Falkiewicz, Marcel; Szeszkowski, Wojciech; Grabowska, Anna; Szatkowska, Iwona


    Deception has always been a part of human communication as it helps to promote self-presentation. Although both men and women are equally prone to try to manage their appearance, their strategies, motivation and eagerness may be different. Here, we asked if lying could be influenced by gender on both the behavioral and neural levels. To test whether the hypothesized gender differences in brain activity related to deceptive responses were caused by differential socialization in men and women, we administered the Gender Identity Inventory probing the participants’ subjective social sex role. In an fMRI session, participants were instructed either to lie or to tell the truth while answering a questionnaire focusing on general and personal information. Only for personal information, we found differences in neural responses during instructed deception in men and women. The women vs. men direct contrast revealed no significant differences in areas of activation, but men showed higher BOLD signal compared to women in the left middle frontal gyrus (MFG). Moreover, this effect remained unchanged when self-reported psychological gender was controlled for. Thus, our study showed that gender differences in the neural processes engaged during falsifying personal information might be independent from socialization. PMID:22952631

  15. The Truth-Telling Motor Cortex: Response Competition in M1 Discloses Deceptive Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aviad A. Hadar


    Full Text Available Recent studies have suggested that circuits associated with response conflict and response inhibition are strongly implicated in deception. Using single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS, we examined whether conflict between competing responses in primary motor cortex (M1 can be used for discriminating between intentionally false and true facial recognition. Participants used little finger and thumb key-presses to lie or tell the truth regarding their familiarity with a series of famous and nonfamous faces. Single-pulse TMS was administered to M1 at three intervals prior to response execution in order to evoke motor evoked potentials (MEPs in both Abductor Digiti Minimi (ADM and first dorsal interosseous (FDI of the right hand. As predicted, we found that the MEP of the nonresponding digit was greater than the MEP of the responding digit when participants prepared to engage in deception, while a mirror-reversed pattern was observed for truth telling. This effect did not interact with the stimulation interval suggesting consistent activation of the motor plan representing the truth throughout the response preparation process. We discuss these results with reference to models of response selection and procedures for the detection of deception.

  16. Pollination by sexual deception promotes outcrossing and mate diversity in self-compatible clonal orchids. (United States)

    Whitehead, M R; Linde, C C; Peakall, R


    The majority of flowering plants rely on animals as pollen vectors. Thus, plant mating systems and pollen dispersal are strongly influenced by pollinator behaviour. In Australian sexually deceptive orchids pollinated by male thynnine wasps, outcrossing and extensive pollen flow is predicted due to floral deception, which minimizes multiple flower visitations within patches, and the movement of pollinators under mate-search rather than foraging behaviours. This hypothesis was tested using microsatellite markers to reconstruct and infer paternity in two clonal, self-compatible orchids. Offspring from naturally pollinated Chiloglottis valida and C. aff. jeanesii were acquired through symbiotic culture of seeds collected over three seasons. In both species, outcrossing was extensive (tm  = 0.924-1.00) despite clone sizes up to 11 m wide. The median pollen flow distance based on paternity for both taxa combined was 14.5 m (n = 18, range 0-69 m), being larger than typically found by paternity analyses in other herbaceous plants. Unexpectedly for orchids, some capsules were sired by more than one father, with an average of 1.35 pollen donors per fruit. This is the first genetic confirmation of polyandry in orchid capsules. Further, we report a possible link between multiple paternity and increased seed fitness. Together, these results demonstrate that deceptive pollination by mate-searching wasps enhances offspring fitness by promoting both outcrossing and within-fruit paternal diversity.

  17. Bumble-bee learning selects for both early and long flowering in food-deceptive plants. (United States)

    Internicola, Antonina I; Harder, Lawrence D


    Most rewardless orchids engage in generalized food-deception, exhibiting floral traits typical of rewarding species and exploiting the instinctive foraging of pollinators. Generalized food-deceptive (GFD) orchids compete poorly with rewarding species for pollinator services, which may be overcome by flowering early in the growing season when relatively more pollinators are naive and fewer competing plant species are flowering, and/or flowering for extended periods to enhance the chance of pollinator visits. We tested these hypotheses by manipulating flowering time and duration in a natural population of Calypso bulbosa and quantifying pollinator visitation based on pollen removal. Both early and long flowering increased bumble-bee visitation compared with late and brief flowering, respectively. To identify the cause of reduced visitation during late flowering, we tested whether negative experience with C. bulbosa (avoidance learning) and positive experience with a rewarding species, Arctostaphylos uva-ursi, (associative learning) by captive bumble-bees could reduce C. bulbosa's competitiveness. Avoidance learning explained the higher visitation of early- compared with late-flowering C. bulbosa. The resulting pollinator-mediated selection for early flowering may commonly affect GFD orchids, explaining their tendency to flower earlier than rewarding orchids. For dissimilar deceptive and rewarding sympatric species, associative learning may additionally favour early flowering by GFD species.

  18. Interplay between functional connectivity and scale-free dynamics in intrinsic fMRI networks. (United States)

    Ciuciu, Philippe; Abry, Patrice; He, Biyu J


    Studies employing functional connectivity-type analyses have established that spontaneous fluctuations in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signals are organized within large-scale brain networks. Meanwhile, fMRI signals have been shown to exhibit 1/f-type power spectra - a hallmark of scale-free dynamics. We studied the interplay between functional connectivity and scale-free dynamics in fMRI signals, utilizing the fractal connectivity framework - a multivariate extension of the univariate fractional Gaussian noise model, which relies on a wavelet formulation for robust parameter estimation. We applied this framework to fMRI data acquired from healthy young adults at rest and while performing a visual detection task. First, we found that scale-invariance existed beyond univariate dynamics, being present also in bivariate cross-temporal dynamics. Second, we observed that frequencies within the scale-free range do not contribute evenly to inter-regional connectivity, with a systematically stronger contribution of the lowest frequencies, both at rest and during task. Third, in addition to a decrease of the Hurst exponent and inter-regional correlations, task performance modified cross-temporal dynamics, inducing a larger contribution of the highest frequencies within the scale-free range to global correlation. Lastly, we found that across individuals, a weaker task modulation of the frequency contribution to inter-regional connectivity was associated with better task performance manifesting as shorter and less variable reaction times. These findings bring together two related fields that have hitherto been studied separately - resting-state networks and scale-free dynamics, and show that scale-free dynamics of human brain activity manifest in cross-regional interactions as well.

  19. Dynamic response of AFM cantilevers to dissimilar functionalized silica surfaces in aqueous electrolyte solutions. (United States)

    Wu, Yan; Misra, Sambit; Karacor, M Basar; Prakash, Shaurya; Shannon, Mark A


    The dynamic response of an oscillating microcantilever with a gold-coated tip interacting with dissimilar functionalized silica surfaces was studied in electrolyte solutions with pH ranging from 4 to 9. Silica surfaces were chemically modified, yielding dissimilar surfaces with -Br, -NH(2), and -CH(3) functional group terminations. The relative hydrophobicity of the surfaces was characterized by contact angle measurements. The surface charge of the functionalized surfaces was first probed with commonly used static AFM measurements and serves as a reference to the dynamic response data. The amplitude and phase of the cantilever oscillation were monitored and used to calculate the effective interaction stiffness and damping coefficient, which relate to the electrical double layer interactions and also to distance-dependent hydrodynamic damping at the solid/water interface. The data for the dynamic response of the AFM over silica surfaces as a function of chemical functionalization and electrolyte pH show that the effective stiffness has a distinctive dependence on the surface charge of functionalized silica surfaces. The hydrodynamic damping also correlates strongly with the relative hydrophobicity of the surface. The data reported here indicate that interfacial properties can be strongly affected by changing the chemical composition of surfaces.

  20. COPEWELL: A Conceptual Framework and System Dynamics Model for Predicting Community Functioning and Resilience After Disasters. (United States)

    Links, Jonathan M; Schwartz, Brian S; Lin, Sen; Kanarek, Norma; Mitrani-Reiser, Judith; Sell, Tara Kirk; Watson, Crystal R; Ward, Doug; Slemp, Cathy; Burhans, Robert; Gill, Kimberly; Igusa, Tak; Zhao, Xilei; Aguirre, Benigno; Trainor, Joseph; Nigg, Joanne; Inglesby, Thomas; Carbone, Eric; Kendra, James M


    Policy-makers and practitioners have a need to assess community resilience in disasters. Prior efforts conflated resilience with community functioning, combined resistance and recovery (the components of resilience), and relied on a static model for what is inherently a dynamic process. We sought to develop linked conceptual and computational models of community functioning and resilience after a disaster. We developed a system dynamics computational model that predicts community functioning after a disaster. The computational model outputted the time course of community functioning before, during, and after a disaster, which was used to calculate resistance, recovery, and resilience for all US counties. The conceptual model explicitly separated resilience from community functioning and identified all key components for each, which were translated into a system dynamics computational model with connections and feedbacks. The components were represented by publicly available measures at the county level. Baseline community functioning, resistance, recovery, and resilience evidenced a range of values and geographic clustering, consistent with hypotheses based on the disaster literature. The work is transparent, motivates ongoing refinements, and identifies areas for improved measurements. After validation, such a model can be used to identify effective investments to enhance community resilience.(Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;page 1 of 11).

  1. Locally optimal control under unknown dynamics with learnt cost function: application to industrial robot positioning (United States)

    Guérin, Joris; Gibaru, Olivier; Thiery, Stéphane; Nyiri, Eric


    Recent methods of Reinforcement Learning have enabled to solve difficult, high dimensional, robotic tasks under unknown dynamics using iterative Linear Quadratic Gaussian control theory. These algorithms are based on building a local time-varying linear model of the dynamics from data gathered through interaction with the environment. In such tasks, the cost function is often expressed directly in terms of the state and control variables so that it can be locally quadratized to run the algorithm. If the cost is expressed in terms of other variables, a model is required to compute the cost function from the variables manipulated. We propose a method to learn the cost function directly from the data, in the same way as for the dynamics. This way, the cost function can be defined in terms of any measurable quantity and thus can be chosen more appropriately for the task to be carried out. With our method, any sensor information can be used to design the cost function. We demonstrate the efficiency of this method through simulating, with the V-REP software, the learning of a Cartesian positioning task on several industrial robots with different characteristics. The robots are controlled in joint space and no model is provided a priori. Our results are compared with another model free technique, consisting in writing the cost function as a state variable.

  2. Towards Dynamic Control of Wettability by Using Functionalized Altitudinal Molecular Motors on Solid Surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    London, Gabor; Chen, Kuang-Yen; Carroll, Gregory T.; Feringa, Ben L.


    We report the synthesis of altitudinal molecular motors that contain functional groups in their rotor part. In an approach to achieve dynamic control over the properties of solid surfaces, a hydrophobic perfluorobutyl chain and a relatively hydrophilic cyano group were introduced to the rotor part o

  3. The Impact of Family Violence, Family Functioning, and Parental Partner Dynamics on Korean Juvenile Delinquency (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Sil; Kim, Hun-Soo


    The present study was aimed at determining the family factors related to juvenile delinquency and identifying the effect of family violence, family functioning, parental partner dynamics, and adolescents' personality on delinquent behavior among Korean adolescents. A cross-sectional study was performed using an anonymous, self-reporting…

  4. Existence and Uniqueness of Solutions for two Classes of Functional Equations Arising in Dynamic Programming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ze-qing Liu; Shin Min Kang


    In this paper we establish the existence,uniqueness and iterative approxinlation of solutions for two classes of functional equations arising in dynamic programming of multistage decision Processes.The resultspresented here extend,and unify the corresponding results due to Bellman,Bhakta and Choudhury,Bhakta and Mitra,Liu and others.

  5. ℋ-Operator Pairs with Application to Functional Equations Arising in Dynamic Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Razani


    Full Text Available Some common fixed point theorems for ℋ-operator pairs are proved. As an application, the existence and uniqueness of the common solution for systems of functional equations arising in dynamic programming are discussed. Also, an example to validate all the conditions of the main result is presented.

  6. Dynamical patterns of calcium signaling in a functional model of neuron-astrocyte networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postnov, D.E.; Koreshkov, R.N.; Brazhe, N.A.


    We propose a functional mathematical model for neuron-astrocyte networks. The model incorporates elements of the tripartite synapse and the spatial branching structure of coupled astrocytes. We consider glutamate-induced calcium signaling as a specific mode of excitability and transmission...... in astrocytic-neuronal networks. We reproduce local and global dynamical patterns observed experimentally....

  7. Dynamic Graphics in Excel for Teaching Statistics: Understanding the Probability Density Function (United States)

    Coll-Serrano, Vicente; Blasco-Blasco, Olga; Alvarez-Jareno, Jose A.


    In this article, we show a dynamic graphic in Excel that is used to introduce an important concept in our subject, Statistics I: the probability density function. This interactive graphic seeks to facilitate conceptual understanding of the main aspects analysed by the learners.

  8. A molecular dynamics study on the interaction between epoxy and functionalized graphene sheets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melro, Liliana Sofia S. F. P.; Pyrz, Ryszard; Jensen, Lars Rosgaard


    The interaction between graphene and epoxy resin was studied using molecular dynamics simulations. The interfacial shear strength and pull out force were calculated for functionalised graphene layers (carboxyl, carbonyl, and hydroxyl) and epoxy composites interfaces. The influence of functional...... and epoxy resin increases....

  9. Design of bounded feedback controls for linear dynamical systems by using common Lyapunov functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Igor; Ananievskii; Nickolai; Anokhin; Alexander; Ovseevich


    For a linear dynamical system,we address the problem of devising a bounded feedback control,which brings the system to the origin in finite time.The construction is based on the notion of a common Lyapunov function.It is shown that the constructed control remains effective in the presence of small perturbations.

  10. Metaphors in Mathematics Classrooms: Analyzing the Dynamic Process of Teaching and Learning of Graph Functions (United States)

    Font, Vicenc; Bolite, Janete; Acevedo, Jorge


    This article presents an analysis of a phenomenon that was observed within the dynamic processes of teaching and learning to read and elaborate Cartesian graphs for functions at high-school level. Two questions were considered during this investigation: What types of metaphors does the teacher use to explain the graphic representation of functions…

  11. Towards Dynamic Control of Wettability by Using Functionalized Altitudinal Molecular Motors on Solid Surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    London, Gabor; Chen, Kuang-Yen; Carroll, Gregory T.; Feringa, Ben L.


    We report the synthesis of altitudinal molecular motors that contain functional groups in their rotor part. In an approach to achieve dynamic control over the properties of solid surfaces, a hydrophobic perfluorobutyl chain and a relatively hydrophilic cyano group were introduced to the rotor part

  12. Dynamic functional connectivity reveals altered variability in functional connectivity among patients with major depressive disorder (United States)

    Tornador, Cristian; Falcón, Carles; López‐Solà, Marina; Hernández‐Ribas, Rosa; Pujol, Jesús; Menchón, José M.; Ritter, Petra; Cardoner, Narcis; Soriano‐Mas, Carles; Deco, Gustavo


    Abstract Resting‐state fMRI (RS‐fMRI) has become a useful tool to investigate the connectivity structure of mental health disorders. In the case of major depressive disorder (MDD), recent studies regarding the RS‐fMRI have found abnormal connectivity in several regions of the brain, particularly in the default mode network (DMN). Thus, the relevance of the DMN to self‐referential thoughts and ruminations has made the use of the resting‐state approach particularly important for MDD. The majority of such research has relied on the grand averaged functional connectivity measures based on the temporal correlations between the BOLD time series of various brain regions. We, in our study, investigated the variations in the functional connectivity over time at global and local level using RS‐fMRI BOLD time series of 27 MDD patients and 27 healthy control subjects. We found that global synchronization and temporal stability were significantly increased in the MDD patients. Furthermore, the participants with MDD showed significantly increased overall average (static) functional connectivity (sFC) but decreased variability of functional connectivity (vFC) within specific networks. Static FC increased to predominance among the regions pertaining to the default mode network (DMN), while the decreased variability of FC was observed in the connections between the DMN and the frontoparietal network. Hum Brain Mapp 37:2918–2930, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27120982

  13. Family dynamics and psychosocial functioning in children with SCI/D from Colombia, South America (United States)

    Nicolais, Christina J.; Perrin, Paul B.; Panyavin, Ivan; Nicholls, Elizabeth G.; Olivera Plaza, Silvia Leonor; Quintero, Lorena Medina; Arango-Lasprilla, Juan Carlos


    Objective The purpose of this study was to examine the connections between family dynamics and the psychosocial functioning of children with spinal cord injuries and disorders (SCI/D). Design Cross-sectional. Setting Participants were recruited from communities in Neiva, Colombia. Participants Thirty children with SCI/D and their primary caregiver participated. Children were between 8 and 17 years of age, and had sustained their injury at least six months prior to data collection. Interventions NA. Outcome measures Participating children completed measures assessing their own psychosocial functioning (Children's Depression Inventory, Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale-2, Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory), and their primary caregiver completed measures of family dynamics (Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale- Fourth Edition, Family Communication Scale, Family Assessment Device- General Functioning, Family Satisfaction Scale, Relationship-Focused Coping Scale). Results A correlation matrix showed a number of significant bivariate correlations between child and family variables, and three multiple regressions showed that family satisfaction, empathy, and flexibility significantly explained 27% of the variance in child worry; family satisfaction and communication explained 18% of the variance in child social anxiety; and family cohesion and communication explained 23% of the variance in child emotional functioning. Conclusions These findings highlight the importance of rehabilitation professionals considering the association between family dynamics and the psychosocial functioning of children with SCI/D when working with this population. PMID:25582185

  14. Evolutionary Fates and Dynamic Functionalization of Young Duplicate Genes in Arabidopsis Genomes1[OPEN (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Tao, Feng; Marowsky, Nicholas C.; Fan, Chuanzhu


    Gene duplication is a primary means to generate genomic novelties, playing an essential role in speciation and adaptation. Particularly in plants, a high abundance of duplicate genes has been maintained for significantly long periods of evolutionary time. To address the manner in which young duplicate genes were derived primarily from small-scale gene duplication and preserved in plant genomes and to determine the underlying driving mechanisms, we generated transcriptomes to produce the expression profiles of five tissues in Arabidopsis thaliana and the closely related species Arabidopsis lyrata and Capsella rubella. Based on the quantitative analysis metrics, we investigated the evolutionary processes of young duplicate genes in Arabidopsis. We determined that conservation, neofunctionalization, and specialization are three main evolutionary processes for Arabidopsis young duplicate genes. We explicitly demonstrated the dynamic functionalization of duplicate genes along the evolutionary time scale. Upon origination, duplicates tend to maintain their ancestral functions; but as they survive longer, they might be likely to develop distinct and novel functions. The temporal evolutionary processes and functionalization of plant duplicate genes are associated with their ancestral functions, dynamic DNA methylation levels, and histone modification abundances. Furthermore, duplicate genes tend to be initially expressed in pollen and then to gain more interaction partners over time. Altogether, our study provides novel insights into the dynamic retention processes of young duplicate genes in plant genomes. PMID:27485883

  15. Challenges in microbial ecology: Building predictive understanding of community function and dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Widder, Stefanie; Allen, Rosalind J.; Pfeiffer, Thomas


    The importance of microbial communities (MCs) cannot be overstated. MCs underpin the biogeochemical cycles of the earth's soil, oceans and the atmosphere, and perform ecosystem functions that impact plants, animals and humans. Yet our ability to predict and manage the function of these highly...... complex, dynamically changing communities is limited. Building predictive models that link MC composition to function is a key emerging challenge in microbial ecology. Here, we argue that addressing this challenge requires close coordination of experimental data collection and method development...

  16. Response Functions for the Two-Dimensional Ultracold Fermi Gas: Dynamical BCS Theory and Beyond (United States)

    Vitali, Ettore; Shi, Hao; Qin, Mingpu; Zhang, Shiwei


    Response functions are central objects in physics. They provide crucial information about the behavior of physical systems, and they can be directly compared with scattering experiments involving particles such as neutrons or photons. Calculations of such functions starting from the many-body Hamiltonian of a physical system are challenging and extremely valuable. In this paper, we focus on the two-dimensional (2D) ultracold Fermi atomic gas which has been realized experimentally. We present an application of the dynamical BCS theory to obtain response functions for different regimes of interaction strengths in the 2D gas with zero-range attractive interaction. We also discuss auxiliary-field quantum Monte Carlo (AFQMC) methods for the calculation of imaginary time correlations in these dilute Fermi gas systems. Illustrative results are given and comparisons are made between AFQMC and dynamical BCS theory results to assess the accuracy of the latter.

  17. Perspectives for clinical measures of dynamic foot function-reference data and methodological considerations. (United States)

    Rathleff, M S; Nielsen, R G; Simonsen, O; Olesen, C G; Kersting, U G


    Several studies have investigated if static posture assessments qualify to predict dynamic function of the foot showing diverse outcomes. However, it was suggested that dynamic measures may be better suited to predict foot-related overuse problems. The purpose of this study was to establish the reliability for dynamic measures of longitudinal arch angle (LAA) and navicular height (NH) and to examine to what extent static and dynamic measures thereof are related. Intra-rater reliability of LAA and NH measures was tested on a sample of 17 control subjects. Subsequently, 79 subjects were tested while walking on a treadmill. The ranges and minimum values for LAA and NH during ground contact were identified over 20 consecutive steps. A geometric error model was used to simulate effects of marker placement uncertainty and skin movement artifacts. Results demonstrated the highest reliability for the minimum NH (MinNH), followed by the minimum LAA (MinLAA), the dynamic range of navicular height (DeltaNH) and the range of LAA (DeltaLAA) while all measures were highly reliable. Marker location uncertainty and skin movement artifacts had the smallest effects on measures of NH. The use of an alignment device for marker placement was shown to reduce error ranges for NH measures. Therefore, DeltaNH and MinNH were recommended for functional dynamic foot characterization in the sagittal plane. There is potential for such measures to be a suitable predictor for overuse injuries while being obtainable in clinical settings. Future research needs to include such dynamic but simple foot assessments in large-scale clinical studies.

  18. Task-related Functional Connectivity Dynamics in a Block-designed Visual Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin eDi


    Full Text Available Studying task modulations of brain connectivity using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI is critical to understand brain functions that support cognitive and affective processes. Existing methods such as psychophysiological interaction (PPI and dynamic causal modelling (DCM usually implicitly assume that the connectivity patterns are stable over a block-designed task with identical stimuli. However, this assumption lacks empirical verification on high-temporal resolution fMRI data with reliable data-driven analysis methods. The present study performed a detailed examination of dynamic changes of functional connectivity (FC in a simple block-designed visual checkerboard experiment with a sub-second sampling rate (TR = 0.645 s by estimating time-varying correlation coefficient (TVCC between BOLD responses of different brain regions. We observed reliable task-related FC changes (i.e., FCs were transiently decreased after task onset and went back to the baseline afterward among several visual regions of the bilateral middle occipital gyrus (MOG and the bilateral fusiform gyrus (FuG. Importantly, only the FCs between higher visual regions (MOG and lower visual regions (FuG exhibited such dynamic patterns. The results suggested that simply assuming a sustained FC during a task block may be insufficient to capture distinct task-related FC changes. The investigation of FC dynamics in tasks could improve our understanding of condition shifts and the coordination between different activated brain regions.

  19. Molecular dynamics simulation of doxorubicin adsorption on a bundle of functionalized CNT. (United States)

    Izadyar, Akram; Farhadian, Nafiseh; Chenarani, Naser


    In this study, molecular dynamics simulation is used to investigate the adsorption of an anticancer drug, doxorubicin, on bundles of functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) in an aqueous solution. Carboxylic group has been selected as the functional group. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are performed for both separated systems containing a SWNT bundle and a functionalized carbon nanotube bundle, and results are compared with existing experimental data. MD results show that doxorubicin can be adsorbed on CNTs using different methods such as entrapment within CNT bundle, attachment to the side wall of the CNT, and adsorption on the CNT inner cavity. For functionalized CNT, the adsorption of drugs on the functional groups is essential for predicting the enhancement of drug loading on the functionalized nanotubes. Furthermore, the adsorption behavior of doxorubicin on CNTs is fitted with Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The results show that Langmuir model can predict the adsorption behavior of doxorubicin on CNTs more accurately than Freundlich model does. As predicted by this isotherm model, the adsorption process of doxorubicin on CNTs is relatively difficult, but it can be improved by increasing the functional groups on the CNTs surface.

  20. Sufficiently informative functions and the minimax feedback control of uncertain dynamic systems. (United States)

    Bertsekas, D. P.; Rhodes, I. B.


    The problem of optimal feedback control of uncertain discrete-time dynamic systems is considered where the uncertain quantities do not have a stochastic description but instead are known to belong to given sets. The problem is converted to a sequential minimax problem and dynamic programming is suggested as a general method for its solution. The notion of a sufficiently informative function, which parallels the notion of a sufficient statistic of stochastic optimal control, is introduced, and conditions under which the optimal controller decomposes into an estimator and an actuator are identified.