The role of the dynamic crossover temperature and the arrest in glass-forming fluids.
Mallamace, F; Corsaro, C; Stanley, H E; Chen, S-H
2011-09-01
We discuss the role of the dynamic glass-forming fragile-to-strong crossover (FSC) in supercooled liquids. In the FSC, significant dynamic changes such as the decoupling (the violation of the Stokes-Einstein relation) of homologous transport parameters, e.g., the density relaxation time τ and the viscosity η, occur at a characteristic temperature T(c). We study the FSC using a scaling law approach. In particular, we use both forms of the mode-coupling theory (MCT): the original (ideal) and the extended form, which explicitly describes energy hopping processes. We demonstrate that T(c) plays the most important physical role in understanding dynamic arrest processes.
Mallamace, Francesco; Branca, Caterina; Corsaro, Carmelo; Leone, Nancy; Spooren, Jeroen; Chen, Sow-Hsin; Stanley, H Eugene
2010-12-28
It is becoming common practice to partition glass-forming liquids into two classes based on the dependence of the shear viscosity η on temperature T. In an Arrhenius plot, ln η vs 1/T, a strong liquid shows linear behavior whereas a fragile liquid exhibits an upward curvature [super-Arrhenius (SA) behavior], a situation customarily described by using the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann law. Here we analyze existing data of the transport coefficients of 84 glass-forming liquids. We show the data are consistent, on decreasing temperature, with the onset of a well-defined dynamical crossover η(×), where η(×) has the same value, η(×) ≈ 10(3) Poise, for all 84 liquids. The crossover temperature, T(×), located well above the calorimetric glass transition temperature T(g), marks significant variations in the system thermodynamics, evidenced by the change of the SA-like T dependence above T(×) to Arrhenius behavior below T(×). We also show that below T(×) the familiar Stokes-Einstein relation D/T ∼ η(-1) breaks down and is replaced by a fractional form D/T ∼ η(-ζ), with ζ ≈ 0.85.
Chen, Sow-Hsin; Baglioni, Piero
2012-02-01
This special section has been inspired by the workshop on Dynamic Crossover Phenomena in Water and Other Glass-Forming Liquids, held during November 11-13, 2010 at Pensione Bencistà, Fiesole, Italy, a well-preserved 14th century Italian villa tucked high in the hills overlooking Florence. The meeting, an assembly of world renowned scientists, was organized as a special occasion to celebrate the 75th birthday of Professor Sow-Hsin Chen of MIT, a pioneer in several aspects of complex fluids and soft matter physics. The workshop covered a large variety of experimental and theoretical research topics of current interest related to dynamic crossover phenomena in water and, more generally, in other glass-forming liquids. The 30 invited speakers/lecturers and approximately 60 participants were a select group of prominent physicists and chemists from the USA, Europe, Asia and Mexico, who are actively working in the field. Some highlights of this special issue include the following works. Professor Yamaguchi's group and their collaborators present a neutron spin echo study of the coherent intermediate scattering function of heavy water confined in cylindrical pores of MCM-41-C10 silica material in the temperature range 190-298 K. They clearly show that a fragile-to-strong (FTS) dynamic crossover occurs at about 225 K. They attribute the FTS dynamic crossover to the formation of a tetrahedral-like structure, which is preserved in the bulk-like water confined to the central part of the cylindrical pores. Mamontov and Kolesnikov et al study the collective excitations in an aqueous solution of lithium chloride over a temperature range of 205-270 K using neutron and x-ray Rayleigh-Brillouin (coherent) scattering. They detect both the low-frequency and the high-frequency sounds known to exist in pure bulk water above the melting temperature. They also perform neutron (incoherent) and x-ray (coherent) elastic intensity scan measurements. Clear evidence of the crossover in the
Dynamical scaling and crossover from algebraic to logarithmic growth in dilute systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mouritsen, Ole G.; Shah, Peter Jivan
1989-01-01
The ordering dynamics of the two-dimensional Ising antiferromagnet with mobile vacancies and nonconserved order parameter is studied by Monte Carlo temperature-quenching experiments. The domain-size distribution function is shown to obey dynamical scaling. A crossover is found from an algebraic...... growth law for the pure system to effectively logarithmic growth behavior in the dilute system, in accordance with recent experiments on ordering kinetics in impure chemisorbed overlayers and off-stoichiometric alloys....
Pressure and Temperature Sensors Using Two Spin Crossover Materials
Jureschi, Catalin-Maricel; Linares, Jorge; Boulmaali, Ayoub; Dahoo, Pierre Richard; Rotaru, Aurelian; Garcia, Yann
2016-01-01
The possibility of a new design concept for dual spin crossover based sensors for concomitant detection of both temperature and pressure is presented. It is conjectured from numerical results obtained by mean field approximation applied to a Ising-like model that using two different spin crossover compounds containing switching molecules with weak elastic interactions it is possible to simultaneously measure P and T. When the interaction parameters are optimized, the spin transition is gradual and for each spin crossover compounds, both temperature and pressure values being identified from their optical densities. This concept offers great perspectives for smart sensing devices. PMID:26848663
Pressure and Temperature Sensors Using Two Spin Crossover Materials.
Jureschi, Catalin-Maricel; Linares, Jorge; Boulmaali, Ayoub; Dahoo, Pierre Richard; Rotaru, Aurelian; Garcia, Yann
2016-02-02
The possibility of a new design concept for dual spin crossover based sensors for concomitant detection of both temperature and pressure is presented. It is conjectured from numerical results obtained by mean field approximation applied to a Ising-like model that using two different spin crossover compounds containing switching molecules with weak elastic interactions it is possible to simultaneously measure P and T. When the interaction parameters are optimized, the spin transition is gradual and for each spin crossover compounds, both temperature and pressure values being identified from their optical densities. This concept offers great perspectives for smart sensing devices.
Pressure and Temperature Sensors Using Two Spin Crossover Materials
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Catalin-Maricel Jureschi
2016-02-01
Full Text Available The possibility of a new design concept for dual spin crossover based sensors for concomitant detection of both temperature and pressure is presented. It is conjectured from numerical results obtained by mean field approximation applied to a Ising-like model that using two different spin crossover compounds containing switching molecules with weak elastic interactions it is possible to simultaneously measure P and T. When the interaction parameters are optimized, the spin transition is gradual and for each spin crossover compounds, both temperature and pressure values being identified from their optical densities. This concept offers great perspectives for smart sensing devices.
Crossover to entangled dynamics in polymer solutions and melts
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schweizer, K.S.; Szamel, G.
1995-01-01
A statistical dynamical theory of the crossover from unentangled Rouse dynamics to entangled behavior is constructed for chain polymer solutions and melts. Both time and spatial crossovers in long chain fluids, and the degree of polymerization crossover for short polymers, are treated. The analysis is based on a microscopic theory of the perturbative dynamical corrections to Rouse theory arising from chain connectivity and intermolecular excluded volume forces. The dependence of crossover properties such as the plateau shear modulus and entanglement time and length scale on solution density, solvent quality, and chain statistical segment length are derived by combining the dynamical theory with equilibrium liquid state integral equation methods. Scaling relations are obtained which appear to be in general accord with most experiments on both solutions and melts. The physical origin of the predicted scaling behaviors is the fractional power law temporal decay of the entanglement friction memory function on intermediate time scales, and power law reduced density dependence of the equilibrium force correlations. The theory is also applied to compute the dependence of the chain normal mode relaxation times on polymer density and chain length. Favorable qualitative comparisons with recent neutron spin echo experiments are made. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics
Dynamic phases of low-temperature low-current driven vortex matter in superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Benkraouda, M; Obaidat, I M; Khawaja, U Al; Mulaa, N M J
2006-01-01
Using molecular dynamics simulations of vortices in a high-temperature superconductor with square periodic arrays of pinning sites, dynamic phases of the low-current driven vortices are studied at low temperatures. A rough vortex phase diagram of three distinct regimes of vortex flow is proposed. At zero temperature, we obtain a coupled-channel regime where rows of vortices flow coherently in the direction of the driving force. As the temperature is increased, a smooth crossover into an uncoupled-channel regime occurs where the coherence between the flowing rows of vortices becomes weaker. Increasing the temperature further leads to a plastic vortex regime, where the channels of flowing vortices completely disappear. The temperatures of the crossovers between these regimes were found to decrease with the driving force
Dimensionality crossover in vortex dynamics of magnetically coupled F-S-F hybrids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Karapetrov, G; Belkin, A; Iavarone, M; Yefremenko, V; Pearson, J E; Novosad, V; Divan, R; Cambel, V
2011-01-01
We report on the vortex dynamics in magnetically coupled F-S-F trilayers extracted from the analysis of the resistance-current isotherms. The superconducting thin film that is conventionally in the 2D vortex limit exhibits quite different behavior when sandwiched between ferromagnetic layers. The value of the dynamic critical exponent strongly increases in the F-S-F case due to screening of the stray vortex field by the adjacent ferromagnetic layers, leading to an effective dimensional crossover in vortex dynamics. Furthermore, the directional pinning by the magnetic stripe domains induces anisotropy in the vortex glass transition temperature and causes metastable avalanche behavior at strong driving currents.
Fomin, Yu D.; Ryzhov, V. N.; Tsiok, E. N.; Proctor, J. E.; Prescher, C.; Prakapenka, V. B.; Trachenko, K.; Brazhkin, V. V.
2018-04-01
We review recent work aimed at understanding dynamical and thermodynamic properties of liquids and supercritical fluids. The focus of our discussion is on solid-like transverse collective modes, whose evolution in the supercritical fluids enables one to discuss the main properties of the Frenkel line separating rigid liquid-like and non-rigid gas-like supercritical states. We subsequently present recent experimental evidence of the Frenkel line showing that structural and dynamical crossovers are seen at a pressure and temperature corresponding to the line as predicted by theory and modelling. Finally, we link dynamical and thermodynamic properties of liquids and supercritical fluids by the new calculation of liquid energy governed by the evolution of solid-like transverse modes. The disappearance of those modes at high temperature results in the observed decrease of heat capacity.
Crossover to potential energy landscape dominated dynamics in a model glass-forming liquid
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schrøder, Thomas; Sastry, S.; Dyre, Jeppe
2000-01-01
An equilibrated model glass-forming liquid is studied by mapping successive configurations produced by molecular dynamics simulation onto a time series of inherent structures (local minima in the potential energy). Using this "inherent dynamics" approach we find direct numerical evidence for the ......An equilibrated model glass-forming liquid is studied by mapping successive configurations produced by molecular dynamics simulation onto a time series of inherent structures (local minima in the potential energy). Using this "inherent dynamics" approach we find direct numerical evidence...... for the long held view that below a crossover temperature, Tx, the liquid's dynamics can be separated into (i) vibrations around inherent structures and (ii) transitions between inherent structures [M. Goldstein, J. Chem. Phys. 51, 3728 (1969)], i.e., the dynamics become "dominated" by the potential energy...... landscape. In agreement with previous proposals, we find that Tx is within the vicinity of the mode-coupling critical temperature Tc. We further find that near Tx, transitions between inherent structures occur via cooperative, stringlike rearrangements of groups of particles moving distances substantially...
Pressure and Temperature Spin Crossover Sensors with Optical Detection
Linares, Jorge; Codjovi, Epiphane; Garcia, Yann
2012-01-01
Iron(II) spin crossover molecular materials are made of coordination centres switchable between two states by temperature, pressure or a visible light irradiation. The relevant macroscopic parameter which monitors the magnetic state of a given solid is the high-spin (HS) fraction denoted nHS, i.e., the relative population of HS molecules. Each spin crossover material is distinguished by a transition temperature T1/2 where 50% of active molecules have switched to the low-spin (LS) state. In strongly interacting systems, the thermal spin switching occurs abruptly at T1/2. Applying pressure induces a shift from HS to LS states, which is the direct consequence of the lower volume for the LS molecule. Each material has thus a well defined pressure value P1/2. In both cases the spin state change is easily detectable by optical means thanks to a thermo/piezochromic effect that is often encountered in these materials. In this contribution, we discuss potential use of spin crossover molecular materials as temperature and pressure sensors with optical detection. The ones presenting smooth transitions behaviour, which have not been seriously considered for any application, are spotlighted as potential sensors which should stimulate a large interest on this well investigated class of materials. PMID:22666041
Relativistic BCS-BEC crossover at finite temperature and its application to color superconductivity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
He Lianyi; Zhuang Pengfei
2007-01-01
The nonrelativistic G 0 G formalism of BCS-BEC crossover at finite temperature is extended to relativistic fermion systems. The uncondensed pairs contribute a pseudogap to the fermion excitations. The theory recovers the BCS mean field approximation at zero temperature and the nonrelativistic results in a proper limit. For massive fermions, when the coupling strength increases, there exist two crossovers from the weak coupling BCS superfluid to the nonrelativistic BEC state and then to the relativistic BEC state. For color superconductivity at moderate baryon density, the matter is in the BCS-BEC crossover region, and the behavior of the pseudogap is quite similar to that found in high temperature superconductors
The dynamical crossover in attractive colloidal systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mallamace, Francesco [Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Università di Messina and CNISM, I-98168 Messina (Italy); Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Corsaro, Carmelo [Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Università di Messina and CNISM, I-98168 Messina (Italy); Stanley, H. Eugene [Center for Polymer Studies and Department of Physics, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States); Mallamace, Domenico [Dipartimento di Scienze dell’Ambiente, della Sicurezza, del Territorio, degli Alimenti e della Salute, Università di Messina, I-98166 Messina (Italy); Chen, Sow-Hsin [Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)
2013-12-07
We study the dynamical arrest in an adhesive hard-sphere colloidal system. We examine a micellar suspension of the Pluronic-L64 surfactant in the temperature (T) and volume fraction (ϕ) phase diagram. According to mode-coupling theory (MCT), this system is characterized by a cusp-like singularity and two glassy phases: an attractive glass (AG) phase and a repulsive glass (RG) phase. The T − ϕ phase diagram of this system as confirmed by a previous series of scattering data also exhibits a Percolation Threshold (PT) line, a reentrant behavior (AG-liquid-RG), and a glass-to-glass transition. The AG phase can be generated out of the liquid phase by using T and ϕ as control parameters. We utilize viscosity and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques. NMR data confirm all the characteristic properties of the colloidal system phase diagram and give evidence of the onset of a fractal-like percolating structure at a precise threshold. The MCT scaling laws used to study the shear viscosity as a function of ϕ and T show in both cases a fragile-to-strong liquid glass-forming dynamic crossover (FSC) located near the percolation threshold where the clustering process is fully developed. These results suggest a larger thermodynamic generality for this phenomenon, which is usually studied only as a function of the temperature. We also find that the critical values of the control parameters, coincident with the PT line, define the locus of the FSC. In the region between the FSC and the glass transition lines the system dynamics are dominated by clustering effects. We thus demonstrate that it is possible, using the conceptual framework provided by extended mode-coupling theory, to describe the way a system approaches dynamic arrest, taking into account both cage and hopping effects.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Magazù, Salvatore; Migliardo, Federica; Benedetto, Antonio; Vertessy, Beata
2013-01-01
Highlights: • The role played by the instrumental energy resolution in neutron scattering is presented. • The effect of natural bioprotectants on protein dynamics is shown. • A connection between the protein dynamical transition and the fragile-to-strong dynamical crossover is formulated. - Abstract: In this work Elastic Incoherent Neutron Scattering (EINS) results on lysozyme water mixtures in absence and in presence of bioprotectant systems are presented. The EINS data have been collected by using the IN13 and the IN10 spectrometers at the Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL, Grenoble, France) allowing to evaluate the temperature behaviour of the mean square displacement and of the relaxation time for the investigated systems. The obtained experimental findings together with theoretical calculations allow to put into evidence the role played by the spectrometer resolution and to clarify the connexion between the registered protein dynamical transition, the system relaxation time, and the instrumental energy resolution
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Andreozzi, Laura; Autiero, Ciro; Faetti, Massimo; Giordano, Marco; Zulli, Fabio [Department of Physics ' E Fermi' , University of Pisa, largo Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); polyLAB-CNR, largo Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy)
2006-07-19
The rotational dynamics of the spin probe cholestane dissolved in a narrow distribution poly(n-butyl acrylate) sample has been investigated via electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. The measurements were carried out in a wide temperature range: different dynamic regions have been recognized, and the coupling of the probe dynamics to the {alpha} and secondary relaxations has been revealed. In particular, the coupling with the structural relaxation is ruled by two fractionary Vogel-Fulcher laws (VF). The crossover from one VF region to the other occurs at the temperature T{sub C} = 1.17T{sub g}, signalling the onset of the cooperativity in the dynamics and confirming a behaviour previously observed in ESR studies carried out on polymeric glass-formers. Furthermore, in this work we discuss the activated regime at the highest temperatures and show that the activation energy does not depend on the length of the polymer main- and side-chains, while its onset temperature linearly depends on the chain length.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andreozzi, Laura; Autiero, Ciro; Faetti, Massimo; Giordano, Marco; Zulli, Fabio
2006-01-01
The rotational dynamics of the spin probe cholestane dissolved in a narrow distribution poly(n-butyl acrylate) sample has been investigated via electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. The measurements were carried out in a wide temperature range: different dynamic regions have been recognized, and the coupling of the probe dynamics to the α and secondary relaxations has been revealed. In particular, the coupling with the structural relaxation is ruled by two fractionary Vogel-Fulcher laws (VF). The crossover from one VF region to the other occurs at the temperature T C = 1.17T g , signalling the onset of the cooperativity in the dynamics and confirming a behaviour previously observed in ESR studies carried out on polymeric glass-formers. Furthermore, in this work we discuss the activated regime at the highest temperatures and show that the activation energy does not depend on the length of the polymer main- and side-chains, while its onset temperature linearly depends on the chain length
Finite temperature dynamics of a Holstein polaron: The thermo-field dynamics approach
Chen, Lipeng; Zhao, Yang
2017-12-01
Combining the multiple Davydov D2 Ansatz with the method of thermo-field dynamics, we study finite temperature dynamics of a Holstein polaron on a lattice. It has been demonstrated, using the hierarchy equations of motion method as a benchmark, that our approach provides an efficient, robust description of finite temperature dynamics of the Holstein polaron in the simultaneous presence of diagonal and off-diagonal exciton-phonon coupling. The method of thermo-field dynamics handles temperature effects in the Hilbert space with key numerical advantages over other treatments of finite-temperature dynamics based on quantum master equations in the Liouville space or wave function propagation with Monte Carlo importance sampling. While for weak to moderate diagonal coupling temperature increases inhibit polaron mobility, it is found that off-diagonal coupling induces phonon-assisted transport that dominates at high temperatures. Results on the mean square displacements show that band-like transport features dominate the diagonal coupling cases, and there exists a crossover from band-like to hopping transport with increasing temperature when including off-diagonal coupling. As a proof of concept, our theory provides a unified treatment of coherent and incoherent transport in molecular crystals and is applicable to any temperature.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cheah, C Y; Jaurigue, L C; Kaiser, A B; Gómez-Navarro, C
2013-01-01
We report an analysis of low-temperature measurements of the conductance of partially disordered reduced graphene oxide, finding that the data follow a simple crossover scenario. At room temperature, the conductance is dominated by two-dimensional (2D) electric field-assisted, thermally driven (Pollak–Riess) variable-range hopping (VRH) through highly disordered regions. However, at lower temperatures T, we find a smooth crossover to follow the exp(−E 0 /E) 1/3 field-driven (Shklovskii) 2D VRH conductance behaviour when the electric field E exceeds a specific crossover value E C (T) 2D =(E a E 0 1/3 /3) 3/4 determined by the scale factors E 0 and E a for the high-field and intermediate-field regimes respectively. Our crossover scenario also accounts well for experimental data reported by other authors for three-dimensional disordered carbon networks, suggesting wide applicability. (paper)
Finite-temperature dynamics of the Mott insulating Hubbard chain
Nocera, Alberto; Essler, Fabian H. L.; Feiguin, Adrian E.
2018-01-01
We study the dynamical response of the half-filled one-dimensional Hubbard model for a range of interaction strengths U and temperatures T by a combination of numerical and analytical techniques. Using time-dependent density matrix renormalization group computations we find that the single-particle spectral function undergoes a crossover to a spin-incoherent Luttinger liquid regime at temperatures T ˜J =4 t2/U for sufficiently large U >4 t . At smaller values of U and elevated temperatures the spectral function is found to exhibit two thermally broadened bands of excitations, reminiscent of what is found in the Hubbard-I approximation. The dynamical density-density response function is shown to exhibit a finite-temperature resonance at low frequencies inside the Mott gap, with a physical origin similar to the Villain mode in gapped quantum spin chains. We complement our numerical computations by developing an analytic strong-coupling approach to the low-temperature dynamics in the spin-incoherent regime.
BCS-BEC crossover at finite temperature for superfluid trapped Fermi atoms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Perali, A.; Pieri, P.; Pisani, L.; Strinati, G.C.
2004-01-01
We consider the BCS-BEC (Bose-Einstein-condensate) crossover for a system of trapped Fermi atoms at finite temperature, both below and above the superfluid critical temperature, by including fluctuations beyond mean field. We determine the superfluid critical temperature and the pair-breaking temperature as functions of the attractive interaction between Fermi atoms, from the weak- to the strong-coupling limit (where bosonic molecules form as bound-fermion pairs). Density profiles in the trap are also obtained for all temperatures and couplings
Chiral crossover transition in a finite volume
Shi, Chao; Jia, Wenbao; Sun, An; Zhang, Liping; Zong, Hongshi
2018-02-01
Finite volume effects on the chiral crossover transition of strong interactions at finite temperature are studied by solving the quark gap equation within a cubic volume of finite size L. With the anti-periodic boundary condition, our calculation shows the chiral quark condensate, which characterizes the strength of dynamical chiral symmetry breaking, decreases as L decreases below 2.5 fm. We further study the finite volume effects on the pseudo-transition temperature {T}{{c}} of the crossover, showing a significant decrease in {T}{{c}} as L decreases below 3 fm. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11475085, 11535005, 11690030, 51405027), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (020414380074), China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (2016M591808) and Open Research Foundation of State Key Lab. of Digital Manufacturing Equipment & Technology in Huazhong University of Science & Technology (DMETKF2015015)
Ridier, Karl; Rat, Sylvain; Salmon, Lionel; Nicolazzi, William; Molnár, Gábor; Bousseksou, Azzedine
2018-04-04
Using optical microscopy we studied the vacuum pressure dependence (0.1-1000 mbar) of the nucleation and growth dynamics of the thermally induced first-order spin transition in a single crystal of the spin-crossover compound [Fe(HB(tz)3)2] (tz = 1,2,4-triazol-1-yl). A crossover between a quasi-static hysteresis regime and a temperature-scan-rate-dependent kinetic regime is evidenced around 5 mbar due to the change of the heat exchange coupling between the crystal and its external environment. Remarkably, the absorption/dissipation rate of latent heat was identified as the key factor limiting the switching speed of the crystal.
Crossover phenomena in the critical range near magnetic ordering transition
Köbler, U.
2018-05-01
Among the most important issues of Renormalization Group (RG) theory are crossover events and relevant (or non-relevant) interactions. These terms are unknown to atomistic theories but they will be decisive for future field theories of magnetism. In this experimental study the importance of these terms for the critical dynamics above and below magnetic ordering transition is demonstrated on account of new analyses of published data. When crossover events are overlooked and critical data are fitted by a single power function of temperature over a temperature range including a crossover event, imprecise critical exponents result. The rather unsystematic and floating critical exponents reported in literature seem largely to be due to this problem. It is shown that for appropriate data analyses critical exponents are obtained that are to a good approximation rational numbers. In fact, rational critical exponents can be expected when spin dynamics is controlled by the bosons of the continuous magnetic medium (Goldstone bosons). The bosons are essentially magnetic dipole radiation generated by the precessing spins. As a result of the here performed data analyses, critical exponents for the magnetic order parameter of β = 1/2, 1/3, 1/4 and 1/6 are obtained. For the critical paramagnetic susceptibility the exponents are γ = 1 and γ = 4/3.
Crossover from Rouse dynamics to the α- relaxation in a poly(vinyl ethylene)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arbe, A.; Colmenero, J.; Richter, D.; Monkenbusch, M.; Willner, L.; Farago, B.
2004-01-01
By means of neutron spin echo (NSE) we have explored the dynamics of poly(vinyl ethylene) on length scales covering Rouse dynamics and below. The results establish the simultaneous existence of a generic sublinear diffusion regime which underlies the α-process in addition to the Rouse process. Both regimes are separated by a well- defined dynamic crossover. From that the size of the Gaussian blobs making up the Rouse model is determined directly. The glassy dynamics may thus be identified with subdiffusive motions occurring within these Gaussian blobs. (author)
Hysteretic behavior of spin-crossover noise driven system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gudyma, Iurii [Department of General Physics, Chernivtsi National University, Chernivtsi 58012 (Ukraine); Maksymov, Artur, E-mail: maxyartur@gmail.com [Department of General Physics, Chernivtsi National University, Chernivtsi 58012 (Ukraine); Advanced Materials Research Institute, University of New Orleans, LA 70148 (United States); Dimian, Mihai [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Howard University, Washington DC, 20059 (United States); Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Stefan cel Mare University, Suceava 720229 (Romania)
2016-04-01
The influence of white Gaussian noise on hysteretic behavior of spin-crossover system is analyzed in the framework of stochastic Langevin dynamics. Various stochastic simulations are performed and several important properties of spin-transition in spin-crossover system driven by noise are reproduced. The numerical results are tested against the stationary probability function and the associated dynamic potential obtained from Fokker–Planck equation corresponding to spin-crossover Langevin dynamics. The dependence of light-induced optical hysteresis width and non-hysteretic transition curve slope on the noise intensity is illustrated. The role of low-spin and high-spin phase stabilities in the hysteretic behavior of noise-driven spin-crossover system is discussed.
Gavriliuk, A. G.; Struzhkin, V. V.; Mironovich, A. A.; Lyubutin, I. S.; Troyan, I. A.; Chow, P.; Xiao, Y.
2018-02-01
The magnetic properties of the α-Fe2O3 hematite at a high hydrostatic pressure have been studied by synchrotron Mössbauer spectroscopy (nuclear forward scattering (NFS)) on iron nuclei. Time-domain NFS spectra of hematite have been measured in a diamond anvil cell in the pressure range of 0-72 GPa and the temperature range of 36-300 K in order to study the magnetic properties at a phase transition near a critical pressure of 50 GPa. In addition, Raman spectra at room temperature have been studied in the pressure range of 0-77 GPa. Neon has been used as a pressure-transmitting medium. The appearance of an intermediate electronic state has been revealed at a pressure of 48 GPa. This state is probably related to the spin crossover in Fe3+ ions at their transition from the high-spin state (HS, S = 5/2) to a low-spin one (LS, S = 1/2). It has been found that the transient pressure range of the HS-LS crossover is extended from 48 to 55 GPa and is almost independent of the temperature. This surprising result differs fundamentally from other cases of the spin crossover in Fe3+ ions observed in other crystals based on iron oxides. The transition region of spin crossover appears because of thermal fluctuations between HS and LS states in the critical pressure range and is significantly narrowed at cooling because of the suppression of thermal excitations. The magnetic P- T phase diagram of α-Fe2O3 at high pressures and low temperatures in the spin crossover region has been constructed according to the results of measurements.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schuster, R.M.; Luria, N.G.
1977-01-01
This invention concerns an electric crossover that makes a steam and pressure-tight seal for a conductor crossing two separate walls of a nuclear reactor vessel that seismic tremors or thermal expansion of the walls and conductor subject to relative displacements. The conductors, that have to cross the vessels, are fixed to the walls of the vessel in crossover systems fitted in crossover channels made in the walls of the vessel on their initial manufacture. The separate walls of the vessel move independently when they undergo an earth tremor or a temperature change between the walls or between the conductor. This shift can damage the conductor or the crossover system and this could give rise to cause steam or other materials to leak in the reactor should leaks occur in the primary system. Furthermore, in the case of medium or high power conductors, which are relatively rigid, the non-alignment of the crossover channels can bring about awkward stresses in the conductors or their protective sheathing. The aims of this invention are fulfilled by designing an electric crossover to pass at least one conductor through the two separate walls of a vessels, that includes an initial sub-assembly crossover, secured in a leak-tight manner to the first wall and a second sub-sessembly crossover in sliding or rolling contact with the second wall, whilst forming a leak-tight seal with it [fr
Gabrieli, Andrea; Sant, Marco; Izadi, Saeed; Shabane, Parviz Seifpanahi; Onufriev, Alexey V.; Suffritti, Giuseppe B.
2018-02-01
Classical molecular dynamics simulations were performed to study the high-temperature (above 300 K) dynamic behavior of bulk water, specifically the behavior of the diffusion coefficient, hydrogen bond, and nearest-neighbor lifetimes. Two water potentials were compared: the recently proposed "globally optimal" point charge (OPC) model and the well-known TIP4P-Ew model. By considering the Arrhenius plots of the computed inverse diffusion coefficient and rotational relaxation constants, a crossover from Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann behavior to a linear trend with increasing temperature was detected at T* ≈ 309 and T* ≈ 285 K for the OPC and TIP4P-Ew models, respectively. Experimentally, the crossover point was previously observed at T* ± 315-5 K. We also verified that for the coefficient of thermal expansion α P ( T, P), the isobaric α P ( T) curves cross at about the same T* as in the experiment. The lifetimes of water hydrogen bonds and of the nearest neighbors were evaluated and were found to cross near T*, where the lifetimes are about 1 ps. For T T*, water behaves more like a simple liquid. The fact that T* falls within the biologically relevant temperature range is a strong motivation for further analysis of the phenomenon and its possible consequences for biomolecular systems.
Zhang, Zhihua; Sheng, Zheng; Shi, Hanqing; Fan, Zhiqiang
2016-01-01
Using the RFC technique to estimate refractivity parameters is a complex nonlinear optimization problem. In this paper, an improved cuckoo search (CS) algorithm is proposed to deal with this problem. To enhance the performance of the CS algorithm, a parameter dynamic adaptive operation and crossover operation were integrated into the standard CS (DACS-CO). Rechenberg's 1/5 criteria combined with learning factor were used to control the parameter dynamic adaptive adjusting process. The crossover operation of genetic algorithm was utilized to guarantee the population diversity. The new hybrid algorithm has better local search ability and contributes to superior performance. To verify the ability of the DACS-CO algorithm to estimate atmospheric refractivity parameters, the simulation data and real radar clutter data are both implemented. The numerical experiments demonstrate that the DACS-CO algorithm can provide an effective method for near-real-time estimation of the atmospheric refractivity profile from radar clutter.
Low-temperature behaviour of the Kob-Andersen binary mixture
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ashwin S S; Sastry, Srikanth
2003-01-01
The dynamical behaviours of glass-forming liquids have been analysed extensively via computer simulations of model liquids, among which the Kob-Andersen binary Lennard-Jones mixture has been a widely studied system. Typically, studies of this model have been restricted to temperatures above the mode coupling temperature. Preliminary results concerning the dynamics of the Kob-Andersen binary mixture are presented at temperatures that extend below the mode coupling temperature, along with properties of the local energy minima sampled. These results show that a crossover in the dynamics occurs alongside changes in the properties of the inherent structures sampled. Furthermore, a crossover is observed from non-Arrhenius behaviour of the diffusivity above the mode coupling temperature to Arrhenius behaviour at lower temperatures
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhihua Zhang
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Using the RFC technique to estimate refractivity parameters is a complex nonlinear optimization problem. In this paper, an improved cuckoo search (CS algorithm is proposed to deal with this problem. To enhance the performance of the CS algorithm, a parameter dynamic adaptive operation and crossover operation were integrated into the standard CS (DACS-CO. Rechenberg’s 1/5 criteria combined with learning factor were used to control the parameter dynamic adaptive adjusting process. The crossover operation of genetic algorithm was utilized to guarantee the population diversity. The new hybrid algorithm has better local search ability and contributes to superior performance. To verify the ability of the DACS-CO algorithm to estimate atmospheric refractivity parameters, the simulation data and real radar clutter data are both implemented. The numerical experiments demonstrate that the DACS-CO algorithm can provide an effective method for near-real-time estimation of the atmospheric refractivity profile from radar clutter.
From Gyroscopic to Thermal Motion: A Crossover in the Dynamics of Molecular Superrotors
Milner, A. A.; Korobenko, A.; Rezaiezadeh, K.; Milner, V.
2015-07-01
Localized heating of a gas by intense laser pulses leads to interesting acoustic, hydrodynamic, and optical effects with numerous applications in science and technology, including controlled wave guiding and remote atmosphere sensing. Rotational excitation of molecules can serve as the energy source for raising the gas temperature. Here, we study the dynamics of energy transfer from the molecular rotation to heat. By optically imaging a cloud of molecular superrotors, created with an optical centrifuge, we experimentally identify two separate and qualitatively different stages of its evolution. The first nonequilibrium "gyroscopic" stage is characterized by the modified optical properties of the centrifuged gas—its refractive index and optical birefringence, owing to the ultrafast directional molecular rotation, which survives tens of collisions. The loss of rotational directionality is found to overlap with the release of rotational energy to heat, which triggers the second stage of thermal expansion. The crossover between anisotropic rotational and isotropic thermal regimes is in agreement with recent theoretical predictions and our hydrodynamic calculations.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lan, S.; Ma, J. L.; Fan, J. [Department of Physics and Material Science, City University of Hong Kong 83 Tat Chee Ave., Kowloon (Hong Kong); Blodgett, M.; Kelton, K. F. [Department of Physics and Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, Washington University One Brookings Drive, St. Louis, Missouri 63130-4899 (United States); Wang, X.-L., E-mail: xlwang@cityu.edu.hk [Department of Physics and Material Science, City University of Hong Kong 83 Tat Chee Ave., Kowloon (Hong Kong); City University of Hong Kong Shenzhen Research Institute, Shenzhen 518057 (China)
2016-05-23
Time-resolved synchrotron measurements were carried out to capture the structure evolution of an electrostatically levitated metallic-glass-forming liquid during free cooling. The experimental data shows a crossover in the liquid structure at ∼1000 K, about 115 K below the melting temperature and 150 K above the crystallization temperature. The structure change is characterized by a dramatic growth in the extended-range order below the crossover temperature. Molecular dynamics simulations have identified that the growth of the extended-range order was due to an increased correlation between solute atoms. These results provide structural evidence for a liquid-to-liquid-phase-transition in the supercooled metallic liquid.
Relativistic BCS-BEC Crossover at Quark Level
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhuang P.
2010-10-01
Full Text Available The non-relativistic G0G formalism of BCS-BEC crossover at ﬁnite temperature is extended to relativistic fermion systems. The theory recovers the BCS mean ﬁeld approximation at zero temperature and the non-relativistic results in a proper limit. For massive fermions, when the coupling strength increases, there exist two crossovers from the weak coupling BCS superﬂuid to the non-relativistic BEC state and then to the relativistic BEC state. For color superconductivity at moderate baryon density, the matter is in the BCS-BEC crossover region, and the behavior of the pseudogap is quite similar to that found in high temperature superconductors.
Temperature induced crossover in the collision-dominated Dirac semimetal Cd{sub 3}As{sub 2}
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sharafeev, Azat; Lemmens, Peter [IPKM, TU-BS, Braunschweig (Germany); Gnezdilov, Vladimir [IPKM, TU-BS, Braunschweig (Germany); ILTPE NAS (Ukraine); Sankar, Raman; Chou, Fangcheng [CCMS, National Taiwan Univ., Taipei (China)
2016-07-01
The 3D topological Dirac semimetal Cd{sub 3}As{sub 2} was studied in a wide range of temperatures and excitation energies using Raman spectroscopy. The temperature evolution of the phononic and the quasielastic electronic scattering is discussed in terms of a collision-dominated regime with pronounced electronic energy density fluctuations. A crossover is observed in the intensity of the signals attributed to a collision-dominated phonon regime.
Crossover from BCS to composite boson (local pair) superconductivity in quasi-2D systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gorbar, E.V.; Loktev, V.M.; Sharapov, S.G.
1995-01-01
The crossover from cooperative Cooper pairing to independent bound state (composite bosons) formation and condensation in quasi-2 D systems is studied. It is shown that at low carrier density the critical superconducting temperature is equal to the temperature of Bose-condensation of ideal quasi-2 D Bose-gas with heavy dynamical mass, meanwhile at high densities the BCS result remains valid. 15 refs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Demontis, Pierfranco; Suffritti, Giuseppe B. [Dipartimento di Chimica e Farmacia, Università degli studi di Sassari, Sassari (Italy); Consorzio Interuniversitario Nazionale per la Scienza e Tecnologia dei Materiali (INSTM), Unità di ricerca di Sassari, Via Vienna, 2, I-07100 Sassari (Italy); Gulín-González, Jorge [Grupo de Matemática y Física Computacionales, Universidad de las Ciencias Informáticas (UCI), Carretera a San Antonio de los Baños, Km 21/2, La Lisa, La Habana (Cuba); Masia, Marco [Dipartimento di Chimica e Farmacia, Università degli studi di Sassari, Sassari (Italy); Consorzio Interuniversitario Nazionale per la Scienza e Tecnologia dei Materiali (INSTM), Unità di ricerca di Sassari, Via Vienna, 2, I-07100 Sassari (Italy); Istituto Officina dei Materiali del CNR, UOS SLACS, Via Vienna 2, 07100 Sassari (Italy); Sant, Marco [Dipartimento di Chimica e Farmacia, Università degli studi di Sassari, Sassari (Italy)
2015-06-28
In order to study the interplay between dynamical heterogeneities and structural properties of bulk liquid water in the temperature range 130–350 K, thus including the supercooled regime, we use the explicit trend of the distribution functions of some molecular properties, namely, the rotational relaxation constants, the atomic mean-square displacements, the relaxation of the cross correlation functions between the linear and squared displacements of H and O atoms of each molecule, the tetrahedral order parameter q and, finally, the number of nearest neighbors (NNs) and of hydrogen bonds (HBs) per molecule. Two different potentials are considered: TIP4P-Ew and a model developed in this laboratory for the study of nanoconfined water. The results are similar for the dynamical properties, but are markedly different for the structural characteristics. In particular, for temperatures higher than that of the dynamic crossover between “fragile” (at higher temperatures) and “strong” (at lower temperatures) liquid behaviors detected around 207 K, the rotational relaxation of supercooled water appears to be remarkably homogeneous. However, the structural parameters (number of NNs and of HBs, as well as q) do not show homogeneous distributions, and these distributions are different for the two water models. Another dynamic crossover between “fragile” (at lower temperatures) and “strong” (at higher temperatures) liquid behaviors, corresponding to the one found experimentally at T{sup ∗} ∼ 315 ± 5 K, was spotted at T{sup ∗} ∼ 283 K and T{sup ∗} ∼ 276 K for the TIP4P-Ew and the model developed in this laboratory, respectively. It was detected from the trend of Arrhenius plots of dynamic quantities and from the onset of a further heterogeneity in the rotational relaxation. To our best knowledge, it is the first time that this dynamical crossover is detected in computer simulations of bulk water. On the basis of the simulation results, the possible
From Gyroscopic to Thermal Motion: A Crossover in the Dynamics of Molecular Superrotors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. A. Milner
2015-09-01
Full Text Available Localized heating of a gas by intense laser pulses leads to interesting acoustic, hydrodynamic, and optical effects with numerous applications in science and technology, including controlled wave guiding and remote atmosphere sensing. Rotational excitation of molecules can serve as the energy source for raising the gas temperature. Here, we study the dynamics of energy transfer from the molecular rotation to heat. By optically imaging a cloud of molecular superrotors, created with an optical centrifuge, we experimentally identify two separate and qualitatively different stages of its evolution. The first nonequilibrium “gyroscopic” stage is characterized by the modified optical properties of the centrifuged gas—its refractive index and optical birefringence, owing to the ultrafast directional molecular rotation, which survives tens of collisions. The loss of rotational directionality is found to overlap with the release of rotational energy to heat, which triggers the second stage of thermal expansion. The crossover between anisotropic rotational and isotropic thermal regimes is in agreement with recent theoretical predictions and our hydrodynamic calculations.
Dimensional crossover in fluids under nanometer-scale confinement.
Das, Amit; Chakrabarti, J
2012-05-01
Several earlier studies have shown signatures of crossover in various static and dynamics properties of a confined fluid when the confining dimension decreases to about a nanometer. The density fluctuations govern the majority of such properties of a fluid. Here, we illustrate the crossover in density fluctuation in a confined fluid, to provide a generic understanding of confinement-induced crossover of fluid properties, using computer simulations. The crossover can be understood as a manifestation of changes in the long-wavelength behavior of fluctuation in density due to geometrical constraints. We further show that the confining potential significantly affects the crossover behavior.
Heyl, Markus; Vojta, Matthias
2015-09-01
In this work we formulate the nonequilibrium dynamical renormalization group (ndRG). The ndRG represents a general renormalization-group scheme for the analytical description of the real-time dynamics of complex quantum many-body systems. In particular, the ndRG incorporates time as an additional scale which turns out to be important for the description of the long-time dynamics. It can be applied to both translational-invariant and disordered systems. As a concrete application, we study the real-time dynamics after a quench between two quantum critical points of different universality classes. We achieve this by switching on weak disorder in a one-dimensional transverse-field Ising model initially prepared at its clean quantum critical point. By comparing to numerically exact simulations for large systems, we show that the ndRG is capable of analytically capturing the full crossover from weak to infinite randomness. We analytically study signatures of localization in both real space and Fock space.
Scaling crossover in thin-film drag dynamics of fluid drops in the Hele-Shaw cell
Okumura, Ko; Yahashi, Misato; Kimoto, Natsuki
2016-11-01
We study both experimentally and theoretically the descending motion due to gravity of a fluid drop surrounded by another immiscible fluid in a confined space between two parallel plates, i.e., in the Hele-Shaw cell. As a result, we show a new scaling regime of a nonlinear drag friction in viscous liquid that replaces the well-known Stokes' drag friction through a clear collapse of experimental data thanks to the scaling law. In the novel regime, the dissipation in the liquid thin film formed between the drop and cell walls governs the dynamics. The crossover of this scaling regime to another scaling regime in which the dissipation inside the droplet is dominant is clearly demonstrated and a phase diagram separating these scaling regimes is presented. To be published as, Y. Yahashi, N. Kimoto and K. Okumura, Scaling crossover in thin-film drag dynamics of fluid drops in the Hele-Shaw cell, Sci. Rep.(CC BY 4.0). This research was partly supported by ImPACT Program of Council for Science, Technology and Innovation (Cabinet Office, Government of Japan).
Fragile to strong crossover at the Widom line in supercooled aqueous solutions of NaCl
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gallo, P. [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Università Roma Tre, Via della Vasca Navale 84, I-00146 Rome, Italy and INFN, Sezione di Roma Tre, Via della Vasca Navale 84, I-00146 Rome (Italy); Corradini, D.; Rovere, M., E-mail: rovere@fis.uniroma3.it [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Università Roma Tre, Via della Vasca Navale 84, I-00146 Rome (Italy)
2013-11-28
We study by molecular dynamics simulations the dynamical properties of an aqueous solution of NaCl at a concentration of 0.67 mol/kg upon supercooling. In a previous study of the same ionic solution, we have located the liquid-liquid critical point (LLCP) and determined the Widom line connected to the liquid-liquid transition. We present here the results obtained from the study of the self-intermediate scattering function in a large range of temperatures and densities approaching the LLCP. The structural relaxation is in agreement with the mode coupling theory (MCT) in the region of mild supercooling. In the deeper supercooled region the α-relaxation time as function of temperature deviates from the MCT power law prediction showing a crossover from a fragile to a strong behavior. This crossover is found upon crossing the Widom line. The same trend was found in bulk water upon supercooling and it appears almost unchanged by the interaction with ions apart from a shift in the thermodynamic plane toward lower pressures and higher temperatures. These results show that the phenomenology of supercooled water transfers from bulk to solution where the study of the supercooled region is experimentally less difficult.
Single-crossover recombination in discrete time.
von Wangenheim, Ute; Baake, Ellen; Baake, Michael
2010-05-01
Modelling the process of recombination leads to a large coupled nonlinear dynamical system. Here, we consider a particular case of recombination in discrete time, allowing only for single crossovers. While the analogous dynamics in continuous time admits a closed solution (Baake and Baake in Can J Math 55:3-41, 2003), this no longer works for discrete time. A more general model (i.e. without the restriction to single crossovers) has been studied before (Bennett in Ann Hum Genet 18:311-317, 1954; Dawson in Theor Popul Biol 58:1-20, 2000; Linear Algebra Appl 348:115-137, 2002) and was solved algorithmically by means of Haldane linearisation. Using the special formalism introduced by Baake and Baake (Can J Math 55:3-41, 2003), we obtain further insight into the single-crossover dynamics and the particular difficulties that arise in discrete time. We then transform the equations to a solvable system in a two-step procedure: linearisation followed by diagonalisation. Still, the coefficients of the second step must be determined in a recursive manner, but once this is done for a given system, they allow for an explicit solution valid for all times.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Casalini, Riccardo [Naval Research Laboratory, Chemistry Division, Code 6120, Washington, DC 20375-5342 (United States); Paluch, Marian [Naval Research Laboratory, Chemistry Division, Code 6120, Washington, DC 20375-5342 (United States); Roland, C Michael [Naval Research Laboratory, Chemistry Division, Code 6120, Washington, DC 20375-5342 (United States)
2003-03-26
Dielectric relaxation times over a broad range of temperature and pressure for the glass former phenolphthalein-dimethylether (PDE) reveal a change of dynamics at a characteristic relaxation time {tau}{sub B}. The value of {tau}{sub B} was found to be largely insensitive to the particular combination of pressure and temperature of the measurement. Data for a second glass former, cresol-phthalein-dimethylether, having a molecular structure very close to that of PDE, were also analysed. In this case, {tau}{sub B} is much smaller, so the change of dynamics could not be observed in the elevated pressure experiments. The PDE data were in good agreement with the Adam-Gibbs model near T{sub g} ({tau} > {tau}{sub B}), while deviating for {tau} < {tau}{sub B}. Finally, a possible connection between the observed T{sub B} and theoretical models is presented.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huberman, T; Tennant, D A; Cowley, R A; Coldea, R; Frost, C D
2008-01-01
We report comprehensive inelastic neutron scattering measurements of the magnetic excitations in the 2D spin-5/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnet Rb 2 MnF 4 as a function of temperature from deep in the Néel ordered phase up to paramagnetic, 0.13 B T/4JS −1 for temperatures up to near the Curie–Weiss temperature, Θ CW . For wavevectors smaller than ξ −1 , relaxational dynamics occurs. The observed renormalization of spin wave energies, and evolution of excitation lineshapes, with increasing temperature are quantitatively compared with finite-temperature spin wave theory and computer simulations for classical spins. Random phase approximation calculations provide a good description of the low temperature renormalization of spin waves. In contrast, lifetime broadening calculated using the first Born approximation shows, at best, modest agreement around the zone boundary at low temperatures. Classical dynamics simulations using an appropriate quantum classical correspondence were found to provide a good description of the intermediate and high temperature regimes over all wavevector and energy scales, and the crossover from quantum to classical dynamics observed around Θ CW /S, where the spin S = 5/2. A characterization of the data over the whole wavevector/energy/temperature parameter space is given. In this, T 2 behaviour is found to dominate the wavevector and temperature dependence of the linewidths over a large parameter range, and no evidence of hydrodynamic behaviour or dynamical scaling behaviour found within the accuracy of the datasets. An efficient and easily implemented classical dynamics methodology is presented that provides a practical method for modelling other semiclassical quantum magnets
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marco Barchi
2008-05-01
Full Text Available During meiosis in most sexually reproducing organisms, recombination forms crossovers between homologous maternal and paternal chromosomes and thereby promotes proper chromosome segregation at the first meiotic division. The number and distribution of crossovers are tightly controlled, but the factors that contribute to this control are poorly understood in most organisms, including mammals. Here we provide evidence that the ATM kinase or protein is essential for proper crossover formation in mouse spermatocytes. ATM deficiency causes multiple phenotypes in humans and mice, including gonadal atrophy. Mouse Atm-/- spermatocytes undergo apoptosis at mid-prophase of meiosis I, but Atm(-/- meiotic phenotypes are partially rescued by Spo11 heterozygosity, such that ATM-deficient spermatocytes progress to meiotic metaphase I. Strikingly, Spo11+/-Atm-/- spermatocytes are defective in forming the obligate crossover on the sex chromosomes, even though the XY pair is usually incorporated in a sex body and is transcriptionally inactivated as in normal spermatocytes. The XY crossover defect correlates with the appearance of lagging chromosomes at metaphase I, which may trigger the extensive metaphase apoptosis that is observed in these cells. In addition, control of the number and distribution of crossovers on autosomes appears to be defective in the absence of ATM because there is an increase in the total number of MLH1 foci, which mark the sites of eventual crossover formation, and because interference between MLH1 foci is perturbed. The axes of autosomes exhibit structural defects that correlate with the positions of ongoing recombination. Together, these findings indicate that ATM plays a role in both crossover control and chromosome axis integrity and further suggests that ATM is important for coordinating these features of meiotic chromosome dynamics.
Crossover physics in the nonequilibrium dynamics of quenched quantum impurity systems.
Vasseur, Romain; Trinh, Kien; Haas, Stephan; Saleur, Hubert
2013-06-14
A general framework is proposed to tackle analytically local quantum quenches in integrable impurity systems, combining a mapping onto a boundary problem with the form factor approach to boundary-condition-changing operators introduced by Lesage and Saleur [Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4370 (1998)]. We discuss how to compute exactly the following two central quantities of interest: the Loschmidt echo and the distribution of the work done during the quantum quench. Our results display an interesting crossover physics characterized by the energy scale T(b) of the impurity corresponding to the Kondo temperature. We discuss in detail the noninteracting case as a paradigm and benchmark for more complicated integrable impurity models and check our results using numerical methods.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yoshida, K; Yamaguchi, T; Kittaka, S; Bellissent-Funel, M-C; Fouquet, P
2012-01-01
Neutron spin echo measurements of monolayer and capillary condensed heavy water (D 2 O) confined in MCM-41 C10 (pore diameter 2.10 nm) were performed in a temperature range of 190-298 K. The intermediate scattering functions were analyzed by the Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts stretched exponential function. The relaxation times of confined D 2 O in the capillary condensed state follow remarkably well the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann equation between 298 and 220 K, whereas below 220 K they show an Arrhenius type behavior. That is, the fragile-to-strong (FTS) dynamic crossover occurs, which has never been seen in experiments on bulk water. On the other hand, for monolayer D 2 O, the FTS dynamic crossover was not observed in the temperature range measured. The FTS dynamic crossover observed in capillary condensed water would take place in the central region of the pore, not near the pore surface. Because the tetrahedral-like water structure in the central region of the pore is more preserved than that near the pore surface, the FTS dynamic crossover would be concerned with the tetrahedral-like water structure. (paper)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jureschi, Catalin-Maricel [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science and Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology Laboratory (AMNOL), Stefan cel Mare University, University Street 13, Suceava 720229 (Romania); LISV, UVSQ, 78035 Versailles Cedex (France); Rusu, Ionela [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science and Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology Laboratory (AMNOL), Stefan cel Mare University, University Street 13, Suceava 720229 (Romania); Codjovi, Epiphane [Groupe d’Etude de la Matière Condensée (GEMaC), CNRS-UMR 8635, UVSQ, 78035 Versailles Cedex (France); Linares, Jorge, E-mail: jorge.linares@uvsq.fr [Groupe d’Etude de la Matière Condensée (GEMaC), CNRS-UMR 8635, UVSQ, 78035 Versailles Cedex (France); Garcia, Yann [Institute of Condensed Matter and Nanosciences, Molecules, Solids, Reactivity (IMCN/MOST), Université Catholique de Louvain, Place L. Pasteur 1, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Rotaru, Aurelian, E-mail: rotaru@eed.usv.ro [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science and Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology Laboratory (AMNOL), Stefan cel Mare University, University Street 13, Suceava 720229 (Romania)
2014-09-15
We have used reflectance measurements to investigate the effect of a hydrostatic pressure on the molecular 1D spin crossover coordination polymer [Fe(hyptrz)]A{sub 2}·H{sub 2}O (hyptrz=4-(3′-hydroxypropyl)-1,2,4-triazole and A=4-chloro-benzenesulfonate) Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80 (2009) 123901. Both thermal and pressure hysteresis have been recorded at different pressures and temperatures, respectively, in order to obtain valuable information about the optimal conditions of their use as wireless temperature and pressure sensors. The experimental analysis has been completed with a theoretical study and potential applications in terms of temperature and pressure wireless detection are discussed.
Experimental analysis of methanol cross-over in a direct methanol fuel cell
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Casalegno, Andrea [Dipartimento di Energetica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milan (Italy)]. E-mail: andrea.casalegno@polimi.it; Grassini, Paolo [Dipartimento di Energetica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milan (Italy)]. E-mail: PGrassini@seal.it; Marchesi, Renzo [Dipartimento di Energetica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milan (Italy)]. E-mail: renzo.marchesi@polimi.it
2007-03-15
Methanol cross-over through the polymeric membrane is one of the main causes limiting direct methanol fuel cell performances. It causes fuel wasting and enhances cathode overpotential. A repeatable and reproducible measurement system, that assures the traceability of the measurement to international reference standards, is necessary to compare different fuel cell construction materials. In this work a method to evaluate methanol cross-over rate and operating condition influence is presented and qualified in term of measurement uncertainty. In the investigated range, the methanol cross-over rate results mainly due to diffusion through the membrane, in fact it is strongly affected by temperature. Moreover the cross-over influence on fuel utilization and fuel cell efficiency is investigated. The methanol cross-over rate appears linearly proportional to electrochemical fuel utilization and values, obtained by measurements at different anode flow rate but constant electrochemical fuel utilization, are roughly equal; methanol wasting, due to cross-over, is considerable and can still be higher than electrochemical utilization. The fuel recirculation effect on energy efficiency has been investigated and it was found that fuel recirculation gives more advantage at low temperature, but fuel cell energy efficiency results are in any event higher at high temperature.
Experimental analysis of methanol cross-over in a direct methanol fuel cell
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Casalegno, Andrea; Grassini, Paolo; Marchesi, Renzo
2007-01-01
Methanol cross-over through the polymeric membrane is one of the main causes limiting direct methanol fuel cell performances. It causes fuel wasting and enhances cathode overpotential. A repeatable and reproducible measurement system, that assures the traceability of the measurement to international reference standards, is necessary to compare different fuel cell construction materials. In this work a method to evaluate methanol cross-over rate and operating condition influence is presented and qualified in term of measurement uncertainty. In the investigated range, the methanol cross-over rate results mainly due to diffusion through the membrane, in fact it is strongly affected by temperature. Moreover the cross-over influence on fuel utilization and fuel cell efficiency is investigated. The methanol cross-over rate appears linearly proportional to electrochemical fuel utilization and values, obtained by measurements at different anode flow rate but constant electrochemical fuel utilization, are roughly equal; methanol wasting, due to cross-over, is considerable and can still be higher than electrochemical utilization. The fuel recirculation effect on energy efficiency has been investigated and it was found that fuel recirculation gives more advantage at low temperature, but fuel cell energy efficiency results are in any event higher at high temperature
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Koga, Yoshikata; Westh, Peter; Yoshida, Koh
2014-01-01
temperature. The extrapolated temperature to zero p seems to be about 70 – 80 °C for points X and 90 – 110 °C for Y. Furthermore, the mid-points of X and Y seem to extrapolate to the triple point of liquid, ice Ih and ice III. Recalling that the zero x Gly extrapolation of point X and Y for binary aqueous...... of the step named point X and its end point Y. In analogy with another third and fourth derivative pair in binary aqueous solutions of glycerol, dα p /dx Gly and d2 α p /dx Gly 2, at 0.1 MPa (α p is the thermal expansivity and x Gly the mole fraction of solute glycerol) in our recent publication [J. Solution...... Chem. 43, 663-674 (2014); DOI:10.1007/s10953-013-0122-7], we argue that there is a gradual crossover in the molecular organization of pure H2O from a low to a high p-regions starting at point X and ending at Y at a fixed T. The crossover takes place gradually spanning for about 100 MPa at a fixed...
Dynamic structure factor of the normal Fermi gas from the collisionless to the hydrodynamic regime
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Watabe, Shohei; Nikuni, Tetsuro
2010-01-01
The dynamic structure factor of a normal Fermi gas is investigated by using the moment method for the Boltzmann equation. We determine the spectral function at finite temperatures over the full range of crossover from the collisionless regime to the hydrodynamic regime. We find that the Brillouin peak in the dynamic structure factor exhibits a smooth crossover from zero to first sound as functions of temperature and interaction strength. The dynamic structure factor obtained using the moment method also exhibits a definite Rayleigh peak (ω∼0), which is a characteristic of the hydrodynamic regime. We compare the dynamic structure factor obtained by the moment method with that obtained from the hydrodynamic equations.
Spin-crossover behavior of polymeric iron(III) complexes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maeda, Yonezo; Miyamoto, Makoto; Takashima, Yoshimasa; Oshio, Hiroaki
1989-01-01
Polymeric spin-crossover iron(III) complexes possessing poly(4-vinylpyridine), poly(N-vinylimidazole) or poly(octylmethacrylate-co-4-vinylpyridine) as ligand are prepared. In this experience enriched 57 Fe was used to get strong Moessbauer absorption. The enriched behavior of the complexes were examined by magnetic susceptibilities measurement, and Moessbauer and esr spectroscopies. Some of them show spin-state behavior over a wide range of temperature. Some of them show rapid spin-state interexchange compared to the Moessbauer time scale and others not. Spin-crossover behavior of polymeric complexes is characterized of wide spin-state transition temperature range
Gentili, Denis; Liscio, Fabiola; Demitri, Nicola; Schäfer, Bernhard; Borgatti, Francesco; Torelli, Piero; Gobaut, Benoit; Panaccione, Giancarlo; Rossi, Giorgio; Degli Esposti, Alessandra; Gazzano, Massimo; Milita, Silvia; Bergenti, Ilaria; Ruani, Giampiero; Šalitroš, Ivan; Ruben, Mario; Cavallini, Massimiliano
2016-01-07
We investigated the influence of surfaces in the formation of different crystal structures of a spin crossover compound, namely [Fe(L)2] (LH: (2-(pyrazol-1-yl)-6-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)pyridine), which is a neutral compound thermally switchable around room temperature. We observed that the surface induces the formation of two different crystal structures, which exhibit opposite spin transitions, i.e. on heating them up to the transition temperature, one polymorph switches from high spin to low spin and the second polymorph switches irreversibly from low spin to high spin. We attributed this inversion to the presence of water molecules H-bonded to the complex tetrazolyl moieties in the crystals. Thin deposits were investigated by means of polarized optical microscopy, atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray absorption spectroscopy and micro Raman spectroscopy; moreover the analysis of the Raman spectra and the interpretation of spin inversion were supported by DFT calculations.
Recent advances of spin crossover research
Gutlich, P; van Koningsbruggen, PJ; Renz, F; Schonherr, T
2004-01-01
Thermal spin transition (spin crossover), one of the most fascinating dynamic electronic structure phenomena occurring in coordination compounds of third row transition metal ions, mostly of iron(II), iron(III) and cobalt(II) with critical ligand field strengths competing with the spin pairing
Schmidtke, B; Petzold, N; Kahlau, R; Rössler, E A
2013-08-28
We determine the reorientational correlation time τ of a series of molecular liquids by performing depolarized light scattering experiments (double monochromator, Fabry-Perot interferometry, and photon correlation spectroscopy). Correlation times in the range 10(-12) s-100 s are compiled, i.e., the full temperature interval between the boiling point and the glass transition temperature T(g) is covered. We focus on low-T(g) liquids for which the high-temperature limit τ ≅ 10(-12) s is easily accessed by standard spectroscopic equipment (up to 440 K). Regarding the temperature dependence three interpolation formulae of τ(T) with three parameters each are tested: (i) Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann equation, (ii) the approach recently discussed by Mauro et al. [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106, 19780 (2009)], and (iii) our approach decomposing the activation energy E(T) in a constant high temperature value E∞ and a "cooperative part" E(coop)(T) depending exponentially on temperature [Schmidtke et al., Phys. Rev. E 86, 041507 (2012)]. On the basis of the present data, approaches (i) and (ii) are insufficient as they do not provide the correct crossover to the high-temperature Arrhenius law clearly identified in the experimental data while approach (iii) reproduces the salient features of τ(T). It allows to discuss the temperature dependence of the liquid's dynamics in terms of a E(coop)(T)/E∞ vs. T/E∞ plot and suggests that E∞ controls the energy scale of the glass transition phenomenon.
Allcorn, Eric; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Pratt, Harry D.; Spoerke, Erik; Ingersoll, David
2018-02-01
Flow batteries are an attractive technology for energy storage of grid-scale renewables. However, performance issues related to ion-exchange membrane (IEM) fouling and crossover of species have limited the success of flow batteries. In this work we propose the use of the solid-state sodium-ion conductor NaSICON as an IEM to fully eliminate active species crossover in room temperature, aqueous, neutral pH flow batteries. We measure the room temperature conductivity of NaSICON at 2.83-4.67 mS cm-1 and demonstrate stability of NaSICON in an aqueous electrolyte with conductivity values remaining near 2.5 mS cm-1 after 66 days of exposure. Charge and discharge of a full H-cell battery as well as symmetric cycling in a flow battery configuration using NaSICON as an IEM in both cases demonstrates the capability of the solid-state IEM. Extensive analysis of aged cells through electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and UV-vis spectroscopy show no contaminant species having crossed over the NaSICON membrane after 83 days of exposure, yielding an upper limit to the permeability of NaSICON of 4 × 10-10 cm2 min-1. The demonstration of NaSICON as an IEM enables a wide new range of chemistries for application to flow batteries that would previously be impeded by species crossover and associated degradation.
Analysis of multi-step transitions in spin crossover nanochains
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chiruta, Daniel [GEMaC, Université de Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, CNRS-UVSQ (UMR 8635), 78035 Versailles Cedex (France); LISV, Université de Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, 78140 Velizy (France); Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Stefan cel Mare University, Suceava 720229 (Romania); Linares, Jorge, E-mail: jorge.linares@uvsq.fr [GEMaC, Université de Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, CNRS-UVSQ (UMR 8635), 78035 Versailles Cedex (France); Garcia, Yann, E-mail: yann.garcia@uclouvain.be [Institute of Condensed Matter and Nanosciences, Université Catholique de Louvain, Molecules, Solids and Reactivity (IMCN/MOST), Place Louis Pasteur, 1, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Dimian, Mihai [Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Stefan cel Mare University, Suceava 720229 (Romania); Dahoo, Pierre Richard [LATMOS, Université de Versailles-Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, CNRS-UPMC-UVSQ (UMR 8190), 78280 Guyancourt (France)
2014-02-01
The temperature driven phase transition occurring in spin crossover nanochains has been studied by an Ising-like model considering both short-range and long-range interactions. Various types of spin crossover profiles have been described in this framework, including a novel three-step transition identified in a nanosystem with eight molecules, which is modeled for the first time. A special interest has been also given to stepwise transitions accompanied by two hysteresis loops. The edge and size effects on spin crossover behavior have been investigated in order to get a deeper insight of the underlying mechanisms involved in these unusual spin transitions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lal, Siddhartha; Laad, Mukul S.
2007-08-01
The dynamics of the charge sector of a one-dimensional quarter-filled electronic system with extended Hubbard interactions were recently mapped onto that of an effective pseudospin transverse-field Ising model (TFIM) in the strong coupling limit. Motivated by studying the effects of inter-chain couplings, we investigate the phase diagram for the case of a system of many coupled effective (TFIM) chains. A random phase approximation analysis reveals a phase diagram with an ordered phase existing at finite temperatures. The phase boundary ends at a zero temperature quantum critical point. Critical quantum fluctuations are found to drive a zero temperature deconfinement transition, as well as enhance the dispersion of excitations in the transverse directions, leading to a dimensional crossover at finite temperatures. Our work is potentially relevant for a unified description of a class of strongly correlated, quarter-filled chain and ladder systems. (author)
Dynamical calculation of nuclear temperature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zheng Yuming
1998-01-01
A new dynamical approach for measuring the temperature of a Hamiltonian dynamical system in the microcanonical ensemble of thermodynamics is presented. It shows that under the hypothesis of ergodicity the temperature can be computed as a time average of a function on the energy surface. This method not only yields an efficient computational approach for determining the temperature, but also provides an intrinsic link between dynamical system theory and the statistical mechanics of Hamiltonian system
The BCS-BEC crossover: From ultra-cold Fermi gases to nuclear systems
Strinati, Giancarlo Calvanese; Pieri, Pierbiagio; Röpke, Gerd; Schuck, Peter; Urban, Michael
2018-04-01
This report addresses topics and questions of common interest in the fields of ultra-cold gases and nuclear physics in the context of the BCS-BEC crossover. By this crossover, the phenomena of Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) superfluidity and Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC), which share the same kind of spontaneous symmetry breaking, are smoothly connected through the progressive reduction of the size of the fermion pairs involved as the fundamental entities in both phenomena. This size ranges, from large values when Cooper pairs are strongly overlapping in the BCS limit of a weak inter-particle attraction, to small values when composite bosons are non-overlapping in the BEC limit of a strong inter-particle attraction, across the intermediate unitarity limit where the size of the pairs is comparable with the average inter-particle distance. The BCS-BEC crossover has recently been realized experimentally, and essentially in all of its aspects, with ultra-cold Fermi gases. This realization, in turn, has raised the interest of the nuclear physics community in the crossover problem, since it represents an unprecedented tool to test fundamental and unanswered questions of nuclear many-body theory. Here, we focus on the several aspects of the BCS-BEC crossover, which are of broad joint interest to both ultra-cold Fermi gases and nuclear matter, and which will likely help to solve in the future some open problems in nuclear physics (concerning, for instance, neutron stars). Similarities and differences occurring in ultra-cold Fermi gases and nuclear matter will then be emphasized, not only about the relative phenomenologies but also about the theoretical approaches to be used in the two contexts. Common to both contexts is the fact that at zero temperature the BCS-BEC crossover can be described at the mean-field level with reasonable accuracy. At finite temperature, on the other hand, inclusion of pairing fluctuations beyond mean field represents an essential ingredient
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Atitoaie, Alexandru; Tanasa, Radu; Enachescu, Cristian
2012-01-01
Spin crossover compounds are photo-magnetic bistable molecular magnets with two states in thermodynamic competition: the diamagnetic low-spin state and paramagnetic high-spin state. The thermal transition between the two states is often accompanied by a wide hysteresis, premise for possible application of these materials as recording media. In this paper we study the influence of the system's size on the thermal hysteresis loops using Monte Carlo simulations based on an Arrhenius dynamics applied for an Ising like model with long- and short-range interactions. We show that using appropriate boundary conditions it is possible to reproduce both the drop of hysteresis width with decreasing particle size, the hysteresis shift towards lower temperatures and the incomplete transition, as in the available experimental data. The case of larger systems composed by several sublattices is equally treated reproducing the shrinkage of the hysteresis loop's width experimentally observed. - Highlights: ► A study concerning size effects in spin crossover nanoparticles hysteresis is presented. ► An Ising like model with short- and long-range interactions and Arrhenius dynamics is employed. ► In open boundary system the hysteresis width decreases with particle size. ► With appropriate environment, hysteresis loop is shifted towards lower temperature and transition is incomplete.
Crosta, M.; Trillo, S.; Fratalocchi, Andrea
2012-01-01
We show that the perturbative nonlinearity associated with three-atom interactions, competing with standard two-body repulsive interactions, can change dramatically the evolution of one-dimensional (1D) dispersive shock waves in a Bose-Einstein condensate. In particular, we prove the existence of a rich crossover dynamics, ranging from the formation of multiple shocks regularized by nonlinear oscillations culminating in coexisting dark and antidark matter waves to 1D-soliton collapse. For a given scattering length, all these different regimes can be accessed by varying the density of atoms in the condensate.
Crosta, M.
2012-04-10
We show that the perturbative nonlinearity associated with three-atom interactions, competing with standard two-body repulsive interactions, can change dramatically the evolution of one-dimensional (1D) dispersive shock waves in a Bose-Einstein condensate. In particular, we prove the existence of a rich crossover dynamics, ranging from the formation of multiple shocks regularized by nonlinear oscillations culminating in coexisting dark and antidark matter waves to 1D-soliton collapse. For a given scattering length, all these different regimes can be accessed by varying the density of atoms in the condensate.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zaanen, J.; Horbach, M.L.; van Saarloos, W.
1996-01-01
Evidence is accumulating that the electron liquid in the cuprate superconductors is characterized by many-hole correlations of the charged magnetic domain-wall type. Here we focus on the strong-coupling limit where all holes are bound to domain walls. We assert that at high temperatures a classical domain-wall fluid is realized and show that the dynamics of such a fluid is characterized by spatial and temporal crossover scales set by temperature itself. The fundamental parameters of this fluid are such that the domain-wall motions dominate the low-frequency spin fluctuations and we derive predictions for the behavior of the dynamical magnetic susceptibility. We argue that a crossover occurs from a high-temperature classical to a low-temperature quantum regime, in direct analogy with helium. We discuss some general characteristics of the domain-wall quantum liquid, realized at low temperatures. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society
Zhang, Ruiming
This research focuses on methanol crossover reduction in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC) through separating the methanol vapor from its liquid phase and feeding the vapor passively at low temperature range. Membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) were fabricated by using commercial available membrane with different thickness at different anode catalyst loading levels, and tested under the operating conditions below 100°C in cell temperature and cathode exit open to ambient pressure. Liquid methanol transport from the anode through the membrane into cathode ("methanol crossover") is identified as one of the major efficiency losses in a DMFC. It is known that the methanol crossover rate in the vapor phase is much lower than in liquid phase. Vapor feed can be achieved by heating the liquid methanol to elevated temperatures (>100°C), but other issues limit the performance of the cell when operating above 100°C. High temperature membranes and much more active cathode catalyst structures are required, and a complex temperature control system must be employed. However, methanol vapor feed can also occur at a lower temperature range (evaporation through a porous body. The methanol crossover with this vapor feed mode is lower compared with the direct liquid methanol feed. A new method of using a methanol evaporation plate (MEP) to separate the vapor from its liquid phase to reduce the liquid methanol crossover at low temperature range is developed. A MEP plays the roles of liquid/vapor methanol phase separation and evaporation in a DMFC. The goal of this study is to develop a MEP with the proper properties to achieve high methanol phase separation efficiency and fast methanol evaporation rate over a wide range of temperature, i.e., from room temperature up to near boiling temperature (100°C). MEP materials were selected and characterized. MEPs made from three different types were tested extensively with different MEA and porous back layer configurations. The benefits of
Ovchinnikov, S. G.; Ovchinnikova, T. M.; Plotkin, V. V.; Dyad'kov, P. G.
2015-11-01
Effect of high pressure induced spin crossover on the magnetic, electronic and structural properties of the minerals forming the Earth's low mantle is discussed. The low temperature P, T phase diagram of ferropericlase has the quantum phase transition point Pc = 56 GPa at T = 0 confirmed recently by the synchrotron Mössbauer spectroscopy. The LDA+GTB calculated phase diagram describes the experimental data. Its extension to the high temperature resulted earlier in prediction of the metallic properties of the Earth's mantle at the depth 1400 km insulator transition and compare them with the experimental seismic and geomagnetic field data.
Crossover transition in the fluctuation of Internet
Qian, Jiang-Hai
2018-06-01
The inconsistent fluctuation behavior of Internet predicted by preferential attachment(PA) and Gibrat's law requires empirical investigations on the actual system. By using the interval-tunable Gibrat's law statistics, we find the actual fluctuation, characterized by the conditional standard deviation of the degree growth rate, changes with the interval length and displays a crossover transition from PA type to Gibrat's law type, which has not yet been captured by any previous models. We characterize the transition dynamics quantitatively and determine the applicative range of PA and Gibrat's law. The correlation analysis indicates the crossover transition may be attributed to the accumulative correlation between the internal links.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Noji, H [IRC in Superconductivity, Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom); Glowacki, B A [IRC in Superconductivity, Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom) Dept. of Materials Science and Metallurgy, Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom); Oota, A [Dept. of Electric and Electronic Engineering, Toyohashi Univ. of Tech., (Japan)
1993-05-10
A study of the influence of the processing conditions of Ag-Bi[sub 2]Sr[sub 2]CaCu[sub 2]O[sub x] screen-printed tapes on the temperature, field and frequency dependence of their a.c. susceptibility has been conducted. Samples have been prepared by melt-solidification and subsequent sintering on silver substrates under the same conditions but with different cooling procedures and reannealing. These procedures lead to different Tc values and field dependency of the loss peak temperature T[sub M], which cause the crossover in the T[sub M] versus applied field characteristics. It was established that the above crossover phenomenon is correlated to the crossover in the J[sub C] versus temperature characteristics. (orig.)
The Kondo problem. II. Crossover from asymptotic freedom to infrared slavery
Schlottmann, P.
1982-04-01
In the preceding paper we transformed the s-d Hamiltonian onto a resonance level with a large perturbation and derived the scaling equations for the vertices, the invariant coupling, and the resonance width. The scaling equations are integrated under the assumption that the energy dependence of the resonance width can be neglected. The transcendental equation obtained in this way for the renormalized resonance width is solved in the relevant limits and allows a calculation of the static and dynamical susceptibility. At high temperatures the perturbation expansion for the relaxation rate and the susceptibility is reproduced up to third order in Jρ. At low temperatures the lifetime and χ0 remain finite and vary according to a Fermi-liquid theory. The approximation scheme interpolates in this way between the asymptotic freedom and the infrared slavery, yielding a smooth crossover. The present results are in quantitative agreement with previous ones obtained with the relaxation-kernel method by Götze and Schlottmann. The advantages and drawbacks of the method are discussed. The calculation of the dynamical susceptibility is extended to nonzero external magnetic fields. The quasielastic peak of χ''(ω)ω is suppressed at low temperatures and large magnetic fields and shoulders develop at ω=+/-B.
Safar, H.; Gammel, P. L.; Bishop, D. J.; Mitzi, D. B.; Kapitulnik, A.
1992-04-01
A SQUID voltmeter has been used to measure current-voltage curves in untwinned crystals of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O(8+delta) as a function of temperature and magnetic field. The data show a clear crossover from high-temperature Arrhenius behavior to a critical region associated with the low-temperature three-dimensional vortex-glass phase transition. The critical exponents v(z - 1) = 7 +/- 1 in this system are in accord with theoretical models and previous measurements in YBa2Cu3O7. The width of the critical region collapses below 2 T, reflecting the changing role of dimensionality with field.
Reexamination of the evolution of the dynamic susceptibility of the glass former glycerol.
Adichtchev, S; Blochowicz, T; Tschirwitz, C; Novikov, V N; Rössler, E A
2003-07-01
The dielectric data of glycerol compiled by Lunkenheimer et al. [Contemp. Phys. 41, 15 (2000)] are reanalyzed within a phenomenological approach on the one hand, and within mode coupling theory (MCT), on the other. We present a complete interpolation of the dielectric data covering 17 decades in frequencies. The crossover temperature extracted from the phenomenological analysis of the slow response at low temperatures and defined by the emergence of the excess wing upon cooling agrees well with the critical temperature extracted from a MCT analysis of the dynamics at high temperatures including data that were not used in the first MCT analysis of glycerol by Lunkenheimer et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 318 (1996)]. The crossover temperature is found to be T(c)=288+/-3 K, which is significantly higher than previously reported. Extracting the nonergodicity parameter f, the characteristic anomaly is only found when 1-f is inspected, since f is very close to 1. No difference for the evolution of the dynamic susceptibility is observed for the nonfragile system glycerol with respect to fragile glass formers provided that the evolution of the dynamics is studied as a function of the correlation time tau(alpha).
Pressure effect on hysteresis in spin-crossover solid materials
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gudyma, Iurii, E-mail: yugudyma@gmail.com [Department of General Physics, Chernivtsi National University, Chernivtsi 58012 (Ukraine); Ivashko, Victor [Department of General Physics, Chernivtsi National University, Chernivtsi 58012 (Ukraine); Dimian, Mihai [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Howard University, Washington DC 20059 (United States); Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science & Integrated Center for Research, Development and Innovation in Advanced Materials, Nanotechnologies, and Distributed Systems for fabrication and control, Stefan cel Mare University, Suceava 720229 (Romania)
2016-04-01
A generalized microscopic Ising-like model is proposed to describe behavior of compressible spin-crossover solids with two states: low-spin and high-spin. The model was solved in mean-field approximation and shows hysteretic behavior at low energy difference between the states. We study the thermal transition between states under external hydrostatic pressure taking into account the changes in the volume of spin-crossover molecules in different states. Depending on the applied pressure, a spin-crossover system can have three types of behavior of molecular fraction in the high-spin state: hysteretic, second-order phase transition and no-phase transition. For the hysteretic regime, it is shown that the transition temperature under pressure is increased while the width of the hysteresis reduced.
Pisani, L.; Perali, A.; Pieri, P.; Strinati, G. Calvanese
2018-01-01
The problem of the theoretical description of the critical temperature Tc of a Fermi superfluid dates back to the work by Gorkov and Melik-Barkhudarov (GMB), who addressed it for a weakly coupled (dilute) superfluid in what would today be referred to as the (extreme) BCS (weak-coupling) limit of the BCS-BEC crossover. The point made in this context by GMB was that particle-particle (pairing) excitations, which are responsible for superfluidity to occur below Tc, and particle-hole excitations, which give rise to screening also in a normal system, get effectively disentangled from each other in the BCS limit, thus yielding a reduction by a factor of 2.2 of the value of Tc obtained when neglecting screening effects. Subsequent work on this topic, that was aimed at extending the original GMB argument away from the BCS limit with diagrammatic methods, has tout court kept this disentangling between pairing and screening throughout the BCS-BEC crossover, without realizing that the conditions for it to be valid are soon violated away from the BCS limit. Here, we reconsider this problem from a more general perspective and argue that pairing and screening are intrinsically entangled with each other along the whole BCS-BEC crossover but for the BCS limit considered by GMB, with the particle-hole excitations soon transmuting into particle-particle excitations away from this limit. We substantiate our argument by performing a detailed numerical calculation of the GMB diagrammatic contribution suitably extended to the whole BCS-BEC crossover, where the full wave-vector and frequency dependence occurring in the repeated in-medium two-particle scattering is duly taken into account. Our numerical calculations are tested against analytic results available in both the BCS and BEC limits, and the contribution of the GMB diagrammatic term to the scattering length of composite bosons in the BEC limit is highlighted. We calculate Tc throughout the BCS-BEC crossover and find that it
Dynamic temperature measurements with embedded optical sensors.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dolan, Daniel H.,; Seagle, Christopher T; Ao, Tommy
2013-10-01
This report summarizes LDRD project number 151365, \\Dynamic Temperature Measurements with Embedded Optical Sensors". The purpose of this project was to develop an optical sensor capable of detecting modest temperature states (<1000 K) with nanosecond time resolution, a recurring diagnostic need in dynamic compression experiments at the Sandia Z machine. Gold sensors were selected because the visible re ectance spectrum of gold varies strongly with temperature. A variety of static and dynamic measurements were performed to assess re ectance changes at di erent temperatures and pressures. Using a minimal optical model for gold, a plausible connection between static calibrations and dynamic measurements was found. With re nements to the model and diagnostic upgrades, embedded gold sensors seem capable of detecting minor (<50 K) temperature changes under dynamic compression.
Sarang, Som; Ishihara, Hidetaka; Chen, Yen-Chang; Lin, Oliver; Gopinathan, Ajay; Tung, Vincent C; Ghosh, Sayantani
2016-10-19
We have developed a framework for using temperature dependent static and dynamic photoluminescence (PL) of hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites (PVSKs) to characterize lattice defects in thin films, based on the presence of nanodomains at low temperature. Our high-stability PVSK films are fabricated using a novel continuous liquid interface propagation technique, and in the tetragonal phase (T > 120 K), they exhibit bi-exponential recombination from free charge carriers with an average PL lifetime of ∼200 ns. Below 120 K, the emergence of the orthorhombic phase is accompanied by a reduction in lifetimes by an order of magnitude, which we establish to be the result of a crossover from free carrier to exciton-dominated radiative recombination. Analysis of the PL as a function of excitation power at different temperatures provides direct evidence that the exciton binding energy is different in the two phases, and using these results, we present a theoretical approach to estimate this variable binding energy. Our findings explain this anomalous low temperature behavior for the first time, attributing it to an inherent fundamental property of the hybrid PVSKs that can be used as an effective probe of thin film quality.
Linares, Jorge; Eddine Allal, Salah; Dahoo, Pierre Richard; Garcia, Yann
2017-12-01
The spin-crossover (SCO) phenomenon is related to the ability of a transition metal to change its spin state vs. a given perturbation. For an iron(II) SCO complexes the reversible changes involve the diamagnetic low-spin (S = 0) and the paramagnetic high-spin (HS S = 2) states [1,2,3]. In this contribution we simulate the HS Fraction (nHS) for different set values of temperature and pressure for a device using two SCO complexes with weak elastic interactions. We improve the calculation given by Linares et al. [4], taking also into account different volume (VHS, VLS) changes of the SCO. We perform all the calculation in the frame work of an Ising-like model solved in the mean-field approximation. The two SCO show in the case of “weak elastic interactions”, gradual spin transitions such that both temperature and pressure values can be obtained from the optical observation in the light of calculations discussed in this article.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hensel-Bielowka, Stella [Univ. of Silesia, Katowice (Poland). Inst. of Chemistry; Wojnarowska, Zaneta [Univ. of Silesia, Katowice (Poland). Inst. of Physics; Univ. of Silesia, Chorzow (Poland). Silesian Center for Education and Interdisciplinary Research (SMCEBI); Dzida, Marzena [Univ. of Silesia, Katowice (Poland). Inst. of Chemistry; Zorębski, Edward [Univ. of Silesia, Katowice (Poland). Inst. of Chemistry; Zorębski, Michał [Univ. of Silesia, Katowice (Poland). Inst. of Chemistry; Geppert-Rybczyńska, Monika [Univ. of Silesia, Katowice (Poland). Inst. of Chemistry; Peppel, Tim [Leibniz Inst. for Catalysis, Rostock (Germany); Grzybowska, Katarzyna [Univ. of Silesia, Katowice (Poland). Inst. of Physics; Wang, Yangyang [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences; Sokolov, Alexei P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Chemical Sciences Division; Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Paluch, Marian [Univ. of Silesia, Katowice (Poland). Inst. of Physics; Univ. of Silesia, Chorzow (Poland). Silesian Center for Education and Interdisciplinary Research (SMCEBI)
2015-08-11
Dynamic crossover above T_{g} has been recognized as a characteristic feature of molecular dynamics of liquids approaching glass transition. Experimentally, it is manifested as a change in Vogel–Fulcher–Tammann dependence or a breakdown of the Stokes–Einstein and related relations. In this study, we report the exception from this rather general pattern of behavior. By means of dielectric, ultrasonic, rheological, and calorimetric methods, dynamics of two good ionic conductors (BMIm)_{2}[Co(NCS)_{4}] and (EMIm)_{2}[Co(NCS)_{4}] of less common stoichiometry (2:1) was studied in a very broad temperature range. However, none of the mentioned dynamic changes was observed in the entire studied temperature range. On the contrary, the single VFT and the same fractional Walden coefficient were found for conductivity and viscosity changes over 12 decades. Finally and moreover, ultrasonic studies revealed that the data at temperatures which cover the normal liquid region cannot be fitted by a single exponential decay, and the Cole–Cole function should be used instead.
Temperature dependent dynamics of DegP-trimer: A molecular dynamics study
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nivedita Rai
2015-01-01
Full Text Available DegP is a heat shock protein from high temperature requirement protease A family, which reacts to the environmental stress conditions in an ATP independent way. The objective of the present analysis emerged from the temperature dependent functional diversity of DegP between chaperonic and protease activities at temperatures below and above 28 °C, respectively. DegP is a multimeric protein and the minimal functional unit, DegP-trimer, is of great importance in understanding the DegP pathway. The structural aspects of DegP-trimer with respect to temperature variation have been studied using molecular dynamics simulations (for 100 ns and principal component analysis to highlight the temperature dependent dynamics facilitating its functional diversity. The DegP-trimer revealed a pronounced dynamics at both 280 and 320 K, when compared to the dynamics observed at 300 K. The LA loop is identified as the highly flexible region during dynamics and at extreme temperatures, the residues 46–80 of LA loop express a flip towards right (at 280 and left ( at 320 K with respect to the fixed β-sheet connecting the LA loop of protease for which Phe46 acts as one of the key residues. Such dynamics of LA loop facilitates inter-monomeric interaction with the PDZ1 domain of the neighbouring monomer and explains its active participation when DegP exists as trimer. Hence, the LA loop mediated dynamics of DegP-trimer is expected to provide further insight into the temperature dependent dynamics of DegP towards the understanding of its assembly and functional diversity in the presence of substrate.
Vlasov, Sergei; Bessarab, Pavel F; Uzdin, Valery M; Jónsson, Hannes
2016-12-22
Transitions between states of a magnetic system can occur by jumps over an energy barrier or by quantum mechanical tunneling through the energy barrier. The rate of such transitions is an important consideration when the stability of magnetic states is assessed for example for nanoscale candidates for data storage devices. The shift in transition mechanism from jumps to tunneling as the temperature is lowered is analyzed and a general expression derived for the crossover temperature. The jump rate is evaluated using a harmonic approximation to transition state theory. First, the minimum energy path for the transition is found with the geodesic nudged elastic band method. The activation energy for the jumps is obtained from the maximum along the path, a saddle point on the energy surface, and the eigenvalues of the Hessian matrix at that point as well as at the initial state minimum used to estimate the entropic pre-exponential factor. The crossover temperature for quantum mechanical tunneling is evaluated from the second derivatives of the energy with respect to orientation of the spin vector at the saddle point. The resulting expression is applied to test problems where analytical results have previously been derived, namely uniaxial and biaxial spin systems with two-fold anisotropy. The effect of adding four-fold anisotropy on the crossover temperature is demonstrated. Calculations of the jump rate and crossover temperature for tunneling are also made for a molecular magnet containing an Mn 4 group. The results are in excellent agreement with previously reported experimental measurements on this system.
Magnetic-field-induced crossover from the inverse Faraday effect to the optical orientation in EuTe
Pavlov, V. V.; Pisarev, R. V.; Nefedov, S. G.; Akimov, I. A.; Yakovlev, D. R.; Bayer, M.; Henriques, A. B.; Rappl, P. H. O.; Abramof, E.
2018-05-01
A time-resolved optical pump-probe technique has been applied for studying the ultrafast dynamics in the magnetic semiconductor EuTe near the absorption band gap. We show that application of external magnetic field up to 6 T results in crossover from the inverse Faraday effect taking place on the femtosecond time scale to the optical orientation phenomenon with an evolution in the picosecond time domain. We propose a model which includes both these processes, possessing different spectral and temporal properties. The circularly polarized optical pumping induces the electronic transition 4 f 7 5 d 0 → 4 f 6 5 d 1 forming the absorption band gap in EuTe. The observed crossover is related to a strong magnetic-field shift of the band gap in EuTe at low temperatures. It was found that manipulation of spin states on intrinsic defect levels takes place on a time scale of 19 ps in the applied magnetic field of 6 T.
Crossover from equilibration to aging: Nonequilibrium theory versus simulations.
Mendoza-Méndez, P; Lázaro-Lázaro, E; Sánchez-Díaz, L E; Ramírez-González, P E; Pérez-Ángel, G; Medina-Noyola, M
2017-08-01
Understanding glasses and the glass transition requires comprehending the nature of the crossover from the ergodic (or equilibrium) regime, in which the stationary properties of the system have no history dependence, to the mysterious glass transition region, where the measured properties are nonstationary and depend on the protocol of preparation. In this work we use nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations to test the main features of the crossover predicted by the molecular version of the recently developed multicomponent nonequilibrium self-consistent generalized Langevin equation theory. According to this theory, the glass transition involves the abrupt passage from the ordinary pattern of full equilibration to the aging scenario characteristic of glass-forming liquids. The same theory explains that this abrupt transition will always be observed as a blurred crossover due to the unavoidable finiteness of the time window of any experimental observation. We find that within their finite waiting-time window, the simulations confirm the general trends predicted by the theory.
Component dynamics in polymer blends a combined QENS and dielectric spectroscopy investigation
Hofmann, S; Arbe, A; Colmenero, J; Faragó, B
2002-01-01
The individual dynamics of the two constituents of a binary polymer blend was studied by means of quasielastic neutron scattering and dielectric spectroscopy (DS). The combination of neutron spin-echo and backscattering techniques allowed us to cover the complete crossover from entropy-driven chain dynamics on mesoscopic scales to the alpha relaxation on local length scales. The observed blending effects on the respective relaxation times suggest a purely dynamic origin of the dynamic heterogeneity in polymer blends at temperatures well above the glass-transition temperature without the need to assume local phase separation. In contrast, the results from DS experiments towards much lower temperatures indicate systematic deviations of the segmental dynamics in the blend from its mean-field-like behavior at high temperatures. This additionally increases the dynamic heterogeneity in the segmental dynamics of the two components in the mixture. In the case of the chain dynamics, no similar effect could be observed...
Topological-Sector Fluctuations and Curie-Law Crossover in Spin Ice
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
L. D. C. Jaubert
2013-02-01
Full Text Available At low temperatures, a spin ice enters a Coulomb phase—a state with algebraic correlations and topologically constrained spin configurations. We show how analytical and numerical approaches for model spin-ice systems reveal a crossover between two Curie laws. One of these laws characterizes the high-temperature paramagnetic regime, while the other, which we call the “spin-liquid Curie law,” characterizes the low-temperature Coulomb-phase regime, which provides implicit evidence that the topological sector fluctuates. We compare our theory with experiment for Ho_{2}Ti_{2}O_{7}, where this process leads to a nonstandard temperature evolution of the bulk susceptibility and the wave-vector-dependent magnetic susceptibility, as measured by neutron scattering. Theory and experiment agree for bulk quantities and at large scattering wave vectors, but differences at small wave vectors indicate that the classical spin-ice states are not equally populated at low temperatures. More generally, the crossover appears to be a generic property of the emergent gauge field for a classical spin liquid, and it sheds light on the experimental difficulty of measuring a precise Curie-Weiss temperature in frustrated materials. The susceptibility at finite wave vectors is shown to be a local probe of fluctuations among topological sectors on varying length scales.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yoshikata Koga
2014-09-01
Full Text Available Using the literature raw data of the speed of sound and the specific volume, the isothermal compressibility, κT, a second derivative thermodynamic quantity of G, was evaluated for liquid H2O in the pressure range up to 350 MPa and the temperature to 50 ºC. We then obtained its pressure derivative, dκT/dp, a third derivative numerically without using a fitting function to the κT data. On taking yet another p-derivative at a fixed T graphically without resorting to any fitting function, the resulting d2κT/dp2, a fourth derivative, showed a weak but clear step anomaly, with the onset of the step named point X and its end point Y. In analogy with another third and fourth derivative pair in binary aqueous solutions of glycerol, dαp/dxGly and d2αp/dxGly2, at 0.1 MPa (αp is the thermal expansivity and xGly the mole fraction of solute glycerol in our recent publication [J. Solution Chem. 43, 663-674 (2014; DOI:10.1007/s10953-013-0122-7], we argue that there is a gradual crossover in the molecular organization of pure H2O from a low to a high p-regions starting at point X and ending at Y at a fixed T. The crossover takes place gradually spanning for about 100 MPa at a fixed temperature. The extrapolated temperature to zero p seems to be about 70 – 80 °C for points X and 90 – 110 °C for Y. Furthermore, the mid-points of X and Y seem to extrapolate to the triple point of liquid, ice Ih and ice III. Recalling that the zero xGly extrapolation of point X and Y for binary aqueous glycerol at 0.1 MPa gives about the same T values respectively, we suggest that at zero pressure the region below about 70 °C the hydrogen bond network is bond-percolated, while above about 90 ºC there is no hydrogen bond network. Implication of these findings is discussed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peter, S; Meyer, H; Baschnagel, J; Seemann, R
2007-01-01
We employ molecular dynamics simulations to explore the influence that the surface of a free-standing polymer film exerts on its structural relaxation when the film is cooled toward the glass transition. Our simulations are concerned with the features of a coarse-grained bead-spring model in a temperature regime above the critical temperature T c of mode-coupling theory. We find that the film dynamics is spatially heterogeneous. Monomers at the free surface relax much faster than they would in the bulk at the same temperature T. The fast relaxation of the surface layer continuously turns into bulk-like relaxation with increasing distance y from the surface. This crossover remains smooth for all T, but its range grows on cooling. We show that it is possible to associate a gradient in critical temperatures T c (y) with the gradient in the relaxation dynamics. This finding is in qualitative agreement with experimental results on supported polystyrene (PS) films (Ellison and Torkelson 2003 Nat. Mater. 2 695). Furthermore we show that the y dependence of T c (y) can be expressed in terms of the depression of T c (h)-the global T c for a film of thickness h-if we assume that T c (h) is the arithmetic mean of T c (y) and parameterize the depression of T c (h) by T c (h) = T c /(1+h 0 /h), a formula suggested by Herminghaus et al (2001 Eur. Phys. J. E 5 531) for the reduction of the glass transition temperature in supported PS films. We demonstrate the validity of this formula by comparing our simulation results to results from other simulations and experiments
Hyperon puzzle, hadron-quark crossover and massive neutron stars
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Masuda, Kota [The University of Tokyo, Department of Physics, Tokyo (Japan); Nishina Center, RIKEN, Theoretical Research Division, Wako (Japan); Hatsuda, Tetsuo [Nishina Center, RIKEN, Theoretical Research Division, Wako (Japan); The University of Tokyo, Kavli IPMU (WPI), Chiba (Japan); Takatsuka, Tatsuyuki [Nishina Center, RIKEN, Theoretical Research Division, Wako (Japan)
2016-03-15
Bulk properties of cold and hot neutron stars are studied on the basis of the hadron-quark crossover picture where a smooth transition from the hadronic phase to the quark phase takes place at finite baryon density. By using a phenomenological equation of state (EOS) ''CRover'', which interpolates the two phases at around 3 times the nuclear matter density (ρ{sub 0}), it is found that the cold NSs with the gravitational mass larger than 2M {sub CircleDot} can be sustained. This is in sharp contrast to the case of the first-order hadron-quark transition. The radii of the cold NSs with the CRover EOS are in the narrow range (12.5 ± 0.5) km which is insensitive to the NS masses. Due to the stiffening of the EOS induced by the hadron-quark crossover, the central density of the NSs is at most 4 ρ{sub 0} and the hyperon-mixing barely occurs inside the NS core. This constitutes a solution of the long-standing hyperon puzzle. The effect of color superconductivity (CSC) on the NS structures is also examined with the hadron-quark crossover. For the typical strength of the diquark attraction, a slight softening of the EOS due to two-flavor CSC (2SC) takes place and the maximum mass is reduced by about 0.2M {sub CircleDot}. The CRover EOS is generalized to the supernova matter at finite temperature to describe the hot NSs at birth. The hadron-quark crossover is found to decrease the central temperature of the hot NSs under isentropic condition. The gravitational energy release and the spin-up rate during the contraction from the hot NS to the cold NS are also estimated. (orig.)
Hyperon puzzle, hadron-quark crossover and massive neutron stars
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Masuda, Kota; Hatsuda, Tetsuo; Takatsuka, Tatsuyuki
2016-01-01
Bulk properties of cold and hot neutron stars are studied on the basis of the hadron-quark crossover picture where a smooth transition from the hadronic phase to the quark phase takes place at finite baryon density. By using a phenomenological equation of state (EOS) ''CRover'', which interpolates the two phases at around 3 times the nuclear matter density (ρ 0 ), it is found that the cold NSs with the gravitational mass larger than 2M CircleDot can be sustained. This is in sharp contrast to the case of the first-order hadron-quark transition. The radii of the cold NSs with the CRover EOS are in the narrow range (12.5 ± 0.5) km which is insensitive to the NS masses. Due to the stiffening of the EOS induced by the hadron-quark crossover, the central density of the NSs is at most 4 ρ 0 and the hyperon-mixing barely occurs inside the NS core. This constitutes a solution of the long-standing hyperon puzzle. The effect of color superconductivity (CSC) on the NS structures is also examined with the hadron-quark crossover. For the typical strength of the diquark attraction, a slight softening of the EOS due to two-flavor CSC (2SC) takes place and the maximum mass is reduced by about 0.2M CircleDot . The CRover EOS is generalized to the supernova matter at finite temperature to describe the hot NSs at birth. The hadron-quark crossover is found to decrease the central temperature of the hot NSs under isentropic condition. The gravitational energy release and the spin-up rate during the contraction from the hot NS to the cold NS are also estimated. (orig.)
Design of a dynamic compensated temperature sensor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yan, Wu; Katz, E.M.; Kerlin, T.W.
1991-01-01
One important function of a temperature sensor in a nuclear power plant is to track changing process temperatures, but the sensor output lags the changing temperature. This lag may have a large influence when the sensor is used in control or safety systems. Therefore, it is advantageous to develop methods that increase the sensor response speed. The goal of this project is to develop a fast-responding temperature sensor, the dynamic compensated temperature sensor (DCTS), based on signal dynamic compensation technology. To verify the theoretical basis of the DCTS and incorporate the DCTS into a real temperature measurement process, several experiments have been performed. The DCTS is a simple approach that can decrease the temperature sensor's response time, and it can provide faster temperature signals to the nuclear power plant safety system
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Karen Voelkel-Meiman
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Accurate chromosome segregation during meiosis relies on the presence of crossover events distributed among all chromosomes. MutSγ and MutLγ homologs (Msh4/5 and Mlh1/3 facilitate the formation of a prominent group of meiotic crossovers that mature within the context of an elaborate chromosomal structure called the synaptonemal complex (SC. SC proteins are required for intermediate steps in the formation of MutSγ-MutLγ crossovers, but whether the assembled SC structure per se is required for MutSγ-MutLγ-dependent crossover recombination events is unknown. Here we describe an interspecies complementation experiment that reveals that the mature SC is dispensable for the formation of Mlh3-dependent crossovers in budding yeast. Zip1 forms a major structural component of the budding yeast SC, and is also required for MutSγ and MutLγ-dependent crossover formation. Kluyveromyces lactis ZIP1 expressed in place of Saccharomyces cerevisiae ZIP1 in S. cerevisiae cells fails to support SC assembly (synapsis but promotes wild-type crossover levels in those nuclei that progress to form spores. While stable, full-length SC does not assemble in S. cerevisiae cells expressing K. lactis ZIP1, aggregates of K. lactis Zip1 displayed by S. cerevisiae meiotic nuclei are decorated with SC-associated proteins, and K. lactis Zip1 promotes the SUMOylation of the SC central element protein Ecm11, suggesting that K. lactis Zip1 functionally interfaces with components of the S. cerevisiae synapsis machinery. Moreover, K. lactis Zip1-mediated crossovers rely on S. cerevisiae synapsis initiation proteins Zip3, Zip4, Spo16, as well as the Mlh3 protein, as do the crossovers mediated by S. cerevisiae Zip1. Surprisingly, however, K. lactis Zip1-mediated crossovers are largely Msh4/Msh5 (MutSγ-independent. This separation-of-function version of Zip1 thus reveals that neither assembled SC nor MutSγ is required for Mlh3-dependent crossover formation per se in budding yeast
Self-induced temperature gradients in Brownian dynamics
Devine, Jack; Jack, M. W.
2017-12-01
Brownian systems often surmount energy barriers by absorbing and emitting heat to and from their local environment. Usually, the temperature gradients created by this heat exchange are assumed to dissipate instantaneously. Here we relax this assumption to consider the case where Brownian dynamics on a time-independent potential can lead to self-induced temperature gradients. In the same way that externally imposed temperature gradients can cause directed motion, these self-induced gradients affect the dynamics of the Brownian system. The result is a coupling between the local environment and the Brownian subsystem. We explore the resulting dynamics and thermodynamics of these coupled systems and develop a robust method for numerical simulation. In particular, by focusing on one-dimensional situations, we show that self-induced temperature gradients reduce barrier-crossing rates. We also consider a heat engine and a heat pump based on temperature gradients induced by a Brownian system in a nonequilibrium potential.
Crossover from Nonequilibrium Fractal Growth to Equilibrium Compact Growth
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Erik Schwartz; Fogedby, Hans C.; Mouritsen, Ole G.
1988-01-01
Solidification controlled by vacancy diffusion is studied by Monte Carlo simulations of a two-dimensional Ising model defined by a Hamiltonian which models a thermally driven fluid-solid phase transition. The nonequilibrium morphology of the growing solid is studied as a function of time as the s...... as the system relaxes into equilibrium described by a temperature. At low temperatures the model exhibits fractal growth at early times and crossover to compact solidification as equilibrium is approached....
Metal-insulator crossover in superconducting cuprates in strong magnetic fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marchetti, P.A.; Su Zhaobin; Yu Lu
2001-02-01
The metal-insulator crossover of the in-plane resistivity upon temperature decrease, recently observed in several classes of cuprate superconductors, when a strong magnetic field suppresses the superconductivity, is explained using the U(1)xSU(2) Chern-Simons gauge field theory. The origin of this crossover is the same as that for a similar phenomenon observed in heavily underdoped cuprates without magnetic field. It is due to the interplay between the diffusive motion of the charge carriers and the 'peculiar' localization effect due to short-range antiferromagnetic order. We also calculate the in-plane transverse magnetoresistance which is in a fairly good agreement with available experimental data. (author)
Shin, Jong Won; Jeong, Ah Rim; Jeoung, Sungeun; Moon, Hoi Ri; Komatsumaru, Yuki; Hayami, Shinya; Moon, Dohyun; Min, Kil Sik
2018-04-24
We report a three-dimensional Fe(ii) porous coordination polymer that exhibits a spin crossover temperature change following CO2 sorption (though not N2 sorption). Furthermore, single crystals of the desolvated polymer with CO2 molecules at three different temperatures were characterised by X-ray crystallography.
Crossover of two power laws in the anomalous diffusion of a two lipid membrane.
Bakalis, Evangelos; Höfinger, Siegfried; Venturini, Alessandro; Zerbetto, Francesco
2015-06-07
Molecular dynamics simulations of a bi-layer membrane made by the same number of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-glycero-3-phospho-ethanolamine and palmitoyl-oleoyl phosphatidylserine lipids reveal sub-diffusional motion, which presents a crossover between two different power laws. Fractional Brownian motion is the stochastic mechanism that governs the motion in both regimes. The location of the crossover point is justified with simple geometrical arguments and is due to the activation of the mechanism of circumrotation of lipids about each other.
Crossover of two power laws in the anomalous diffusion of a two lipid membrane
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bakalis, Evangelos, E-mail: ebakalis@gmail.com, E-mail: francesco.zerbetto@unibo.it; Höfinger, Siegfried; Zerbetto, Francesco, E-mail: ebakalis@gmail.com, E-mail: francesco.zerbetto@unibo.it [Dipartimento di Chimica “G. Ciamician”, Universita’ di Bologna, Via F. Selmi 2, 40126 Bologna (Italy); Venturini, Alessandro [Institute for the Organic Synthesis and Photoreactivity, National Research Council of Italy, Via Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna (Italy)
2015-06-07
Molecular dynamics simulations of a bi-layer membrane made by the same number of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-glycero-3-phospho-ethanolamine and palmitoyl-oleoyl phosphatidylserine lipids reveal sub-diffusional motion, which presents a crossover between two different power laws. Fractional Brownian motion is the stochastic mechanism that governs the motion in both regimes. The location of the crossover point is justified with simple geometrical arguments and is due to the activation of the mechanism of circumrotation of lipids about each other.
Phase transformations of under-cooled austenite of new bainitic materials for scissors crossovers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. Pacyna
2008-07-01
Full Text Available The paper contains CCT diagrams presenting a transformation kinetics of under-cooled austenite from two new bainitic cast steels which the scissors crossovers for heavy-duty railway tracks (min. 230kN/axle at the speed up to 200 km/h are made of. The cooling ranges of UIC60 type railway tracks plot on the CCT diagrams indicate that there is a 100% bainitic structure in the scissors crossovers made of these cast steels as well, but mainly it would be a favourable for cracking resistance lower bainite. The achievable hardness of scissors crossovers made of new materials make it possible to use high–temperature tempering resulting in obtaining of good crack resistance. However one should provide a good quality of castings made.
Experimental investigation of cross-over jets in a rib-roughened trailing-edge cooling channel
Xue, Fei
Increasing the rotor inlet temperature can dramatically increase the efficiency and power output of the gas turbine engine. However, the melting point of turbine blade material limits the realistic upper bound of the rotor inlet temperature. As a result, the development of high temperature turbine blade material and advanced turbine blade cooling technology determines the future of turbine blade engine. Adding impingement jet holes and rib turbulators in the inner cooling channel of the gas turbine blades are two effective ways to enhance the cooling effects. The purpose of this study is to figure out the influence of different combinations of jet holes and rib turbulators on the heat transfer efficiency. A tabletop scale test model is used in the study to simulate the cooling cavity of trailing edge and its feed channel in a real gas turbine blade. The Dimensional Analysis Theory is used in the study to eliminate the influence of scaling. Two different crossover slots are tested with 5 different rib arrangements, and each of the test geometries is tested for 6 jet Reynolds numbers ranging from 10,000 to 36,000. The two different crossover slots are the crossover slots with 0 and 5 degree tilt angles. The four different rib arrangements are ribs with 0 degree, 45 degree, 90 degree and 135 degree angles of attack with respect to the flow direction. Furthermore, a smooth test section (no ribs) was also tested. The steady state liquid crystal thermography is used to quantify the heat transfer performance of the target areas. The variation of Nusselt number versus Reynolds number is plotted for each of the 10 geometries. Also, the variation of Nusselt number versus Reynolds number are compared for different rib angles of attack with the same crossover slot tilt angle, and between different crossover slots tilt angles with the same rib angle. The results show that, the area-weighted average Nusselt number increases monotonically with the Reynolds number; the target
On the Crossover of Boundary Currents in an Idealized Model of the Red Sea
Zhai, Ping
2015-05-01
© 2015 American Meteorological Society. The west-to-east crossover of boundary currents has been seen in mean circulation schemes from several past models of the Red Sea. This study investigates the mechanisms that produce and control the crossover in an idealized, eddy-resolving numerical model of the Red Sea. The authors also review the observational evidence and derive an analytical estimate for the crossover latitude. The surface buoyancy loss increases northward in the idealized model, and the resultant mean circulation consists of an anticyclonic gyre in the south and a cyclonic gyre in the north. In the midbasin, the northward surface flow crosses from the western boundary to the eastern boundary. Numerical experiments with different parameters indicate that the crossover latitude of the boundary currents changes with f0, β, and the meridional gradient of surface buoyancy forcing. In the analytical estimate, which is based on quasigeostrophic, β-plane dynamics, the crossover is predicted to lie at the latitude where the net potential vorticity advection (including an eddy component) is zero. Various terms in the potential vorticity budget can be estimated using a buoyancy budget, a thermal wind balance, and a parameterization of baroclinic instability.
Dynamics of dilute disordered models: A solvable case
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Semerjian, Guilhem; Cugliandolo, Leticia F.
2003-09-01
We study the dynamics of a dilute spherical model with two body interactions and random exchanges. We analyze the Langevin equations and we introduce a functional variational method to study generic dilute disordered models. A crossover temperature replaces the dynamic transition of the fully-connected limit. There are two asymptotic regimes, one determined by the central band of the spectral density of the interactions and a slower one determined by localized configurations on sites with high connectivity. We confront the behavior of this model to the one of real glasses. (author)
Temperature-dependent structure evolution in liquid gallium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xiong, L.H.; Wang, X.D.; Yu, Q.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, F.; Sun, Y.; Cao, Q.P.; Xie, H.L.; Xiao, T.Q.; Zhang, D.X.; Wang, C.Z.; Ho, K.M.
2017-01-01
Temperature-dependent atomistic structure evolution of liquid gallium (Ga) has been investigated by using in situ high energy X-ray diffraction experiment and ab initio molecular dynamics simulation. Both experimental and theoretical results reveal the existence of a liquid structural change around 1000 K in liquid Ga. Below and above this temperature the liquid exhibits differences in activation energy for self-diffusion, temperature-dependent heat capacity, coordination numbers, density, viscosity, electric resistivity and thermoelectric power, which are reflected from structural changes of the bond-orientational order parameter Q_6, fraction of covalent dimers, averaged string length and local atomic packing. This finding will trigger more studies on the liquid-to-liquid crossover in metallic melts. - Graphical abstract: Atomistic structure evolution of liquid gallium has been investigated by using in situ high energy X-ray diffraction and ab initio molecular dynamics simulations, which both demonstrate the existence of a liquid structural change together with reported density, viscosity, electric resistivity and absolute thermoelectric power data.
Dynamics of Block Copolymer Nanocomposites
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mochrie, Simon G. J.
2014-09-09
A detailed study of the dynamics of cadmium sulfide nanoparticles suspended in polystyrene homopolymer matrices was carried out using X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy for temperatures between 120 and 180 °C. For low molecular weight polystyrene homopolymers, the observed dynamics show a crossover from diffusive to hyper-diffusive behavior with decreasing temperatures. For higher molecular weight polystyrene, the nanoparticle dynamics appear hyper-diffusive at all temperatures studied. The relaxation time and characteristic velocity determined from the measured hyper-diffusive dynamics reveal that the activation energy and underlying forces determined are on the order of 2.14 × 10-19 J and 87 pN, respectively. We also carried out a detailed X-ray scattering study of the static and dynamic behavior of a styrene– isoprene diblock copolymer melt with a styrene volume fraction of 0.3468. At 115 and 120 °C, we observe splitting of the principal Bragg peak, which we attribute to phase coexistence of hexagonal cylindrical and cubic double- gyroid structure. In the disordered phase, above 130 °C, we have characterized the dynamics of composition fluctuations via X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy. Near the peak of the static structure factor, these fluctuations show stretched-exponential relaxations, characterized by a stretching exponent of about 0.36 for a range of temperatures immediately above the MST. The corresponding characteristic relaxation times vary exponentially with temperature, changing by a factor of 2 for each 2 °C change in temperature. At low wavevectors, the measured relaxations are diffusive with relaxation times that change by a factor of 2 for each 8 °C change in temperature.
Nicholson, C. W.; Berthod, C.; Puppin, M.; Berger, H.; Wolf, M.; Hoesch, M.; Monney, C.
2017-05-01
High-resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy data reveal evidence of a crossover from one-dimensional (1D) to three-dimensional (3D) behavior in the prototypical charge density wave (CDW) material NbSe3 . In the low-temperature 3D regime, gaps in the electronic structure are observed due to two incommensurate CDWs, in agreement with x-ray diffraction and electronic-structure calculations. At higher temperatures we observe a spectral weight depletion that approaches the power-law behavior expected in one dimension. From the warping of the quasi-1D Fermi surface at low temperatures, we extract the energy scale of the dimensional crossover. This is corroborated by a detailed analysis of the density of states, which reveals a change in dimensional behavior dependent on binding energy. Our results offer an important insight into the dimensionality of excitations in quasi-1D materials.
Critical behavior and dimension crossover of pion superfluidity
Wang, Ziyue; Zhuang, Pengfei
2016-09-01
We investigate the critical behavior of pion superfluidity in the framework of the functional renormalization group (FRG). By solving the flow equations in the SU(2) linear sigma model at finite temperature and isospin density, and making comparison with the fixed point analysis of a general O (N ) system with continuous dimension, we find that the pion superfluidity is a second order phase transition subject to an O (2 ) universality class with a dimension crossover from dc=4 to dc=3 . This phenomenon provides a concrete example of dimension reduction in thermal field theory. The large-N expansion gives a temperature independent critical exponent β and agrees with the FRG result only at zero temperature.
Dynamic high-temperature characterization of an iridium alloy in tension
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Song, Bo [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Nelson, Kevin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Jin, Helena [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Lipinski, Ronald J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bignell, John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ulrich, G. B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); George, E. P. [Ruhr Univ., Bochum (Germany)
2015-09-01
Iridium alloys have been utilized as structural materials for certain high-temperature applications, due to their superior strength and ductility at elevated temperatures. The mechanical properties, including failure response at high strain rates and elevated temperatures of the iridium alloys need to be characterized to better understand high-speed impacts at elevated temperatures. A DOP-26 iridium alloy has been dynamically characterized in compression at elevated temperatures with high-temperature Kolsky compression bar techniques. However, the dynamic high-temperature compression tests were not able to provide sufficient dynamic high-temperature failure information of the iridium alloy. In this study, we modified current room-temperature Kolsky tension bar techniques for obtaining dynamic tensile stress-strain curves of the DOP-26 iridium alloy at two different strain rates (~1000 and ~3000 s-1) and temperatures (~750°C and ~1030°C). The effects of strain rate and temperature on the tensile stress-strain response of the iridium alloy were determined. The DOP-26 iridium alloy exhibited high ductility in stress-strain response that strongly depended on both strain rate and temperature.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Frunza, Stefan [National Institute of Materials Physics, R-077125 Magurele (Romania); Schoenhals, Andreas [BAM Federal Institute of Materials Research and Testing, D-12205 Berlin (Germany); Frunza, Ligia, E-mail: lfrunza@infim.ro [National Institute of Materials Physics, R-077125 Magurele (Romania); Beica, Traian; Zgura, Irina; Ganea, Paul [National Institute of Materials Physics, R-077125 Magurele (Romania); Stoenescu, Daniel [Telecom-Bretagne, Departement d' Optique, Technopole Brest-Iroise 29238 Cedex (France)
2010-06-16
Graphical abstract: The temperature dependence of the molecular mobility in composites shows an Arrhenius-type regime at low temperature and a glassy-type one at higher temperature separated by a crossover phenomenon. - Abstract: The molecular mobility of 4-butyl- and 4-pentyl-4'-cyanophenyl benzoate (CP4B, CP5B) and their composites prepared from aerosil A380 was investigated by broadband dielectric spectroscopy in a large temperature range. Thermogravimetric and infrared investigations were additionally performed. High silica density (larger than 7 g aerosil/1 g of liquid crystal) was selected to observe a thin layer adsorbed on the surface of the silica particles. The data were compared with those of the member of the series with six carbon atoms in the alkyl tail. Bulk CP4B and CP5B show the dielectric behaviour expected for liquid crystals. For the composites one relaxation process is observed at frequencies much lower than those for the corresponding bulk, which was assigned to the dynamics of the molecules in a surface layer. The temperature dependence of the relaxation rates (and of the dielectric strength) shows a crossover behaviour with two distinguished regimes. At higher temperatures the data obey the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann law, whereas an Arrhenius law is observed at lower temperature, in a close similarity to the behaviour of a constrained dynamic glass transition. The estimated Vogel and crossover temperature is independent on the tail length, while the activation energy for the low temperature branch increases weakly with increasing the alkyl tail.
Holographic entanglement entropy close to crossover/phase transition in strongly coupled systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Shao-Jun, E-mail: sjzhang84@hotmail.com
2017-03-15
We investigate the behavior of entanglement entropy in the holographic QCD model proposed by Gubser et al. By choosing suitable parameters of the scalar self-interaction potential, this model can exhibit various types of phase structures: crossover, first order and second order phase transitions. We use entanglement entropy to probe the crossover/phase transition, and find that it drops quickly/suddenly when the temperature approaches the critical point which can be seen as a signal of confinement. Moreover, the critical behavior of the entanglement entropy suggests that we may use it to characterize the corresponding phase structures.
Study of spin crossover nanoparticles thermal hysteresis using FORC diagrams on an Ising-like model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Atitoaie, Alexandru; Tanasa, Radu; Stancu, Alexandru; Enachescu, Cristian
2014-01-01
Recent developments in the synthesis and characterization of spin crossover (SCO) nanoparticles and their prospects of switching at molecular level turned these bistable compounds into possible candidates for replacing the materials used in recording media industry for development of solid state pressure and temperature sensors or for bringing contributions in engineering. Compared to bulk samples with the same chemical structure, SCO nanoparticles display different characteristics of the hysteretic and relaxation properties like the shift of the transition temperature towards lower values along with decrease of the hysteresis width with nanoparticles size. Using an Ising-like model with specific boundary conditions within a Monte Carlo procedure, we here reproduce most of the hysteretic properties of SCO nanoparticles by considering the interaction between spin crossover edge molecules and embedding surfactant molecules and we propose a complex analysis concerning the effect of the interactions and sizes during the thermal transition in systems of SCO nanoparticles by using the First Order Reversal Curves diagram method and by comparison with similar effects in mixed crystal systems. - Highlights: • The influence of size effects in spin crossover nanoparticles is analyzed. • The environment shifts the hysteresis loop towards lower temperatures. • First Order Reversal Curves technique is employed. • One determines the distributions of switching temperatures. • One disentangles between kinetics and non-kinetic parts of the hysteresis
Crossover from 2d to 3d in anisotropic Kondo lattices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reyes, D.; Continentino, M.A.
2008-01-01
We study the crossover from two to three dimensions in Kondo lattices (KLM) using the Kondo necklace model (KNM). In order to diagonalize the KNM, we use a representation for the localized and conduction electron spins in terms of bond operators and a decoupling for the relevant Green's functions. Both models have a quantum critical point at a finite value of the ratio (J/t) between the Kondo coupling (J) and the hopping (t). In 2d there is no line of finite temperature antiferromagnetic (AF) transitions while for d≥3 this line is given by, T N ∝|g| 1/(d-1) [D. Reyes, M.A. Continentino, Phys. Rev. B 76 (2007) 075114]. The crossover from 2d to 3d is investigated by turning on the electronic hopping (t -perpendicular ) of conduction electrons between different planes. The phase diagram as a function of temperature T, J/t -parallel and ξ=t -perpendicular /t -parallel , where t -parallel is the hopping within the planes is calculated
Universal Entanglement Dynamics following a Local Quench
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Romain Vasseur, Hubert Saleur
2017-07-01
Full Text Available We study the time dependence of the entanglement between two quantum wires after suddenly connecting them via tunneling through an impurity. The result at large times is given by the well known formula $S(t \\approx {1\\over 3}\\ln {t}$. We show that the intermediate time regime can be described by a universal cross-over formula $S=F(tT_K$, where $T_K$ is the crossover (Kondo temperature: the function $F$ describes the dynamical "healing" of the system at large times. We discuss how to obtain analytic information about $F$ in the case of an integrable quantum impurity problem using the massless Form-Factors formalism for twist and boundary condition changing operators. Our results are confirmed by density matrix renormalization group calculations and exact free fermion numerics.
Slow Dynamics and Structure of Supercooled Water in Confinement
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gaia Camisasca
2017-04-01
Full Text Available We review our simulation results on properties of supercooled confined water. We consider two situations: water confined in a hydrophilic pore that mimics an MCM-41 environment and water at interface with a protein. The behavior upon cooling of the α relaxation of water in both environments is well interpreted in terms of the Mode Coupling Theory of glassy dynamics. Moreover, we find a crossover from a fragile to a strong regime. We relate this crossover to the crossing of the Widom line emanating from the liquid-liquid critical point, and in confinement we connect this crossover also to a crossover of the two body excess entropy of water upon cooling. Hydration water exhibits a second, distinctly slower relaxation caused by its dynamical coupling with the protein. The crossover upon cooling of this long relaxation is related to the protein dynamics.
Spin-state crossover and low-temperature magnetic state in yttrium-doped Pr0.7Ca0.3CoO3
Knížek, K.; Hejtmánek, J.; Maryško, M.; Novák, P.; Šantavá, E.; Jirák, Z.; Naito, T.; Fujishiro, H.; de la Cruz, Clarina
2013-12-01
The structural and magnetic properties of two mixed-valence cobaltites with a formal population of 0.30 Co4+ ions per f.u., (Pr1-yYy)0.7Ca0.3CoO3 (y=0 and 0.15), have been studied down to very low temperatures by means of high-resolution neutron diffraction, SQUID magnetometry, and heat-capacity measurements. The results are interpreted within the scenario of the spin-state crossover from a room-temperature mixture of the intermediate-spin Co3+ and low-spin Co4+ (IS/LS) to the LS/LS mixture in the sample ground states. In contrast to the yttrium-free y=0 that retains the metallic-like character and exhibits ferromagnetic (FM) ordering below 55 K, the doped system y=0.15 undergoes a first-order metal-insulator transition at 132 K, during which not only the crossover to low-spin states but also a partial electron transfer from Pr3+ 4f to cobalt 3d states takes place simultaneously. Taking into account the nonmagnetic character of LS Co3+, such a valence shift electronic transition causes a magnetic dilution, formally to 0.12 LS Co4+ or 0.12 t2g hole spins per f.u., which is the reason for an insulating, highly nonuniform magnetic ground state without long-range order. Nevertheless, even in that case there exists a relatively strong molecular field distributed over all the crystal lattice. It is argued that the spontaneous FM order in y=0 and the existence of strong FM correlations in y=0.15 apparently contradict the single t2g band character of LS/LS phase. The explanation we suggest relies on a model of the defect-induced, itinerant hole-mediated magnetism, where the defects are identified with the magnetic high-spin Co3+ species stabilized near oxygen vacancies.
Crossover from bound to free states in plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lankin, Alexander V; Norman, Genri E
2009-01-01
A self-consistent joint description of free and weakly bound electron states in strongly coupled plasmas is presented. The existence of two problems is emphasized. The first one is a well-known restriction of the number of atomic excited states. Another one is a description of the smooth crossover from bound pair electron-ion excited states to collective excitations of free electrons. The fluctuation approach is developed to study the spectrum domain intermediate between low-lying excited atoms and free electron continuous energy levels. The molecular dynamics method is applied to study the plasma model since the method is able to distinguish all kinds of fluctuations. The electron-ion interaction is described by the temperature-independent cut-off Coulomb potential. The diagnostics of pair electron-ion fluctuations is developed. The concept of pair fluctuations elucidates the smooth vanishing of atomic states near the ionization limit. The approach suggested removes the artificial break of the electron state density at the ionization limit: atomic state density divergent at the negative energy side and free electron state density starting from zero density at the positive energy side
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dörr, U.; Schwarz, W.; Wörner, A.
1998-01-01
The optical properties and the dynamics of excitons and the electron-hole plasma have been studied in disordered (AlxGa1 – x)0.52In0.48P near to the direct-to-indirect band gap crossover. In particular we have investigated three epitaxial layers grown by solid-source molecular beam epitaxy...... recombination processes depends strongly on temperature, excitation intensity, and excitation pulse duration, the processes can be identified by changing these parameters. As a result, we can determine the relative alignment of the conduction band minima and the distribution of the electrons among them. At high...... with varying Al content x. Two of them have compositions in the immediate vicinity of the crossover point, the other is assigned to the indirect-gap regime. Both direct and indirect recombination processes contribute to the photon emission from the material. Since the relative importance of the different...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shit, Anindita [Department of Chemistry, Bengal Engineering and Science University, Shibpur, Howrah 711103 (India); Chattopadhyay, Sudip, E-mail: sudip_chattopadhyay@rediffmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Bengal Engineering and Science University, Shibpur, Howrah 711103 (India); Ray Chaudhuri, Jyotipratim, E-mail: jprc_8@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Katwa College, Katwa, Burdwan 713130 (India)
2014-03-18
Highlights: • Nonadiabatic dynamics of quantum particle under the impact of high-frequency force. • Formulation of time-independent dynamics via Floquet and Kapitza schemes. • Manipulation of external force parameters allows us to control the escape rate. • Increase of (amplitudes/frequency) causes the system to decay faster, in general. • Crossover temperature increases in the presence of the field. - Abstract: Escape under the action of the external modulation constitutes a nontrivial generalization of an conventional Kramers rate because the system is away from thermal equilibrium. A derivation of this result from the point of view of Langevin dynamics in the frame of Floquet theorem in conjunction with the Kapitza–Landau time window (that leads to an attractive description of the time-dependent quantum dynamics in terms of time-independent one) has been provided. The quantum escape rate in the intermediate-to-high and very-high damping regime so obtained analytically using the phase space formalism associated with the Wigner distribution and path-integral formalism bears a quantum correction that depends strongly on the barrier height. It is shown that an increase of (amplitude/frequency) ratio causes the system to decay faster, in general. The crossover temperature between tunneling and thermal activation increases in the presence of field so that quantum effects in the escape are relevant at higher temperatures.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YANG YongHong; WANG YongGang; LIU Mei; WANG Jin
2002-01-01
Two kinds of spin-depcndcnt scattering effects (magnetic-iinpurity and spin-orbit scatterings) axe investi-gated theoretically in a quasi-two-dimensional (quasi-2D) disordered electron system. By making use of the diagrammatictechniques in perturbation theory, we have calculated the dc conductivity and magnetoresistance due to weak-localizationeffects, the analytical expressions of them are obtained as functions of the interlayer hopping energy and the charac-teristic times: elastic, inelastic, magnetic and spin-orbit scattering times. The relevant dimensional crossover behaviorfrom 3D to 2D with decreasing the interlayer coupling is discussed, and the condition for the crossover is shown to bedependent on the aforementioned scattering times. At low temperature there exists a spin-dcpendent-scattering-induccddimensional crossover in this system.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YANGYong－Hong; WANGYong－Gang; 等
2002-01-01
Two kinds of spin-dependent scattering effects (magnetic-impurity and spin-orbit scatterings) are investigated theoretically in a quasi-tow-dimensional (quasi-2D) disordered electron system.By making use of the diagrammatic techniques in perturbation theory,we have calculated the dc conductivity and magnetoresistance due to weak-localization effects,the analytical expressions of them are obtained as functions of the interlayer hopping energy and the characteristic times:elastic,inelastic,magnetic and spin-orbit scattering times.The relevant dimensional crossover behavior from 3D to 2D with decreasing the interlayer coupling is discussed,and the condition for the crossover is shown to be dependent on the aforementioned scattering times.At low temperature there exists a spin-dependent-scattering-induced dimensional crossover in this system.
Polarized-neutron study of spin dynamics in the Kondo insulator YbB12.
Nemkovski, K S; Mignot, J-M; Alekseev, P A; Ivanov, A S; Nefeodova, E V; Rybina, A V; Regnault, L-P; Iga, F; Takabatake, T
2007-09-28
Inelastic neutron scattering experiments have been performed on the archetype compound YbB(12), using neutron polarization analysis to separate the magnetic signal from the phonon background. With decreasing temperature, components characteristic for a single-site spin-fluctuation dynamics are suppressed, giving place to specific, strongly Q-dependent, low-energy excitations near the spin-gap edge. This crossover is discussed in terms of a simple crystal-field description of the incoherent high-temperature state and a predominantly local mechanism for the formation of the low-temperature singlet ground state.
Modelling fruit-temperature dynamics within apple tree crowns using virtual plants.
Saudreau, M; Marquier, A; Adam, B; Sinoquet, H
2011-10-01
Fruit temperature results from a complex system involving the climate, the tree architecture, the fruit location within the tree crown and the fruit thermal properties. Despite much theoretical and experimental evidence for large differences (up to 10 °C in sunny conditions) between fruit temperature and air temperature, fruit temperature is never used in horticultural studies. A way of modelling fruit-temperature dynamics from climate data is addressed in this work. The model is based upon three-dimensional virtual representation of apple trees and links three-dimensional virtual trees with a physical-based fruit-temperature dynamical model. The overall model was assessed by comparing model outputs to field measures of fruit-temperature dynamics. The model was able to simulate both the temperature dynamics at fruit scale, i.e. fruit-temperature gradients and departure from air temperature, and at the tree scale, i.e. the within-tree-crown variability in fruit temperature (average root mean square error value over fruits was 1·43 °C). This study shows that linking virtual plants with the modelling of the physical plant environment offers a relevant framework to address the modelling of fruit-temperature dynamics within a tree canopy. The proposed model offers opportunities for modelling effects of the within-crown architecture on fruit thermal responses in horticultural studies.
A two-dimensional Fermi gas in the BEC-BCS crossover
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ries, Martin Gerhard
2016-01-21
This thesis reports on the preparation of a 2D Fermi gas in the BEC-BCS crossover and the observation of the BKT transition into a quasi long-range ordered superfluid phase. The pair momentum distribution of the gas is probed by means of a matter-wave focusing technique which relies on time-of-flight evolution in a weak harmonic potential. This distribution holds the coherence properties of the gas. The quasi long-range ordered phase manifests itself as a sharp low-momentum peak. The temperature where it forms is identified as the transition temperature. By tuning the temperature and the interaction strength, the phase diagram of the 2D Fermi gas in the BEC-BCS crossover is mapped out. The phase coherence is investigated in a self-interference experiment. Furthermore, algebraic decay of correlations is observed in the trap average of the first order correlation function, which is obtained from the Fourier transform of the pair momentum distribution. This is in qualitative agreement with predictions of homogeneous theory for the superfluid phase in a 2D gas. The presented results provide a foundation for future experimental and theoretical studies of strongly correlated 2D Fermi gases. They might thus help to elucidate complex systems such as the electron gas in high-T{sub c} superconductors.
Hajat, S; Haines, A; Sarran, C; Sharma, A; Bates, C; Fleming, L E
2017-07-12
Given the double jeopardy of global increases in rates of obesity and climate change, it is increasingly important to recognise the dangers posed to diabetic patients during periods of extreme weather. We aimed to characterise the associations between ambient temperature and general medical practitioner consultations made by a cohort of type-2 diabetic patients. Evidence on the effects of temperature variation in the primary care setting is currently limited. Case-crossover analysis of 4,474,943 consultations in England during 2012-2014, linked to localised temperature at place of residence for each patient. Conditional logistic regression was used to assess associations between each temperature-related consultation and control days matched on day-of-week. There was an increased odds of seeking medical consultation associated with high temperatures: Odds ratio (OR) = 1.097 (95% confidence interval = 1.041, 1.156) per 1 °C increase above 22 °C. Odds during low temperatures below 0 °C were also significantly raised: OR = 1.024 (1.019, 1.030). Heat-related consultations were particularly high among diabetics with cardiovascular comorbidities: OR = 1.171 (1.031, 1.331), but there was no heightened risk with renal failure or neuropathy comorbidities. Surprisingly, lower odds of heat-related consultation were associated with the use of diuretics, anticholinergics, antipsychotics or antidepressants compared to non-use, especially among those with cardiovascular comorbidities, although differences were not statistically significant. Type-2 diabetic patients are at increased odds of medical consultation during days of temperature extremes, especially during hot weather. The common assumption that certain medication use heightens the risk of heat illness was not borne-out by our study on diabetics in a primary care setting and such advice may need to be reconsidered in heat protection plans.
BCS-BEC crossover in spatially modulated fermionic condensates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sedrakian, Armen
2011-01-01
Several novel multi-component fermionic condensates show universal behavior under imbalance in the number of fermionic species. Here I discuss their phase structure, thermodynamics, and the transition from the weak (BCS) to strong (BEC) coupling regime. The inhomogeneous superconducting phases are illustrated on the example of the Fulde-Ferrell phase which appears in the weak coupling regime, at low temperatures and large asymmetries. The inhomogeneous phases persist through the crossover up to (and possibly beyond) the transition to the strong coupling regime.
BCS-BEC crossover in spatially modulated fermionic condensates
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sedrakian, Armen, E-mail: sedrakian@th.physik.uni-frankfurt.de [Institute for Theoretical Physics, J. W. Goethe-University, Max-von-Laue-Str. 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)
2011-09-16
Several novel multi-component fermionic condensates show universal behavior under imbalance in the number of fermionic species. Here I discuss their phase structure, thermodynamics, and the transition from the weak (BCS) to strong (BEC) coupling regime. The inhomogeneous superconducting phases are illustrated on the example of the Fulde-Ferrell phase which appears in the weak coupling regime, at low temperatures and large asymmetries. The inhomogeneous phases persist through the crossover up to (and possibly beyond) the transition to the strong coupling regime.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Akerman, Johan J.; Venturini, E. L.; Siegal, M. P.; Yun, S. H.; Karlsson, U. O.; Rao, K. V.
2001-01-01
The thermal-to-quantum flux creep crossover at low vortex densities has been studied in YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 , TlBa 2 CaCu 2 O 7-δ , and HgBa 2 CaCu 2 O 6+δ thin films using ac susceptibility. The crossover temperatures T cr are 10--11, 17, and 30 K, respectively. Both thermal and quantum flux creep is suppressed as the vortex density is decreased. We observe a two-stage nature in the crossover behavior which appears to be a general property of all the three materials studied
Dynamic analysis of the CTAR (constant temperature adsorption refrigeration) cycle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hassan, H.Z.; Mohamad, A.A.; Al-Ansary, H.A.; Alyousef, Y.M.
2014-01-01
The basic SAR (solar-driven adsorption refrigeration) machine is an intermittent cold production system. Recently, the CO-SAR (continuous operation solar-powered adsorption refrigeration) system is developed. The CO-SAR machine is based on the theoretical CTAR (constant temperature adsorption refrigeration) cycle in which the adsorption process takes place at a constant temperature that equals the ambient temperature. Practically, there should be a temperature gradient between the adsorption bed and the surrounding atmosphere to provide a driving potential for heat transfer. In the present study, the dynamic analysis of the CTAR cycle is developed. This analysis provides a comparison between the theoretical and the dynamic operation of the CTAR cycle. The developed dynamic model is based on the D-A adsorption equilibrium equation and the energy and mass balances in the adsorption reactor. Results obtained from the present work demonstrate that, the idealization of the constant temperature adsorption process in the theoretical CTAR cycle is not far from the real situation and can be approached. Furthermore, enhancing the heat transfer between the adsorption bed and the ambient during the bed pre-cooling process helps accelerating the heat rejection process from the adsorption reactor and therefore approaching the isothermal process. - Highlights: • The dynamic analysis of the CTAR (constant temperature adsorption refrigeration) cycle is developed. • The CTAR theoretical and dynamic cycles are compared. • The dynamic cycle approaches the ideal one by enhancing the bed precooling
Static and dynamic properties of two-dimensional Coulomb clusters.
Ash, Biswarup; Chakrabarti, J; Ghosal, Amit
2017-10-01
We study the temperature dependence of static and dynamic responses of Coulomb interacting particles in two-dimensional confinements across the crossover from solid- to liquid-like behaviors. While static correlations that investigate the translational and bond orientational order in the confinements show the footprints of hexatic-like phase at low temperatures, dynamics of the particles slow down considerably in this phase, reminiscent of a supercooled liquid. Using density correlations, we probe long-lived heterogeneities arising from the interplay of the irregularity in the confinement and long-range Coulomb interactions. The relaxation at multiple time scales show stretched-exponential decay of spatial correlations in irregular traps. Temperature dependence of characteristic time scales, depicting the structural relaxation of the system, show striking similarities with those observed for the glassy systems, indicating that some of the key signatures of supercooled liquids emerge in confinements with lower spatial symmetries.
Hydration and temperature interdependence of protein picosecond dynamics.
Lipps, Ferdinand; Levy, Seth; Markelz, A G
2012-05-14
We investigate the nature of the solvent motions giving rise to the rapid temperature dependence of protein picoseconds motions at 220 K, often referred to as the protein dynamical transition. The interdependence of picoseconds dynamics on hydration and temperature is examined using terahertz time domain spectroscopy to measure the complex permittivity in the 0.2-2.0 THz range for myoglobin. Both the real and imaginary parts of the permittivity over the frequency range measured have a strong temperature dependence at >0.27 h (g water per g protein), however the permittivity change is strongest for frequencies 1 THz, and 0.27 h for frequencies <1 THz. The data are consistent with the dynamical transition solvent fluctuations requiring only clusters of ~5 water molecules, whereas the enhancement of lowest frequency motions requires a fully spanning water network. This journal is © the Owner Societies 2012
Temperature dependent dynamic susceptibility calculations for itinerant ferromagnets
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cooke, J. F.
1980-10-01
Inelastic neutron scattering experiments have revealed a variety of interesting and unusual phenomena associated with the spin dynamics of the 3-d transition metal ferromagnets nickel and iron. An extensive series of calculations based on the itinerant electron formalism has demonstrated that the itinerant model does provide an excellent quantitative as well as qualitative description of the measured spin dynamics of both nickel and iron at low temperatures. Recent angular photo emission experiments have indicated that there is a rather strong temperature dependence of the electronic spin-splitting which, from relatively crude arguments, appears to be inconsistent with neutron scattering results. In order to investigate this point and also the origin of spin-wave renormalization, a series of calculations of the dynamic susceptibility of nickel and iron has been undertaken. The results of these calculations indicate that a discrepancy exists between the interpretations of neutron and photoemission experimental results regarding the temperature dependence of the spin-splitting of the electronic energy bands.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Yachao, E-mail: yczhang@nano.gznc.edu.cn [Guizhou Provincial Key Laboratory of Computational Nano-Material Science, Guizhou Normal College, Guiyang 550018, Guizhou (China)
2014-12-07
A first-principles study of critical temperatures (T{sub c}) of spin crossover (SCO) materials requires accurate description of the strongly correlated 3d electrons as well as much computational effort. This task is still a challenge for the widely used local density or generalized gradient approximations (LDA/GGA) and hybrid functionals. One remedy, termed density functional theory plus U (DFT+U) approach, introduces a Hubbard U term to deal with the localized electrons at marginal computational cost, while treats the delocalized electrons with LDA/GGA. Here, we employ the DFT+U approach to investigate the T{sub c} of a pair of iron(II) SCO molecular crystals (α and β phase), where identical constituent molecules are packed in different ways. We first calculate the adiabatic high spin-low spin energy splitting ΔE{sub HL} and molecular vibrational frequencies in both spin states, then obtain the temperature dependent enthalpy and entropy changes (ΔH and ΔS), and finally extract T{sub c} by exploiting the ΔH/T − T and ΔS − T relationships. The results are in agreement with experiment. Analysis of geometries and electronic structures shows that the local ligand field in the α phase is slightly weakened by the H-bondings involving the ligand atoms and the specific crystal packing style. We find that this effect is largely responsible for the difference in T{sub c} of the two phases. This study shows the applicability of the DFT+U approach for predicting T{sub c} of SCO materials, and provides a clear insight into the subtle influence of the crystal packing effects on SCO behavior.
Parish, Meera M.
2015-09-01
This chapter presents the crossover from the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) state of weakly correlated pairs of fermions to the Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) of diatomic molecules in the atomic Fermi gas. Our aim is to provide a pedagogical review of the BCS-BEC crossover, with an emphasis on the basic concepts, particularly those that are not generally known or are difficult to find in the literature. We shall not attempt to give an exhaustive survey of current research in the limited space here; where possible, we will direct the reader to more extensive reviews.
Dynamics of tissue shrinkage during ablative temperature exposures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rossmann, Christian; Haemmerich, Dieter; Garrett-Mayer, Elizabeth; Rattay, Frank
2014-01-01
There is a lack of studies that examine the dynamics of heat-induced shrinkage of organ tissues. Clinical procedures such as radiofrequency ablation, microwave ablation or high-intensity focused ultrasound, use heat to treat diseases such as cancer and cardiac arrhythmia. When heat is applied to tissues, shrinkage occurs due to protein denaturation, dehydration and contraction of collagen at temperatures greater 50 °C. This is particularly relevant for image-guided procedures such as tumor ablation, where pre- and post-treatment images are compared and any changes in dimensions must be considered to avoid misinterpretations of the treatment outcome. We present data from ex vivo, isothermal shrinkage tests in porcine liver tissue, where axial changes in tissue length were recorded during 15 min of heating to temperatures between 60 and 95 °C. A mathematical model was developed to accurately describe the time and temperature-dependent shrinkage behavior. The shrinkage dynamics had the same characteristics independent of temperature; the estimated relative shrinkage, adjusted for time since death, after 15 min heating to temperatures of 60, 65, 75, 85 and 95 °C, was 12.3, 13.8, 16.6, 19.2 and 21.7%, respectively. Our results demonstrate the shrinkage dynamics of organ tissues, and suggest the importance of considering tissue shrinkage for thermal ablative treatments. (paper)
Effects of density imbalance on the BCS-BEC crossover in semiconductor electron-hole bilayers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pieri, P.; Strinati, G. C.; Neilson, D.
2007-01-01
We study the occurrence of excitonic superfluidity in electron-hole bilayers at zero temperature. We not only identify the crossover in the phase diagram from the BCS limit of overlapping pairs to the BEC limit of nonoverlapping tightly bound pairs but also, by varying the electron and hole densities independently, we can analyze a number of phases that occur mainly in the crossover region. With different electron and hole effective masses, the phase diagram is asymmetric with respect to excess electron or hole densities. We propose, as the criterion for the onset of superfluidity, the jump of the electron and hole chemical potentials when their densities cross
Cycles, scaling and crossover phenomenon in length of the day (LOD) time series
Telesca, Luciano
2007-06-01
The dynamics of the temporal fluctuations of the length of the day (LOD) time series from January 1, 1962 to November 2, 2006 were investigated. The power spectrum of the whole time series has revealed annual, semi-annual, decadal and daily oscillatory behaviors, correlated with oceanic-atmospheric processes and interactions. The scaling behavior was analyzed by using the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA), which has revealed two different scaling regimes, separated by a crossover timescale at approximately 23 days. Flicker-noise process can describe the dynamics of the LOD time regime involving intermediate and long timescales, while Brownian dynamics characterizes the LOD time series for small timescales.
Peak effect and vortex dynamics in superconducting MgB2 single crystals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Hyun-Sook; Jang, Dong-Jin; Kim, Heon-Jung; Kang, Byeongwon; Lee, Sung-Ik
2007-01-01
The dynamic nature of the vortex state of MgB 2 single crystals near the peak effect (PE) region, which is very different either from that of conventional low-temperature superconductors or from that of high-temperature cuprate superconductors, is introduced in this article. Relaxation from a disordered, metastable field-cooled (FC) state to an ordered, stable zero-field-cooled (ZFC) state of the MgB 2 single crystals under an applied magnetic field and current is investigated. From an analysis of the noise properties in the ZFC state, a dynamic vortex phase diagram of the MgB 2 is obtained near the PE region. Between the onset and the peak region in the critical current vs. magnetic field diagram, crossovers from a high-noise state to a noise-free state are observed with increasing current. Above the peak, however, an opposite phenomenon, crossovers from a noise-free to a high-noise state, is observed which has not been observed in any other superconductors. The hysteresis in the I-V curves and the two-level random telegraph noise in the time evolution of the voltage response under an constant applied current at the ZFC state are also studied in detail
Hysteresis, nucleation and growth phenomena in spin-crossover solids
Ridier, Karl; Molnár, Gábor; Salmon, Lionel; Nicolazzi, William; Bousseksou, Azzedine
2017-12-01
The observation and the study of first-order phase transitions in cooperative spin-crossover (SCO) solids exhibiting hysteresis behaviours are of particular interest and currently constitute a burgeoning area in the field of bistable molecular materials. The understanding and the control of the transition mechanisms (nucleation and growth processes) and their dynamics within the hysteresis region appear to be a general and appealing problem from a fundamental point of view and for technological applications as well. This review reports on the recent progresses and most important findings made on the spatiotemporal dynamics of the spin transition in SCO solids, particularly through the universal nucleation and growth process. Both thermally induced and light-induced spin transitions are discussed. We open up this review to the central question of the evolution of the transition mechanisms and dynamics in SCO nano-objects, which constitute promising systems to reach ultra-fast switching, and the experimental issues inherent to such studies at the micro- and nanometric scale.
Dimensional crossover in fragmentation
Sotolongo-Costa, Oscar; Rodriguez, Arezky H.; Rodgers, G. J.
2000-11-01
Experiments in which thick clay plates and glass rods are fractured have revealed different behavior of fragment mass distribution function in the small and large fragment regions. In this paper we explain this behavior using non-extensive Tsallis statistics and show how the crossover between the two regions is caused by the change in the fragments’ dimensionality during the fracture process. We obtain a physical criterion for the position of this crossover and an expression for the change in the power-law exponent between the small and large fragment regions. These predictions are in good agreement with the experiments on thick clay plates.
AAA-ATPase FIDGETIN-LIKE 1 and Helicase FANCM Antagonize Meiotic Crossovers by Distinct Mechanisms.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chloe Girard
2015-07-01
Full Text Available Meiotic crossovers (COs generate genetic diversity and are critical for the correct completion of meiosis in most species. Their occurrence is tightly constrained but the mechanisms underlying this limitation remain poorly understood. Here we identified the conserved AAA-ATPase FIDGETIN-LIKE-1 (FIGL1 as a negative regulator of meiotic CO formation. We show that Arabidopsis FIGL1 limits CO formation genome-wide, that FIGL1 controls dynamics of the two conserved recombinases DMC1 and RAD51 and that FIGL1 hinders the interaction between homologous chromosomes, suggesting that FIGL1 counteracts DMC1/RAD51-mediated inter-homologue strand invasion to limit CO formation. Further, depleting both FIGL1 and the previously identified anti-CO helicase FANCM synergistically increases crossover frequency. Additionally, we showed that the effect of mutating FANCM on recombination is much lower in F1 hybrids contrasting from the phenotype of inbred lines, while figl1 mutation equally increases crossovers in both contexts. This shows that the modes of action of FIGL1 and FANCM are differently affected by genomic contexts. We propose that FIGL1 and FANCM represent two successive barriers to CO formation, one limiting strand invasion, the other disassembling D-loops to promote SDSA, which when both lifted, leads to a large increase of crossovers, without impairing meiotic progression.
The crossover between tunnel and hopping conductivity in granulated films of noble metals
Kavokin, Alexey; Kutrovskaya, Stella; Kucherik, Alexey; Osipov, Anton; Vartanyan, Tigran; Arakelyan, Sergey
2017-11-01
The conductivity of thin films composed by clusters of gold and silver nanoparticles has been studies in a wide range of temperatures. The switch from a temperature independence to an exponential thermal dependence of the conductivity manifests the crossover between the tunnel and thermally activated hopping regimes of the electronic transport at the temperature of 60 °C. The characteristic thermal activation energy that governs hopping of electrons between nanoparticles is estimated as 1.3 eV. We have achieved a good control of the composition and thicknesses of nano-cluster films by use of the laser ablation method in colloidal solutions.
Quantum phase crossovers with finite atom number in the Dicke model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hirsch, J G; Castaños, O; Nahmad-Achar, E; López-Peña, R
2013-01-01
Two-level atoms interacting with a one-mode cavity field at zero temperature have order parameters which reflect the presence of a quantum phase transition at a critical value of the atom–cavity coupling strength. Two popular examples are the number of photons inside the cavity and the number of excited atoms. Coherent states provide a mean field description, which becomes exact in the thermodynamic limit. Employing symmetry-adapted (SA) SU(2) coherent states the quantum crossover, precursor of the critical behavior, can be described for a finite number of atoms. A variation after projection treatment, involving a numerical minimization of the SA energy surface, associates the quantum crossover with a discontinuity in the order parameters, which originates from competition between two local minima in the SA energy surface. Although this discontinuity is not present in finite systems, it provides a good description of 1/N effects in the observables. (paper)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Atsushi Narumi
2018-06-01
Full Text Available Macrocyclic polymers present an important class of macromolecules, displaying the reduced radius of gyration or impossibility to entangle. A rare approach for their synthesis is the ring expansion-controlled radical “vinyl” polymerization, starting from a cyclic alkoxyamine. We here describe ring-expansion radical crossover reactions of cyclic alkoxyamines which run in parallel to chain-propagation reactions in the polymerization system. The radical crossover reactions extensively occurred at 105–125 °C, eventually producing high molecular weight polymers with multiple inherent dynamic covalent bonds (NOC bonds. A subsequent ring-contraction radical crossover reaction and the second ring-expansion radical crossover reaction are also described. The major products for the respective three stages were shown to possess cyclic morphologies by the molecular weight profiles and the residual ratios for the NOC bonds (φ in %. In particular, the high φ values ranging from ca. 80% to 98% were achieved for this cyclic alkoxyamine system. This result verifies the high availability of this system as a tool demonstrating the ring-expansion “vinyl” polymerization that allows them to produce macrocyclic polymers via a one-step vinyl polymerization.
Crossover ensembles of random matrices and skew-orthogonal polynomials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kumar, Santosh; Pandey, Akhilesh
2011-01-01
Highlights: → We study crossover ensembles of Jacobi family of random matrices. → We consider correlations for orthogonal-unitary and symplectic-unitary crossovers. → We use the method of skew-orthogonal polynomials and quaternion determinants. → We prove universality of spectral correlations in crossover ensembles. → We discuss applications to quantum conductance and communication theory problems. - Abstract: In a recent paper (S. Kumar, A. Pandey, Phys. Rev. E, 79, 2009, p. 026211) we considered Jacobi family (including Laguerre and Gaussian cases) of random matrix ensembles and reported exact solutions of crossover problems involving time-reversal symmetry breaking. In the present paper we give details of the work. We start with Dyson's Brownian motion description of random matrix ensembles and obtain universal hierarchic relations among the unfolded correlation functions. For arbitrary dimensions we derive the joint probability density (jpd) of eigenvalues for all transitions leading to unitary ensembles as equilibrium ensembles. We focus on the orthogonal-unitary and symplectic-unitary crossovers and give generic expressions for jpd of eigenvalues, two-point kernels and n-level correlation functions. This involves generalization of the theory of skew-orthogonal polynomials to crossover ensembles. We also consider crossovers in the circular ensembles to show the generality of our method. In the large dimensionality limit, correlations in spectra with arbitrary initial density are shown to be universal when expressed in terms of a rescaled symmetry breaking parameter. Applications of our crossover results to communication theory and quantum conductance problems are also briefly discussed.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jan Drouaud
2013-11-01
Full Text Available The vast majority of meiotic recombination events (crossovers (COs and non-crossovers (NCOs cluster in narrow hotspots surrounded by large regions devoid of recombinational activity. Here, using a new molecular approach in plants, called "pollen-typing", we detected and characterized hundreds of CO and NCO molecules in two different hotspot regions in Arabidopsis thaliana. This analysis revealed that COs are concentrated in regions of a few kilobases where their rates reach up to 50 times the genome average. The hotspots themselves tend to cluster in regions less than 8 kilobases in size with overlapping CO distribution. Non-crossover (NCO events also occurred in the two hotspots but at very different levels (local CO/NCO ratios of 1/1 and 30/1 and their track lengths were quite small (a few hundred base pairs. We also showed that the ZMM protein MSH4 plays a role in CO formation and somewhat unexpectedly we also found that it is involved in the generation of NCOs but with a different level of effect. Finally, factors acting in cis and in trans appear to shape the rate and distribution of COs at meiotic recombination hotspots.
Analysis of the dynamics of Rhizomucor miehei lipase at different temperatures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Peters, Günther H.j.; Toxvaerd, S.; Andersen, K.V.
1999-01-01
The dynamics of Rhizomucor miehei lipase has been studied by molecular dynamics simulations at temperatures ranging from 200-500K. Simulations carried out in periodic boundary conditions and using explicit water molecules were performed for 400 ps at each temperature. Our results indicate...... that conformational changes and internal motions in the protein are significantly influenced by the temperature increase. With increasing temperature, the number of internal hydrogen bonds decreases, while surface accessibility, radius of gyration and the number of residues in random coil conformation increase...
A microscopic model of ballistic-diffusive crossover
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bagchi, Debarshee; Mohanty, P K
2014-01-01
Several low-dimensional systems show a crossover from diffusive to ballistic heat transport when system size is decreased. Although there is some phenomenological understanding of this crossover phenomenon at the coarse-grained level, a microscopic picture that consistently describes both the ballistic and the diffusive transport regimes has been lacking. In this work we derive a scaling form for the thermal current in a class of one dimensional systems attached to heat baths at boundaries and rigorously show that the crossover occurs when the characteristic length scale of the system competes with the system size. (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gudyma, Iu.; Maksymov, A.; Spinu, L.
2015-01-01
Highlights: • We study the thermal hysteresis in spin-crossover nanoparticles with stochastic perturbation. • The dependence of system behavior on its dimensionality and size were examined. • The spin-crossover compounds where described by breathing crystal field Ising-like model. • The fluctuations may enlarge the hysteresis width which is dependent on the system size. - Abstract: The spin-crossover nanoparticles of different sizes and stochastic perturbations in external field taking into account the influence of the dimensionality of the lattice was studied. The analytical tools used for the investigation of spin-crossover system are based on an Ising-like model described using of the breathing crystal field concept. The changes of transition temperatures characterizing the systems’ bistable properties for 2D and 3D lattices, and their dependence on its size and fluctuations strength were obtained. The state diagrams with hysteretic and non-hysteretic behavior regions have also been determined.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gudyma, Iu. [Department of General Physics, Chernivtsi National University, Chernivtsi 58012 (Ukraine); Maksymov, A., E-mail: maxyartur@gmail.com [Department of General Physics, Chernivtsi National University, Chernivtsi 58012 (Ukraine); Advanced Material Research Institute (AMRI), University of New Orleans, New Orleans, LA 70148 (United States); Spinu, L. [Advanced Material Research Institute (AMRI), University of New Orleans, New Orleans, LA 70148 (United States); Department of Physics, University of New Orleans, New Orleans, LA 70148 (United States)
2015-10-15
Highlights: • We study the thermal hysteresis in spin-crossover nanoparticles with stochastic perturbation. • The dependence of system behavior on its dimensionality and size were examined. • The spin-crossover compounds where described by breathing crystal field Ising-like model. • The fluctuations may enlarge the hysteresis width which is dependent on the system size. - Abstract: The spin-crossover nanoparticles of different sizes and stochastic perturbations in external field taking into account the influence of the dimensionality of the lattice was studied. The analytical tools used for the investigation of spin-crossover system are based on an Ising-like model described using of the breathing crystal field concept. The changes of transition temperatures characterizing the systems’ bistable properties for 2D and 3D lattices, and their dependence on its size and fluctuations strength were obtained. The state diagrams with hysteretic and non-hysteretic behavior regions have also been determined.
Dynamic Model of the High Temperature Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Stack Temperature
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Kær, Søren Knudsen
2009-01-01
The present work involves the development of a model for predicting the dynamic temperature of a high temperature proton exchange membrane (HTPEM) fuel cell stack. The model is developed to test different thermal control strategies before implementing them in the actual system. The test system co...... elements for start-up, heat conduction through stack insulation, cathode air convection, and heating of the inlet gases in the manifold. Various measurements are presented to validate the model predictions of the stack temperatures....
Nonlinear dynamics of homeothermic temperature control in skunk cabbage, Symplocarpus foetidus
Ito, Takanori; Ito, Kikukatsu
2005-11-01
Certain primitive plants undergo orchestrated temperature control during flowering. Skunk cabbage, Symplocarpus foetidus, has been demonstrated to maintain an internal temperature of around 20 °C even when the ambient temperature drops below freezing. However, it is not clear whether a unique algorithm controls the homeothermic behavior of S. foetidus, or whether such an algorithm might exhibit linear or nonlinear thermoregulatory dynamics. Here we report the underlying dynamics of temperature control in S. foetidus using nonlinear forecasting, attractor and correlation dimension analyses. It was shown that thermoregulation in S. foetidus was governed by low-dimensional chaotic dynamics, the geometry of which showed a strange attractor named the “Zazen attractor.” Our data suggest that the chaotic thermoregulation in S. foetidus is inherent and that it is an adaptive response to the natural environment.
Diffusionless phase transition with two order parameters in spin-crossover solids
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gudyma, Iurii, E-mail: yugudyma@gmail.com; Ivashko, Victor [Department of General Physics, Chernivtsi National University, 58012 Chernivtsi (Ukraine); Linares, Jorge [Groupe d' Etude de la Matière Condensée (GEMAC), UMR 8635, CNRS, Université de Versailles Saint Quentin, 45 avenue des Etats-Unis, 78035 Versailles (France)
2014-11-07
The quantitative analysis of the interface boundary motion between high-spin and low-spin phases is presented. The nonlinear effect of the switching front rate on the temperature is shown. A compressible model of spin-crossover solid is studied in the framework of the Ising-like model with two-order parameters under statistical approach, where the effect of elastic strain on interaction integral is considered. These considerations led to examination of the relation between the order parameters during temperature changes. Starting from the phenomenological Hamiltonian, entropy has been derived using the mean field approach. Finally, the phase diagram, which characterizes the system, is numerically analyzed.
Temperature-insensitive fiber Bragg grating dynamic pressure sensing system.
Guo, Tuan; Zhao, Qida; Zhang, Hao; Zhang, Chunshu; Huang, Guiling; Xue, Lifang; Dong, Xiaoyi
2006-08-01
Temperature-insensitive dynamic pressure measurement using a single fiber Bragg grating (FBG) based on reflection spectrum bandwidth modulation and optical power detection is proposed. A specifically designed double-hole cantilever beam is used to provide a pressure-induced axial strain gradient along the sensing FBG and is also used to modulate the reflection bandwidth of the grating. The bandwidth modulation is immune to spatially uniform temperature effects, and the pressure can be unambiguously determined by measuring the reflected optical power, avoiding the complex wavelength interrogation system. The system acquisition time is up to 85 Hz for dynamic pressure measurement, and the thermal fluctuation is kept less than 1.2% full-scale for a temperature range of -10 degrees C to 80 degrees C.
All in the family: Work-family enrichment and crossover among farm couples.
Sprung, Justin M; Jex, Steve M
2017-04-01
This study expands upon the contextualization of the work-family interface by examining positive work-family experiences within the farming industry. Both individual and crossover effects were examined among a sample of 217 married farm couples. Results demonstrated multiple significant relationships between self-reported attitudes, work-family enrichment, and health outcomes. In addition, crossover effects reveal the importance of individual attitudes (husband work engagement and wife farm satisfaction) for spousal work-family enrichment and health outcomes. Furthermore, individual work-family enrichment was positively related to spousal psychological health and negatively related to spousal physical symptoms. Many of these findings remained significant after controlling for work-family conflict. Overall, our results suggest the potential beneficial impact of the integrated work-family dynamic associated with the farming profession for positive work-family experiences. Implications of these findings, as well as directions for future research, are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Akerman, Johan J.; Venturini, E. L.; Siegal, M. P.; Yun, S. H.; Karlsson, U. O.; Rao, K. V.
2001-09-01
The thermal-to-quantum flux creep crossover at low vortex densities has been studied in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7}, TlBa{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 7-{delta}}, and HgBa{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 6+{delta}} thin films using ac susceptibility. The crossover temperatures T{sub cr} are 10--11, 17, and 30 K, respectively. Both thermal and quantum flux creep is suppressed as the vortex density is decreased. We observe a two-stage nature in the crossover behavior which appears to be a general property of all the three materials studied.
Dynamic Uniaxial Compression of HSLA-65 Steel at Elevated Temperatures
Dike, Shweta; Wang, Tianxue; Zuanetti, Bryan; Prakash, Vikas
2017-12-01
In the present study, the dynamic response of a high-strength, low alloy Grade 65 (HSLA-65) steel, used by the United States Navy for ship hull construction, is investigated under dynamic uniaxial compression at temperatures ranging from room temperature to 1000 °C using a novel elevated temperature split-Hopkinson pressure bar. These experiments are designed to probe the dynamic response of HSLA-65 steel in its single α-ferrite phase, mixed α + γ-austenite phase, and the single γ-austenite phase, as a function of temperature. The investigation is conducted at two different average strain rates—1450 and 2100/s. The experimental results indicate that at test temperatures in the range from room temperature to lower than 600 °C, i.e. prior to the development of the mixed α + γ phase, a net softening in flow strength is observed at all levels of plastic strain with increase in test temperatures. As the test temperatures are increased, the rate of this strain softening with temperature is observed to decrease, and at 600 °C the trend reverses itself resulting in an increase in flow stress at all strains tested. This increase in flow stress is understood be due to dynamic strain aging, where solute atoms play a distinctive role in hindering dislocation motion. At 800 °C, a (sharp) drop in the flow stress, equivalent to one-half of its value at room temperature, is observed. As the test temperature are increased to 900 and 1000 °C, further drop in flow stress are observed at all plastic strain levels. In addition, strain hardening in flow stress is observed at all test temperatures up to 600 °C; beyond 800 °C the rate of strain hardening is observed to decrease, with strain softening becoming dominant at temperatures of 900 °C and higher. Moreover, comparing the high strain rate stress versus strain data gathered on HSLA 65 in the current investigation with those available in the literature at quasi-static strain rates, strain-rate hardening can be
Universal ferroelectric switching dynamics of vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene copolymer films
Hu, Weijin
2014-04-24
In this work, switching dynamics of poly(vinylidene fluoride- trifluoroethylene) [P(VDF-TrFE)] copolymer films are investigated over unprecedentedly wide ranges of temperature and electric field. Remarkably, domain switching of copolymer films obeys well the classical domain nucleation and growth model although the origin of ferroelectricity in organic ferroelectric materials inherently differs from the inorganic counterparts. A lower coercivity limit of 50 ...MV/m and 180 domain wall energy of 60 ...mJ/m 2 are determined for P(VDF-TrFE) films. Furthermore, we discover in copolymer films an anomalous temperature-dependent crossover behavior between two power-law scaling regimes of frequency-dependent coercivity, which is attributed to the transition between flow and creep motions of domain walls. Our observations shed new light on the switching dynamics of semi-crystalline ferroelectric polymers, and such understandings are critical for realizing their reliable applications.
Universal ferroelectric switching dynamics of vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene copolymer films
Hu, Weijin; Juo, Deng-Ming; You, Lu; Wang, Junling; Chen, Yi-Chun; Chu, Ying-Hao; Wu, Tao
2014-01-01
In this work, switching dynamics of poly(vinylidene fluoride- trifluoroethylene) [P(VDF-TrFE)] copolymer films are investigated over unprecedentedly wide ranges of temperature and electric field. Remarkably, domain switching of copolymer films obeys well the classical domain nucleation and growth model although the origin of ferroelectricity in organic ferroelectric materials inherently differs from the inorganic counterparts. A lower coercivity limit of 50 ...MV/m and 180 domain wall energy of 60 ...mJ/m 2 are determined for P(VDF-TrFE) films. Furthermore, we discover in copolymer films an anomalous temperature-dependent crossover behavior between two power-law scaling regimes of frequency-dependent coercivity, which is attributed to the transition between flow and creep motions of domain walls. Our observations shed new light on the switching dynamics of semi-crystalline ferroelectric polymers, and such understandings are critical for realizing their reliable applications.
Time-dependent nonequilibrium soft x-ray response during a spin crossover
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
van Veenendaal, Michel
2018-03-01
The rapid development of high-brilliance pulsed X-ray sources with femtosecond time resolution has created a need for a better theoretical understanding of the time-dependent soft-X-ray response of dissipative many-body quantum systems. It is demonstrated how soft-X-ray spectroscopies, such as X-ray absorption and resonant inelastic X-ray scattering at transition-metal L-edges, can provide insight into intersystem crossings, such as a spin crossover. The photoinduced doublet-to-quartet spin crossover on cobalt in Fe-Co Prussian blue analogues is used as an example to demonstrate how the X-ray response is affected by the dissipative nonequilibrium dynamics. The time-dependent soft-X-ray spectra provide a wealth of information that reflect the changes in the nonequilibrium initial state via continuously changing spectral lineshapes that cannot be decomposed into initial photoexcited and final metastable spectra, strong broadenings, a collapse of clear selection rules during the intersystem crossing, strong fluctuations in the isotropic branching ratio in X-ray absorption, and crystal-field collapse/oscillations and strongly time-dependent anti-Stokes processes in RIXS.
Quasi-dynamic pressure and temperature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zaug, J M.; Farber, D L; Blosch, L L; Craig, I M; Hansen, D W; Aracne-Ruddle, C M; Shuh, D K
1998-01-01
The phase transformation of(beta)-HMX ( and lt; 0.5% RDX) to the(delta) phase has been studied for over twenty years and more recently with an optically sensitive second harmonic generation technique. Shock studies of the plastic binder composites of HMX have indicated that the transition is perhaps irreversible, a result that concurs with the static pressure results published by F. Goetz et al.[l] in 1978. However the stability field favors the(beta) polymorph over(delta) as pressure is increased (up to 5.4 GPa) along any sensible isotherm. In this experiment strict control of pressure and temperature is maintained while x-ray and optical diagnostics are applied to monitor the conformational dynamics of HMX. Unlike the temperature induced(beta) - and gt;(delta) transition, the pressure induced is heterogeneous in nature. The room pressure and temperature(delta) - and gt;(beta) transition is not immediate although it seems to occur over tens of hours. Transition points and kinetics are path dependent and so this paper describes our work in progress
Quantum quench dynamics of the attractive one-dimensional Bose gas via the coordinate Bethe ansatz
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jan C. Zill, Tod M. Wright, Karen V. Kheruntsyan, Thomas Gasenzer, Matthew J. Davis
2018-02-01
Full Text Available We use the coordinate Bethe ansatz to study the Lieb-Liniger model of a one-dimensional gas of bosons on a finite-sized ring interacting via an attractive delta-function potential. We calculate zero-temperature correlation functions for seven particles in the vicinity of the crossover to a localized solitonic state and study the dynamics of a system of four particles quenched to attractive interactions from the ideal-gas ground state. We determine the time evolution of correlation functions, as well as their temporal averages, and discuss the role of bound states in shaping the postquench correlations and relaxation dynamics.
High-temperature dynamic hohlraums on the pulsed power driver Z
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nash, T.J.; Derzon, M.S.; Chandler, G.A.; Leeper, R.; Fehl, D.; Lash, J.; Ruiz, C.; Cooper, G.; Seaman, J.F.; McGurn, J.; Lazier, S.; Torres, J.; Jobe, D.; Gilliland, T.; Hurst, M.; Mock, R.; Ryan, P.; Nielsen, D.; Armijo, J.; McKenney, J.; Hawn, R.; Hebron, D.; MacFarlane, J.J.; Petersen, D.; Bowers, R.; Matuska, W.; Ryutov, D.D.
1999-01-01
In the concept of the dynamic hohlraum an imploding Z pinch is optically thick to its own radiation. Radiation may be trapped inside the pinch to give a radiation temperature inside the pinch greater than that outside the pinch. The radiation is typically produced by colliding an outer Z-pinch liner onto an inner liner. The collision generates a strongly radiating shock, and the radiation is trapped by the outer liner. As the implosion continues after the collision, the radiation temperature may continue to increase due to ongoing PdV (pressure times change in volume) work done by the implosion. In principal, the radiation temperature may increase to the point at which the outer liner burns through, becomes optically thin, and no longer traps the radiation. One application of the dynamic hohlraum is to drive an ICF (inertial confinement fusion) pellet with the trapped radiation field. Members of the dynamic hohlraum team at Sandia National Labs have used the pulsed power driver Z (20 MA, 100 ns) to create a dynamic hohlraum with temperature linearly ramping from 100 to 180 eV over 5 ns. On this shot zp214 a nested tungsten wire array of 4 and 2 cm diam with masses of 2 and 1 mg imploded onto a 2.5 mg plastic annulus at 5 mm diam. The current return can on this shot was slotted. It is likely the radiation temperature may be increased to over 200 eV by stabilizing the pinch with a solid current return can. A current return can with nine slots imprints nine filaments onto the imploding pinch. This degrades the optical trapping and the quality of the liner collision. A 1.6 mm diam capsule situated inside this dynamic hohlraum of zp214 would see 15 kJ of radiation impinging on its surface before the pinch itself collapses to a 1.6 mm diam. Dynamic hohlraum shots including pellets were scheduled to take place on Z in September of 1998. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics
High Temperature Dynamic Hohlraums on the Pulsed Power Driver Z
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Armijo, J.; Chandler, G.A.; Cooper, G.; Derzon, M.S.; Fehl, D.; Gilliland, T.; Hawn, R.; Hebron, D.; Hurst, M.; Jobe, D.; Lash, J.; Lazier, S.; Leeper, R.; McGurn, J.; McKenney, J.; Mock, R.; Nash, T.J.; Nielsen, D.; Ruiz, C.; Ryan, P.; Seaman, J.F.; Torres, J.
1999-01-01
In the concept of the dynamic hohlraum an imploding z-pinch is optically thick to its own radiation. Radiation may be trapped inside the pinch to give a radiation temperature inside the pinch greater than that outside the pinch. The radiation is typically produced by colliding an outer Z-pinch liner onto an inner liner. The collision generates a strongly radiating shock, and the radiation is trapped by the outer liner. As the implosion continues after the collision the radiation temperature may continue to increase due to ongoing PdV (pressure times change in volume) work done by the implosion. In principal the radiation temperature may increase to the point at which the outer liner burns through, becomes optically thin, and no longer traps the radiation. One application of the dynamic hohlraum is to drive an ICF (inertial confinement fusion) pellet with the trapped radiation field. Members of the dynamic hohlraum team at Sandia National Labs have used the pulsed power driver Z (20 LMA, 100 ns) to create a dynamic hohlraum with temperature linearly ramping from 100 to 180 eV over 5 ns. On this shot zp214 a nested tungsten wire array of 4 and 2 cm diameters with masses of 2 and 1 mg imploded onto a 2.5 mg plastic annulus at 5 mm diameter. The current return can on this shot was slotted. It is likely the radiation temperature may be increased to over 200 CV by stabilizing the pinch with a solid current return can. A current return can with 9 slots imprints 9 filaments onto the imploding pinch. This degrades the optical trapping and the quality of the liner collision. A 1.6 mm diameter capsule situated inside this dynamic hohlraum of zp214 would see 15 kJ of radiation impinging on its surface before the pinch itself collapses to a 1.6 mm diameter. Dynamic hohlraum shots including pellets are scheduled to take place on Z in September of 1998
Spin crossover in Fe(phen)2(NCS)2 complexes on metallic surfaces
Gruber, Manuel; Miyamachi, Toshio; Davesne, Vincent; Bowen, Martin; Boukari, Samy; Wulfhekel, Wulf; Alouani, Mebarek; Beaurepaire, Eric
2017-03-01
In this review, we give an overview on the spin crossover of Fe(phen)2(NCS)2 complexes adsorbed on Cu(100), Cu2N/Cu(100), Cu(111), Co/Cu(111), Co(100), Au(100), and Au(111) surfaces. Depending on the strength of the interaction of the molecules with the substrates, the spin crossover behavior can be drastically changed. Molecules in direct contact with non-magnetic metallic surfaces coexist in both the high- and low-spin states but cannot be switched between the two. Our analysis shows that this is due to a strong interaction with the substrate in the form of a chemisorption that dictates the spin state of the molecules through its adsorption geometry. Upon reducing the interaction to the surface either by adding a second molecular layer or inserting an insulating thin film of Cu2N, the spin crossover behavior is restored and molecules can be switched between the two states with the help of scanning tunneling microscopy. Especially on Cu2N, the two states of single molecules are stable at low temperature and thus allow the realization of a molecular memory. Similarly, the molecules decoupled from metallic substrates in the second or higher layers display thermally driven spin crossover as has been revealed by X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Finally, we discuss the situation when the complex is brought into contact with a ferromagnetic substrate. This leads to a strong exchange coupling between the Fe spin in the high-spin state and the magnetization of the substrate as deduced from spin-polarized scanning tunneling spectroscopy and ab initio calculation.
DMFC performance and methanol cross-over: Experimental analysis and model validation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Casalegno, A.; Marchesi, R. [Dipartimento di Energia, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)
2008-10-15
A combined experimental and modelling approach is proposed to analyze methanol cross-over and its effect on DMFC performance. The experimental analysis is performed in order to allow an accurate investigation of methanol cross-over influence on DMFC performance, hence measurements were characterized in terms of uncertainty and reproducibility. The findings suggest that methanol cross-over is mainly determined by diffusion transport and affects cell performance partly via methanol electro-oxidation at the cathode. The modelling analysis is carried out to further investigate methanol cross-over phenomenon. A simple model evaluates the effectiveness of two proposed interpretations regarding methanol cross-over and its effects. The model is validated using the experimental data gathered. Both the experimental analysis and the proposed and validated model allow a substantial step forward in the understanding of the main phenomena associated with methanol cross-over. The findings confirm the possibility to reduce methanol cross-over by optimizing anode feeding. (author)
Extended precedence preservative crossover for job shop scheduling problems
Ong, Chung Sin; Moin, Noor Hasnah; Omar, Mohd
2013-04-01
Job shop scheduling problems (JSSP) is one of difficult combinatorial scheduling problems. A wide range of genetic algorithms based on the two parents crossover have been applied to solve the problem but multi parents (more than two parents) crossover in solving the JSSP is still lacking. This paper proposes the extended precedence preservative crossover (EPPX) which uses multi parents for recombination in the genetic algorithms. EPPX is a variation of the precedence preservative crossover (PPX) which is one of the crossovers that perform well to find the solutions for the JSSP. EPPX is based on a vector to determine the gene selected in recombination for the next generation. Legalization of children (offspring) can be eliminated due to the JSSP representation encoded by using permutation with repetition that guarantees the feasibility of chromosomes. The simulations are performed on a set of benchmarks from the literatures and the results are compared to ensure the sustainability of multi parents recombination in solving the JSSP.
Compton scattering at finite temperature: thermal field dynamics approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Juraev, F.I.
2006-01-01
Full text: Compton scattering is a classical problem of quantum electrodynamics and has been studied in its early beginnings. Perturbation theory and Feynman diagram technique enables comprehensive analysis of this problem on the basis of which famous Klein-Nishina formula is obtained [1, 2]. In this work this problem is extended to the case of finite temperature. Finite-temperature effects in Compton scattering is of practical importance for various processes in relativistic thermal plasmas in astrophysics. Recently Compton effect have been explored using closed-time path formalism with temperature corrections estimated [3]. It was found that the thermal cross section can be larger than that for zero-temperature by several orders of magnitude for the high temperature realistic in astrophysics [3]. In our work we use a main tool to account finite-temperature effects, a real-time finite-temperature quantum field theory, so-called thermofield dynamics [4, 5]. Thermofield dynamics is a canonical formalism to explore field-theoretical processes at finite temperature. It consists of two steps, doubling of Fock space and Bogolyubov transformations. Doubling leads to appearing additional degrees of freedom, called tilded operators which together with usual field operators create so-called thermal doublet. Bogolyubov transformations make field operators temperature-dependent. Using this formalism we treat Compton scattering at finite temperature via replacing in transition amplitude zero-temperature propagators by finite-temperature ones. As a result finite-temperature extension of the Klein-Nishina formula is obtained in which differential cross section is represented as a sum of zero-temperature cross section and finite-temperature correction. The obtained result could be useful in quantum electrodynamics of lasers and for relativistic thermal plasma processes in astrophysics where correct account of finite-temperature effects is important. (author)
Dynamic Model of High Temperature PEM Fuel Cell Stack Temperature
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Kær, Søren Knudsen
2007-01-01
cathode air cooled 30 cell HTPEM fuel cell stack developed at the Institute of Energy Technology at Aalborg University. This fuel cell stack uses PEMEAS Celtec P-1000 membranes, runs on pure hydrogen in a dead end anode configuration with a purge valve. The cooling of the stack is managed by running......The present work involves the development of a model for predicting the dynamic temperature of a high temperature PEM (HTPEM) fuel cell stack. The model is developed to test different thermal control strategies before implementing them in the actual system. The test system consists of a prototype...... the stack at a high stoichiometric air flow. This is possible because of the PBI fuel cell membranes used, and the very low pressure drop in the stack. The model consists of a discrete thermal model dividing the stack into three parts: inlet, middle and end and predicting the temperatures in these three...
The joy of six: how to control your crossovers.
Globus, Samuel T; Keeney, Scott
2012-03-30
Meiotic cells tightly regulate the number and distribution of crossovers to promote accurate chromosome segregation. Yokoo and colleagues uncover a metazoan-specific, cyclin-like protein that is crucial for crossover formation. They utilize this protein's unique properties to explore a remarkable example of biological numerology, whereby nearly every meiotic cell in C. elegans makes precisely six crossovers, one for each of its six chromosome pairs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Modeling quantum fluid dynamics at nonzero temperatures
Berloff, Natalia G.; Brachet, Marc; Proukakis, Nick P.
2014-01-01
The detailed understanding of the intricate dynamics of quantum fluids, in particular in the rapidly growing subfield of quantum turbulence which elucidates the evolution of a vortex tangle in a superfluid, requires an in-depth understanding of the role of finite temperature in such systems. The Landau two-fluid model is the most successful hydrodynamical theory of superfluid helium, but by the nature of the scale separations it cannot give an adequate description of the processes involving vortex dynamics and interactions. In our contribution we introduce a framework based on a nonlinear classical-field equation that is mathematically identical to the Landau model and provides a mechanism for severing and coalescence of vortex lines, so that the questions related to the behavior of quantized vortices can be addressed self-consistently. The correct equation of state as well as nonlocality of interactions that leads to the existence of the roton minimum can also be introduced in such description. We review and apply the ideas developed for finite-temperature description of weakly interacting Bose gases as possible extensions and numerical refinements of the proposed method. We apply this method to elucidate the behavior of the vortices during expansion and contraction following the change in applied pressure. We show that at low temperatures, during the contraction of the vortex core as the negative pressure grows back to positive values, the vortex line density grows through a mechanism of vortex multiplication. This mechanism is suppressed at high temperatures. PMID:24704874
Applying dynamic mold temperature control to cosmetic package design
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hsiao Shih-Wen
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Owing to the fashion trend and the market needs, this study developed the eco-cushion compact. Through the product design and the advanced process technology, many issues have improved, for instance, the inconvenience of transportation, the lack of multiuse capability, the increase of costs, and the low yield rate. The eco-cushion compact developed in this study was high quality, low cost, and meets the requirements of the eco market. The study aimed at developing a reusable container. Dynamic mold temperature control was introduced in the injection modeling process. The innovation in the product was its multi-functional formula invention, eco-product design, one-piece powder case design, and multifunctional design in the big powder case, mold flow and development of dynamic mold temperature control. Finally, through 3D drawing and modeling, and computer assistance for mold flow and verification to develop and produce models. During the manufacturing process, in order to solve the problems of tightness and warping, development and manufacture of dynamic mold temperature control were introduced. This decreased the injection cycle and residual stress, and deformation of the products has reduced to less than 0.2 mm, and the air tightness increased. In addition, air leakage was less than 2% and the injection cycle decreased to at least 10%. The results of the study can be extended and applied on the future design on cosmetic package and an alternative can be proposed to solve the problems of air tightness and warping. In this study, dynamic mold temperature control is considered as a design with high price-performance ratio, which can be adopted on industrial application for practical benefit and improvement.
Crossover of burnout and engagement in work teams
Bakker, A.B.; Van Emmerik, IJ.H.; Euwema, M.C.
2005-01-01
This study investigates the crossover of burnout and work engagement among 2,229 Royal Dutch constabulary officers, working in one of 85 teams. The authors hypothesized that both states may transfer from teams to individual team members. The results of multilevel analyses confirm this crossover
Dynamics of Gauge Fields at High Temperature
Nauta, B.J.
2000-01-01
An effective description of dynamical Bose fields is provided by the classical (high-temperature) limit of thermal field theory. The main subject of this thesis is to improve the ensuing classical field theory, that is, to include the dominant quantum corrections and to add counter terms for the
Ground-state fidelity in the BCS-BEC crossover
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khan, Ayan; Pieri, Pierbiagio
2009-01-01
The ground-state fidelity has been introduced recently as a tool to investigate quantum phase transitions. Here, we apply this concept in the context of a crossover problem. Specifically, we calculate the fidelity susceptibility for the BCS ground-state wave function, when the intensity of the fermionic attraction is varied from weak to strong in an interacting Fermi system, through the BCS-Bose-Einstein Condensation crossover. Results are presented for contact and finite-range attractive potentials and for both continuum and lattice models. We conclude that the fidelity susceptibility can be useful also in the context of crossover problems.
The dynamics of temperature and light on the growth of phytoplankton.
Chen, Ming; Fan, Meng; Liu, Rui; Wang, Xiaoyu; Yuan, Xing; Zhu, Huaiping
2015-11-21
Motivated by some lab and field observations of the hump shaped effects of water temperature and light on the growth of phytoplankton, a bottom-up nutrient phytoplankton model, which incorporates the combined effects of temperature and light, is proposed and analyzed to explore the dynamics of phytoplankton bloom. The population growth model reasonably captures such observed dynamics qualitatively. An ecological reproductive index is defined to characterize the growth of the phytoplankton which also allows a comprehensive analysis of the role of temperature and light on the growth and reproductive characteristics of phytoplankton in general. The model provides a framework to study the mechanisms of phytoplankton dynamics in shallow lake and may even be employed to study the controlled phytoplankton bloom. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Effect of temperature on the population dynamics of Aedes aegypti
Yusoff, Nuraini; Tokachil, Mohd Najir
2015-10-01
Aedes aegypti is one of the main vectors in the transmission of dengue fever. Its abundance may cause the spread of the disease to be more intense. In the study of its biological life cycle, temperature was found to increase the development rate of each stage of this species and thus, accelerate the process of the development from egg to adult. In this paper, a Lefkovitch matrix model will be used to study the stage-structured population dynamics of Aedes aegypti. In constructing the transition matrix, temperature will be taken into account. As a case study, temperature recorded at the Subang Meteorological Station for year 2006 until 2010 will be used. Population dynamics of Aedes aegypti at maximum, average and minimum temperature for each year will be simulated and compared. It is expected that the higher the temperature, the faster the mosquito will breed. The result will be compared to the number of dengue fever incidences to see their relationship.
High temperature gas dynamics an introduction for physicists and engineers
Bose, Tarit K
2014-01-01
High Temperature Gas Dynamics is a primer for scientists, engineers, and students who would like to have a basic understanding of the physics and the behavior of high-temperature gases. It is a valuable tool for astrophysicists as well. The first chapters treat the basic principles of quantum and statistical mechanics and how to derive thermophysical properties from them. Special topics are included that are rarely found in other textbooks, such as the thermophysical and transport properties of multi-temperature gases and a novel method to compute radiative transfer. Furthermore, collision processes between different particles are discussed. Separate chapters deal with the production of high-temperature gases and with electrical emission in plasmas, as well as related diagnostic techniques.This new edition adds over 100 pages and includes the following updates: several sections on radiative properties of high temperature gases and various radiation models, a section on shocks in magneto-gas-dynamics, a sectio...
Polaron crossover in molecular solids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zoli, Marco; Das, A N
2004-01-01
An analytical variational method is applied to the molecular Holstein Hamiltonian in which the dispersive features of the dimension dependent phonon spectrum are taken into account by a force constant approach. The crossover between a large and a small size polaron is monitored, in one, two and three dimensions and for different values of the adiabatic parameter, through the behaviour of the effective mass as a function of the electron-phonon coupling. By increasing the strength of the intermolecular forces the crossover becomes smoother and occurs at higher e-ph couplings. These effects are more evident in three dimensions. We show that our modified Lang-Firsov method starts to capture the occurrence of a polaron self-trapping transition when the electron energies become of order of the phonon energies. The self-trapping event persists in the fully adiabatic regime. At the crossover we estimate polaron effective masses of order ∼ 5-40 times the bare band mass according to the dimensionality and the value of the adiabatic parameter. Modified Lang-Firsov polaron masses are substantially reduced in two and three dimensions. There is no self-trapping in the antiadiabatic regime
Study of thermal spin crossover in [Fe(II)(isoxazole)(6)](BF4)(2) with Mossbauer spectroscopy
Bhattacharjee, A.; van Koningsbruggen, P. J.; Hibbs, W.; Miller, Joel S.; Guetlich, P.
2007-01-01
Fe-57 Mossbauer spectroscopy of the mononuclear [Fe( II)( isoxazole)(6)]( BF4)(2) compound has been studied to reveal the thermal spin crossover of Fe( II) between low- spin ( S = 0) and high- spin ( S = 2) states. A temperature-dependent spin transition curve has been constructed with the least-
Crossover between cooperative and fractal relaxation in complex glass-formers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Golovchak, R; Kozdras, A; Shpotyuk, O; Balitska, V
2016-01-01
Kinetics of physical aging at different temperatures is studied in situ in arsenic selenide glasses using high-precision differential scanning calorimetry technique. A well-expressed step-like behaviour in the enthalpy recovery kinetics is recorded for low aging temperatures. These fine features disappear when the aging temperature (T a ) approaches the glass transition temperature (T g ). The overall kinetics is described by stretched exponential function with stretching exponent close to 3/5 at T a > ∼0.95 T g almost independent on glass composition, and 3/7 when the aging temperature drops to ∼0.9 T g . These values are consistent with the prediction of Phillips’ diffusion-to-traps model. Further decrease in aging temperature to ∼0.85 T g leads to the appearance of step-like behaviour and stretching exponent of 1/3 for the overall kinetics, which is the limiting value predicted by random walk on the fractal model. Such behavior is explained as crossover from homogeneous cooperative relaxation of non-percolating structural units to high-dimensional fractal relaxation within hierarchically-arranged two-stage physical aging model. (paper)
Comparison between a diagrammatic theory for the BCS-BEC crossover and quantum Monte Carlo results
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pieri, P.; Pisani, L.; Strinati, G.C.
2005-01-01
Predictions for the chemical potential and the excitation gap recently obtained by our diagrammatic theory for the Bardeen-Cooper-Schreiffer-Bose-Einstein Condensation crossover in the superfluid phase are compared with quantum Monte Carlo results at zero temperature now available in the literature. A remarkable agreement is found between the results obtained by the two approaches
Temperature specification in atomistic molecular dynamics and its impact on simulation efficacy
Ocaya, R. O.; Terblans, J. J.
2017-10-01
Temperature is a vital thermodynamical function for physical systems. Knowledge of system temperature permits assessment of system ergodicity, entropy, system state and stability. Rapid theoretical and computational developments in the fields of condensed matter physics, chemistry, material science, molecular biology, nanotechnology and others necessitate clarity in the temperature specification. Temperature-based materials simulations, both standalone and distributed computing, are projected to grow in prominence over diverse research fields. In this article we discuss the apparent variability of temperature modeling formalisms used currently in atomistic molecular dynamics simulations, with respect to system energetics,dynamics and structural evolution. Commercial simulation programs, which by nature are heuristic, do not openly discuss this fundamental question. We address temperature specification in the context of atomistic molecular dynamics. We define a thermostat at 400K relative to a heat bath at 300K firstly using a modified ab-initio Newtonian method, and secondly using a Monte-Carlo method. The thermostatic vacancy formation and cohesion energies, equilibrium lattice constant for FCC copper is then calculated. Finally we compare and contrast the results.
Deterministic constant-temperature dynamics for dissipative quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sergi, Alessandro
2007-01-01
A novel method is introduced in order to treat the dissipative dynamics of quantum systems interacting with a bath of classical degrees of freedom. The method is based upon an extension of the Nose-Hoover chain (constant temperature) dynamics to quantum-classical systems. Both adiabatic and nonadiabatic numerical calculations on the relaxation dynamics of the spin-boson model show that the quantum-classical Nose-Hoover chain dynamics represents the thermal noise of the bath in an accurate and simple way. Numerical comparisons, both with the constant-energy calculation and with the quantum-classical Brownian motion treatment of the bath, show that the quantum-classical Nose-Hoover chain dynamics can be used to introduce dissipation in the evolution of a quantum subsystem even with just one degree of freedom for the bath. The algorithm can be computationally advantageous in modelling, within computer simulation, the dynamics of a quantum subsystem interacting with complex molecular environments. (fast track communication)
Local Hawking temperature for dynamical black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hayward, S A; Criscienzo, R Di; Nadalini, M; Vanzo, L; Zerbini, S
2009-01-01
A local Hawking temperature is derived for any future outer trapping horizon in spherical symmetry, using a Hamilton-Jacobi variant of the Parikh-Wilczek tunneling method. It is given by a dynamical surface gravity as defined geometrically. The operational meaning of the temperature is that Kodama observers just outside the horizon measure an invariantly redshifted temperature, diverging at the horizon itself. In static, asymptotically flat cases, the Hawking temperature as usually defined by the Killing vector agrees in standard cases, but generally differs by a relative redshift factor between the horizon and infinity, this being the temperature measured by static observers at infinity. Likewise, the geometrical surface gravity reduces to the Newtonian surface gravity in the Newtonian limit, while the Killing definition instead reflects measurements at infinity. This may resolve a long-standing puzzle concerning the Hawking temperature for the extremal limit of the charged stringy black hole, namely that it is the local temperature which vanishes. In general, this confirms the quasi-stationary picture of black-hole evaporation in early stages. However, the geometrical surface gravity is generally not the surface gravity of a static black hole with the same parameters. (fast track communication)
Effect of the Solvent Temperatures on Dynamics of Serine Protease Proteinase K
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Peng Sang
2016-02-01
Full Text Available To obtain detailed information about the effect of the solvent temperatures on protein dynamics, multiple long molecular dynamics (MD simulations of serine protease proteinase K with the solute and solvent coupled to different temperatures (either 300 or 180 K have been performed. Comparative analyses demonstrate that the internal flexibility and mobility of proteinase K are strongly dependent on the solvent temperatures but weakly on the protein temperatures. The constructed free energy landscapes (FELs at the high solvent temperatures exhibit a more rugged surface, broader spanning range, and higher minimum free energy level than do those at the low solvent temperatures. Comparison between the dynamic hydrogen bond (HB numbers reveals that the high solvent temperatures intensify the competitive HB interactions between water molecules and protein surface atoms, and this in turn exacerbates the competitive HB interactions between protein internal atoms, thus enhancing the conformational flexibility and facilitating the collective motions of the protein. A refined FEL model was proposed to explain the role of the solvent mobility in facilitating the cascade amplification of microscopic motions of atoms and atomic groups into the global collective motions of the protein.
Barrett, Simon A; Kilner, Colin A; Halcrow, Malcolm A
2011-12-07
The temperature of spin-crossover in [Fe(3-bpp)(2)][BF(4)](2) (3-bpp = 2,6-di{pyrazol-3-yl}pyridine) tends to increase in associating solvents. In particular, T(½) shifts to 60-70 K higher temperature in water compared to organic solvents.
Quantification and Sequencing of Crossover Recombinant Molecules from Arabidopsis Pollen DNA.
Choi, Kyuha; Yelina, Nataliya E; Serra, Heïdi; Henderson, Ian R
2017-01-01
During meiosis, homologous chromosomes undergo recombination, which can result in formation of reciprocal crossover molecules. Crossover frequency is highly variable across the genome, typically occurring in narrow hotspots, which has a significant effect on patterns of genetic diversity. Here we describe methods to measure crossover frequency in plants at the hotspot scale (bp-kb), using allele-specific PCR amplification from genomic DNA extracted from the pollen of F 1 heterozygous plants. We describe (1) titration methods that allow amplification, quantification and sequencing of single crossover molecules, (2) quantitative PCR methods to more rapidly measure crossover frequency, and (3) application of high-throughput sequencing for study of crossover distributions within hotspots. We provide detailed descriptions of key steps including pollen DNA extraction, prior identification of hotspot locations, allele-specific oligonucleotide design, and sequence analysis approaches. Together, these methods allow the rate and recombination topology of plant hotspots to be robustly measured and compared between varied genetic backgrounds and environmental conditions.
Zhu, Mengshi; Murayama, Hideaki
2017-04-01
New approach in simultaneous measurement of dynamic strain and temperature has been done by using a high birefringence PANDA fiber Bragg grating sensor. By this technique, we have succeeded in discriminating dynamic strain and temperature distribution at the sampling rate of 800 Hz and the spatial resolution of 1 mm. The dynamic distribution of strain and temperature were measured with the deviation of 5mm spatially. In addition, we have designed an experimental setup by which we can apply quantitative dynamic strain and temperature distribution to the fiber under testing without bounding it to a specimen.
Smith, Aynsley M; Krause, David A; Stuart, Michael J; Montelpare, William J; Sorenson, Matthew C; Link, Andrew A; Gaz, Daniel V; Twardowski, Casey P; Larson, Dirk R; Stuart, Michael B
2013-12-01
Ice hockey requires frequent skater crossovers to execute turns. Our investigation aimed to determine the effectiveness of training crossovers on a motorized, polyethylene high-resistance flywheel. We hypothesized that high school hockey players training on the flywheel would perform as well as their peers training on ice. Participants were 23 male high-school hockey players (age 15-19 years). The study used an experimental prospective design to compare players who trained for 9 sessions on the 22-foot flywheel with players who trained for 9 sessions on a similarly sized on-ice circle. Both groups were compared with control subjects who were randomly selected from the same participant pool as those training on ice. All players were tested before and after their 3-week training regimens, and control subjects were asked to not practice crossovers between testing. Group 1 trained in a hockey training facility housing the flywheel, and group 2 trained in the ice hockey arena where testing occurred. Primary outcome measures tested in both directions were: (a) speed (time in seconds) required to skate crossovers for 3 laps of a marked face-off circle, (b) cadence of skating crossovers on the similarly sized circles, and (c) a repeat interval speed test, which measures anaerobic power. No significant changes were found between groups in on-ice testing before and after training. Among the group 1 players, 7 of 8 believed they benefited from flywheel training. Group 2 players, who trained on ice, did not improve performance significantly over group 1 players. Despite the fact that no significant on-ice changes in performance were observed in objective measures, players who trained on the flywheel subjectively reported that the flywheel is an effective cost-effective alternative to training on ice. This is a relevant finding when placed in context with limited availability of on-ice training.
Recurrent dynamics in an epidemic model due to stimulated bifurcation crossovers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Juanico, Drandreb Earl [Department of Mathematics, Ateneo de Manila University, Loyola Heights, Quezon City, Philippines 1108 (Philippines); National Institute of Physics, University of the Philippines, Diliman, Quezon City, Philippines 1101 (Philippines)
2015-05-15
Epidemics are known to persist in the form of recurrence cycles. Despite intervention efforts through vaccination and targeted social distancing, peaks of activity for infectious diseases like influenza reappear over time. Analysis of a stochastic model is here undertaken to explore a proposed cycle-generating mechanism – the bifurcation crossover. Time series from simulations of the model exhibit oscillations similar to the temporal signature of influenza activity. Power-spectral density indicates a resonant frequency, which corresponds to the annual seasonality of influenza in temperate zones. The study finds that intervention actions influence the extinguishability of epidemic activity. Asymptotic solution to a backward Kolmogorov equation corresponds to a mean extinction time that is a function of both intervention efficacy and population size. Intervention efficacy must be greater than a certain threshold to increase the chances of extinguishing the epidemic. Agreement of the model with several phenomenological features of epidemic cycles lends to it a tractability that may serve as early warning of imminent outbreaks.
Recurrent dynamics in an epidemic model due to stimulated bifurcation crossovers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Juanico, Drandreb Earl
2015-01-01
Epidemics are known to persist in the form of recurrence cycles. Despite intervention efforts through vaccination and targeted social distancing, peaks of activity for infectious diseases like influenza reappear over time. Analysis of a stochastic model is here undertaken to explore a proposed cycle-generating mechanism – the bifurcation crossover. Time series from simulations of the model exhibit oscillations similar to the temporal signature of influenza activity. Power-spectral density indicates a resonant frequency, which corresponds to the annual seasonality of influenza in temperate zones. The study finds that intervention actions influence the extinguishability of epidemic activity. Asymptotic solution to a backward Kolmogorov equation corresponds to a mean extinction time that is a function of both intervention efficacy and population size. Intervention efficacy must be greater than a certain threshold to increase the chances of extinguishing the epidemic. Agreement of the model with several phenomenological features of epidemic cycles lends to it a tractability that may serve as early warning of imminent outbreaks
Interference-mediated synaptonemal complex formation with embedded crossover designation
Zhang, Liangran; Espagne, Eric; de Muyt, Arnaud; Zickler, Denise; Kleckner, Nancy E.
2014-01-01
Biological systems exhibit complex patterns at length scales ranging from the molecular to the organismic. Along chromosomes, events often occur stochastically at different positions in different nuclei but nonetheless tend to be relatively evenly spaced. Examples include replication origin firings, formation of chromatin loops along chromosome axes and, during meiosis, localization of crossover recombination sites (“crossover interference”). We present evidence in the fungus Sordaria macrospora that crossover interference is part of a broader pattern that includes synaptonemal complex (SC) nucleation. This pattern comprises relatively evenly spaced SC nucleation sites, among which a subset are crossover sites that show a classical interference distribution. This pattern ensures that SC forms regularly along the entire length of the chromosome as required for the maintenance of homolog pairing while concomitantly having crossover interactions locally embedded within the SC structure as required for both DNA recombination and structural events of chiasma formation. This pattern can be explained by a threshold-based designation and spreading interference process. This model can be generalized to give diverse types of related and/or partially overlapping patterns, in two or more dimensions, for any type of object. PMID:25380597
Realization of the mean-field universality class in spin-crossover materials
Miyashita, Seiji; Konishi, Yusuké; Nishino, Masamichi; Tokoro, Hiroko; Rikvold, Per Arne
2008-01-01
In spin-crossover materials, the volume of a molecule changes depending on whether it is in the high-spin (HS) or low-spin (LS) state. This change causes distortion of the lattice. Elastic interactions among these distortions play an important role for the cooperative properties of spin-transition phenomena. We find that the critical behavior caused by this elastic interaction belongs to the mean-field universality class, in which the critical exponents for the spontaneous magnetization and the susceptibility are β=1/2 and γ=1 , respectively. Furthermore, the spin-spin correlation function is a constant at long distances, and it does not show an exponential decay in contrast to short-range models. The value of the correlation function at long distances shows different size dependences: O(1/N) , O(1/N) , and constant for temperatures above, at, and below the critical temperature, respectively. The model does not exhibit clusters, even near the critical point. We also found that cluster growth is suppressed in the present model and that there is no critical opalescence in the coexistence region. During the relaxation process from a metastable state at the end of a hysteresis loop, nucleation phenomena are not observed, and spatially uniform configurations are maintained during the change of the fraction of HS and LS. These characteristics of the mean-field model are expected to be found not only in spin-crossover materials, but also generally in systems where elastic distortion mediates the interaction among local states.
Individual and crossover effects of stress on adjustment in medical student marriages.
Katz, J; Monnier, J; Libet, J; Shaw, D; Beach, S R
2000-07-01
High-stress individuals may benefit from social support, although their support providers may be adversely affected via stress crossover effects. Individual and crossover effects of perceived stress within medical student marriages (n = 30) were investigated. Perceived spousal support was positively associated with individuals' own marital and emotional adjustment, attenuating stress effects. With regard to crossover effects, medical students' perceived stress was significantly associated with their spouses' emotional adjustment. Further, medical students' own emotional adjustment fully mediated this crossover effect. Results suggest that the contagion of negative affect may serve as a key mechanism through which stress crossover effects operate in marriage.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Atitoaie, Alexandru; Stoleriu, Laurentiu; Tanasa, Radu; Stancu, Alexandru; Enachescu, Cristian
2016-01-01
The scientific community is manifesting a high research interest on spin crossover compounds and their recently synthesized nanoparticles, due to their various appealing properties, such as the bistability between a diamagnetic low spin state and a paramagnetic high spin state (HS), inter-switchable by temperature or pressure changes, light irradiation or magnetic field. The utility of these compounds showing hysteresis covers a broad area of applications, from the development of more efficient designs of temperature and pressure sensors to automotive and aeronautic industries and even a new type of molecular actuators. We are proposing in this work a study regarding the kinetic effects and the distribution of reversible and irreversible components on the thermal hysteresis of spin crossover nanoparticulated systems. We are considering here tridimensional systems with different sizes and also systems of nanoparticles with a Gaussian size distribution. The correlations between the kinetics of the thermal hysteresis, the distributions of sizes and intermolecular interactions and the transition temperature distributions were established by using the FORC (First Order Reversal Curves) method using a Monte Carlo technique within an Ising-like system.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Atitoaie, Alexandru, E-mail: atitoaie@phys-iasi.ro [Department. of Physics, “Alexandru Ioan Cuza” University, 700506 Iasi (Romania); National Institute of Research and Development for Technical Physics, Iasi (Romania); Stoleriu, Laurentiu [Department. of Physics, “Alexandru Ioan Cuza” University, 700506 Iasi (Romania); Tanasa, Radu [Department. of Physics, “Alexandru Ioan Cuza” University, 700506 Iasi (Romania); Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, CB2 1PZ Cambridge (United Kingdom); Stancu, Alexandru; Enachescu, Cristian [Department. of Physics, “Alexandru Ioan Cuza” University, 700506 Iasi (Romania)
2016-04-01
The scientific community is manifesting a high research interest on spin crossover compounds and their recently synthesized nanoparticles, due to their various appealing properties, such as the bistability between a diamagnetic low spin state and a paramagnetic high spin state (HS), inter-switchable by temperature or pressure changes, light irradiation or magnetic field. The utility of these compounds showing hysteresis covers a broad area of applications, from the development of more efficient designs of temperature and pressure sensors to automotive and aeronautic industries and even a new type of molecular actuators. We are proposing in this work a study regarding the kinetic effects and the distribution of reversible and irreversible components on the thermal hysteresis of spin crossover nanoparticulated systems. We are considering here tridimensional systems with different sizes and also systems of nanoparticles with a Gaussian size distribution. The correlations between the kinetics of the thermal hysteresis, the distributions of sizes and intermolecular interactions and the transition temperature distributions were established by using the FORC (First Order Reversal Curves) method using a Monte Carlo technique within an Ising-like system.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiangyu Chen
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Interhomolog crossovers promote proper chromosome segregation during meiosis and are formed by the regulated repair of programmed double-strand breaks. This regulation requires components of the synaptonemal complex (SC, a proteinaceous structure formed between homologous chromosomes. In yeast, SC formation requires the "ZMM" genes, which encode a functionally diverse set of proteins, including the transverse filament protein, Zip1. In wild-type meiosis, Zmm proteins promote the biased resolution of recombination intermediates into crossovers that are distributed throughout the genome by interference. In contrast, noncrossovers are formed primarily through synthesis-dependent strand annealing mediated by the Sgs1 helicase. This work identifies a conserved region on the C terminus of Zip1 (called Zip1 4S, whose phosphorylation is required for the ZMM pathway of crossover formation. Zip1 4S phosphorylation is promoted both by double-strand breaks (DSBs and the meiosis-specific kinase, MEK1/MRE4, demonstrating a role for MEK1 in the regulation of interhomolog crossover formation, as well as interhomolog bias. Failure to phosphorylate Zip1 4S results in meiotic prophase arrest, specifically in the absence of SGS1. This gain of function meiotic arrest phenotype is suppressed by spo11Δ, suggesting that it is due to unrepaired breaks triggering the meiotic recombination checkpoint. Epistasis experiments combining deletions of individual ZMM genes with sgs1-md zip1-4A indicate that Zip1 4S phosphorylation functions prior to the other ZMMs. These results suggest that phosphorylation of Zip1 at DSBs commits those breaks to repair via the ZMM pathway and provides a mechanism by which the crossover/noncrossover decision can be dynamically regulated during yeast meiosis.
What's Mine Is Yours: The Crossover of Day-Specific Self-Esteem
Neff, Angela; Sonnentag, Sabine; Niessen, Cornelia; Unger, Dana
2012-01-01
This diary study examines the daily crossover of self-esteem within working couples. By integrating self-esteem research into the crossover framework, we hypothesized that the day-specific self-esteem experienced by one partner after work crosses over to the other partner. Furthermore, we proposed that this daily crossover process is moderated by…
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jianhua Xu
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Based on the observed data from 51 meteorological stations during the period from 1958 to 2012 in Xinjiang, China, we investigated the complexity of temperature dynamics from the temporal and spatial perspectives by using a comprehensive approach including the correlation dimension (CD, classical statistics, and geostatistics. The main conclusions are as follows (1 The integer CD values indicate that the temperature dynamics are a complex and chaotic system, which is sensitive to the initial conditions. (2 The complexity of temperature dynamics decreases along with the increase of temporal scale. To describe the temperature dynamics, at least 3 independent variables are needed at daily scale, whereas at least 2 independent variables are needed at monthly, seasonal, and annual scales. (3 The spatial patterns of CD values at different temporal scales indicate that the complex temperature dynamics are derived from the complex landform.
High-pressure water electrolysis: Electrochemical mitigation of product gas crossover
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schalenbach, Maximilian; Stolten, Detlef
2015-01-01
Highlights: • New technique to reduce gas crossover during water electrolysis • Increase of the efficiency of pressurized water electrolysis • Prevention of safety hazards due to explosive gas mixtures caused by crossover • Experimental realization for a polymer electrolyte membrane electrolyzer • Discussion of electrochemical crossover mitigation for alkaline water electrolysis - Abstract: Hydrogen produced by water electrolysis can be used as an energy carrier storing electricity generated from renewables. During water electrolysis hydrogen can be evolved under pressure at isothermal conditions, enabling highly efficient compression. However, the permeation of hydrogen through the electrolyte increases with operating pressure and leads to efficiency loss and safety hazards. In this study, we report on an innovative concept, where the hydrogen crossover is electrochemically mitigated by an additional electrode between the anode and the cathode of the electrolysis cell. Experimentally, the technique was applied to a proton exchange membrane water electrolyzer operated at a hydrogen pressure that was fifty times larger than the oxygen pressure. Therewith, the hydrogen crossover was reduced and the current efficiency during partial load operation was increased. The concept is also discussed for water electrolysis that is operated at balanced pressures, where the crossover of hydrogen and oxygen is mitigated using two additional electrodes
Liao, Wen-Chun; Wang, Lee; Kuo, Ching-Pyng; Lo, Chyi; Chiu, Ming-Jang; Ting, Hua
2013-12-01
The decrease in core body temperature before sleep onset and during sleep is associated with dilation of peripheral blood vessels, which permits heat dissipation from the body core to the periphery. A lower core temperature coupled with a higher distal (hands and feet) temperature before sleep are associated with shorter sleep latency and better sleep quality. A warm footbath is thought to facilitate heat dissipation to improve sleep outcomes. This study examined the effect of a warm footbath (40°C water temperature, 20-min duration) on body temperature and sleep in older adults (≥55 years) with good and poor sleep. Two groups and an experimental crossover design was used. Forty-three adults responded to our flyer and 25 participants aged 59.8±3.7 years (poor sleeper with a Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index score≥5=17; good sleepers with a Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index scoretemperatures (core, abdomen, and foot) and polysomnography recorded for 3 consecutive nights. The first night was for adaptation and sleep apnea screening. Participants were then randomly assigned to either the structured foot bathing first (second night) and non-bathing second (third night) condition or the non-bathing first (second night) and foot bathing second (third night) condition. A footbath before sleep significantly increased and retained foot temperatures in both good and poor sleepers. The pattern of core temperatures during foot bathing was gradually elevated (poor sleepers vs. good sleepers=+0.40±0.58°C vs. +0.66±0.17°C). There were no significant changes in polysomnographic sleep and perceived sleep quality between non-bathing and bathing nights for both groups. A footbath of 40°C water temperature and 20-min duration before sleep onset increases foot temperatures and distal-proximal skin temperature gradients to facilitate vessel dilatation and elevates core temperature to provide heat load to the body. This footbath does not alter sleep in older adults with good and
Rubberlike Dynamics in Sulphur above the λ-Transition Temperature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Monaco, G.; Crapanzano, L.; Crichton, W.; Mezouar, M.; Verbeni, R.; Bellissent, R.; Fioretto, D.; Scarponi, F.
2005-01-01
The high-frequency acoustic dynamics of sulfur across the liquid-liquid, λ transition has been studied using inelastic x-ray scattering. The combination of these high-frequency data with lower frequency, literature data indicates that liquid sulfur develops, in the high-temperature, polymeric solution phase, some characteristic features of a rubber. In particular, entanglement coupling among polymeric chains plays a relevant role in the dynamics of this liquid phase
Modelling of the PROTO-II crossover network
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Proulx, G.A.; Lackner, H.; Spence, P.; Wright, T.P.
1985-01-01
In order to drive a double ring, symmetrically fed bremsstrahlung diode, the PROTO II accelerator was redesigned. The radially converging triplate water line was reconfigured to drive two radial converging triplate lines in parallel. The four output lines were connected to the two input lines via an electrically enclosed tubular crossover network. Low-voltage Time Domain Reflectrometry (TDR) experiments were conducted on a full scale water immersed model of one section of the crossover network as an aid in this design. A lumped element analysis of the power flow through the network was inadequate in explaining the observed wave transmission and reflection characteristics. A more detailed analysis was performed with a circuit code in which we considered both localized lump-element and transmission line features of the crossover network. Experimental results of the model tests are given and compared with the circuit simulations. 7 figs
Dynamic modeling and experimental investigation of a high temperature PEM fuel cell stack
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nguyen, Gia; Sahlin, Simon Lennart; Andreasen, Søren Juhl
2016-01-01
High temperature polymer fuel cells operating at 100 to 200◦C require simple fuel processing and produce high quality heat that can integrate well with domestic heating systems. Because the transportation of hydrogen is challenging, an alternative option is to reform natural gas on site....... This article presents the development of a dynamic model and the comparison with experimental data from a high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell stack operating on hydrogen with carbon monoxide concentrations up to 0.8%, and temperatures from 155 to 175◦C. The dynamic response of the fuel cell...... is investigated with simulated reformate gas. The dynamic response of the fuel cell stack was compared with a step change in current from 0.09 to 0.18 and back to 0.09 A/cm2 . This article shows that the dynamic model calculates the voltage at steady state well. The dynamic response for a change in current shows...
Simulating the room-temperature dynamic motion of a ferromagnetic vortex in a bistable potential
Haber, E.; Badea, R.; Berezovsky, J.
2018-05-01
The ability to precisely and reliably control the dynamics of ferromagnetic (FM) vortices could lead to novel nonvolatile memory devices and logic gates. Intrinsic and fabricated defects in the FM material can pin vortices and complicate the dynamics. Here, we simulated switching a vortex between bistable pinning sites using magnetic field pulses. The dynamic motion was modeled with the Thiele equation for a massless, rigid vortex subject to room-temperature thermal noise. The dynamics were explored both when the system was at zero temperature and at room-temperature. The probability of switching for different pulses was calculated, and the major features are explained using the basins of attraction map of the two pinning sites.
Crossover from Polaronic to Magnetically Phase-Separated Behavior in La1-xSrxCoO3
Phelan, D.; El Khatib, S.; Wang, S.; Barker, J.; Zhao, J.; Zheng, H.; Mitchell, J. F.; Leighton, C.
2013-03-01
Dilute hole-doping in La1-xSrxCoO3 leads to the formation of ``spin-state polarons'' where a non-zero spin-state is stabilized on the nearest Co3+ ions surrounding a hole. Here, we discuss the development of electronic/magnetic properties of this system from non-magnetic x=0, through the regime of spin-state polarons, and into the region where longer-range spin correlations and phase separation develop. We present magnetometry, transport, heat capacity, and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) on single crystals. Magnetometry indicates a crossover with x from Langevin-like behavior (polaronic) to a state with a freezing temperature and finite coercivity. Fascinating correlations with this behavior are seen in transport measurements, the evolution from polaronic to clustered states being accompanied by a crossover from Mott variable range hopping to intercluster hopping. SANS data shows Lorentzian scattering from short-range ferromagnetic clusters first emerging around x = 0.03 with correlation lengths of order two unit cells. We argue that this system provides a unique opportunity to understand in detail the crossover from polaronic to truly phase-separated states.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nunes Guilherme S.
2017-12-01
Full Text Available Purpose. To verify the influence of neural mobilization (NM applied to the lower limbs on functional performance and dynamic balance in asymptomatic individuals. Methods. The total of 30 asymptomatic participants (15 women and 15 men; age, 30.1 ± 6.7 years; height, 1.70 ± 0.1 m; body mass, 73.1 ± 13.4 kg were enrolled in this cross-over randomized controlled trial. The participants received NM of the femoral, sciatic, and tibial nerves, as well as static stretching (SS of the following muscles: hamstring, lumbar, piriformis, hip adductors, hip flexors, quadriceps, and triceps surae. The order of applying NM and SS was randomly decided and the interventions were performed at least 48 hours apart. Functional performance was measured by performance in vertical jump (VJ and dynamic balance was measured with the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT. Results. There were no differences between NM and SS for height (cm in VJ (p = 0.16 or in the distance reached (% in the SEBT, normalized by lower limb length (dominant limb: anterior, p = 0.35; posterolateral, p = 0.69; posteromedial, p = 0.50 / non-dominant limb: anterior, p = 0.68; posterolateral, p = 1.00; posteromedial, p = 0.77. Conclusions. NM did not exert any influence on functional performance or dynamic balance. Thereby, having no positive or negative impact on performance, NM can be used at any time of treatment.
Low-temperature elastic anomalies in CaTiO3: dynamical characterization
Placeres-Jiménez, R.; Gonçalves, L. G. V.; Rino, J. P.; Fraygola, B.; Nascimento, W. J.; Eiras, J. A.
2012-11-01
Pulse-echo ultrasonic measurements of elastic coefficients of CaTiO3 show anomalous behavior around 200 K, with a notable rise in the attenuation coefficient. Molecular dynamics simulation is used to simulate the elastic response of a mono-domain (MDm) and a poly-domain (PDm) configuration of CaTiO3 using the Vashishta-Raman interatomic potential. The PDm is obtained by cooling the melt from 3600 to 300 K at a rate of 0.5 K ps-1, so that it recrystallizes to the PDm orthorhombic configuration. The elastic behavior is simulated in the temperature range from 300 to 20 K. In the MDm, it is observed that the bulk modulus varies linearly with temperature, while in the PDm an anomalous hardening is seen around 210 K. The bulk modulus of the PDm fluctuates strongly and is lower than that of the MDm. Neither the pair correlation function nor the Ti-Ti-O bonding angle indicate a true structural phase transition in this range of temperatures. Given the absence of any apparent change in the structure, a possible explanation for this phenomenon is the emergence of a certain class of dynamical instability associated with domain wall motion. Curiously, the pressure fluctuations in both the MDm and PDm configurations follow a power law distribution f ˜ P-α, with the exponent independent of applied strain and temperature. Time series for pressure are used to analyze the dynamics by time-delay reconstruction techniques. The calculus of embedding and correlation dimension indicates that in the polycrystalline configuration, low-dimension dynamics (<26) appears, which tend to disappear at higher temperatures.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Latif Gachkar
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract Cross-Over Clinical Trials in comparison with Parallel groups clinical trials have some advantages such as control of confounding variables, small sample size, and short time to implement the research project. But this type of research has few essential limitations that discusses in this monogram.
Modeling the quantum to classical crossover in topologically disordered networks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schijven, P; Kohlberger, J; Blumen, A; Mülken, O
2012-01-01
We model transport in topologically disordered networks that are subjected to an environment that induces classical diffusion. The dynamics is phenomenologically described within the framework of the recently introduced quantum stochastic walk, allowing study of the crossover between coherent transport and purely classical diffusion. To study the transport efficiency, we connect our system with a source and a drain and provide a detailed analysis of their effects. We find that the coupling to the environment removes all effects of localization and quickly leads to classical transport. Furthermore, we find that on the level of the transport efficiency, the system can be well described by reducing it to a two-node network (a dimer). (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tsuji, Masashi; Aoki, Yukinori; Shimazu, Yoichiro; Yamasaki, Masatoshi; Hanayama, Yasushi
2006-01-01
A method to evaluate the moderator coefficient (MTC) and the Doppler coefficient through experimental procedures performed during reactor physics tests of PWR power plants is proposed. This method combines isothermal temperature coefficient (ITC) measurement experiments and reactor power transient experiments at low power conditions for dynamic identification. In the dynamic identification, either one of temperature coefficients can be determined in such a way that frequency response characteristics of the reactivity change observed by a digital reactivity meter is reproduced from measured data of neutron count rate and the average coolant temperature. The other unknown coefficient can also be determined by subtracting the coefficient obtained from the dynamic identification from ITC. As the proposed method can directly estimate the Doppler coefficient, the applicability of the conventional core design codes to predict the Doppler coefficient can be verified for new types of fuels such as mixed oxide fuels. The digital simulation study was carried out to show the feasibility of the proposed method. The numerical analysis showed that the MTC and the Doppler coefficient can be estimated accurately and even if there are uncertainties in the parameters of the reactor kinetics model, the accuracies of the estimated values are not seriously impaired. (author)
Nonlinear dynamic model of a gear-rotor-bearing system considering the flash temperature
Gou, Xiangfeng; Zhu, Lingyun; Qi, Changjun
2017-12-01
The instantaneous flash temperature is an important factor for gears in service. To investigate the effect of the flash temperature of a tooth surface on the dynamics of the spur gear system, a modified nonlinear dynamic model of a gear-rotor-bearing system is established. The factors such as the contact temperature of the tooth surface, time-varying stiffness, tooth surface friction, backlash, the comprehensive transmission error and so on are considered. The flash temperature of a tooth surface of pinion and gear is formulated according to Blok's flash temperature theory. The mathematical expression of the contact temperature of the tooth surface varied with time is derived and the tooth profile deformation caused by the change of the flash temperature of the tooth surface is calculated. The expression of the mesh stiffness varied with the flash temperature of the tooth surface is derived based on Hertz contact theory. The temperature stiffness is proposed and added to the nonlinear dynamic model of the system. The influence of load on the flash temperature of the tooth surface is analyzed in the parameters plane. The variation of the flash temperature of the tooth surface is studied. The numerical results indicate that the calculated method of the flash temperature of the gear tooth surface is effective and it can reflect the rules for the change of gear meshing temperature and sliding of the gear tooth surface. The effects of frequency, backlash, bearing clearance, comprehensive transmission error and time-varying stiffness on the nonlinear dynamics of the system are analyzed according to the bifurcation diagrams, Top Lyapunov Exponent (TLE) spectrums, phase portraits and Poincaré maps. Some nonlinear phenomena such as periodic bifurcation, grazing bifurcation, quasi-periodic bifurcation, chaos and its routes to chaos are investigated and the critical parameters are identified. The results provide an understanding of the system and serve as a useful reference
Static and dynamic spin fluctuations in the spin glass doping regime in La2-xSrxCuO4+y
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Birgeneau, R.J.; Belk, N.; Kastner, M.A.; Keimer, B.; Shirane, G.
1991-01-01
We review the results of neutron scattering studies of the static and dynamic spin fluctuations crystals of La 2-x Sr x CuO 4+δ in the doping regime intermediate between the Neel and superconducting regions. In this regime the in-plane resistance is linear in temperature down to ∼80 K with a crossover due to logarithmic conductance effects at lower temperatures. The static spin correlations are well-described by a simple model in which the inverse correlation length κ(x,T) =κ(x,0) + κ(0,T). The most dramatic new result is the discovery by Keimer et al. that the dynamic spin fluctuations exhibit a temperature dependence which is a simple function of ω/T for temperatures 10 K≤T≤500 K for a wide range of energies. This scaling leads to a natural explanation of a variety of normal state properties of the copper oxides. 21 refs., 4 figs
Static and Dynamic Friction Behavior of Candidate High Temperature Airframe Seal Materials
Dellacorte, C.; Lukaszewicz, V.; Morris, D. E.; Steinetz, B. M.
1994-01-01
The following report describes a series of research tests to evaluate candidate high temperature materials for static to moderately dynamic hypersonic airframe seals. Pin-on-disk reciprocating sliding tests were conducted from 25 to 843 C in air and hydrogen containing inert atmospheres. Friction, both dynamic and static, was monitored and serves as the primary test measurement. In general, soft coatings lead to excessive static friction and temperature affected friction in air environments only.
50 CFR 660.320 - Open access fishery-crossover provisions.
2010-10-01
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Open access fishery-crossover provisions... West Coast Groundfish-Open Access Fisheries § 660.320 Open access fishery—crossover provisions. (a) Operating in both limited entry and open access fisheries. See provisions at § 660.60, subpart C. (b...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Dianfu
2008-01-01
In terms of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio mechanism, dynamical breaking of gauge symmetry for the maximally generalized Yang-Mills model is investigated. The gauge symmetry behavior at finite temperature is also investigated and it is shown that the gauge symmetry broken dynamically at zero temperature can be restored at finite temperatures
A Link between Meiotic Prophase Progression and CrossoverControl
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Carlton, Peter M.; Farruggio, Alfonso P.; Dernburg, Abby F.
2005-07-06
During meiosis, most organisms ensure that homologous chromosomes undergo at least one exchange of DNA, or crossover, to link chromosomes together and accomplish proper segregation. How each chromosome receives a minimum of one crossover is unknown. During early meiosis in Caenorhabditis elegans and many other species, chromosomes adopt a polarized organization within the nucleus, which normally disappears upon completion of homolog synapsis. Mutations that impair synapsis even between a single pair of chromosomes in C. elegans delay this nuclear reorganization. We quantified this delay by developing a classification scheme for discrete stages of meiosis. Immunofluorescence localization of RAD-51 protein revealed that delayed meiotic cells also contained persistent recombination intermediates. Through genetic analysis, we found that this cytological delay in meiotic progression requires double-strand breaks and the function of the crossover-promoting heteroduplex HIM-14 (Msh4) and MSH-5. Failure of X chromosome synapsis also resulted in impaired crossover control on autosomes, which may result from greater numbers and persistence of recombination intermediates in the delayed nuclei. We conclude that maturation of recombination events on chromosomes promotes meiotic progression, and is coupled to the regulation of crossover number and placement. Our results have broad implications for the interpretation of meiotic mutants, as we have shown that asynapsis of a single chromosome pair can exert global effects on meiotic progression and recombination frequency.
Role of superconducting energy gap in extended BCS-Bose crossover theory
Chávez, I.; García, L. A.; de Llano, M.; Grether, M.
2017-10-01
The generalized Bose-Einstein condensation (GBEC) theory of superconductivity (SC) is briefly surveyed. It hinges on three distinct new ingredients: (i) Treatment of Cooper pairs (CPs) as actual bosons since they obey Bose statistics, in contrast to BCS pairs which do not obey Bose commutation relations; (ii) inclusion of two-hole Cooper pairs (2hCPs) on an equal footing with two-electron Cooper pairs (2eCPs), thus making this a complete boson-fermion (BF) model; and (iii) inclusion in the resulting ternary ideal BF gas with particular BF vertex interactions that drive boson formation/disintegration processes. GBEC subsumes as special cases both BCS (having its 50-50 symmetry of both kinds of CPs) and ordinary BEC theories (having no 2hCPs), as well as the now familiar BCS-Bose crossover theory. We extended the crossover theory with the explicit inclusion of 2hCPs and construct a phase diagram of Tc/TF versus n/nf, where Tc and TF are the critical and Fermi temperatures, n is the total number density and nf that of unbound electrons at T = 0. Also, with this extended crossover one can construct the energy gap Δ(T)/Δ(0) versus T/Tc for some elemental SCs by solving at least two equations numerically: a gap-like and a number equation. In 50-50 symmetry, the energy gap curve agrees quite well with experimental data. But ignoring 2hCPs altogether leads to the gap curve falling substantially below that with 50-50 symmetry which already fits the data quite well, showing that 2hCPs are indispensable to describe SCs.
Hybrid Genetic Algorithm with Multiparents Crossover for Job Shop Scheduling Problems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Noor Hasnah Moin
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The job shop scheduling problem (JSSP is one of the well-known hard combinatorial scheduling problems. This paper proposes a hybrid genetic algorithm with multiparents crossover for JSSP. The multiparents crossover operator known as extended precedence preservative crossover (EPPX is able to recombine more than two parents to generate a single new offspring distinguished from common crossover operators that recombine only two parents. This algorithm also embeds a schedule generation procedure to generate full-active schedule that satisfies precedence constraints in order to reduce the search space. Once a schedule is obtained, a neighborhood search is applied to exploit the search space for better solutions and to enhance the GA. This hybrid genetic algorithm is simulated on a set of benchmarks from the literatures and the results are compared with other approaches to ensure the sustainability of this algorithm in solving JSSP. The results suggest that the implementation of multiparents crossover produces competitive results.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Perali, A.; Pieri, P.; Strinati, G.C.
2004-01-01
Theoretical predictions for the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer-Bose-Einstein condensation crossover of trapped Fermi atoms are compared with recent experimental results for the density profiles of L 6 i. The calculations rest on a single theoretical approach that includes pairing fluctuations beyond mean-field. Excellent agreement with experimental results is obtained. Theoretical predictions for the zero-temperature chemical potential and gap at the unitarity limit are also found to compare extremely well with Quantum Monte Carlo simulations and with recent experimental results
The spatial regulation of meiotic recombination hotspots: are all DSB hotspots crossover hotspots?
Serrentino, Maria-Elisabetta; Borde, Valérie
2012-07-15
A key step for the success of meiosis is programmed homologous recombination, during which crossovers, or exchange of chromosome arms, take place. Crossovers increase genetic diversity but their main function is to ensure accurate chromosome segregation. Defects in crossover number and position produce aneuploidies that represent the main cause of miscarriages and chromosomal abnormalities such as Down's syndrome. Recombination is initiated by the formation of programmed double strand breaks (DSBs), which occur preferentially at places called DSB hotspots. Among all DSBs generated, only a small fraction is repaired by crossover, the other being repaired by other homologous recombination pathways. Crossover maps have been generated in a number of organisms, defining crossover hotspots. With the availability of genome-wide maps of DSBs as well as the ability to measure genetically the repair outcome at several hotspots, it is becoming more and more clear that not all DSB hotspots behave the same for crossover formation, suggesting that chromosomal features distinguish different types of hotspots. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Cumulant approach to dynamical correlation functions at finite temperatures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tran Minhtien.
1993-11-01
A new theoretical approach, based on the introduction of cumulants, to calculate thermodynamic averages and dynamical correlation functions at finite temperatures is developed. The method is formulated in Liouville instead of Hilbert space and can be applied to operators which do not require to satisfy fermion or boson commutation relations. The application of the partitioning and projection methods for the dynamical correlation functions is discussed. The present method can be applied to weakly as well as to strongly correlated systems. (author). 9 refs
Investigation of iron spin crossover pressure in Fe-bearing MgO using hybrid functional
Cheng, Ya; Wang, Xianlong; Zhang, Jie; Yang, Kaishuai; Zhang, Chuanguo; Zeng, Zhi; Lin, Haiqin
2018-04-01
Pressure-induced spin crossover behaviors of Fe-bearing MgO were widely investigated by using an LDA + U functional for describing the strongly correlated Fe–O bonding. Moreover, the simulated spin crossover pressures depend on the applied U values, which are sensitive to environments and parameters. In this work, the spin crossover pressures of (Mg1‑x ,Fe x )O are investigated by using the hybrid functional with a uniform parameter. Our results indicate that the spin crossover pressures increase with increasing iron concentration. For example, the spin crossover pressure of (Mg0.03125,Fe0.96875)O and FeO was 56 GPa and 127 GPa, respectively. The calculated crossover pressures agreed well with the experimental observations. Therefore, the hybrid functional should be an effective method for describing the pressure-induced spin crossover behaviors in transition metal oxides.
Surface-environment effects in spin crossover solids
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gudyma, Iu., E-mail: yugudyma@gmail.com; Maksymov, A.
2017-06-15
Highlights: • The spin-crossover nanocrystals were described by modified Ising-like model. • The ligand field on the surface is a function of external fluctuations. • The thermal hysteresis with surface and bulk interactions of the lattice was studied. • The system behavior with fluctuating ligand field on the surface was examined. • The fluctuations enlarge the hysteresis, but smaller surface interaction narrows it. - Abstract: The impact of surface effects on thermal induced spin crossover phenomenon is a subject of a broad and current interest. Using the modified Ising-like model of spin crossover solids with the ligand field as function of the molecule’ positions and random component on surface by means of Metropolis Monte Carlo algorithm the thermal spin transition curves were calculated. The analysis of spin configuration during transition gives a general idea about contribution of molecules from the surface and inside the lattice into resulting magnetization of the systems. The behavior of hysteresis loop for various surface coupling and fluctuations strength has been described.
Bio-Inspired Genetic Algorithms with Formalized Crossover Operators for Robotic Applications.
Zhang, Jie; Kang, Man; Li, Xiaojuan; Liu, Geng-Yang
2017-01-01
Genetic algorithms are widely adopted to solve optimization problems in robotic applications. In such safety-critical systems, it is vitally important to formally prove the correctness when genetic algorithms are applied. This paper focuses on formal modeling of crossover operations that are one of most important operations in genetic algorithms. Specially, we for the first time formalize crossover operations with higher-order logic based on HOL4 that is easy to be deployed with its user-friendly programing environment. With correctness-guaranteed formalized crossover operations, we can safely apply them in robotic applications. We implement our technique to solve a path planning problem using a genetic algorithm with our formalized crossover operations, and the results show the effectiveness of our technique.
Dynamic vortex-phase diagram of MgB2 single crystals near the peak-effect region
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Heon-Jung; Lee, Hyun-Sook; Kang, Byeongwon; Chowdhury, P.; Kim, Kyung-Hee; Park, Min-Seok; Lee, Sung-Ik
2006-01-01
The dynamic vortex-phase diagram of MgB 2 single crystals has been constructed by using voltage noise characteristics. Between the onset (H on ) and the peak (H p ) magnetic fields, crossovers from a state with large noises to a noise-free state were observed with increasing current while above H p , a reverse behavior was found. We will discuss the dynamic vortex phase diagram and the possible origins of the crossovers
The adjoint string at finite temperature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Damgaard, P.H.
1986-10-01
Expectations for the behavior of the adjoint string at finite temperature are presented. In the Migdal-Kadanoff approximation a real-space renormalization group study of the effective Polyakov like action predicts a deconfinement-like crossover for adjoint sources at a temperature slightly below the deconfinement temperature of fundamental sources. This prediction is compared with a Monte Carlo simulation of SU(2) lattice gauge theory on an 8 3 x2 lattice. (orig.)
Wiecki, P.; Taufour, V.; Chung, D. Y.; Kanatzidis, M. G.; Bud'ko, S. L.; Canfield, P. C.; Furukawa, Y.
2018-02-01
We present the results of 75As nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR), and resistivity measurements in KFe2As2 under pressure (p ). The temperature dependence of the NMR shift, nuclear spin-lattice relaxation time (T1), and resistivity show a crossover between a high-temperature incoherent, local-moment behavior and a low-temperature coherent behavior at a crossover temperature (T*). T* is found to increase monotonically with pressure, consistent with increasing hybridization between localized 3 d orbital-derived bands with the itinerant electron bands. No anomaly in T* is seen at the critical pressure pc=1.8 GPa where a change of slope of the superconducting (SC) transition temperature Tc(p ) has been observed. In contrast, Tc(p ) seems to correlate with antiferromagnetic spin fluctuations in the normal state as measured by the NQR 1 /T1 data, although such a correlation cannot be seen in the replacement effects of A in the A Fe2As2 (A =K , Rb, Cs) family. In the superconducting state, two T1 components are observed at low temperatures, suggesting the existence of two distinct local electronic environments. The temperature dependence of the short T1 s indicates a nearly gapless state below Tc. On the other hand, the temperature dependence of the long component 1 /T1 L implies a large reduction in the density of states at the Fermi level due to the SC gap formation. These results suggest a real-space modulation of the local SC gap structure in KFe2As2 under pressure.
High-temperature annealing of graphite: A molecular dynamics study
Petersen, Andrew; Gillette, Victor
2018-05-01
A modified AIREBO potential was developed to simulate the effects of thermal annealing on the structure and physical properties of damaged graphite. AIREBO parameter modifications were made to reproduce Density Functional Theory interstitial results. These changes to the potential resulted in high-temperature annealing of the model, as measured by stored-energy reduction. These results show some resemblance to experimental high-temperature annealing results, and show promise that annealing effects in graphite are accessible with molecular dynamics and reactive potentials.
Luminescence dynamics in type-II GaAs/AlAs superlattices near the type-I to type-II crossover
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Langbein, Wolfgang Werner; Kalt, H.; Hvam, Jørn Märcher
1996-01-01
We report on a study of the time-resolved luminescence of type-II GaAs/AlAs superlattices near the type-I to type-II crossover. In spite of the slight type-II band alignment, the luminescence is dominated by the type-I transition. This is due to the inhomogeneous broadening of the type-I transiti...
Estimating Arrhenius parameters using temperature programmed molecular dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Imandi, Venkataramana; Chatterjee, Abhijit
2016-01-01
Kinetic rates at different temperatures and the associated Arrhenius parameters, whenever Arrhenius law is obeyed, are efficiently estimated by applying maximum likelihood analysis to waiting times collected using the temperature programmed molecular dynamics method. When transitions involving many activated pathways are available in the dataset, their rates may be calculated using the same collection of waiting times. Arrhenius behaviour is ascertained by comparing rates at the sampled temperatures with ones from the Arrhenius expression. Three prototype systems with corrugated energy landscapes, namely, solvated alanine dipeptide, diffusion at the metal-solvent interphase, and lithium diffusion in silicon, are studied to highlight various aspects of the method. The method becomes particularly appealing when the Arrhenius parameters can be used to find rates at low temperatures where transitions are rare. Systematic coarse-graining of states can further extend the time scales accessible to the method. Good estimates for the rate parameters are obtained with 500-1000 waiting times.
Estimating Arrhenius parameters using temperature programmed molecular dynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Imandi, Venkataramana; Chatterjee, Abhijit, E-mail: abhijit@che.iitb.ac.in [Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India)
2016-07-21
Kinetic rates at different temperatures and the associated Arrhenius parameters, whenever Arrhenius law is obeyed, are efficiently estimated by applying maximum likelihood analysis to waiting times collected using the temperature programmed molecular dynamics method. When transitions involving many activated pathways are available in the dataset, their rates may be calculated using the same collection of waiting times. Arrhenius behaviour is ascertained by comparing rates at the sampled temperatures with ones from the Arrhenius expression. Three prototype systems with corrugated energy landscapes, namely, solvated alanine dipeptide, diffusion at the metal-solvent interphase, and lithium diffusion in silicon, are studied to highlight various aspects of the method. The method becomes particularly appealing when the Arrhenius parameters can be used to find rates at low temperatures where transitions are rare. Systematic coarse-graining of states can further extend the time scales accessible to the method. Good estimates for the rate parameters are obtained with 500-1000 waiting times.
Nature versus nurture: Predictability in low-temperature Ising dynamics
Ye, J.; Machta, J.; Newman, C. M.; Stein, D. L.
2013-10-01
Consider a dynamical many-body system with a random initial state subsequently evolving through stochastic dynamics. What is the relative importance of the initial state (“nature”) versus the realization of the stochastic dynamics (“nurture”) in predicting the final state? We examined this question for the two-dimensional Ising ferromagnet following an initial deep quench from T=∞ to T=0. We performed Monte Carlo studies on the overlap between “identical twins” raised in independent dynamical environments, up to size L=500. Our results suggest an overlap decaying with time as t-θh with θh=0.22±0.02; the same exponent holds for a quench to low but nonzero temperature. This “heritability exponent” may equal the persistence exponent for the two-dimensional Ising ferromagnet, but the two differ more generally.
Low temperature spin wave dynamics in classical Heisenberg chains
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heller, P.; Blume, M.
1977-11-01
A detailed and quantitative study of the low-temperature spin-wave dynamics was made for the classical Heisenberg-coupled chain using computer simulation. Results for the spin-wave damping rates and the renormalization of the spin-wave frequencies are presented and compared with existing predictions
The coupled dynamical problem of thermoelasticity in case of large temperature differences
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Szekeres, A.
1981-01-01
In the tasks of thermoelasticity in general, also in dynamical problems it is common to suppose small temperature differences. The equations used in scientific literature refer to these. It arises the thought of what is the influence on the dynamical problems of taking into account the large temperature changes. To investigate this first we present the general equation of heat conduction in case of small temperature differences according to Nowacki and Biot. On this basis we introduce the general equation of heat conduction with large temperature changes. Some remarks show the connection between the two cases. Using the latter in the equations of thermoelasticity we write down the expressions of the problem for the thermal shock of a long bar. Finally we show the results of the numerical example and the experimental opoortunity to measure some of the constants. (orig.)
Nonlinear dynamics analysis of a low-temperature-differential kinematic Stirling heat engine
Izumida, Yuki
2018-03-01
The low-temperature-differential (LTD) Stirling heat engine technology constitutes one of the important sustainable energy technologies. The basic question of how the rotational motion of the LTD Stirling heat engine is maintained or lost based on the temperature difference is thus a practically and physically important problem that needs to be clearly understood. Here, we approach this problem by proposing and investigating a minimal nonlinear dynamic model of an LTD kinematic Stirling heat engine. Our model is described as a driven nonlinear pendulum where the motive force is the temperature difference. The rotational state and the stationary state of the engine are described as a stable limit cycle and a stable fixed point of the dynamical equations, respectively. These two states coexist under a sufficient temperature difference, whereas the stable limit cycle does not exist under a temperature difference that is too small. Using a nonlinear bifurcation analysis, we show that the disappearance of the stable limit cycle occurs via a homoclinic bifurcation, with the temperature difference being the bifurcation parameter.
Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Liquid Phosphorus at High Temperature and Pressure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wu Yanning; Zhao Gang; Liu Changsong; Zhu Zhengang
2008-01-01
By performing ab initio molecular dynamics simulations, we have investigated the microstructure, dynamical and electronic properties of liquid phosphorus (P) under high temperature and pressure. In our simulations, the calculated coordination number (CN) changes discontinuously with density, and seems to increase rapidly after liquid P is compressed to 2.5 g/cm 3 . Under compression, liquid P shows the first-order liquid-liquid phase transition from the molecular liquid composed of the tetrahedral P 4 molecules to complex polymeric form with three-dimensional network structure, accompanied by the nonmetal to metal transition of the electronic structure. The order parameters Q 6 and Q 4 are sensitive to the microstructural change of liquid P. By calculating diffusion coefficients, we show the dynamical anomaly of liquid P by compression. At lower temperatures, a maximum exists at the diffusion coefficients as a function of density; at higher temperatures, the anomalous behavior is weakened. The excess entropy shows the same phenomena as the diffusion coefficients. By analysis of the angle distribution functions and angular limited triplet correlation functions, we can clearly find that the Peierls distortion in polymeric form of liquid P is reduced by further compression
Pal, P.; Ghosh, A.
2016-07-01
In this paper, we have studied the dynamics and relaxation of charge carriers in poly(methylmethacrylate)-lithium salt based polymer electrolytes plasticized with ethylene carbonate. Structural and thermal properties have been examined using X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry, respectively. We have analyzed the complex conductivity spectra by using power law model coupled with the contribution of electrode polarization at low frequencies and high temperatures. The temperature dependence of the ionic conductivity and crossover frequency exhibits Vogel-Tammann-Fulcher type behavior indicating a strong coupling between the ionic and the polymer chain segmental motions. The scaling of the ac conductivity indicates that relaxation dynamics of charge carriers follows a common mechanism for all temperatures and ethylene carbonate concentrations. The analysis of the ac conductivity also shows the existence of a nearly constant loss in these polymer electrolytes at low temperatures and high frequencies. The fraction of free anions and ion pairs in polymer electrolyte have been obtained from the analysis of Fourier transform infrared spectra. It is observed that these quantities influence the behavior of the composition dependence of the ionic conductivity.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pal, P.; Ghosh, A., E-mail: sspag@iacs.res.in [Department of Solid State Physics, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700032 (India)
2016-07-28
In this paper, we have studied the dynamics and relaxation of charge carriers in poly(methylmethacrylate)-lithium salt based polymer electrolytes plasticized with ethylene carbonate. Structural and thermal properties have been examined using X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry, respectively. We have analyzed the complex conductivity spectra by using power law model coupled with the contribution of electrode polarization at low frequencies and high temperatures. The temperature dependence of the ionic conductivity and crossover frequency exhibits Vogel-Tammann-Fulcher type behavior indicating a strong coupling between the ionic and the polymer chain segmental motions. The scaling of the ac conductivity indicates that relaxation dynamics of charge carriers follows a common mechanism for all temperatures and ethylene carbonate concentrations. The analysis of the ac conductivity also shows the existence of a nearly constant loss in these polymer electrolytes at low temperatures and high frequencies. The fraction of free anions and ion pairs in polymer electrolyte have been obtained from the analysis of Fourier transform infrared spectra. It is observed that these quantities influence the behavior of the composition dependence of the ionic conductivity.
24 CFR 3285.701 - Electrical crossovers.
2010-04-01
... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Electrical Systems and Equipment § 3285.701 Electrical crossovers. Multi-section homes with electrical wiring in more than one section require... installation instructions. ...
A single-item inventory model for expected inventory order crossovers
Riezebos, J.; Gaalman, G.J.C.
2009-01-01
Expected inventory order crossovers Occur if at the moment of ordering it is expected that orders will not arrive in the sequence they are ordered. Recent research has shown that (it) expected inventory order crossovers will be encountered more frequently in future, and that (b) use of a myopic
Modeling fish community dynamics in Florida Everglades: Role of temperature variation
Al-Rabai'ah, H. A.; Koh, H. L.; DeAngelis, Donald L.; Lee, Hooi-Ling
2002-01-01
Temperature variation is an important factor in Everglade wetlands ecology. A temperature fluctuation from 17°C to 32°C recorded in the Everglades may have significant impact on fish dynamics. The short life cycles of some of Everglade fishes has rendered this temperature variation to have even more impacts on the ecosystem. Fish population dynamic models, which do not explicitly consider seasonal oscillations in temperature, may fail to describe the details of such a population. Hence, a model for fish in freshwater marshes of the Florida Everglades that explicitly incorporates seasonal temperature variations is developed. The model's main objective is to assess the temporal pattern of fish population and densities through time subject to temperature variations. Fish population is divided into 2 functional groups (FGs) consisting of small fishes; each group is subdivided into 5-day age classes during their life cycles. Many governing sub-modules are set directly or indirectly to be temperature dependent. Growth, fecundity, prey availability, consumption rates and mortality are examples. Several mortality sub-modules are introduced in the model, of which starvation mortality is set to be proportional to the ratio of prey needed to prey available at that particular time step. As part of the calibration process, the model is run for 50 years to ensure that fish densities do not go to extinction, while the simulation period is about 8 years.
Vibronic dephasing model for coherent-to-incoherent crossover in DNA
Karasch, Patrick; Ryndyk, Dmitry A.; Frauenheim, Thomas
2018-05-01
In this paper, we investigate the interplay between coherent and incoherent charge transport in cytosine-guanine (GC-) rich DNA molecules. Our objective is to introduce a physically grounded approach to dephasing in large molecules and to understand the length-dependent charge transport characteristics, and especially the crossover from the coherent tunneling to incoherent hopping regime at different temperatures. Therefore, we apply the vibronic dephasing model and compare the results to the Büttiker probe model which is commonly used to describe decoherence effects in charge transport. Using the full ladder model and simplified one-dimensional model of DNA, we consider molecular junctions with alternating and stacked GC sequences and compare our results to recent experimental measurements.
Temperature-dependent luminescence dynamics in ZnO nanorods
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Priller, H. [Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Universitaet Karlsruhe and Center for Functional Nanostructures (CFN), Wolfgang-Gaede-Str. 1, D-76131 Karlsruhe (Germany)]. E-mail: heiko.priller@physik.uni-karlsruhe.de; Hauschild, R. [Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Universitaet Karlsruhe and Center for Functional Nanostructures (CFN), Wolfgang-Gaede-Str. 1, D-76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Zeller, J. [Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Universitaet Karlsruhe and Center for Functional Nanostructures (CFN), Wolfgang-Gaede-Str. 1, D-76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Klingshirn, C. [Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Universitaet Karlsruhe and Center for Functional Nanostructures (CFN), Wolfgang-Gaede-Str. 1, D-76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Kalt, H. [Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Universitaet Karlsruhe and Center for Functional Nanostructures (CFN), Wolfgang-Gaede-Str. 1, D-76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Kling, R. [Abteilung Halbleiterphysik, Universitaet Ulm, Albert-Einstein Allee 45, 89081 Ulm (Germany); Reuss, F. [Abteilung Halbleiterphysik, Universitaet Ulm, Albert-Einstein Allee 45, 89081 Ulm (Germany); Kirchner, Ch. [Abteilung Halbleiterphysik, Universitaet Ulm, Albert-Einstein Allee 45, 89081 Ulm (Germany); Waag, A. [Institut fuer Halbleitertechnik, TU Braunschweig, Hans-Sommer-Str. 66, D-38106 Braunschweig (Germany)
2005-04-15
We report on an experimental study of the temporal photoluminescence dynamics of high-quality ZnO nanopillars from 10 K to room temperature. We find that defect states play an important role in the time evolution of the photoluminescence signal. At low excitation intensities capture into defects dominates the time dependence of the PL, at higher intensities they are saturated and the intrinsic excitation decay is observed. We separate the intrinsic exciton decay from the fast nonlinear M-band with the method of decay associated spectra and obtain the temperature dependence of the intrinsic exciton decay. High excitation measurements show a reduced exciton-exciton scattering in these thin nanorods.
Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless crossover in a trapped atomic gas.
Hadzibabic, Zoran; Krüger, Peter; Cheneau, Marc; Battelier, Baptiste; Dalibard, Jean
2006-06-29
Any state of matter is classified according to its order, and the type of order that a physical system can possess is profoundly affected by its dimensionality. Conventional long-range order, as in a ferromagnet or a crystal, is common in three-dimensional systems at low temperature. However, in two-dimensional systems with a continuous symmetry, true long-range order is destroyed by thermal fluctuations at any finite temperature. Consequently, for the case of identical bosons, a uniform two-dimensional fluid cannot undergo Bose-Einstein condensation, in contrast to the three-dimensional case. However, the two-dimensional system can form a 'quasi-condensate' and become superfluid below a finite critical temperature. The Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless (BKT) theory associates this phase transition with the emergence of a topological order, resulting from the pairing of vortices with opposite circulation. Above the critical temperature, proliferation of unbound vortices is expected. Here we report the observation of a BKT-type crossover in a trapped quantum degenerate gas of rubidium atoms. Using a matter wave heterodyning technique, we observe both the long-wavelength fluctuations of the quasi-condensate phase and the free vortices. At low temperatures, the gas is quasi-coherent on the length scale set by the system size. As the temperature is increased, the loss of long-range coherence coincides with the onset of proliferation of free vortices. Our results provide direct experimental evidence for the microscopic mechanism underlying the BKT theory, and raise new questions regarding coherence and superfluidity in mesoscopic systems.
Low frequency enzyme dynamics as a function of temperature and hydration: A neutron scattering study
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kurkal, V. [Interdisciplinary Center for Scientific Computing (IWR), University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 368, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Daniel, R.M. [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Waikato, Private Bag 3105, Hamilton (New Zealand); Finney, John L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University college, London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, England (United Kingdom); Tehei, M. [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Waikato, Private Bag 3105, Hamilton (New Zealand); Dunn, R.V. [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Waikato, Private Bag 3105, Hamilton (New Zealand); Smith, Jeremy C. [Interdisciplinary Center for Scientific Computing (IWR), University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 368, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany)], E-mail: biocomputing@iwr.uni-heidelberg.de
2005-10-31
The effect of hydration and temperature on the low-frequency dynamics of the enzyme Pig liver esterase has been investigated with incoherent neutron scattering experiments. The results suggest that at low temperature, increasing hydration results in lower flexibility of the protein. At higher temperatures, systems containing sufficient number of water molecules interacting with the protein exhibit increased flexibility. The environmental force constants indicate that the environment of the protein is more rigid below than it is above the dynamical transition temperature.
Overview of the 3rd phase crossover research on migration of radionuclides in biosphere
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Uchida, Shigeo; Amano, Hikaru; Chiba, Masaru; Hisamatsu, Shun'ichi; Enomoto, Shuichi; Matsumoto, Shiro
2003-01-01
In 1991, we started a series of projects in Nuclear Energy Generic Crossover Research, which is known as ''Crossover Research (CR)''. This 1st phase was successfully finished with the active cooperation of five organizations: Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), Meteorological Research Institute (MRI), National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN) and Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC). Subsequently we carried out the 2nd phase of CR (1996-1998). A new member, Institute for Environmental Sciences (IES) participated from this phase. In the 3rd phase CR, a project on ''Development of a dynamic transfer model of radionuclides in the soil ecosphere'', is currently being promoted (1999-2003). The following five researches are carried out in this project. (1) Research into the forms of existence of nuclide and their change in the soil (NIRS and JAERI), (2) Research into the transition behavior of radionuclides in plants (IES, RIKEN and NIRS), (3) Research into the relation to the microorganism and on environmental remediation (RIKEN, JAERI and NIRS), (4) Research on the migration of radionuclides from atmosphere to soil and plant (MRI and JAERI), and (5) Database construction on transfer parameters (JAERI, NIRS and MRI). Then, JAERI, MRI and NIRS are working on the development of a dynamic transfer model for radionuclides on the basis of a gained knowledge about the environmental behavior with the cooperation of universities, etc. The dynamic transfer model developed in this project is effective not only for Japan, but also for the Southeast Asian countries. Besides, this model is capable of predicting the behavior of materials that are harmful to the environment, i.e. hazardous heavy metals discharged in the soil ecosphere. (author)
Vortex Matter dynamics in a thin film of Nb with columnar indentations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nunes, J.S. [Grupo de Supercondutividade e Magnetism, Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: julianakapp@gmail.com; Zadorosny, R.; Oliveira, A.A.M. [Grupo de Supercondutividade e Magnetism, Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Lepienski, C.M. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Patino, E.J.; Blamire, M.G. [Department of Materials Science, University of Cambridge, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom); Ortiz, W.A. [Grupo de Supercondutividade e Magnetism, Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)
2008-07-15
A superconducting film with columnar defects constitutes a rich scenario for studying Vortex Matter dynamics. This paper reports on the magnetic response of a 200 nm thick Nb film, pierced with a set of 900 columnar indentations of nearly triangular cross section, forming a square lattice. The column diameter is 1 {mu}m and the distance between columns is 10 {mu}m. To probe the interaction of Vortex Matter with the array of antidots, we have excited the sample with a significantly large AC-field, so that flux originally trapped by the columns could be unpinned and admitted into the superconducting sea surrounding the defects. The melting line of this system has a kink separating two different regimes, suggesting a crossover from the efficient pinning regime, at lower temperatures, to a temperature-induced depinning.
Vortex Matter dynamics in a thin film of Nb with columnar indentations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nunes, J.S.; Zadorosny, R.; Oliveira, A.A.M.; Lepienski, C.M.; Patino, E.J.; Blamire, M.G.; Ortiz, W.A.
2008-01-01
A superconducting film with columnar defects constitutes a rich scenario for studying Vortex Matter dynamics. This paper reports on the magnetic response of a 200 nm thick Nb film, pierced with a set of 900 columnar indentations of nearly triangular cross section, forming a square lattice. The column diameter is 1 μm and the distance between columns is 10 μm. To probe the interaction of Vortex Matter with the array of antidots, we have excited the sample with a significantly large AC-field, so that flux originally trapped by the columns could be unpinned and admitted into the superconducting sea surrounding the defects. The melting line of this system has a kink separating two different regimes, suggesting a crossover from the efficient pinning regime, at lower temperatures, to a temperature-induced depinning
Study of active crossover network | Tyona | Nigerian Journal of Physics
African Journals Online (AJOL)
An active crossover network system has been realized using an active component LF356 with a JFET input. The net work has two drives, the low frequency drive (Bass) and the high frequency drive (Treble). It employs high level crossover technique. The circuit performance was adequately verified and the frequency ...
Process of 3D wireless decentralized sensor deployment using parsing crossover scheme
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Albert H.R. Ko
2015-07-01
Full Text Available A Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN usually consists of numerous wireless devices deployed in a region of interest, each able to collect and process environmental information and communicate with neighboring devices. It can thus be regarded as a Multi-Agent System for territorial security, where individual agents cooperate with each other to avoid duplication of effort and to exploit other agent’s capacities. The problem of sensor deployment becomes non-trivial when we consider environmental factors, such as terrain elevations. Due to the fact that all sensors are homogeneous, the chromosomes that encode sensor positions are actually interchangeable, and conventional crossover schemes such as uniform crossover would cause some redundancy as well as over-concentration in certain specific geographical area. We propose a Parsing Crossover Scheme that intends to reduce redundancy and ease geographical concentration pattern in an effort to facilitate the search. The proposed parsing crossover method demonstrates better performances than those of uniform crossover under different terrain irregularities.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhu, C.C.; Song, Y.T.; Peng, X.B.; Wei, Y.P.; Mao, X.; Li, W.X.; Qian, X.Y.
2016-01-01
In the divertor structure of ITER and EAST with mono-block module, tungsten plays not only a role of armor material but also a role of structural material, because electromagnetic (EM) impact will be exerted on tungsten components in VDEs or CQ. The EM loads can reach to 100 MN, which would cause high strain rates. In addition, directly exposed to high-temperature plasma, the temperature regime of divertor components is complex. Aiming at studying dynamical response of tungsten divertors under EM loads, an experiment on tungsten employed in EAST divertors was performed using a Kolsky bar system. The testing strain rates and temperatures is derived from actual working conditions, which makes the constitutive equation concluded by using John-Cook model and testing data very accurate and practical. The work would give a guidance to estimate the dynamical response, fatigue life and damage evolution of tungsten divertor components under EM impact loads. - Graphical abstract: From the comparison between the experimental curves and the predicted curves calculated by adopting the corrected m, it is very clear that the new model is of great capability to explain the deformation behavior of the tungsten material under dynamic compression at high temperatures. (EC, PC and PCM refers to experimental curve, predicted curve and predicted curve with a corrected m. Different colors represent different scenarios.). - Highlights: • Test research on dynamic properties of tungsten at working temperature range and strain rate range of divertors. • Constitutive equation descrbing strain hardening, strain rate hardening and temperature softening. • A guidance to estimate dynamical response and damage evolution of tungsten divertor components under impact.
Studies on Methanol Crossover in Liquid-Feed Direct Methanol Pem Fuel Cells
Narayanan, S. R.
1995-01-01
The performance of liquid feed direct methanol fuel cells using various types of Nafion membranes as the solid polymer electrolyte have been studied. The rate of fuel crossover and electrical performance has been measured for cells with Nafion membranes of various thicknesses and equivalent weights. The crossover rate is found to decrease with increasing thickness and applied current. The dependence of crossover rate on current density can be understood in terms of a simple linear diffusion model which suggests that the crossover rate can be influenced by the electrode structure in addition to the membrane. The studies suggest that Nafion EW 1500 is a very promising alternate to Nafion EW 1100 for direct methanol fuel cells.
Crossover of coherent Rabi oscillations in graphene
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Enamullah; Kumar, Vipin; Setlur, Girish S.
2012-01-01
We study the phenomenon of crossover of Rabi oscillations in graphene as a function of detuning - the difference between the frequency of the incident wave and interband energy (2v F |k|). It is shown by comparison with an exactly solved model with bands having linear dispersion but lacking pseudospin that this crossover is unique to graphene, attributable to the pseudospin character of the graphene hamiltonian. A group theoretic argument for why this model is solvable is given. We compute the nonlinear current using our formalism, the main prediction being the threshold behavior (with exponent equal to 1/2) of the slowly varying part of the current in frequency domain with threshold frequency being 2ω R 2 /ω (‘anomalous’ Rabi frequency) where ω R is the Rabi frequency for zero detuning. The novelty of our approach is the introduction of an alternative to the rotating wave approximation (RWA) (called asymptotic RWA here) which is argued to be important in demonstrating this crossover. We provide an interpolation method between these two regimes, that shows novel phenomena attributable to harmonic generation. A fully numerical solution to the Bloch equations verifies the analytical results and the various approximation schemes.
CSR Interaction at the Cross-Over of the Full Compression Point
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rui Li
2005-01-01
In recent commissioning of the 10 kW FEL at Jefferson Lab, as one varies the energy chirp of the electron bunches at the entrance of the chicane to make the bunch more and more compressed at the exit of the chicane, a sudden increase in the energy spread is observed [1] at the crossover of the full compression point. This phenomenon is accompanied simultaneously with a significant increase of the THz radiation from the electron beam. A similar observation was made earlier in the CTF II CSR experiment at CERN [2]. For example, for 5 nC bunch charge, ''the mean momentum spread increased by a factor of 4 at full compression with respect to the initial spread, and decreased to a factor of 3 larger than the initial spread at overcompression''. There is also a sudden drop of mean momentum at the full compression, along with a sudden increase in the horizontal emittance (see Fig. 5 of [2]). As a first step to understand this phenomenon, in this paper, we analyze the effective longitudinal CSR force using our recent formulation of CSR dynamics [3], and show there is a sudden increase in the magnitude of the effective longitudinal CSR force at the cross-over of the full compression point. A numerical example is given for an LCLS type chicane. The physical picture of this sudden increase is also discussed
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Song, Y. L.; Huang, F., E-mail: huangfeng@cau.edu.cn [College of Science, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083 (China); He, Y. F.; Wu, L. [College of Information and Electrical Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083 (China); Liu, Y. H. [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Ludong University, Yantai 264025 (China); Chen, Z. Y. [Department of Physics, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Yu, M. Y. [Institute for Fusion Theory and Simulation, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Institute for Theoretical Physics I, Ruhr University, D-44801 Bochum (Germany)
2015-06-15
Influence of the system temperature on the micro-structures and dynamics of dust clusters in dusty plasmas is investigated through laboratory experiment and molecular dynamics simulation. The micro-structures, defect numbers, and pair correlation function of the dust clusters are studied for different system temperatures. The dust grains' trajectories, the mean square displacement, and the corresponding self-diffusion coefficient of the clusters are calculated for different temperatures for illustrating the phase properties of the dust clusters. The simulation results confirm that with the increase in system temperature, the micro-structures and dynamics of dust clusters are gradually changed, which qualitatively agree with experimental results.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Padurariu, Leontin; Enachescu, Cristian; Mitoseriu, Liliana
2011-01-01
The properties induced by the M 4+ addition (M = Zr, Sn, Hf) in BaM x Ti 1-x O 3 solid solutions have been described on the basis of a 2D Ising-like network and Monte Carlo calculations, in which BaMO 3 randomly distributed unit cells were considered as being non-ferroelectric. The polarization versus temperature dependences when increasing the M 4+ concentration (x) showed a continuous reduction of the remanent polarization and of the critical temperature corresponding to the ferroelectric-paraelectric transition and a modification from a first-order to a second-order phase transition with a broad temperature range for which the transition takes place, as commonly reported for relaxors. The model also describes the system's tendency to reduce the polar clusters' average size while increasing their stability in time at higher temperatures above the Curie range, when a ferroelectric-relaxor crossover is induced by increasing the substitution (x). The equilibrium micropolar states during the polarization reversal process while describing the P(E) loops were comparatively monitored for the ferroelectric (x = 0) and relaxor (x = 0.3) states. Polarization reversal in relaxor compositions proceeds by the growth of several nucleated domains (the 'labyrinthine domain pattern') instead of the large scale domain formation typical for the ferroelectric state. The spatial and temporal evolution of the polar clusters in BaM x Ti 1-x O 3 solid solutions at various x has also been described by the correlation length and correlation time. As expected for the ferroelectric-relaxor crossover characterized by a progressive increasing degree of disorder, local fluctuations cause a reducing correlation time when the substitution degree increases, at a given temperature. The correlation time around the Curie temperature increases, reflecting the increasing stability in time of some polar nanoregions in relaxors in comparison with ferroelectrics, which was experimentally proved in
49 CFR 236.203 - Hand operated crossover between main tracks; protection.
2010-10-01
...) Electric locking of the switches of the crossover. Signals governing movements over either switch shall... crossover is occupied by a train, locomotive or car in such a manner as to foul the main track. It shall not... electric locking releases. ...
Quantum dynamics at finite temperature: Time-dependent quantum Monte Carlo study
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Christov, Ivan P., E-mail: ivan.christov@phys.uni-sofia.bg
2016-08-15
In this work we investigate the ground state and the dissipative quantum dynamics of interacting charged particles in an external potential at finite temperature. The recently devised time-dependent quantum Monte Carlo (TDQMC) method allows a self-consistent treatment of the system of particles together with bath oscillators first for imaginary-time propagation of Schrödinger type of equations where both the system and the bath converge to their finite temperature ground state, and next for real time calculation where the dissipative dynamics is demonstrated. In that context the application of TDQMC appears as promising alternative to the path-integral related techniques where the real time propagation can be a challenge.
Miyashita, Seiji; Nishino, Masamichi; Konishi, Yusuke; Tokoro, Hiroko; Boukheddaden, Kamel; Varret, François; Rikvold, Per Arne
2009-02-01
Bistability between the high- and low-spin states in spin-crossover materials provides a complex temperature dependence of the ordering processes. Thermodynamic properties of the ordering phenomena were studied in a unified way, and a generic structure of the ordering processes was proposed. The origin of the interaction among the spins was also discussed, and a new mechanism based on an elastic interaction among distortions due to the volume of a molecule depending on its spin state was also proposed. With this mechanism, the typical pressure dependence of the ordering processes can be reproduced. Moreover, we studied the type of criticality of the phase transition and pointed out that the present model possesses critical behaviour belonging to the mean-field universality class. There, the spin-spin correlation function is constant at long distances and does not show an exponential decay in contrast to short-range models. It is also pointed out that the model with periodic boundary conditions does not show ordering clusters, even near the critical point or in the process of spinodal decomposition. This indicates that critical opalescence would not be observed in this model. No cluster appears, either in photo-excitation process from the low-spin state at low temperatures. On the other hand, with open boundary conditions, the system shows a cluster structure. The effects of the boundary conditions are also discussed.
BCS-BEC crossover in a system of microcavity polaritons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Keeling, Jonathan; Eastham, P.R.; Szymanska, M.H.; Littlewood, P.B.
2005-01-01
We investigate the thermodynamics and signatures of a polariton condensate over a range of densities, using a model of microcavity polaritons with internal structure. We determine a phase diagram for this system including fluctuation corrections to the mean-field theory. At low densities the condensation temperature T c behaves like that for point bosons. At higher densities, when T c approaches the Rabi splitting, T c deviates from the form for point bosons, and instead approaches the result of a BCS-like mean-field theory. This crossover occurs at densities much less than the Mott density. We show that current experiments are in a density range where the phase boundary is described by the BCS-like mean-field boundary. We investigate the influence of inhomogeneous broadening and detuning of excitons on the phase diagram
Modular invariance, universality and crossover in the quantum Hall effect
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dolan, Brian P.
1999-01-01
An analytic form for the conductivity tensor in crossover between two quantum Hall plateaux is derived, which appears to be in good agreement with existing experimental data. The derivation relies on an assumed symmetry between quantum Hall states, a generalisation of the law of corresponding states from rational filling factors to complex conductivity, which has a mathematical expression in terms of an action of the modular group on the upper-half complex conductivity plane. This symmetry implies universality in quantum Hall crossovers. The assumption that the β-function for the complex conductivity is a complex analytic function, together with some experimental constraints, results in an analytic expression for the crossover, as a function of the external magnetic field
Genetic Algorithm for Traveling Salesman Problem with Modified Cycle Crossover Operator
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Abid Hussain
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Genetic algorithms are evolutionary techniques used for optimization purposes according to survival of the fittest idea. These methods do not ensure optimal solutions; however, they give good approximation usually in time. The genetic algorithms are useful for NP-hard problems, especially the traveling salesman problem. The genetic algorithm depends on selection criteria, crossover, and mutation operators. To tackle the traveling salesman problem using genetic algorithms, there are various representations such as binary, path, adjacency, ordinal, and matrix representations. In this article, we propose a new crossover operator for traveling salesman problem to minimize the total distance. This approach has been linked with path representation, which is the most natural way to represent a legal tour. Computational results are also reported with some traditional path representation methods like partially mapped and order crossovers along with new cycle crossover operator for some benchmark TSPLIB instances and found improvements.
Solution Theory of Ginzburg-Landau Theory on BCS-BEC Crossover
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shuhong Chen
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We establish strong solution theory of time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau (TDGL systems on BCS-BEC crossover. By the properties of Besov, Sobolev spaces, and Fourier functions and the method of bootstrapping argument, we deduce that the global existence of strong solutions to time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau systems on BCS-BEC crossover in various spatial dimensions.
Thermo field dynamics in the treatment of the nuclear pairing problem at finite temperature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Civitarese, O.; DePaoli, A.L.
1993-01-01
The use of the thermo field dynamics, in dealing with the study of nuclear properties at finite temperature, is discussed for the case of a nuclear Hamiltonian which includes a single-particle term and a monopole pairing residual two-body interaction. The rules of the thermo fields dynamics are applied to double the Hilbert space, thus accounting for the thermal occupation of single-particle states, and to construct dual spaces, both for single-particle (BCS) and collective (RPA) degrees of freedom. It is shown that the rules of the thermo field dynamics yield to a temperature dependence of the equations describing quasiparticle and phonon excitations which is similar to the one found in the more conventional finite temperature Wick's theorem approach, namely: By dealing with thermal averages. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yoon, S.; Liu, H.L.; Schollerer, G.; Cooper, S.L.; Han, P.D.; Payne, D.A.; Cheong, S.; Fisk, Z.
1998-01-01
We present an optical reflectance and Raman-scattering study of the A 1-x A ' x MnO 3 system as a function of temperature and doping (0.2≤x≤0.5). The metal-semiconductor transition in the A 1-x A ' x MnO 3 system is characterized by a change from a diffusive electronic Raman-scattering response in the high-temperature paramagnetic phase, to a flat continuum scattering response in the low-temperature ferromagnetic phase. We interpret this change in the scattering response as a crossover from a small-polaron-dominated regime at high temperatures to a large-polaron-dominated low-temperature regime. Interestingly, we observe evidence for the coexistence of large and small polarons in the low-temperature ferromagnetic phase. We contrast these results with those obtained for EuB 6 , which is a low-T c magnetic semiconductor with similar properties to the manganites, but with a substantially reduced carrier density and polaron energy. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society
Vortex dynamics equation in type-II superconductors in a temperature gradient
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vega Monroy, R.; Sarmiento Castillo, J.; Puerta Torres, D.
2010-01-01
In this work we determined a vortex dynamics equation in a temperature gradient in the frame of the time dependent Ginzburg-Landau equation. In this sense, we derived a local solvability condition, which governs the vortex dynamics. Also, we calculated the explicit form for the force coefficients, which are the keys for the understanding of the balance equation due to vortex interactions with the environment. (author)
Vortex dynamics equation in type-II superconductors in a temperature gradient
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vega Monroy, R.; Sarmiento Castillo, J. [Universidad del Atlantico, Barranquilla (Colombia). Facultad de Ciencias Basicas; Puerta Torres, D. [Universidad de Cartagena (Colombia). Facultad de Ciencias Exactas
2010-12-15
In this work we determined a vortex dynamics equation in a temperature gradient in the frame of the time dependent Ginzburg-Landau equation. In this sense, we derived a local solvability condition, which governs the vortex dynamics. Also, we calculated the explicit form for the force coefficients, which are the keys for the understanding of the balance equation due to vortex interactions with the environment. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lindsay M Beck-Johnson
Full Text Available The parasites that cause malaria depend on Anopheles mosquitoes for transmission; because of this, mosquito population dynamics are a key determinant of malaria risk. Development and survival rates of both the Anopheles mosquitoes and the Plasmodium parasites that cause malaria depend on temperature, making this a potential driver of mosquito population dynamics and malaria transmission. We developed a temperature-dependent, stage-structured delayed differential equation model to better understand how climate determines risk. Including the full mosquito life cycle in the model reveals that the mosquito population abundance is more sensitive to temperature than previously thought because it is strongly influenced by the dynamics of the juvenile mosquito stages whose vital rates are also temperature-dependent. Additionally, the model predicts a peak in abundance of mosquitoes old enough to vector malaria at more accurate temperatures than previous models. Our results point to the importance of incorporating detailed vector biology into models for predicting the risk for vector borne diseases.
Paradox in the crossover of the mechanisms causing the hysteresis in long, thin-film superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dharmadurai, G.
1980-01-01
We point out an apparent paradox encountered in the region where the temperature of a voltage-sustaining film at the upper critical current crosses its T/sub c/ concerning the crossover of the two dominant heating mechanisms currently used to account for the lower critical currents observed on the hysteretic current-voltage characteristics of long, thin-film superconductors at varying high power levels. We explore a possible solution of this paradox by carefully examining the relevant heating models and available experimental observations
Spin dynamics in bulk CdTe at room temperature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nahalkova, P.; Nemec, P.; Sprinzl, D.; Belas, E.; Horodysky, P.; Franc, J.; Hlidek, P.; Maly, P.
2006-01-01
In this paper, we report on the room temperature dynamics of spin-polarized carriers in undoped bulk CdTe. Platelets of CdTe with different concentration of preparation-induced dislocations were prepared by combining the mechanical polishing and chemical etching. Using the polarization-resolved pump-probe experiment in transmission geometry, we have observed a systematic decrease of both the signal polarization and the electron spin dephasing time (from 52 to 36 ps) with the increased concentration of defects. We have suggested that the Elliot-Yafet mechanism might be the dominant spin dephasing mechanism in platelets of CdTe at room temperature
Popov approximation for composite bosons in the BCS-BEC crossover
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pieri, P.; Strinati, G.C.
2005-01-01
Theoretical treatments of the BCS-BEC crossover need to provide as accurate as possible descriptions of the two regimes where the diluteness condition applies, either in terms of the constituent fermions (BCS limit) or of the composite bosons which form as bound-fermion pairs (BEC limit). This has to occur via a single fermionic theory that bridges across these two limiting representations. In this paper, we set up successive improvements of the fermionic theory, that result into composite bosons described at the level of either the Bogoliubov or the Popov approximations for pointlike bosons. This work bears on the recent experimental advances on the BCS-BEC crossover with trapped Fermi atoms, which show the need for accurate theoretical descriptions of the BEC side of the crossover
Tracking excited-state charge and spin dynamics in iron coordination complexes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhang, Wenkai; Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Bergmann, Uwe
2014-01-01
to spin state, can elucidate the spin crossover dynamics of [Fe(2,2'-bipyridine)(3)](2+) on photoinduced metal-to-ligand charge transfer excitation. We are able to track the charge and spin dynamics, and establish the critical role of intermediate spin states in the crossover mechanism. We anticipate......Crucial to many light-driven processes in transition metal complexes is the absorption and dissipation of energy by 3d electrons(1-4). But a detailed understanding of such non-equilibrium excited-state dynamics and their interplay with structural changes is challenging: a multitude of excited...... states and possible transitions result in phenomena too complex to unravel when faced with the indirect sensitivity of optical spectroscopy to spin dynamics(5) and the flux limitations of ultrafast X-ray sources(6,7). Such a situation exists for archetypal poly-pyridyl iron complexes, such as [Fe(2...
Thermo field dynamics: a quantum field theory at finite temperature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mancini, F.; Marinaro, M.; Matsumoto, H.
1988-01-01
A brief review of the theory of thermo field dynamics (TFD) is presented. TFD is introduced and developed by Umezawa and his coworkers at finite temperature. The most significant concept in TFD is that of a thermal vacuum which satisfies some conditions denoted as thermal state conditions. The TFD permits to reformulate theories at finite temperature. There is no need in an additional principle to determine particle distributions at T ≠ 0. Temperature and other macroscopic parameters are introduced in the definition of the vacuum state. All operator formalisms used in quantum field theory at T=0 are preserved, although the field degrees of freedom are doubled. 8 refs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hekkenberg, M.; Moll, H.C.; Uiterkamp, A.J.M. Schoot
2009-01-01
Energy demand depends on outdoor temperature in a 'u' shaped fashion. Various studies have used this temperature dependence to investigate the effects of climate change on energy demand. Such studies contain implicit or explicit assumptions to describe expected socio-economic changes that may affect future energy demand. This paper critically analyzes these implicit or explicit assumptions and their possible effect on the studies' outcomes. First we analyze the interaction between the socio-economic structure and the temperature dependence pattern (TDP) of energy demand. We find that socio-economic changes may alter the TDP in various ways. Next we investigate how current studies manage these dynamics in socio-economic structure. We find that many studies systematically misrepresent the possible effect of socio-economic changes on the TDP of energy demand. Finally, we assess the consequences of these misrepresentations in an energy demand model based on temperature dependence and climate scenarios. Our model results indicate that expected socio-economic dynamics generally lead to an underestimation of future energy demand in models that misrepresent such dynamics. We conclude that future energy demand models should improve the incorporation of socio-economic dynamics. We propose dynamically modeling several key parameters and using direct meteorological data instead of degree days. (author)
Evidence of a low temperature dynamical transition in concentrated PNIPAM microgels
Zanatta, Marco; Tavagnacco, Letizia; Buratti, Elena; Bertoldo, Monica; Natali, Francesca; Chiessi, Ester; Orecchini, Andrea; Zaccarelli, Emanuela
2018-01-01
The occurrence of a dynamical transition at low temperature has been reported in a large number of different proteins. Here we provide the first observation of a "protein-like" dynamical transition in a non-biological aqueous environment. To this aim we exploit the popular colloidal system of poly-N-isopropylacrylamide (PNIPAM) microgels, extending their investigation to unprecedentedly high concentrations. Thanks to the heterogeneous polymeric architecture of the microgels, water crystalliza...
Methyl group dynamics in a glass and its crystalline counterpart by neutron scattering
Moreno, A J; Colmenero, J; Frick, B
2002-01-01
Methyl group dynamics in the same sample of sodium acetate trihydrate in crystalline and glassy states have been investigated by neutron scattering. Measurements have been carried out in the whole temperature range covering the crossover from rotational tunneling to classical hopping. The results in the crystalline sample have been analyzed according to the usual single-particle model, while those in the glass were analyzed in terms of a broad Gaussian distribution of single-particle potentials, with a standard deviation of 205 K. The average barrier in the glass (417 K) takes, within the experimental error, the same value as the unique barrier in the crystal. (orig.)
Razavi, Seyed M A; Behrouzian, Fataneh; Alghooneh, Ali
2017-10-01
The viscoelastic (transient and dynamic) and time-dependent rheological behaviors of XG (xanthan gum), SSG (sage seed gum) and their blends at various ratios (1-3, 1-1, and 3-1 SSG-XG) and temperatures (10, 30, and 50C) were investigated using creep and recovery analyses. The creep compliance was converted to stress relaxation data; then, the structural kinetic model satisfactorily fitted the time-dependent relaxation modulus. Furthermore, dynamic rheology of mixtures was investigated using creep analyses. The most important contribution of the Maxwell spring to deformation (53.51%), was that corresponding to the SSG at 50C and the most important contribution of the Maxwell dashpot to the maximum deformation, were those corresponding to the XG (61.44%) and 1-3 SSG-XG (58.91%) samples both at 50C. The breakdown rate constant ( α) of the crosslinked gum structure in SSG and 3-1 SSG-XG under the application of external shear stress increases with temperature from 10 to 50C in the range of 0.14-0.32 (1/s) and 0.14-0.24 (1/s), respectively, whereas other dispersions showed the reverse trend. Among all dispersions, only XG and 1-3 SSG-XG demonstrated crossover frequency at 9.95 and 31.47 rad/s, respectively, at 50C, indicative of the lowest entanglement density for 1-3 SSG-XG. The greatest interaction between SSG and XG occurred for 3-1 ratio at 50C, which was confirmed by the Han curves. Hydrocolloid blends, particularly those consisting of xanthan gum and a galactomannan from new source can provide a range of attractive textural properties. Rheological studies contribute to the description of the molecular structure and prediction of the structural changes during their manufacturing processes. Sage seed gum (SSG), as a polyelectrolyte galactomannan, has a great potential to exert stabilizing, thickening, gelling and binding properties in food, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical systems. Therefore, we elaborate the interactions between SSG and xanthan gum and also the
Shafiee, Alireza
2016-06-25
In optimization-based process flowsheet synthesis, optimization methods, including genetic algorithms (GA), are used as advantageous tools to select a high performance flowsheet by ‘screening’ large numbers of possible flowsheets. In this study, we expand the role of GA to include flowsheet generation through proposing a modified Greedysub tour crossover operator. Performance of the proposed crossover operator is compared with four other commonly used operators. The proposed GA optimizationbased process synthesis method is applied to generate the optimum process flowsheet for a multicomponent membrane-based CO2 capture process. Within defined constraints and using the random-point crossover, CO2 purity of 0.827 (equivalent to 0.986 on dry basis) is achieved which results in improvement (3.4%) over the simplest crossover operator applied. In addition, the least variability in the converged flowsheet and CO2 purity is observed for random-point crossover operator, which approximately implies closeness of the solution to the global optimum, and hence the consistency of the algorithm. The proposed crossover operator is found to improve the convergence speed of the algorithm by 77.6%.
Dynamical Model of QCD Vacuum and Color Thaw at Finite Temperatures
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Dian-Fu; SONG He-Shan; MI Dong
2004-01-01
In terms of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) mechanism, the dynamical symmetry breaking of a simple localgauge model is investigated. An important relation between the vacuum expectation value of gauge fields and scalarfields is derived by solving the Euler equation for the gauge fields. Based on this relation the SU(3) gauge potential isgiven which can be used to explain the asymptotic freedom and confinement of quarks in a hadron. The confinementbehavior at finite temperatures is also investigated and it is shown that color confinement at zero temperature can bemelted away under high temperatures.
Posazhennikova, Anna; Trujillo-Martinez, Mauricio; Kroha, Johann
2016-06-03
A Bose gas in a double-well potential, exhibiting a true Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) amplitude and initially performing Josephson oscillations, is a prototype of an isolated, nonequilibrium many-body system. We investigate the quasiparticle (QP) creation and thermalization dynamics of this system by solving the time-dependent Keldysh-Bogoliubov equations. We find avalanchelike QP creation due to a parametric resonance between BEC and QP oscillations, followed by slow, exponential relaxation to a thermal state at an elevated temperature, controlled by the initial excitation energy of the oscillating BEC above its ground state. The crossover between the two regimes occurs because of an effective decoupling of the QP and BEC oscillations. This dynamics is analogous to elementary particle creation in models of the early universe. The thermalization in our setup occurs because the BEC acts as a grand canonical reservoir for the quasiparticle system.
Inflationary Quasiparticle Creation and Thermalization Dynamics in Coupled Bose-Einstein Condensates
Posazhennikova, Anna; Trujillo-Martinez, Mauricio; Kroha, Johann
2016-06-01
A Bose gas in a double-well potential, exhibiting a true Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) amplitude and initially performing Josephson oscillations, is a prototype of an isolated, nonequilibrium many-body system. We investigate the quasiparticle (QP) creation and thermalization dynamics of this system by solving the time-dependent Keldysh-Bogoliubov equations. We find avalanchelike QP creation due to a parametric resonance between BEC and QP oscillations, followed by slow, exponential relaxation to a thermal state at an elevated temperature, controlled by the initial excitation energy of the oscillating BEC above its ground state. The crossover between the two regimes occurs because of an effective decoupling of the QP and BEC oscillations. This dynamics is analogous to elementary particle creation in models of the early universe. The thermalization in our setup occurs because the BEC acts as a grand canonical reservoir for the quasiparticle system.
Dimensional analysis and prediction of dielectrophoretic crossover frequency of spherical particles
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Che-Kai Yeh
2017-06-01
Full Text Available The manipulation of biological cells and micrometer-scale particles using dielectrophoresis (DEP is an indispensable technique for lab-on-a-chip systems for many biological and colloidal science applications. However, existing models, including the dipole model and numerical simulations based on Maxwell stress tensor (MST, cannot achieve high accuracy and high computation efficiency at the same time. The dipole model is widely used and provides adequate predictions on the crossover frequency of submicron particles, but cannot predict the crossover frequency for larger particles accurately; on the other hand, the MST method offers high accuracy for a wide variety of particle sizes and shapes, but is time-consuming and may lack predictive understanding of the interplay between key parameters. Here we present a mathematical model, using dimensional analysis and the Buckingham pi theorem, that permits high accuracy and efficiency in predicting the crossover frequency of spherical particles. The curve fitting and calculation are performed using commercial packages OriginLab and MATLAB, respectively. In addition, through this model we also can predict the conditions in which no crossover frequency exists. Also, we propose a pair of dimensionless parameters, forming a functional relation, that provide physical insights into the dependency of the crossover frequency on five key parameters. The model is verified under several scenarios using comprehensive MST simulations by COMSOL Multiphysics software (COMSOL, Inc. and some published experimental data.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ju, Benxiang, E-mail: jubenxiang@qq.com [National Instrument Functional Materials Engineering Technology Research Center, Chongqing 400707 (China); Tang, Rui; Zhang, Dengyou; Yang, Bailian [National Instrument Functional Materials Engineering Technology Research Center, Chongqing 400707 (China); Yu, Miao; Liao, Changrong [College of Optoelectronic Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)
2015-01-15
Both anisotropic and isotropic magnetorheological elastomer (MRE) samples were fabricated by using as-prepared polyurethane (PU) matrix and carbonyl iron particles. Temperature-dependent dynamic mechanical properties of MRE were investigated and analyzed. Due to the unique structural features of as-prepared matrix, temperature has a greater impact on the properties of as-prepared MRE, especially isotropic MRE. With increasing of temperature and magnetic field, MR effect of isotropic MRE can reach up to as high as 4176.5% at temperature of 80 °C, and the mechanism of the temperature-dependent in presence of magnetic field was discussed. These results indicated that MRE is a kind of temperature-dependent material, and can be cycled between MRE and MR plastomer (MRP) by varying temperature. - Highlights: • Both anisotropic and isotropic MRE were fabricated by using as-prepared matrix. • Temperature-dependent properties of MRE under magnetic field were investigated. • As-prepared MRE can transform MRE to MRP by adjusting temperature.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Minoshima, Yusuke; Seki, Yusuke; Takayanagi, Toshiyuki; Shiga, Motoyuki
2016-01-01
Highlights: • Dynamics of excess electron attachment to guanine–cytosine base pair. • Ring-polymer and classical molecular dynamics simulations are performed. • Temperature and isotope substitution effects are investigated. - Abstract: The dynamical process of electron attachment to a guanine–cytosine pair in the normal (h-GC) and deuterated (d-GC) forms has been studied theoretically by semiclassical ring-polymer molecular dynamics (RPMD) simulations using the empirical valence bond model. The initially formed dipole-bound anion is converted rapidly to the valence-bound anion within about 0.1 ps in both h-GC and d-GC. However, the subsequent proton transfer in h-GC occurs with a rate five times greater than the deuteron transfer in d-GC. The change of rates with isotopic substitution and temperature variation in the RPMD simulations are quantitatively and qualitatively different from those in the classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, demonstrating the importance of nuclear quantum effects on the dynamics of this system.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Minoshima, Yusuke; Seki, Yusuke [Department of Chemistry, Saitama University, 255 Shimo-Okubo, Sakura-ku, Saitama City, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan); Takayanagi, Toshiyuki, E-mail: tako@mail.saitama-u.ac.jp [Department of Chemistry, Saitama University, 255 Shimo-Okubo, Sakura-ku, Saitama City, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan); Shiga, Motoyuki [Center for Computational Science and E-Systems, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 148-4, Kashiwanoha Campus, 178-4 Wakashiba, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-0871 (Japan)
2016-06-15
Highlights: • Dynamics of excess electron attachment to guanine–cytosine base pair. • Ring-polymer and classical molecular dynamics simulations are performed. • Temperature and isotope substitution effects are investigated. - Abstract: The dynamical process of electron attachment to a guanine–cytosine pair in the normal (h-GC) and deuterated (d-GC) forms has been studied theoretically by semiclassical ring-polymer molecular dynamics (RPMD) simulations using the empirical valence bond model. The initially formed dipole-bound anion is converted rapidly to the valence-bound anion within about 0.1 ps in both h-GC and d-GC. However, the subsequent proton transfer in h-GC occurs with a rate five times greater than the deuteron transfer in d-GC. The change of rates with isotopic substitution and temperature variation in the RPMD simulations are quantitatively and qualitatively different from those in the classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, demonstrating the importance of nuclear quantum effects on the dynamics of this system.
Crossover integral equation theory for the liquid structure study
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lai, S.K.; Chen, H.C.
1994-08-01
The main purpose of this work is to report on a calculation that describes the role of the long-range bridge function [H. Iyetomi and S. Ichimaru, Phys. Rev. A 25, 2434 (1982)] as applied to the study of structure of simple liquid metals. It was found here that this bridge function accounts pretty well for the major part of long-range interactions but is physically inadequate for describing the short-range part of liquid structure. To improve on the theory we have drawn attention to the crossover integral equation method which, in essence, amounts to adding to the above bridge function a short-range correction of bridge diagrams. The suggested crossover procedure has been tested for the case of liquid metal Cs. Remarkably good agreement with experiment was obtained confirming our conjecture that the crossover integral equation approach as stressed in this work is potentially an appropriate theory for an accurate study of liquid structure possibly for the supercooled liquid regime. (author). 21 refs, 3 figs
Second RPA dynamics at finite temperature: time-evolutions of dynamical operators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jang, S.
1989-01-01
Time-evolutions of dynamical operators, in particular the generalized density matrix comprising both diagonal and off-diagonal elements, are investigated within the framework of second RPA dynamics at finite temperature. The calculation of the density matrix previously carried out through the appliance of the second RPA master equation by retaining only the slowly oscillating coupling terms is extended to include in the interaction Hamiltonian both the rapidly and slowly oscillating coupling terms. The extended second RPA master equation, thereby formulated without making use of the so-called resonant approximation, is analytically solved and a closed expression for the generalized density matrix is extracted. We provide illustrative examples of the generalized density matrix for various specific initial conditions. We turn particularly our attention to the Poisson distribution type of initial condition for which we deduce specifically a particular form of the density matrix from the solution of the Fokker-Planck equation for the coherent state representation. The relation of the Fokker-Planck equation to the second RPA master equation and its properties are briefly discussed. The oversight incurred in the time-evolution of operators by the resonant approximation is elucidated. The first and second moments of collective coordinates are also computed in relation to the expectation value of various dynamical operators involved in the extended master equation
Lang, Johannes; Frank, Bernhard; Halimeh, Jad C.
2018-05-01
We construct the finite-temperature dynamical phase diagram of the fully connected transverse-field Ising model from the vantage point of two disparate concepts of dynamical criticality. An analytical derivation of the classical dynamics and exact diagonalization simulations are used to study the dynamics after a quantum quench in the system prepared in a thermal equilibrium state. The different dynamical phases characterized by the type of nonanalyticities that emerge in an appropriately defined Loschmidt-echo return rate directly correspond to the dynamical phases determined by the spontaneous breaking of Z2 symmetry in the long-time steady state. The dynamical phase diagram is qualitatively different depending on whether the initial thermal state is ferromagnetic or paramagnetic. Whereas the former leads to a dynamical phase diagram that can be directly related to its equilibrium counterpart, the latter gives rise to a divergent dynamical critical temperature at vanishing final transverse-field strength.
A crossover in anisotropic nanomechanochemistry of van der Waals crystals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shimamura, Kohei; Misawa, Masaaki; Li, Ying; Kalia, Rajiv K.; Nakano, Aiichiro; Vashishta, Priya; Shimojo, Fuyuki
2015-01-01
In nanoscale mechanochemistry, mechanical forces selectively break covalent bonds to essentially control chemical reactions. An archetype is anisotropic detonation of layered energetic molecular crystals bonded by van der Waals (vdW) interactions. Here, quantum molecular dynamics simulations reveal a crossover of anisotropic nanomechanochemistry of vdW crystal. Within 10 −13 s from the passage of shock front, lateral collision produces NO 2 via twisting and bending of nitro-groups and the resulting inverse Jahn-Teller effect, which is mediated by strong intra-layer hydrogen bonds. Subsequently, as we transition from heterogeneous to homogeneous mechanochemical regimes around 10 −12 s, shock normal to multilayers becomes more reactive, producing H 2 O assisted by inter-layer N-N bond formation. These time-resolved results provide much needed atomistic understanding of nanomechanochemistry that underlies a wider range of technologies
A crossover in anisotropic nanomechanochemistry of van der Waals crystals
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shimamura, Kohei [Department of Physics, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Collaboratory for Advanced Computing and Simulations, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Department of Computer Science, Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089-0242 (United States); Graduate School of System Informatics, Kobe University, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Misawa, Masaaki [Department of Physics, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Collaboratory for Advanced Computing and Simulations, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Department of Computer Science, Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089-0242 (United States); Li, Ying [Argonne Leadership Computing Facility, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Kalia, Rajiv K.; Nakano, Aiichiro; Vashishta, Priya [Collaboratory for Advanced Computing and Simulations, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Department of Computer Science, Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089-0242 (United States); Shimojo, Fuyuki [Department of Physics, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan)
2015-12-07
In nanoscale mechanochemistry, mechanical forces selectively break covalent bonds to essentially control chemical reactions. An archetype is anisotropic detonation of layered energetic molecular crystals bonded by van der Waals (vdW) interactions. Here, quantum molecular dynamics simulations reveal a crossover of anisotropic nanomechanochemistry of vdW crystal. Within 10{sup −13} s from the passage of shock front, lateral collision produces NO{sub 2} via twisting and bending of nitro-groups and the resulting inverse Jahn-Teller effect, which is mediated by strong intra-layer hydrogen bonds. Subsequently, as we transition from heterogeneous to homogeneous mechanochemical regimes around 10{sup −12} s, shock normal to multilayers becomes more reactive, producing H{sub 2}O assisted by inter-layer N-N bond formation. These time-resolved results provide much needed atomistic understanding of nanomechanochemistry that underlies a wider range of technologies.
Cold start dynamics and temperature sliding observer design of an automotive SOFC APU
Lin, Po-Hsu; Hong, Che-Wun
This paper presents a dynamic model for studying the cold start dynamics and observer design of an auxiliary power unit (APU) for automotive applications. The APU is embedded with a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stack which is a quiet and pollutant-free electric generator; however, it suffers from slow start problem from ambient conditions. The SOFC APU system equips with an after-burner to accelerate the start-up transient in this research. The combustion chamber burns the residual fuel (and air) left from the SOFC to raise the exhaust temperature to preheat the SOFC stack through an energy recovery unit. Since thermal effect is the dominant factor that influences the SOFC transient and steady performance, a nonlinear real-time sliding observer for stack temperature was implemented into the system dynamics to monitor the temperature variation for future controller design. The simulation results show that a 100 W APU system in this research takes about 2 min (in theory) for start-up without considering the thermal limitation of the cell fracture.
Dynamics of binary mixtures in inhomogeneous temperatures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gonnella, G; Piscitelli, A [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Bari and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, via Amendola 173, 70126 Bari (Italy); Lamura, A [Istituto Applicazioni Calcolo, CNR, via Amendola 122/D, 70126 Bari (Italy)
2008-03-14
A dynamical description for fluid binary mixtures with variable temperature and concentration gradient contributions to entropy and internal energy is given. By using mass, momentum and energy balance equations together with the standard expression for entropy production, a generalized Gibbs-Duhem relation is obtained which takes into account thermal and concentration gradient contributions. Then an expression for the pressure tensor is derived. As examples of applications, interface behavior and phase separation have been numerically studied in two dimensions neglecting the contributions of the velocity field. In the simplest case with a constant thermal gradient, the growth exponent for the averaged size of domains is found to have the usual value z = 1/3 and the domains appear elongated in the direction of the thermal gradient. When the system is quenched by contact with external walls, the evolution of temperature profiles in the system is shown and the domain morphology is characterized by interfaces perpendicular to the thermal gradient.
Dynamic frame selection for in vivo ultrasound temperature estimation during radiofrequency ablation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Daniels, Matthew J; Varghese, Tomy
2010-01-01
Minimally invasive therapies such as radiofrequency ablation have been developed to treat cancers of the liver, prostate and kidney without invasive surgery. Prior work has demonstrated that ultrasound echo shifts due to temperature changes can be utilized to track the temperature distribution in real time. In this paper, a motion compensation algorithm is evaluated to reduce the impact of cardiac and respiratory motion on ultrasound-based temperature tracking methods. The algorithm dynamically selects the next suitable frame given a start frame (selected during the exhale or expiration phase where extraneous motion is reduced), enabling optimization of the computational time in addition to reducing displacement noise artifacts incurred with the estimation of smaller frame-to-frame displacements at the full frame rate. A region of interest that does not undergo ablation is selected in the first frame and the algorithm searches through subsequent frames to find a similarly located region of interest in subsequent frames, with a high value of the mean normalized cross-correlation coefficient value. In conjunction with dynamic frame selection, two different two-dimensional displacement estimation algorithms namely a block matching and multilevel cross-correlation are compared. The multi-level cross-correlation method incorporates tracking of the lateral tissue expansion in addition to the axial deformation to improve the estimation performance. Our results demonstrate the ability of the proposed motion compensation using dynamic frame selection in conjunction with the two-dimensional multilevel cross-correlation to track the temperature distribution.
Dynamics of a Circular Mindlin Plate under Mechanical Loading and Elevated Temperature
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Warminska Anna
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Dynamics of a nonlinear circular Midlin plate is studied in the paper. The mathematical model represented by partial differential equations includes nonlinear geometrical terms resulted from large displacements. The plate is subjected to mechanical and thermal loadings. The dynamics of a coupled thermo-mechanical problem is reduced from partial to ordinary differential equations. Considering the first mode reduction and uniformly distributed temperature just a single nonlinear differential equation is obtained. The bifurcation analysis shows that elevated temperature shifts the rezonanse curve and new solutions arise. Depending on initial conditions this may lead to buckling phenomenon and then relatively small oscillations around this state, symmetric periodic oscillations of large amplitude, or irregular oscillations.
Modeling Apple Surface Temperature Dynamics Based on Weather Data
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lei Li
2014-10-01
Full Text Available The exposure of fruit surfaces to direct sunlight during the summer months can result in sunburn damage. Losses due to sunburn damage are a major economic problem when marketing fresh apples. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a model for simulating fruit surface temperature (FST dynamics based on energy balance and measured weather data. A series of weather data (air temperature, humidity, solar radiation, and wind speed was recorded for seven hours between 11:00–18:00 for two months at fifteen minute intervals. To validate the model, the FSTs of “Fuji” apples were monitored using an infrared camera in a natural orchard environment. The FST dynamics were measured using a series of thermal images. For the apples that were completely exposed to the sun, the RMSE of the model for estimating FST was less than 2.0 °C. A sensitivity analysis of the emissivity of the apple surface and the conductance of the fruit surface to water vapour showed that accurate estimations of the apple surface emissivity were important for the model. The validation results showed that the model was capable of accurately describing the thermal performances of apples under different solar radiation intensities. Thus, this model could be used to more accurately estimate the FST relative to estimates that only consider the air temperature. In addition, this model provides useful information for sunburn protection management.
Modeling apple surface temperature dynamics based on weather data.
Li, Lei; Peters, Troy; Zhang, Qin; Zhang, Jingjin; Huang, Danfeng
2014-10-27
The exposure of fruit surfaces to direct sunlight during the summer months can result in sunburn damage. Losses due to sunburn damage are a major economic problem when marketing fresh apples. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a model for simulating fruit surface temperature (FST) dynamics based on energy balance and measured weather data. A series of weather data (air temperature, humidity, solar radiation, and wind speed) was recorded for seven hours between 11:00-18:00 for two months at fifteen minute intervals. To validate the model, the FSTs of "Fuji" apples were monitored using an infrared camera in a natural orchard environment. The FST dynamics were measured using a series of thermal images. For the apples that were completely exposed to the sun, the RMSE of the model for estimating FST was less than 2.0 °C. A sensitivity analysis of the emissivity of the apple surface and the conductance of the fruit surface to water vapour showed that accurate estimations of the apple surface emissivity were important for the model. The validation results showed that the model was capable of accurately describing the thermal performances of apples under different solar radiation intensities. Thus, this model could be used to more accurately estimate the FST relative to estimates that only consider the air temperature. In addition, this model provides useful information for sunburn protection management.
Nonlinear temperature effects on multifractal complexity of metabolic rate of mice
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fabio A. Labra
2016-10-01
Full Text Available Complex physiological dynamics have been argued to be a signature of healthy physiological function. Here we test whether the complexity of metabolic rate fluctuations in small endotherms decreases with lower environmental temperatures. To do so, we examine the multifractal temporal scaling properties of the rate of change in oxygen consumption r(VO2, in the laboratory mouse Mus musculus, assessing their long range correlation properties across seven different environmental temperatures, ranging from 0 °C to 30 °C. To do so, we applied multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA, finding that r(VO2 fluctuations show two scaling regimes. For small time scales below the crossover time (approximately 102 s, either monofractal or weak multifractal dynamics are observed depending on whether Ta 15 °C respectively. For larger time scales, r(VO2 fluctuations are characterized by an asymptotic scaling exponent that indicates multifractal anti-persistent or uncorrelated dynamics. For both scaling regimes, a generalization of the multiplicative cascade model provides very good fits for the Renyi exponents τ(q, showing that the infinite number of exponents h(q can be described by only two independent parameters, a and b. We also show that the long-range correlation structure of r(VO2 time series differs from randomly shuffled series, and may not be explained as an artifact of stochastic sampling of a linear frequency spectrum. These results show that metabolic rate dynamics in a well studied micro-endotherm are consistent with a highly non-linear feedback control system.
Graphene on Cu(111) at the nonzero temperatures: Molecular dynamic simulation
Sidorenkov, A. V.; Kolesnikov, S. V.; Saletsky, A. M.
2017-11-01
We present results of molecular dynamic simulation of continuous graphene monolayer on Cu(111). In this paper, we investigate the dependencies of the average binding energy and the average binding distance on the temperature. The interaction between carbon and copper atoms was described by Lennard-Jones potential. It is shown that the binding energy practically remains constant in a wide range of temperatures 0-800 K. However, in the same temperature range, the binding distance of graphene on Cu(111) surface has a linear dependence on temperature. The dependence of the linear thermal expansion coefficient of the binding distance on Lennard-Jones parameters has been calculated. We suggest a simple theoretical model to explain this dependence qualitatively.
Harbour, L.; Förster, G. D.; Dharma-wardana, M. W. C.; Lewis, Laurent J.
2018-04-01
The ion-ion dynamical structure factor and the equation of state of warm dense aluminum in a two-temperature quasiequilibrium state, with the electron temperature higher than the ion temperature, are investigated using molecular-dynamics simulations based on ion-ion pair potentials constructed from a neutral pseudoatom model. Such pair potentials based on density functional theory are parameter-free and depend directly on the electron temperature and indirectly on the ion temperature, enabling efficient computation of two-temperature properties. Comparison with ab initio simulations and with other average-atom calculations for equilibrium aluminum shows good agreement, justifying a study of quasiequilibrium situations. Analyzing the van Hove function, we find that ion-ion correlations vanish in a time significantly smaller than the electron-ion relaxation time so that dynamical properties have a physical meaning for the quasiequilibrium state. A significant increase in the speed of sound is predicted from the modification of the dispersion relation of the ion acoustic mode as the electron temperature is increased. The two-temperature equation of state including the free energy, internal energy, and pressure is also presented.
Dynamical Model of QCD Vacuum and Color Thaw at Finite Temperatures
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANGDian-Fu; SONGHe-Shan; MIDong
2004-01-01
In terms of the Nambu Jona-Lasinio (NJL) mechanism, the dynamical symmetry breaking of a simple local gauge model is investigated. An important relation between the vacuum expectation value of gauge fields and scalar fields is derived by solving the Euler equation for the gauge fields. Based on this relation the SU(3) gauge potential is given which can be used to explain the asymptotic freedom and confinement of quarks in a hadron. The confinement behavior at finite temperatures is also investigated and it is shown that color confinement at zero temperature can be melted away under high temperatures.
Dielectric and mechanical relaxation in isooctylcyanobiphenyl (8*OCB)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pawlus, S; Mierzwa, M; Paluch, M; Rzoska, S J [Institute of Physics, University of Silesia, Uniwersytecka 4, 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Roland, C M, E-mail: michal.mierzwa@us.edu.p [Chemistry Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Code 6120, Washington, DC 20375-5342 (United States)
2010-06-16
The dynamics of isooctylcyanobiphenyl (8*OCB) was characterized using dielectric and mechanical spectroscopies. This isomer of the liquid crystalline octylcyanobiphenyl (8OCB) vitrifies during cooling or on application of pressure, exhibiting the typical features of glass-forming liquids: non-Debye relaxation function, non-Arrhenius temperature dependence of the relaxation times, {tau}{sub {alpha}}, a dynamic crossover at T {approx} 1.6T{sub g}. This crossover is evidenced by changes in the behavior of both the peak shape and the temperature dependence of {tau}{sub {alpha}}. The primary relaxation time at the crossover, 2 ns at ambient pressure, is the smallest value reported to date for any molecular liquid or polymer. Interestingly, at all temperatures below this crossover, {tau}{sub {alpha}}and the dc conductivity remain coupled (i.e., conform to the Debye-Stokes-Einstein relation). Two secondary relaxations are observed in the glassy state, one of which is identified as the Johari-Goldstein process. Unlike the case for 8OCB, no liquid crystalline phase could be attained for 8*OCB, demonstrating that relatively small differences in chemical structure can effect substantial changes in the intermolecular potential.
Impact of hydrodynamic interactions on protein folding rates depends on temperature
Zegarra, Fabio C.; Homouz, Dirar; Eliaz, Yossi; Gasic, Andrei G.; Cheung, Margaret S.
2018-03-01
We investigated the impact of hydrodynamic interactions (HI) on protein folding using a coarse-grained model. The extent of the impact of hydrodynamic interactions, whether it accelerates, retards, or has no effect on protein folding, has been controversial. Together with a theoretical framework of the energy landscape theory (ELT) for protein folding that describes the dynamics of the collective motion with a single reaction coordinate across a folding barrier, we compared the kinetic effects of HI on the folding rates of two protein models that use a chain of single beads with distinctive topologies: a 64-residue α /β chymotrypsin inhibitor 2 (CI2) protein, and a 57-residue β -barrel α -spectrin Src-homology 3 domain (SH3) protein. When comparing the protein folding kinetics simulated with Brownian dynamics in the presence of HI to that in the absence of HI, we find that the effect of HI on protein folding appears to have a "crossover" behavior about the folding temperature. This means that at a temperature greater than the folding temperature, the enhanced friction from the hydrodynamic solvents between the beads in an unfolded configuration results in lowered folding rate; conversely, at a temperature lower than the folding temperature, HI accelerates folding by the backflow of solvent toward the folded configuration of a protein. Additionally, the extent of acceleration depends on the topology of a protein: for a protein like CI2, where its folding nucleus is rather diffuse in a transition state, HI channels the formation of contacts by favoring a major folding pathway in a complex free energy landscape, thus accelerating folding. For a protein like SH3, where its folding nucleus is already specific and less diffuse, HI matters less at a temperature lower than the folding temperature. Our findings provide further theoretical insight to protein folding kinetic experiments and simulations.
Effects of the electric field on ion crossover in vanadium redox flow batteries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang, Xiao-Guang; Ye, Qiang; Cheng, Ping; Zhao, Tim S.
2015-01-01
Highlights: • Effects of the electric field on ion crossover and capacity decay in VRFB are studied. • The model enables the Donnan-potential jumps to be captured at electrode/membrane interfaces. • Electric field arises and affects ion crossover even at the open-circuit condition. • Enhancing electric-field-driven crossover can mitigate the capacity decay rate. - Abstract: A thorough understanding of the mechanisms of ion crossover through the membranes in vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs) is critically important in making improvements to the battery’s efficiency and cycling performance. In this work, we develop a 2-D VRFB model to investigate the mechanisms of ion crossover and the associated impacts it has on the battery’s performance. Unlike previously described models in the literature that simulated a single cell by dividing it into the positive electrode, membrane, and negative electrode regions, the present model incorporates all possible ion crossover mechanisms in the entire cell without a need to specify any interfacial boundary conditions at the membrane/electrode interfaces, and hence accurately captures the Donnan-potential jumps and steep gradient of species concentrations at the membrane/electrode interfaces. With our model, a particular emphasis is given to investigation of the effect of the electric field on vanadium ion crossover. One of the significant findings is that an electric field exists in the membrane even under the open-circuit condition, primarily due to the presence of the H + concentration gradient across the membrane. This finding suggests that vanadium ions can permeate through the membrane from H + -diluted to H + -concentrated sides via migration and convection. More importantly, it is found that the rate of vanadium ion crossover and capacity decay during charge and discharge vary with the magnitude of the electric field, which is influenced by the membrane properties and operating conditions. The simulations
TaPT: Temperature-Aware Dynamic Cache Optimization for Embedded Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tosiron Adegbija
2017-12-01
Full Text Available Embedded systems have stringent design constraints, which has necessitated much prior research focus on optimizing energy consumption and/or performance. Since embedded systems typically have fewer cooling options, rising temperature, and thus temperature optimization, is an emergent concern. Most embedded systems only dissipate heat by passive convection, due to the absence of dedicated thermal management hardware mechanisms. The embedded system’s temperature not only affects the system’s reliability, but can also affect the performance, power, and cost. Thus, embedded systems require efficient thermal management techniques. However, thermal management can conflict with other optimization objectives, such as execution time and energy consumption. In this paper, we focus on managing the temperature using a synergy of cache optimization and dynamic frequency scaling, while also optimizing the execution time and energy consumption. This paper provides new insights on the impact of cache parameters on efficient temperature-aware cache tuning heuristics. In addition, we present temperature-aware phase-based tuning, TaPT, which determines Pareto optimal clock frequency and cache configurations for fine-grained execution time, energy, and temperature tradeoffs. TaPT enables autonomous system optimization and also allows designers to specify temperature constraints and optimization priorities. Experiments show that TaPT can effectively reduce execution time, energy, and temperature, while imposing minimal hardware overhead.
Crossover from Rouse dynamics to the α-relaxation in poly(vinyl ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
directly at the structure factor peak [1–3], is subject to the same universalities as ... Recently, molecular dynamics simulations [11] as well as mode coupling theory ..... appears to relate to the internal dynamics within the Gaussian blobs.
The Model of Temperature Dynamics of Pulsed Fuel Assembly
Bondarchenko, E A; Popov, A K
2002-01-01
Heat exchange process differential equations are considered for a subcritical fuel assembly with an injector. The equations are obtained by means of the use of the Hermit polynomial. The model is created for modelling of temperature transitional processes. The parameters and dynamics are estimated for hypothetical fuel assembly consisting of real mountings: the powerful proton accelerator and the reactor IBR-2 core at its subcritica l state.
Allen, Philip B.
2018-04-01
Simulations [e.g., X. W. Zhou et al., Phys. Rev. B 79, 115201 (2009), 10.1103/PhysRevB.79.115201] show nonlocal effects of the ballistic/diffusive crossover. The local temperature has nonlinear spatial variation not contained in the local Fourier law j ⃗(r ⃗) =-κ ∇ ⃗T (r ⃗) . The heat current j ⃗(r ⃗) depends not just on the local temperature gradient ∇ ⃗T (r ⃗) but also on temperatures at points r⃗' within phonon mean free paths, which can be micrometers long. This paper uses the Peierls-Boltzmann transport theory in nonlocal form to analyze the spatial variation Δ T (r ⃗) . The relaxation-time approximation (RTA) is used because the full solution is very challenging. Improved methods of extrapolation to obtain the bulk thermal conductivity κ are proposed. Callaway invented an approximate method of correcting RTA for the q ⃗ (phonon wave vector or crystal momentum) conservation of N (Normal as opposed to Umklapp) anharmonic collisions. This method is generalized to the nonlocal case where κ (k ⃗) depends on the wave vector of the current j ⃗(k ⃗) and temperature gradient i k ⃗Δ T (k ⃗) .
Heat exposure in cities: combining the dynamics of temperature and population
Hu, L.; Wilhelmi, O.; Uejio, C. K.
2017-12-01
Assessment of human exposure to extreme heat requires the distributions of temperature and population. However, both variables are dynamic, thus presenting many challenges in capturing temperature and population patterns spatially and over time in an urban context. This study aims to improve the understanding of spatiotemporal patterns of urban population exposure to heat, taking Chicago, USA as an example. We estimate the hourly, geographically variable, population distribution considering commute of workers and students in a regular weekday and analyze the diurnal air temperature patterns during different meteorological conditions from satellite observations. The results show a relatively larger temperature increase in less urbanized areas during extreme heat events (EHEs), resulting in a spatially homogeneous temperature distribution over Chicago Metropolitan area. A lake cooling effect is weaker during EHEs. Population dynamics due to daily commute determine higher population density in more urbanized areas during daytime. The city-wide analysis reveals that the exposure is more sensitive to the nighttime temperature increases, and EHEs enhance this sensitivity. The high exposure hotspots are identified at the northwest Chicago, Cicero and Oak Park areas, where the influence from Lake Michigan is weakened, while the spatial extent of high outdoor exposure areas varies diurnally. This study's findings have potential to better inform general heat mitigation strategies during hot summer months and facilitate emergency response during EHEs. Availability of remotely-sensed temperature observations as well as the workers and students commute-adjusted population data allows for the adoption of this study's methodology in other major metropolitan areas. A better understanding of space-time patterns of urban population's exposure to heat will further enable local decision makers to mitigate extreme heat health risks and develop more targeted heat preparedness and
Dynamic Temperature Rise Mechanism and Some Controlling Factors of Wet Clutch Engagement
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhang Zhigang
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The friction transmission model of wet clutch is established to analyze the friction transmission mechanism of its engagement. The model is developed by applying both the average flow model and the elastic contact model between the friction disk and separator plate. The key components during wet clutch engagement are the separator plate, friction disk, and lubricant. The one-dimension transient models of heat transfer in radial direction for the three components are built on the basis of the heat transfer theory and the conservation law of energy. The friction transmission model and transient heat transfer models are coupled and solved by using the Runge-Kutta numerical method, and the radial temperature distribution and their detailed parametric study for the three components are conducted separately. The simulation results show that the radial temperature for the three components rises with the increase of radius in engagement. The changes in engagement pressure, lubricant viscosity, friction lining permeability, combined surface roughness RMS, equivalent elasticity modulus, difference between dynamic and static friction coefficients, and lubricant flow have important influence on the temperature rise characteristics. The proposed models can get better understanding of the dynamic temperature rise characteristics of wet clutch engagement.
Wilson, Leigh Ann; Gerard Morgan, Geoffrey; Hanigan, Ivan Charles; Johnston, Fay H; Abu-Rayya, Hisham; Broome, Richard; Gaskin, Clive; Jalaludin, Bin
2013-01-01
Background This study examined the association between unusually high temperature and daily mortality (1997?2007) and hospital admissions (1997?2010) in the Sydney Greater Metropolitan Region (GMR) to assist in the development of targeted health programs designed to minimise the public health impact of extreme heat. Methods Sydney GMR was categorized into five climate zones. Heat-events were defined as severe or extreme. Using a time-stratified case-crossover design with a conditional logisti...
Phase diagram of dilute nuclear matter: Unconventional pairing and the BCS-BEC crossover
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stein, Martin; Sedrakian, Armen [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik
2013-07-01
We report on a comprehensive study of the phase structure of cold, dilute nuclear matter featuring a {sup 3}S{sub 1}-{sup 3}D{sub 1} condensate at non-zero isospin asymmetry, within wide ranges of temperatures and densities. We find a rich phase diagram comprising three superfluid phases, namely a LOFF phase, the ordinary BCS phase, and a heterogeneous, phase-separated BCS phase, with associated crossovers from the latter two phases to a homogeneous or phase-separated Bose-Einstein condensate of deuterons. The phase diagram contains two tri-critical points (one a Lifshitz point), which may degenerate into a single tetra-critical point for some degree of isospin asymmetry.
Antiferromagnetic-ferromagnetic crossover in UO2-TiOx multi-phase systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nakamura, Akio; Tsutsui, Satoshi; Yoshii, Kenji
2001-01-01
An antiferromagnetic (AF)-weakly ferromagnetic (WF) crossover has been found for UO 2 -TiO x multi-phase systems, (1-y)UO 2 +yTiO x (y=0.05-0.72, x=0, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0), when these mixtures are heat treated at high temperature in vacuum. From the powder X-ray diffraction and electron-microprobe analyses, their phase assemblies were as follows: for x=0, 1.0 and 1.5, a heterogeneous two-phase mixture of UO 2 +TiO x ; for x=2.0, that of UO 2 +UTi 2 O 6 for y 0.67 that of UTi 2 O 6 +TiO 2 (plus residual minor UO 2 ). Magnetic susceptibility (χ) of the present UO 2 powder was confirmed to exhibit an antiferromagnetic sharp drop at T N (=30.5 K). In contrast, χ of these multi-phase systems was found to exhibit a sharp upturn at the respective T N , while their T N values remained almost constant with varying y. This χ upturn at T N is most pronounced for UO 2 +Ti-oxide (titania) systems (x=1.0, 1.5 and 2.0) over the wide mixture ratio above y∼0.10. These observations indicate that an AF-WF crossover is induced for these multi-phase systems, plausibly due to the interfacial magnetic modification of UO 2 in contact with the oxide partners
Classical and quantum dynamics of driven elliptical billiards
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lenz, Florian
2009-12-09
Subject of this thesis is the investigation of the classical dynamics of the driven elliptical billiard and the development of a numerical method allowing the propagation of arbitrary initial states in the quantum version of the system. In the classical case, we demonstrate that there is Fermi acceleration in the driven billiard. The corresponding transport process in momentum space shows a surprising crossover from sub- to normal diffusion. This crossover is not parameter induced, but rather occurs dynamically in the evolution of the ensemble. The four-dimensional phase space is analyzed in depth, especially how its composition changes in different velocity regimes. We show that the stickiness properties, which eventually determine the diffusion, are intimately connected with this change of the composition of the phase space with respect to velocity. In the course of the evolution, the accelerating ensemble thus explores regions of varying stickiness, leading to the mentioned crossover in the diffusion. In the quantum case, a series of transformations tailored to the elliptical billiard is applied to circumvent the time-dependent Dirichlet boundary conditions. By means of an expansion ansatz, this eventually yields a large system of coupled ordinary differential equations, which can be solved by standard techniques. (orig.)
Classical and quantum dynamics of driven elliptical billiards
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lenz, Florian
2009-01-01
Subject of this thesis is the investigation of the classical dynamics of the driven elliptical billiard and the development of a numerical method allowing the propagation of arbitrary initial states in the quantum version of the system. In the classical case, we demonstrate that there is Fermi acceleration in the driven billiard. The corresponding transport process in momentum space shows a surprising crossover from sub- to normal diffusion. This crossover is not parameter induced, but rather occurs dynamically in the evolution of the ensemble. The four-dimensional phase space is analyzed in depth, especially how its composition changes in different velocity regimes. We show that the stickiness properties, which eventually determine the diffusion, are intimately connected with this change of the composition of the phase space with respect to velocity. In the course of the evolution, the accelerating ensemble thus explores regions of varying stickiness, leading to the mentioned crossover in the diffusion. In the quantum case, a series of transformations tailored to the elliptical billiard is applied to circumvent the time-dependent Dirichlet boundary conditions. By means of an expansion ansatz, this eventually yields a large system of coupled ordinary differential equations, which can be solved by standard techniques. (orig.)
De Filippis, G.; Cataudella, V.; Mishchenko, A. S.; Nagaosa, N.; Fierro, A.; de Candia, A.
2015-02-01
The transport properties at finite temperature of crystalline organic semiconductors are investigated, within the Su-Schrieffer-Heeger model, by combining an exact diagonalization technique, Monte Carlo approaches, and a maximum entropy method. The temperature-dependent mobility data measured in single crystals of rubrene are successfully reproduced: a crossover from super- to subdiffusive motion occurs in the range 150 ≤T ≤200 K , where the mean free path becomes of the order of the lattice parameter and strong memory effects start to appear. We provide an effective model, which can successfully explain features of the absorption spectra at low frequencies. The observed response to slowly varying electric field is interpreted by means of a simple model where the interaction between the charge carrier and lattice polarization modes is simulated by a harmonic interaction between a fictitious particle and an electron embedded in a viscous fluid.
Regulation of spatial selectivity by crossover inhibition.
Cafaro, Jon; Rieke, Fred
2013-04-10
Signals throughout the nervous system diverge into parallel excitatory and inhibitory pathways that later converge on downstream neurons to control their spike output. Converging excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs can exhibit a variety of temporal relationships. A common motif is feedforward inhibition, in which an increase (decrease) in excitatory input precedes a corresponding increase (decrease) in inhibitory input. The delay of inhibitory input relative to excitatory input originates from an extra synapse in the circuit shaping inhibitory input. Another common motif is push-pull or "crossover" inhibition, in which increases (decreases) in excitatory input occur together with decreases (increases) in inhibitory input. Primate On midget ganglion cells receive primarily feedforward inhibition and On parasol cells receive primarily crossover inhibition; this difference provides an opportunity to study how each motif shapes the light responses of cell types that play a key role in visual perception. For full-field stimuli, feedforward inhibition abbreviated and attenuated responses of On midget cells, while crossover inhibition, though plentiful, had surprisingly little impact on the responses of On parasol cells. Spatially structured stimuli, however, could cause excitatory and inhibitory inputs to On parasol cells to increase together, adopting a temporal relation very much like that for feedforward inhibition. In this case, inhibitory inputs substantially abbreviated a cell's spike output. Thus inhibitory input shapes the temporal stimulus selectivity of both midget and parasol ganglion cells, but its impact on responses of parasol cells depends strongly on the spatial structure of the light inputs.
Predictive Factors for Patients Undergoing ASD Device Occlusion Who "Crossover" to Surgery.
Mulukutla, Venkatachalam; Qureshi, Athar M; Pignatelli, Ricardo; Ing, Frank F
2018-03-01
The aim of this study was to define characteristics of those patients who are referred for device closure of an Atrial septal defect (ASD), but identified to "crossover" surgery. All patients who underwent surgical and device (Amplatzer or Helex occluder) closures of secundum ASDs from 2001 to 2010 were reviewed and organized into three groups: surgical closure, device closure, and "crossover" group. 369 patients underwent ASD closure (265 device, 104 surgical). 42 of the 265 patients referred for device closure "crossed over" to the surgical group at various stages of the catheterization procedure. The device group had defect size measuring 14.2 mm (mean) and an ASD index (Defect Size (mm)/BSA) of 14.0 compared to the corresponding values in the surgical group (20.1 mm, ASD index 25.9) (P ASD index) (P ASD index of 14.7 compared with the crossover group ASD index of 23.8 (P ASD index greater than 23.7 had a 90% specificity in "crossing over" to surgery. The crossover and surgical groups had statistically larger ASD defect size indexes compared with the device group. Deficient rim in the posterior/inferior rim is associated with a large ASD size index which is a predictive factor for crossing over to surgery. Catheterization did not negatively impact surgical results in the "crossover" group.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H. J. Harsan Ma
2015-06-01
Full Text Available We report emerging photoluminescence (PL of bilayer two-dimensional electron gases (2DEG in LaAlO3/SrTiO3 (LAO/STO systems. A strong blue PL emerges in bilayer-2DEGs in LAO/STO/LAO/STO which doesn’t show in LAO/STO. PL band in bilayer-2DEGs includes both nearly temperature independent Auger recombination and temperature dependent free electron trapping while it crossovers from Auger recombination to single carrier trapping in LAO/STO. The PL signal of free electron trapping appears at high temperatures and it is much stronger than Auger recombination in the conducting channel in bilayer 2DEGs. This observation shows that high mobility carriers dominate the carrier dynamics in bilayer-2DEGs in LAO/STO superlattices.
Ising ferromagnet: zero-temperature dynamic evolution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oliveira, P M C de; Newman, C M; Sidoravicious, V; Stein, D L
2006-01-01
The dynamic evolution at zero temperature of a uniform Ising ferromagnet on a square lattice is followed by Monte Carlo computer simulations. The system always eventually reaches a final, absorbing state, which sometimes coincides with a ground state (all spins parallel), and sometimes does not (parallel stripes of spins up and down). We initiate here the numerical study of 'chaotic time dependence' (CTD) by seeing how much information about the final state is predictable from the randomly generated quenched initial state. CTD was originally proposed to explain how nonequilibrium spin glasses could manifest an equilibrium pure state structure, but in simpler systems such as homogeneous ferromagnets it is closely related to long-term predictability and our results suggest that CTD might indeed occur in the infinite volume limit
Comparative Analysis of Genetic Crossover Operators in Knapsack ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
ADOWIE PERE
Knapsack problem via GA (Genetic Algorithm) is presented. We compared ... Keywords: Genetic Algorithm, Crossover, Heuristic, Arithmetic, Intermediate, Evolutionary Algorithm. The knapsack .... application to 0/1 Knapsack problem, Applied.
Slow dynamics in an azopolymer molecular layer studied by x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Orsi, D.; Fluerasu, A.; Cristofolini, L.; Fontana, M.P.; Pontecorvo, E.; Caronna, C.; Zontone, F.; Madsen, A.
2010-01-01
We report the results of x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy (XPCS) experiments on multilayers of a photosensitive azo-polymer which can be softened by photoisomerization. Time correlation functions have been measured at different temperatures and momentum transfers (q) and under different illumination conditions (dark, UV or visible). The correlation functions are well described by the Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts (KWW) form with relaxation times that are proportional to q -1 . The characteristic relaxation times follow the same Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann law describing the bulk viscosity of this polymer. The out-of-equilibrium relaxation dynamics following a UV photoperturbation are accelerated, which is in agreement with a fluidification effect previously measured by rheology. The transient dynamics are characterized by two times correlation function, and dynamical heterogeneity is evidenced by calculating the variance χ of the degree of correlation as a function of ageing time. A clear peak in χ appears at a well defined time τ C which scales with q -1 and with the ageing time, in a similar fashion as previously reported in colloidal suspensions (O. Dauchot et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 95 265701 (2005)). From an accurate analysis of the correlation functions we could demonstrate a temperature and light dependent cross-over from compressed KWW to simple exponential behavior.
EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATIONS OF INTERACTION OF TRACK AND ROLLING STOCK ON CROSSOVERS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. A. Arbuzov
2016-10-01
Full Text Available Purpose. Recently on the Ukrainian railways network more attention is paid to the cases of violations in the maintenance of crossovers, which may lead to deterioration of the train traffic safety conditions. As a rule, such violations occur as a result of inaccuracies during crossover pegging and laying, as well as are the consequence of impact of rolling stock and thermal forces. The appearance of geometrical irregularities can also be triggered by violation of the scheme of layout of concrete sleepers in the crossover turnout curve with intertrack spaces of less than 5.3 m. Therefore, we have decided to analyze the impact of the presence of deviations from the layout scheme of the sleepers and geometric irregularities on the conditions of track and rolling stock interaction based on the results of experimental investigations. It was also decided to establish a connection between the stress-strain states of the track and the presence of short sleepers. Methodology. The effect of deviations from the layout scheme of the sleepers and geometric irregularities on the interaction conditions of track and rolling stock was studied by means of theoretical calculations and experimental research. The experimental research covered the area on the non-public railway tracks that meets the required conditions for scientific and research work on the territory of «Transinvestservice» company. Findings. The distribution of stresses and forces acting on a railway track depending on speed movement of experienced rolling stock was obtained. In addition we obtained the data on the influence of the sleeper geometric parameters on its stress-strain state. Originality. For the first time the paper assessed the impact of rolling stock in the presence of geometrical irregularities and asymmetrically truncated sleepers within the crossover connection part on the stress-strain state of track in this zone. In addition, we compared the results for the area with common and
Modelling temperature dynamics of a district heating system in Naestved, Denmark-A case study
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gabrielaitiene, Irina; Bohm, Benny; Sunden, Bengt
2007-01-01
Modelling the temperature dynamics of a district heating system is typically validated for a single pipe or a system with limited information about dynamic consumer behaviour. In the present work, time dependent consumer data from the Naestved district heating system was used to investigate the ability of modelling tools to represent the temperature profile distortion throughout an entire heating system network. The Naestved district heating subsystem was modelled by two approaches (the node method developed at the Technical University of Denmark and the software TERMIS), and these modelling results were compared with measured data. The results indicate that the discrepancies between the predicted and measured temperatures are pronounced for consumers located in pipelines at distant pipelines containing numerous bends and fittings. Additionally, it was found that representing the consumer behaviour on an annual average basis introduced a deviation between the predicted and the measured return temperatures at the heat source
Quantum Quench Dynamics in the Transverse Field Ising Model at Non-zero Temperatures
Abeling, Nils; Kehrein, Stefan
The recently discovered Dynamical Phase Transition denotes non-analytic behavior in the real time evolution of quantum systems in the thermodynamic limit and has been shown to occur in different systems at zero temperature [Heyl et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 135704 (2013)]. In this talk we present the extension of the analysis to non-zero temperature by studying a generalized form of the Loschmidt echo, the work distribution function, of a quantum quench in the transverse field Ising model. Although the quantitative behavior at non-zero temperatures still displays features derived from the zero temperature non-analyticities, it is shown that in this model dynamical phase transitions do not exist if T > 0 . This is a consequence of the system being initialized in a thermal state. Moreover, we elucidate how the Tasaki-Crooks-Jarzynski relation can be exploited as a symmetry relation for a global quench or to obtain the change of the equilibrium free energy density. This work was supported through CRC SFB 1073 (Project B03) of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG).
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Oliveira, V.B.; Pinto, A.M.F.R. [Centro de Estudos de Fenomenos de Transporte, Departamento de Eng. Quimica, Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal); Rangel, C.M. [Instituto Nacional de Energia e Geologia, Fuel Cells and Hydrogen, Estrada do Paco do Lumiar, 1649-038 Lisboa (Portugal)
2009-08-15
A number of issues need to be resolved before DMFC can be commercially viable such as the methanol crossover and water crossover which must be minimised in portable DMFCs. The main gain of this work is to systematically vary commercial MEA materials and check their influence on the cell performance of a direct methanol fuel cell operating at close to room temperature. A detailed experimental study on the performance of an <
Preparation and Dynamic Mechanical Properties at Elevated Temperatures of a Tungsten/Glass Composite
Gao, Chong; Wang, Yingchun; Ma, Xueya; Liu, Keyi; Wang, Yubing; Li, Shukui; Cheng, Xingwang
2018-03-01
Experiments were conducted to prepare a borosilicate glass matrix composite containing 50 vol.% tungsten and examine its dynamic compressive behavior at elevated temperatures in the range of 450-775 °C. The results show that the homogenous microstructure of the tungsten/glass composite with relative density of 97% can be obtained by hot-pressing sintering at 800 °C for 1 h under pressure of 30 MPa. Dynamic compressive testing was carried out by a separate Hopkinson pressure bar system with a synchronous device. The results show that the peak stress decreases and the composite transforms from brittle to ductile in nature with testing temperature increasing from 450 to 750 °C. The brittle-ductile transition temperature is about 500 °C. Over 775 °C, the composite loses load-bearing capacity totally because of the excessive softening of the glass phase. In addition, the deformation and failure mechanism were analyzed.
Density and temperature dependence of carrier dynamics in self-organized InGaAs quantum dots
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Norris, T B; Kim, K; Urayama, J; Wu, Z K; Singh, J; Bhattacharya, P K
2005-01-01
We have used two- and three-pulse femtosecond differential transmission spectroscopy to study the dependence of quantum dot carrier dynamics on temperature. At low temperatures and densities, the rates for relaxation between the quantum dot confined states and for capture from the barrier region into the various dot levels could be directly determined. For electron-hole pairs generated directly in the quantum dot excited state, relaxation is dominated by electron-hole scattering, and occurs on a 5 ps time scale. Capture times from the barrier into the quantum dot are of the order of 2 ps (into the excited state) and 10 ps (into the ground state). The phonon bottleneck was clearly observed in low-density capture experiments, and the conditions for its observation (namely, the suppression of electron-hole scattering for nongeminately captured electrons) were determined. As temperature increases beyond about 100 K, the dynamics become dominated by the re-emission of carriers from the lower dot levels, due to the large density of states in the wetting layer and barrier region. Measurements of the gain dynamics show fast (130 fs) gain recovery due to intradot carrier-carrier scattering, and picosecond-scale capture. Direct measurement of the transparency density versus temperature shows the dramatic effect of carrier re-emission for the quantum dots on thermally activated scattering. The carrier dynamics at elevated temperature are thus strongly dominated by the high density of the high energy continuum states relative to the dot confined levels. Deleterious hot carrier effects can be suppressed in quantum dot lasers by resonant tunnelling injection
Crossover driven by time-reversal symmetry breaking in quantum chaos
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Taniguchi, N.; Hashimoto, A.; Simons, B.D.; Altshuler, B.L.
1994-01-01
Parametric correlations of the energy spectra of quantum chaotic systems are presented in the presence of time-reversal symmetry-breaking perturbations. The spectra disperse as a function of two external perturbations, one of which preserves time-reversal symmetry, while the other violates it. Exact analytical expressions for the parametric two-point autocorrelation function of the density of states are derived in the crossover region by means of the supermatrix method. For the orthogonal-unitary crossover, the velocity distribution is determined and shown to deviate from Gaussian. (orig.)
Temperature manipulation of neuronal dynamics in a forebrain motor control nucleus.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Matías A Goldin
2017-08-01
Full Text Available Different neuronal types within brain motor areas contribute to the generation of complex motor behaviors. A widely studied songbird forebrain nucleus (HVC has been recognized as fundamental in shaping the precise timing characteristics of birdsong. This is based, among other evidence, on the stretching and the "breaking" of song structure when HVC is cooled. However, little is known about the temperature effects that take place in its neurons. To address this, we investigated the dynamics of HVC both experimentally and computationally. We developed a technique where simultaneous electrophysiological recordings were performed during temperature manipulation of HVC. We recorded spontaneous activity and found three effects: widening of the spike shape, decrease of the firing rate and change in the interspike interval distribution. All these effects could be explained with a detailed conductance based model of all the neurons present in HVC. Temperature dependence of the ionic channel time constants explained the first effect, while the second was based in the changes of the maximal conductance using single synaptic excitatory inputs. The last phenomenon, only emerged after introducing a more realistic synaptic input to the inhibitory interneurons. Two timescales were present in the interspike distributions. The behavior of one timescale was reproduced with different input balances received form the excitatory neurons, whereas the other, which disappears with cooling, could not be found assuming poissonian synaptic inputs. Furthermore, the computational model shows that the bursting of the excitatory neurons arises naturally at normal brain temperature and that they have an intrinsic delay at low temperatures. The same effect occurs at single synapses, which may explain song stretching. These findings shed light on the temperature dependence of neuronal dynamics and present a comprehensive framework to study neuronal connectivity. This study, which
Fluoropolymer-coated dacron versus PTFE grafts for femorofemoral crossover bypass: randomised trial
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Eiberg, JP; Røder, Ole Christian; Stahl-Madsen, M
2006-01-01
To investigate whether patency of a thin walled 8 mm fluoropassivated Dacron graft was similar to that of a standard 8mm PTFE graft for femorofemoral crossover bypass surgery.......To investigate whether patency of a thin walled 8 mm fluoropassivated Dacron graft was similar to that of a standard 8mm PTFE graft for femorofemoral crossover bypass surgery....
Optimal design of work zone median crossovers.
2010-09-01
The use of temporary median crossovers in work zones allows for the closure of one side of a multi-lane roadway while : maintaining two-way traffic on the opposite side. This process provides the ability for construction and maintenance crews : to co...
A random matrix approach to the crossover of energy-level statistics from Wigner to Poisson
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Datta, Nilanjana; Kunz, Herve
2004-01-01
We analyze a class of parametrized random matrix models, introduced by Rosenzweig and Porter, which is expected to describe the energy level statistics of quantum systems whose classical dynamics varies from regular to chaotic as a function of a parameter. We compute the generating function for the correlations of energy levels, in the limit of infinite matrix size. The crossover between Poisson and Wigner statistics is measured by a renormalized coupling constant. The model is exactly solved in the sense that, in the limit of infinite matrix size, the energy-level correlation functions and their generating function are given in terms of a finite set of integrals
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, Chengmingyue; Gan, Xiaosong; Li, Xiangping; Gu, Min, E-mail: mgu@swin.edu.au [Centre for Micro-Photonics, Faculty of Science, Engineering and Technology, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, Victoria 3122 (Australia)
2015-09-21
We quantify the dynamic microscale temperature gradient in a gold nanorod solution using quantum-dot-based microscopic fluorescence nanothermometry. By incorporating CdSe quantum dots into the solution as a nanothermometer, precise temperature mapping with diffraction-limited spatial resolution and sub-degree temperature resolution is achieved. The acquired data on heat generation and dissipation show an excellent agreement with theoretical simulations. This work reveals an effective approach for noninvasive temperature regulation with localized nanoheaters in microfluidic environment.
Dynamics of a metal overlayer on metallic substrates: High temperature effects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rahman, T.S.; Black, J.E.; Tian, Zeng Ju
1992-01-01
We have explored the structure and the dynamics of a bimetallic system consisting of a hexagonal (almost) overlayer of Ag on a square lattice (Ni(100) and Cu(100)), as a function of the surface temperature. In each case the structure is ''nearly'' incommensurate giving rise to a low frequency Goldstone mode. Also, the overlayer atoms slosh back and forth over the substrate in a corrugated fashion. The calculated dispersion of the Ag/metal vertical mode, at room temperature, is in excellent agreement with experimental data. At higher temperatures floater atoms appear on top of the overlayer displaying a variety of cluster formations and also exchanges with the substrate atoms leading to surface disordering, interdiffusion and melting
Online monitoring of dynamic tip clearance of turbine blades in high temperature environments
Han, Yu; Zhong, Chong; Zhu, Xiaoliang; Zhe, Jiang
2018-04-01
Minimized tip clearance reduces the gas leakage over turbine blade tips and improves the thrust and efficiency of turbomachinery. An accurate tip clearance sensor, measuring the dynamic clearances between blade tips and the turbine case, is a critical component for tip clearance control. This paper presents a robust inductive tip clearance sensor capable of monitoring dynamic tip clearances of turbine machines in high-temperature environments and at high rotational speeds. The sensor can also self-sense the temperature at a blade tip in situ such that temperature effect on tip clearance measurement can be estimated and compensated. To evaluate the sensor’s performance, the sensor was tested for measuring the tip clearances of turbine blades under various working temperatures ranging from 700 K to 1300 K and at turbine rotational speeds ranging from 3000 to 10 000 rpm. The blade tip clearance was varied from 50 to 2000 µm. The experiment results proved that the sensor can accurately measure the blade tip clearances with a temporal resolution of 10 µm. The capability of accurately measuring the tip clearances at high temperatures (~1300 K) and high turbine rotation speeds (~30 000 rpm), along with its compact size, makes it promising for online monitoring and active control of blade tip clearances of high-temperature turbomachinery.
Crossover and valence band Kβ X-rays of chromium oxides
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fazinic, Stjepko; Mandic, Luka; Kavcic, Matjaz; Bozicevic, Iva
2011-01-01
Kβ X-ray spectra of chromium metal and selected chromium oxides were measured twice using medium resolution flat crystal spectrometer and high resolution spectrometer employing Johansson geometry after excitation with 2 MeV proton beams. The positions and intensities of crossover (Kβ'') and valence (Kβ 2,5 ) band X-rays relative to the primary Kβ X-ray components were extracted in a consistent way. The results were compared with the existing data obtained by proton and photon induced ionization mechanisms and theoretical predictions. The obtained results in peak relative positions and intensities were analyzed in order to study dependence on the chromium oxidation states and chromium-oxygen bond lengths in selected chromium oxides. Our results obtained by both spectrometers confirm that the linear trend observed for the valence peak relative energy shift as a function of chromium oxidation number does not depend on the experimental resolution. Experimental results for normalized intensities (i.e. relative intensities divided with the number of chromium-oxygen pairs) of crossover and valence band X-rays obtained by both spectrometers are in very good agreement, and follow exponential relationship with the average Cr-O bond lengths in corresponding chromium oxides. The observed trends in crossover and valence X-rays normalized intensities could be used to measure the average chromium-oxygen bond length in various chromium oxides, with the sum of both crossover and valence X-ray normalized intensities being the most sensitive measure.
Towards Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Chiral Room-Temperature Ionic Liquids
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Lísal, Martin; Chval, Z.; Storch, Jan; Izák, Pavel
2014-01-01
Roč. 189, SI (2014), s. 85-94 ISSN 0167-7322 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP106/12/0569; GA MŠk LH12020 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : chiral room-temperature ionic liquid * molecular dynamics simulation * non-polarizable fully flexible all-atom force field Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 2.515, year: 2014
Zeno dynamics and high-temperature master equations beyond secular approximation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Militello, B; Messina, A; Scala, M
2013-01-01
Complete positivity of a class of maps generated by master equations derived beyond the secular approximation is discussed. The connection between such a class of evolutions and the physical properties of the system is analyzed in depth. It is also shown that under suitable hypotheses a Zeno dynamics can be induced because of the high temperature of the bath. (paper)
Dimensional crossover in directed percolation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chame, A.M.N.; Queiroz, S.L.A. de; Santos, Raimundo R. dos.
1984-04-01
We study the dimensional crossover in directed percolation in three dimensions. Bonds are allowed to have different concentrations along the three cartesian axes of the lattice. Through a Position Space Renormalization Group we obtain the phase-diagrama where non-percolating, 1-D, 2-D and 3-D percolating phases are present. We find that the isotropic fixed points are unstable with respect to anisotropy, thus driving the system into a different universality class. (author) [pt
Microelectromechanical systems integrating molecular spin crossover actuators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Manrique-Juarez, Maria D. [LCC, CNRS and Université de Toulouse, UPS, INP, F-31077 Toulouse (France); LAAS, CNRS and Université de Toulouse, INSA, UPS, F-31077 Toulouse (France); Rat, Sylvain; Salmon, Lionel; Molnár, Gábor; Bousseksou, Azzedine, E-mail: liviu.nicu@laas.fr, E-mail: azzedine.bousseksou@lcc-toulouse.fr [LCC, CNRS and Université de Toulouse, UPS, INP, F-31077 Toulouse (France); Mathieu, Fabrice; Saya, Daisuke; Séguy, Isabelle; Leïchlé, Thierry; Nicu, Liviu, E-mail: liviu.nicu@laas.fr, E-mail: azzedine.bousseksou@lcc-toulouse.fr [LAAS, CNRS and Université de Toulouse, INSA, UPS, F-31077 Toulouse (France)
2016-08-08
Silicon MEMS cantilevers coated with a 200 nm thin layer of the molecular spin crossover complex [Fe(H{sub 2}B(pz){sub 2}){sub 2}(phen)] (H{sub 2}B(pz){sub 2} = dihydrobis(pyrazolyl)borate and phen = 1,10-phenantroline) were actuated using an external magnetic field and their resonance frequency was tracked by means of integrated piezoresistive detection. The light-induced spin-state switching of the molecules from the ground low spin to the metastable high spin state at 10 K led to a well-reproducible shift of the cantilever's resonance frequency (Δf{sub r} = −0.52 Hz). Control experiments at different temperatures using coated as well as uncoated devices along with simple calculations support the assignment of this effect to the spin transition. This latter translates into changes in mechanical behavior of the cantilever due to the strong spin-state/lattice coupling. A guideline for the optimization of device parameters is proposed so as to efficiently harness molecular scale movements for large-scale mechanical work, thus paving the road for nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) actuators based on molecular materials.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baranowski, M.; Misiewicz, J. [Laboratory for Optical Spectroscopy of Nanostructures, Department of Experimental Physics, Wroclaw University of Technology, Wybrzeze, Wyspianskiego 27, 50-370 Wroclaw (Poland)
2015-10-21
We report theoretical studies of spin polarization dynamics in dilute nitride semiconductors. We develop a commonly used rate equation model [Lagarde et al., Phys. Status Solidi A 204, 208 (2007) and Kunold et al. Phys. Rev. B 83, 165202 (2011)] to take into account the influence of shallow localizing states on the temperature dependence of spin polarization dynamics and a spin filtering effect. Presented investigations show that the experimentally observed temperature dependence of a spin polarization lifetime in dilute nitrides can be related to the electron capture process by shallow localizing states without paramagnetic properties. This process reduces the efficiency of spin filtering effect by deep paramagnetic centers, especially at low temperatures.
Paaijmans, K.P.; Jacobs, A.F.G.; Takken, W.; Heusinkveld, B.G.; Githeko, A.K.; Dicke, M.; Holtslag, A.A.M.
2008-01-01
Water temperature is an important determinant of the growth and development of malaria mosquito immatures. To gain a better understanding of the daily temperature dynamics of malaria mosquito breeding sites and of the relationships between meteorological variables and water temperature, three clear
Ma, Zhipeng; Huang, Yunfei; Park, Seongsu; Kawai, Kentaro; Kim, Do-Nyun; Hirai, Yoshikazu; Tsuchiya, Toshiyuki; Yamada, Hirofumi; Tabata, Osamu
2018-01-01
DNA origami methods enable the fabrication of various nanostructures and nanodevices, but their effective use depends on an understanding of their structural and mechanical properties and the effects of basic structural features. Frequency-modulation atomic force microscopy is introduced to directly characterize, in aqueous solution, the crossover regions of sets of 2D DNA origami based on different crossover/nick designs. Rhombic-shaped nanostructures formed under the influence of flexible crossovers placed between DNA helices are observed in DNA origami incorporating crossovers every 3, 4, or 6 DNA turns. The bending rigidity of crossovers is determined to be only one-third of that of the DNA helix, based on interhelical electrostatic forces reported elsewhere, and the measured pitches of the 3-turn crossover design rhombic-shaped nanostructures undergoing negligible bending. To evaluate the robustness of their structural integrity, they are intentionally and simultaneously stressed using force-controlled atomic force microscopy. DNA crossovers are verified to have a stabilizing effect on the structural robustness, while the nicks have an opposite effect. The structural and mechanical properties of DNA origami and the effects of crossovers and nicks revealed in this paper can provide information essential for the design of versatile DNA origami structures that exhibit specified and desirable properties. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Larin, V.K.; Zubkov, A.A.; Balakhonov, V.G.; Sukhorukov, V.A.; Zhiganov, A.N.; Noskov, M.D.; Istomin, A.D.; Kesler, A.G.
2002-01-01
Mathematical model of radionuclide migration and temperature field dynamics during underground disposal of liquid radioactive wastes is presented. The model involves the description of filtration, convective-dispersion mass transfer, sorption and desorption of radionuclides, radioactive decay, convective heat transport and hear transfer. Software making possible to conduct prognosis calculations of changing state of stratum-collector of radioactive wastes was made. Results of the simulation of temperature field dynamics and behaviour of radionuclides on underground disposal of liquid radioactive wastes of the Siberian chemical plant are performed [ru
Finite-temperature spin dynamics in a perturbed quantum critical Ising chain with an E₈ symmetry.
Wu, Jianda; Kormos, Márton; Si, Qimiao
2014-12-12
A spectrum exhibiting E₈ symmetry is expected to arise when a small longitudinal field is introduced in the transverse-field Ising chain at its quantum critical point. Evidence for this spectrum has recently come from neutron scattering measurements in cobalt niobate, a quasi-one-dimensional Ising ferromagnet. Unlike its zero-temperature counterpart, the finite-temperature dynamics of the model has not yet been determined. We study the dynamical spin structure factor of the model at low frequencies and nonzero temperatures, using the form factor method. Its frequency dependence is singular, but differs from the diffusion form. The temperature dependence of the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxation rate has an activated form, whose prefactor we also determine. We propose NMR experiments as a means to further test the applicability of the E₈ description for CoNb₂O₆.
Estimation of the under-surface temperature pattern by dynamic remote sensing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Inamura, M [Univ. of Tokyo; Tao, R; Katsuma, T; Toyota, H
1977-10-01
There are three basic classifications of remote sensing: passive RS, which involves measurement of reflected solar radiation; active RS, which involves the use of microwaves or laser radar; and infrared scanning. These methods make possible the determination of an object's surface temperature, its effective emissivity, and its effective reflectivity. The surface temperature, in effect, contains information concerning the structure below the surface. Fundamental experiments were conducted to extract sub-surface information by means of 'dynamic remote sensing.' Aluminum objects were embedded in a container filled with sand, and the container was heated from below. First, the spatial transfer function of the medium (sand) was determined, the surface temperature pattern was filtered, and the subsurface temperature pattern was calculated, allowing the subsurface forms of the aluminum objects to be estimated. The relationship between the thermal input (bottom temperature) and the thermal output (surface temperature) was expressed in terms of electrical circuit analogs, and the heat capacity and thermal conductivity of the sample were calculated, permitting estimation of its composition. This technique will be useful for groundwater and mineral exploration and for nondestructive testing.
The Electronic Structure Signature of the Spin Cross-Over Transition of [Co(dpzca)2
Zhang, Xin; Mu, Sai; Liu, Yang; Luo, Jian; Zhang, Jian; N'Diaye, Alpha T.; Enders, Axel; Dowben, Peter A.
2018-05-01
The unoccupied electronic structure of the spin crossover molecule cobalt (II) N-(2-pyrazylcarbonyl)-2-pyrazinecarboxamide, [Co(dpzca)2] was investigated, using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and compared with magnetometry (SQUID) measurements. The temperature dependence of the XAS and molecular magnetic susceptibility χmT are in general agreement for [Co(dpzca)2], and consistent with density functional theory (DFT). This agreement of magnetic susceptibility and X-ray absorption spectroscopy provides strong evidence that the changes in magnetic moment can be ascribed to changes in electronic structure. Calculations show the choice of Coulomb correlation energy U has a profound effect on the electronic structure of the low spin state, but has little influence on the electronic structure of the high spin state. In the temperature dependence of the XAS, there is also evidence of an X-ray induced excited state trapping for [Co(dpzca)2] at 15 K.
Zaoutsos, S. P.; Zilidou, M. C.
2017-12-01
In the current study dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) is performed in CFRPs that have been exposed for certain periods of time to extreme low temperatures. Through experimental data arising from respective DMA tests the influence of low temperature exposure (-40 °C) on the dynamic mechanical properties is studied. DMA tests were conducted in CFRP specimens in three point bending mode at both frequency and thermal scans in order to determine the viscoelastic response of the material in low temperatures. All experimental tests were run both for aged and pristine materials for comparison purposes. The results occurred reveal that there is deterioration both on transition temperature (Tg) and storage modulus values while there is also a moderate increase in the damping ability of the tested material as expressed by the factor tanδ as the period of exposure to low temperature increases.
Crossover replantation after bilateral traumatic lower limb amputations: a case report
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fang Jun
2012-07-01
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Replantation of a limb to the contralateral stump after bilateral traumatic amputations is rare. To the best of our knowledge, there are only a few reports of crossover lower limb replantation in the literature. Case presentation We treated a 37-year-old Chinese woman with bilateral lower limb crush injuries sustained in a traffic accident. Her lower limb injuries were at different anatomic levels. We performed emergency bilateral amputations followed by crossover replantation. Five years later, the woman had recovered well, and had perfect movement and stability in her replanted leg. After reviewing the literature, we thought that presentation of our patient’s case might provide useful information for clinicians. Conclusions Crossover replantation should be considered when evaluating a patient with bilateral lower limb injuries, thus allowing the patient to touch the ground and stand using their own foot.
Schweiner, Frank; Laturner, Jeanine; Main, Jörg; Wunner, Günter
2017-11-01
Until now only for specific crossovers between Poissonian statistics (P), the statistics of a Gaussian orthogonal ensemble (GOE), or the statistics of a Gaussian unitary ensemble (GUE) have analytical formulas for the level spacing distribution function been derived within random matrix theory. We investigate arbitrary crossovers in the triangle between all three statistics. To this aim we propose an according formula for the level spacing distribution function depending on two parameters. Comparing the behavior of our formula for the special cases of P→GUE, P→GOE, and GOE→GUE with the results from random matrix theory, we prove that these crossovers are described reasonably. Recent investigations by F. Schweiner et al. [Phys. Rev. E 95, 062205 (2017)2470-004510.1103/PhysRevE.95.062205] have shown that the Hamiltonian of magnetoexcitons in cubic semiconductors can exhibit all three statistics in dependence on the system parameters. Evaluating the numerical results for magnetoexcitons in dependence on the excitation energy and on a parameter connected with the cubic valence band structure and comparing the results with the formula proposed allows us to distinguish between regular and chaotic behavior as well as between existent or broken antiunitary symmetries. Increasing one of the two parameters, transitions between different crossovers, e.g., from the P→GOE to the P→GUE crossover, are observed and discussed.
Time-dependent nonequilibrium soft x-ray response during a spin crossover
van Veenendaal, Michel
2018-03-01
A theoretical framework is developed for better understanding the time-dependent soft-x-ray response of dissipative quantum many-body systems. It is shown how x-ray absorption and resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) at transition-metal L edges can provide insight into ultrafast intersystem crossings of importance for energy conversion, ultrafast magnetism, and catalysis. The photoinduced doublet-to-quartet spin crossover on cobalt in Fe-Co Prussian blue analogs is used as a model system to demonstrate how the x-ray response is affected by the nonequilibrium dynamics on a femtosecond time scale. Changes in local spin and symmetry and the underlying mechanism are reflected in strong broadenings, a collapse of clear selection rules during the intersystem crossing, fluctuations in the isotropic branching ratio in x-ray absorption, crystal-field collapse and/or oscillations, and time-dependent anti-Stokes processes in RIXS.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Paredes, O. [Centro de Materiales, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad de Narino, Ciudad Universitaria Torobajo, Pasto (Colombia); Baca, E. [Grupo de Ingenieria de Nuevos Materiales, Departamento de Fisica, Universidad del Valle, A.A. 25360 Cali (Colombia); Fuchs, D. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, P.O. Box 3640, Karlsruhe (Germany); Moran, O., E-mail: omoranc@unal.edu.c [Laboratorio de Materiales Ceramicos y Vitreos, Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Medellin, A.A. 568 Medellin (Colombia)
2010-11-15
Thick films of ((Bi, Pb){sub 2}Sr{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x}){sub 0.95}/(LaSr{sub 0.7}Mn{sub 0.3}O{sub 3}){sub 0.05} [(Bi-2223){sub 0.95}(LSMO){sub 0.05}] composites were fabricated on (0 0 1)-oriented LaAlO{sub 3} substrates by a simple melting-quenching-annealing method and their structural, morphological and magnetoelectrical properties carefully studied. Analysis of the X-ray diffraction patterns suggested a highly oriented growth along the c-axis of LSMO. This preferred orientation, with the crystal c-axis being perpendicular to the plane of the substrate, was considered to be indicative of a textured growth mode. Electrical and magnetic measurements showed the presence of ferromagnetism and superconductivity in the composite at temperatures above room temperature and below T{approx}50 K, respectively. A clear crossover from negative to positive magnetoresistance was observed at {approx}80 K in a magnetic field as strong as 5 T.
A Data Transmission Algorithm Based on Dynamic Grid Division for Coal Goaf Temperature Monitoring
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qingsong Hu
2014-01-01
Full Text Available WSN (wireless sensor network is a perfect tool of temperature monitoring in coal goaf. Based on the three-zone theory of goaf, the GtmWSN model is proposed, and its dynamic features are analyzed. Accordingly, a data transmission scheme, named DTDGD, is worked out. Firstly, sink nodes conduct dynamic grid division on the GtmWSN according to virtual semicircle. Secondly, each node will confirm to which grid it belongs based on grid number. Finally, data will be delivered to sink nodes with greedy forward and hole avoidance. Simulation results and field data showed that the GtmWSN and DTDGD satisfied the lifetime need of goaf temperature monitoring.
Crossover properties of a one-dimensional reaction-diffusion process with a transport current
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fortin, Jean-Yves
2014-01-01
1D non-equilibrium models of particles subjected to a coagulation-diffusion process are important in understanding non-equilibrium dynamics, and fluctuation-dissipation relations. We consider in this paper transport properties in finite and semi-infinite one-dimensional chains. A set of particles freely hop between nearest-neighbor sites, with the additional condition that, when two particles meet, they merge instantaneously into one particle. A localized source of particle-current is imposed at the origin as well as a non-symmetric hopping rate between the left and right directions (particle drift). This model was previously studied with exact results for the particle density by Hinrichsen et al [1] in the long-time limit. We are interested here in the crossover process between a scaling regime and long-time behavior, starting with a chain filled with particles. As in the previous reference [1], we employ the empty-interval-particle method, where the probability of finding an empty interval between two given sites is considered. However a different method is developed here to treat the boundary conditions by imposing the continuity and differentiability of the interval probability, which allows for a closed and unique solution, especially for any given initial particle configuration. In the finite size case, we find a crossover between the scaling regime and two different exponential decays for the particle density as a function of the input current. Precise asymptotic expressions for the particle density and coagulation rate are given. (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rogge, R.B.; Gaulin, B.D.; Svensson, E.C.; Hallman, E.D.; Wei, W.
1995-01-01
The binary alloy Cu 3 Au undergoes a first-order phase transition at 667 ± 3 K Within the context of the Landau theory of phase transitions, there exist, in addition to the order-disorder temperature, T c , upper and lower spinodal temperatures, T su and T si . These mark the first temperatures, upon approaching the phase transition from above and below, respectively, at which metastable droplets of the second phase can fluctuate out of the first phase. Until recently, there has, however, been little physical evidence supporting the existence of the spinodal temperatures. Elastic and inelastic neutron-scattering measurements have been carried out on Cu 3 Au over an extended temperature range with particular emphasis on temperatures near T c . The lattice constant data, order-parameter data, and phonon data provided by these measurements all indicate that there are two temperature regimes just below T c with a crossover between these regimes in the range of (T c - 35) to (T c - 25) K. This crossover temperature is interpreted as the lower spinodal temperature of Cu 3 Au. (author)
Modeling temperature dependent singlet exciton dynamics in multilayered organic nanofibers
de Sousa, Leonardo Evaristo; de Oliveira Neto, Pedro Henrique; Kjelstrup-Hansen, Jakob; da Silva Filho, Demétrio Antônio
2018-05-01
Organic nanofibers have shown potential for application in optoelectronic devices because of the tunability of their optical properties. These properties are influenced by the electronic structure of the molecules that compose the nanofibers and also by the behavior of the excitons generated in the material. Exciton diffusion by means of Förster resonance energy transfer is responsible, for instance, for the change with temperature of colors in the light emitted by systems composed of different types of nanofibers. To study in detail this mechanism, we model temperature dependent singlet exciton dynamics in multilayered organic nanofibers. By simulating absorption and emission spectra, the possible Förster transitions are identified. Then, a kinetic Monte Carlo model is employed in combination with a genetic algorithm to theoretically reproduce time-resolved photoluminescence measurements for several temperatures. This procedure allows for the obtainment of different information regarding exciton diffusion in such a system, including temperature effects on the Förster transfer efficiency and the activation energy of the Förster mechanism. The method is general and may be employed for different systems where exciton diffusion plays a role.
Domínguez-Villar, David; Cukrov, Neven; Krklec, Kristina
2018-01-01
Although temperature is a nonconservative tracer, it often provides useful information to understand hydrological processes. This study explores the potential of temperature to characterize the hydrological dynamics of a submarine spring and its coastal karst aquifer in Krka Estuary (Croatia). The estuary is well stratified and its water column has a clear thermocline. A network of loggers was designed to monitor the temperature along vertical profiles in the estuary and the coastal aquifer, taking advantage of an anchialine cave that enabled access to the subterranean estuary. The location of the thermocline in the groundwater, which defines the upper boundary of the saline intrusion, depends on (1) the recharge of the aquifer via infiltration of precipitation, (2) the evolution of the thermocline in the estuary, and (3) the tidal oscillations. The sources of water flowing though the anchialine cave were identified: brackish water from the estuary above the thermocline, saline water from the estuary below the thermocline, and freshwater from infiltrated precipitation. A conceptual model is described that characterizes the hydrological dynamics of this coastal aquifer and its interactions with the estuary. Thus, at least for some hydrological settings, temperature is a valid tracer to characterize the main hydrological processes. The measurement of temperature is inexpensive compared to other (conservative) tracers. Therefore, for those hydrological settings that have water masses with distinct temperatures, the use of temperature as a tracer to establish conceptual models of the hydrological dynamics is encouraged.
Shazly, Mostafa; Prakash, Vikas; Draper, Susan; Shukla, Arun (Editor)
2006-01-01
Recently, a new generation of titanium aluminide alloy, named Gamma-Met PX, has been developed with better rolling and post-rolling characteristics. I'revious work on this alloy has shown the material to have higher strengths at room and elevated temperatures when compared with other gamma titanium aluminides. In particular, this new alloy has shown increased ductility at elevated temperatures under both quasi-static and high strain rate uniaxial compressive loading. However, its high strain rate tensile ductility at room and elevated temperatures is limited to approx. 1%. In the present chapter, results of a study to investigate the effects of loading rate and test temperature on the dynamic fracture initiation toughness in Gamma-Met PX are presented. Modified split Hopkinson pressure bar was used along with high-speed photography to determine the crack initiation time. Three-point bend dynamic fracture experiments were conducted at impact speeds of approx. 1 m/s and tests temperatures of up-to 1200 C. The results show that thc dynamic fracture initiation toughness decreases with increasing test temperatures beyond 600 C. Furthermore, thc effect of long time high temperature air exposure on the fracture toughness was investigated. The dynamic fracture initiation toughness was found to decrease with increasing exposure time. The reasons behind this drop are analyzed and discussed.
Extension of Nelson's stochastic quantization to finite temperature using thermo field dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kobayashi, K.; Yamanaka, Y.
2011-01-01
We present an extension of Nelson's stochastic quantum mechanics to finite temperature. Utilizing the formulation of Thermo Field Dynamics (TFD), we can show that Ito's stochastic equations for tilde and non-tilde particle positions reproduce the TFD-type Schroedinger equation which is equivalent to the Liouville-von Neumann equation. In our formalism, the drift terms in the Ito's stochastic equation have the temperature dependence and the thermal fluctuation is induced through the correlation of the non-tilde and tilde particles. We show that our formalism satisfies the position-momentum uncertainty relation at finite temperature. -- Highlights: → Utilizing TFD, we extend Nelson's stochastic method to finite temperature. → We introduce stochastic equations for tilde and non-tilde particles. → Our stochastic equations can reproduce the TFD-type Schroedinger equation. → Our formalism satisfies the uncertainly relation at finite temperature.
Probing the crossover in CO desorption from single crystal to nanoparticulate Ru model catalysts
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Murphy, Shane; Strebel, Christian Ejersbo; Vendelbo, Søren Bastholm
2011-01-01
Crossover in CO desorption behavior and nanoscale structure probed with STM from ruthenium single crystals to PVD and mass-selected nanoparticles.......Crossover in CO desorption behavior and nanoscale structure probed with STM from ruthenium single crystals to PVD and mass-selected nanoparticles....
Relaxation dynamics of glass transition in PMMA + SWCNT composites by temperature-modulated DSC
Pradhan, N. R.; Iannacchione, G. S.
2010-03-01
The experimental technique offered by temperature-modulated differential scanning calorimeter (TMDSC) used to investigate the thermal relaxation dynamics through the glass transition as a function of frequency was studied for pure PMMA and PMMA-single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) composites. A strong dependence of the temperature dependence peak in the imaginary part of complex heat capacity (Tmax) is found during the transition from the glass-like to the liquid-like region. The frequency dependence of Tmax of the imaginary part of heat capacity (Cp) is described by Arrhenius law. The activation energy obtained from the fitting shows increases while the characteristic relaxation time decreases with increasing mass fraction (phim) of SWCNTs. The dynamics of the composites during glass transition, at slow and high scan rates, are also the main focus of this experimental study. The change in enthalpy during heating and cooling is also reported as a function of scan rate and frequency of temperature modulation. The glass transition temperature (Tg) shows increases with increasing frequency of temperature modulation and phim of SWCNTs inside the polymer host. Experimental results show that Tg is higher at higher scan rates but as the frequency of temperature modulation increases, the Tg values of different scan rates coincide with each other and alter the scan rate dependence. From the imaginary part of heat capacity, it is obvious that Tmax is not the actual glass transition temperature of pure polymer but Tmax and Tg values can be superimposed when phim increases in the polymer host or when the sample undergoes a transition with a certain frequency of temperature modulation.
Morinari, Takao
2018-06-01
The central issue in high-temperature cuprate superconductors is the pseudogap state appearing below the pseudogap temperature T*, which is well above the superconducting transition temperature. In this study, we theoretically investigate the rapid increase of the magnetic anisotropy below the pseudogap temperature detected by the recent torque-magnetometry measurements on YBa2Cu3Oy [Y. Sato et al., 10.1038/nphys4205" xlink:type="simple">Nat. Phys. 13, 1074 (2017)]. Applying the spin Green's function formalism including the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction arising from the buckling of the CuO2 plane, we obtain results that are in good agreement with the experiment and find a scaling relationship. Our analysis suggests that the characteristic temperature associated with the magnetic anisotropy, which coincides with T*, is not a phase transition temperature but a crossover temperature associated with the short-range antiferromagnetic order.
Quench-Induced Breathing Mode of One-Dimensional Bose Gases
Fang, Bess; Carleo, Giuseppe; Johnson, Aisling; Bouchoule, Isabelle
2014-07-01
We measure the position- and momentum-space breathing dynamics of trapped one-dimensional Bose gases at finite temperature. The profile in real space reveals sinusoidal width oscillations whose frequency varies continuously through the quasicondensate to ideal Bose gas crossover. A comparison with theoretical models taking temperature into account is provided. In momentum space, we report the first observation of a frequency doubling in the quasicondensate regime, corresponding to a self-reflection mechanism due to the repulsive interactions. Such a mechanism is predicted for a fermionized system, and has not been observed to date. The disappearance of the frequency doubling through the crossover is mapped out experimentally, giving insights into the dynamics of the breathing evolution.
Quench-induced breathing mode of one-dimensional Bose gases.
Fang, Bess; Carleo, Giuseppe; Johnson, Aisling; Bouchoule, Isabelle
2014-07-18
We measure the position- and momentum-space breathing dynamics of trapped one-dimensional Bose gases at finite temperature. The profile in real space reveals sinusoidal width oscillations whose frequency varies continuously through the quasicondensate to ideal Bose gas crossover. A comparison with theoretical models taking temperature into account is provided. In momentum space, we report the first observation of a frequency doubling in the quasicondensate regime, corresponding to a self-reflection mechanism due to the repulsive interactions. Such a mechanism is predicted for a fermionized system, and has not been observed to date. The disappearance of the frequency doubling through the crossover is mapped out experimentally, giving insights into the dynamics of the breathing evolution.
Biogeography-Based Optimization with Orthogonal Crossover
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Quanxi Feng
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Biogeography-based optimization (BBO is a new biogeography inspired, population-based algorithm, which mainly uses migration operator to share information among solutions. Similar to crossover operator in genetic algorithm, migration operator is a probabilistic operator and only generates the vertex of a hyperrectangle defined by the emigration and immigration vectors. Therefore, the exploration ability of BBO may be limited. Orthogonal crossover operator with quantization technique (QOX is based on orthogonal design and can generate representative solution in solution space. In this paper, a BBO variant is presented through embedding the QOX operator in BBO algorithm. Additionally, a modified migration equation is used to improve the population diversity. Several experiments are conducted on 23 benchmark functions. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is capable of locating the optimal or closed-to-optimal solution. Comparisons with other variants of BBO algorithms and state-of-the-art orthogonal-based evolutionary algorithms demonstrate that our proposed algorithm possesses faster global convergence rate, high-precision solution, and stronger robustness. Finally, the analysis result of the performance of QOX indicates that QOX plays a key role in the proposed algorithm.
McCaul, Margaret; Barland, Jack; Cleary, John; Cahalane, Conor; McCarthy, Tim; Diamond, Dermot
2016-08-31
The ability to track the dynamics of processes in natural water bodies on a global scale, and at a resolution that enables highly localised behaviour to be visualized, is an ideal scenario for understanding how local events can influence the global environment. While advances in in-situ chem/bio-sensing continue to be reported, costs and reliability issues still inhibit the implementation of large-scale deployments. In contrast, physical parameters like surface temperature can be tracked on a global scale using satellite remote sensing, and locally at high resolution via flyovers and drones using multi-spectral imaging. In this study, we show how a much more complete picture of submarine and intertidal groundwater discharge patterns in Kinvara Bay, Galway can be achieved using a fusion of data collected from the Earth Observation satellite (Landsat 8), small aircraft and in-situ sensors. Over the course of the four-day field campaign, over 65,000 in-situ temperatures, salinity and nutrient measurements were collected in parallel with high-resolution thermal imaging from aircraft flyovers. The processed in-situ data show highly correlated patterns between temperature and salinity at the southern end of the bay where freshwater springs can be identified at low tide. Salinity values range from 1 to 2 ppt at the southern end of the bay to 30 ppt at the mouth of the bay, indicating the presence of a freshwater wedge. The data clearly show that temperature differences can be used to track the dynamics of freshwater and seawater mixing in the inner bay region. This outcome suggests that combining the tremendous spatial density and wide geographical reach of remote temperature sensing (using drones, flyovers and satellites) with ground-truthing via appropriately located in-situ sensors (temperature, salinity, chemical, and biological) can produce a much more complete and accurate picture of the water dynamics than each modality used in isolation.
Probing Spin Crossover in a Solution by Paramagnetic NMR Spectroscopy.
Pavlov, Alexander A; Denisov, Gleb L; Kiskin, Mikhail A; Nelyubina, Yulia V; Novikov, Valentin V
2017-12-18
Spin transitions in spin-crossover compounds are now routinely studied in the solid state by magnetometry; however, only a few methods exist for studies in solution. The currently used Evans method, which relies on NMR spectroscopy to measure the magnetic susceptibility, requires the availability of a very pure sample of the paramagnetic compound and its exact concentration. To overcome these limitations, we propose an alternative NMR-based technique for evaluating spin-state populations by only using the chemical shifts of a spin-crossover compound; those can be routinely obtained for a solution that contains unknown impurities and paramagnetic admixtures or is contaminated otherwise.
Temperature dependence of dynamic behavior of commercially pure titanium by the compression test
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Su Min; Seo, Song Won; Park, Kyoung Joon; Min, Oak Key
2003-01-01
The mechanical behavior of a Commercially Pure Titanium (CP-Ti) is investigated at high temperature Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB) compression test with high strain-rate. Tests are performed over a temperature range from room temperature to 1000 .deg. C with interval of 200 deg. C and a strain-rate range of 1900∼2000/sec. The true flow stress-true strain relations depending on temperature are achieved in these tests. For construction of constitutive equation from the true flow stress-true strain relation, parameters for the Johnson-Cook constitutive equation is determined. And the modified Johnson-Cook equation is used for investigation of behavior of flow stress in vicinity of recrystallization temperature. The modified Johnson-Cook constitutive equation is more suitable in expressing the dynamic behavior of a CP-Ti at high temperature, i.e. about recrystallization temperature
The Crossover between Life Expectancies at Birth and at Age One
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Canudas-Romo, Vladimir; Becker, S
2011-01-01
one are referred to here as imbalanced. This crossover occurs when infant mortality is equal to the inverse of life expectancy at age one. This simple relation between mortality at age zero and mortality after age one divides the world into countries that have achieved the crossover in life......The single most used demographic measure to describe population health is life expectancy at birth, but life expectancies at ages other than zero are also used in the study of human longevity. Our intuition tells us that the longest life expectancy is that of a newborn. However, historically......, the expectation of life at age one (e1) has exceeded the expectation of life at birth (e0). The crossover between e0 and e1 only occurred in the developed world in the second half of the twentieth century. Life tables for populations that have not achieved this crossing between life expectancy at birth and at age...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pérez Daroca, D. [Gerencia de Investigación y Aplicaciones, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica and CONICET, Av. General Paz 1499, 1650 San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Pasquini, G., E-mail: pasquini@df.uba.ar [Departamento de Física, FCEyN, Universidad de Buenos Aires and IFIBA, CONICET, Pabellon 1, Ciudad Universitaria, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)
2015-01-15
Highlights: • A critical revision of the accepted fishtail magnetization picture in YBCO crystals. • In slightly underdoped YBCO crystals the fishtail has a dynamic origin. • We show correlation between fishtail magnetization, Peak Effect and history effects. • We propose that the fishtail indicates a crossover between two plastic creep regimes. - Abstract: The fishtail magnetization observed in many type II superconductors has been investigated since the earliest nineties and associated with different phase transitions and dynamic crossovers in complex vortex matter. In systems without a sharp order–disorder phase transition, the fishtail has been related with a crossover from elastic to plastic vortex creep regimes. In this paper we perform a critical revision of this accepted picture. We show that, in slightly underdoped YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7−δ} single crystals, there is a clear correlation between the fishtail magnetization and the Peak Effect observed in ac experiments with the associated history effects. We propose that both features are originated in the same dynamic crossover, between two plastic creep regimes. The proposed picture can also apply to other system, as those belonging to same families of iron-based pnictides.
Dynamics of the temperature-humidity index in the Mediterranean basin
Segnalini, Maria; Nardone, Alessandro; Bernabucci, Umberto; Vitali, Andrea; Ronchi, Bruno; Lacetera, Nicola
2011-03-01
The study was aimed at describing the temperature humidity index (THI) dynamics over the Mediterranean basin for the period 1951-2007. The THI combines temperature and humidity into a single value, and may help to predict the effects of environmental warmth in farm animals. In particular, on the basis of THI values, numerous studies have been performed to establish thresholds for heat stress in dairy cows. The THI was calculated by using monthly mean values of temperature and humidity obtained from the National Center for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research reanalysis project. The analysis demonstrated a high degree of heterogeneity of THI patterns over the Mediterranean basin, a strong north-south gradient, and an overall warming during the study period, which was particularly marked during summer seasons. Results indicated that several areas of the basin present summer THI values which were unfavorable to cow welfare and productivity, and that risk of heat stress for cows is generally greater in the countries of the south coast of the basin. Furthermore, THI data from the summer 2003 revealed that severe positive anomalies may impact areas normally characterized by a favorable climate for animal production. In conclusion, THI dynamics should be taken into careful consideration by farmers and policy makers operating in Mediterranean countries when planning investments in the sector of animal production. The investments should at least partially be directed towards implementation of adaptation measures, which may help to alleviate the impact of hot on farm animals welfare, performance and health.
On the dynamics of liquids in their viscous regime approaching the glass transition.
Chen, Z; Angell, C A; Richert, R
2012-07-01
Recently, Mallamace et al. (Eur. Phys. J. E 34, 94 (2011)) proposed a crossover temperature, T(×), and claimed that the dynamics of many supercooled liquids follow an Arrhenius-type temperature dependence between T(×) and the glass transition temperature T(g). The opposite, namely super-Arrhenius behavior in this viscous regime, has been demonstrated repeatedly for molecular glass-former, for polymers, and for the majority of the exhaustively studied inorganic glasses of technological interest. Therefore, we subject the molecular systems of the Mallamace et al. study to a "residuals" analysis and include not only viscosity data but also the more precise data available from dielectric relaxation experiments over the same temperature range. Although many viscosity data sets are inconclusive due to their noise level, we find that Arrhenius behavior is not a general feature of viscosity in the T(g) to T(×) range. Moreover, the residuals of dielectric relaxation times with respect to an Arrhenius law clearly reveal systematic curvature consistent with super-Arrhenius behavior being an endemic feature of transport properties in this viscous regime. We also observe a common pattern of how dielectric relaxation times decouple slightly from viscosity.
Temperature dependence of the dynamic fracture toughness of the alloy Incoloy 800 after cold work
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krompholz, K.; Ullrich, G.
1991-02-01
Precracked charpy-V-notch specimens of the iron-nickel base alloy Incoloy 800 in the as-received condition and after cold work have been tested using an instrumented impact tester (hammer) in the temperature range 293 ≤ T/K ≤ 1223. The specific impact energies were determined by dial readings, from the integration of the load versus time and the load versus load point displacement diagrams; in all cases the agreement was excellent. The specific impact energies and the impulses are correlated with the test temperature and with the degree of cold work, respectively. The dynamic fracture toughness values were determined following the equivalent energy approach. In all cases a distinct decrease of the mechanical properties in the range between the as-received state and after 5 % cold work was found. The temperature behaviour of the impact energies clearly reveals an increase of its value between room temperature and 673 K. This increase is distinctly reduced after cold work. The dynamic fracture toughness decreases with increasing temperature. The fracture surfaces clearly show elasto-plastic fracture behaviour of the material in the temperature regime investigated. (author) 19 figs., 3 tabs., 7 refs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yuliang Lin
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Polymer bonded explosives (PBXs are widely used as energetic fillings in various warheads, which maybe are utilized under extreme environments, such as low or high temperatures. In this paper, the dynamic response of an aluminized polymer bonded explosive was tested at a range of temperatures from −55°C to −2°C and a fixed loading strain rate (~700 s−1 with the split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB. The PBX tested is aluminized, which contains 76 wt% RDX, 20 wt% aluminum powder, and 4 wt% polymer binder, respectively. The results show that the effect of temperature on the strength of the PBX is obvious at the tested strain rates. Based on the experimental results and prophase studies, a constitutive model was obtained, in which the effect of temperature and strain rate were considered. The modeling curves fit well with the experimental results, not only at low temperature under 0°C, but also at room temperature (20°C. The model may be used to predict the dynamic performances of the PBXs in various environments.
Molecular Rayleigh Scattering Diagnostic for Dynamic Temperature, Velocity, and Density Measurements
Mielke, Amy R.; Elam, Kristie A.; Sung, Chi-Jen
2006-01-01
A molecular Rayleigh scattering technique is developed to measure dynamic gas temperature, velocity, and density in unseeded turbulent flows at sampling rates up to 16 kHz. A high power CW laser beam is focused at a point in an air jet plume and Rayleigh scattered light is collected and spectrally resolved. The spectrum of the light, which contains information about the temperature and velocity of the flow, is analyzed using a Fabry-Perot interferometer. The circular interference fringe pattern is divided into four concentric regions and sampled at 1 and 16 kHz using photon counting electronics. Monitoring the relative change in intensity within each region allows for measurement of gas temperature and velocity. Independently monitoring the total scattered light intensity provides a measure of gas density. A low speed heated jet is used to validate the measurement of temperature fluctuations and an acoustically excited nozzle flow is studied to validate velocity fluctuation measurements. Power spectral density calculations of the property fluctuations, as well as mean and fluctuating quantities are presented. Temperature fluctuation results are compared with constant current anemometry measurements and velocity fluctuation results are compared with constant temperature anemometry measurements at the same locations.
Release path temperatures of shock-compressed tin from dynamic reflectance and radiance measurements
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
La Lone, B. M., E-mail: lalonebm@nv.doe.gov; Stevens, G. D.; Turley, W. D. [National Security Technologies, LLC, Special Technologies Laboratory, Santa Barbara, California 93111 (United States); Holtkamp, D. B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Iverson, A. J. [National Security Technologies, LLC, Los Alamos Operations, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544 (United States); Hixson, R. S.; Veeser, L. R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); National Security Technologies, LLC, Los Alamos Operations, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544 (United States)
2013-08-14
Dynamic reflectance and radiance measurements were conducted for tin samples shock compressed to 35 GPa and released to 15 GPa using high explosives. We determined the reflectance of the tin samples glued to lithium fluoride windows using an integrating sphere with an internal xenon flashlamp as an illumination source. The dynamic reflectance (R) was determined at near normal incidence in four spectral bands with coverage in visible and near-infrared spectra. Uncertainties in R/R{sub 0} are <2%, and uncertainties in absolute reflectance are <5%. In complementary experiments, thermal radiance from the tin/glue/lithium fluoride interface was recorded with similar shock stress and spectral coverage as the reflectance measurements. The two sets of experiments were combined to obtain the temperature history of the tin surface with an uncertainty of <2%. The stress at the interface was determined from photonic Doppler velocimetry and combined with the temperatures to obtain temperature-stress release paths for tin. We discuss the relationship between the experimental release paths and release isentropes that begin on the principal shock Hugoniot.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wiecki, P.; Taufour, V.; Chung, D. Y.; Kanatzidis, M. G.; Bud' ko, S. L.; Canfield, P. C.; Furukawa, Y.
2018-02-13
We present the results of ^{75}As nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR), and resistivity measurements in KFe_{2}As_{2} under pressure (p). The temperature dependence of the NMR shift, nuclear spin-lattice relaxation time (T1), and resistivity show a crossover between a high-temperature incoherent, local-moment behavior and a low-temperature coherent behavior at a crossover temperature (T *). T * is found to increase monotonically with pressure, consistent with increasing hybridization between localized 3d orbitalderived bands with the itinerant electron bands. No anomaly in T * is seen at the critical pressure pc = 1.8 GPa where a change of slope of the superconducting (SC) transition temperature Tc(p) has been observed. In contrast, Tc(p) seems to correlate with antiferromagnetic spin fluctuations in the normal state as measured by the NQR 1/T1 data, although such a correlation cannot be seen in the replacement effects of A in the KFe_{2}As_{2} (A = K, Rb, Cs) family. In the superconducting state, two T1 components are observed at low temperatures, suggesting the existence of two distinct local electronic environments. The temperature dependence of the short T1s indicates a nearly gapless state below Tc. On the other hand, the temperature dependence of the long component 1/T1L implies a large reduction in the density of states at the Fermi level due to the SC gap formation. These results suggest a real-space modulation of the local SC gap structure in KFe_{2}As_{2} under pressure.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mostafa, Mohga F., E-mail: Mohga40@yahoo.com; El Dean, Thana Sh., E-mail: th_sh2000@yahoo.com; Tammam, Ahmed K., E-mail: physicsoman@yahoo.com
2016-09-01
Synthesis and characterization of new luminescent ferroelectric [(CH{sub 3})(C{sub 6}H{sub 5}){sub 3}P]{sub 2}MnBr{sub 4} organic-inorganic hybrid (OIH) are reported. Powder x-ray diffraction showed the following phases: {sup P2/m} {sup (280 K)} Phase (IV) {sup P21} {sup (298 K)} Phase (III) {sup Pna21} {sup (350 K)} Phase (II) {sup Pnma} {sup (370 K)} Phase (I). Room temperature lattice parameters are a = 9.6233 (Å), b = 12.5653 (Å) c = 16.4503 (Å) and β = 105.6° (T = 298 K). UV-VIS and Ac magnetic susceptibility confirm tetrahedral symmetry of [MnBr{sub 4}]{sup 2−}. DSC and dielectric measurements showed four phase transitions at T{sub 4peak} = 279.1 ± 1 K (ΔS = 1.03 J/mol K), T{sub 3peak} = 300.1 ± 2 K (ΔS = 2.33 J/mol K), T{sub 2peakt} = 353.2 ± 3 K (ΔS = 2.68 J/mol K) and T{sub 1peak} = 379.1 ± 3 K (ΔS = 2.43 J/mol K). Calculated lattice potential energy values vary from 827 (kJ/mol) at 280 K to (797 kJ/mol) at 370 K. Ac conductivity measurements (220 < T(K) < 400) and (0.081 < f (kHz) < 30) are presented. It is ferroelectric with Curie temperature T{sub c} = 309 K. Hybrid is semiconductor in the temperature range 309 ± 14 K, where conductivity follows Jonscher’s universal dielectric response otherwise it is an insulator where crossover to super-linear power law prevails. Comparison to the corresponding chloride is discussed. - Graphical abstract: Plot of real part of permittivity [ln(ε′)] versus temperature (K). - Highlights: • Conductivity crossover from SlPL to UDR is confirmed. • Change from semiconductor to insulator. • Structural phase transformation.
Lausch, Tobias; Widera, Artur; Fleischhauer, Michael
2018-03-01
We numerically study the relaxation dynamics of a single, heavy impurity atom interacting with a finite one- or two-dimensional, ultracold Bose gas. While there is a clear separation of time scales between processes resulting from single- and two-phonon scattering in three spatial dimensions, the thermalization in lower dimensions is dominated by two-phonon processes. This is due to infrared divergences in the corresponding scattering rates in the thermodynamic limit, which are a manifestation of the Mermin-Wagner-Hohenberg theorem. This makes it necessary to include second-order phonon scattering above a crossover temperature T2ph . T2ph scales inversely with the system size and is much smaller than currently experimentally accessible.
Low-temperature specific heat and thermal conductivity of silica aerogels
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sleator, T.; Bernasconi, A.; Posselt, D.
1991-01-01
Specific-heat and thermal-conductivity measurements were made on a series of base-catalyzed silica aerogels at temperatures between 0.05 and 20 K. Evidence for a crossover between regimes of characteristically different excitations was observed. The data analysis indicates a "bump" in the density...
Forest canopy temperatures: dynamics, controls, and relationships with ecosystem fluxes
Still, C. J.; Griffith, D.; Kim, Y.; Law, B. E.; Hanson, C. V.; Kwon, H.; Schulze, M.; Detto, M.; Pau, S.
2017-12-01
Temperature strongly affects enzymatic reactions, ecosystem biogeochemistry, and species distributions. Although most focus is on air temperature, the radiative or skin temperature of plants is more relevant. Canopy skin temperature dynamics reflect biophysical, physiological, and anatomical characteristics and interactions with the environment, and can be used to examine forest responses to stresses like droughts and heat waves. Thermal infrared (TIR) imaging allows for extensive temporal and spatial sampling of canopy temperatures, particularly compared to spot measurements using thermocouples. We present results of TIR imaging of forest canopies at eddy covariance flux tower sites in the US Pacific Northwest and in Panama. These forests range from an old-growth temperate rainforest to a second growth semi-arid pine forest to a semi-deciduous tropical forest. Canopy temperature regimes at these sites are highly variable. Canopy temperatures at all forest sites displayed frequent departures from air temperature, particularly during clear sky conditions, with elevated canopy temperatures during the day and depressed canopy temperatures at night compared to air temperature. Comparison of canopy temperatures to fluxes of carbon dioxide, water vapor, and energy reveals stronger relationships than those found with air temperature. Daytime growing season net ecosystem exchange at the pine forest site is better explained by canopy temperature (r2 = 0.61) than air temperature (r2 = 0.52). At the semi-deciduous tropical forest, canopy photosynthesis is highly correlated with canopy temperature (r2 = 0.51), with a distinct optimum temperature for photosynthesis ( 31 °C) that agrees with leaf-level measurements. During the peak of one heat wave at an old-growth temperate rainforest, hourly averaged air temperature exceeded 35 °C, 10 °C above average. Peak hourly canopy temperature approached 40 °C, and leaf-to-air vapor pressure deficit exceeded 6 kPa. These extreme
Chirped-pulse manipulated carrier dynamics in low-temperature molecular-beam-epitaxy grown GaAs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Chao-Kuei; Lin, Yuan-Yao; Lin, Sung-Hui; Lin, Gong-Ru; Pan, Ci-Ling
2014-01-01
Chirped pulse controlled carrier dynamics in low-temperature molecular-beam-epitaxy grown GaAs are investigated by degenerate pump-probe technique. Varying the chirped condition of excited pulse from negative to positive increases the carrier relaxation time so as to modify the dispersion and reshape current pulse in time domain. The spectral dependence of carrier dynamics is analytically derived and explained by Shockley-Read Hall model. This observation enables the new feasibility of controlling carrier dynamics in ultrafast optical devices via the chirped pulse excitations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mølgaard Mortensen, Peter; Willum Hansen, Thomas; Birkedal Wagner, Jakob; Degn Jensen, Anker
2015-01-01
The temperature and velocity field, pressure distribution, and the temperature variation across the sample region inside an environmental transmission electron microscope (ETEM) have been modeled by means of computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Heating the sample area by a furnace type TEM holder gives rise to temperature gradients over the sample area. Three major mechanisms have been identified with respect to heat transfer in the sample area: radiation from the grid, conduction in the grid, and conduction in the gas. A parameter sensitivity analysis showed that the sample temperature was affected by the conductivity of the gas, the emissivity of the sample grid, and the conductivity of the grid. Ideally the grid should be polished and made from a material with good conductivity, e.g. copper. With hydrogen gas, which has the highest conductivity of the gases studied, the temperature difference over the TEM grid is less than 5 °C, at what must be considered typical conditions, and it is concluded that the conditions on the sample grid in the ETEM can be considered as isothermal during general use. - Highlights: • Computational fluid dynamics used for mapping flow and temperature in ETEM setup. • Temperature gradient across TEM grid in furnace based heating holder very small in ETEM. • Conduction from TEM grid and gas in addition to radiation from TEM grid most important. • Pressure drop in ETEM limited to the pressure limiting apertures
Kolivoski, Karen M; Goodkind, Sara; Shook, Jeffrey J
2017-10-01
Social workers are critical to promoting racial and social justice. "Crossover youth," a term used to describe youths who have contact with both the child welfare and juvenile justice systems, are an especially vulnerable but often overlooked population with whom social workers engage. A disproportionate number of crossover youth are African American. Empirical research on crossover youth is growing, but such scholarship rarely engages with a human rights and social justice perspective. African American children and youths have a distinct place within the history and current context of the child welfare and juvenile justice systems. These systems have historically excluded them or treated them differently; now, African American youths are overrepresented in each of them, and evidence suggests they are more likely to cross over. The purpose of this article is to describe the historical and current context of crossover youth, with a particular focus on African American youths, to provide the foundation for a discussion of what social workers can do to promote racial and social justice for crossover youth, including specific implications for practice and policy, as well as broader implications for human and civil rights. © 2017 National Association of Social Workers.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sun, Y.J.; Huang, Y.H.; Ma, F.; Ma, D.Y.; Hu, T.W.; Xu, K.W.
2014-01-01
Highlights: • Molecular dynamics simulation was performed to study the deformation behaviors of Zigzag Graphene Nano-Ribbons (ZGNRs). • The “phase transformation” from hexagonal to quasi-rectangular and the subsequent second elastic deformation were observed. • Related thermal effects model was built to predict fracture strain of ZGNRs, and was consistent with simulation results. -- Abstract: Molecular dynamics simulation was performed to study the deformation behaviors of Zigzag Graphene Nano-Ribbons (ZGNRs) 150 Å × 150 Å in size, and double-elastic deformation was observed at temperatures lower than 90 K. Essentially, at such a low temperature, the lattice vibration was significantly weakened and thus the lifetime of C-C bonds was prolonged considerably. Moreover, it was difficult for broken bonds to accumulate and resulted in the destructive fracture of ZGNRs at low temperature. As a result, the “phase transformation” from hexagonal to quasi-rectangular and subsequently the second elastic deformation took place. However, at higher temperatures, says, 300 K, brittle fracture was observed and the fracture strength decreased with temperature, which was consistent with previously reported results. Additionally at higher strain rate, the atoms could not respond to the external loading in time, the fracture strain and fracture strength were enhanced
Fluid dynamic analysis and experimental study of a low radiation error temperature sensor
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yang, Jie, E-mail: yangjie396768@163.com [Key Laboratory for Aerosol-Cloud-Precipitation of China Meteorological Administration, Nanjing 210044 (China); School of Atmospheric Physics, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044 (China); Liu, Qingquan, E-mail: andyucd@163.com [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Meteorological Observation and Information Processing, Nanjing 210044 (China); Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center on Atmospheric Environment and Equipment Technology, Nanjing 210044 (China); Dai, Wei, E-mail: daiweiilove@163.com [Key Laboratory for Aerosol-Cloud-Precipitation of China Meteorological Administration, Nanjing 210044 (China); School of Atmospheric Physics, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044 (China); Ding, Renhui, E-mail: drhabcd@sina.com [Jiangsu Meteorological Observation Center, Nanjing 210008 (China)
2017-01-30
To improve the air temperature observation accuracy, a low radiation error temperature sensor is proposed. A Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) method is implemented to obtain radiation errors under various environmental conditions. The low radiation error temperature sensor, a naturally ventilated radiation shield, a thermometer screen and an aspirated temperature measurement platform are characterized in the same environment to conduct the intercomparison. The aspirated platform served as an air temperature reference. The mean radiation errors of the naturally ventilated radiation shield and the thermometer screen are 0.57 °C and 0.32 °C, respectively. In contrast, the mean radiation error of the low radiation error temperature sensor is 0.05 °C. The low radiation error temperature sensor proposed in this research may be helpful to provide a relatively accurate air temperature measurement result. - Highlights: • A CFD method is applied to obtain a quantitative solution of radiation error. • A temperature sensor is proposed to minimize radiation error. • The radiation error of the temperature sensor is on the order of 0.05 °C.
Crossover And MTF Characteristics Of A Tabular-Grain X-Ray Film
Huff, K. E.; Wagner, P. W.
1984-08-01
An orthochromatic x-ray film made with tabular silver halide grains has a significantly higher MTF when exposed with green-emitting intensifying screens than do conventional films with similar sensitometric properties. The primary reason for the improved MTF is a decrease in the amount of crossover exposure, i.e., exposure by light that has crossed the support one or more times. Two well-established sensitometric procedures for measuring crossover have been compared. One produces results accurate enough for calculations of MTF relationships. Calculated MTF relationships for tabulargrain and conventional films are compared with measured values.
Zhu, C. C.; Song, Y. T.; Peng, X. B.; Wei, Y. P.; Mao, X.; Li, W. X.; Qian, X. Y.
2016-02-01
In the divertor structure of ITER and EAST with mono-block module, tungsten plays not only a role of armor material but also a role of structural material, because electromagnetic (EM) impact will be exerted on tungsten components in VDEs or CQ. The EM loads can reach to 100 MN, which would cause high strain rates. In addition, directly exposed to high-temperature plasma, the temperature regime of divertor components is complex. Aiming at studying dynamical response of tungsten divertors under EM loads, an experiment on tungsten employed in EAST divertors was performed using a Kolsky bar system. The testing strain rates and temperatures is derived from actual working conditions, which makes the constitutive equation concluded by using John-Cook model and testing data very accurate and practical. The work would give a guidance to estimate the dynamical response, fatigue life and damage evolution of tungsten divertor components under EM impact loads.
Qu, Xingda; Jiang, Jianxin; Hu, Xinyao
2018-06-01
The objective of this study was to examine the effects of subsensory noise and fatigue on knee biomechanics during the athletic task of landing followed by cross-over cutting. A total of 32 healthy male athletes participated in the study. They were evenly divided into 2 groups: no fatigue group and fatigue group. Fatigue was induced to the lower extremity by a repetitive squatting exercise in the fatigue group. Subsensory noise was generated by linear miniature vibrators bilaterally placed around the knee joints. During data collection, the participants were instructed to perform landing followed by cross-over cutting in both the subsensory on and off conditions. Dependent variables were selected to assess knee biomechanics in the phases of landing and cross-over cutting, separately. Results showed that fatigue resulted in larger knee flexion during landing and larger knee internal rotation during cross-over cutting. Subsensory noise was found to reduce knee rotation impulse during cross-over cutting. These findings suggest that cross-over cutting is more dangerous than landing in the fatigue condition, and subsensory noise may lead to changes in knee biomechanics consistent with reduced risk of anterior cruciate ligament injuries, but the changes may be task-specific.
Tuning porosity and radial mechanical properties of DNA origami nanotubes via crossover design
Ma, Zhipeng; Kawai, Kentaro; Hirai, Yoshikazu; Tsuchiya, Toshiyuki; Tabata, Osamu
2017-06-01
DNA origami nanotubes are utilized as structural platforms for the fabrication of various micro/nanosystems for drug delivery, optical or biological sensing, and even nanoscale robots. Their radial structural and mechanical properties, which play a crucial role in the effective use of micro/nanosystems, have not been fully studied. In particular, the effects of crossovers, which are basic structures for rationally assembling double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) helices into a nanotube configuration, have not yet been characterized experimentally. To investigate the effects of crossovers on the porosity and the radial mechanical properties of DNA origami nanotubes, we fabricated a DNA origami nanotube with varied crossover designs along the nanotube axis. The radial geometry of the DNA origami nanotube is experimentally characterized by both atomic force microscopy (AFM) and electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM). Moreover, the radial mechanical properties of the DNA origami nanotube including the radial modulus are directly measured by force-distance-based AFM. These measurements reveal that the porosity and the radial modulus of DNA origami nanotubes can be tuned by adjusting the crossover design, which enables the optimal design and construction of DNA origami nanostructures for various applications.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Man, E. A.; Sera, D.; Mathe, L.
2016-01-01
of the intermittent operation of the internal combustion engine, the TEG and its MPPT controller are exposed to a cyclic temperature profile. Furthermore, there are no guidelines on how fast the MPPT must be under such dynamic conditions. In the work discussed in this paper, temperature gradients for TEG integrated...
Simonucci, S.; Strinati, G. C.
2014-02-01
We derive a nonlinear differential equation for the gap parameter of a superfluid Fermi system by performing a suitable coarse graining of the Bogoliubov-de Gennes (BdG) equations throughout the BCS-BEC crossover, with the aim of replacing the time-consuming solution of the original BdG equations by the simpler solution of this novel equation. We perform a favorable numerical test on the validity of this new equation over most of the temperature-coupling phase diagram, by an explicit comparison with the full solution of the original BdG equations for an isolated vortex. We also show that the new equation reduces both to the Ginzburg-Landau equation for Cooper pairs in weak coupling close to the critical temperature and to the Gross-Pitaevskii equation for composite bosons in strong coupling at low temperature.
Microscopic dynamics of water around unfolded structures of barstar at room temperature
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pal, Somedatta; Chakraborty, Kaushik; Khatua, Prabir; Bandyopadhyay, Sanjoy, E-mail: sanjoy@chem.iitkgp.ernet.in [Molecular Modeling Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302 (India)
2015-02-07
The breaking of the native structure of a protein and its influences on the dynamic response of the surrounding solvent is an important issue in protein folding. In this work, we have carried out atomistic molecular dynamics simulations to unfold the protein barstar at two different temperatures (400 K and 450 K). The two unfolded forms obtained at such high temperatures are further studied at room temperature to explore the effects of nonuniform unfolding of the protein secondary structures along two different pathways on the microscopic dynamical properties of the surface water molecules. It is demonstrated that though the structural transition of the protein in general results in less restricted water motions around its segments, but there are evidences of formation of new conformational motifs upon unfolding with increasingly confined environment around them, thereby resulting in further restricted water mobility in their hydration layers. Moreover, it is noticed that the effects of nonuniform unfolding of the protein segments on the relaxation times of the protein–water (PW) and the water–water (WW) hydrogen bonds are correlated with hindered hydration water motions. However, the kinetics of breaking and reformation of such hydrogen bonds are found to be influenced differently at the interface. It is observed that while the effects of unfolding on the PW hydrogen bond kinetics seem to be minimum, but the kinetics involving the WW hydrogen bonds around the protein segments exhibit noticeably heterogeneous characteristics. We believe that this is an important observation, which can provide valuable insights on the origin of heterogeneous influence of unfolding of a protein on the microscopic properties of its hydration water.
Altman, Carmit
2015-04-01
Two indices of bilingualism, crossover memories and codeswitching (CS), were explored in five groups of immigrant (English-Hebrew, Georgian-Hebrew Russian-Hebrew) and indigenous bilinguals (Arabic-Hebrew, Hebrew-English). Participants recalled memories in response to cue words and then were asked to report the language of retrieval and provide a more elaborate narrative. More memories were 'same language' memories, recalled in the language of the experimental session/cue word, but as many as 48 % of the memories were crossovers, i.e. memories reported in a language other than the language of the session/cue word. In an effort to examine the ecological validity of the self-reported language of the memories, the frequency of CS in the elaborated narratives was investigated. For the entire sample, more CS was found for self-reported crossover memories in L2 sessions. In a further analysis of CS in crossover memories, collapsed across L1 and L2 sessions, significant differences emerged between immigrants and indigenous bilinguals. Differences between immigrant and non-immigrant bilinguals are discussed in terms of the role of activation in crossover memories.
Uto, Koichiro; Ebara, Mitsuhiro; Aoyagi, Takao
2014-01-21
We developed a dynamic cell culture platform with dynamically tunable nano-roughness and elasticity. Temperature-responsive poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) films were successfully prepared by crosslinking linear and tetra-branched PCL macromonomers. By optimizing the mixing ratios, the crystal-amorphous transition temperature (Tm) of the crosslinked film was adjusted to the biological relevant temperature (~33 °C). While the crosslinked films are relatively stiff (50 MPa) below the Tm, they suddenly become soft (1 MPa) above the Tm. Correspondingly, roughness of the surface was decreased from 63.4-12.4 nm. It is noted that the surface wettability was independent of temperature. To investigate the role of dynamic surface roughness and elasticity on cell adhesion, cells were seeded on PCL films at 32 °C. Interestingly, spread myoblasts on the film became rounded when temperature was suddenly increased to 37 °C, while significant changes in cell morphology were not observed for fibroblasts. These results indicate that cells can sense dynamic changes in the surrounding environment but the sensitivity depends on cell types.
Drake, John H; Özcan, Ender; Burke, Edmund K
2016-01-01
Hyper-heuristics are high-level methodologies for solving complex problems that operate on a search space of heuristics. In a selection hyper-heuristic framework, a heuristic is chosen from an existing set of low-level heuristics and applied to the current solution to produce a new solution at each point in the search. The use of crossover low-level heuristics is possible in an increasing number of general-purpose hyper-heuristic tools such as HyFlex and Hyperion. However, little work has been undertaken to assess how best to utilise it. Since a single-point search hyper-heuristic operates on a single candidate solution, and two candidate solutions are required for crossover, a mechanism is required to control the choice of the other solution. The frameworks we propose maintain a list of potential solutions for use in crossover. We investigate the use of such lists at two conceptual levels. First, crossover is controlled at the hyper-heuristic level where no problem-specific information is required. Second, it is controlled at the problem domain level where problem-specific information is used to produce good-quality solutions to use in crossover. A number of selection hyper-heuristics are compared using these frameworks over three benchmark libraries with varying properties for an NP-hard optimisation problem: the multidimensional 0-1 knapsack problem. It is shown that allowing crossover to be managed at the domain level outperforms managing crossover at the hyper-heuristic level in this problem domain.
Usui, Kota; Hunger, Johannes; Bonn, Mischa; Sulpizi, Marialore
2018-05-01
Room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) have been shown to exhibit spatial heterogeneity or structural heterogeneity in the sense that they form hydrophobic and ionic domains. Yet studies of the relationship between this structural heterogeneity and the ˜picosecond motion of the molecular constituents remain limited. In order to obtain insight into the time scales relevant to this structural heterogeneity, we perform molecular dynamics simulations of a series of RTILs. To investigate the relationship between the structures, i.e., the presence of hydrophobic and ionic domains, and the dynamics, we gradually increase the size of the hydrophobic part of the cation from ethylammonium nitrate (EAN), via propylammonium nitrate (PAN), to butylammonium nitrate (BAN). The two ends of the organic cation, namely, the charged Nhead-H group and the hydrophobic Ctail-H group, exhibit rotational dynamics on different time scales, evidencing dynamical heterogeneity. The dynamics of the Nhead-H group is slower because of the strong coulombic interaction with the nitrate counter-ionic anions, while the dynamics of the Ctail-H group is faster because of the weaker van der Waals interaction with the surrounding atoms. In particular, the rotation of the Nhead-H group slows down with increasing cationic chain length, while the rotation of the Ctail-H group shows little dependence on the cationic chain length, manifesting that the dynamical heterogeneity is enhanced with a longer cationic chain. The slowdown of the Nhead-H group with increasing cationic chain length is associated with a lower number of nitrate anions near the Nhead-H group, which presumably results in the increase of the energy barrier for the rotation. The sensitivity of the Nhead-H rotation to the number of surrounding nitrate anions, in conjunction with the varying number of nitrate anions, gives rise to a broad distribution of Nhead-H reorientation times. Our results suggest that the asymmetry of the cations and the
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burger, Florian
2012-01-01
In this thesis we report about an investigation of the finite temperature crossover/phase transition of quantum chromodynamics and the evaluation of the thermodynamic equation of state. To this end the lattice method and the Wilson twisted mass discretisation of the quark action are used. This formulation is known to have an automatic improvement of lattice artifacts and thus an improved continuum limit behaviour. This work presents first robust results using this action for the non-vanishing temperature case. We investigate the chiral limit of the two flavour phase transition with several small values of the pion mass in order to address the open question of the order of the transition in the limit of vanishing quark mass. For the currently simulated pion masses in the range of 300 to 700 MeV we present evidence that the finite temperature transition is a crossover transition rather than a genuine phase transition. The chiral limit is investigated by comparing the scaling of the observed crossover temperature with the mass including several possible scenarios. Complementary to this approach the chiral condensate as the order parameter for the spontaneous breaking of chiral symmetry is analysed in comparison with the O(4) universal scaling function which characterises a second order transition. With respect to thermodynamics the equation of state is obtained from the trace anomaly employing the temperature integral method which provides the pressure and energy density in the crossover region. The continuum limit of the trace anomaly is studied by considering several values of N τ and the tree-level correction technique.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Keskin, Mustafa, E-mail: keskin@erciyes.edu.t [Department of Physics, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey); Kantar, Ersin [Institute of Science, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)
2010-09-15
We study the existence of dynamic compensation temperatures in the mixed spin-1 and spin-3/2 Ising ferrimagnetic system Hamiltonian with bilinear and crystal-field interactions in the presence of a time-dependent oscillating external magnetic field on a hexagonal lattice. We employ the Glauber transitions rates to construct the mean-field dynamic equations. We investigate the time dependence of an average sublattice magnetizations, the thermal behavior of the dynamic sublattice magnetizations and the total magnetization. From these studies, we find the phases in the system, and characterize the nature (continuous or discontinuous) of transitions as well as obtain the dynamic phase transition (DPT) points and the dynamic compensation temperatures. We also present dynamic phase diagrams, including the compensation temperatures, in the five different planes. A comparison is made with the results of the available mixed spin Ising systems.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Keskin, Mustafa; Kantar, Ersin
2010-01-01
We study the existence of dynamic compensation temperatures in the mixed spin-1 and spin-3/2 Ising ferrimagnetic system Hamiltonian with bilinear and crystal-field interactions in the presence of a time-dependent oscillating external magnetic field on a hexagonal lattice. We employ the Glauber transitions rates to construct the mean-field dynamic equations. We investigate the time dependence of an average sublattice magnetizations, the thermal behavior of the dynamic sublattice magnetizations and the total magnetization. From these studies, we find the phases in the system, and characterize the nature (continuous or discontinuous) of transitions as well as obtain the dynamic phase transition (DPT) points and the dynamic compensation temperatures. We also present dynamic phase diagrams, including the compensation temperatures, in the five different planes. A comparison is made with the results of the available mixed spin Ising systems.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Saha, D., E-mail: sahaphys@gmail.com, E-mail: pmisra@rrcat.gov.in; Misra, P., E-mail: sahaphys@gmail.com, E-mail: pmisra@rrcat.gov.in; Joshi, M. P.; Kukreja, L. M. [Laser Materials Processing Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452 013 (India); Bhartiya, S. [Laser Materials Development & Devices Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452 013 (India); Gupta, M. [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, Indore 452 017 (India)
2016-01-25
We report on the dimensional crossover of electron weak localization in ZnO/TiO{sub x} stacked layers having well-defined and spatially-localized Ti dopant profiles along film thickness. These films were grown by in situ incorporation of sub-monolayer TiO{sub x} on the growing ZnO film surface and subsequent overgrowth of thin conducting ZnO spacer layer using atomic layer deposition. Film thickness was varied in the range of ∼6–65 nm by vertically stacking different numbers (n = 1–7) of ZnO/TiO{sub x} layers of nearly identical dopant-profiles. The evolution of zero-field sheet resistance (R{sub ◻}) versus temperature with decreasing film thickness showed a metal to insulator transition. On the metallic side of the metal-insulator transition, R{sub ◻}(T) and magnetoresistance data were found to be well corroborated with the theoretical framework of electron weak localization in the diffusive transport regime. The temperature dependence of both R{sub ◻} and inelastic scattering length provided strong evidence for a smooth crossover from 2D to 3D weak localization behaviour. Results of this study provide deeper insight into the electron transport in low-dimensional n-type ZnO/TiO{sub x} stacked layers which have potential applications in the field of transparent oxide electronics.
Dynamics of premixed flames in a narrow channel with a step-wise wall temperature
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kurdyumov, Vadim N. [Department of Energy, CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Pizza, Gianmarco [Aerothermochemistry and Combustion Systems Laboratory, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich CH-8092 (Switzerland); Combustion Research, Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen CH-5232 (Switzerland); Frouzakis, Christos E. [Aerothermochemistry and Combustion Systems Laboratory, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich CH-8092 (Switzerland); Mantzaras, John [Combustion Research, Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen CH-5232 (Switzerland)
2009-11-15
The effect of channel height, inflow velocity and wall temperature on the dynamics and stability of unity Lewis number premixed flames in channels with specified wall temperature is investigated with steady and transient numerical simulations using a two-dimensional thermo-diffusive model. The simplified model is capable of capturing many of the transitions and the combustion modes observed experimentally and in direct numerical simulations in micro- and meso-scale channels, and indicates that the thermal flame/wall interaction is the mechanism leading to the observed flame instabilities. Finally, an ad-hoc one-dimensional model based on the flame-sheet approximation is tested in its capacity to reproduce some of the flame dynamics of the two-dimensional thermo-diffusive model. (author)
Miao, Yinglong; Yi, Zheng; Glass, Dennis C; Hong, Liang; Tyagi, Madhusudan; Baudry, Jerome; Jain, Nitin; Smith, Jeremy C
2012-12-05
The temperature dependences of the nanosecond dynamics of different chemical classes of amino acid residue have been analyzed by combining elastic incoherent neutron scattering experiments with molecular dynamics simulations on cytochrome P450cam. At T = 100-160 K, anharmonic motion in hydrophobic and aromatic residues is activated, whereas hydrophilic residue motions are suppressed because of hydrogen-bonding interactions. In contrast, at T = 180-220 K, water-activated jumps of hydrophilic side chains, which are strongly coupled to the relaxation rates of the hydrogen bonds they form with hydration water, become apparent. Thus, with increasing temperature, first the hydrophobic core awakens, followed by the hydrophilic surface.
Maybe Next Month? Temperature Shocks, Climate Change, and Dynamic Adjustments in Birth Rates
Barreca, Alan I.; Deschenes, Olivier; Guldi, Melanie
2015-01-01
Dynamic adjustments could be a useful strategy for mitigating the costs of acute environmental shocks when timing is not a strictly binding constraint. To investigate whether such adjustments could apply to fertility, we estimate the effects of temperature shocks on birth rates in the United States between 1931 and 2010. Our innovative approach allows for presumably random variation in the distribution of daily temperatures to affect birth rates up to 24 months into the future. We find that a...
Ahn, J. B.; Hur, J.
2015-12-01
The seasonal prediction of both the surface air temperature and the first-flowering date (FFD) over South Korea are produced using dynamical downscaling (Hur and Ahn, 2015). Dynamical downscaling is performed using Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) v3.0 with the lateral forcing from hourly outputs of Pusan National University (PNU) coupled general circulation model (CGCM) v1.1. Gridded surface air temperature data with high spatial (3km) and temporal (daily) resolution are obtained using the physically-based dynamical models. To reduce systematic bias, simple statistical correction method is then applied to the model output. The FFDs of cherry, peach and pear in South Korea are predicted for the decade of 1999-2008 by applying the corrected daily temperature predictions to the phenological thermal-time model. The WRF v3.0 results reflect the detailed topographical effect, despite having cold and warm biases for warm and cold seasons, respectively. After applying the correction, the mean temperature for early spring (February to April) well represents the general pattern of observation, while preserving the advantages of dynamical downscaling. The FFD predictabilities for the three species of trees are evaluated in terms of qualitative, quantitative and categorical estimations. Although FFDs derived from the corrected WRF results well predict the spatial distribution and the variation of observation, the prediction performance has no statistical significance or appropriate predictability. The approach used in the study may be helpful in obtaining detailed and useful information about FFD and regional temperature by accounting for physically-based atmospheric dynamics, although the seasonal predictability of flowering phenology is not high enough. Acknowledgements This work was carried out with the support of the Rural Development Administration Cooperative Research Program for Agriculture Science and Technology Development under Grant Project No. PJ009953 and
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bankura, Arindam; Chandra, Amalendu
2012-01-01
Highlights: ► A theoretical study of hydroxide ion-water clusters is carried for varying cluster size and temperature. ► The structures of OH − (H 2 O) n are found out through quantum chemical calculations for n = 4, 8, 16 and 20. ► The finite temperature behavior of the clusters is studied through ab initio dynamical simulations. ► The spectral features of OH modes (deuterated) and their dependence on hydrogen bonding states of water are discussed. ► The mechanism and kinetics of proton transfer processes in these anionic clusters are also investigated. - Abstract: We have investigated the hydration structure and dynamics of OH − (H 2 O) n clusters (n = 4, 8, 16 and 20) by means of quantum chemical and ab initio molecular dynamics calculations. Quantum chemical calculations reveal that the solvation structure of the hydroxide ion transforms from three and four-coordinated surface states to five-coordinated interior state with increase in cluster size. Several other isomeric structures with energies not very different from the most stable isomer are also found. Ab initio simulations show that the most probable configurations at higher temperatures need not be the lowest energy isomeric structure. The rates of proton transfer in these clusters are found to be slower than that in bulk water. The vibrational spectral calculations reveal distinct features for free OH (deuterated) stretch modes of water in different hydrogen bonding states. Effects of temperature on the structural and dynamical properties are also investigated for the largest cluster considered here.
Segmental front line dynamics of randomly pinned ferroelastic domain walls
Puchberger, S.; Soprunyuk, V.; Schranz, W.; Carpenter, M. A.
2018-01-01
Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) measurements as a function of temperature, frequency, and dynamic force amplitude are used to perform a detailed study of the domain wall motion in LaAlO3. In previous DMA measurements Harrison et al. [Phys. Rev. B 69, 144101 (2004), 10.1103/PhysRevB.69.144101] found evidence for dynamic phase transitions of ferroelastic domain walls in LaAlO3. In the present work we focus on the creep-to-relaxation region of domain wall motion using two complementary methods. We determine, in addition to dynamic susceptibility data, waiting time distributions of strain jerks during slowly increasing stress. These strain jerks, which result from self-similar avalanches close to the depinning threshold, follow a power-law behavior with an energy exponent ɛ =1.7 ±0.1 . Also, the distribution of waiting times between events follows a power law N (tw) ∝tw-(n +1 ) with an exponent n =0.9 , which transforms to a power law of susceptibility S (ω ) ∝ω-n . The present dynamic susceptibility data can be well fitted with a power law, with the same exponent (n =0.9 ) up to a characteristic frequency ω ≈ω* , where a crossover from stochastic DW motion to the pinned regime is well described using the scaling function of Fedorenko et al. [Phys. Rev. B 70, 224104 (2004), 10.1103/PhysRevB.70.224104].
Combining Remote Temperature Sensing with in-Situ Sensing to Track Marine/Freshwater Mixing Dynamics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Margaret McCaul
2016-08-01
Full Text Available The ability to track the dynamics of processes in natural water bodies on a global scale, and at a resolution that enables highly localised behaviour to be visualized, is an ideal scenario for understanding how local events can influence the global environment. While advances in in-situ chem/bio-sensing continue to be reported, costs and reliability issues still inhibit the implementation of large-scale deployments. In contrast, physical parameters like surface temperature can be tracked on a global scale using satellite remote sensing, and locally at high resolution via flyovers and drones using multi-spectral imaging. In this study, we show how a much more complete picture of submarine and intertidal groundwater discharge patterns in Kinvara Bay, Galway can be achieved using a fusion of data collected from the Earth Observation satellite (Landsat 8, small aircraft and in-situ sensors. Over the course of the four-day field campaign, over 65,000 in-situ temperatures, salinity and nutrient measurements were collected in parallel with high-resolution thermal imaging from aircraft flyovers. The processed in-situ data show highly correlated patterns between temperature and salinity at the southern end of the bay where freshwater springs can be identified at low tide. Salinity values range from 1 to 2 ppt at the southern end of the bay to 30 ppt at the mouth of the bay, indicating the presence of a freshwater wedge. The data clearly show that temperature differences can be used to track the dynamics of freshwater and seawater mixing in the inner bay region. This outcome suggests that combining the tremendous spatial density and wide geographical reach of remote temperature sensing (using drones, flyovers and satellites with ground-truthing via appropriately located in-situ sensors (temperature, salinity, chemical, and biological can produce a much more complete and accurate picture of the water dynamics than each modality used in isolation.
Soltani, Omid; Akbari, Mohammad
2016-10-01
In this paper, the effects of temperature and particles concentration on the dynamic viscosity of MgO-MWCNT/ethylene glycol hybrid nanofluid is examined. The experiments carried out in the solid volume fraction range of 0 to 1.0% under the temperature ranging from 30 °C to 60 °C. The results showed that the hybrid nanofluid behaves as a Newtonian fluid for all solid volume fractions and temperatures considered. The measurements also indicated that the dynamic viscosity increases with increasing the solid volume fraction and decreases with the temperature rising. The relative viscosity revealed that when the solid volume fraction enhances from 0.1 to 1%, the dynamic viscosity increases up to 168%. Finally, using experimental data, in order to predict the dynamic viscosity of MgO-MWCNT/ethylene glycol hybrid nanofluids, a new correlation has been suggested. The comparisons between the correlation outputs and experimental results showed that the suggested correlation has an acceptable accuracy.
Temperature-stress phase diagram of strain glass Ti48.5Ni51.5
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Y.; Ren, X.; Otsuka, K.; Saxena, A.
2008-01-01
The temperature and stress dependence of the properties of a recently discovered strain glass Ti 48.5 Ni 51.5 , which is a glass of frozen local lattice strains, was investigated systematically. It was found that the ideal freezing temperature (T 0 ) of the strain glass decreases with increasing stress. When the stress exceeds a critical value σ c (T), the pseudo-B2 strain glass transforms into B19' martensite. However, the stress-strain behavior associated with such a stress-induced transition showed a crossover at a crossover temperature T CR , which is ∼20 K below T 0 . Above T CR , the sample showed superelastic behavior; however, below T CR , the sample demonstrated plastic behavior. More interestingly, the σ c vs. temperature relation for unfrozen strain glass obeys the Clausius-Clapyeron relationship, whereas that for frozen strain glass disobeys this universal thermodynamic law. A phenomenological explanation is provided for all the phenomena observed, and it is shown that all the anomalous effects come from the broken ergodicity of the glass system and a temperature-dependent relative stability of the martensitic phase. Based on experimental observations, a temperature-stress phase diagram is constructed for this strain glass, which may serve as a guide map for understanding and predicting the properties of strain glass
Dimer and String Formation during Low Temperature Silicon Deposition on Si(100)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Smith, A. P.; Jonsson, Hannes
1996-01-01
We present theoretical results based on density functional theory and kinetic Monte Carlo simulations of silicon deposition and address observations made in recently reported low temperature scanning tunneling microscopy studies. A mechanism is presented which explains dimer formation on top...... of the substrate's dimer rows at 160 K and up to room temperature, while between-row dimers and longer strings of adatoms (''diluted dimer rows'') form at higher temperature. A crossover occurs at around room temperature between two different mechanisms for adatom diffusion in our model....
Advanced High-Temperature Reactor Dynamic System Model Development: April 2012 Status
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Qualls, A L; Cetiner, M S; Wilson, Jr, T L
2012-04-30
The Advanced High-Temperature Reactor (AHTR) is a large-output fluoride-salt-cooled high-temperature reactor (FHR). An early-phase preconceptual design of a 1500 MW(e) power plant was developed in 2011 [Refs. 1 and 2]. An updated version of this plant is shown as Fig. 1. FHRs feature low-pressure liquid fluoride salt cooling, coated-particle fuel, a high-temperature power cycle, and fully passive decay heat rejection. The AHTR is designed to be a “walk away” reactor that requires no action to prevent large off-site releases following even severe reactor accidents. This report describes the development of dynamic system models used to further the AHTR design toward that goal. These models predict system response during warmup, startup, normal operation, and limited off-normal operating conditions. Severe accidents that include a loss-of-fluid inventory are not currently modeled. The scope of the models is limited to the plant power system, including the reactor, the primary and intermediate heat transport systems, the power conversion system, and safety-related or auxiliary heat removal systems. The primary coolant system, the intermediate heat transport system and the reactor building structure surrounding them are shown in Fig. 2. These systems are modeled in the most detail because the passive interaction of the primary system with the surrounding structure and heat removal systems, and ultimately the environment, protects the reactor fuel and the vessel from damage during severe reactor transients. The reactor silo also plays an important role during system warmup. The dynamic system modeling tools predict system performance and response. The goal is to accurately predict temperatures and pressures within the primary, intermediate, and power conversion systems and to study the impacts of design changes on those responses. The models are design tools and are not intended to be used in reactor qualification. The important details to capture in the primary
Metastability for Kawasaki dynamics at low temperature with two types of particles
Hollander, den W.Th.F.; Nardi, F.R.; Troiani, A.
2011-01-01
This is the fi??rst in a series of three papers in which we study a two-dimensional lattice gas consisting of two types of particles subject to Kawasaki dynamics at low temperature in a large fi??nite box with an open boundary. Each pair of particles occupying neighboring sites has a negative
de Boer, Esther; Jasin, Maria; Keeney, Scott
2015-01-01
Meiotic recombination initiated by programmed double-strand breaks (DSBs) yields two types of interhomolog recombination products, crossovers and noncrossovers, but what determines whether a DSB will yield a crossover or noncrossover is not understood. In this study, we analyzed the influence of sex and chromosomal location on mammalian recombination outcomes by constructing fine-scale recombination maps in both males and females at two mouse hot spots located in different regions of the same chromosome. These include the most comprehensive maps of recombination hot spots in oocytes to date. One hot spot, located centrally on chromosome 1, behaved similarly in male and female meiosis: Crossovers and noncrossovers formed at comparable levels and ratios in both sexes. In contrast, at a distal hot spot, crossovers were recovered only in males even though noncrossovers were obtained at similar frequencies in both sexes. These findings reveal an example of extreme sex-specific bias in recombination outcome. We further found that estimates of relative DSB levels are surprisingly poor predictors of relative crossover frequencies between hot spots in males. Our results demonstrate that the outcome of mammalian meiotic recombination can be biased, that this bias can vary depending on location and cellular context, and that DSB frequency is not the only determinant of crossover frequency. PMID:26251527
Self-Assembling Molecular Logic Gates Based on DNA Crossover Tiles.
Campbell, Eleanor A; Peterson, Evan; Kolpashchikov, Dmitry M
2017-07-05
DNA-based computational hardware has attracted ever-growing attention due to its potential to be useful in the analysis of complex mixtures of biological markers. Here we report the design of self-assembling logic gates that recognize DNA inputs and assemble into crossover tiles when the output signal is high; the crossover structures disassemble to form separate DNA stands when the output is low. The output signal can be conveniently detected by fluorescence using a molecular beacon probe as a reporter. AND, NOT, and OR logic gates were designed. We demonstrate that the gates can connect to each other to produce other logic functions. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Effect of dynamic temperature stimulus to plantar surface of the foot in the standing position
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ryo Watanabe
2016-11-01
Full Text Available We have previously found that a vertical force or tactile sensation occurs when the temperature of a participant's skin changes rapidly. In this illusion, upward motion, pressure or force sensation is elicited when stimulus temperature rises rapidly, whereas in the opposite case, downward motion or pulling sensation is elicited. In this paper, we applied this phenomenon to the sole (plantar surface of the foot to present the sensation of ground slope. To investigate this, we conducted an experiment that measured the correlation between stimulation temperature and front-back direction position of the center of gravity (COG. Participants stood on a thermal stimulator on Nintendo Wii Balance Board (WBB and they remained standing during 30 s dynamic temperature stimulus. In result of analysis, it was suggested that dynamic thermal change in sole might influence standing position and the effect pattern was anomalous in case of the participants who reported a swaying sensation without a haptic sensation. This behavior might be applied to the diagnosis of the presence of thermoesthesia of the patients who might have disease with absence of thermoesthesia.
Temperature dynamics and velocity scaling laws for interchange driven, warm ion plasma filaments
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Olsen, Jeppe Miki Busk; Madsen, Jens; Nielsen, Anders Henry
2016-01-01
The influence of electron and ion temperature dynamics on the radial convection of isolated structures in magnetically confined plasmas is investigated by means of numerical simulations. It is demonstrated that the maximum radial velocity of these plasma blobs roughly follows the inertial velocity...
Software tools for data modelling and processing of human body temperature circadian dynamics.
Petrova, Elena S; Afanasova, Anastasia I
2015-01-01
This paper is presenting a software development for simulating and processing thermometry data. The motivation of this research is the miniaturization of actuators attached to human body which allow frequent temperature measurements and improve the medical diagnosis procedures related to circadian dynamics.
STAR POLYMERS IN GOOD SOLVENTS FROM DILUTE TO CONCENTRATED REGIMES: CROSSOVER APPROACH
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S.B.Kiselev
2002-01-01
Full Text Available An introduction is given to the crossover theory of the conformational and thermodynamic properties of star polymers in good solvents. The crossover theory is tested against Monte Carlo simulation data for the structure and thermodynamics of model star polymers. In good solvent conditions, star polymers approach a "universal" limit as N → ∞, however, there are two types of approach towards this limit. In the dilute regime, a critical degree of polymerization N* is found to play a similar role as the Ginzburg number in the crossover theory for critical phenomena in simple fluids. A rescaled penetration function is found to control the free energy of star polymer solutions in the dilute and semidilute regions. This equation of state captures the scaling behaviour of polymer solutions in the dilute/semidilute regimes and also performs well in the concentrated regimes, where the details of the monomer-monomer interactions become important.
An Indentation Technique for Nanoscale Dynamic Viscoelastic Measurements at Elevated Temperature
Ye, Jiping
2012-08-01
Determination of nano/micro-scale viscoelasticity is very important to understand the local rheological behavior and degradation phenomena of multifunctional polymer blend materials. This article reviews research results concerning the development of indentation techniques for making nanoscale dynamic viscoelastic measurements at elevated temperature. In the last decade, we have achieved breakthroughs in noise floor reduction in air and thermal load drift/noise reduction at high temperature before taking on the challenge of nanoscale viscoelastic measurements. A high-temperature indentation technique has been developed that facilitates viscoelastic measurements up to 200 °C in air and 500 °C in a vacuum. During the last year, two viscoelastic measurement methods have been developed by making a breakthrough in suppressing the contact area change at high temperature. One is a sharp-pointed time-dependent nanoindentation technique for microscale application and the other is a spherical time-dependent nanoindentation technique for nanoscale application. In the near future, we expect to lower the thermal load drift and load noise floor even more substantially.
Population dynamics of excited atoms in non-Markovian environments at zero and finite temperature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zou Hong-Mei; Fang Mao-Fa
2015-01-01
The population dynamics of a two-atom system, which is in two independent Lorentzian reservoirs or in two independent Ohmic reservoirs respectively, where the reservoirs are at zero temperature or finite temperature, is studied by using the time-convolutionless master-equation method. The influences of the characteristics and temperature of a non-Markovian environment on the population of the excited atoms are analyzed. We find that the population trapping of the excited atoms is related to the characteristics and the temperature of the non-Markovian environment. The results show that, at zero temperature, the two atoms can be effectively trapped in the excited state both in the Lorentzian reservoirs and in the Ohmic reservoirs. At finite temperature, the population of the excited atoms will quickly decay to a nonzero value. (paper)
Jerng, Dong Wook; Kim, Dong Eok
2018-01-01
The dynamic Leidenfrost phenomenon is governed by three types of pressure potentials induced via vapor hydrodynamics, liquid dynamic pressure, and the water hammer effect resulting from the generation of acoustic waves at the liquid-vapor interface. The prediction of the Leidenfrost temperature for a dynamic droplet needs quantitative evaluation and definition for each of the pressure fields. In particular, the textures on a heated surface can significantly affect the vapor hydrodynamics and the water hammer pressure. We present a quantitative model for evaluating the water hammer pressure on micro-textured surfaces taking into account the absorption of acoustic waves into the thin vapor layer. The model demonstrates that the strength of the acoustic flow into the liquid droplet, which directly contributes to the water hammer pressure, depends on the magnitude of the acoustic resistance (impedance) in the droplet and the vapor region. In consequence, the micro-textures of the surface and the increased spacing between them reduce the water hammer coefficient ( kh ) defined as the ratio of the acoustic flow into the droplet to total generated flow. Aided by numerical calculations that solve the laminar Navier-Stokes equation for the vapor flow, we also predict the dynamic Leidenfrost temperature on a micro-textured surface with reliable accuracy consistent with the experimental data.
Dynamics of capillary condensation in aerogels.
Nomura, R; Miyashita, W; Yoneyama, K; Okuda, Y
2006-03-01
Dynamics of capillary condensation of liquid 4He in various density silica aerogels was investigated systematically. Interfaces were clearly visible when bulk liquid was rapidly sucked into the aerogel. Time evolution of the interface positions was consistent with the Washburn model and their effective pore radii were obtained. Condensation was a single step in a dense aerogel and two steps in a low density aerogel. Crossover between the two types of condensation was observed in an intermediate density aerogel. Variety of the dynamics may be the manifestation of the fractal nature of aerogels which had a wide range of distribution of pore radii.
Improving Genetic Algorithm with Fine-Tuned Crossover and Scaled Architecture
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ajay Shrestha
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Genetic Algorithm (GA is a metaheuristic used in solving combinatorial optimization problems. Inspired by evolutionary biology, GA uses selection, crossover, and mutation operators to efficiently traverse the solution search space. This paper proposes nature inspired fine-tuning to the crossover operator using the untapped idea of Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA. mtDNA is a small subset of the overall DNA. It differentiates itself by inheriting entirely from the female, while the rest of the DNA is inherited equally from both parents. This unique characteristic of mtDNA can be an effective mechanism to identify members with similar genes and restrict crossover between them. It can reduce the rate of dilution of diversity and result in delayed convergence. In addition, we scale the well-known Island Model, where instances of GA are run independently and population members exchanged periodically, to a Continental Model. In this model, multiple web services are executed with each web service running an island model. We applied the concept of mtDNA in solving Traveling Salesman Problem and to train Neural Network for function approximation. Our implementation tests show that leveraging these new concepts of mtDNA and Continental Model results in relative improvement of the optimization quality of GA.
Critical fields in high temperature superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Finnemore, D.K.
1991-01-01
An analysis of various methods to obtain the critical fields of the high temperature superconductors from experimental data is undertaken in order to find definitions of these variables that are consistent with the models used to define them. Characteristic critical fields of H c1 , H c2 and H c that occur in the Ginsburg-Landau theory are difficult to determine experimentally in the high temperature superconductors because there are additional physical phenomena that obscure the results. The lower critical field is difficult to measure because there are flux pinning and surface barrier effects to flux entry; the upper critical field is difficult because fluctuation effects are large at this phase boundary; the thermodynamic critical field is difficult because fluctuations make it difficult to know the field where the magnetization integral should be terminated. In addition to these critical fields there are at least two other cross-over fields. There is the so called irreversibility line where the vortices transform from a rigid flux line lattice to a fluid lattice and there is a second cross-over field associated with the transition from the fluctuation to the Abrikosov vortex regime. The presence of these new physical effects may require new vocabulary
Catalytic Activity Control via Crossover between Two Different Microstructures
Zhou, Yuheng; Zhu, Yihan; Wang, Zhi-Qiang; Zou, Shihui; Ma, Guicen; Xia, Ming; Kong, Xueqian; Xiao, Liping; Gong, Xue-Qing; Fan, Jie
2017-01-01
microstructural control through the crossover between multiply-twinned nanoparticle (MTP) and single crystal (SC) can be readily achieved by solvent post-treatment on gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). Polar solvents (e.g. water, methanol) direct the transformation from
Morphology, temperature, and eruption dynamics at Pele
Howell, Robert R.; Lopes, Rosaly M. C.
2011-06-01
The Pele region of Io has been the site of vigorous volcanic activity from the time of the first Voyager I observations in 1979 up through the final Galileo ones in 2001. There is high-temperature thermal emission from a visibly dark area that is thought to be a rapidly overturning lava lake, and is also the source of a large sulfur-rich plume. We present a new analysis of Voyager I visible wavelength images, and Galileo Solid State Imager (SSI) and Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) thermal emission observations which better define the morphology of the region and the intensity of the emission. The observations show remarkable correlations between the locations of the emission and the features seen in the Voyager images, which provide insight into eruption mechanisms and constrain the longevity of the activity. We also analyze an additional wavelength channel of NIMS data (1.87 μm) which paradoxically, because of reduced sensitivity, allows us to estimate temperatures at the peak locations of emission. Measurements of eruption temperatures on Io are crucial because they provide our best clues to the composition of the magma. High color temperatures indicative of ultramafic composition have been reported for the Pillan hot spot and possibly for Pele, although recent work has called into question the requirement for magma temperatures above those expected for ordinary basalts. Our new analysis of the Pele emission near the peak of the hot spot shows color temperatures near the upper end of the basalt range during the I27 and I32 encounters. In order to analyze the observed color temperatures we also present an analytical model for the thermal emission from fire-fountains, which should prove generally useful for analyzing similar data. This is a modification of the lava flow emission model presented in Howell (Howell, R.R. [1997]. Icarus 127, 394-407), adapted to the fire-fountain cooling curves first discussed in Keszthelyi et al. (Keszthelyi, L., Jaeger, W
Te Kulve, Marije; Schlangen, Luc J M; Schellen, Lisje; Frijns, Arjan J H; van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter D
2017-06-01
Indoor temperature and light exposure are known to affect body temperature, productivity and alertness of building occupants. However, not much is known about the interaction between light and temperature exposure and the relationship between morning light induced alertness and its effect on body temperature. Light intensity and room temperature during morning office hours were investigated under strictly controlled conditions. In a randomized crossover study, two white light conditions (4000K, either bright 1200lx or dim 5lx) under three different room temperatures (26, 29 and 32°C) were investigated. A lower room temperature increased the core body temperature (CBT) and lowered skin temperature and the distal-proximal temperature gradient (DPG). Moreover, a lower room temperature reduced the subjective sleepiness and reaction time on an auditory psychomotor vigilance task (PVT), irrespective of the light condition. Interestingly, the morning bright light exposure did affect thermophysiological parameters, i.e. it decreased plasma cortisol, CBT and proximal skin temperature and increased the DPG, irrespective of the room temperature. During the bright light session, subjective sleepiness decreased irrespective of the room temperature. However, the change in sleepiness due to the light exposure was not related to these physiological changes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Korczewski Zbigniew
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The second part of the article describes the technology of marine engine diagnostics making use of dynamic measurements of the exhaust gas temperature. Little-known achievements of Prof. S. Rutkowski of the Naval College in Gdynia (now: Polish Naval Academy in this area are presented. A novel approach is proposed which consists in the use of the measured exhaust gas temperature dynamics for qualitative and quantitative assessment of the enthalpy flux of successive pressure pulses of the exhaust gas supplying the marine engine turbocompressor. General design assumptions are presented for the measuring and diagnostic system which makes use of a sheathed thermocouple installed in the engine exhaust gas manifold. The corrected thermal inertia of the thermocouple enables to reproduce a real time-history of exhaust gas temperature changes.
Chemically etched edges of YBa2Cu3O7 films for interconnects, crossovers and Josephson junctions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Poppe, U.; Faley, M.I.; Urban, K.; Soltner, H.
1993-01-01
To produce damage-free edges is one of the main problems during the preparation of Josephson edge-type junctions and interconnects in multilayer structures including high temperature superconductors. The inherently short and anisotropic coherence length in high temperature superconductors makes it also difficult to fabricate Josephson junctions from these materials. One promising technique which helps to overcome such problems using a nonaqueous chemical etching with a Br-ethanol solution was first presented in a recent publication. Here we report results obtained with the use of this method: test of insulation properties of PrBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 , PrBa 2 Cu 2.85 Ga 0.15 O 7 , and SrTiO 3 used for crossovers and Josephson junctions. Some features of interconnects and Josephson junctions, prepared on the basis of the chemical technique are also discussed. (orig.)
Within-Subject Mediation Analysis in AB/BA Crossover Designs.
Josephy, Haeike; Vansteelandt, Stijn; Vanderhasselt, Marie-Anne; Loeys, Tom
2015-05-01
Crossover trials are widely used to assess the effect of a reversible exposure on an outcome of interest. To gain further insight into the underlying mechanisms of this effect, researchers may be interested in exploring whether or not it runs through a specific intermediate variable: the mediator. Mediation analysis in crossover designs has received scant attention so far and is mostly confined to the traditional Baron and Kenny approach. We aim to tackle mediation analysis within the counterfactual framework and elucidate the assumptions under which the direct and indirect effects can be identified in AB/BA crossover studies. Notably, we show that both effects are identifiable in certain statistical models, even in the presence of unmeasured time-independent (or upper-level) confounding of the mediator-outcome relation. Employing the mediation formula, we derive expressions for the direct and indirect effects in within-subject designs for continuous outcomes that lend themselves to linear modelling, under a large variety of settings. We discuss an estimation approach based on regressing differences in outcomes on differences in mediators and show how to allow for period effects as well as different types of moderation. The performance of this approach is compared to other existing methods through simulations and is illustrated with data from a neurobehavioural study. Lastly, we demonstrate how a sensitivity analysis can be performed that is able to assess the robustness of both the direct and indirect effect against violation of the "no unmeasured lower-level mediator-outcome confounding" assumption.
Moix, Jeremy M.; Cao, Jianshu
2013-10-01
The hierarchical equations of motion technique has found widespread success as a tool to generate the numerically exact dynamics of non-Markovian open quantum systems. However, its application to low temperature environments remains a serious challenge due to the need for a deep hierarchy that arises from the Matsubara expansion of the bath correlation function. Here we present a hybrid stochastic hierarchical equation of motion (sHEOM) approach that alleviates this bottleneck and leads to a numerical cost that is nearly independent of temperature. Additionally, the sHEOM method generally converges with fewer hierarchy tiers allowing for the treatment of larger systems. Benchmark calculations are presented on the dynamics of two level systems at both high and low temperatures to demonstrate the efficacy of the approach. Then the hybrid method is used to generate the exact dynamics of systems that are nearly impossible to treat by the standard hierarchy. First, exact energy transfer rates are calculated across a broad range of temperatures revealing the deviations from the Förster rates. This is followed by computations of the entanglement dynamics in a system of two qubits at low temperature spanning the weak to strong system-bath coupling regimes.
Pairing and superconductivity from weak to strong coupling in the attractive Hubbard model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Toschi, A; Barone, P; Capone, M; Castellani, C
2005-01-01
The finite-temperature phase diagram of the attractive Hubbard model is studied by means of the dynamical mean-field theory. We first consider the normal phase of the model by explicitly frustrating the superconducting ordering. In this case, we obtain a first-order pairing transition between a metallic phase and a paired phase formed by strongly coupled incoherent pairs. The transition line ends in a finite temperature critical point, but a crossover between two qualitatively different solutions still occurs at higher temperature. Comparing the superconducting- and the normal-phase solutions, we find that the superconducting instability always occurs before the pairing transition in the normal phase, i.e. T c > T pairing . Nevertheless, the high-temperature phase diagram at T > T c is still characterized by a crossover from a metallic phase to a preformed pair phase. We characterize this crossover by computing different observables that can be used to identify the pseudogap region, like the spin susceptibility, the specific heat and the single-particle spectral function
Koperwas, K; Grzybowski, A; Grzybowska, K; Wojnarowska, Z; Sokolov, A P; Paluch, M
2013-09-20
In this Letter, we show how temperature and density fluctuations affect the spatially heterogeneous dynamics at ambient and elevated pressures. By using high-pressure experimental data for van der Waals liquids, we examine contributions of the temperature and density fluctuations to the dynamics heterogeneity. We show that the dynamic heterogeneity decreases significantly with increasing pressure at a constant structural relaxation time (isochronal condition), while the broadening of the relaxation spectrum remains constant. This observation questions the relationship between spectral broadening and dynamic heterogeneity.
The dynamic characteristics of HTGR (High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor) system, (2)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kudo, Kazuhiko; Ohta, Masao; Kawasaki, Hidenori
1979-01-01
The dynamic characteristics of a HTGR plant, which has two cooling loops, was investigated. The analytical model consists of the core with fuel sleeves, coolant channels and blocks, the upper and lower reflectors, the high and low temperature plenums, two double wall pipings, two intermediate heat exchangers and the secondary system. The key plant parameters for calculation were as follows: the core outlet gas temperature 1000 deg C, the reactor thermal output 50 MW, the flow rate of primary coolant gas 7.96 kg/sec-loop and the pressure of primary coolant gas 40 kg/cm 2 at the rated operating condition. The calculating parameters were fixed as follows: the time interval for core characteristic analysis 0.1 sec, the time interval for thermal characteristic analysis 5.0 sec, the number of division of fuel channels 130, and the number of division of an intermediate heat exchanger 200. The assumptions for making the model were evaluated especially for the power distribution in the core and the heat transmission coefficients in the core, the double wall piping and the intermediate heat exchangers. Concerning the analytical results, the self-control to the outer disturbance of reactivity and the plant dynamic behavior due to the change of flow rate of primary and secondary coolants, and the change of gas temperature of secondary coolant at the inlet of intermediate heat exchangers, are presented. (Nakai, Y.)
Deuteron-NMR investigation on the dynamics of supercooled, confined water
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sattig, Matthias; Vogel, Michael [TU Darmstadt, Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik (Germany)
2013-07-01
The dynamical behaviour of water in the regime of the supercooled liquid is a topic of large interest. In particular, the existence of a fragile-to-strong transition (FST) at T=225K related to the transition between two distinct phases of liquid water is controversially discussed. Due to crystallization the temperature range proposed for the FST is hardly accessible in bulk water. Therefore, we confine heavy water to narrow pores in the mesoporous silicate MCM-41. This suppresses the freezing of a substantial fraction of water, enabling direct investigation of the interesting temperatures. Deuteron-NMR methods are utilised to determine the rotational correlation times τ of water on time scales from ns up to s. The spin-lattice-relaxation time T{sub 1} exhibits a typical minimum at about T = 230 K. Above this minimum the correlation times follow a Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann law. Below the minimum, two relaxation processes could be observed. The low-temperature processes show a different temperature dependence, where the curves τ(T) of all processes intersect at about T = 230 K. A comparison with literature data from neutron scattering and dielectric spectroscopy gives rise to the idea that the observed crossover is due to this intersection of processes rather than to a FST. To test this idea studies on water confined to MCM-41 with different pore sizes and fillings are in progress.
Pinheiro, Samya de Lara Lins de Araujo; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Schwartz, Joel; Zanobetti, Antonella
2014-12-01
OBJECTIVE To analyze the effect of air pollution and temperature on mortality due to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. METHODS We evaluated the isolated and synergistic effects of temperature and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter mortality of individuals > 40 years old due to cardiovascular disease and that of individuals > 60 years old due to respiratory diseases in Sao Paulo, SP, Southeastern Brazil, between 1998 and 2008. Three methodologies were used to evaluate the isolated association: time-series analysis using Poisson regression model, bidirectional case-crossover analysis matched by period, and case-crossover analysis matched by the confounding factor, i.e., average temperature or pollutant concentration. The graphical representation of the response surface, generated by the interaction term between these factors added to the Poisson regression model, was interpreted to evaluate the synergistic effect of the risk factors. RESULTS No differences were observed between the results of the case-crossover and time-series analyses. The percentage change in the relative risk of cardiovascular and respiratory mortality was 0.85% (0.45;1.25) and 1.60% (0.74;2.46), respectively, due to an increase of 10 μg/m3 in the PM10 concentration. The pattern of correlation of the temperature with cardiovascular mortality was U-shaped and that with respiratory mortality was J-shaped, indicating an increased relative risk at high temperatures. The values for the interaction term indicated a higher relative risk for cardiovascular and respiratory mortalities at low temperatures and high temperatures, respectively, when the pollution levels reached approximately 60 μg/m3. CONCLUSIONS The positive association standardized in the Poisson regression model for pollutant concentration is not confounded by temperature, and the effect of temperature is not confounded by the pollutant levels in the time-series analysis. The simultaneous exposure to different levels of
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Samya de Lara Lins de Araujo Pinheiro
2014-12-01
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze the effect of air pollution and temperature on mortality due to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. METHODS We evaluated the isolated and synergistic effects of temperature and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter 40 years old due to cardiovascular disease and that of individuals > 60 years old due to respiratory diseases in Sao Paulo, SP, Southeastern Brazil, between 1998 and 2008. Three methodologies were used to evaluate the isolated association: time-series analysis using Poisson regression model, bidirectional case-crossover analysis matched by period, and case-crossover analysis matched by the confounding factor, i.e., average temperature or pollutant concentration. The graphical representation of the response surface, generated by the interaction term between these factors added to the Poisson regression model, was interpreted to evaluate the synergistic effect of the risk factors. RESULTS No differences were observed between the results of the case-crossover and time-series analyses. The percentage change in the relative risk of cardiovascular and respiratory mortality was 0.85% (0.45;1.25 and 1.60% (0.74;2.46, respectively, due to an increase of 10 μg/m3 in the PM10 concentration. The pattern of correlation of the temperature with cardiovascular mortality was U-shaped and that with respiratory mortality was J-shaped, indicating an increased relative risk at high temperatures. The values for the interaction term indicated a higher relative risk for cardiovascular and respiratory mortalities at low temperatures and high temperatures, respectively, when the pollution levels reached approximately 60 μg/m3. CONCLUSIONS The positive association standardized in the Poisson regression model for pollutant concentration is not confounded by temperature, and the effect of temperature is not confounded by the pollutant levels in the time-series analysis. The simultaneous exposure to different levels of
Persistent User Bias in Case-Crossover Studies in Pharmacoepidemiology
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hallas, Jesper; Pottegård, Anton; Wang, Shirley
2016-01-01
Studying the effect of chronic medication exposure by means of a case-crossover design may result in an upward-biased odds ratio. In this study, our aim was to assess the occurrence of this bias and to evaluate whether it is remedied by including a control group (the case-time-control design...... for the retinal detachment controls were similar, leading to near-null case-time-control estimates for all 3 medication classes. For wrist fracture and stroke, the odds ratios were higher for cases than for controls, and case-time-control odds ratios were consistently above unity, thus implying significant...... residual bias. In case-crossover studies of medications, contamination by persistent users confers a moderate bias upward, which is partly remedied by using a control group. The optimal strategy for dealing with this problem is currently unknown....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hios, J D; Fassois, S D
2009-01-01
The temperature effects on the dynamics of a smart composite beam are experimentally studied via conventional multi-model and novel global model identification approaches. The multi-model approaches are based on non-parametric and parametric VARX representations, whereas the global model approaches are based on novel constant coefficient pooled (CCP) and functionally pooled (FP) VARX parametric representations. The analysis indicates that the obtained multi-model and global model representations are in rough overall agreement. Nevertheless, the latter simultaneously use all available data records offering more compact descriptions of the dynamics, improved numerical robustness and estimation accuracy, which is reflected in significantly reduced modal parameter uncertainties. Although the CCP-VARX representations provide only 'averaged' descriptions of the structural dynamics over temperature, their FP-VARX counterparts allow for the explicit, analytical modeling of temperature dependence exhibiting a 'smooth' deterministic dependence of the dynamics on temperature which is compatible with the physics of the problem. In accordance with previous studies, the obtained natural frequencies decrease with temperature in a weakly nonlinear or approximately linear fashion. The damping factors are less affected, although their dependence on temperature may be of a potentially more complex nature
Winding transitions at finite energy and temperature: An O(3) model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Habib, S.; Mottola, E.; Tinyakov, P.
1996-01-01
Winding number transitions in the two-dimensional softly broken O(3) nonlinear σ model are studied at finite energy and temperature. New periodic instanton solutions which dominate the semiclassical transition amplitudes are found analytically at low energies, and numerically for all energies up to the sphaleron scale. The Euclidean period β of these finite energy instantons increases with energy, contrary to the behavior found in the Abelian Higgs model or simple one-dimensional systems. This results in a sharp crossover from instanton-dominated tunneling to sphaleron-dominated thermal activation at a certain critical temperature. Since this behavior is traceable to the soft breaking of conformal invariance by the mass term in the σ model, semiclassical winding number transition amplitudes in the electroweak theory in 3+1 dimensions should exhibit a similar sharp crossover. We argue that this is indeed the case in the standard model for M H W . copyright 1996 The American Physical Society
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fabian M Stuby
Full Text Available This study was conducted according to GCP criteria as a prospective randomized cross-over study. The primary goal of the study was to determine clinical findings and patient satisfaction with postoperative treatment. 29 patients with a distal radius fracture that was surgically stabilized from volar and who met the inclusion criteria were enrolled over a 12-month period. Each patient randomly received either a dorsal plaster splint or a vacuum-fit flexible but blocked orthosis applied postoperatively in the operating theatre to achieve postoperative immobilization. After one week all patients were crossed over to the complementary device maintaining the immobilization until end of week 2. After week 2 both groups were allowed to exercise wrist mobility with a physiotherapist, in the orthosis group the device was deblocked, thus allowing limited wrist mobility. After week 4 the devices were removed in both groups. Follow-up exams were performed after postoperative weeks 1, 2, 4 and 12.Results were determined after week 1 and 2 using SF 36 and a personally compiled questionnaire; after weeks 4 and 12 with a clinical check-up, calculation of ROM and the DASH Score. Comparison of the two groups showed a significant difference in ROM for volar flexion after 4 weeks, but no significant differences in DASH Score, duration of disability or x-ray findings. With regard to satisfaction with comfort and hygiene, patients were significantly more satisfied with the dynamic orthosis, and 23 of the 29 patients would prefer the flexible vacuum orthosis in future.German Clinical Trials Register (DRKS DRKS00006097.
Theoretical Study of Spin Crossover in 30 Iron Complexes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kepp, Kasper Planeta
2016-01-01
Spin crossover was studied in 30 iron complexes using density functional theory to quantify the direction and magnitude of dispersion, relativistic effects, zero-point energies, and vibrational entropy. Remarkably consistent entropy−enthalpy compensation was identified. Zero-point energies favor...
Dynamics and complexity of body temperature in preterm infants nursed in incubators.
Jost, Kerstin; Pramana, Isabelle; Delgado-Eckert, Edgar; Kumar, Nitin; Datta, Alexandre N; Frey, Urs; Schulzke, Sven M
2017-01-01
Poor control of body temperature is associated with mortality and major morbidity in preterm infants. We aimed to quantify its dynamics and complexity to evaluate whether indices from fluctuation analyses of temperature time series obtained within the first five days of life are associated with gestational age (GA) and body size at birth, and presence and severity of typical comorbidities of preterm birth. We recorded 3h-time series of body temperature using a skin electrode in incubator-nursed preterm infants. We calculated mean and coefficient of variation of body temperature, scaling exponent alpha (Talpha) derived from detrended fluctuation analysis, and sample entropy (TSampEn) of temperature fluctuations. Data were analysed by multilevel multivariable linear regression. Data of satisfactory technical quality were obtained from 285/357 measurements (80%) in 73/90 infants (81%) with a mean (range) GA of 30.1 (24.0-34.0) weeks. We found a positive association of Talpha with increasing levels of respiratory support after adjusting for GA and birth weight z-score (pbody temperature in incubator-nursed preterm infants show considerable associations with GA and respiratory morbidity. Talpha may be a useful marker of autonomic maturity and severity of disease in preterm infants.
Kobak, B. V.; Zhukovskiy, A. G.; Kuzin, A. P.
2018-05-01
This paper considers one of the classical NP complete problems - an inhomogeneous minimax problem. When solving such large-scale problem, there appear difficulties in obtaining an exact solution. Therefore, let us propose getting an optimum solution in an acceptable time. Among a wide range of genetic algorithm models, let us choose the modified Goldberg model, which earlier was successfully used by authors in solving NP complete problems. The classical Goldberg model uses a single-point crossover and a singlepoint mutation, which somewhat decreases the accuracy of the obtained results. In the article, let us propose using a full two-point crossover with various mutations previously researched. In addition, the work studied the necessary probability to apply it to the crossover in order to obtain results that are more accurate. Results of the computation experiment showed that the higher the probability of a crossover, the higher the quality of both the average results and the best solutions. In addition, it was found out that the higher the values of the number of individuals and the number of repetitions, the closer both the average results and the best solutions to the optimum. The paper shows how the use of a full two-point crossover increases the accuracy of solving an inhomogeneous minimax problem, while the time for getting the solution increases, but remains polynomial.
Analysis of High Temperature Deformed Structure and Dynamic Precipitation in W9Mo3Cr4V Steel
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2001-01-01
With TEM、SEM, various high-temperature deformed structures inW9Mo3Cr4V steel were investigated. The sub-structures，recrystallized nuclei, as well as the dynamic precipitation were also studied and analyzed. The relationship between recrystallized structures and dynamic precipitation was discussed. The results showed that the deformed structures in W9Mo3Cr4V steel are more complicated than those in low alloy steels. Because W9Mo3Cr4V steel is a high-speed steel, there are a large number of residual carbides on the matrix. Also, much dynamic precipitating carbides will precipitate during deformation at high temperature.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kupecki Jakub
2017-03-01
Full Text Available The article presents a numerical analysis of an innovative method for starting systems based on high temperature fuel cells. The possibility of preheating the fuel cell stacks from the cold state to the nominal working conditions encounters several limitations related to heat transfer and stability of materials. The lack of rapid and safe start-up methods limits the proliferation of MCFCs and SOFCs. For that reason, an innovative method was developed and verified using the numerical analysis presented in the paper. A dynamic 3D model was developed that enables thermo-fluidic investigations and determination of measures for shortening the preheating time of the high temperature fuel cell stacks. The model was implemented in ANSYS Fluent computational fluid dynamic (CFD software and was used for verification of the proposed start-up method. The SOFC was chosen as a reference fuel cell technology for the study. Results obtained from the study are presented and discussed.
Dynamical renormalization group resummation of finite temperature infrared divergences
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boyanovsky, D.; Vega, H.J. de; Boyanovsky, D.; Simionato, M.; Holman, R.; Simionato, M.
1999-01-01
We introduce the method of dynamical renormalization group to study relaxation and damping out of equilibrium directly in real time and apply it to the study of infrared divergences in scalar QED. This method allows a consistent resummation of infrared effects associated with the exchange of quasistatic transverse photons and leads to anomalous logarithmic relaxation of the form e -αampersandhthinsp;Tampersandhthinsp;tampersandhthinsp;ln[t/t 0 ] for hard momentum charged excitations. This is in contrast with the usual quasiparticle interpretation of charged collective excitations at finite temperature in the sense of exponential relaxation of a narrow width resonance for which the width is the imaginary part of the self-energy on shell. In the case of narrow resonances away from thresholds, this approach leads to the usual exponential relaxation. The hard thermal loop resummation program is incorporated consistently into the dynamical renormalization group yielding a picture of relaxation and damping phenomena in a plasma in real time that transcends the conceptual limitations of the quasiparticle picture and other types of resummation schemes. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society
Design of dynamic loading support on high temperature pipe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sitandung, Y.B.; Bandriyana, B.
2002-01-01
As a follow up to pipe stress analysis result caused by high temperature operation loading, a design of dynamic loading support was made. The type of variable and constant support as acceptable choosing are applicated for reduce of over stress and over load on piping system. Analysis line schedule of AP600 as an example with apply three dynamic loading support (two type variable and one type constant support). The pre-design of the third support above are based on analysis result with follow the support catalog and field condition wherein its supports are installed. To guarantee the performance and accurate of the support, checking is performed for spring working rate tolerance, support variability and swing angle. The design results of variable spring are loads, size, working rate, type tolerance, spring rate, variability, long and sway angle with each values 5000; 15; 1,25; VM; 0.655; 1080; 0.114; 114,5; 0,48 for S1 and 2045; 12; 0,583; VS; 0,237; 900; 0,132; 130; 0,34 for S3
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhao, Junhua, E-mail: junhua.zhao@uni-weimar.de [Jiangsu Province Key Laboratory of Advanced Manufacturing Equipment and Technology of Food, Jiangnan University, 214122 Wuxi (China); Institute of Structural Mechanics, Bauhaus-University Weimar, 99423 Weimar (Germany); Jiang, Jin-Wu, E-mail: jwjiang5918@hotmail.com [Institute of Structural Mechanics, Bauhaus-University Weimar, 99423 Weimar (Germany); Rabczuk, Timon, E-mail: timon.rabczuk@uni-weimar.de [Institute of Structural Mechanics, Bauhaus-University Weimar, 99423 Weimar (Germany); School of Civil, Environmental and Architectural Engineering, Korea University, 136-701 Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2013-12-02
The temperature-dependent mechanical properties of single-layer molybdenum disulphide (MoS{sub 2}) are obtained using molecular dynamics (MD) nanoindentation simulations. The Young's moduli, maximum load stress, and maximum loading strain decrease with increasing temperature from 4.2 K to 500 K. The obtained Young's moduli are in good agreement with those using our MD uniaxial tension simulations and the available experimental results. The tendency of maximum loading strain with different temperature is opposite with that of metal materials due to the short range Stillinger-Weber potentials in MoS{sub 2}. Furthermore, the indenter tip radius and fitting strain effect on the mechanical properties are also discussed.
Radius crossover sign: an indication of malreduced radius shaft greenstick fractures.
Wright, Patrick B; Crepeau, Allison E; Herrera-Soto, José A; Price, Charles T
2012-06-01
Radius shaft greenstick fractures in children can be a challenging injury to treat because angulation and rotational alignment are difficult to assess. In this report, we describe a simple method for analyzing the deformity and identifying rotational and angular malalignment. This technique involves analyzing the forearm radiographs as 2 segments, proximal and distal, and assuring that the rotational position of each matches the other. We present 3 cases of proximal radius greenstick fractures in malalignment to demonstrate the radius crossover sign. Identifying the radius crossover sign, and proceeding with further closed reduction may prevent deformity that could otherwise result in a significant loss of forearm motion. Level V.
Apparent temperature and cause-specific mortality in copenhagen, denmark: a case-crossover analysis
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wichmann, Janine; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Ketzel, Matthias
2011-01-01
Temperature, a key climate change indicator, is expected to increase substantially in the Northern Hemisphere, with potentially grave implications for human health. This study is the first to investigate the association between the daily 3-hour maximum apparent temperature (Tapp...
Temperature-dependence of the QCD topological susceptibility
Kovacs, Tamas G.
2018-03-01
We recently obtained an estimate of the axion mass based on the hypothesis that axions make up most of the dark matter in the universe. A key ingredient for this calculation was the temperature-dependence of the topological susceptibility of full QCD. Here we summarize the calculation of the susceptibility in a range of temperatures from well below the finite temperature cross-over to around 2 GeV. The two main difficulties of the calculation are the unexpectedly slow convergence of the susceptibility to its continuum limit and the poor sampling of nonzero topological sectors at high temperature. We discuss how these problems can be solved by two new techniques, the first one with reweighting using the quark zero modes and the second one with the integration method.
Glass transition temperature of PMMA/modified alumina nanocomposite: Molecular dynamic study
Mohammadi, Maryam; Davoodi, Jamal; Javanbakht, Mahdi; Rezaei, Hamidreza
2017-01-01
In this study, the effect of alumina and modified alumina nanoparticles in a PMMA/alumina nanocomposite was investigated. To attain this goal, the glass transition behavior of poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA), PMMA/alumina and PMMA/hydroxylated alumina nanocomposites were investigated by molecular dynamic simulations (MD). All the MD simulations were performed using the Materials Studio 6.0 software package of Accelrys. To obtain the glass transition temperature, the variation of density vs. t...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rozas, R. E. [Institut für Theoretische Physik II: Soft Matter, Heinrich Heine-Universität Düsseldorf, Universitätsstraße 1, 40225 Düsseldorf (Germany); Department of Physics, University of Bío-Bío, Av. Collao 1202, P.O. Box 5C, Concepción (Chile); Demiraǧ, A. D.; Horbach, J. [Institut für Theoretische Physik II: Soft Matter, Heinrich Heine-Universität Düsseldorf, Universitätsstraße 1, 40225 Düsseldorf (Germany); Toledo, P. G. [Chemical Engineering Department and Surface Analysis Laboratory (ASIF), University of Concepción, P.O. Box 160-C, Correo 3, Concepción (Chile)
2016-08-14
Thermophysical properties of liquid nickel (Ni) around the melting temperature are investigated by means of classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulation, using three different embedded atom method potentials to model the interactions between the Ni atoms. Melting temperature, enthalpy, static structure factor, self-diffusion coefficient, shear viscosity, and thermal diffusivity are compared to recent experimental results. Using ab initio MD simulation, we also determine the static structure factor and the mean-squared displacement at the experimental melting point. For most of the properties, excellent agreement is found between experiment and simulation, provided the comparison relative to the corresponding melting temperature. We discuss the validity of the Hansen-Verlet criterion for the static structure factor as well as the Stokes-Einstein relation between self-diffusion coefficient and shear viscosity. The thermal diffusivity is extracted from the autocorrelation function of a wavenumber-dependent temperature fluctuation variable.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chatterjee, A; Bhattacharya, S
2016-01-01
We perform several molecular dynamics (MD) calculations of solvated alanine dipeptide and decalanine in vacuum with temperature as a tunable parameter and in the process, generate Markov state models (MSMs) at each temperature. An interesting observation that the kinetic rates appear to obey the Arrhenius rate law allows us to predict the dynamics of alanine dipeptide at 300 K at the microsecond timescales using the nanoseconds long high temperature calculations without actually performing MD simulations at 300 K. We conclude that the energy landscape of alanine dipeptide contains superbasins deeper than k B T and determine the energy barriers associated with the moves from the Arrhenius rate expression. Similar insights regarding the energy landscape associated with folding/unfolding pathways of a deca-alanine molecule are obtained using kinetic rates calculated at different temperatures. (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Keskin, M.; Canko, O.; Temizer, U.
2007-01-01
Within a mean-field approach, the stationary states of the kinetic spin-1 Blume-Capel model in the presence of a time-dependent oscillating external magnetic field is studied. The Glauber-type stochastic dynamics is used to describe the time evolution of the system and obtain the mean-field dynamic equation of motion. The dynamic phase-transition points are calculated and phase diagrams are presented in the temperature and crystal-field interaction plane. According to the values of the magnetic field amplitude, three fundamental types of phase diagrams are found: One exhibits a dynamic tricritical point, while the other two exhibit a dynamic zero-temperature critical point
The crossover of work engagement between working couples : a closer look at the role of empathy
Bakker, A.B.; Demerouti, E.
2009-01-01
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of empathy (empathic concern and perspective taking) in the crossover process. Specifically, it aims to test whether empathy moderates the crossover effect of women's work engagement to their men's work engagement. Additionally, it seeks to
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rubio Puzzo, M L; Romá, F; Bustingorry, S; Gleiser, P M
2010-01-01
We present results showing the correlation between the out-of-equilibrium dynamics and the equilibrium damage-spreading process in the two-dimensional ± J Edwards–Anderson model at low temperatures. A key ingredient in our analysis is the projection of finite temperature spin configurations onto the ground state topology of the system. In particular, through numerical simulations we correlate ground state information with the out-of-equilibrium dynamics. We also analyse how the propagation of a small perturbation in equilibrated systems is related to the ground state topology. This damage-spreading study unveils the presence of rigid clusters of spins. We claim that these clusters give rise to the slow out-of-equilibrium dynamics observed in the temperature range between the glass temperature T g = 0 of the two-dimensional ± J Edwards–Anderson model and the critical temperature T c of the pure ferromagnetic Ising model
He, Mingquan; Wong, Chi Ho; Shi, Dian; Tse, Pok Lam; Scheidt, Ernst-Wilhelm; Eickerling, Georg; Scherer, Wolfgang; Sheng, Ping; Lortz, Rolf
2015-02-25
The transition metal carbide superconductor Sc(3)CoC(4) may represent a new benchmark system of quasi-one-dimensional (quasi-1D) superconducting behavior. We investigate the superconducting transition of a high-quality single crystalline sample by electrical transport experiments. Our data show that the superconductor goes through a complex dimensional crossover below the onset T(c) of 4.5 K. First, a quasi-1D fluctuating superconducting state with finite resistance forms in the [CoC(4)](∞) ribbons which are embedded in a Sc matrix in this material. At lower temperature, the transversal Josephson or proximity coupling of neighboring ribbons establishes a 3D bulk superconducting state. This dimensional crossover is very similar to Tl(2)Mo(6)Se(6), which for a long time has been regarded as the most appropriate model system of a quasi-1D superconductor. Sc(3)CoC(4) appears to be even more in the 1D limit than Tl(2)Mo(6)Se(6).
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jang, H.W.; Kang, H.C.; Noh, D.Y.; Yi, M.S.
2003-01-01
We found that the crystallographic orientation of AlN/Si(001) thin films crosses over from the substrate normal towards the direction of incident flux during off-axis radio frequency magnetron sputter growth. At high growth temperatures, the crystalline c-axis orientation is maintained along the substrate normal direction initially, but jumps discontinuously towards the direction of incident flux. In contrast, at low growth temperatures, the c-axis direction shifts continuously towards the incident flux direction and saturates in the middle agreeing with the tangential rule of oblique deposition, i.e., tan β=1/2 tan α, where α and β denote the angles of incident flux and column incline, respectively. Selected area transmission electron diffraction patterns are consistent with the crossover measured by in situ x-ray scattering experiments
Effect of meal temperature on the frequency of gastric myoelectrical activity
Verhagen, M. A.; Luijk, H. D.; Samsom, M.; Smout, A. J.
1998-01-01
It was hypothesized that the transient post-prandial decrease of the dominant frequency in the electrogastrogram (EGG) is related to the temperature of the meal. In a randomized three-period cross-over design. EGG recordings were made in 10 healthy volunteers. A liquid meal (36 kcal, 300 mL) was
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guchhait, Biswajit; Das, Suman; Daschakraborty, Snehasis; Biswas, Ranjit
2014-01-01
Here we investigate the solute-medium interaction and solute-centered dynamics in (RCONH 2 + LiX) deep eutectics (DEs) via carrying out time-resolved fluorescence measurements and all-atom molecular dynamics simulations at various temperatures. Alkylamides (RCONH 2 ) considered are acetamide (CH 3 CONH 2 ), propionamide (CH 3 CH 2 CONH 2 ), and butyramide (CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CONH 2 ); the electrolytes (LiX) are lithium perchlorate (LiClO 4 ), lithium bromide (LiBr), and lithium nitrate (LiNO 3 ). Differential scanning calorimetric measurements reveal glass transition temperatures (T g ) of these DEs are ∼195 K and show a very weak dependence on alkyl chain-length and electrolyte identity. Time-resolved and steady state fluorescence measurements with these DEs have been carried out at six-to-nine different temperatures that are ∼100–150 K above their individual T g s. Four different solute probes providing a good spread of fluorescence lifetimes have been employed in steady state measurements, revealing strong excitation wavelength dependence of probe fluorescence emission peak frequencies. Extent of this dependence, which shows sensitivity to anion identity, has been found to increase with increase of amide chain-length and decrease of probe lifetime. Time-resolved measurements reveal strong fractional power dependence of average rates for solute solvation and rotation with fraction power being relatively smaller (stronger viscosity decoupling) for DEs containing longer amide and larger (weaker decoupling) for DEs containing perchlorate anion. Representative all-atom molecular dynamics simulations of (CH 3 CONH 2 + LiX) DEs at different temperatures reveal strongly stretched exponential relaxation of wavevector dependent acetamide self dynamic structure factor with time constants dependent both on ion identity and temperature, providing justification for explaining the fluorescence results in terms of temporal heterogeneity and amide clustering in these multi
Crossover and maximal fat-oxidation points in sedentary healthy subjects: methodological issues.
Gmada, N; Marzouki, H; Haboubi, M; Tabka, Z; Shephard, R J; Bouhlel, E
2012-02-01
Our study aimed to assess the influence of protocol on the crossover point and maximal fat-oxidation (LIPOX(max)) values in sedentary, but otherwise healthy, young men. Maximal oxygen intake was assessed in 23 subjects, using a progressive maximal cycle ergometer test. Twelve sedentary males (aged 20.5±1.0 years) whose directly measured maximal aerobic power (MAP) values were lower than their theoretical maximal values (tMAP) were selected from this group. These individuals performed, in random sequence, three submaximal graded exercise tests, separated by three-day intervals; work rates were based on the tMAP in one test and on MAP in the remaining two. The third test was used to assess the reliability of data. Heart rate, respiratory parameters, blood lactate, the crossover point and LIPOX(max) values were measured during each of these tests. The crossover point and LIPOX(max) values were significantly lower when the testing protocol was based on tMAP rather than on MAP (PtMAP at 30, 40, 50 and 60% of maximal aerobic power (PtMAP rather than MAP (P<0.001). During the first 5 min of recovery, EPOC(5 min) and blood lactate were significantly correlated (r=0.89; P<0.001). Our data show that, to assess the crossover point and LIPOX(max) values for research purposes, the protocol must be based on the measured MAP rather than on a theoretical value. Such a determination should improve individualization of training for initially sedentary subjects. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Pseudodirect to Direct Compositional Crossover in Wurtzite GaP/InxGa1–xP Core–Shell Nanowires
Gagliano, L.
2016-11-29
Thanks to their uniqueness, nanowires allow the realization of novel semiconductor crystal structures with yet unexplored properties, which can be key to overcome current technological limits. Here we develop the growth of wurtzite GaP/InGaP core-shell nanowires with tunable indium concentration and optical emission in the visible region from 590 nm (2.1 eV) to 760 nm (1.6 eV). We demonstrate a pseudodirect (δ-δ) to direct (δ-δ) transition crossover through experimental and theoretical approach. Time resolved and temperature dependent photoluminescence measurements were used, which led to the observation of a steep change in carrier lifetime and temperature dependence by respectively one and 3 orders of magnitude in the range 0.28 ± 0.04 ≤ x ≤ 0.41 ± 0.04. Our work reveals the electronic properties of wurtzite InGaP.
Dynamic On-Chip micro Temperature and Flow Sensor for miniaturized lab-on-a-chip instruments
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of this project is to design, fabricate, and characterize a Dynamic On-Chip Flow and Temperature Sensor (DOCFlaTS) to mature and enable miniaturized...
Influence of crossover methods used by genetic algorithm-based ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
numerical methods like Newton–Raphson, sequential homotopy calculation, Walsh ... But the paper does not touch upon the elements of crossover operators. ... if SHE problems are solved with optimization tools like GA (Schutten ..... Goldberg D E 1989 Genetic algorithms in search, optimization and machine learning.
Electrical conductivity and charge diffusion in thermal QCD from the lattice
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aarts, Gert; Allton, Chris [Department of Physics, College of Science, Swansea University Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Amato, Alessandro [Department of Physics, College of Science, Swansea University Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Department of Physics and Helsinki Institute of Physics P.O. Box 64, FI-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Giudice, Pietro [Universität Münster, Institut für Theoretische Physik Wilhelm-Klemm-Str. 9, D-48149 Münster (Germany); Hands, Simon [Department of Physics, College of Science, Swansea University Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Skullerud, Jon-Ivar [Department of Mathematical Physics, National University of Ireland Maynooth Maynooth, Co Kildare (Ireland)
2015-02-27
We present a lattice QCD calculation of the charge diffusion coefficient, the electrical conductivity and various susceptibilities of conserved charges, for a range of temperatures below and above the deconfinement crossover. The calculations include the contributions from up, down and strange quarks. We find that the diffusion coefficient is of the order of 1/(2πT) and has a dip around the crossover temperature. Our results are obtained with lattice simulations containing 2+1 dynamical flavours on anisotropic lattices. The Maximum Entropy Method is used to construct spectral functions from correlators of the conserved vector current.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Simone Benella
2017-07-01
Full Text Available Many out-of-equilibrium systems respond to external driving with nonlinear and self-similar dynamics. This near scale-invariant behavior of relaxation events has been modeled through sand pile cellular automata. However, a common feature of these models is the assumption of a local connectivity, while in many real systems, we have evidence for longer range connectivity and a complex topology of the interacting structures. Here, we investigate the role that longer range connectivity might play in near scale-invariant systems, by analyzing the results of a sand pile cellular automaton model on a Newman–Watts network. The analysis clearly indicates the occurrence of a crossover phenomenon in the statistics of the relaxation events as a function of the percentage of longer range links and the breaking of the simple Finite Size Scaling (FSS. The more complex nature of the dynamics in the presence of long-range connectivity is investigated in terms of multi-scaling features and analyzed by the Rank-Ordered Multifractal Analysis (ROMA.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mortensen, Peter Mølgaard; Jensen, Anker Degn; Hansen, Thomas Willum
2015-01-01
The temperature and velocity field, pressure distribution, and the temperature variation across the sample region inside an environmental transmission electron microscope (ETEM) have been modeled by means of computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Heating the sample area by a furnace type TEM holder...... gives rise to temperature gradients over the sample area. Three major mechanisms have been identified with respect to heat transfer in the sample area: radiation from the grid, conduction in the grid, and conduction in the gas. A parameter sensitivity analysis showed that the sample temperature...... was affected by the conductivity of the gas, the emissivity of the sample grid, and the conductivity of the grid. Ideally the grid should be polished and made from a material with good conductivity, e.g. copper. With hydrogen gas, which has the highest conductivity of the gases studied, the temperature...
Recent Studies on Methanol Crossover in Liquid-Feed Direct Methanol Fuel Cells
Valdez, T. I.; Narayanan, S. R.
2000-01-01
In this work, the effects of methanol crossover and airflow rates on the cathode potential of an operating direct methanol fuel cell are explored. Techniques for quantifying methanol crossover in a fuel cell and for separating the electrical performance of each electrode in a fuel cell are discussed. The effect of methanol concentration on cathode potential has been determined to be significant. The cathode is found to be mass transfer limited when operating on low flow rate air and high concentrations of methanol. Improvements in cathode structure and operation at low methanol concentration have been shown to result in improved cell performance.
Molecular-dynamics method for the simulation of bulk-solid interfaces at high temperatures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lutsko, J.F.; Wolf, D.; Yip, S.; Phillpot, S.R.; Nguyen, T.
1988-01-01
A new method for the molecular-dynamics simulation of bulk planar interfaces at high temperatures is presented. The method uses the basic Parrinello-Rahman (constant-stress) scheme, modified for the application to inhomogeneous systems. Since our computational cell contains only one interface with two-dimensional (2D) periodic border conditions, we are able to study isolated interfaces all the way up to melting. The interaction between boundaries which may lead to their annihilation at higher temperatures, which is a problem when 3D periodic borders are applied, is thus avoided. As an application, the method is used to study the stability of a grain boundary at high temperatures. Observations on a possible connection between grain-boundary migration and ''premelting'' are discussed
Dynamic High-Temperature Characterization of an Iridium Alloy in Compression at High Strain Rates
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Song, Bo [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Experimental Environment Simulation Dept.; Nelson, Kevin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Mechanics of Materials Dept.; Lipinski, Ronald J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycle Technology Dept.; Bignell, John L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Structural and Thermal Analysis Dept.; Ulrich, G. B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Radioisotope Power Systems Program; George, E. P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Radioisotope Power Systems Program
2014-06-01
Iridium alloys have superior strength and ductility at elevated temperatures, making them useful as structural materials for certain high-temperature applications. However, experimental data on their high-temperature high-strain-rate performance are needed for understanding high-speed impacts in severe elevated-temperature environments. Kolsky bars (also called split Hopkinson bars) have been extensively employed for high-strain-rate characterization of materials at room temperature, but it has been challenging to adapt them for the measurement of dynamic properties at high temperatures. Current high-temperature Kolsky compression bar techniques are not capable of obtaining satisfactory high-temperature high-strain-rate stress-strain response of thin iridium specimens investigated in this study. We analyzed the difficulties encountered in high-temperature Kolsky compression bar testing of thin iridium alloy specimens. Appropriate modifications were made to the current high-temperature Kolsky compression bar technique to obtain reliable compressive stress-strain response of an iridium alloy at high strain rates (300 – 10000 s^{-1}) and temperatures (750°C and 1030°C). Uncertainties in such high-temperature high-strain-rate experiments on thin iridium specimens were also analyzed. The compressive stress-strain response of the iridium alloy showed significant sensitivity to strain rate and temperature.
Are Emotions Transmitted From Work to Family? A Crossover Model of Psychological Contract Breach.
Liang, Huai-Liang
2018-01-01
Based on affective events theory and the crossover model, this study examines the effect of psychological contract breach on employee dysfunctional behavior and partner family undermining and explores the crossover effect of employee dysfunctional behavior on partner family undermining in work-family issues. This study collected 370 employee-partner dyads (277 male employees, 93 female employees, M age = 43.59 years) from a large manufacturing organization. The results of this study support the conception that employees' psychological contract breach results in frustration in the workplace. In addition, mediation analysis results reveal that psychological contract breach relates to employee dysfunctional behavior in the workplace. The findings show that partners' psychological strain mediates the relationship between employee dysfunctional behavior and partner family undermining. Furthermore, these findings provide investigations for the crossover model to display the value of psychological contract breach in family issues.
Linear combinations come alive in crossover designs.
Shuster, Jonathan J
2017-10-30
Before learning anything about statistical inference in beginning service courses in biostatistics, students learn how to calculate the mean and variance of linear combinations of random variables. Practical precalculus examples of the importance of these exercises can be helpful for instructors, the target audience of this paper. We shall present applications to the "1-sample" and "2-sample" methods for randomized short-term 2-treatment crossover studies, where patients experience both treatments in random order with a "washout" between the active treatment periods. First, we show that the 2-sample method is preferred as it eliminates "conditional bias" when sample sizes by order differ and produces a smaller variance. We also demonstrate that it is usually advisable to use the differences in posttests (ignoring baseline and post washout values) rather than the differences between the changes in treatment from the start of the period to the end of the period ("delta of delta"). Although the intent is not to provide a definitive discussion of crossover designs, we provide a section and references to excellent alternative methods, where instructors can provide motivation to students to explore the topic in greater detail in future readings or courses. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
High-temperature change of the creep rate in YBa2Cu3O7-δ films with different pinning landscapes
Haberkorn, N.; Miura, M.; Baca, J.; Maiorov, B.; Usov, I.; Dowden, P.; Foltyn, S. R.; Holesinger, T. G.; Willis, J. O.; Marken, K. R.; Izumi, T.; Shiohara, Y.; Civale, L.
2012-05-01
Magnetic relaxation measurements in YBa2Cu3O7-δ (YBCO) films at intermediate and high temperatures show that the collective vortex creep based on the elastic motion of the vortex lattice has a crossover to fast creep that significantly reduces the superconducting critical current density (Jc). This crossover occurs at temperatures much lower than the irreversibility field line. We study the influence of different kinds of crystalline defects, such as nanorods, twin boundaries, and nanoparticles, on the high-temperature vortex phase diagram of YBCO films. We found that the magnetization relaxation data is a fundamental tool to understand the pinning at high temperatures. The results indicate that high Jc values are directly associated with small creep rates. Based on the analysis of the depinning temperature in films with columnar defects, our results indicate that the size of the defects is the relevant parameter that determines thermal depinning at high temperatures. Also, the extension of the collective creep regime depends on the density of the pinning centers.
Stutsel, B.; Callow, J. N.
2017-12-01
Radiant frost events, particularly those during the reproductive stage of winter cereal growth, cost growers millions of dollars in lost yield. Whilst synoptic drivers of frost and factors influencing temperature variation at the landscape scale are relatively well understood, there is a lack of knowledge surrounding small-scale temperature dynamics within paddocks and plot trials. Other work has also suggested a potential significant temperature gradient (several degrees) vertically from ground to canopy, but this is poorly constrained experimentally. Subtle changes in temperature are important as frost damage generally occurs in a very narrow temperature range (-2 to -5°C). Once a variety's damage threshold is reached, a 1°C difference in minimum temperature can increase damage from 10 to 90%. This study applies Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) using fibre optics to understand how minimum temperature evolves during a radiant frost. DTS assesses the difference in attenuation of Raman scattering of a light pulse travelling along a fibre optic cable to measure temperature. A bend insensitive multimode fibre was deployed in a double ended duplex configuration as a "fence" run through four times of sowing at a trial site in the Western Australian Wheatbelt. The fibre optic fence was 160m long and 800mm tall with the fibre optic cable spaced 100mm apart vertically, and calibrated in ambient water ( 10 to 15oC) and a chilled glycol ( -8 to-10 oC) baths. The temperature measurements had a spatial resolution of 0.65m and temporal resolution of 60s, providing 2,215 measurements every minute. The results of this study inform our understanding of the subtle temperature changes from the soil to canopy, providing new insight into how to place traditional temperature loggers to monitor frost damage. It also addresses questions of within-trial temperature variability, and provides an example of how novel techniques such as DTS can be used to improve the way temperature
Man, E. A.; Sera, D.; Mathe, L.; Schaltz, E.; Rosendahl, L.
2016-03-01
Characterization of thermoelectric generators (TEG) is widely discussed and equipment has been built that can perform such analysis. One method is often used to perform such characterization: constant temperature with variable thermal power input. Maximum power point tracking (MPPT) methods for TEG systems are mostly tested under steady-state conditions for different constant input temperatures. However, for most TEG applications, the input temperature gradient changes, exposing the MPPT to variable tracking conditions. An example is the exhaust pipe on hybrid vehicles, for which, because of the intermittent operation of the internal combustion engine, the TEG and its MPPT controller are exposed to a cyclic temperature profile. Furthermore, there are no guidelines on how fast the MPPT must be under such dynamic conditions. In the work discussed in this paper, temperature gradients for TEG integrated in several applications were evaluated; the results showed temperature variation up to 5°C/s for TEG systems. Electrical characterization of a calcium-manganese oxide TEG was performed at steady-state for different input temperatures and a maximum temperature of 401°C. By using electrical data from characterization of the oxide module, a solar array simulator was emulated to perform as a TEG. A trapezoidal temperature profile with different gradients was used on the TEG simulator to evaluate the dynamic MPPT efficiency. It is known that the perturb and observe (P&O) algorithm may have difficulty accurately tracking under rapidly changing conditions. To solve this problem, a compromise must be found between the magnitude of the increment and the sampling frequency of the control algorithm. The standard P&O performance was evaluated experimentally by using different temperature gradients for different MPPT sampling frequencies, and efficiency values are provided for all cases. The results showed that a tracking speed of 2.5 Hz can be successfully implemented on a TEG
Dubey, Manisha; Ram, Usha; Ram, Faujdar
2015-01-01
Under the prevailing conditions of imbalanced life table and historic gender discrimination in India, our study examines crossover between life expectancies at ages zero, one and five years for India and quantifies the relative share of infant and under-five mortality towards this crossover. We estimate threshold levels of infant and under-five mortality required for crossover using age specific death rates during 1981-2009 for 16 Indian states by sex (comprising of India's 90% population in 2011). Kitagawa decomposition equations were used to analyse relative share of infant and under-five mortality towards crossover. India experienced crossover between life expectancies at ages zero and five in 2004 for menand in 2009 for women; eleven and nine Indian states have experienced this crossover for men and women, respectively. Men usually experienced crossover four years earlier than the women. Improvements in mortality below ages five have mostly contributed towards this crossover. Life expectancy at age one exceeds that at age zero for both men and women in India except for Kerala (the only state to experience this crossover in 2000 for men and 1999 for women). For India, using life expectancy at age zero and under-five mortality rate together may be more meaningful to measure overall health of its people until the crossover. Delayed crossover for women, despite higher life expectancy at birth than for men reiterates that Indian women are still disadvantaged and hence use of life expectancies at ages zero, one and five become important for India. Greater programmatic efforts to control leading causes of death during the first month and 1-59 months in high child mortality areas can help India to attain this crossover early.
Garner, Grace; Malcolm, Iain A.; Sadler, Jonathan P.; Hannah, David M.
2017-10-01
A simulation experiment was used to understand the importance of riparian vegetation density, channel orientation and flow velocity for stream energy budgets and river temperature dynamics. Water temperature and meteorological observations were obtained in addition to hemispherical photographs along a ∼1 km reach of the Girnock Burn, a tributary of the Aberdeenshire Dee, Scotland. Data from nine hemispherical images (representing different uniform canopy density scenarios) were used to parameterise a deterministic net radiation model and simulate radiative fluxes. For each vegetation scenario, the effects of eight channel orientations were investigated by changing the position of north at 45° intervals in each hemispheric image. Simulated radiative fluxes and observed turbulent fluxes drove a high-resolution water temperature model of the reach. Simulations were performed under low and high water velocity scenarios. Both velocity scenarios yielded decreases in mean (≥1.6 °C) and maximum (≥3.0 °C) temperature as canopy density increased. Slow-flowing water resided longer within the reach, which enhanced heat accumulation and dissipation, and drove higher maximum and lower minimum temperatures. Intermediate levels of shade produced highly variable energy flux and water temperature dynamics depending on the channel orientation and thus the time of day when the channel was shaded. We demonstrate that in many reaches relatively sparse but strategically located vegetation could produce substantial reductions in maximum temperature and suggest that these criteria are used to inform future river management.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Trapp, Marcus
2010-01-01
Incoherent elastic and quasi-elastic neutron scattering were used to measure membrane and protein dynamics in the nano- to picosecond time and Angstrom length scale. The hydration dependent dynamics of DMPC model membranes was studied using elastic and quasi-elastic neutron scattering. The elastic experiments showed a clear shift of the temperature of the main phase transition to higher temperatures with decreasing hydration level. The performed quasi-elastic measurements demonstrated nicely the influence, hydration has on the diffusive motions of the head lipid groups. Different models are necessary to fit the Q-dependence of the elastic incoherent structure factor and show therefore the reduced mobility as a result of reduced water content. In addition to temperature, pressure as a second thermodynamic variable was used to explore dynamics of DMPC membranes. The ordering introduced by applying pressure has similar effect to decreased hydration, therefore both approaches are complementary. Covering three orders of magnitude in observation time, the dynamics of native AChE and its complexed counterpart in presence of Huperzin A was investigated in the range from 1 ns to 100 ps. The mean square displacements obtained from the elastic data allowed the determination of activation energies and gave evidence that a hierarchy of motions contributes to the enzymatic activity. Diffusion constants and residence times were extracted from the quasi-elastic broadening. (author) [fr
High Temperature Dynamic Pressure Measurements Using Silicon Carbide Pressure Sensors
Okojie, Robert S.; Meredith, Roger D.; Chang, Clarence T.; Savrun, Ender
2014-01-01
Un-cooled, MEMS-based silicon carbide (SiC) static pressure sensors were used for the first time to measure pressure perturbations at temperatures as high as 600 C during laboratory characterization, and subsequently evaluated in a combustor rig operated under various engine conditions to extract the frequencies that are associated with thermoacoustic instabilities. One SiC sensor was placed directly in the flow stream of the combustor rig while a benchmark commercial water-cooled piezoceramic dynamic pressure transducer was co-located axially but kept some distance away from the hot flow stream. In the combustor rig test, the SiC sensor detected thermoacoustic instabilities across a range of engine operating conditions, amplitude magnitude as low as 0.5 psi at 585 C, in good agreement with the benchmark piezoceramic sensor. The SiC sensor experienced low signal to noise ratio at higher temperature, primarily due to the fact that it was a static sensor with low sensitivity.
Constant pressure and temperature discrete-time Langevin molecular dynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Grønbech-Jensen, Niels [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Department of Mathematics, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Farago, Oded [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Be' er Sheva 84105 (Israel); Ilse Katz Institute for Nanoscale Science and Technology, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Be' er Sheva 84105 (Israel)
2014-11-21
We present a new and improved method for simultaneous control of temperature and pressure in molecular dynamics simulations with periodic boundary conditions. The thermostat-barostat equations are built on our previously developed stochastic thermostat, which has been shown to provide correct statistical configurational sampling for any time step that yields stable trajectories. Here, we extend the method and develop a set of discrete-time equations of motion for both particle dynamics and system volume in order to seek pressure control that is insensitive to the choice of the numerical time step. The resulting method is simple, practical, and efficient. The method is demonstrated through direct numerical simulations of two characteristic model systems—a one-dimensional particle chain for which exact statistical results can be obtained and used as benchmarks, and a three-dimensional system of Lennard-Jones interacting particles simulated in both solid and liquid phases. The results, which are compared against the method of Kolb and Dünweg [J. Chem. Phys. 111, 4453 (1999)], show that the new method behaves according to the objective, namely that acquired statistical averages and fluctuations of configurational measures are accurate and robust against the chosen time step applied to the simulation.
Influence of the 3D-2D crossover on the critical current of Nb/Cu multilayers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Krasnov, V. M.; Pedersen, Niels Falsig; Oboznov, V. A.
1994-01-01
We report the experimental observation of the Josephson critical current across layers, I(c) perpendicular-to, for Nb/Cu multilayers. Unique samples with a small cross section (20 mum in diameter) consisting of ten Nb/Cu junctions were fabricated for such measurements. A strong influence of the d......We report the experimental observation of the Josephson critical current across layers, I(c) perpendicular-to, for Nb/Cu multilayers. Unique samples with a small cross section (20 mum in diameter) consisting of ten Nb/Cu junctions were fabricated for such measurements. A strong influence...... of the dimensional 3D-2D cross-over on the I(c)perpendicular-to was observed. Thus, as the temperature becomes smaller than T2D, hysteresis in the current-voltage characteristic appears and the behavior of the temperature dependence of the I(c)perpendicular-to changes. For T > T2D the diminishing of the hysteresis...... is caused by a sharp decrease of the junction capacitance in the 3D regime when the sample becomes uniform across layers. Calculation of the critical-current temperature dependence I(c)perpendicular-to (T) for our multilayers was made. An agreement between experimental and theoretical dependencies I...
Atmospheric Dynamics Leading to West European Summer Hot Temperatures Since 1851
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Carmen Alvarez-Castro
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Summer hot temperatures have many impacts on health, economy (agriculture, energy, and transports, and ecosystems. In Western Europe, the recent summers of 2003 and 2015 were exceptionally warm. Many studies have shown that the genesis of the major heat events of the last decades was linked to anticyclonic atmospheric circulation and to spring precipitation deficit in Southern Europe. Such results were obtained for the second part of the 20th century and projections into the 21st century. In this paper, we challenge this vision by investigating the earlier part of the 20th century from an ensemble of 20CR reanalyses. We propose an innovative description of Western-European heat events applying the dynamical system theory. We argue that the atmospheric circulation patterns leading to the most intense heat events have changed during the last century. We also show that the increasing temperature trend during major heatwaves is encountered during episodes of Scandinavian Blocking, while other circulation patterns do not yield temperature trends during extremes.
Aggarwal, Dau Dayal; Rashkovetsky, Eugenia; Michalak, Pawel; Cohen, Irit; Ronin, Yefim; Zhou, Dan; Haddad, Gabriel G; Korol, Abraham B
2015-11-27
Population genetics predicts that tight linkage between new and/or pre-existing beneficial and deleterious alleles should decrease the efficiency of natural selection in finite populations. By decoupling beneficial and deleterious alleles and facilitating the combination of beneficial alleles, recombination accelerates the formation of high-fitness genotypes. This may impose indirect selection for increased recombination. Despite the progress in theoretical understanding, interplay between recombination and selection remains a controversial issue in evolutionary biology. Even less satisfactory is the situation with crossover interference, which is a deviation of double-crossover frequency in a pair of adjacent intervals from the product of recombination rates in the two intervals expected on the assumption of crossover independence. Here, we report substantial changes in recombination and interference in three long-term directional selection experiments with Drosophila melanogaster: for desiccation (~50 generations), hypoxia, and hyperoxia tolerance (>200 generations each). For all three experiments, we found a high interval-specific increase of recombination frequencies in selection lines (up to 40-50% per interval) compared to the control lines. We also discovered a profound effect of selection on interference as expressed by an increased frequency of double crossovers in selection lines. Our results show that changes in interference are not necessarily coupled with increased recombination. Our results support the theoretical predictions that adaptation to a new environment can promote evolution toward higher recombination. Moreover, this is the first evidence of selection for different recombination-unrelated traits potentially leading, not only to evolution toward increased crossover rates, but also to changes in crossover interference, one of the fundamental features of recombination.
移动互联环境下跨界营销的影响因素%Influencing Factors of Crossover Marketing in Mobile Internet Environment
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
黄嘉涛
2016-01-01
本文运用扎根理论的方法，以深度访谈和文案资料为基础，通过开放编码、主轴编码、选择编码，探索移动互联网环境下跨界营销的行为及其影响因素并构建模型。随后，基于广东地区企业的调查数据，对模型进行实证研究。实证结果表明，品牌匹配、市场匹配和战略匹配显著正向影响跨界营销，其中品牌匹配的影响作用最大；市场动荡性和市场不确定性正向调节品牌匹配与跨界营销以及市场匹配与跨界营销之间的正向关系；市场动荡性和市场不确定性对战略匹配与跨界营销之间的关系调节效应不显著。传统企业必须与移动互联网进行融合，从产品合作、联合营销、内容传递、场景设计等方面开展跨界营销合作，提高跨界双方在品牌、市场、战略等方面的匹配程度，其中尤其要重视品牌的匹配程度。%Based on the data collected from literature and in-depth interviews,the Grounded Theory,and three types of coding,an exploratory research on crossover marketing in mobile internet environment and its influencing factors is conducted, and the corresponding model is developed. Then,an empirical test is conducted based on survey data from local companies in Guangdong. The results show that:1. brand matching,market matching and strategic matching have positive effect on crossover marketing,and brand matching has the strongest effect;2. market dynamic and market uncertainty positively moderate the relationship between brand matching and crossover marketing as well as the relationship between market matching and crossover marketing;3. market dynamic and market uncertainty does not positively moderate the relationship between strategic matching and crossover marketing. The traditional enterprises should integrate with mobile internet,and improve the matching level in terms of brand,market and strategy;and they should pay special attention to the
Improved scaling of temperature-accelerated dynamics using localization
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shim, Yunsic; Amar, Jacques G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, Toledo, Ohio 43606 (United States)
2016-07-07
While temperature-accelerated dynamics (TAD) is a powerful method for carrying out non-equilibrium simulations of systems over extended time scales, the computational cost of serial TAD increases approximately as N{sup 3} where N is the number of atoms. In addition, although a parallel TAD method based on domain decomposition [Y. Shim et al., Phys. Rev. B 76, 205439 (2007)] has been shown to provide significantly improved scaling, the dynamics in such an approach is only approximate while the size of activated events is limited by the spatial decomposition size. Accordingly, it is of interest to develop methods to improve the scaling of serial TAD. As a first step in understanding the factors which determine the scaling behavior, we first present results for the overall scaling of serial TAD and its components, which were obtained from simulations of Ag/Ag(100) growth and Ag/Ag(100) annealing, and compare with theoretical predictions. We then discuss two methods based on localization which may be used to address two of the primary “bottlenecks” to the scaling of serial TAD with system size. By implementing both of these methods, we find that for intermediate system-sizes, the scaling is improved by almost a factor of N{sup 1/2}. Some additional possible methods to improve the scaling of TAD are also discussed.
Improved scaling of temperature-accelerated dynamics using localization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shim, Yunsic; Amar, Jacques G.
2016-01-01
While temperature-accelerated dynamics (TAD) is a powerful method for carrying out non-equilibrium simulations of systems over extended time scales, the computational cost of serial TAD increases approximately as N 3 where N is the number of atoms. In addition, although a parallel TAD method based on domain decomposition [Y. Shim et al., Phys. Rev. B 76, 205439 (2007)] has been shown to provide significantly improved scaling, the dynamics in such an approach is only approximate while the size of activated events is limited by the spatial decomposition size. Accordingly, it is of interest to develop methods to improve the scaling of serial TAD. As a first step in understanding the factors which determine the scaling behavior, we first present results for the overall scaling of serial TAD and its components, which were obtained from simulations of Ag/Ag(100) growth and Ag/Ag(100) annealing, and compare with theoretical predictions. We then discuss two methods based on localization which may be used to address two of the primary “bottlenecks” to the scaling of serial TAD with system size. By implementing both of these methods, we find that for intermediate system-sizes, the scaling is improved by almost a factor of N 1/2 . Some additional possible methods to improve the scaling of TAD are also discussed.
Telesman, J.; Smith, T. M.; Gabb, T. P.; Ring, A. J.
2017-01-01
An investigation of high temperature cyclic fatigue crack growth (FCG) threshold behavior of two advanced nickel disk alloys was conducted. The focus of the study was the unusual crossover effect in the near-threshold region of these type of alloys where conditions which produce higher crack growth rates in the Paris regime, produce higher resistance to crack growth in the near threshold regime. It was shown that this crossover effect is associated with a sudden change in the fatigue failure mode from a predominant transgranular mode in the Paris regime to fully intergranular mode in the threshold fatigue crack growth region. This type of a sudden change in the fracture mechanisms has not been previously reported and is surprising considering that intergranular failure is typically associated with faster crack growth rates and not the slow FCG rates of the near-threshold regime. By characterizing this behavior as a function of test temperature, environment and cyclic frequency, it was determined that both the crossover effect and the onset of intergranular failure are caused by environmentally driven mechanisms which have not as yet been fully identified. A plausible explanation for the observed behavior is proposed.
Bottomonium above Deconfinement in Lattice Nonrelativistic QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aarts, G.; Kim, S.; Lombardo, M. P.; Oktay, M. B.; Ryan, S. M.; Sinclair, D. K.; Skullerud, J.-I.
2011-01-01
We study the temperature dependence of bottomonium for temperatures in the range 0.4T c c , using nonrelativistic dynamics for the bottom quark and full relativistic lattice QCD simulations for N f =2 light flavors on a highly anisotropic lattice. We find that the Υ is insensitive to the temperature in this range, while the χ b propagators show a crossover from the exponential decay characterizing the hadronic phase to a power-law behavior consistent with nearly free dynamics at T≅2T c .
SPECIFIC AND CROSS-OVER EFFECTS OF FOAM ROLLING ON ANKLE DORSIFLEXION RANGE OF MOTION
Beardsley, Chris
2016-01-01
ABSTRACT Background Flexibility is an important physical quality. Self-myofascial release (SMFR) methods such as foam rolling (FR) increase flexibility acutely but how long such increases in range of motion (ROM) last is unclear. Static stretching (SS) also increases flexibility acutely and produces a cross-over effect to contralateral limbs. FR may also produce a cross-over effect to contralateral limbs but this has not yet been identified. Purpose To explore the potential cross-over effect of SMFR by investigating the effects of a FR treatment on the ipsilateral limb of 3 bouts of 30 seconds on changes in ipsilateral and contralateral ankle DF ROM and to assess the time-course of those effects up to 20 minutes post-treatment. Methods A within- and between-subject design was carried out in a convenience sample of 26 subjects, allocated into FR (n=13) and control (CON, n=13) groups. Ankle DF ROM was recorded at baseline with the in-line weight-bearing lunge test for both ipsilateral and contralateral legs and at 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 minutes following either a two-minute seated rest (CON) or 3 3 30 seconds of FR of the plantar flexors of the dominant leg (FR). Repeated measures ANOVA was used to examine differences in ankle DF ROM. Results No significant between-group effect was seen following the intervention. However, a significant within-group effect (pin the FR group was seen between baseline and all post-treatment time-points (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 minutes). Significant within-group effects (pin the ipsilateral leg between baseline and at all post-treatment time-points, and in the contralateral leg up to 10 minutes post-treatment, indicating the presence of a cross-over effect. Conclusions FR improves ankle DF ROM for at least 20 minutes in the ipsilateral limb and up to 10 minutes in the contralateral limb, indicating that FR produces a cross-over effect into the contralateral limb. The mechanism producing these cross-over effects is unclear but may involve
Proceedings of the cross-over symposium 'new approaches for studies on environmental radioactivity'
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matsumoto, Shiro; Uchida, Shigeo; Yamazawa, Hiromi; Amano, Hikaru
1999-03-01
This conference was organized by the Promotion Committee on Nuclear Cross-Over Research and the Specialist Committee on Assessment and Reduction of Radiation Risks, and co-organized by Microbial Toxicology Lab., RIKEN and Environmental Chemistry Lab., JAERI. In 1991, a project on transfer models and parameters of radionuclides in terrestrial environment was started in the Specialist Committee on Assessment and Reduction of Radiation Risks. This project was finished successfully to have active cooperation of different organizations which were Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), Meteorological Research Institute (MRI), National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN) and Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC). Subsequently, we started a new project named 'Development of dynamic models of transfer of radionuclides in the terrestrial environment' with adding a new member, Institute for Environmental Sciences (IES) from 1996. The results we obtained so far were presented in this conference. The 20 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)
Proceedings of the cross-over symposium `new approaches for studies on environmental radioactivity`
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Matsumoto, Shiro [Saitama Univ., Urawa (Japan); Uchida, Shigeo; Yamazawa, Hiromi; Amano, Hikaru [eds.
1999-03-01
This conference was organized by the Promotion Committee on Nuclear Cross-Over Research and the Specialist Committee on Assessment and Reduction of Radiation Risks, and co-organized by Microbial Toxicology Lab., RIKEN and Environmental Chemistry Lab., JAERI. In 1991, a project on transfer models and parameters of radionuclides in terrestrial environment was started in the Specialist Committee on Assessment and Reduction of Radiation Risks. This project was finished successfully to have active cooperation of different organizations which were Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), Meteorological Research Institute (MRI), National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN) and Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC). Subsequently, we started a new project named `Development of dynamic models of transfer of radionuclides in the terrestrial environment` with adding a new member, Institute for Environmental Sciences (IES) from 1996. The results we obtained so far were presented in this conference. The 20 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)
Inequity in work and intimate relationships: a Spillover-Crossover model.
Bakker, Arnold B; Petrou, Paraskevas; Tsaousis, Ioannis
2012-01-01
This study among 267 Greek teachers and their partners tested and expanded the recently proposed Spillover-Crossover model (SCM) of well-being. Accordingly, experiences built up at work spill over to the home domain, and then influence the partner. The authors integrated equity theory in the model by formulating hypotheses about exchange in interpersonal relationships. Structural equation modeling analyses supported the spillover hypothesis that teachers who lose their work engagement as a result of an inequitable relationship with their students invest less in the relationship with their partner. In addition, the results supported the crossover hypothesis that teachers' relationship investments, in turn, show a negative relationship with inequity in the intimate relationship as perceived by the partner; and inequity in the intimate relationship contributed to partner depression. The findings are discussed in light of the SCM of well-being.
Dynamic study of adsorbers by a new gravimetric version of the Large Temperature Jump method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sapienza, Alessio; Santamaria, Salvatore; Frazzica, Andrea; Freni, Angelo; Aristov, Yuri I.
2014-01-01
Highlights: • We have carried out a dynamic study of adsorbers. • Activity performed by new gravimetric version of the Large Temperature Jump method. • The kinetics measurements have been carried out under real operating conditions. • Results can support the design of adsorbers for adsorption cooling systems. - Abstract: This paper presents a new experimental setup devoted to measure the ad-/desorption kinetics of an Ad-HEX (adsorbent + heat exchanger) under typical boundary conditions of an Adsorption Heat Transformer (AHT) as well as the results of the first test campaign carried out. The experimental apparatus can be considered as a gravimetric version of the known Large Temperature Jump method. In fact, the dynamic evolution of the uptake during the isobaric ad-/desorption stages is directly measured by a weighing system suitable to work in the range of 5–600 g of sample mass (adsorbent + HEX) with the accuracy ±0.1 g and the time response shorter than 0.1 s The experimental campaign was conducted on an Ad-HEX composed of granules of a commercial SAPO-34 adsorbent placed on a flat type aluminum HEX, under operating conditions reproducing two different thermodynamic cycles (T h = 90 °C, T e = 10 °C, T c = 30 and 35 °C), typical for adsorption air conditioning. The influence of the grain size (ranging from 0.350 to 2.5 mm) on the adsorption dynamics both in monolayer and multilayer configurations at variable and constant “heat transfer surface/adsorbent mass” ratios (S/m) was studied. The results showed that, for the Ad-HEX configurations tested, the adsorption dynamics can be properly described by a modified Linear Driving Force approach by the use of a single temperature-invariant characteristic time τ. The invariance of the specific cooling power was revealed when the S/m ratio was kept constant (S/m = 1.23 m 2 /kg). This ratio is found to be a useful parameter for both assessment of the dynamic perfection and optimization of various Ad
Correlated colour temperature of morning light influences alertness and body temperature.
Te Kulve, Marije; Schlangen, Luc; Schellen, Lisje; Souman, Jan L; van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter
2018-03-01
Though several studies have reported human alertness to be affected by the intensity and spectral composition of ambient light, the mechanism behind this effect is still largely unclear, especially for daytime exposure. Alerting effects of nocturnal light exposure are correlated with melatonin suppression, but melatonin levels are generally low during the day. The aim of this study was to explore the alerting effect of light in the morning for different correlated colour temperature (CCT) values, as well as its interaction with ambient temperature. Body temperature and perceived comfort were included in the study as possible mediating factors. In a randomized crossover design, 16 healthy females participated in two sessions, once under 2700K and once under 6500K light (both 55lx). Each session consisted of a baseline, a cool, a neutral and a warm thermal environment. Alertness as measured in a reaction time task was lower for the 6500K exposure, while subjective sleepiness was not affected by CCT. Also, core body temperature was higher under 6500K. Skin temperature parameters and perceived comfort were positively correlated with subjective sleepiness. Reaction time correlated with heat loss, but this association did not explain why the reaction time was improved for 2700K. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Remhof, Arndt, E-mail: arndt.remhof@empa.ch [Empa, Swiss Federal Institute for Materials Science and Technology, Hydrogen and Energy, CH-8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Züttel, Andreas [Empa, Swiss Federal Institute for Materials Science and Technology, Hydrogen and Energy, CH-8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Ramirez-Cuesta, Timmy; García-Sakai, Victoria [ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Frick, Bernhard [Institut Laue-Langevin, F-38002 Grenoble (France)
2013-12-12
Highlights: • Inelastic fixed window sans offer new possibilities in neutron backscattering spectrometers. • Two different kind of reorientational motion were identified in the low temperature phase of LiBH{sub 4}. • Thermally activated jump rotation. - Abstract: LiBH{sub 4} contains 18.5 wt% hydrogen and undergoes a structural phase transition (orthorhombic → hexagonal) at 381 K which is associated with a large increase in hydrogen and lithium solid-state mobility. We investigated the hydrogen dynamics in the low temperature phase of LiBH{sub 4} by quasielastic neutron scattering, including a new kind of inelastic fixed window scan (IFWS). In the temperature range from 175 to 380 K the H-dynamics is dominated by thermally activated rotational jumps of the [BH{sub 4}]{sup −} anion around the c3 axis with an activation energy of about 162 meV. In agreement with earlier NMR data, a second type of thermally activated motion with an activation energy of about 232 meV could be identified using the IFWS. The present study of hydrogen dynamics in LiBH{sub 4} illustrates the feasibility of using IFWS on neutron backscattering spectrometers as a probe of localised motion.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Manisha Dubey
Full Text Available Under the prevailing conditions of imbalanced life table and historic gender discrimination in India, our study examines crossover between life expectancies at ages zero, one and five years for India and quantifies the relative share of infant and under-five mortality towards this crossover.We estimate threshold levels of infant and under-five mortality required for crossover using age specific death rates during 1981-2009 for 16 Indian states by sex (comprising of India's 90% population in 2011. Kitagawa decomposition equations were used to analyse relative share of infant and under-five mortality towards crossover.India experienced crossover between life expectancies at ages zero and five in 2004 for menand in 2009 for women; eleven and nine Indian states have experienced this crossover for men and women, respectively. Men usually experienced crossover four years earlier than the women. Improvements in mortality below ages five have mostly contributed towards this crossover. Life expectancy at age one exceeds that at age zero for both men and women in India except for Kerala (the only state to experience this crossover in 2000 for men and 1999 for women.For India, using life expectancy at age zero and under-five mortality rate together may be more meaningful to measure overall health of its people until the crossover. Delayed crossover for women, despite higher life expectancy at birth than for men reiterates that Indian women are still disadvantaged and hence use of life expectancies at ages zero, one and five become important for India. Greater programmatic efforts to control leading causes of death during the first month and 1-59 months in high child mortality areas can help India to attain this crossover early.