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Sample records for dynamic context discrimination

  1. Dynamic context discrimination : psychological evidence for the Sandia Cognitive Framework.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speed, Ann Elizabeth

    2004-09-01

    Human behavior is a function of an iterative interaction between the stimulus environment and past experience. It is not simply a matter of the current stimulus environment activating the appropriate experience or rule from memory (e.g., if it is dark and I hear a strange noise outside, then I turn on the outside lights and investigate). Rather, it is a dynamic process that takes into account not only things one would generally do in a given situation, but things that have recently become known (e.g., there have recently been coyotes seen in the area and one is known to be rabid), as well as other immediate environmental characteristics (e.g., it is snowing outside, I know my dog is outside, I know the police are already outside, etc.). All of these factors combine to inform me of the most appropriate behavior for the situation. If it were the case that humans had a rule for every possible contingency, the amount of storage that would be required to enable us to fluidly deal with most situations we encounter would rapidly become biologically untenable. We can all deal with contingencies like the one above with fairly little effort, but if it isn't based on rules, what is it based on? The assertion of the Cognitive Systems program at Sandia for the past 5 years is that at the heart of this ability to effectively navigate the world is an ability to discriminate between different contexts (i.e., Dynamic Context Discrimination, or DCD). While this assertion in and of itself might not seem earthshaking, it is compelling that this ability and its components show up in a wide variety of paradigms across different subdisciplines in psychology. We begin by outlining, at a high functional level, the basic ideas of DCD. We then provide evidence from several different literatures and paradigms that support our assertion that DCD is a core aspect of cognitive functioning. Finally, we discuss DCD and the computational model that we have developed as an instantiation of DCD

  2. Coping with Chaos : How Disordered Contexts Promote Stereotyping and Discrimination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stapel, Diederik A.; Lindenberg, Siegwart

    2011-01-01

    Being the victim of discrimination can have serious negative health-and quality-of-life-related consequences. Yet, could being discriminated against depend on such seemingly trivial matters as garbage on the streets? In this study, we show, in two field experiments, that disordered contexts (such as

  3. Family contexts: parental experiences of discrimination and child mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Alisia G T T

    2014-03-01

    Research on the mental health correlates of discrimination traditionally has been intra-individual, focusing exclusively on the individual directly experiencing discrimination. A small number of studies have begun to consider the links between parental experiences of discrimination and child mental health, but little is known about potential underlying mechanisms. The present study tested the independent mediating effects of parent mental health and household socioeconomic status on the associations between parental experiences of discrimination (past-year perceived discrimination and perceptions of being unaccepted culturally) and child mental health (internalizing and externalizing symptoms) using a bootstrapping analytic approach. Data were drawn from racial/ethnic minority (n = 383) and White (n = 574) samples surveyed in an urban Midwestern county. For all measures of discrimination and child mental health, findings supported an association between parental experiences of discrimination and child mental health. Whereas parent mental health served as a significant mediator in all analyses, socioeconomic status did not. Mediation findings held for both the White and racial/ethnic minority samples. Results suggest that parental experiences of discrimination and mental health may contribute to child mental health concerns, thus highlighting the role of family contexts in shaping child development.

  4. Chaotic Discrimination and Non-Linear Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partha Gangopadhyay

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines a particular form of price discrimination, known as chaotic discrimination, which has the following features: sellers quote a common price but, in reality, they engage in secret and apparently unsystematic price discounts. It is widely held that such forms of price discrimination are seriously inconsistent with profit maximization by sellers.. However, there is no theoretical salience to support this kind of price discrimination. By straining the logic of non-linear dynamics this study explains why such secret discounts are chaotic in the sense that sellers fail to adopt profit-maximising price discounts. A model is developed to argue that such forms of discrimination may derive from the regions of instability of a dynamic model of price discounts.

  5. Effects of extended context discrimination training and context extinction on transfer of context dependency of conditioned flavor aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iguchi, Yoshio; Fukumoto, Kazuya; Sawa, Kosuke; Ishii, Kiyoshi

    2014-03-01

    We trained rats in a context discrimination paradigm by pairing a sucrose solution with lithium chloride in one context (conditioning context) and simple exposure to the same fluid in a second (neutral) context to establish a context-dependent aversion to the conditioned fluid. We then investigated whether transfer of the context dependency to a test fluid (a sodium chloride solution) was affected by two post-discrimination training treatments, an extended context discrimination training, and non-reinforced exposure to the conditioning context (context extinction). We found that the context-dependent flavor aversion that had been specific to sucrose transferred to the test fluid after the extensive training (Experiment 1). Context extinction eliminated the transfer effect that had been observed immediately after the context discrimination training (Experiment 2). In addition, an aversion acquired by sucrose through a simple conditioning of sucrose-LiCl pairings did not generalize to the test fluid (Experiment 3). These results emphasize the importance of a Pavlovian excitatory association between the conditioning context and nausea as a primary source of transfer of the context dependency, rather than a generalization of aversion acquired by the conditioned fluid to the test fluid.

  6. Coping with chaos: how disordered contexts promote stereotyping and discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapel, Diederik A; Lindenberg, Siegwart

    2011-04-08

    Being the victim of discrimination can have serious negative health- and quality-of-life-related consequences. Yet, could being discriminated against depend on such seemingly trivial matters as garbage on the streets? In this study, we show, in two field experiments, that disordered contexts (such as litter or a broken-up sidewalk and an abandoned bicycle) indeed promote stereotyping and discrimination in real-world situations and, in three lab experiments, that it is a heightened need for structure that mediates these effects (number of subjects: between 40 and 70 per experiment). These findings considerably advance our knowledge of the impact of the physical environment on stereotyping and discrimination and have clear policy implications: Diagnose environmental disorder early and intervene immediately.

  7. Face Context Advantage Explained by Vernier and Separation Discrimination Acuity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh R Wilson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Seeing facial features in the context of a full face is known to provide an advantage for perception. Using an interocular separation perception task we confirmed that seeing eyes within the context of a face improves discrimination in synthetic faces. We also show that this improvement of the face-context can be explained using the presence of individual components of the face such as the nose mouth, or head-outline. We demonstrate that improvements due to the presence of the nose, and head-outline can be explained in terms of two-point separation measurements, obeying Weber's law as established in the literature. We also demonstrate that performance improvements due to the presence of the mouth can be explained in terms of vernier acuity judgements between eye positions and the corners of the mouth. Overall, our study shows that the improvements in perception of facial features due to the face-context effect can be traced to well understood basic visual measurements that may play a very general role in perceptual measurements of distance. Deficiencies in these measurements may also play a role in prosopagnosia. Additionaly, we show interference of the eyebrows with the face-inversion effect for interocular discrimination.

  8. Face context advantage explained by vernier and separation discrimination acuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesker, Michael; Wilson, Hugh R

    2012-01-01

    Seeing facial features in the context of a full face is known to provide an advantage for perception. Using an interocular separation perception task we confirmed that seeing eyes within the context of a face improves discrimination in synthetic faces. We also show that this improvement of the face context can be explained using the presence of individual components of the face such as the nose mouth, or head-outline. We demonstrate that improvements due to the presence of the nose, and head-outline can be explained in terms of two-point separation measurements, obeying Weber's law as established in the literature. We also demonstrate that performance improvements due to the presence of the mouth can be explained in terms of Vernier acuity judgments between eye positions and the corners of the mouth. Overall, our study shows that the improvements in perception of facial features due to the face context effect can be traced to well understood basic visual measurements that may play a very general role in perceptual measurements of distance. Deficiencies in these measurements may also play a role in prosopagnosia. Additionally, we show interference of the eyebrows with the face-inversion effect for interocular discrimination.

  9. Discriminative learning for dynamic state prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minyoung; Pavlovic, Vladimir

    2009-10-01

    We consider the problem of predicting a sequence of real-valued multivariate states that are correlated by some unknown dynamics, from a given measurement sequence. Although dynamic systems such as the State-Space Models are popular probabilistic models for the problem, their joint modeling of states and observations, as well as the traditional generative learning by maximizing a joint likelihood may not be optimal for the ultimate prediction goal. In this paper, we suggest two novel discriminative approaches to the dynamic state prediction: 1) learning generative state-space models with discriminative objectives and 2) developing an undirected conditional model. These approaches are motivated by the success of recent discriminative approaches to the structured output classification in discrete-state domains, namely, discriminative training of Hidden Markov Models and Conditional Random Fields (CRFs). Extending CRFs to real multivariate state domains generally entails imposing density integrability constraints on the CRF parameter space, which can make the parameter learning difficult. We introduce an efficient convex learning algorithm to handle this task. Experiments on several problem domains, including human motion and robot-arm state estimation, indicate that the proposed approaches yield high prediction accuracy comparable to or better than state-of-the-art methods.

  10. Marginally subcritical dynamics explain enhanced stimulus discriminability under attention.

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    Tomen, Nergis; Rotermund, David; Ernst, Udo

    2014-01-01

    Recent experimental and theoretical work has established the hypothesis that cortical neurons operate close to a critical state which describes a phase transition from chaotic to ordered dynamics. Critical dynamics are suggested to optimize several aspects of neuronal information processing. However, although critical dynamics have been demonstrated in recordings of spontaneously active cortical neurons, little is known about how these dynamics are affected by task-dependent changes in neuronal activity when the cortex is engaged in stimulus processing. Here we explore this question in the context of cortical information processing modulated by selective visual attention. In particular, we focus on recent findings that local field potentials (LFPs) in macaque area V4 demonstrate an increase in γ-band synchrony and a simultaneous enhancement of object representation with attention. We reproduce these results using a model of integrate-and-fire neurons where attention increases synchrony by enhancing the efficacy of recurrent interactions. In the phase space spanned by excitatory and inhibitory coupling strengths, we identify critical points and regions of enhanced discriminability. Furthermore, we quantify encoding capacity using information entropy. We find a rapid enhancement of stimulus discriminability with the emergence of synchrony in the network. Strikingly, only a narrow region in the phase space, at the transition from subcritical to supercritical dynamics, supports the experimentally observed discriminability increase. At the supercritical border of this transition region, information entropy decreases drastically as synchrony sets in. At the subcritical border, entropy is maximized under the assumption of a coarse observation scale. Our results suggest that cortical networks operate at such near-critical states, allowing minimal attentional modulations of network excitability to substantially augment stimulus representation in the LFPs.

  11. Hippocampal damage causes retrograde but not anterograde memory loss for context fear discrimination in rats.

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    Lee, Justin Q; Sutherland, Robert J; McDonald, Robert J

    2017-09-01

    There is a substantial body of evidence that the hippocampus (HPC) plays and essential role in context discrimination in rodents. Studies reporting anterograde amnesia (AA) used repeated, alternating, distributed conditioning and extinction sessions to measure context fear discrimination. In addition, there is uncertainty about the extent of damage to the HPC. Here, we induced conditioned fear prior to discrimination tests and rats sustained extensive, quantified pre- or post-training HPC damage. Unlike previous work, we found that extensive HPC damage spares context discrimination, we observed no AA. There must be a non-HPC system that can acquire long-term memories that support context fear discrimination. Post-training HPC damage caused retrograde amnesia (RA) for context discrimination, even when rats are fear conditioned for multiple sessions. We discuss the implications of these findings for understanding the role of HPC in long-term memory. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. SVM with discriminative dynamic time alignment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In the past several years, support vector machines (SVM) have achieved a huge success in many field, especially in pattern recognition. But the standard SVM cannot deal with length-variable vectors, which is one severe obstacle for its applications to some important areas, such as speech recognition and part-of-speech tagging. The paper proposed a novel SVM with discriminative dynamic time alignment (DDTA-SVM) to solve this problem. When training DDTA-SVM classifier, according to the category information of the training Samples, different time alignment strategies were adopted to manipulate them in the kernel functions, which contributed to great improvement for training speed and generalization capability of the classifier. Since the alignment operator was embedded in kernel functions, the training algorithms of standard SVM were still compatible in DDTA-SVM. In order to increase the reliability of the classification, a new classification algorithm was suggested. The preliminary experimental results on Chinese confusable syllables speech classification task show that DDTA-SVM obtains faster convergence speed and better classification performance than dynamic time alignment kernel SVM (DTAK-SVM).Moreover, DDTA-SVM also gives higher classification precision compared to the conventional HMM. This proves that the proposed method is effective, especially for confusable lengthvariable pattern classification tasks.

  13. Social context matters: Ethnicity, discrimination and stress reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busse, David; Yim, Ilona S; Campos, Belinda

    2017-09-01

    Exposure to chronic discrimination is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The study of biobehavioral pathways linking discrimination with health outcomes has mostly focused on the cardiovascular system, with fewer studies addressing the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. In this study we tested associations between Latino ethnicity, experiences of discrimination, and cortisol responses to an acute laboratory stressor. One hundred fifty eight individuals (92 female, 66 male) between the ages of 18 and 29 years participated in the study. Salivary cortisol was measured once before and eight times after administration of a laboratory stressor (the Trier Social Stress Test). Past experiences of discrimination were measured with the Experiences of Discrimination Scale. Findings from conditional process modeling suggest that Latino ethnicity predicted a) heightened cortisol reactivity and b) more pronounced cortisol recovery through discrimination experiences (mediator), and that this effect was further moderated by sex with a significant indirect effect only among males. The direct path from Latino ethnicity to cortisol reactivity or cortisol recovery was, however, not significant. In sum, findings suggest that Latino ethnicity and discrimination interact to predict cortisol dysregulation, which implies that an appropriate model for understanding minority health discrepancies must incorporate interactive processes and cannot simply rely on the effects of ethnicity or discrimination alone. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The stochastic network dynamics underlying perceptual discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genis Prat-Ortega

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The brain is able to interpret streams of high-dimensional ambiguous information and yield coherent percepts. The mechanisms governing sensory integration have been extensively characterized using time-varying visual stimuli (Britten et al. 1996; Roitman and Shadlen 2002, but some of the basic principles regarding the network dynamics underlying this process remain largely unknown. We captured the basic features of a neural integrator using three canonical one-dimensional models: (1 the Drift Diffusion Model (DDM, (2 the Perfect Integrator (PI which is a particular case of the DDM where the bounds are set to infinity and (3 the double-well potential (DW which captures the dynamics of the attractor networks (Wang 2002; Roxin and Ledberg 2008. Although these models has been widely studied (Bogacz et al. 2006; Roxin and Ledberg 2008; Gold and Shadlen 2002, it has been difficult to experimentally discriminate among them because most of the observables measured are only quantitatively different among these models (e.g. psychometric curves. Here we aim to find experimentally measurable quantities that can yield qualitatively different behaviors depending on the nature of the underlying network dynamics. We examined the categorization dynamics of these models in response to fluctuating stimuli of different duration (T. On each time step, stimuli are drawn from a Gaussian distribution N(μ, σ and the two stimulus categories are defined by μ > 0 and μ < 0. Psychometric curves can therefore be obtained by quantifying the probability of the integrator to yield one category versus μ . We find however that varying σ can reveal more clearly the differences among the different integrators. In the small σ regime, both the DW and the DDM perform transient integration and exhibit a decaying stimulus reverse correlation kernel revealing a primacy effect (Nienborg and Cumming 2009; Wimmer et al. 2015 . In the large σ regime, the integration in the DDM

  15. Immune to ageism? Men's perceptions of age-based discrimination in everyday contexts.

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    Ojala, Hanna; Pietilä, Ilkka; Nikander, Pirjo

    2016-12-01

    Despite long-term, conceptually and theoretically refined discussions, the phenomenon of ageism still remains empirically under-developed. To better understand the diversity of ageism, its contextual variations and gender-specific dynamics in people's daily lives, this study focuses on how different interactional contexts shape men's perceptions of ageism. Using data from 67 thematic personal interviews with 23 middle and working class men aged 50-70, this study contributes to the sorely lacking, empirically based and nuanced understanding of how ageism is experienced, and adds to the research on the internalization of ageism which to date has primarily focused on older women's experiences. Key findings are as follows: 1) men are not totally immune to ageism, but rather, 2) the experiences and interpretations of ageism are structured by the interactional context in question, 3) acts and expressions interpreted as discriminative in one context become defused in others, and that 4) in family contexts positive ageism represents a naturalized order of things within intergenerational relations. The study contributes to the existing body of work on age negotiations and on the ways in which chronological age as a cultural resource functions in interaction. It also underlines that adopting a gender and context sensitive approach into ageism opens up promising avenues for further conceptual development.

  16. The context of discrimination: workplace conditions, institutional environments, and sex and race discrimination charges.

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    Hirsh, C Elizabeth; Kornrich, Sabino

    2008-03-01

    This article explores the organizational conditions under which discrimination charges occur. Drawing on structural and organizational theories of the workplace, the authors demonstrate how organizational conditions affect workers' and regulatory agents' understandings of unlawful discrimination. Using a national sample of work establishments, matched to discrimination-charge data obtained from the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC), the authors examine how characteristics of the workplace and institutional environment affect variation in the incidence of workers' charges of sex and race discrimination and in the subset of discrimination claims that are verified by EEOC investigators. The findings indicate that workplace conditions, including size, composition, and minority management, affect workers' charges as well as verified claims; the latter are also affected by institutional factors, such as affirmative action requirements, subsidiary status, and industrial sector. These results suggest that internal workplace conditions affect both workers' and regulatory agents' interpretations of potentially discriminatory experiences, while institutional conditions matter only for regulatory agents' interpretations of those events.

  17. Emigration dynamics: the Indian context.

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    Premi, M K; Mathur, M D

    1995-01-01

    This report on emigration dynamics in India opens by providing background on short- and long-distance migration to and from India in response to such events as the formation of Pakistan as well as to the policies of the British Empire and Commonwealth. Section 2 discusses India's demographic and sociocultural setting in terms of population growth, urbanization, patterns of internal migration, growth of the labor force, economic growth, poverty alleviation, health, and education. The third section describes the lack of data on international migration. Some data are available on emigrants, but the only information on return migration is that gleaned from surveys in Kerala. Section 4 considers emigration to industrialized countries and notes that it is almost exclusively permanent and largely composed of individuals with professional, technical, or managerial skills. The resulting brain drain is described as is the incidence of illegal migration. India does not create conditions from which citizens must seek asylum, rather the country has absorbed flows of refugees from Pakistan, Tibet, Bangladesh, Afghanistan, and Sri Lanka. Available data on the characteristics of emigrants and return migrants are reviewed in the next two sections, and section 7 looks at the data on financial flows gathered from macro-level estimates of remittances. Section 8 is devoted to the community, family, and individual factors which influence emigration including the networks that facilitate migration and means of meeting migration costs. The ninth section summarizes the political setting with an emphasis on the adverse reaction of Nepal to population movement from India. The final section of the report projects future population movements. It is noted that if there were no restrictions on migration, millions of Indians would emigrate to the Americas, Africa, and Australia. Whereas poverty, unemployment, and population growth will likely erode living conditions in India, the government has

  18. Discrimination of motile bacteria from filamentous fungi using dynamic speckle

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    Murialdo, Silvia E.; Passoni, Lucía I.; Guzman, Marcelo N.; Sendra, G. Hernán; Rabal, Héctor; Trivi, Marcelo; Gonzalez, J. Froilán

    2012-05-01

    We present a dynamic laser speckle method to easily discriminate filamentous fungi from motile bacteria in soft surfaces, such as agar plate. The method allows the detection and discrimination between fungi and bacteria faster than with conventional techniques. The new procedure could be straightforwardly extended to different micro-organisms, as well as applied to biological and biomedical research, infected tissues analysis, and hospital water and wastewaters studies.

  19. Dynamic context bindings : infrastructural support for context-aware applications

    OpenAIRE

    Broens, Tom Henri Ferdinand

    2008-01-01

    The world is increasingly equipped with high-capacity, interconnected, mobile and embedded computing devices. Context-awareness provides an attractive approach to personalize applications such that they better suit the user’s needs in this rich computing environment. Context-aware applications use context information, offered by context sources, to adapt their behavior to the situation at hand. The exchange of context information requires an association between a context consuming context-awa...

  20. School context protective factors against peer ethnic discrimination across the high school years.

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    Bellmore, Amy; Nishina, Adrienne; You, Ji-In; Ma, Ting-Lan

    2012-03-01

    Ethnically diverse high school contexts present unique social opportunities for youth to form interethnic relationships, but they may also subject students to certain social challenges such as peer ethnic discrimination. With a sample of 1,072 high school students (55% girls; 54% Latino, 20% African American, 14% Asian, 12% White) attending 84 high schools, school context factors that protect students' exposure to peer ethnic discrimination across the high school years were investigated with a three-level hierarchical linear model. Each spring for four consecutive years (grades 9-12), self-reported peer ethnic discrimination, interracial climate at school, and perceived school ethnic composition were assessed. At the school level, objective high school ethnic composition data were collected. Peer ethnic discrimination was found to decline slightly across the high school years. Above and beyond this decline, more positive perceptions of the school interracial climate and both objective and perceived numerical ethnic majority status predicted lower levels of peer ethnic discrimination. Taken together, the results highlight the significance of both objective (e.g., ethnic composition) and subjective (e.g., interracial climate) aspects of the school ethnic context to students' high school social experiences.

  1. Discriminability and identification of English vowels by native Japanese speakers in different consonantal contexts

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    Nozawa, Takeshi; Frieda, Elaina M.; Wayland, Ratree

    2003-10-01

    The purpose of the present experiment was to examine the effects of consonantal context on discrimination and identification of English vowels by native Japanese speakers learning English in Japan. A number of studies have assessed the effects of consonantal contexts on the perception of nonnative vowels. For instance, Strange et al. (1996, 2001) found that perceptual assimilation of nonnative vowels is affected by consonantal contexts, and Morrison (2002) has shown that Japanese speakers use durational cues to perceive English /i/-/I/. The present study revealed that consonantal context affects discriminability and identification of each English vowel differently. Of all the six vowel contrasts tested, /i/-/I/ was the most likely to be affected by voicing status of the surrounding consonants with it being easier to discriminate in voiceless consonantal contexts. Moreover, /I/ is more likely to be equated with the Japanese short vowel /i/ in a voiceless consonantal context which is in keeping with Morrison (2002). /æ/-/opena/, on the other hand, is the most strongly affected by the place of articulation of the preceding consonants. [Work supported by Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C)(1)(1410635).

  2. The Context of Workplace Sex Discrimination: Sex Composition, Workplace Culture and Relative Power

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    Stainback, Kevin; Ratliff, Thomas N.; Roscigno, Vincent J.

    2011-01-01

    Building on prior work surrounding negative work-related experiences, such as workplace bullying and sexual harassment, we examine the extent to which organizational context is meaningful for the subjective experience of sex discrimination. Data draw on the 2002 National Study of the Changing Workforce, which provides a key indicator of…

  3. The Context of Workplace Sex Discrimination: Sex Composition, Workplace Culture and Relative Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stainback, Kevin; Ratliff, Thomas N.; Roscigno, Vincent J.

    2011-01-01

    Building on prior work surrounding negative work-related experiences, such as workplace bullying and sexual harassment, we examine the extent to which organizational context is meaningful for the subjective experience of sex discrimination. Data draw on the 2002 National Study of the Changing Workforce, which provides a key indicator of…

  4. Fluid Dynamics in an Ecological Context

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    Denny, Mark

    2007-11-01

    Fluid dynamics has long been an invaluable tool in the study of biological mechanics, helping to explain how animals swim and fly, how blood is pumped, gases are exchanged, and propagules are dispersed. The goal of understanding how the physics of fluids has affected the evolution of individual organisms provides strong impetus for teaching and learning fluid mechanics; a viable alternative to the more traditional goals of engineering. In recent years, a third alternative has arisen. The principles of fluid dynamics can be used to specify when and where individual organisms will exceed their physical capabilities, information that can in turn be used to predict species-specific survivorship in a given environment. In other words, biological fluid dynamics can be extended beyond the study of individual organisms to play an important role in our understanding of ecological dynamics. In a world where environmental change is of increasing concern, fluid dynamic aspect of ``ecomechanics'' may be of considerable practical importance. Teaching fluid mechanics in ecology will be discussed in the context of wave-swept rocky shores. Various wave theories can be used to predict the maximum water velocities and accelerations impinging on specific surf-zone plants and animals. Theories of lift, drag, and accelerational forces can then be used to predict the maximum loads imposed on these organisms, loads that can be compared to the organisms' structural limits to predict the fraction of the species that will be dislodged or damaged. Taken across relevant species, this information goes far towards explaining shoreline community dynamics. .

  5. The Influence of General Discrimination and Social Context on Young Urban Expecting Couples' Mental Health.

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    Gordon, Derrick M; Campbell, Christina; Washington, Keahnan; Albritton, Tashuna; Divney, Anna; Magriples, Urania; Kershaw, Trace

    2016-04-01

    Young expecting parents face a great deal of challenges as they transition into parenthood. This paper sought to identify racial and gender differences in the relationship between general discrimination, neighborhood problems, neighborhood cohesion, and social support on the depressive and stress symptoms among young expecting couples. Results indicated perceived general discrimination and less social support was associated with increased stress and depression. More neighborhood problems were related to increased depression and more neighborhood cohesion was related to less stress. Moderator analyses showed that the influence of general discrimination and stress was stronger for women than men. In addition, neighborhood cohesion was protective on stress for Blacks and Whites but not for Hispanics. These results indicate the need to address the broader social context for young expectant couples.

  6. Perceptual discrimination across contexts and contrasts in preschool-aged children

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    BYUN, Tara McALLISTER

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates a proposed phonetically-based account of developmental phonological patterns that lack counterparts in adult typology. Adult listeners perceive some phonemic contrasts more accurately than others, and these differences in perceptual recoverability are posited to represent one influence on phonological typology. One hypothesis suggests that children and adults could differ in their patterns of relative perceptual sensitivity, and these differences could form the basis for some child-specific phonological patterns in production. However, there has been a lack of empirical evidence to support this claim. This study used a nonword discrimination task to investigate differences in perceptual recoverability across contrasts and contexts in typically-developing preschool children. Participants heard nonwords that were identical or differed by a single segment in initial or final position. Results revealed general agreement between child and adult listeners in the relative discriminability of different featural contrasts. For certain contrasts, discrimination accuracy was significantly greater in initial than final position, mirroring an asymmetry seen in adults. Overall, these results suggest that perceptual discrimination in preschool-aged children is broadly congruent with patterns of relative sensitivity observed in adult listeners. These findings suggest that factors other than perceptual recoverability should be explored to account for child-specific phonological patterns. PMID:26213418

  7. Building a Context World for Dynamic Service Composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Lian; Glenstrup, Arne John; Su, Shuang

    the physical contexts of the computing environment, user profiles and computed results of services as well. We use ontology techniques to model the domain concepts of application contexts. Context Condition/Effect Description Language is designed to describe the dynamic semantics of the requirements...... and capabilities of goals and services in a concise and editable manner. Goal-driven and planning techniques are used to dynamically implement the service composition according to the domain knowledge and facts in the context world....

  8. Accurate discrimination of conserved coding and non-coding regions through multiple indicators of evolutionary dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pesole Graziano

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The conservation of sequences between related genomes has long been recognised as an indication of functional significance and recognition of sequence homology is one of the principal approaches used in the annotation of newly sequenced genomes. In the context of recent findings that the number non-coding transcripts in higher organisms is likely to be much higher than previously imagined, discrimination between conserved coding and non-coding sequences is a topic of considerable interest. Additionally, it should be considered desirable to discriminate between coding and non-coding conserved sequences without recourse to the use of sequence similarity searches of protein databases as such approaches exclude the identification of novel conserved proteins without characterized homologs and may be influenced by the presence in databases of sequences which are erroneously annotated as coding. Results Here we present a machine learning-based approach for the discrimination of conserved coding sequences. Our method calculates various statistics related to the evolutionary dynamics of two aligned sequences. These features are considered by a Support Vector Machine which designates the alignment coding or non-coding with an associated probability score. Conclusion We show that our approach is both sensitive and accurate with respect to comparable methods and illustrate several situations in which it may be applied, including the identification of conserved coding regions in genome sequences and the discrimination of coding from non-coding cDNA sequences.

  9. Modelling dynamics with context-free grammars

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Huerta, Juan-M.; Jiménez-Hernández, Hugo; Herrera-Navarro, Ana-M.; Hernández-Díaz, Teresa; Terol-Villalobos, Ivan

    2014-03-01

    This article presents a strategy to model the dynamics performed by vehicles in a freeway. The proposal consists on encode the movement as a set of finite states. A watershed-based segmentation is used to localize regions with high-probability of motion. Each state represents a proportion of a camera projection in a two-dimensional space, where each state is associated to a symbol, such that any combination of symbols is expressed as a language. Starting from a sequence of symbols through a linear algorithm a free-context grammar is inferred. This grammar represents a hierarchical view of common sequences observed into the scene. Most probable grammar rules express common rules associated to normal movement behavior. Less probable rules express themselves a way to quantify non-common behaviors and they might need more attention. Finally, all sequences of symbols that does not match with the grammar rules, may express itself uncommon behaviors (abnormal). The grammar inference is built with several sequences of images taken from a freeway. Testing process uses the sequence of symbols emitted by the scenario, matching the grammar rules with common freeway behaviors. The process of detect abnormal/normal behaviors is managed as the task of verify if any word generated by the scenario is recognized by the grammar.

  10. Learning Dynamics for Robot Control under Varying Contexts

    OpenAIRE

    Petkos, Georgios

    2008-01-01

    High fidelity, compliant robot control requires a sufficiently accurate dynamics model. Often though, it is not possible to obtain a dynamics model sufficiently accurately or at all using analytical methods. In such cases, an alternative is to learn the dynamics model from movement data. This thesis discusses the problems specific to dynamics learning for control under nonstationarity of the dynamics. We refer to the cause of the nonstationarity as the context of the dynamics. ...

  11. Discriminating lysosomal membrane protein types using dynamic neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Vijay; Gupta, Dwijendra Kumar

    2014-01-01

    This work presents a dynamic artificial neural network methodology, which classifies the proteins into their classes from their sequences alone: the lysosomal membrane protein classes and the various other membranes protein classes. In this paper, neural networks-based lysosomal-associated membrane protein type prediction system is proposed. Different protein sequence representations are fused to extract the features of a protein sequence, which includes seven feature sets; amino acid (AA) composition, sequence length, hydrophobic group, electronic group, sum of hydrophobicity, R-group, and dipeptide composition. To reduce the dimensionality of the large feature vector, we applied the principal component analysis. The probabilistic neural network, generalized regression neural network, and Elman regression neural network (RNN) are used as classifiers and compared with layer recurrent network (LRN), a dynamic network. The dynamic networks have memory, i.e. its output depends not only on the input but the previous outputs also. Thus, the accuracy of LRN classifier among all other artificial neural networks comes out to be the highest. The overall accuracy of jackknife cross-validation is 93.2% for the data-set. These predicted results suggest that the method can be effectively applied to discriminate lysosomal associated membrane proteins from other membrane proteins (Type-I, Outer membrane proteins, GPI-Anchored) and Globular proteins, and it also indicates that the protein sequence representation can better reflect the core feature of membrane proteins than the classical AA composition.

  12. Configurations of the interoceptive discriminative stimulus effects of ethanol and nicotine with two different exteroceptive contexts in rats: Extinction & recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troisi, Joseph R; Craig, Elizabeth M

    2015-06-01

    Interoceptive states interact with exteroceptive contexts in modulating operant behavior, which is maintained by its consequences. Evaluating discriminative stimulus control by overlapping interoceptive and exteroceptive configurations (gestalts) and the contribution of each modality may be clinically important for understanding aspects of relapsing behavior (e.g., drug abuse). With rats, the current investigation used a completely counterbalanced one-manipulandum operant drug discrimination procedure that established discriminative stimulus control between nicotine (0.3mg/kg) in one exteroceptive context and EtOH (1.0g/kg) in a differing exteroceptive context. One combined interoceptive-exteroceptive condition occasioned sessions of food reinforcement (S(D)) and the other counterbalanced condition occasioned sessions of non-reinforcement (S(Δ)). Each stimulus modality contributed to discriminative control, but to lesser extents than the combined intero-exteroceptive compound configurations (Experiments 1 & 2). In Experiment 1, responding was extinguished in the interoceptive stimulus conditions alone in a neutral exteroceptive context, but then renewed by reconfiguring the drugs with the exteroceptive contexts, and reversed in the opposing exteroceptive contexts. In Experiment 2, responding was extinguished in the interoceptive and exteroceptive contexts separately. Reconfiguration of the full intero-exteroceptive compound configurations did not promote recovery. These results suggest that interoceptive and exteroceptive discriminative control can be methodologically configured in modulating operant behavior during acquisition, extinction, and recovery of behavior; however, configuring interoceptive and exteroceptive discriminative stimuli do not appear to function as unique cues that differ from each stimulus modality alone. Clinical implications are discussed.

  13. Discrimination

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Midtbøen, Arnfinn H; Rogstad, Jon

    2012-01-01

    ... of discrimination in the labour market as well as to the mechanisms involved in discriminatory hiring practices. The design has several advantages compared to -‘single-method’ approaches and provides a more substantial understanding of the processes leading to ethnic inequality in the labour market.

  14. Context-aware Authorization in Highly Dynamic Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Tigli, Jean-Yves; Rey, Gaetan; Hourdin, Vincent; Riveill, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Highly dynamic computing environments, like ubiquitous and pervasive computing environments, require frequent adaptation of applications. Context is a key to adapt suiting user needs. On the other hand, standard access control trusts users once they have authenticated, despite the fact that they may reach unauthorized contexts. We analyse how taking into account dynamic information like context in the authorization subsystem can improve security, and how this new access control applies to interaction patterns, like messaging or eventing. We experiment and validate our approach using context as an authorization factor for eventing in Web service for device (like UPnP or DPWS), in smart home security.

  15. Context-aware Authorization in Highly Dynamic Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Hourdin

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Highly dynamic computing environments, like ubiquitous and pervasive computing environments, require frequent adaptation of applications. Context is a key to adapt suiting user needs. On the other hand, standard access control trusts users once they have authenticated, despite the fact that they may reach unauthorized contexts. We analyse how taking into account dynamic information like context in the authorization subsystem can improve security, and how this new access control applies to interaction patterns, like messaging or eventing. We experiment and validate our approach using context as an authorization factor for eventing in Web service for device (like UPnP or DPWS, in smart home security.

  16. Contributions of acculturation, enculturation, discrimination, and personality traits to social anxiety among Chinese immigrants: A context-specific assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Ke; Friedlander, Myrna; Pieterse, Alex L

    2016-01-01

    Based on the diathesis-stress model of anxiety, this study examined the contributions of cultural processes, perceived racial discrimination, and personality traits to social anxiety among Chinese immigrants. Further guided by the theory of intergroup anxiety, this study also adopted a context-specific approach to distinguish between participants' experience of social anxiety when interacting with European Americans versus with other Chinese in the United States. This quantitative and ex post facto study used a convenience sample of 140 first-generation Chinese immigrants. Participants were recruited through e-mails from different university and community groups across the United States. The sample includes 55 men and 82 women (3 did not specify) with an average age of 36 years old. Results showed that more social anxiety was reported in the European American context than in the Chinese ethnic context. The full models accounted for almost half the variance in anxiety in each context. Although personality accounted for the most variance, the cultural variables and discrimination contributed 14% of the unique variance in the European American context. Notably, low acculturation, high neuroticism, and low extraversion were unique contributors to social anxiety with European Americans, whereas in the Chinese ethnic context only low extraversion was a unique contributor; more discrimination was uniquely significant in both contexts. The findings suggest a need to contextualize the research and clinical assessment of social anxiety, and have implications for culturally sensitive counseling with immigrants.

  17. Sources of Information for Discriminating Dynamic Human Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loucks, Jeff; Baldwin, Dare

    2009-01-01

    Despite the importance of action identification and discrimination in action perception and social cognition more broadly, little research has investigated how these processes are achieved. To this end, we sought to identify the extent to which adults capitalize on featural versus configural sources of information when discriminating small-scale…

  18. Sources of Information for Discriminating Dynamic Human Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loucks, Jeff; Baldwin, Dare

    2009-01-01

    Despite the importance of action identification and discrimination in action perception and social cognition more broadly, little research has investigated how these processes are achieved. To this end, we sought to identify the extent to which adults capitalize on featural versus configural sources of information when discriminating small-scale…

  19. Discriminant Context Information Analysis for Post-Ranking Person Re-Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Jorge; Martinel, Niki; Gardel, Alfredo; Bravo, Ignacio; Foresti, Gian Luca; Micheloni, Christian

    2017-01-16

    Existing approaches for person re-identification are mainly based on creating distinctive representations or on learning optimal metrics. The achieved results are then provided in form of a list of ranked matching persons. It often happens that the true match is not ranked first but it is in the first positions. This is mostly due to the visual ambiguities shared between the true match and other "similar" persons. At the current state, there is a lack of a study of such visual ambiguities which limit the re-identification performance within the first ranks. We believe that an analysis of the similar appearances of the first ranks can be helpful in detecting, hence removing, such visual ambiguities. We propose to achieve such a goal by introducing an unsupervised post-ranking framework. Once the initial ranking is available, content and context sets are extracted. Then, these are exploited to remove the visual ambiguities and to obtain the discriminant feature space which is finally exploited to compute the new ranking. An in-depth analysis of the performance achieved on three public benchmark datasets support our believes. For every dataset, the proposed method remarkably improves the first ranks results and outperforms state-of-the-art approaches.

  20. Characterizations of bivariate models using dynamic Kullbak-Leibler discrimination measures

    OpenAIRE

    Navarro, J.; S. M. Sunoj; Linu, M.N.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract In this paper the residual Kullback-Leibler discrimination information measure is extended to conditionally specified models. The extension is used to characterize some bivariate distributions. These distributions are also characterized in terms of proportional hazard rate models and weighted distributions. Moreover, we also obtain some bounds for this dynamic discrimination function by using the likelihood ratio order and some preceding results. correspondence: ...

  1. Challenging Racism in Brazil. Legal Suits in the Context of the 1951 Anti-Discrimination Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry Dávila

    Full Text Available Abstract This article examines efforts to define the nature of racial discrimination in Brazil, within an environment shaped by perceptions of the meaning of racism in the United States and perceptions about the nature of race relations in the lusophone world. The article asks how did black Brazilians work to define discrimination, and what opportunities did they find to mount challenges? This study elucidates reactions to discrimination, looking for these acts where they occurred rather than where the U.S. experience tells us to find them, exploring efforts to define discrimination and to create means to challenge it. Though these efforts often dialogued with ever-present perceptions about race in the U.S., they were adapted to particular legal, political, social and cultural circumstances in the Brazil of their time. In particular, I examine challenges to discrimination through criminal suits brought under Brazil's 1951 anti-discrimination law.

  2. On Sustaining Dynamic Adaptation of Context-Aware Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boudjemaa Boudaa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The modern human is getting more and more mobile having access to online services by using mobile cutting-edge computational devices. In the last decade, the field of context-aware services had led to emerge several works. However, most of the proposed approaches have not provided clear adaptation strategies in case of unforeseen contexts. Dealing with this last at runtime is also another crucial need that has been ignored in their proposals. This paper aims to propose a generic dynamic adaptation process as a phase in a model-driven development life-cycle for context-aware services using the MAPE-K control loop to meet the runtime adaptation. This process is validated by implementing an illustrative application on FraSCAti platform. The main benefit of the proposed process is to sustain the self-reconfiguration of such services at model and code levels by enabling successive dynamic adaptations depending on the changing context.

  3. Context Matters: Links between Neighborhood Discrimination, Neighborhood Cohesion and African American Adolescents' Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riina, Elizabeth M.; Martin, Anne; Gardner, Margo; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2013-01-01

    Racial discrimination has serious negative consequences for the adjustment of African American adolescents. Taking an ecological approach, this study examined the linkages between perceived racial discrimination within and outside of the neighborhood and urban adolescents' externalizing and internalizing behaviors, and tested whether neighborhood…

  4. Dynamic functional brain networks involved in simple visual discrimination learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidalgo, Camino; Conejo, Nélida María; González-Pardo, Héctor; Arias, Jorge Luis

    2014-10-01

    Visual discrimination tasks have been widely used to evaluate many types of learning and memory processes. However, little is known about the brain regions involved at different stages of visual discrimination learning. We used cytochrome c oxidase histochemistry to evaluate changes in regional brain oxidative metabolism during visual discrimination learning in a water-T maze at different time points during training. As compared with control groups, the results of the present study reveal the gradual activation of cortical (prefrontal and temporal cortices) and subcortical brain regions (including the striatum and the hippocampus) associated to the mastery of a simple visual discrimination task. On the other hand, the brain regions involved and their functional interactions changed progressively over days of training. Regions associated with novelty, emotion, visuo-spatial orientation and motor aspects of the behavioral task seem to be relevant during the earlier phase of training, whereas a brain network comprising the prefrontal cortex was found along the whole learning process. This study highlights the relevance of functional interactions among brain regions to investigate learning and memory processes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Ripple Effects: An Exclusive Host National Context Produces More Perceived Discrimination among Immigrants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Kristina Bakkær

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the perceived discrimination of immigrants; a group for whom experiences of discrimination can be damaging for their long-term commitment and identification with the national core group. Taking its point of departure in the literature on national identity, the article argues...... that perceived discrimination should be strongest among immigrants in host national societies with an exclusive self-image. This hypothesis is examined by use of multilevel regressions on cross-national survey data from 18 Western European countries. It is found that where exclusive attitudes are widespread...... in the host population, the percentage of immigrants who perceive themselves to be part of a group discriminated against is significantly greater, all else being equal. In addition, there is a cross-level interaction effect of host national inclusivity and ethnic minority identity which suggests...

  6. Discrimination, ethnic identity, and academic outcomes of Mexican immigrant children: the importance of school context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Christia Spears; Chu, Hui

    2012-01-01

    This study examined ethnic identity, perceptions of discrimination, and academic attitudes and performance of primarily first- and second-generation Mexican immigrant children living in a predominantly White community (N=204, 19 schools, mean age=9years). The study also examined schools' promotion of multiculturalism and teachers' attitudes about the value of diversity in predicting immigrant youth's attitudes and experiences. Results indicated that Latino immigrant children in this White community held positive and important ethnic identities and perceived low overall rates of discrimination. As expected, however, school and teacher characteristics were important in predicting children's perceptions of discrimination and ethnic identity, and moderated whether perceptions of discrimination and ethnic identity were related to attitudes about school and academic performance.

  7. GROUP DYNAMICS AND TEAM FUNCTIONING IN ORGANIZATIONAL CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca ZOLTAN

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In all kind of organization many activities are done by groups and teams. But how are they formed? What factors influence their existence and development? How members of groups and teams are selected? Which are the consequences in organizational context? In order to answer these questions, in the present paper we describe and analyze the main approaches regarding the formation of work groups and work teams (sociometric approach and group dynamics approach, the main factors that affects group dynamics and the FIRO model for evaluation the team members’ needs.

  8. Discrimination, Ethnic Identity, and Academic Outcomes of Mexican Immigrant Children: The Importance of School Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Christia Spears; Chu, Hui

    2012-01-01

    This study examined ethnic identity, perceptions of discrimination, and academic attitudes and performance of primarily first- and second-generation Mexican immigrant children living in a predominantly White community (N = 204, 19 schools, mean age = 9 years). The study also examined schools' promotion of multiculturalism and teachers' attitudes…

  9. Ethnic segregation in context : Social discrimination among native Dutch pupils and their ethnic minority classmates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeij, L.; van Duijn, M.A.J.; Baerveldt, C.

    2009-01-01

    Social discrimination, defined as the relative preference for intra-ethnic over inter-ethnic relationships, was studied in pupils' networks in Dutch secondary school classes. While native Dutch pupils (ethnic majority members) mainly named fellow majority members, ethnic minority members reported ti

  10. [Stigma, discrimination and HIV/AIDS in the Brazilian context, 1998 and 2005].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Sandra; Koyama, Mitti Ayako Hara

    2008-06-01

    To identify discriminatory attitudes in two moments of the Brazilian HIV/AIDS epidemic, as well as the occurrence of possible changes. The Intention of Discrimination Index was obtained by scoring 1 for discriminatory situations or 0, when the opposite was the case. Intention of discrimination ranges were established by means of the clustering technique, and made compatible between the 1998 and 2005 surveys. Mean comparisons, chi-square test and ordered logit adjusted regression models were used to verify association between the index and socio-demographic variables. Between the 1998 and 2005 surveys, there was a statistically significant reduction in the proportion of people who answered "yes" to anti-HIV test's being mandatory in the following cases: admission for employment, before getting married, when joining the military service, drug users, foreigners entering the country, sex professionals, and for all the people. To have lower level of education, to be female, to live in the North/Northeast regions of Brazil, and to be aged over 45 years are factors associated with higher intention of discrimination level. The growth of intention of discrimination shows that information about ways of AIDS transmission and non-transmission still needs to be better planned and promoted, especially among populations that have lower level of education, live in the North/Northeast regions, are female and aged over 45 years.

  11. Peer Contexts for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Students: Reducing Stigma, Prejudice, and Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Stacey S.; Romeo, Katherine E.

    2010-01-01

    Peer relationships are a vital part of adolescents' lives. For lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth, whether these relationships are supportive and positive, or filled with stigma, prejudice, and discrimination rests, to some degree, on their heterosexual peers' attitudes and beliefs about homosexuality. For while LGBT youth may…

  12. Peer Contexts for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Students: Reducing Stigma, Prejudice, and Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Stacey S.; Romeo, Katherine E.

    2010-01-01

    Peer relationships are a vital part of adolescents' lives. For lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth, whether these relationships are supportive and positive, or filled with stigma, prejudice, and discrimination rests, to some degree, on their heterosexual peers' attitudes and beliefs about homosexuality. For while LGBT youth may…

  13. Fuzzy Dynamic Discrimination Algorithms for Distributed Knowledge Management Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile MAZILESCU

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A reduction of the algorithmic complexity of the fuzzy inference engine has the following property: the inputs (the fuzzy rules and the fuzzy facts can be divided in two parts, one being relatively constant for a long a time (the fuzzy rule or the knowledge model when it is compared to the second part (the fuzzy facts for every inference cycle. The occurrence of certain transformations over the constant part makes sense, in order to decrease the solution procurement time, in the case that the second part varies, but it is known at certain moments in time. The transformations attained in advance are called pre-processing or knowledge compilation. The use of variables in a Business Rule Management System knowledge representation allows factorising knowledge, like in classical knowledge based systems. The language of the first-degree predicates facilitates the formulation of complex knowledge in a rigorous way, imposing appropriate reasoning techniques. It is, thus, necessary to define the description method of fuzzy knowledge, to justify the knowledge exploiting efficiency when the compiling technique is used, to present the inference engine and highlight the functional features of the pattern matching and the state space processes. This paper presents the main results of our project PR356 for designing a compiler for fuzzy knowledge, like Rete compiler, that comprises two main components: a static fuzzy discrimination structure (Fuzzy Unification Tree and the Fuzzy Variables Linking Network. There are also presented the features of the elementary pattern matching process that is based on the compiled structure of fuzzy knowledge. We developed fuzzy discrimination algorithms for Distributed Knowledge Management Systems (DKMSs. The implementations have been elaborated in a prototype system FRCOM (Fuzzy Rule COMpiler.

  14. Discriminating Disorder from Difference Using Dynamic Assessment with Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasson, Natalie; Camilleri, Bernard; Jones, Caroline; Smith, Jodie; Dodd, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    The DAPPLE (Dynamic Assessment of Preschoolers' Proficiency in Learning English) is currently being developed in response to a clinical need. Children exposed to English as an additional language may be referred to speech and language therapy because their proficiency in English is not the same as their monolingual peers. Some, but not all, of…

  15. Discriminating Disorder from Difference Using Dynamic Assessment with Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasson, Natalie; Camilleri, Bernard; Jones, Caroline; Smith, Jodie; Dodd, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    The DAPPLE (Dynamic Assessment of Preschoolers' Proficiency in Learning English) is currently being developed in response to a clinical need. Children exposed to English as an additional language may be referred to speech and language therapy because their proficiency in English is not the same as their monolingual peers. Some, but not all, of…

  16. Excitotoxic lesions of the infralimbic, but not prelimbic cortex facilitate reversal of appetitive discriminative context conditioning: the role of the infralimbic cortex in context generalisation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel eAshwell

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The prelimbic and infralimbic regions of the rat medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC are important components of the limbic cortico-striatal circuit, receiving converging projections from the hippocampus (HPC and amygdala. Mounting evidence points to these regions having opposing roles in the regulation of the expression of contextual fear and context-induced cocaine-seeking. To investigate this functional differentiation in motivated behaviour further, this study employed a novel radial maze task previously shown to be dependent on the integrity of the hippocampus and its functional connection to the nucleus accumbens shell, to investigate the effects of selective excitotoxic lesions of the PL and IL upon the spatial contextual control over reward learning. To this end, rats were trained to develop discriminative responding towards a reward-associated discrete cue presented in three out of six spatial locations (3 arms out of 6 radial maze arms, and to avoid the same discrete cue presented in the other 3 spatial locations. Once acquired, the reward contingencies of the spatial locations were reversed, such that responding to the cue presented in a previously rewarded location is no longer rewarded. Furthermore, the acquisition of spatial learning was probed separately using conditioned place preference and the monitoring of arm selection at the beginning of each training session. Lesions of the PL transiently attenuated the acquisition of the initial cue approach training and spatial learning, while leaving reversal learning intact. In contrast, IL lesions led to a significantly superior performance of spatial context-dependent discriminative cue approach and reversal learning, in the absence of a significant preference for the new reward-associated spatial locations. These results indicate that the PL and IL have functionally dissociative, and potentially opposite roles in the regulation of spatial contextual control over appetitive learning.

  17. Characterization of local complex structures in a recurrence plot to improve nonlinear dynamic discriminant analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Hang

    2014-01-01

    Structures in recurrence plots (RPs), preserving the rich information of nonlinear invariants and trajectory characteristics, have been increasingly analyzed in dynamic discrimination studies. The conventional analysis of RPs is mainly focused on quantifying the overall diagonal and vertical line structures through a method, called recurrence quantification analysis (RQA). This study extensively explores the information in RPs by quantifying local complex RP structures. To do this, an approach was developed to analyze the combination of three major RQA variables: determinism, laminarity, and recurrence rate (DLR) in a metawindow moving over a RP. It was then evaluated in two experiments discriminating (1) ideal nonlinear dynamic series emulated from the Lorenz system with different control parameters and (2) data sets of human heart rate regulations with normal sinus rhythms (n = 18) and congestive heart failure (n = 29). Finally, the DLR was compared with seven major RQA variables in terms of discriminatory power, measured by standardized mean difference (DSMD). In the two experiments, DLR resulted in the highest discriminatory power with DSMD = 2.53 and 0.98, respectively, which were 7.41 and 2.09 times the best performance from RQA. The study also revealed that the optimal RP structures for the discriminations were neither typical diagonal structures nor vertical structures. These findings indicate that local complex RP structures contain some rich information unexploited by RQA. Therefore, future research to extensively analyze complex RP structures would potentially improve the effectiveness of the RP analysis in dynamic discrimination studies.

  18. Characterization of local complex structures in a recurrence plot to improve nonlinear dynamic discriminant analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Hang

    2014-01-01

    Structures in recurrence plots (RPs), preserving the rich information of nonlinear invariants and trajectory characteristics, have been increasingly analyzed in dynamic discrimination studies. The conventional analysis of RPs is mainly focused on quantifying the overall diagonal and vertical line structures through a method, called recurrence quantification analysis (RQA). This study extensively explores the information in RPs by quantifying local complex RP structures. To do this, an approach was developed to analyze the combination of three major RQA variables: determinism, laminarity, and recurrence rate (DLR) in a metawindow moving over a RP. It was then evaluated in two experiments discriminating (1) ideal nonlinear dynamic series emulated from the Lorenz system with different control parameters and (2) data sets of human heart rate regulations with normal sinus rhythms (n = 18) and congestive heart failure (n = 29). Finally, the DLR was compared with seven major RQA variables in terms of discriminatory power, measured by standardized mean difference (DSMD). In the two experiments, DLR resulted in the highest discriminatory power with DSMD = 2.53 and 0.98, respectively, which were 7.41 and 2.09 times the best performance from RQA. The study also revealed that the optimal RP structures for the discriminations were neither typical diagonal structures nor vertical structures. These findings indicate that local complex RP structures contain some rich information unexploited by RQA. Therefore, future research to extensively analyze complex RP structures would potentially improve the effectiveness of the RP analysis in dynamic discrimination studies.

  19. The spectrum of 'new racism' and discrimination in hospital contexts: a reappraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, Megan-Jane; Kanitsaki, Olga

    2009-01-01

    In keeping with the United Nations Declaration of Human Rights, all people have the right to the highest attainable standard of health. Despite the universal right to health, people of minority racial and ethnic backgrounds experience commonplace and significant unjust inequalities in their health and health care. A key reason for this rests on what might be described as 'the illusion of non-racism in health care' -- an illusion that rests on the frequently articulated belief that 'racism is not an issue any more'. Although there has been increasing recognition in recent years that race and racism have a particular, consistent and complex independent negative effect on the health and health care of racial and ethnic minority groups, racism per se still tends to be under-recognised and poorly addressed in health and nursing care domains. In this paper, it is suggested that a key reason racism in health care has been Largely ignored is because of its 'changing face', making new and different forms of it difficult to recognise and manage. A key premise on which this paper rests -- and also its ultimate conclusion -- is that the problem of racism (to be distinguished from 'culturally insensitive' and 'culturally incongruent' care) needs to be unmasked and managed so that those most at risk of being discriminated against on racialised grounds can rest assured that when in need, they will receive the equitable, safe and quality care they are entitled to receive.

  20. The hippocampus is required for visually cued contextual response selection, but not for visual discrimination of contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sehee eKim

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The hippocampus is important for spatial navigation. Literature shows that allocentric visual contexts in the animal's background are critical for making conditional response selections during navigations. In a traditional maze task, however, it is difficult to identify exactly which subsets of visual contexts are critically used. In the current study, we tested in rats whether making conditional response selections required the hippocampus when using computer-generated visual contextual stimuli in the animal's background as in primate and human studies. We designed a new task, visual contextual response selection (VCRS task, in which the rat ran along a linear track and encountered a touchscreen monitor at the end of the track. The rat was required to touch one of the adjacent rectangular box images depending on the visual contextual stimuli displayed in the two peripheral monitors positioned on both sides of the center touchscreen monitor. The rats with a GABA-A receptor agonist, muscimol (MUS, infused bilaterally in the dorsal hippocampi showed severe performance deficits in the VCRS task and the impairment was completely reversible with vehicle injections. The impairment in contextual response selection with hippocampal inactivations occurred regardless of whether the visual context was presented in the side monitors or in the center touchscreen monitor. However, when the same visual contextual stimuli were pitted against each other between the two side monitors and as the rats simply ran toward the visual context associated with reward on a T-shaped track, hippocampal inactivations with MUS showed minimal disruptions, if any, in performance. Our results suggest that the hippocampus is critically involved in conditional response selection using visual stimuli in the background, but it is not required for the perceptual discrimination of those stimuli.

  1. The hippocampus is required for visually cued contextual response selection, but not for visual discrimination of contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sehee; Lee, Jihyun; Lee, Inah

    2012-01-01

    The hippocampus is important for spatial navigation. Literature shows that allocentric visual contexts in the animal's background are critical for making conditional response selections during navigations. In a traditional maze task, however, it is difficult to identify exactly which subsets of visual contexts are critically used. In the current study, we tested in rats whether making conditional response selections required the hippocampus when using computer-generated visual contextual stimuli in the animal's background as in primate and human studies. We designed a new task, visual contextual response selection (VCRS) task, in which the rat ran along a linear track and encountered a touchscreen monitor at the end of the track. The rat was required to touch one of the adjacent rectangular box images depending on the visual contextual stimuli displayed in the two peripheral monitors positioned on both sides of the center touchscreen monitor. The rats with a GABA-A receptor agonist, muscimol (MUS), infused bilaterally in the dorsal hippocampi showed severe performance deficits in the VCRS task and the impairment was completely reversible with vehicle injections. The impairment in contextual response selection with hippocampal inactivations occurred regardless of whether the visual context was presented in the side monitors or in the center touchscreen monitor. However, when the same visual contextual stimuli were pitted against each other between the two side monitors and as the rats simply ran toward the visual context associated with reward on a T-shaped track, hippocampal inactivations with MUS showed minimal disruptions, if any, in performance. Our results suggest that the hippocampus is critically involved in conditional response selection using visual stimuli in the background, but it is not required for the perceptual discrimination of those stimuli. PMID:23060765

  2. A dynamic material discrimination algorithm for dual MV energy X-ray digital radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liang; Li, Ruizhe; Zhang, Siyuan; Zhao, Tiao; Chen, Zhiqiang

    2016-08-01

    Dual-energy X-ray radiography has become a well-established technique in medical, industrial, and security applications, because of its material or tissue discrimination capability. The main difficulty of this technique is dealing with the materials overlapping problem. When there are two or more materials along the X-ray beam path, its material discrimination performance will be affected. In order to solve this problem, a new dynamic material discrimination algorithm is proposed for dual-energy X-ray digital radiography, which can also be extended to multi-energy X-ray situations. The algorithm has three steps: α-curve-based pre-classification, decomposition of overlapped materials, and the final material recognition. The key of the algorithm is to establish a dual-energy radiograph database of both pure basis materials and pair combinations of them. After the pre-classification results, original dual-energy projections of overlapped materials can be dynamically decomposed into two sets of dual-energy radiographs of each pure material by the algorithm. Thus, more accurate discrimination results can be provided even with the existence of the overlapping problem. Both numerical and experimental results that prove the validity and effectiveness of the algorithm are presented.

  3. Structural Discrimination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Mira Skadegård

    In this article, I discuss structural discrimination, an underrepresented area of study in Danish discrimination and intercultural research. It is defined here as discursive and constitutive, and presented as a central element of my analytical approach. This notion is employed in the with which...... to understand and identify aspects of power and asymmetry in communication and interactions. With this as a defining term, I address how exclusion and discrimination exist, while also being indiscernible, within widely accepted societal norms. I introduce the concepts of microdiscrimination and benevolent...... discrimination as two ways of articulating particular, opaque forms of racial discrimination that occur in everyday Danish (and other) contexts, and have therefore become normalized. I present and discuss discrimination as it surfaces in data from my empirical studies of discrimination in Danish contexts...

  4. ‘Non-discrimination Does Not Fall Down from Heaven’: The Context and Evolution of Non-discrimination in EU Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prechal, A.

    2009-01-01

    Equality and non-discrimination in EU law are firmly embedded in EU law, either as general principles of law or they are written down in the Treaties and secondary legislation. This paper sketches the evolution of three specific forms of equality and non-discrimination, the prohibition of discrimina

  5. Context effects in a temporal discrimination task" further tests of the Scalar Expectancy Theory and Learning-to-Time models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arantes, Joana; Machado, Armando

    2008-07-01

    Pigeons were trained on two temporal bisection tasks, which alternated every two sessions. In the first task, they learned to choose a red key after a 1-s signal and a green key after a 4-s signal; in the second task, they learned to choose a blue key after a 4-s signal and a yellow key after a 16-s signal. Then the pigeons were exposed to a series of test trials in order to contrast two timing models, Learning-to-Time (LeT) and Scalar Expectancy Theory (SET). The models made substantially different predictions particularly for the test trials in which the sample duration ranged from 1 s to 16 s and the choice keys were Green and Blue, the keys associated with the same 4-s samples: LeT predicted that preference for Green should increase with sample duration, a context effect, but SET predicted that preference for Green should not vary with sample duration. The results were consistent with LeT. The present study adds to the literature the finding that the context effect occurs even when the two basic discriminations are never combined in the same session.

  6. Temporal weighting of binaural information at low frequencies: Discrimination of dynamic interaural time and level differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diedesch, Anna C; Stecker, G Christopher

    2015-07-01

    The importance of sound onsets in binaural hearing has been addressed in many studies, particularly at high frequencies, where the onset of the envelope may carry much of the useful binaural information. Some studies suggest that sound onsets might play a similar role in the processing of binaural cues [e.g., fine-structure interaural time differences (ITD)] at low frequencies. This study measured listeners' sensitivity to ITD and interaural level differences (ILD) present in early (i.e., onset) and late parts of 80-ms pure tones of 250-, 500-, and 1000-Hz frequency. Following previous studies, tones carried static interaural cues or dynamic cues that peaked at sound onset and diminished to zero at sound offset or vice versa. Although better thresholds were observed in static than dynamic conditions overall, ITD discrimination was especially impaired, regardless of frequency, when cues were not available at sound onset. Results for ILD followed a similar pattern at 1000 Hz; at lower frequencies, ILD thresholds did not differ significantly between dynamic-cue conditions. The results support the "onset" hypothesis of Houtgast and Plomp [(1968). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 44, 807-812] for ITD discrimination, but not necessarily ILD discrimination, in low-frequency pure tones.

  7. Effect of musical training on static and dynamic measures of spectral-pattern discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheft, Stanley; Smayda, Kirsten; Shafiro, Valeriy; Maddox, W Todd; Chandrasekaran, Bharath

    2013-06-01

    Both behavioral and physiological studies have demonstrated enhanced processing of speech in challenging listening environments attributable to musical training. The relationship, however, of this benefit to auditory abilities as assessed by psychoacoustic measures remains unclear. Using tasks previously shown to relate to speech-in-noise perception, the present study evaluated discrimination ability for static and dynamic spectral patterns by 49 listeners grouped as either musicians or nonmusicians. The two static conditions measured the ability to detect a change in the phase of a logarithmic sinusoidal spectral ripple of wideband noise with ripple densities of 1.5 and 3.0 cycles per octave chosen to emphasize either timbre or pitch distinctions, respectively. The dynamic conditions assessed temporal-pattern discrimination of 1-kHz pure tones frequency modulated by different lowpass noise samples with thresholds estimated in terms of either stimulus duration or signal-to-noise ratio. Musicians performed significantly better than nonmusicians on all four tasks. Discriminant analysis showed that group membership was correctly predicted for 88% of the listeners with the structure coefficient of each measure greater than 0.51. Results suggest that enhanced processing of static and dynamic spectral patterns defined by low-rate modulation may contribute to the relationship between musical training and speech-in-noise perception. [Supported by NIH.].

  8. Price Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Armstrong, Mark

    2008-01-01

    This paper surveys recent economic research on price discrimination, both in monopoly and oligopoly markets. Topics include static and dynamic forms of price discrimination, and both final and input markets are considered. Potential antitrust aspects of price discrimination are highlighted throughout the paper. The paper argues that the informational requirements to make accurate policy are very great, and with most forms of price discrimination a laissez-faire policy may be the best availabl...

  9. Approximate group context tree: applications to dynamic programming and dynamic choice models

    CERN Document Server

    Belloni, Alexandre

    2011-01-01

    The paper considers a variable length Markov chain model associated with a group of stationary processes that share the same context tree but potentially different conditional probabilities. We propose a new model selection and estimation method, develop oracle inequalities and model selection properties for the estimator. These results also provide conditions under which the use of the group structure can lead to improvements in the overall estimation. Our work is also motivated by two methodological applications: discrete stochastic dynamic programming and dynamic discrete choice models. We analyze the uniform estimation of the value function for dynamic programming and the uniform estimation of average dynamic marginal effects for dynamic discrete choice models accounting for possible imperfect model selection. We also derive the typical behavior of our estimator when applied to polynomially $\\beta$-mixing stochastic processes. For parametric models, we derive uniform rate of convergence for the estimation...

  10. Beyond 'vulnerable groups': contexts and dynamics of vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarowsky, Christina; Haddad, Slim; Nguyen, Vinh-Kim

    2013-03-01

    This paper reviews approaches to vulnerability in public health, introducing a series of 10 papers addressing vulnerability in health in Africa. We understand vulnerability as simultaneously a condition and a process. Social inequalities are manifest in and exacerbate three key dimensions of vulnerability: the initial level of wellbeing, the degree of exposure to risk, and the capacity to manage risk effectively. We stress the dynamic interactions linking material and social deprivation, poverty, powerlessness and ill health: risks or shocks and their health impacts are intimately interconnected and reinforce each other in a cycle which in the absence of effective interventions, increases vulnerability. An inductive process which does not begin with an a priori definition or measurement of 'vulnerability' and which does not assume the existence of fixed 'vulnerable groups' allowed us both to re-affirm core aspects of existing conceptual frameworks, and to engage in new ways with literature specifically addressing vulnerability and resilience at the population level as well as with literature - for example in ecology, and on the concept of frailty in research on aging - with which researchers on health and poverty in Africa may not be familiar. We invite conceptual and empirical work on vulnerability in complex systems frameworks. These perspectives emphasize contexts and nonlinear causality thus supporting analyses of vulnerability and resilience as both markers and emergent properties of dynamic interactions. We accept a working definition of vulnerability, and recognize that some definable groups of people are more likely than others to suffer harm from exposure to health risks. But we suggest that the real work - at both intellectual and policy/political levels - lies in understanding and responding to the dynamics, meanings and power relations underlying actual instances and processes of vulnerability and harm.

  11. Dynamic modulation of shared sensory and motor cortical rhythms mediates speech and non-speech discrimination performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Lee Bowers

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Oscillatory models of speech processing have proposed that rhythmic cortical oscillations in sensory and motor regions modulate speech sound processing from the bottom-up via phase reset at low frequencies (3-10Hz and from the top-down via the disinhibition of alpha/beta rhythms (8-30Hz. To investigate how the proposed rhythms mediate perceptual performance, EEG was recorded while participants passively listened to or actively identified speech and tone-sweeps in a two-force choice in noise discrimination task presented high and low signal-to-noise ratios. EEG data were decomposed using independent component analysis (ICA and clustered across participants using principle component methods in EEGLAB. Clustering analysis showed left and right hemisphere sensorimotor and posterior temporal lobe components. In posterior temporal clusters, increases in phase reset at low-frequencies were driven by the quality of bottom-up acoustic information for speech and non-speech stimuli, whereas phase reset in sensorimotor clusters was associated with top-down active task demands. A comparison of correct discrimination trials to those identified at chance showed an earlier performance related effect for the left sensorimotor cluster relative to the left-temporal lobe cluster during the syllable discrimination task only. The right sensorimotor cluster was associated with performance related differences for tone-sweep stimuli only. Alpha/beta suppression was associated with active tasks only in sensorimotor and temporal clusters. Findings are consistent with internal model accounts suggesting that early efferent sensorimotor models transmitted along alpha and beta channels reflect a release from inhibition related to active attention to auditory stimuli. Results are discussed in the broader context of dynamic, oscillatory models of cognition proposing that top-down internally generated states interact with bottom-up sensory processing to enhance task performance.

  12. Spectral-temporal EEG dynamics of speech discrimination processing in infants during sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilley, Phillip M; Uhler, Kristin; Watson, Kaylee; Yoshinaga-Itano, Christine

    2017-03-22

    Oddball paradigms are frequently used to study auditory discrimination by comparing event-related potential (ERP) responses from a standard, high probability sound and to a deviant, low probability sound. Previous research has established that such paradigms, such as the mismatch response or mismatch negativity, are useful for examining auditory processes in young children and infants across various sleep and attention states. The extent to which oddball ERP responses may reflect subtle discrimination effects, such as speech discrimination, is largely unknown, especially in infants that have not yet acquired speech and language. Mismatch responses for three contrasts (non-speech, vowel, and consonant) were computed as a spectral-temporal probability function in 24 infants, and analyzed at the group level by a modified multidimensional scaling. Immediately following an onset gamma response (30-50 Hz), the emergence of a beta oscillation (12-30 Hz) was temporally coupled with a lower frequency theta oscillation (2-8 Hz). The spectral-temporal probability of this coupling effect relative to a subsequent theta modulation corresponds with discrimination difficulty for non-speech, vowel, and consonant contrast features. The theta modulation effect suggests that unexpected sounds are encoded as a probabilistic measure of surprise. These results support the notion that auditory discrimination is driven by the development of brain networks for predictive processing, and can be measured in infants during sleep. The results presented here have implications for the interpretation of discrimination as a probabilistic process, and may provide a basis for the development of single-subject and single-trial classification in a clinically useful context. An infant's brain is processing information about the environment and performing computations, even during sleep. These computations reflect subtle differences in acoustic feature processing that are necessary for language

  13. English- and Mandarin-learning infants' discrimination of actions and objects in dynamic events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Tardif, Twila; Pulverman, Rachel; Casasola, Marianella; Zhu, Liqi; Zheng, Xiaobei; Meng, Xiangzhi

    2015-10-01

    The present studies examined the role of linguistic experience in directing English and Mandarin learners' attention to aspects of a visual scene. Specifically, they asked whether young language learners in these 2 cultures attend to differential aspects of a word-learning situation. Two groups of English and Mandarin learners, 6-8-month-olds (n = 65) and 17-19-month-olds (n = 91), participated in 2 studies, based on a habituation paradigm, designed to test infants' discrimination between actions and objects in dynamic events. In Study 1, these stimuli were presented in silence, whereas in Study 2, a verbal label accompanied videos. Results showed that 6-8-month-olds could discriminate action changes but not object changes, whereas 17-19-month-olds could discriminate both types of changes. However, there were only very subtle cross-linguistic differences in these patterns when the scenes were presented together with a verbal label. These findings show strong evidence for universal developmental trends in attention, with somewhat weaker evidence that the differences in the types of words Mandarin- versus English-learning children produce or are exposed to affect attention to different aspects of a scene in the first 2 years of life. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Resolution of strongly competitive product channels with optimal dynamic discrimination: application to flavins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roslund, Jonathan; Roth, Matthias; Guyon, Laurent; Boutou, Véronique; Courvoisier, Francois; Wolf, Jean-Pierre; Rabitz, Herschel

    2011-01-21

    Fundamental molecular selectivity limits are probed by exploiting laser-controlled quantum interferences for the creation of distinct spectral signatures in two flavin molecules, erstwhile nearly indistinguishable via steady-state methods. Optimal dynamic discrimination (ODD) uses optimally shaped laser fields to transiently amplify minute molecular variations that would otherwise go unnoticed with linear absorption and fluorescence techniques. ODD is experimentally demonstrated by combining an optimally shaped UV pump pulse with a time-delayed, fluorescence-depleting IR pulse for discrimination amongst riboflavin and flavin mononucleotide in aqueous solution, which are structurally and spectroscopically very similar. Closed-loop, adaptive pulse shaping discovers a set of UV pulses that induce disparate responses from the two flavins and allows for concomitant flavin discrimination of ∼16σ. Additionally, attainment of ODD permits quantitative, analytical detection of the individual constituents in a flavin mixture. The successful implementation of ODD on quantum systems of such high complexity bodes well for the future development of the field and the use of ODD techniques in a variety of demanding practical applications.

  15. Discrimination of static and dynamic spectral patterns by children and young adults in relationship to speech perception in noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanin Rayes

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Past work has shown relationship between the ability to discriminate spectral patterns and measures of speech intelligibility. The purpose of this study was to investigate the ability of both children and young adults to discriminate static and dynamic spectral patterns, comparing performance between the two groups and evaluating within- group results in terms of relationship to speech-in-noise perception. Data were collected from normal-hearing children (age range: 5.4-12.8 years and young adults (mean age: 22.8 years on two spectral discrimination tasks and speech-in-noise perception. The first discrimination task, involving static spectral profiles, measured the ability to detect a change in the phase of a low-density sinusoidal spectral ripple of wideband noise. Using dynamic spectral patterns, the second task determined the signal-to-noise ratio needed to discriminate the temporal pattern of frequency fluctuation imposed by stochastic lowrate frequency modulation (FM. Children performed significantly poorer than young adults on both discrimination tasks. For children, a significant correlation between speech-in-noise perception and spectral- pattern discrimination was obtained only with the dynamic patterns of the FM condition, with partial correlation suggesting that factors related to the children’s age mediated the relationship.

  16. A Dynamic Ubiquitous Learning Resource Model with Context and Its Effects on Ubiquitous Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Min; Yu, Sheng Quan; Chiang, Feng Kuang

    2017-01-01

    Most ubiquitous learning researchers use resource recommendation and retrieving based on context to provide contextualized learning resources, but it is the kind of one-way context matching. Learners always obtain fixed digital learning resources, which present all learning contents in any context. This study proposed a dynamic ubiquitous learning…

  17. A Dynamic Ubiquitous Learning Resource Model with Context and Its Effects on Ubiquitous Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Min; Yu, Sheng Quan; Chiang, Feng Kuang

    2017-01-01

    Most ubiquitous learning researchers use resource recommendation and retrieving based on context to provide contextualized learning resources, but it is the kind of one-way context matching. Learners always obtain fixed digital learning resources, which present all learning contents in any context. This study proposed a dynamic ubiquitous learning…

  18. An Approach on Dynamic Geospaital Information Service Composition Based on Context Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, D.; Wang, F.

    2011-08-01

    For the new demand of dynamic integration of spatial data, the model and collaboration of processing functions caused by characteristics of dynamic interaction and the participants random demand for information in geo-collaboration work system, for instance, during on-line consultation meeting, the paper presented an approach considering context dynamic service composition information. Firstly, the paper introduced the dividing method of context relation in consultation from the user and GI services, interaction between services and service perspective, constructed GI service context relation, and established GI service description model considering service's context relation based on OWL-S. For the problems above, the paper proposed an approach on GI service dynamic composition based on context relationship. Then, the paper provided a framework for GI services dynamic composition, and discussed every important component of framework. Finally, an experiment about checking illegal construction on boundary was implemented to illustrate the concepts and ideas discussed in the paper.

  19. Research of time discrimination circuits for PMT signal readout over large dynamic range in LHAASO WCDA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, C.; Zhao, L.; Dong, R.; Jiang, Z.; Chu, S.; Gao, X.; Liu, S.; An, Q.

    2016-11-01

    In the readout electronics of the Water Cerenkov Detector Array (WCDA) in the Large High Altitude Air Shower Observatory (LHAASO), both high-resolution charge and time measurement are required over a dynamic range from 1 photoelectron (P.E.) to 4000 P.E. for the PMT signal readout. In this paper, we present our work on the design of time discrimination circuits in LHAASO WCDA, especially on improvement to reduce the circuit dead time. Several approaches were studied through analysis and simulations, and actual circuits were designed and tested in the laboratory to evaluate the performance. Test results indicate that a time resolution better than 500 ps RMS is achieved in the whole large dynamic range, and the circuit dead time is successfully reduced to less than 200 ns.

  20. Teaching Basic Discriminations to Handicapped and Non-Handicapped Individuals through a Dynamic Presentation of Intructional Stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gersten, Russel M.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Four studies compared static versus dynamic presentations of examples and nonexaples of the concepts "diagonal" and "conves," with nonhandicapped preschoolers, mildly handicapped primary students, and severely handicapped adults. Ss taught with a dynamic presentation learned the discrimination in significantly fewer trials, with performance either…

  1. Pavlovian Extinction of the Discriminative Stimulus Effects of Nicotine and Ethanol in Rats Varies as a Function of Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troisi, Joseph R., II

    2011-01-01

    Operant extinction contingencies can undermine the discriminative stimulus effects of drugs. Here, nicotine (0.4 mg/kg) and ethanol (0.8 g/kg) first functioned as either an S[superscript D] or S[superscript Delta], in a counterbalanced one-lever go/no-go (across sessions) operant drug discrimination procedure. Pavlovian extinction in the training…

  2. School and Neighborhood Contexts, Perceptions of Racial Discrimination, and Psychological Well-Being among African American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaton, Eleanor K.; Yip, Tiffany

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined contextual influences on the relationship between racial discrimination (individual, cultural, and collective/institutional) and psychological well-being. Two hundred and fifty two African American adolescents (46% male and 54% female, average age = 16) completed measures of racial discrimination, self-esteem, depressive…

  3. Evaluation of Affirmative Action in the Context of Possible Unfair Discrimination Against Subgroups in the Designated Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrone Christopher Stoffels

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of affirmative action measures can give rise to unfair discrimination. In cases where members of the “designated groups” compete with one another for the same position, there can be allegations of unfair discrimination. The question arises as to how the employer needs to act in order to avoid unfair discrimination in cases where more than one person from the designated group applies for the same position. The purpose of this article is to evaluate the impact of unfair discrimination on the designated group, specifically with regard to the subgroup “black people” as well as how the employer can avoid unfair discrimination in the implementation of the affirmative action measures aimed at advancing “black people” by selecting the most suitably qualified person from the sub group black people based on the national and regional demographics.

  4. Context-Dependent Modulation of Functional Connectivity: Secondary Somatosensory Cortex to Prefrontal Cortex Connections in Two-Stimulus-Interval Discrimination Tasks

    OpenAIRE

    Chow, Stephanie S.; Romo, Ranulfo,; Carlos D. Brody

    2009-01-01

    In a complex world, a sensory cue may prompt different actions in different contexts. A laboratory example of context-dependent sensory processing is the two-stimulus-interval discrimination task. In each trial, a first stimulus (f1) must be stored in short-term memory and later compared with a second stimulus (f2), for the animal to come to a binary decision. Prefrontal cortex (PFC) neurons need to interpret the f1 information in one way (perhaps with a positive weight) and the f2 informatio...

  5. Recognition and discrimination of prototypical dynamic expressions of pain and emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Daniela; Craig, Kenneth D; Gosselin, Frederic; Belin, Pascal; Rainville, Pierre

    2008-03-01

    Facial expressions of pain and emotions provide powerful social signals, which impart information about a person's state. Unfortunately, research on pain and emotion expression has been conducted largely in parallel with few bridges allowing for direct comparison of the expressive displays and their impact on observers. Moreover, although facial expressions are highly dynamic, previous research has relied mainly on static photographs. Here we directly compare the recognition and discrimination of dynamic facial expressions of pain and basic emotions by naive observers. One-second film clips were recorded in eight actors displaying neutral facial expressions and expressions of pain and the basic emotions of anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness and surprise. Results based on the Facial Action Coding System (FACS) confirmed the distinct (and prototypical) configuration of pain and basic emotion expressions reported in previous studies. Volunteers' evaluations of those dynamic expressions on intensity, arousal and valence demonstrate the high sensitivity and specificity of the observers' judgement. Additional rating data further suggest that, for comparable expression intensity, pain is perceived as more arousing and more unpleasant. This study strongly supports the claim that the facial expression of pain is distinct from the expression of basic emotions. This set of dynamic facial expressions provides unique material to explore the psychological and neurobiological processes underlying the perception of pain expression, its impact on the observer, and its role in the regulation of social behaviour.

  6. Optimizing the Quality of Dynamic Context Subscriptions for Scarce Network Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shawky, Ahmed; Olsen, Rasmus Løvenstein; Pedersen, Jens Myrup

    2012-01-01

    Scalable access to dynamic context information is a key challenge for future context-sensitive systems. When increasing the access frequency, the information accuracy can improve but at the same time the additional context management traffic may reduce network performance, which creates the oppos......Scalable access to dynamic context information is a key challenge for future context-sensitive systems. When increasing the access frequency, the information accuracy can improve but at the same time the additional context management traffic may reduce network performance, which creates...... the opposite effect on information reliability. In order to understand and control this trade-off, this paper develops a model that allows to calculate context reliability, captured by the so-called mismatch probability, in relation to the network load. The model is subsequently used for a real time algorithm...

  7. An Analysis of Discourse Production and Cognitive Context Dynamism Based on Relevance-Adaptation Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jing

    2014-01-01

    Taken discourse production as the research objective, it holds that discourse production is dynamic in human communi-cation. It attempts to analyze the dynamics on the basis of Relevance-adaption model from the perspective of cognitive pragmat-ics and explain the role of the context dynamics that plays in the discourse production.

  8. Motivational Dynamics in Language Learning: Change, Stability, and Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waninge, Freerkien; Dörnyei, Zoltán; De Bot, Kees

    2014-01-01

    Motivation as a variable in L2 development is no longer seen as the stable individual difference factor it was once believed to be: Influenced by process-oriented models and principles, and especially by the growing understanding of how complex dynamic systems work, researchers have been focusing increasingly on the dynamic and changeable nature…

  9. Participatory Climate Research in a Dynamic Urban Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, R. M.

    2016-12-01

    The Consortium for Climate Risk in the Urban Northeast (CCRUN), one of ten NOAA-RISA's, supports resilience efforts in the urban corridor stretching from Philadelphia to Boston. Challenges and opportunities include the diverse set of needs in broad urban contexts, as well as the integration of interdisciplinary perspectives. CCRUN is addressing these challenges through 1) stakeholder surveys, 2) webinar series that enable scientists to engage with stakeholders, 3) leveraging extreme events as focusing opportunities, and 4) the development of an integrated project framework. Moving forward, increasing extreme events can lead to unexpected detours, and further effort is needed around facilitating place-based research in an interdisciplinary context.

  10. Relevance of context and time-frame in bursty dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Jo, Hang-Hyun; Perotti, Juan I; Kaski, Kimmo

    2013-01-01

    Inhomogeneous temporal processes in natural and social phenomena have been described by bursts that are rapidly occurring events within short periods alternating with long periods of low activity. Such a temporal process can be decomposed into sub-processes, according to the contexts, i.e. circumstances in which the events occur. Then contextual bursts for each sub-process are related to context-blind bursts for the original process. This requires to study contextual bursts in real time-frame as well as in ordinal time-frame, where the real timings of events are replaced by their orders in the event sequence. By analyzing a model of uncorrelated inter-event times we find that contextual bursts in real time-frame can be dominated by either context-blind bursts or contextual bursts in ordinal time-frame, or be characterized by both. These results on the relevance of context and time-frame give insight into the origin of bursts.

  11. Perceptual Discrimination In Static and Dynamic Noise: The Temporal Relation Between Perceptual Encoding and Decision-making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratcliff, Roger; Smith, Philip L.

    2010-01-01

    We report nine new experiments and reanalyze three published experiments that investigate factors affecting the time course of perceptual processing and its effects on subsequent decision making. Stimuli in letter discrimination and brightness discrimination tasks were degraded with static and dynamic noise. The onset and the time course of decision making were quantified by fitting the data with the diffusion model. Dynamic noise and, to a lesser extent, static noise, produced large shifts in the leading edge of the RT distribution in letter discrimination but had little effect in brightness discrimination. We interpret these shifts as changes in the onset of decision making. The different pattern of shifts in letter discrimination and brightness discrimination implies that decision making in the two tasks was affected differently by noise. The changes in RT distributions found with letter stimuli are inconsistent with the hypothesis that noise increases RTs to letter stimuli simply by reducing the rate at which evidence accumulates in the decision process. Instead, they imply that noise also delays the time at which evidence accumulation begins. The delay is shown not to be the result of strategic processes or the result of using different stimuli in different tasks. Our results imply, rather, that the onset of evidence accumulation in the decision process is time-locked to the perceptual encoding of the stimulus features needed to do the task. Two mechanisms that could produce this time-locking are described. PMID:20121313

  12. A dynamic attenuator improves spectral imaging with energy-discriminating, photon counting detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Scott S; Pelc, Norbert J

    2015-03-01

    Energy-discriminating, photon counting (EDPC) detectors have high potential in spectral imaging applications but exhibit degraded performance when the incident count rate approaches or exceeds the characteristic count rate of the detector. In order to reduce the requirements on the detector, we explore the strategy of modulating the X-ray flux field using a recently proposed dynamic, piecewise-linear attenuator. A previous paper studied this modulation for photon counting detectors but did not explore the impact on spectral applications. In this work, we modeled detection with a bipolar triangular pulse shape (Taguchi et al., 2011) and estimated the Cramer-Rao lower bound (CRLB) of the variance of material selective and equivalent monoenergetic images, assuming deterministic errors at high flux could be corrected. We compared different materials for the dynamic attenuator and found that rare earth elements, such as erbium, outperformed previously proposed materials such as iron in spectral imaging. The redistribution of flux reduces the variance or dose, consistent with previous studies on benefits with conventional detectors. Numerical simulations based on DICOM datasets were used to assess the impact of the dynamic attenuator for detectors with several different characteristic count rates. The dynamic attenuator reduced the peak incident count rate by a factor of 4 in the thorax and 44 in the pelvis, and a 10 Mcps/mm (2) EDPC detector with dynamic attenuator provided generally superior image quality to a 100 Mcps/mm (2) detector with reference bowtie filter for the same dose. The improvement is more pronounced in the material images.

  13. UNESCO and World Heritage: National Contexts, International Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Casper; Kozymka, Irena

    contexts that shape the ideas and practices of the World Heritage system. This includes examining the influence of the World Heritage system on the behaviour of nation states, both domestically and internationally, but also shedding light on how national traditions of heritage management and national...... particularly patchy. This includes studies of East and North Africa, Asia and the Pacific, Europe and North America, and the former Soviet Union....

  14. DynamicSchema: a lightweight persistency framework for context-oriented data management

    OpenAIRE

    Castro, Sergio; González, Sebastián; Mens, Kim; Denker, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    International audience; While context-oriented programming technology so far has focused mostly on behavioral adaptation, context-oriented data management has received much less attention. In this paper we make a case for the problem of context-oriented data management, using a concrete example of a mobile application. We illustrate some of the issues involved and propose a lightweight persistency framework, called DynamicSchema, that resolves some of these issues. The solution consists in a ...

  15. Heterogeneous dynamics in DNA site discrimination by the structurally homologous DNA-binding domains of ETS-family transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Gaofei; Tolic, Ana; Bashkin, James K; Poon, Gregory M K

    2015-04-30

    The ETS family of transcription factors exemplifies current uncertainty in how eukaryotic genetic regulators with overlapping DNA sequence preferences achieve target site specificity. PU.1 and Ets-1 represent archetypes for studying site discrimination by ETS proteins because their DNA-binding domains are the most divergent in sequence, yet they share remarkably superimposable DNA-bound structures. To gain insight into the contrasting thermodynamics and kinetics of DNA recognition by these two proteins, we investigated the structure and dynamics of site discrimination by their DNA-binding domains. Electrophoretic mobilities of complexes formed by the two homologs with circularly permuted binding sites showed significant dynamic differences only for DNA complexes of PU.1. Free solution measurements by dynamic light scattering showed PU.1 to be more dynamic than Ets-1; moreover, dynamic changes are strongly coupled to site discrimination by PU.1, but not Ets-1. Interrogation of the protein/DNA interface by DNA footprinting showed similar accessibility to dimethyl sulfate for PU.1/DNA and Ets-1/DNA complexes, indicating that the dynamics of PU.1/DNA complexes reside primarily outside that interface. An information-based analysis of the two homologs' binding motifs suggests a role for dynamic coupling in PU.1's ability to enforce a more stringent sequence preference than Ets-1 and its proximal sequence homologs. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  16. Discrimination of prostate cancer from normal peripheral zone and central gland tissue by using dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelbrecht, M.R.W.; Huisman, H.J.; Laheij, R.J.F.; Jager, G.J.; Leenders, G.J.L.H. van; Hulsbergen-van de Kaa, C.A.; Rosette, J.J.M.H.C. de la; Blickman, J.G.; Barentsz, J.O.

    2003-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate which parameters of dynamic magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and T2 relaxation rate would result in optimal discrimination of prostatic carcinoma from normal peripheral zone (PZ) and central gland (CG) tissues and to correlate these parameters with tumor stage, Gleason score, pat

  17. Dynamic Planet Mercury in the Context of Its Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, Pamela Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    We are in a time of transition in our understanding of Mercury. Of particular interest here is the emerging picture of the planet as a system, with interactions between interior, surface, exosphere, and magnetosphere that have influenced and constrained the evolution of each part of the system. Previous books have emphasized the results of Mariner 10 and current ground-based measurements, with very little discussion of the nature and influence of the magnetosphere. This book will present the planet in the context of its surroundings, thus providing a foundation for the next major influx of information from Mercury and contributing to the planning for future missions.

  18. Transient dynamic phenotypes as criteria for model discrimination: fold-change detection in Rhodobacter sphaeroides chemotaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamadeh, Abdullah; Ingalls, Brian; Sontag, Eduardo

    2013-03-01

    The chemotaxis pathway of the bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides shares many similarities with that of Escherichia coli. It exhibits robust adaptation and has several homologues of the latter's chemotaxis proteins. Recent theoretical results have correctly predicted that the E. coli output behaviour is unchanged under scaling of its ligand input signal; this property is known as fold-change detection (FCD). In the light of recent experimental results suggesting that R. sphaeroides may also show FCD, we present theoretical assumptions on the R. sphaeroides chemosensory dynamics that can be shown to yield FCD behaviour. Furthermore, it is shown that these assumptions make FCD a property of this system that is robust to structural and parametric variations in the chemotaxis pathway, in agreement with experimental results. We construct and examine models of the full chemotaxis pathway that satisfy these assumptions and reproduce experimental time-series data from earlier studies. We then propose experiments in which models satisfying our theoretical assumptions predict robust FCD behaviour where earlier models do not. In this way, we illustrate how transient dynamic phenotypes such as FCD can be used for the purposes of discriminating between models that reproduce the same experimental time-series data.

  19. Discriminant analysis to classify glioma grading using dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI and immunohistochemical markers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awasthi, Rishi [Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Radiodiagnosis, Lucknow (India); Rathore, Ram K.S.; Sahoo, Prativa [Indian Institute of Technology, Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Kanpur (India); Soni, Priyanka; Husain, Nuzhat [Chhatrapati Sahuji Maharj Medical University, Department of Pathology, Lucknow (India); Awasthi, Ashish; Pandey, Chandra M. [Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Biostatistics, Lucknow (India); Behari, Sanjay; Singh, Rohit K. [Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Neurosurgery, Lucknow (India); Gupta, Rakesh K. [Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, MR Section, Department of Radiodiagnosis, Lucknow, UP (India)

    2012-03-15

    The purpose of the present study was to look for the possible predictors which might discriminate between high- and low-grade gliomas by pooling dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE)-perfusion derived indices and immunohistochemical markers. DCE-MRI was performed in 76 patients with different grades of gliomas. Perfusion indices, i.e., relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV), relative cerebral blood flow (rCBF), permeability (k{sup trans} and k{sub ep}), and leakage (v{sub e}) were quantified. MMP-9-, PRL-3-, HIF-1{alpha}-, and VEGF-expressing cells were quantified from the excised tumor tissues. Discriminant function analysis using these markers was used to identify discriminatory variables using a stepwise procedure. To look for correlations between immunohistochemical parameters and DCE metrics, Pearson's correlation coefficient was also used. A discriminant function for differentiating between high- and low-grade tumors was constructed using DCE-MRI-derived rCBV, k{sub ep}, and v{sub e}. The form of the functions estimated are ''D{sub 1} = 0.642 x rCBV + 0.591 x k{sub ep} - 1.501 x v{sub e} - 1.550'' and ''D{sub 2} = 1.608 x rCBV + 3.033 x k{sub ep} + 5.508 x v{sub e} - 8.784'' for low- and high-grade tumors, respectively. This function classified overall 92.1% of the cases correctly (89.1% high-grade tumors and 100% low-grade tumors). In addition, VEGF expression correlated with rCBV and rCBF, whereas MMP-9 expression correlated with k{sub ep}. A significant positive correlation of HIF-1{alpha} with rCBV and VEGF expression was also found. DCE-MRI may be used to differentiate between high-grade and low-grade brain tumors non-invasively, which may be helpful in appropriate treatment planning and management of these patients. The correlation of its indices with immunohistochemical markers suggests that this imaging technique is useful in tissue characterization of gliomas. (orig.)

  20. Age-associated changes in the hippocampal-ventral striatum-ventral tegmental loop that impact learning, prediction and context discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marsha R Penner

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Studies of the neural mechanisms of navigation and context discrimination have generated a powerful heuristic for understanding how neural codes, circuits and computations contribute to accurate behavior as animals traverse and learn about spatially-extended environments. It is assumed that memories are updated as a result of spatial experience. The mechanism, however, for such a process is not clear. Here we suggest that one revealing approach to study this issue is to integrate our knowledge about limbic system mediated navigation and context discrimination with knowledge about how midbrain neural circuitry mediates decision making. This perspective should lead to new and specific neural theories about how choices that we make during navigation determine what information is ultimately learned and remembered. This same circuitry may be involved when past experiences come to bias future spatial perceptions and response selection. With old age come not only important changes in limbic system operations, but also significant decline in the function of midbrain regions that underlie accurate and efficient decisions. Thus suboptimal accuracy of spatial context-based decision making may be at least in part responsible for the common observation of spatial memory decline in old age.

  1. Algorithm to illustrate context using dynamic lighting effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Roshy M.; Balasubramanian, T.

    2007-09-01

    With the invention of Ultra-Bright LED, solid state lighting has come to something which is much more efficient and energy saving when compared to conventional incandescent or fluorescent lighting. With the use of proper driver electronics now a days it is possible to install solid state lighting systems with the cost same as that of any other lighting technology. This paper is a part of the research project we are doing in our lab, which deals with using ultra bright LEDs of different colors for lighting applications. The driver electronics are made in such a way that, the color and brightness of the lights will change according to context. For instance, if one of the users is reading a story or listening to music in a Personal Computer or in a hand held device such as a PDA, the lighting systems and the HVAC (Heating Ventilation Air-conditioning) systems will change dramatically according to the content of the story or the music. The vulnerability of solid-state lighting helps to accomplish such an effect. Such a type of system will help the reader to feel the story mentally and physically as well. We developed complete driver electronics for the system using multiple microcomputers and a full software suite which uses complex algorithms to decode the context from text or music and synchronize it to lighting and HVAC information. The paper also presents some case-study statistics which shows the advantage of using the system to teach kindergarten children, deaf and dumb children and for language learning classes.

  2. Effects of Arab American Discrimination Post 9/11 in the Contexts of the Workplace and Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daraiseh, Isra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available What is an Arab? What is an Arab American? Are these ethnicities subject to negative treatment by others? Why is it important to recognize these differences in the treatment of Arab Americans and, in particular, in the realm of the workplace and in education? When preparing this literature review, I found little research on the effects of such discrimination on Arab American students. The research I did find indicates that it leads to poor academic performance and self-fulfilling prophecies. With regards to workplace discrimination, and particularly its effect on earnings, I found a decrease in earnings for Arab men and those perceived to be Arab. This major decrease in wages was short-lived, however, and seemed to be an immediate reaction to national political events. Many factors contribute to the mistreatment of Arabs in the United States, but particular events have occurred in America that increased and enraged these feelings in many. Within the realm of higher education, knowing how students of different ethnicities feel about their college experience is vital to building trust, understanding and respect amongst each other in an ever changing world with regard to diversity. Discrimination primarily stems from lack of understanding of a particular culture or group. If there is more awareness, not just about Arab Americans, but about different cultures in general, then we can prosper and become an even stronger nation. With better understanding by all Americans, students might benefit by having a voice, and worry less about defending their identities, ancestries, cultures or traditions and focus more on their academics. The second area I will discuss is the effect of discrimination on Arab Americans in the workplace. Discrimination in the workplace occurred in the aftermath of September 11th and, as with college students’ experiences with discrimination, trying to understand it and build better relationships with our co-workers, regardless

  3. Dynamic landscapes: a model of context and contingency in evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, David V; Rorick, Mary M; Gesell, Tanja; Feeney, Laura M; Foster, Jacob G

    2013-10-01

    Although the basic mechanics of evolution have been understood since Darwin, debate continues over whether macroevolutionary phenomena are driven by the fitness structure of genotype space or by ecological interaction. In this paper we propose a simple model capturing key features of fitness-landscape and ecological models of evolution. Our model describes evolutionary dynamics in a high-dimensional, structured genotype space with interspecies interaction. We find promising qualitative similarity with the empirical facts about macroevolution, including broadly distributed extinction sizes and realistic exploration of the genotype space. The abstraction of our model permits numerous applications beyond macroevolution, including protein and RNA evolution.

  4. Dynamic Bayesian Networks for Context-Aware Fall Risk Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Koshmak

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Fall incidents among the elderly often occur in the home and can cause serious injuries affecting their independent living. This paper presents an approach where data from wearable sensors integrated in a smart home environment is combined using a dynamic Bayesian network. The smart home environment provides contextual data, obtained from environmental sensors, and contributes to assessing a fall risk probability. The evaluation of the developed system is performed through simulation. Each time step is represented by a single user activity and interacts with a fall sensors located on a mobile device. A posterior probability is calculated for each recognized activity or contextual information. The output of the system provides a total risk assessment of falling given a response from the fall sensor.

  5. Context-Dependent Modulation of Functional Connectivity: Secondary Somatosensory Cortex to Prefrontal Cortex Connections in Two-Stimulus-Interval Discrimination Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Stephanie S.; Romo, Ranulfo; Brody, Carlos D.

    2010-01-01

    In a complex world, a sensory cue may prompt different actions in different contexts. A laboratory example of context-dependent sensory processing is the two-stimulus-interval discrimination task. In each trial, a first stimulus (f1) must be stored in short-term memory and later compared with a second stimulus (f2), for the animal to come to a binary decision. Prefrontal cortex (PFC) neurons need to interpret the f1 information in one way (perhaps with a positive weight) and the f2 information in an opposite way (perhaps with a negative weight), although they come from the very same secondary somatosensory cortex (S2) neurons; therefore, a functional sign inversion is required. This task thus provides a clear example of context-dependent processing. Here we develop a biologically plausible model of a context-dependent signal transformation of the stimulus encoding from S2 to PFC. To ground our model in experimental neurophysiology, we use neurophysiological data recorded by R. Romo’s laboratory from both cortical area S2 and PFC in monkeys performing the task. Our main goal is to use experimentally observed context-dependent modulations of firing rates in cortical area S2 as the basis for a model that achieves a context-dependent inversion of the sign of S2 to PFC connections. This is done without requiring any changes in connectivity (Salinas, 2004b). We (1) characterize the experimentally observed context-dependent firing rate modulation in area S2, (2) construct a model that results in the sign transformation, and (3) characterize the robustness and consequent biological plausibility of the model. PMID:19494146

  6. The dual effect of context on memory of related and unrelated themes: discrimination at encoding and cue at retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy-Gigi, Einat; Vakil, Eli

    2012-01-01

    The influence of contextual factors on encoding and retrieval in recognition memory was investigated using a retroactive interference paradigm. Participants were randomly assigned to four context conditions constructed by manipulating types of presentation modality (pictures vs words) for study, interference, and test stages, respectively (ABA, ABB, AAA, & AAB). In Experiment 1 we presented unrelated items in the study and interference stages, while in Experiment 2 each stage contained items from the same semantic category. The results demonstrate a dual role for context in memory processes-at encoding as well as at retrieval. In Experiment 1 there is a hierarchical order between the four context conditions, depending on both target-test and target-interference contextual similarity. Adding a categorical context in Experiment 2 helped to specify each list and therefore better distinguish between target and interferer information, and in some conditions compensated for their perceptual similarity.

  7. An Improved Method for Discriminating ECG Signals using Typical Nonlinear Dynamic Parameters and Recurrence Quantification Analysis in Cardiac Disease Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, M; Chang, C Q; Fung, P C W; Chau, K T; Chan, F H Y

    2005-01-01

    The discrimination of ECG signals using nonlinear dynamic parameters is of crucial importance in the cardiac disease therapy and chaos control for arrhythmia defibrillation in the cardiac system. However, the discrimination results of previous studies using features such as maximal Lyapunov exponent (λmax) and correlation dimension (D2) alone are somewhat limited in recognition rate. In this paper, improved methods for computing λmaxand D2are purposed. Another parameter from recurrence quantification analysis is incorporated to the new multi-feature Bayesian classifier with λmaxand D2so as to improve the discrimination power. Experimental results have verified the prediction using Fisher discriminant that the maximal vertical line length (Vmax) from recurrence quantification analysis is the best to distinguish different ECG classes. Experimental results using the MIT-BIH Arrhythmia Database show improved and excellent overall accuracy (96.3%), average sensitivity (96.3%) and average specificity (98.15%) for discriminating sinus, premature ventricular contraction and ventricular flutter signals.

  8. A single-rate context-dependent learning process underlies rapid adaptation to familiar object dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James N Ingram

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Motor learning has been extensively studied using dynamic (force-field perturbations. These induce movement errors that result in adaptive changes to the motor commands. Several state-space models have been developed to explain how trial-by-trial errors drive the progressive adaptation observed in such studies. These models have been applied to adaptation involving novel dynamics, which typically occurs over tens to hundreds of trials, and which appears to be mediated by a dual-rate adaptation process. In contrast, when manipulating objects with familiar dynamics, subjects adapt rapidly within a few trials. Here, we apply state-space models to familiar dynamics, asking whether adaptation is mediated by a single-rate or dual-rate process. Previously, we reported a task in which subjects rotate an object with known dynamics. By presenting the object at different visual orientations, adaptation was shown to be context-specific, with limited generalization to novel orientations. Here we show that a multiple-context state-space model, with a generalization function tuned to visual object orientation, can reproduce the time-course of adaptation and de-adaptation as well as the observed context-dependent behavior. In contrast to the dual-rate process associated with novel dynamics, we show that a single-rate process mediates adaptation to familiar object dynamics. The model predicts that during exposure to the object across multiple orientations, there will be a degree of independence for adaptation and de-adaptation within each context, and that the states associated with all contexts will slowly de-adapt during exposure in one particular context. We confirm these predictions in two new experiments. Results of the current study thus highlight similarities and differences in the processes engaged during exposure to novel versus familiar dynamics. In both cases, adaptation is mediated by multiple context-specific representations. In the case of familiar

  9. Discriminant and criterion-related validity of a relative deprivation scale in a merger and acquisition context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dongseop; Cho, Bongsoon; Seo, Jeongil; Lee, Khan-Pyo; Choi, Jang-Ho

    2014-02-01

    This study examined the discriminant and criterion-related validity of the Relative Deprivation Scale. The data were collected from 151 Korean employees who had recently experienced a merger and acquisition. The results of confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the two dimensions of relative deprivation (egoistic and fraternal relative deprivation) are clearly distinguishable from other conceptually related variables, such as negative affectivity, resistance to change, overall job dissatisfaction, and distributive justice. In addition, egoistic relative deprivation made a unique incremental contribution to explaining employee turnover intention beyond the contribution of conceptually related variables, while fraternal relative deprivation did not.

  10. [Real groups in the minimal group paradigm; does the group context work as corrective or catalysing agent for social discrimination?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, L E; Blank, H

    2001-01-01

    Studies applying the minimal group paradigm to analyze social discrimination processes have been analyzing for the most part the behavior of individuals. The present experiment extends the minimal group paradigm to the group level. The aim of the present study was to compare the decisions made by real groups (N = 3 persons) with those made by single persons. The analysis of the total points given to the in- or the outgroup as well as the strategy MIP + MDI on F revealed that groups are significantly more biased towards the ingroup than individuals. On the other hand, individuals use the strategy F on MIP + MDI significantly more than groups and thus show a greater amount of fairness. These conclusions are qualified by a new method of identifying dominant strategies which shows that the dominant strategy used by individuals and groups is fairness. A theoretical explanation of the results is offered based on social identity theory, the groupthink model and self-awareness theory.

  11. Cortical and thalamic contributions to response dynamics across layers of the primary somatosensory cortex during tactile discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pais-Vieira, Miguel; Kunicki, Carolina; Tseng, Po-He; Martin, Joel; Lebedev, Mikhail; Nicolelis, Miguel A L

    2015-09-01

    Tactile information processing in the rodent primary somatosensory cortex (S1) is layer specific and involves modulations from both thalamocortical and cortico-cortical loops. However, the extent to which these loops influence the dynamics of the primary somatosensory cortex while animals execute tactile discrimination remains largely unknown. Here, we describe neural dynamics of S1 layers across the multiple epochs defining a tactile discrimination task. We observed that neuronal ensembles within different layers of the S1 cortex exhibited significantly distinct neurophysiological properties, which constantly changed across the behavioral states that defined a tactile discrimination. Neural dynamics present in supragranular and granular layers generally matched the patterns observed in the ventral posterior medial nucleus of the thalamus (VPM), whereas the neural dynamics recorded from infragranular layers generally matched the patterns from the posterior nucleus of the thalamus (POM). Selective inactivation of contralateral S1 specifically switched infragranular neural dynamics from POM-like to those resembling VPM neurons. Meanwhile, ipsilateral M1 inactivation profoundly modulated the firing suppression observed in infragranular layers. This latter effect was counterbalanced by contralateral S1 block. Tactile stimulus encoding was layer specific and selectively affected by M1 or contralateral S1 inactivation. Lastly, causal information transfer occurred between all neurons in all S1 layers but was maximal from infragranular to the granular layer. These results suggest that tactile information processing in the S1 of awake behaving rodents is layer specific and state dependent and that its dynamics depend on the asynchronous convergence of modulations originating from ipsilateral M1 and contralateral S1.

  12. Aged dominant negative p38α MAPK mice are resistant to age-dependent decline in adult-neurogenesis and context discrimination fear conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortez, IbDanelo; Bulavin, Dmitry V; Wu, Ping; McGrath, Erica L; Cunningham, Kathryn A; Wakamiya, Maki; Papaconstantinou, John; Dineley, Kelly T

    2017-03-30

    A major aspect of mammalian aging is the decline in functional competence of many self-renewing cell types, including adult-born neuronal precursors. Since age-related senescence of self-renewal occurs simultaneously with chronic up-regulation of the p38MAPKalpha (p38α) signaling pathway, we used the dominant negative mouse model for attenuated p38α activity (DN-p38α(AF/+)) in which Thr180 and Tyr182 are mutated (T→A/Y→F) to prevent phosphorylation activation (DN-p38α(AF/+)) and kinase activity. As a result, aged DN-p38α(AF/+) mice are resistant to age-dependent decline in proliferation and regeneration of several peripheral tissue progenitors when compared to wild-type littermates. Aging is the major risk factor for non-inherited forms of Alzheimer's disease (AD); environmental and genetic risk factors that accelerate the senescence phenotype are thought to contribute to an individual's relative risk. In the present study, we evaluated aged DN-p38α(AF/+) and wildtype littermates in a series of behavioral paradigms to test if p38α mutant mice exhibit altered baseline abnormalities in neurological reflexes, locomotion, anxiety-like behavior, and age-dependent cognitive decline. While aged DN-p38α(AF/+) and wildtype littermates appear equal in all tested baseline neurological and behavioral parameters, DN-p38α(AF/+) exhibit superior context discrimination fear conditioning. Context discrimination is a cognitive task that is supported by proliferation and differentiation of adult-born neurons in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. Consistent with enhanced context discrimination in aged DN-p38α(AF/+), we discovered enhanced production of adult-born neurons in the dentate gyrus of DN-p38α(AF/+) mice compared to wildtype littermates. Our findings support the notion that p38α inhibition has therapeutic utility in aging diseases that affect cognition, such as AD.

  13. Enhancing Learners' Emotions in an L2 Context through Emotionalized Dynamic Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdolrezapour, Parisa; Tavakoli, Mansoor; Ketabi, Saeed

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to gain more in-depth understanding of students' emotions in an EFL context by applying dynamic assessment (DA) procedures to the development of learners' emotional intelligence. The study with 50 intermediate learners aged 12-15 used three modalities: a control group, which was taught under institute's normal procedures;…

  14. Evaluation of the inelastic heat fraction in the context of microstructure supported dynamic plasticity modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Longère, Patrice; Dragon, A. André

    2008-01-01

    Evaluation of the inelastic heat fraction in the context of microstructure supported dynamic plasticity modelling correspondence: Corresponding author. (Longere, Patrice) (Longere, Patrice) (Dragon, A. Andre) Laboratoire de Genie Mecanique et Materiaux ? Universite de Bretagne Sud ? Rue de Saint-Maude - BP 92116--> , 56321 LORIENT Cedex--> - FRANCE (Longere, Patrice)...

  15. Dynamic Shared Context Processing in an E-Collaborative Learning Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Peng, Jing; Deniaud, Samuel; Ferney, Michel

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a dynamic shared context processing method based on DSC (Dynamic Shared Context) model, applied in an e-collaborative learning environment. Firstly, we present the model. This is a way to measure the relevance between events and roles in collaborative environments. With this method, we can share the most appropriate event information for each role instead of sharing all information to all roles in a collaborative work environment. Then, we apply and verify this method in our project with Google App supported e-learning collaborative environment. During this experiment, we compared DSC method measured relevance of events and roles to manual measured relevance. And we describe the favorable points from this comparison and our finding. Finally, we discuss our future research of a hybrid DSC method to make dynamical information shared more effective in a collaborative work environment.

  16. Temporal dynamics of Arc gene induction in hippocampus: relationship to context memory formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pevzner, Aleksandr; Miyashita, Teiko; Schiffman, Aaron J; Guzowski, John F

    2012-03-01

    Past studies have proposed a role for the hippocampus in the rapid encoding of context memories. Despite this, there is little data regarding the molecular processes underlying the stable formation of a context representation that occurs in the time window established through such behavioral studies. One task that is useful for investigating the rapid encoding of context is contextual fear conditioning (CFC). Behavioral studies demonstrate that animals require approximately 30 s of exploration prior to a footshock to form a contextual representation supporting CFC. Thus, any potential molecular process required for the stabilization of the cellular representation for context must be activated within this narrow and behaviorally defined time window. Detection of the immediate-early gene Arc presents an ideal method to assess the activation of specific neuronal ensembles, given past studies showing the context specific expression of Arc in CA3 and CA1 subfields and the role of Arc in hippocampal long-term synaptic plasticity. Therefore, we examined the temporal dynamics of Arc induction within the hippocampus after brief context exposure to determine whether experience-dependent Arc expression could be involved in the rapid encoding of incidental context memories. We found that the duration of context exposure differentially activated Arc expression in hippocampal subfields, with CA3 showing rapid engagement within as little as 3 s of exposure. By contrast, Arc induction in CA1 required 30 s of context exposure to reach maximal levels. A parallel behavioral experiment revealed that 30 s, but not 3 s, exposure to a context resulted in strong conditioned freezing 24 h later, consistent with past studies from other laboratories. The current study is the first to examine the rapid temporal dynamics of Arc induction in hippocampus in a well-defined context memory paradigm. These studies demonstrate within 30 s of context exposure Arc is fully activated in CA3 and CA1

  17. Context and group dynamics in a CBPR-developed HIV prevention intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson-Gomez, Julia; Corbett, A Michelle; Bodnar, Gloria; Zuniga, Maria Ofelia; Guevara, Carmen Eugenia; Rodriguez, Karla; Navas, Verónica

    2016-03-01

    This paper will explore in detail the effects of context and group dynamics on the development of a multi-level community-based HIV prevention intervention for crack cocaine users in the San Salvador Metropolitan Area, El Salvador. Community partners included residents from marginal communities, service providers from the historic center of San Salvador and research staff from a non-profit organization. The community contexts from which partners came varied considerably and affected structural group dynamics, i.e. who was identified as community partners, their research and organizational capacity, and their ability to represent their communities, with participants from marginal communities most likely to hold community leadership positions and be residents, and those from the center of San Salvador most likely to work in religious organizations dedicated to HIV prevention or feeding indigent drug users. These differences also affected the intervention priorities of different partners. The context of communities changed over time, particularly levels of violence, and affected group dynamics and the intervention developed. Finally, strategies were needed to elicit input from stakeholders under-represented in the community advisory board, in particular active crack users, in order to check the feasibility of the proposed intervention and revise it as necessary. Because El Salvador is a very different context than that in which most CBPR studies have been conducted, our results reveal important contextual factors and their effects on partnerships not often considered in the literature.

  18. Ubiquitous Geo-Sensing for Context-Aware Analysis: Exploring Relationships between Environmental and Human Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euro Beinat

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Ubiquitous geo-sensing enables context-aware analyses of physical and social phenomena, i.e., analyzing one phenomenon in the context of another. Although such context-aware analysis can potentially enable a more holistic understanding of spatio-temporal processes, it is rarely documented in the scientific literature yet. In this paper we analyzed the collective human behavior in the context of the weather. We therefore explored the complex relationships between these two spatio-temporal phenomena to provide novel insights into the dynamics of urban systems. Aggregated mobile phone data, which served as a proxy for collective human behavior, was linked with the weather data from climate stations in the case study area, the city of Udine, Northern Italy. To identify and characterize potential patterns within the weather-human relationships, we developed a hybrid approach which integrates several spatio-temporal statistical analysis methods. Thereby we show that explanatory factor analysis, when applied to a number of meteorological variables, can be used to differentiate between normal and adverse weather conditions. Further, we measured the strength of the relationship between the ‘global’ adverse weather conditions and the spatially explicit effective variations in user-generated mobile network traffic for three distinct periods using the Maximal Information Coefficient (MIC. The analyses result in three spatially referenced maps of MICs which reveal interesting insights into collective human dynamics in the context of weather, but also initiate several new scientific challenges.

  19. Discrimination between glioma grades II and III in suspected low-grade gliomas using dynamic contrast-enhanced and dynamic susceptibility contrast perfusion MR imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falk, Anna; Fahlström, Markus; Rostrup, Egill;

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be used in the pre-operative assessment of brain tumours. The aim of this prospective study was to identify the perfusion parameters from dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) and dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) perfusion imaging...... that could best discriminate between grade II and III gliomas. METHODS: MRI (3 T) including morphological ((T2 fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) and T1-weighted (T1W)+Gd)) and perfusion (DCE and DSC) sequences was performed in 39 patients with newly diagnosed suspected low-grade glioma after...

  20. Experiment selection for the discrimination of semi-quantitative models of dynamical systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vatcheva, [No Value; de Jong, H; Bernard, O; Mars, NJI

    2006-01-01

    Modeling an experimental system often results in a number of alternative models that are all justified by the available experimental data. To discriminate among these models, additional experiments are needed. Existing methods for the selection of discriminatory experiments in statistics and in arti

  1. Dynamical control of quantum systems in the context of mean ergodic theorems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernád, J. Z.

    2017-02-01

    Equidistant and non-equidistant single pulse ‘bang-bang’ dynamical controls are investigated in the context of mean ergodic theorems. We show the requirements in which the limit of infinite pulse control for both the equidistant and the non-equidistant dynamical control converges to the same unitary evolution. It is demonstrated that the generator of this evolution can be obtained by projecting the generator of the free evolution onto the commutant of the unitary operator representing the pulse. Inequalities are derived to prove this statement and in the case of non-equidistant approach these inequalities are optimised as a function of the time intervals.

  2. Context-aware adaptation for group communication support applications with dynamic architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Rodriguez, Ismael Bouassida; Chassot, Christophe; Jmaiel, Mohamed

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a refinement-based adaptation approach for the architecture of distributed group communication support applications. Unlike most of previous works, our approach reaches implementable, context-aware and dynamically adaptable architectures. To model the context, we manage simultaneously four parameters that influence Qos provided by the application. These parameters are: the available bandwidth, the exchanged data communication priority, the energy level and the available memory for processing. These parameters make it possible to refine the choice between the various architectural configurations when passing from a given abstraction level to the lower level which implements it. Our approach allows the importance degree associated with each parameter to be adapted dynamically. To implement adaptation, we switch between the various configurations of the same level, and we modify the state of the entities of a given configuration when necessary. We adopt the direct and mediated Producer-...

  3. Closely-related taxa influence woody species discrimination via DNA barcoding: evidence from global forest dynamics plots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Nancai; Erickson, David L; Chen, Bufeng; Ge, Xuejun; Mi, Xiangcheng; Swenson, Nathan G; Zhang, Jin-Long; Jones, Frank A; Huang, Chun-Lin; Ye, Wanhui; Hao, Zhanqing; Hsieh, Chang-Fu; Lum, Shawn; Bourg, Norman A; Parker, John D; Zimmerman, Jess K; McShea, William J; Lopez, Ida C; Sun, I-Fang; Davies, Stuart J; Ma, Keping; Kress, W John

    2015-10-12

    To determine how well DNA barcodes from the chloroplast region perform in forest dynamics plots (FDPs) from global CTFS-ForestGEO network, we analyzed DNA barcoding sequences of 1277 plant species from a wide phylogenetic range (3 FDPs in tropics, 5 in subtropics and 5 in temperate zone) and compared the rates of species discrimination (RSD). We quantified RSD by two DNA barcode combinations (rbcL + matK and rbcL + matK + trnH-psbA) using a monophyly-based method (GARLI). We defined two indexes of closely-related taxa (Gm/Gt and S/G ratios) and correlated these ratios with RSD. The combination of rbcL + matK averagely discriminated 88.65%, 83.84% and 72.51% at the local, regional and global scales, respectively. An additional locus trnH-psbA increased RSD by 2.87%, 1.49% and 3.58% correspondingly. RSD varied along a latitudinal gradient and were negatively correlated with ratios of closely-related taxa. Successes of species discrimination generally depend on scales in global FDPs. We suggested that the combination of rbcL + matK + trnH-psbA is currently applicable for DNA barcoding-based phylogenetic studies on forest communities.

  4. When neutral turns significant: brain dynamics of rapidly formed associations between neutral stimuli and emotional contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura-Bort, Carlos; Löw, Andreas; Wendt, Julia; Dolcos, Florin; Hamm, Alfons O; Weymar, Mathias

    2016-09-01

    The ability to associate neutral stimuli with motivationally relevant outcomes is an important survival strategy. In this study, we used event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate brain dynamics of associative emotional learning when participants were confronted with multiple heterogeneous information. Participants viewed 144 different objects in the context of 144 different emotional and neutral background scenes. During each trial, neutral objects were shown in isolation and then paired with the background scene. All pairings were presented twice to compare ERPs in response to neutral objects before and after single association. After single pairing, neutral objects previously encoded in the context of emotional scenes evoked a larger P100 over occipital electrodes compared to objects that were previously paired with neutral scenes. Likewise, larger late positive potentials (LPPs) were observed over parieto-occipital electrodes (450-750 ms) for objects previously associated with emotional relative to neutral contexts. The LPP - but not P100 - enhancement was also related to subjective object/context binding. Taken together, our ERP data provide evidence for fast emotional associative learning, as reflected by heightened perceptual and sustained elaborative processing for neutral information previously encountered in emotional contexts. These findings could assist in understanding binding mechanisms in stress and anxiety, as well as in addiction and eating-related disorders. © 2016 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. S 38093, a histamine H3 antagonist/inverse agonist, promotes hippocampal neurogenesis and improves context discrimination task in aged mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilloux, Jean-Philippe; Samuels, Benjamin A; Mendez-David, Indira; Hu, Alice; Levinstein, Marjorie; Faye, Charlène; Mekiri, Maryam; Mocaer, Elisabeth; Gardier, Alain M; Hen, René; Sors, Aurore; David, Denis J

    2017-02-20

    Strategies designed to increase adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN) may have therapeutic potential for reversing memory impairments. H3 receptor antagonists/inverse agonists also may be useful for treating cognitive deficits. However, it remains unclear whether these ligands have effects on AHN. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of a 28-day treatment with S 38093, a novel brain-penetrant antagonist/inverse agonist of H3 receptors, on AHN (proliferation, maturation and survival) in 3-month-old and in aged 16-month-old mice. In addition, the effects of S 38093 treatment on 7-month-old APPSWE Tg2576 transgenic mice, a model of Alzheimer's disease, were also assessed. In all tested models, chronic treatment with S 38093 stimulated all steps of AHN. In aged animals, S 38093 induced a reversal of age-dependent effects on hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) BDNF-IX, BDNF-IV and BDNF-I transcripts and increased vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression. Finally, the effects of chronic administration of S 38093 were assessed on a neurogenesis-dependent "context discrimination (CS) test" in aged mice. While ageing altered mouse CS, chronic S 38093 treatment significantly improved CS. Taken together, these results provide evidence that chronic S 38093 treatment increases adult hippocampal neurogenesis and may provide an innovative strategy to improve age-associated cognitive deficits.

  6. S 38093, a histamine H3 antagonist/inverse agonist, promotes hippocampal neurogenesis and improves context discrimination task in aged mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilloux, Jean-Philippe; Samuels, Benjamin A.; Mendez-David, Indira; Hu, Alice; Levinstein, Marjorie; Faye, Charlène; Mekiri, Maryam; Mocaer, Elisabeth; Gardier, Alain M.; Hen, René; Sors, Aurore; David, Denis J.

    2017-01-01

    Strategies designed to increase adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN) may have therapeutic potential for reversing memory impairments. H3 receptor antagonists/inverse agonists also may be useful for treating cognitive deficits. However, it remains unclear whether these ligands have effects on AHN. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of a 28-day treatment with S 38093, a novel brain-penetrant antagonist/inverse agonist of H3 receptors, on AHN (proliferation, maturation and survival) in 3-month-old and in aged 16-month-old mice. In addition, the effects of S 38093 treatment on 7-month-old APPSWE Tg2576 transgenic mice, a model of Alzheimer’s disease, were also assessed. In all tested models, chronic treatment with S 38093 stimulated all steps of AHN. In aged animals, S 38093 induced a reversal of age-dependent effects on hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) BDNF-IX, BDNF-IV and BDNF-I transcripts and increased vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression. Finally, the effects of chronic administration of S 38093 were assessed on a neurogenesis-dependent “context discrimination (CS) test” in aged mice. While ageing altered mouse CS, chronic S 38093 treatment significantly improved CS. Taken together, these results provide evidence that chronic S 38093 treatment increases adult hippocampal neurogenesis and may provide an innovative strategy to improve age-associated cognitive deficits. PMID:28218311

  7. Dynamic impact of temporal context of Ca²⁺ signals on inhibitory synaptic plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Shin-Ya; Nagasaki, Nobuhiro; Hirano, Tomoo

    2011-01-01

    Neuronal activity-dependent synaptic plasticity, a basis for learning and memory, is tightly correlated with the pattern of increase in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)). Here, using combined application of electrophysiological experiments and systems biological simulation, we show that such a correlation dynamically changes depending on the context of [Ca(2+)](i) increase. In a cerebellar Purkinje cell, long-term potentiation of inhibitory GABA(A) receptor responsiveness (called rebound potentiation; RP) was induced by [Ca(2+)](i) increase in a temporally integrative manner through sustained activation of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII). However, the RP establishment was canceled by coupling of two patterns of RP-inducing [Ca(2+)](i) increase depending on the temporal sequence. Negative feedback signaling by phospho-Thr305/306 CaMKII detected the [Ca(2+)](i) context, and assisted the feedforward inhibition of CaMKII through PDE1, resulting in the RP impairment. The [Ca(2+)](i) context-dependent dynamic regulation of synaptic plasticity might contribute to the temporal refinement of information flow in neuronal networks.

  8. Indoor Localisation Using a Context-Aware Dynamic Position Tracking Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Ros

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Indoor wireless localisation is a widely sought feature for use in logistics, health, and social networking applications. Low-powered localisation will become important for the next generation of pervasive media applications that operate on mobile platforms. We present an inexpensive and robust context-aware tracking system that can track the position of users in an indoor environment, using a wireless smart meter network. Our context-aware tracking system combines wireless trilateration with a dynamic position tracking model and a probability density map to estimate indoor positions. The localisation network consisted of power meter nodes placed at known positions in a building. The power meter nodes are tracked by mobile nodes which are carried by users to localise their position. We conducted an extensive trial of the context-aware tracking system and performed a comparison analysis with existing localisation techniques. The context-aware tracking system was able to localise a person's indoor position with an average error of 1.21 m.

  9. Task and Context Sensitive Gripper Design Learning Using Dynamic Grasp Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolniakowski, Adam; Miatliuk, Konstantsin; Gosiewski, Z.

    2017-01-01

    given a CAD model of an object and a task description. These quality indices are then used to learn task-specific finger designs based on dynamic simulation. We demonstrate our gripper optimization on a parallel finger type gripper described by twelve parameters. We furthermore present a parametrization...... for different task contexts. We provide a qualitative evaluation of the obtained results based on existing design guidelines and our engineering experience. In addition, we show that with our method we achieve superior alignment properties compared to a naive approach with a cutout based on the “inverse...... of the grasping task and context, which is essential as an input to the computation of gripper performance. We exemplify important aspects of the indices by looking at their performance on subsets of the parameter space by discussing the decoupling of parameters and show optimization results for two use cases...

  10. Disrupted effective connectivity between the amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex in social anxiety disorder during emotion discrimination revealed by dynamic causal modeling for FMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sladky, Ronald; Höflich, Anna; Küblböck, Martin; Kraus, Christoph; Baldinger, Pia; Moser, Ewald; Lanzenberger, Rupert; Windischberger, Christian

    2015-04-01

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is characterized by over-reactivity of fear-related circuits in social or performance situations and associated with marked social impairment. We used dynamic causal modeling (DCM), a method to evaluate effective connectivity, to test our hypothesis that SAD patients would exhibit dysfunctions in the amygdala-prefrontal emotion regulation network. Thirteen unmedicated SAD patients and 13 matched healthy controls performed a series of facial emotion and object discrimination tasks while undergoing fMRI. The emotion-processing network was identified by a task-related contrast and motivated the selection of the right amygdala, OFC, and DLPFC for DCM analysis. Bayesian model averaging for DCM revealed abnormal connectivity between the OFC and the amygdala in SAD patients. In healthy controls, this network represents a negative feedback loop. In patients, however, positive connectivity from OFC to amygdala was observed, indicating an excitatory connection. As we did not observe a group difference of the modulatory influence of the FACE condition on the OFC to amygdala connection, we assume a context-independent reduction of prefrontal control over amygdalar activation in SAD patients. Using DCM, it was possible to highlight not only the neuronal dysfunction of isolated brain regions, but also the dysbalance of a distributed functional network.

  11. Large-Scale Context-Aware Volume Navigation using Dynamic Insets

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Awami, Ali

    2012-07-01

    Latest developments in electron microscopy (EM) technology produce high resolution images that enable neuro-scientists to identify and put together the complex neural connections in a nervous system. However, because of the massive size and underlying complexity of this kind of data, processing, navigation and analysis suffer drastically in terms of time and effort. In this work, we propose the use of state-of- the-art navigation techniques, such as dynamic insets, built on a peta-scale volume visualization framework to provide focus and context-awareness to help neuro-scientists in their mission to analyze, reconstruct, navigate and explore EM neuroscience data.

  12. Towards More Synergy in the Interpretation of the Prohibition of Sex Discrimination in European Law?
    A Comparison of Legal Contexts and some Case Law of the EU and the ECHR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne D. Burri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The non-discrimination provisions in EU law and in the ECHR have a different background and the Court of Justice of the EU and the European Court of Human Rights have differing roles. However, in both European systems the prohibition of discrimination has become of increasing importance: EU law now covers more discrimination grounds, the scope of both EU law and the ECHR non-discrimination provisions has expanded and, in particular in the field of gender equality, there is an impressive body of - in particular EU - case law. National courts are confronted with issues that fall either under the ECHR or the EU provisions or both. Sometimes similar questions are interpreted by both European courts, for example in case of overlapping subject-matters, such as sex discrimination in the field of pensions, social security benefits or parental leave. The paper offers an analysis of the legal contexts and case law of both European systems in some areas that overlap and the main similarities and differences in approaches to sex equality in both systems. The comparison shows that while the ECtHR sometimes allows a gradual abolition of forms of direct sex discrimination, the approach of the Court of Justice is much stricter.

  13. Socio-Cultural Dynamics of Education in the Context of the Post-Non-Classical Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Ignatova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the interrelations between society, education and culture. Using the comparative analysis of classical approaches to defining the above spheres, the author comes to conclusion that the nature of socio-cultural processes can be explored and described most consistently by applying comprehensive models of the post-non-classical science and considering civilization, education and culture in the context of the unified dynamic flow of socio-cultural genesis. The research investigates the dialectics of socio-cultural processes in the light of systematic synergetic approach, the advancing role of education in socio-cultural dynamics being revealed and substantiated. The author emphasizes its inevitably rising priority due to sustained development of civilization bringing about the new environmentally-oriented meta-culture.The obtained results can be used in pedagogic research methodology, designing and modeling the educational process, its content, technology and organization. 

  14. Socio-Cultural Dynamics of Education in the Context of the Post-Non-Classical Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Ignatova

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the interrelations between society, education and culture. Using the comparative analysis of classical approaches to defining the above spheres, the author comes to conclusion that the nature of socio-cultural processes can be explored and described most consistently by applying comprehensive models of the post-non-classical science and considering civilization, education and culture in the context of the unified dynamic flow of socio-cultural genesis. The research investigates the dialectics of socio-cultural processes in the light of systematic synergetic approach, the advancing role of education in socio-cultural dynamics being revealed and substantiated. The author emphasizes its inevitably rising priority due to sustained development of civilization bringing about the new environmentally-oriented meta-culture.The obtained results can be used in pedagogic research methodology, designing and modeling the educational process, its content, technology and organization. 

  15. Enhancing learners’ emotions in an L2 context through emotionalized dynamic assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Abdolrezapour

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to gain more in-depth understanding of students’ emotions in an EFL context by applying dynamic assessment (DA procedures to the development of learners’ emotional intelligence. The study with 50 intermediate learners aged 12-15 used three modalities: a control group, which was taught under institute’s normal procedures; a comparison group, which received DA; and an experimental group, which received emotionalized dynamic assessment (EDA procedures, in the form of an intervention focusing on emotional characteristics of Goleman's emotional intelligence framework with the express purpose of inducing them to work with their emotions. The study shows the potential of EDA for increasing one’s emotional intelligence and affords practical guidelines to language teachers as to how to incorporate behaviors relating to emotional intelligence into assessment procedures

  16. Mechanobiology of cell migration in the context of dynamic two-way cell-matrix interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniawan, Nicholas A; Chaudhuri, Parthiv Kant; Lim, Chwee Teck

    2016-05-24

    Migration of cells is integral in various physiological processes in all facets of life. These range from embryonic development, morphogenesis, and wound healing, to disease pathology such as cancer metastasis. While cell migratory behavior has been traditionally studied using simple assays on culture dishes, in recent years it has been increasingly realized that the physical, mechanical, and chemical aspects of the matrix are key determinants of the migration mechanism. In this paper, we will describe the mechanobiological changes that accompany the dynamic cell-matrix interactions during cell migration. Furthermore, we will review what is to date known about how these changes feed back to the dynamics and biomechanical properties of the cell and the matrix. Elucidating the role of these intimate cell-matrix interactions will provide not only a better multi-scale understanding of cell motility in its physiological context, but also a more holistic perspective for designing approaches to regulate cell behavior.

  17. New Laser Doppler Velocimetry with Wide Dynamic Range and Clear Directional Discrimination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUI Hua-Qiao; L(U) Liang; HE De-Yong; XU Jun; XIE Jian-Ping; ZHAO Tian-Peng; WANG An-Ting; MING Hai

    2005-01-01

    @@ We present a new laser Doppler velocimetry based on self-mixing effect using a single longitudinal-mode verticalcavity surface-emitting laser modulated by a dynamic triangular current. It can indicate the direction of velocity without ambiguity in a wide dynamic range of 5.2-479.9mm/s. The accuracy of velocity measurement is better than 3.1% in the whole velocity range when a diffusing target is used for measurements. More interestingly, it works very well on different diffusing surfaces, even on a black glossy photographic paper.

  18. Identification of Predictive Cis-Regulatory Elements Using a Discriminative Objective Function and a Dynamic Search Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnik, Rahul; Beer, Michael A

    2015-01-01

    The generation of genomic binding or accessibility data from massively parallel sequencing technologies such as ChIP-seq and DNase-seq continues to accelerate. Yet state-of-the-art computational approaches for the identification of DNA binding motifs often yield motifs of weak predictive power. Here we present a novel computational algorithm called MotifSpec, designed to find predictive motifs, in contrast to over-represented sequence elements. The key distinguishing feature of this algorithm is that it uses a dynamic search space and a learned threshold to find discriminative motifs in combination with the modeling of motifs using a full PWM (position weight matrix) rather than k-mer words or regular expressions. We demonstrate that our approach finds motifs corresponding to known binding specificities in several mammalian ChIP-seq datasets, and that our PWMs classify the ChIP-seq signals with accuracy comparable to, or marginally better than motifs from the best existing algorithms. In other datasets, our algorithm identifies novel motifs where other methods fail. Finally, we apply this algorithm to detect motifs from expression datasets in C. elegans using a dynamic expression similarity metric rather than fixed expression clusters, and find novel predictive motifs.

  19. Identification of Predictive Cis-Regulatory Elements Using a Discriminative Objective Function and a Dynamic Search Space.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Karnik

    Full Text Available The generation of genomic binding or accessibility data from massively parallel sequencing technologies such as ChIP-seq and DNase-seq continues to accelerate. Yet state-of-the-art computational approaches for the identification of DNA binding motifs often yield motifs of weak predictive power. Here we present a novel computational algorithm called MotifSpec, designed to find predictive motifs, in contrast to over-represented sequence elements. The key distinguishing feature of this algorithm is that it uses a dynamic search space and a learned threshold to find discriminative motifs in combination with the modeling of motifs using a full PWM (position weight matrix rather than k-mer words or regular expressions. We demonstrate that our approach finds motifs corresponding to known binding specificities in several mammalian ChIP-seq datasets, and that our PWMs classify the ChIP-seq signals with accuracy comparable to, or marginally better than motifs from the best existing algorithms. In other datasets, our algorithm identifies novel motifs where other methods fail. Finally, we apply this algorithm to detect motifs from expression datasets in C. elegans using a dynamic expression similarity metric rather than fixed expression clusters, and find novel predictive motifs.

  20. Genetic Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in Genetics Archive Regulation of Genetic Tests Genetic Discrimination Overview Many Americans fear that participating in research ... I) and employment (Title II). Read more Genetic Discrimination and Other Laws Genetic Discrimination and Other Laws ...

  1. Natural entropy fluctuations discriminate similar looking electric signals emitted from systems of different dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Varotsos, P A; Skordas, E S; Lazaridou, M S

    2005-01-01

    Complexity measures are introduced, that quantify the change of the natural entropy fluctuations at different length scales in time-series emitted from systems operating far from equilibrium. They identify impending sudden cardiac death (SD) by analyzing fifteen minutes electrocardiograms, and comparing to those of truly healthy humans (H). These measures seem to be complementary to the ones suggested recently [Phys. Rev. E {\\bf 70}, 011106 (2004)] and altogether enable the classification of individuals into three categories: H, heart disease patients and SD. All the SD individuals, who exhibit critical dynamics, result in a common behavior.

  2. ECONOMIC DYNAMICS OF THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA IN THE CONTEXT OF EUROPEAN INTEGRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor PRISAC

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an analysis of the economic evolution of the Republic of Moldova by defining three evolution and development periods in the regional and global context. Studying the perspectives of integration into the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS economy, on one hand, and European integration, on the other hand, is another objective of this chapter. The analysis of the investment climate, the business environment and the foreign trade has a major contribution to the perception of the economic dynamics of the Republic of Moldova. Another research direction of this paper is the analysis of the economic reform efforts undertaken by the government and their impact on the economic system of the Republic of Moldova. The research methodology includes a classical approach, such as methods of comparative, historical-analytical, systemic analysis and quantitative and qualitative analysis.

  3. Ultra-Relativistic Magneto-Hydro-Dynamic Jets in the context of Gamma Ray Bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Fendt, C; Fendt, Christian; Ouyed, Rachid

    2004-01-01

    We present a detailed numerical study of the dynamics and evolution of ultrarelativistic magnetohydrodynamic jets in the black hole-disk system under extreme magnetization conditions. We find that Lorentz factors of up to 3000 are achieved and derived a modifiedMichel scaling (Gamma ~ sigma) which allows for a wide variation in the flow Lorentz factor. Pending contamination induced by mass-entrainment, the linear Michel scaling links modulations in the ultrarelativistic wind to variations in mass accretion in the disk for a given magnetization. The jet is asymptotically dominated by the toroidal magnetic field allowing for efficient collimation. We discuss our solutions (jets) in the context of Gamma ray bursts and describe the relevant features such as the high variability in the Lorentz factor and how high collimation angles (~ 0-5 degrees), or cylindrical jets, can be achieved. We isolate a jet instability mechanism we refer to as the "bottle-neck" instability which essentially relies on a high magnetizati...

  4. Task and Context Sensitive Gripper Design Learning Using Dynamic Grasp Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolniakowski, Adam; Miatliuk, Konstantsin; Gosiewski, Z.

    2017-01-01

    given a CAD model of an object and a task description. These quality indices are then used to learn task-specific finger designs based on dynamic simulation. We demonstrate our gripper optimization on a parallel finger type gripper described by twelve parameters. We furthermore present a parametrization......In this work, we present a generic approach to optimize the design of a parametrized robot gripper including both selected gripper mechanism parameters, and parameters of the finger geometry. We suggest six gripper quality indices that indicate different aspects of the performance of a gripper...... for different task contexts. We provide a qualitative evaluation of the obtained results based on existing design guidelines and our engineering experience. In addition, we show that with our method we achieve superior alignment properties compared to a naive approach with a cutout based on the “inverse...

  5. Response dynamics and tilt versus translation discrimination in parietoinsular vestibular cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sheng; Dickman, J David; Angelaki, Dora E

    2011-03-01

    The parietoinsular vestibular cortex (PIVC) is a large area in the lateral sulcus with neurons that respond to vestibular stimulation. Here we compare the properties of PIVC cells with those of neurons in brain stem, cerebellum, and thalamus. Most PIVC cells modulated during both translational and rotational head motion. Translation acceleration gains showed a modest decrease as stimulus frequency increased, with a steeper slope than that reported previously for thalamic and cerebellar nuclei neurons. Response dynamics during yaw rotation were similar to those reported for vestibular neurons in brain stem and thalamus: velocity gains were relatively flat through the mid-frequency range, increased at high frequencies, and decreased at low frequencies. Tilt dynamics were more variable: PIVC neurons responsive only to rotation had gains that decreased with increased frequency, whereas neurons responsive during both translation and rotation (convergent neurons) actually increased their modulation magnitude at high frequencies. Using combinations of translation and tilt, most PIVC neurons were better correlated with translational motion; only 14% were better correlated with net acceleration. Thus, although yaw rotation responses in PIVC appear little processed compared with other central vestibular neurons, translation and tilt responses suggest a further processing of linear acceleration signals in thalamocortical circuits.

  6. Dynamic "inline" images: context-sensitive retrieval and integration of images into Web documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Charles E

    2008-09-01

    Integrating relevant images into web-based information resources adds value for research and education. This work sought to evaluate the feasibility of using "Web 2.0" technologies to dynamically retrieve and integrate pertinent images into a radiology web site. An online radiology reference of 1,178 textual web documents was selected as the set of target documents. The ARRS GoldMiner image search engine, which incorporated 176,386 images from 228 peer-reviewed journals, retrieved images on demand and integrated them into the documents. At least one image was retrieved in real-time for display as an "inline" image gallery for 87% of the web documents. Each thumbnail image was linked to the full-size image at its original web site. Review of 20 randomly selected Collaborative Hypertext of Radiology documents found that 69 of 72 displayed images (96%) were relevant to the target document. Users could click on the "More" link to search the image collection more comprehensively and, from there, link to the full text of the article. A gallery of relevant radiology images can be inserted easily into web pages on any web server. Indexing by concepts and keywords allows context-aware image retrieval, and searching by document title and subject metadata yields excellent results. These techniques allow web developers to incorporate easily a context-sensitive image gallery into their documents.

  7. Techniques for avoiding discrimination errors in the dynamic sampling of condensable vapors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, K. A.

    1983-01-01

    In the mass spectrometric sampling of dynamic systems, measurements of the relative concentrations of condensable and noncondensable vapors can be significantly distorted if some subtle, but important, instrumental factors are overlooked. Even with in situ measurements, the condensables are readily lost to the container walls, and the noncondensables can persist within the vacuum chamber and yield a disproportionately high output signal. Where single pulses of vapor are sampled this source of error is avoided by gating either the mass spectrometer ""on'' or the data acquisition instrumentation ""on'' only during the very brief time-window when the initial vapor cloud emanating directly from the vapor source passes through the ionizer. Instrumentation for these techniques is detailed and its effectiveness is demonstrated by comparing gated and nongated spectra obtained from the pulsed-laser vaporization of several materials.

  8. ANALYSIS DYNAMICS VALUES FORMULATION IN THE CONTEXT OF THE BUSINESS ORGANIZATION’ S MISSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Costel Esi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The economic activity goals reveal a number of aspects which express the need for re-evaluating the way in which the dynamics analysis values may be correlated with the wording business mission. Under these conditions, managerial undertaken strategies at the level of business may be validated in so far as they reveal purpose/ objectives assumed/ undertaken by decision makers (particularly top-managers. Moreover, compliance with eligibility criteria according to which management strategies are reflected, should be aimed at in our opinion improving decision-making process. But such a decision-making process involves an understanding of the judicious economic actors/ labor with regard to the way in which it is possible to analyze the dynamics values in relation to formulation  of  business organization's mission. In these circumstances, a first objective of this research is analysis dynamics values in the context of formulation of business mission. In this way, by this approach, we strive to show you those conditionings that make it possible formulation of business mission in relation to organizational culture.  On the other hand, a second objective that we have in view is given of the way in which is to bring about the process of defining and statement of organizational mission, a process linked to the size of axiological mission statement of business organization. This status as a matter of fact, in the light of the analysis we take into account,  a business model in which the objectives, strategies, organization mission business become materialized in so far as that contextuality  venture is validated in relation to socio-economic prospects. Therefore, the existence of phenomena such as social and economic situation involves a series of connections between different levels of displacing of the organization of business which provides, in fact, its legitimacy

  9. Dynamics of wages in the region and the problem of measurement of wages in the context of economic instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Gordeev

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the analysis of current state and basic tendencies in the dynamics of wages. The authors consider the basic contradictions in the context of establishment of the market institution of wages in the subjects of the Russian Federation. The dynamics of wages is appraised on the basis of the tax accounting of the regions. This approach, according to the authors, allows reflecting the current processes in the sphere of remuneration of labor in the context of economic instability more objectively.

  10. 基于动态规划算法的最优 Context 量化器设计%Optimized Context Quantizer Design Based on Dynamic Programming Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王付艳; 卜春芬; 陈旻

    2015-01-01

    提出一种针对多进制信源的最优 Context 量化器设计方法。该方法不仅综合考虑了量化前后条件概率分布的相似性,同时又将条件位符号的取值相关性作为量化合并的依据,从而使得量化后的 Context 模型能够最大限度地利用信源间相关性,然后动态规划算法被应用于合并相似的条件概率分布,从而实现 Context量化。最后量化器被用于图像的小波压缩编码应用。实验结果表明,量化器能够获得与其他优化量化器相近甚至更好的压缩效果。%The optimal Context quantizer design method aiming at multi-system information sources was put forward.This method not only focused on the similarity of conditional probability distribution before and after quantization,but at the same time,takes the value correlation of conditional source symbols as the gist of quantization combination so as to use greatly information source correlation of Con-text model after quantization.Then the dynamic programming algorithm was used to merge similar conditional probability distribution to realize Context quantization.Last,the quantizer was used into image wavelet compression coding application.The experiment results show that the quantizer can obtain the similar or even better compression effect compared with others.

  11. Analysis of the Difficulty and Discrimination Indices of Multiple-Choice Questions According to Cognitive Levels in an Open and Distance Learning Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koçdar, Serpil; Karadag, Nejdet; Sahin, Murat Dogan

    2016-01-01

    This is a descriptive study which intends to determine whether the difficulty and discrimination indices of the multiple-choice questions show differences according to cognitive levels of the Bloom's Taxonomy, which are used in the exams of the courses in a business administration bachelor's degree program offered through open and distance…

  12. Testing a Model of Women's Personal Sense of Justice, Control, Well-Being, and Distress in the Context of Sexist Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Ann R.; Bolton Holz, Kenna

    2010-01-01

    Popular media convey notions that the United States is a postfeminist culture, where sexism is a thing of the past and gender equality prevails. Empirical data suggest otherwise. Further, links between group-based discrimination and psychological distress have been well documented (e.g., in bisexual and gay Latino men, African Americans, Asian…

  13. Combining point context and dynamic time warping for online gesture recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xia; Li, Chen

    2017-05-01

    Previous gesture recognition methods usually focused on recognizing gestures after the entire gesture sequences were obtained. However, in many practical applications, a system has to identify gestures before they end to give instant feedback. We present an online gesture recognition approach that can realize early recognition of unfinished gestures with low latency. First, a curvature buffer-based point context (CBPC) descriptor is proposed to extract the shape feature of a gesture trajectory. The CBPC descriptor is a complete descriptor with a simple computation, and thus has its superiority in online scenarios. Then, we introduce an online windowed dynamic time warping algorithm to realize online matching between the ongoing gesture and the template gestures. In the algorithm, computational complexity is effectively decreased by adding a sliding window to the accumulative distance matrix. Lastly, the experiments are conducted on the Australian sign language data set and the Kinect hand gesture (KHG) data set. Results show that the proposed method outperforms other state-of-the-art methods especially when gesture information is incomplete.

  14. Dynamic monitoring and prediction of Dianchi Lake cyanobacteria outbreaks in the context of rapid urbanization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yi; Yang, Kun; Yu, Zhenyu; Chen, Junyi; Xu, Yufei; Zhou, Xiaolu; Yang, Yang

    2017-02-01

    Water crises have been among the most serious environmental problems worldwide since the twenty-first century. A water crisis is marked by a severe shortage of water resources and deteriorating water quality. As an important component of water resources, lake water quality has deteriorated rapidly in the context of fast urbanization and climate change. This deterioration has altered the water ecosystem structure and influenced lake functionality. To curb these trends, various strategies and procedures have been used in many urban lakes. Among these procedures, accurate and responsive water environment monitoring is the basis of the forecasting and prevention of large-scale cyanobacteria outbreaks and improvement of water quality. To dynamically monitor and predict the outbreak of cyanobacteria in Dianchi Lake, in this study, wireless sensors networks (WSNs) and the geographic information system (GIS) are used to monitor water quality at the macro-scale and meso-scale. Historical, real-time water quality and weather condition data were collected, and a combination prediction model (adaptive grey model (AGM) and back propagation artificial neural network (BPANN)) was proposed. The correlation coefficient (R) of the simulation experiment reached 0.995. Moreover, we conducted an empirical experiment in Dianchi Lake, Yunnan, China using the proposed method. R was 0.93, and the predicting error was 4.77. The results of the experiment suggest that our model has good performance for water quality prediction and can forecast cyanobacteria outbreaks. This system provides responsive forewarning and data support for lake protection and pollution control.

  15. Trust and community: Exploring the meanings, contexts and dynamics of community renewable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Gordon, E-mail: g.p.walker@lancaster.ac.u [University of Lancaster, Department of Geography, Lancaster LA1 4YN (United Kingdom); Devine-Wright, Patrick [University of Manchester, School of Environment and Development, Humanities Bridgeford Street Building, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Hunter, Sue; High, Helen; Evans, Bob [University of Lancaster, Department of Geography, Lancaster LA1 4YN (United Kingdom); University of Manchester, School of Environment and Development, Humanities Bridgeford Street Building, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2010-06-15

    Community renewable energy projects have recently been promoted and supported in the UK by government policy. A community approach, it is argued in the rhetoric of both government and grassroots activists will change the experience and outcomes of the energy sustainable technology implementation. In this paper, we consider how interpersonal and social trust is implicated in the different meanings given to community in RE programmes and projects, and in the qualities and outcomes that are implied or assumed by taking a community approach. We examine how these meanings play out in examples of projects on the ground, focusing on two contrasting cases in which the relationships between those involved locally have exhibited different patterns of cohesiveness and fracture. We argue that trust does have a necessary part to play in the contingencies and dynamics of community RE projects and in the outcomes they can achieve. Trust between local people and groups that take projects forward is part of the package of conditions which can help projects work. Whilst trust may therefore be functional for the development of community RE and potentially can be enhanced by the adoption of a community approach, this cannot be either assured or assumed under the wide diversity of contexts, conditions and arrangements under which community RE is being pursued and practiced.

  16. Religious Affiliation and Fertility in a Sub-Saharan Context: Dynamic and Lifetime Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agadjanian, Victor; Yabiku, Scott T

    2014-10-01

    We use uniquely detailed data from a predominantly Christian high-fertility area in Mozambique to examine denominational differentials in fertility from two complementary perspectives-dynamic and cumulative. First, we use event-history analysis to predict yearly risks of birth from denominational affiliation. Then, we employ Poisson regression to model the association between the number of children ever born and share of reproductive life spent in particular denominations or outside organized religion. Both approaches detect a significant increase in fertility associated with membership in a particular type of African-initiated churches which is characterized by strong organizational identity, rigid hierarchy, and insular corporate culture. Membership in the Catholic Church is also associated with elevated completed fertility. We relate these results to extant theoretical perspectives on the relationship between religion and fertility by stressing the interplay between ideological, social, and organizational characteristics of different types of churches and situate our findings within the context of fertility transition and religious demographics in Mozambique and elsewhere in sub-Saharan Africa.

  17. Identification and discrimination of patterns of dynamical influences within the climate system by means of complex network approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donner, R. V.

    2014-12-01

    Complex network theory provides a powerful toolbox for studying the structure of statistical interrelationships between multiple time series. In this work, we demonstrate how networks constructed from fields of climatological observables like surface air temperatures, geopotential height or vertically integrated moisture divergence can be used for characterizing the evolving spatio-temporal correlation structure of the Earth's climate system and the time-dependent coupling between different variables. As a first application, we study the temporal variability of several network characteristics based on global surface air temperature data. The corresponding evolving climate network properties provide a functional discrimination between different large-scale climatological situations associated with different phases of the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO), as well as reorganizations of dynamical similarity patterns following localized perturbations of the global climate system after strong volcanic eruptions. As a particular application, we demonstrate the distinction between the two previously known El Nino types based on global climate network properties and discuss implications for the possible existence of different La Nina types. A second example concerns the spatio-temporal organization of strong evapotranspiration events over South America. By constructing climate networks based on the synchronicity of extreme values in the vertically integrated moisture flux at different locations, we obtain distinct spatial patterns associated with the organization of strong atmospheric upwelling events. Again, our results exhibit a distinct imprint of the phasing of ENSO. Finally, we demonstrate how the climate network approach can be extended to studying the interaction structure between two climatological fields. As an example, we discuss the cross-linkage structure of mid-to-high latitude northern hemispheric ocean-atmosphere interactions during summer and winter

  18. A dynamic and context-aware semantic mediation service for discovering and fusion of heterogeneous sensor data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Bakillah

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Sensors play an increasingly critical role in capturing and distributing observation of phenomena in our environment. The Semantic Sensor Web enables interoperability to support various applications that use data made available by semantically heterogeneous sensor services. However, several challenges still need to be addressed to achieve this vision. More particularly, mechanisms that can support context-aware semantic mapping that adapts to dynamic metadata of sensors are required. Semantic mapping for Sensor Web is required to support sensor data fusion, sensor data discovery and retrieval, and automatic semantic annotation, to name only a few applications. This paper presents a context-aware ontology-based semantic mediation service for heterogeneous sensor services. The semantic mediation service is context-aware and dynamic because it takes into account the real-time variability of thematic, spatial and temporal features that describe sensor data in different contexts. The semantic mediation service integrates rule-based reasoning to support resolution of semantic heterogeneities. An application scenario is presented showing how the semantic mediation service can improve sensor data interpretation, reuse, and sharing in static and dynamic settings.

  19. Local Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Schlenker

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic approach posits that a presupposition must be satisfied in its local context. But how is a local context derived from the global one? Extant dynamic analyses must specify in the lexical entry of any operator what its 'Context Change Potential' is, and for this very reason they fail to be sufficiently explanatory. To circumvent the problem, we revise two assumptions of the dynamic approach: we take the update process to be derivative from a classical, non-dynamic semantics -- which obviates the need for dynamic lexical entries; and we deny that a local context encodes what the speech act participants 'take for granted.' Instead, we take the local context of an expression E in a sentence S to be the smallest domain that one may restrict attention to when assessing E without jeopardizing the truth conditions of S. To match the results of dynamic semantics, local contexts must be computed incrementally, using only information about the expressions that precede E. This version of the theory can be shown to be nearly equivalent to the dynamic theory of Heim 1983 -- but unlike the latter, it is entirely predictive. We also suggest that local contexts can, at some cost, be computed symmetrically, taking into account information about all of S (except E; this leads to gradient predictions, whose assessment is left for future research. doi:10.3765/sp.2.3 BibTeX info

  20. Predicting dynamic range and intensity discrimination for electrical pulse-train stimuli using a stochastic auditory nerve model: the effects of stimulus noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yifang; Collins, Leslie M

    2005-06-01

    This work investigates dynamic range and intensity discrimination for electrical pulse-train stimuli that are modulated by noise using a stochastic auditory nerve model. Based on a hypothesized monotonic relationship between loudness and the number of spikes elicited by a stimulus, theoretical prediction of the uncomfortable level has previously been determined by comparing spike counts to a fixed threshold, Nucl. However, no specific rule for determining Nucl has been suggested. Our work determines the uncomfortable level based on the excitation pattern of the neural response in a normal ear. The number of fibers corresponding to the portion of the basilar membrane driven by a stimulus at an uncomfortable level in a normal ear is related to Nucl at an uncomfortable level of the electrical stimulus. Intensity discrimination limens are predicted using signal detection theory via the probability mass function of the neural response and via experimental simulations. The results show that the uncomfortable level for pulse-train stimuli increases slightly as noise level increases. Combining this with our previous threshold predictions, we hypothesize that the dynamic range for noise-modulated pulse-train stimuli should increase with additive noise. However, since our predictions indicate that intensity discrimination under noise degrades, overall intensity coding performance may not improve significantly.

  1. Context trees

    OpenAIRE

    Ganzinger, Harald; Nieuwenhuis, Robert; Nivela, Pilar

    2001-01-01

    Indexing data structures are well-known to be crucial for the efficiency of the current state-of-the-art theorem provers. Examples are \\emph{discrimination trees}, which are like tries where terms are seen as strings and common prefixes are shared, and \\emph{substitution trees}, where terms keep their tree structure and all common \\emph{contexts} can be shared. Here we describe a new indexing data structure, \\emph{context trees}, where, by means of a limited kind of conte...

  2. Architecture of firm dynamic capabilities across inter-organizational activities: Explaining innovativeness in the context of nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petricevic, Olga

    In this dissertation I first develop a theoretical framework that explores different components of dynamic capabilities related to firm's boundary-spanning linkages across two different types of inter-organizational activities---alliances and networks. I argue that there are four different subsets of dynamic capabilities simultaneously at work: alliance opportunity-sensing, alliance opportunity-seizing, network opportunity-sensing and network opportunity-seizing. Furthermore, I argue that there are significant interaction effects between these distinctive subsets driving the firm's overall effectiveness in sensing and seizing of novel and innovative external opportunities. In order to explore potential interdependencies and draw distinctions among different dynamic capability subsets I integrate concepts from the two theoretical perspectives that often neglect the emphasis of the other---the dynamic capability view and the social network perspective. I then test the hypothesized relationships in the context of firms actively patenting in nanotechnology. Nanotechnology innovations are multidisciplinary in nature and require search and discovery across multiple inter-organizational, scientific, geographic, industry, or technological domains by a particular firm. The findings offer support for the conceptualizations of dynamic capabilities as consisting of distinct subsets of capabilities for the sensing and the seizing of external new-knowledge opportunities. The findings suggest that firm's innovativeness in an interdisciplinary scientific field such as nanotechnology is the function of the vector of multi-dimensional dynamic capabilities that are context-specific. Furthermore, the findings also suggest that there are inherent trade-offs embedded in different dimensions of dynamic capabilities when deployed across a wide range of inter-organizational relationships.

  3. Binding neutral information to emotional contexts: Brain dynamics of long-term recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura-Bort, Carlos; Löw, Andreas; Wendt, Julia; Moltó, Javier; Poy, Rosario; Dolcos, Florin; Hamm, Alfons O; Weymar, Mathias

    2016-04-01

    There is abundant evidence in memory research that emotional stimuli are better remembered than neutral stimuli. However, effects of an emotionally charged context on memory for associated neutral elements is also important, particularly in trauma and stress-related disorders, where strong memories are often activated by neutral cues due to their emotional associations. In the present study, we used event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate long-term recognition memory (1-week delay) for neutral objects that had been paired with emotionally arousing or neutral scenes during encoding. Context effects were clearly evident in the ERPs: An early frontal ERP old/new difference (300-500 ms) was enhanced for objects encoded in unpleasant compared to pleasant and neutral contexts; and a late central-parietal old/new difference (400-700 ms) was observed for objects paired with both pleasant and unpleasant contexts but not for items paired with neutral backgrounds. Interestingly, objects encoded in emotional contexts (and novel objects) also prompted an enhanced frontal early (180-220 ms) positivity compared to objects paired with neutral scenes indicating early perceptual significance. The present data suggest that emotional--particularly unpleasant--backgrounds strengthen memory for items encountered within these contexts and engage automatic and explicit recognition processes. These results could help in understanding binding mechanisms involved in the activation of trauma-related memories by neutral cues.

  4. The relative weight of shape and non-rigid motion cues in object perception: a model of the parameters underlying dynamic object discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuong, Quoc C; Friedman, Alinda; Read, Jenny C A

    2012-03-16

    Shape and motion are two dominant cues for object recognition, but it can be difficult to investigate their relative quantitative contribution to the recognition process. In the present study, we combined shape and non-rigid motion morphing to investigate the relative contributions of both types of cues to the discrimination of dynamic objects. In Experiment 1, we validated a novel parameter-based motion morphing technique using a single-part three-dimensional object. We then combined shape morphing with the novel motion morphing technique to pairs of multipart objects to create a joint shape and motion similarity space. In Experiment 2, participants were shown pairs of morphed objects from this space and responded "same" on the basis of motion-only, shape-only, or both cues. Both cue types influenced judgments: When responding to only one cue, the other cue could be ignored, although shape cues were more difficult to ignore. When responding on the basis of both cues, there was an overall bias to weight shape cues more than motion cues. Overall, our results suggest that shape influences discrimination more than motion even when both cue types have been made quantitatively equivalent in terms of their individual discriminability.

  5. The Discriminant Analysis: an Exploratory Study Concerning the Degree of Financial Autonomy of Companies in the Context of the Romanian Business Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinela Mironiuc

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at analyzing the evolution of financial autonomy on a sample of 80 companies quoted in the Bucharest Stock Exchange, between 2006-2008. Classically, financial autonomy is measured using the global and day-to-day rates of financial autonomy. However, this study has tested the dependency between the global rate of financial autonomy (Own Capital/ Total debts and a series of economic and financial indicators, with the purpose of obtaining both a score function that would help making a classification of the companies subject to our analysis, in performance groups (companies with a high financial autonomy, companies with a medium financial autonomy, companies with a low financial autonomy, and companies with no financial autonomy, and quantifying the influence of the relative variations of these economic and financial indicators on the relative variation of financial autonomy. In order to calculate the results, the statistic instrument SPSS 15.0 was used, and the work method was the discriminant analysis and the regression and multiple correlation analysis.

  6. Enhancement of Wide-Area Service Discovery using Dynamic Context Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Rasmus Løvenstein

    Eksisterende service discovery løsninger kan i dag ikke levere informationer om hvorvidt fundne services nu også er relevante for brugeren, hvorom denne afhandling omhandler hvorledes man kan forbedre service discovery ved brug af context informationer. De væsentligste dele af projektet omhandler 1......) modellering af tilgang til dynamisk informationer i distribuerede netværk med henblik på ydelsesanalyse af netværkstraffik, tilgangstider og såakaldt mismatch probability, 2) system koncepter der tillader context sensitive service discovery og 3) evaluering af implementeret prototype....

  7. Context-sensitive dynamic ordinal regression for intensity estimation of facial action units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rudovic, Ognjen; Pavlovic, Vladimir; Pantic, Maja

    2015-01-01

    Modeling intensity of facial action units from spontaneously displayed facial expressions is challenging mainly because of high variability in subject-specific facial expressiveness, head-movements, illumination changes, etc. These factors make the target problem highly context-sensitive. However, e

  8. Context-sensitive Dynamic Ordinal Regression for Intensity Estimation of Facial Action Units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rudovic, Ognjen; Pavlovic, Vladimir; Pantic, Maja

    2015-01-01

    Modeling intensity of facial action units from spontaneously displayed facial expressions is challenging mainly because of high variability in subject-specific facial expressiveness, head-movements, illumination changes, etc. These factors make the target problem highly context-sensitive. However,

  9. Does Santa Exist? Children's Everyday Narratives as Dynamic Meeting Places in a Day Care Centre Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puroila, Anna-Maija; Estola, Eila; Syrjala, Leena

    2012-01-01

    The article attempts to answer the question: What is the nature of children's everyday narratives in a day care centre context? The theoretical framework of this study is based on a narrative approach. The research material was gathered through applying the methodology of narrative ethnography. The article is based on observational material…

  10. Global Innovation Systems—A conceptual framework for innovation dynamics in transnational contexts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binz, Christian; Truffer, Bernhard

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a framework for the analysis of technological innovation processes in transnational contexts. By drawing on existing innovation system concepts and recent elaborations on the globalization of innovation, we develop a multi-scalar conceptualization of innovation systems. Two key

  11. Landscape context affects use of restored grasslands by mammals in a dynamic agroecosystem

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Berry, Brian; Schooley, Robert L; Ward, Michael P

    2017-01-01

    ... agroecosystem in Illinois from 2014 to 2015. We tested hypotheses about the effects of local habitat conditions and landscape context on use of restored grasslands by four focal species: raccoons (Proryon lotor), eastern cottontails (Sylvilagus floridanus), coyotes (Canis latrans), and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Most species showed s...

  12. Nonlinear dynamic response analysis of localized damaged laminated composite structures in the context of component mode synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudi, S.; Trivaudey, F.; Bouhaddi, N.

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study is the prediction of the dynamic response of damaged laminated composite structures in the context of component mode synthesis. Hence, a method of damage localization of complex structures is proposed. The dynamic behavior of transversely isotropic layers is expressed through elasticity coupled with damage based on an existing macro model for cracked structures. The damage is located only in some regions of the whole structure, which is decomposed on substructures. The incremental linear dynamic governing equations are obtained by using the classical linear Kirchhoff-Love theory of plates. Then, considering the damage-induced nonlinearity, the obtained nonlinear dynamic equations are solved in time domain. However, a detailed finite element modelling of such structure on the scale of localized damage would generate very high computational costs. To reduce this cost, Component Mode Synthesis method (CMS) is used for modelling a nonlinear fine-scale substructure damaged, connected to linear dynamic models of the remaining substructures, which can be condensed and not updated at each iteration. Numerical results show that the mechanical properties of the structure highly change when damage is taken into account. Under an impact load, damage increases and reaches its highest value with the maximum of the applied load and then remains unchanged. Besides, the eigenfrequencies of the damaged structure decrease comparing with those of an undamaged one. This methodology can be used for monitoring strategies and lifetime estimations of hybrid complex structures due to the damage state is known in space and time.

  13. Some dynamic generalized information measures in the context of weighted models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Maya

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study some dynamic generalized information measures between a true distribution and an observed (weighted distribution, useful in life length studies. Further, some bounds and inequalities related to these measures are also studied.

  14. Some dynamic generalized information measures in the context of weighted models

    OpenAIRE

    S. S. Maya; S. M. Sunoj

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we study some dynamic generalized information measures between a true distribution and an observed (weighted) distribution, useful in life length studies. Further, some bounds and inequalities related to these measures are also studied.

  15. Spatial discrimination and visual discrimination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haagensen, Annika M. J.; Grand, Nanna; Klastrup, Signe

    2013-01-01

    Two methods investigating learning and memory in juvenile Gottingen minipigs were evaluated for potential use in preclinical toxicity testing. Twelve minipigs were tested using a spatial hole-board discrimination test including a learning phase and two memory phases. Five minipigs were tested...... in a visual discrimination test. The juvenile minipigs were able to learn the spatial hole-board discrimination test and showed improved working and reference memory during the learning phase. Performance in the memory phases was affected by the retention intervals, but the minipigs were able to remember...... the concept of the test in both memory phases. Working memory and reference memory were significantly improved in the last trials of the memory phases. In the visual discrimination test, the minipigs learned to discriminate between the three figures presented to them within 9-14 sessions. For the memory test...

  16. Dynamic Processes of Speech Development by Seven Adult Learners of Japanese in a Domestic Immersion Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Makiko

    2014-01-01

    The present study revealed the dynamic process of speech development in a domestic immersion program by seven adult beginning learners of Japanese. The speech data were analyzed with fluency, accuracy, and complexity measurements at group, interindividual, and intraindividual levels. The results revealed the complex nature of language development…

  17. A theory and dynamic model of dyadic interaction : Concerns, appraisals, and contagiousness in a developmental context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbeek, Henderien W.; van Geert, Paul L. C.

    A theory of the dynamics of dyadic interaction is presented, based on the concepts of "concern" (i.e., intentions, goals, and interests), "appraisal" and "contagiousness". Differences between children who participate in a specific interaction are linked to differences in social competence and social

  18. Dynamic Processes of Speech Development by Seven Adult Learners of Japanese in a Domestic Immersion Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Makiko

    2014-01-01

    The present study revealed the dynamic process of speech development in a domestic immersion program by seven adult beginning learners of Japanese. The speech data were analyzed with fluency, accuracy, and complexity measurements at group, interindividual, and intraindividual levels. The results revealed the complex nature of language development…

  19. Phase field modelling of dynamic thermal fracture in the context of irradiation damage

    CERN Document Server

    Schlüter, Alexander; Müller, Ralf; Tomut, Marilena; Trautmann , Christina; Weick, Helmut; Plate, Carolin

    2015-01-01

    This work presents a continuum mechanics approach to model fracturing processes in brittle materials that are subjected to rapidly applied high-temperature gradients. Such a type of loading typically occurs when a solid is exposed to an intense high-energy particle beam that deposits a large amount of energy into a small sample volume. Given the rapid energy deposition leading to a fast temperature increase, dynamic effects have to be considered. Our existing phase field model for dynamic fracture is thus extended in a way that allows modelling of thermally induced fracture. A finite element scheme is employed to solve the governing partial differential equations numerically. Finally, the functionality of our model is illustrated by two examples.

  20. Infant expressions of aggressiveness in educational context. Interpretation from dynamic psychology and family relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Victoria Londoño

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is a product of the research interdisciplinary perspectives of intervention with families. Case of Medellin and the Municipality of Rionegro. An understanding from Psychology, Education and Families. It Describes children’s speeches on the phenomenon of aggression, experienced in the school Colegio Bello Oriente in Medellin. Its aim is to detail roles and limits in families where there are children who behave aggressively in educational settings. The methodological approach was qualitative research. The results show an understanding of children’s aggression from the theoretical perspective of dynamic psychology, and an analysis of the roles and limits as dimensions of family dynamics in which children. In conclusion, it can be said that the children can take responsibility for their aggressive behavior and process symbolically this aggressiveness when they find appropriate mechanisms in their families and educational institutions. © Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Sociales.

  1. [Family dynamics and chronic illness: children with diabetes in the context of their families].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirlach-Bartosik, S; Schubert, M T; Freilinger, M; Schober, E

    2005-01-01

    The present study is based on the assumption of an interaction between family functioning and chronic illness. Using a systemic approach, the intra-familial situation of families with a diabetes-affected child is examined. 44 families were evaluated using a family diagnostic instrument ("Familienbögen") and compared with 31 control families with a healthy child. Furthermore, the study looked at the influence of the level of family functioning on glycemic control, as measured by HbA1c values, and vice versa. Families with a child affected by diabetes showed significantly more dysfunctional domains and higher discrepancies of the ratings in the family diagnostic instrument (p family functioning and glycemic control was found. Poor glycemic control therefore did not have any negative effects on the family dynamics, in fact, the opposite was often the case. Also, the relationship between siblings was judged more positively when one of the siblings was chronically ill (p familial dynamics, it may, at the same time, offer opportunities for an improvement of family relationships. However, if physiological parameters deteriorate in the child (poor glycemic control), family problems seem to become less important. Success in the treatment of diabetes patients should therefore not only be measured by the quality of glycemic control, but also by considering psychological factors and aspects of family dynamics.

  2. Theoretical aspects of synthetic measurement of the development dynamics in the context of city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbyszko Pawlak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available  Background:  The paper presents the theoretical basis for the proposal of modeling of the dynamics of the modern cities’ development by the use of a properly constructed synthetic indicator. Additionally to the possibility of the quantification of the development of social and economic systems of cities, its implementation allows the identification of nonlinear processes as phase transitions, which occur e.g. under influence of technological and social innovations. The economic and physical approach to this allows to learn more about the nature of these processes and to set new instruments supporting the management of urban areas in conditions of an increasing competiveness.  Methods: The mathematical modeling of social and economical processes and economical and physical approach to dynamics of systems of nonlinear development. Results and conclusions: Based on conducted simulation researches, it can be concluded that the synthetic measure of the development of urban areas can be a good tool supporting the city management by local authorities. The economical and physical approach to the nonlinear dynamics of urban systems marks out new areas for further researches, the determination of minimum required conditions (the necessary level for stimulation of the phase transition and the analysis of factors allowing to avoid the negative consequences of a phase transition, especially in smaller cities areas, seems to be the most important ones.  

  3. Discrimination of tectonic dynamism, quiescence and third order relative sea level cycles of the Cauvery Basin, South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramkumar Muthuvairavasamy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Application of integrated stratigraphic modeling of sedimentary basins with the help of sequence and chemostratigraphic methods for improved understanding on the relative roles of depositional pattern and history of a Barremian-Danian stratigraphic record of the Cauvery Basin, India was attempted. Through enumeration of facies characteristics, tectonic structures and geochemical characteristics of the sedimentary rocks the use of geochemical signatures in distinguishing the relative roles of major factors has been evaluated. The results indicate that the geochemical signatures of the sedimentary rocks accurately record the prevalent geological processes and an ability to distinguish them through employing stratigraphic variations of compositional values and discrimination diagrams help in understanding the basinal history better. In addition, predomination of relative sea level fluctuations and active nature of tectonic movements during few time slices, which in turn was overwhelmed by sea level fluctuations are also inferred.

  4. Context Aware Adaptive Service based Dynamic Channel Allocation Approach for Providing an Optimal QoS over MANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ayyasamy

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Large variations in network Quality of Service (QoS in terms of bandwidth, latency and jitter may occur during media transfer over mobile ad-hoc networks. Applications need to adapt their functionality according to dynamic change of their QoS update. This paper proposes an enhanced service based platform to provide adaptive network management services to higher level application layer components. The Context Aware Adaptive Service (COAAS is a middleware architecture for service adaptation based on ad hoc network and service awareness. COAAS is structured in such a way that it can provide QoS awareness to streaming applications as well manage dynamic ad hoc network resources using an adaptive channel allocation approach. The overall architecture of COAAS framework includes core components to connection establishment, connection monitor, connection controller and policy manager. Adaptive channel allocation defined as object based component helps in dynamic binding during run time implemented using JXTA and J2ME using CDC [15] toolkit to demonstrate the performance of a mobile setup as a conference application.

  5. Revisiting the Body-Schema Concept in the Context of Whole-Body Postural-Focal Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morasso, Pietro; Casadio, Maura; Mohan, Vishwanathan; Rea, Francesco; Zenzeri, Jacopo

    2015-01-01

    The body-schema concept is revisited in the context of embodied cognition, further developing the theory formulated by Marc Jeannerod that the motor system is part of a simulation network related to action, whose function is not only to shape the motor system for preparing an action (either overt or covert) but also to provide the self with information on the feasibility and the meaning of potential actions. The proposed computational formulation is based on a dynamical system approach, which is linked to an extension of the equilibrium-point hypothesis, called Passive Motor Paradigm: this dynamical system generates goal-oriented, spatio-temporal, sensorimotor patterns, integrating a direct and inverse internal model in a multi-referential framework. The purpose of such computational model is to operate at the same time as a general synergy formation machinery for planning whole-body actions in humanoid robots and/or for predicting coordinated sensory–motor patterns in human movements. In order to illustrate the computational approach, the integration of simultaneous, even partially conflicting tasks will be analyzed in some detail with regard to postural-focal dynamics, which can be defined as the fusion of a focal task, namely reaching a target with the whole-body, and a postural task, namely maintaining overall stability. PMID:25741274

  6. Stylized facts in microalgal growth: interpretation in a dynamic energy budget context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorena, António; Marques, Gonçalo M; Kooijman, S A L M; Sousa, Tânia

    2010-11-12

    A dynamic energy budget (DEB) model for microalgae is proposed. This model deviates from the standard DEB model as it needs more reserves to cope with the variation of assimilation pathways, requiring a different approach to growth based on the synthesizing unit (SU) theory for multiple substrates. It is shown that the model is able to accurately predict experimental data in constant and light-varying conditions with most of the parameter values taken directly from the literature. Also, model simulations are shown to be consistent with stylized facts (SFs) concerning NC ratio. These SFs are reinterpreted and the general conclusion is that all forcing variables (dilution rate, temperature and irradiance) impose changes in the nitrogen or carbon limitation status of the population, and consequently on reserve densities. Model predictions are also evaluated in comparison with SFs on chlorophyll concentration. It is proposed that an extra structure, more dependent on the nitrogen reserve, is required to accurately model chlorophyll dynamics. Finally, SFs concerning extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) production by benthic diatoms are collected and interpreted and a formulation based on product synthesis and rejection flux is proposed for the EPSs production rate.

  7. Rural Medicare Advantage Market Dynamics and Quality: Historical Context and Current Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, Leah; Barker, Abigail R; Wilber, Lyndsey; McBride, Timothy D; Mueller, Keith

    2016-07-01

    Purpose. In this policy brief, we assess variation in Medicare’s star quality ratings of Medicare Advantage (MA) plans that are available to rural beneficiaries. Evidence from the recent Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) quality demonstration suggests that market dynamics, i.e., firms entering and exiting the MA marketplace, play a role in quality improvement. Therefore, we also discuss how market dynamics may impact the smaller and less wealthy populations that are characteristic of rural places. Key Data Findings. (1) Highly rated MA plans serving rural Medicare beneficiaries are more likely to be health maintenance organizations (HMOs) and local preferred provider organizations (PPOs), as opposed to regional PPOs. HMOs and local PPOs may be better able to improve their quality scores strategically in response to the bonus payment incentive due to existing internal monitoring mechanisms. (2) On average, the rural enrollment rate is lower in plans with higher quality scores (59 percent) than the corresponding urban rate (71 percent). This differential is likely due, in part, to lack of availability of highly rated plans in rural areas: 17.8 percent of rural counties lacked access to a plan with four or more (out of five) stars, while just 3.7 percent of urban counties lacked such access. (3) MA plans with high quality scores have been operating longer, on average, and have a lower percentage of rural counties within their contract service areas than plans with lower quality scores.

  8. Researching One's Own Field. Interaction Dynamics and Methodological Challenges in the Context of Higher Education Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerlinde Malli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to quantitative approaches, where interaction effects are usually regarded as errors or disruption, we understand interviews as social situations and the interaction dynamics between interviewee and interviewer as constitutive for data collection and interpretation. We conducted interviews with various actors from the academic field for a research project in higher education research. Based on our field experience we assume that interviews also offer opportunities for the respondents to present themselves in a discursive process. In this article we first show that many of our interviewees perceived us as evaluators. We argue that the interviewees' self-presentations and rhetorical strategies were shaped by the evaluative and competitive environment in which they took place, i.e. that of the entrepreneurial university. Furthermore we sum up various types of interactive effects which can occur when researchers interview actors with a higher status in the academic field. These research up-effects as well as the interviewees' perception of us as evaluators influenced both how and what they told us as well as what they kept silent. Therefore we plead that researchers should look out more carefully for interaction dynamics when interpreting data, as they also might be pointers to tensions, conflicts or opposing perspectives. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1501111

  9. DYNAMIC MATHEMATICS SOFTWARE: A QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS IN THE CONTEXT OF THE PREPARATION OF MATH TEACHER

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    Olena V. Semenikhina

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The results of the pedagogical experiment to clarify the number of dynamic mathematics software, which modern math teacher should know, are described.Quantitative results of the questionnaire survey of math teachers concerning the use of DMS in the learning process are given. Thus, the preferences of the teachers are software Gran and GeoGebra, the preferences of the students are software GeoGebra and MathKit. It is noted that math teachers in determining the number of DMS, which they should know and be able to use in the future, notice 3-5 DMS and students, future math teachers, notice 5-7 DMS. Statistical processing of the results was made based on the sign test. It allowed to justify the conclusion, that the study of 5 DMS is needed, at the significance level of 0.05.

  10. [Family dynamics in the caring context of adults on the fourth age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polaro, Sandra Helena Isse; Gonçalves, Lucia Hisako Takase; Nassar, Silvia Modesto; Lopes, Márcia Maria Bragança; Ferreira, Viviane Ferraz; Monteiro, Hellen Karinna

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the pattern of family functioning on everyday care relationships of adults in the fourth age. This is a study of diagnostic-evaluative nature of adults with 80 or more years old who depend on care, and of their relatives as caregivers. The participants were selected among the registered patients of a Family Health Unit in a district in the suburbs of Belém-PA, Brazil. They were evaluated according to the dynamics of their family, and quality of life related health lifestyle. Most of the elderly rated their families with good functionality. However, data on the elderly and caregivers' quality of life and caregivers' life style only reached the median level, showing some difficulty in the family functioning system. It was concluded that the multiple results obtained through the assessments indicate some practical implications of care to the family unity and confirm the need for multidimensional assessment about the family intervention.

  11. Growth dynamics in the context of pediatric sports injuries and overuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwick, Ernst B; Kocher, Robert

    2014-11-01

    The onset and timing of the growth of children and adolescents occurs with considerable variability in cohorts of the same chronological age. The musculoskeletal system changes in proportion over time, and lever-arm changes, altered individual flexibility, and strength lead to age-specific injury patterns in youth sports. In sports, juniors are commonly grouped according to their chronological age. Early- and late-maturing children and adolescents might therefore not routinely be trained in relation to their biology. This not only represents a risk for overuse and injury but might limit their development in sports. To obtain information about the biological age of children is challenging. Numerous methods have been studied and validated. However, the implementation of these methods on a large scale is still to come. This report provides a brief overview of growth dynamics in relation to youth sports injuries and describes a few challenges for the future.

  12. Suppliers Dynamic Approach to Invest in R&D with Sunk Costs in Indian Contexts

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    Manoj KUMAR

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we test for the presence of sunk costs in suppliers’ R&D activities by analyzing the persistence of these activities using supplier level panel data. We develop and estimate a dynamic discrete choice model where each supplier’s current R&D expenditure is a function, among other factors, of its previous experience in performing R&D activities. The data used is a panel data of Indian suppliers, for the period 2003 - 2013. We find that prior R&D experience significantly affects the current decision to invest in R&D, and that, although important, the effect of prior R&D experience depreciates fairly quickly over time.

  13. Dynamical Modelling, Stochastic Simulation and Optimization in the Context of Damage Tolerant Design

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    Sergio Butkewitsch

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the situation in which some form of damage is induced by cyclic mechanical stresses yielded by the vibratory motion of a system whose dynamical behaviour is, in turn, affected by the evolution of the damage. It is assumed that both phenomena, vibration and damage propagation, can be modeled by means of time depended equations of motion whose coupled solution is sought. A brief discussion about the damage tolerant design philosophy for aircraft structures is presented at the introduction, emphasizing the importance of the accurate definition of inspection intervals and, for this sake, the need of a representative damage propagation model accounting for the actual loading environment in which a structure may operate. For the purpose of illustration, the finite element model of a cantilever beam is formulated, providing that the stiffness matrix can be updated as long as a crack of an assumed initial length spreads in a given location of the beam according to a proper propagation model. This way, it is possible to track how the mechanical vibration, through its varying amplitude stress field, activates and develops the fatigue failure mechanism. Conversely, it is also possible to address how the effect of the fatigue induced stiffness degradation influences the motion of the beam, closing the loop for the analysis of a coupled vibration-degradation dynamical phenomenon. In the possession of this working model, stochastic simulation of the beam behaviour is developed, aiming at the identification of the most influential parameters and at the characterization of the probability distributions of the relevant responses of interest. The knowledge of the parameters and responses allows for the formulation of optimization problems aiming at the improvement of the beam robustness with respect to the fatigue induced stiffness degradation. The overall results are presented and analyzed, conducting to the conclusions and outline of future

  14. DynaFace: Discrimination between Obligatory and Non-obligatory Protein-Protein Interactions Based on the Complex's Dynamics.

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    Seren Soner

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Protein-protein interfaces have been evolutionarily-designed to enable transduction between the interacting proteins. Thus, we hypothesize that analysis of the dynamics of the complex can reveal details about the nature of the interaction, and in particular whether it is obligatory, i.e., persists throughout the entire lifetime of the proteins, or not. Indeed, normal mode analysis, using the Gaussian network model, shows that for the most part obligatory and non-obligatory complexes differ in their decomposition into dynamic domains, i.e., the mobile elements of the protein complex. The dynamic domains of obligatory complexes often mix segments from the interacting chains, and the hinges between them do not overlap with the interface between the chains. In contrast, in non-obligatory complexes the interface often hinges between dynamic domains, held together through few anchor residues on one side of the interface that interact with their counterpart grooves in the other end. In automatic analysis, 117 of 139 obligatory (84.2% and 203 of 246 non-obligatory (82.5% complexes are correctly classified by our method: DynaFace. We further use DynaFace to predict obligatory and non-obligatory interactions among a set of 300 putative protein complexes. DynaFace is available at: http://safir.prc.boun.edu.tr/dynaface.

  15. Dynamics of animal movement in an ecological context: dragonfly wing damage reduces flight performance and predation success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combes, S A; Crall, J D; Mukherjee, S

    2010-06-23

    Much of our understanding of the control and dynamics of animal movement derives from controlled laboratory experiments. While many aspects of animal movement can be probed only in these settings, a more complete understanding of animal locomotion may be gained by linking experiments on relatively simple motions in the laboratory to studies of more complex behaviours in natural settings. To demonstrate the utility of this approach, we examined the effects of wing damage on dragonfly flight performance in both a laboratory drop-escape response and the more natural context of aerial predation. The laboratory experiment shows that hindwing area loss reduces vertical acceleration and average flight velocity, and the predation experiment demonstrates that this type of wing damage results in a significant decline in capture success. Taken together, these results suggest that wing damage may take a serious toll on wild dragonflies, potentially reducing both reproductive success and survival.

  16. Emotional insecurity about the community: A dynamic, within-person mediator of child adjustment in contexts of political violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, E Mark; Merrilees, Christine; Taylor, Laura K; Goeke-Morey, Marcie; Shirlow, Peter

    2017-02-01

    Over 1 billion children worldwide are exposed to political violence and armed conflict. The current conclusions are qualified by limited longitudinal research testing sophisticated process-oriented explanatory models for child adjustment outcomes. In this study, consistent with a developmental psychopathology perspective emphasizing the value of process-oriented longitudinal study of child adjustment in developmental and social-ecological contexts, we tested emotional insecurity about the community as a dynamic, within-person mediating process for relations between sectarian community violence and child adjustment. Specifically, this study explored children's emotional insecurity at a person-oriented level of analysis assessed over 5 consecutive years, with child gender examined as a moderator of indirect effects between sectarian community violence and child adjustment. In the context of a five-wave longitudinal research design, participants included 928 mother-child dyads in Belfast (453 boys, 475 girls) drawn from socially deprived, ethnically homogenous areas that had experienced political violence. Youth ranged in age from 10 to 20 years and were 13.24 (SD = 1.83) years old on average at the initial time point. Greater insecurity about the community measured over multiple time points mediated relations between sectarian community violence and youth's total adjustment problems. The pathway from sectarian community violence to emotional insecurity about the community was moderated by child gender, with relations to emotional insecurity about the community stronger for girls than for boys. The results suggest that ameliorating children's insecurity about community in contexts of political violence is an important goal toward improving adolescents' well-being and adjustment. These results are discussed in terms of their translational research implications, consistent with a developmental psychopathology model for the interface between basic and intervention

  17. Assessing the simple dynamical systems approach in a Mediterranean context: application to the Ardeche catchment (France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamovic, M.; Braud, I.; Branger, F.; Kirchner, J. W.

    2015-05-01

    This study explores how catchment heterogeneity and variability can be summarized in simplified models, representing the dominant hydrological processes. It focuses on Mediterranean catchments, characterized by heterogeneous geology, pedology and land use, as well as steep topography and a rainfall regime in which summer droughts contrast with high-rainfall periods in autumn. The Ardeche catchment (Southeast France), typical of this environment, is chosen to explore the following questions: (1) can such a Mediterranean catchment be adequately characterized by a simple dynamical systems approach and what are the limits of the method under such conditions? (2) what information about dominant predictors of hydrological variability can be retrieved from this analysis in such catchments? In this work we apply the data-driven approach of Kirchner (2009) to estimate discharge sensitivity functions that summarize the behaviour of four sub-catchments of the Ardeche, using low-vegetation periods (November-March) from 9 years of measurements (2000-2008) from operational networks. The relevance of the inferred sensitivity function is assessed through hydrograph simulations, and through estimating precipitation rates from discharge fluctuations. We find that the discharge sensitivity function is downward-curving in double-logarithmic space, thus allowing further simulation of discharge and non-divergence of the model, only during low-vegetation periods. The analysis is complemented by a Monte Carlo sensitivity analysis showing how the parameters summarizing the discharge sensitivity function impact the simulated hydrographs. The resulting discharge simulation results are good for granite catchments, which are likely to be characterized by shallow subsurface flow at the interface between soil and bedrock. The simple dynamical system hypothesis works especially well in wet conditions (peaks and recessions are well modelled). On the other hand, poor model performance is associated

  18. Nested sampling for Bayesian model comparison in the context of Salmonella disease dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dybowski, Richard; McKinley, Trevelyan J; Mastroeni, Pietro; Restif, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms underlying the observed dynamics of complex biological systems requires the statistical assessment and comparison of multiple alternative models. Although this has traditionally been done using maximum likelihood-based methods such as Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC), Bayesian methods have gained in popularity because they provide more informative output in the form of posterior probability distributions. However, comparison between multiple models in a Bayesian framework is made difficult by the computational cost of numerical integration over large parameter spaces. A new, efficient method for the computation of posterior probabilities has recently been proposed and applied to complex problems from the physical sciences. Here we demonstrate how nested sampling can be used for inference and model comparison in biological sciences. We present a reanalysis of data from experimental infection of mice with Salmonella enterica showing the distribution of bacteria in liver cells. In addition to confirming the main finding of the original analysis, which relied on AIC, our approach provides: (a) integration across the parameter space, (b) estimation of the posterior parameter distributions (with visualisations of parameter correlations), and (c) estimation of the posterior predictive distributions for goodness-of-fit assessments of the models. The goodness-of-fit results suggest that alternative mechanistic models and a relaxation of the quasi-stationary assumption should be considered.

  19. Nested sampling for Bayesian model comparison in the context of Salmonella disease dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Dybowski

    Full Text Available Understanding the mechanisms underlying the observed dynamics of complex biological systems requires the statistical assessment and comparison of multiple alternative models. Although this has traditionally been done using maximum likelihood-based methods such as Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC, Bayesian methods have gained in popularity because they provide more informative output in the form of posterior probability distributions. However, comparison between multiple models in a Bayesian framework is made difficult by the computational cost of numerical integration over large parameter spaces. A new, efficient method for the computation of posterior probabilities has recently been proposed and applied to complex problems from the physical sciences. Here we demonstrate how nested sampling can be used for inference and model comparison in biological sciences. We present a reanalysis of data from experimental infection of mice with Salmonella enterica showing the distribution of bacteria in liver cells. In addition to confirming the main finding of the original analysis, which relied on AIC, our approach provides: (a integration across the parameter space, (b estimation of the posterior parameter distributions (with visualisations of parameter correlations, and (c estimation of the posterior predictive distributions for goodness-of-fit assessments of the models. The goodness-of-fit results suggest that alternative mechanistic models and a relaxation of the quasi-stationary assumption should be considered.

  20. DMPD: RIG-I: tri-ing to discriminate between self and non-self RNA. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17307033 RIG-I: tri-ing to discriminate between self and non-self RNA. Bowie AG, Fi...-I: tri-ing to discriminate between self and non-self RNA. PubmedID 17307033 Title RIG-I: tri-ing to discriminate between self... and non-self RNA. Authors Bowie AG, Fitzgerald KA. Publication

  1. Discriminating between benign and malignant breast tumors using 3D convolutional neural network in dynamic contrast enhanced-MR images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Fan, Ming; Zhang, Juan; Li, Lihua

    2017-03-01

    Convolutional neural networks (CNNs) are the state-of-the-art deep learning network architectures that can be used in a range of applications, including computer vision and medical image analysis. It exhibits a powerful representation learning mechanism with an automated design to learn features directly from the data. However, the common 2D CNNs only use the two dimension spatial information without evaluating the correlation between the adjoin slices. In this study, we established a method of 3D CNNs to discriminate between malignant and benign breast tumors. To this end, 143 patients were enrolled which include 66 benign and 77 malignant instances. The MRI images were pre-processed for noise reduction and breast tumor region segmentation. Data augmentation by spatial translating, rotating and vertical and horizontal flipping is applied to the cases to reduce possible over-fitting. A region-of-interest (ROI) and a volume-of-interest (VOI) were segmented in 2D and 3D DCE-MRI, respectively. The enhancement ratio for each MR series was calculated for the 2D and 3D images. The results for the enhancement ratio images in the two series are integrated for classification. The results of the area under the ROC curve(AUC) values are 0.739 and 0.801 for 2D and 3D methods, respectively. The results for 3D CNN which combined 5 slices for each enhancement ratio images achieved a high accuracy(Acc), sensitivity(Sens) and specificity(Spec) of 0.781, 0.744 and 0.823, respectively. This study indicates that 3D CNN deep learning methods can be a promising technology for breast tumor classification without manual feature extraction.

  2. Toward a dynamic biogeochemical division of the Mediterranean Sea in a context of global climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reygondeau, Gabriel; Olivier Irisson, Jean; Guieu, Cecile; Gasparini, Stephane; Ayata, Sakina; Koubbi, Philippe

    2013-04-01

    In recent decades, it has been found useful to ecoregionalise the pelagic environment assuming that within each partition environmental conditions are distinguishable and unique. Indeed, each partition of the ocean that is proposed aimed to delineate the main oceanographical and ecological patterns to provide a geographical framework of marine ecosystems for ecological studies and management purposes. The aim of the present work is to integrate and process existing data on the pelagic environment of the Mediterranean Sea in order to define biogeochemical regions. Open access databases including remote sensing observations, oceanographic campaign data and physical modeling simulations are used. These various dataset allow the multidisciplinary view required to understand the interactions between climate and Mediterranean marine ecosystems. The first step of our study has consisted in a statistical selection of a set of crucial environmental factors to propose the most parsimonious biogeographical approach that allows detecting the main oceanographic structure of the Mediterranean Sea. Second, based on the identified set of environmental parameters, both non-hierarchical and hierarchical clustering algorithms have been tested. Outputs from each methodology are then inter-compared to propose a robust map of the biotopes (unique range of environmental parameters) of the area. Each biotope was then modeled using a non parametric environmental niche method to infer a dynamic biogeochemical partition. Last, the seasonal, inter annual and long term spatial changes of each biogeochemical regions were investigated. The future of this work will be to perform a second partition to subdivide the biogeochemical regions according to biotic features of the Mediterranean Sea (ecoregions). This second level of division will thus be used as a geographical framework to identify ecosystems that have been altered by human activities (i.e. pollution, fishery, invasive species) for the

  3. A high-content image-based method for quantitatively studying context-dependent cell population dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvey, Colleen M; Spiller, Erin; Lindsay, Danika; Chiang, Chun-Te; Choi, Nathan C; Agus, David B; Mallick, Parag; Foo, Jasmine; Mumenthaler, Shannon M

    2016-01-01

    Tumor progression results from a complex interplay between cellular heterogeneity, treatment response, microenvironment and heterocellular interactions. Existing approaches to characterize this interplay suffer from an inability to distinguish between multiple cell types, often lack environmental context, and are unable to perform multiplex phenotypic profiling of cell populations. Here we present a high-throughput platform for characterizing, with single-cell resolution, the dynamic phenotypic responses (i.e. morphology changes, proliferation, apoptosis) of heterogeneous cell populations both during standard growth and in response to multiple, co-occurring selective pressures. The speed of this platform enables a thorough investigation of the impacts of diverse selective pressures including genetic alterations, therapeutic interventions, heterocellular components and microenvironmental factors. The platform has been applied to both 2D and 3D culture systems and readily distinguishes between (1) cytotoxic versus cytostatic cellular responses; and (2) changes in morphological features over time and in response to perturbation. These important features can directly influence tumor evolution and clinical outcome. Our image-based approach provides a deeper insight into the cellular dynamics and heterogeneity of tumors (or other complex systems), with reduced reagents and time, offering advantages over traditional biological assays.

  4. A dinâmica familiar no contexto da crise suicida The family dynamics in the context of suicide crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liara Lopes Krüger

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Famílias inseridas no contexto suicida organizam suas relações em torno de histórias opressoras construídas através das gerações, que impedem o desenvolvimento de autonomia e continuidade. Este artigo objetiva pensar sistemicamente sobre a dinâmica familiar da crise gerada pela tentativa de suicídio de um dos seus membros. Neste estudo, seis famílias participaram de uma intervenção breve, desenvolvida com base na teoria sistêmica. Os dados foram analisados com base no Método de Comparação Constante, identificando-se categorias e a construção de hipóteses a respeito da dinâmica familiar no contexto da crise suicida. Os resultados mostram que os participantes estão limitados em sua capacidade de apoiar o desenvolvimento de uma identidade autônoma, porque a dinâmica familiar identifica as novas oportunidades de narrar a si mesmo como ameaça ao sistema de lealdades que mantém a continuidade da família, impedindo a renegociação desses códigos. O sofrimento se apresenta como emoção que limita novas trocas, surgindo o comportamento suicida como alternativa.Families inserted in the suicide context tend to organize their relations around oppressive histories constructed over generations that hinder the development of autonomy and continuity. This paper aims at thinking systematically about the family dynamics of the crisis generated by the suicide attempt of one of its members. In this study, six families participated of a brief intervention developed on the basis of the systemic theory. The Grounded Theory analysis procedures made possible the identification of the categories and the construction of hypotheses regarding the family dynamics within the context of the suicide crisis. The result shows that participants are limited in their capacity of supporting the development of an independent identity because the family dynamics identifies new opportunities of narrating to oneself as a menace to the system of loyalties

  5. Numerical integration methods and layout improvements in the context of dynamic RNA visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabash, Boris; Wiese, Kay C

    2017-05-30

    RNA visualization software tools have traditionally presented a static visualization of RNA molecules with limited ability for users to interact with the resulting image once it is complete. Only a few tools allowed for dynamic structures. One such tool is jViz.RNA. Currently, jViz.RNA employs a unique method for the creation of the RNA molecule layout by mapping the RNA nucleotides into vertexes in a graph, which we call the detailed graph, and then utilizes a Newtonian mechanics inspired system of forces to calculate a layout for the RNA molecule. The work presented here focuses on improvements to jViz.RNA that allow the drawing of RNA secondary structures according to common drawing conventions, as well as dramatic run-time performance improvements. This is done first by presenting an alternative method for mapping the RNA molecule into a graph, which we call the compressed graph, and then employing advanced numerical integration methods for the compressed graph representation. Comparing the compressed graph and detailed graph implementations, we find that the compressed graph produces results more consistent with RNA drawing conventions. However, we also find that employing the compressed graph method requires a more sophisticated initial layout to produce visualizations that would require minimal user interference. Comparing the two numerical integration methods demonstrates the higher stability of the Backward Euler method, and its resulting ability to handle much larger time steps, a high priority feature for any software which entails user interaction. The work in this manuscript presents the preferred use of compressed graphs to detailed ones, as well as the advantages of employing the Backward Euler method over the Forward Euler method. These improvements produce more stable as well as visually aesthetic representations of the RNA secondary structures. The results presented demonstrate that both the compressed graph representation, as well as the Backward

  6. The great triangular seismic region in eastern Asia: Thoughts on its dynamic context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianglin Gao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A huge triangle-shaped tectonic region in eastern Asia plays host to numerous major earthquakes. The three boundaries of this region, which contains plateaus, mountains, and intermountain basins, are roughly the Himalayan arc, the Tianshan-Baikal, and longitude line ∼105°E. Within this triangular region, tectonism is intense and major deformation occurs both between crustal blocks and within most of them. Outside of this region, rigid blocks move as a whole with relatively few major earthquakes and relatively weak Cenozoic deformation. On a large tectonic scale, the presence of this broad region of intraplate deformation results from dynamic interactions between the Indian, Philippine Sea-West Pacific, and Eurasian plates, as well as the influence of deep-level mantle flow. The Indian subcontinent, which continues to move northwards at ∼40 mm/a since its collision with Eurasia, has plunged beneath Tibet, resulting in various movements and deformations along the Himalayan arc that diffuse over a long distance into the hinterland of Asia. The northward crustal escape of Asia from the Himalayan collisional zone turns eastwards and southeastwards along 95°–100°E longitude and defines the eastern Himalayan syntaxis. At the western Himalayan syntaxis, the Pamirs continue to move into central Asia, leading to crustal deformation and earthquakes that are largely accommodated by old EW or NW trending faults in the bordering areas between China, Mongolia, and Russia, and are restricted by the stable landmass northwest of the Tianshan-Altai-Baikal region. The subduction of the Philippine and Pacific plates under the Eurasian continent has generated a very long and narrow seismic zone along trenches and island arcs in the marginal seas while imposing only slight horizontal compression on the Asian continent that does not impede the eastward motion of eastern Asia. In the third dimension, there may be southeastward deep mantle flow beneath most of

  7. The Armc10/SVH gene: genome context, regulation of mitochondrial dynamics and protection against Aβ-induced mitochondrial fragmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrat, R; Mirra, S; Figueiro-Silva, J; Navas-Pérez, E; Quevedo, M; López-Doménech, G; Podlesniy, P; Ulloa, F; Garcia-Fernàndez, J; Trullas, R; Soriano, E

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial function and dynamics are essential for neurotransmission, neural function and neuronal viability. Recently, we showed that the eutherian-specific Armcx gene cluster (Armcx1–6 genes), located in the X chromosome, encodes for a new family of proteins that localise to mitochondria, regulating mitochondrial trafficking. The Armcx gene cluster evolved by retrotransposition of the Armc10 gene mRNA, which is present in all vertebrates and is considered to be the ancestor gene. Here we investigate the genomic organisation, mitochondrial functions and putative neuroprotective role of the Armc10 ancestor gene. The genomic context of the Armc10 locus shows considerable syntenic conservation among vertebrates, and sequence comparisons and CHIP-data suggest the presence of at least three conserved enhancers. We also show that the Armc10 protein localises to mitochondria and that it is highly expressed in the brain. Furthermore, we show that Armc10 levels regulate mitochondrial trafficking in neurons, but not mitochondrial aggregation, by controlling the number of moving mitochondria. We further demonstrate that the Armc10 protein interacts with the KIF5/Miro1-2/Trak2 trafficking complex. Finally, we show that overexpression of Armc10 in neurons prevents Aβ-induced mitochondrial fission and neuronal death. Our data suggest both conserved and differential roles of the Armc10/Armcx gene family in regulating mitochondrial dynamics in neurons, and underscore a protective effect of the Armc10 gene against Aβ-induced toxicity. Overall, our findings support a further degree of regulation of mitochondrial dynamics in the brain of more evolved mammals. PMID:24722288

  8. Dynamics of diversity, distribution patterns and interspecific associations of understory herbs in the city-suburb-exurb context of Wuhan city, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Xiao-Jing

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of herb diversity, distribution patterns and interspecific associations of dominant herbs in natural forests at three growing stages in a city-suburb-exurb context in Wuhan City were studied using a fixed plot. The results show that the composition, diversity indices, mean and total richness gradually increased with the city-suburb-exurb gradient. Codominant species across temporal dynamics in Qinglong Mountain were stable, however, there were remarkable changes in the city-suburb context. Qinglong Mountain (exurb context had the densest codominant herbs, Woodwardia japonica, Spider brake and Parathelypteris glanduligera, throughout the growing season. However, Shizi Mountain (suburb context and Hongshan Mountain (urban context had low-density and monodominant herbs at three stages. The overall strength of associations among herbs increased with the city-suburb-exurb context, and pairs of positive associations and significant associations (r>0.5 or r<-0.5 were more frequent on Qinglong Mountain. Therefore, the exurb-suburb-city landscape context in response to urbanization had a notable effect on the features of the understory herb layer.

  9. Context Dependency of Conditioned Aversions to Familiar and Novel Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Kiyoshi; Iguchi, Yoshio; Sawa, Kosuke

    2006-01-01

    Using a context discrimination procedure and rats as the subjects, the formation of context-dependent aversions to novel and familiar fluids was investigated. Experiment 1 revealed that context dependency could be established to a novel fluid (saccharin) after three cycles of context discrimination training and that the acquired context dependency…

  10. Dynamic clustered distribution of hemagglutinin resolved at 40 nm in living cell membranes discriminates between raft theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Samuel T.; Gould, Travis J.; Gudheti, Manasa V.; Maas, Sarah A.; Mills, Kevin D.; Zimmerberg, Joshua

    2007-01-01

    Organization in biological membranes spans many orders of magnitude in length scale, but limited resolution in far-field light microscopy has impeded distinction between numerous biomembrane models. One canonical example of a heterogeneously distributed membrane protein is hemagglutinin (HA) from influenza virus, which is associated with controversial cholesterol-rich lipid rafts. Using fluorescence photoactivation localization microscopy, we are able to image distributions of tens of thousands of HA molecules with subdiffraction resolution (≈40 nm) in live and fixed fibroblasts. HA molecules form irregular clusters on length scales from ≈40 nm up to many micrometers, consistent with results from electron microscopy. In live cells, the dynamics of HA molecules within clusters is observed and quantified to determine an effective diffusion coefficient. The results are interpreted in terms of several established models of biological membranes. PMID:17959773

  11. Dynamical Systems Theory in Quantitative Psychology and Cognitive Science: A Fair Discrimination between Deterministic and Statistical Counterparts is Required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadomski, Adam; Ausloos, Marcel; Casey, Tahlia

    2017-04-01

    This article addresses a set of observations framed in both deterministic as well as statistical formal guidelines. It operates within the framework of nonlinear dynamical systems theory (NDS). It is argued that statistical approaches can manifest themselves ambiguously, creating practical discrepancies in psychological and cognitive data analyses both quantitatively and qualitatively. This is sometimes termed in literature as 'questionable research practices.' This communication points to the demand for a deeper awareness of the data 'initial conditions, allowing to focus on pertinent evolution constraints in such systems.' It also considers whether the exponential (Malthus-type) or the algebraic (Pareto-type) statistical distribution ought to be effectively considered in practical interpretations. The role of repetitive specific behaviors by patients seeking treatment is examined within the NDS frame. The significance of these behaviors, involving a certain memory effect seems crucial in determining a patient's progression or regression. With this perspective, it is discussed how a sensitively applied hazardous or triggering factor can be helpful for well-controlled psychological strategic treatments; those attributable to obsessive-compulsive disorders or self-injurious behaviors are recalled in particular. There are both inherent criticality- and complexity-exploiting (reduced-variance based) relations between a therapist and a patient that can be intrinsically included in NDS theory.

  12. Context-dependent Dynamic Processes in Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder : Differentiating Common and Unique Effects of State Regulation Deficits and Delay Aversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J. S.; Wiersema, Jan R.; van der Meere, Jacob J.; Roeyers, Herbert

    2010-01-01

    The ability to specify differential predictions is a mark of a scientific models' value. State regulation deficits (SRD) and delay aversion (DAv) have both been hypothesized as context-dependent dynamic dysfunctions in ADHD. However, to date there has been no systematic comparison of their common an

  13. Testing for Statistical Discrimination based on Gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lesner, Rune Vammen

    This paper develops a model which incorporates the two most commonly cited strands of the literature on statistical discrimination, namely screening discrimination and stereotyping. The model is used to provide empirical evidence of statistical discrimination based on gender in the labour market....... It is shown that the implications of both screening discrimination and stereotyping are consistent with observable wage dynamics. In addition, it is found that the gender wage gap decreases in tenure but increases in job transitions and that the fraction of women in high-ranking positions within a firm does...... not affect the level of statistical discrimination by gender....

  14. Water and sediment dynamics in the context of climate change and variability (Cañete river, Peru).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas, Miluska; Vanacker, Veerle; Huggel, Christian; Gutierrez, Ronald R.

    2017-04-01

    Water erosion is one of the main environmental problems in Peru. The elevated rates of soil erosion are related to the rough topography of the Andes, shallow soils, highly erosive climate and the inappropriate land use management. Agricultural activities are directly affected by the elevated soil erosion rates, either through reduced crop production and/or damage to irrigation infrastructure. Similarly, the development of water infrastructure and hydropower facilities can be negatively affected by high sedimentation rates. However, critical information about sediment production, transport and deposition is still mostly lacking. This paper focuses on sediment dynamics in the context of land use and climate change in the Peruvian Andes. Within the Peruvian Coastal Range, the catchment of the Cañete River is studied as it plays an important role in the social and economic development of the region, and due to its provision of water and energy to rural and urban areas. The lower part of the basin is an arid desert, the middle sub-humid part sustains subsistence agriculture, and the upper part of the basin is a treeless high-elevation puna landscape. Snow cover and glaciers are present at its headwaters located above 5000 m asl. The retreat of glaciers due to climate change is expected to have an impact on water availability, and the production and mobilization of sediment within the river channels. Likewise, climate variability and land cover changes might trigger an important increase of erosion and sediment transport rates. The methodology applied to face this issue is principally based on the analysis of sediment samples recollected in the basin in the period 1998 to 2001, and the application of a water and sediment routing model. The paper presents new data on the sensitivity of water infrastructure and hydropower facilities to climate-induced changes in sediment mobilization.

  15. Fighting discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wientjens, Wim; Cairns, Douglas

    2012-10-01

    In the fight against discrimination, the IDF launched the first ever International Charter of Rights and Responsibilities of People with Diabetes in 2011: a balance between rights and duties to optimize health and quality of life, to enable as normal a life as possible and to reduce/eliminate the barriers which deny realization of full potential as members of society. It is extremely frustrating to suffer blanket bans and many examples exist, including insurance, driving licenses, getting a job, keeping a job and family affairs. In this article, an example is given of how pilots with insulin treated diabetes are allowed to fly by taking the responsibility of using special blood glucose monitoring protocols. At this time the systems in the countries allowing flying for pilots with insulin treated diabetes are applauded, particularly the USA for private flying, and Canada for commercial flying. Encouraging developments may be underway in the UK for commercial flying and, if this materializes, could be used as an example for other aviation authorities to help adopt similar protocols. However, new restrictions implemented by the new European Aviation Authority take existing privileges away for National Private Pilot Licence holders with insulin treated diabetes in the UK.

  16. Discrimination and Anti-discrimination in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Tore Vincents

    The purpose of this report is to describe and analyse Danish anti-discrimination legislation and the debate about discrimination in Denmark in order to identify present and future legal challenges. The main focus is the implementation of the EU anti-discrimination directives in Danish law...

  17. Discrimination and Anti-discrimination in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Tore Vincents

    The purpose of this report is to describe and analyse Danish anti-discrimination legislation and the debate about discrimination in Denmark in order to identify present and future legal challenges. The main focus is the implementation of the EU anti-discrimination directives in Danish law...

  18. Social identity change in response to discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perozzo, Cristina; de la Sablonnière, Roxane; Auger, Emilie; Caron-Diotte, Mathieu

    2016-09-01

    This study investigated the conditions under which discrimination can lead to social identity changes among members of a minority group. Both positive and negative relations between perceptions of discrimination and social identity have previously been reported. To explain the conflicting results and understand the complex reality of members of stigmatized groups, we argue that group-based emotions (e.g., group-based dissatisfaction) and ambiguity of discrimination cues (i.e., overt vs. ambiguous) need to be considered. We hypothesized that perceptions of discrimination would play a moderating role between group-based dissatisfaction and social identity change in a context of ambiguous, but not of overt, discrimination. The sample was comprised of 151 Arab Muslims living in the province of Quebec. Participants read fictitious newspaper articles portraying either overt (n = 76) or ambiguous (n = 75) discrimination towards in-group members. Results revealed that for participants in the overt discrimination condition, only group-based dissatisfaction was positively associated with social identity change. In contrast, for the participants in the ambiguous discrimination condition, those who perceived little discrimination and felt low group-based dissatisfaction reported a decrease in social identity. However, those who perceived low group discrimination and felt high group-based dissatisfaction reported a positive social identity change.

  19. The Badness of Discrimination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippert-Rasmussen, Kasper

    2006-01-01

    The most blatant forms of discrimination are morally outrageous and very obviously so; but the nature and boundaries of discrimination are more controversial, and it is not clear whether all forms of discrimination are morally bad; nor is it clear why objectionable cases of discrimination are bad....... In this paper I address these issues. First, I offer a taxonomy of discrimination. I then argue that discrimination is bad, when it is, because it harms people. Finally, I criticize a rival, disrespect-based account according to which discrimination is bad regardless of whether it causes harm....

  20. Socially-Tolerable Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    J. Atsu Amegashie

    2008-01-01

    History is replete with overt discrimination of various forms. However, these forms of discrimination are not equally tolerable. For example, discrimination based on immutable or prohibitively unalterable characteristics such as race or gender is much less acceptable. Why? I develop a simple model of conflict which is driven by either racial (gender) discrimination or generational discrimination (i.e., young versus old). I show that there exist parameters of the model where racial (gender) di...

  1. Population dynamics throughout the urban context: A case study in sub-Saharan Africa utilizing remotely sensed imagery and GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benza, Magdalena

    The characteristics of places where people live and work play an important role in explaining complex social, political, economic and demographic processes. In sub-Saharan Africa rapid urban growth combined with rising poverty is creating diverse urban environments inhabited by people with a wide variety of lifestyles. This research examines how spatial patterns of land cover in a southern portion of the West African country of Ghana are associated with particular characteristics of family organization and reproduction decisions. Satellite imagery and landscape metrics are used to create an urban context definition based on landscape patterns using a gradient approach. Census data are used to estimate fertility levels and household structure, and the association between urban context, household composition and fertility levels is modeled through OLS regression, spatial autoregressive models and geographically weighted regression. Results indicate that there are significant differences in fertility levels between different urban contexts, with below average fertility levels found in the most urbanized end of the urban context definition and above average fertility levels found on the opposite end. The spatial patterns identified in the association between urban context and fertility levels indicate that, within the city areas with lower fertility have significant impacts on the reproductive levels of adjacent neighborhoods. Findings also indicate that there are clear patterns that link urban context to living arrangements and fertility levels. Female- and single-headed households are associated with below average fertility levels, a result that connects dropping fertility levels with the spread of smaller nuclear households in developing countries. At the same time, larger extended family households are linked to below average fertility levels for highly clustered areas, a finding that points to the prevalence of extended family housing in the West African city.

  2. Discrimination in a General Algebraic Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Fine

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Discriminating groups were introduced by G. Baumslag, A. Myasnikov, and V. Remeslennikov as an outgrowth of their theory of algebraic geometry over groups. Algebraic geometry over groups became the main method of attack on the solution of the celebrated Tarski conjectures. In this paper we explore the notion of discrimination in a general universal algebra context. As an application we provide a different proof of a theorem of Malcev on axiomatic classes of Ω-algebras.

  3. Discrimination in a General Algebraic Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, Benjamin; Gaglione, Anthony; Lipschutz, Seymour; Spellman, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Discriminating groups were introduced by G. Baumslag, A. Myasnikov, and V. Remeslennikov as an outgrowth of their theory of algebraic geometry over groups. Algebraic geometry over groups became the main method of attack on the solution of the celebrated Tarski conjectures. In this paper we explore the notion of discrimination in a general universal algebra context. As an application we provide a different proof of a theorem of Malcev on axiomatic classes of Ω-algebras.

  4. Discrimination in a General Algebraic Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, Benjamin; Gaglione, Anthony; Lipschutz, Seymour; Spellman, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Discriminating groups were introduced by G. Baumslag, A. Myasnikov, and V. Remeslennikov as an outgrowth of their theory of algebraic geometry over groups. Algebraic geometry over groups became the main method of attack on the solution of the celebrated Tarski conjectures. In this paper we explore the notion of discrimination in a general universal algebra context. As an application we provide a different proof of a theorem of Malcev on axiomatic classes of Ω-algebras. PMID:26171421

  5. Grain-scale numerical modeling of granular mechanics and fluid dynamics and application in a glacial context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Anders; Egholm, David Lundbek; Beem, Lucas H.

    rheology, which limit our ability to predict ice sheet dynamics in a changing climate. In this talk I will present the soft-body Discrete Element Method which is a Lagrangian method I use in order to simulate the unique and diverse nature of granular dynamics in the subglacial environment. However......, the method imposes intense computational requirements on the computational time step. The majority of steps in the granular dynamics algorithm are massively parallel, which makes the DEM an obvious candidate for exploiting the capabilities of modern GPUs. The granular computations are coupled to a fluid...

  6. Gender Discrimination in English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖敏慧

    2014-01-01

    Gender discrimination in language is usually defined as discrimination based on sex, especially discrimination against women. With the rise of women’s liberation movement in the 1960s and 1970s, and the improvement of women’s social status in recent years, gender discrimination in English attracts more and more attention. Based on previous studies, this thesis first dis⁃cusses the manifestations of gender discrimination in English vocabulary and address terms, then analyzes the factors of gender dis⁃crimination in English from social and cultural perspectives, finally puts forward some methods that are good for avoiding or elim⁃inating gender discrimination in English.

  7. Cor, gênero e classe: dinâmicas da discriminação entre jovens de grupos populares cariocas Color, gender and social class: dynamics of discrimination of lower income youth from Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Monteiro

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho discute as dinâmicas de discriminação entre moças e rapazes das camadas populares do Rio de Janeiro, considerando o papel que as hierarquias de cor/raça, gênero e classe social desempenham na configuração das práticas sociais. A análise tem por base entrevistas em profundidade com 42 jovens, de 18 a 24 anos. As situações de discriminação são referidas com maior frequência pelos rapazes. Entre os homens tais experiências estão associadas principalmente aos espaços públicos e ao mercado de trabalho, enquanto entre as mulheres a discriminação está mais vinculada aos espaços privados e ao local de moradia. Os dados estimulam uma discussão sobre a heterogeneidade das experiências de discriminação, na qual a cor/raça está associada às condições sociais e às relações de gênero.This work discuss the dynamics of discrimination of lower income male and female youths from Rio de Janeiro, considering the impact of the color/race, gender and social class hierarchies in the configurations of social practices. The analysis is based on in-depth interviews of 42 young people from 18 to 24 years of age. Situations of discrimination are much more referred to by men. The public spaces and the labor market are cited mainly by the boys. In the girls' view the discrimination is more associated to the place of residence and the private sphere. These data stimulate an analysis about the heterogeneity of the experiences of discrimination, where color/race is associated to social condition and gender relations.

  8. Unsupervised Linear Discriminant Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    An algorithm for unsupervised linear discriminant analysis was presented. Optimal unsupervised discriminant vectors are obtained through maximizing covariance of all samples and minimizing covariance of local k-nearest neighbor samples. The experimental results show our algorithm is effective.

  9. Airline Price Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Stacey, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Price discrimination enjoys a long history in the airline industry. Borenstein (1989) discusses price discrimination through frequent flyer programs from 1985 as related to the Piedmont-US Air merger, price discrimination strategies have grown in size and scope since then. From Saturday stay over requirements to varying costs based on time of purchase, the airline industry is uniquely situated to enjoy the fruits of price discrimination.

  10. Integrating Dynamic Data and Sensors with Semantic 3D City Models in the Context of Smart Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, K.; Kolbe, T. H.

    2016-10-01

    Smart cities provide effective integration of human, physical and digital systems operating in the built environment. The advancements in city and landscape models, sensor web technologies, and simulation methods play a significant role in city analyses and improving quality of life of citizens and governance of cities. Semantic 3D city models can provide substantial benefits and can become a central information backbone for smart city infrastructures. However, current generation semantic 3D city models are static in nature and do not support dynamic properties and sensor observations. In this paper, we propose a new concept called Dynamizer allowing to represent highly dynamic data and providing a method for injecting dynamic variations of city object properties into the static representation. The approach also provides direct capability to model complex patterns based on statistics and general rules and also, real-time sensor observations. The concept is implemented as an Application Domain Extension for the CityGML standard. However, it could also be applied to other GML-based application schemas including the European INSPIRE data themes and national standards for topography and cadasters like the British Ordnance Survey Mastermap or the German cadaster standard ALKIS.

  11. Three Levels of Push-Pull Dynamics among Chinese International Students' Decision to Study Abroad in the Canadian Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun Mian

    2017-01-01

    The extant literature on student migration flows generally focus on the traditional push-pull factors of migration at the individual level. Such a tendency excludes the broader levels affecting international student mobility. This paper proposes a hybrid of three levels of push-pull dynamics (micro-individual decision-making, meso-academic…

  12. Dynamic Geometry Software and Tracing Tangents in the Context of the Mean Value Theorem: Technique and Theory Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Hernández, Cesar; Ulloa-Azpeitia, Ricardo

    2017-01-01

    Based on the theoretical elements of the instrumental approach to tool use known as Task-Technique-Theory (Artigue, 2002), this paper analyses and discusses the performance of graduate students enrolled in a Teacher Training program. The latter performance relates to tracing tangent lines to the curve of a quadratic function in Dynamic Geometry…

  13. Quantifying explainable discrimination and removing illegal discrimination in automated decision making

    KAUST Repository

    Kamiran, Faisal

    2012-11-18

    Recently, the following discrimination-aware classification problem was introduced. Historical data used for supervised learning may contain discrimination, for instance, with respect to gender. The question addressed by discrimination-aware techniques is, given sensitive attribute, how to train discrimination-free classifiers on such historical data that are discriminative, with respect to the given sensitive attribute. Existing techniques that deal with this problem aim at removing all discrimination and do not take into account that part of the discrimination may be explainable by other attributes. For example, in a job application, the education level of a job candidate could be such an explainable attribute. If the data contain many highly educated male candidates and only few highly educated women, a difference in acceptance rates between woman and man does not necessarily reflect gender discrimination, as it could be explained by the different levels of education. Even though selecting on education level would result in more males being accepted, a difference with respect to such a criterion would not be considered to be undesirable, nor illegal. Current state-of-the-art techniques, however, do not take such gender-neutral explanations into account and tend to overreact and actually start reverse discriminating, as we will show in this paper. Therefore, we introduce and analyze the refined notion of conditional non-discrimination in classifier design. We show that some of the differences in decisions across the sensitive groups can be explainable and are hence tolerable. Therefore, we develop methodology for quantifying the explainable discrimination and algorithmic techniques for removing the illegal discrimination when one or more attributes are considered as explanatory. Experimental evaluation on synthetic and real-world classification datasets demonstrates that the new techniques are superior to the old ones in this new context, as they succeed in

  14. Class-Based Context Quality Optimization For Context Management Frameworks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shawky, Ahmed; Olsen, Rasmus Løvenstein; Pedersen, Jens Myrup

    2012-01-01

    delay, packet drop probability, information dynamics and the access strategies taken. QoS classification and system configuration of context management traffic is in this aspect important in order to efficiently balance generated access traffic between network delay, packet loss probability, information......Context-awareness is a key requirement in many of today's networks, services and applications. Context Management systems are in this respect used to provide access to distributed, dynamic context information. The reliability of remotely accessed dynamic context information is challenged by network...... dynamics and reliability requirements to the information from the applications. In this paper we develop a QoS Control network concept for context management systems. The concept includes a soft realtime algorithm for model based context access configuration and QoS class assignment, and allows to put...

  15. The Application of Dynamic Capabilities in E-commerce Innovation Context : The Implications for Chinese E-commerce companies

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, YongJia; LIANG, WEIMIN

    2007-01-01

    This study mainly investigated how Chinese E-commerce companies should cope with E-commerce innovation with specific dynamic capabilities. E-commerce (Electronic Commerce) innovation includes three phases of innovation based on technology and time. They are web-based commerce, mobile commerce (M-commerce) and ubiquitous commerce (U-commerce). They caused not only technological changes but also organizational changes. To cope with E-commerce innovation, a prerequisite is to understand the impa...

  16. The Application of Dynamic Capabilities in E-commerce Innovation Context : The Implications for Chinese E-commerce companies

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, YongJia; Liang,Weimin

    2007-01-01

    This study mainly investigated how Chinese E-commerce companies should cope with E-commerce innovation with specific dynamic capabilities. E-commerce (Electronic Commerce) innovation includes three phases of innovation based on technology and time. They are web-based commerce, mobile commerce (M-commerce) and ubiquitous commerce (U-commerce). They caused not only technological changes but also organizational changes. To cope with E-commerce innovation, a prerequisite is to understand the impa...

  17. Muslim Woman Seeking Work: An English Case Study with a Dutch Comparison, of Discrimination and Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Bagley

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of discrimination in employment is a key variable in understanding dynamics in the nature of, and change in “race relations”. Measuring such discrimination using ‘situation’ and ‘correspondence’ tests was influenced by John Rex’s sociological analyses, and earlier work, begun in America, was continued in England in the 1960s, and further replicated in Europe and America in later decades. This literature is reviewed, and the methodologies of testing for employment discrimination are discussed. Recent work in Britain and the Netherlands is considered in detail in the light of changing social structures, and the rise of Islamophobia. Manchester, apparently the city manifesting the most discrimination in Britain, is considered for a special case study, with a focus on one individual, a Muslim woman seeking intermediate level accountancy employment. Her vita was matched with that of a manifestly indigenous, white Briton. Submitted vitas (to 1043 potential employers indicated significant discrimination against the Muslim woman candidate. Results are discussed within the context of Manchester’s micro-sociology, and Muslim women’s employment progress in broader contexts. We conclude with the critical realist comment that the “hidden racism” of employment discrimination shows that modern societies continue, in several ways, to be institutionally racist, and the failure to reward legitimate aspirations of minorities may have the effect of pushing some ethnic minorities into a permanent precariat, with implications for social justice and social control in ways which may deny minority efforts to “integrate” in society’s employment systems.

  18. Discriminately Decreasing Discriminability with Learned Image Filters

    CERN Document Server

    Whitehill, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    In machine learning and computer vision, input images are often filtered to increase data discriminability. In some situations, however, one may wish to purposely decrease discriminability of one classification task (a "distractor" task), while simultaneously preserving information relevant to another (the task-of-interest): For example, it may be important to mask the identity of persons contained in face images before submitting them to a crowdsourcing site (e.g., Mechanical Turk) when labeling them for certain facial attributes. Another example is inter-dataset generalization: when training on a dataset with a particular covariance structure among multiple attributes, it may be useful to suppress one attribute while preserving another so that a trained classifier does not learn spurious correlations between attributes. In this paper we present an algorithm that finds optimal filters to give high discriminability to one task while simultaneously giving low discriminability to a distractor task. We present r...

  19. Estigma, discriminação e HIV/Aids no contexto brasileiro, 1998 e 2005 Stigma, discrimination and HIV/AIDS in the Brazilian context, 1998 and 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Garcia

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar a prevalência de atitudes discriminatórias em dois momentos da epidemia brasileira de HIV/Aids e possíveis mudanças ocorridas. MÉTODOS: O Índice de Intenção de Discriminação foi obtido por pontuação, somando 1 para situações de discriminação ou 0, para o caso contrário. As faixas de intenção de discriminação foram estabelecidas por meio da técnica de cluster, compatibilizadas entre os estudos de 1998 e 2005. Para verificar associação entre o índice e as variáveis sociodemográficas, utilizou-se comparações de médias, teste qui-quadrado, e modelos ajustados de regressão logito ordenado. RESULTADOS: Houve redução estatisticamente significante na proporção de pessoas entre as pesquisas de 1998 e 2005 que responderam sim à obrigatoriedade do teste anti-HIV para: a admissão no emprego, antes do casamento, ingresso nas forças armadas, usuários de drogas, entrada de estrangeiros no país, profissionais do sexo e para todas as pessoas. Possuir menor escolaridade, ser do sexo feminino, ter acima de 45 anos e residir na região Norte/Nordeste são fatores associados ao maior nível de intenção de discriminação. CONCLUSÕES: O crescimento da intenção de discriminação mostra que as informações sobre formas de transmissão e não transmissão da Aids ainda necessitam de melhor elaboração e divulgação, principalmente entre as populações de menor escolaridade, residentes nos estados do Norte/Nordeste, do sexo feminino e pertencentes à faixa etária acima de 45 anos.OBJECTIVE: To identify discriminatory attitudes in two moments of the Brazilian HIV/AIDS epidemic, as well as the occurrence of possible changes. METHODS: The Intention of Discrimination Index was obtained by scoring 1 for discriminatory situations or 0, when the opposite was the case. Intention of discrimination ranges were established by means of the clustering technique, and made compatible between the 1998 and 2005

  20. Stop consonant discrimination based on human audition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searle, C L; Jacobson, J Z; Rayment, S G

    1979-03-01

    A system for discrimination of stop consonants has been designed on the basis of studies of auditory physiology and psychophysics. The system consists of a one-third octave filter bank as an approximation to auditory tuning curves, a bank of high speed, wide dynamic range envelope detectors, a logarithmic amplifier, and a digital computer for analysis and display. Features, chosen on the basis of psychophysical experiments, are then abstracted, and fed to a discriminant analysis program which decides on the most probable phomene. Discrimination accuracy of about 77% for stop consonants in initial position has been achieved, with a 15-speaker data set.

  1. Integrating induction and deduction for finding evidence of discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Ruggieri, Salvatore; Pedreschi, Dino; Turini, Franco

    2010-01-01

    We present a reference model for finding (prima facie) evidence of discrimination in datasets of historical decision records in socially sensitive tasks, including access to credit, mortgage, insurance, labor market and other benefits. We formalize the process of direct and indirect discrimination discovery in a rule-based framework, by modelling protected-by-law groups, such as minorities or disadvantaged segments, and contexts where discrimination occurs. Classification rules, extracted fro...

  2. Learning by Analogy: Discriminating between Potential Analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richland, Lindsey E.; McDonough, Ian M.

    2010-01-01

    The ability to successfully discriminate between multiple potentially relevant source analogs when solving new problems is crucial to proficiency in a mathematics domain. Experimental findings in two different mathematical contexts demonstrate that providing cues to support comparative reasoning during an initial instructional analogy, relative to…

  3. Dynamic Analysis of Historic Railway Bridges in Poland in the Context of Adjusting Them to Pendolino Trains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grębowski K.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the dynamic analysis of the historic railway bridge in Tczew as an example of the usefulness of such type of bridge for high-speed trains. The model of the bridge and the simulation of rolling stock passage was performed in SOFISTIK program. The scope of work includes experimental studies, the solution of the problem concerning the correct solution features of the dynamic model which takes into account the dependencies between the bridge, track and rolling - stock (RBT. The verification of the model was performed by comparing the results obtained on site during the passage of ET-22 locomotive and twenty (20 open goods wagons with the results obtained in the program for the identical type of rolling stock used to the simulation Pendolino train. Then, after the verification, the simulation of high-speed train passage was performed. The speed of the train passage varied from 150 [km/h] to the max. possible speed of 250 [km/h] which PENDOLINO train, approved for the simulation, may reach. Under the analysis of obtained results it was possible to define the conditions for adjusting the historic bridge to high-speed train passage.

  4. Analyzing variations in life-history traits of Pacific salmon in the context of Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecquerie, Laure; Johnson, Leah R.; Kooijman, Sebastiaan A. L. M.; Nisbet, Roger M.

    2011-11-01

    To determine the response of Pacific salmon ( Oncorhynchus spp.) populations to environmental change, we need to understand impacts on all life stages. However, an integrative and mechanistic approach is particularly challenging for Pacific salmon as they use multiple habitats (river, estuarine and marine) during their life cycle. Here we develop a bioenergetic model that predicts development, growth and reproduction of a Pacific salmon in a dynamic environment, from an egg to a reproducing female, and that links female state to egg traits. This model uses Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) theory to predict how life history traits vary among five species of Pacific salmon: Pink, Sockeye, Coho, Chum and Chinook. Supplemented with a limited number of assumptions on anadromy and semelparity and external signals for migrations, the model reproduces the qualitative patterns in egg size, fry size and fecundity both at the inter- and intra-species levels. Our results highlight how modeling all life stages within a single framework enables us to better understand complex life-history patterns. Additionally we show that body size scaling relationships implied by DEB theory provide a simple way to transfer model parameters among Pacific salmon species, thus providing a generic approach to study the impact of environmental conditions on the life cycle of Pacific salmon.

  5. REGULATION OF SPATIAL PRICE DISCRIMINATION: RUSSIAN AND INTERNATIONAL PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Bogdanov

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the identification and regulation of spatial price discrimination in the context of the development of the methodology of Antimonopoly regulation. In particular, the problems of normative definition of spatial price discrimination and the practice of its USA, EU and Russia regulation and their development.

  6. REGULATION OF SPATIAL PRICE DISCRIMINATION: RUSSIAN AND INTERNATIONAL PRACTICE

    OpenAIRE

    Dmitry Bogdanov

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with the identification and regulation of spatial price discrimination in the context of the development of the methodology of Antimonopoly regulation. In particular, the problems of normative definition of spatial price discrimination and the practice of its USA, EU and Russia regulation and their development.

  7. Acquisition of Social Referencing via Discrimination Training in Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelaez, Martha; Virues-Ortega, Javier; Gewirtz, Jacob L.

    2012-01-01

    This experiment investigated social referencing as a form of discriminative learning in which maternal facial expressions signaled the consequences of the infant's behavior in an ambiguous context. Eleven 4- and 5-month-old infants and their mothers participated in a discrimination-training procedure using an ABAB design. Different consequences…

  8. History-dependent excitability as a single-cell substrate of transient memory for information discrimination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Baroni

    Full Text Available Neurons react differently to incoming stimuli depending upon their previous history of stimulation. This property can be considered as a single-cell substrate for transient memory, or context-dependent information processing: depending upon the current context that the neuron "sees" through the subset of the network impinging on it in the immediate past, the same synaptic event can evoke a postsynaptic spike or just a subthreshold depolarization. We propose a formal definition of History-Dependent Excitability (HDE as a measure of the propensity to firing in any moment in time, linking the subthreshold history-dependent dynamics with spike generation. This definition allows the quantitative assessment of the intrinsic memory for different single-neuron dynamics and input statistics. We illustrate the concept of HDE by considering two general dynamical mechanisms: the passive behavior of an Integrate and Fire (IF neuron, and the inductive behavior of a Generalized Integrate and Fire (GIF neuron with subthreshold damped oscillations. This framework allows us to characterize the sensitivity of different model neurons to the detailed temporal structure of incoming stimuli. While a neuron with intrinsic oscillations discriminates equally well between input trains with the same or different frequency, a passive neuron discriminates better between inputs with different frequencies. This suggests that passive neurons are better suited to rate-based computation, while neurons with subthreshold oscillations are advantageous in a temporal coding scheme. We also address the influence of intrinsic properties in single-cell processing as a function of input statistics, and show that intrinsic oscillations enhance discrimination sensitivity at high input rates. Finally, we discuss how the recognition of these cell-specific discrimination properties might further our understanding of neuronal network computations and their relationships to the distribution and

  9. History-Dependent Excitability as a Single-Cell Substrate of Transient Memory for Information Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroni, Fabiano; Torres, Joaquín J.; Varona, Pablo

    2010-01-01

    Neurons react differently to incoming stimuli depending upon their previous history of stimulation. This property can be considered as a single-cell substrate for transient memory, or context-dependent information processing: depending upon the current context that the neuron “sees” through the subset of the network impinging on it in the immediate past, the same synaptic event can evoke a postsynaptic spike or just a subthreshold depolarization. We propose a formal definition of History-Dependent Excitability (HDE) as a measure of the propensity to firing in any moment in time, linking the subthreshold history-dependent dynamics with spike generation. This definition allows the quantitative assessment of the intrinsic memory for different single-neuron dynamics and input statistics. We illustrate the concept of HDE by considering two general dynamical mechanisms: the passive behavior of an Integrate and Fire (IF) neuron, and the inductive behavior of a Generalized Integrate and Fire (GIF) neuron with subthreshold damped oscillations. This framework allows us to characterize the sensitivity of different model neurons to the detailed temporal structure of incoming stimuli. While a neuron with intrinsic oscillations discriminates equally well between input trains with the same or different frequency, a passive neuron discriminates better between inputs with different frequencies. This suggests that passive neurons are better suited to rate-based computation, while neurons with subthreshold oscillations are advantageous in a temporal coding scheme. We also address the influence of intrinsic properties in single-cell processing as a function of input statistics, and show that intrinsic oscillations enhance discrimination sensitivity at high input rates. Finally, we discuss how the recognition of these cell-specific discrimination properties might further our understanding of neuronal network computations and their relationships to the distribution and functional

  10. THE DEVELOPMENT IN DYNAMICS AND STRUCTURE OF THE ROMANIAN TOURISM IN THE CONTEXT OF THE GLOBAL CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela STANCIULESCU

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to make a short presentation of the Romanian tourism in the context of the global economic crisis, highlighting the main data about inbound and outbound tourism. Due to the current global crisis, Romanian tourism disposes of two main options: to ripen or to run low. The empirical results will show the connection between Romanian tourism and the global economic crisis and shall state precisely the decrease or increase for the indicators between 2000 and 2007. In 2007, the year when Romania joined the European Union and when all stipulations regarding free travelling for people who travel in other communitarian countries were passed, Romanian tourists increased their interest in travelling abroad. This also brought to an increased number of persons visiting other countries. The economic crisis might be a chance for Romanian tourism to raise the bid as in such periods tourists usually look for close destinations, developing the incoming indicator that was very low during the last few years. Romania's international touristic feed is characterized by an evolution reflecting the various changes and transformations from the political, economic, and social points of view. The drawn conclusions prove the fact that both the global heating and the global financial crisis take place in the same time and thus we must take actions in order to improve Romanian tourism.

  11. The role of normally hyperbolic invariant manifolds (NHIMS) in the context of the phase space setting for chemical reaction dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, Stephen

    2016-11-01

    In this paper we give an introduction to the notion of a normally hyperbolic invariant manifold (NHIM) and its role in chemical reaction dynamics.We do this by considering simple examples for one-, two-, and three-degree-of-freedom systems where explicit calculations can be carried out for all of the relevant geometrical structures and their properties can be explicitly understood. We specifically emphasize the notion of a NHIM as a "phase space concept". In particular, we make the observation that the (phase space) NHIM plays the role of "carrying" the (configuration space) properties of a saddle point of the potential energy surface into phase space. We also consider an explicit example of a 2-degree-of-freedom system where a "global" dividing surface can be constructed using two index one saddles and one index two saddle. Such a dividing surface has arisen in several recent applications and, therefore, such a construction may be of wider interest.

  12. Plasma Instabilities in the Context of Current Helium Sedimentation Models: Dynamical Implications for the ICM in Galaxy Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Berlok, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Understanding whether Helium can sediment to the core of galaxy clusters is important for a number of problems in cosmology and astrophysics. All current models addressing this question are one-dimensional and do not account for the fact that magnetic fields can effectively channel ions and electrons, leading to anisotropic transport of momentum, heat, and particle diffusion in the weakly collisional intracluster medium (ICM). This anisotropy can lead to a wide variety of instabilities, which could be relevant for understanding the dynamics of heterogeneous media. In this paper, we consider the radial temperature and composition profiles as obtained from a state-of-the-art Helium sedimentation model and analyze its stability properties. We find that the associated radial profiles are unstable, to different kinds of instabilities depending on the magnetic field orientation, at all radii. The fastest growing modes are usually related to generalizations of the Magnetothermal Instability (MTI) and the Heat-flux-d...

  13. Dynamics of a low-density tiger population in Southeast Asia in the context of improved law enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duangchantrasiri, Somphot; Umponjan, Mayuree; Simcharoen, Saksit; Pattanavibool, Anak; Chaiwattana, Soontorn; Maneerat, Sompoch; Kumar, N Samba; Jathanna, Devcharan; Srivathsa, Arjun; Karanth, K Ullas

    2016-06-01

    Recovering small populations of threatened species is an important global conservation strategy. Monitoring the anticipated recovery, however, often relies on uncertain abundance indices rather than on rigorous demographic estimates. To counter the severe threat from poaching of wild tigers (Panthera tigris), the Government of Thailand established an intensive patrolling system in 2005 to protect and recover its largest source population in Huai Kha Khaeng Wildlife Sanctuary. Concurrently, we assessed the dynamics of this tiger population over the next 8 years with rigorous photographic capture-recapture methods. From 2006 to 2012, we sampled across 624-1026 km(2) with 137-200 camera traps. Cameras deployed for 21,359 trap days yielded photographic records of 90 distinct individuals. We used closed model Bayesian spatial capture-recapture methods to estimate tiger abundances annually. Abundance estimates were integrated with likelihood-based open model analyses to estimate rates of annual and overall rates of survival, recruitment, and changes in abundance. Estimates of demographic parameters fluctuated widely: annual density ranged from 1.25 to 2.01 tigers/100 km(2) , abundance from 35 to 58 tigers, survival from 79.6% to 95.5%, and annual recruitment from 0 to 25 tigers. The number of distinct individuals photographed demonstrates the value of photographic capture-recapture methods for assessments of population dynamics in rare and elusive species that are identifiable from natural markings. Possibly because of poaching pressure, overall tiger densities at Huai Kha Khaeng were 82-90% lower than in ecologically comparable sites in India. However, intensified patrolling after 2006 appeared to reduce poaching and was correlated with marginal improvement in tiger survival and recruitment. Our results suggest that population recovery of low-density tiger populations may be slower than anticipated by current global strategies aimed at doubling the number of wild tigers

  14. Discrimination and Depressive Symptoms Among Latina/o Adolescents of Immigrant Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, William D; LeBrón, Alana M W; Graham, Louis F; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Discrimination is associated with negative mental health outcomes for Latina/o adolescents. While Latino/a adolescents experience discrimination from a number of sources and across contexts, little research considers how the source of discrimination and the context in which it occurs affect mental health outcomes among Latina/o children of immigrants. We examined the association between source-specific discrimination, racial or ethnic background of the source, and school ethnic context with depressive symptoms for Latina/o adolescents of immigrant parents. Using multilevel linear regression with time-varying covariates, we regressed depressive symptoms on source-specific discrimination, racial or ethnic background of the source of discrimination, and school percent Latina/o. Discrimination from teachers (β = 0.06, p discrimination to improve Latina/o adolescents' mental health. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. Dynamic effects of self-relevance and task on the neural processing of emotional words in context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric C. Fields

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We used event-related potentials (ERPs to examine the interactions between task, emotion, and contextual self-relevance on processing words in social vignettes. Participants read scenarios that were in either third person (other-relevant or second person (self-relevant and we recorded ERPs to a neutral, pleasant, or unpleasant critical word. In a previously reported study (Fields & Kuperberg, 2012 with these stimuli, participants were tasked with producing a third sentence continuing the scenario. We observed a larger LPC to emotional words than neutral words in both the self-relevant and other-relevant scenarios, but this effect was smaller in the self-relevant scenarios because the LPC was larger on the neutral words (i.e., a larger LPC to self-relevant than other-relevant neutral words. In the present work, participants simply answered comprehension questions that did not refer to the emotional aspects of the scenario. Here we observed quite a different pattern of interaction between self-relevance and emotion: the LPC was larger to emotional versus neutral words in the self-relevant scenarios only, and there was no effect of self-relevance on neutral words. Taken together, these findings suggest that the LPC reflects a dynamic interaction between specific task demands, the emotional properties of a stimulus, and contextual self-relevance. We conclude by discussing implications and future directions for a functional theory of the emotional LPC.

  16. Keep it simple - A case study of model development in the context of the Dynamic Stocks and Flows (DSF) task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halbrügge, Marc

    2010-12-01

    This paper describes the creation of a cognitive model submitted to the ‘Dynamic Stocks and Flows’ (DSF) modeling challenge. This challenge aims at comparing computational cognitive models for human behavior during an open ended control task. Participants in the modeling competition were provided with a simulation environment and training data for benchmarking their models while the actual specification of the competition task was withheld. To meet this challenge, the cognitive model described here was designed and optimized for generalizability. Only two simple assumptions about human problem solving were used to explain the empirical findings of the training data. In-depth analysis of the data set prior to the development of the model led to the dismissal of correlations or other parametric statistics as goodness-of-fit indicators. A new statistical measurement based on rank orders and sequence matching techniques is being proposed instead. This measurement, when being applied to the human sample, also identifies clusters of subjects that use different strategies for the task. The acceptability of the fits achieved by the model is verified using permutation tests.

  17. Dynamic Effects of Self-Relevance and Task on the Neural Processing of Emotional Words in Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Eric C; Kuperberg, Gina R

    2015-01-01

    We used event-related potentials (ERPs) to examine the interactions between task, emotion, and contextual self-relevance on processing words in social vignettes. Participants read scenarios that were in either third person (other-relevant) or second person (self-relevant) and we recorded ERPs to a neutral, pleasant, or unpleasant critical word. In a previously reported study (Fields and Kuperberg, 2012) with these stimuli, participants were tasked with producing a third sentence continuing the scenario. We observed a larger LPC to emotional words than neutral words in both the self-relevant and other-relevant scenarios, but this effect was smaller in the self-relevant scenarios because the LPC was larger on the neutral words (i.e., a larger LPC to self-relevant than other-relevant neutral words). In the present work, participants simply answered comprehension questions that did not refer to the emotional aspects of the scenario. Here we observed quite a different pattern of interaction between self-relevance and emotion: the LPC was larger to emotional vs. neutral words in the self-relevant scenarios only, and there was no effect of self-relevance on neutral words. Taken together, these findings suggest that the LPC reflects a dynamic interaction between specific task demands, the emotional properties of a stimulus, and contextual self-relevance. We conclude by discussing implications and future directions for a functional theory of the emotional LPC.

  18. Hydrological dynamics of a Mediterranean catchment in a global change context. (Romanyac catchment, Cap de Creus, Girona, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latron, J.; Pardini, G.; Gispert, M.; Llorens, P.

    2009-04-01

    Mediterranean regions are characterized by unevenly distributed water resources, and consequently a more precise knowledge of the main hydrological processes and their variability and changes is crucial for a better management of water resources. However, the lack of hydrological information and data in most areas of the Mediterranean basin greatly difficult the analyses of changes in water resources at relevant scales. In this context, the Soil Science Unit GRCT48 from the University of Girona is conducting an integrated study of hydrological response, soil erosion and soil degradation processes in fragile Mediterranean areas undergoing changes in use and management. The study area is located in the Cap de Creus Peninsula (NE Spain), where land abandonment has been the outstanding characteristic over the last decades. The area is covered by terraced soils, most of them abandoned, and stands for a representative Mediterranean environment. Current land cover is a mosaic of areas with different shrubs according to wildfire occurrence. Residual patches of cork and pine trees are also present as well as small extensions of pastures. Finally some localized areas of vineyards and olive trees are still cultivated. The approach is based on the complementary use of plot and catchment scales to assess the effect of land cover and land use change on physical, chemical and biological parameters of soil quality and on rainfall-runoff-erosion relationships. Along the study period, observed rainfall-runoff response at the plot scale was highly variable among sites but also for a given environment, depending on antecedent wetness conditions and rainfall characteristics. Overall, surface runoff responses were low in all environments. Soil loss associated to rainfall-runoff events showed very large variations among sites, and also for a given site, between the different rainfall events. At the catchment scale, preliminary results obtained from the monitoring, of three catchments of

  19. Analysis and prediction of pest dynamics in an agroforestry context using Tiko'n, a generic tool to develop food web models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Marcela; Malard, Julien; Adamowski, Jan; Carrera, Jaime Luis; Maas, Raúl

    2017-04-01

    While it is known that climate change will impact future plant-pest population dynamics, potentially affecting crop damage, agroforestry with its enhanced biodiversity is said to reduce the outbreaks of pest insects by providing natural enemies for the control of pest populations. This premise is known in the literature as the natural enemy hypothesis and has been widely studied qualitatively. However, disagreement still exists on whether biodiversity enhancement reduces pest outbreaks, showing the need of quantitatively understanding the mechanisms behind the interactions between pests and natural enemies, also known as trophic interactions. Crop pest models that study insect population dynamics in agroforestry contexts are very rare, and pest models that take trophic interactions into account are even rarer. This may be due to the difficulty of representing complex food webs in a quantifiable model. There is therefore a need for validated food web models that allow users to predict the response of these webs to changes in climate in agroforestry systems. In this study we present Tiko'n, a Python-based software whose API allows users to rapidly build and validate trophic web models; the program uses a Bayesian inference approach to calibrate the models according to field data, allowing for the reuse of literature data from various sources and reducing the need for extensive field data collection. Tiko'n was run using coffee leaf miner (Leucoptera coffeella) and associated parasitoid data from a shaded coffee plantation, showing the mechanisms of insect population dynamics within a tri-trophic food web in an agroforestry system.

  20. Discrimination against Black Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloud, Ashwaq; Alsulayyim, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Discrimination is a structured way of abusing people based on racial differences, hence barring them from accessing wealth, political participation and engagement in many spheres of human life. Racism and discrimination are inherently rooted in institutions in the society, the problem has spread across many social segments of the society including…

  1. INTERSECTIONAL DISCRIMINATION AGAINST CHILDREN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravnbøl, Camilla Ida

    This paper adds a perspective to existing research on child protection by engaging in a debate on intersectional discrimination and its relationship to child protection. The paper has a twofold objective, (1) to further establish intersectionality as a concept to address discrimination against ch...... children, and (2) to illustrate the importance of addressing intersectionality within rights-based programmes of child protection....

  2. Flash-Type Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshak, William J.

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the significant progress made in the flash-type discrimination algorithm development. The contents include: 1) Highlights of Progress for GLM-R3 Flash-Type discrimination Algorithm Development; 2) Maximum Group Area (MGA) Data; 3) Retrieval Errors from Simulations; and 4) Preliminary Global-scale Retrieval.

  3. INTERSECTIONAL DISCRIMINATION AGAINST CHILDREN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravnbøl, Camilla Ida

    This paper adds a perspective to existing research on child protection by engaging in a debate on intersectional discrimination and its relationship to child protection. The paper has a twofold objective, (1) to further establish intersectionality as a concept to address discrimination against...

  4. Context updates are hierarchical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Karl Ingason

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This squib studies the order in which elements are added to the shared context of interlocutors in a conversation. It focuses on context updates within one hierarchical structure and argues that structurally higher elements are entered into the context before lower elements, even if the structurally higher elements are pronounced after the lower elements. The crucial data are drawn from a comparison of relative clauses in two head-initial languages, English and Icelandic, and two head-final languages, Korean and Japanese. The findings have consequences for any theory of a dynamic semantics.

  5. Early dynamic imaging in {sup 68}Ga- PSMA-11 PET/CT allows discrimination of urinary bladder activity and prostate cancer lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uprimny, Christian; Kroiss, Alexander Stephan; Decristoforo, Clemens; Warwitz, Boris; Scarpa, Lorenza; Roig, Llanos Geraldo; Kendler, Dorota; Guggenberg, Elisabeth von; Virgolini, Irene Johanna [Medical University Innsbruck, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Innsbruck (Austria); Fritz, Josef [Medical University Innsbruck, Department for Medical Statistics, Informatics and Health Economics, Innsbruck (Austria); Bektic, Jasmin; Horninger, Wolfgang [Medical University Innsbruck, Department of Urology, Innsbruck (Austria)

    2017-05-15

    PET/CT with {sup 68}Ga-labelled prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-ligands has been proven to establish a promising imaging modality in the work-up of prostate cancer (PC) patients with biochemical relapse. Despite a high overall detection rate, the visualisation of local recurrence may be hampered by high physiologic tracer accumulation in the urinary bladder on whole body imaging, usually starting 60 min after injection. This study sought to verify whether early dynamic {sup 68}Ga-PSMA-11 (HBED-CC)PET/CT can differentiate pathologic PC-related tracer uptake from physiologic tracer accumulation in the urinary bladder. Eighty consecutive PC patients referred to {sup 68}Ga -PSMA-11 PET/CT were included in this retrospective analysis (biochemical relapse: n = 64; primary staging: n = 8; evaluation of therapy response/restaging: n = 8). In addition to whole-body PET/CT acquisition 60 min post injection early dynamic imaging of the pelvis in the first 8 min after tracer injection was performed. SUV{sub max} of pathologic lesions was calculated and time-activity curves were generated and compared to those of urinary bladder and areas of physiologic tracer uptake. A total of 55 lesions consistent with malignancy on 60 min whole body imaging exhibited also pathologic {sup 68}Ga-PSMA-11 uptake during early dynamic imaging (prostatic bed/prostate gland: n = 27; lymph nodes: n = 12; bone: n = 16). All pathologic lesions showed tracer uptake within the first 3 min, whereas urinary bladder activity was absent within the first 3 min of dynamic imaging in all patients. Suv{sub max} was significantly higher in PC lesions in the first 6 min compared to urinary bladder accumulation (p < 0.001). In the subgroup of PC patients with biochemical relapse the detection rate of local recurrence could be increased from 20.3 to 29.7%. Early dynamic imaging in {sup 68}Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT reliably enables the differentiation of pathologic tracer uptake in PC lesions from physiologic

  6. Associations of racial discrimination and parental discrimination coping messages with African American adolescent racial identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Bridget L; Macon, Tamarie A; Mustafaa, Faheemah N; Bogan, Erin D; Cole-Lewis, Yasmin; Chavous, Tabbye M

    2015-06-01

    Research links racial identity to important developmental outcomes among African American adolescents, but less is known about the contextual experiences that shape youths' racial identity. In a sample of 491 African American adolescents (48% female), associations of youth-reported experiences of racial discrimination and parental messages about preparation for racial bias with adolescents' later racial identity were examined. Cluster analysis resulted in four profiles of adolescents varying in reported frequency of racial discrimination from teachers and peers at school and frequency of parental racial discrimination coping messages during adolescents' 8th grade year. Boys were disproportionately over-represented in the cluster of youth experiencing more frequent discrimination but receiving fewer parental discrimination coping messages, relative to the overall sample. Also examined were clusters of adolescents' 11th grade racial identity attitudes about the importance of race (centrality), personal group affect (private regard), and perceptions of societal beliefs about African Americans (public regard). Girls and boys did not differ in their representation in racial identity clusters, but 8th grade discrimination/parent messages clusters were associated with 11th grade racial identity cluster membership, and these associations varied across gender groups. Boys experiencing more frequent discrimination but fewer parental coping messages were over-represented in the racial identity cluster characterized by low centrality, low private regard, and average public regard. The findings suggest that adolescents who experience racial discrimination but receive fewer parental supports for negotiating and coping with discrimination may be at heightened risk for internalizing stigmatizing experiences. Also, the findings suggest the need to consider the context of gender in adolescents' racial discrimination and parental racial socialization.

  7. FET frequency discriminator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawhinney, F. D.

    1982-03-01

    The FET Frequency Discriminator is an experimental microwave frequency discriminator developed for use in a specialized set-on VCO frequency memory system. Additional development and evaluation work has been done during this program to more fully determine the applicability of the FET frequency discriminator as a low-cost, expendable receiver front-end for both surveillance and ECM systems. Various methods for adjusting the frequency-to-voltage characteristic of the discriminator as well as the effects of detector characteristics and ambient temperature changes were evaluated. A number of discriminators for use in the 7- to 11-GHz and the 11to 18-GHz bands were fabricated and tested. Interim breadboard and final packaged models were either delivered or installed in developmental frequency systems. The major limitations and deficiencies of the FET frequency discriminator that were reviewed during the program include the effects of temperature, input power level variations, nonlinearity, and component repeatability. Additional effort will be required to advance the developmental status of the FET frequency discriminator to the level necessary for inclusion in low-cost receiver systems, but the basic simplicity of the approach continues to show much promise.

  8. Operation Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stüben, Henning; Tietjen, Anne

    2006-01-01

    Abstract: This paper seeks to challenge the notion of context from an operational perspective. Can we grasp the forces that shape the complex conditions for an architectural or urban design within the notion of context? By shifting the gaze towards the agency of architecture, contextual analysis...

  9. Context modification in action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we develop the positive fragment of Context Modification Logic. This logical system is a variant of Dynamic Predicate Logic that employs multiple-access variables and that treats argument places in the same way as Latin. The positive fragment is purely incremental.

  10. Las dinámicas interactivas en el ámbito universitario: el clima de aula / The interactive dynamics in the university context: the classroom environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulay Pereira Pérez

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Recibido 28 de julio de 2009 • Aceptado 02 de diciembre de 2009 • Corregido 20 de marzo de 2010   Resumen. Las relaciones interpersonales en el ámbito humano cobran vital sentido desde el nacimiento y se van conformando en los procesos de interacción y socialización. El contexto educativo no está exento de procesos comunicativos e interactivos. Es en el aula de clase, donde, de manera más específica, se pueden identificar dichos procesos. El aula puede ser entendida como el espacio físico-humano, en el cual se desarrollan dinámicas a partir de las interacciones entre el profesorado y el grupo estudiantil, los contenidos, las estrategias de aprendizaje y el clima de aula que de ello se genera; aspectos todos, que como parte de los procesos de enseñanza y de aprendizaje están presentes en el ámbito de la clase. Es interesante analizar el clima de aula y las dinámicas interactivas que en ella se desarrollan, independientemente de la edad del estudiante –ya sea que se trate de infantes, adolescentes o adultos–. En este caso particular, se analiza el clima de aula en el ámbito universitario, entendiendo que las dinámicas interactivas que en el aula se desarrollen, determinan un ambiente propicio o no, para el proceso de enseñanza y de aprendizaje, que ha de ser considerado, si se opta por una educación integral y de calidad.  Abstract. Interpersonal relationships in human communities gained a great value since the begging of mankind, these relationships are constructed on interaction and socialization. The educational context is not exempt of these interactive and communicative processes, and it is specifically in the classroom where they can be found. The classroom can be identified as a physical and a humane space, in which dynamics are developed from the interactions between teachers and students, learning content, learning strategies and the class environment. All of these aspects are presented in the classroom as part

  11. Context in a wider context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Traxler

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to review and reconsider the role of context in mobile learning and starts by outlining definitions of context-aware mobile learning as the technologies have become more mature, more robust and more widely available and as the notion of context has become progressively richer. The future role of context-aware mobile learning is considered within the context of the future of mobile learning as it moves from the challenges and opportunities of pedagogy and technology to the challenges and opportunities of policy, scale, sustainability, equity and engagement with augmented reality, «blended learning», «learner devices», «user-generated contexts» and the «internet of things». This is essentially a perspective on mobile learning, and other forms of technology-enhanced learning (TEL, where educators and their institutions set the agenda and manage change. There are, however, other perspectives on context. The increasing availability and use of smart-phones and other personal mobile devices with similar powerful functionality means that the experience of context for many people, in the form of personalized or location-based services, is an increasingly social and informal experience, rather than a specialist or educational experience. This is part of the transformative impact of mobility and connectedness on our societies brought about by these universal, ubiquitous and pervasive technologies. This paper contributes a revised understanding of context in the wider context (sic of the transformations taking place in our societies. These are subtle but pervasive transformations of jobs, work and the economy, of our sense of time, space and place, of knowing and learning, and of community and identity. This leads to a radical reconsideration of context as the notions of ‹self› and ‹other› are transformed.

  12. Context Awareness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønsted, Jeppe

    forståelse. Traditionelt har denne form for information ikke været tilstede i informationssystemer, men med bølgen af Pervasive Computing og Communication begynder ting så småt at ændre sig. Et af målene for context aware computing er, at udnytte denne ekstra ressource af informationer der ellers er...... forbeholdt mennesker, til at forbedre interaktionen med og udnyttelsen af IT-systemer. Information om kontekst fra forskellige kilder kombineres og systemet foreslår relevante handlinger eller udfører dem automatisk. I dette dokument beskrives begreberne context og context awareness og hvorfor de er vigtige...

  13. Context Awareness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønsted, Jeppe

    forståelse. Traditionelt har denne form for information ikke været tilstede i informationssystemer, men med bølgen af Pervasive Computing og Communication begynder ting så småt at ændre sig. Et af målene for context aware computing er, at udnytte denne ekstra ressource af informationer der ellers er...... forbeholdt mennesker, til at forbedre interaktionen med og udnyttelsen af IT-systemer. Information om kontekst fra forskellige kilder kombineres og systemet foreslår relevante handlinger eller udfører dem automatisk. I dette dokument beskrives begreberne context og context awareness og hvorfor de er vigtige...

  14. International Comparison of Age Discrimination Laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahey, Joanna N

    2010-11-01

    European age discrimination legislation is discussed in the context of the US Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA) and related state laws. US law was originally introduced to protect productive older workers from age stereotypes, but more recently preventing age discrimination has become important as a means of keeping costs down on entitlement programs as the population ages. Changes in enforcement, penalties, exemptions, length of time to file, and burden of proof have changed the effects of the laws over time. The ADEA has had both positive effects on currently employed older workers and negative effects on the hiring of older workers. Enforcement and publicity are offered as possible explanations for the strength of these positive and negative effects. Age discrimination legislation in Europe, indicated in the Framework Directive 2000/78, is driven by economic and political considerations. European legislation calls for less enforcement and more exemptions than the corresponding US cases which could lead to smaller effects on employment. However, pensions, disability, unemployment, and social security potentially have a stronger effect on social norms for retirement age than does anti-discrimination legislation.

  15. Context matters!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojesen, Anders

    2004-01-01

    This paper explores how the context of competencies affects the way we see and value competence and how it thereby forms communication and strategies of action. The paper puts forward the view that the context of competence is often spoken of in incomprehensible terms and generally taken...... for granted and unproblematic, although it is agreed to be of great importance. By crystallising three different modes of contextualised competence thinking (prescriptive, descriptive and analytical) the paper shows that the underlying assumptions about context - the interaction between the individual...... and the social - has major consequences for the specific enactment of competence. The paper argues in favour of a second order observation strategy for the context of competence. But in doing so it also shows that prevailing second-order competence theories so far, in criticising (counter) positions (and...

  16. Research of W5 Model Based on Dynamic Context Awareness%基于动态情境感知的W5模型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王峰; 李石君

    2016-01-01

    Social network apps, such as Twitter, Sina Micro-blog and etc. have provided mass context-information associated with user IDs (who), check-in time (when), GPS coordinates (where), topic (what) and incentive (why) of tweets (5W for short) for location based services. The availability of such data received from users offers a good opportunity to study the user’s behavior and preference. In this paper, we propose a W5 probabilistic model to exploit such data with context by jointly probability to discover users’ dynamic behaviors from temporal, spatial and activity aspects. Our work is applied to prediction for user and location. Experimental results on two real-world datasets show that W5 model is effective in discovering users’ spatial-temporal prediction, and outperforms state-of-the art baselines, such as W4, on accuracy [UP: (GT: 3.75%, ST: 6.54%) and LP: (GT: 8.7%, ST: 20.6%)] at aspects of user prediction and location prediction based on Geo-Text (GT) and Sina-Tweets (ST).%Twitter、Sina Micro-blog等社交网络应用为基于位置的服务提供了大量的情境信息,如用户ID(who)、签到时间(when)、GPS坐标(where)、微博内容主题词(what)和微博内容诱因词(why)等,简称5W。它们为用户的行为和偏好研究提供了契机。该文提出了基于5W动态情境感知信息的W5概率模型,并采用包含情境信息的联合概率分布分别从时间、空间和活动等方面挖掘用户动态行为,用于用户和位置的预测。该文实验基于两个数据集:Geo-text(GT)和Sina-tweets(ST),在数据集上进行了用户预测(UP)和位置预测(LP)实验。实验结果表明,W5模型在UP和LP两方面准确率均高于W4模型。同时,W5模型在时间误差和空间距离误差两方面也取得了较好的性能。

  17. On learning context-free and context-sensitive languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, M; Wiles, J

    2002-01-01

    The long short-term memory (LSTM) is not the only neural network which learns a context sensitive language. Second-order sequential cascaded networks (SCNs) are able to induce means from a finite fragment of a context-sensitive language for processing strings outside the training set. The dynamical behavior of the SCN is qualitatively distinct from that observed in LSTM networks. Differences in performance and dynamics are discussed.

  18. Dealing with Discrimination and the Struggle for Social Advancement in Migrant Families: Theoretical and Methodo - logical Aspects of a Study on Adolescent Generational Dynamics in Turkish Migrant Families Subjected to Marginalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera King

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available What are the effects of experiences of discrimination on the adolescent process of detachment from the family? What strategies and forms do migrant families develop to deal with discrimination and how do parents’ ways of contending with discrimination affect those of their sons? Those are the central questions addressed by this study of the educational careers and adolescent detachment processes of sons from Turkish migrant families. Foregrounding the theoretical andmethodological approaches, the study examines how the strategies handed specifically to sons influence their personal and educational histories. One of our findings is that the ways adolescents are able to address experiences of discrimination are heavily influenced by intergenerational communication processes.

  19. Diagnostics of the Enterprise Economic Security and the Role of Information and Communication in the Context of Sustainability of Dynamical Equilibrium, Operation and Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skrynkovskyy Ruslan M.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the scientific article a system for diagnostics of the enterprise economic security is developed. It has been determined that the main business indicators for diagnostics of the enterprise economic security are: the level of the enterprise financial stability (contains the indicator for the enterprise provision with its own funds, rate of independence, financial stability indicator, current assets to equity ratio, liquid ratio, absolute liquidity ratio, current liquidity ratio; level of the enterprise production activity (calculated on the output-capital ratio, capital-labor ratio, index of workforce productivity, quality indicators of fixed assets, production potential indicator, production profitability ratio, input-output coefficient; level of organizational and administrative activities of the enterprise (takes into account the ratio of administrative expenses to the rate of increase in production volume, rate of saving of the managerial apparatus, rate of information processing; level of employee loyalty to the enterprise (calculated on the rate of personnel turnover, rate of personnel continuity, indicator of employee satisfaction, personnel development indicator, education level of employees; level of scientific and technical and innovative activity of the enterprise (including index of profitability of innovations, profitability of expenditures on research and development works; level of investment activity of the enterprise (includes index of investment profitability, rate of investment activity, rate of return on investments, rate of investment in production; level of market reliability (calculated on index of return on sales, index of return on net assets, index of marketability, level of market research. It has been identified that an important role in the context of sustainability of dynamical equilibrium, operation and development of enterprises is played by information and communication.

  20. Operant conditioning and discrimination of alpha: some methodological limitations inherent in response-discrimination experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cott, A; Pavloski, R P; Black, A H

    1981-09-01

    Studies on the operant conditioning of central nervous system activity have produced results interpreted as demonstrating that responses, certain properties of responses, or response-produced stimuli can function as discriminative stimuli. It is assumed that the feedback stimulus in biofeedback makes the subject aware of the internal response and that by becoming aware of the response, the subject can acquire voluntary control over it. In this context, awareness is operationally defined as the ability to use the response as a discriminative stimulus. Since direct evidence for the assumed relationship between control and discrimination is lacking, an attempt was made to test the hypothesis that discrimination of a response automatically leads to control over that response. The discriminative stimuli were the presence and absence of occipital alpha electroencephalograph (EEG) activity. Data from two experiments are reported. The first study, employing naive subjects, was designed to answer the following questions: (a) Since pilot data indicated that subjects seemed to match their responses to the more probable type of trial, would increases in the probability of a correct response result when the probabilities of alpha and nonalpha trials were held near .50? (b) If correct responding does increase, would performance of these subjects in an alpha feedback task be enhanced relative to that of subjects not previously given discrimination training? and (c) If subjects could not learn the discrimination task, would feedback training enhance their performance in a subsequent discrimination task? Results from this study indicate that holding the probabilities of alpha and nonalpha discrimination trials near .50 results in an absence of learning curves, but leaves open the possibility that sophisticated subjects are capable of discriminating alpha and nonalpha activity. The second study deals with two questions: (a) Can sophisticated subjects learn to discriminate occipital

  1. Discriminative Hash Tracking With Group Sparsity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Dandan; Zhang, Lihe; Lu, Huchuan; Mei, Xue; Li, Xiaoli

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel tracking framework based on discriminative supervised hashing algorithm. Different from previous methods, we treat tracking as a problem of object matching in a binary space. Using the hash functions, all target templates and candidates are mapped into compact binary codes, with which the target matching is conducted effectively. To be specific, we make full use of the label information to assign a compact and discriminative binary code for each sample. And to deal with out-of-sample case, multiple hash functions are trained to describe the learned binary codes, and group sparsity is introduced to the hash projection matrix to select the representative and discriminative features dynamically, which is crucial for the tracker to adapt to target appearance variations. The whole training problem is formulated as an optimization function where the hash codes and hash function are learned jointly. Extensive experiments on various challenging image sequences demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed tracker.

  2. The concept of disability discrimination and its legal construction

    OpenAIRE

    Whittle, R

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the key issues surrounding the legal construction of the concept of discrimination based on disability. This paper examines these issues in the context of the European Community’s framework directive on equal treatment in employment and occupation , in order to highlight the particular needs which must be addressed in developing laws to combat such discrimination. Where relevant, the paper contrasts the approach necessary for disability based discrimi...

  3. The effects of acute nicotine on contextual safety discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutlu, Munir G; Oliver, Chicora; Gould, Thomas J

    2014-11-01

    Anxiety disorders, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), may be related to an inability to distinguish safe versus threatening environments and to extinguish fear memories. Given the high rate of cigarette smoking in patients with PTSD, as well as the recent finding that an acute dose of nicotine impairs extinction of contextual fear memory, we conducted a series of experiments to investigate the effect of acute nicotine in an animal model of contextual safety discrimination. Following saline or nicotine (at 0.0275, 0.045, 0.09 and 0.18 mg/kg) administration, C57BL/6J mice were trained in a contextual discrimination paradigm, in which the subjects received presentations of conditioned stimuli (CS) that co-terminated with a foot-shock in one context (context A (CXA)) and only CS presentations without foot-shock in a different context (context B (CXB)). Therefore, CXA was designated as the 'dangerous context', whereas CXB was designated as the 'safe context'. Our results suggested that saline-treated animals showed a strong discrimination between dangerous and safe contexts, while acute nicotine dose-dependently impaired contextual safety discrimination (Experiment 1). Furthermore, our results demonstrate that nicotine-induced impairment of contextual safety discrimination learning was not a result of increased generalized freezing (Experiment 2) or contingent on the common CS presentations in both contexts (Experiment 3). Finally, our results show that increasing the temporal gap between CXA and CXB during training abolished the impairing effects of nicotine (Experiment 4). The findings of this study may help link nicotine exposure to the safety learning deficits seen in anxiety disorder and PTSD patients. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Model-driven Development for User-centric Well-being Support: From Dynamic Well-being Domain Models to Context-aware Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosems, S.; van Sinderen, Marten J.

    Applications that can use information obtained through device sensors to alter their behavior are called context-aware. Design and development of such applications is currently done by modeling the application's context or by using novel requirements engineering methods. If the application is to

  5. Model-driven development for user-centric well-being support: from dynamic well-being domain models to context-aware applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosems, Steven; Sinderen, van Marten

    2015-01-01

    Applications that can use information obtained through device sensors to alter their behavior are called context-aware. Design and development of such applications is currently done by modeling the application's context or by using novel requirements engineering methods. If the application is to sup

  6. Discrimination and Depression among Urban Hispanics with Poorly Controlled Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    March, Dana; Williams, Jasmine; Wells, Shayla; Eimicke, Joseph P; Teresi, Jeanne A; Almonte, Casandra; Link, Bruce G; Findley, Sally E; Palmas, Walter; Carrasquillo, Olveen; Luchsinger, José A

    2015-01-01

    We had three objectives for our study: 1) to describe the prevalence and burden of experiences of discrimination among Hispanics with poorly controlled diabetes; 2) to evaluate associations among discrimination experiences and their burden with comorbid depression among Hispanics with poorly controlled diabetes; and 3) to evaluate whether discrimination encountered in the health care context itself was associated with comorbid depression for Hispanic adults with diabetes. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data of a randomized controlled trial (RCT). We collected data in the context of an RCT in a clinical setting in New York City. Our sample comprised 221 urban-dwelling Hispanics, largely of Caribbean origin. The main outcome measure was major depression, measured by the Euro-D (score > 3). Of 221 participants, 58.8% reported at least one experience of everyday discrimination, and 42.5% reported at least one major experience of discrimination. Depression was associated significantly with counts of experiences of major discrimination (OR = 1.46, 95% CI = 1.09 - 1.94, P = .01), aggregate counts of everyday and major discrimination (OR = 1.13, 95% CI = 1.02 - 1.26, P = .02), and the experience of discrimination in getting care for physical health (OR = 6.30, 95% CI= 1.10-36.03). Discrimination may pose a barrier to getting health care and may be associated with depression among Hispanics with diabetes. Clinicians treating Caribbean-born Hispanics should be aware that disadvantage and discrimination likely complicate a presentation of diabetes.

  7. Mechanisms of renewal after the extinction of discriminated operant behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Travis P; Vurbic, Drina; Bouton, Mark E

    2014-07-01

    Three experiments demonstrated, and examined the mechanisms that underlie, the renewal of extinguished discriminated operant behavior. In Experiment 1, rats were trained to perform 1 response (lever press or chain pull) in the presence of one discriminative stimulus (S; light or tone) in Context A, and to perform the other response in the presence of the other S in Context B. Next, each of the original S/response combinations was extinguished in the alternate context. When the S/response combinations were tested back in the context in which they had been trained, responding in the presence of S returned (an ABA renewal effect was observed). This renewal could not be due to differential context-reinforcer associations, suggesting instead that the extinction context inhibits either the response and/or the effectiveness of the S. Consistent with the latter mechanism, in Experiment 2, ABA renewal was still observed when both the extinction and renewal contexts inhibited the same response. However, in Experiment 3, previous extinction of the response in the renewing context (occasioned by a different S) reduced AAB renewal more than did extinction of the different response. Taken together, the results suggest at least 2 mechanisms of renewal after instrumental extinction. First, extinction performance is at least partly controlled by a direct inhibitory association that is formed between the context and the response. Second, in the discriminated operant procedure, extinction performance can sometimes be partly controlled by a reduction in the effectiveness of the S in the extinction context. Renewal of discriminated operant behavior can be produced by a release from either of these forms of inhibition.

  8. Aptitude Tests and Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coupland, D. E.

    1970-01-01

    Explains why in the United States the feeling is increasing that much of the aptitude testing now being done discriminates against minority group members seeking employment. Skeptical of eliminating the discriminatory aspects of testing, the article raises the question of eliminating testing itself. (DM)

  9. A Lesson in Discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chotiner, Barbara; Hameroff-Cohen, Wendy

    1994-01-01

    Public high school students with deafness vividly learned about the realities of discrimination when they were informed of "new rules for deaf students," which required that they wear "deaf badges" in school, follow a strict dress code, and so on. After the "new rules" hoax was revealed, students' feelings and reactions to the situation were…

  10. Color measurement and discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandell, B. A.

    1985-01-01

    Theories of color measurement attempt to provide a quantative means for predicting whether two lights will be discriminable to an average observer. All color measurement theories can be characterized as follows: suppose lights a and b evoke responses from three color channels characterized as vectors, v(a) and v(b); the vector difference v(a) - v(b) corresponds to a set of channel responses that would be generated by some real light, call it *. According to theory a and b will be discriminable when * is detectable. A detailed development and test of the classic color measurement approach are reported. In the absence of a luminance component in the test stimuli, a and b, the theory holds well. In the presence of a luminance component, the theory is clearly false. When a luminance component is present discrimination judgements depend largely on whether the lights being discriminated fall in separate, categorical regions of color space. The results suggest that sensory estimation of surface color uses different methods, and the choice of method depends upon properties of the image. When there is significant luminance variation a categorical method is used, while in the absence of significant luminance variation judgments are continuous and consistant with the measurement approach.

  11. Sex Discrimination in Coaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessem, Lawrence

    1980-01-01

    Even in situations in which the underpayment of girls' coaches is due to the sex of the students coached rather than to the sex of the coaches, the coaches and the girls coached are victims of unlawful discrimination. Available from Harvard Women's Law Journal, Harvard Law School, Cambridge, MA 02138. (Author/IRT)

  12. Education and Gender Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumi, V. S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the status of women education in present education system and some measures to overcome the lags existing. Discrimination against girls and women in the developing world is a devastating reality. It results in millions of individual tragedies, which add up to lost potential for entire countries. Gender bias in education is an…

  13. Discrimination. Opposing Viewpoints Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Mary E., Ed.

    Books in the Opposing Viewpoints series challenge readers to question their own opinions and assumptions. By reading carefully balanced views, readers confront new ideas on the topic of interest. The Civil Rights Act of 1964, which prohibited job discrimination based on age, race, religion, gender, or national origin, provided the groundwork for…

  14. Reversing Discrimination: A Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pati, Gopal; Reilly, Charles W.

    1977-01-01

    Examines the debate over affirmative action and reverse discrimination, and discusses how and why the present dilemma has developed. Suggests that organizations can best address the problem through an honest, in-depth analysis of their organizational structure and management practices. (JG)

  15. Immunological self, nonself discrimination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guillet, J G; Lai, M Z; Briner, T J

    1987-01-01

    The ability of immunodominant peptides derived from several antigen systems to compete with each other for T cell activation was studied. Only peptides restricted by a given transplantation antigen are mutually competitive. There is a correlation between haplotype restriction, ability to bind to ...... that provides a basis for explaining self, nonself discrimination as well as alloreactivity....

  16. Analytic boosted boson discrimination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larkoski, Andrew J.; Moult, Ian; Neill, Duff [Center for Theoretical Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2016-05-20

    Observables which discriminate boosted topologies from massive QCD jets are of great importance for the success of the jet substructure program at the Large Hadron Collider. Such observables, while both widely and successfully used, have been studied almost exclusively with Monte Carlo simulations. In this paper we present the first all-orders factorization theorem for a two-prong discriminant based on a jet shape variable, D{sub 2}, valid for both signal and background jets. Our factorization theorem simultaneously describes the production of both collinear and soft subjets, and we introduce a novel zero-bin procedure to correctly describe the transition region between these limits. By proving an all orders factorization theorem, we enable a systematically improvable description, and allow for precision comparisons between data, Monte Carlo, and first principles QCD calculations for jet substructure observables. Using our factorization theorem, we present numerical results for the discrimination of a boosted Z boson from massive QCD background jets. We compare our results with Monte Carlo predictions which allows for a detailed understanding of the extent to which these generators accurately describe the formation of two-prong QCD jets, and informs their usage in substructure analyses. Our calculation also provides considerable insight into the discrimination power and calculability of jet substructure observables in general.

  17. Discrimination Learning in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochocki, Thomas E.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Examined the learning performance of 192 fourth-, fifth-, and sixth-grade children on either a two or four choice simultaneous color discrimination task. Compared the use of verbal reinforcement and/or punishment, under conditions of either complete or incomplete instructions. (Author/SDH)

  18. Discrimination and its Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Clarence

    1983-01-01

    Reviews challenges facing Black professionals committed to further promoting civil rights. Focuses on the Federal government role, particularly regarding racial discrimination in employment. Warns against the acceptance of orthodoxies, and calls for new action and the exercising of intellectual freedom. (KH)

  19. Sediment dynamics and palaeo-environmental context at key stages in the Challenger cold-water coral mound formation: Clues from sediment deposits at the mound base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huvenne, Veerle Ann Ida; Van Rooij, David; De Mol, Ben; Thierens, Mieke; O'Donnell, Rory; Foubert, Anneleen

    2009-12-01

    IODP Expedition 307, targeting the 160 m high Challenger Mound and its surroundings in the Porcupine Seabight, NE Atlantic, was the first occasion of scientific drilling of a cold-water coral carbonate mound. Such mound structures are found at several locations along the continental margin but are especially numerous off Ireland. All rooted on a common unconformity (RD1) and embedded in drift sediments, the mounds in the Porcupine Seabight remain enigmatic structures, and their initial trigger and formation mechanisms are still not entirely clear. This paper discusses the sedimentary environment during the initial stages of Challenger Mound, and at the start-up of the embedding sediment drift. The results are interpreted within the regional palaeo-environmental context. Based on detailed grain-size analyses and planktonic foraminifera assemblage counts, a 14-m interval overlying the regional base-of-mound unconformity RD1 is characterised at IODP Sites U1317 (on mound), U1316 (off mound), and U1318 (background site). Several sedimentary facies are identified and interpreted in relation to regional current dynamics. Using the foraminifera counts, existing age models for the initial stages of on-mound and off-mound sedimentation are refined. Sedimentation within the initial mound was characterised by a two-mode system, with the observed cyclicities related to glacial/interglacial stages. However, the contrast in environmental conditions between the stages was less extreme than observed in the most recent glacial/interglacial cycles, allowing continuous cold-water coral growth. This sustained presence of coral framework was the key factor for fast mound build-up, baffling sediments at periods of slack currents, and protecting them from renewed erosion during high-current events. The off-mound and background sedimentation consisted mainly of a succession of contourite beds, ranging from sandy contourites in the initial stages to muddy contourites higher up in the

  20. Infant discrimination of humanoid robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goh eMatsuda

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, extremely humanlike robots called androids have been developed, some of which are already being used in the field of entertainment. In the context of psychological studies, androids are expected to be used in the future as fully controllable human stimuli to investigate human nature. In this study, we used an android to examine infant discrimination ability between human beings and non-human agents. Participants (N = 42 infants were assigned to three groups based on their age, i.e., 6- to 8-month-olds, 9- to 11-month-olds, and 12- to 14-month-olds, and took part in a preferential looking paradigm. Of three types of agents involved in the paradigm—a human, an android modeled on the human, and a mechanical-looking robot made from the android—two at a time were presented side-by-side as they performed a grasping action. Infants’ looking behavior was measured using an eye tracking system, and the amount of time spent focusing on each of three areas of interest (face, goal, and body was analyzed. Results showed that all age groups predominantly looked at the robot and at the face area, and that infants aged over 9 months watched the goal area for longer than the body area. There was no difference in looking times and areas focused on between the human and the android. These findings suggest that 6- to 14-month-olds are unable to discriminate between the human and the android, although they can distinguish the mechanical robot from the human.

  1. Infant discrimination of humanoid robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Goh; Ishiguro, Hiroshi; Hiraki, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Recently, extremely humanlike robots called “androids” have been developed, some of which are already being used in the field of entertainment. In the context of psychological studies, androids are expected to be used in the future as fully controllable human stimuli to investigate human nature. In this study, we used an android to examine infant discrimination ability between human beings and non-human agents. Participants (N = 42 infants) were assigned to three groups based on their age, i.e., 6- to 8-month-olds, 9- to 11-month-olds, and 12- to 14-month-olds, and took part in a preferential looking paradigm. Of three types of agents involved in the paradigm—a human, an android modeled on the human, and a mechanical-looking robot made from the android—two at a time were presented side-by-side as they performed a grasping action. Infants’ looking behavior was measured using an eye tracking system, and the amount of time spent focusing on each of three areas of interest (face, goal, and body) was analyzed. Results showed that all age groups predominantly looked at the robot and at the face area, and that infants aged over 9 months watched the goal area for longer than the body area. There was no difference in looking times and areas focused on between the human and the android. These findings suggest that 6- to 14-month-olds are unable to discriminate between the human and the android, although they can distinguish the mechanical robot from the human. PMID:26441772

  2. Examining Workplace Discrimination in a Discrimination-Free Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Braxton, Shawn Lamont

    2010-01-01

    Examining Workplace Discrimination in a Discrimination-Free Environment Shawn L. Braxton Abstract The purpose of this study is to explore how racial and gender discrimination is reproduced in concrete workplace settings even when anti-discrimination policies are present, and to understand the various reactions utilized by those who commonly experience it. I have selected a particular medical center, henceforth referred to by a pseudonym, â The Bliley Medical Centerâ as my case ...

  3. The relative merits of discriminating and non-discriminating dosemeters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marshal, T. O.; Christensen, Palle; Julius, H. W.;

    1986-01-01

    The need for discriminating and non-discriminating personal dosemeters in the field of radiological protection is examined. The ability of various types of dosemeter to meet these needs is also discussed. It is concluded that there is a need for discriminating dosemeters but in the majority of ca...

  4. Generative Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyles, Dan Allen

    Educational research has identified how science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) practice and education have underperforming metrics in racial and gender diversity, despite decades of intervention. These disparities are part of the construction of a culture of science that is alienating to these populations. Recent studies in a social science framework described as "Generative Justice" have suggested that the context of social and scientific practice might be modified to bring about more just and equitable relations among the disenfranchised by circulating the value they and their non-human allies create back to them in unalienated forms. What is not known are the underlying principles of social and material space that makes a system more or less generative. I employ an autoethnographic method at four sites: a high school science class; a farm committed to "Black and Brown liberation"; a summer program geared towards youth environmental mapping; and a summer workshop for Harlem middle school students. My findings suggest that by identifying instances where material affinity, participatory voice, and creative solidarity are mutually reinforcing, it is possible to create educational contexts that generate unalienated value, and circulate it back to the producers themselves. This cycle of generation may help explain how to create systems of justice that strengthen and grow themselves through successive iterations. The problem of lack of diversity in STEM may be addressed not merely by recruiting the best and the brightest from underrepresented populations, but by changing the context of STEM education to provide tools for its own systematic restructuring.

  5. Employment Age Discrimination on Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄捧

    2015-01-01

    Employment age discrimination against women is not an unusual phenomenon in China.Through describing the present situation and negative effect of this phenomenon,this paper claims laws are very important weapon to eliminate age discrimination against women.

  6. Stress within a Bicultural Context for Adolescents of Mexican Descent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Andrea J.; Roberts, Robert E.

    2003-01-01

    Folkman and Lazarus's theory of stress and coping was used to develop a measure assessing the perceived stress within a bicultural context. Middle school students of Mexican descent (N=881) reported their perceived stress from intergenerational acculturation gaps, within-group discrimination, out-group discrimination, and monolingual stress.…

  7. Price Discrimination: A Classroom Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiló, Paula; Sard, Maria; Tugores, Maria

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe a classroom experiment aimed at familiarizing students with different types of price discrimination (first-, second-, and third-degree price discrimination). During the experiment, the students were asked to decide what tariffs to set as monopolists for each of the price discrimination scenarios under…

  8. Price Discrimination: Lessons for Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynes, E. Scott

    1990-01-01

    Explains price and product discrimination, showing how intelligent consumers can achieve increased purchasing power of their income and discusses how consumer educators can explain this discrimination. Evaluates the pros and cons of price/product discrimination from the social viewpoint. (Author/JOW)

  9. Transgender Discrimination and the Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotter, Richard

    2010-01-01

    An emerging area of law is developing regarding sex/gender identity discrimination, also referred to as transgender discrimination, as distinguished from discrimination based on sexual orientation. A transgendered individual is defined as "a person who has a gender-identity disorder which is a persistent discomfort about one?s assigned sex or…

  10. Racial Discrimination and Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Ross Levine; Alexey Levkov; Yona Rubinstein

    2008-01-01

    This paper assesses the impact of competition on racial discrimination. The dismantling of inter- and intrastate bank restrictions by U.S. states from the mid-1970s to the mid-1990s reduced financial market imperfections, lowered entry barriers facing nonfinancial firms, and boosted the rate of new firm formation. We use bank deregulation to identify an exogenous intensification of competition in the nonfinancial sector, and evaluate its impact on the racial wage gap, which is that component ...

  11. Optimal time discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Coşkun, Filiz; Sayalı, Zeynep Ceyda; Gürbüz, Emine; Balcı, Fuat

    2015-01-01

    Optimal Time Discrimination Journal: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology Manuscript ID: QJE-STD 14-039.R1 Manuscript Type: Standard Article Date Submitted by the Author: n/a Complete List of Authors: Çoskun, Filiz; Koç University, Psychology Sayalı Ungerer, Zeynep; Koç University, Psychology Gürbüz, Emine; Koç University, Psychology Balcı, Fuat; Koç University, Psychology Keywords: Decision making, Interval Timing, Optimality, Response Times, Temporal ...

  12. Discrimination in lexical decision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Laurie Beth; Ramscar, Michael; Hendrix, Peter; Baayen, R. Harald

    2017-01-01

    In this study we present a novel set of discrimination-based indicators of language processing derived from Naive Discriminative Learning (ndl) theory. We compare the effectiveness of these new measures with classical lexical-distributional measures—in particular, frequency counts and form similarity measures—to predict lexical decision latencies when a complete morphological segmentation of masked primes is or is not possible. Data derive from a re-analysis of a large subset of decision latencies from the English Lexicon Project, as well as from the results of two new masked priming studies. Results demonstrate the superiority of discrimination-based predictors over lexical-distributional predictors alone, across both the simple and primed lexical decision tasks. Comparable priming after masked corner and cornea type primes, across two experiments, fails to support early obligatory segmentation into morphemes as predicted by the morpho-orthographic account of reading. Results fit well with ndl theory, which, in conformity with Word and Paradigm theory, rejects the morpheme as a relevant unit of analysis. Furthermore, results indicate that readers with greater spelling proficiency and larger vocabularies make better use of orthographic priors and handle lexical competition more efficiently. PMID:28235015

  13. Workplace discrimination and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Maureen A; Fabian, Ellen; Hurley, Jessica E; McMahon, Brian T; West, Steven L

    2007-01-01

    Data from the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) Integrated Mission System database were analyzed with specific reference to allegations of workplace discrimination filed by individuals with cancer under ADA Title One. These 6,832 allegations, filed between July 27, 1992 and September 30, 2003, were compared to 167,798 allegations from a general disability population on the following dimensions: type of workplace discrimination; demographic characteristics of the charging parties (CPs); the industry designation, location, and size of employers; and the outcome or resolution of EEOC investigations. Results showed allegations derived from CPs with cancer were more likely than those in the general disability population to include issues involving discharge, terms and conditions of employment, lay-off, wages, and demotion. Compared to the general disability group, CPs with cancer were more likely to be female, older, and White. Allegations derived from CPs with cancer were also more likely to be filed against smaller employers (15-100 workers) or those in service industries. Finally, the resolution of allegations by CPs with cancer were more likely to be meritorious than those filed from the general disability population; that is, actual discrimination is more likely to have occurred.

  14. [Comment on] Statistical discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinn, Douglas

    In the December 8, 1981, issue of Eos, a news item reported the conclusion of a National Research Council study that sexual discrimination against women with Ph.D.'s exists in the field of geophysics. Basically, the item reported that even when allowances are made for motherhood the percentage of female Ph.D.'s holding high university and corporate positions is significantly lower than the percentage of male Ph.D.'s holding the same types of positions. The sexual discrimination conclusion, based only on these statistics, assumes that there are no basic psychological differences between men and women that might cause different populations in the employment group studied. Therefore, the reasoning goes, after taking into account possible effects from differences related to anatomy, such as women stopping their careers in order to bear and raise children, the statistical distributions of positions held by male and female Ph.D.'s ought to be very similar to one another. Any significant differences between the distributions must be caused primarily by sexual discrimination.

  15. National context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Tine

    2011-01-01

    This document forms part of the tasks of Work Package 3 for the European project PLACES (Platform of Local Authorities and Communicators Engaged in Science) whose main goal is to offer to a wide and diverse community of actors a common platform to structure their science communication activities,......, at a city/regional level (www.openplaces.eu). The main objective of this document is to have an overview of different contexts of scientific culture that are present around Europe with a particular focus on the local dimension of the initiatives and policies in science communication....

  16. Temporal Context, Preference, and Resistance to Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podlesnik, Christopher A.; Jimenez-Gomez, Corina; Thrailkill, Eric A.; Shahan, Timothy A.

    2011-01-01

    According to behavioral momentum theory, preference and relative resistance to change in concurrent chains schedules are correlated and reflect the relative conditioned value of discriminative stimuli. In the present study, we explore the generality of this relation by manipulating the temporal context within a concurrent-chains procedure through…

  17. Optimal discrimination of multiple quantum systems: controllability analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turinici, Gabriel [INRIA Rocquencourt, BP 105, 78153 Le Chesnay Cedex (France); Ramakhrishna, Viswanath [Department of Mathematical Sciences and Center for Signals, Systems and Communications, University of Texas at Dallas, PO Box 830688, Richardson, TX 75083 (United States); Li Baiqing [Department of Chemistry, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Rabitz, Herschel [Department of Chemistry, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2004-01-09

    A theoretical study is presented concerning the ability to dynamically discriminate between members of a set of different (but possibly similar) quantum systems. This discrimination is analysed in terms of independently and simultaneously steering about the wavefunction of each component system to a target state of interest using a tailored control (i.e. laser) field. Controllability criteria are revealed and their applicability is demonstrated in simple cases. Discussion is also presented in some uncontrollable cases.

  18. Study on Dim Target Detection and Discrimination from Sea Clutter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wen-guang; SUN Zuo-wei; LI Chen-ming; WANG Jun

    2013-01-01

    Dim target detection from sea clutter is one of the difficult topics in ocean remote sensing application.By aiming at the shortcoming of false alarms when using track before detect (TBD) based on dynamic programming,a new discrimination method called statistics of direction histogram (SDH) is proposed,which is based on different features of trajectories between the true target and false one.Moreover,a new series of discrimination schemes of SDH and Local Extreme Value method (LEV) are studied and applied to simulate the actually measured radar data.The results show that the given discrimination is effective to reduce false alarms during dim targets detection.

  19. Perceived discrimination and depressive symptoms among immigrant-origin adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tummala-Narra, Pratyusha; Claudius, Milena

    2013-07-01

    Although discrimination has been found to contribute to psychological distress among immigrant populations, there are few studies that have examined the relationship between racial and ethnic discrimination in the school setting among foreign-born immigrant and U.S.-born immigrant-origin adolescents. This study examined the relationship between perceived discrimination by adults and peers in the school setting and depressive symptoms in a sample (N = 95) of racial minority immigrant-origin adolescents (13 to 19 years of age) attending an urban high school. We examined the relation between perceived discrimination and depressive symptomology across gender and nativity status (foreign born vs. U.S. born), and the potential moderating role of ethnic identity and social support. Consistent with previous research, girls reported higher levels of depressive symptomology than boys, although the relationship between perceived discrimination and depressive symptoms was significant for both boys and girls. Perceived discrimination by adults and by peers at school was positively related to depressive symptoms for U.S.-born adolescents. For U.S.-born adolescents, ethnic identity mitigated the negative effects of perceived adult discrimination on depressive symptoms. However, ethnic identity did not moderate the relationship between perceived peer discrimination and depressive symptoms. Social support did not moderate the relationship between adult and peer discrimination and depressive symptoms for either foreign-born or U.S.-born adolescents. The findings support previous research concerning the immigrant paradox and highlight the importance of context in the relationship between perceived discrimination and mental health. Implications for future research and intervention are discussed.

  20. Measuring Discrimination in Education. NBER Working Paper No. 15057

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Rema; Linden. Leigh

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we illustrate a methodology to measure discrimination in educational contexts. In India, we ran an exam competition through which children compete for a large financial prize. We recruited teachers to grade the exams. We then randomly assigned child "characteristics" (age, gender, and caste) to the cover sheets of the…

  1. Large Margin Linear Discriminative Visualization by Matrix Relevance Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biehl, Michael; Bunte, Kerstin; Schleif, Frank-Michael; Schneider, Petra; Villmann, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    We suggest and investigate the use of Generalized Matrix Relevance Learning (GMLVQ) in the context of discriminative visualization. This prototype-based, supervised learning scheme parameterizes an adaptive distance measure in terms of a matrix of relevance factors. By means of a few benchmark

  2. Statistical Discrimination of Steady State Shift Damage Localization Metrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bull, Thomas; Markvart, Morten Kusk; Sekjær, Claus

    2017-01-01

    between healthy and damaged areas. The present paper examines the application of different well-established statistical evaluation schemes to enhance robustness in the discrimination and, as such, a more unambiguous localization. The application studies are conducted in an experimental context...

  3. Discriminative Shape Alignment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loog, M.; de Bruijne, M.

    2009-01-01

    The alignment of shape data to a common mean before its subsequent processing is an ubiquitous step within the area shape analysis. Current approaches to shape analysis or, as more specifically considered in this work, shape classification perform the alignment in a fully unsupervised way......, not taking into account that eventually the shapes are to be assigned to two or more different classes. This work introduces a discriminative variation to well-known Procrustes alignment and demonstrates its benefit over this classical method in shape classification tasks. The focus is on two......-dimensional shapes from a two-class recognition problem....

  4. Discrimination Concerns and Expectations as Explanations for Gendered Socialization in African American Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varner, Fatima; Mandara, Jelani

    2013-01-01

    Discrimination concerns and parental expectations were examined as mediators of the relations between gender and parenting practices among 796 African American mothers of 11- to 14-year-olds from the Maryland Adolescent Development in Context Study. Mothers of sons had more concerns about racial discrimination impacting their adolescents' future,…

  5. Accounting for Ethnic Discrimination : A Discursive Study Among Minority and Majority Group Members

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkuyten, Maykel J. A. M.

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the ways in which ethnic minority and majority group members account, in an interview context, for the existence of discrimination in Dutch society. Taking a discursive approach, the focus is on the strategies used to describe and explain discrimination. In both groups, certai

  6. Accounting for Ethnic Discrimination : A Discursive Study Among Minority and Majority Group Members

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkuyten, Maykel J. A. M.

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the ways in which ethnic minority and majority group members account, in an interview context, for the existence of discrimination in Dutch society. Taking a discursive approach, the focus is on the strategies used to describe and explain discrimination. In both groups, certai

  7. The Non-Discrimination Obligation Of Energy Network Operators : European rules and regulatory practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruimer, H.T.

    2013-01-01

    In this dissertation Hannah Kruimer analyses the application of the legal principle of non-discrimination in the context of energy network operation. Since the early 1990s the duty not to discriminate has applied to energy network operators, in order to achieve a liberalised European energy market,

  8. Accounting for Ethnic Discrimination : A Discursive Study Among Minority and Majority Group Members

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkuyten, Maykel J. A. M.

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the ways in which ethnic minority and majority group members account, in an interview context, for the existence of discrimination in Dutch society. Taking a discursive approach, the focus is on the strategies used to describe and explain discrimination. In both groups,

  9. Discrimination Concerns and Expectations as Explanations for Gendered Socialization in African American Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varner, Fatima; Mandara, Jelani

    2013-01-01

    Discrimination concerns and parental expectations were examined as mediators of the relations between gender and parenting practices among 796 African American mothers of 11- to 14-year-olds from the Maryland Adolescent Development in Context Study. Mothers of sons had more concerns about racial discrimination impacting their adolescents' future,…

  10. The Antecedents and Consequences of Racial/Ethnic Discrimination during Adolescence: Does the Source of Discrimination Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benner, Aprile D.; Graham, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    In the current study, we examined the precursors and consequences of discrimination for 876 Latino, African American, and Asian American adolescents (M[subscript age] = 16.9 years, SD = 0.43). The race/ethnic characteristics of schools and neighborhoods influenced adolescents' perceptions of the race/ethnic climates of these contexts. In turn,…

  11. The Antecedents and Consequences of Racial/Ethnic Discrimination during Adolescence: Does the Source of Discrimination Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benner, Aprile D.; Graham, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    In the current study, we examined the precursors and consequences of discrimination for 876 Latino, African American, and Asian American adolescents (M[subscript age] = 16.9 years, SD = 0.43). The race/ethnic characteristics of schools and neighborhoods influenced adolescents' perceptions of the race/ethnic climates of these contexts. In turn,…

  12. Theory and context / Theory in context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaveanu, Vlad Petre

    2014-01-01

    It is debatable whether the psychology of creativity is a field in crisis or not. There are clear signs of increased fragmenta-tion and a scarcity of integrative efforts, but is this necessari-ly bad? Do we need more comprehensive theories of creativ-ity and a return to old epistemological...... questions? This de-pends on how one understands theory. Against a view of theoretical work as aiming towards generality, universality, uniformity, completeness, and singularity, I advocate for a dynamic perspective in which theory is plural, multifaceted, and contextual. Far from ‘waiting for the Messiah......’, theoreti-cal work in the psychology of creativity can be integrative without having the ambition to explain or, even more, predict, creative expression across all people, at all times, and in all domains. To avoid such ambition, the psychology of creativi-ty requires a theory of context that doesn...

  13. Discriminative sensing techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Keith

    2008-10-01

    The typical human vision system is able to discriminate between a million or so different colours, yet is able to do this with a chromatic sensor array that is fundamentally based on three different receptors, sensitive to light in the blue, green and red portions of the visible spectrum. Some biological organisms have extended capabilities, providing vision in the ultra-violet, whilst others, such as some species of mantis shrimp reportedly have sixteen different types of photo-receptors. In general the biological imaging sensor takes a minimalist approach to sensing its environment, whereas current optical engineering approaches follow a 'brute' force solution where the challenge of hyperspectral imaging is addressed by various schemes for spatial and spectral dispersion of radiation across existing detector arrays. This results in a problem for others to solve in the processing and communication of the generated hypercube of data. This paper explores the parallels between some of those biological systems and the various design concepts being developed for discriminative imaging, drawing on activity supported by the UK Electro-Magnetic Remote Sensing Defence Technology Centre (EMRS DTC).

  14. Laurinda Abreu; Patrice Bourdelais; Teresa Ortiz-Gómez; Guillermo Palacios, eds. Dynamics of health and welfare: texts and contexts. Dinámicas de salud y bienestar: textos y contextos [Reseña bibliográfica

    OpenAIRE

    Arrizabalaga, Jon

    2009-01-01

    Dynamics of health and welfare: texts and contexts constituye una selección antológica comentada de textos pasados y presentes sobre la salud pública y el bienestar social, y sus intersecciones con el género y con los procesos migratorios y urbanísticos, centrado en Europa y Latinoamérica. El material aparece agrupado en tres grandes campos temáticos, cada cual al cuidado de un equipo de editores específico: «Salud y bienestar» (Laurinda Abreu y Patrice Bourdelais, p. 13-100), ...

  15. Discriminant Analysis on Land Grading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yaolin; HOU Yajuan

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes the discriminant analysis on land grading after analyzing the common methods and discussing the Fisher's discriminant in detail. Actually this method deduces the dimension from multi to single, thus it makes the feature vectors in n-dimension change to a scalar, and use this scalar to classify samples. This paper illustrates the result by giving an example of the residential land grading by the discriminant analysis.

  16. Women Status and their Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    PEŠKOVÁ, Pavlína

    2008-01-01

    My work deal with women status and their discrimination. Chapter one contains women status in different historical periods and development of their status to bigger equal with men. There is also written about present feminist trends. Chapter two is about women discrimination. There is about women´ job discrimination, job segregation according to gender and inequality in payment. There is also written about women status at home and unequal duties at home among family mates. Chapter three is ab...

  17. Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Goodman, Lawrence E

    2001-01-01

    Beginning text presents complete theoretical treatment of mechanical model systems and deals with technological applications. Topics include introduction to calculus of vectors, particle motion, dynamics of particle systems and plane rigid bodies, technical applications in plane motions, theory of mechanical vibrations, and more. Exercises and answers appear in each chapter.

  18. Weight discrimination and bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhl, Rebecca M; King, Kelly M

    2013-04-01

    Despite significant attention to the medical impacts of obesity, often ignored are the negative outcomes that obese children and adults experience as a result of stigma, bias, and discrimination. Obese individuals are frequently stigmatized because of their weight in many domains of daily life. Research spanning several decades has documented consistent weight bias and stigmatization in employment, health care, schools, the media, and interpersonal relationships. For overweight and obese youth, weight stigmatization translates into pervasive victimization, teasing, and bullying. Multiple adverse outcomes are associated with exposure to weight stigmatization, including depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, suicidal ideation, poor academic performance, lower physical activity, maladaptive eating behaviors, and avoidance of health care. This review summarizes the nature and extent of weight stigmatization against overweight and obese individuals, as well as the resulting consequences that these experiences create for social, psychological, and physical health for children and adults who are targeted. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Context effects on pitch perception in musicians and nonmusicians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brattico, E; Naatanen, R; Tervaniemi, M

    2001-01-01

    Behavioral evidence indicates that musical context facilitates pitch discrimination. In the present study, we sought to determine whether pitch context and its familiarity might affect brain responses to pitch change even at the preattentive level. Ten musicians and 10 nonmusicians, while...

  20. Wepman Test of Auditory Discrimination: What Does it Discriminate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Helen Warren

    1979-01-01

    This study investigated auditory discrimination as a function of ethnic group membership within the same socioeconimic status (SES). Subjects were 126 six-year-old students attending schools in a lower SES community. Contrary to previous findings, there were no differences between the groups on the Wepman Test of Auditory Discrimination. (Author)

  1. Perceived discrimination: why applicants and employees expect and perceive discrimination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abu Ghazaleh, N.

    2012-01-01

    In this dissertation we have investigated perceptions of discrimination. We have shown discrimination exists in the eyes of applicants and employees and especially when from an ethnic minority group. There are psychological variables that influence these perceptions differently for minority and

  2. Spatiotemporal Context Modelling in Pervasive Context-Aware Computing Environment: A Logic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darine Ameyed

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Pervasive context-aware computing, is one of the topics that received particular attention from researchers. The context, itself is an important notion explored in many works discussing its: acquisition, definition, modelling, reasoning and more. Given the permanent evolution of context-aware systems, context modeling is still a complex task, due to the lack of an adequate, dynamic, formal and relevant context representation. This paper discusses various context modeling approaches and previous logic-based works. It also proposes a preliminary formal spatiotemporal context modelling based on first order logic, derived from the structure of natural languages.

  3. Perceived weight discrimination and obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelina R Sutin

    Full Text Available Weight discrimination is prevalent in American society. Although associated consistently with psychological and economic outcomes, less is known about whether weight discrimination is associated with longitudinal changes in obesity. The objectives of this research are (1 to test whether weight discrimination is associated with risk of becoming obese (Body Mass Index≥30; BMI by follow-up among those not obese at baseline, and (2 to test whether weight discrimination is associated with risk of remaining obese at follow-up among those already obese at baseline. Participants were drawn from the Health and Retirement Study, a nationally representative longitudinal survey of community-dwelling US residents. A total of 6,157 participants (58.6% female completed the discrimination measure and had weight and height available from the 2006 and 2010 assessments. Participants who experienced weight discrimination were approximately 2.5 times more likely to become obese by follow-up (OR = 2.54, 95% CI = 1.58-4.08 and participants who were obese at baseline were three times more likely to remain obese at follow up (OR = 3.20, 95% CI = 2.06-4.97 than those who had not experienced such discrimination. These effects held when controlling for demographic factors (age, sex, ethnicity, education and when baseline BMI was included as a covariate. These effects were also specific to weight discrimination; other forms of discrimination (e.g., sex, race were unrelated to risk of obesity at follow-up. The present research demonstrates that, in addition to poorer mental health outcomes, weight discrimination has implications for obesity. Rather than motivating individuals to lose weight, weight discrimination increases risk for obesity.

  4. Perceived weight discrimination and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutin, Angelina R; Terracciano, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Weight discrimination is prevalent in American society. Although associated consistently with psychological and economic outcomes, less is known about whether weight discrimination is associated with longitudinal changes in obesity. The objectives of this research are (1) to test whether weight discrimination is associated with risk of becoming obese (Body Mass Index≥30; BMI) by follow-up among those not obese at baseline, and (2) to test whether weight discrimination is associated with risk of remaining obese at follow-up among those already obese at baseline. Participants were drawn from the Health and Retirement Study, a nationally representative longitudinal survey of community-dwelling US residents. A total of 6,157 participants (58.6% female) completed the discrimination measure and had weight and height available from the 2006 and 2010 assessments. Participants who experienced weight discrimination were approximately 2.5 times more likely to become obese by follow-up (OR = 2.54, 95% CI = 1.58-4.08) and participants who were obese at baseline were three times more likely to remain obese at follow up (OR = 3.20, 95% CI = 2.06-4.97) than those who had not experienced such discrimination. These effects held when controlling for demographic factors (age, sex, ethnicity, education) and when baseline BMI was included as a covariate. These effects were also specific to weight discrimination; other forms of discrimination (e.g., sex, race) were unrelated to risk of obesity at follow-up. The present research demonstrates that, in addition to poorer mental health outcomes, weight discrimination has implications for obesity. Rather than motivating individuals to lose weight, weight discrimination increases risk for obesity.

  5. Variable Selection in Discriminant Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huberty, Carl J.; Mourad, Salah A.

    Methods for ordering and selecting variables for discriminant analysis in multiple group comparison or group prediction studies include: univariate Fs, stepwise analysis, learning discriminant function (LDF) variable correlations, communalities, LDF standardized coefficients, and weighted standardized coefficients. Five indices based on distance,…

  6. Discrimination against Muslim American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aroian, Karen J.

    2012-01-01

    Although there is ample evidence of discrimination toward Muslim Americans in general, there is limited information specific to Muslim American adolescents. The few existing studies specific to this age group suggest that Muslim American adolescents encounter much discrimination from teachers, school administrators, and classmates. This…

  7. Price Discrimination in Academic Journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Patrick; Merz, Thomas E.

    1985-01-01

    Analysis of price discrimination (charging different prices to different customers for same product) for 89 academic journals in 6 disciplines reveals: incidence of price discrimination rose between 1974 and 1984, increase in mean institutional (library) subscription price exceeded increase in mean individual subscription price. Journal list…

  8. MEANING DISCRIMINATION IN BILINGUAL DICTIONARIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    IANNUCCI, JAMES E.

    SEMANTIC DISCRIMINATION OF POLYSEMOUS ENTRY WORDS IN BILINGUAL DICTIONARIES WAS DISCUSSED IN THE PAPER. HANDICAPS OF PRESENT BILINGUAL DICTIONARIES AND BARRIERS TO THEIR FULL UTILIZATION WERE ENUMERATED. THE AUTHOR CONCLUDED THAT (1) A BILINGUAL DICTIONARY SHOULD HAVE A DISCRIMINATION FOR EVERY TRANSLATION OF AN ENTRY WORD WHICH HAS SEVERAL…

  9. Children's Perceptions of Gender Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Christia Spears; Bigler, Rebecca S.

    2004-01-01

    Children (N = 76; ages 5-10 years) participated in a study designed to examine perceptions of gender discrimination. Children were read scenarios in which a teacher determined outcomes for 2 students (1 boy and 1 girl). Contextual information (i.e., teacher's past behavior), the gender of the target of discrimination (i.e., student), and the…

  10. Variable Selection in Discriminant Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huberty, Carl J.; Mourad, Salah A.

    Methods for ordering and selecting variables for discriminant analysis in multiple group comparison or group prediction studies include: univariate Fs, stepwise analysis, learning discriminant function (LDF) variable correlations, communalities, LDF standardized coefficients, and weighted standardized coefficients. Five indices based on distance,…

  11. Addressing Discrimination in School Matters!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Amanda L.

    2009-01-01

    Every student has the right to an education free from discrimination that provides high-quality, equitable opportunities to learn. Unfortunately, sometimes individuals or systems may act in ways that violate this right. Discrimination occurs when people are treated unequally or less favorably than others because of some real or perceived…

  12. Invidious Discrimination: Second Generation Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Robert J.; Dee, Paul

    1976-01-01

    Discusses school law issues dealing with various forms of invidious discrimination. Considers discrimination based on forms of involuntary association (ethnicity, economic status, primary language, and maturity) and forms of voluntary association (sexual proclivity, marital status, pregnancy and parenthood, self-expression and appearance, religion…

  13. Perceptions of Discrimination during Downsizing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkey, Linda Kathryn

    1993-01-01

    Demonstrates that perceptions of ethnic discrimination during layoffs are moderately correlated with perceptions of selection fairness and information access during the layoff process. Shows that, in the company studied, both minority and majority ethnic group members felt equally discriminated against. (SR)

  14. Vibrotactile Discrimination of Musical Timbre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Frank A.; Ammirante, Paolo; Fels, Deborah I.

    2012-01-01

    Five experiments investigated the ability to discriminate between musical timbres based on vibrotactile stimulation alone. Participants made same/different judgments on pairs of complex waveforms presented sequentially to the back through voice coils embedded in a conforming chair. Discrimination between cello, piano, and trombone tones matched…

  15. Perceived discrimination in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iris Andriessen; Henk Fernee; Karin Wittebrood

    2014-01-01

    Only available in electronic version There is no systematic structure in the Netherlands for mapping out the discrimination experiences of different groups in different areas of society. As in many other countries, discrimination studies in the Netherlands mostly focus on the experiences

  16. Discrimination against Muslim American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aroian, Karen J.

    2012-01-01

    Although there is ample evidence of discrimination toward Muslim Americans in general, there is limited information specific to Muslim American adolescents. The few existing studies specific to this age group suggest that Muslim American adolescents encounter much discrimination from teachers, school administrators, and classmates. This…

  17. Perceived religious discrimination as predictor of work engagement, with specific reference to the Rastafari religion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freda van der Walt

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Although perceived religious discrimination has been studied in the past, much remains unknown about the topic. The focus of this study was the Rastafari religion, because this religious group has up to now been excluded from research studies. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted with a sample of 80 employees belonging to the Rastafari religion, chosen from organisations in two provinces in South Africa. The findings emanating from the quantitative research study indicated that, on average, the respondents perceived to be discriminated against. Furthermore, a positive relationship was established between perceived religious discrimination and work engagement. These findings advanced the understanding of perceived religious discrimination, and the impact that it may have on work engagement, particularly with reference to the Rastafari religion.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: The article contributes to the interdisciplinary discourse regarding perceived religious discrimination, with specific reference to the Rastafari religion which is a minority religious group in South Africa. Perceived religious discrimination is discussed and investigated in the context of the workplace, and the aim was to establish whether perceived religious discrimination influences work-related attitudes, such as work engagement. Because previous studies have associated perceived discrimination with less job involvement and career satisfaction, fewer career prospects, greater work conflict, lower feelings of power, decreased job prestige, and less organisational citizenship behaviour (Thomas 2008:80, it was expected that perceived religious discrimination would have a negative influence on work engagement. The findings show that religion possibly provides individuals with the necessary personal resources to persevere when faced with religious discrimination, and sustain performance as well as attain success within the context of the

  18. Perceived discrimination and self-rated health in Europe: evidence from the European Social Survey (2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Alvarez-Galvez

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Studies have shown that perceived discrimination has an impact on our physical and mental health. A relevant part of literature has highlighted the influence of discrimination based on race or ethnicity on mental and physical health outcomes. However, the influence of other types of discrimination on health has been understudied. This study is aimed to explore how different types of discrimination are related to our subjective state of health, and so to compare the intensity of these relationships in the European context. METHODS: We have performed a multilevel ordered analysis on the fifth wave of the European Social Survey (ESS 2010. This dataset has 52,458 units at individual level that are grouped in 26 European countries. In this study, the dependent variable is self-rated health (SRH that is analyzed in relationship to ten explanatory variables of perceived discrimination: color or race, nationality, religion, language, ethnic group, age, gender, sexuality, disability and others. RESULTS: The model identifies statistically significant differences in the effect that diverse types of perceived discrimination can generate on the self-rated health of Europeans. Specifically, this study identifies three well-defined types of perceived discrimination that can be related to poor health outcomes: (1 age discrimination; (2 disability discrimination; and (3 sexuality discrimination. In this sense, the effect on self-rated health of perceived discrimination related to aging and disabilities seems to be more relevant than other types of discrimination in the European context with a longer tradition in literature (e.g. ethnic and/or race-based. CONCLUSION: The present study shows that the relationship between perceived discrimination and health inequities in Europe are not random, but systematically distributed depending on factors such as age, sexuality and disabilities. Therefore the future orientation of EU social policies should aim

  19. Perceived discrimination and self-rated health in Europe: evidence from the European Social Survey (2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Galvez, Javier; Salvador-Carulla, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Studies have shown that perceived discrimination has an impact on our physical and mental health. A relevant part of literature has highlighted the influence of discrimination based on race or ethnicity on mental and physical health outcomes. However, the influence of other types of discrimination on health has been understudied. This study is aimed to explore how different types of discrimination are related to our subjective state of health, and so to compare the intensity of these relationships in the European context. We have performed a multilevel ordered analysis on the fifth wave of the European Social Survey (ESS 2010). This dataset has 52,458 units at individual level that are grouped in 26 European countries. In this study, the dependent variable is self-rated health (SRH) that is analyzed in relationship to ten explanatory variables of perceived discrimination: color or race, nationality, religion, language, ethnic group, age, gender, sexuality, disability and others. The model identifies statistically significant differences in the effect that diverse types of perceived discrimination can generate on the self-rated health of Europeans. Specifically, this study identifies three well-defined types of perceived discrimination that can be related to poor health outcomes: (1) age discrimination; (2) disability discrimination; and (3) sexuality discrimination. In this sense, the effect on self-rated health of perceived discrimination related to aging and disabilities seems to be more relevant than other types of discrimination in the European context with a longer tradition in literature (e.g. ethnic and/or race-based). The present study shows that the relationship between perceived discrimination and health inequities in Europe are not random, but systematically distributed depending on factors such as age, sexuality and disabilities. Therefore the future orientation of EU social policies should aim to reduce the impact of these social determinants on health

  20. Unambiguous discrimination of nonorthogonal quantum states in cavity QED

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Assis, R. J.; Sales, J. S.; de Almeida, N. G.

    2017-09-01

    We propose an oversimplified scheme to unambiguously discriminate nonorthogonal quantum field states inside high-Q cavities. Our scheme, which is based on positive operator-valued measures (POVM) technique, uses a single three-level atom interacting resonantly with a single mode of a cavity-field and selective atomic state detectors. While the single three-level atom takes the role of the ancilla, the single cavity mode field represents the system we want to obtain information. The efficiency of our proposal is analyzed considering the nowadays achievements in the context of cavity QED. We also analyze the effect of a thermal environment to discrimination of nonorthogonal states.

  1. Explaining negative kin discrimination in a cooperative mammal society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Faye J; Cant, Michael A; Marshall, Harry H; Vitikainen, Emma I K; Sanderson, Jennifer L; Nichols, Hazel J; Gilchrist, Jason S; Bell, Matthew B V; Young, Andrew J; Hodge, Sarah J; Johnstone, Rufus A

    2017-05-16

    Kin selection theory predicts that, where kin discrimination is possible, animals should typically act more favorably toward closer genetic relatives and direct aggression toward less closely related individuals. Contrary to this prediction, we present data from an 18-y study of wild banded mongooses, Mungos mungo, showing that females that are more closely related to dominant individuals are specifically targeted for forcible eviction from the group, often suffering severe injury, and sometimes death, as a result. This pattern cannot be explained by inbreeding avoidance or as a response to more intense local competition among kin. Instead, we use game theory to show that such negative kin discrimination can be explained by selection for unrelated targets to invest more effort in resisting eviction. Consistent with our model, negative kin discrimination is restricted to eviction attempts of older females capable of resistance; dominants exhibit no kin discrimination when attempting to evict younger females, nor do they discriminate between more closely or less closely related young when carrying out infanticidal attacks on vulnerable infants who cannot defend themselves. We suggest that in contexts where recipients of selfish acts are capable of resistance, the usual prediction of positive kin discrimination can be reversed. Kin selection theory, as an explanation for social behavior, can benefit from much greater exploration of sequential social interactions.

  2. Children's perceptions of gender discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spears Brown, Christia; Bigler, Rebecca S

    2004-09-01

    Children (N = 76; ages 5-10 years) participated in a study designed to examine perceptions of gender discrimination. Children were read scenarios in which a teacher determined outcomes for 2 students (1 boy and 1 girl). Contextual information (i.e., teacher's past behavior), the gender of the target of discrimination (i.e., student), and the gender of the perpetrator (i.e., teacher) were manipulated. Results indicated that older children were more likely than younger children to make attributions to discrimination when contextual information suggested that it was likely. Girls (but not boys) were more likely to view girls than boys as victims of discrimination, and children with egalitarian gender attitudes were more likely to perceive discrimination than were their peers.

  3. Racial identity, racial discrimination, perceived stress, and psychological distress among African American young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, Robert M; Caldwell, Cleopatra H; Schmeelk-Cone, Karen H; Zimmerman, Marc A

    2003-09-01

    This study examines the direct and indirect relationships among racial identity, racial discrimination, perceived stress, and psychological distress in a sample of 555 African American young adults. A prospective study design was used to assess the influence of two dimensions of racial identity attitudes (i.e., centrality and public regard) on other study variables to investigate the relationship between racial identity attitudes and psychological distress. The results show some evidence of a direct relationship between racial centrality and psychological distress, as well as evidence of indirect relationships for both centrality and public regard through the impact of racial discrimination and perceived stress. In addition, racial centrality was both a risk factor for experiencing discrimination and a protective factor in buffering the negative impact of discrimination on psychological distress. Results are discussed within the context of identifying multiple pathways to psychological well-being for African American young adults within the context of racial discrimination.

  4. JUSTIFICATION FOR INDIRECT DISCRIMINATION IN EU

    OpenAIRE

    Catalina-Adriana IVANUS

    2014-01-01

    The right to non-discrimination is very important for a civilized society. EU legislation establishes direct and indirect discrimination, harassment, sexual harassment, instruction to discriminate and any less favourable treatment of a woman related to pregnancy or maternity leave as forms of discrimination. The law and the Court of Justice permit the justification of indirect discrimination.

  5. Studies in genetic discrimination. Final progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    We have screened 1006 respondents in a study of genetic discrimination. Analysis of these responses has produced evidence of the range of institutions engaged in genetic discrimination and demonstrates the impact of this discrimination on the respondents to the study. We have found that both ignorance and policy underlie genetic discrimination and that anti-discrimination laws are being violated.

  6. Quantum process discrimination with information from environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan-Mei; Li, Jun-Gang; Zou, Jian; Xu, Bao-Ming

    2016-12-01

    In quantum metrology we usually extract information from the reduced probe system but ignore the information lost inevitably into the environment. However, K. Mølmer [Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 040401 (2015)] showed that the information lost into the environment has an important effect on improving the successful probability of quantum process discrimination. Here we reconsider the model of a driven atom coupled to an environment and distinguish which of two candidate Hamiltonians governs the dynamics of the whole system. We mainly discuss two measurement methods, one of which obtains only the information from the reduced atom state and the other obtains the information from both the atom and its environment. Interestingly, for the two methods the optimal initial states of the atom, used to improve the successful probability of the process discrimination, are different. By comparing the two methods we find that the partial information from the environment is very useful for the discriminations. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11274043, 11375025, and 11005008).

  7. Relations of pitch matching, pitch discrimination, and otoacoustic emission suppression in individuals not formally trained as musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Robert E; Estis, Julie M; Zhang, Fawen; Watts, Christopher; Marble, Elizabeth

    2007-06-01

    Research has yielded a relationship between pitch matching and pitch discrimination. Good pitch matchers tend to be good pitch discriminators and are often judged to be vocally talented. Otoacoustic emission suppression measures the function of the efferent auditory system which may affect accuracy for pitch matching and pitch discrimination. Formally trained musicians show pitch matching and pitch discrimination superior to those of nonmusicians and have greater efferent otoacoustic emission suppression than nonmusicians. This study investigated the relationship among pitch matching, pitch discrimination, and otoacoustic emission suppression in individuals with no formal musical training and who showed varied pitch matching and pitch discrimination. Analysis suggested a significant relationship between pitch matching and pitch discrimination but not between otoacoustic emission suppression and pitch matching and pitch discrimination. Findings are presented in the context of previous research indicating a significant relationship between otoacoustic emission suppression and musical talent in trained musicians.

  8. Discriminant Incoherent Component Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgakis, Christos; Panagakis, Yannis; Pantic, Maja

    2016-05-01

    Face images convey rich information which can be perceived as a superposition of low-complexity components associated with attributes, such as facial identity, expressions, and activation of facial action units (AUs). For instance, low-rank components characterizing neutral facial images are associated with identity, while sparse components capturing non-rigid deformations occurring in certain face regions reveal expressions and AU activations. In this paper, the discriminant incoherent component analysis (DICA) is proposed in order to extract low-complexity components, corresponding to facial attributes, which are mutually incoherent among different classes (e.g., identity, expression, and AU activation) from training data, even in the presence of gross sparse errors. To this end, a suitable optimization problem, involving the minimization of nuclear-and l1 -norm, is solved. Having found an ensemble of class-specific incoherent components by the DICA, an unseen (test) image is expressed as a group-sparse linear combination of these components, where the non-zero coefficients reveal the class(es) of the respective facial attribute(s) that it belongs to. The performance of the DICA is experimentally assessed on both synthetic and real-world data. Emphasis is placed on face analysis tasks, namely, joint face and expression recognition, face recognition under varying percentages of training data corruption, subject-independent expression recognition, and AU detection by conducting experiments on four data sets. The proposed method outperforms all the methods that are compared with all the tasks and experimental settings.

  9. Peptaibol antiamoebin I: spatial structure, backbone dynamics, interaction with bicelles and lipid-protein nanodiscs, and pore formation in context of barrel-stave model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenkarev, Zakhar O; Paramonov, Alexander S; Lyukmanova, Ekaterina N; Gizatullina, Albina K; Zhuravleva, Anastasia V; Tagaev, Andrey A; Yakimenko, Zoya A; Telezhinskaya, Irina N; Kirpichnikov, Mikhail P; Ovchinnikova, Tatiana V; Arseniev, Alexander S

    2013-05-01

    Antiamoebin I (Aam-I) is a membrane-active peptaibol antibiotic isolated from fungal species belonging to the genera Cephalosporium, Emericellopsis, Gliocladium, and Stilbella. In comparison with other 16-amino acid-residue peptaibols, e.g., zervamicin IIB (Zrv-IIB), Aam-I possesses relatively weak biological and channel-forming activities. In MeOH solution, Aam-I demonstrates fast cooperative transitions between right-handed and left-handed helical conformation of the N-terminal (1-8) region. We studied Aam-I spatial structure and backbone dynamics in the membrane-mimicking environment (DMPC/DHPC bicelles)(1) ) by heteronuclear (1) H,(13) C,(15) N-NMR spectroscopy. Interaction with the bicelles stabilizes the Aam-I right-handed helical conformation retaining significant intramolecular mobility on the ms-μs time scale. Extensive ms-μs dynamics were also detected in the DPC and DHPC micelles and DOPG nanodiscs. In contrast, Zrv-IIB in the DPC micelles demonstrates appreciably lesser mobility on the μs-ms time scale. Titration with Mn(2+) and 16-doxylstearate paramagnetic probes revealed Aam-I binding to the bicelle surface with the N-terminus slightly immersed into hydrocarbon region. Fluctuations of the Aam-I helix between surface-bound and transmembrane (TM) state were observed in the nanodisc membranes formed from the short-chain (diC12 : 0) DLPC/DLPG lipids. All the obtained experimental data are in agreement with the barrel-stave model of TM pore formation, similarly to the mechanism proposed for Zrv-IIB and other peptaibols. The observed extensive intramolecular dynamics explains the relatively low activity of Aam-I.

  10. Using a dynamical advection to reconstruct a part of the SSH evolution in the context of SWOT, application to the Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogé, Marine; Morrow, Rosemary; Ubelmann, Clément; Dibarboure, Gérald

    2017-08-01

    The main oceanographic objective of the future SWOT mission is to better characterize the ocean mesoscale and sub-mesoscale circulation, by observing a finer range of ocean topography dynamics down to 20 km wavelength. Despite the very high spatial resolution of the future satellite, it will not capture the time evolution of the shorter mesoscale signals, such as the formation and evolution of small eddies. SWOT will have an exact repeat cycle of 21 days, with near repeats around 5-10 days, depending on the latitude. Here, we investigate a technique to reconstruct the missing 2D SSH signal in the time between two satellite revisits. We use the dynamical interpolation (DI) technique developed by Ubelmann et al. (2015). Based on potential vorticity (hereafter PV) conservation using a one and a half layer quasi-geostrophic model, it features an active advection of the SSH field. This model has been tested in energetic open ocean regions such as the Gulf Stream and the Californian Current, and has given promising results. Here, we test this model in the Western Mediterranean Sea, a lower energy region with complex small scale physics, and compare the SSH reconstruction with the high-resolution Symphonie model. We investigate an extension of the simple dynamical model including a separated mean circulation. We find that the DI gives a 16-18% improvement in the reconstruction of the surface height and eddy kinetic energy fields, compared with a simple linear interpolation, and a 37% improvement in the Northern Current subregion. Reconstruction errors are higher during winter and autumn but statistically, the improvement from the DI is also better for these seasons.

  11. Coping with stigma and discrimination: evidence from mental health service users in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaksson, A; Corker, E; Cotney, J; Hamilton, S; Pinfold, V; Rose, D; Rüsch, N; Henderson, C; Thornicroft, G; Evans-Lacko, S

    2017-05-02

    Mental health stigma and discrimination are significant problems. Common coping orientations include: concealing mental health problems, challenging others and educating others. We describe the use of common stigma coping orientations and explain variations within a sample of English mental health service users. Cross-sectional survey data were collected as part of the Viewpoint survey of mental health service users' experiences of discrimination (n = 3005). Linear regression analyses were carried out to identify factors associated with the three stigma coping orientations. The most common coping orientation was to conceal mental health problems (73%), which was strongly associated with anticipated discrimination. Only 51% ever challenged others because of discriminating behaviour, this being related to experienced discrimination, but also to higher confidence to tackle stigma. Although stigma coping orientations vary by context, individuals often choose to conceal problems, which is associated with greater anticipated and experienced discrimination and less confidence to challenge stigma. The direction of this association requires further investigation.

  12. Gender Discrimination and Sexual Harassment in Medical Education: Perspectives Gained by a 14-School Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nora, Lois Margaret; McLaughlin, Margaret A.; Fosson, Sue E.; Stratton, Terry D.; Murphy-Spencer, Amy; Fincher, Ruth-Marie E.; German, Deborah C.; Seiden, David; Witzke, Donald B.

    2002-01-01

    Surveyed medical students about their exposures to and perceptions of gender discrimination and sexual harassment (GD/SH) in selected academic and nonacademic contexts. Findings included that more women than men reported all types of GD/SH across all contexts, and that GD/SH is prevalent in undergraduate medical education, particularly within core…

  13. Lesbians still face job discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryniker, Margaret R

    2008-01-01

    This article examines continued discrimination against lesbians in the workplace. A number of cases from various jurisdictions in the United States are highlighted. The paper studies two common forms of discrimination: denial of employment benefits to same sex partners, and sexual harassment. On the first front, the case law suggests that health insurance coverage for one's partner is becoming the norm. On the question of sexual harassment in the workplace, the case law did not provide protection for lesbians. Finally, U.S. employment policies related to sexual orientation are contrasted with those in Israel, which provides much greater protection from discrimination.

  14. Use of Context in Video Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chen; Aghajan, Hamid

    Interpreting an event or a scene based on visual data often requires additional contextual information. Contextual information may be obtained from different sources. In this chapter, we discuss two broad categories of contextual sources: environmental context and user-centric context. Environmental context refers to information derived from domain knowledge or from concurrently sensed effects in the area of operation. User-centric context refers to information obtained and accumulated from the user. Both types of context can include static or dynamic contextual elements. Examples from a smart home environment are presented to illustrate how different types of contextual data can be applied to aid the decision-making process.

  15. Service Degradation in Context Management Frameworks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shawky, Ahmed; Olsen, Rasmus Løvenstein; Pedersen, Jens Myrup

    2011-01-01

    Context aware network services are a new and inter-esting way to enhance network users experience. A context aware application/service enhances network performance in relation to dynamic context information, e.g. mobility, location and device information as it senses and reacts to environment...... changes. The reliability of the information accessed is a key factor in achieving reliable context aware application. This paper will review the service degradation in Context Management Frameworks (CMF) and the effect of high network utilization, with particular focus on the reliability of the accessed...

  16. Single-Base DNA Discrimination via Transverse Ionic Transport

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, James

    2013-01-01

    We suggest to discriminate single DNA bases via transverse ionic transport, namely by detecting the ionic current that flows in a channel while a single-stranded DNA is driven through an intersecting nanochannel. Our all-atom molecular dynamics simulations indeed show that the ionic currents of the four bases are statistically distinct, thus offering another possible approach to sequence DNA.

  17. Detection and discrimination of nonmetallic land mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donskoy, Dmitri M.

    1999-08-01

    This paper is further development of the nonlinear vibro- acoustic technique, first presented at the previous SPIE conference on Detection and Remediation Technologies for Mines and Mineline Targets, Orlando '98. The present paper discusses the physical/mathematical model and experimental result of detection and discrimination of buried land mines. The mathematical model based on simplified 'mass-spring' approach. The effective spring has a nonlinear stiffness due to a nonlinear boundary condition at the soil-mine interface. Resulting nonlinear equation of motion and its solution in a good agreement with experimental observations. It has been demonstrated numerically and experimentally, that dynamically compliant mine cases exhibit strong nonlinear acoustic response, while less compliant false targets, such as rocks, solid pieces of wood and steel, and etc., behave as dynamically linear systems. The discovered nonlinear phenomenon has been used to develop the nonlinear vibro-acoustic method for land mine detection and discrimination. The experimental studies were performed with real inert plastic and wooden mines under laboratory and field conditions. First, the detection was performed with a contact sensor. Later, the method was tested using remote senors, such as a laser-doppler vibrometer and specially developed microwave vibrometers. These remote sensor demonstrated applicability for the developed nonlinear technique.

  18. Awareness of Entities, Activities and Contexts in Ambient Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Bent Bruun

    2013-01-01

    Ambient systems are modeled by entities, activities and contexts, where entities exist in contexts and engage in activities. A context supports a dynamic collection of entities by services and offers awareness information about the entities. Activities also exist in contexts and model ongoing...

  19. Ethnic identity, racial discrimination and attenuated psychotic symptoms in an urban population of emerging adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anglin, Deidre M; Lui, Florence; Espinosa, Adriana; Tikhonov, Aleksandr; Ellman, Lauren

    2016-01-28

    Studies suggest strong ethnic identity generally protects against negative mental health outcomes associated with racial discrimination. In light of evidence suggesting racial discrimination may enhance psychosis risk in racial and ethnic minority (REM) populations, the present study explored the relationship between ethnic identity and attenuated positive psychotic symptoms (APPS) and whether ethnic identity moderates the association between racial discrimination and these symptoms. A sample of 644 non-help-seeking REM emerging adults was administered self-report inventories for psychosis risk, experiences of discrimination and ethnic identity. Latent class analysis was applied to determine the nature and number of ethnic identity types in this population. The direct association between ethnic identity and APPS and the interaction between ethnic identity and racial discrimination on APPS were determined in linear regression analyses. Results indicated three ethnic identity classes (very low, moderate to high and very high). Ethnic identity was not directly related to APPS; however, it was related to APPS under racially discriminating conditions. Specifically, participants who experienced discrimination in the moderate to high or very high ethnic identity classes reported fewer symptoms than participants who experienced discrimination in the very low ethnic identity class. Strong ethnic group affiliation and connection may serve a protective function for psychosis risk in racially discriminating environments and contexts among REM young adults. The possible social benefits of strong ethnic identification among REM youth who face racial discrimination should be explored further in clinical high-risk studies. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  20. Causes of stigma and discrimination associated with tuberculosis in Nepal: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baral, Sushil C; Karki, Deepak K; Newell, James N

    2007-08-16

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a major cause of death. The condition is highly stigmatised, with considerable discrimination towards sufferers. Although there have been several studies assessing the extent of such discrimination, there is little published research explicitly investigating the causes of the stigma and discrimination associated with TB. The objectives of our research were therefore to take the first steps towards determining the causes of discrimination associated with TB. Data collection was performed in Kathmandu, Nepal. Thirty four in-depth interviews were performed with TB patients, family members of patients, and members of the community. Causes of self-discrimination identified included fear of transmitting TB, and avoiding gossip and potential discrimination. Causes of discrimination by members of the general public included: fear of a perceived risk of infection; perceived links between TB and other causes of discrimination, particularly poverty and low caste; perceived links between TB and disreputable behaviour; and perceptions that TB was a divine punishment. Furthermore, some patients felt they were discriminated against by health workers A comprehensive package of interventions, tailored to the local context, will be needed to address the multiple causes of discrimination identified: basic population-wide health education is unlikely to be effective.

  1. Causes of stigma and discrimination associated with tuberculosis in Nepal: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karki Deepak K

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tuberculosis (TB is a major cause of death. The condition is highly stigmatised, with considerable discrimination towards sufferers. Although there have been several studies assessing the extent of such discrimination, there is little published research explicitly investigating the causes of the stigma and discrimination associated with TB. The objectives of our research were therefore to take the first steps towards determining the causes of discrimination associated with TB. Methods Data collection was performed in Kathmandu, Nepal. Thirty four in-depth interviews were performed with TB patients, family members of patients, and members of the community. Results Causes of self-discrimination identified included fear of transmitting TB, and avoiding gossip and potential discrimination. Causes of discrimination by members of the general public included: fear of a perceived risk of infection; perceived links between TB and other causes of discrimination, particularly poverty and low caste; perceived links between TB and disreputable behaviour; and perceptions that TB was a divine punishment. Furthermore, some patients felt they were discriminated against by health workers Conclusion A comprehensive package of interventions, tailored to the local context, will be needed to address the multiple causes of discrimination identified: basic population-wide health education is unlikely to be effective.

  2. Fast discriminative latent Dirichlet allocation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is the code for fast discriminative latent Dirichlet allocation, which is an algorithm for topic modeling and text classification. The related paper is at...

  3. Face adaptation improves gender discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hua; Shen, Jianhong; Chen, Juan; Fang, Fang

    2011-01-01

    Adaptation to a visual pattern can alter the sensitivities of neuronal populations encoding the pattern. However, the functional roles of adaptation, especially in high-level vision, are still equivocal. In the present study, we performed three experiments to investigate if face gender adaptation could affect gender discrimination. Experiments 1 and 2 revealed that adapting to a male/female face could selectively enhance discrimination for male/female faces. Experiment 3 showed that the discrimination enhancement induced by face adaptation could transfer across a substantial change in three-dimensional face viewpoint. These results provide further evidence suggesting that, similar to low-level vision, adaptation in high-level vision could calibrate the visual system to current inputs of complex shapes (i.e. face) and improve discrimination at the adapted characteristic.

  4. Discrimination and Implementation of Emotions on Zoomorphic Robot Movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumaru, Takafumi

    This paper discusses discrimination and implementation of emotions on a zoomorphic robot aiming at designing emotional robot movements and improving robot friendliness. We consider four emotions; joy, anger, sadness, and fear. Two opposite viewpoints, performer and observer, are considered to acquire emotional movement data for analysis. The performer subjects produce emotional movements and movements that are easy to be recognized as expressions of the intended emotion are selected among the measured movements by the observer subjects. Discriminating the emotion embedded in a movement is tried using feature values based on the Laban movement analysis (LMA) and the principal component analysis (PCA). By the discrimination using PCA, the resultant rates of the correct discrimination are about 70% for all four emotions. The features of emotional movements are presumed from the coefficients of the discrimination function obtained in the emotion discrimination using PCA. Emotions are implemented by converting a setup for basic movements by employing the design principle based on the movement features. The result of the verification experiment suggests that four emotional movements are divided into two groups; the joy and anger group and the sadness and fear group. The emotional movements of joy or anger are dynamic, large-scale and frequent being relatively easy to interpret the intended emotion, while the emotional movements of sadness or fear are static, small-scale and little making difficult to understand the feature of movements.

  5. Discriminative predation: Simultaneous and sequential encounter experiments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C.D.BEATTY; D.W.FRANKS

    2012-01-01

    There are many situations in which the ability of animals to distinguish between two similar looking objects can have significant selective consequences.For example,the objects that require discrimination may be edible versus defended prey,predators versus non-predators,or mates of varying quality.Working from the premise that there are situations in which discrimination may be more or less successful,we hypothesized that individuals find it more difficult to distinguish between stimuli when they encounter them sequentially rather than simultaneously.Our study has wide biological and psychological implications from the perspective of signal perception,signal evolution,and discrimination,and could apply to any system where individuals are making relative judgments or choices between two or more stimuli or signals.While this is a general principle that might seem intuitive,it has not been experimentally tested in this context,and is often not considered in the design of models or experiments,or in the interpretation of a wide range of studies.Our study is different from previous studies in psychology in that a) the level of similarity of stimuli are gradually varied to obtain selection gradients,and b) we discuss the implications of our study for specific areas in ecology,such as the level of perfection of mimicry in predator-prey systems.Our experiments provide evidence that it is indeed more difficult to distinguish between stimuli - and to learn to distinguish between stimuli - when they are encountered sequentially rather than simultaneously,even if the intervening time interval is short.

  6. EU Law and Multiple Discrimination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ruth

    2006-01-01

    In EU law, nationality and gender were the only equality issues on the legal agenda from the outset in 1958 and for about 40 years. Multiple discrimination was not addressed until the 1990's. The intersectionality approach which has been widely discussed outside Europe has mainly been used...... with a view to gendermainstreaming the fight against other kinds of discrimination (on grounds of ethnic origin, age, etc)....

  7. Quantity discrimination in female mosquitofish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrillo, Christian; Dadda, Marco; Bisazza, Angelo

    2007-01-01

    The ability in animals to count and represent different numbers of objects has received a great deal of attention in the past few decades. Cumulative evidence from comparative studies on number discriminations report obvious analogies among human babies, non-human primates and birds and are consistent with the hypothesis of two distinct and widespread mechanisms, one for counting small numbers (verbal creatures studied; results are in agreement with the hypothesis of the existence of two distinct systems for quantity discrimination in vertebrates.

  8. The Dynamic Adaptability of Context and Translation%语境动态顺应论与翻译——浅析赛珍珠几部英文原著的书名翻译

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾玉萍

    2012-01-01

    语境动态顺应论认为语言使用的过程是语言使用者按照交际环境和交际对象不断进行语言选择的过程。语言使用过程中的语言的选择必须和语境相顺应。翻译作为一种跨文化交流的活动,也涉及到在目标语和原语之间进行不断选择的动态过程。赛珍珠几本英文原著的书名翻译同样应符合语境动态顺应。%The dynamic adaptability of context holds that the process ol using language is language users continuous making of linguistic choices which must conform to the communicational circumstances and its ob- jects. Translation, as an intercultural communication activity, also involves the continuous making of linguistics choices between the source language and the target language. The translation of the titles of some of Pearl S. Bock's well-known books should conform to the adaptability of context.

  9. Unambiguous discrimination among oracle operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chefles, Anthony; Kitagawa, Akira; Takeoka, Masahiro; Sasaki, Masahide; Twamley, Jason

    2007-08-01

    We address the problem of unambiguous discrimination among oracle operators. The general theory of unambiguous discrimination among unitary operators is extended with this application in mind. We prove that entanglement with an ancilla cannot assist any discrimination strategy for commuting unitary operators. We also obtain a simple, practical test for the unambiguous distinguishability of an arbitrary set of unitary operators on a given system. Using this result, we prove that the unambiguous distinguishability criterion is the same for both standard and minimal oracle operators. We then show that, except in certain trivial cases, unambiguous discrimination among all standard oracle operators corresponding to integer functions with fixed domain and range is impossible. However, we find that it is possible to unambiguously discriminate among the Grover oracle operators corresponding to an arbitrarily large unsorted database. The unambiguous distinguishability of standard oracle operators corresponding to totally indistinguishable functions, which possess a strong form of classical indistinguishability, is analysed. We prove that these operators are not unambiguously distinguishable for any finite set of totally indistinguishable functions on a Boolean domain and with arbitrary fixed range. Sets of such functions on a larger domain can have unambiguously distinguishable standard oracle operators, and we provide a complete analysis of the simplest case, that of four functions. We also examine the possibility of unambiguous oracle operator discrimination with multiple parallel calls and investigate an intriguing unitary superoperator transformation between standard and entanglement-assisted minimal oracle operators.

  10. Source discrimination in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anselm B M Fuermaier

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The context of memory experiences is referred to as source memory and can be distinguished from the content of episodic item memory. Source memory represents a crucial part of biographic events and elaborate memory experiences. Whereas individuals with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD were shown to have inefficient item memory, little is known about the context of memory experiences. METHODS: The present study compared 37 adult patients with a diagnosed ADHD with 40 matched healthy participants on a word list paradigm. Memory functions of encoding, retention and source discrimination were assessed. Furthermore, standardized measures of memory and executive control were applied in order to explore a qualitative differentiation of memory components. RESULTS: Adult patients with ADHD showed impaired performance in encoding of new information whereas the retention of encoded items was found to be preserved. The most pronounced impairment of patients with ADHD was observed in source discrimination. Regression models of cognitive functions on memory components supported some qualitative differentiation. CONCLUSIONS: Data analysis suggests a differential pattern of memory impairment in adults suffering from ADHD with a particular deficit in source discrimination. Inefficient source discrimination in adults with ADHD can affect daily functioning by limiting biographic awareness and disturbing general cognitive processes.

  11. Does the simple dynamical systems approach provide useful information about catchment hydrological functioning in a Mediterranean context? Application to the Ardèche catchment (France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Adamovic

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study explores how catchment heterogeneity and variability can be summarized in simplified models, representing the dominant hydrological processes. It focuses on Mediterranean catchments, characterized by heterogeneous geology, pedology, and land use, as well as steep topography and a rainfall regime in which summer droughts contrast with high-rainfall periods in autumn. The Ardèche catchment (south-east France, typical of this environment, is chosen to explore the following questions: (1 can such a Mediterranean catchment be adequately characterized by simple dynamical systems approach and what are the limits of the method under such conditions? (2 What information about dominant predictors of hydrological variability can be retrieved from this analysis in such catchments? In this work we apply the data-driven approach of Kirchner (WRR, 2009 to estimate discharge sensitivity functions that summarize the behavior of four sub-catchments of the Ardèche, using non-vegetation periods (November–March from 9 years of data (2000–2008 from operational networks. The relevance of the inferred sensitivity function is assessed through hydrograph simulations, and through estimating precipitation rates from discharge fluctuations. We find that the discharge-sensitivity function is downward-curving in double-logarithmic space, thus allowing further simulation of discharge and non-divergence of the model, only during non-vegetation periods. The analysis is complemented by a Monte-Carlo sensitivity analysis showing how the parameters summarizing the discharge sensitivity function impact the simulated hydrographs. The resulting discharge simulation results are good for granite catchments, found to be predominantly characterized by saturation excess runoff and sub-surface flow processes. The simple dynamical system hypothesis works especially well in wet conditions (peaks and recessions are well modeled. On the other hand, poor model performance is

  12. Modeling trust context in networks

    CERN Document Server

    Adali, Sibel

    2013-01-01

    We make complex decisions every day, requiring trust in many different entities for different reasons. These decisions are not made by combining many isolated trust evaluations. Many interlocking factors play a role, each dynamically impacting the others.? In this brief, 'trust context' is defined as the system level description of how the trust evaluation process unfolds.Networks today are part of almost all human activity, supporting and shaping it. Applications increasingly incorporate new interdependencies and new trust contexts. Social networks connect people and organizations throughout

  13. [Discrimination and homophobia associated to the human immunodeficiency virus epidemic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco-Núñez, Emanuel; Alcalde-Rabanal, Jacqueline Elizabeth; Ruiz-Larios, José Arturo; Sucilla-Pérez, Héctor; García-Cerde, Rodrigo

    2015-01-01

    To describe a political mapping on discrimination and homophobia associated to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the context of public institutions in Mexico. The political mapping was conducted in six Mexican states. Stakeholders who were involved in HIV actions from public and private sectors were included. Semistructured interviews were applied to explore homophobia and discrimination associated with HIV. Information was systematized using the Policy Maker software, which is a good support for analyzing health policies. Discriminatory and homophobic practices in the public domain occurred, damaging people´s integrity via insults, derision and hate crimes. Most stakeholders expressed a supportive position to prevent discrimination and homophobia and some of them had great influence on policy-making decisions. It was found that state policy frameworks are less specific in addressing these issues. Homophobia and discrimination associated to HIV are still considered problematic in Mexico. Homophobia is a very sensitive issue that requires further attention. Also, an actual execution of governmental authority requires greater enforcement of laws against discrimination and homophobia.

  14. Cultural Context and Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敏

    2009-01-01

    cultural context plays an important role in translation. Because translation is a cross-culture activity, the culture context that influ-ences translating is consisted of both the culture contexts of source language and target language. This article firstly analyzes the concept of context and cultural context, then according to the procedure of translating classifies cultural context into two stages and talks about how they respectively influence translating.

  15. Discrimination Report: ESTCP UXO Discrimination Study, ESTCPProject #MM-0437

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasperikova, Erika; Smith, J. Torquil; Morrison, H. Frank; Becker, Alex

    2007-12-21

    The FY06 Defense Appropriation contains funding for the 'Development of Advanced, Sophisticated, Discrimination Technologies for UXO Cleanup' in the Environmental Security Technology Certification Program. In 2003, the Defense Science Board observed: 'The problem is that instruments that can detect the buried UXOs also detect numerous scrap metal objects and other artifacts, which leads to an enormous amount of expensive digging. Typically 100 holes may be dug before a real UXO is unearthed! The Task Force assessment is that much of this wasteful digging can be eliminated by the use of more advanced technology instruments that exploit modern digital processing and advanced multi-mode sensors to achieve an improved level of discrimination of scrap from UXOs.' Significant progress has been made in discrimination technology. To date, testing of these approaches has been primarily limited to test sites with only limited application at live sites. Acceptance of discrimination technologies requires demonstration of system capabilities at real UXO sites under real world conditions. Any attempt to declare detected anomalies to be harmless and requiring no further investigation require demonstration to regulators of not only individual technologies, but of an entire decision making process. This discrimination study was be the first phase in what is expected to be a continuing effort that will span several years.

  16. Remote sensing and modelling of vegetation dynamics for early estimation and spatial analysis of grain yields in semiarid context in central Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahbi, Aicha; Zribi, Mehrez; Lili-Chabaane, Zohra

    2016-04-01

    In arid and semi-arid areas, population growth, urbanization, food security and climate change have an impact on agriculture in general and particular on the cereal production. Therefore to improve food security in arid countries, crop canopy monitoring and yield forecasting cereals are needed. Many models, based on the use of remote sensing or agro-meteorological models, have been developed to estimate the biomass and grain yield of cereals. Through the use of a rich database, acquired over a period of two years for more than 80 test fields, and from optical satellite SPOT/HRV images, the aim of the present study is to evaluate the feasibility of two yield prediction approaches. The first approach is based on the application of the semi-empirical growth model SAFY, developed to simulate the dynamics of the LAI and the grain yield, at the field scale. The model is able to reproduce the time evolution of the leaf area index of all fields with acceptable error. However, an inter-comparison between ground yield measurements and SAFY model simulations reveals that the yields are under-estimated by this model. We can explain the limits of the semi-empirical model SAFY by its simplicity and also by various factors that were not considered (fertilization, irrigation,...). To improve the yield estimation, a new approach is proposed: the grain yield is estimated in function of the LAI in the growth period between 25 March and 5 April. The LAI of this period is estimated by SAFY model. A linear relationship is developed between the measured grain yield and the LAI area of the maximum growth period.This approach is robust, the measured and estimated grain yields are well correlated. Following the validation of this approach, yield estimations are proposed for the entire studied site using the SPOT/HRV images.

  17. Perceived Discrimination and Heavy Episodic Drinking Among African-American Youth: Differences by Age and Reason for Discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madkour, Aubrey Spriggs; Jackson, Kristina; Wang, Heng; Miles, Thomas T; Mather, Frances; Shankar, Arti

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether associations between perceived discrimination and heavy episodic drinking (HED) vary by age and by discrimination type (e.g., racial, age, physical appearance) among African-American youth. National data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics Transition to Adulthood Study were analyzed. Youth participated in up to four interviews (2005, 2007, 2009, 2011; n = 657) between ages 18 and 25 years. Respondents reported past-year engagement in HED (four or more drinks for females, five or more drinks for males) and frequency of discriminatory acts experienced (e.g., receiving poor service, being treated with less courtesy). Categorical latent growth curve models, including perceived discrimination types (racial, age, and physical appearance) as a time-varying predictors of HED, were run. Controls for gender, birth cohort, living arrangement in adolescence, familial wealth, parental alcohol use, and college attendance were explored. The average HED trajectory was curvilinear (increasing followed by flattening), whereas perceived discrimination remained flat with age. In models including controls, odds of HED were significantly higher than average around ages 20-21 years with greater frequency of perceived racial discrimination; associations were not significant at other ages. Discrimination attributed to age or physical appearance was not associated with HED at any age. Perceived racial discrimination may be a particularly salient risk factor for HED around the ages of transition to legal access to alcohol among African-American youth. Interventions to reduce discrimination or its impact could be targeted before this transition to ameliorate the negative outcomes associated with HED. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Trial-to-trial variability of the prefrontal neurons reveals the nature of their engagement in a motion discrimination task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussar, Cory; Pasternak, Tatiana

    2010-12-14

    During motion discrimination tasks, many prefrontal cortex (PFC) neurons are strongly modulated by the behavioral context, suggesting their involvement in sensory discriminations. Recent studies suggest that trial-to-trial variability of spiking activity characteristic of cortical neurons could be a source of information about the state of neurons and their participation in behavioral tasks. We tested this hypothesis by examining the variability of putative pyramidal PFC neurons, a likely source of top-down influences. The variability of these neurons was calculated as a ratio of spike count variance to its mean (fano factor, FF), while monkeys compared the directions of two moving stimuli, sample and test, separated by a delay. We found that the FF tracked consecutive components of the task, dropping rapidly with the onset of stimuli being discriminated and declining more slowly before each salient event of the trial: The sample, the test, and the response. These time-dependent signals were less consistent in direction selective neurons and were largely absent during passive fixation. Furthermore, neurons with test responses that reflected the remembered sample decreased their FF well before the test, revealing the predictive nature of response variability, an effect present only during the active task. The FF was also sensitive to behavioral performance, exhibiting different temporal dynamics on error trials. These changes did not depend on firing rates and were often the only metric correlated with task demands. Our results demonstrate that trial-to-trial variability provides a sensitive measure of the engagement of putative pyramidal PFC neurons in circuits subserving discrimination tasks.

  19. Ethnic Discrimination against Mapuche Students in Urban High Schools in the Araucanía Region, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra, Sandra; Merino, María Eugenia; Mellor, David

    2015-01-01

    Ethnic or racial discrimination towards children and adolescents at schools is of concern in many contexts around the world because it is associated with diverse psychosocial, behavioural, emotional, and identity problems. The purpose of this study was to identify the types of ethnic discrimination experienced by indigenous Mapuche adolescents in…

  20. Social support as a buffer between discrimination and cigarette use in juvenile offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershberger, Alexandra; Zapolski, Tamika; Aalsma, Matthew C

    2016-08-01

    Cigarette use is a prominent problem in juvenile offenders, leading to negative health outcomes and substance use. One interesting precipitator of cigarette use in this population is discrimination. Social support could potentially buffer the positive relationship between cigarette use and discrimination in juvenile offenders, which could be dependent on the context in which the discrimination is experienced, such as peer, institutional (e.g., stores, restaurants), or educational contexts. The present study explored the relationship between three types of discrimination, social support, and smoking outcomes among 112 detained and probated juvenile offenders (mean age=16.24, SD=2.11, 29.2% female, 54.9% Caucasian, 40.4% detention, 53.8% smokers). Results indicated that the relationship between institutional discrimination (OR=-0.10, p=0.005) and peer discrimination (OR=-0.11, p=0.01) were significantly moderated by social support, with a higher likelihood of being a smoker, compared to a non-smoker at higher levels of peer and institutional discrimination. Further, based on a moderated regression analysis, results indicated that youth who experienced greater educational discrimination and lower levels of social support, they were at higher risk of nicotine addiction (b=-0.09, p=0.03). Overall, results indicate that varying avenues of social support, such as parent, peer, and teacher support, can mitigate negative effects of discrimination on juvenile offenders, particularly cigarette use. Addressing discrimination in smoking treatment and prevention in juvenile offenders may be of great utility. Future studies should examine the potential mechanisms underlying the discrimination and cigarette use connection in juvenile offenders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. 20 CFR 405.30 - Discrimination complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discrimination complaints. 405.30 Section 405... INITIAL DISABILITY CLAIMS Introduction, General Description, and Definitions § 405.30 Discrimination... that an adjudicator has improperly discriminated against you, you may file a discrimination complaint...

  2. 45 CFR 1624.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1624.4 Section 1624.4... AGAINST DISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY § 1624.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) No qualified... the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination by any legal services program, directly...

  3. Sensory Discrimination as Related to General Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acton, G. Scott; Schroeder, David H.

    2001-01-01

    Attempted to replicate the pitch discrimination findings of previous research and expand them to the modality of color discrimination in a sample of 899 teenagers and adults by correlating 2 sensory discrimination measures with the general factor from a battery of 13 cognitive ability tests. Results suggest that sensory discrimination is…

  4. 14 CFR 399.36 - Unreasonable discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Unreasonable discrimination. 399.36 Section... Unreasonable discrimination. (a) As used in this section: (1) Unreasonable discrimination means unjust discrimination or unreasonable preference or prejudice; and (2) Rate means rate, fare, or charge. (b) Except in...

  5. Dance in the Educational Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregorio Vicente Nicolás

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of the phenomenon of dance in the field of education. At first, it is made a presentation of the different components or aspects of human beings on that dance impacts in a more obvious way. Subsequently, we present a review of the definitions proposed by different authors that we consider most relevant and it is included a personal definition of the concept. It also highlights the contributions of dance to education in terms of social, physical, intellectual and emotional development and identifies the major problems that this discipline has had to be included as a subject: lack of teacher training, lack of adequate space and resources and gender discrimination. Finally, it concludes with a reflection on the most appropriate forms of dance in the educational context.

  6. Hierarchical Context Modeling for Video Event Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoyang; Ji, Qiang

    2016-10-11

    Current video event recognition research remains largely target-centered. For real-world surveillance videos, targetcentered event recognition faces great challenges due to large intra-class target variation, limited image resolution, and poor detection and tracking results. To mitigate these challenges, we introduced a context-augmented video event recognition approach. Specifically, we explicitly capture different types of contexts from three levels including image level, semantic level, and prior level. At the image level, we introduce two types of contextual features including the appearance context features and interaction context features to capture the appearance of context objects and their interactions with the target objects. At the semantic level, we propose a deep model based on deep Boltzmann machine to learn event object representations and their interactions. At the prior level, we utilize two types of prior-level contexts including scene priming and dynamic cueing. Finally, we introduce a hierarchical context model that systematically integrates the contextual information at different levels. Through the hierarchical context model, contexts at different levels jointly contribute to the event recognition. We evaluate the hierarchical context model for event recognition on benchmark surveillance video datasets. Results show that incorporating contexts in each level can improve event recognition performance, and jointly integrating three levels of contexts through our hierarchical model achieves the best performance.

  7. The dynamics of scaffolding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Geert, P. L. C.; Steenbeek, H.W.

    2005-01-01

    In this article we have reinterpreted a relatively standard definition of scaffolding in the context of dynamic systems theory. Our main point is that scaffolding cannot be understood outside the context of a dynamic approach of learning and (formal or informal) teaching. We provide a dynamic system

  8. Loss of nondrug reinforcement in one context produces alcohol seeking in another context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyszczynski, Adam D; Shahan, Timothy A

    2013-09-01

    In the resurgence preparation, extinguished alcohol-maintained responding increases when food reinforcement introduced into the same context during extinction is also subsequently removed. However, drug and nondrug reinforcers may often be obtained in separate specific contexts. Accordingly, we aimed to determine whether extinguished behavior previously maintained by alcohol would increase upon elimination of nondrug reinforcement within a multiple schedule arranging distinct discriminative stimulus contexts of food and alcohol availability. In Experiment 1, rats earned food or alcohol in alternating stimulus contexts within a multiple schedule. First, alcohol-maintained responding was extinguished and then food deliveries in the alternating component were also discontinued. Extinguished alcohol-maintained responding increased upon discontinuation of food deliveries. However, periods of alcohol availability alternated with periods of extinction during a portion of training; thus, elimination of food reinforcers during the resurgence test may have inadvertently served as a cue for alcohol availability. In Experiment 2, the training phase that complicated interpretation of the results of Experiment 1 was eliminated. Alcohol-maintained responding again increased when food-maintained responding was placed on extinction in the other component. The present results indicate that loss of nondrug reinforcement in one discriminative context can increase extinguished alcohol seeking in another context and that multiple schedules of reinforcement might be useful for examining such effects.

  9. Marine Mo biogeochemistry in the context of dynamically euxinic mid-depth waters: A case study of the lower Cambrian Niutitang shales, South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Meng; Li, Chao; Zhou, Lian; Algeo, Thomas J.; Zhang, Feifei; Romaniello, Stephen; Jin, Cheng-Sheng; Lei, Li-Dan; Feng, Lian-Jun; Jiang, Shao-Yong

    2016-06-01

    Molybdenum (Mo) concentrations and Mo isotopes have been widely used as proxies for local and global redox conditions in early oceans (>520 Ma) that were stratified and characterized by dynamically euxinic mid-depth waters. However, the nature of the Mo cycle and accompanying isotopic fractionations in such oceans remain poorly known. To fill this gap, we conducted an integrated study of Mo isotopes and redox-sensitive trace element (RSTE) abundances in the Lower Cambrian Niutitang Formation at Yangjiaping, South China. This section accumulated on the northern shelf margin of the Nanhua Basin, a failed intracontinental rift basin with a good connection to the open ocean during the early Cambrian. The Niutitang Formation contains a ∼18-m-thick lower black shale member, and a ∼56-m-thick upper gray silty shale member. The lower member (LM) is moderately to strongly enriched in Mo, U and V, and heterogeneous in Mo isotopic composition (δ98Mo = -0.65‰ to +2.14‰), indicative of dominantly euxinic depositional conditions punctuated by ferruginous episodes (as shown by previously reported Fe speciation data). The upper member (UM) shows lesser enrichment of Mo, U and V, higher Mo/U ratios, and intermediate and more uniform Mo-isotopic compositions (δ98Mo = +1.16‰ to +1.71‰), indicative of weakly oxic to anoxic-euxinic depositional conditions. Geochemical profiles suggest that the LM-to-UM transition reflects a shift of the O2/H2S chemocline from the water column to the sediment. Large δ98Mo fluctuations in the LM may record variations of H2S concentrations in the mid-depth euxinic waters. The intermediate and relatively uniform δ98Mo values of the UM are attributed to the effects of a local Fe-Mn particulate shuttle. In light of the observations at Yangjiaping and other contemporaneous sections in the Nanhua Basin, we propose a new marine Mo biogeochemical model for the early Cambrian ocean. In this model, an Fe-Mn reduction zone may have developed above

  10. Dynamics of the Gong windstorm (Jan 2013) in the context of a 20-year high-resolution simulation of Iberian climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Pedro M. A.; João Chinita, Maria; Cardoso, Rita; Soares, Pedro; Viterbo, Pedro; Pinto, Paulo; Mendes, Manuel

    2014-05-01

    state. The Oeste storm is also poorly simulated in both simulations. Xinthia and Klaus, on the other hand, are both well represented in the continuous RCM simulation. The Oeste storm was earlier diagnosed as a sting-jet storm, using Doppler radar techniques, corresponding to the conceptual model of Browning (2004). The present case study simulation shows that the same applies to the Gong storm, although the latter has a somewhat larger horizontal scale. An increased relevance of this extreme storm dynamics in recent and future European storms is an intriguing possibility. The sensitivity of these storms to details in the synoptic environment is a very relevant issue in the analysis of storm trends in future climate scenarios. Acknowledgements. Study supported by FCT through Grants PTDC/CTE-ATM/119922/2010 and PEST/OE/CTE/LA0019-2013-2014. References Browning, K.A., 2004: The sting at the end of the tail: Damaging winds associated with extratropical cyclones. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 130, 375-399 Cardoso RM, Soares PMM, Miranda PMA, Belo-Pereira M (2013) WRF high resolution simulation of Iberian mean and extreme precipitation climate, International Journal of Climatology, 33, 2591-2608, DOI: 10.1002/joc.3616 Soares PMM, Cardoso RM, Miranda PMA, Viterbo P, Belo-Pereira M, Viterbo P (2012) Assessment of the ENSEMBLES regional climate models in the representation of precipitation variability and extremes over Portugal. J Geophys Res (Atmospheres), 117, D07114, doi:10.1029/2011JD016768

  11. Perceived racial discrimination and negative-mood-related drinking among African American college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, Ross E; Armeli, Stephen; Scott, Denise M; Covault, Jonathan; Tennen, Howard

    2015-03-01

    Research consistently shows a positive association between racial discrimination and problematic alcohol use among African Americans, but little is known about the micro-processes linking this pernicious form of stress to drinking. One possibility is that the cumulative effects of discrimination increase individuals' likelihood of negative-mood-related drinking. In the current study, we examined whether individual differences in lifetime perceived racial discrimination among African American college students moderate relations between daily negative moods and evening alcohol consumption in both social and nonsocial contexts. Data came from an online daily diary study of 441 African Americans (58% female) enrolled at a historically black college/university. Lifetime discrimination was measured at baseline. For 30 days, students reported the number of drinks they consumed the night before both socially and nonsocially, as well as their daytime level of negative mood. In support of the hypotheses, only men who reported higher (vs. lower) lifetime discrimination showed a positive association between daily negative mood and that evening's level of nonsocial drinking. Contrary to expectation, women who reported higher (vs. lower) discrimination showed a negative association between daily negative mood and nonsocial drinking. Neither daily negative mood nor lifetime discrimination predicted level of social drinking. These findings provide further evidence that the cumulative impact of racial discrimination may produce a vulnerability to negative-mood-related drinking--but only for African American men. Importantly, these effects emerged only for nonsocial drinking, which may further explain the robust association between discrimination and problematic alcohol use.

  12. The lived experience of discrimination by white women in committed interracial relationships with black men

    OpenAIRE

    Van der Walt, A; Basson, P. J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: This study explores the experiences of discrimination by white women in committed interracial relationships with black men within the South African context from a descriptive phenomenological perspective. Three white females in committed interracial relationships with black males were recruited and interviewed. Open-ended interviews were conducted in order to elicit rich and in-depth first-person descriptions of the participants’ lived experiences of discrimination as a result of be...

  13. Anti-Discrimination Laws and Work in the Developing World: A Thematic Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Fredman, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews legal and other instruments aimed at addressing labor market discrimination in developing countries in the context of understanding jobs as the connection between the three identified transformations at the center of economic development: living standards, productivity gains, and social cohesion. Discrimination impacts living standards by excluding individuals from the labor market, by (1) consigning them to low paid, low quality, or insecure jobs; (2) subjecting them to vi...

  14. Gender-Based Discrimination In Nursing: A Ghanaian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DF Ofori

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose and objectives: The 'glass escalator' phenomenon holds that men in female dominated professions like nursing can rise quickly to the top. However, they can also suffer discrimination. This phenomenon is widely recognised in advanced countries. Trained, mostly female nurses have been leaving Ghana in droves for greener pastures abroad, particularly the US and UK, with serious consequences on the health delivery service in Ghana. Conversely, increasing numbers of males are joining the nursing profession. It examines whether male nurses in Ghana enjoy any hidden advantages, and if so, what makes the men successful (even with their limited numbers in a women-dominated field and what the implications are for both male and female nurses. Problem investigated: The article explores gender-based discrimination and the phenomenon of the glass escalator in a developing country context. It examines the position of male nurses in Ghana; the type, nature and extent of advantages they enjoy and any discrimination they face in a female-dominated field. Methodology: An in-depth cross-sectional questionnaire was employed. A thematic and cluster analysis of findings was executed, with data captured using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS. A combination of descriptive accounts as well as summary statistics using chi-square and correlations was used to examine the findings. Findings and implications: This paper reports the findings of an empirical study that show that male nurses neither suffer gender-based discrimination nor occupy the top positions in the nursing field. It also found that a majority of males do not want to leave the profession even though they feel they are assigned more responsibilities and are sometimes passed over for promotion.Originality: Whilst representing a modest contribution to research in gender-based discrimination in nursing, this paper is a first attempt to investigate the phenomenon in a Ghanaian context, with

  15. Discriminative learning for speech recognition

    CERN Document Server

    He, Xiadong

    2008-01-01

    In this book, we introduce the background and mainstream methods of probabilistic modeling and discriminative parameter optimization for speech recognition. The specific models treated in depth include the widely used exponential-family distributions and the hidden Markov model. A detailed study is presented on unifying the common objective functions for discriminative learning in speech recognition, namely maximum mutual information (MMI), minimum classification error, and minimum phone/word error. The unification is presented, with rigorous mathematical analysis, in a common rational-functio

  16. When white people report racial discrimination: The role of region, religion, and politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayrl, Damon; Saperstein, Aliya

    2013-05-01

    Scholarly interest in the correlates and consequences of perceived discrimination has grown exponentially in recent years, yet, despite increased legal and media attention to claims of "anti-white bias," empirical studies predicting reports of racial discrimination by white Americans remain limited. Using data from the 2006 Portraits of American Life Study, we find that evangelical Protestantism increases the odds that whites will report experiencing racial discrimination, even after controlling for racial context and an array of social and psychological characteristics. However, this effect is limited to the South. Outside the South, political affiliation trumps religion, yielding distinct regional profiles of discrimination reporters. These findings suggest that institutions may function as regional "carriers" for whites inclined to report racial discrimination.

  17. Black Adolescent Females’ Perceptions of Racial Discrimination When Accessing Reproductive and General Health Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie J. Lewis

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Adolescents, like adults, frequently experience discrimination, which can be particularly salient in the context of reproductive health care. We examined urban Black adolescent females’ perceived experiences of racial discrimination during reproductive health care encounters. Structured face-to-face interviews were conducted with female African American patients, from age 13 through 20, who obtained reproductive health care services at a single site. Twenty-four participants were enrolled. All were in or graduated from high school, with a mean age of 16.8 years. These young Black women reported infrequent race-based discrimination in the health care setting; however, many reported commonly experiencing discrimination in other places. An awareness of the discrimination that minority young women experience in non–health care settings can help providers demonstrate cultural humility when addressing such concerns with their patients. With this information, providers can provide anticipatory guidance and the tools necessary to navigate complex social systems.

  18. Phenotypic responses to social defeat are associated with differences in cued and contextual fear discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulka, Brooke N; Lynch, Joseph F; Latsko, Maeson S; Mulvany, Jessica L; Jasnow, Aaron M

    2015-09-01

    Conflict among individuals is one of the most common forms of stressors experienced across a variety of species, including humans. Social defeat models in mice produce two phenotypic behavioral responses characterized by prolonged social avoidance (susceptibility) or continued social interaction (resistance). The resistant phenotype has been proposed as a model of resilience to chronic stress-induced depression in humans. Previously, we have found that mice that are resistant to social defeat stress display significant impairments in extinction learning and retention, suggesting that continued social interaction following the experience of social defeat may be associated with maladaptive fear responses. Here, we examined how individual differences in response to social defeat may be related to differences in cued and context fear discrimination. Following defeat, resistant mice showed increased fear to a neutral cued stimulus (CS-) compared to control and susceptible mice, but were still able to significantly discriminate between the CS+ and CS-. Likewise, both phenotypes were generally able to discriminate between the training context and neutral context at all retention intervals tested (1, 5, 14 days). However, susceptible mice displayed significantly better discrimination compared to resistant and non-defeated control mice when assessing the discrimination ratio. Thus, at a time when most animals begin exhibiting generalization to contextual cues, susceptible mice retain the ability to discriminate between fearful and neutral contexts. These data suggest that the differences observed in context and cued discrimination between susceptible and resistant mice may be related to differences in their coping strategies in response to social defeat. In particular, resistance or resilience to social defeat as traditionally characterized may be associated with altered inhibitory learning. Understanding why individual differences arise in response to stress, including

  19. Attributions to discrimination and depression among Latino/as: the mediating role of competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Lucas

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the role of attributions to discrimination and competence in predicting depression among a sample of 93 Latino/a adults. The major findings showed that attributions to discrimination were related to decreases in both general competence and intercultural competence, which were in turn associated with increases in depressive symptoms. This pattern of results suggests that general and intercultural competence partially mediated the relationship between attributions to discrimination and depression. The findings are discussed within the context of the cultural adaptation process and factors that ameliorate Latino/a mental health. In addition, theoretical and practical implications are outlined along with areas of future research.

  20. Measuring the effect of ethnic and non-ethnic discrimination on Europeans' self-rated health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Galvez, Javier

    2016-04-01

    The study of perceived discrimination based on race and ethnic traits belongs to a long-held tradition in this field, but recent studies have found that non-ethnic discrimination based on factors such as gender, disability or age is also a crucial predictor of health outcomes. Using data from the European Social Survey (2010), and applying Boolean Factor Analysis and Ordered Logistic Regression models, this study is aimed to compare how ethnic and non-ethnic types of discrimination might affect self-rated health in the European context. We found that non-ethnic types of discrimination produce stronger differences on health outcomes. This result indicates that the probabilities of presenting a poor state of health are significantly higher when individuals feel they are being discriminated against for social or demographic conditions (gender, age, sexuality or disability) rather than for ethnic reasons (nationality, race, ethnicity, language or religiosity). This study offers a clear comparison of health inequalities based on ethnic and non-ethnic types of discrimination in the European context, overcoming analytical based on binary indicators and simple measures of discrimination.

  1. [Age discrimination. Point of view of the professionals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribera Casado, Jose Manuel; Bustillos, Antonio; Guerra Vaquero, Ana Ilenia; Huici Casal, Carmen; Fernández-Ballesteros, Rocío

    2016-01-01

    It is generally believed that legislation is an essential resource in the prevention of discriminatory behaviour against older people. This study first examines the Spanish legislation for potential age discrimination and then uses the C-EVE-D questionnaire to ask professionals in social work and health care settings the extent to what certain ageist behaviours described in the questionnaire are observed in practice. The field study was carried out with professionals in geriatrics and gerontology, who are members of Spanish Society for Geriatrics and Gerontology (SEGG). The EVE discrimination questionnaire consists of 28 items which investigate the existence of age discrimination in medical and social care contexts. A total of 174 people (63% women; mean age: 45.6 years) took part in the study, with a mean professional experience of 17.2 years. Doctors made up 59% of the sample, psychologists 19%, with the rest coming from other professions. The first 20 discrimination items of the EVE-D questionnaire were significantly positively reported by more than 60% of the sample. Although Spanish legislation, from the constitution down to the rules that govern social and health care settings, clearly prohibits any kind of discrimination with regard to age, our results show that Spanish professionals most closely involved in the care of older people perceive both direct and indirect age discrimination. Furthermore, evidence was found of prejudice in the treatment of older people as a phenomenon in day-to-day health and social services care, both when analysing medical cases and, to a greater extent, cases of a more general nature and/or relating to co-existence. Copyright © 2016 SEGG. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Portable and Accurate Collection of Calling-Context-Sensitive Bytecode Metrics for the Java Virtual Machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarimbekov, Aibek; Sewe, Andreas; Binder, Walter

    2011-01-01

    Calling-context profiles and dynamic metrics at the bytecode level are important for profiling, workload characterization, program comprehension, and reverse engineering. Prevailing tools for collecting calling-context profiles or dynamic bytecode metrics often provide only incomplete information...

  3. Haptic Visual Discrimination and Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarron, Lawrence; Horn, Paul W.

    1979-01-01

    The Haptic Visual Discrimination Test of tactual-visual information processing was administered to 39 first-graders, along with standard intelligence, academic potential, and spatial integration tests. Results revealed consistently significant associations between the importance of parieto-occipital areas for organizing sensory data as well as for…

  4. Structural Discrimination and Autonomous Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Hin-Yan

    2016-01-01

    discrimination looms with the possibility of crash optimisation impulses in which a protective shield is cast over those individuals in which society may have a vested interest in prioritising or safeguarding. A stark dystopian scenario is introduced to sketch the contours whereby personal beacons signal...

  5. Don't demotivate, discriminate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J.A. Kamphorst (Jurjen); O.H. Swank (Otto)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This paper offers a new theory of discrimination in the workplace. We consider a manager who has to assign two tasks to two employees. The manager has superior information about the employees' abilities. We show that besides an equilibrium where the manager does not dis

  6. Structural Discrimination and Autonomous Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Hin-Yan

    2016-01-01

    discrimination looms with the possibility of crash optimisation impulses in which a protective shield is cast over those individuals in which society may have a vested interest in prioritising or safeguarding. A stark dystopian scenario is introduced to sketch the contours whereby personal beacons signal...

  7. Experiencing discrimination increases risk taking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, Jeremy P; Koslov, Katrina; Nock, Matthew K; Mendes, Wendy Berry

    2013-02-01

    Prior research has revealed racial disparities in health outcomes and health-compromising behaviors, such as smoking and drug abuse. It has been suggested that discrimination contributes to such disparities, but the mechanisms through which this might occur are not well understood. In the research reported here, we examined whether the experience of discrimination affects acute physiological stress responses and increases risk-taking behavior. Black and White participants each received rejecting feedback from partners who were either of their own race (in-group rejection) or of a different race (out-group rejection, which could be interpreted as discrimination). Physiological (cardiovascular and neuroendocrine) changes, cognition (memory and attentional bias), affect, and risk-taking behavior were assessed. Significant participant race × partner race interactions were observed. Cross-race rejection, compared with same-race rejection, was associated with lower levels of cortisol, increased cardiac output, decreased vascular resistance, greater anger, increased attentional bias, and more risk-taking behavior. These data suggest that perceived discrimination is associated with distinct profiles of physiological reactivity, affect, cognitive processing, and risk taking, implicating direct and indirect pathways to health disparities.

  8. Racial/Ethnic Discrimination and Adolescents' Well-Being: The Role of Cross-Ethnic Friendships and Friends' Experiences of Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benner, Aprile D.; Wang, Yijie

    2017-01-01

    There is an extensive body of work documenting the negative socioemotional and academic consequences of perceiving racial/ethnic discrimination during adolescence, but little is known about how the larger peer context conditions such effects. Using peer network data from 252 eighth graders (85% Latino, 11% African American, 5% other…

  9. Information behavior in dynamic group work contexts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnenwald, Diane H.; Pierce, Linda G.

    2000-01-01

    personnel and documentation on C2. During data analysis, three important themes that highlight the why, what, how and consequences of information behavior in C2 emerged. The first is the concept of interwoven situational awareness consisting of individual, intragroup and intergroup shared understanding...

  10. Knowledge governance in a dynamic global context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul

    for Strategic Management and Globalization, a research agenda that may be described as multi-level research in international strategy, based on the economic theory of the firm and strategic management theory, and with a strong emphasis on micro-foundations and knowledge governance. The paper relates......This paper tells the story of the emergence of distinct research around the theory of the firm at Copenhagen Business School within the last two decades, focussing on elements of continuity in the thinking of key CBS persons in the period. It discusses the current research agenda of the Center...... the narrative to organizational learning theory....

  11. Exploring Social Dynamics in School Science Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet C. Ayar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to explore the socio-cultural practices and interactions of learning science in a science classroom within the concept of communities of practice. Our qualitative data were collected through observing, taking field notes, and conducting interviews in a public science classroom during an entire school year. The study occurred in a seventh-grade classroom with a veteran physical science teacher, with more than 10 years teaching experience, and 22 students. For this article, we presented two classroom vignettes that reflect a sample of the participation, practice, and community that was observed in the science classroom on a daily basis. The first vignette illustrated a typical formula of Initiation–Response–Feedback (I-R-F that transfers knowledge to students through a teacher-led discussion with the entire class. The second vignette described a laboratory activity designed to allow students to apply or discover knowledge through practical experience, while taking responsibility for their learning through small-group work. The normative practices and routine behaviors of the science classroom are highlighted through the description of material resources, and different modes of participation accompanied by assigned roles and responsibilities. What we observed was that laboratory activities reproduced the epistemic authority of the I-R-F rather than creating collective cognitive responsibility where students have the independence to explore and create authentic science experiences.

  12. Information behavior in dynamic group work contexts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnenwald, Diane H.; Pierce, Linda G.

    2000-01-01

    personnel and documentation on C2. During data analysis, three important themes that highlight the why, what, how and consequences of information behavior in C2 emerged. The first is the concept of interwoven situational awareness consisting of individual, intragroup and intergroup shared understanding...

  13. Ecological context determines the choice between prey of different salinities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutiérrez, Jorge S; Piersma, Theunis

    2016-01-01

    Food choice has profound implications for the relative intakes of water and salts, and thus for an animal’s physiological state. Discrimination behaviors with respect salt intake have been documented in a number of vertebrate species, but few studies have considered the ecological context in which t

  14. Ecological context determines the choice between prey of different salinities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutiérrez, Jorge S; Piersma, Theunis

    2016-01-01

    Food choice has profound implications for the relative intakes of water and salts, and thus for an animal’s physiological state. Discrimination behaviors with respect salt intake have been documented in a number of vertebrate species, but few studies have considered the ecological context in which

  15. The pleasure in context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, Cameron

    2008-10-01

    The pleasures associated with the use of illicit drugs are rarely acknowledged in contemporary drug policy debates. Where they are, these pleasures are almost always attributed to the specific physiological and/or sensory effects of individual substances. Drawing on qualitative research recently completed in Melbourne, Australia, this paper argues that the pleasures associated with illicit drug use extend well beyond the purely physiological to include a host of properly contextual elements as well. These "contextual" pleasures include the corporeal experience of space, such as the "feeling" of electronic music in a large night-club space, or the engagement with natural and wilderness environments. Also important are a range of corporeal and performative practices, such as dancing and interacting with strangers, which were reportedly facilitated with the use of different drugs. This emphasis on the dynamics of space, embodiment and practice as they impact the contextual experience of pleasure, has the potential to open up new ways of thinking about pleasure and its place in the mediation of all drug related behaviours. Greater understanding of these relationships should also facilitate the emergence of new, context specific, drug prevention and harm reduction initiatives.

  16. Qualitative analysis of mental health service users' reported experiences of discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, S; Pinfold, V; Cotney, J; Couperthwaite, L; Matthews, J; Barret, K; Warren, S; Corker, E; Rose, D; Thornicroft, G; Henderson, C

    2016-08-01

    To better understand mental health service users' experiences of stigma and discrimination in different settings. An annual telephone survey of people with a mental health diagnosis conducted to evaluate the Time to Change antistigma campaign in England. Of 985 people who participated in 2013, 84 took part in a qualitative interview which was audio recorded. Of these, 50 interviews were transcribed and thematically analysed to explore accounts of discrimination. We analysed common types of behaviour; motivations ascribed to the discriminators; expectations of what fair treatment would have been; and the impact of discrimination on participants. Discrimination was most common in five contexts: welfare benefits, mental health care, physical health care, family and friends. Participants often found it hard to assess whether a behaviour was discriminatory or not. Lack of support, whether by public services or by friends and family, was often experienced as discrimination, reflecting an expectation that positive behaviours and reasonable adjustments should be offered in response to mental health needs. The impact of discrimination across different settings was often perceived by participants as aggravating their mental health, and there is thus a need to treat discrimination as a health issue, not just a social justice issue. © 2016 The Authors. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Discrimination of foreign language speech contrasts by English monolinguals and French/English bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKelvie-Sebileau, Pippa; Davis, Chris

    2014-05-01

    The primary aim of this study was to determine whether late French/English bilinguals are able to utilize knowledge of bilabial stop contrasts that exist in each of their separate languages to discriminate bilabial stop contrasts from a new language (Thai). Secondary aims were to determine associations between bilabial stop consonant production in the L1 and the L2, between language learning factors and production and discrimination, and to compare English bilinguals' and monolinguals' discrimination. Three Thai bilabial stop consonant pairs differentiated by Voice Onset Time (VOT) (combinations of [b], [p], and [p(h)]) were presented to 28 French-English bilinguals, 25 English-French bilinguals, and 43 English monolinguals in an AX discrimination task. It was hypothesized that L2 experience would facilitate discrimination of contrasts that were phonemic in the L2 but not in the L1 for bilinguals. Only limited support for this hypothesis was found. However, results indicate that high production proficiency bilinguals had higher discrimination of the phonemic L2 contrasts (non-phonemic in L1). Discrimination patterns indicate lasting L1 influence, with similarity between unknown foreign language contrasts and L1 contrasts influencing discrimination rates. Production results show evidence for L2 influence in the L1. Results are discussed in the context of current speech perception models.

  18. Detecting categorical perception in continuous discrimination data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, P.; Chládková, K.

    2010-01-01

    We present a method for assessing categorical perception from continuous discrimination data. Until recently, categorical perception of speech has exclusively been measured by discrimination and identification experiments with a small number of repeatedly presented stimuli. Experiments by Rogers and

  19. Racial Discrimination in the British Labor Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firth, Michael

    1981-01-01

    Contains results of a study of racial discrimination in the British job market for accountants and financial executives. Results show that considerable discrimination remains several years after the adoption of the Race Relations Act of 1968. (CT)

  20. CONTEXT 2015 Doctorial Symposium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    What is the CONTEXT 2015 Doctoral Symposium? The CONTEXT 2015 Doctoral Symposium is an opportunity for doctoral researchers to showcase their work and discuss problems, challenges, and ideas in an open and collegial environment with expert feedback. The Doctoral Symposium is a workshop for doctoral...... day, Monday November 2, 2015, the day prior to the start of the main CONTEXT 2015 conference....

  1. Meaning in Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning; Dahl, Veronica

    2005-01-01

    A model for context-dependent natural language semantics is proposed and formalized in terms of possible worlds. The meaning of a sentence depends on context and at the same time affects that context representing the knowledge about the world collected from a discourse. The model fits well...

  2. Description logics of context

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Klarman, S

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We introduce Description Logics of Context (DLCs) - an extension of Description Logics (DLs) for context-based reasoning. Our approach descends from J. McCarthy's tradition of treating contexts as formal objects over which one can quantify...

  3. A dynamic leaf gas-exchange strategy is conserved in woody plants under changing ambient CO2: evidence from carbon isotope discrimination in paleo and CO2 enrichment studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelker, Steven L.; Brooks, J. Renée; Meinzer, Frederick C.; Anderson, Rebecca D.; Bader, Martin K.-F.; Battipaglia, Giovanna; Becklin, Katie M.; Beerling, David; Bert, Didier; Betancourt, Julio L.; Dawson, Todd E.; Domec, Jean-Christophe; Guyette, Richard P.; Körner, Christian; Leavitt, Steven W.; Linder, Sune; Marshall, John D.; Mildner, Manuel; Ogée, Jérôme; Panyushkina, Irina P.; Plumpton, Heather J.; Pregitzer, Kurt S.; Saurer, Matthias; Smith, Andrew R.; Siegwolf, Rolf T.W.; Stambaugh, Michael C.; Talhelm, Alan F.; Tardif, Jacques C.; Van De Water, Peter K.; Ward, Joy K.; Wingate, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Rising atmospheric [CO2], ca, is expected to affect stomatal regulation of leaf gas-exchange of woody plants, thus influencing energy fluxes as well as carbon (C), water, and nutrient cycling of forests. Researchers have proposed various strategies for stomatal regulation of leaf gas-exchange that include maintaining a constant leaf internal [CO2], ci, a constant drawdown in CO2(ca − ci), and a constant ci/ca. These strategies can result in drastically different consequences for leaf gas-exchange. The accuracy of Earth systems models depends in part on assumptions about generalizable patterns in leaf gas-exchange responses to varying ca. The concept of optimal stomatal behavior, exemplified by woody plants shifting along a continuum of these strategies, provides a unifying framework for understanding leaf gas-exchange responses to ca. To assess leaf gas-exchange regulation strategies, we analyzed patterns in ci inferred from studies reporting C stable isotope ratios (δ13C) or photosynthetic discrimination (∆) in woody angiosperms and gymnosperms that grew across a range of ca spanning at least 100 ppm. Our results suggest that much of the ca-induced changes in ci/ca occurred across ca spanning 200 to 400 ppm. These patterns imply that ca − ci will eventually approach a constant level at high ca because assimilation rates will reach a maximum and stomatal conductance of each species should be constrained to some minimum level. These analyses are not consistent with canalization toward any single strategy, particularly maintaining a constant ci. Rather, the results are consistent with the existence of a broadly conserved pattern of stomatal optimization in woody angiosperms and gymnosperms. This results in trees being profligate water users at low ca, when additional water loss is small for each unit of C gain, and increasingly water-conservative at high ca, when photosystems are saturated and water loss is large for each unit C gain.

  4. A Service-Oriented Middleware for Context-Aware Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonino da Silva Santos, L.O.; Poortinga-van Wijnen, R.; Vink, P.

    2007-01-01

    Context awareness has emerged as an important element in distributed computing. It offers mechanisms that allow applications to be aware of their environment and enable these applications to adjust their behavior to the current context. Considering the dynamic nature of context, the data flow of rel

  5. Discovery and Composition of Services for Context-Aware Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselman, C.E.W.; Tokmakoff, Andrew; Pawar, P.; Iacob, Sorin; Havinga, Paul J.M.; Havinga, P.J.M.; Lijding, M.E.M.; Meratnia, Nirvana; Meratnia, N.; Wegdam, M.

    2006-01-01

    We consider the challenge of dynamically adapting services to context changes that occur in ubiquitous computing environments (e.g., changes in a user’s activity) and propose the Context-Aware Service Enabling (CASE) platform for that purpose. The CASE platform combines context-aware service discove

  6. Illustrations of Price Discrimination in Baseball

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel, Rascher; Andrew, Schwarz

    2010-01-01

    Price discrimination of this nature, focused on differing degrees of quality, bundled goods, volume discounts, and other forms of second-degree price discrimination, is commonplace in MLB. Indeed, it is safe to say that every single MLB ticket is sold under some form of price discrimination. As teams grow increasingly sophisticated in their pricing strategies, price discrimination is becoming more precise, more wide-spread, and more profitable, while at the same time providing for more oppo...

  7. Agent-Based Context Consistency Management in Smart Space Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jih, Wan-Rong; Hsu, Jane Yung-Jen; Chang, Han-Wen

    Context-aware systems in smart space environments must be aware of the context of their surroundings and adapt to changes in highly dynamic environments. Data management of contextual information is different from traditional approaches because the contextual information is dynamic, transient, and fallible in nature. Consequently, the capability to detect context inconsistency and maintain consistent contextual information are two key issues for context management. We propose an ontology-based model for representing, deducing, and managing consistent contextual information. In addition, we use ontology reasoning to detect and resolve context inconsistency problems, which will be described in a Smart Alarm Clock scenario.

  8. Context and Pavlovian conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landeira-Fernandez, J

    1996-02-01

    Procedurally, learning has to occur in a context. Several lines of evidence suggest that contextual stimuli actively affect learning and expression of the conditional response. The experimental context can become associated with the unconditional stimulus (US), especially when the US is presented in a context in the absence of a discrete conditional stimulus (CS). Moreover, context can modulate CS-US associations. Finally, it appears that context can become associated with the CS when it is presented before the CS-US training. The purpose of the present paper is to review some of the relevant literature that considers the context as an important feature of Pavlovian conditioning and to discuss some of the main learning theories that incorporate the context into their theoretical framework. The paper starts by mentioning historical positions that considered context an important variable in conditioning and then describes how the approach to contextual conditioning changed with the modern study of Pavlovian conditioning. Various forms of measurement of context conditioning are presented and the associative strength attached to context in several experimental paradigms is examined. The possible functions that context may acquire during conditioning are pointed out and related to major learning theories. Moreover, the effect of certain neurological manipulations on context conditioning is presented and these results are discussed in terms of possible functions that the context might acquire during Pavlovian conditioning. It is concluded that contextual stimuli acquire different functions during normal conditioning. A procedure in which animals are exposed to an aversive US immediately after they are placed in the experimental context is suggested as a useful control for the study of context conditioning.

  9. 18 CFR 1302.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discrimination... § 1302.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person in the United States shall, on the ground of... otherwise subjected to discrimination under any program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance...

  10. 28 CFR 42.510 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 42.510 Section...-Implementation of Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 Employment § 42.510 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. (1) No qualified handicapped person shall on the basis of handicap be subjected to discrimination...

  11. 22 CFR 142.11 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 142.11 Section 142... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Employment Practices § 142.11 Discrimination... discrimination in employment under any program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance. (2) A...

  12. 5 CFR 900.704 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 900.704... Federally Assisted Programs of the Office of Personnel Management § 900.704 Discrimination prohibited. (a..., be denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity...

  13. 45 CFR 1110.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1110.3 Section 1110.3... HUMANITIES GENERAL NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS § 1110.3 Discrimination prohibited. (a... from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected, to discrimination under...

  14. 38 CFR 18.411 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited... Practices § 18.411 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. (1) No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination in employment under any program or activity to which...

  15. 22 CFR 217.11 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 217.11 Section 217... Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. (1) No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination in employment under any program or activity to which this part applies. (2) A...

  16. 28 CFR 42.203 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 42.203 Section...) of the Justice System Improvement Act of 1979 § 42.203 Discrimination prohibited. (a) No person in... participation in, be denied the benefits of, be subjected to discrimination under, or denied employment in...

  17. 45 CFR 605.11 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 605.11 Section 605.11... Employment Practices § 605.11 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. (1) No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination in employment under any program or...

  18. 45 CFR 605.21 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 605.21 Section 605.21... Accessibility § 605.21 Discrimination prohibited. No qualified handicapped person shall, because a recipient's... from participation in, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity to...

  19. 5 CFR 900.404 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 900.404... § 900.404 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. A person in the United States shall not, on the ground... be otherwise subjected to discrimination under, a program to which this subpart applies. (b) Specific...

  20. 43 CFR 17.203 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 17.203 Section... Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination...

  1. 38 CFR 18.404 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited... Provisions § 18.404 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the... subjected to discrimination under any program or activity which receives Federal financial assistance. (b...

  2. 38 CFR 18.421 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited... Accessibility § 18.421 Discrimination prohibited. No qualified handicapped person shall, because a recipient's... from participation in, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity to...

  3. 28 CFR 35.149 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 35.149 Section... STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT SERVICES Program Accessibility § 35.149 Discrimination prohibited. Except as... subjected to discrimination by any public entity. ...

  4. 45 CFR 1203.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1203.4 Section 1203.4... OF 1964 § 1203.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. A person in the United States shall not, on... benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to discrimination under, a program to which this part applies. (b...

  5. 22 CFR 217.21 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 217.21 Section 217... Discrimination prohibited. No qualified handicapped person shall, because a recipient's facilities within the... excluded from participation in, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity...

  6. 28 CFR 42.520 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 42.520 Section...-Implementation of Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 Accessibility § 42.520 Discrimination prohibited... participation in, or otherwise subjected to discrimination under any program or activity receiving Federal...

  7. 22 CFR 142.15 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 142.15 Section 142... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Accessibility § 142.15 Discrimination... be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity to which the part applies. ...

  8. 34 CFR 104.21 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 104.21 Section 104.21... ASSISTANCE Accessibility § 104.21 Discrimination prohibited. No qualified handicapped person shall, because a... excluded from participation in, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity...

  9. 28 CFR 42.104 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 42.104 Section... Civil Rights Act of 1964 1 § 42.104 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person in the United... denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to discrimination under any program to which this...

  10. 18 CFR 1307.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discrimination... NONDISCRIMINATION WITH RESPECT TO HANDICAP § 1307.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified handicapped... otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity to which this part applies. (b...

  11. 28 CFR 42.503 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 42.503 Section...-Implementation of Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 General Provisions § 42.503 Discrimination... from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any...

  12. 29 CFR 1630.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1630.4 Section 1630.4 Labor... EQUAL EMPLOYMENT PROVISIONS OF THE AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT § 1630.4 Discrimination prohibited..., or privilege of employment. The term discrimination includes, but is not limited to, the acts...

  13. 34 CFR 104.11 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 104.11 Section 104.11... ASSISTANCE Employment Practices § 104.11 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. (1) No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination in employment under any program or...

  14. Experienced discrimination amongst European old citizens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Heuvel, Wim J. A.; van Santvoort, Marc M.

    2011-01-01

    This study analyses the experienced age discrimination of old European citizens and the factors related to this discrimination. Differences in experienced discrimination between old citizens of different European countries are explored. Data from the 2008 ESS survey are used. Old age is defined as b

  15. 34 CFR 100.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 100.3 Section 100.3... EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 100.3 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No... participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to discrimination under any program...

  16. 45 CFR 80.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 80.3 Section 80.3... TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 80.3 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person in the..., be denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to discrimination under any program to...

  17. Third-Degree Price Discrimination Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Youngsun

    2006-01-01

    The author derives the probability that price discrimination improves social welfare, using a simple model of third-degree price discrimination assuming two independent linear demands. The probability that price discrimination raises social welfare increases as the preferences or incomes of consumer groups become more heterogeneous. He derives the…

  18. Experienced discrimination amongst European old citizens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Heuvel, Wim J. A.; van Santvoort, Marc M.

    2011-01-01

    This study analyses the experienced age discrimination of old European citizens and the factors related to this discrimination. Differences in experienced discrimination between old citizens of different European countries are explored. Data from the 2008 ESS survey are used. Old age is defined as b

  19. Sex Discrimination and Women's Labor Market Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumark, David; McLennan, Michele

    1995-01-01

    Using self-reported sex discrimination data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Young Women, a study found that working women who report discrimination are more likely to change employers or interrupt their labor force participation. However, women who report discrimination do not accrue less experience or have lower wage growth. (SK)

  20. Simultaneous Visual Discrimination in Asian Elephants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissani, Moti; Hoefler-Nissani, Donna; Lay, U. Tin; Htun, U. Wan

    2005-01-01

    Two experiments explored the behavior of 20 Asian elephants ("Elephas aximus") in simultaneous visual discrimination tasks. In Experiment 1, 7 Burmese logging elephants acquired a white+/black- discrimination, reaching criterion in a mean of 2.6 sessions and 117 discrete trials, whereas 4 elephants acquired a black+/white- discrimination in 5.3…

  1. Non-discrimination and equality of women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostland, Rolanda Carina

    2006-01-01

    Non-discrimination is considered to be a cornerstone of the human rights framework of the United Nations. Already in the UN Charter of 1945 it is stated that human rights should be promoted without discrimination as to, amongst other things, sex. This principle of non-discrimination on the ground of

  2. Discrimination in Recruitment: An Empirical Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Jerry M.

    1978-01-01

    To investigate whether recruitment practices of companies with affirmative action programs discriminated against Blacks or resulted in reverse discrimination, qualifications and race of fictitious job applicants were manipulated on resumes sent to a sample of employers. Responses strongly indicate discrimination, with Black applicants favored…

  3. 7 CFR 15d.2 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 15d.2 Section 15d.2... THE UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE § 15d.2 Discrimination prohibited. (a) No agency, officer... participation in, deny the benefits of, or subject to discrimination any person in the United States under any...

  4. 34 CFR 104.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 104.4 Section 104.4... ASSISTANCE General Provisions § 104.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified handicapped person... otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activitiy which receives Federal financial...

  5. 38 CFR 18.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited... THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 General § 18.3 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person in the..., be denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to discrimination under any program to which...

  6. Experienced discrimination amongst European old citizens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Heuvel, Wim J. A.; van Santvoort, Marc M.

    2011-01-01

    This study analyses the experienced age discrimination of old European citizens and the factors related to this discrimination. Differences in experienced discrimination between old citizens of different European countries are explored. Data from the 2008 ESS survey are used. Old age is defined as

  7. 45 CFR 605.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 605.4 Section 605.4... Provisions § 605.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the... subjected to discrimination under any program or activity which receives Federal financial assistance. (b...

  8. 13 CFR 112.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 112.3... ASSISTED PROGRAMS OF SBA-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 112.3 Discrimination... be otherwise subjected to discrimination by any business or other activity. (b) Specific...

  9. 13 CFR 113.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 113.3... Provisions § 113.3 Discrimination prohibited. To the extent not covered or prohibited by part 112 of this... employment decisions shall be made in a manner which ensures that discrimination on the basis of handicap...

  10. 18 CFR 1307.5 - Employment discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... discrimination. 1307.5 Section 1307.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY NONDISCRIMINATION WITH RESPECT TO HANDICAP § 1307.5 Employment discrimination. (a) General. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination in employment under any program or...

  11. 15 CFR 8b.11 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 8b.11 Section 8b.11 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROHIBITION OF DISCRIMINATION... Practices § 8b.11 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. (1) No qualified handicapped individual shall, on...

  12. 45 CFR 611.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 611.3 Section 611.3... CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 611.3 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person in the United States... benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to discrimination under any program to which this part applies. (b...

  13. 29 CFR 500.9 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 500.9 Section 500.9 Labor... SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKER PROTECTION General Provisions § 500.9 Discrimination prohibited. (a) It is a... Secretary alleging such discrimination. ...

  14. 29 CFR 34.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Discrimination prohibited. 34.3 Section 34.3 Labor Office of... THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT OF 1982, AS AMENDED (JTPA) General Provisions § 34.3 Discrimination... participation in JTPA, be excluded from participation in, denied the benefits of, subjected to discrimination...

  15. 29 CFR 502.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 502.3 Section 502.3 Labor... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT (SUSPENDED 6-29-2009) General Provisions § 502.3 Discrimination prohibited. (a... Department regulation promulgated pursuant to sec. 218 of the INA. (b) Allegations of discrimination against...

  16. 22 CFR 142.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 142.4 Section 142.4... OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE General Provisions § 142.4 Discrimination... participation in, be denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or...

  17. 49 CFR 27.7 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 27.7 Section 27.7... OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE General § 27.7 Discrimination prohibited. (a... participation in, be denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or...

  18. 15 CFR 8b.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 8b.4 Section 8b.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROHIBITION OF DISCRIMINATION... Provisions § 8b.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified handicapped individual shall, on the...

  19. 29 CFR 501.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 501.4 Section 501.4 Labor... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT General Provisions § 501.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) A person may not... discrimination against any person under paragraph (a) of this section will be investigated by the WHD. Where the...

  20. 14 CFR 372.22 - Discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination. 372.22 Section 372.22... REGULATIONS OVERSEAS MILITARY PERSONNEL CHARTERS Conditions and Limitations § 372.22 Discrimination. No... any unjust discrimination or any undue or unreasonable prejudice or disadvantage in any respect...