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Sample records for dynamic contact angles

  1. Apparent and microscopic dynamic contact angles in confined flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omori, Takeshi; Kajishima, Takeo

    2017-11-01

    An abundance of empirical correlations between a dynamic contact angle and a capillary number representing a translational velocity of a contact line have been provided for the last decades. The experimentally obtained dynamic contact angles are inevitably apparent contact angles but often undistinguished from microscopic contact angles formed right on the wall. As Bonn et al. ["Wetting and spreading," Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 739-805 (2009)] pointed out, however, most of the experimental studies simply report values of angles recorded at some length scale which is quantitatively unknown. It is therefore hard to evaluate or judge the physical validity and the generality of the empirical correlations. The present study is an attempt to clear this clutter regarding the dynamic contact angle by measuring both the apparent and the microscopic dynamic contact angles from the identical data sets in a well-controlled manner, by means of numerical simulation. The numerical method was constructed so that it reproduced the fine details of the flow with a moving contact line predicted by molecular dynamics simulations [T. Qian, X. Wang, and P. Sheng, "Molecular hydrodynamics of the moving contact line in two-phase immiscible flows," Commun. Comput. Phys. 1, 1-52 (2006)]. We show that the microscopic contact angle as a function of the capillary number has the same form as Blake's molecular-kinetic model [T. Blake and J. Haynes, "Kinetics of liquid/liquid displacement," J. Colloid Interface Sci. 30, 421-423 (1969)], regardless of the way the flow is driven, the channel width, the mechanical properties of the receding fluid, and the value of the equilibrium contact angle under the conditions where the Reynolds and capillary numbers are small. We have also found that the apparent contact angle obtained by the arc-fitting of the interface behaves surprisingly universally as claimed in experimental studies in the literature [e.g., X. Li et al., "An experimental study on dynamic pore

  2. A 'conveyor belt' model for the dynamic contact angle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volpe C, Della; Siboni, S

    2011-01-01

    The familiar Young contact angle measurement of a liquid at equilibrium on a solid is a fundamental aspect of capillary phenomena. But in the real world it is not so easy to observe it. This is due to the roughness and/or heterogeneity of real surfaces, which typically are not perfectly planar and chemically homogeneous. What can be easily detected, and in a repeatable way, are advancing and receding contact angles. In this paper, we discuss a simple model which accounts for the onset of advancing and receding contact angles measured by the Wilhelmy microbalance, one of the most powerful techniques for contact angle measurements. The model also explains the experimental observation that advancing and receding contact angles become closer to each other when the system is gently 'shaken', by supplying mechanical energy in an appropriate way. The model may be pedagogically useful in introducing students and teachers to aspects of capillary phenomena which are not usually discussed in basic physics courses.

  3. Investigation of the Dynamic Contact Angle Using a Direct Numerical Simulation Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guangpu; Yao, Jun; Zhang, Lei; Sun, Hai; Li, Aifen; Shams, Bilal

    2016-11-15

    A large amount of residual oil, which exists as isolated oil slugs, remains trapped in reservoirs after water flooding. Numerous numerical studies are performed to investigate the fundamental flow mechanism of oil slugs to improve flooding efficiency. Dynamic contact angle models are usually introduced to simulate an accurate contact angle and meniscus displacement of oil slugs under a high capillary number. Nevertheless, in the oil slug flow simulation process, it is unnecessary to introduce the dynamic contact angle model because of a negligible change in the meniscus displacement after using the dynamic contact angle model when the capillary number is small. Therefore, a critical capillary number should be introduced to judge whether the dynamic contact model should be incorporated into simulations. In this study, a direct numerical simulation method is employed to simulate the oil slug flow in a capillary tube at the pore scale. The position of the interface between water and the oil slug is determined using the phase-field method. The capacity and accuracy of the model are validated using a classical benchmark: a dynamic capillary filling process. Then, different dynamic contact angle models and the factors that affect the dynamic contact angle are analyzed. The meniscus displacements of oil slugs with a dynamic contact angle and a static contact angle (SCA) are obtained during simulations, and the relative error between them is calculated automatically. The relative error limit has been defined to be 5%, beyond which the dynamic contact angle model needs to be incorporated into the simulation to approach the realistic displacement. Thus, the desired critical capillary number can be determined. A three-dimensional universal chart of critical capillary number, which functions as static contact angle and viscosity ratio, is given to provide a guideline for oil slug simulation. Also, a fitting formula is presented for ease of use.

  4. Measure Advancing, Receding and Dynamic Contact Angles of granular materials in a close column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callegari, Gerardo; Li, Minglu; Moghtadernejad, Sara; Drazer, German

    2017-11-01

    Wetting properties of granular materials are usually obtained by the Washburn column technique. One problem is that the effective contact angle measured is dynamic and variable. The open column technique also allows to measure static advancing contact angle when the interface stops because the driving capillary pressure is balanced by the hydrostatic pressure. However, when particle diameters are in the range of tens of microns the static condition cannot be achieved at practical heights. Also, the open column device cannot be used to measure receding contact angles or contact angles of non-wetting liquids. Dynamics of a close column filled with granular material of different particle sizes where the liquid mass, the enclosed air pressure and the front position are monitored as a function of time is studied. Contact angle is calculated in dynamic and advancing static conditions. Then, a Syringe pump is used to increase the pressure inside the column so that the receding contact angle can also be studied. Supplementary experiments with a reference liquid that completely wets the powder are performed. Using a second liquid decouples the properties of the bed from the result and allows to measure the contact angles without making assumptions on the pore size or geometry.

  5. Characterization of spreadability of nonaqueous ethylcellulose gel matrices using dynamic contact angle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Keat Theng; Chan, Lai Wah; Heng, Paul W S

    2008-08-01

    This study reports the characterization of spreadability of nonaqueous ethylcellulose (EC) gel matrices intended for topical drug delivery using a newly developed method based on dynamic contact angle. EC solutions were prepared using three grades of EC and propylene glycol dicaprylate/dicaprate. Dynamic contact angles of sessile drops of EC solutions on silicone elastomer were measured using a dynamic contact angle analyzer equipped with axisymmetric drop shape analysis-profile. Roughness of silicone elastomer, viscosity of EC solutions and compressibility of semisolid EC gels were determined by the atomic force microscope, cone-and-plate rheometer and tensile tester, respectively. The silicone elastomer employed as a substrate was demonstrated to have similar hydrophilic/lipophilic properties as the human skin. Spreadability of EC solutions was dependent on EC concentration, polymeric chain length and polydispersity. EC gel spreadability was governed by viscosity and the extent of gel-substrate interaction. From the apparent contact angle values, most EC gel formulations tested were found to be moderately spreadable. Linear correlation observed between spreading parameter and compressibility of EC gel verified the applicability of dynamic contact angle to characterize EC gel spreadability. Thus, the feasibility of employing dynamic contact angle as an alternative technique to measure gel spreadability was demonstrated. The spreadability demonstrated by EC gel would facilitate application on the skin indicating its potential usefulness as a topical dosage form.

  6. Contact Angle Goniometer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description:The FTA32 goniometer provides video-based contact angle and surface tension measurement. Contact angles are measured by fitting a mathematical expression...

  7. Flow Visualization in Evaporating Liquid Drops and Measurement of Dynamic Contact Angles and Spreading Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Neng-Li; Chao, David F.

    2001-01-01

    A new hybrid optical system, consisting of reflection-refracted shadowgraphy and top-view photography, is used to visualize flow phenomena and simultaneously measure the spreading and instant dynamic contact angle in a volatile-liquid drop on a nontransparent substrate. Thermocapillary convection in the drop, induced by evaporation, and the drop real-time profile data are synchronously recorded by video recording systems. Experimental results obtained from this unique technique clearly reveal that thermocapillary convection strongly affects the spreading process and the characteristics of dynamic contact angle of the drop. Comprehensive information of a sessile drop, including the local contact angle along the periphery, the instability of the three-phase contact line, and the deformation of the drop shape is obtained and analyzed.

  8. Molecular Dynamics Analyses on Microscopic Contact Angle - Effect of Wall Atom Configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahiro Ito; Yosuke Hirata; Yutaka Kukita

    2006-01-01

    Boiling or condensing phenomena of liquid on the solid surface is greatly affected by the wetting condition of the liquid to the solid. Although the contact angle is one of the most important parameter to represent the wetting condition, the behavior of the contact angle is not understood well, especially in the dynamic condition. In this study we made molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the microscopic contact angle behavior under several conditions on the numerical density of the wall atoms. In the analyses, when the number density of the wall is lower, the changing rate of the dynamics contact angles for the variation of ΔV was higher than those for the case where the wall density is higher. This is mainly due to the crystallization of the fluid near the wall and subsequent decrease in the slip between the fluid and the wall. The analyses also show that the static contact angle decreases with increase in the number density of the wall. This was mainly induced by the increase in the number density of the wall itself. (authors)

  9. Contact Angle Measurement in Lattice Boltzmann Method

    OpenAIRE

    Wen, Binghai; Huang, Bingfang; Qin, Zhangrong; Wang, Chunlei; Zhang, Chaoying

    2017-01-01

    Contact angle is an essential characteristic in wetting, capillarity and moving contact line; however, although contact angle phenomena are effectively simulated, an accurate and real-time measurement for contact angle has not been well studied in computational fluid dynamics, especially in dynamic environments. Here, we design a geometry-based mesoscopic scheme to onthesport measure the contact angle in the lattice Boltzmann method. The computational results without gravity effect are in exc...

  10. Heterogeneous drying and nonmonotonic contact angle dynamics in concentrated film-forming latex drops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Subhalakshmi; Katz, Joshua S.; Schroeder, Charles M.

    2017-11-01

    The dynamic drying process is studied in spatially heterogeneous film-forming latex suspensions across a wide range of dispersion concentrations using optical imaging techniques. Systematic changes in latex suspension concentration are found to affect lateral drying heterogeneity and surface topology. A nonmonotonic decay in contact angle is observed at the edges of drying droplets by continuously monitoring evaporation dynamics, which is quantitatively characterized by the peak strain and peak formation time. An analytical model is developed to explain the nonmonotonic contact-angle decay by considering a transient dilational stress imposed on a viscoelastic solid model for the particle network. Importantly, the latex concentration dependence of this phenomenon provides evidence for a smooth transition from fluid-line pinning to fluid-line recession behavior during drying, leading to ringlike to volcanolike deposition patterns, respectively. Using experimental data for drying heterogeneity, we quantitatively explore the influence of Marangoni flow and capillary pressure on drying behavior. Moreover, our results show that latex concentration and particle packing can also be strategically used to reduce contact-line friction, thereby affecting fluid-line recession. Taken together, these results show that studying latex suspensions in seemingly simple droplet geometries provides insight into the emergent spatially heterogeneous viscoelastic properties during film formation.

  11. Direct Measurement of Static and Dynamic Contact Angles Using a Random Micromodel Considering Geological CO2 Sequestration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Jafari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The pore-level two-phase fluids flow mechanism needs to be understood for geological CO2 sequestration as a solution to mitigate anthropogenic emission of carbon dioxide. Capillary pressure at the interface of water–CO2 influences CO2 injectability, capacity, and safety of the storage system. Wettability usually measured by contact angle is always a major uncertainty source among important parameters affecting capillary pressure. The contact angle is mostly determined on a flat surface as a representative of the rock surface. However, a simple and precise method for determining in situ contact angle at pore-scale is needed to simulate fluids flow in porous media. Recent progresses in X-ray tomography technique has provided a robust way to measure in situ contact angle of rocks. However, slow imaging and complicated image processing make it impossible to measure dynamic contact angle. In the present paper, a series of static and dynamic contact angles as well as contact angles on flat surface were measured inside a micromodel with random pattern of channels under high pressure condition. Our results showed a wide range of pore-scale contact angles, implying complexity of the pore-scale contact angle even in a highly smooth and chemically homogenous glass micromodel. Receding contact angle (RCA showed more reproducibility compared to advancing contact angle (ACA and static contact angle (SCA for repeating tests and during both drainage and imbibition. With decreasing pore size, RCA was increased. The hysteresis of the dynamic contact angle (ACA–RCA was higher at pressure of one megapascal in comparison with that at eight megapascals. The CO2 bubble had higher mobility at higher depths due to lower hysteresis which is unfavorable. CO2 bubbles resting on the flat surface of the micromodel channel showed a wide range of contact angles. They were much higher than reported contact angle values observed with sessile drop or captive bubble tests on a

  12. Drop shape analysis for determination of dynamic contact angles by double sided elliptical fitting method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nis Korsgaard; Taboryski, Rafael J.

    2017-01-01

    Contact angle measurements are a fast and simple way to measure surface properties and is therefore widely used to measure surface energy and quantify wetting of a solid surface by a liquid substance. In common praxis contact angle measurements are done with sessile drops on a horizontal surface...... fitted to a drop profile derived from the Young-Laplace equation. When measuring the wetting behaviour by tilting experiments this is not possible since it involves moving drops that are not in equilibrium. Here we present a fitting technique capable of determining the contact angle of asymmetric drops...

  13. Apparent dynamic contact angle of an advancing gas--liquid meniscus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalliadasis, S.; Chang, H.

    1994-01-01

    The steady motion of an advancing meniscus in a gas-filled capillary tube involves a delicate balance of capillary, viscous, and intermolecular forces. The limit of small capillary numbers Ca (dimensionless speeds) is analyzed here with a matched asymptotic analysis that links the outer capillary region to the precursor film in front of the meniscus through a lubricating film. The meniscus shape in the outer region is constructed and the apparent dynamic contact angle Θ that the meniscus forms with the solid surface is derived as a function of the capillary number, the capillary radius, and the Hamaker's constant for intermolecular forces, under conditions of weak gas--solid interaction, which lead to fast spreading of the precursor film and weak intermolecular forces relative to viscous forces within the lubricating film. The dependence on intermolecular forces is very weak and the contact angle expression has a tight upper bound tan Θ=7.48 Ca 1/3 for thick films, which is independent of the Hamaker constant. This upper bound is in very good agreement with existing experimental data for wetting fluids in any capillary and for partially wetting fluids in a prewetted capillary. Significant correction to the Ca 1/3 dependence occurs only at very low Ca, where the intermolecular forces become more important and tan Θ diverges slightly from the above asymptotic behavior toward lower values

  14. The Effect of Contact Angle on Dynamics of Dry Spots Spreading in a Horizontal Layer of Liquid at Local Heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaitsev D.V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of equilibrium contact angle on dynamics of dry spot spreading at disruption of a horizontal water layer heated locally from the substrate was studied using the high-speed Schlieren technique. Different methods of working surface processing were applied; this allowed variations of the equilibrium contact angle from 27±6° to 74±9° without a change in thermal properties of the system. It is found out that substrate wettability significantly affects the propagation velocity of dry spot and its final size. It is also found out that the velocity of contact line propagation is higher in the areas of substrate with a higher temperature.

  15. Dynamic Contact Angle Analysis of Protein Adsorption on Polysaccharide Multilayer’s Films for Biomaterial Reendothelialization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safiya Benni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is a major cardiovascular disease. One of the side effects is restenosis. The aim of this work was to study the coating of stents by dextran derivates based polyelectrolyte’s multilayer (PEM films in order to increase endothelialization of injured arterial wall after stent implantation. Films were composed with diethylaminoethyl dextran (DEAE as polycation and dextran sulphate (DS as polyanion. One film was composed with 4 bilayers of (DEAE-DS4 and was labeled D−. The other film was the same as D− but with an added terminal layer of DEAE polycation: (DEAE-DS4-DEAE (labeled D+. The dynamic adsorption/desorption of proteins on the films were characterized by dynamic contact angle (DCA and atomic force microscopy (AFM. Human endothelial cell (HUVEC adhesion and proliferation were quantified and correlated to protein adsorption analyzed by DCA for fibronectin, vitronectin, and bovine serum albumin (BSA. Our results showed that the endothelial cell response was optimal for films composed of DS as external layer. Fibronectin was found to be the only protein to exhibit a reversible change in conformation after desorption test. This behavior was only observed for (DEAE-DS4 films. (DEAE-DS4 films could enhance HUVEC proliferation in agreement with fibronectin ability to easily change from conformation.

  16. Drop shape analysis for determination of dynamic contact angles by double sided elliptical fitting method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, Nis Korsgaard; Taboryski, Rafael

    2017-01-01

    Contact angle measurements are a fast and simple way to measure surface properties and is therefore widely used to measure surface energy and quantify wetting of a solid surface by a liquid substance. In common praxis contact angle measurements are done with sessile drops on a horizontal surface fitted to a drop profile derived from the Young-Laplace equation. When measuring the wetting behaviour by tilting experiments this is not possible since it involves moving drops that are not in equilibrium. Here we present a fitting technique capable of determining the contact angle of asymmetric drops with very high accuracy even with blurry or noisy images. We do this by splitting the trace of a drop into a left and right part at the apex and then fit each side to an ellipse. (technical note)

  17. Contact angles on stretched solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensink, Liz; Snoeijer, Jacco

    2017-11-01

    The surface energy of solid interfaces plays a central role in wetting, as they dictate the liquid contact angle. Yet, it has been challenging to measure the solid surface energies independently, without making use of Young's law. Here we present Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations by which we measure the surface properties for all interfaces, including the solids. We observe change in contact angles upon stretching the solid substrates, showing that the surface energy is actually strain dependent. This is clear evidence of the so-called Shuttleworth effect, making it necessary to distinguish surface energy from surface tension. We discuss how this effect gives rise to a new class of elasto-capillary phenomena. ERC Consolidator Grant No. 616918.

  18. VOF simulations of the contact angle dynamics during the drop spreading: standard models and a new wetting force model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malgarinos, Ilias; Nikolopoulos, Nikolaos; Marengo, Marco; Antonini, Carlo; Gavaises, Manolis

    2014-10-01

    In this study,a novel numerical implementation for the adhesion of liquid droplets impacting normally on solid dry surfaces is presented. The advantage of this new approach, compared to the majority of existing models, is that the dynamic contact angle forming during the surface wetting process is not inserted as a boundary condition, but is derived implicitly by the induced fluid flow characteristics (interface shape) and the adhesion physics of the gas-liquid-surface interface (triple line), starting only from the advancing and receding equilibrium contact angles. These angles are required in order to define the wetting properties of liquid phases when interacting with a solid surface. The physical model is implemented as a source term in the momentum equation of a Navier-Stokes CFD flow solver as an "adhesion-like" force which acts at the triple-phase contact line as a result of capillary interactions between the liquid drop and the solid substrate. The numerical simulations capture the liquid-air interface movement by considering the volume of fluid (VOF) method and utilizing an automatic local grid refinement technique in order to increase the accuracy of the predictions at the area of interest, and simultaneously minimize numerical diffusion of the interface. The proposed model is validated against previously reported experimental data of normal impingement of water droplets on dry surfaces at room temperature. A wide range of impact velocities, i.e. Weber numbers from as low as 0.2 up to 117, both for hydrophilic (θadv=10°-70°) and hydrophobic (θadv=105°-120°) surfaces, has been examined. Predictions include in addition to droplet spreading dynamics, the estimation of the dynamic contact angle; the latter is found in reasonable agreement against available experimental measurements. It is thus concluded that theimplementation of this model is an effective approach for overcoming the need of a pre-defined dynamic contact angle law, frequently adopted as

  19. On the physically based modeling of surface tension and moving contact lines with dynamic contact angles on the continuum scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huber, M.; Keller, F.; Säckel, W.; Hirschler, M.; Kunz, P.; Hassanizadeh, S.M.; Nieken, U.

    2016-01-01

    The description of wetting phenomena is a challenging problem on every considerable length-scale. The behavior of interfaces and contact lines on the continuum scale is caused by intermolecular interactions like the Van der Waals forces. Therefore, to describe surface tension and the resulting

  20. Study of the resistance of SAMs on aluminium to acidic and basic solutions using dynamic contact angle measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liakos, Ioannis L; Newman, Roger C; McAlpine, Eoghan; Alexander, Morgan R

    2007-01-30

    We report the development of a method to determine the aqueous stability of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) using the Wilhelmy plate dynamic contact angle (DCA) experiment. The DCA is measured in solutions over a range of pH values for alkyl carboxylic and alkyl phosphonic acid SAMs formed on magnetron-sputtered aluminum. The change in DCA on repeated immersion is used as a measure of the degradation of the SAMs by hydrolytic attack. The short and intermediate chain length alkyl acids are not stable in water of neutral pH, whereas molecules with the longest alkyl chains show considerably greater stability in neutral and both high and low pH solutions. The packing density inferred from the DCA and the contact angle hysteresis suggests the C18CO2H monolayer to be slightly less well packed than that of the C18P(=O)(OH)2; this is consistent with related friction force microscopy and infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy findings published elsewhere (Foster, T. T.; Alexander, M. R.; Leggett, G. J.; McAlpine, E. Langmuir 2006, 22, 9254-9259). The resistance of the SAMs to acid and alkaline environments is discussed in the context of aluminum oxide solubility, SAM packing density, and the resistance of the interfacial phosphate and carboxylate functionalities to different aqueous conditions.

  1. Direct Measurement of Static and Dynamic Contact Angles Using a Random Micromodel Considering Geological CO2 Sequestration

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Jafari; Jongwon Jung

    2017-01-01

    The pore-level two-phase fluids flow mechanism needs to be understood for geological CO2 sequestration as a solution to mitigate anthropogenic emission of carbon dioxide. Capillary pressure at the interface of water–CO2 influences CO2 injectability, capacity, and safety of the storage system. Wettability usually measured by contact angle is always a major uncertainty source among important parameters affecting capillary pressure. The contact angle is mostly determined on a flat surface as a r...

  2. Contact angle measurement with a smartphone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H.; Muros-Cobos, Jesus L.; Amirfazli, A.

    2018-03-01

    In this study, a smartphone-based contact angle measurement instrument was developed. Compared with the traditional measurement instruments, this instrument has the advantage of simplicity, compact size, and portability. An automatic contact point detection algorithm was developed to allow the instrument to correctly detect the drop contact points. Two different contact angle calculation methods, Young-Laplace and polynomial fitting methods, were implemented in this instrument. The performance of this instrument was tested first with ideal synthetic drop profiles. It was shown that the accuracy of the new system with ideal synthetic drop profiles can reach 0.01% with both Young-Laplace and polynomial fitting methods. Conducting experiments to measure both static and dynamic (advancing and receding) contact angles with the developed instrument, we found that the smartphone-based instrument can provide accurate and practical measurement results as the traditional commercial instruments. The successful demonstration of use of a smartphone (mobile phone) to conduct contact angle measurement is a significant advancement in the field as it breaks the dominate mold of use of a computer and a bench bound setup for such systems since their appearance in 1980s.

  3. Contact angle measurement with a smartphone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H; Muros-Cobos, Jesus L; Amirfazli, A

    2018-03-01

    In this study, a smartphone-based contact angle measurement instrument was developed. Compared with the traditional measurement instruments, this instrument has the advantage of simplicity, compact size, and portability. An automatic contact point detection algorithm was developed to allow the instrument to correctly detect the drop contact points. Two different contact angle calculation methods, Young-Laplace and polynomial fitting methods, were implemented in this instrument. The performance of this instrument was tested first with ideal synthetic drop profiles. It was shown that the accuracy of the new system with ideal synthetic drop profiles can reach 0.01% with both Young-Laplace and polynomial fitting methods. Conducting experiments to measure both static and dynamic (advancing and receding) contact angles with the developed instrument, we found that the smartphone-based instrument can provide accurate and practical measurement results as the traditional commercial instruments. The successful demonstration of use of a smartphone (mobile phone) to conduct contact angle measurement is a significant advancement in the field as it breaks the dominate mold of use of a computer and a bench bound setup for such systems since their appearance in 1980s.

  4. Formation of Surface Nanobubbles and the Universality of Their Contact Angles: A Molecular Dynamics Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijs, Joost; Snoeijer, Jacobus Hendrikus; Lohse, Detlef

    2012-01-01

    We study surface nanobubbles using molecular dynamics simulation of ternary (gas, liquid, solid) systems of Lennard-Jones fluids. They form for a sufficiently low gas solubility in the liquid, i.e., for a large relative gas concentration. For a strong enough gas-solid attraction, the surface

  5. Measurement of contact-angle hysteresis for droplets on nanopillared surface and in the Cassie and Wenzel states: a molecular dynamics simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koishi, Takahiro; Yasuoka, Kenji; Fujikawa, Shigenori; Zeng, Xiao Cheng

    2011-09-27

    We perform large-scale molecular dynamics simulations to measure the contact-angle hysteresis for a nanodroplet of water placed on a nanopillared surface. The water droplet can be in either the Cassie state (droplet being on top of the nanopillared surface) or the Wenzel state (droplet being in contact with the bottom of nanopillar grooves). To measure the contact-angle hysteresis in a quantitative fashion, the molecular dynamics simulation is designed such that the number of water molecules in the droplets can be systematically varied, but the number of base nanopillars that are in direct contact with the droplets is fixed. We find that the contact-angle hysteresis for the droplet in the Cassie state is weaker than that in the Wenzel state. This conclusion is consistent with the experimental observation. We also test a different definition of the contact-angle hysteresis, which can be extended to estimate hysteresis between the Cassie and Wenzel state. The idea is motivated from the appearance of the hysteresis loop typically seen in computer simulation of the first-order phase transition, which stems from the metastability of a system in different thermodynamic states. Since the initial shape of the droplet can be controlled arbitrarily in the computer simulation, the number of base nanopillars that are in contact with the droplet can be controlled as well. We show that the measured contact-angle hysteresis according to the second definition is indeed very sensitive to the initial shape of the droplet. Nevertheless, the contact-angle hystereses measured based on the conventional and new definition seem converging in the large droplet limit. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  6. Applicability of contact angle techniques used in the analysis of contact lenses, part 1: comparative methodologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Darren; Carnell, Sarah Maria; Eden, Russell John

    2013-05-01

    Contact angle, as a representative measure of surface wettability, is often employed to interpret contact lens surface properties. The literature is often contradictory and can lead to confusion. This literature review is part of a series regarding the analysis of hydrogel contact lenses using contact angle techniques. Here we present an overview of contact angle terminology, methodology, and analysis. Having discussed this background material, subsequent parts of the series will discuss the analysis of contact lens contact angles and evaluate differences in published laboratory results. The concepts of contact angle, wettability and wetting are presented as an introduction. Contact angle hysteresis is outlined and highlights the advantages in using dynamic analytical techniques over static methods. The surface free energy of a material illustrates how contact angle analysis is capable of providing supplementary surface characterization. Although single values are able to distinguish individual material differences, surface free energy and dynamic methods provide an improved understanding of material behavior. The frequently used sessile drop, captive bubble, and Wilhelmy plate techniques are discussed. Their use as both dynamic and static methods, along with the advantages and disadvantages of each technique, is explained. No single contact angle technique fully characterizes the wettability of a material surface, and the application of complimenting methods allows increased characterization. At present, there is not an ISO standard method designed for soft materials. It is important that each contact angle technique has a standard protocol, as small protocol differences between laboratories often contribute to a variety of published data that are not easily comparable.

  7. Contact angle distribution of particles at fluid interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snoeyink, Craig; Barman, Sourav; Christopher, Gordon F

    2015-01-27

    Recent measurements have implied a distribution of interfacially adsorbed particles' contact angles; however, it has been impossible to measure statistically significant numbers for these contact angles noninvasively in situ. Using a new microscopy method that allows nanometer-scale resolution of particle's 3D positions on an interface, we have measured the contact angles for thousands of latex particles at an oil/water interface. Furthermore, these measurements are dynamic, allowing the observation of the particle contact angle with high temporal resolution, resulting in hundreds of thousands of individual contact angle measurements. The contact angle has been found to fit a normal distribution with a standard deviation of 19.3°, which is much larger than previously recorded. Furthermore, the technique used allows the effect of measurement error, constrained interfacial diffusion, and particle property variation on the contact angle distribution to be individually evaluated. Because of the ability to measure the contact angle noninvasively, the results provide previously unobtainable, unique data on the dynamics and distribution of the adsorbed particles' contact angle.

  8. To Investigate the Absorption, Dynamic Contact Angle and Printability Effects of Synthetic Zeolite Pigments in an Inkjet Receptive Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalindre, Swaraj Sunil

    Ink absorption performance in inkjet receptive coatings containing synthetic zeolite pigments was studied. Coating pigment pore and particle size distribution are the key parameters that influence in modifying media surface properties, thus affecting the rate of ink penetration and drying time (Scholkopf, et al. 2004). The primary objective of this study was: (1) to investigate the synthetic zeolite pigment effects on inkjet ink absorption, dynamic contact angle and printability, and (2) to evaluate these novel synthetic zeolite pigments in replacing the fumed silica pigments in conventional inkjet receptive coatings. In this research study, single pigment coating formulations (in equal P:B ratio) were prepared using microporous synthetic zeolite pigments (5A, Organophilic and 13X) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH) binder. The laboratory-coated samples were characterized for absorption, air permeance, roughness, drying time, wettability and print fidelity. Based on the rheological data, it was found that the synthetic zeolite formulated coatings depicted a Newtonian flow behavior at low shear; while the industry accepted fumed silica based coatings displayed a characteristically high pseudoplastic flow behavior. Our coated samples generated using microporous synthetic zeolite pigments produced low absorption, reduced wettability and accelerated ink drying characteristics. These characteristics were caused due to the synthetic zeolite pigments, which resulted in relatively closed surface structure coated samples. The research suggested that no single selected synthetic zeolite coating performed better than the conventional fumed silica based coatings. Experimental data also showed that there was no apparent relationship between synthetic zeolite pigment pore sizes and inkjet ink absorption. For future research, above coated samples should be evaluated for pore size distribution using Mercury Porosimeter, which quantifies surface porosity of coated samples. This presented

  9. Contact angle and contact angle hysteresis measurements using the capillary bridge technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restagno, Frédéric; Poulard, Christophe; Cohen, Céline; Vagharchakian, Laurianne; Léger, Liliane

    2009-09-15

    A new experimental technique is proposed to easily measure both advancing and receding contact angles of a liquid on a solid surface, with unprecedented accuracy. The technique is based on the analysis of the evolution of a capillary bridge formed between a liquid bath and a solid surface (which needs to be spherical) when the distance between the surface and the liquid bath is slowly varied. The feasibility of the technique is demonstrated using a low-energy perfluorinated surface with two different test liquids (water and hexadecane). A detailed description of both experimental procedures and computational modeling are given, allowing one to determine contact angle values. It is shown that the origin of the high accuracy of this technique relies on the fact that the contact angles are automatically averaged over the whole periphery of the contact. This method appears to be particularly adapted to the characterization of surfaces with very low contact angle hysteresis.

  10. High-precision drop shape analysis (HPDSA) of quasistatic contact angles on silanized silicon wafers with different surface topographies during inclining-plate measurements: Influence of the surface roughness on the contact line dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heib, F.; Hempelmann, R.; Munief, W.M.; Ingebrandt, S.; Fug, F.; Possart, W.; Groß, K.; Schmitt, M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Analysis of the triple line motion on surfaces with nanoscale surface topographies. • Analysis of the triple line motion is performed in sub-pixel resolution. • A special fitting and statistical approach for contact angle analysis is applied. • The analyses result set of contact angle data which is independent of “user-skills”. • Characteristically density distributions in dependence on the surface properties. - Abstract: Contact angles and wetting of solid surfaces are strongly influenced by the physical and chemical properties of the surfaces. These influence quantities are difficult to distinguish from each other if contact angle measurements are performed by measuring only the advancing θ a and the receding θ r contact angle. In this regard, time-dependent water contact angles are measured on two hydrophobic modified silicon wafers with different physical surface topographies. The first surface is nearly atomically flat while the second surface is patterned (alternating flat and nanoscale rough patterns) which is synthesized by a photolithography and etching procedure. The different surface topographies are characterized with atomic force microscopy (AFM), Fourier transform infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (FTIRRAS) and Fourier transform infrared attenuated total reflection spectroscopy (FTIR-ATR). The resulting set of contact angle data obtained by the high-precision drop shape analysis approach is further analyzed by a Gompertzian fitting procedure and a statistical counting procedure in dependence on the triple line velocity. The Gompertzian fit is used to analyze overall properties of the surface and dependencies between the motion on the front and the back edge of the droplets. The statistical counting procedure results in the calculation of expectation values E(p) and standard deviations σ(p) for the inclination angle φ, contact angle θ, triple line velocity vel and the covered distance of the triple line dis

  11. Contact Angles and Surface Tension of Germanium-Silicon Melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croell, A.; Kaiser, N.; Cobb, S.; Szofran, F. R.; Volz, M.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Precise knowledge of material parameters is more and more important for improving crystal growth processes. Two important parameters are the contact (wetting) angle and the surface tension, determining meniscus shapes and surface-tension driven flows in a variety of methods (Czochralski, EFG, floating-zone, detached Bridgman growth). The sessile drop technique allows the measurement of both parameters simultaneously and has been used to measure the contact angles and the surface tension of Ge(1-x)Si(x) (0 less than or equal to x less than or equal to 1.3) alloys on various substrate materials. Fused quartz, Sapphire, glassy carbon, graphite, SiC, carbon-based aerogel, pyrolytic boron nitride (pBN), AIN, Si3N4, and polycrystalline CVD diamond were used as substrate materials. In addition, the effect of different cleaning procedures and surface treatments on the wetting behavior were investigated. Measurements were performed both under dynamic vacuum and gas atmospheres (argon or forming gas), with temperatures up to 1100 C. In some experiments, the sample was processed for longer times, up to a week, to investigate any changes of the contact angle and/or surface tension due to slow reactions with the substrate. For pure Ge, stable contact angles were found for carbon-based substrates and for pBN, for Ge(1-x)Si(x) only for pBN. The highest wetting angles were found for pBN substrates with angles around 170deg. For the surface tension of Ge, the most reliable values resulted in gamma(T) = (591- 0.077 (T-T(sub m)) 10(exp -3)N/m. The temperature dependence of the surface tension showed similar values for Ge(1-x)Si(x), around -0.08 x 10(exp -3)N/m K, and a compositional dependence of 2.2 x 10(exp -3)N/m at%Si.

  12. Contact angle measurement of natural materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tianyi; Jiang, Lei

    2018-01-01

    Contact angle (CA) is the most important parameter used to quantify the wettability of solid surfaces. In order to evaluate wettability performance, numerous methods have been developed to measure the CA of solid surfaces. Recent years have seen increased focus on the special wettability performance of various biological materials. Biomimetic wettability has become one of the most popular research fields, and novel CA measurements have been invented accordingly. In this protocol, we introduce several CA measurement techniques mainly based on the image capture method, which is commonly to investigate the wettability of natural materials. According to the solid/liquid/gas context, we classify CA measurements into three types: in air, under liquid, and air bubble measurements, and describe methods for each. The precise measurement of CA together with study of surface structure can reveal the mechanisms of special wettability, thus accelerating the investigation of biomaterials. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Contact dynamics math model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaese, John R.; Tobbe, Patrick A.

    1986-01-01

    The Space Station Mechanism Test Bed consists of a hydraulically driven, computer controlled six degree of freedom (DOF) motion system with which docking, berthing, and other mechanisms can be evaluated. Measured contact forces and moments are provided to the simulation host computer to enable representation of orbital contact dynamics. This report describes the development of a generalized math model which represents the relative motion between two rigid orbiting vehicles. The model allows motion in six DOF for each body, with no vehicle size limitation. The rotational and translational equations of motion are derived. The method used to transform the forces and moments from the sensor location to the vehicles' centers of mass is also explained. Two math models of docking mechanisms, a simple translational spring and the Remote Manipulator System end effector, are presented along with simulation results. The translational spring model is used in an attempt to verify the simulation with compensated hardware in the loop results.

  14. Influence of spin creepage and contact angle on curve squeal: A numerical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenzerovic, I.; Kropp, W.; Pieringer, A.

    2018-04-01

    Curve squeal is a loud tonal sound that may arise when a railway vehicle negotiates a tight curve. Due to the nonlinear nature of squeal, time-domain models provide a higher degree of accuracy in comparison to frequency-domain models and also enable the determination of squeal amplitudes. In the present paper, a previously developed engineering time-domain model for curve squeal is extended to include the effects of the contact angle and spin creepage. The extensions enable the evaluation of more realistic squeal cases with the computationally efficient model. The model validation against Kalker's variational contact model shows good agreement between the models. Results of studies on the influence of spin creepage and contact angle show that the contact angle has a significant influence on the vertical-lateral dynamics coupling and, therefore, influences both squeal amplitude and frequency. Spin creepage mainly influences processes in the contact, therefore influencing the tangential contact force amplitude. In the combined spin-contact angle study the spin creepage value is kinematically related to the contact angle value. Results indicate that the influence of the contact angle is dominant over the influence of spin creepage. In general, results indicate that the most crucial factors in squeal are those that influence the dynamics coupling: the contact angle, wheel/rail contact positions and friction.

  15. Contact angle hysteresis: a review of fundamentals and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eral, Burak; 't Mannetje, Dieter; Oh, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Contact angle hysteresis is an important physical phenomenon. It is omnipresent in nature and also plays a crucial role in various industrial processes. Despite its relevance, there is a lack of consensus on how to incorporate a description of contact angle hysteresis into physical models. To

  16. Comparison of different methods to measure contact angles of soil colloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Jianying; Flury, Markus; Harsh, James B; Zollars, Richard L

    2008-12-15

    We compared five different methods, static sessile drop, dynamic sessile drop, Wilhelmy plate, thin-layer wicking, and column wicking, to determine the contact angle of colloids typical for soils and sediments. The colloids (smectite, kaolinite, illite, goethite, hematite) were chosen to represent 1:1 and 2:1 layered aluminosilicate clays and sesquioxides, and were either obtained in pure form or synthesized in our laboratory. Colloids were deposited as thin films on glass slides, and then used for contact angle measurements using three different test liquids (water, formamide, diiodomethane). The colloidal films could be categorized into three types: (1) films without pores and with polar-liquid interactions (smectite), (2) films with pores and with polar-liquid interactions (kaolinite, illite, goethite), and (3) films without pores and no polar-liquid interactions (hematite). The static and dynamic sessile drop methods yielded the most consistent contact angles. For porous films, the contact angles decreased with time, and we consider the initial contact angle to be the most accurate. The differences in contact angles among the different methods were large and varied considerably: the most consistent contact angles were obtained for kaolinite with water, and illite with diiodomethane (contact angles were within 3 degrees); but mostly the differences ranged from 10 degrees to 40 degrees among the different methods. The thin-layer and column wicking methods were the least consistent methods.

  17. The modified Cassie’s equation and contact angle hysteresis

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Xianmin

    2012-08-29

    In this paper, we derive a modified Cassie\\'s equation for wetting on chemically patterned surfaces from a homogenization approach. The derivation reveals that effective contact angle is a local average of the static contact angle along the contact line which describes all possible equilibrium states including the local minimum of the free energy of the system. The usual Cassie\\'s state which corresponds to the global minimum is only a special case. We then discuss the contact angle hysteresis on chemically patterned surfaces. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

  18. Detection of Contact Binaries Using Sparse High Phase Angle Lightcurves

    OpenAIRE

    Lacerda, Pedro

    2007-01-01

    We show that candidate contact binary asteroids can be efficiently identified from sparsely sampled photometry taken at phase angles >60deg. At high phase angle, close/contact binary systems produce distinctive lightcurves that spend most of the time at maximum or minimum (typically >1mag apart) brightness with relatively fast transitions between the two. This means that a few (~5) sparse observations will suffice to measure the large range of variation and identify candidate contact binary s...

  19. Measurement of contact angles of aqueous solutions on some rock forming minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takakura, M.; Katsura, M.; Nakashima, S.

    2007-12-01

    Wetting properties of fluids on earth's materials are controlling fluid flows and dynamics of the geological systems. Although the wetting behavior of industrial materials have been widely examined often by contact angle measurements, contact angles of rock-forming materials have not been commonly measured. Therefore, we have been measuring contact angles of some representative rock-forming minerals. The surfaces of solid samples were polished successively by emery papers then by grinding powders (alumina: up to \\sharp3000: grain size about 5 micrometers). Water droplet from a micro-syringe needle are placed on solid surfaces by moving up the sample stage. Images of water drops on the solid surfaces are captured from the horizontal direction with a CCD camera. Contact angles can be determined from the height and the length of the images by assuming them to be parts of circles. Over 60 measurements of contact angles of pure water on (101) and (011) faces plates cut from a natural quartz single crystal were repeated. The average contact angles of pure water on (101) and (011) faces of quartz were 48 ± 5 degrees and 52 ± 3 degrees, respectively. Contact angles of pure water on a natural calcite single crystal was also measured in the same way to be 37 ± 8 degrees. Contact angles of various aqueous solutions such as NaCl and NaHCO3 on these minerals will also be measured in order to evaluate wetting properties of natural rock-water systems.

  20. Quantized contact angles in the dewetting of a structured liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilton, Mark; Stasiak, Pawel; Matsen, Mark W; Dalnoki-Veress, Kari

    2014-02-14

    We investigate the dewetting of a disordered melt of diblock copolymer from an ordered residual wetting layer. In contrast to simple liquids where the wetting layer has a fixed thickness and the droplets exhibit a single unique contact angle with the substrate, we find that structured liquids of diblock copolymer exhibit a discrete series of wetting layer thicknesses each producing a different contact angle. These quantized contact angles arise because the substrate and air surfaces each induce a gradient of lamellar order in the wetting layer. The interaction between the two surface profiles creates an effective interface potential that oscillates with film thickness, thus, producing a sequence of local minimums. The wetting layer thicknesses and corresponding contact angles are a direct measure of the positions and depths of these minimums. Self-consistent field theory is shown to provide qualitative agreement with the experiment.

  1. Nanobubbles in confined solution: Generation, contact angle, and stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jiachen; Zhang, Xianren; Song, Fan; Shao, Yingfeng

    2018-02-14

    The formation of gas bubbles presents a frequent challenge to microfluidic operations, for which fluids are geometrically confined to a microscale space. Here, to understand the mechanism of nucleating gas bubbles in microfluidic devices, we investigate the formation and stability of nanobubbles in confined solutions. Our molecular dynamics simulations show that while pinning of the contact line is a prerequisite for the stability of surface nanobubbles in open systems that can exchange gas with surrounding environment, in confined solutions, stable nanobubbles can exist even without pinning. In supersaturated condition, stable bubbles can be found in confined solutions with acute or obtuse contact angle, depending on the substrate hydrophobicity. We also demonstrate that when open to the bulk solution, the stable nanobubbles in closed systems would become unstable unless both supersaturation and pinning of the contact line are satisfied. Our results not only shed light on the design of novel heterogeneous surfaces for generating nanobubbles in confined space with controllable shape and stability but also address the crucial effect of gas exchange with the surroundings in determining the stability of nanobubbles.

  2. Contact angle control of sessile drops on a tensioned web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Janghoon; Kim, Dongguk; Lee, Changwoo

    2018-04-01

    In this study, the influence of the change of tension applied to flexible and thin web substrate on the contact angle of sessile drop in roll-to-roll system was investigated. Graphene oxide and deionized water solutions were used in the experiments. Tension was changed to 29, 49, and 69 N, and the casting distance of the micropipette and the material was set to 10, 20, and 40 mm, and the droplet volume was set to 10, 20, and 30 μL, respectively. Statistical analysis of three variables and analysis of the variance methodology showed that the casting distance was most significant for the contact angle change, and the most interesting tension variable was also affected. The change in tension caused the maximum contact angle to change by 5.5°. The tension was not uniform in the width direction. When the droplet was applied in the same direction in the width direction, it was confirmed that the tension unevenness had great influence on the contact angle up to 11°. Finally, the casting distance, which has a large effect on the contact angle, was calibrated in the width direction to reduce the width direction contact angle deviation to 1%. This study can be applied to fine patterning research using continuous inkjet printing and aerosol jet printing, which are roll-to-roll processes based on droplet handling.

  3. Determination of Contact Angle from Contact Area of Liquid Droplet Spreading on Solid Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhoda H. GUMUS

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Both complete and incomplete wetting were considered for the spreading of liquid drops on solid substrate. The liquid droplets were silicone oil, glycerine and hexadecane and the solid substrates are glass, polystyrene and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA. Wetting was characterized by measuring the contact angle formed between the liquid drop and solid surface. Small droplets of constant volume were used for the measurements in order to minimize gravitational effects. The contact radius was obtained as a function of time by an image analysis system and used for the calculation of the contact area. The contact area was then used to determine the contact angle. The contact angles calculated from contact area are in good agreement with the experimental values.

  4. Contact Angle Measurement of Small Capillary Length Liquid in Super-repelled State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tingyi Leo; Kim, Chang-Jin Cj

    2017-04-07

    The difficulty of measuring very large contact angles (>150 degrees) has become more relevant with the increased popularity of super-repellent surfaces. Measurement is more difficult for dynamic contact angles, for which theoretical profiles do not fit well, and small capillary length liquids, whose sessile droplets sag by gravity. Here, we expand the issue to the limit by investigating dynamic contact angles of liquids with an extremely small capillary length (contact angles can be measured with a consistent accuracy despite their vastly different capillary lengths if one keeps the lens magnification inversely proportional to the capillary length. Verifying the droplet equator height is a key parameter, we propose a new Bond number defined by the equator height and optical resolution to represent the measurement accuracy of large contact angles. Despite negligible improvement for most liquids today, the proposed approach teaches how to measure very large contact angles with consistent accuracy when any of the liquids in consideration has a capillary length below 1.0 mm.

  5. Non-contact measurement of rotation angle with solo camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Xiaochuan; Sun, Anbin; Ye, Xin; Ma, Liqun

    2015-02-01

    For the purpose to measure a rotation angle around the axis of an object, a non-contact rotation angle measurement method based on solo camera was promoted. The intrinsic parameters of camera were calibrated using chessboard on principle of plane calibration theory. The translation matrix and rotation matrix between the object coordinate and the camera coordinate were calculated according to the relationship between the corners' position on object and their coordinates on image. Then the rotation angle between the measured object and the camera could be resolved from the rotation matrix. A precise angle dividing table (PADT) was chosen as the reference to verify the angle measurement error of this method. Test results indicated that the rotation angle measurement error of this method did not exceed +/- 0.01 degree.

  6. Surface tension and contact angles of molten cadmium telluride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, R.; Wilcox, W. R.

    1990-01-01

    The surface tension and contact angle of molten cadmium telluride (CdTe) were measured as a function of temperature by the sessile drop technique. A FORTRAN code was developed to calculate the surface tension of sessile drops, with the contact angle ranging from O to 180°. The wetting of cadmium telluride melt was studied on different surfaces. The surface tension of cadmium telluride was about 160 ±5 dynes · cm-1[1.6 m-1] at the melting point of 1093°C. The contact angle of CdTe melt was about 65° on a quartz optical flat, 75° on commercial fused quartz, and 125° on boron nitride coated quartz.

  7. Determination of the Contact Angle Based on the Casimir Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazuruk, Konstantin; Volz, Martin P.

    2015-01-01

    On a macroscopic scale, a nonreactive liquid partially covering a homogeneous solid surface will intersect the solid at an angle called the contact angle. For molten metals and semiconductors, the contact angle is materially dependent upon both the solid and liquid and typical values fall in the range 80-170 deg, depending on the crucible material. On a microscopic scale, there does not exist a precise and sharp contact angle but rather the liquid and solid surfaces merge smoothly and continuously. Consider the example of the so called detached Bridgman crystal growth process. In this technique, a small gap is formed between the growing crystal and the crucible. At the crystal/melt interface, a meniscus ring is formed. Its width can be in the range of a few micrometers, approaching a microscopic scale. It then becomes questionable to describe the shape of this meniscus by the contact angle. A more advanced treatment of the interface is needed and here we propose such a refined model. The interaction of the liquid surface with the solid can be calculated by considering two forces: a short-range repulsive force and a longer range (up to a few micrometers) Casimir or van der Waals force.

  8. Contact angles of nanodrops on chemically rough surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berim, Gersh O; Ruckenstein, Eli

    2009-08-18

    The experimental observations of Gao and McCarthy [Gao, L.; McCarthy, T. Langmuir, 2007, 23, 3762] that only the interfacial area near the leading edges of the drop on physically smooth but chemically rough solid surfaces affects the contact angle and that most of the contact area has no effect is checked for nanodrops on the basis of a density functional theory. The contact angle was calculated for three cases: (i) the leading edges of the drops are located on much higher or (ii) much lower hydrophobic surfaces than the remaining surface beneath the drop; (iii) the surface is composed of a periodic array of two kinds of stripelike solid plates. In the first two cases, if the distance between the leading edges and the region which has higher or lower hydrophobicity is sufficiently large, there is agreement with the experiments mentioned. However, when those distances are sufficiently small, the internal part affects the value of the angle. In the third case, we found that the internal part always affects the wetting angle. All these peculiarities, as well as the contact angle hysteresis, can be explained by accounting for the local conditions in the vicinity of the leading edges of the drop.

  9. High contact angle hysteresis of superhydrophobic surfaces: Hydrophobic defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Feng-Ming; Hong, Siang-Jie; Sheng, Yu-Jane; Tsao, Heng-Kwong

    2009-08-01

    A typical superhydrophobic surface is essentially nonadhesive and exhibits very low water contact angle (CA) hysteresis, so-called Lotus effect. However, leaves of some plants such as scallion and garlic with an advancing angle exceeding 150° show very serious CA hysteresis. Although surface roughness and epicuticular wax can explain the very high advancing CA, our analysis indicates that the unusual hydrophobic defect, diallyl disulfide, is the key element responsible for contact line pinning on allium leaves. After smearing diallyl disulfide on an extended polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) film, which is originally absent of CA hysteresis, the surface remains superhydrophobic but becomes highly adhesive.

  10. Contact Angle Measurements Using a Simplified Experimental Setup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamour, Guillaume; Hamraoui, Ahmed; Buvailo, Andrii; Xing, Yangjun; Keuleyan, Sean; Prakash, Vivek; Eftekhari-Bafrooei, Ali; Borguet, Eric

    2010-01-01

    A basic and affordable experimental apparatus is described that measures the static contact angle of a liquid drop in contact with a solid. The image of the drop is made with a simple digital camera by taking a picture that is magnified by an optical lens. The profile of the drop is then processed with ImageJ free software. The ImageJ contact…

  11. Automatic measurement of contact angle in pore-space images

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlRatrout, Ahmed; Raeini, Ali Q.; Bijeljic, Branko; Blunt, Martin J.

    2017-11-01

    A new approach is presented to measure the in-situ contact angle (θ) between immiscible fluids, applied to segmented pore-scale X-ray images. We first identify and mesh the fluid/fluid and fluid/solid interfaces. A Gaussian smoothing is applied to this mesh to eliminate artifacts associated with the voxelized nature of the image, while preserving large-scale features of the rock surface. Then, for the fluid/fluid interface we apply an additional smoothing and adjustment of the mesh to impose a constant curvature. We then track the three-phase contact line, and the two vectors that have a direction perpendicular to both surfaces: the contact angle is found from the dot product of these vectors where they meet at the contact line. This calculation can be applied at every point on the mesh at the contact line. We automatically generate contact angle values representing each invaded pore-element in the image with high accuracy. To validate the approach, we first study synthetic three-dimensional images of a spherical droplet of oil residing on a tilted flat solid surface surrounded by brine and show that our results are accurate to within 3° if the sphere diameter is 2 or more voxels. We then apply this method to oil/brine systems imaged at ambient temperature and reservoir pressure (10MPa) using X-ray microtomography (Singh et al., 2016). We analyse an image volume of diameter approximately 4.6 mm and 10.7 mm long, obtaining hundreds of thousands of values from a dataset with around 700 million voxels. We show that in a system of altered wettability, contact angles both less than and greater than 90° can be observed. This work provides a rapid method to provide an accurate characterization of pore-scale wettability, which is important for the design and assessment of hydrocarbon recovery and carbon dioxide storage.

  12. Measurement errors related to contact angle analysis of hydrogel and silicone hydrogel contact lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Michael L; Morgan, Philip B; Maldonado-Codina, Carole

    2009-11-01

    This work sought to undertake a comprehensive investigation of the measurement errors associated with contact angle assessment of curved hydrogel contact lens surfaces. The contact angle coefficient of repeatability (COR) associated with three measurement conditions (image analysis COR, intralens COR, and interlens COR) was determined by measuring the contact angles (using both sessile drop and captive bubble methods) for three silicone hydrogel lenses (senofilcon A, balafilcon A, lotrafilcon A) and one conventional hydrogel lens (etafilcon A). Image analysis COR values were about 2 degrees , whereas intralens COR values (95% confidence intervals) ranged from 4.0 degrees (3.3 degrees , 4.7 degrees ) (lotrafilcon A, captive bubble) to 10.2 degrees (8.4 degrees , 12.1 degrees ) (senofilcon A, sessile drop). Interlens COR values ranged from 4.5 degrees (3.7 degrees , 5.2 degrees ) (lotrafilcon A, captive bubble) to 16.5 degrees (13.6 degrees , 19.4 degrees ) (senofilcon A, sessile drop). Measurement error associated with image analysis was shown to be small as an absolute measure, although proportionally more significant for lenses with low contact angle. Sessile drop contact angles were typically less repeatable than captive bubble contact angles. For sessile drop measures, repeatability was poorer with the silicone hydrogel lenses when compared with the conventional hydrogel lens; this phenomenon was not observed for the captive bubble method, suggesting that methodological factors related to the sessile drop technique (such as surface dehydration and blotting) may play a role in the increased variability of contact angle measurements observed with silicone hydrogel contact lenses.

  13. Contact angle hysteresis of liquid drops as means to measure ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A comparison of the two methods shows that the extent of contact angle hysteresis is indicative of both hydrophobicity of the surface as well as the force of adhesion. Mechanical properties and microstructure of zein films prepared by casting from solutions and using Langmuir-Blodgett film technique have been investigated.

  14. Evaluation of the Contact Angle from Molecular Simulations.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Škvára, J.; Škvor, J.; Nezbeda, Ivo

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 3 (2018), s. 190-199 ISSN 0892-7022 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-19542S Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : contact angle * argon droplet * surface molecules Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry Impact factor: 1.254, year: 2016

  15. Drop shape visualization and contact angle measurement on curved surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilizzoni, Manfredo

    2011-12-01

    The shape and contact angles of drops on curved surfaces is experimentally investigated. Image processing, spline fitting and numerical integration are used to extract the drop contour in a number of cross-sections. The three-dimensional surfaces which describe the surface-air and drop-air interfaces can be visualized and a simple procedure to determine the equilibrium contact angle starting from measurements on curved surfaces is proposed. Contact angles on flat surfaces serve as a reference term and a procedure to measure them is proposed. Such procedure is not as accurate as the axisymmetric drop shape analysis algorithms, but it has the advantage of requiring only a side view of the drop-surface couple and no further information. It can therefore be used also for fluids with unknown surface tension and there is no need to measure the drop volume. Examples of application of the proposed techniques for distilled water drops on gemstones confirm that they can be useful for drop shape analysis and contact angle measurement on three-dimensional sculptured surfaces. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Control of polyaniline conductivity and contact angles by partial protonation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Blinova, Natalia V.; Stejskal, Jaroslav; Trchová, Miroslava; Prokeš, J.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 1 (2008), s. 66-69 ISSN 0959-8103 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 847; GA ČR GA202/06/0419 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : conducting polymer * conductivity * contact angle Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.029, year: 2008

  17. Contact angles of wetting and water stability of soil structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholodov, V. A.; Yaroslavtseva, N. V.; Yashin, M. A.; Frid, A. S.; Lazarev, V. I.; Tyugai, Z. N.; Milanovskiy, E. Yu.

    2015-06-01

    From the soddy-podzolic soils and typical chernozems of different texture and land use, dry 3-1 mm aggregates were isolated and sieved in water. As a result, water-stable aggregates and water-unstable particles composing dry 3-1 mm aggregates were obtained. These preparations were ground, and contact angles of wetting were determined by the static sessile drop method. The angles varied from 11° to 85°. In most cases, the values of the angles for the water-stable aggregates significantly exceeded those for the water-unstable components. In terms of carbon content in structural units, there was no correlation between these parameters. When analyzing the soil varieties separately, the significant positive correlation between the carbon content and contact angle of aggregates was revealed only for the loamy-clayey typical chernozem. Based on the multivariate analysis of variance, the value of contact wetting angle was shown to be determined by the structural units belonging to water-stable or water-unstable components of macroaggregates and by the land use type. In addition, along with these parameters, the texture has an indirect effect.

  18. Smoothed particle hydrodynamics study of the roughness effect on contact angle and droplet flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigorina, Elena; Kordilla, Jannes; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.

    2017-09-01

    We employ a pairwise force smoothed particle hydrodynamics (PF-SPH) model to simulate sessile and transient droplets on rough hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces. PF-SPH allows modeling of free-surface flows without discretizing the air phase, which is achieved by imposing the surface tension and dynamic contact angles with pairwise interaction forces. We use the PF-SPH model to study the effect of surface roughness and microscopic contact angle on the effective contact angle and droplet dynamics. In the first part of this work, we investigate static contact angles of sessile droplets on different types of rough surfaces. We find that the effective static contact angles of Cassie and Wenzel droplets on a rough surface are greater than the corresponding microscale static contact angles. As a result, microscale hydrophobic rough surfaces also show effective hydrophobic behavior. On the other hand, microscale hydrophilic surfaces may be macroscopically hydrophilic or hydrophobic, depending on the type of roughness. We study the dependence of the transition between Cassie and Wenzel states on roughness and droplet size, which can be linked to the critical pressure for the given fluid-substrate combination. We observe good agreement between simulations and theoretical predictions. Finally, we study the impact of the roughness orientation (i.e., an anisotropic roughness) and surface inclination on droplet flow velocities. Simulations show that droplet flow velocities are lower if the surface roughness is oriented perpendicular to the flow direction. If the predominant elements of surface roughness are in alignment with the flow direction, the flow velocities increase compared to smooth surfaces, which can be attributed to the decrease in fluid-solid contact area similar to the lotus effect. We demonstrate that classical linear scaling relationships between Bond and capillary numbers for droplet flow on flat surfaces also hold for flow on rough surfaces.

  19. Smoothed particle hydrodynamics study of the roughness effect on contact angle and droplet flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigorina, Elena; Kordilla, Jannes; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M

    2017-09-01

    We employ a pairwise force smoothed particle hydrodynamics (PF-SPH) model to simulate sessile and transient droplets on rough hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces. PF-SPH allows modeling of free-surface flows without discretizing the air phase, which is achieved by imposing the surface tension and dynamic contact angles with pairwise interaction forces. We use the PF-SPH model to study the effect of surface roughness and microscopic contact angle on the effective contact angle and droplet dynamics. In the first part of this work, we investigate static contact angles of sessile droplets on different types of rough surfaces. We find that the effective static contact angles of Cassie and Wenzel droplets on a rough surface are greater than the corresponding microscale static contact angles. As a result, microscale hydrophobic rough surfaces also show effective hydrophobic behavior. On the other hand, microscale hydrophilic surfaces may be macroscopically hydrophilic or hydrophobic, depending on the type of roughness. We study the dependence of the transition between Cassie and Wenzel states on roughness and droplet size, which can be linked to the critical pressure for the given fluid-substrate combination. We observe good agreement between simulations and theoretical predictions. Finally, we study the impact of the roughness orientation (i.e., an anisotropic roughness) and surface inclination on droplet flow velocities. Simulations show that droplet flow velocities are lower if the surface roughness is oriented perpendicular to the flow direction. If the predominant elements of surface roughness are in alignment with the flow direction, the flow velocities increase compared to smooth surfaces, which can be attributed to the decrease in fluid-solid contact area similar to the lotus effect. We demonstrate that classical linear scaling relationships between Bond and capillary numbers for droplet flow on flat surfaces also hold for flow on rough surfaces.

  20. Smoothed particle hydrodynamics study of the roughness effect on contact angle and droplet flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shigorina, Elena; Kordilla, Jannes; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.

    2017-09-01

    We employ a pairwise force Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (PF-SPH) model to simulate sessile and transient droplets on rough hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces. PF-SPH allows for modeling of free surface flow without discretizing the air phase, which is achieved by imposing the surface tension and dynamic contact angles with pairwise interaction forces. We use the PF-SPH model to study the effect of surface roughness and microscopic contact angle on the effective contact angle and droplet dynamics. In the first part of this work, we investigate static contact angles of sessile droplets on rough surfaces in a shape of a sinusoidal function and made of rectangular bars placed on top of a flat surface. We find that the effective static contact angles of Cassie and Wenzel droplets on a rough surface are greater than the corresponding microscale static contact angles. As a result, microscale hydrophobic rough surfaces also show effective hydrophobic behavior. On the other hand, microscale hydrophilic surfaces may be macroscopically hydrophilic or hydrophobic, depending on the type of roughness. Next, we study the impact of the roughness orientation (i.e., an anisotropic roughness) and surface inclination on droplet flow velocities. Simulations show that droplet flow velocities are lower if the surface roughness is oriented perpendicular to the flow direction. If the predominant elements of surface roughness are in alignment with the flow direction, the flow velocities increase compared to smooth surfaces, which can be attributed to the decrease in fluid-solid contact area similar to the classical lotus effect. We demonstrate that linear scaling relationships between Bond and capillary number for droplet flow on flat surfaces also hold for flow on rough surfaces.

  1. Large area optical mapping of surface contact angle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, Guilherme; Canning, John; Padden, Whayne; Martelli, Cicero; Dligatch, Svetlana

    2017-09-04

    Top-down contact angle measurements have been validated and confirmed to be as good if not more reliable than side-based measurements. A range of samples, including industrially relevant materials for roofing and printing, has been compared. Using the top-down approach, mapping in both 1-D and 2-D has been demonstrated. The method was applied to study the change in contact angle as a function of change in silver (Ag) nanoparticle size controlled by thermal evaporation. Large area mapping reveals good uniformity for commercial Aspen paper coated with black laser printer ink. A demonstration of the forensic and chemical analysis potential in 2-D is shown by uncovering the hidden CsF initials made with mineral oil on the coated Aspen paper. The method promises to revolutionize nanoscale characterization and industrial monitoring as well as chemical analyses by allowing rapid contact angle measurements over large areas or large numbers of samples in ways and times that have not been possible before.

  2. New Method Developed to Measure Contact Angles of a Sessile Drop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, David F.; Zhang, Nengli

    2002-01-01

    The spreading of an evaporating liquid on a solid surface occurs in many practical processes and is of importance in a number of practical situations such as painting, textile dyeing, coating, gluing, and thermal engineering. Typical processes involving heat transfer where the contact angle plays an important role are film cooling, boiling, and the heat transfer through heat pipes. The biological phenomenon of cell spreading also is analogous to a drop spreading (ref. 1). In the study of spreading, the dynamic contact angle describes the interfacial properties on solid substrates and, therefore, has been studied by physicists and fluid mechanics investigators. The dynamic contact angle of a spreading nonvolatile liquid drop provides a simple tool in the study of the free-boundary problem, but the study of the spreading of a volatile liquid drop is of more practical interest because the evaporation of common liquids is inevitable in practical processes. The most common method to measure the contact angle, the contact radius, and the height of a sessile drop on a solid surface is to view the drop from its edge through an optical microscope. However, this method gives only local information in the view direction. Zhang and Yang (ref. 2) developed a laser shadowgraphy method to investigate the evaporation of sessile drop on a glass plate. As described here, Zhang and Chao (refs. 3 and 4) improved the method and suggested a new optical arrangement to measure the dynamic contact angle and the instant evaporation rate of a sessile drop with much higher accuracy (less than 1 percent). With this method, any fluid motion in the evaporating drop can be visualized through shadowgraphy without using a tracer, which often affects the field under investigation.

  3. Aerial wetting contact angle measurement using confocal microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Chesna, Jacob W.; Wiedmaier, Bob F.; Wang, Jinlin; Samara, Ayman; Leach, Richard K.; Her, Tsing-Hua; Smith, Stuart T.

    2016-01-01

    A method is presented in which the wetting contact angle of a sessile drop is acquired aerially using confocal techniques to measure the radius and the height of a droplet deposited on a planar surface. The repeatability of this method is typically less than 0.25°, and often less than 0.1°, for droplet diameters less than 1 mm. To evaluate accuracy of this method, an instrument uncertainty budget is developed, which predicts a combined uncertainty of 0.91° for a 1 mm diameter water droplet wi...

  4. Non-contact angle measurement based on parallel multiplex laser feedback interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Song; Tan Yi-Dong; Zhang Shu-Lian

    2014-01-01

    We present a novel precise angle measurement scheme based on parallel multiplex laser feedback interferometry (PLFI), which outputs two parallel laser beams and thus their displacement difference reflects the angle variation of the target. Due to its ultrahigh sensitivity to the feedback light, PLFI realizes the direct non-contact measurement of non-cooperative targets. Experimental results show that PLFI has an accuracy of 8″ within a range of 1400″. The yaw of a guide is also measured and the experimental results agree with those of the dual-frequency laser interferometer Agilent 5529A. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  5. Incorporating contact angles in the surface tension force with the ACES interface curvature scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owkes, Mark

    2017-11-01

    In simulations of gas-liquid flows interacting with solid boundaries, the contact line dynamics effect the interface motion and flow field through the surface tension force. The surface tension force is directly proportional to the interface curvature and the problem of accurately imposing a contact angle must be incorporated into the interface curvature calculation. Many commonly used algorithms to compute interface curvatures (e.g., height function method) require extrapolating the interface, with defined contact angle, into the solid to allow for the calculation of a curvature near a wall. Extrapolating can be an ill-posed problem, especially in three-dimensions or when multiple contact lines are near each other. We have developed an accurate methodology to compute interface curvatures that allows for contact angles to be easily incorporated while avoiding extrapolation and the associated challenges. The method, known as Adjustable Curvature Evaluation Scale (ACES), leverages a least squares fit of a polynomial to points computed on the volume-of-fluid (VOF) representation of the gas-liquid interface. The method is tested by simulating canonical test cases and then applied to simulate the injection and motion of water droplets in a channel (relevant to PEM fuel cells).

  6. Contact angles and their hysteresis as a measure of liquid-solid adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extrand, C W

    2004-05-11

    The wetting behavior of a series of aliphatic polyamides was examined. Polyamides and polyethylene were molded against glass to produce smooth surfaces. After cleaning, chemical composition of the surfaces was verified with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Advancing and receding contact angles were measured from small sessile water drops. Contact angles decreased with amide content while contact angle hysteresis increased. Wetting free energies calculated from contact angles were equal to those from dewetting, suggesting that contact angle hysteresis did not arise from surface anomalies, but from hydrogen bonding between water and the amide groups in the polyamide surfaces.

  7. CONTACT ANGLE MEASUREMENT OF DENTAL RESTORATIVE MATERIALS BY DROP PROFILE IMAGE ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    M. Rinastiti, H. D. K. Yulianto dan

    2014-01-01

    The capability of initial microbial adhesion to dental restorative composites surface is influenced by the surface wettability of the materials. The common method to evaluate surface wettability of materials is contact angle measurement. The existing conventional method to measure contact angle is by means of a contact angle (CA)-Goniometer device, which is less practically applicable in clinical circumstances. Therefore, a more practical and applicable method is needed to measure contact ang...

  8. Influence of Contact Angle Boundary Condition on CFD Simulation of T-Junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, S.; Montlaur, A.

    2018-03-01

    In this work, we study the influence of the contact angle boundary condition on 3D CFD simulations of the bubble generation process occurring in a capillary T-junction. Numerical simulations have been performed with the commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics solver ANSYS Fluent v15.0.7. Experimental results serve as a reference to validate numerical results for four independent parameters: the bubble generation frequency, volume, velocity and length. CFD simulations accurately reproduce experimental results both from qualitative and quantitative points of view. Numerical results are very sensitive to the gas-liquid-wall contact angle boundary conditions, confirming that this is a fundamental parameter to obtain accurate CFD results for simulations of this kind of problems.

  9. Lattice Boltzmann modeling of contact angle and its hysteresis in two-phase flow with large viscosity difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haihu; Ju, Yaping; Wang, Ningning; Xi, Guang; Zhang, Yonghao

    2015-09-01

    Contact angle hysteresis is an important physical phenomenon omnipresent in nature and various industrial processes, but its effects are not considered in many existing multiphase flow simulations due to modeling complexity. In this work, a multiphase lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is developed to simulate the contact-line dynamics with consideration of the contact angle hysteresis for a broad range of kinematic viscosity ratios. In this method, the immiscible two-phase flow is described by a color-fluid model, in which the multiple-relaxation-time collision operator is adopted to increase numerical stability and suppress unphysical spurious currents at the contact line. The contact angle hysteresis is introduced using the strategy proposed by Ding and Spelt [Ding and Spelt, J. Fluid Mech. 599, 341 (2008)JFLSA70022-112010.1017/S0022112008000190], and the geometrical wetting boundary condition is enforced to obtain the desired contact angle. This method is first validated by simulations of static contact angle and dynamic capillary intrusion process on ideal (smooth) surfaces. It is then used to simulate the dynamic behavior of a droplet on a nonideal (inhomogeneous) surface subject to a simple shear flow. When the droplet remains pinned on the surface due to hysteresis, the steady interface shapes of the droplet quantitatively agree well with the previous numerical results. Four typical motion modes of contact points, as observed in a recent study, are qualitatively reproduced with varying advancing and receding contact angles. The viscosity ratio is found to have a notable impact on the droplet deformation, breakup, and hysteresis behavior. Finally, this method is extended to simulate the droplet breakup in a microfluidic T junction, with one half of the wall surface ideal and the other half nonideal. Due to the contact angle hysteresis, the droplet asymmetrically breaks up into two daughter droplets with the smaller one in the nonideal branch channel, and the

  10. Lattice Boltzmann modeling of contact angle and its hysteresis in two-phase flow with large viscosity difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haihu; Ju, Yaping; Wang, Ningning; Xi, Guang; Zhang, Yonghao

    2015-09-01

    Contact angle hysteresis is an important physical phenomenon omnipresent in nature and various industrial processes, but its effects are not considered in many existing multiphase flow simulations due to modeling complexity. In this work, a multiphase lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is developed to simulate the contact-line dynamics with consideration of the contact angle hysteresis for a broad range of kinematic viscosity ratios. In this method, the immiscible two-phase flow is described by a color-fluid model, in which the multiple-relaxation-time collision operator is adopted to increase numerical stability and suppress unphysical spurious currents at the contact line. The contact angle hysteresis is introduced using the strategy proposed by Ding and Spelt [Ding and Spelt, J. Fluid Mech. 599, 341 (2008), 10.1017/S0022112008000190], and the geometrical wetting boundary condition is enforced to obtain the desired contact angle. This method is first validated by simulations of static contact angle and dynamic capillary intrusion process on ideal (smooth) surfaces. It is then used to simulate the dynamic behavior of a droplet on a nonideal (inhomogeneous) surface subject to a simple shear flow. When the droplet remains pinned on the surface due to hysteresis, the steady interface shapes of the droplet quantitatively agree well with the previous numerical results. Four typical motion modes of contact points, as observed in a recent study, are qualitatively reproduced with varying advancing and receding contact angles. The viscosity ratio is found to have a notable impact on the droplet deformation, breakup, and hysteresis behavior. Finally, this method is extended to simulate the droplet breakup in a microfluidic T junction, with one half of the wall surface ideal and the other half nonideal. Due to the contact angle hysteresis, the droplet asymmetrically breaks up into two daughter droplets with the smaller one in the nonideal branch channel, and the behavior of

  11. Forefoot angle at initial contact determines the amplitude of forefoot and rearfoot eversion during running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, Gail M; Hsu, Wen-Hao; Lewis, Cara L; Saltzman, Elliot; Hamill, Joseph; Holt, Kenneth G

    2014-09-01

    Clinically, foot structures are assessed intrinsically - relation of forefoot to rearfoot and rearfoot to leg. We have argued that, from a biomechanical perspective, the interaction of the foot with the ground may influence forces and torques that are propagated through the lower extremity. We proposed that a more appropriate measure is an extrinsic one that may predict the angle the foot makes with ground at contact. The purposes of this study were to determine if the proposed measure predicts contact angles of the forefoot and rearfoot and assess if the magnitude of those angles influences amplitude and duration of foot eversion during running. With the individual in prone, extrinsic clinical forefoot and rearfoot angles were measured relative to the caudal edge of the examination table. Participants ran over ground while frontal plane forefoot and rearfoot contact angles, forefoot and rearfoot eversion amplitude and duration were measured. Participants were grouped twice, once based on forefoot contact inversion angle (moderatemedian) and once based on rearfoot contact inversion angle (moderatemedian). The forefoot and rearfoot extrinsic clinical angles predicted, respectively, the forefoot and rearfoot angles at ground contact. Large forefoot contact angles were associated with greater amplitudes (but not durations) of forefoot and rearfoot eversion during stance. Rearfoot contact angles, however, were associated with neither amplitudes nor durations of forefoot and rearfoot eversion. Possible mechanisms for the increased risk of running injuries associated with large forefoot angles are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Particle Separation inside a Sessile Droplet with Variable Contact Angle Using Surface Acoustic Waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Destgeer, Ghulam; Jung, Jin Ho; Park, Jinsoo; Ahmed, Husnain; Sung, Hyung Jin

    2017-01-03

    A sessile droplet of water carrying polystyrene microparticles of different diameters was uniformly exposed to high frequency surface acoustic waves (SAWs) produced by an interdigitated transducer (IDT). We investigated the concentration behavior of the microparticles as the SAWs generated a strong acoustic streaming flow (ASF) inside the water droplet and exerted a direct acoustic radiation force (ARF) on the suspended particles, the magnitude of which depended upon the particle diameter. As a result of the ARF, the microparticles were concentrated according to their diameters at different positions inside the sessile droplet placed in the path of the SAW, right in front of the IDT. The microparticle concentration behavior changed as the sessile droplet contact angle with the substrate was varied by adding surfactant to the water or by gradually evaporating the water. The positions at which the smaller and larger microparticles were concentrated remained distinguishable, even at very different experimental conditions. The long-term exposure of the droplets to the SAWs was accompanied by the gradual evaporation of the carrier fluid, which dynamically changed the droplet contact angle as well as the concentration of particles. Complete evaporation of the fluid left behind several concentrated yet separated clusters of particles on the substrate surface. The effect of the droplet contact angle on particles' concentration behavior and consequent separation of particles has been uniquely studied in this SAW-based report.

  13. Finite size effects on textured surfaces: recovering contact angles from vagarious drop edges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Anaïs; Rivetti, Marco; Teisseire, Jérémie; Barthel, Etienne

    2014-02-18

    A clue to understand wetting hysteresis on superhydrophobic surfaces is the relation between receding contact angle and surface textures. When the surface textures are large, there is a significant distribution of local contact angles around the drop. As seen from the cross section, the apparent contact angle oscillates as the triple line recedes. Our experiments demonstrate that the origin of these oscillations is a finite size effect. Combining side and bottom views of the drop, we take into account the 3D conformation of the surface near the edge to evaluate an intrinsic contact angle from the oscillations of the apparent contact angle. We find that for drops receding on axisymmetric textures the intrinsic receding contact angle is the minimum value of the oscillation while for a square lattice it is the maximum.

  14. A method to measure internal contact angle in opaque systems by magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Weiqin; Tian, Ye; Gao, Xuefeng; Jiang, Lei

    2013-07-23

    Internal contact angle is an important parameter for internal wettability characterization. However, due to the limitation of optical imaging, methods available for contact angle measurement are only suitable for transparent or open systems. For most of the practical situations that require contact angle measurement in opaque or enclosed systems, the traditional methods are not effective. Based upon the requirement, a method suitable for contact angle measurement in nontransparent systems is developed by employing MRI technology. In the Article, the method is demonstrated by measuring internal contact angles in opaque cylindrical tubes. It proves that the method also shows great feasibility in transparent situations and opaque capillary systems. By using the method, contact angle in opaque systems could be measured successfully, which is significant in understanding the wetting behaviors in nontransparent systems and calculating interfacial parameters in enclosed systems.

  15. Dynamics of contact line depinning during droplet evaporation based on thermodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dong In; Kwak, Ho Jae; Doh, Seung Woo; Ahn, Ho Seon; Park, Hyun Sun; Kiyofumi, Moriyama; Kim, Moo Hwan

    2015-02-17

    For several decades, evaporation phenomena have been intensively investigated for a broad range of applications. However, the dynamics of contact line depinning during droplet evaporation has only been inductively inferred on the basis of experimental data and remains unclear. This study focuses on the dynamics of contact line depinning during droplet evaporation based on thermodynamics. Considering the decrease in the Gibbs free energy of a system with different evaporation modes, a theoretical model was developed to estimate the receding contact angle during contact line depinning as a function of surface conditions. Comparison of experimentally measured and theoretically modeled receding contact angles indicated that the dynamics of contact line depinning during droplet evaporation was caused by the most favorable thermodynamic process encountered during constant contact radius (CCR mode) and constant contact angle (CCA mode) evaporation to rapidly reach an equilibrium state during droplet evaporation.

  16. CONTACT ANGLE OF YUCCA MOUNTAIN WELDED TUFF WITH WATER AND BRINES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    H. Kalia

    2006-01-01

    A number of tests were performed to acquire contact angles between Yucca Mountain welded tuff from Topopah Springs Lower Lithophysal geologic unit and various brine solutions. The tests were performed on core disks received from Sample Management Facility (SMF), oven dried to a constant weight and the core disks vacuum saturated in: distilled water, J-13 water, calcium chloride brine and sodium chloride brine to constant weight. The contact angles were acquired from eight points on the surface of the core disks, four on rough surface, and four on polished surface. The contact angle was measured by placing a droplet of the test fluid, distilled water, J-13 water, calcium chloride brine and sodium chloride brine on the core disks. The objective of this test was to acquire contact angles as a potential input to estimating capillary forces in accumulated dust on the waste packages and drip shields slated for the proposed High-Level Radioactive Waste Repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. It was noted that once the droplet contacts the test surface, it continues to spread hence the contact angle continues to decrease with elapsed time. The maximum observed angle was at time 0 or when the drop contacted the rock surface. The measured contact angle, in all cases has significant scatter. In general, the time zero contact angles for core disks saturated in sodium chloride brine were smaller than those saturated in calcium chloride brine, distilled water, and J-13 water. The contact angles for samples saturated in distilled water, J-13 water and calcium chloride brine at time zero were similar. There was slight difference between the observed contact angles for smooth and rough surface of the test samples. The contact angles for smooth surfaces were smaller than for the rough surfaces

  17. Dynamic Model of Contact Interface between Stator and Rotor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZengHui Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the equivalent principle, a linear spring contact model was established for the friction layer between stator and rotor. Different contact conditions were described by a distance index δ. Detailed analysis of the nonlinear contact behavior especially the static and dynamic slipping was carried on using a space-time equation. A contact deflection angle was proposed to quantitatively express the influence of friction force on the output performance. A more precision simulation model was established based on the theoretical analysis, and influences of different preload pressures and elastic modulus Em of friction layer on output performance were analyzed. The results showed the simulation results had very good consistency with experimental results, and the model could well reflect the output characteristics of contact interface.

  18. Measurement of contact angles in a simulated microgravity environment generated by a large gradient magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong-Ming; Chen, Rui-Qing; Wu, Zi-Qing; Zhu, Jing; Shi, Jian-Yu; Lu, Hui-Meng; Shang, Peng; Yin, Da-Chuan

    2016-09-01

    The contact angle is an important parameter that is essential for studying interfacial phenomena. The contact angle can be measured using commercially available instruments. However, these well-developed instruments may not function or may be unsuitable for use in some special environments. A simulated microgravity generated by a large gradient magnetic field is such an environment in which the current measurement instruments cannot be installed. To measure the contact angle in this environment, new tools must be designed and manufactured to be compatible with the size and physical environment. In this study, we report the development and construction of a new setup that was specifically designed for use in a strong magnetic field to measure the contact angle between a levitated droplet and a solid surface. The application of the setup in a large gradient magnetic field was tested, and the contact angles were readily measured.

  19. Surface properties of dental polymers: measurements of contact angles, roughness and fluoride release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima Namen

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Earlier studies on some dental materials measured roughness and/or contact angles or fluoride release separately. In the present study, five dental polymers were investigated to ascertain their contact angles, wettability, roughness, and fluoride release in dry or wet conditions. METHODS: Samples for 5 materials were prepared and stored dry or wet in deionized water pH 6.8. Samples were submitted to finishing/polishing procedures, and the measurements in Goniometer, roughness (µm and fluoride analysis RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Except for the Ariston pHc, all the materials displayed high contact angles when measured with water, showing hydrophobic characteristics. Roughness changed the contact angles, especially those of Ariston (α < 0.05. Fluoride did not modify the contact angles, but increased the roughness of the finished material.

  20. Simple expression for the dependence of the nanodrop contact angle on liquid-solid interactions and temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berim, Gersh O.; Ruckenstein, Eli

    2009-01-01

    The density distributions and contact angles of nanodrops on smooth solid surfaces are calculated on the basis of a nonlocal density functional theory in wide ranges of temperature and parameters of the Lennard-Jones potentials representing the fluid-fluid and fluid-solid interactions. A simple linear dependence of the contact angle on the fluid-solid energy parameter ɛfs was found for various temperatures, hard core fluid-solid parameters σfs, and average fluid density of the system. A simple expression is suggested which represents all the above results in a unified form that relates the contact angle θ to the parameters of the interaction potentials and temperature. The most intriguing feature was that for each considered σfs there is a value ɛfs0 of ɛfs for which the contact angle θ=θ0 can be considered independent of temperature and of σfs. It is shown that ɛfs=ɛfs0 divides the materials for which θ increases from those for which θ decreases with increasing temperature. The results obtained for the dependence of the contact angle on the parameters of the model are in qualitative agreement with known molecular dynamics results.

  1. Simultaneous soft sensing of tissue contact angle and force for millimeter-scale medical robots

    OpenAIRE

    Arabagi, Veaceslav; Gosline, Andrew; Wood, Robert J.; Dupont, Pierre E

    2013-01-01

    A novel robotic sensor is proposed to measure both the contact angle and the force acting between the tip of a surgical robot and soft tissue. The sensor is manufactured using a planar lithography process that generates microchannels that are subsequently filled with a conductive liquid. The planar geometry is then molded onto a hemispherical plastic scaffolding in a geometric configuration enabling estimation of the contact angle (angle between robot tip tangent and tissue surface normal) by...

  2. Particle contact angles at fluid interfaces: pushing the boundary beyond hard uniform spherical colloids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanini, Michele; Isa, Lucio

    2016-08-01

    Micro and nanoparticles at fluid interfaces have been attracting increasing interest in the last few decades as building blocks for materials, as mechanical and structural probes for complex interfaces and as models for two-dimensional systems. The three-phase contact angle enters practically all aspects of the particle behavior at the interface: its thermodynamics (binding energy to the interface), dynamics (motion and drag at the interface) and interactions with the interface (adsorption and wetting). Moreover, many interactions among particles at the interface also strongly depend on the contact angle. These concepts have been extensively discussed for non-deformable, homogeneous and mostly spherical particles, but recent progress in particle synthesis and fabrication has instead moved in the direction of producing more complex micro and nanoscale objects, which can be responsive, deformable, heterogenous and/or anisotropic in shape, surface chemistry and material properties. These new particles have a much greater potential for applications and new science, and the study of their behavior at interfaces has only very recently started. In this paper, we critically review the current state of the art of the experimental methods available to measure the contact angle of micro and nanoparticles at fluid interfaces, indicating their strengths and limitations. We then comment on new particle systems that are currently attracting increasing interest in relation to their adsorption and assembly at fluid interfaces and discuss if and which ones of the current techniques are suited to investigate their properties at interfaces. Based on this discussion, we will finally try to indicate a direction in which new experimental methods should develop in the future to tackle the new challenges posed by the novel types of particles that more and more often are used at interfaces.

  3. Sensitivity enhancement by multiple-contact cross-polarization under magic-angle spinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raya, J.; Hirschinger, J.

    2017-08-01

    Multiple-contact cross-polarization (MC-CP) is applied to powder samples of ferrocene and L-alanine under magic-angle spinning (MAS) conditions. The method is described analytically through the density matrix formalism. The combination of a two-step memory function approach and the Anderson-Weiss approximation is found to be particularly useful to derive approximate analytical solutions for single-contact Hartmann-Hahn CP (HHCP) and MC-CP dynamics under MAS. We show that the MC-CP sequence requiring no pulse-shape optimization yields higher polarizations at short contact times than optimized adiabatic passage through the HH condition CP (APHH-CP) when the MAS frequency is comparable to the heteronuclear dipolar coupling, i.e., when APHH-CP through a single sideband matching condition is impossible or difficult to perform. It is also shown that the MC-CP sideband HH conditions are generally much broader than for single-contact HHCP and that efficient polarization transfer at the centerband HH condition can be reintroduced by rotor-asynchronous multiple equilibrations-re-equilibrations with the proton spin bath. Boundary conditions for the successful use of the MC-CP experiment when relying on spin-lattice relaxation for repolarization are also examined.

  4. Contact angle of ethanol–water solutions on crystalline and mesoporous silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, S J; Andrews, G T; Deacon, C G

    2013-01-01

    Measurements of contact angle of ethanol–water solutions were performed on crystalline silicon and on mesoporous silicon films with porosities up to ∼72%. Water contact angles of 44° and 76° were measured for untreated and HF-dipped crystalline silicon, respectively, consistent with previous studies. The contact angle for ethanol–water mixtures was found to decrease with increasing ethanol concentration for both untreated crystalline silicon and also for HF-dipped crystalline silicon up to an ethanol concentration of ∼80%; at higher concentrations the contact angle approached zero. Similar behaviour was observed on mesoporous silicon surfaces for ethanol concentrations ≲ 40%, above which the contact angle dropped abruptly to an immeasurably small value. This behaviour is attributed to a decrease in surface tension with increasing ethanol concentration. For all ethanol–water solutions, a minimum value of contact angle was observed at a porosity of ∼40%, above which it remained approximately constant. The behaviour of contact angle with porosity can be explained by a change in the Wenzel roughness parameter due to changes in the specific surface area of the film. (paper)

  5. Simultaneous Soft Sensing of Tissue Contact Angle and Force for Millimeter-scale Medical Robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabagi, Veaceslav; Gosline, Andrew; Wood, Robert J; Dupont, Pierre E

    2013-01-01

    A novel robotic sensor is proposed to measure both the contact angle and the force acting between the tip of a surgical robot and soft tissue. The sensor is manufactured using a planar lithography process that generates microchannels that are subsequently filled with a conductive liquid. The planar geometry is then molded onto a hemispherical plastic scaffolding in a geometric configuration enabling estimation of the contact angle (angle between robot tip tangent and tissue surface normal) by the rotation of the sensor around its roll axis. Contact force can also be estimated by monitoring the changes in resistance in each microchannel. Bench top experimental results indicate that, on average, the sensor can estimate the angle of contact to within ±2° and the contact force to within ±5.3 g.

  6. Measuring contact angle and meniscus shape with a reflected laser beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eibach, T. F.; Nguyen, H.; Butt, H. J.; Auernhammer, G. K.; Fell, D.

    2014-01-01

    Side-view imaging of the contact angle between an extended planar solid surface and a liquid is problematic. Even when aligning the view perfectly parallel to the contact line, focusing one point of the contact line is not possible. We describe a new measurement technique for determining contact angles with the reflection of a widened laser sheet on a moving contact line. We verified this new technique measuring the contact angle on a cylinder, rotating partially immersed in a liquid. A laser sheet is inclined under an angle φ to the unperturbed liquid surface and is reflected off the meniscus. Collected on a screen, the reflection image contains information to determine the contact angle. When dividing the laser sheet into an array of laser rays by placing a mesh into the beam path, the shape of the meniscus can be reconstructed from the reflection image. We verified the method by measuring the receding contact angle versus speed for aqueous cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide solutions on a smooth hydrophobized as well as on a rough polystyrene surface

  7. A Continuous Approach of the Contact Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petre P.Teodorescu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Ther paper is devoted to the analysis of a sonic composite under dynamic contact with friction loading, by using LISA (local interaction simulation approach. LISA is an an efficient tool for the numerical simulation of the acoustic wave propagation in heterogeneous material specimens, in particular those with sharp boundaries between different materials, like in sonic composites. Boundary conditions are introduced to contain contact interfaces with frictional slips.

  8. The Contact Dynamics method: A nonsmooth story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Frédéric; Acary, Vincent; Jean, Michel

    2018-03-01

    When velocity jumps are occurring, the dynamics is said to be nonsmooth. For instance, in collections of contacting rigid bodies, jumps are caused by shocks and dry friction. Without compliance at the interface, contact laws are not only non-differentiable in the usual sense but also multi-valued. Modeling contacting bodies is of interest in order to understand the behavior of numerous mechanical systems such as flexible multi-body systems, granular materials or masonry. These granular materials behave puzzlingly either like a solid or a fluid and a description in the frame of classical continuous mechanics would be welcome though far to be satisfactory nowadays. Jean-Jacques Moreau greatly contributed to convex analysis, functions of bounded variations, differential measure theory, sweeping process theory, definitive mathematical tools to deal with nonsmooth dynamics. He converted all these underlying theoretical ideas into an original nonsmooth implicit numerical method called Contact Dynamics (CD); a robust and efficient method to simulate large collections of bodies with frictional contacts and impacts. The CD method offers a very interesting complementary alternative to the family of smoothed explicit numerical methods, often called Distinct Elements Method (DEM). In this paper developments and improvements of the CD method are presented together with a critical comparative review of advantages and drawbacks of both approaches. xml:lang="fr"

  9. Contact angle hysteresis of non-flattened-top micro/nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Sona; Englezos, Peter; Hatzikiriakos, Savvas G

    2014-03-25

    A two-dimensional (2D) thermodynamic model is proposed to predict the contact angle (CA) and contact angle hysteresis (CAH) of different types of surface geometries, particularly those with asperities having nonflattened tops. The model is evaluated by micro/nano sinusoidal and parabolic patterns fabricated by laser ablation. These microstructures are analyzed thermodynamically through the use of the Gibbs free energy to obtain the equilibrium contact angle (CA) and contact angle hysteresis (CAH). The effects of the geometrical details of two types of microstructures on maximizing the superhydrophobicity of the nanopatterned surface are also discussed in an attempt to design surfaces with desired and/or optimum wetting characteristics. The analysis of the various surfaces reveals the important geometrical parameters that may lead to the lotus effect (high CA > 150° and low CAH 150° and high CAH ≫ 10°).

  10. Contact angles on a soft solid: from Young's law to Neumann's law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, Antonin; Das, Siddhartha; Snoeijer, Jacco H; Andreotti, Bruno

    2012-12-07

    The contact angle that a liquid drop makes on a soft substrate does not obey the classical Young's relation, since the solid is deformed elastically by the action of the capillary forces. The finite elasticity of the solid also renders the contact angles differently from those predicted by Neumann's law, which applies when the drop is floating on another liquid. Here, we derive an elastocapillary model for contact angles on a soft solid by coupling a mean-field model for the molecular interactions to elasticity. We demonstrate that the limit of a vanishing elastic modulus yields Neumann's law or a variation thereof, depending on the force transmission in the solid surface layer. The change in contact angle from the rigid limit to the soft limit appears when the length scale defined by the ratio of surface tension to elastic modulus γ/E reaches the range of molecular interactions.

  11. Contact angle of water droplets in a high temperature, high pressure environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, T.; Hazuku, T.; Takamasa, T.; Takamori, K.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental study of surface wettability on a stainless plate in a high-temperature, high-pressure environment. Using a pressure vessel, we measured contact angles of water droplets at temperatures from 20 to 300 C. deg. and a constant pressure of 15 MPa, as an indicator of macroscopic surface wettability. Measured contact angles decreased with temperature below 250 C. deg., clustering around a straight line at temperatures below 120 C. deg. and around another line in the range from 120 to 250 C. deg.. At temperatures above 250 C. deg., on the other hand, the contact angles remained constant, independent of temperature, and contrary to the existing theoretical model, no highly hydrophilic condition or null contact angle condition was achieved. This result will enable more accurate assessment of heat transfer not only in steam pipes of a boiler but also in subchannel of a BWR-type reactor. (authors)

  12. Investigation of surface porosity measurements and compaction pressure as means to ensure consistent contact angle determinations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, René; Borkenfelt, Simon; Allesø, Morten

    2016-01-01

    for a compound is determined by its contact angle to a liquid, which in the present study was measured using the sessile drop method applied to a disc compact of the compound. Precise determination of the contact angle is important should it be used to either rank compounds or selected excipients to e.......g. increase the wetting from a solid dosage form. Since surface roughness of the compact has been suggested to influence the measurement this study investigated if the surface quality, in terms of surface porosity, had an influence on the measured contact angle. A correlation to surface porosity was observed......, however for six out of seven compounds similar results were obtained by applying a standard pressure (866MPa) to the discs in their preparation. The data presented in the present work therefore suggest that a constant high pressure should be sufficient for most compounds when determining the contact angle...

  13. Modeling and simulation of water flow on containment walls with inhomogeneous contact angle distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amend, Katharina; Klein, Markus [Univ. der Bundeswehr Muenchen, Neubiberg (Germany). Inst. for Numerical Methods in Aerospace Engineering

    2017-07-15

    The paper presents a three-dimensional numerical simulation for water running down inclined surfaces using OpenFOAM. This research project aims at developing a CFD model to describe the run down behavior of liquids and the resulting wash down of fission products on surfaces in the reactor containment. An empirical contact angle model with wetted history is introduced as well as a filtered randomized initial contact angle field. Simulation results are in good agreement with the experiments. Experimental Investigation on Passive.

  14. Prediction of static contact angles on the basis of molecular forces and adsorption data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, M Elena; Savage, Michael D; Cerro, Ramon L

    2016-08-01

    At a three-phase contact line, a liquid bulk phase is in contact with and coexists with a very thin layer of adsorbed molecules. This adsorbed film in the immediate vicinity of a liquid wedge modifies the balance of forces between the liquid and solid phases such that, when included in the balance of forces, a quantitative relationship emerges between the adsorbed film thickness and the static contact angle. This relationship permits the prediction of static contact angles from molecular forces and equilibrium adsorption data by means of quantities that are physically meaningful and measurable. For n-alkanes on polytetrafluoroethylene, for which there are experimental data available on adsorption and contact angles, our computations show remarkable agreement with the data. The results obtained are an improvement on previously published calculations-particularly for alkanes with a low number of carbon atoms, for which adsorption is significant.

  15. Finite element analysis of thrust angle contact ball slewing bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Biao; Guo, Yuan; Zhang, An; Tang, Shengjin

    2017-12-01

    In view of the large heavy slewing bearing no longer follows the rigid ring hupothesis under the load condition, the entity finite element model of thrust angular contact ball bearing was established by using finite element analysis software ANSYS. The boundary conditions of the model were set according to the actual condition of slewing bearing, the internal stress state of the slewing bearing was obtained by solving and calculation, and the calculated results were compared with the numerical results based on the rigid ring assumption. The results show that more balls are loaded in the result of finite element method, and the maximum contact stresses between the ball and raceway have some reductions. This is because the finite element method considers the ferrule as an elastic body. The ring will produce structure deformation in the radial plane when the heavy load slewing bearings are subjected to external loads. The results of the finite element method are more in line with the actual situation of the slewing bearing in the engineering.

  16. The constancy of the contact angle in viscous liquid motions with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Consider motion initiated in a viscous liquid in a smooth walled container. The liquid is initially at rest under uniform pressure from an inert gas of negligible inertia. We show that if the contact line is pinned and the interface is single valued, the contact angle has to remain constant throughout the motion. This is true ...

  17. The constancy of the contact angle in viscous liquid motions with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Consider motion initiated in a viscous liquid in a smooth walled container. The liquid is initially at rest under uniform pressure from an inert gas of negligible inertia. We show that if the contact line is pinned and the interface is single valued, the contact angle has to remain constant throughout the motion. This is true even for ...

  18. Contact-angle hysteresis on periodic microtextured surfaces: Strongly corrugated liquid interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliev, Stanimir; Pesheva, Nina

    2016-06-01

    We study numerically the shapes of a liquid meniscus in contact with ultrahydrophobic pillar surfaces in Cassie's wetting regime, when the surface is covered with identical and periodically distributed micropillars. Using the full capillary model we obtain the advancing and the receding equilibrium meniscus shapes when the cross-sections of the pillars are both of square and circular shapes, for a broad interval of pillar concentrations. The bending of the liquid interface in the area between the pillars is studied in the framework of the full capillary model and compared to the results of the heterogeneous approximation model. The contact angle hysteresis is obtained when the three-phase contact line is located on one row (block case) or several rows (kink case) of pillars. It is found that the contact angle hysteresis is proportional to the line fraction of the contact line on pillars tops in the block case and to the surface fraction for pillar concentrations 0.1 -0.5 in the kink case. The contact angle hysteresis does not depend on the shape (circular or square) of the pillars cross-section. The expression for the proportionality of the receding contact angle to the line fraction [Raj et al., Langmuir 28, 15777 (2012), 10.1021/la303070s] in the case of block depinning is theoretically substantiated through the capillary force, acting on the solid plate at the meniscus contact line.

  19. A new method for measuring the contact angles from digital images of liquid drops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, M

    2017-11-01

    The drop hitting a solid surface may be symmetric or asymmetric, which depends on the surface texture and external force orientations. The accurate measurement of the contact angle is of fundamental importance for the purpose of scientific research, while having a substantial role in a wide range of practical applications. This paper presents a new image processing based method, as a computational scheme to measure the inclination angle of apparent edge curves in digital images. The main concept of the scheme is the emulation of a moving goniometer mask coupled with a Gaussian weighted function, which does not require edge fitting with analytic curves for the angle calculation. The algorithm produces as follow: allocating the exact position of the contact points by Harris corner detector function, selecting a series of points on the drop boundary near the contact points, setting goniometric mask on each given point and calculating the angles, applying the Gaussian weighted average function on the calculated angles and measure the objective contact angle. The scheme is tested on several images from recent studies in the available literature. The comparison between analytical and calculated angles shows less than 1° difference. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of interface shape on advancing and receding fluid-contact angles around spherical particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şenbil, Nesrin; He, Wei; Démery, Vincent; Dinsmore, Anthony D

    2015-07-07

    The angle of contact between a solid surface and a fluid interface plays a key role in wetting and is therefore a focus in studies of a wide range of natural phenomena and fluidic technologies. The contact angle ranges between two values, a maximum (advancing) angle and a minimum (receding) angle. These limiting angles are thought to be properties of the fluids and of the chemistry or topography of the solid. By contrast, we find that the value of the receding angle can be significantly reduced by altering the interface shape. Using millimeter-sized spheres coated with polydimethylsiloxane and pulled through an air-water interface, we observe that the receding angle decreases from 101 ± 1° at a planar interface to as low as 80 ± 1° at saddle- or cylinder-shaped interfaces. The angle decreases smoothly with the deviatoric curvature of the interface (a measure of the shape anisotropy) and is linked to a non-circular contact line.

  1. Wettability of supercritical carbon dioxide/water/quartz systems: simultaneous measurement of contact angle and interfacial tension at reservoir conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraji, Soheil; Goual, Lamia; Piri, Mohammad; Plancher, Henry

    2013-06-11

    Injection of carbon dioxide in deep saline aquifers is considered as a method of carbon sequestration. The efficiency of this process is dependent on the fluid-fluid and rock-fluid interactions inside the porous media. For instance, the final storage capacity and total amount of capillary-trapped CO2 inside an aquifer are affected by the interfacial tension between the fluids and the contact angle between the fluids and the rock mineral surface. A thorough study of these parameters and their variations with temperature and pressure will provide a better understanding of the carbon sequestration process and thus improve predictions of the sequestration efficiency. In this study, the controversial concept of wettability alteration of quartz surfaces in the presence of supercritical carbon dioxide (sc-CO2) was investigated. A novel apparatus for measuring interfacial tension and contact angle at high temperatures and pressures based on Axisymmetric Drop Shape Analysis with no-Apex (ADSA-NA) method was developed and validated with a simple system. Densities, interfacial tensions, and dynamic contact angles of CO2/water/quartz systems were determined for a wide range of pressures and temperatures relevant to geological sequestration of CO2 in the subcritical and supercritical states. Image analysis was performed with ADSA-NA method that allows the determination of both interfacial tensions and contact angles with high accuracy. The results show that supercritical CO2 alters the wettability of quartz surface toward less water-wet conditions compared to subcritical CO2. Also we observed an increase in the water advancing contact angles with increasing temperature indicating less water-wet quartz surfaces at higher temperatures.

  2. Contact Geometry of Mesoscopic Thermodynamics and Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Grmela

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The time evolution during which macroscopic systems reach thermodynamic equilibrium states proceeds as a continuous sequence of contact structure preserving transformations maximizing the entropy. This viewpoint of mesoscopic thermodynamics and dynamics provides a unified setting for the classical equilibrium and nonequilibrium thermodynamics, kinetic theory, and statistical mechanics. One of the illustrations presented in the paper is a new version of extended nonequilibrium thermodynamics with fluxes as extra state variables.

  3. Granular contact dynamics using mathematical programming methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabbenhoft, K.; Lyamin, A. V.; Huang, J.

    2012-01-01

    granular contact dynamics formulation uses an implicit time discretization, thus allowing for large time steps. Moreover, in the limit of an infinite time step, the general dynamic formulation reduces to a static formulation that is useful in simulating common quasi-static problems such as triaxial tests...... and similar laboratory experiments. A significant portion of the paper is dedicated to exploring the consequences of the associated frictional sliding rule implied by the variational formulation adopted. In this connection, a new interior-point algorithm for general linear complementarity problems...

  4. CONTACT ANGLE MEASUREMENT OF DENTAL RESTORATIVE MATERIALS BY DROP PROFILE IMAGE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. D. K. Yulianto dan M. Rinastiti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The capability of initial microbial adhesion to dental restorative composites surface is influenced by the surface wettability of the materials. The common method to evaluate surface wettability of materials is contact angle measurement. The existing conventional method to measure contact angle is by means of a contact angle (CA-Goniometer device, which is less practically applicable in clinical circumstances. Therefore, a more practical and applicable method is needed to measure contact angle in clinical circumstances. This research was performed to compare between contact angles measured by means of a CA-Goniometer device and a new practical method of drop profile image analysis. In addition, since there were two different formulas that can be used to calculate contact angle value from a drop profile image, then we also need to evaluate which formula is more reliable to be used. Tests were carried out using three composite discs (Clearfill-Kuraray Medical, Inc. sample and deionised water for different measurement procedures. One drop of 3µl liquid was dropped onto the surface of the composite discs, and the drop profile image was captured by means of a customized home-made device connected to a digital camera. Two different formulas were used to calculate the contact angle value from the drop profile image, namely the “linier gradient equation” and the “tangential line”. The contact angle values obtained from the two different formulas were compared with the value obtained from the conventional method descriptively. Tests were carried out using three composite discs (Clearfill-Kuraray Medical, Inc. sample and deionised water for different measurement procedures. One drop of 3µl liquid was dropped onto the surface of the composite discs, and the drop profile image was captured by means of a customized home-made device connected to a digital camera. Two different formulas were used to calculate the contact angle value from the drop

  5. Contact angle of 63Sn-37Pb and Pb-free solder on Cu plating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, C.-T.; Lin, K.-L.

    2003-01-01

    This study investigated the wetting behavior of 63Sn-37Pb and Pb-free solder on different surface roughness Cu plating. The Cu plating roughness was controlled by current density and deposition time. The contact angles were measured to investigate the wetting behavior. The contact angles of DI (de-ionized) water obey Wenzel's equation and decrease with the increase of surface roughness. Daubing the flux on solder balls as well as on the Cu plating lowers the magnitude of contact angle by 2-23 deg. and the deviation of measured values by 4-6 deg. . The contact angles decrease with the increase of Cu substrate surface roughness in the temperature range of 250-280 deg. C. The cleaning effect of flux was analyzed by Auger electron spectroscopy. The oxide on the Cu substrate surface was well removed by flux. The carbon residue left behind on the substrate surface after reflow raises both the magnitude and the scattering of contact angle

  6. Analysis of Wetting and Contact Angle Hysteresis on Chemically Patterned Surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Xianmin

    2011-01-01

    Wetting and contact angle hysteresis on chemically patterned surfaces in two dimensionsare analyzed from a stationary phase-field model for immiscible two phase fluids. We first study the sharp-interface limit of the model by the method of matched asymptotic expansions. We then justify the results rigorously by the γ-convergence theory for the related variational problem and study the properties of the limiting minimizers. The results also provide a clear geometric picture of the equilibrium configuration of the interface. This enables us to explicitly calculate the total surface energy for the two phase systems on chemically patterned surfaces with simple geometries, namely the two phase flow in a channel and the drop spreading. By considering the quasi-staticmotion of the interface described by the change of volume (or volume fraction), we can follow the change-of-energy landscape which also reveals the mechanism for the stick-slip motion of the interface and contact angle hysteresis on the chemically patterned surfaces. As the interface passes throughpatterned surfaces, we observe not only stick-slip of the interface and switching of the contact angles but also the hysteresis of contact point and contact angle. Furthermore, as the size of the patternde creases to zero, the stick-slip becomes weaker but the hysteresis becomes stronger in the sense that one observes either the advancing contact angle or the receding contact angle (when the interface ismoving in the opposite direction) without the switching in between. © 2011 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  7. Surface Tension Flows inside Surfactant-Added Poly(dimethylsiloxane Microstructures with Velocity-Dependent Contact Angles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyh Jian Chen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Filling of liquid samples is realized in a microfluidic device with applications including analytical systems, biomedical devices, and systems for fundamental research. The filling of a disk-shaped polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS microchamber by liquid is analyzed with reference to microstructures with inlets and outlets. The microstructures are fabricated using a PDMS molding process with an SU-8 mold. During the filling, the motion of the gas-liquid interface is determined by the competition among inertia, adhesion, and surface tension. A single ramp model with velocity-dependent contact angles is implemented for the accurate calculation of surface tension forces in a three-dimensional volume-of-fluid based model. The effects of the parameters of this functional form are investigated. The influences of non-dimensional parameters, such as the Reynolds number and the Weber number, both determined by the inlet velocity, on the flow characteristics are also examined. An oxygen-plasma-treated PDMS substrate is utilized, and the microstructure is modified to be hydrophilic. Flow experiments are conducted into both hydrophilic and hydrophobic PDMS microstructures. Under a hydrophobic wall condition, numerical simulations with imposed boundary conditions of static and dynamic contact angles can successfully predict the moving of the meniscus compared with experimental measurements. However, for a hydrophilic wall, accurate agreement between numerical and experimental results is obvious as the dynamic contact angles were implemented.

  8. Investigation of porous silicon obtained under different conditions by the contact angle method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belorus, A. O.; Bukina, Y. V.; Pastukhov, A. I.; Stebko, D. S.; Spivak, Yu M.; Moshnikov, V. A.

    2017-11-01

    This paper investigates a hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity of porous silicon by the contact angle method. Porous silicon series were obtained by electrochemical anodic etching of n-Si (100) and (111) under the current anodization density range of 5-120 mA/cm2. For this purpose the original laboratory installation and the software «Measurement of contact angle» were developed. It is shown that, the contact angle can vary significantly (up to 80 degrees for (100)) depending on the current anodization Discussion of the results is carried out taking in account the composition of the functional groups and of surface morphology of the porous silicon. These results are important for developing porous silicon particles as nanocontainers in the targeted drug delivery.

  9. Surface tension and contact angle of molten semiconductor compounds. II. gallium arsenide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Rajaram; Balasubramanian, Raghuraman; Wilcox, William R.

    1990-02-01

    The surface tension and contact angle of molten GaAs were measured by the sessile drop technique. The dependence of surface tension and contact angle on temperature and on the deviations from stoichiometry was determined. A computer program was used to calculate the properties from the sessile drop profile. The wetting behavior of the melt was studied on the following surfaces: quartz, sandblasted quartz, carbon-coated quartz and pyrolytic boron nitride. The surface tension of molten GaAs decreased with increasing temperature, and decreased slightly with excess As. The degree of wetting increased in the following order: pyrolytic boron nitride, sandblasted quartz, carbon-coated quartz and plain quartz. The contact angle decreased with increasing temperature and seemed to decrease slightly with increasing As.

  10. Surface tension and contact angle of molten semiconductor compounds. I. cadmium telluride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Rajaram; Balasubramanian, Raghuraman; Wilcox, William R.

    1990-02-01

    The surface tension and contact angle of molten CdTe were measured by the sessile drop technique. The dependence of surface tension and contact angle on temperature and on the deviations from stoichiometry was determined. A computer program was used to calculate the properties from the sessile drop profile. The wetting behaviour of the melt was studied on the following surfaces: quartz, HF-etched quartz, sandblasted quartz, carbon-coated quartz and pyrolytic boron nitride. The surface tension of molten CdTe decreased with increasing temperature, but increased slightly with excess Cd. The degree of wetting increased in the following order: pyrolytic boron nitride, carbon-coated quartz, sandblasted quartz, HF-etched quartz and plain quartz. The contact angle decreased with increasing temperature and seemed to increase slightly with increasing Cd.

  11. Measurement of contact angles of microscopic droplets by focal length method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, Daniel; Geiger, Kirsten; Neckernuss, Tobias; Marti, Othmar; Amirkhani, Masoud

    2017-08-01

    We present a method to measure contact angles of microscopic droplets with a conventional microscope that possesses a precision focus adjustment stage. The droplets are modeled as spherical caps that act as lenses. Their focal length is determined by measuring the distance from the substrate surface to the level where a sharp image of the aperture stop is observed. The lens diameter is found by edge detection of a microscope image of the microdroplets. The spherical cap model relates the focal length and diameter of such lenses to the contact angle of the used liquid with known refractive index. The measurement procedure was applied to condensed water droplets on a silicon substrate covered by its native oxide layer. The results are found to be in good agreement with conventional, goniometric sessile drop measurements of the advancing contact angle.

  12. Effect of the meniscus contact angle during early regimes of spontaneous imbibition in nanochannels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karna, Nabin Kumar; Oyarzua, Elton; Walther, Jens Honore

    2016-01-01

    meniscus. Bosanquet's equation overcomes this problem by taking into account fluid inertia predicting an initial imbibition regime with constant velocity. Nevertheless, the initial constant velocity as predicted by Bosanquet's equation is much greater than those observed experimentally. In the present...... study, large scale atomistic simulations are conducted to investigate capillary imbibition of water in slit silica nanochannels with heights between 4 and 18 nm. We find that the meniscus contact angle remains constant during the inertial regime and its value depends on the height of the channel. We...... also find that the meniscus velocity computed at the channel entrance is related to the particular value of the meniscus contact angle. Moreover, during the subsequent visco-inertial regime, as the influence of viscosity increases, the meniscus contact angle is found to be time dependent for all...

  13. Effects of drop size and measuring condition on static contact angle measurement on a superhydrophobic surface with goniometric technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Kwangseok; Kim, Minyoung; Kim, Do Hyun; Ahn, Jeong Keun

    2015-01-01

    It is not a simple task to measure a contact angle of a water drop on a superhydrophobic surface with sessile drop method, because a roll-off angle is very low. Usually contact angle of a water drop on a superhydrophobic surface is measured by fixing a drop with intentional defects on the surface or a needle. We examined the effects of drop size and measuring condition such as the use of a needle or defects on the static contact angle measurement on superhydrophobic surface. Results showed that the contact angles on a superhydrophobic surface remain almost constant within intrinsic measurement errors unless there is a wetting transition during the measurement. We expect that this study will provide a deeper understanding on the nature of the contact angle and convenient measurement of the contact angle on the superhydrophobic surface.

  14. Apparent Contact Angle and Triple-Line Tension of a Soap Bubble on a Substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, João Filipe; Saramago, Benilde; Fortes, Manuel Amaral

    2001-07-15

    The contact angle, θ, of a small bubble on a flat solid substrate was measured as a function of bubble radius, R. The observed deviation of the contact angle from 90 degrees can be accounted for in terms of a negative line tension, tau. The measured values of |tau|/gamma(f), where gamma(f) is the film tension, ranged between 0.15 and 0.6 mm and are proportional to the height, h, of the Plateau border, with |tau| congruent with1.7gamma(f)h. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  15. Size dependence of the contact angle of a nanodrop in a nanocavity: Density functional theory considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berim, Gersh O.; Ruckenstein, Eli

    2011-02-01

    The dependence of the contact angles of nanodrops of Lennard-Jones type fluids in nanocavities on their sizes are calculated using a nonlocal density functional theory in a canonical ensemble. Cavities of various radii and depths, various temperatures, as well as various values of the energy parameter of the fluid-solid interactions were considered. It is argued that this dependence might affect strongly, for instance, the rate of heterogeneous nucleation on rough surfaces, which is usually calculated under the assumption of constant contact angle.

  16. Contact angle goniometry on single micron-scale fibers for composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Daniel; Bomholt, Niels; Jeppesen, Jonas Camillus

    2017-01-01

    Probing the wetting properties of microfibers by polymer resins is of significant interest for the rational design of composite materials. Here, we demonstrate the measurement of contact angles on wetted micron scale fibers by imaging the fluid meniscus with telecentric optics at a spatial...... resolution of 4 um followed by automated image analysis. The meniscus is described as a catenary in the zero gravity approximation and by fitting this to the measured profile, the contact angle is obtained at the intersection between the fluid and the fiber surface. The method is validated by measuring...

  17. Statistical mechanics of fluids adsorbed in planar wedges: finite contact angle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, J R

    2004-06-01

    I consider the statistical mechanics of inhomogeneous fluids applied to fluids adsorbed in planar wedges. Exact results are described that belong to an infinite subset of models defined as the intersection of any two identical semi-infinite planar wall-fluid potentials. This geometry is interesting as a generic example of adsorption onto structured interfaces and of interfacial phase transitions controlled by the substrate geometry. Previously described virial theorems are extended to the case of a general wall-fluid model. This enables the consideration of wedge filling when Young's contact angle far from the wedge apex is finite. The virial theorems generate two important relations: the wedge sum rules. The first sum rule links the interfacial free energy far from the wedge apex to the structure induced at the apex. The second sum rule links the free energy of the apex region to the structure induced by the apex. When Young's contact angle at the wedge walls is finite these relations further yield an exact result for the macroscopic contact angle in terms of the nanoscopic structure at the three-phase contact line (the intersection of the liquid-vapor surface with a wedge wall): the contact angle sum rule. These exact results are of direct relevance to computer simulation studies of adsorbed films. In addition, they take on special significance in the vicinity of continuous interfacial phase transitions: an approach to complete filling and the filling transition at bulk liquid-vapor coexistence.

  18. Complex Contact Angles Calculated from Capillary Rise Measurements on Rock Fracture Faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfect, E.; Gates, C. H.; Brabazon, J. W.; Santodonato, L. J.; Dhiman, I.; Bilheux, H.; Bilheux, J. C.; Lokitz, B. S.

    2017-12-01

    Contact angles for fluids in unconventional reservoir rocks are needed for modeling hydraulic fracturing leakoff and subsequent oil and gas extraction. Contact angle measurements for wetting fluids on rocks are normally performed using polished flat surfaces. However, such prepared surfaces are not representative of natural rock fracture faces, which have been shown to be rough over multiple scales. We applied a variant of the Wilhelmy plate method for determining contact angle from the height of capillary rise on a vertical surface to the wetting of rock fracture faces by water in the presence of air. Cylindrical core samples (5.05 cm long x 2.54 cm diameter) of Mancos shale and 6 other rock types were investigated. Mode I fractures were created within the cores using the Brazilian method. Each fractured core was then separated into halves exposing the fracture faces. One fracture face from each rock type was oriented parallel to a collimated neutron beam in the CG-1D imaging instrument at ORNL's High Flux Isotope Reactor. Neutron radiography was performed using the multi-channel plate detector with a spatial resolution of 50 μm. Images were acquired every 60 s after a water reservoir contacted the base of the fracture face. The images were normalized to the initial dry condition so that the upward movement of water on the fracture face was clearly visible. The height of wetting at equilibrium was measured on the normalized images using ImageJ. Contact angles were also measured on polished flat surfaces using the conventional sessile drop method. Equilibrium capillary rise on the exposed fracture faces was up to 8.5 times greater than that predicted for polished flat surfaces from the sessile drop measurements. These results indicate that rock fracture faces are hyperhydrophilic (i.e., the height of capillary rise is greater than that predicted for a contact angle of zero degrees). The use of complex numbers permitted calculation of imaginary contact angles for

  19. Receding and advancing (CO2 + brine + quartz) contact angles as a function of pressure, temperature, surface roughness, salt type and salinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Yaseri, Ahmed Z.; Lebedev, Maxim; Barifcani, Ahmed; Iglauer, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • (Water + CO 2 ) contact angle on quartz increases substantially with pressure and salinity. • (Water + CO 2 ) contact angle on quartz increases slightly with temperature. • Surface roughness has only a minor influence on (water + CO 2 + quartz) contact angles. - Abstract: The wetting characteristics of CO 2 in rock are of vital importance in carbon geo-storage as they determine fluid dynamics and storage capacities. However, the current literature data has a high uncertainty, which translates into uncertain predictions in terms of containment security and economic project feasibility. We thus measured contact angles for the CO 2 /water/quartz system at relevant reservoir conditions, and analysed the effects of pressure (0.1 to 20) MPa, temperature (296 to 343) K, surface roughness (56 to 1300) nm, salt type (NaCl, CaCl 2 , and MgCl 2 ) and brine salinities (0 to 35) wt%. Water contact angles decreased with surface roughness, but increased with pressure, temperature, and brine salinity. Overall the contact angles were significantly increased at storage conditions (∼50°) when compared to ambient conditions (always 0°). Consequently quartz is weakly water-wet (not completely water-wet) at storage conditions, and structural and residual trapping capacities are reduced accordingly.

  20. Influence of temperature and glass composition on aluminum nitride contact angle

    OpenAIRE

    Tarnovskiy, R.; Ditts, Aleksander Andreevich

    2016-01-01

    Results of research of different glass compositions for possibility of their application in metallization pastes intended for ceramics based on aluminum nitride are presented in this article. It includes research of contact angle of aluminum nitride with glasses of different compositions at different temperatures and different roughness of ceramics.

  1. Parameterizing ice nucleation rates using contact angle and activation energy derived from laboratory data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-P. Chen

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The rate of ice nucleation in clouds is not easily determined and large discrepancies exist between model predictions and actual ice crystal concentration measured in clouds. In an effort to improve the parameterization of ice nucleating in cloud models, we investigate the rate of heterogeneous ice nucleation under specific ambient conditions by knowing the sizes as well as two thermodynamic parameters of the ice nuclei – contact angle and activation energy. Laboratory data of freezing and deposition nucleation modes were analyzed to derive inversely the two thermodynamic parameters for a variety of ice nuclei, including mineral dusts, bacteria, pollens, and soot particles. The analysis considered the Zeldovich factor for the adjustment of ice germ formation, as well as the solute and curvature effects on surface tension; the latter effects have strong influence on the contact angle. Contact angle turns out to be a more important factor than the activation energy in discriminating the nucleation capabilities of various ice nuclei species. By extracting these thermodynamic parameters, laboratory results can be converted into a formulation that follows classical nucleation theory, which then has the flexibility of incorporating factors such as the solute effect and curvature effect that were not considered in the experiments. Due to various uncertainties, contact angle and activation energy derived in this study should be regarded as "apparent" thermodynamics parameters.

  2. Edge contact angle and modified Kelvin equation for condensation in open pores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malijevský, Alexandr; Parry, Andrew O; Pospíšil, Martin

    2017-08-01

    We consider capillary condensation transitions occurring in open slits of width L and finite height H immersed in a reservoir of vapor. In this case the pressure at which condensation occurs is closer to saturation compared to that occurring in an infinite slit (H=∞) due to the presence of two menisci that are pinned near the open ends. Using macroscopic arguments, we derive a modified Kelvin equation for the pressure p_{cc}(L;H) at which condensation occurs and show that the two menisci are characterized by an edge contact angle θ_{e} that is always larger than the equilibrium contact angle θ, only equal to it in the limit of macroscopic H. For walls that are completely wet (θ=0) the edge contact angle depends only on the aspect ratio of the capillary and is well described by θ_{e}≈sqrt[πL/2H] for large H. Similar results apply for condensation in cylindrical pores of finite length. We test these predictions against numerical results obtained using a microscopic density-functional model where the presence of an edge contact angle characterizing the shape of the menisci is clearly visible from the density profiles. Below the wetting temperature T_{w} we find very good agreement for slit pores of widths of just a few tens of molecular diameters, while above T_{w} the modified Kelvin equation only becomes accurate for much larger systems.

  3. The constancy of the contact angle in viscous liquid motions with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    account of symmetry, associate the motion with one between vertical plates spaced a wavelength apart, with the ... bounded by vertical walls, we find that in the classical theory the contact angle is always π/2. This is in fact ..... A similar, perhaps simpler, situation is one where fluid drains out of a tube. Consider a tube or ...

  4. Studies on interfacial tension and contact angle of synthesized surfactant and polymeric from castor oil for enhanced oil recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Keshak; Pal, Nilanjan; Bera, Achinta; Saxena, V. K.; Mandal, Ajay

    2015-10-01

    New synthesized polymeric surfactants have immensely attracted the researchers for further development of chemical enhanced oil recovery method particularly in surfactant flooding. Contact angle and interfacial tension measurement tests are the effective ways to identify proper chemicals/surfactants for enhanced oil recovery by chemical/surfactant flooding. In the present study a new polymeric surfactant was synthesized from pre-synthesized sodium methyl ester sulfonate (surfactant) and acrylamide for application in chemical enhanced oil recovery. The synthesized surfactant and polymeric surfactant were used to measure interfacial tension between their aqueous phase and crude oil phase to investigate the efficiency of the surfactants in reduction of interfacial tension. The synthesized polymeric surfactant has also ability to control the mobility because of its viscous nature in aqueous solution. Contact angles of solid-crude oil-surfactant interface were also measured to study the effect of the synthesized surfactant and polymeric surfactant on wettability alteration mechanism. Synergistic effect was studied by using NaCl and synthesized surfactants on interfacial tension. Dynamic interfacial tensions of the surfactant and polymeric surfactant solutions with crude oil were measured at different NaCl concentrations. Interfacial tension was found to be lowered up to 10-2 to 10-3 mN/m which is effective for oil recovery. Measurement of contact angle indicates the wettability change of the quartz surface. Comparative studies on efficiencies of synthesized sodium methyl ester sulfonate surfactant and polymeric surfactant were also carried out with respect to interfacial tension reduction and contact angle change.

  5. Adsorption of natural surfactants present in sea waters at surfaces of minerals: contact angle measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Boniewicz-Szmyt

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The wetting properties of solid mineral samples (by contact angles in original surfactant-containing sea water (Gulf of Gdańsk, Baltic were characterised under laboratory conditions on a large set (31 samples of well-classified stones of diverse hydrophobicity using the sessile drop (ADSA-P approach, captive bubble and inclined plate methods. An experimental relation between the static contact angle θeq and stone density ρ was obtained in the form θeq = Bρ + C, where B = 12.23 ± 0.92, C = - (19.17 ± 0.77, and r2 = 0.92. The histogram of θeq distribution for polished stone plates exhibited a multimodal feature indicating that the most abundant solid materials (hydrophilic in nature have contact angles θeq = 7.2, 10.7, 15.7 and 19.2º, which appear to be applicable to unspecified field stones as well. The contact angle, a pH-dependent quantity, appears to be a sensitive measure of stone grain size, e.g. granite. The captive bubble method gives reproducible results in studies of porous and highly hydrophilic surfaces such as stones and wood. The authors consider the adsorption of natural sea water surfactants on stone surfaces to be the process responsible for contact angle hysteresis. In the model, an equation was derived for determining the solid surface free energy from the liquid's surface tension γLV it also enabled the advancing θA and receding θR contact angles of this liquid to be calculated. Measurements of contact angle hysteresis Δθ (=θA - θR with surfactant-containing sea water and distilled water (reference on the same stone surfaces allowed the film pressure ΔΠ (1.22 to 8.80 mJ m-2, solid surface free energy ΔγS (-17.03 to -23.61 mJ m-2 and work done by spreading ΔWS (-1.23 to -11.52 mJ m-2 to be determined. The variability in these parameters is attributed to autophobing, an effect operative on a solid surface covered with an adsorptive layer of surfactants. The wetting behaviour of solid particles is of great

  6. Dynamics of Railway Vehicles and Rail/Wheel Contact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    True, Hans

    2007-01-01

    In these notes the fundamentals of the mechanics of rail/wheel contact and deterministic vehicle dynamics is explained. Chapter 1 describes the kinematics and dynamics of rail/wheel contact. Chapter 2 explains why vehicle dynamics must be treated as a nonlinear dynamic problem and how the model p...

  7. A two-angle model of dynamic wetting in microscale capillaries under low capillary numbers with experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Da; Lin, Mian; Li, Yun; Jiang, Wenbin

    2018-03-01

    An accurate model of the dynamic contact angle θ d is critical for the calculation of capillary force in applications like enhanced oil recovery, where the capillary number Ca ranges from 10 -10 to 10 -5 and the Bond number Bo is less than 10 -4 . The rate-dependence of the dynamic contact angle under such conditions remains blurred, and is the main target of this study. Featuring with pressure control and interface tracking, the innovative experimental system presented in this work achieves the desired ranges of Ca and Bo, and enables the direct optical measurement of dynamic contact angles in capillaries as tiny as 40 × 20 (width × height) μm and 80 × 20 μm. The advancing and receding processes of wetting and nonwetting liquids were tested. The dynamic contact angle was confirmed velocity-independent with 10 -9  < Ca < 10 -5 (contact line velocity V = 0.135-490 μm/s) and it can be described by a two-angle model with desirable accuracy. A modified two-angle model was developed and an empirical form was obtained from experiments. For different liquids contacting the same surface, the advancing angle θ adv approximately equals the static contact angle θ o . The receding angle θ rec was found to be a linear function of θ adv , in good agreement with our and other experiments from the literature. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. An Improved Force-Angle Stability Margin for Radial Symmetrical Hexapod Robot Subject to Dynamic Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shidong Long

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study on stability monitoring for a radial symmetrical hexapod robot under dynamic conditions. The force-angle stability margin (FASM measure method has been chosen as the stability criterion. This is because it is suitable for the stability analysis, in terms of external forces or manipulator loads acting on the body. Considering that a radial symmetrical hexapod robot can tumble along the contact point besides tip-over axis, this paper proposes an improved FASM measure method. Furthermore, it provides the method for calculating the stability angle of contact point and simplifies the algorithm of FASM. To verify the improved FASM measure method, three potential dynamic situations have been simulated. The simulation results confirm that, under dynamic conditions, the improved FASM is efficient, simple in terms of calculation cost and sensitive to manipulator loads and external disturbances. This means it has practical value in on-line controllers.

  9. Help from a Hindrance: Using Astigmatism in Round Capillaries To Study Contact Angles and Wetting Layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobeika, Nelly; Bouriat, Patrick; Touil, Abdelhafid; Broseta, Daniel; Brown, Ross; Dubessy, Jean

    2017-05-30

    Round glass capillaries are a basic tool in soft-matter science, but often are shunned due to the astigmatism they introduce in micrographs. Here, we show how refraction in a capillary can be a help instead of a hindrance to obtain precise and sensitive information on two important interfacial properties: the contact angle of two immiscible fluids and the presence of thin films on the capillary wall. Understanding optical cusps due to refraction allows direct mesurement of the inner diameter of a capillary at the meniscus, which, with the height of the meniscus cap, determines the contact angle. The meniscus can thus be measured without intrusive additives to enhance visibility, such as dyes or calibrated particles, in uniform, curved, or even tapered capillaries or under demanding conditions not accessible by conventional methods, such as small volumes (μL), high temperatures, or high pressures. We further elicit the conditions for strong internal reflection on the inner capillary wall, involving the wall and fluid refractive indices and the wall thickness, and show how to choose the capillary section to detect thin (submicron) layers on the wall, by the contribution of total internal reflection to the cusps. As examples, we report the following: (i) CO 2 -water or -brine contact angles at glass interfaces, measured at temperatures and pressures up to 200 °C and 600 bar, revealing an effect apparently so far unreported-the decrease in the water-wet character of glass, due to dissolved salts in brine, is strongly reduced at high temperatures, where contact angles converge toward the values in pure water; (ii) A tenuous gas hydrate layer growing from the water-guest contact line on glass, invisible in transmission microscopy but prominent in the cusps due to total internal reflection.

  10. Tensão superficial dinâmica e ângulo de contato de soluções aquosas com surfatantes em superfícies artificiais e naturais Dynamic surface tension and contact angle of water solutions with spray surfactants in artificial and natural surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina A. R. Iost

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho objetivou avaliar o efeito de surfatantes em soluções aquosas sobre a tensão superficial dinâmica e ângulo de contato das gotas em diferentes superfícies: artificiais (lâmina de vidro e de óxido de alumínio e naturais (superfícies adaxiais de folhas de Euphorbia heterophylla, Ipomoea grandifolia e Brachiaria plantaginea. Seis formulações de surfatantes (Antideriva®; Uno®; Pronto 3®; Li-700®; Supersil® e Silwet L-77®, respectivamente nas doses recomendadas do produto comercial (0,050; 0,025; 0,100; 0,250; 0,100 e 0,100 % v v-1 e o dobro delas, foram avaliadas em soluções aquosas. A tensão superficial dinâmica e o ângulo de contato formado sobre as superfícies naturais foram medidos por tensiômetro. Os ângulos de contato formados pelas gotas nas superfícies artificiais foram obtidos por análise de imagens capturadas por uma câmera digital. Os surfatantes influenciam nas propriedades físico-químicas de soluções aquosas. As soluções contendo os surfatantes Silwet L-77® e Supersil®; nas doses de 0,100 e 0,200% v v-1; proporcionaram maiores reduções na tensão superficial dinâmica e menores ângulos de contato das gotas sobre as superfícies artificiais e naturais. Os surfatantes organossiliconados em solução aquosa foram mais eficientes na redução da tensão superficial e proporcionaram maior molhamento de superfícies natural e artificial. Em alvos naturais, essas propriedades obtidas com organossiliconados são dependentes das características de superfície das espécies vegetais.The aim of the work was to evaluate the effect of surfactants in water solutions on dynamic surface tension and contact angle formed by the spray droplets in different surfaces: artificial (glass and aluminum oxide slides and natural (leaves surface of three species of weeds: Euphorbia heterophylla, Ipomoea grandifolia e Brachiaria plantaginea. Were studied six surfactants formulations (AntiderivaTM; UnoTM; Pronto 3TM

  11. A Simple Approach for Local Contact Angle Determination on a Heterogeneous Surface

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Jinbo

    2011-05-17

    We report a simple approach for measuring the local contact angle of liquids on a heterogeneous surface consisting of intersected hydrophobic and hydrophilic patch arrays, specifically by employing confocal microscopy and the addition of a very low concentration of Rhodamine-B (RB) (2 × 10 -7 mol/L). Interestingly, RB at that concentration was found to be aggregated at the air-liquid and solid (hydrophobic patch only)-liquid interfaces, which helps us to distinguish the liquid and solid interfaces as well as hydrophobic and hydrophilic patches by their corresponding fluorescent intensities. From the measured local contact angles, the line tension can be easily derived and the value is found to be (-2.06-1.53) × 10-6 J/m. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  12. Dynamical measurements of the Spin Hall angle

    OpenAIRE

    Talalaevskyy, Oleksandr

    2017-01-01

    Broad study of magnetic properties of YIG films is performed. This thesis covers the whole path from YIG sample growth to characterization of magnetization dynamics. In the sub-chapter 5.1, full magnetic characterization of the thin sputtered YIG films is given. A batch of YIG samples with thicknesses of 19, 29, 38 and 49 nanometer is grown by magnetron sputtering for the spin waves experiment. The thickness and the surface roughness are controlled by XRR and AFM measurements. The obtained sa...

  13. On the interfacial behavior of ionic liquids: surface tensions and contact angles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restolho, José; Mata, José L; Saramago, Benilde

    2009-12-01

    In this work the liquid/vapour and the solid/liquid interfaces of a series of ionic liquids: 1-ethyl-3-methylpyridinium ethyl sulfate, [EMPy][EtSO4], 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethyl sulfate, [EMIM][EtSO4], 1-ethanol-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, [C2OHMIM][BF4], 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, [BMIM][BF4], and 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, [OMIM][BF4], were investigated. The surface tension was measured in a wide temperature range, (298-453) K. The contact angles were determined on substrates of different polarities. Both on the polar (glass) and the non-polar substrates ((poly-(tetrafluoroethylene) and poly-(ethylene)), the liquids with maximum and minimum surface tensions lead, respectively, to the highest and the lowest contact angles. The dispersive, gamma(L)(d), and non-dispersive, gamma(L)(nd), components of the liquid surface tension, gamma(L), were calculated from the contact angles on the non-polar substrates using the Fowkes approach. The polarity fraction, gamma(L)(nd)/gamma(L), was compared with the polarity parameter, k, obtained from the fitting of the surface tension vs. temperature data to the Eötvös equation. Good agreement was found for the extreme cases: [OMIM][BF4] exhibits the lowest polarity and [BMIM][BF4], the highest. When compared with the polarity fractions of standard liquids considered as "polar" liquids, the ionic liquids studied may be considered as moderately polar.

  14. Changes in contact angle providing evidence for surface alteration in multi-component solid foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinke, Svenja K.; Hauf, Katharina; Vieira, Josélio; Heinrich, Stefan; Palzer, Stefan

    2015-11-01

    Chocolate blooming, one of the major problems in the confectionery industry, is the formation of visible white spots or a greyish haze on the surface of chocolate products due to large sugar or fat crystals on the surface. This leads to aesthetic changes and deterioration of taste and thus large sales losses for the confectionery industry due to consumer complaints. Chocolate blooming is often related to migration of lipids or sugar molecules to the chocolate surface, where they recrystallize with an associated polymorphic change of crystal structure on the surface. The wetting behaviour from contact angle measurements gives further insight into surface properties and is needed to determine surface energies and to evaluate possible migration mechanisms and preferred pathways. Therefore, an equilibrium contact angle is needed which is not directly accessible and is influenced by surface texture and interaction between solid and test liquid. In this study, the surface of cocoa butter and conventional chocolates was characterized by measuring the contact angle with the sessile drop protocol. The influence of roughness, test liquid and pre-crystallization of the samples as well as the storage temperature were investigated. In case of no pre-crystallization, a change in surface properties due to storage at 20 °C was detected, whereas samples stored at 30 °C showed the same wetting behaviour as fresh samples. This is associated with polymorphic transformation from thermodynamically less stable crystals to more stable configurations.

  15. Changes in contact angle providing evidence for surface alteration in multi-component solid foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinke, Svenja K; Hauf, Katharina; Heinrich, Stefan; Vieira, Josélio; Palzer, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Chocolate blooming, one of the major problems in the confectionery industry, is the formation of visible white spots or a greyish haze on the surface of chocolate products due to large sugar or fat crystals on the surface. This leads to aesthetic changes and deterioration of taste and thus large sales losses for the confectionery industry due to consumer complaints. Chocolate blooming is often related to migration of lipids or sugar molecules to the chocolate surface, where they recrystallize with an associated polymorphic change of crystal structure on the surface. The wetting behaviour from contact angle measurements gives further insight into surface properties and is needed to determine surface energies and to evaluate possible migration mechanisms and preferred pathways. Therefore, an equilibrium contact angle is needed which is not directly accessible and is influenced by surface texture and interaction between solid and test liquid. In this study, the surface of cocoa butter and conventional chocolates was characterized by measuring the contact angle with the sessile drop protocol. The influence of roughness, test liquid and pre-crystallization of the samples as well as the storage temperature were investigated. In case of no pre-crystallization, a change in surface properties due to storage at 20 °C was detected, whereas samples stored at 30 °C showed the same wetting behaviour as fresh samples. This is associated with polymorphic transformation from thermodynamically less stable crystals to more stable configurations. (paper)

  16. Dynamic angle selection in X-ray computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dabravolski, Andrei, E-mail: andrei.dabravolski@uantwerpen.be [iMinds-Vision Lab, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Batenburg, Kees Joost, E-mail: joost.batenburg@uantwerpen.be [iMinds-Vision Lab, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Centrum Wiskunde and Informatica (CWI), Science Park 123, 1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Sijbers, Jan, E-mail: jan.sijbers@uantwerpen.be [iMinds-Vision Lab, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • We propose the dynamic angle selection algorithm for CT scanning. • The approach is based on the concept of information gain over a set of solutions. • Projection angles are selected based on the already available projection data. • The approach can lead to more accurate results from fewer projections. - Abstract: In X-ray tomography, a number of radiographs (projections) are recorded from which a tomogram is then reconstructed. Conventionally, these projections are acquired equiangularly, resulting in an unbiased sampling of the Radon space. However, especially in case when only a limited number of projections can be acquired, the selection of the angles has a large impact on the quality of the reconstructed image. In this paper, a dynamic algorithm is proposed, in which new projection angles are selected by maximizing the information gain about the object, given the set of possible new angles. Experiments show that this approach can select projection angles for which the accuracy of the reconstructed image is significantly higher compared to the standard angle selections schemes.

  17. Thin three-dimensional droplets on an oscillating substrate with contact angle hysteresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, J.; Billingham, J.

    2016-01-01

    Recent experiments [P. Brunet, J. Eggers, and R. D. Deegan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 144501 (2007), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.99.144501] have shown that a liquid droplet on an inclined plane can be made to move uphill by sufficiently strong, vertical oscillations. In order to investigate this counterintuitive phenomenon we use a model in which liquid inertia and viscosity are assumed negligible so that the motion of the droplet is dominated by the applied acceleration due to the oscillation of the plate, gravity, and surface tension. We explain how the leading order motion of the droplet can be separated into a spreading mode and a swaying mode. For a linear contact line law, the maximum rise velocity occurs when these modes are in phase. We show that, both with and without contact angle hysteresis, the droplet can climb uphill and also that, for certain contact line laws, the motion of the droplet can produce footprints similar to experimental results. We show that if the two modes are out of phase when there is no contact angle hysteresis, the inclusion of hysteresis can force them into phase. This in turn increases the rise velocity of the droplet and can, in some cases, cause a sliding droplet to climb.

  18. Simulation Study of AC Contactor Dynamic Contacts Contact Pressure Based on ADAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gu Yungao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A multi-body dynamics simulation model of CJ20-25 AC contactor was established with Pro/E(Pro/Engineerin this paper. A coupling simulation with machine, electric, magnetic on the contactor has been achieved in this model. Dynamic parameters which were called use the secondary development technology of ADAMS. The dynamic contact pressure signal of an AC contactor was obtained with ADAMS’s own simultaneous solution such as electromagnetic suction, kinematics and dynamics equations. The simulation results and actual measurement of contactor contact pressure signals are very similar. However, the complexity of the measured contacts vibration is greater than the simulation results because the actual working condition is more complex. This result provides a theoretical foundation to the dynamic contacts contact pressure test.

  19. In Situ Local Contact Angle Measurement in a CO2-Brine-Sand System Using Microfocused X-ray CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Pengfei; Liu, Yu; Wang, Zhe; Liu, Shuyang; Jiang, Lanlan; Chen, Junlin; Song, Yongchen

    2017-04-11

    The wettability of porous media is of major interest in a broad range of natural and engineering applications. The wettability of a fluid on a solid surface is usually evaluated by the contact angle between them. While in situ local contact angle measurements are complicated by the topology of porous media, which can make it difficult to use traditional methods, recent advances in microfocused X-ray computed tomography (micro-CT) and image processing techniques have made it possible to measure contact angles on the scale of the pore sizes in such media. However, the effects of ionic strength, CO 2 phase, and flow pattern (drainage or imbibition) on pore-scale contact angle distribution are still not clear and have not been reported in detail in previous studies. In this study, we employed a micro-CT scanner for in situ investigation of local contact angles in a CO 2 -brine-sand system under various conditions. The effects of ionic strength, CO 2 phase, and flow pattern on the local contact-angle distribution were examined in detail. The results showed that the local contact angles vary over a wide range as a result of the interaction of surface contaminants, roughness, pore topology, and capillarity. The wettability of a porous surface could thus slowly weaken with increasing ionic strength, and the average contact angle could significantly increase when gaseous CO 2 (gCO 2 ) turns into supercritical CO 2 (scCO 2 ). Contact angle hysteresis also occurred between drainage and imbibition procedures, and the hysteresis was more significant under gCO 2 condition.

  20. Contact angle and droplet heat transfer during evaporation on structured and smooth surfaces of heated wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misyura, S. Y.

    2017-08-01

    Water evaporation in a wide range of droplet diameters and wall temperatures on the structured and smooth surfaces were studied experimentally. Linear dependence of evaporation rate (dV/dt) on a droplet radius varies when the volume is greater than 40-60 μl. The static contact angles on the structured surface vary with a droplet diameter for high wall superheating. Dependence of the contact angle on diameter for the corrugated surface is defined by a change in both potential energy barrier U and three-phase contact line tension τcl. This energy barrier for the structured wall changes with an increase in the initial droplet diameter and becomes constant for the large droplets. For high wall superheating, the power in the law of evaporation increases from 1 to 1.45 with an increase in the initial droplet diameter. Depending on the droplet radius, number of droplets and heater length, four different characters of evaporation are realized. Complete droplet evaporation time on structured surface is less than smooth wall. Heat transfer coefficient is greater for structured wall than smooth one. When simulating droplet evaporation and heat transfer, it is necessary to take into account free convection of air and vapor.

  1. Non-linear Flight Dynamics at High Angles of Attack

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granasy, P.; Sørensen, C.B.; Mosekilde, Erik

    1998-01-01

    The methods of nonlinear dynamics are applied to the longitudinal motion of a vectored thrust aircraft, in particular the behavior at high angles of attack. Our model contains analytic nonlinear aerodynamical coefficients based on NASA windtunnel experiments on the F-18 high-alpha research vehicl...

  2. Improved Angle Potentials for Coarse-Grained Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulacu, Monica; Goga, Nicolae; Zhao, Wei; Rossi, Giulia; Monticelli, Luca; Periole, Xavier; Tieleman, D. Peter; Marrink, Siewert J.

    Potentials routinely used in atomistic molecular dynamics simulations are not always suitable for modeling systems at coarse-grained resolution. For example, in the calculation of traditional torsion angle potentials, numerical instability is often encountered in the case of very flexible molecules.

  3. Determination of Hydrophobic Contact Angle of Epoxy Resin Compound Silicon Rubber and Silica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syakur, Abdul; Hermawan; Sutanto, Heri

    2017-04-01

    Epoxy resin is a thermosetting polymeric material which is very good for application of high voltage outdoor insulator in electrical power system. This material has several advantages, i.e. high dielectric strength, light weight, high mechanical strength, easy to blend with additive, and easy maintenance if compared to that of porcelain and glass outdoor insulators which are commonly used. However, this material also has several disadvantages, i.e. hydrophilic property, very sensitive to aging and easily degraded when there is a flow of contaminants on its surface. The research towards improving the performance of epoxy resin insulation materials were carried out to obtain epoxy resin insulating material with high water repellent properties and high surface tracking to aging. In this work, insulating material was made at room temperature vulcanization, with material composition: Diglycidyl Ether Bisphenol A (DGEBA), Metaphenylene Diamine (MPDA) as hardener with stoichiometric value of unity, and nanosilica mixed with Silicon Rubber (SiR) with 10% (RTV21), 20% (RTV22), 30% (RTV23), 40% (RTV24) and 50% (RTV25) variation. The usage of nanosilica and Silicon Rubber (SIR) as filler was expected to provide hydrophobic properties and was able to increase the value of surface tracking of materials. The performance of the insulator observed were contact angle of hydrophobic surface materials. Tests carried out using Inclined Plane Tracking procedure according to IEC 60-587: 1984 with Ammonium Chloride (NH4Cl) as contaminants flowed using peristaltic pumps. The results show that hydrophobic contact angle can be determined from each sample, and RTV25 has maximum contact angle among others.

  4. Ice nucleation on mineral dust particles: Onset conditions, nucleation rates and contact angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwood, Michael L.; Cremel, Sebastien; Gehrke, Clemens; Girard, Eric; Bertram, Allan K.

    2008-11-01

    An optical microscope coupled to a flow cell was used to investigate the onset conditions for ice nucleation on five atmospherically relevant minerals at temperatures ranging from 233 to 246 K. Here we define the onset conditions as the humidity and temperature at which the first ice nucleation event was observed. Kaolinite and muscovite were found to be efficient ice nuclei in the deposition mode, requiring relative humidities with respect to ice (RHi) below 112% in order to initiate ice crystal formation. Quartz and calcite, by contrast, were poor ice nuclei, requiring relative humidities close to water saturation before ice crystals would form. Montmorillonite particles were efficient ice nuclei at temperatures below 241 K but were poor ice nuclei at higher temperatures. In several cases, there was a lack of quantitative agreement between our data and previously published work. This can be explained by several factors including the mineral source, the particle sizes, the surface area available for nucleation, and observation time. Heterogeneous nucleation rates (Jhet) were calculated from the measurements of the onset conditions (temperature and RHi) required from ice nucleation. The Jhet values were then used to calculate contact angles (θ) between the mineral substrates and an ice embryo using classical nucleation theory. The contact angles measured for kaolinite and muscovite ranged from 6° to 12°, whereas for quartz and calcite, the contact angles ranged from 25° to 27°. The reported Jhet and θ values may allow for a more direct comparison between laboratory studies and can be used when modeling ice cloud formation in the atmosphere.

  5. DETERMINING THE VALUE OF SURFACE FREE ENERGY ON THE BASIS OF THE CONTACT ANGLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Kłonica

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of tests concerning the value of surface free energy on the basis of measurements of contact angle with measure liquids: distilled water and diiodomethane. The surface of steel-316L samples was modified in an ozone atmosphere, and the concentration of ozone and the conditioning time of the samples in the reaction chamber were changed. The results of tests concerning the measurements of the value of surface free energy were subject to analysis. Also analysed were the components of SFE: the polar and dispersive components. The obtained test results were analysed in statistical terms. The paper ends with conclusions.

  6. Relation between the size of fog droplets and their contact angles with CR39 surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosu, G; Andrzejewski, L; Veilleux, G; Ross, G G

    2004-01-01

    The formation of fog on CR39 surfaces has been studied. Water droplets form fog coalesce with time, especially during the first 20 s at the beginning of the formation of fog. Consequently, their mean diameter increases. Formation of fog being related to the wettability of the surfaces, the latter has been increased by the implantation of Ar ions into CR39 surfaces under an oxygen partial pressure. A very wetting CR39 surface with advancing (ACA) and receding (RCA) contact angles below 5 deg. has been obtained with an implantation dose of 1.28x10 17 Ar + cm -2 . In this condition, no formation of fog was observed. Characterization using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy has shown that the molecular structure of CR39 is strongly modified by Ar + implantation, which would be responsible for the increase in wettability. Unfortunately, both ACA and RCA increase with time, which is called ageing, and the formation of fog is again observed. The diameter and concentration of water droplets forming fog have been plotted against the contact angle. These plots show that no formation of fog occurs for ACA 15 He + cm -2 and an energy of 2 keV, sufficient to push the ions deeper than the Ar depth profile, delays the ageing effect in such a way that ACA ≅ 40 deg. is reached after ∼2000 h and no formation of fog is observed during these first ∼2000 h

  7. Contact angle analysis of low-temperature cyclonic atmospheric pressure plasma modified polyethylene terephthalate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Chun; Chang, Ya-Chi; Wu, Shin-Yi

    2010-01-01

    Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) films are modified by cyclonic atmospheric pressure plasma. The experimentally measured gas phase temperature was around 30 o C to 90 o C, indicating that this cyclonic atmospheric pressure plasma can treat polymers without unfavorable thermal effects. The surface properties of cyclonic atmospheric pressure plasma-treated PET films were examined by the static contact angle measurements. The influences of plasma conditions such as treatment time, plasma power, nozzle distance, and gas flow rate on the PET surface properties were studied. It was found that such cyclonic atmospheric pressure plasma is very effective in PET surface modification, the reduced water contact angle was observed from 74 o to less than 37 o with only 10 s plasma treatment. The chemical composition of the PET films was analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to study the changes in PET surface feature of the polymer surfaces due to plasma treatment. The photoemission plasma species in the continuous cyclone atmospheric pressure plasma was identified by optical emission spectroscopy (OES). From OES analysis, the plasma modification efficiency can be attributed to the interaction of oxygen-based plasma species in the plasma with PET surface. In this study, it shows a novel way for large scale polymeric surface modification by continuous cyclone atmospheric pressure plasma processing.

  8. Evaluation of the contact angle and frost resistance of hydrophobised heat-insulating mortars with polystyrene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnat-Hunek, Danuta; Łagód, Grzegorz; Klimek, Beata

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the research presented in the paper was to evaluate the feasibility of using hydrophobic preparation based on organosilicon compounds for surface protection on the heat-insulating mortars modified with polystyrene. The work discusses issues related to wettability, absorptivity and frost resistance of the surface layer of mortars. The experimental part pertains to the physical and mechanical properties of polystyrene-modified mortars and the influence of hydrophobic preparation on the contact angle and frost resistance. The frost resistance of mortars was examined following 25 cycles of freezing and thawing. The contact angle of light mortars (θw) was determined before and after the tests of frost resistance, in the function of time using a single measurement liquid. This provided a basis for calculating the surface free energy with Neumann method, characterizing the wettability and adhesion of mortars under normal conditions and with damages resulting from frost weathering. The structure of mortars and the adhesion of lightweight aggregate to cement paste were presented by means of scanning electron microscopy. The studies enabled to determine the hydrophobisation efficiency of heat-insulating mortars with polystyrene. The obtained results confirmed the possibility of producing heat-insulating mortars modified with polystyrene along with proper surface protection against moisture and frost.

  9. Surface composition and contact angle relationships for differently prepared solid dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlberg, Carina; Millqvist-Fureby, Anna; Schuleit, Michael

    2008-10-01

    Solid dispersions are promising drug delivery forms which offer the possibility to disperse a hydrophobic drug in a hydrophilic matrix and thereby improve the dissolution behavior and the bioavailability of the drug. One important aspect and a prerequisite in understanding the drug dissolution mechanism from solid dispersions is a better analytical monitoring of the solid dispersion surface properties, such as powder surface composition and water adsorption properties. In this paper, we have considered chemical and structural surface analysis data for solid dispersions processed by spray drying or roto-evaporation and compared these data with information obtained by contact angle measurements. Firstly, we establish the usefulness and suitability of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) for determination of surface chemical composition and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for determining the structure of solid dispersions composed of different types of carriers, drugs and drug concentrations. Secondly, we measure contact angles of solid dispersions to describe wettability, to finally establish a link between the surface chemical composition, the powder structure and the wetting behavior. These experimental methods offer a rapid screening tool for the selection of carrier, drug concentration and/or process in early development. In addition, they provide a useful tool for investigating structural aspects of solid dispersions which have intrinsic relevance for drug dissolution and stability.

  10. Solution procedure of dynamical contact problems with friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelhakim, Lotfi

    2017-07-01

    Dynamical contact is one of the common research topics because of its wide applications in the engineering field. The main goal of this work is to develop a time-stepping algorithm for dynamic contact problems. We propose a finite element approach for elastodynamics contact problems [1]. Sticking, sliding and frictional contact can be taken into account. Lagrange multipliers are used to enforce non-penetration condition. For the time discretization, we propose a scheme equivalent to the explicit Newmark scheme. Each time step requires solving a nonlinear problem similar to a static friction problem. The nonlinearity of the system of equation needs an iterative solution procedure based on Uzawa's algorithm [2][3]. The applicability of the algorithm is illustrated by selected sample numerical solutions to static and dynamic contact problems. Results obtained with the model have been compared and verified with results from an independent numerical method.

  11. Computational study of a dynamic contact problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jigarkumar Patel

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we describe a computational framework to study the influence of a normal crack on the dynamics of a cantilever beam; i.e., changes in its natural frequency, amplitude and period of vibration, etc.

  12. In vitro contact angle analysis and physical properties of blister pack solutions of daily disposable contact lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzies, Kara L; Rogers, Ronan; Jones, Lyndon

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the advancing and receding contact angles (CAs) of five daily disposable (DD) lenses and the osmolality, surface tension (ST), and pH of each blister pack solution. The advancing and receding CAs were measured directly out of the blister pack for five DD lenses: omafilcon A (CooperVision), nelfilcon A (CIBA Vision), modified nelfilcon A (CIBA Vision), etafilcon A (Johnson & Johnson), and narafilcon A (Johnson & Johnson). Advancing CAs were measured using sessile drop and Wilhelmy balance methods. Receding CAs were measured using the Wilhelmy balance method. ST, pH, and osmolality were measured for each blister pack solution from all the DD lenses. The advancing CAs for the nelfilcon A lenses were statistically lower (P<0.05) than the advancing CAs of the other three lenses. The receding CAs for etafilcon A were statistically lower (P<0.05) than the receding CAs for the other four lenses. The pH of all the blister pack solutions was relatively neutral (7.01-7.43). The ST of the blister pack solution for the modified nelfilcon A was significantly lower (P<0.05) than the ST of all other blister pack solutions. The osmolality of the blister pack solutions for the etafilcon A and narafilcon A lenses were significantly higher (P<0.05) than the other blister pack solutions. The modified nelfilcon A lens had low advancing CAs and low receding CAs showing minimal hysteresis. The blister pack solution for the modified nelfilcon A lens had the lowest ST, a low osmolality, and a neutral pH.

  13. Dynamic contact with Signorini's condition and slip rate dependent friction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Kuttler

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Existence of a weak solution for the problem of dynamic frictional contact between a viscoelastic body and a rigid foundation is established. Contact is modelled with the Signorini condition. Friction is described by a slip rate dependent friction coefficient and a nonlocal and regularized contact stress. The existence in the case of a friction coefficient that is a graph, which describes the jump from static to dynamic friction, is established, too. The proofs employ the theory of set-valued pseudomonotone operators applied to approximate problems and a priori estimates.

  14. Measurement of contact angles at room temperature in high magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuanjun; Cao, Yang; Guo, Rui; He, Shengya; Xuan, Weidong; Li, Xi; Zhong, Yunbo; Ren, Zhongming

    2017-11-01

    The contact angle (CA) goniometer adaptable to a superconducting magnet was developed based on the sessile drop method. The goniometer mainly consisted of the sampling system, the supporting system, and the image acquisition system. Some improvements were taken to avoid the effects of the magnetic field (MF) on the CA measurement. As an example, the CAs of water on two substrates of silica and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) were measured using the goniometer. The results with and without a MF showed a good repeatability and reliability. Additionally, the MF was found to reduce the CA of water, which probably stemmed from the change of the surface tension in the MF. The CA goniometer will become an important tool which is used to study the wettability of liquids on a solid in the MF.

  15. The method of contact angle measurements and estimation of work of adhesion in bioleaching of metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matlakowska Renata

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present our method for the measurement of contact angles on the surface of minerals during the bioleaching process because the standard deviation obtained in our measurements achieved unexpectedly low error. Construction of a goniometer connected with a specially prepared computer program allowed us to repeat measurements several times over a short time course, yielding excellent results. After defining points on the outline of the image of a drop and its baseline as well of the first approximation of the outline of the drop, an iterative process is initiated that is aimed at fitting the model of the drop and baseline. In turn, after defining the medium for which measurements were made, the work of adhesion is determined according to Young-Dupré equation. Calculations were made with the use of two methods named the L-M and L-Q methods.

  16. Contact Angle Effects on Pore and Corner Arc Menisci in Polygonal Capillary Tubes Studied with the Pseudopotential Multiphase Lattice Boltzmann Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soyoun Son

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In porous media, pore geometry and wettability are determinant factors for capillary flow in drainage or imbibition. Pores are often considered as cylindrical tubes in analytical or computational studies. Such simplification prevents the capture of phenomena occurring in pore corners. Considering the corners of pores is crucial to realistically study capillary flow and to accurately estimate liquid distribution, degree of saturation and dynamic liquid behavior in pores and in porous media. In this study, capillary flow in polygonal tubes is studied with the Shan-Chen pseudopotential multiphase lattice Boltzmann model (LBM. The LB model is first validated through a contact angle test and a capillary intrusion test. Then capillary rise in square and triangular tubes is simulated and the pore meniscus height is investigated as a function of contact angle θ. Also, the occurrence of fluid in the tube corners, referred to as corner arc menisci, is studied in terms of curvature versus degree of saturation. In polygonal capillary tubes, the number of sides leads to a critical contact angle θc which is known as a key parameter for the existence of the two configurations. LBM succeeds in simulating the formation of a pore meniscus at θ > θc or the occurrence of corner arc menisci at θ < θc. The curvature of corner arc menisci is known to decrease with increasing saturation and decreasing contact angle as described by the Mayer and Stoewe-Princen (MS-P theory. We obtain simulation results that are in good qualitative and quantitative agreement with the analytical solutions in terms of height of pore meniscus versus contact angle and curvature of corner arc menisci versus saturation degree. LBM is a suitable and promising tool for a better understanding of the complicated phenomena of multiphase flow in porous media.

  17. Contact Angle Hysteresis on Graphene Surfaces and Hysteresis-free Behavior on Oil-infused Graphite Surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Cyuan-Jhang; Li, Yueh-Feng [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National Central University, Jhongli 320, Taiwan (China); Woon, Wei-Yen [Department of Physics, National Central University, Jhongli 320, Taiwan (China); Sheng, Yu-Jane, E-mail: yjsheng@ntu.edu.tw [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Tsao, Heng-Kwong, E-mail: hktsao@cc.ncu.edu.tw [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National Central University, Jhongli 320, Taiwan (China); Department of Physics, National Central University, Jhongli 320, Taiwan (China)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Contact angle hysteresis(CAH) on four graphitic surfacesisinvestigated. • The hysteresis loopof water drops on the polished graphite sheetshowsparticularly small receding contact angle. • The significant CAH observed on CVD graphene and highly oriented pyrolytic graphite is attributed mainly to adhesion hysteresis. • An oil-infused surface of a graphite sheet is produced by imbibition of hexadecane into its porous structure. • The hysteresis-free property for water drops on such a surface is examined and quantitatively explained. - Abstract: Contact angle hysteresis (CAH) on graphitic surfaces, including chemical vapor deposition (CVD) graphene, reduced electrophoretic deposition (EPD) graphene, highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG), and polished graphite sheet, has been investigated. The hysteresis loops of water drops on the first three samples are similar but the receding contact angle is particularly small for the polished graphite sheet.The significant CAH observed on CVD graphene and HOPG associated with atom-scale roughness has to be attributed mainly to adhesion hysteresis (surface relaxation), instead of roughness or defects.The difference of the wetting behavior among those four graphitic samples has been further demonstrated by hexadecane drops. On the surface of HOPG or CVD graphene,the contact line expands continuously with time, indicating total wetting for which the contact angle does not exist and contact line pinning disappears. In contrast, on the surface of reduced EPD graphene, spontaneous spreading is halted by spikes on it and partial wetting with small contact angle (θ≈4°) is obtained. On the surface of polished graphite sheet, the superlipophilicity and porous structure are demonstrated by imbibition and capillary rise of hexadecane. Consequently, an oil-infused graphite surface can be fabricated and the ultralow CAH of water (∆θ≈2°) is achieved.

  18. Universality in dynamic wetting dominated by contact-line friction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Andreas; Bellani, Gabriele; Amberg, Gustav

    2012-04-01

    We report experiments on the rapid contact-line motion present in the early stages of capillary-driven spreading of drops on dry solid substrates. The spreading data fail to follow a conventional viscous or inertial scaling. By integrating experiments and simulations, we quantify a contact-line friction μ(f) which is seen to limit the speed of the rapid dynamic wetting. A scaling based on this contact-line friction is shown to yield a universal curve for the evolution of the contact-line radius as a function of time, for a range of fluid viscosities, drop sizes, and surface wettabilities.

  19. Use of Atomic Oxygen for Increased Water Contact Angles of Various Polymers for Biomedical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    deGroh, Kim; Berger, Lauren; Roberts, Lily

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of atomic oxygen (AO) exposure on the hydrophilicity of nine different polymers for biomedical applications. Atomic oxygen treatment can alter the chemistry and morphology of polymer surfaces, which may increase the adhesion and spreading of cells on Petri dishes and enhance implant growth. Therefore, nine different polymers were exposed to atomic oxygen and water-contact angle, or hydrophilicity, was measured after exposure. To determine whether hydrophilicity remains static after initial atomic oxygen exposure, or changes with higher fluence exposures, the contact angles between the polymer and water droplet placed on the polymer s surface were measured versus AO fluence. The polymers were exposed to atomic oxygen in a 100-W, 13.56-MHz radio frequency (RF) plasma asher, and the treatment was found to significantly alter the hydrophilicity of non-fluorinated polymers. Pristine samples were compared with samples that had been exposed to AO at various fluence levels. Minimum and maximum fluences for the ashing trials were set based on the effective AO erosion of a Kapton witness coupon in the asher. The time intervals for ashing were determined by finding the logarithmic values of the minimum and maximum fluences. The difference of these two values was divided by the desired number of intervals (ideally 10). The initial desired fluence was then multiplied by this result (2.37), as was each subsequent desired fluence. The flux in the asher was determined to be approximately 3.0 x 10(exp 15) atoms/sq cm/sec, and each polymer was exposed to a maximum fluence of 5.16 x 10(exp 20) atoms/sq cm.

  20. Improved Angle Potentials for Coarse-Grained Molecular Dynamics Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulacu, Monica; Goga, Nicolae; Zhao, Wei; Rossi, Giulia; Monticelli, Luca; Periole, Xavier; Tieleman, D Peter; Marrink, Siewert J

    2013-08-13

    Potentials routinely used in atomistic molecular dynamics simulations are not always suitable for modeling systems at coarse-grained resolution. For example, in the calculation of traditional torsion angle potentials, numerical instability is often encountered in the case of very flexible molecules. To improve the stability and accuracy of coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations, we propose two approaches. The first makes use of improved forms for the angle potentials: the restricted bending (ReB) potential prevents torsion angles from visiting unstable or unphysical configurations and the combined bending-torsion (CBT) potential smoothly flattens the interactions when such configurations are sampled. In the second approach, dummy-assisted dihedral (DAD), the torsion potential is applied differently: instead of acting directly on the beads, it acts on virtual beads, bound to the real ones. For simple geometrical reasons, the unstable region is excluded from the accessible conformational space. The benefits of the new approaches are demonstrated in simulations of polyethylene glycol (PEG), polystyrene (PS), and polypeptide molecules described by the MARTINI coarse-grained force field. The new potentials are implemented in an in-house version of the Gromacs package, publicly available.

  1. New procedure to measure simultaneously the surface tension and contact angle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champmartin, S; Ambari, A; Le Pommelec, J Y

    2016-05-01

    This paper proposes a new procedure to simultaneously measure the static contact angle and the surface tension of a liquid using a spherical geometry. Unlike the other existing methods, the knowledge of one of both previous parameters and the displacement of the sphere are not mandatory. The technique is based on the measurement of two simple physical quantities: the height of the meniscus formed on a sphere at the very contact with a liquid bath and the resulting vertical force exerted on this object at equilibrium. The meniscus height, whose exact value requires the numerical resolution of the Laplace equation, is often estimated with an approximate 2D model, valid only for very large spheres compared to the capillary length. We develop instead another simplified solution of the Young-Laplace equation based on the work of Ferguson for the meniscus on a cylinder and adapted for the spherical shape. This alternative model, which is less restrictive in terms of the sphere size, is successfully compared to numerical solutions of the complete Young-Laplace equation. It appears to be accurate for sphere radii larger than only two capillary lengths. Finally the feasibility of the method is experimentally tested and validated for three common liquids and two "small" steel spheres.

  2. Friction modelling of preloaded tube contact dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, M.A.; Rogers, R.J.

    2005-01-01

    Many loosely supported components are subjected to flow-induced vibration leading to localized wear. Life prediction depends on robust and accurate modelling of the nonlinear dynamics as the components interact with their supports. The output of such analysis is the component dynamic response and impact forces, including friction forces during stick-slip motions. Such results are used to determine the normal work rates, which are utilized to predict fretting wear damage. Accurate estimates of these parameters are essential. This paper presents simulations of a loosely supported fuel-channel tube subject to turbulence excitation. The effects of tube/support clearance and preload are investigated. Several friction models, including velocity-limited, spring-damper and force-balance are utilized. A comparison of these models is carried out to investigate their accuracy. The results show good agreement with experimental work rates when a simple iterative procedure to update the friction forces is used

  3. Friction modelling of preloaded tube contact dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, M.A.; Rogers, R.J.

    2004-01-01

    Many loosely supported components are subjected to flow-induced vibration leading to localized wear. Life prediction depends on robust and accurate modelling of the nonlinear dynamics as the components interact with their supports. The output of such analysis is the component dynamic response and impact forces, including friction forces during stick-slip motions. Such results are used to determine the normal work rates, which are utilized to predict fretting wear damage. Accurate estimates of these parameters are essential. This paper presents simulations of a loosely supported fuel-channel tube subject to turbulence excitation. The effects of tube/support clearance and preload are investigated. Several friction models, including velocity-limited, spring-damper, and force-balance are utilized. A comparison of these models is carried out to investigate their accuracy. The results show good agreement with experimental work rates when a simple iterative procedure to update the friction forces is used. (authors)

  4. The contact angle of wetting of the solid phase of soil before and after chemical modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyugai Zemfira

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Wettability of soil affects a wide variety of processes including infiltration, preferential flow and surface runoff. Wettability of surface is usually expressed in terms of contact angle (CA measurement. If the CA between liquid and solid surface is less than 90°, the surface is called hydrophilic, otherwise the surface is called hydrophobic. If the CA of water droplet on hydrophilic surface is in a range of 0-30° this surface is called superhydrophilic. In case of superhydrophobic surfaces the CA exceeds 150° that means that these surfaces are extremely difficult to wet. CA of wetting of mineral soil particles depends on the overlying organic and iron compounds. The object of study is a sample of the humus-accumulative horizon of typical chernozem (Kursk, Russia and two samples (horizons A1, B2 of red ferrallitic soils (Fr. Norfolk, NE Oceania. The soil samples were analyzed for organic carbon, forms of non-silicate iron and hydrophobic-hydrophilic composition of humic substances. CA of wetting was determined in the intact samples and after removal of organic matter (H2O2 treatment, amorphous and crystallized forms of iron. Static contact angles were determined with the sessile drop method using a digital goniometer (Drop Shape Analysis System, DSA100, Krüss GmbH, Hamburg, Germany. The contact angle was calculated by the Young–Laplace method (fitting of Young–Laplace equation to the drop shape. The measurements were repeated 10-15 times for every sample. Oxidation of organic matter (H2O2 treatment causes an increase in the values of CA of wetting (in chernozem from 9.3 to 28,0-29.5º, in ferrallitic soil from 18.0 − 27.3 to 22.4 − 33.4º. CA remained constant for chernozem and slightly decreased in the case of ferrallitic soil, when the removal of amorphous and crystallized forms of iron was performed on samples pretreated with H2O2. CA increase occurs after successive removal of nonsilicate forms of iron from soil samples of

  5. In vivo patellofemoral contact mechanics during active extension using a novel dynamic MRI-based methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borotikar, B S; Sheehan, F T

    2013-12-01

    To establish an in vivo, normative patellofemoral (PF) cartilage contact mechanics database acquired during voluntary muscle control using a novel, dynamic, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging-based, computational methodology and validate the contact mechanics sensitivity to the known sub-millimeter methodological accuracies. Dynamic cine phase-contrast and multi-plane cine (MPC) images were acquired while female subjects (n = 20, sample of convenience) performed an open kinetic chain (knee flexion-extension) exercise inside a 3-T MR scanner. Static cartilage models were created from high resolution three-dimensional static MR data and accurately placed in their dynamic pose at each time frame based on the cine-PC (CPC) data. Cartilage contact parameters were calculated based on the surface overlap. Statistical analysis was performed using paired t-test and a one-sample repeated measures ANOVA. The sensitivity of the contact parameters to the known errors in the PF kinematics was determined. Peak mean PF contact area was 228.7 ± 173.6 mm(2) at 40° knee angle. During extension, contact centroid and peak strain locations tracked medially on the femoral and patellar cartilage and were not significantly different from each other. At 25°, 30°, 35°, and 40° of knee extension, contact area was significantly different. Contact area and centroid locations were insensitive to rotational and translational perturbations. This study is a first step towards unfolding the biomechanical pathways to anterior PF pain and osteoarthritis (OA) using dynamic, in vivo, and accurate methodologies. The database provides crucial data for future studies and for validation of, or as an input to, computational models. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. The Influence of Long-Range Surface Forces on the Contact Angle of Nanometric Droplets and Bubbles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocco, Antonio; Möhwald, Helmuth

    2015-11-03

    For a droplet or a bubble of dimensions below 100 nm, long-range surface forces such as long-range van der Waals forces can compete with capillarity, which leads to a size dependence of the contact angle. This is discussed in this work, where we also show that the effect cannot simply be described by a normalized line tension. We calculate interfacial profiles for typical values of van der Waals forces and discuss the role of long-range surface forces on the contact angle of nanobubbles and nanodrops.

  7. Influence of Experimental Variables on the Measure of Contact Angle in Metals Using the Sessile Drop Method

    OpenAIRE

    Schuster, Jonathan M.; Schvezov, Carlos E.; Rosenberger, Mario R.

    2015-01-01

    The sessile drop method is an easy and fast method used to measure the contact angle between solids and liquids. The value of the contact angle is used in surface characterization, in particular the wettability of solid surfaces by the liquid and to calculate the surface free energy. In this work, we study the effects of the volume of the drop placed on the surface, the elapsed time between drop placing and measurement and the cleaning of the substrate (not cleaning, washed with ethanol or...

  8. Dynamic-angle spinning and double rotation of quadrupolar nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, K.T. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States) California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry)

    1991-07-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy of quadrupolar nuclei is complicated by the coupling of the electric quadrupole moment of the nucleus to local variations in the electric field. The quadrupolar interaction is a useful source of information about local molecular structure in solids, but it tends to broaden resonance lines causing crowding and overlap in NMR spectra. Magic- angle spinning, which is routinely used to produce high resolution spectra of spin-{1/2} nuclei like carbon-13 and silicon-29, is incapable of fully narrowing resonances from quadrupolar nuclei when anisotropic second-order quadrupolar interactions are present. Two new sample-spinning techniques are introduced here that completely average the second-order quadrupolar coupling. Narrow resonance lines are obtained and individual resonances from distinct nuclear sites are identified. In dynamic-angle spinning (DAS) a rotor containing a powdered sample is reoriented between discrete angles with respect to high magnetic field. Evolution under anisotropic interactions at the different angles cancels, leaving only the isotropic evolution of the spin system. In the second technique, double rotation (DOR), a small rotor spins within a larger rotor so that the sample traces out a complicated trajectory in space. The relative orientation of the rotors and the orientation of the larger rotor within the magnetic field are selected to average both first- and second-order anisotropic broadening. The theory of quadrupolar interactions, coherent averaging theory, and motional narrowing by sample reorientation are reviewed with emphasis on the chemical shift anisotropy and second-order quadrupolar interactions experienced by half-odd integer spin quadrupolar nuclei. The DAS and DOR techniques are introduced and illustrated with application to common quadrupolar systems such as sodium-23 and oxygen-17 nuclei in solids.

  9. Dynamic-angle spinning and double rotation of quadrupolar nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, K.T.; California Univ., Berkeley, CA

    1991-07-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy of quadrupolar nuclei is complicated by the coupling of the electric quadrupole moment of the nucleus to local variations in the electric field. The quadrupolar interaction is a useful source of information about local molecular structure in solids, but it tends to broaden resonance lines causing crowding and overlap in NMR spectra. Magic- angle spinning, which is routinely used to produce high resolution spectra of spin-1/2 nuclei like carbon-13 and silicon-29, is incapable of fully narrowing resonances from quadrupolar nuclei when anisotropic second-order quadrupolar interactions are present. Two new sample-spinning techniques are introduced here that completely average the second-order quadrupolar coupling. Narrow resonance lines are obtained and individual resonances from distinct nuclear sites are identified. In dynamic-angle spinning (DAS) a rotor containing a powdered sample is reoriented between discrete angles with respect to high magnetic field. Evolution under anisotropic interactions at the different angles cancels, leaving only the isotropic evolution of the spin system. In the second technique, double rotation (DOR), a small rotor spins within a larger rotor so that the sample traces out a complicated trajectory in space. The relative orientation of the rotors and the orientation of the larger rotor within the magnetic field are selected to average both first- and second-order anisotropic broadening. The theory of quadrupolar interactions, coherent averaging theory, and motional narrowing by sample reorientation are reviewed with emphasis on the chemical shift anisotropy and second-order quadrupolar interactions experienced by half-odd integer spin quadrupolar nuclei. The DAS and DOR techniques are introduced and illustrated with application to common quadrupolar systems such as sodium-23 and oxygen-17 nuclei in solids

  10. Contact Angles of Water-repellent Porous Media Inferred by Tensiometer- TDR Probe Measurement Under Controlled Wetting and Drying Cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Subedi, Shaphal; Komatsu, Ken; Komatsu, Toshiko

    2013-01-01

    The time dependency of water repellency (WR) in hydrophobic porous media plays a crucial role for water infiltration processes after rainfall and for the long-term performance of capillary barrier systems. The contact angle (CA) of hydrophobic media normally decreases with continuous contact...... with water, eventually allowing water imbibition. However, the effect of the reduction in CA with soil-water contact time on the water retention function of hydrophobic media is not yet fully understood. In this study, water retention characteristics were measured using a hanging water column apparatus...... equipped with a mini-time domain reflectometry (TDR) coil probe under controlled wetting and drying in a water-repellent volcanic ash soil (VAS) and in sands coated with different hydrophobic agents. The contact angle (CA–SWRC) under imbibition was evaluated based on the inflection points on the water...

  11. Droplets and the three-phase contact line at the nano-scale. Statics and dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatsyshin, Petr; Sibley, David; Savva, Nikos; Kalliadasis, Serafim

    2014-11-01

    Understanding the behaviour of the solid-liquid-vapour contact line at the scale of several tens of molecular diameters is important in wetting hydrodynamics with applications in micro- and nano-fluidics, including the design of lab-on-a-chip devices and surfaces with specific wetting properties. Due to the fluid inhomogeneity at the nano-scale, the application of continuum-mechanical approaches is limited, and a natural way to remedy this is to seek descriptions accounting for the non-local molecular-level interactions. Density Functional Theory (DFT) for fluids offers a statistical-mechanical framework based on expressing the free energy of the fluid-solid pair as a functional of the spatially varying fluid density. DFT allows us to investigate small drops deposited on planar substrates whilst keeping track of the microscopic structural details of the fluid. Starting from a model of intermolecular forces, we systematically obtain interfaces, surface tensions, and the microscopic contact angle. Using a dynamic extension of equilibrium DFT, we investigate the diffusion-driven evolution of the three-phase contact line to gain insight into the dynamic behaviour of the microscopic contact angle, which is still under debate.

  12. Some remarks on the solid surface tension determination from contact angle measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdziennicka, Anna; Szymczyk, Katarzyna; Krawczyk, Joanna; Jańczuk, Bronisław

    2017-05-01

    The measurements of water, formamide and diiodomethane contact angle (θ) on polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), polyethylene (PE), polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), nylon 6, quartz and silica were performed. Based on the θ values of these liquids obtained on PTFE, the Lifshitz-van der Waals and acid-base and/or dispersion and polar components of their surface tension (ST) were determined. In turn, the θ values for water, formamide and diiodomethane on PMMA were applied to calculate the electron-acceptor and electron-donor parameters of the Lewis acid-base component of the formamide ST. For this calculation the same values of the electron-acceptor and electron-donor parameters for water ST were used. Taking into account the values of components and parameters of water, formamide and diiodomethane ST obtained by us, van Oss et al. and from the water(formamide)-n-alkane and water-diiodomethane interface tension, the components and parameters of studied solids ST were calculated. To this end different approaches to the interface tension were considered. The obtained values were compared with those in the literature. It was concluded that for determination of solid ST components and parameters, those of water, formamide and diiodomethane ST obtained from the θ measurements on the model solids should be used.

  13. Estimation of the Surface Properties of Styrene-Acrylonitrile Random Copolymers from Contact Angle Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adão; Saramago; Fernandes

    1999-09-01

    The surface free energy per unit area of a solid, gamma(S), is a fundamental property of materials and determines their surface and interfacial behavior in processes like wetting and adhesion. In this study the gamma(S) of a series of styrene-acrylonitrile random copolymers is evaluated. Three different approaches are used to determine the components in which the surface free energy can be decomposed. Using the geometric and the harmonic mean approach, the dispersive, gamma(d), and polar, gamma(p), components of the solid surface free energy were determined and compared to the Lifshitz-van der Waals, gamma(LW), and acid-base, gamma(AB), components using the approach developed by C. J. van Oss et al. (1987, Adv. Colloid Interface Sci. 28, 35). The acid-base approach was also used to evaluate the work of adhesion of the test liquids: water, glycerol, and thiodiglycol. It was found that the contact angles of these liquids follow closely the predictions of Cassie equation. The evaluation of the surface free energy components on one hand and the relative magnitude of the work of adhesion components on the other hand, suggest that below 50% of acrylonitrile the polystyrene repeating units are preferentially at the surface. Above 50% of acrylonitrile the segregation of the low-energy homopolymer at the surface decreases. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  14. Salinity-Dependent Contact Angle Alteration in Oil/Brine/Silicate Systems : the Critical Role of Divalent Cations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haagh, Martinus Everardus Johannes; Sîretanu, Igor; Duits, Michel; Mugele, Friedrich Gunther

    2017-01-01

    The effectiveness of water flooding oil recovery depends to an important extent on the competitive wetting of oil and water on the solid rock matrix. Here, we use macroscopic contact angle goniometry in highly idealized model systems to evaluate how brine salinity affects the balance of wetting

  15. Fabrication of a silica aerogel and examination of its hydrophobic properties via contact angle and 3M water repellency tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazrouei-Sebdani, Z.; Javazmi, L.; Khoddami, A.; Shams-Ghahfarokhi, F.; Low, T.

    2017-05-01

    Aerogels are dry gels with a very high specific pore volume. Aerogels with increased hydrophobicity have significant potential to expand their use as lightweight materials. Considering its special nanostructure and exceptional properties, this paper focuses on the synthesis and hydrophobic evaluation of a silica aerogel. The structural properties were investigated by measuring density, SEM micrographs, and BET analyses. Also, the hydrophobic evaluation was carried out by measuring 3M water repellency and water/alcohol contact angle. The BET analysis showed successful synthesis of the nanoporous silica aerogel with a pore size of 24 nm and porosity of 89%. The synthesized aerogel showed 3M water repellency of 3 and water contact angle of 129.6°. Also, it is worth-mentioning that as the alcohol content of the drops in 3M water repellency test is increased, the drop contact angle is decreased due to its lower surface tension. Thus, the contact angle reaches the zero at 3M water repellency test number of 4 (water/alcohol 60/40).

  16. Nanodrop on a nanorough hydrophilic solid surface: contact angle dependence on the size, arrangement, and composition of the pillars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berim, Gersh O; Ruckenstein, Eli

    2011-07-01

    A two-dimensional nanodrop on a hydrophilic solid surface decorated with nanopillars is examined using a nonlocal density functional theory. It is shown that, in contrast to the commonly used Wenzel formula, even an extremely small roughness can considerably increase the contact angle. The contact angle depends on the distance between pillars, their height and width, as well as their composition. It was found that for all selected pillar heights and compositions, the largest contact angle is obtained when the distance between pillars acquires a size at which the liquid molecules can no longer penetrate between them. The further decrease in the interpillar distance decreases the contact angle, in qualitative agreement with the Cassie-Baxter formula. Considering pillars of various compositions, the role of the gradient of the fluid-solid interaction potential is examined. The presence of such a gradient does not allow the formation of a stable nanodrop on the surface. However, asymmetrical metastable nanodrops can be formed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A level set method for simulating capillary-controlled displacements at the pore scale with nonzero contact angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jettestuen, Espen; Helland, Johan O.; Prodanović, Maša.

    2013-08-01

    We present a level set method for simulating capillary-controlled displacements with nonzero contact angles in porous media. The main feature of the method is a level set evolution velocity which is different in the pore space and solid phase. This augments the standard level set equation with an extra term such that, at steady state, the contact angle is enforced in the solid phase, whereas capillary and interfacial forces are balanced in the pore space. We employ the method to simulate quasistatic drainage and imbibition processes for different contact angles in several pore geometries, and to compute capillary pressure and fluid/fluid specific interfacial area curves in each case. We validate the method by comparing stable fluid configurations computed in idealized two-dimensional geometries and three-dimensional (3-D) straight tubes with known analytical solutions. Simulations performed in a subset of a 3-D sandstone image show that the developed method accounts for well-known pore-scale mechanisms such as piston-like invasion, Haines jump, interface coalescence, and retraction, swelling of wetting films and snap-off. The contact angle is formed by an intersection of the fluid/fluid interface and the void/solid boundary. Therefore, the solid matrix surrounding the pore space is discretized with at least an equal number of grid points as the size of the numerical stencil used to approximate the level set derivatives.

  18. Competitive adsorption of surfactants and hydrophilic silica particles at the oil-water interface: interfacial tension and contact angle studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichot, R; Spyropoulos, F; Norton, I T

    2012-07-01

    The effect of surfactants' type and concentration on the interfacial tension and contact angle in the presence of hydrophilic silica particles was investigated. Silica particles have been shown to have an antagonistic effect on interfacial tension and contact angle in the presence of both W/O and O/W surfactants. Silica particles, combined with W/O surfactant, have no effect on interfacial tension, which is only dictated by the surfactant concentration, while they strongly affect interfacial tension when combined with O/W surfactants. At low O/W surfactant, both particles and surfactant are adsorbed at the interface, modifying the interface structure. At higher concentration, interfacial tension is only dictated by the surfactant. By increasing the surfactant concentration, the contact angle that a drop of aqueous phase assumes on a glass substrate placed in oil media decreases or increases depending on whether the surfactant is of W/O or O/W type, respectively. This is due to the modification of the wettability of the glass by the oil or water induced by the surfactants. Regardless of the surfactant's type, the contact angle profile was dictated by both particles and surfactant at low surfactant concentration, whereas it is dictated by the surfactant only at high concentration. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Determination of surface heterogeneity of D-mannitol by sessile drop contact angle and finite concentration inverse gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Raimundo; Hinder, Steven J; Watts, John F; Dilworth, Sarah E; Williams, Daryl R; Heng, Jerry Y Y

    2010-03-15

    The sensitivity of two techniques in tracking changes in surface energetics was investigated for a crystalline excipient, D-mannitol. Macroscopic crystals of D-mannitol were grown from saturated water solution by slow cooling, and sessile drop contact angle was employed to measure the anisotropic surface energy. The facet-specific surface energy was consistent with localised hydroxyl group concentrations determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and was also in excellent agreement with the surface energy distribution of the powder form of mannitol measured via a new methodology using inverse gas chromatography (IGC) at finite concentrations. The gamma(SV)(d) was found to vary between 39.5 mJ/m(2) and 44.1 mJ/m(2) for contact angle and between 40 mJ/m(2) and 49 mJ/m(2) for IGC measurements. We report here, a high level of surface heterogeneity on the native mannitol crystal surfaces. When the surfaces of both D-mannitol samples (powder and large single crystals) were modified by dichlorodimethylsilane to induce surface hydrophobicity, both IGC and contact angle revealed a homogeneous surface due to functionalisation of mannitol crystal surface with methyl groups resulting in gamma(SV)(d) of approximately 34 mJ/m(2). It was shown that both IGC and contact angle techniques are able to detect surface chemical variations and detailed surface energetic distribution. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Viscosity, surface tension, density and contact angle of selected PbI2, PbCl2 and methylammonium lead halide perovskite solutions used in perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadian-Yazdi, Mohammad-Reza; Rahimzadeh, Amin; Chouqi, Zineb; Miao, Yihe; Eslamian, Morteza

    2018-02-01

    Perovskite solar cells (PSCs) are currently under vigorous research and development, owing to their compelling power conversion efficiencies. PSCs are solution-processed and, therefore, are fabricated using casting and printing methods, such as spin, spray and blade coating. The coating characteristics significantly depend on the physical and rheological properties of the solutions. Thus, due to the scarcity of such properties, in this work, we report the surface tension, viscosity, density, and contact angle of selected methylammonium lead halide perovskite solutions, in order to gain insight into the behavior of the perovskite solutions and the range of such physical properties. The contact angles were measured on PEDOT:PSS and compact TiO2 (c-TiO2) substrates, commonly used as the underneath layers of the perovskite film. In total, 12 solutions of CH3NH3PbI3 and CH3NH3PbI3-xClx dissolved in common solvents, as well as solutions of PbI2, PbCl2, and CH3NH3I were tested. Among the results, it is shown that the tested perovskite solutions are Newtonian, the apparent contact angles on the mesoporous TiO2 (m-TiO2) are close to zero, on the PEDOT:PSS are around 10°, and on the c-TiO2 are around 30°. Also, contact angle hysteresis is observed in the case of the c-TiO2 substrates. Representative impact dynamics and spreading of perovskite solution droplets are also studied, to demonstrate the importance of the solution properties and process parameters on the coating process.

  1. Ultralow contact angle hysteresis and no-aging effects in superhydrophobic tangled nanofiber structures generated by controlling the pore size of a 99.5% aluminum foil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sangmin; Hwang, Woonbong

    2009-03-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces designed to improve hydrophobicity have high advancing contact angles corresponding to the Cassie state, but these surfaces also exhibit high contact angle hysteresis. We report here a simple and inexpensive method for fabricating superhydrophobic tangled nanofiber structures with ultralow contact angle hysteresis and no-aging degradation, based on a widening process. The resulting nanostructures are suitable for diverse applications including microfluidic devices for biological studies and industrial self-cleaning products for automobiles, ships and houses.

  2. Some remarks on the solid surface tension determination from contact angle measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zdziennicka, Anna; Szymczyk, Katarzyna; Krawczyk, Joanna; Jańczuk, Bronisław, E-mail: bronislaw.janczuk@poczta.umcs.lublin.pl

    2017-05-31

    Graphical abstract: Surface tension of PE, nylon 6 and quartz from different approaches to the interface tension. - Highlights: • New values of water and formamide surface tension components were established. • Quartz surface tension depends on its crystal face. • Usefulness of different approaches for solid surface tension determination was tested. - Abstract: The measurements of water, formamide and diiodomethane contact angle (θ) on polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), polyethylene (PE), polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), nylon 6, quartz and silica were performed. Based on the θ values of these liquids obtained on PTFE, the Lifshitz-van der Waals and acid-base and/or dispersion and polar components of their surface tension (ST) were determined. In turn, the θ values for water, formamide and diiodomethane on PMMA were applied to calculate the electron-acceptor and electron-donor parameters of the Lewis acid-base component of the formamide ST. For this calculation the same values of the electron-acceptor and electron-donor parameters for water ST were used. Taking into account the values of components and parameters of water, formamide and diiodomethane ST obtained by us, van Oss et al. and from the water(formamide)-n-alkane and water-diiodomethane interface tension, the components and parameters of studied solids ST were calculated. To this end different approaches to the interface tension were considered. The obtained values were compared with those in the literature. It was concluded that for determination of solid ST components and parameters, those of water, formamide and diiodomethane ST obtained from the θ measurements on the model solids should be used.

  3. Effect of Annealing Temperature on the Water Contact Angle of PVD Hard Coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu-Sen; Cho, Ting-Pin

    2013-08-07

    Various PVD (physical vapor deposition) hard coatings including nitrides and metal-doped diamond-like carbons (Me-DLC) were applied in plastic injection and die-casting molds to improve wear resistance and reduce sticking. In this study, nitrides hcp-AlN (hexagonal close-packed AlN), Cr₂N, (CrAl)₂N) and Me-DLC (Si-DLC and Cr-DLC) coatings were prepared using a closed field unbalanced magnetron reactive sputtering system. The coatings were annealed in air for 2 h at various temperatures, after which the anti-sticking properties were assessed using water contact angle (WCA) measurements. The as-deposited hcp-AlN, Cr₂N and (CrAl)₂N coatings exhibit hydrophobic behavior and exhibit respective WCAs of 119°, 106° and 101°. The as-deposited Si-DLC and Cr-DLC coatings exhibit hydrophilic behavior and exhibit respective WCAs of 74° and 88°. The annealed Cr₂N and (CrAl)₂N coatings exhibit hydrophobic behavior with higher WCAs, while the annealed hcp-AlN, Si-DLC and Cr-DLC coatings are hydrophilic. The increased WCA of the annealed Cr₂N and (CrAl)₂N coatings is related to their crystal structure and increased roughness. The decreased WCA of the annealed hcp-AlN, Si-DLC and Cr-DLC coatings is related to their crystal structures and has little correlation with roughness.

  4. Effect of Annealing Temperature on the Water Contact Angle of PVD Hard Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu-Sen; Cho, Ting-Pin

    2013-01-01

    Various PVD (physical vapor deposition) hard coatings including nitrides and metal-doped diamond-like carbons (Me-DLC) were applied in plastic injection and die-casting molds to improve wear resistance and reduce sticking. In this study, nitrides hcp-AlN (hexagonal close-packed AlN), Cr2N, (CrAl)2N) and Me-DLC (Si-DLC and Cr-DLC) coatings were prepared using a closed field unbalanced magnetron reactive sputtering system. The coatings were annealed in air for 2 h at various temperatures, after which the anti-sticking properties were assessed using water contact angle (WCA) measurements. The as-deposited hcp-AlN, Cr2N and (CrAl)2N coatings exhibit hydrophobic behavior and exhibit respective WCAs of 119°, 106° and 101°. The as-deposited Si-DLC and Cr-DLC coatings exhibit hydrophilic behavior and exhibit respective WCAs of 74° and 88°. The annealed Cr2N and (CrAl)2N coatings exhibit hydrophobic behavior with higher WCAs, while the annealed hcp-AlN, Si-DLC and Cr-DLC coatings are hydrophilic. The increased WCA of the annealed Cr2N and (CrAl)2N coatings is related to their crystal structure and increased roughness. The decreased WCA of the annealed hcp-AlN, Si-DLC and Cr-DLC coatings is related to their crystal structures and has little correlation with roughness. PMID:28811440

  5. Effect of Annealing Temperature on the Water Contact Angle of PVD Hard Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Sen Yang

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Various PVD (physical vapor deposition hard coatings including nitrides and metal-doped diamond-like carbons (Me-DLC were applied in plastic injection and die-casting molds to improve wear resistance and reduce sticking. In this study, nitrides hcp-AlN (hexagonal close-packed AlN, Cr2N, (CrAl2N and Me-DLC (Si-DLC and Cr-DLC coatings were prepared using a closed field unbalanced magnetron reactive sputtering system. The coatings were annealed in air for 2 h at various temperatures, after which the anti-sticking properties were assessed using water contact angle (WCA measurements. The as-deposited hcp-AlN, Cr2N and (CrAl2N coatings exhibit hydrophobic behavior and exhibit respective WCAs of 119°, 106° and 101°. The as-deposited Si-DLC and Cr-DLC coatings exhibit hydrophilic behavior and exhibit respective WCAs of 74° and 88°. The annealed Cr2N and (CrAl2N coatings exhibit hydrophobic behavior with higher WCAs, while the annealed hcp-AlN, Si-DLC and Cr-DLC coatings are hydrophilic. The increased WCA of the annealed Cr2N and (CrAl2N coatings is related to their crystal structure and increased roughness. The decreased WCA of the annealed hcp-AlN, Si-DLC and Cr-DLC coatings is related to their crystal structures and has little correlation with roughness.

  6. Some remarks on the solid surface tension determination from contact angle measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zdziennicka, Anna; Szymczyk, Katarzyna; Krawczyk, Joanna; Jańczuk, Bronisław

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Surface tension of PE, nylon 6 and quartz from different approaches to the interface tension. - Highlights: • New values of water and formamide surface tension components were established. • Quartz surface tension depends on its crystal face. • Usefulness of different approaches for solid surface tension determination was tested. - Abstract: The measurements of water, formamide and diiodomethane contact angle (θ) on polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), polyethylene (PE), polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), nylon 6, quartz and silica were performed. Based on the θ values of these liquids obtained on PTFE, the Lifshitz-van der Waals and acid-base and/or dispersion and polar components of their surface tension (ST) were determined. In turn, the θ values for water, formamide and diiodomethane on PMMA were applied to calculate the electron-acceptor and electron-donor parameters of the Lewis acid-base component of the formamide ST. For this calculation the same values of the electron-acceptor and electron-donor parameters for water ST were used. Taking into account the values of components and parameters of water, formamide and diiodomethane ST obtained by us, van Oss et al. and from the water(formamide)-n-alkane and water-diiodomethane interface tension, the components and parameters of studied solids ST were calculated. To this end different approaches to the interface tension were considered. The obtained values were compared with those in the literature. It was concluded that for determination of solid ST components and parameters, those of water, formamide and diiodomethane ST obtained from the θ measurements on the model solids should be used.

  7. Probing into frictional contact dynamics by ultrasound and electrical simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changshan Jin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Friction arises in the interface of friction pair, and therefore, it is difficult to detect it. Ultrasonic means, as a NDT, is the correct alternative. This paper introduces a means of detecting dynamic contact and an interpretation of behaviors of dry friction. It has been determined that frictional surfaces have a specific property of dynamic response hardening (DRH. Dynamic response forces and oscillation arise during static–kinetic transition process. While the contact zone of sliding surfaces appears “hard” in motion, it appears “soft” at rest. Consequently, a separation of the surfaces occurs and the real area of contact is decreased as sliding velocity increases. This is the cause of F–v descent phenomenon. When the friction comes to a rest, the remaining process of DRH and micro-oscillation do not disappear instantaneously, instead they gradually return to their original static position. The contact area, therefore, is increased by rest period (F–T ascent characteristics. Based on analogies between a solid unit (η–m–k and an R-L-C circuit, the DRH is demonstrated by electrical simulations.

  8. Assessment of circumferential angle-closure by the iris-trabecular contact index with swept-source optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskaran, Mani; Ho, Sue-Wei; Tun, Tin A; How, Alicia C; Perera, Shamira A; Friedman, David S; Aung, Tin

    2013-11-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic performance of the iris-trabecular contact (ITC) index, a measure of the degree of angle-closure, using swept-source optical coherence tomography (SSOCT, CASIA SS-1000, Tomey Corporation, Nagoya, Japan) in comparison with gonioscopy. Prospective observational study. A total of 108 normal subjects and 32 subjects with angle-closure. The SSOCT 3-dimensional angle scans, which obtain radial scans for the entire circumference of the angle, were performed under dark conditions and analyzed using customized software by a single examiner masked to the subjects' clinical details. The ITC index was calculated as a percentage of the angle that was closed on SSOCT images. First-order agreement coefficient (AC1) statistics and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) analyses were performed for angle-closure on the basis of the ITC index in comparison with gonioscopy. Angle-closure on gonioscopy was defined as nonvisibility of posterior trabecular meshwork for at least 2 quadrants. Agreement of the ITC index with gonioscopically defined angle-closure was assessed using the AC1 statistic. Study subjects were predominantly Chinese (95.7%) and female (70.7%), with a mean age of 59.2 (standard deviation, 8.9) years. The median ITC index was 15.24% for gonioscopically open-angle eyes (n = 108) and 48.5% for closed-angle eyes (n = 32) (P = 0.0001). The agreement for angle-closure based on ITC index cutoffs (>35% and ≥50%) and gonioscopic angle-closure was 0.699 and 0.718, respectively. The AUC for angle-closure detection using the ITC index was 0.83 (95% confidence interval, 0.76-0.89), with an ITC index >35% having a sensitivity of 71.9% and specificity of 84.3%. The ITC index is a summary measure of the circumferential extent of angle-closure as imaged with SSOCT. The index had moderate agreement and good diagnostic performance for angle-closure with gonioscopy as the reference standard. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of

  9. Determination of wood wettability properties of oil palm trunk, Shorea sp. and Paraserianthes falcataria by contact angle method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sucipto, T.; Hartono, R.; Dwianto, W.

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the wettability of the inner part of oil palm trunk (OPT), the outer part of OPT, OPT that densified 50%, Shorea sp. and Paraserianthes falcataria wood, as raw material for laminated beams. The wettability of the wood was measured by using cosine-contact angle (CCA) method, which is measuring the angle between dripped resin liquid and the wood surface. The resins that used in this study is phenol formaldehyde (PF) and urea formaldehyde (UF). The results showed that the Shorea sp. and P. falcataria woods have the smallest contact angle or the best wettability properties than OPT. Shorea sp. has the best wettability on PF resin (83.00°), while P. falcataria on UF resin (90.89°), this is due to the levels of starch and extractive substances in Shorea sp. and P. falcataria wood are smaller than OPT. Furthermore, Shorea sp. and P. falcataria wood surfaces are flatter and smoother than OPT, so that the resin will flow easier and wetting the wood surface. In this condition, the liquid resin will flow easier and formed a smaller contact angle. The good wettability of wood will enhance the adhesion properties of laminated beams.

  10. A New Approach to Measure Contact Angle and Evaporation Rate with Flow Visualization in a Sessile Drop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nengli; Chao, David F.

    1999-01-01

    The contact angle and the spreading process of sessile droplet are very crucial in many technological processes, such as painting and coating, material processing, film-cooling applications, lubrication, and boiling. Additionally, as it is well known that the surface free energy of polymers cannot be directly, measured for their elastic and viscous restraints. The measurements of liquid contact angle on the polymer surfaces become extremely important to evaluate the surface free energy of polymers through indirect methods linked with the contact angle data. Due to the occurrence of liquid evaporation is inevitable, the effects of evaporation on the contact angle and the spreading become very important for more complete understanding of these processes. It is of interest to note that evaporation can induce Marangoni-Benard convection in sessile drops. However, the impacts of the inside convection on the wetting and spreading processes are not clear. The experimental methods used by previous investigators cannot simultaneously measure the spreading process and visualize the convection inside. Based on the laser shadowgraphic system used by the present author, a very simple optical procedure has been developed to measure the contact angle, the spreading speed, the evaporation rate, and to visualize inside convection of a sessile drop simultaneously. Two CCD cameras were used to synchronously record the real-time diameter of the sessile drop, which is essential for determination of both spreading speed and evaporation rate, and the shadowgraphic image magnified by the sessile drop acting as a thin plano-convex lens. From the shadowgraph, the inside convection of the drop can be observed if any and the image outer diameter, which linked to the drop profile, can be measured. Simple equations have been derived to calculate the drop profile, including the instantaneous contact angle, height, and volume of the sessile drop, as well as the evaporation rate. The influence of

  11. Dynamics of Surface Reorganization of Poly(methyl methacrylate) in Contact with Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horinouchi, Ayanobu; Atarashi, Hironori; Fujii, Yoshihisa; Tanaka, Keiji

    2013-03-01

    New tools for tailor-made diagnostics, such as DNA arrays and tips for micro-total-analysis systems, are generally made from polymers. In these applications, the polymer surface is in contact with a water phase. However, despite the importance of detailed knowledge of the fundamental interactions of polymer interfaces with liquids, such studies are very limited. As an initial benchmark for designing and constructing specialized biomedical surfaces containing polymer, aggregation states and dynamics of chains at the water interface should be systematically examined. We here apply time-resolved contact angle measurement to study the dynamics of the surface reorganization of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) in contact with water. By doing the measurements at various temperatures, it is possible to discuss the surface dynamics of PMMA based on the apparent activation energy. Also, sum-frequency generation spectroscopy revealed that the surface reorganization involves the conformational changes in the main chain part as well as the side chains. Hence, the dynamics observed here may reflect the segmental motion at the outermost region of the PMMA film, in which water plays as a plasticizer.

  12. Application of the critical angle method to refractive index measurement of human skin in vivo under partial contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Kenichiro; Ohkubo, Kohji; Ojima, Nobutoshi; Iwata, Kayoko

    2013-03-01

    We adapted the critical angle method for measuring rough surfaces under partial contact to acquire an in vivo skin refractive index (RI). Assuming that the total reflection is the simple sum of reflection from areas that are in contact and reflection from those that are not in contact, the RI can be estimated even for partial contact with a rough surface. We found that cheek skin is sufficiently soft that a sufficiently large area can be in contact and that the critical angle was detectable. The RIs of the cheeks of adult females were measured. The RI range was about 1.51 to 1.53, at a wavelength of 550 nm, without considering systematic errors. The RIs of cheeks are significantly correlated with their conductance, which corresponds to their water content. We determined the relationship between the RI and conductance within the variation of skin under normal conditions; this relationship was theoretically obtained in previous studies. In the present study, a direct in vivo measurement method was developed that enabled us to measure the RI in daily life, although this method contains errors for several reasons, including disregarding absorption.

  13. Effects of material properties on soft contact dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khurshid, A.; Malik, M.A.; Ghafoor, A.

    2009-01-01

    The superiority of deformable human fingertips as compared to hard robot gripper fingers for grasping and manipulation has led to a number of investigations with robot hands employing elastomers or materials such as fluids or powders beneath a membrane at the fingertips. In this paper, to analyze the stability of dynamic control of an object grasped between two soft fingertips through a soft interface using the viscoelastic material between the manipulating fingers and a manipulated object is modeled through bond graph method (BGM). The fingers are made viscoelastic by using springs and dampers. Detailed bond graph modeling (BGM) of the contact phenomenon with two soft-finger contacts considered to be placed against each other on the opposite sides of the grasped object as is generally the case in a manufacturing environment is presented. The stiffness of the springs is exploited in order to achieve the stability in the soft-grasping which includes friction between the soft finger contact surfaces and the object, The paper also analyses stability of dynamic control through a soft interface between a manipulating finger and a manipulated object. It is shown in the paper that the system stability depends on the visco-elastic material properties of the soft interface. Method of root locus is used to analyze this phenomenon. The paper shows how the weight of the object coming downward is controlled by the friction between the fingers and the object during the application of contact forces by varying the damping and the stiffness in the soft finger. (author)

  14. Experimental investigation of evaporation from low-contact-angle sessile droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhavaleswarapu, Hemanth K; Migliaccio, Christopher P; Garimella, Suresh V; Murthy, Jayathi Y

    2010-01-19

    Evaporating sessile drops remain pinned at the contact line during much of the evaporation process, and leave a ring of residue on the surface upon dryout. The intensive mass loss near the contact line causes solute particles to flow to the edge of the droplet and deposit at the contact line. The high vapor diffusion gradient and the low thermal resistance of the film near the contact line are responsible for very efficient mass transfer in this region. Although heat and mass transfer at the contact line have been extensively studied, well-characterized experiments remain scarce. The local mass transport in a 100-400 microm region near the contact line of a water droplet of radius 1810 microm on a glass substrate is experimentally quantified in the present work. Microparticle image velocimetry measurements of the three-dimensional flow field near the contact line are conducted to map the velocity field. Combined with high-resolution transient liquid profile shapes, the measured velocity field yields transient local evaporative mass fluxes near the contact line. The spatial and temporal distribution of the local evaporative flux is also documented. The temperature distribution in the droplet near the contact line is deduced from the local evaporative fluxes and interface mass transport theory.

  15. Study on fuel channel behavior following various PT/CT contact angles under late-heatup condition with SBLOCA/LOECC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Eun Kyung; Moon, Bok Jan; Kim, Seoung Rae [Nuclear Engineering Service and Solution Co, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    In this paper, a sensitivity study according to PT/CT contact angle is presented when pressure tube experience sagging contact. The loss of coolant from broken loop results in core voiding, and low steam flows in the channel which are caused by ECC water leakage assumed are to add the heat from zircaloy-water reaction. At the low steam flow rates, fuel and pressure tube heat up and the pressure tube may balloon or sag into contact with its calandria tube. LOCA with loss of emergency core cooling injection occurs in CANDU, moderator takes a role of an ultimate heat sink. Decay heat is removed to moderator through PT/CT contact. Therefore, behavior of PT/CT contact must account for LOCA/LOECC. The sensitivity of PT/CT sagging contact angle has been studied. The results of sagging contact angle could explain in different ways. In the case of wide sagging contact angle, the result is quite conservative in the aspect of containment as the heat is well-transferred to moderator. it causes the moderator to heat up. On the other hand, the narrow sagging contact angle results fuel heatup and give limiting condition for fuel integrity. As a result of estimation, a proper application of sagging contact angle is required to provide limiting condition for subsequent analysis.

  16. Spontaneous imbibition of water and determination of effective contact angles in the Eagle Ford Shale Formation using neutron imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiStefano, Victoria H.; Cheshire, Michael C.; McFarlane, Joanna; Kolbus, Lindsay M.; Hale, Richard E.; Perfect, Edmund; Bilheux, Hassina Z.; Santodonato, Louis J.; Hussey, Daniel S.; Jacobson, David L.; LaManna, Jacob M.; Bingham, Philip R.; Starchenko, Vitaliy; Anovitz, Lawrence M.

    2017-10-01

    Understanding of fundamental processes and prediction of optimal parameters during the horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing process results in economically effective improvement of oil and natural gas extraction. Although, the modern analytical and computational models can capture fracture growth, there is a lack of experimental data on spontaneous imbibition and wettability in oil and gas reservoirs for the validation of further model development. In this work, we used neutron imaging to measure the spontaneous imbibition of water into fractures of Eagle Ford Shale with known geometries and fracture orientations. An analytical solution for a set of nonlinear second-order differential equations was applied to the measured imbibition data to determine effective contact angles. The analytical solution fit the measured imbibition data reasonably well and determined effective contact angles were slightly higher than static contact angles due to effects of in-situ changes in velocity, surface roughness, and heterogeneity of mineral surfaces on the fracture surface. Additionally, small fracture widths may have retarded imbibition and affected model fits, which suggests that average fracture widths are not satisfactory for modeling imbibition in natural systems.

  17. Full Characterization of CO2-Oil Properties On-Chip: Solubility, Diffusivity, Extraction Pressure, Miscibility, and Contact Angle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharbatian, Atena; Abedini, Ali; Qi, ZhenBang; Sinton, David

    2018-02-20

    Carbon capture, storage, and utilization technologies target a reduction in net CO 2 emissions to mitigate greenhouse gas effects. The largest such projects worldwide involve storing CO 2 through enhanced oil recovery-a technologically and economically feasible approach that combines both storage and oil recovery. Successful implementation relies on detailed measurements of CO 2 -oil properties at relevant reservoir conditions (P = 2.0-13.0 MPa and T = 23 and 50 °C). In this paper, we demonstrate a microfluidic method to quantify the comprehensive suite of mutual properties of a CO 2 and crude oil mixture including solubility, diffusivity, extraction pressure, minimum miscibility pressure (MMP), and contact angle. The time-lapse oil swelling/extraction in response to CO 2 exposure under stepwise increasing pressure was quantified via fluorescence microscopy, using the inherent fluorescence property of the oil. The CO 2 solubilities and diffusion coefficients were determined from the swelling process with measurements in strong agreement with previous results. The CO 2 -oil MMP was determined from the subsequent oil extraction process with measurements within 5% of previous values. In addition, the oil-CO 2 -silicon contact angle was measured throughout the process, with contact angle increasing with pressure. In contrast with conventional methods, which require days and ∼500 mL of fluid sample, the approach here provides a comprehensive suite of measurements, 100-fold faster with less than 1 μL of sample, and an opportunity to better inform large-scale CO 2 projects.

  18. A new approach to influence contact angle and surface free energy of resin-based dental restorative materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüttermann, Stefan; Trellenkamp, Taina; Bergmann, Nora; Raab, Wolfgang H-M; Ritter, Helmut; Janda, Ralf

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to identify novel delivery systems and active agents which increase the water contact angle and reduce the surface free energy when added to resin-based dental restorative materials. Two delivery systems based on zeolite or novel polymeric hollow beads (Poly-Pore), loaded with two low surface tension active agents (hydroxy functional polydimethylsiloxane and polydimethylsiloxane) or a polymerizable active agent (silicone polyether acrylate) were used to modify commonly formulated experimental dental resin composites. The non-modified resin was used as a standard (ST). Flexural strength, flexural modulus, water sorption, solubility, polymerization shrinkage, surface roughness Ra, contact angle θ, total surface free energy γS, and the apolar γSLW, polar γSAB, Lewis acid γS+ and base γS- components, and the active agents surface tensions γL were determined (Ptension active agents were found not to influence the physical properties but to significantly increase the water contact angle and thus reduce surface free energy of dental resin composites. Copyright © 2010 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Contact angle and surface free energy of experimental resin-based dental restorative materials after chewing simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüttermann, Stefan; Beikler, Thomas; Janda, Ralf

    2014-06-01

    To investigate contact angle and surface free energy of experimental dental resin composites containing novel delivery systems of polymeric hollow beads and low-surface tension agents after chewing simulation test. A delivery system of novel polymeric hollow beads differently loaded with two low-surface tension agents was used in different amounts to modify commonly formulated experimental dental resin composites. The non-modified resin was used as standard. Surface roughness Ra, contact angle Θ, total surface free energy γS, its apolar γS(LW), polar γS(AB), Lewis acid γS(+) and base γS(-) terms were determined and the results prior to and after chewing simulation test were compared. Significance was phollow beads highly loaded with low-surface tension agents were found to significantly increase contact angle and thus to reduce surface free energy of experimental dental resin composites prior to and after chewing simulation test. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The Effect of Clear Paints, Nanozycofil and Nanozycosil on Water Absorption and Contact Angle of Poplar Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Gholamian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the effect of nano-zycosil, nano-zycofil, acid catalyzed lacquer and nitrocellulose lacquer and polyester on improving the water absorption and contact angle of wood was investigated. Some boards were prepared from the sapwood of poplar (P.nigra. They were dried based  on T6E3 schedule and some specimens were cut according to EN 927-5 standard (20 × 70 × 150 mm.  They were coated and immersed with the nano particles and clear paints.  The clear paint- and nanoparticles-coated samples were dried in laboratory environment and in an oven at the temperatures of 1032°c, respectively. After drying process, the water absorption of the samples was measured after 2, 24, 72, 168 h immersion. The contact angle of samples was measured after 1 and 10 seconds. The results revealed that the pattern of water absorption for the paints and nanoparticles is different. The samples coated with combined acid catalyzed lacquers and nitrocellulose lacquers and those coated with nanozycosil had the highest resistance to water absorption. The greatest contact angle was observed for the samples coated by nanozycosil.

  1. Comparison of the effect of three different irrigants on the contact angle of an epoxy resin sealer with intraradicular dentin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamta Kaushik

    2015-01-01

    Materials and Methods: Seventy human mandibularfirst premolars were used and 140 longitudinal dentin slices were obtained from them. Each sample was irrigated with of 3% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl, simulating the irrigation used during the chemomechanical preparation and then washed with 10ml of distilled water (DW. The samples were then divided into seven groups of 20 samples each. Group 1:NaOCl + DW, Group 2: QMix + DW, Group 3: 0.1% octenidine hydrochloride + DW, Group 4:Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA + DW + NaOCl + DW, Group 5: EDTA + DW + QMix + DW, Group 6: EDTA + DW + 0.1% Octenidine Hydrochloride + DW, and Group 7(control: DW. The contact angle between AH Plus and the samples was measured using Rame Hart Goniometer followed by statistical analysis of data. Results: Values of contact angle was least when samples were treated with QMix followed by treatment with 0.1% Octenidine Hydrochloride followed by 3% NaOCl. Removal of smear layer reduced contact angles in all cases except when samples were treated with 3% NaOCl. Results were statistically significant when 3% NaOCl was compared to 0.1% Octenidine Hydrochloride and QMix (P = 0.034. Statistically significant difference was seen before and after removal of smear layer for 3% NaOCl and 0.1% Octenidine Hydrochloride. (P = 0.003. Conclusion: Qmix is the irrigant of choice, but 0.1% octenidine hydrochloride may be recommended as a useful irrigant after further research.

  2. Effect of Spreading Time on Contact Angle of Nanofluid on the Surface of Stainless Steel AISI 316 and Zircalloy 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajitno, D. H.; Trisnawan, V.; Syarif, D. G.

    2017-05-01

    The solid surface tension plays an important role in the heat and mass transfer system for heat exchanger equipment. In the nuclear power plant industry, the stainless steel AISI 316 and Zircalloy 4 have been used for long time as structure materials. The purpose of the experimental is to study solid state surface tension behavior by measure contact angle Nano fluid contain nano particle alumina on metal surface of stainless steel AISI 316 and Zircalloy 4 by sessile drop method. The experiment is to measure the static contact angle and drop nano fluid contains nano particle alumina on stainless steel 316 and zircalloy 4 with different spreading time from 1 to 30 minute. It was observed that stainless steel 316 and zircalloy 4 lose their hydrophobic properties with increasing elapsed time during drop of nano fluid on the surface of alloy. As a result the contact angle of nano fluid on surface of metal is decrease with increasing elapsed time. While the magnitude diameter of drop nano fluid and wetting surface is increase with increasing elapsed time on the surface of the stainless steel SS 316 and Zircalloy 4.

  3. Static and dynamic angles of repose in loose granular materials under reduced gravity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinhans, M.G.; Markies, H.; Vet, S.J. de; Veld, A.C. in 't; Postema, F.N.

    2011-01-01

    Granular materials avalanche when a static angle of repose is exceeded and freeze at a dynamic angle of repose. Such avalanches occur subaerially on steep hillslopes and wind dunes and subaqueously at the lee side of deltas. Until now it has been assumed that the angles of repose are independent

  4. Peripheral iris thickness and association with iridotrabecular contact after laser peripheral iridotomy in patients with primary angle-closure and primary angle-closure glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mizoguchi T

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Takanori Mizoguchi,1 Mineo Ozaki,2,3 Harumi Wakiyama,1,4 Nobuchika Ogino1,5 1Mizoguchi Eye Clinic, Sasebo, Japan; 2Ozaki Eye Clinic, Miyazaki, Japan; 3Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Miyazaki, Miyazaki, Japan; 4Japanese Red Cross Nagasaki Genbaku Hospital, Nagasaki, Japan; 5Nishigaki Eye Clinic, Nagoya, Japan Purpose: To investigate the relation between the quantitative iris parameters and iridotrabecular contact (ITC in patients with primary angle-closure (PAC and PAC glaucoma (PACG. Materials and methods: PAC and PACG with laser peripheral iridotomy were recruited prospectively. Anterior-segment optical coherence tomography (ASOCT was performed under light and dark conditions, and scans were taken along the vertical and horizontal axes. Iris thickness at 500 µm (IT500 and 750 µm (IT750 from the scleral spur, maximal iris thickness (MIT, and cross sections of the iris area (I-Area were measured by using software. ITC was defined by the ASOCT as the contact between the peripheral iris and angle wall anterior to the scleral spur. The ITC+ and ITC- groups were defined as eyes that had ITC in two or more quadrants and in no or one quadrant, respectively. Results: A total of 79 eyes of 60 patients (consisting of 48 PAC and 31 PACG were recruited. The prevalence of superior, inferior, temporal, and nasal ITC was 44 eyes (55.7%, 48 eyes (60.8%, 18 eyes (22.8%, and 16 eyes (20.2%, respectively. These iris parameters of the inferior quadrant, which had the highest prevalence of all the quadrants, were used for the analysis. After adjusting for age, sex, pupil size, and central anterior chamber depth, mean values of IT500 and IT750 were significantly greater in the ITC+ group than the ITC- group (P<0.05. Multivariate-adjusted odds ratios of parameters for the ITC+ group compared with the ITC- group were: IT500, 1.9 (P=0.029; IT750, 2.0 (P=0.011, MIT, 1.4 (P=0.244, and I-Area, 0.97 (P=0.406, respectively, per 0.1-unit

  5. Soil-water contact angle of some soils of the Russian Plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bykova, Galina; Tyugai, Zemfira; Milanovskiy, Evgeny; Shein, Evgeny

    2016-04-01

    INTRODUCTION Soil wettability affects the aggregate water resistance, the movement of moisture and dissolved substances, preferential flows, etc. There are many factors affecting the soil's wettability (the content of organic matter (OM), soil's mineralogical composition, particle size distribution), so it can reflect changes in the soil, including results of human impact. The quantitative characteristic of soil wettability is a contact angle (CA), its measurement is a new and difficult problem because of the complexity, heterogeneity and polydispersity of the object of investigation. The aim of this work is to study soil-water CA of some soils of the Russian Plane. MATERIALS AND METHODS The objects of study were sod-podzolic (Umbric Albeluvisols Abruptic, Eutric Podzoluvisols), grey forest non-podzolised (Greyic Phaeozems Albic, Haplic Greyzems), typical Chernozems (Voronic Chernozems pachic, Haplic Chernozems) - profiles under the forest and the arable land, and the chestnut (Haplic Kastanozems Chromic, Haplic Kastanozems) soils. The CA's determination was performed by a Drop Shape Analyzer DSA100 by the static sessile drop method. For all samples was determined the content of total and organic carbon (OC and TC) by dry combustion in oxygen flow. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION There is CA increasing from 85,1° (5 cm) to 40-45° (deeper, than 45 cm) in the sod-podzolic soil; OC content is changed at the same depths from 1,44 to 0.22%. We can see the similar picture in profiles of chernozems. In the forest profile the highest OC content and CA value are achieved on the surface of profile (6,41% and 78,1°), and by 90 cm these values are 1.9% and 50.2°. In the chernozem under the arable land the OC content is almost two times less and the profile is more wettable (from 50° to 19° at 5 and 100 cm). Corresponding with the OC content, the curve describing changes of CA in the profile of grey forest soil is S-shaped with peaks at 20 and 150 cm (81,3° and 70° respectively

  6. Contact angle studies on PDMS surfaces fouled by bovine serum albumin

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Windvoel, VT

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available proteins. This is a limitation to microfluidic applications that require hydrophobic surfaces where proteins are involved. This study determines the change in wetting of PDMS after fouling by a protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA), by measuring contact...

  7. Characterizing hydrophobicity of amino acid side chains in a protein environment via measuring contact angle of a water nanodroplet on planar peptide network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chongqin; Gao, Yurui; Li, Hui; Meng, Sheng; Li, Lei; Francisco, Joseph S; Zeng, Xiao Cheng

    2016-11-15

    Hydrophobicity of macroscopic planar surface is conventionally characterized by the contact angle of water droplets. However, this engineering measurement cannot be directly extended to surfaces of proteins, due to the nanometer scale of amino acids and inherent nonplanar structures. To measure the hydrophobicity of side chains of proteins quantitatively, numerous parameters were developed to characterize behavior of hydrophobic solvation. However, consistency among these parameters is not always apparent. Herein, we demonstrate an alternative way of characterizing hydrophobicity of amino acid side chains in a protein environment by constructing a monolayer of amino acids (i.e., artificial planar peptide network) according to the primary and the β-sheet secondary structures of protein so that the conventional engineering measurement of the contact angle of a water droplet can be brought to bear. Using molecular dynamics simulations, contact angles θ of a water nanodroplet on the planar peptide network, together with excess chemical potentials of purely repulsive methane-sized Weeks-Chandler-Andersen solute, are computed. All of the 20 types of amino acids and the corresponding planar peptide networks are studied. Expectedly, all of the planar peptide networks with nonpolar amino acids are hydrophobic due to θ [Formula: see text] 90°, whereas all of the planar peptide networks of the polar and charged amino acids are hydrophilic due to θ [Formula: see text] 90°. Planar peptide networks of the charged amino acids exhibit complete-wetting behavior due to θ [Formula: see text] 0°. This computational approach for characterization of hydrophobicity can be extended to artificial planar networks of other soft matter.

  8. The development of contact force construction in the dynamic-contact task of cycling [corrected].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Nicholas A T; Jensen, Jody L

    2003-01-01

    Purposeful movement requires that an individual produce appropriate joint torques to accelerate segments, and when environmental contact is involved, to develop task-appropriate contact forces. Developmental research has been confined largely to the mastery of unconstrained movement skills (pointing, kicking). The purpose of this study was to study the developmental progression that characterizes the interaction of muscular and non-muscular forces in tasks constrained by contact with the environment. Seven younger children (YC, 6-8 years), 7 older children (OC, 9-11 years) and 7 adults (AD) pedaled an ergometer (80 rpm) at an anthropometrically scaled cycling power. Resultant forces measured at the pedal's surface were decomposed into muscle, inertia and gravity components. Muscle pedal forces were further examined in terms of the underlying lower extremity joint torques and kinematic weights that constitute the muscular component of the pedal force. Data showed children applied muscle forces to the pedal in a significantly different manner compared to adults, and that this was due to the children's lower segmental mass and inertia. The children adjusted the contribution of the proximal joint muscle torques to compensate for reduced contributions to the resultant pedal force by gravitational and inertial components. These data show that smaller segmental mass and inertia limit younger children's ability to construct the dynamic-contact task of cycling in an adult-like form. On the basis of these results, however, the children's response was not "immature". Rather, the results show a task-appropriate adaptation to lower segmental mass and inertia. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  9. Modeling and analysis of linearized wheel-rail contact dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soomro, Z.

    2014-01-01

    The dynamics of the railway vehicles are nonlinear and depend upon several factors including vehicle speed, normal load and adhesion level. The presence of contaminants on the railway track makes them unpredictable too. Therefore in order to develop an effective control strategy it is important to analyze the effect of each factor on dynamic response thoroughly. In this paper a linearized model of a railway wheel-set is developed and is later analyzed by varying the speed and adhesion level by keeping the normal load constant. A wheel-set is the wheel-axle assembly of a railroad car. Patch contact is the study of the deformation of solids that touch each other at one or more points. (author)

  10. Current-induced dynamics in carbon atomic contacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Jing Tao; Gunst, Tue; Brandbyge, Mads

    2011-01-01

    carbon chain connecting electrically gated graphene electrodes. This illustrates how the device stability can be predicted solely from the modes obtained from the Langevin equation, including the current-induced forces. We point out that the gate offers control of the current, independent of the bias...... of molecular-scale contacts. Systems based on molecules bridging electrically gated graphene electrodes may offer an interesting test-bed for these effects. Results: We employ a semi-classical Langevin approach in combination with DFT calculations to study the current-induced vibrational dynamics of an atomic...... voltage, which can be used to explore current-induced vibrational instabilities due the NC/BP forces. Furthermore, using tight-binding and the Brenner potential we illustrate how Langevin-type molecular-dynamics calculations including the Joule heating effect for the carbon-chain systems can be performed...

  11. Morphological study of polymer surfaces exposed to non-thermal plasma based on contact angle and the use of scaling laws

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felix, T., E-mail: tsfelix81@gmail.com [Chemistry Department, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Campus Trindade, 88040-900 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil); Cassini, F.A.; Benetoli, L.O.B. [Chemistry Department, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Campus Trindade, 88040-900 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil); Dotto, M.E.R. [Physics Department, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Campus Trindade, 88040-900 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil); Debacher, N.A. [Chemistry Department, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Campus Trindade, 88040-900 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil)

    2017-05-01

    Highlights: • Polymeric surfaces were etched using non-thermal plasma at different intensities. • Polymers of low mechanical hardness reached the saturation level faster. • A mathematical model based on scaling laws was proposed. - Abstract: The experiments presented in this communication have the purpose to elaborate an explanation for the morphological evolution of the growth of polymeric surfaces provided by the treatment of non-thermal plasma. According to the roughness analysis and the model proposed by scaling laws it is possible relate to a predictable or merely random effect. Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and poly(etherether)ketone (PEEK) samples were exposed to a non-thermal plasma discharge and the resulting surfaces roughness were analyzed based on the measurements from contact angle, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy coupled with scaling laws analysis which can help to describe and understand the dynamic of formation of a wide variety of rough surfaces. The roughness, R{sub RMS} (RMS- Root Mean Square) values for polymer surface range between 19.8 nm and 110.9 nm. The contact angle and the AFM (Atomic Force Microscopy) measurements as a function of the plasma exposure time were in agreement with both polar and dispersive components according to the surface roughness and also with the morphology evaluated described by Wolf-Villain model, with proximate values of α between 0.91{sub (PET)} and 0.88{sub (PEEK)}, β = 0.25{sub (PET)} and z = 3,64{sub (PET)}.

  12. Swept source optical coherence tomography measurement of the iris-trabecular contact (ITC) index: a new parameter for angle closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Sue-Wei; Baskaran, Mani; Zheng, Ce; Tun, Tin A; Perera, Shamira A; Narayanaswamy, Arun K; Friedman, David S; Aung, Tin

    2013-04-01

    To evaluate the inter- and intra-observer agreement of measurement of the iris-trabecular contact (ITC) index, a measure of the degree of angle closure, using swept source optical coherence tomography (SSOCT, CASIA SS-1000, Tomey Corporation, Nagoya, Japan). One randomly selected eye of 60 subjects was imaged under dark room conditions. The SSOCT 3-dimensional angle scan simultaneously obtains 128 radial scans of the anterior chamber for the entire circumference of the angle. Post-imaging analysis estimated the ITC index using in-built software. For intra-observer agreement for image grading, one examiner performed the grading twice in a masked fashion and random order after a 1-week interval. A second examiner graded images to assess inter-observer agreement for image grading. For intra-observer agreement for image acquisition, a single operator imaged patients twice. For inter-observer agreement for image acquisition, a single observer graded two sets of images acquired by two different operators on the same patient. Bland-Altman plots and 95 % limits of agreement (LOA) were reported. Study subjects were predominantly Chinese (54/60, 90 %) and female (42/60, 70 %), with a mean age of 65.5 years. The median ITC index for eyes with open angles (31/60) and closed angles was 20 % (95 % confidence interval [CI] - 13.6, 27.8) and 49 % (95%CI - 35.5, 69.2) respectively. The mean difference (95 % LOA) for intra-observer agreement for image grading and image acquisition were -0.8 % (-8.2, 6.5) and 0.6 % (-10.9, 9.7); corresponding inter- observer agreement were 0.1 % (-10, 10.1) and -0.3 % (-11.1, 10.5) respectively. The inter- and intra-observer agreement of the ITC index, as a measure of extent of angle closure using SSOCT, was good.

  13. Can foot anthropometric measurements predict dynamic plantar surface contact area?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collins Natalie

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have suggested that increased plantar surface area, associated with pes planus, is a risk factor for the development of lower extremity overuse injuries. The intent of this study was to determine if a single or combination of foot anthropometric measures could be used to predict plantar surface area. Methods Six foot measurements were collected on 155 subjects (97 females, 58 males, mean age 24.5 ± 3.5 years. The measurements as well as one ratio were entered into a stepwise regression analysis to determine the optimal set of measurements associated with total plantar contact area either including or excluding the toe region. The predicted values were used to calculate plantar surface area and were compared to the actual values obtained dynamically using a pressure sensor platform. Results A three variable model was found to describe the relationship between the foot measures/ratio and total plantar contact area (R2 = 0.77, p R2 = 0.76, p Conclusion The results of this study indicate that the clinician can use a combination of simple, reliable, and time efficient foot anthropometric measurements to explain over 75% of the plantar surface contact area, either including or excluding the toe region.

  14. Pinus sylvestris L. needle surface wettability parameters as indicators of atmospheric environment pollution impacts: Novel contact angle hysteresis methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogorzelski, Stanisław J.; Rochowski, Pawel; Szurkowski, Janusz

    2014-02-01

    An investigation of water contact angles (CAs), contact angle hysteresis (CAH) was carried out for 1-year to 4-year old needles (Pinus sylvestris) collected in urban (Gdansk) and rural (Karsin) locations using an original measuring technique based on the geometry of the drop on a vertical filament. Concentrations of air pollutants (SO2, NOx, C6H6, and suspended particular matter - SPM) currently considered to be most important in causing direct damage to vegetation were simultaneously monitored. A set of the surface wettability parameters: the apparent surface free energy γSV, adhesive film tension Π, work of adhesion WA, and spreading WS, were determined from CAH data using the approach developed by Chibowski (2003) to quantify the surface energetics of the needle substrata affected by aging and pollution impacts. This formalism relates the total apparent surface free energy of the solid γSV with only three measurable quantities: the surface tension of the probe liquid γLV and its advancing θA and receding θR contact angle hysteresis. Since CAH depends on the outermost wax layer surface roughness and spatial physicochemical heterogeneity of a solid surface, CA data were corrected using surface architecture profiles registered with confocal scanning laser microscopy. It was found that the roughness parameter r is significantly negatively correlated (R = -0.74) with the needle age (collected at Karsin). The needle surface aging process resulted in its surface hydrophilization (CA↓ and CAH↓ with γSV↑ and WA↑). A temporal evolution of the needles wettability was traced with the data point distribution in the 2D space of CAH plotted versus WS. The wettability parameters were closely correlated to pollutant concentrations as evidenced from Spearman's rank correlation procedure (R = 0.63-0.91; p biological systems.

  15. Contact angle measurement - a reliable supportive method for screening water-resistance of ultraviolet-protecting products in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagens, R; Mann, T; Schreiner, V; Barlag, H G; Wenck, H; Wittern, K-P; Mei, W

    2007-08-01

    Substantivity of sunscreen formulations is affected by the wash-out rate of ultraviolet-absorber and -reflector compounds in water. Water-resistance of sunscreen formulations is currently determined according to a standardized European Cosmetic Toiletry and Perfumery Association (COLIPA) protocol, encompassing the determination of a minimal erythemal dose before and after a defined immersion step in water. It can be supposed that the higher the wettability of a treated skin area, the higher is the wash-out rate of sunscreen compounds. This present report addresses the validity of determining the wettability of treated skin alone as a measure for the water-resistance of sunscreen products. The report addresses the robustness, accuracy and congruence of a recently developed wettability test, based on the measurement of the contact angle (CA) of a sessile water drop on treated skin areas. Contact angle data of 66 sunscreen formulations are compared with the corresponding results of 81 water-resistance tests, using the sun protection factor (SPF)/immersion/SPF method. Sunscreen products tested by the CA method were applied to the skin of the volar forearm of test subjects at a defined dose and drying-time, using a standardized application and recording device. Contact angles between a sessile water drop and skin were recorded by a Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) camera and subjected to automatic contour analysis. Taking the SPF/immersion/SPF method as gold standard, accuracy parameters of the CA method were determined. By using an appropriate cut-off level of CAs, the CA method has a specificity and positive-predictive value of 100%, and turns out to be a reliable screening method to identify water-resistant formulations. Based on our findings, those formulations that give CAs above 30 degrees may be categorized water-proof without further testing by the COLIPA water-resistance method.

  16. Scleral Buckling Using a Non-contact Wide-Angle Viewing System with a 25-Gauge Chandelier Endoilluminator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Jaehyuck; Moon, Byung Gil; Lee, Joo Yong

    2017-12-01

    To report the outcome of scleral buckling using a non-contact wide-angle viewing system with a 25-gauge chandelier endoilluminator. Retrospective analyses of medical records were performed for 17 eyes of 16 patients with primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) without proliferative vitreoretinopathy who had undergone conventional scleral buckling with cryoretinopexy using the combination of a non-contact wide-angle viewing system and chandelier endoillumination. The patients were eight males and five females with a mean age of 26.8 ± 10.2 (range, 11 to 47) years. The mean follow-up period was 7.3 ± 3.1 months. Baseline best-corrected visual acuity was 0.23 ± 0.28 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution units. Best-corrected visual acuity at the final visit showed improvement (0.20 ± 0.25 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution units), but the improvement was not statistically significant (p = 0.722). As a surgery-related complication, there was vitreous loss at the end of surgery in one eye. As a postoperative complication, increased intraocular pressure (four cases) and herpes simplex epithelial keratitis (one case) were controlled postoperatively with eye drops. One case of persistent RRD after primary surgery needed additional vitrectomy, and the retina was postoperatively attached. Scleral buckling with chandelier illumination as a surgical technique for RRD has the advantages of relieving the surgeon's neck pain from prolonged use of the indirect ophthalmoscope and sharing the surgical procedure with another surgical team member. In addition, fine retinal breaks that are hard to identify using an indirect ophthalmoscope can be easily found under the microscope by direct endoillumination. © 2017 The Korean Ophthalmological Society

  17. Simultaneous Detection of Displacement, Rotation Angle, and Contact Pressure Using Sandpaper Molded Elastomer Based Triple Electrode Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eunsuk; Sul, Onejae; Lee, Seung-Beck

    2017-09-06

    In this article, we report on a flexible sensor based on a sandpaper molded elastomer that simultaneously detects planar displacement, rotation angle, and vertical contact pressure. When displacement, rotation, and contact pressure are applied, the contact area between the translating top elastomer electrode and the stationary three bottom electrodes change characteristically depending on the movement, making it possible to distinguish between them. The sandpaper molded undulating surface of the elastomer reduces friction at the contact allowing the sensor not to affect the movement during measurement. The sensor showed a 0.25 mm −1 displacement sensitivity with a ±33 μm accuracy, a 0.027 degree −1 of rotation sensitivity with ~0.95 degree accuracy, and a 4.96 kP −1 of pressure sensitivity. For possible application to joint movement detection, we demonstrated that our sensor effectively detected the up-and-down motion of a human forefinger and the bending and straightening motion of a human arm.

  18. Coupled Motion of Contact Line on Nanoscale Chemically Heterogeneous Surfaces for Improved Bubble Dynamics in Boiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaikumar, Arvind; Kandlikar, Satish G

    2017-11-16

    We demonstrate that the contact line (CL) motion on energetically heterogeneous solid surfaces occurs in a coupled fashion as against the traditional staggered stick-slip motion. Introducing chemical inhomogeneities at nanoscale induces a local change in dynamic contact angles which manifests as a smooth and continuous motion of the CL. Nanoscale chemically inhomogeneous surfaces comprising of gold, palladium and nickel were generated on copper substrates to demonstrate the underlying CL dynamics. The spatial variations of chemical constituents were mapped using elemental display scanning electron microscope images. Further, the coupled and stick-slip motion was confirmed for a sliding water droplet on these surfaces, and then used in studying the pool boiling bubble dynamics of a single bubble from nucleation to departure. The coupled motion was seen to increase the CL velocity thereby increasing the contribution from transient conduction heat transfer. Consequently, a ~2X increase in the boiling critical heat flux (CHF) was observed. Enhancing the pool boiling performance by introducing nanoscale surface features is an attractive approach in many applications and this work provides a framework and understanding of the CL motion induced through the chemical inhomogeneity effects.

  19. Low Angle Contact Between the Oaxaca and Juárez Terranes Deduced From Magnetotelluric Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzate-Flores, Jorge A.; Molina-Garza, Roberto; Corbo-Camargo, Fernando; Márquez-Ramírez, Víctor

    2016-10-01

    We present the electrical resistivity model along a profile perpendicular to the Middle America trench in southern Mexico that reveals previously unrecognized tectonic features at upper to mid-crustal depths. Our results support the hypotheses that the upper crust of the Oaxaca terrane is a residual ~20 km thick crust composed by an ~10 km thick faulted crustal upper layer and an ~10 km thick hydrated and/or mineralized layer. Oaxaca basement overthrust the younger Juárez (or Cuicateco) terrane. The electrical resistivity model supports the interpretation of a slab subducting at a low angle below Oaxaca. Uplift in the Oaxaca region appears to be related to fault reactivation induced by low angle subduction. In the Juárez terrane, isostatic forces may contribute to uplift because it is largely uncompensated. In the Sierra Madre del Sur, closer to the coast, uplift is facilitated by slab-dehydration driven buoyancy. Both gravity and resistivity models are consistent with a thinned upper crust in the northeast end of the profile.

  20. Young children’s understanding of angles in a dynamic geometry environment

    OpenAIRE

    Kaur, Harpreet

    2017-01-01

    Angle is an important topic in geometry. It is a concept that children find challenging to learn, in part because of its multifaceted nature. The purpose of this study is to understand how children’s thinking about angles evolves as they participate in a classroom setting featuring the use of a dynamic geometry environment (DGE) in which the concept of angle as turn was privileged, a concept that does not require a quantitative dimension. Three research questions were proposed for the study, ...

  1. Effect of chemical heterogeneity of biodegradable polymers on surface energy: A static contact angle analysis of polyester model films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belibel, R.; Avramoglou, T. [INSERM U1148, Laboratory for Vascular Translational Science (LVTS), Institut Galilée, Université Paris 13, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 99 Avenue Jean-Baptiste Clément, Villetaneuse F-93430 (France); Garcia, A. [CNRS UPR 3407, Laboratoire des Sciences des Procédés et des Matériau, Institut Galilée, Université Paris 13, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 99 Avenue Jean-Baptiste Clément, Villetaneuse F-93430 (France); Barbaud, C. [INSERM U1148, Laboratory for Vascular Translational Science (LVTS), Institut Galilée, Université Paris 13, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 99 Avenue Jean-Baptiste Clément, Villetaneuse F-93430 (France); Mora, L., E-mail: Laurence.mora@univ-paris13.fr [INSERM U1148, Laboratory for Vascular Translational Science (LVTS), Institut Galilée, Université Paris 13, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 99 Avenue Jean-Baptiste Clément, Villetaneuse F-93430 (France)

    2016-02-01

    Biodegradable and bioassimilable poly((R,S)-3,3 dimethylmalic acid) (PDMMLA) derivatives were synthesized and characterized in order to develop a new coating for coronary endoprosthesis enabling the reduction of restenosis. The PDMMLA was chemically modified to form different custom groups in its side chain. Three side groups were chosen: the hexyl group for its hydrophobic nature, the carboxylic acid and alcohol groups for their acid and neutral hydrophilic character, respectively. The sessile drop method was applied to characterize the wettability of biodegradable polymer film coatings. Surface energy and components were calculated. The van Oss approach helped reach not only the dispersive and polar acid–base components of surface energy but also acid and basic components. Surface topography was quantified by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and subnanometer average values of roughness (Ra) were obtained for all the analyzed surfaces. Thus, roughness was considered to have a negligible effect on wettability measurements. In contrast, heterogeneous surfaces had to be corrected by the Cassie–Baxter equation for copolymers (10/90, 20/80 and 30/70). The impact of this correction was quantified for all the wettability parameters. Very high relative corrections (%) were found, reaching 100% for energies and 30% for contact angles. - Highlights: • We develop different polymers with various chemical compositions. • Wettability properties were calculated using Cassie corrected contact angles. • Percentage of acid groups in polymers is directly correlated to acid part of SFE. • Cassie corrections are necessary for heterogeneous polymers.

  2. Effect of chemical heterogeneity of biodegradable polymers on surface energy: A static contact angle analysis of polyester model films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belibel, R.; Avramoglou, T.; Garcia, A.; Barbaud, C.; Mora, L.

    2016-01-01

    Biodegradable and bioassimilable poly((R,S)-3,3 dimethylmalic acid) (PDMMLA) derivatives were synthesized and characterized in order to develop a new coating for coronary endoprosthesis enabling the reduction of restenosis. The PDMMLA was chemically modified to form different custom groups in its side chain. Three side groups were chosen: the hexyl group for its hydrophobic nature, the carboxylic acid and alcohol groups for their acid and neutral hydrophilic character, respectively. The sessile drop method was applied to characterize the wettability of biodegradable polymer film coatings. Surface energy and components were calculated. The van Oss approach helped reach not only the dispersive and polar acid–base components of surface energy but also acid and basic components. Surface topography was quantified by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and subnanometer average values of roughness (Ra) were obtained for all the analyzed surfaces. Thus, roughness was considered to have a negligible effect on wettability measurements. In contrast, heterogeneous surfaces had to be corrected by the Cassie–Baxter equation for copolymers (10/90, 20/80 and 30/70). The impact of this correction was quantified for all the wettability parameters. Very high relative corrections (%) were found, reaching 100% for energies and 30% for contact angles. - Highlights: • We develop different polymers with various chemical compositions. • Wettability properties were calculated using Cassie corrected contact angles. • Percentage of acid groups in polymers is directly correlated to acid part of SFE. • Cassie corrections are necessary for heterogeneous polymers.

  3. Dynamic analysis of dark-light changes of the anterior chamber angle with anterior segment OCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Christopher Kai-shun; Cheung, Carol Yim Lui; Li, Haitao; Dorairaj, Syril; Yiu, Cedric Ka Fai; Wong, Amy Lee; Liebmann, Jeffrey; Ritch, Robert; Weinreb, Robert; Lam, Dennis Shun Chiu

    2007-09-01

    To describe the use of anterior segment optical coherence tomography (OCT) in studying the dynamic dark-light changes of the anterior chamber angle. Thirty-seven normal subjects with open angles on dark-room gonioscopy and 18 subjects with narrow angles were analyzed. The dynamic dark-light changes of the anterior-chamber angle were captured with real-time video recording. The angle opening distance (AOD500) and trabecular iris space area (TISA500) of the nasal angle and the pupil diameter in each of the representative serial images were measured. Linear regression analysis was performed to investigate the association between AOD500/TISA500 and pupil diameter. Demographic and biometry measurements associated with the AOD difference (AOD500((light)) - AOD500((dark))) and TISA difference (TISA500((light)) - TISA500((dark))) were analyzed with univariate and multivariate regression models. The AOD500/TISA500 measured in the light in the open-angle and the narrow-angle groups were 694 +/- 330 microm/0.24 +/- 0.10 mm(2) and 265 +/- 78 microm/0.10 +/- 0.03 mm(2), respectively. These values were significantly greater than the AOD500/TISA500 measured in the dark (492 +/- 265 microm/0.16 +/- 0.08 mm(2) and 119 +/- 82 microm/0.05 +/- 0.04 mm(2), respectively, all with P chamber depth and the AOD/TISA difference. Fifty eyes showed significant correlations between AOD/TISA and pupil diameter, whereas one eye showed no association. Four eyes in the narrow angle group developed appositional angle closure in the dark. The dynamic dark-light changes of the anterior chamber angle can be imaged and analyzed with anterior segment OCT. Although the angle width generally decreased linearly with increasing pupil diameter, the differences of the angle width measured in the dark and in the light varied substantially among individuals.

  4. Modified Contact Line Dynamics about a Surface-Piercing Hydrofoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grivel, Morgane; Jeon, David; Gharib, Morteza

    2016-11-01

    The contact line around a surface-piercing hydrofoil is modified by introducing alternating hydrophobic and hydrophilic bands along one side of the body. These bands are either aligned perpendicular or parallel to the flow direction. The other side of the hydrofoil is un-patterned and retains its original, uniformly hydrophilic properties. The hydrofoil is mounted onto air bearings, such that it can freely move side-to-side in the water tunnel. A force sensor is attached to the setup via a universal joint in order to measure the forces acting on the body for several Reynolds numbers (ranging from 104 to 105) and angles of attack (ranging from -10o to 10o) . Cameras are also used to record the resulting flow structures and free surface elevation. The generation of wave trains and an altered free-surface elevation (also associated with the generation of surface waves) are observed over a wide range flow conditions. Force measurements elucidate how introducing these flow features impacts the forces acting on the hydrofoil, specifically with regards to the generation of lateral forces due to the asymmetric wetting conditions on either side of the hydrofoil. Work is funded by ONR Grant N00014-11-1-0031 and NSF GRFP Grant DGE-1144469.

  5. The use of contact angle measurements to estimate the adhesion propensity of calcium carbonate to solid substrates in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bargir, Sameer; Dunn, Steve; Jefferson, Bruce; Macadam, Jitka; Parsons, Simon

    2009-01-01

    We have studied a series of solids using contact angle measurements; stainless steel, gold, aluminium, titanium nitride and PTFE that are frequently used in domestic water environments. It was found the influence of electron-donor (γ - ) and electron-acceptor (γ + ) free energies on material scaling rate was dominated by water wetting angles, providing materials exhibit an average roughness below 100 nm. The γ - component had the greatest influence on theoretical adhesion, while γ LW , (Lifshitz-van der Waals) γ + and γ AB (acid-base) had little effect. From the materials analysed, amorphous carbon coatings were least adhesive, while 'kettle coating' and highly roughened steel the most adhesive. The size and distribution of asperities also influenced the polar free energies and subsequent adhesion due to fluctuations in the wetting angle. The results obtained indicate works of adhesion can be used as a complementary technique with Lewis acid-base theory to deliver useful information about the propensity of scale to deposit on solids.

  6. Current-induced dynamics in carbon atomic contacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Tao Lü

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The effect of electric current on the motion of atoms still poses many questions, and several mechanisms are at play. Recently there has been focus on the importance of the current-induced nonconservative forces (NC and Berry-phase derived forces (BP with respect to the stability of molecular-scale contacts. Systems based on molecules bridging electrically gated graphene electrodes may offer an interesting test-bed for these effects.Results: We employ a semi-classical Langevin approach in combination with DFT calculations to study the current-induced vibrational dynamics of an atomic carbon chain connecting electrically gated graphene electrodes. This illustrates how the device stability can be predicted solely from the modes obtained from the Langevin equation, including the current-induced forces. We point out that the gate offers control of the current, independent of the bias voltage, which can be used to explore current-induced vibrational instabilities due the NC/BP forces. Furthermore, using tight-binding and the Brenner potential we illustrate how Langevin-type molecular-dynamics calculations including the Joule heating effect for the carbon-chain systems can be performed. Molecular dynamics including current-induced forces enables an energy redistribution mechanism among the modes, mediated by anharmonic interactions, which is found to be vital in the description of the electrical heating.Conclusion: We have developed a semiclassical Langevin equation approach that can be used to explore current-induced dynamics and instabilities. We find instabilities at experimentally relevant bias and gate voltages for the carbon-chain system.

  7. Real-time visualization of dynamic particle contact failures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parab, Niranjan D.; Hudspeth, Matthew; Claus, Ben; Guo, Zherui; Sun, Tao; Fezzaa, Kamel; Chen, Weinong W.

    2017-01-01

    Granular materials are widely used to resist impact and blast. Under these dynamic loadings, the constituent particles in the granular system fracture. To study the fracture mechanisms in brittle particles under dynamic compressive loading, a high speed X-ray phase contrast imaging setup was synchronized with a Kolsky bar apparatus. Controlled compressive loading was applied on two contacting particles using the Kolsky bar apparatus and fracture process was captured using the high speed X-ray imaging setup. Five different particles were investigated: soda-lime glass, polycrystalline silica (silicon dioxide), polycrystalline silicon, barium titanate glass, and yttrium stabilized zirconia. For both soda lime glass and polycrystalline silica particles, one of the particles fragmented explosively, thus breaking into many small pieces. For Silicon and barium titanate glass particles, a finite number of cracks were observed in one of the particles causing it to fracture. For yttrium stabilized zirconia particles, a single meridonial crack developed in one of the particles, breaking it into two parts.

  8. Flight Path Angle Dynamics of Air-Breathing Hypersonic Vehicles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bolender, Michael A; Doman, David B

    2005-01-01

    .... This is not the case, however, with air-breathing hypersonic aircraft. This class of aircraft is characterized by unstable longitudinal dynamics, strong loop interactions, and the presence of non-minimum phase transmission zeros...

  9. Compliant contact versus rigid contact: A comparison in the context of granular dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazouki, Arman; Kwarta, Michał; Williams, Kyle; Likos, William; Serban, Radu; Jayakumar, Paramsothy; Negrut, Dan

    2017-10-01

    We summarize and numerically compare two approaches for modeling and simulating the dynamics of dry granular matter. The first one, the discrete-element method via penalty (DEM-P), is commonly used in the soft matter physics and geomechanics communities; it can be traced back to the work of Cundall and Strack [P. Cundall, Proc. Symp. ISRM, Nancy, France 1, 129 (1971); P. Cundall and O. Strack, Geotechnique 29, 47 (1979), 10.1680/geot.1979.29.1.47]. The second approach, the discrete-element method via complementarity (DEM-C), considers the grains perfectly rigid and enforces nonpenetration via complementarity conditions; it is commonly used in robotics and computer graphics applications and had two strong promoters in Moreau and Jean [J. J. Moreau, in Nonsmooth Mechanics and Applications, edited by J. J. Moreau and P. D. Panagiotopoulos (Springer, Berlin, 1988), pp. 1-82; J. J. Moreau and M. Jean, Proceedings of the Third Biennial Joint Conference on Engineering Systems and Analysis, Montpellier, France, 1996, pp. 201-208]. The DEM-P and DEM-C are manifestly unlike each other: They use different (i) approaches to model the frictional contact problem, (ii) sets of model parameters to capture the physics of interest, and (iii) classes of numerical methods to solve the differential equations that govern the dynamics of the granular material. Herein, we report numerical results for five experiments: shock wave propagation, cone penetration, direct shear, triaxial loading, and hopper flow, which we use to compare the DEM-P and DEM-C solutions. This exercise helps us reach two conclusions. First, both the DEM-P and DEM-C are predictive, i.e., they predict well the macroscale emergent behavior by capturing the dynamics at the microscale. Second, there are classes of problems for which one of the methods has an advantage. Unlike the DEM-P, the DEM-C cannot capture shock-wave propagation through granular media. However, the DEM-C is proficient at handling arbitrary grain

  10. Compliant contact versus rigid contact: A comparison in the context of granular dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazouki, Arman; Kwarta, Michał; Williams, Kyle; Likos, William; Serban, Radu; Jayakumar, Paramsothy; Negrut, Dan

    2017-10-01

    We summarize and numerically compare two approaches for modeling and simulating the dynamics of dry granular matter. The first one, the discrete-element method via penalty (DEM-P), is commonly used in the soft matter physics and geomechanics communities; it can be traced back to the work of Cundall and Strack [P. Cundall, Proc. Symp. ISRM, Nancy, France 1, 129 (1971); P. Cundall and O. Strack, Geotechnique 29, 47 (1979)GTNQA80016-850510.1680/geot.1979.29.1.47]. The second approach, the discrete-element method via complementarity (DEM-C), considers the grains perfectly rigid and enforces nonpenetration via complementarity conditions; it is commonly used in robotics and computer graphics applications and had two strong promoters in Moreau and Jean [J. J. Moreau, in Nonsmooth Mechanics and Applications, edited by J. J. Moreau and P. D. Panagiotopoulos (Springer, Berlin, 1988), pp. 1-82; J. J. Moreau and M. Jean, Proceedings of the Third Biennial Joint Conference on Engineering Systems and Analysis, Montpellier, France, 1996, pp. 201-208]. The DEM-P and DEM-C are manifestly unlike each other: They use different (i) approaches to model the frictional contact problem, (ii) sets of model parameters to capture the physics of interest, and (iii) classes of numerical methods to solve the differential equations that govern the dynamics of the granular material. Herein, we report numerical results for five experiments: shock wave propagation, cone penetration, direct shear, triaxial loading, and hopper flow, which we use to compare the DEM-P and DEM-C solutions. This exercise helps us reach two conclusions. First, both the DEM-P and DEM-C are predictive, i.e., they predict well the macroscale emergent behavior by capturing the dynamics at the microscale. Second, there are classes of problems for which one of the methods has an advantage. Unlike the DEM-P, the DEM-C cannot capture shock-wave propagation through granular media. However, the DEM-C is proficient at handling

  11. Dynamical effect in small-angle neutron diffraction from membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caspar, D.L.D.; Phillips, W.C.

    1976-01-01

    It has been suggested that multilayers with large repeat periods, fabricated by evaporating alternating thin films of two metals with high scattering-density contrast, could be used as efficient wide-band pass monochromators for x-rays and neutrons. In the limit of a large number of weakly reflecting, periodically arranged layers, the analysis gives results corresponding to those of the dynamical theory for diffraction of x-rays and neutrons from perfect crystals. Measurement of dynamical neutron diffraction effects from membrane arrays provides significant information about the order in the packing and the absolute scattering-density difference between layers

  12. Evaluation of a bioluminescence method, contact angle measurements and topography for testing the cleanability of plastic surfaces under laboratory conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redsven, I.; Kymäläinen, H.-R.; Pesonen-Leinonen, E.; Kuisma, R.; Ojala-Paloposki, T.; Hautala, M.; Sjöberg, A.-M.

    2007-04-01

    Detection of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) by bioluminescence is used, for instance, in the food industry and in hospitals to assess the hygiene status of surfaces. The aim of this laboratory study was to investigate the feasibility of the ATP method for estimating the cleanability of resilient floor coverings from biological soil. The surfaces were worn using a Soiling and Wearing Drum Tester, and soiled and cleaned with an Erichsen Washability and Scrubbing Resistance Tester. In the laboratory test carried out with the bioluminescence method, most of the new and worn floor coverings that were biologically soiled were cleaned efficiently. According to this study, the semiquantitative ATP screening method can be used for hygiene monitoring of flooring materials. No correlation was found between cleanability and contact angles or surface topography measured using a profilometer. However, by revealing local irregularities and damage on surfaces, scanning electron micrographs appeared useful in explaining differences in cleanability.

  13. Impact parameter dynamics in quantum theory in large angle scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andriyanov, A.A.

    1975-01-01

    High energy behaviour of a free particle Green's function is studied for construction of the scattering amplitude. The main part of the Green's function is determined by eikonal scattering along the mean moment and by the total scattering along the transfered momentum. This ''impact'' approximation may be included as a first approximation in the iteration scheme for the scattering amplitude along the mean momentum, i.e. the ''impact'' perturbation theory. With the help of the ''impact'' approximation an expansion of the scattering amplitude in the impact parameter depending on interaction is obtained. These expansions are more correct than the eikonal expansions at large angle scattering. The results are illustrated grafically foe the exponential and the Yukawa potentials

  14. Q-angle static or dynamic measurements, which is the best choice for patellofemoral pain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Danilo de Oliveira; Briani, Ronaldo Valdir; Pazzinatto, Marcella Ferraz; Gonçalves, Ana Valéria; Ferrari, Deisi; Aragão, Fernando Amâncio; de Azevedo, Fábio Mícolis

    2015-12-01

    The elevated Q-angle seems to be one of the most suggested factors contributing to patellofemoral pain. Females with patellofemoral pain are often evaluated through static clinical tests in clinical practice. However, the adaptations seem to appear more frequently in dynamic conditions. Performing static vs. dynamic evaluations of widely used measures would add to the knowledge in this area. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the reliability and discriminatory capability of three Q-angle measurements: a static clinical test, peak dynamic knee valgus during stair ascent and a static measurement using a three-dimensional system. Twenty-nine females with patellofemoral pain and twenty-five pain-free females underwent clinical Q-angle measurement and static and dynamic knee valgus measurements during stair ascent, using a three-dimensional system. All measurements were obtained and comparisons between groups, reliability and discriminatory capability were calculated. Peak dynamic knee valgus was found to be greater in the patellofemoral pain group. On the other hand, no significant effects were found for static knee valgus or clinical Q-angle measurements between groups. The dynamic variable demonstrated the best discriminatory capability. Low values of reliability were found for clinical Q-angle, in contrast to the high values found for the three-dimensional system measurements. Based on our findings, avoiding or correcting dynamic knee valgus during stair ascent may be an important component of rehabilitation programs in females with patellofemoral pain who demonstrate excessive dynamic knee valgus. Q-angle static measurements were not different between groups and presented poor values of discriminatory capability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Continuum mechanics at the atomic scale : Insights into non-adhesive contacts using molecular dynamics simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Solhjoo, Soheil; Vakis, Antonis I.

    2016-01-01

    Classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were performed to study non-adhesive contact at the atomic scale. Starting from the case of Hertzian contact, it was found that the reduced Young’s modulus E* for shallow indentations scales as a function of, both, the indentation depth and the contact

  16. Determination of the solid surface critical exponent β1 from contact-angle variation on approach to a wetting transition: Cyclohexane/aniline/quartz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallas, Norman R.

    2016-03-01

    The three-phase contact angle (θ) for the system cyclohexane/aniline/quartz has been measured from drop shapes as a function of temperature on approach to the cyclohexane/aniline upper consolute solution temperature Tc. The experiments employed exacting criteria previously established for thermodynamic-quality measurements at fluid interfaces. A first-order wetting transition from partial wetting to complete wetting was observed at a temperature Tw, 2.12 K below Tc. The contact angle vanishes at Tw, scaling as cos θ ˜ |T - Tc|β1-μ for T contact angle near the critical point for this system. These results are in marked contrast to previous measurements on this system from measurements of capillary rise and meniscus curvature.

  17. Measurement of dynamic wedge angles and beam profiles by means of MRI ferrous sulphate gel dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtsson, Magnus; Furre, Torbjørn; Rødal, Jan; Skretting, Arne; Olsen, Dag R.

    1996-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the possible value of measuring the dose distribution in dynamic wedge photon beams using ferrous sulphate gel phantoms analysed by MRI. The wedge angles and dose profiles were measured for a field size of and for dynamic wedge angles of , , and using a 15 MV photon beam generated from a Clinac 2100 CD (Varian). The dose profiles obtained from MRI ferrous sulphate gel were in good agreement with the dose measurements performed with a diode detector array. Also, the wedge angles determined from the MRI ferrous sulphate gel agreed well with the values obtained by using film dosimetry and with calculations by use of TMS (treatment planning system) (Helax, Uppsala, Sweden). The study demonstrated that MRI ferrous sulphate gel dosimetry is an adequate tool for measurements of some beam characteristics of dynamic radiation fields.

  18. Wettability of natural root mucilage studied by atomic force microscopy and contact angle: Links between nanoscale and macroscale surface properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltenbach, Robin; Diehl, Dörte; Schaumann, Gabriele E.

    2017-04-01

    Organic coatings are considered as main cause of soil water repellency (SWR). This phenomenon plays a crucial role in the rhizosphere, at the interface of plant water uptake and soil hydraulics. Still, there is little knowledge about the nanoscale properties of natural soil compounds such as root-mucilage and its mechanistic effect on wettability. In this study, dried films of natural root-mucilage from Sorghum (Sorghum sp., MOENCH) on glass substrates were studied in order to explore experimental and evaluation methods that allow to link between macroscopic wettability and nano-/microscopic surface properties in this model soil system. SWR was assessed by optical contact angle (CA) measurements. The nanostructure of topography and adhesion forces of the mucilage surfaces was revealed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements in ambient air, using PeakForce Quantitative Nanomechanical Mapping (PFQNM). Undiluted mucilage formed hydrophobic films on the substrate with CA > 90° and rather homogeneous nanostructure. Contact angles showed reduced water repellency of surfaces, when concentration of mucilage was decreased by dilution. AFM height and adhesion images displayed incomplete mucilage surface coverage for diluted samples. Hole-like structures in the film frequently exhibited increased adhesion forces. Spatial analysis of the AFM data via variograms enabled a numerical description of such 'adhesion holes'. The use of geostatistical approaches in AFM studies of the complex surface structure of soil compounds was considered meaningful in view of the need of comprehensive analysis of large AFM image data sets that exceed the capability of comparative visual inspection. Furthermore, force curves measured with the AFM showed increased break-free distances and pull-off forces inside the observed 'adhesion holes', indicating enhanced capillary forces due to adsorbed water films at hydrophilic domains for ambient RH (40 ± 2 %). This offers the possibility of

  19. Drop evaporation on superhydrophobic PTFE surfaces driven by contact line dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, S M M; Dias, J F; Canut, B

    2015-02-15

    In the present study, we experimentally study the evaporation modes and kinetics of sessile drops of water on highly hydrophobic surfaces (contact angle ∼160°), heated to temperatures ranging between 40° and 70 °C. These surfaces were initially constructed by means of controlled tailoring of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) substrates. The evaporation of droplets was observed to occur in three distinct phases, which were the same for the different substrate temperatures. The drops started to evaporate in the constant contact radius (CCR) mode, then switched to a more complex mode characterized by a set of stick-slip events accompanied by a decrease in contact angle, and finally shifted to a mixed mode in which the contact radius and contact angle decreased simultaneously until the drops had completely evaporated. It is shown that in the case of superhydrophobic surfaces, the energy barriers (per unit length) associated with the stick-slip motion of a drop ranges in the nJ m(-1) scale. Furthermore, analysis of the evaporation rates, determined from experimental data show that, even in the CCR mode, a linear relationship between V(2/3) and the evaporation time is verified. The values of the evaporation rate constants are found to be higher in the pinned contact line regime (the CCR mode) than in the moving contact line regime. This behavior is attributed to the drop's higher surface to volume ratio in the CCR mode. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of chemical heterogeneity of biodegradable polymers on surface energy: A static contact angle analysis of polyester model films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belibel, R; Avramoglou, T; Garcia, A; Barbaud, C; Mora, L

    2016-02-01

    Biodegradable and bioassimilable poly((R,S)-3,3 dimethylmalic acid) (PDMMLA) derivatives were synthesized and characterized in order to develop a new coating for coronary endoprosthesis enabling the reduction of restenosis. The PDMMLA was chemically modified to form different custom groups in its side chain. Three side groups were chosen: the hexyl group for its hydrophobic nature, the carboxylic acid and alcohol groups for their acid and neutral hydrophilic character, respectively. The sessile drop method was applied to characterize the wettability of biodegradable polymer film coatings. Surface energy and components were calculated. The van Oss approach helped reach not only the dispersive and polar acid-base components of surface energy but also acid and basic components. Surface topography was quantified by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and subnanometer average values of roughness (Ra) were obtained for all the analyzed surfaces. Thus, roughness was considered to have a negligible effect on wettability measurements. In contrast, heterogeneous surfaces had to be corrected by the Cassie-Baxter equation for copolymers (10/90, 20/80 and 30/70). The impact of this correction was quantified for all the wettability parameters. Very high relative corrections (%) were found, reaching 100% for energies and 30% for contact angles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Incident angle dependence of reactions between graphene and hydrogen atom by molecular dynamics simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Seiki; Nakamura, Hiroaki; Ito, Atsushi

    2010-01-01

    Incident angle dependence of reactions between graphene and hydrogen atoms are obtained qualitatively by classical molecular dynamics simulation under the NVE condition with modified Brenner reactive empirical bond order (REBO) potential. Chemical reaction depends on two parameters, i.e., polar angle θ and azimuthal angle φ of the incident hydrogen. From the simulation results, it is found that the reaction rates strongly depend on polar angle θ. Reflection rate becomes larger with increasing θ, and the θ dependence of adsorption rate is also found. The θ dependence is caused by three dimensional structure of the small potential barrier which covers adsorption sites. φ dependence of penetration rate is also found for large θ. (author)

  2. Small-angle neutron and dynamic light scattering study of gelatin ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The state of intermolecular aggregates and that of folded gelatin molecules could be characterized by dynamic laser light and small-angle neutron scattering ... School of Physical Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110 067, India; Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 ...

  3. Wettability determination by contact angle measurements: hvbB coal-water system with injection of synthetic flue gas and CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shojai Kaveh, Narjes; Rudolph, E Susanne J; Wolf, Karl-Heinz A A; Ashrafizadeh, Seyed Nezameddin

    2011-12-01

    Geological sequestration of pure carbon dioxide (CO(2)) in coal is one of the methods to sequester CO(2). In addition, injection of CO(2) or flue gas into coal enhances coal bed methane production (ECBM). The success of this combined process depends strongly on the wetting behavior of the coal, which is function of coal rank, ash content, heterogeneity of the coal surface, pressure, temperature and composition of the gas. The wetting behavior can be evaluated from the contact angle of a gas bubble, CO(2) or flue gas, on a coal surface. In this study, contact angles of a synthetic flue gas, i.e. a 80/20 (mol%) N(2)/CO(2) mixture, and pure CO(2) on a Warndt Luisenthal (WL) coal have been determined using a modified pendant drop cell in a pressure range from atmospheric to 16 MPa and a constant temperature of 318 K. It was found that the contact angles of flue gas on WL coal were generally smaller than those of CO(2). The contact angle of CO(2) changes from water-wet to gas-wet by increasing pressure above 8.5 MPa while the one for the flue gas changes from water-wet to intermediate-wet by increasing pressure above 10 MPa. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. AGING EFFECTS OF REPEATEDLY GLOW-DISCHARGED POLYETHYLENE - INFLUENCE ON CONTACT-ANGLE, INFRARED-ABSORPTION, ELEMENTAL SURFACE-COMPOSITION, AND SURFACE-TOPOGRAPHY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERMEI, HC; STOKROOS, [No Value; SCHAKENRAAD, JM; BUSSCHER, HJ

    1991-01-01

    Aging effects of repeatedly oxygen glow-discharged polyethylene surfaces were determined by water contact angle measurements, infrared (IR) spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron (XPS) spectroscopy, and surface topography determination. Glow-discharged surfaces were stored at room temperature and in

  5. Effects of various chair-side surface treatment methods on dental restorative materials with respect to contact angles and surface roughness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturz, Candida R C; Faber, Franz-Josef; Scheer, Martin; Rothamel, Daniel; Neugebauer, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    Available chair-side surface treatment methods may adversely affect prosthetic materials and promote plaque accumulation. This study investigated the effects of treatment procedures on three resin restorative materials, zirconium-dioxide and polyetheretherketone in terms of surface roughness and hydrophobicity. Treatments were grinding with silicon carbide paper or white Arkansas stone, blasting with prophylaxis powder and polishing with diamond paste. Surface roughness was assessed using confocal laser scanning. Hydrophobicity as measured by water contact angle was determined by computerized image analysis using the sessile drop technique. All of the specific surface treatments performed led to significant changes in contact angle values and surface roughness (Ra) values. Median contact angle values ranged from 51.6° to 114°. Ra values ranged from 0.008 µm to 2.917 µm. Air-polishing as well as other polishing procedures increased surface roughness values in all materials except zirconium dioxide. Polyetheretherketone displayed greatest change in contact angle values after air-polishing treatment.

  6. Diffusive Dynamics of Contact Formation in Disordered Polypeptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerze, Gül H.; Mittal, Jeetain; Best, Robert B.

    2016-02-01

    Experiments measuring contact formation between probes in disordered chains provide information on the fundamental time scales relevant to protein folding. However, their interpretation usually relies on one-dimensional (1D) diffusion models, as do many experiments probing a single distance. Here, we use all-atom molecular simulations to capture both the time scales of contact formation, as well as the scaling with peptide length for tryptophan triplet quenching experiments, revealing the sensitivity of the experimental quenching times to the configurational space explored by the chain. We find a remarkable consistency between the results of the full calculation and from Szabo-Schulten-Schulten theory applied to a 1D diffusion model, supporting the validity of such models. The significant reduction in diffusion coefficient at the small probe separations which most influence quenching rate, suggests that contact formation and Förster resonance energy transfer correlation experiments provide complementary information on diffusivity.

  7. Dynamic Multi-Rigid-Body Systems with Concurrent Distributed Contacts: Theory and Examples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TRINKLE, JEFFREY C.; TZITZOURIS, J.A.; PANG, J.S.

    2001-01-01

    Consider a system of rigid bodies with multiple concurrent contacts. The multi-rigid-body contact problem is to predict the accelerations of the bodies and the normal friction loads acting at the contacts. This paper presents theoretical results for the multi-rigid-body contact problem under the assumptions that one or more contacts occur over locally planar, finite regions and that friction forces are consistent with the maximum work inequality. Existence and uniqueness results are presented for this problem under mild assumptions on the system inputs. In addition, the performance of two different time-stepping methods for integrating the dynamics are compared on two simple multi-body systems

  8. The dynamic contact area of elastomers at different velocities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khafidh, Muhammad; Rodriguez, N.V.; Masen, Marc Arthur; Schipper, Dirk J.

    2016-01-01

    The friction in tribo-systems that contain viscoelastic materials, such as elastomers, is relevant for a large number of applications. Examples include tyres, hoses, transmission and conveyor belts. To quantify the friction in these applications, one must first understand the contact behaviour of

  9. Contact activity and dynamics of the social core

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mones, Enys; Stopczynski, Arkadiusz; Jørgensen, Sune Lehmann

    2017-01-01

    Humans interact through numerous communication channels to build and maintain social connections: they meet face-to-face, make phone calls or send text messages, and interact via social media. Although it is known that the network of physical contacts, for example, is distinct from the network ar...

  10. Calculation of the surface potential and surface charge density by measurement of the three-phase contact angle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, H; Nikolov, A; Wasan, D T

    2012-11-01

    The silica/silicon wafer is widely used in the semiconductor industry in the manufacture of electronic devices, so it is essential to understand its physical chemistry and determine the surface potential at the silica wafer/water interface. However, it is difficult to measure the surface potential of a silica/silicon wafer directly due to its high electric resistance. In the present study, the three-phase contact angle (TPCA) on silica is measured as a function of the pH. The surface potential and surface charge density at the silica/water surface are calculated by a model based on the Young-Lippmann equation in conjunction with the Gouy-Chapman model for the electric double layer. In measurements of the TPCA on silica, two distinct regions were identified with a boundary at pH 9.5-showing a dominance of the surface ionization of silanol groups below pH 9.5 and a dominance of the dissolution of silica into the aqueous solution above pH 9.5. Since the surface chemistry changes above pH 9.5, the model is applied to solutions below pH 9.5 (ionization dominant) for the calculation of the surface potential and surface charge density at the silica/aqueous interface. In order to evaluate the model, a galvanic mica cell was made of a mica sheet and the surface potential was measured directly at the mica/water interface. The model results are also validated by experimental data from the literature, as well as the results obtained by the potentiometric titration method and the electro-kinetic measurements. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Numerical Investigation on Dynamic Crushing Behavior of Auxetic Honeycombs with Various Cell-Wall Angles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-chun Zhang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Auxetic honeycombs have proven to be an attractive advantage in actual engineering applications owing to their unique mechanical characteristic and better energy absorption ability. The in-plane dynamic crushing behaviors of the honeycombs with various cell-wall angles are studied by means of explicit dynamic finite element simulation. The influences of the cell-wall angle, the impact velocity, and the edge thickness on the macro/microdeformation behaviors, the plateau stresses, and the specific energy absorption of auxetic honeycombs are discussed in detail. Numerical results show, that except for the impact velocity and the edge thickness, the in-plane dynamic performances of auxetic honeycombs also rely on the cell-wall angle. The “> <”-mode local deformation bands form under low- or moderate-velocity impacting, which results in lateral compression shrinkage and shows negative Poisson's ratio during the crushing. For the given impact velocity, the plateau stress at the proximal end and the energy-absorbed ability can be improved by increasing the negative cell angle, the relative density, the impact velocity, and the matrix material strength. When the microcell parameters are the constant, the plateau stresses are proportional to the square of impact velocity.

  12. Study of the number of occlusal contacts in maximum intercuspation before orthodontic treatment in subjects with Angle Class I and Class II Division 1 malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Adolfo Watanabe-Kanno

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Define and compare numbers and types of occlusal contacts in maximum intercuspation. METHODS: The study consisted of clinical and photographic analysis of occlusal contacts in maximum intercuspation. Twenty-six Caucasian Brazilian subjects were selected before orthodontic treatment, 20 males and 6 females, with ages ranging between 12 and 18 years. The subjects were diagnosed and grouped as follows: 13 with Angle Class I malocclusion and 13 with Angle Class II Division 1 malocclusion. After analysis, the occlusal contacts were classified according to the established criteria as: tripodism, bipodism, monopodism (respectively, three, two or one contact point with the slope of the fossa; cuspid to a marginal ridge; cuspid to two marginal ridges; cuspid tip to opposite inclined plane; surface to surface; and edge to edge. RESULTS: The mean number of occlusal contacts per subject in Class I malocclusion was 43.38 and for Class II Division 1 malocclusion it was 44.38, this difference was not statistically significant (p>0.05. CONCLUSIONS: There is a variety of factors that influence the number of occlusal contacts between a Class I and a Class II, Division 1 malocclusion. There is no standardization of occlusal contact type according to the studied malocclusions. A proper selection of occlusal contact types such as cuspid to fossa or cuspid to marginal ridge and its location in the teeth should be individually defined according to the demands of each case. The existence of an adequate occlusal contact leads to a correct distribution of forces, promoting periodontal health.

  13. Automatic method for estimation of in situ effective contact angle from X-ray micro tomography images of two-phase flow in porous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanziani, Alessio; Singh, Kamaljit; Blunt, Martin J; Guadagnini, Alberto

    2017-06-15

    Multiphase flow in porous media is strongly influenced by the wettability of the system, which affects the arrangement of the interfaces of different phases residing in the pores. We present a method for estimating the effective contact angle, which quantifies the wettability and controls the local capillary pressure within the complex pore space of natural rock samples, based on the physical constraint of constant curvature of the interface between two fluids. This algorithm is able to extract a large number of measurements from a single rock core, resulting in a characteristic distribution of effective in situ contact angle for the system, that is modelled as a truncated Gaussian probability density distribution. The method is first validated on synthetic images, where the exact angle is known analytically; then the results obtained from measurements within the pore space of rock samples imaged at a resolution of a few microns are compared to direct manual assessment. Finally the method is applied to X-ray micro computed tomography (micro-CT) scans of two Ketton cores after waterflooding, that display water-wet and mixed-wet behaviour. The resulting distribution of in situ contact angles is characterized in terms of a mixture of truncated Gaussian densities. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Interethnic contacts : a dynamic analysis of interaction between immigrants and natives in Western countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinovic, B.

    2010-01-01

    This book studies social integration of immigrants (i.e. contacts between immigrants and natives in leisure time) from a dynamic perspective. The central objective is to examine how such interethnic contacts change during the immigrants’ stay in the host country (do they increase, stagnate or

  15. Mixed Finite Element Method for Static and Dynamic Contact Problems with Friction and Initial Gaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanhao Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel mixed finite element method is proposed for static and dynamic contact problems with friction and initial gaps. Based on the characteristic of local nonlinearity for the problem, the system of forces acting on the contactor is divided into two parts: external forces and contact forces. The displacement of structure is chosen as the basic variable and the nodal contact force in contact region under local coordinate system is selected as the iteration variable to confine the nonlinear iteration process in the potential contact surface which is more numerically efficient. In this way, the sophisticated contact nonlinearity is revealed by the variety of the contact forces which are determined by the external load and the contact state stick, slip, or separation. Moreover, in the case of multibody contact problem, the flexibility matrix is symmetric and sparse; thus, the iterative procedure becomes easily carried out and much more economical. In the paper, both the finite element formulations and the iteration process are given in detail for static and dynamic contact problems. Four examples are included to demonstrate the accuracy and applicability of the presented method.

  16. Dynamic Iris Changes as a Risk Factor in Primary Angle Closure Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ye; Li, Si Zhen; Li, Lei; He, Ming Guang; Thomas, Ravi; Wang, Ning Li

    2016-01-01

    We studied the association between dynamic iris changes and the spectrum of primary angle closure disease (PACD), using the anterior segment optical coherence tomography (ASOCT). Eligible primary angle closure (PAC), primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG), age, and sex comparable primary angle closure suspects (PACS) and normal subjects from the 5-year follow-up of the Handan Eye Study underwent ASOCT testing in dark and light conditions. The right eye of each subject was analyzed and biometric parameters including iris cross-sectional area (IA), lens vault (LV), pupil diameter (PD), and centroid-to-centroid distance (CCD) were calculated using the Zhongshan Angle Assessment Program. Totals of 31 PACS, 31 PAC/PACG, and 31 normal eyes were eligible for analysis. Loss of IA per mm PD increase in the dark compared to light was 0.18 mm in PACS, 0.13 mm in PAC/PACG, and 0.24 mm in normal (P = 0.015 between groups) groups. Diagnoses of normal (P = 0.001) and a smaller PD in light (P = 0.003) were statistically significant determinants of a larger IA loss per mm PD increase in the dark compared to light. Logistic regression analysis showed that LV (P = 0.002) and IA loss per mm PD increase (P = 0.017) were risk factors for an occludable angle. Significant differences in iris behavior in the dark compared to light in PACS, PACD, and normal eyes add to the evidence that dynamic iris change has a role in the pathogenesis of PAC in a rural Chinese population.

  17. Optimal Elbow Angle for Extracting sEMG Signals During Fatiguing Dynamic Contraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed R. Al-Mulla

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Surface electromyographic (sEMG activity of the biceps muscle was recorded from 13 subjects. Data was recorded while subjects performed dynamic contraction until fatigue and the signals were segmented into two parts (Non-Fatigue and Fatigue. An evolutionary algorithm was used to determine the elbow angles that best separate (using Davies-Bouldin Index, DBI both Non-Fatigue and Fatigue segments of the sEMG signal. Establishing the optimal elbow angle for feature extraction used in the evolutionary process was based on 70% of the conducted sEMG trials. After completing 26 independent evolution runs, the best run containing the optimal elbow angles for separation (Non-Fatigue and Fatigue was selected and then tested on the remaining 30% of the data to measure the classification performance. Testing the performance of the optimal angle was undertaken on nine features extracted from each of the two classes (Non-Fatigue and Fatigue to quantify the performance. Results showed that the optimal elbow angles can be used for fatigue classification, showing 87.90% highest correct classification for one of the features and on average of all eight features (including worst performing features giving 78.45%.

  18. Two-dimensional motion analysis of dynamic knee valgus identifies female high school athletes at risk of non-contact anterior cruciate ligament injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numata, Hitoaki; Nakase, Junsuke; Kitaoka, Katsuhiko; Shima, Yosuke; Oshima, Takeshi; Takata, Yasushi; Shimozaki, Kengo; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki

    2018-02-01

    Female athletes are at greater risk of non-contact ACL injury. Three-dimensional kinematic analyses have shown that at-risk female athletes have a greater knee valgus angle during drop jumping. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between knee valgus angle and non-contact ACL injury in young female athletes using coronal-plane two-dimensional (2D) kinematic analyses of single-leg landing. Two hundred ninety-one female high school athletes newly enrolled in basketball and handball clubs were assessed. Dynamic knee valgus was analysed during single-leg drop jumps using 2D coronal images at hallux-ground contact and at maximal knee valgus. All subjects were followed up for 3 years for ACL injury. Twenty-eight (9.6%) of 291 athletes had ACL rupture, including 27 non-contact ACL injuries. The injured group of 27 knees with non-contact ACL injury was compared with a control group of 27 randomly selected uninjured knees. The relationship between initial 2D movement analysis results and subsequent ACL injury was investigated. Dynamic knee valgus was significantly greater in the injured group compared to the control group at hallux-ground contact (2.1 ± 2.4 vs. 0.4 ± 2.2 cm, P = 0.006) and at maximal knee valgus (8.3 ± 4.3 vs. 5.1 ± 4.1 cm, P = 0.007). The results of this study confirm that dynamic knee valgus is a potential risk factor for non-contact ACL injury in female high school athletes. Fully understanding the risk factors that increase dynamic knee valgus will help in designing more appropriate training and interventional strategies to prevent injuries in at-risk athletes. Prognostic studies, Level II.

  19. Measuring dynamic social contacts in a rehabilitation hospital: effect of wards, patient and staff characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, Audrey; Obadia, Thomas; Martinet, Lucie; Boëlle, Pierre-Yves; Fleury, Eric; Guillemot, Didier; Opatowski, Lulla; Temime, Laura

    2018-01-26

    Understanding transmission routes of hospital-acquired infections (HAI) is key to improve their control. In this context, describing and analyzing dynamic inter-individual contact patterns in hospitals is essential. In this study, we used wearable sensors to detect Close Proximity Interactions (CPIs) among patients and hospital staff in a 200-bed long-term care facility over 4 months. First, the dynamic CPI data was described in terms of contact frequency and duration per individual status or activity and per ward. Second, we investigated the individual factors associated with high contact frequency or duration using generalized linear mixed-effect models to account for inter-ward heterogeneity. Hospital porters and physicians had the highest daily number of distinct contacts, making them more likely to disseminate HAI among individuals. Conversely, contact duration was highest between patients, with potential implications in terms of HAI acquisition risk. Contact patterns differed among hospital wards, reflecting varying care patterns depending on reason for hospitalization, with more frequent contacts in neurologic wards and fewer, longer contacts in geriatric wards. This study is the first to report proximity-sensing data informing on inter-individual contacts in long-term care settings. Our results should help better understand HAI spread, parameterize future mathematical models, and propose efficient control strategies.

  20. Effect of Salicylic Acid and 5-Sulfosalicylic Acid on UV-Vis Spectroscopic Characteristics, Morphology, and Contact Angles of Spin Coated Polyaniline and Poly(4-aminodiphenylaniline Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sironi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyaniline and poly(4-aminodiphenylaniline have been prepared following two different synthetic protocols (a traditional method and a “green” method. Both the polymers have been spin coated with salicylic acid and 5-sulfosalicylic acid as the dopants, in order to obtain them in form of thin films. These materials have been characterized, thereof achieving important information on their water contact angles and surface morphology.

  1. Effect of siloxane quantity and ph of silane coupling agents and contact angle of resin bonding agent on bond durability of resin cements to machinable ceramic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiangfeng; Yoshida, Keiichi; Taira, Yohsuke; Kamada, Kohji; Luo, Xiaoping

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was to measure siloxane quantity, pH value, and resin wettability on ceramics silanized by five silane coupling agents, and to test the correlation of these parameters of silane coupling agents with bond durability between a machinable glass ceramic and resin cements. 1.5-mm-thick ceramic plates (ProCAD, Ivoclar Vivadent) were polished, cleaned, and bonded with ten combinations of five silane coupling agents (Monobond S [Ivoclar Vivadent], Rely X Ceramic Primer [3M], Clearfil Ceramic Primer [Kuraray], GC Ceramic Primer [GC], Porcelain Liner M [Sun Medical]) and two dual-curing resin cements (VariolinkII [VLII, Ivoclar Vivadent], Linkmax HV [LMHV, GC]). Their microshear bond strength was measured after 0, 10,000, and 30,000 thermal cycles. Siloxane quantity, pH value of silane coupling agents and contact angle of Heliobond (Ivoclar Vivadent) to silanized ceramic were measured using a FTIR spectrophotometer, pH-indicator strips, and a contact-angle meter, respectively. Bond strength data were analyzed by three-way ANOVA. For each cement, Pearson's correlation coefficient was calculated to analyze possible correlation between bond strength under different thermocycling conditions and absorbance peak of siloxane, pH value of silane coupling agents, and contact angle of resin to the silanized ceramic surface. The bond strength of ceramic was significantly influenced by the silane coupling agent and thermal cycles, not by resin cement. For both cements, only a negative correlation was found to be significant between the contact angle of resin to silanized ceramic surfaces and bond strength after 30,000 thermal cycles. The better the wettability of resin on different silanized ceramic surfaces could improve their bond durability.

  2. Dynamic strain measurements in a sliding microstructured contact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennewitz, Roland; David, Jonathan; Lannoy, Charles-Francois de; Drevniok, Benedict; Hubbard-Davis, Paris; Miura, Takashi; Trichtchenko, Olga

    2008-01-01

    A novel experiment is described which measures the tangential strain development across the contact between a PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) block and a glass surface during the initial stages of sliding. The surface of the PDMS block has been microfabricated to take the form of a regular array of pyramidal tips at 20 μm separation. Tangential strain is measured by means of light scattering from the interface between the block and surface. Three phases are observed in all experiments: initial shear deformation of the whole PDMS block, a pre-sliding tangential compression of the tip array with stepwise increase of the compressive strain, and sliding in stick-slip movements as revealed by periodic variation of the strain. The stick-slip sliding between the regular tip array and the randomly rough counter surface always takes on the periodicity of the tip array. The fast slip can cause either a sudden increase or a sudden decrease in compressive strain

  3. Experimentally-based optimization of contact parameters in dynamics simulation of humanoid robots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vivian, Michele; Reggiani, Monica; Sartori, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    With this work we introduce a novel methodology for the simulation of walking of a humanoid robot. Motion capture technology is used to calibrate the dynamics engine internal parameters and validate the simulated motor task. Results showed the calibrated contact model allows predicting dynamically

  4. Dynamics of liquid solidification thermal resistance of contact layer

    CERN Document Server

    Lipnicki, Zygmunt

    2017-01-01

    This monograph comprehensively describes phenomena of heat flow during phase change as well as the dynamics of liquid solidification, i.e. the development of a solidified layer. The book provides the reader with basic knowledge for practical designs, as well as with equations which describe processes of energy transformation. The target audience primarily comprises researchers and experts in the field of heat flow, but the book may also be beneficial for both practicing engineers and graduate students.

  5. Surface oxidation of a Melinex 800 PET polymer material modified by an atmospheric dielectric barrier discharge studied using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and contact angle measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Naiyi; Upadhyay, Deepesh J.; Anderson, Colin A.; Meenan, Brian J.; Brown, Norman M.D.

    2007-01-01

    Surface properties of a Melinex 800 PET polymer material modified by an atmospheric-pressure air dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) have been studied using X-ray photoelectron microscopy (XPS) and contact angle measurement. The results show that the material surface treated by the DBD was modified significantly in chemical composition, with the highly oxidised carbon species increasing as the surface processing proceeds. The surface hydrophilicity was dramatically improved after the treatment, with the surface contact angle reduced from 81.8 o for the as-supplied sample to lower than 50 deg. after treatment. Post-treatment recovery effect is found after the treated samples were stored in air for a long period of time, with the ultimate contact angles, as measured, being stabilised in the range 58-69 deg. after the storage, varying with the DBD-treatment power density. A great amount of the C-O type bonding formed during the DBD treatment was found to be converted into the C=O type during post-treatment storage. A possible mechanism for this bond conversion has been suggested

  6. The effect of surface treatment on the surface texture and contact angle of electrochemically deposited hydroxyapatite coating and on its interaction with bone-forming cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliaz, Noam; Shmueli, Sharon; Shur, Irena; Benayahu, Dafna; Aronov, Daniel; Rosenman, Gil

    2009-10-01

    This work demonstrates the effects of both surface preparation and surface post-treatment by exposure to electron beam on the surface texture, contact angle and the interaction with bone-forming cells of electrochemically deposited hydroxyapatite (HAp) coating. Both the surface texture and the contact angle of the ground titanium substrate changed as a result of either heat treatment following soaking in NaOH solution or soaking in H(2)O(2) solution. Consequently, the shape of the current transients during potentiostatic deposition of HAp changed, and the resulting coatings exhibited different surface textures and contact angles. The developed interfacial area ratio Sdr and the core fluid retention index Sci were found more reliable than the mean roughness R(a) and the root-mean-square roughness Z(rms) in correlating the adhesion of the coating to the metal substrate and the cellular response with surface texture. The NaOH pretreatment provided the highest surface area and induced the highest cell attachment, even though the H(2)O(2) treatment provided the highest hydrophilicity to the metal substrate. Electrodeposition at pH 6 was found preferable compared to electrodeposition at pH 4.2. The ability to modify the cellular response by exposure to unique electron-beam surface treatment was demonstrated. The very high hydrophilicity of the as-deposited HAp coating enhanced its bioactivity.

  7. Determination of the solid surface critical exponent β_1 from contact-angle variation on approach to a wetting transition: Cyclohexane/aniline/quartz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pallas, Norman R.

    2016-01-01

    The three-phase contact angle (θ) for the system cyclohexane/aniline/quartz has been measured from drop shapes as a function of temperature on approach to the cyclohexane/aniline upper consolute solution temperature T_c. The experiments employed exacting criteria previously established for thermodynamic-quality measurements at fluid interfaces. A first-order wetting transition from partial wetting to complete wetting was observed at a temperature T_w, 2.12 K below T_c. The contact angle vanishes at T_w, scaling as cos θ ∼ |T − T_c|"β"_1"−"μ for T < T_w and cos θ = 1.0 for T_w < T < T_c. The experimental results give a value for β_1 = 0.74 ± 0.03, in agreement with theoretical calculations. The data clearly rule out higher order contributions to the change in the contact angle near the critical point for this system. These results are in marked contrast to previous measurements on this system from measurements of capillary rise and meniscus curvature.

  8. Determination of the solid surface critical exponent β{sub 1} from contact-angle variation on approach to a wetting transition: Cyclohexane/aniline/quartz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pallas, Norman R., E-mail: Sam-7-iam@hotmail.com [BP Research Centre Warrensville, 4440 Warrensville Center Road, Cleveland, Ohio 44128 (United States)

    2016-03-21

    The three-phase contact angle (θ) for the system cyclohexane/aniline/quartz has been measured from drop shapes as a function of temperature on approach to the cyclohexane/aniline upper consolute solution temperature T{sub c}. The experiments employed exacting criteria previously established for thermodynamic-quality measurements at fluid interfaces. A first-order wetting transition from partial wetting to complete wetting was observed at a temperature T{sub w}, 2.12 K below T{sub c}. The contact angle vanishes at T{sub w}, scaling as cos θ ∼ |T − T{sub c}|{sup β{sub 1}−μ} for T < T{sub w} and cos θ = 1.0 for T{sub w} < T < T{sub c}. The experimental results give a value for β{sub 1} = 0.74 ± 0.03, in agreement with theoretical calculations. The data clearly rule out higher order contributions to the change in the contact angle near the critical point for this system. These results are in marked contrast to previous measurements on this system from measurements of capillary rise and meniscus curvature.

  9. Dynamic measurement of pennation angle of gastrocnemius muscles during contractions based on ultrasound imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Yongjin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Muscle fascicle pennation angle (PA is an important parameter related to musculoskeletal functions, and ultrasound imaging has been widely used for measuring PA, but manually and frame by frame in most cases. We have earlier reported an automatic method to estimate aponeurosis orientation based on Gabor transform and Revoting Hough Transform (RVHT. Methods In this paper, we proposed a method to estimate the overall orientation of muscle fascicles in a region of interest, in order to complete computing the orientation of the other side of the pennation angle, but the side found by RVHT. The measurements for orientations of both fascicles and aponeurosis were conducted in each frame of ultrasound images, and then the dynamic change of pennation angle during muscle contraction was obtained automatically. The method for fascicle orientation estimation was evaluated using synthetic images with different noise levels and later on 500 ultrasound images of human gastrocnemius muscles during isometric plantarflexion. Results The muscle fascicle orientations were also estimated manually by two operators. From the results it’s found that the proposed automatic method demonstrated a comparable performance to the manual method. Conclusions With the proposed methods, ultrasound measurement for muscle pennation angles can be more widely used for functional assessment of muscles.

  10. Advances and applications of dynamic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baltisberger, Jay Harvey [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1993-06-01

    This dissertation describes nuclear magnetic resonance experiments and theory which have been developed to study quadrupolar nuclei (those nuclei with spin greater than one-half) in the solid state. Primarily, the technique of dynamic-angle spinning (DAS) is extensively reviewed and expanded upon in this thesis. Specifically, the improvement in both the resolution (two-dimensional pure-absorptive phase methods and DAS angle choice) and sensitivity (pulse-sequence development), along with effective spinning speed enhancement (again through choice of DAS conditions or alternative multiple pulse schemes) of dynamic-angle spinning experiment was realized with both theory and experimental examples. The application of DAS to new types of nuclei (specifically the {sup 87}Rb and {sup 85}Rb nuclear spins) and materials (specifically amorphous solids) has also greatly expanded the possibilities of the use of DAS to study a larger range of materials. This dissertation is meant to demonstrate both recent advances and applications of the DAS technique, and by no means represents a comprehensive study of any particular chemical problem.

  11. Advances and applications of dynamic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baltisberger, J.H.

    1993-06-01

    This dissertation describes nuclear magnetic resonance experiments and theory which have been developed to study quadrupolar nuclei (those nuclei with spin greater than one-half) in the solid state. Primarily, the technique of dynamic-angle spinning (DAS) is extensively reviewed and expanded upon in this thesis. Specifically, the improvement in both the resolution (two-dimensional pure-absorptive phase methods and DAS angle choice) and sensitivity (pulse-sequence development), along with effective spinning speed enhancement (again through choice of DAS conditions or alternative multiple pulse schemes) of dynamic-angle spinning experiment was realized with both theory and experimental examples. The application of DAS to new types of nuclei (specifically the 87 Rb and 85 Rb nuclear spins) and materials (specifically amorphous solids) has also greatly expanded the possibilities of the use of DAS to study a larger range of materials. This dissertation is meant to demonstrate both recent advances and applications of the DAS technique, and by no means represents a comprehensive study of any particular chemical problem

  12. Morphomechanics of the humero-ulnar joint: I. Joint space width and contact areas as a function of load and flexion angle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckstein, F; Löhe, F; Hillebrand, S; Bergmann, M; Schulte, E; Milz, S; Putz, R

    1995-11-01

    Previous studies have shown that the trochlear notch is deeper than necessary for an exact fit with the humerus. However, humero-ulnar joint space width and contact areas have so far not been quantified for variations in the load and angle of flexion. Six fresh cadaveric specimens were investigated at 30 degrees, 60 degrees, 90 degrees, and 120 degrees of flexion and at loads of 25 and 500 N, simulating resisted elbow extension. The joint space width and contact were determined, using polyether casting material. At 25 N all joints made contact in the ventral and dorsal aspects of the articular surfaces, whereas in the depth of the trochlear notch the joint space was on average between 0.3 and 2.8 mm wide, with some variation between individuals. At 500 N the joint space width was considerably reduced and the contract areas expanded towards the depth of the notch. The size of the dorsal contact areas was significantly smaller at 30 degrees and that of the ventral ones at 120 degrees, their ventro-dorsal ratio decreasing considerably from 30 degrees to 120 degrees (p < 0.01). These results indicate that the size of the contact areas depends to a slight extent on the joint position, but that at all loads and flexion angles a bicentric contact and an important central joint space width emerge because of the concave incongruity of the joint. These data may be used for numerical calculations, analysing the effects of incongruity on the joint stress and on the functional adaptation of the subarticular tissues.

  13. Randomised controlled study comparing comfort-related outcomes between two rigid gas permeable (RGP) lenses with different sessile drop contact angles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortuin, Marten F; Schilperoort, John; Evans, Bruce Jw; Edgar, David F; Manon, Hector M Tello; Kiers, Henri

    2011-03-01

    To compare comfort-related outcomes when wearing rigid gas permeable (RGP) contact lenses made of two different materials and using two cleaning regimes. In a double-masked lens material cross-over study, subjects (n = 28 who completed the study) were refitted with new lenses made from (A) Boston XO material in one eye and made from (B) ONSI-56 material in the other eye. The lenses made from materials A and B were worn on the right eye and the left eye following the pattern AB-BA-AB (or vice versa) during the first, second, and third 5 week trial periods respectively. Miraflow cleaner (1st and 2nd period) was replaced by Boston Advance cleaner in the 3rd period. Comfort-related outcomes were assessed by a numerical rating scale (NRS) after each period. Subjects rated six comfort-related factors: satisfaction, sharpness of vision, end of day comfort, maximum comfortable wearing time, maximum wearing time and foreign body feeling. Additionally we obtained subjects' preferences for type of lens and lens cleaner during an exit interview. The sessile drop method was used to measure static contact angles. The mean of the contact angle measured for the Boston XO material was 93.3° and for the ONSI-56 material was 75.8 °. Mean 'end of the day comfort', 'satisfaction' and 'lens feeling' scores reached statistical significance (anova periods 1, 2 and 3, p's: 0.005, 0.028, 0.046, n = 23) with marginal differences in favour of those eyes that had worn lenses made of the ONSI-56 material (differences in mean scores on a 1-10 NRS never exceeded 0.7, 0.5 and 0.2 points in periods 1, 2, 3 respectively). At the exit interview 60% of the subjects (n = 17) were not able to express a preference for wearing either of the lenses, while 29% reported some preference for lenses made of the ONSI-56 material (n = 8) and 11% for wearing lenses made of the Boston XO material (n = 3) within one or more periods. The differences in comfort-related outcomes between contact lenses made from two

  14. Relationships between the root-crown ratio and the loss of occlusal contact and high mandibular plane angle in patients with open bite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehara, Sawako; Maeda, Aya; Tomonari, Hiroshi; Miyawaki, Shouichi

    2013-01-01

    To determine the root-crown (R/C) ratio and dental root length of teeth in patients with open bite and seek any relationships with occlusal contact (OC) and the mandibular plane (Mp) angle. Thirty-one patients with open bite with negative overbite of at least four anterior teeth and 31 control patients with clinically normal overjet and overbite were enrolled. R/C ratios, dental root length, OC, and Mp angle were measured using panoramic radiographs, dental casts, and cephalograms, respectively. Mean differences between the groups, and variations between the R/C ratio or root length and Mp angle in patients with open bite were statistically analyzed. R/C and OC ratios from the incisors to premolars were significantly lower for patients with open bite than for controls, and some teeth had short dental roots. Relationships between low R/C ratio or root length and high Mp angle were significant in patients with open bite. Patients with open bite, especially those with a high Mp angle, have an unfavorable R/C ratio and short dental roots in some teeth, which may be related to the loss of OC.

  15. Modeling and experimental study of oil/water contact angle on biomimetic micro-parallel-patterned self-cleaning surfaces of selected alloys used in water industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickelsen, Simin; Moghadam, Afsaneh Dorri, E-mail: afsaneh@uwm.edu; Ferguson, J.B.; Rohatgi, Pradeep

    2015-10-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Wetting behavior of four metallic materials as a function of surface roughness has been studied. • A model to predict the abrasive particle size and water/oil contact angles relationship is proposed. • Active wetting regime is determined in different materials using the proposed model. - Abstract: In the present study, the wetting behavior of surfaces of various common metallic materials used in the water industry including C84400 brass, commercially pure aluminum (99.0% pure), Nickle–Molybdenum alloy (Hastelloy C22), and 316 Stainless Steel prepared by mechanical abrasion and contact angles of several materials after mechanical abrasion were measured. A model to estimate roughness factor, R{sub f}, and fraction of solid/oil interface, ƒ{sub so}, for surfaces prepared by mechanical abrasion is proposed based on the assumption that abrasive particles acting on a metallic surface would result in scratches parallel to each other and each scratch would have a semi-round cross-section. The model geometrically describes the relation between sandpaper particle size and water/oil contact angle predicted by both the Wenzel and Cassie–Baxter contact type, which can then be used for comparison with experimental data to find which regime is active. Results show that brass and Hastelloy followed Cassie–Baxter behavior, aluminum followed Wenzel behavior and stainless steel exhibited a transition from Wenzel to Cassie–Baxter. Microstructural studies have also been done to rule out effects beyond the Wenzel and Cassie–Baxter theories such as size of structural details.

  16. Dynamic contact problem with adhesion and damage between thermo-electro-elasto-viscoplastic bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadj ammar, Tedjani; Saïdi, Abdelkader; Azeb Ahmed, Abdelaziz

    2017-05-01

    We study of a dynamic contact problem between two thermo-electro-elasto-viscoplastic bodies with damage and adhesion. The contact is frictionless and is modeled with normal compliance condition. We derive variational formulation for the model and prove an existence and uniqueness result of the weak solution. The proof is based on arguments of evolutionary variational inequalities, parabolic inequalities, differential equations, and fixed point theorem.

  17. Contact point generation for convex polytopes in interactive rigid body dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silcowitz-Hansen, Morten; Abel, Sarah Maria Niebe; Erleben, Kenny

    When computing contact forces in rigid body dynamics systems, most state-of-the-art solutions use iterative methods such as the projected Gauss–Seidel (PGS) method. Methods such as the PGS method are preferred for their robustness. However, the time-critical nature of interactive applications...... for convex polytopes. A novel contact point generation method is presented, which is based on growth distances and Gauss maps. We demonstrate improvements when using our method in the context of interactive rigid body simulation...

  18. Dynamics of Molecular Orientation Observed Using Angle Resolved Photoemission Spectroscopy during Deposition of Pentacene on Graphite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang Han; Kwon, Soonnam

    2016-04-19

    A real-time method to observe both the structural and the electronic configuration of an organic molecule during deposition is reported for the model system of pentacene on graphite. Structural phase transition of the thin films as a function of coverage is monitored by using in situ angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) results to observe the change of the electronic configuration at the same time. A photoemission theory that uses independent atomic center approximations is introduced to identify the molecular orientation from the ARPES technique. This study provides a practical insight into interpreting ARPES data regarding dynamic changes of molecular orientation during initial growth of molecules on a well-defined surface.

  19. A parallel algorithm for transient solid dynamics simulations with contact detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attaway, S.; Hendrickson, B.; Plimpton, S.; Gardner, D.; Vaughan, C.; Heinstein, M.; Peery, J.

    1996-01-01

    Solid dynamics simulations with Lagrangian finite elements are used to model a wide variety of problems, such as the calculation of impact damage to shipping containers for nuclear waste and the analysis of vehicular crashes. Using parallel computers for these simulations has been hindered by the difficulty of searching efficiently for material surface contacts in parallel. A new parallel algorithm for calculation of arbitrary material contacts in finite element simulations has been developed and implemented in the PRONTO3D transient solid dynamics code. This paper will explore some of the issues involved in developing efficient, portable, parallel finite element models for nonlinear transient solid dynamics simulations. The contact-detection problem poses interesting challenges for efficient implementation of a solid dynamics simulation on a parallel computer. The finite element mesh is typically partitioned so that each processor owns a localized region of the finite element mesh. This mesh partitioning is optimal for the finite element portion of the calculation since each processor must communicate only with the few connected neighboring processors that share boundaries with the decomposed mesh. However, contacts can occur between surfaces that may be owned by any two arbitrary processors. Hence, a global search across all processors is required at every time step to search for these contacts. Load-imbalance can become a problem since the finite element decomposition divides the volumetric mesh evenly across processors but typically leaves the surface elements unevenly distributed. In practice, these complications have been limiting factors in the performance and scalability of transient solid dynamics on massively parallel computers. In this paper the authors present a new parallel algorithm for contact detection that overcomes many of these limitations

  20. Pixel cells with an arbitrary vertex angle for moire pattern reduction in contact-type multiview three-dimensional imaging systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Jung-Young; Saveljev, Vladmir V.; Kim, Dae-Sik; Kim, Kyung-Tae

    2005-02-01

    Moire patterns originated from overlapping display panel with the viewing zone forming optics are one of major factors of deteriorating the visual image quality of contact-type 3 dimensional imaging systems. An analysis showed that the visual effects of the patterns can be minimized at a specific overlapping angle between the panel and the plate. This angle is implemented by approximating each side of a pixel cell as a discrete line which is drawn along the boundaries of each pixel which lies along the side of the cell. The slope of the line is presented by as the ratio of pixel numbers in vertical and horizontal directions and equals to the tangential value of 1/2 of the angle. This method allows creating pixel cells with shapes of parallelograms and rhombs with a desired vertex angle for minimizing the moire pattern, especially in full-parallax imaging systems. The image generated reveals almost invisible moire pattern at the predefined viewing distance range.

  1. The influence of biosurfactant adsorption on the physicochemical behaviour of carbon steel surfaces using contact angle measurements and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shubina, V., E-mail: varvara.shubina2014@gmail.com [LUNAM Université, IFSTTAR, MAST, SMC, F-44340 Bouguenais (France); Gaillet, L. [LUNAM Université, IFSTTAR, MAST, SMC, F-44340 Bouguenais (France); Ababou-Girard, S. [Institut de Physique de Rennes, Département Matériaux et Nanosciences, UMR 6251 CNRS, Université Rennes 1, 35000 Rennes-Cedex (France); Gaudefroy, V. [LUNAM Université, IFSTTAR, MAST, SMC, F-44340 Bouguenais (France); Chaussadent, T.; Farças, F. [Université Paris-Est, IFSTTAR, MAST, CPDM, F-77447 Marne-la-Vallée (France); Meylheuc, T. [INRA, UMR1319 Micalis, F-78352 Jouy-en-Josas (France); AgroParisTech, UMR Micalis, F-78352 Jouy-en-Josas (France); Dagbert, C. [2 Chemin de la Grand’côte, 36270 Éguzon-Chantôme (France); Creus, J. [LaSIE, UMR7356, Université de La Rochelle, Pôle Sciences et Technologie, Bâtiment Marie Curie, Avenue Michel Crépeau, 17000 La Rochelle (France)

    2015-10-01

    Highlights: • Surface modifications to carbon steel surfaces due to the adsorption of a biosurfactant derived from Pseudomonas fluorescens bacteria cells were investigated using contact angle measurements (CAM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). • CAM allowed to establish an increase of electron-donating properties of steel surface due to the biosurfactant adsorption. • XPS demonstrated that biosurfactant molecules change the stoichiometry of mixted-oxide layer and the new outer layer mostly composed of magnetite. • Thickness and density of adsorbed biosurfactants layers were highlighted using a semiquantitative approach for 3 different concentrations of biomolecules. - Abstract: We investigated modifications to carbon steel surfaces due to the adsorption of a biosurfactant derived from Pseudomonas fluorescens bacteria cells using contact angle measurements (CAM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). After conditioning carbon steel in solutions with three different concentrations of biosurfactant molecules: 0.05, 0.3 and 1 g L{sup −1}, the average thickness of the biosurfactant layer on the carbon steel specimens was 7.9 ± 0.3, 12.1 ± 0.5 and 16.4 ± 0.7 Å, respectively. The biosurfactants changed the composition of both the Fe{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+} mixed-oxide layer and the outer layer, mostly composed of Fe{sup 3+} associated with magnetite. Contact angle measurements indicate decreased hydrophobic properties after the carbon steel was modified by biosurfactant. It was shown that the carbon steel surface free energy depends on the biosurfactant concentration, due to an acquisition of strong electron-donating properties.

  2. The influence of biosurfactant adsorption on the physicochemical behaviour of carbon steel surfaces using contact angle measurements and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shubina, V.; Gaillet, L.; Ababou-Girard, S.; Gaudefroy, V.; Chaussadent, T.; Farças, F.; Meylheuc, T.; Dagbert, C.; Creus, J.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Surface modifications to carbon steel surfaces due to the adsorption of a biosurfactant derived from Pseudomonas fluorescens bacteria cells were investigated using contact angle measurements (CAM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). • CAM allowed to establish an increase of electron-donating properties of steel surface due to the biosurfactant adsorption. • XPS demonstrated that biosurfactant molecules change the stoichiometry of mixted-oxide layer and the new outer layer mostly composed of magnetite. • Thickness and density of adsorbed biosurfactants layers were highlighted using a semiquantitative approach for 3 different concentrations of biomolecules. - Abstract: We investigated modifications to carbon steel surfaces due to the adsorption of a biosurfactant derived from Pseudomonas fluorescens bacteria cells using contact angle measurements (CAM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). After conditioning carbon steel in solutions with three different concentrations of biosurfactant molecules: 0.05, 0.3 and 1 g L −1 , the average thickness of the biosurfactant layer on the carbon steel specimens was 7.9 ± 0.3, 12.1 ± 0.5 and 16.4 ± 0.7 Å, respectively. The biosurfactants changed the composition of both the Fe 2+ and Fe 3+ mixed-oxide layer and the outer layer, mostly composed of Fe 3+ associated with magnetite. Contact angle measurements indicate decreased hydrophobic properties after the carbon steel was modified by biosurfactant. It was shown that the carbon steel surface free energy depends on the biosurfactant concentration, due to an acquisition of strong electron-donating properties

  3. Evaluating the effect of dentin surface pretreatment on the static contact angle of a drop of a bonding agent: an in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Barekatain

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of dentinal pretreatment on the static contact angle of a bonding agent as a measure of dentin surface wettability. Materials &Methods: Twenty mid-coronal dentin surfaces were prepared and randomly allocated to four groups (n=5 according to the priming solutions. All segments were etched with 35% phosphoric acid gel for 15 s, rinsed for 30 s and dried. Each group was rehydrated with 10 µL of distilled water, 0.2 % chlorhexidine, 70% ethanol and 5.25% Sodium Hypochlorite respectively and the excess solution was removed after 60 sec using an absorbent paper. Using a micro syringe, a droplet of the Adper Single Bond 2 was placed on each prepared surface. Then the profile and the static contact angle of the droplet were analyzed with a video-based optical contact angle measuring system. The statistical analysis was performed using One-way ANOVA and Dunnett’s t tests (p<0.05. Results: There was a statistically significant difference between the water and sodium hypochlorite groups which indicates the negative effect sodium hypochlorite may have on dentinal surface energy. (p=0.013. The differences between the water and ethanol groups (p=0.168 and between the water and chlorhexidine groups (p=0.665 were not significant. Conclusion: The use of 5.25% sodium hypochlorite as a priming solution in bonding procedure is not recommended. There is no improvement in dentinal surface wettability by using 70% ethanol or 0.2% chlorhexidine instead of water and the recommendation for use of any of the two should be based on other long-term or short-term effects they may have on the bonding procedure.

  4. Small-angle neutron and dynamic light scattering study of gelatin coacervates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohanty, B; Bohidar, H.B.; Aswal, V.K.; Goyal, P.S.

    2004-01-01

    The state of intermolecular aggregates and that of folded gelatin molecules could be characterized by dynamic laser light and small-angle neutron scattering experiments, which implied spontaneous segregation of particle sizes preceding coacervation, which is a liquid-liquid phase transition phenomenon. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) data analysis revealed two particle sizes until precipitation was reached. The smaller particles having a diameter of ∼50 nm (stable nanoparticles prepared by coacervation method) were detected in the supernatant, whereas the inter-molecular aggregates having a diameter of ∼400 nm gave rise to coacervation. Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) experiments revealed that typical mesh size of the networks exist in polymer dense phase (coacervates). Analysis of the SANS structure factor showed the presence of two length scales associated with this system that were identified as the correlation length or mesh size, ξ = 10.6 A of the network and the other is the size of inhomogeneities = 21.4 A. Observations were discussed based on the results obtained from SANS experiments performed in 5% (w/v) gelatin solution at 60 degC (ξ = 50 A, ζ = 113 A) and 5% (w/v) gel at 28 degC (ξ = 47 A, ζ = 115 A) in aqueous phase indicating smaller length scales in coacervate as compared to sol and gel. (author)

  5. Multiresolution imaging using golden angle stack-of-stars and compressed sensing for dynamic MR urography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Abhishek; Yoruk, Umit; Keerthivasan, Mahesh; Galons, Jean-Philippe; Sharma, Puneet; Johnson, Kevin; Martin, Diego R; Altbach, Maria I; Bilgin, Ali; Saranathan, Manojkumar

    2017-07-01

    To develop a novel multiresolution MRI methodology for accurate estimation of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in vivo. A three-dimensional golden-angle radial stack-of-stars (SoS) trajectory was used for data acquisition on a 3 Tesla MRI scanner. Multiresolution reconstruction and analysis was performed using arterial input function reconstructed at 1-s. temporal resolution and renal dynamic data reconstructed using compressed sensing (CS) with 4-s temporal resolution. The method was first validated using simulations and the clinical utility of the technique was evaluated by comparing the GFR estimates from the proposed method to the estimated GFR (eGFR) obtained from serum creatinine for 10 subjects. The 4-s temporal resolution CS images minimized streaking artifacts and noise while the 1-s temporal resolution AIF minimized errors in GFR estimates. A paired t-test showed that there was no statistically significant difference between MRI based total GFR values and serum creatinine based eGFR estimates (P = 0.92). We have demonstrated the feasibility of multiresolution MRI using a golden angle radial stack-of-stars scheme to accurately estimate GFR as well as produce diagnostic quality dynamic images in vivo. 1 Technical Efficacy: Stage 3 J. MAGN. RESON. IMAGING 2017;46:303-311. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  6. How the dynamics and structure of sexual contact networks shape pathogen phylogenies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katy Robinson

    Full Text Available The characteristics of the host contact network over which a pathogen is transmitted affect both epidemic spread and the projected effectiveness of control strategies. Given the importance of understanding these contact networks, it is unfortunate that they are very difficult to measure directly. This challenge has led to an interest in methods to infer information about host contact networks from pathogen phylogenies, because in shaping a pathogen's opportunities for reproduction, contact networks also shape pathogen evolution. Host networks influence pathogen phylogenies both directly, through governing opportunities for evolution, and indirectly by changing the prevalence and incidence. Here, we aim to separate these two effects by comparing pathogen evolution on different host networks that share similar epidemic trajectories. This approach allows use to examine the direct effects of network structure on pathogen phylogenies, largely controlling for confounding differences arising from population dynamics. We find that networks with more heterogeneous degree distributions yield pathogen phylogenies with more variable cluster numbers, smaller mean cluster sizes, shorter mean branch lengths, and somewhat higher tree imbalance than networks with relatively homogeneous degree distributions. However, in particular for dynamic networks, we find that these direct effects are relatively modest. These findings suggest that the role of the epidemic trajectory, the dynamics of the network and the inherent variability of metrics such as cluster size must each be taken into account when trying to use pathogen phylogenies to understand characteristics about the underlying host contact network.

  7. Dynamic analysis of planar mechanical systems with clearance joints using a new nonlinear contact force model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xupeng; Liu, Geng; Ma, Shangjun [Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an (China)

    2016-04-15

    We investigated the dynamic behavior of planar mechanical systems with clearance joints. First, the contact effect in clearance joint was studied using a new nonlinear contact force model, and the rationality of this model was verified by the results of numerical simulations, which are based on a journal and bearing contact model. Then, the dynamic characteristics of a planar slider-crank mechanism with clearance were analyzed based on the new nonlinear contact force model, and the friction effect of clearance joint was also considered using modified Coulomb friction model. Finally, the numerical results of the influence of clearance size on the acceleration of slider are presented, and compared with the published experimental results. The numerical and experimental results show that the new nonlinear contact force model presented in this paper is an effective method to predict the dynamic behavior of planar mechanical system with clearance joints, and appears to be suitable for a wide range of impact situations, especially with low coefficient of restitution.

  8. Surface modification of Sylgard 184 polydimethylsiloxane by 254 nm excimer radiation and characterization by contact angle goniometry, infrared spectroscopy, atomic force and scanning electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waddell, Emanuel A. [University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL (United States)], E-mail: ewaddell@chemistry.uah.edu; Shreeves, Stephen [University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL (United States); Carrell, Holly; Perry, Christopher [Oakwood College, Huntsville, AL (United States); Reid, Branden A. [Morgan State University, Baltimore, MD (United States); McKee, James [University of Alabama in Birmingham, Birmingham, AL (United States)

    2008-06-30

    The modification of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) by narrow band 254 nm excimer radiation under a nitrogen atmosphere was characterized by contact angle goniometry, attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy, atomic force and scanning electron microscopy. UV irradiation results in the formation of the carboxylic acids that influences the wettability of the surface. Continued exposure results in the formation of an inorganic surface (SiO{sub x} (1 < x < 2)) which hinders the ability to continually increase the wettability. The continuity of this inorganic layer is disrupted by the formation of surface cracks. These results have implications in the fabrication and chemical modification of microfluidic or micro-electro-mechanical systems.

  9. Surface modification of Sylgard 184 polydimethylsiloxane by 254 nm excimer radiation and characterization by contact angle goniometry, infrared spectroscopy, atomic force and scanning electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, Emanuel A.; Shreeves, Stephen; Carrell, Holly; Perry, Christopher; Reid, Branden A.; McKee, James

    2008-06-01

    The modification of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) by narrow band 254 nm excimer radiation under a nitrogen atmosphere was characterized by contact angle goniometry, attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy, atomic force and scanning electron microscopy. UV irradiation results in the formation of the carboxylic acids that influences the wettability of the surface. Continued exposure results in the formation of an inorganic surface (SiO x (1 < x < 2)) which hinders the ability to continually increase the wettability. The continuity of this inorganic layer is disrupted by the formation of surface cracks. These results have implications in the fabrication and chemical modification of microfluidic or micro-electro-mechanical systems.

  10. On the solvability of dynamic elastic-visco-plastic contact problems with adhesion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jarušek, Jiří; Sofonea, M.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 2 (2009), s. 191-214 ISSN 2066-6594 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100750802 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : elastic-visco-plastic material * dynamic process * frictionless contact * normal compliance * Signorini condition * adhesion * variational formulation * weak solution * a priori estimates Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  11. On the solvability of dynamic elastic-visco-plastic contact problems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jarušek, Jiří; Sofonea, M.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 88, č. 1 (2008), s. 3-22 ISSN 0044-2267 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1075402 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : elastic-visco-plastic material * dynamic process * frictionless contact Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.644, year: 2008

  12. Effects of moving dynamic tyre loads on tyre-pavement contact stresses

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Steyn, WJvdM

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to indicate the effect that moving dynamic tyre loads has on the tyre-pavement contact stresses used in pavement analysis. Traditionally tyre loads (in pavement analysis) are modelled as constant loads applied through...

  13. Imaging magnetisation dynamics in nano-contact spin-torque vortex oscillators exhibiting gyrotropic mode splitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keatley, Paul Steven; Hicken, Robert James; Sani, Sohrab Redjai; Åkerman, Johan; Hrkac, Gino; Mohseni, Seyed Majid; Dürrenfeld, Philipp

    2017-01-01

    Nano-contact spin-torque vortex oscillators (STVOs) are anticipated to find application as nanoscale sources of microwave emission in future technological applications. Presently the output power and phase stability of individual STVOs are not competitive with existing oscillator technologies. Synchronisation of multiple nano-contact STVOs via magnetisation dynamics has been proposed to enhance the microwave emission. The control of device-to-device variations, such as mode splitting of the microwave emission, is essential if multiple STVOs are to be successfully synchronised. In this work a combination of electrical measurements and time-resolved scanning Kerr microscopy (TRSKM) was used to demonstrate how mode splitting in the microwave emission of STVOs was related to the magnetisation dynamics that are generated. The free-running STVO response to a DC current only was used to identify devices and bias magnetic field configurations for which single and multiple modes of microwave emission were observed. Stroboscopic Kerr images were acquired by injecting a small amplitude RF current to phase lock the free-running STVO response. The images showed that the magnetisation dynamics of a multimode device with moderate splitting could be controlled by the injected RF current so that they exhibit similar spatial character to that of a single mode. Significant splitting was found to result from a complicated equilibrium magnetic state that was observed in Kerr images as irregular spatial characteristics of the magnetisation dynamics. Such dynamics were observed far from the nano-contact and so their presence cannot be detected in electrical measurements. This work demonstrates that TRSKM is a powerful tool for the direct observation of the magnetisation dynamics generated by STVOs that exhibit complicated microwave emission. Characterisation of such dynamics outside the nano-contact perimeter permits a deeper insight into the requirements for optimal phase-locking of

  14. Morphology and contact angle studies of poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile modified epoxy resin blends and their glass fibre reinforced composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the surface characteristics of blends and composites of epoxy resin were investigated. Poly(styrene-co-acylonitrile (SAN was used to modify diglycedyl ether of bisphenol-A (DGEBA type epoxy resin cured with diamino diphenyl sulfone (DDS and the modified epoxy resin was used as the matrix for fibre reinforced composites (FRP’s. E-glass fibre was used as the fibre reinforcement. The scanning electron micrographs of the fractured surfaces of the blends and composites were analyzed. Morphological analysis revealed different morphologies such as dispersed, cocontinuous and phase-inverted structures for the blends. Contact angle studies were carried out using water and methylene iodide at room temperature. The solid surface energy was calculated using harmonic mean equations. Blending of epoxy resin increases its contact angle. The surface free energy, work of adhesion, interfacial free energy, spreading coefficient and Girifalco-Good’s interaction parameter were changed significantly in the case of blends and composites. The incorporation of thermoplastic and glass fibre reduces the wetting and hydrophilicity of epoxy resin.

  15. Cheap non-toxic non-corrosive method of glass cleaning evaluated by contact angle, AFM, and SEM-EDX measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Tania; Naughton, Daragh

    2017-05-01

    Glass surface cleaning is the very first step in advanced coating deposition and it also finds use in conserving museum objects. However, most of the wet chemical methods of glass cleaning use toxic and corrosive chemicals like concentrated sulfuric acid (H 2 SO 4 ), piranha (a mixture of concentrated sulfuric acid and 30% hydrogen peroxide), and hydrogen fluoride (HF). On the other hand, most of the dry cleaning techniques like UV-ozone, plasma, and laser treatment require costly instruments. In this report, five eco-friendly wet chemical methods of glass cleaning were evaluated in terms of contact angle (measured by optical tensiometer), nano-scale surface roughness (measured by atomic force microscopy or AFM), and elemental composition (measured by energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy or SEM-EDX). These glass cleaning methods are devoid of harsh chemicals and costly equipment, hence can be applied in situ in close proximity with plantation such as greenhouse or upon subtle objects such as museum artifacts. Out of these five methods, three methods are based on the chemical principle of chelation. It was found that the citric acid cleaning method gave the greatest change in contact angle within the hydrophilic regime (14.25° for new glass) indicating effective cleansing and the least surface roughness (0.178 nm for new glass) indicating no corrosive effect. One of the glass sample showed unique features which were traced backed to the history of the glass usage.

  16. Dynamic and impact contact mechanics of geologic materials: Grain-scale experiments and modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, David M.; Hopkins, Mark A.; Ketcham, Stephen A. [Engineer Research and Development Center - Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, 72 Lyme Rd., Hanover, NH 03755 (United States)

    2013-06-18

    High fidelity treatments of the generation and propagation of seismic waves in naturally occurring granular materials is becoming more practical given recent advancements in our ability to model complex particle shapes and their mechanical interaction. Of particular interest are the grain-scale processes that are activated by impact events and the characteristics of force transmission through grain contacts. To address this issue, we have developed a physics based approach that involves laboratory experiments to quantify the dynamic contact and impact behavior of granular materials and incorporation of the observed behavior indiscrete element models. The dynamic experiments do not involve particle damage and emphasis is placed on measured values of contact stiffness and frictional loss. The normal stiffness observed in dynamic contact experiments at low frequencies (e.g., 10 Hz) are shown to be in good agreement with quasistatic experiments on quartz sand. The results of impact experiments - which involve moderate to extensive levels of particle damage - are presented for several types of naturally occurring granular materials (several quartz sands, magnesite and calcium carbonate ooids). Implementation of the experimental findings in discrete element models is discussed and the results of impact simulations involving up to 5 Multiplication-Sign 105 grains are presented.

  17. Dynamic analysis of a liquid droplet and optimization of helical angles for vortex drainage gas recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Wu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Downhole vortex drainage gas recovery is a new gas production technology. So far, however, the forces and motions of liquid phase in the swirling flow field of wellbores during its field application have not been figured out. In this paper, the forces of liquid droplets in the swirling flow field of wellbores were analyzed on the basis of two-phase fluid dynamics theories. Then, the motion equations of fluid droplets along axial and radical directions were established. Magnitude comparison was performed on several typical acting forces, including Basset force, virtual mass force, Magnus force, Saffman force and Stokes force. Besides, the formula for calculating the optimal helical angle of vortex tools was established according to the principle that the vertical resultant force on fluid droplets should be the maximum. And afterwards, each acting force was comprehensively analyzed in terms of its origin, characteristics and direction based on the established force analysis model. Magnitude comparison indicates that the forces with less effect can be neglected, including virtual mass force, Basset force and convection volume force. Moreover, the vertically upward centrifugal force component occurs on the fluid droplets in swirling flow field instead of those in the conventional flow field of wellbores, which is favorable for the fluid droplets to move upward. The reliability of optimal helical angle calculation formula was verified by means of case analysis. It is demonstrated that with the decrease of well depth, the fluid-carrying capability of gas and the optimal helical angle increase. The research results in this paper have a guiding significance to the optimization design of downhole vortex tools and the field application of downhole vortex drainage gas recovery technology.

  18. Molecular dynamics study of the nanosized droplet spreading: The effect of the contact line forces on the kinetic energy dissipation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Hong Min [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kondaraju, Sasidhar [Department of Mechanical Science, Indian Institute of Technology Bhubaneswar, Bhubaneswar, Odisha 751013 (India); Lee, Jung Shin [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Youngho; Lee, Joonho H. [Samsung Electronics, Mechatronics R& D Center, Hwaseong-si, Gyeonggi-do 445-330 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Joon Sang, E-mail: joonlee@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-07-01

    Highlights: • Contact line forces, including friction and spreading forces are directly calculated. • Overall trends of variations in contact line forces during droplet spreading process show characteristics of contact line forces. • Detail relations of contact line forces and atomic kinetics in the contact line provide a clear evidence of the possible energy dissipation mechanism in droplet spreading process. - Abstract: Recent studies have revealed that contact line forces play an important role in the droplet spreading process. Despite their significance, the physics related to them has been studied only indirectly and the effect of contact line forces is still being disputed. We performed a molecular dynamics simulation and mimicked the droplet spreading process at the nanoscale. Based on the results of the simulation, the contact line forces were directly calculated. We found that the forces acting on the bulk and the contact line region showed different trends. Distinct positive and negative forces, contact line spreading, and friction forces were observed near the contact line. We also observed a strong dependency of the atomic kinetics in the contact line region on the variations in the contact line forces. The atoms of the liquid in the contact line region lost their kinetic energy due to the contact line friction force and became partially immobile on the solid surface. The results of the current study will be useful for understanding the role of the contact line forces on the kinetic energy dissipation in the contact line region.

  19. Characterization of Nanocellulose Using Small-Angle Neutron, X-ray, and Dynamic Light Scattering Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yimin; Liu, Kai; Zhan, Chengbo; Geng, Lihong; Chu, Benjamin; Hsiao, Benjamin S

    2017-02-16

    Nanocellulose extracted from wood pulps using TEMPO (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl radical)-mediated oxidation and sulfuric acid hydrolysis methods was characterized by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), and dynamic light scattering (DLS) techniques. The dimensions of this nanocellulose (TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofiber (TOCN) and sulfuric acid hydrolyzed cellulose nanocrystal (SACN)) revealed by the different scattering methods were compared with those characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The SANS and SAXS data were analyzed using a parallelepiped-based form factor. The width and thickness of the nanocellulose cross section were ∼8 and ∼2 nm for TOCN and ∼20 and ∼3 nm for SACN, respectively, where the fitting results from SANS and SAXS profiles were consistent with each other. DLS was carried out under both the V V mode with the polarizer and analyzer parallel to each other and the H V mode having them perpendicular to each other. Using rotational and translational diffusion coefficients obtained under the H V mode yielded a nanocellulose length qualitatively consistent with that observed by TEM, whereas the length derived by the translational diffusion coefficient under the V V mode appeared to be overestimated.

  20. Small-angle neutron scattering and molecular dynamics structural study of gelling DNA nanostars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Castanon, J.; Bomboi, F. [Sapienza–Università di Roma, P.le A. Moro 5, 00185 Roma (Italy); Rovigatti, L. [Rudolf Peierls C.T.P., University of Oxford, 1 Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3NP (United Kingdom); Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna, Boltzmanngasse 5, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Zanatta, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Perugia, Via Pascoli, 06123 Perugia (Italy); CNR-ISC, UOS Sapienza–Università di Roma, I-00186 Roma (Italy); Paciaroni, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Perugia, Via Pascoli, 06123 Perugia (Italy); Comez, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Perugia, Via Pascoli, 06123 Perugia (Italy); IOM-CNR, UOS Perugia c/o Dipartimento di Fisica e Geologia, Università di Perugia, Via Pascoli, 06123 Perugia (Italy); Porcar, L. [Institut Laue-Langevin, 71 Avenue des Martyrs, CS 20156, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Jafta, C. J. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Fadda, G. C. [Laboratoire Léon Brillouin, LLB, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Bellini, T. [Department of Medical Biotechnology and Translational Medicine, Università di Milano, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Sciortino, F., E-mail: francesco.sciortino@uniroma1.it [Sapienza–Università di Roma, P.le A. Moro 5, 00185 Roma (Italy); CNR-ISC, UOS Sapienza–Università di Roma, I-00186 Roma (Italy)

    2016-08-28

    DNA oligomers with properly designed sequences self-assemble into well defined constructs. Here, we exploit this methodology to produce bulk quantities of tetravalent DNA nanostars (each one composed of 196 nucleotides) and to explore the structural signatures of their aggregation process. We report small-angle neutron scattering experiments focused on the evaluation of both the form factor and the temperature evolution of the scattered intensity at a nanostar concentration where the system forms a tetravalent equilibrium gel. We also perform molecular dynamics simulations of one isolated tetramer to evaluate the form factor numerically, without resorting to any approximate shape. The numerical form factor is found to be in very good agreement with the experimental one. Simulations predict an essentially temperature-independent form factor, offering the possibility to extract the effective structure factor and its evolution during the equilibrium gelation.

  1. Stroboscopic Small Angle Neutron Scattering Investigations of Microsecond Dynamics in Magnetic Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedenmann, A.; Gähler, R.; May, R. P.; Keiderling, U.; Habicht, K.; Prévost, S.; Klokkenburg, M.; Erné, B.; Kohlbrecher, J.

    Time-resolved Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS) techniques have recently been developed that allow ordering and relaxation processes of magnetic moments in nanoparticles to be monitored. In stroboscopic experiments, time-frame data acquisition has been synchronized with a periodic external magnetic field. Slow relaxation of magnetic particle moments onto equilibrium has been studied in periods of the order of 30 s after switch off a static field. By applying a sine-wave modulated magnetic field at frequencies above 50 Hz, the time-resolved SANS response to a forced oscillation could be analyzed. When a continuous neutron flux was used in conventional SANS, the shortest accessible time range was limited to about 3 ms resulting from the wavelength spread. A breakthrough of time resolution into the micro-second range was achieved with the pulsed frame overlap TISANE technique, which allows us to exploit a dynamical range similar to that of X-ray photon-correlation spectroscopy.

  2. Measuring order in contact-poled organic electrooptic materials with variable-angle polarization-referenced absorption spectroscopy (VAPRAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olbricht, Benjamin C; Sullivan, Philip A; Dennis, Peter C; Hurst, Jeffrey T; Johnson, Lewis E; Benight, Stephanie J; Davies, Joshua A; Chen, Antao; Eichinger, Bruce E; Reid, Philip J; Dalton, Larry R; Robinson, Bruce H

    2011-01-20

    Organic nonlinear electrooptical (ONLO) chromophores must be acentrically ordered for the ONLO material to have electrooptic (EO) activity. The magnitude of the order is characterized by the acentric order parameter, , where β is the major Euler angle between the main axis of the chromophore and the poling field which imposes the acentric order. The acentric order parameter, which is difficult to measure directly, is related to the centrosymmetric order parameter, defined as = ½(3-1), through the underlying statistical distribution. We have developed a method to determine centrosymmetric order of the ONLO chromophores when the order is low (i.e., < 0.1). We have extended the method (begun by Graf et al. J. Appl. Phys. 1994, 75, 3335.) based on the absorption of light to determine the centrosymmetric order parameter induced by a poling field on a thin film sample of ONLO material. We find that the order parameters, analyzed by two different methods, are similar and also consistent with theoretical estimates from modeling of the system using coarse-grained Monte Carlo statistical mechanical methods.

  3. Biosurfactant as an Enhancer of Geologic Carbon Storage: Microbial Modification of Interfacial Tension and Contact Angle in Carbon dioxide/Water/Quartz Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taehyung Park

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Injecting and storing of carbon dioxide (CO2 in deep geologic formations is considered as one of the promising approaches for geologic carbon storage. Microbial wettability alteration of injected CO2 is expected to occur naturally by microorganisms indigenous to the geologic formation or microorganisms intentionally introduced to increase CO2 storage capacity in the target reservoirs. The question as to the extent of microbial CO2 wettability alteration under reservoir conditions still warrants further investigation. This study investigated the effect of a lipopeptide biosurfactant—surfactin, on interfacial tension (IFT reduction and contact angle alteration in CO2/water/quartz systems under a laboratory setup simulating in situ reservoir conditions. The temporal shifts in the IFT and the contact angle among CO2, brine, and quartz were monitored for different CO2 phases (3 MPa, 30°C for gaseous CO2; 10 MPa, 28°C for liquid CO2; 10 MPa, 37°C for supercritical CO2 upon cultivation of Bacillus subtilis strain ATCC6633 with induced surfactin secretion activity. Due to the secreted surfactin, the IFT between CO2 and brine decreased: from 49.5 to 30 mN/m, by ∼39% for gaseous CO2; from 28.5 to 13 mN/m, by 54% for liquid CO2; and from 32.5 to 18.5 mN/m, by ∼43% for supercritical CO2, respectively. The contact angle of a CO2 droplet on a quartz disk in brine increased: from 20.5° to 23.2°, by 1.16 times for gaseous CO2; from 18.4° to 61.8°, by 3.36 times for liquid CO2; and from 35.5° to 47.7°, by 1.34 times for supercritical CO2, respectively. With the microbially altered CO2 wettability, improvement in sweep efficiency of injected and displaced CO2 was evaluated using 2-D pore network model simulations; again the increment in sweep efficiency was the greatest in liquid CO2 phase due to the largest reduction in capillary factor. This result provides novel insights as to the role of naturally occurring biosurfactants in CO2 storage and

  4. The shadow map: a general contact definition for capturing the dynamics of biomolecular folding and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, Jeffrey K; Whitford, Paul C; Onuchic, José N

    2012-07-26

    Structure-based models (SBMs) are simplified models of the biomolecular dynamics that arise from funneled energy landscapes. We recently introduced an all-atom SBM that explicitly represents the atomic geometry of a biomolecule. While this initial study showed the robustness of the all-atom SBM Hamiltonian to changes in many of the energetic parameters, an important aspect, which has not been explored previously, is the definition of native interactions. In this study, we propose a general definition for generating atomically grained contact maps called "Shadow". The Shadow algorithm initially considers all atoms within a cutoff distance and then, controlled by a screening parameter, discards the occluded contacts. We show that this choice of contact map is not only well behaved for protein folding, since it produces consistently cooperative folding behavior in SBMs but also desirable for exploring the dynamics of macromolecular assemblies since, it distributes energy similarly between RNAs and proteins despite their disparate internal packing. All-atom structure-based models employing Shadow contact maps provide a general framework for exploring the geometrical features of biomolecules, especially the connections between folding and function.

  5. Simultaneous decay of contact-angle and surface-tension during the rehydration of air-dried root mucilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arye, Gilboa; Chen, Fengxian

    2016-04-01

    Plants can extract or exude water and solutes at their root surface. Among the root exudates, the mucilage exhibits a surfactant like properties - depressing the surface-tension (ST, mN/m) at the water-air interface. The amphipathic nature of some of the mucilage molecules (e.g. lipids) is thought to be the reason for its surfactant like behavior. As the rhizosphere dries out, re-orientation and/or re-configuration of amphipathic molecules at the solid-air interface, may impart hydrophobic nature to the rhizosphere. Our current knowledge on the ST of natural and/or model root mucilage is based on measurements of the equilibrium ST. However, adsorption of amphipathic molecules at the water-air interface is not reached instantaneously. The hydrophobic nature of the rhizosphere was deduced from the initial advancing CA, commonly calculated from the first few milliseconds up to few seconds (depending on the method employed). We hypothesized that during the rehydration of the root mucilage; both quantities are dynamic. Processes such as water absorbance and dissolution, may vary the interfacial tensions as a function of time. Consequently, simultaneous reduction of both CA and ST as a function of time can be expected. The main objective of this study was to characterize and quantify the extent, persistency and dynamic of the CA and ST during rehydration of air-dried root mucilage. The study was involved with measurements of dynamic and equilibrium ST using the pedant drop or Wilhelmy plate method, respectively. Glass slides were coated with naturally occurring or model root mucilage and the CA of a sessile drop was measured optically, as a function of time. The results were analyzed based on the Young-Dupré and Young-Laplace equations, from which the simultaneous decay of CA and ST was deduced. The implication for the wettability and water flow in the rhizosphere will be discussed.

  6. An Adaptive Dynamic Surface Controller for Ultralow Altitude Airdrop Flight Path Angle with Actuator Input Nonlinearity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao-long Lv

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the process of ultralow altitude airdrop, many factors such as actuator input dead-zone, backlash, uncertain external atmospheric disturbance, and model unknown nonlinearity affect the precision of trajectory tracking. In response, a robust adaptive neural network dynamic surface controller is developed. As a result, the aircraft longitudinal dynamics with actuator input nonlinearity is derived; the unknown nonlinear model functions are approximated by means of the RBF neural network. Also, an adaption strategy is used to achieve robustness against model uncertainties. Finally, it has been proved that all the signals in the closed-loop system are bounded and the tracking error converges to a small residual set asymptotically. Simulation results demonstrate the perfect tracking performance and strong robustness of the proposed method, which is not only applicable to the actuator with input dead-zone but also suitable for the backlash nonlinearity. At the same time, it can effectively overcome the effects of dead-zone and the atmospheric disturbance on the system and ensure the fast track of the desired flight path angle instruction, which overthrows the assumption that system functions must be known.

  7. Existence of solutions for the dynamic frictional contact problem of isotropic viscoelastic bodies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Eck, C.; Jarušek, Jiří

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 2 (2003), s. 157-181 ISSN 0362-546X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1075005; GA AV ČR IAA1075707 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1019905; CEZ:AV0Z1019905 Keywords : dynamic contact problem * parabolic equation * Coulomb law of friction Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.354, year: 2003

  8. Experimental Study on the Dynamic Performance of Water-Lubricated Rubber Bearings with Local Contact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Ouyang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate dynamic characteristic coefficients of water-lubricated rubber bearings are necessary to research vibration of ship propulsion system. Due to mixed lubrication state of water-lubricated rubber bearings, normal test rig and identification method are not applicable. This paper establishes a test rig to simulate shaft misalignment and proposes an identification method for water-lubricated rubber bearings, which utilizes rotor unbalanced motion to produce self-excited force rather than artificial excitation. Dynamic performance tests under different conditions are operated. The results show that when rotational speed is less than 700 r/min, even if specific pressure is 0.05 MPa, it is difficult to form complete water film for the rubber bearing which was investigated, and contact friction and collision of the shaft and bearing are frequent. In the mixed lubrication, water film, rubber, and contact jointly determine dynamic characteristics of water-lubricated rubber bearings. The contact condition has a significant effect on the bearing stiffness, and water film friction damping has a significant effect on bearing damping. As for the particular investigated bearing, when rotational speed is in the range of 400~700 r/min and specific pressure is in the range of 0.03~0.07 MPa, bearing stiffness is in the range of 5.6~10.06 N/μm and bearing damping is in the range of 1.25~2.02 Ns/μm.

  9. Imaging magnetisation dynamics in nano-contact spin-torque vortex oscillators exhibiting gyrotropic mode splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keatley, Paul Steven; Redjai Sani, Sohrab; Hrkac, Gino; Majid Mohseni, Seyed; Dürrenfeld, Philipp; Åkerman, Johan; Hicken, Robert James

    2017-04-01

    Nano-contact spin-torque vortex oscillators (STVOs) are anticipated to find application as nanoscale sources of microwave emission in future technological applications. Presently the output power and phase stability of individual STVOs are not competitive with existing oscillator technologies. Synchronisation of multiple nano-contact STVOs via magnetisation dynamics has been proposed to enhance the microwave emission. The control of device-to-device variations, such as mode splitting of the microwave emission, is essential if multiple STVOs are to be successfully synchronised. In this work a combination of electrical measurements and time-resolved scanning Kerr microscopy (TRSKM) was used to demonstrate how mode splitting in the microwave emission of STVOs was related to the magnetisation dynamics that are generated. The free-running STVO response to a DC current only was used to identify devices and bias magnetic field configurations for which single and multiple modes of microwave emission were observed. Stroboscopic Kerr images were acquired by injecting a small amplitude RF current to phase lock the free-running STVO response. The images showed that the magnetisation dynamics of a multimode device with moderate splitting could be controlled by the injected RF current so that they exhibit similar spatial character to that of a single mode. Significant splitting was found to result from a complicated equilibrium magnetic state that was observed in Kerr images as irregular spatial characteristics of the magnetisation dynamics. Such dynamics were observed far from the nano-contact and so their presence cannot be detected in electrical measurements. This work demonstrates that TRSKM is a powerful tool for the direct observation of the magnetisation dynamics generated by STVOs that exhibit complicated microwave emission. Characterisation of such dynamics outside the nano-contact perimeter permits a deeper insight into the requirements for optimal phase-locking of

  10. Effects of profile wear on wheel–rail contact conditions and dynamic interaction of vehicle and turnout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingmang Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Severe wear is a common damage mechanism in railway turnouts, which strongly affects the dynamic performance of railway vehicles and maintenance costs of tracks. This article explores the effects of profile wear on contact behaviors in the wheel–rail/switch contact and dynamic interaction, and nominal and measured worn turnout rail profiles are used as boundary conditions of wheel–rail contact. The calculation of the dynamic loads and the resultant contact stresses and internal stresses makes it possible to rationally design railway turnouts and correctly select the material to be applied for their components. For these reasons, the multi-body system SIMPACK and finite element software ANSYS are used to calculate the features of load and subsequently distributions of contact stresses and internal stresses in the regions of wheel–turnout components. The results show that profile wear disturbs the distribution of wheel–rail contact point pairs, changes the positions of wheel–rail contact points along the longitudinal direction, and affects the dynamic interaction of vehicle and turnout. For the measured profile in this article, profile wear aggravates vertical dynamic responses significantly but improves lateral dynamic responses. Profile wear disturbs the normal contact situations between the wheel and switch rail and worsens the stress state of the switch rail.

  11. Numerical analysis for finite-range multitype stochastic contact financial market dynamic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Ge; Wang, Jun; Fang, Wen

    2015-01-01

    In an attempt to reproduce and study the dynamics of financial markets, a random agent-based financial price model is developed and investigated by the finite-range multitype contact dynamic system, in which the interaction and dispersal of different types of investment attitudes in a stock market are imitated by viruses spreading. With different parameters of birth rates and finite-range, the normalized return series are simulated by Monte Carlo simulation method and numerical studied by power-law distribution analysis and autocorrelation analysis. To better understand the nonlinear dynamics of the return series, a q-order autocorrelation function and a multi-autocorrelation function are also defined in this work. The comparisons of statistical behaviors of return series from the agent-based model and the daily historical market returns of Shanghai Composite Index and Shenzhen Component Index indicate that the proposed model is a reasonable qualitative explanation for the price formation process of stock market systems

  12. Numerical analysis for finite-range multitype stochastic contact financial market dynamic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ge; Wang, Jun; Fang, Wen

    2015-04-01

    In an attempt to reproduce and study the dynamics of financial markets, a random agent-based financial price model is developed and investigated by the finite-range multitype contact dynamic system, in which the interaction and dispersal of different types of investment attitudes in a stock market are imitated by viruses spreading. With different parameters of birth rates and finite-range, the normalized return series are simulated by Monte Carlo simulation method and numerical studied by power-law distribution analysis and autocorrelation analysis. To better understand the nonlinear dynamics of the return series, a q-order autocorrelation function and a multi-autocorrelation function are also defined in this work. The comparisons of statistical behaviors of return series from the agent-based model and the daily historical market returns of Shanghai Composite Index and Shenzhen Component Index indicate that the proposed model is a reasonable qualitative explanation for the price formation process of stock market systems.

  13. Research on Dynamic Modeling and Application of Kinetic Contact Interface in Machine Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A method is presented which is a kind of combining theoretic analysis and experiment to obtain the equivalent dynamic parameters of linear guideway through four steps in detail. From statics analysis, vibration model analysis, dynamic experiment, and parameter identification, the dynamic modeling of linear guideway is synthetically studied. Based on contact mechanics and elastic mechanics, the mathematic vibration model and the expressions of basic mode frequency are deduced. Then, equivalent stiffness and damping of guideway are obtained in virtue of single-freedom-degree mode fitting method. Moreover, the investigation above is applied in a certain gantry-type machining center; and through comparing with simulation model and experiment results, both availability and correctness are validated.

  14. Spin-wave dynamics in Invar Fe65Ni35 studied by small-angle polarized neutron scattering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brück, E.H.; Grigoriev, S.V.; Deriglazov, V.V.; Okorokov, A.I.; Dijk van, N.H.; Klaasse, J.C.P.

    2002-01-01

    Abstract. Spin dynamics in Fe65Ni35 Invar alloy has been studied by left-right asymmetry of small-angle polarized neutron scattering below TC=485 K in external magnetic fields of H=0.05-0.25 T inclined relative to the incident beam. The spin-wave stiffness D and the damping & were obtained by

  15. Low-temperature dynamics of magnetic colloids studied by time-resolved small-angle neutron scattering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiedenmann, A.; Keiderling, U.; Meissner, M.; Wallacher, D.; Gähler, R.; May, R.P.; Prévost, S.; Klokkenburg, M.; Erne, B.H.; Kohlbrecher, J.

    2008-01-01

    The dynamics of ordering and relaxation processes in magnetic colloids has been studied by means of stroboscopic small angle neutron scattering techniques in an oscillating magnetic field. Surfactant stabilized ferrofluids (FFs) of Fe3O4 and Co nanoparticles have been investigated as a function of

  16. Preparation of a durable superhydrophobic membrane by electrospinning poly (vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) mixed with epoxy-siloxane modified SiO2 nanoparticles: a possible route to superhydrophobic surfaces with low water sliding angle and high water contact angle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuai; Li, Yapeng; Fei, Xiaoliang; Sun, Mingda; Zhang, Chaoqun; Li, Yaoxian; Yang, Qingbiao; Hong, Xia

    2011-07-15

    A durable superhydrophobic surface with low water sliding angle (SA) and high water contact angle (CA) was obtained by electrospinning poly (vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) which was mixed with epoxy-siloxane modified SiO(2) nanoparticles. To increase the roughness, modified SiO(2) nanoparticles were introduced into PVDF precursor solution. Then in the electrospinning process, nano-sized SiO(2) particles irregularly inlayed (it could also be regard as self-assembly) in the surface of the micro-sized PVDF mini-islands so as to form a dual-scale structure. This structure was responsible for the superhydrophobicity and self-cleaning property. In addition, epoxy-siloxane copolymer was used to modify the surface of SiO(2) nanoparticles so that the SiO(2) nanoparticles could stick to the surface of the micro-sized PVDF mini-islands. Through the underwater immersion test, the SiO(2) nanoparticles cannot be separated from PVDF easily so as to achieve the effect of durability. We chiefly explore the surface wettability and the relationship between the mass ratio of modified SiO(2) nanoparticles/PVDF and the CA, SA of electrospun mat. As the content of modified SiO(2) nanoparticles increased, the value of CA increased, ranging from 145.6° to 161.2°, and the water SA decreased to 2.17°, apparently indicating that the membrane we fabricated has a perfect effect of superhydrophobicity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. An Overview of Dynamic Contact Resistance Measurement of HV Circuit Breakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhole, A. A.; Gandhare, W. Z.

    2016-06-01

    With the deregulation of the electrical power industry, utilities and service companies are operating in a changing business environment. High voltage circuit breakers are extremely important for the function of modern electric power supply systems. The need to predict the proper function of circuit breaker grew over the years as the transmission networks expanded. The maintenance of circuit breakers deserves special consideration because of their importance for routine switching and for protection of other equipments. Electric transmission system breakups and equipment destruction can occur if a circuit breaker fails to operate because of a lack of preventive maintenance. Dynamic Contact Resistance Measurement (DCRM) is known as an effective technique for assessing the condition of power circuit breakers contacts and operating mechanism. This paper gives a general review about DCRM. It discusses the practical case studies on use of DCRM for condition assessment of high voltage circuit breakers.

  18. Q-angle in patellofemoral pain: relationship with dynamic knee valgus, hip abductor torque, pain and function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Peixoto Leão Almeida

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between the q-angle and anterior knee pain severity, functional capacity, dynamic knee valgus and hip abductor torque in women with patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS. METHODS: This study included 22 women with PFPS. The q-angle was assessed using goniometry: the participants were positioned in dorsal decubitus with the knee and hip extended, and the hip and foot in neutral rotation. Anterior knee pain severity was assessed using a visual analog scale, and functional capacity was assessed using the anterior knee pain scale. Dynamic valgus was evaluated using the frontal plane projection angle (FPPA of the knee, which was recorded using a digital camera during step down, and hip abductor peak torque was recorded using a handheld dynamometer. RESULTS: The q-angle did not present any significant correlation with severity of knee pain (r = -0.29; p = 0.19, functional capacity (r = -0.08; p = 0.72, FPPA (r = -0.28; p = 0.19 or isometric peak torque of the abductor muscles (r = -0.21; p = 0.35. CONCLUSION: The q-angle did not present any relationship with pain intensity, functional capacity, FPPA, or hip abductor peak torque in the patients with PFPS.

  19. THE INFLUENCE OF THE TOOL POINT ANGLE AND FEED RATE ON THE DYNAMIC PARAMETERS AT DRILLING COATED PARTICLEBOARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai ISPAS

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pre-laminated (coated particleboards (PB are wood-based composites intensively used in the furniture industry. In order to prepare the PB for joining, drilling is the most commonly applied machining process. The surface quality and the dynamic parameters (thrust force and torque are significantly influenced by the tools characteristics and the machining parameters. The point/tip angle of the drill bit and the feed speed during drilling play a major role in gaining a good surface quality and minimizing the dynamic parameters. The objective of this study was to measure and analyze the influence of both the geometric and cinematic parameters on the dynamic parameters at drilling with twist (helical drills. The experiments were performed based on a factorial design. The results show that, a low feed rate generally minimizes both the drilling torque and the thrust force, while a small tip angle increases the drilling torque and minimizes the thrust force.

  20. Developmental Dynamics of Intergroup Contact and Intergroup Attitudes: Long-Term Effects in Adolescence and Early Adulthood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wölfer, R.; van Zalk, M.H.W.; Schmid, K.; Hewstone, M.

    2016-01-01

    Intergroup contact represents a powerful way to improve intergroup attitudes and to overcome prejudice and discrimination. However, long-term effects of intergroup contact that consider social network dynamics have rarely been studied at a young age. Study 1 validated an optimized social network

  1. A dynamic elastic-visco-plastic unilateral contact problem with normal damped response and Coulomb friction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Eck, Ch.; Jarušek, Jiří; Sofonea, M.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 3 (2010), s. 229-251 ISSN 0956-7925 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100750802 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : elastic-vosco plastic material * dynamic contact problem * normal damped response * unilateral constraint * Coulomb friction * weak solution * penalitazion * smoothing Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.480, year: 2010 http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=7675484&fileId=S0956792510000045

  2. On the dynamic spatial response of a heat exchanger tube with intermittent baffle contacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, R.J.; Pick, R.J.

    1976-01-01

    Flow-induced vibration in heat exchanger tubes can result in fretting wear at the baffle supports and subsequent tube failure. As one step in correlating the random flow excitation to the rate of fretting wear, this paper presents a dynamic finite element technique for predicting the motions and baffle contact forces of a single heat exchanger tube. Using a modal superposition approach, the modal equations of motion are generated and numerically integrated. The predicted results are compared with experimental data for both planar and spatial vibration of harmonically excited cantilevered beams with a clearance support at the free end. (Auth.)

  3. Microwave field distribution in a magic angle spinning dynamic nuclear polarization NMR probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanni, Emilio A; Barnes, Alexander B; Matsuki, Yoh; Woskov, Paul P; Corzilius, Björn; Griffin, Robert G; Temkin, Richard J

    2011-05-01

    We present a calculation of the microwave field distribution in a magic angle spinning (MAS) probe utilized in dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) experiments. The microwave magnetic field (B(1S)) profile was obtained from simulations performed with the High Frequency Structure Simulator (HFSS) software suite, using a model that includes the launching antenna, the outer Kel-F stator housing coated with Ag, the RF coil, and the 4mm diameter sapphire rotor containing the sample. The predicted average B(1S) field is 13μT/W(1/2), where S denotes the electron spin. For a routinely achievable input power of 5W the corresponding value is γ(S)B(1S)=0.84MHz. The calculations provide insights into the coupling of the microwave power to the sample, including reflections from the RF coil and diffraction of the power transmitted through the coil. The variation of enhancement with rotor wall thickness was also successfully simulated. A second, simplified calculation was performed using a single pass model based on Gaussian beam propagation and Fresnel diffraction. This model provided additional physical insight and was in good agreement with the full HFSS simulation. These calculations indicate approaches to increasing the coupling of the microwave power to the sample, including the use of a converging lens and fine adjustment of the spacing of the windings of the RF coil. The present results should prove useful in optimizing the coupling of microwave power to the sample in future DNP experiments. Finally, the results of the simulation were used to predict the cross effect DNP enhancement (ϵ) vs. ω(1S)/(2π) for a sample of (13)C-urea dissolved in a 60:40 glycerol/water mixture containing the polarizing agent TOTAPOL; very good agreement was obtained between theory and experiment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Omnidirectional angle constraint based dynamic six-degree-of-freedom measurement for spacecraft rendezvous and docking simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Shendong; Yang, Linghui; Lin, Jiarui; Ren, Yongjie; Guo, Siyang; Zhu, Jigui

    2018-04-01

    In this paper we present a novel omnidirectional angle constraint based method for dynamic 6-DOF (six-degree-of-freedom) measurement. A photoelectric scanning measurement network is employed whose photoelectric receivers are fixed on the measured target. They are in a loop distribution and receive signals from rotating transmitters. Each receiver indicates an angle constraint direction. Therefore, omnidirectional angle constraints can be constructed in each rotation cycle. By solving the constrained optimization problem, 6-DOF information can be obtained, which is independent of traditional rigid coordinate system transformation. For the dynamic error caused by the measurement principle, we present an interpolation method for error reduction. Accuracy testing is performed in an 8  ×  8 m measurement area with four transmitters. The experimental results show that the dynamic orientation RMSEs (root-mean-square errors) are reduced from 0.077° to 0.044°, 0.040° to 0.030° and 0.032° to 0.015° in the X, Y, and Z axes, respectively. The dynamic position RMSE is reduced from 0.65 mm to 0.24 mm. This method is applied during the final approach phase in the rendezvous and docking simulation. Experiments under different conditions are performed in a 40  ×  30 m area, and the method is verified to be effective.

  5. Dynamic analysis and control of an anti-lock brake system for a motorcycle with a camber angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, C. K.; Shih, M. C.

    2011-04-01

    This paper analyses the dynamic response of a motorcycle with an anti-lock brake system (ABS) and camber or steering angle. Most studies have assumed that motorcycles brake in a straight line - that is, without a steering or camber angle. In this work, the performance of an ABS modulator is designed and analysed at first. Then, a controller is designed for motorcycle turning. The controller uses angular acceleration and the pressure value in brake calipers on the front and rear wheels, camber angle and lateral acceleration as commands to control brake pressure on each wheel to prevent wheel locking. The equation of motion for a motorcycle is based on Weir's equations. This motorcycle model combines a mathematical equation of the ABS modulator, tyre model and controller in simulations.

  6. Jacobian projection reduced-order models for dynamic systems with contact nonlinearities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastaldi, Chiara; Zucca, Stefano; Epureanu, Bogdan I.

    2018-02-01

    In structural dynamics, the prediction of the response of systems with localized nonlinearities, such as friction dampers, is of particular interest. This task becomes especially cumbersome when high-resolution finite element models are used. While state-of-the-art techniques such as Craig-Bampton component mode synthesis are employed to generate reduced order models, the interface (nonlinear) degrees of freedom must still be solved in-full. For this reason, a new generation of specialized techniques capable of reducing linear and nonlinear degrees of freedom alike is emerging. This paper proposes a new technique that exploits spatial correlations in the dynamics to compute a reduction basis. The basis is composed of a set of vectors obtained using the Jacobian of partial derivatives of the contact forces with respect to nodal displacements. These basis vectors correspond to specifically chosen boundary conditions at the contacts over one cycle of vibration. The technique is shown to be effective in the reduction of several models studied using multiple harmonics with a coupled static solution. In addition, this paper addresses another challenge common to all reduction techniques: it presents and validates a novel a posteriori error estimate capable of evaluating the quality of the reduced-order solution without involving a comparison with the full-order solution.

  7. Analysis of direct contact membrane distillation based on a lumped-parameter dynamic predictive model

    KAUST Repository

    Karam, Ayman M.

    2016-10-03

    Membrane distillation (MD) is an emerging technology that has a great potential for sustainable water desalination. In order to pave the way for successful commercialization of MD-based water desalination techniques, adequate and accurate dynamical models of the process are essential. This paper presents the predictive capabilities of a lumped-parameter dynamic model for direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) and discusses the results under wide range of steady-state and dynamic conditions. Unlike previous studies, the proposed model captures the time response of the spacial temperature distribution along the flow direction. It also directly solves for the local temperatures at the membrane interfaces, which allows to accurately model and calculate local flux values along with other intrinsic variables of great influence on the process, like the temperature polarization coefficient (TPC). The proposed model is based on energy and mass conservation principles and analogy between thermal and electrical systems. Experimental data was collected to validated the steady-state and dynamic responses of the model. The obtained results shows great agreement with the experimental data. The paper discusses the results of several simulations under various conditions to optimize the DCMD process efficiency and analyze its response. This demonstrates some potential applications of the proposed model to carry out scale up and design studies. © 2016

  8. Angle dependence on the anisotropic magnetoresistance amplitude of a single-contacted Ni nanowire subjected to a thermo-mechanical strain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melilli, G.; Madon, B.; Wegrowe, J.-E., E-mail: jean-eric.wegrowe@polytechnique.edu; Clochard, M.-C., E-mail: clochard@cea.fr

    2015-12-15

    The effects of thermoelastic and piezoelectric strain of an active track-etched β-PVDF polymer matrix on an electrodeposited single-contacted Ni nanowire (NW) are investigated at the nanoscale by measuring the change of magnetization (i.e. using the inverse magnetostriction effect). The magnetization state is measured locally by anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR). The ferromagnetic NW plays thus the role of a mechanical probe that allows the effects of mechanical strain to be characterized and described qualitatively and quantitatively. The inverse magnetostriction was found to be responsible for a quasi-disappearance of the AMR signal for a variation of the order of ΔT ≈ 10 K. In other terms, the variation of the magnetization due to the stress compensates the effect of external magnetic field applied on the NW resistance. The induced stress field in a single Ni NW was found 1000 time higher than the bulk stress field (due to thermal expansion measured on the PVDF). This amplification could be attributed to three nanoscopic effects: (1) a stress mismatch between the Ni NW and the membrane, (2) a non-negligible role of the surface tension on Ni NW Young modulus, and (3) the possibility of non-linear stress–strain law. We investigate here the role of these different contributions using track-etched polymer membranes irradiated at various angles (α{sub irrad}) leading to, after electrodeposition, embedded Ni NWs of different orientations.

  9. Angle dependence on the anisotropic magnetoresistance amplitude of a single-contacted Ni nanowire subjected to a thermo-mechanical strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melilli, G.; Madon, B.; Wegrowe, J.-E.; Clochard, M.-C.

    2015-12-01

    The effects of thermoelastic and piezoelectric strain of an active track-etched β-PVDF polymer matrix on an electrodeposited single-contacted Ni nanowire (NW) are investigated at the nanoscale by measuring the change of magnetization (i.e. using the inverse magnetostriction effect). The magnetization state is measured locally by anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR). The ferromagnetic NW plays thus the role of a mechanical probe that allows the effects of mechanical strain to be characterized and described qualitatively and quantitatively. The inverse magnetostriction was found to be responsible for a quasi-disappearance of the AMR signal for a variation of the order of ΔT ≈ 10 K. In other terms, the variation of the magnetization due to the stress compensates the effect of external magnetic field applied on the NW resistance. The induced stress field in a single Ni NW was found 1000 time higher than the bulk stress field (due to thermal expansion measured on the PVDF). This amplification could be attributed to three nanoscopic effects: (1) a stress mismatch between the Ni NW and the membrane, (2) a non-negligible role of the surface tension on Ni NW Young modulus, and (3) the possibility of non-linear stress-strain law. We investigate here the role of these different contributions using track-etched polymer membranes irradiated at various angles (αirrad) leading to, after electrodeposition, embedded Ni NWs of different orientations.

  10. Angle dependence on the anisotropic magnetoresistance amplitude of a single-contacted Ni nanowire subjected to a thermo-mechanical strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melilli, G.; Madon, B.; Wegrowe, J.-E.; Clochard, M.-C.

    2015-01-01

    The effects of thermoelastic and piezoelectric strain of an active track-etched β-PVDF polymer matrix on an electrodeposited single-contacted Ni nanowire (NW) are investigated at the nanoscale by measuring the change of magnetization (i.e. using the inverse magnetostriction effect). The magnetization state is measured locally by anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR). The ferromagnetic NW plays thus the role of a mechanical probe that allows the effects of mechanical strain to be characterized and described qualitatively and quantitatively. The inverse magnetostriction was found to be responsible for a quasi-disappearance of the AMR signal for a variation of the order of ΔT ≈ 10 K. In other terms, the variation of the magnetization due to the stress compensates the effect of external magnetic field applied on the NW resistance. The induced stress field in a single Ni NW was found 1000 time higher than the bulk stress field (due to thermal expansion measured on the PVDF). This amplification could be attributed to three nanoscopic effects: (1) a stress mismatch between the Ni NW and the membrane, (2) a non-negligible role of the surface tension on Ni NW Young modulus, and (3) the possibility of non-linear stress–strain law. We investigate here the role of these different contributions using track-etched polymer membranes irradiated at various angles (α irrad ) leading to, after electrodeposition, embedded Ni NWs of different orientations.

  11. Using GPS technology to quantify human mobility, dynamic contacts and infectious disease dynamics in a resource-poor urban environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez-Prokopec, Gonzalo M; Bisanzio, Donal; Stoddard, Steven T; Paz-Soldan, Valerie; Morrison, Amy C; Elder, John P; Ramirez-Paredes, Jhon; Halsey, Eric S; Kochel, Tadeusz J; Scott, Thomas W; Kitron, Uriel

    2013-01-01

    Empiric quantification of human mobility patterns is paramount for better urban planning, understanding social network structure and responding to infectious disease threats, especially in light of rapid growth in urbanization and globalization. This need is of particular relevance for developing countries, since they host the majority of the global urban population and are disproportionally affected by the burden of disease. We used Global Positioning System (GPS) data-loggers to track the fine-scale (within city) mobility patterns of 582 residents from two neighborhoods from the city of Iquitos, Peru. We used ∼2.3 million GPS data-points to quantify age-specific mobility parameters and dynamic co-location networks among all tracked individuals. Geographic space significantly affected human mobility, giving rise to highly local mobility kernels. Most (∼80%) movements occurred within 1 km of an individual's home. Potential hourly contacts among individuals were highly irregular and temporally unstructured. Only up to 38% of the tracked participants showed a regular and predictable mobility routine, a sharp contrast to the situation in the developed world. As a case study, we quantified the impact of spatially and temporally unstructured routines on the dynamics of transmission of an influenza-like pathogen within an Iquitos neighborhood. Temporally unstructured daily routines (e.g., not dominated by a single location, such as a workplace, where an individual repeatedly spent significant amount of time) increased an epidemic's final size and effective reproduction number by 20% in comparison to scenarios modeling temporally structured contacts. Our findings provide a mechanistic description of the basic rules that shape human mobility within a resource-poor urban center, and contribute to the understanding of the role of fine-scale patterns of individual movement and co-location in infectious disease dynamics. More generally, this study emphasizes the need for

  12. Dynamics of field-induced ordering processes in ferrofluids studied by polarised small-angle neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiedenmann, A.; Keiderling, U.; May, R.P.; Dewhurst, C.

    2006-01-01

    The relaxation of the local ordering of nanoparticles induced by an external magnetic field in a concentrated Cobalt ferrofluid was studied by stroboscopic polarised small-angle neutron scattering. Magnetic and nuclear correlations were found to decay exponentially within a characteristic time of few seconds. The local hexagonal particle arrangements with aligned moments transform gradually to uncorrelated segments of dipolar chains. The dynamics is influenced by dipole-dipole interactions

  13. Survey of needs and capabilities for wind tunnel testing of dynamic stability of aircraft at high angles of attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlik-Ruckemann, K. J.

    1973-01-01

    A survey was conducted relative to future requirements for dynamic stability information for such aerospace vehicles as the space shuttle and advanced high performance military aircraft. High-angle-of-attack and high-Reynolds number conditions were emphasized. A review was made of the wind-tunnel capabilities in North America for measuring dynamic stability derivatives, revealing an almost total lack of capabilities that could satisfy these requirements. Recommendations are made regarding equipment that should be constructed to remedy this situation. A description is given of some of the more advanced existing capabilities, which can be used to at least partly satisfy immediate demands.

  14. The magnetization dynamics of nano-contact spin-torque vortex oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keatley, Paul

    The operation of nano-contact (NC) spin-torque vortex oscillators (STVOs) is underpinned by vortex gyration in response to spin-torque delivered by high density current passing through the magnetic layers of a spin valve. Gyration directly beneath the NC yields radio frequency (RF) emission through the giant magnetoresistance (GMR) effect, which can be readily detected electronically. The magnetization dynamics that extend beyond the NC perimeter contribute little to the GMR signal, but are crucial for synchronization of multiple NC-STVOs that share the same spin valve film. In this work time-resolved scanning Kerr microscopy (TRSKM) was used to directly image the extended dynamics of STVOs phase-locked to an injected RF current. In this talk the dynamics of single 250-nm diameter NCs, and a pair of 100-nm diameter NCs, will be presented. In general the Kerr images reveal well-defined localized and far-field dynamics, driven by spin-torque and RF current Oersted fields respectively. The RF frequency, RF Oersted field, direction of an in-plane magnetic field, and equilibrium magnetic state, all influenced the spatial character of the dynamics observed in single NCs. In the pair of NCs, two modes were observed in the RF emission. Kerr images revealed that a vortex was formed beneath each NC and that the mode with enhanced spectral amplitude and line quality appeared to be correlated with two localized regions oscillating with similar amplitude and phase, while a second weaker mode exhibited amplitude and phase differences. This suggests that the RF emission was generated by collective modes of vortex gyration dynamically coupled via magnetization dynamics and dipolar interactions of the shared magnetic layers. Within the constraints of injection locking, this work demonstrates that TRSKM can provide valuable insight into the spatial character and time-evolution of magnetization dynamics generated by NC-STVOs and the conditions that may favor their synchronization

  15. Measurement and analysis of tyre and tread block dynamics due to contact phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusarosco, M.; Cigada, A.; Manzoni, S.

    2011-06-01

    This paper deals with the dynamic behaviour of tyres and it is aimed at describing their dynamic features in the frequency band above 1 kHz, a range difficult to manage due to measurement noise and to the unreliability of numerical models, where the main influence is that of tread and blocks. Measurements have been made possible by fixing three three-axial micro-electro-mechanical system accelerometers on the liner and exciting the tyre under test by means of a dedicated test bench, suitably designed and constructed. Different kinds of tests have been considered in this research and described in the present paper. All of them show that a strong link exists between contact phenomena and tyre response in the frequency band over 1 kHz. This field is dominated by the tread and block dynamic responses. Furthermore, it is shown that vibrations of a sliding tyre give contributions in that frequency range for the above-mentioned reasons. It is thought that the study of the tyre behaviour over 1 kHz, though affected by significant uncertainties, can provide a proper knowledge to improve breaking effectiveness.

  16. Dynamic simulation of knee-joint loading during gait using force-feedback control and surrogate contact modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Jonathan P; Pandy, Marcus G

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to perform multi-body, muscle-driven, forward-dynamics simulations of human gait using a 6-degree-of-freedom (6-DOF) model of the knee in tandem with a surrogate model of articular contact and force control. A forward-dynamics simulation incorporating position, velocity and contact force-feedback control (FFC) was used to track full-body motion capture data recorded for multiple trials of level walking and stair descent performed by two individuals with instrumented knee implants. Tibiofemoral contact force errors for FFC were compared against those obtained from a standard computed muscle control algorithm (CMC) with a 6-DOF knee contact model (CMC6); CMC with a 1-DOF translating hinge-knee model (CMC1); and static optimization with a 1-DOF translating hinge-knee model (SO). Tibiofemoral joint loads predicted by FFC and CMC6 were comparable for level walking, however FFC produced more accurate results for stair descent. SO yielded reasonable predictions of joint contact loading for level walking but significant differences between model and experiment were observed for stair descent. CMC1 produced the least accurate predictions of tibiofemoral contact loads for both tasks. Our findings suggest that reliable estimates of knee-joint loading may be obtained by incorporating position, velocity and force-feedback control with a multi-DOF model of joint contact in a forward-dynamics simulation of gait. Copyright © 2017 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Can joint contact dynamics be restored by anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshino, Yuichi; Fu, Freddie H; Irrgang, James J; Tashman, Scott

    2013-09-01

    Rotational kinematics has become an important consideration after ACL reconstruction because of its possible influence on knee degeneration. However, it remains unknown whether ACL reconstruction can restore both rotational kinematics and normal joint contact patterns, especially during functional activities. We asked whether knee kinematics (tibial anterior translation and axial rotation) and joint contact mechanics (tibiofemoral sliding distance) would be restored by double-bundle (DB) or single-bundle (SB) reconstruction. We retrospectively studied 17 patients who underwent ACL reconstruction by the SB (n = 7) or DB (n = 10) procedure. We used dynamic stereo x-ray to capture biplane radiographic images of the knee during downhill treadmill running. Tibial anterior translation, axial rotation, and joint sliding distance in the medial and lateral compartments were compared between reconstructed and contralateral knees in both SB and DB groups. We observed reduced anterior tibial translation and increased knee rotation in the reconstructed knees compared to the contralateral knees in both SB and DB groups. The mean joint sliding distance on the medial compartment was larger in the reconstructed knees than in the contralateral knees for both the SB group (9.5 ± 3.9 mm versus 7.5 ± 4.3 mm) and the DB group (11.1 ± 1.3 mm versus 7.9 ± 3.8 mm). Neither ACL reconstruction procedure restored normal knee kinematics or medial joint sliding. Further study is necessary to understand the clinical significance of abnormal joint contact, identify the responsible mechanisms, and optimize reconstruction procedures for restoring normal joint mechanics after ACL injury.

  18. Neutral modes' edge state dynamics through quantum point contacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferraro, D; Magnoli, N [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Genova, INFN, Via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova (Italy); Braggio, A; Sassetti, M [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Genova, CNR-INFM LAMIA, Via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova (Italy)], E-mail: ferraro@ge.infn.it

    2010-01-15

    The dynamics of neutral modes for fractional quantum Hall states is investigated for a quantum point contact geometry in the weak-backscattering regime. The effective field theory introduced by Fradkin-Lopez for edge states in the Jain sequence is generalized to the case of propagating neutral modes. The dominant tunnelling processes are identified also in the presence of non-universal phenomena induced by interactions. The crossover regime in the backscattering current between tunnelling of single-quasiparticles and of agglomerates of p-quasiparticles is analysed. We demonstrate that higher-order cumulants of the backscattering current fluctuations are a unique resource to study quantitatively the competition between different carrier charges. We find that propagating neutral modes are a necessary ingredient in order to explain this crossover phenomenon.

  19. Analyzing and modeling the dynamic thermal behaviors of direct contact condensers packed with PCM spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Hu, Tao; Hassabou, Abdel H.; Spinnler, Markus; Polifke, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Condensers serve as important components for humidification-dehumidification (HDH) desalination plants. Based on the interpenetration continua approach with volume averaging technique, a mathematical dynamic model for analyzing the heat and mass transfer within direct contact condensers with co-current or countercurrent flow arrangement was developed. It was validated against the experimental data from a small scale HDH desalination system. Comparisons including the productivities and the temperature profiles of gas, liquid, and solid phases show good agreement with the measurements. Phase change material (PCM) melting processes have little effect on water production rate for co-current flow arrangement, but the condenser packed with PCM capsules have higher water production rates than that packed with air capsules packed under given conditions. The relative humidity profile of the bulk gas shows contrary trend with the gas temperature profile. The direct contact condenser with countercurrent flow arrangement can provide much better heat and mass transfer between gas and water and produce about 16.3% more fresh water than the same condenser with co-current flow arrangement in 4 h under given conditions.

  20. Influence on fluid dynamics of coronary artery outlet angle variation in artificial aortic root prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verhey Janko F

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because of higher life expectancy, the number of elderly patients today with degenerative aortic diseases is on the increase. Often artificial aortic roots are needed to replace the native tissue. This surgical procedure requires re-implantation of the previous separated coronary arteries into the wall of the prosthesis. Regardless of the prosthesis type, changes in the reinsertion technique, e.g., the variation of the outlet angle of the coronary arteries, could influence the coronary blood flow. Whether the prosthesis type or the outlet angle variation significantly improves the blood circulation and lowers the risk of coronary insufficiency is still an open question. The numerical calculations presented can help to clear up these disputable questions. Methods Two simplified base geometries are used for simulating the blood flow in order to determine velocity and pressure distributions. One model uses a straight cylindrical tube to approximate the aortic root geometry; the other uses a sinus design with pseudosinuses of Valsalva. The coronary outlet angle of the right coronary artery was discretely modified in both models in the range from 60° to 120°. The pressure and velocity distributions of both models are compared in the ascending aorta as well as in the right and the left coronary artery. Results The potentially allowed and anatomic limited variation of the outlet angle influences the pressure only a little bit and shows a very slight relative maximum between 70° and 90°. The sinus design and variations of the outlet angle of the coronary arteries were able to minimally optimize the perfusion pressure and the velocities in the coronary circulation, although the degree of such changes is rather low and would probably not achieve any clinical influence. Conclusion Our results show that surgeons should feel relatively free to vary the outlet angle within the anatomic structural conditions when employing the technique

  1. Relativistic electron dynamics produced by azimuthally localized poloidal mode ULF waves: Boomerang-shaped pitch angle evolutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Y. X.; Zong, Q.-G.; Zhou, X.-Z.; Rankin, R.; Chen, X. R.; Liu, Y.; Fu, S. Y.; Spence, H. E.; Blake, J. B.; Reeves, G. D.

    2017-08-01

    We present an analysis of "boomerang-shaped" pitch angle evolutions of outer radiation belt relativistic electrons observed by the Van Allen Probes after the passage of an interplanetary shock on 7 June 2014. The flux at different pitch angles is modulated by Pc5 waves, with equatorially mirroring electrons reaching the satellite first. For 90° pitch angle electrons, the phase change of the flux modulations across energy exceeds 180° and increasingly tilts with time. Using estimates of the arrival time of particles of different pitch angles at the spacecraft location, a scenario is investigated in which shock-induced ULF waves interact with electrons through the drift resonance mechanism in a localized region westward of the spacecraft. Numerical calculations on particle energy gain with the modified ULF wavefield reproduce the observed boomerang stripes and modulations in the electron energy spectrogram. The study of boomerang stripes and their relationship to drift resonance taking place at a location different from the observation point adds new understanding of the processes controlling the dynamics of the outer radiation belt.

  2. Beam dynamics of the interaction region solenoid in a linear collider due to a crossing angle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Tenenbaum

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Future linear colliders may require a nonzero crossing angle between the two beams at the interaction point (IP. This requirement in turn implies that the beams will pass through the strong interaction region solenoid with an angle, and thus that the component of the solenoidal field perpendicular to the beam trajectory is nonzero. The interaction of the beam and the solenoidal field in the presence of a crossing angle will cause optical effects not observed for beams passing through the solenoid on axis; these effects include dispersion, deflection of the beam, and synchrotron radiation effects. For a purely solenoidal field, the optical effects which are relevant to luminosity exactly cancel at the IP when the influence of the solenoid’s fringe field is taken into account. Beam size growth due to synchrotron radiation in the solenoid is proportional to the fifth power of the product of the solenoidal field, the length of the solenoid, and the crossing angle. Examples based on proposed linear collider detector solenoid configurations are presented.

  3. A simple model for dynamic small-angle X-ray diffraction in colloidal crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Beer, A.G.F.; Petukhov, A.V.

    2007-01-01

    A simple model is presented that allows calculation of the small-angle X-ray diffraction patterns of perfect colloidal crystals. The model is based on the Wentzel–Kramers–Brillouin approximation and permits a straightforward evaluation of multibeam interactions. Results are illustrated by several

  4. Dynamics and rate-dependence of the spatial angle between ventricular depolarization and repolarization wave fronts during exercise ECG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenttä, Tuomas; Karsikas, Mari; Kiviniemi, Antti; Tulppo, Mikko; Seppänen, Tapio; Huikuri, Heikki V

    2010-07-01

    QRS/T angle and the cosine of the angle between QRS and T-wave vectors (TCRT), measured from standard 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG), have been used in risk stratification of patients. This study assessed the possible rate dependence of these variables during exercise ECG in healthy subjects. Forty healthy volunteers, 20 men and 20 women, aged 34.6 +/- 3.4, underwent an exercise ECG testing. Twelve-lead ECG was recorded from each test subject and the spatial QRS/T angle and TCRT were automatically analyzed in a beat-to-beat manner with custom-made software. The individual TCRT/RR and QRST/RR patterns were fitted with seven different regression models, including a linear model and six nonlinear models. TCRT and QRS/T angle showed a significant rate dependence, with decreased values at higher heart rates (HR). In individual subjects, the second-degree polynomic model was the best regression model for TCRT/RR and QRST/RR slopes. It provided the best fit for both exercise and recovery. The overall TCRT/RR and QRST/RR slopes were similar between men and women during exercise and recovery. However, women had predominantly higher TCRT and QRS/T values. With respect to time, the dynamics of TCRT differed significantly between men and women; with a steeper exercise slope in women (women, -0.04/min vs -0.02/min in men, P exercise. The individual patterns of TCRT and QRS/T angle are affected by HR and gender. Delayed rate adaptation creates hysteresis in the TCRT/RR slopes.

  5. Evalutation of efficiency of dynamic laser magnetic stimulation of eye drainage system of patients with open angle glaucomatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidelnikova V.S.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to develop a comprehensive treatment aimed at improving uveoscleral outflow in the application of dynamic laser magnetic stimulation of the drainage system of the eye and evaluation of its effectiveness in treating patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG. Material. 106 patients diagnosed POAG I, II, III stages were examined. Group 1 consisted of 62 patients treated with medical therapy and dynamic laser magnetic stimulation of the drainage system of the eye using the "AMO-ATOS-ICL", produced by JSC "TRIMA", Saratov. Group 2 consisted of 64 patients who received only medical therapy. Comprehensive survey including standard eye examination, static perimetry, visual evoked potentials study, the study of intraocular blood flow was conducted to all patients. Analysis of the results of the complex therapeutic effects showed that as the result of treatment 73% of patients had a decrease of intraocular pressure and the ease factor outflow increase. 52% of patients had a decrease in the number and area of relative. 63% of patients had activation of intraocular blood flow. These indices remained stable for three months. Conclusion. The treatment with the technique of dynamic laser magnetic stimulation of the drainage system of the eye of patients with primary open-angle glaucoma leads to lower intraocular pressure, and to the improvement of dopple-rographic and perimetric indications.

  6. Theory of magnetic neutron small-angle scattering using the dynamical theory of diffraction instead of the Born approximation. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaerpf, O.

    1978-01-01

    Two ways are given for solving the problem of the dependence of the refraction on the direction of magnetization on both sides of the refractive boundary, one applying the Halpern magnetic scattering vector, the other applying the dynamical theory of diffraction. They lead to different results. Experimental investigation of refraction by magnetic boundaries shows no dependence of the angle of deflection on the relative angles of magnetization in adjacent domains. This behaviour is only described correctly by the dynamical theory, which far from Laue reflections leads to a treatment by the Schoedinger equation with a spin-dependent potential dependent on the average continuous homogenous magnetic induction, both for the law of refraction and for the precession of the spin. The results of this treatment are discussed as a consequence of the behaviour of the spin of the neutrons. This gives some insight about how and why, with refraction, the intensities of the direct and deflected beams depend on the magnetization directions in adjacent domains. The dynamical theory also shows that the Halpern magnetic scattering vector applies only with Laue or Bragg reflections and not with transmission far from those reflections. (Auth.)

  7. A new hydrocarbon empirical potential in angle bending calculation for the molecular dynamics simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ping, Tan Ai; Hoe, Yeak Su [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Skudai, Johor Bahru, Johor Darul Takzim (Malaysia)

    2014-07-10

    Typically, short range potential only depends on neighbouring atoms and its parameters function can be categorized into bond stretching, angle bending and bond rotation potential. In this paper, we present our work called Angle Bending (AB) potential, whereas AB potential is the extension of our previous work namely Bond Stretching (BS) potential. Basically, potential will tend to zero after truncated region, potential in specific region can be represented by different piecewise polynomial. We proposed the AB piecewise potential which is possible to solve a system involving three atoms. AB potential able to handle the potential of covalent bonds for three atoms as well as two atoms cases due to its degeneracy properties. Continuity for the piecewise polynomial has been enforced by coupling with penalty methods. There are still plenty of improvement spaces for this AB potential. The improvement for three atoms AB potential will be studied and further modified into torsional potential which are the ongoing current research.

  8. Analysis of wind velocity and release angle effects on discus throw using computational fluid dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouboa, Abel I; Reis, Victor M; Mantha, Vishveshwar R; Marinho, Daniel A; Silva, António J

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to study the aerodynamics of discus throw. A comparison of numerical and experimental performance of discus throw with and without rotation was carried out using the analysis of lift and drag coefficients. Initial velocity corresponding to variation angle of around 35.5° was simulated. Boundary condition, on the top and bottom boundary edges of computational domain, was imposed in order to eliminate external influences on the discus; a wind resistance was calculated for the velocity values of 25 and 27 m/s. The results indicate that the flight distance (D) was strongly affected by the drag coefficient, the initial velocity, the release angle and the direction of wind velocity. It was observed that these variables change as a function of discus rotation. In this study, results indicate a good agreement of D between experimental values and numerical results.

  9. Dynamic changes in bioelectrical impedance vector analysis and phase angle in acute decompensated heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Fernanda Donner; Souza, Gabriela Corrêa; Aliti, Graziella Badin; Rabelo-Silva, Eneida Rejane; Clausell, Nadine; Biolo, Andréia

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate whether changes in hydration status (reflecting fluid retention) would be detected by bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA) and phase angle during hospitalization for acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) and after clinical stabilization. Patients admitted to ADHF were evaluated at admission, discharge and after clinical stabilization (3 mo after discharge) for dyspnea, weight, brain natriuretic peptide, bioelectrical impedance resistance, reactance, and phase angle. Generalized estimating equations and chi-square detected variations among the three time points of evaluation. Were included 57 patients: Mean age was 61 ± 13 y, 65% were male, LVEF was 25 ± 8%. During hospitalization there were improvements in clinical parameters and increase in resistance/height (from 250 ± 72 to 302 ± 59 Ohms/m, P < 0.001), reactance/height (from 24 ± 10 to 31 ± 9 Ohms/m, P < 0.001), and phase angle (from 5.3 ± 1.6 to 6 ± 1.6°, P = 0.007). From discharge to chronic stability, both clinical and BIVA parameters remained stable. At admission, 61% of patients had significant congestion by BIVA, and they lost more weight and had higher improvement in dyspnea during hospitalization (P < 0.05). At discharge, more patients were in the upper half of the graph (characterizing some degree of dehydration) while at chronic stability normal hydration status was more prevalent (P < 0.001). BIVA and phase angle were able to detect significant changes in hydration status during ADHF, which paralleled the clinical course of recompensation, both acutely and chronically. The classification of congestion by BIVA at admission identified patients with more pronounced changes in weight and dyspnea during compensation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Dynamic Impact Analysis of Bagless Transfer System 3013 Can in Drops at Various Inclination Angles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, C.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to provide rational judgment for the most pernicious impact angle of dropping. A numerical simulation method, finite element analysis, is adopted for this study. The general-purpose finite element analysis code, ABAQUS(R) [HKS, 1998], facilitates the numerical computation. The geometrical finite element modeling is developed with the software PATRAN(R) [MSC, 1999]. The finite element code ABAQUS(R)has been verified according to the QA plans

  11. Prioritized Contact Transport Stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Walter Lee, Jr. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A detection process, contact recognition process, classification process, and identification process are applied to raw sensor data to produce an identified contact record set containing one or more identified contact records. A prioritization process is applied to the identified contact record set to assign a contact priority to each contact record in the identified contact record set. Data are removed from the contact records in the identified contact record set based on the contact priorities assigned to those contact records. A first contact stream is produced from the resulting contact records. The first contact stream is streamed in a contact transport stream. The contact transport stream may include and stream additional contact streams. The contact transport stream may be varied dynamically over time based on parameters such as available bandwidth, contact priority, presence/absence of contacts, system state, and configuration parameters.

  12. Investigation on defects in Mg and Al alloys under dynamic loading by the small-angle scattering method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, Q.Z.; Chen, B.; Lebedev, V.T.; Lebedev, V.M.

    2006-01-01

    Defects inherent to metals and alloys, such as low-dimensional (dislocations), surface (borders of crystalline grains, interfaces, microcracks) and globular (precipitates, voids), are strongly influenced by mechanical treatment, especially dynamic. The dynamic treatment effects remain poorly investigated at the nanoscale level even in widely used materials, even those applications that need knowledge of structure transformation under loading. Our experiments were focused on the mechanisms of defects generation by dynamic loading as dependent on deformation rate. To investigate the nature of defects and their evolution in Al-base and Mg-base alloys under dynamic loading, we applied small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) in the range of momentum transfer q∼0.03-0.8 nm -1 corresponding to the spatial scale R∼2π/q∼10-200 nm of various defects. SANS studies before and after dynamic treatment with a moderate initial velocity of deformation (∼10-20 m/s) showed that the SANS pattern changed significantly for the Mg-base alloy but only slightly for the Al-base alloy. As we found in the Mg-base alloy, the number and form of defects after loading differ strongly from the initial ones due to a large number of new defects in the Mg-base sample

  13. Instrumentation for cryogenic magic angle spinning dynamic nuclear polarization using 90L of liquid nitrogen per day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Brice J; Pahng, Seong Ho; Alaniva, Nicholas; Sesti, Erika L; Rand, Peter W; Saliba, Edward P; Scott, Faith J; Choi, Eric J; Barnes, Alexander B

    2017-10-01

    Cryogenic sample temperatures can enhance NMR sensitivity by extending spin relaxation times to improve dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) and by increasing Boltzmann spin polarization. We have developed an efficient heat exchanger with a liquid nitrogen consumption rate of only 90L per day to perform magic-angle spinning (MAS) DNP experiments below 85K. In this heat exchanger implementation, cold exhaust gas from the NMR probe is returned to the outer portion of a counterflow coil within an intermediate cooling stage to improve cooling efficiency of the spinning and variable temperature gases. The heat exchange within the counterflow coil is calculated with computational fluid dynamics to optimize the heat transfer. Experimental results using the novel counterflow heat exchanger demonstrate MAS DNP signal enhancements of 328±3 at 81±2K, and 276±4 at 105±2K. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. On the solutions of a dynamic contact problem for a thermoelastic von Kármán plate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bock, I.; Jarušek, Jiří; Šilhavý, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 32, December (2016), s. 111-135 ISSN 1468-1218 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP201/12/0671 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : thermoelastic plate * unilateral dynamic contact * rigid obstacle Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.659, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S146812181630013X

  15. Calibration of measurement sensitivities of multiple micro-cantilever dynamic modes in atomic force microscopy using a contact detection method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhen; Jeong, Younkoo; Menq, Chia-Hsiang

    2013-01-01

    An accurate experimental method is proposed for on-spot calibration of the measurement sensitivities of multiple micro-cantilever dynamic modes in atomic force microscopy. One of the key techniques devised for this method is a reliable contact detection mechanism that detects the tip-surface contact instantly. At the contact instant, the oscillation amplitude of the tip deflection, converted to that of the deflection signal in laser reading through the measurement sensitivity, exactly equals to the distance between the sample surface and the cantilever base position. Therefore, the proposed method utilizes the recorded oscillation amplitude of the deflection signal and the base position of the cantilever at the contact instant for the measurement sensitivity calibration. Experimental apparatus along with various signal processing and control modules was realized to enable automatic and rapid acquisition of multiple sets of data, with which the calibration of a single dynamic mode could be completed in less than 1 s to suppress the effect of thermal drift and measurement noise. Calibration of the measurement sensitivities of the first and second dynamic modes of three micro-cantilevers having distinct geometries was successfully demonstrated. The dependence of the measurement sensitivity on laser spot location was also experimentally investigated. Finally, an experiment was performed to validate the calibrated measurement sensitivity of the second dynamic mode of a micro-cantilever.

  16. Theoretical modelling, analysis and validation of the shaft motion and dynamic forces during rotor–stator contact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lahriri, Said; Santos, Ilmar

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the theoretical study of a horizontal shaft, partially levitated by a passive magnetic bearing, impacting its stator. Rigid body dynamics are utilised in order to describe the governing nonlinear equations of motion of the shaft interacting with a passive magnetic bearing...... and stator. Expressions for the restoring magnetic forces are derived using Biot Savart law for uniformed magnetised bar magnets and the contact forces are derived by use of a compliant contact force model. The theoretical mathematical model is verified with experimental results, and shows good agreements....... However, the simulated contact forces are higher in magnitude compared to the experimental results. The cause of this disagreement is addressed and shows that the formulation of the theoretical contact force model slightly overestimates the forces acting during a full annular backward whirl motion....

  17. Prediction of plastic deformation under contact condition by quasi-static and dynamic simulations using explicit finite element analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siswanto, W. A.; Nagentrau, M.; Tobi, A. L. Mohd [Faculty of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Batu Pahat (Malaysia); Tamin, M. N. [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor Bahru (Malaysia)

    2016-11-15

    We compared the quasi-static and dynamic simulation responses on elastic-plastic deformation of advanced alloys using Finite element (FE) method with an explicit numerical algorithm. A geometrical model consisting of a cylinder-on-flat surface contact under a normal load and sliding motion was examined. Two aeroengine materials, Ti-6Al-4V and Super CMV (Cr-Mo-V) alloy, were employed in the FE analysis. The FE model was validated by comparative magnitudes of the FE-predicted maximum contact pressure variation along the contact half-width length with the theoretical Hertzian contact solution. Results show that the (compressive) displacement of the initial contact surface steadily increases for the quasi-static load case, but accumulates at an increasing rate to the maximum level for the dynamic loading. However, the relatively higher stiffness and yield strength of the Super CMV alloy resulted in limited deformation and low plastic strain when compared to the Ti-6Al-4V alloy. The accumulated equivalent plastic strain of the material point at the initial contact position was nearly a thousand times higher for the dynamic load case (for example, 6.592 for Ti-6Al-4V, 1.0 kN) when compared to the quasi-static loading (only 0.0072). During the loading step, the von Mises stress increased with a decreasing and increasing rate for the quasi-static and dynamic load case, respectively. A sudden increase in the stress magnitude to the respective peak value was registered due to the additional constraint to overcome the static friction of the mating surfaces during the sliding step.

  18. Dynamic modeling and experimental validation for direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) process

    KAUST Repository

    Eleiwi, Fadi

    2016-02-01

    This work proposes a mathematical dynamic model for the direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) process. The model is based on a 2D Advection–Diffusion Equation (ADE), which describes the heat and mass transfer mechanisms that take place inside the DCMD module. The model studies the behavior of the process in the time varying and the steady state phases, contributing to understanding the process performance, especially when it is driven by intermittent energy supply, such as the solar energy. The model is experimentally validated in the steady state phase, where the permeate flux is measured for different feed inlet temperatures and the maximum absolute error recorded is 2.78 °C. Moreover, experimental validation includes the time variation phase, where the feed inlet temperature ranges from 30 °C to 75 °C with 0.1 °C increment every 2min. The validation marks relative error to be less than 5%, which leads to a strong correlation between the model predictions and the experiments.

  19. Fundamental changes of granular flows dynamics, deposition and erosion processes at high slope angles: insights from laboratory experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farin, Maxime; Mangeney, Anne; Roche, Olivier

    2014-05-01

    Geophysical granular flows commonly interact with their substrate in various ways depending on the mechanical properties of the underlying material. Granular substrates, resulting from deposition of earlier flows or various geological events, are often eroded by avalanches [see Hungr and Evans, 2004 for review]. The entrainment of underlying debris by the flow is suspected to affect flow dynamics because qualitative and quantitative field observations suggest that it can increase the flow velocity and deposit extent, depending on the geological setting and flow type [Sovilla et al., 2006; Iverson et al., 2011]. Direct measurement of material entrainment in nature, however, is very difficult. We conducted laboratory experiments on granular column collapse over an inclined channel with and without an erodible bed of granular material. The controlling parameters were the channel slope angle, the granular column volume and its aspect ratio (i.e. height over length), the inclination of the column with respect to the channel base, the channel width, and the thickness and compaction of the erodible bed. For slope angles below a critical value θc, between 10° and 16°, the runout distance rf is proportional to the initial column height h0 and is unaffected by the presence of an erodible bed. On steeper slopes, the flow dynamics change fundamentally since a last phase of slow propagation develops at the end of the flow front deceleration, and prolongates significantly the flow duration. This phase has similar characteristics that steady, uniform flows. The slow propagation phase lasts longer for increasing slope angle, column volume, column inclination with respect to the slope, and channel width, and for decreasing column aspect ratio. It is however independent of the maximum front velocity and, on an erodible bed, of the maximum depth of excavation within the bed. Both on rigid and erodible beds, the increase of the slow propagation phase duration has a crucial effect

  20. Dynamic Fracturing Behavior of Layered Rock with Different Inclination Angles in SHPB Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiadong Qiu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The fracturing behavior of layered rocks is usually influenced by bedding planes. In this paper, five groups of bedded sandstones with different bedding inclination angles θ are used to carry out impact compression tests by split Hopkinson pressure bar. A high-speed camera is used to capture the fracturing process of specimens. Based on testing results, three failure patterns are identified and classified, including (A splitting along bedding planes; (B sliding failure along bedding planes; (C fracturing across bedding planes. The failure pattern (C can be further classified into three subcategories: (C1 fracturing oblique to loading direction; (C2 fracturing parallel to loading direction; (C3 mixed fracturing across bedding planes. Meanwhile, a numerical model of layered rock and SHPB system are established by particle flow code (PFC. The numerical results show that the shear stress is the main reason for inducing the damage along bedding plane at θ = 0°~75°. Both tensile stress and shear stress on bedding planes contribute to the splitting failure along bedding planes when the inclination angle is 90°. Besides, tensile stress is the main reason that leads to the damage in rock matrixes at θ = 0°~90°.

  1. High Resolution Angle Resolved Photoemission Studies on Quasi-Particle Dynamics in Graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leem, C.S.

    2010-06-02

    We obtained the spectral function of the graphite H point using high resolution angle resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES). The extracted width of the spectral function (inverse of the photo-hole lifetime) near the H point is approximately proportional to the energy as expected from the linearly increasing density of states (DOS) near the Fermi energy. This is well accounted by our electron-phonon coupling theory considering the peculiar electronic DOS near the Fermi level. And we also investigated the temperature dependence of the peak widths both experimentally and theoretically. The upper bound for the electron-phonon coupling parameter is 0.23, nearly the same value as previously reported at the K point. Our analysis of temperature dependent ARPES data at K shows that the energy of phonon mode of graphite has much higher energy scale than 125K which is dominant in electron-phonon coupling.

  2. Intraocular pressure and ocular pulse amplitude using dynamic contour tonometry and contact lens tonometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grus Franz-H

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The new Ocular Dynamic Contour Tonometer (DCT, investigational device supplied by SMT (Swiss Microtechnology AG, Switzerland allows simultaneous recording of intraocular pressure (IOP and ocular pulse amplitude (OPA. It was the aim of this study to compare the IOP results of this new device with Goldmann tonometry. Furthermore, IOP and OPA measured with the new slitlamp-mounted DCT were compared to the IOP and OPA measured with the hand-held SmartLens®, a gonioscopic contact lens tonometer (ODC Ophthalmic Development Company AG, Switzerland. Methods Nineteen healthy subjects were included in this study. IOP was determined by three consecutive measurements with each of the DCT, SmartLens®, and Goldmann tonometer. Furthermore, OPA was measured three times consecutively by DCT and SmartLens®. Results No difference (P = 0.09 was found between the IOP values by means of DCT (mean: 16.6 mm Hg, median: 15.33 mm Hg, SD: +/- 4.04 mm Hg and Goldmann tonometry (mean: 16.17 mm Hg, median: 15.33 mm Hg, SD: +/- 4.03 mm Hg. The IOP values of SmartLens® (mean: 20.25 mm Hg, median: 19.00 mm Hg, SD: +/- 4.96 mm Hg were significantly higher (P = 0.0008 both from Goldmann tonometry and DCT. The OPA values of the DCT (mean: 3.08 mm Hg, SD: +/- 0.92 mm Hg were significantly lower (P = 0.0003 than those obtained by SmartLens® (mean: 3.92 mm Hg, SD: +/- 0.83 mm Hg. Conclusions DCT was equivalent to Goldmann applanation tonometry in measurement of IOP in a small group of normal subjects. In contrast, SmartLens® (contact lens tonometry gave IOP readings that were significantly higher compared with Goldmann applanation tonometer readings. Both devices, DCT and SmartLens® provide the measurement of OPA which could be helpful e.g. for the management of glaucoma.

  3. A feasibility study of Dynamic Phantom scanner for quality assurance of photon beam profiles at various gantry angles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunkai; Hsi, Wen C; Chu, James C H; Bernard, Damian B; Abrams, Ross A

    2005-01-01

    The effect of gantry rotation on beam profiles of photon and electron beams is an important issue in quality assurance for radiotherapy. To address variations in the profiles of photon and electron beams at different gantry angles, a Dynamic Phantom scanner composed of a 20 x 12 x 6 cm3 scanning Lucite block was designed as a cross-beam-profile scanner. To our knowledge, differences between scanned profiles acquired at different gantry angles with a small size Lucite block and those acquired a full-size (60 x 60 x 50 cm3) water phantom have not been previously investigated. We therefore performed a feasibility study for a first prototype Dynamic Phantom scanner without a gantry attachment mount. Radiation beams from a Varian LINAC 21EX and 2100C were used. Photon beams (6 MV and 18 MV) were shaped by either collimator jaws or a Varian 120 Multileaf (MLC) collimator, and electron beams (6 MeV, 12 MeV, and 20 MeV) were shaped by a treatment cone. To investigate the effect on profiles by using a Lucite block, a quantitative comparison of scanned profiles with the Dynamic Phantom and a full-size water phantom was first performed at a 0 degrees gantry angle for both photon and electron beams. For photon beam profiles defined by jaws at 1.0 cm and 5.0 cm depths of Lucite (i.e., at 1.1 cm and 5.7 cm depth of water), a good agreement (less than 1% variation) inside the field edge was observed between profiles scanned with the Dynamic Phantom and with a water phantom. The use of Lucite in the Dynamic Phantom resulted in reduced penumbra width (about 0.5 mm out of 5 mm to 8mm) and reduced (1% to 2%) scatter dose beyond the field edges for both 6 MV and 18 MV beams, compared with the water phantom scanner. For profiles of the MLC-shaped 6 MV photon beam, a similar agreement was observed. For profiles of electron beams scanned at 2.9 cm depth of Lucite (i.e., at 3.3 cm depth of water), larger disagreements in profiles (3% to 4%) and penumbra width (3 mm to 4 mm out of 12 mm

  4. A feasibility study of the Dynamic Phantom scanner for quality assurance of beam profiles at various gantry angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunkai; Hsi, Wen C.; Chu, James C.H.; Bernard, Damian B.; Abrams, Ross A.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of gantry rotation on beam profiles of photon and electron beams is an important issue in quality assurance for radiotherapy. To address variations in the profiles of photon and electron beams at different gantry angles, a Dynamic Phantom scanner composed of a 20×12×6 cm3 scanning Lucite block was designed as a cross‐beam‐profile scanner. To our knowledge, differences between scanned profiles acquired at different gantry angles with a small size Lucite block and those acquired a full‐size (60×60×50 cm3) water phantom have not been previously investigated. We therefore performed a feasibility study for a first prototype Dynamic Phantom scanner without a gantry attachment mount. Radiation beams from a Varian LINAC 21EX and 2100C were used. Photon beams (6 MV and 18 MV) were shaped by either collimator jaws or a Varian 120 Multileaf (MLC) collimator, and electron beams (6 MeV, 12 MeV, and 20 MeV) were shaped by a treatment cone. To investigate the effect on profiles by using a Lucite block, a quantitative comparison of scanned profiles with the Dynamic Phantom and a full‐size water phantom was first performed at a 0° gantry angle for both photon and electron beams. For photon beam profiles defined by jaws at 1.0 cm and 5.0 cm depths of Lucite (i.e., at 1.1 cm and 5.7 cm depth of water), a good agreement (less than 1% variation) inside the field edge was observed between profiles scanned with the Dynamic Phantom and with a water phantom. The use of Lucite in the Dynamic Phantom resulted in reduced penumbra width (about 0.5 mm out of 5 mm to 8 mm) and reduced (1% to 2%) scatter dose beyond the field edges for both 6 MV and 18 MV beams, compared with the water phantom scanner. For profiles of the MLC‐shaped 6 MV photon beam, a similar agreement was observed. For profiles of electron beams scanned at 2.9 cm depth of Lucite (i.e., at 3.3 cm depth of water), larger disagreements in profiles (3% to 4%) and penumbra width (3 mm to 4 mm out of 12 mm

  5. Dynamic Conformations of Nucleosome Arrays in Solution from Small-Angle X-ray Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howell, Steven C. [George Washington Univ., Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-01-31

    We set out to determine quantitative information regarding the dynamic conformation of nucleosome arrays in solution using experimental SAXS. Toward this end, we developed a CG simulation algorithm for dsDNA which rapidly generates ensembles of structures through Metropolis MC sampling of a Markov chain.

  6. Oxford medial unicompartmental knees display contact-loss during step-cycle motion and bicycle motion: A dynamic radiostereometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsager, Kristian; Kaptein, Bart L; Jørgensen, Peter B; Jepsen, Claus F; Stilling, Maiken

    2018-01-01

    The Oxford medial unicompartmental knee is designed fully congruent, with the purpose of maintaining a large contact-area throughout motion and minimize wear. No other study has investigated this design feature in-vivo. We aimed to evaluate if contact-loss was introduced between the articulating surfaces of the Oxford medial unicompartmental knee during bicycle- and step-cycle motion, and whether this correlated with essential implant parameters, such as polyethylene (PE) wear, knee-loadings, and clinical outcome. To study contact-loss, 15 patients (12 males, mean age 69 years) with an Oxford medial unicompartmental knee (7 cemented, mean follow-up 4.4 years) were examined with use of dynamic radiostereometry (RSA) (10 frames/s). PE wear was measured from static RSA and clinical outcome was evaluated with American Knee Society Score (AKSS) and Oxford Knee Score (OKS). Data on knee-loadings were acquired from the literature. Contact-loss was deteced in all patients during both exercises, and the trend of contact-loss correlated with the knee-loadings. Median contact-loss was 0.8 mm (95%PI: 0.3; 1.5) for bicycle motion and 0.3 mm (95%PI: 0.24; 0.35) for step-cycle motion, and did not correlate with the PE wear rate of mean 0.06 mm/year. Possible in-congruency was seen in three patients. Clinical outcome scores correlated with contact-loss during step-cycle motion. In conclusion, contact-loss was seen in all patients indicating a clinical tolerance during load. Contact-loss followed the knee-loadings, which could explain why no correlation was seen with PE wear, as an increase in load was acommadated by an increase in contact-area (contact-loss reduction). The size of contact-loss may reflect clinical outcome. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 36:357-364, 2018. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Dynamics of solid dispersions in oil during the lubrication of point contacts. Part 1: Graphite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusano, C.; Sliney, H. E.

    1981-01-01

    A Hertzian contact was lubricated with dispersed graphite in mineral oils under boundary lubrication conditions. The contact was optically observed under pure rolling, combined rolling and sliding, and pure sliding conditions. The contact was formed with a steel ball on the flat surface of a glass disk. Photomicrographs are presented which show the distribution of the graphite in and around the contact. Friction and surface damage are also shown for conditions when the base oils are used alone and when graphite is added to the base oils. Under pure rolling and combined rolling and sliding conditions, it is found that, for low speeds, a graphite film can form which will separate the contacting surfaces. Under pure sliding conditions, graphite accumulates at the inlet and sweeps around the contact, but very little of the graphite passes through the contact. The accumulated graphite appears to act as a barrier which reduces the supply of oil available to the contact for boundary lubrication. Friction data show no clear short term beneficial or detrimental effect caused by addition of graphite to the base oil. However, during pure sliding, more abrasion occurs on the polished balls lubricated with the dispersion than on those lubricated with the base oil alone. All observations were for the special case of a highly-polished ball on a glass surface and may not be applicable to other geometries and materials, or to rougher surfaces.

  8. Dynamic Evaluation of the Contact Characteristics and Three-Dimensional Motion for the Ankle Joint with Lateral Ligament Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Kensaku; Omori, Go; Terashima, Shojiro; Sakamoto, Makoto; Hara, Toshiaki

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the dynamic changes in contact pressure distribution and three-dimensional ankle joint motion before and after lateral ligament injuries. Five fresh and frozen intact cadaveric ankles were examined. Each ankle was mounted on a specially designed frame that preserved five degrees of freedom motion. The direct linear transformation technique was used to measure the three-dimensional ankle motion, and a pressure-sensitive conductive rubber sensor was inserted into the talocrural joint space to determine the contact pressure distribution. The contact area on the talus for intact ankle moved anteriorly and laterally with increasing dorsiflexion. An area of high pressure was observed in the medial aspect of the articular surface after the ligament was cut. Supination significantly increased after a combined anterior talofibular ligament (ATF) and calcaneofibular ligament (CF) were cut in comparison with after only an ATF was cut, and no significant differences were observed in motional properties under each experimental condition.

  9. Dynamics of solid dispersions in oil during the lubrication of point contacts. I - Graphite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusano, C.; Sliney, H. E.

    1981-01-01

    A Hertzian contact is lubricated with dispersed graphite in mineral oils under boundary lubrication conditions. The contacts are optically observed under pure rolling, combined rolling and sliding, and pure sliding conditions. The contact is formed with a steel ball on the flat surface of a glass disk. Under pure rolling and combined rolling and sliding conditions, it is found that, for low speeds, a graphite film can form which will separate the contacting surfaces. In contrast, under pure sliding conditions, graphite accumulates at the inlet and sweeps around the contact, but very little of graphite passes through the contact. The accumulated graphite appears to act as a barrier which reduces the supply of oil available to the contact for boundary lubrication. Friction data show no clear short-term beneficial or detrimental effect caused by addition of graphite to the base oil. However, during pure sliding, more abrasion occurs on the polished balls lubricated with the dispersion than on those lubricated with the base oil alone.

  10. Stability of Contact Lines in Fluids: 2D Stokes Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yan; Tice, Ian

    2018-02-01

    In an effort to study the stability of contact lines in fluids, we consider the dynamics of an incompressible viscous Stokes fluid evolving in a two-dimensional open-top vessel under the influence of gravity. This is a free boundary problem: the interface between the fluid in the vessel and the air above (modeled by a trivial fluid) is free to move and experiences capillary forces. The three-phase interface where the fluid, air, and solid vessel wall meet is known as a contact point, and the angle formed between the free interface and the vessel is called the contact angle. We consider a model of this problem that allows for fully dynamic contact points and angles. We develop a scheme of a priori estimates for the model, which then allow us to show that for initial data sufficiently close to equilibrium, the model admits global solutions that decay to equilibrium exponentially quickly.

  11. Insertion torque, pull-out strength and cortical bone thickness in contact with orthodontic mini-implants at different insertion angles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meira, Thiago Martins; Tanaka, Orlando Motohiro; Ronsani, Maiara Medeiros; Maruo, Ivan Toshio; Guariza-Filho, Odilon; Camargo, Elisa Souza; Maruo, Hiroshi

    2013-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate biomechanical behaviour of inclined orthodontic mini-implants by analyzing its insertion torque (IT), axial pull-out strength (APS), and cortical bone thickness in contact with mini-implant (CBTC). A total of 102 mini-implants were inserted at 90 degree, 60 degree, and 45 degree to the surface of synthetic bone. Peak IT was measured, and the mini-implants were aligned with the mechanical testing machine to record the APS. The cortical bone thickness in contact with each mini-implant was measured after the pull-out test and the data were subjected to statistical analyses. The 45 degree group had a significantly higher IT compared with the 90 degree group (P Mini-implants that are inserted more inclined to the surface of the bone provide greater IT and an increased contact with the cortical bone. The greater the CBTC, the greater is the APS.

  12. On the solutions of a dynamic contact problem for a thermoelastic von Kármán plate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bock, I.; Jarušek, Jiří; Šilhavý, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 32, December (2016), s. 111-135 ISSN 1468-1218 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP201/12/0671 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : thermoelastic plate * unilateral dynamic contact * rigid obstacle Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.659, year: 2016 http://www. science direct.com/ science /article/pii/S146812181630013X

  13. Dynamic Behavior Analysis of Non-Contacting Hydrodynamic Finger Seal Based on Fluid-Solid-Interaction Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Hua

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Finger seal is an advanced compliant seal and can be utilized to separate high (HP and low pressure (LP zones in high speed rotating shaft environment. The work to be presented concerns the dynamic behavior of a repetitive section of a two-layer finger seal with high-and padded low-pressure laminates. The dynamic performance of the finger seal are analyzed by the coupled fluid-solid-interaction (FSI simulations. By using the commercial software ANSYS-CFX, the numerical simulation results of interactions between the gas flow and fingers structural deformation are described when the radial periodic excitation from the shaft applies to the finger seal. And the gas film loading capacity, gas film stiffness and leakage varied with time are put forward in different working conditions. Compared with the dynamic performance analysis results based on equivalent dynamic method, the FSI dynamic analysis shows some different characteristics which are more accordance with actual circumstance. Moreover, it is shown that under low pressure differential and high rotation speed the non-contacting finger seal with advance features both in sealing effectiveness and potential unlimited life span can be obtained by rational structure design. But for the non-contacting finger seal with circumferential convergent pad working in high pressure and low rotating speed conditions, it is difficult to improve the sealing performance by the way of changing the structure parameters of finger seal. It is because the high pressure plays a major role on this sealing situation.

  14. Impact of lubricant traction coefficient on cage’s dynamic characteristics in high-speed angular contact ball bearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhu Zhang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the formulas of elasto-hydrodynamic traction coefficients of three Chinese aviation lubricating oils, 4109, 4106 and 4050, were obtained by a great number of elasto-hydrodynamic traction tests. The nonlinear dynamics differential equations of high-speed angular contact ball bearing were built on the basis of dynamic theory of rolling bearings and solved by Gear Stiff (GSTIFF integer algorithm with variable step. The impact of lubricant traction coefficient on cage’s dynamic characteristics in high-speed angular contact ball bearing was investigated, and Poincaré map was used to analyze the impact of three types of aviation lubricating oils on the dynamic response of cage’s mass center. And then, the period of dynamic response of cage’s mass center and the slip ratio of cage were used to assess the stability of cage under various working conditions. The results of this paper provide the theoretical basis for the selection and application of aviation lubricating oil.

  15. On some approximations of the resultant contact forces and their applications in rigid body dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudra, Grzegorz; Szewc, Michał; Wojtunik, Igor; Awrejcewicz, Jan

    2016-10-01

    The work presents the possible applications and effectiveness of certain class of models of the resultant friction force and rolling resistance. The friction models are based on the integral model constructed under assumption of fully developed sliding on the plane contact area of general shape and any pressure distribution. Then the integral model of friction force and moment are approximated based on Padé approximants and their generalizations. These models are expected to be computationally effective in numerical simulations of rigid bodies with frictional contacts, such like billiard balls, Thompson top, the wobble stone and many others. In the present work two different examples of application of the developed contact models are presented and tested: a) a billiard ball rolling and sliding on the plane horizontal table; b) a full ellipsoid of revolution in contact with plane and horizontal base.

  16. Development of in-situ observation system of dynamic contact interface between dies and materials during microforming operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimizu Tetsuhide

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Application of diamond like carbon (DLC films are reported in several microforming processes, in view of its great tribological performance owe to the low friction and the high chemical stability. However, due to its high internal residual stress, the film properties with the low adhesion strength and the high wear rate under severe tribological conditions are still remain as technical issues. However, since the dynamic variation of the contact state cannot be observed during the forming operation, it is difficult to recognize the origin and the influential tribological factors of tool life for DLC coated microforming die. Therefore, the appropriate DLC film properties for the contact state in microforming operation have not been clarified. To observe the dynamic variation of the contact state during the microforming operation, present study developed a novel microforming die assembly installed the in-situ observation system with silica glass die and high speed recording camera. By using this system, the dynamic delamination behaviour of DLC films during the progressive micro-bending process was successfully demonstrated. The influential factors for the durability of DLC coated microdies were discussed.

  17. Effect of particle stiffness on contact dynamics and rheology in a dense granular flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharathraj, S.; Kumaran, V.

    2018-01-01

    Dense granular flows have been well described by the Bagnold rheology, even when the particles are in the multibody contact regime and the coordination number is greater than 1. This is surprising, because the Bagnold law should be applicable only in the instantaneous collision regime, where the time between collisions is much larger than the period of a collision. Here, the effect of particle stiffness on rheology is examined. It is found that there is a rheological threshold between a particle stiffness of 104-105 for the linear contact model and 105-106 for the Hertzian contact model above which Bagnold rheology (stress proportional to square of the strain rate) is valid and below which there is a power-law rheology, where all components of the stress and the granular temperature are proportional to a power of the strain rate that is less then 2. The system is in the multibody contact regime at the rheological threshold. However, the contact energy per particle is less than the kinetic energy per particle above the rheological threshold, and it becomes larger than the kinetic energy per particle below the rheological threshold. The distribution functions for the interparticle forces and contact energies are also analyzed. The distribution functions are invariant with height, but they do depend on the contact model. The contact energy distribution functions are well fitted by Gamma distributions. There is a transition in the shape of the distribution function as the particle stiffness is decreased from 107 to 106 for the linear model and 108 to 107 for the Hertzian model, when the contact number exceeds 1. Thus, the transition in the distribution function correlates to the contact regime threshold from the binary to multibody contact regime, and is clearly different from the rheological threshold. An order-disorder transition has recently been reported in dense granular flows. The Bagnold rheology applies for both the ordered and disordered states, even though

  18. Fundamental change of granular flows dynamics, deposition and erosion processes at sufficiently high slope angles: insights from laboratory experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farin, M.; Mangeney, A.; Roche, O.

    2013-12-01

    Geophysical granular flows commonly interact with their substrate in various ways depending on the mechanical properties of the underlying material. Granular substrates, resulting from deposition of earlier flows or various geological events, are often eroded by avalanches [see Hungr and Evans, 2004 for review]. The entrainment of underlying debris by the flow is suspected to affect flow dynamics because qualitative and quantitative field observations suggest that it can increase the flow velocity and deposit extent, depending on the geological setting and flow type [Sovilla et al., 2006; Iverson et al., 2011]. Direct measurement of material entrainment in nature, however, is very difficult. We conducted laboratory experiments on granular column collapse over an inclined channel with and without an erodible bed of granular material. The controlling parameters were the channel slope angle, the granular column volume and its aspect ratio (i.e. height over length), the inclination of the column with respect to the channel base, the channel width, and the thickness and compaction of the erodible bed. For slope angles below a critical value θc, between 10° and 16°, the runout distance rf is proportional to the initial column height h0 and is unaffected by the presence of an erodible bed. On slopes greater than θc, the flow dynamics change fundamentally since a last phase of slow propagation develops at the end of the flow front deceleration, and prolongates significantly the flow duration. This phase has similar characteristics that steady, uniform flows. The slow propagation phase lasts longer for increasing column volume, column inclination with respect to the slope, and channel width, and for decreasing column aspect ratio. It is however independent of the maximum front velocity and, on an erodible bed, of the maximum depth of excavation within the bed. Both on rigid and erodible beds, the increase of the slow propagation phase duration has a crucial effect on

  19. A path-following driver-vehicle model with neuromuscular dynamics, including measured and simulated responses to a step in steering angle overlay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, David J.

    2012-04-01

    An existing driver-vehicle model with neuromuscular dynamics is improved in the areas of cognitive delay, intrinsic muscle dynamics and alpha-gamma co-activation. The model is used to investigate the influence of steering torque feedback and neuromuscular dynamics on the vehicle response to lateral force disturbances. When steering torque feedback is present, it is found that the longitudinal position of the lateral disturbance has a significant influence on whether the driver's reflex response reinforces or attenuates the effect of the disturbance. The response to angle and torque overlay inputs to the steering system is also investigated. The presence of the steering torque feedback reduced the disturbing effect of torque overlay and angle overlay inputs. Reflex action reduced the disturbing effect of a torque overlay input, but increased the disturbing effect of an angle overlay input. Experiments on a driving simulator showed that measured handwheel angle response to an angle overlay input was consistent with the response predicted by the model with reflex action. However, there was significant intra- and inter-subject variability. The results highlight the significance of a driver's neuromuscular dynamics in determining the vehicle response to disturbances.

  20. Magic angle spinning NMR below 6 K with a computational fluid dynamics analysis of fluid flow and temperature gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sesti, Erika L.; Alaniva, Nicholas; Rand, Peter W.; Choi, Eric J.; Albert, Brice J.; Saliba, Edward P.; Scott, Faith J.; Barnes, Alexander B.

    2018-01-01

    We report magic angle spinning (MAS) up to 8.5 kHz with a sample temperature below 6 K using liquid helium as a variable temperature fluid. Cross polarization 13C NMR spectra exhibit exquisite sensitivity with a single transient. Remarkably, 1H saturation recovery experiments show a 1H T1 of 21 s with MAS below 6 K in the presence of trityl radicals in a glassy matrix. Leveraging the thermal spin polarization available at 4.2 K versus 298 K should result in 71 times higher signal intensity. Taking the 1H longitudinal relaxation into account, signal averaging times are therefore predicted to be expedited by a factor of >500. Computer assisted design (CAD) and finite element analysis were employed in both the design and diagnostic stages of this cryogenic MAS technology development. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models describing temperature gradients and fluid flow are presented. The CFD models bearing and drive gas maintained at 100 K, while a colder helium variable temperature fluid stream cools the center of a zirconia rotor. Results from the CFD were used to optimize the helium exhaust path and determine the sample temperature. This novel cryogenic experimental platform will be integrated with pulsed dynamic nuclear polarization and electron decoupling to interrogate biomolecular structure within intact human cells.

  1. Correcting for the free energy costs of bond or angle constraints in molecular dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Gerhard; Brooks, Bernard R

    2015-05-01

    entitled Recent developments of molecular dynamics. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Fractal Theory and Contact Dynamics Modeling Vibration Characteristics of Damping Blade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruishan Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The contact surface structure of dry friction damper is complicate, irregular, and self-similar. In this paper, contact surface structure is described with the fractal theory and damping blade is simplified as 2-DOF cantilever beam model with lumped masses. By changing the position of the damper, lacing and shroud structure are separately simulated to study vibration absorption effect of damping blade. The results show that both shroud structure and lacing could not only dissipate energy but also change stiffness of blade. Under the same condition of normal pressure and contact surface, the damping effect of lacing is stronger than that of shroud structure. Meanwhile, the effect on changing blade stiffness of shroud structure is stronger than that of lacing. This paper proposed that there is at least one position of the blade, at which the damper dissipates the most vibration energy during a vibration cycle.

  3. Granular dynamics, contact mechanics and particle system simulations a DEM study

    CERN Document Server

    Thornton, Colin

    2015-01-01

    This book is devoted to the Discrete Element Method (DEM) technique, a discontinuum modelling approach that takes into account the fact that granular materials are composed of discrete particles which interact with each other at the microscale level. This numerical simulation technique can be used both for dispersed systems in which the particle-particle interactions are collisional and compact systems of particles with multiple enduring contacts. The book provides an extensive and detailed explanation of the theoretical background of DEM. Contact mechanics theories for elastic, elastic-plastic, adhesive elastic and adhesive elastic-plastic particle-particle interactions are presented. Other contact force models are also discussed, including corrections to some of these models as described in the literature, and important areas of further research are identified. A key issue in DEM simulations is whether or not a code can reliably simulate the simplest of systems, namely the single particle oblique impact wit...

  4. MDcons: Intermolecular contact maps as a tool to analyze the interface of protein complexes from molecular dynamics trajectories

    KAUST Repository

    Abdel-Azeim, Safwat

    2014-05-06

    Background: Molecular Dynamics ( MD) simulations of protein complexes suffer from the lack of specific tools in the analysis step. Analyses of MD trajectories of protein complexes indeed generally rely on classical measures, such as the RMSD, RMSF and gyration radius, conceived and developed for single macromolecules. As a matter of fact, instead, researchers engaged in simulating the dynamics of a protein complex are mainly interested in characterizing the conservation/variation of its biological interface. Results: On these bases, herein we propose a novel approach to the analysis of MD trajectories or other conformational ensembles of protein complexes, MDcons, which uses the conservation of inter-residue contacts at the interface as a measure of the similarity between different snapshots. A "consensus contact map" is also provided, where the conservation of the different contacts is drawn in a grey scale. Finally, the interface area of the complex is monitored during the simulations. To show its utility, we used this novel approach to study two protein-protein complexes with interfaces of comparable size and both dominated by hydrophilic interactions, but having binding affinities at the extremes of the experimental range. MDcons is demonstrated to be extremely useful to analyse the MD trajectories of the investigated complexes, adding important insight into the dynamic behavior of their biological interface. Conclusions: MDcons specifically allows the user to highlight and characterize the dynamics of the interface in protein complexes and can thus be used as a complementary tool for the analysis of MD simulations of both experimental and predicted structures of protein complexes.

  5. Analysis of a Dynamic Viscoelastic Contact Problem with Normal Compliance, Normal Damped Response, and Nonmonotone Slip Rate Dependent Friction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikaël Barboteu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a mathematical model which describes the dynamic evolution of a viscoelastic body in frictional contact with an obstacle. The contact is modelled with a combination of a normal compliance and a normal damped response law associated with a slip rate-dependent version of Coulomb’s law of dry friction. We derive a variational formulation and an existence and uniqueness result of the weak solution of the problem is presented. Next, we introduce a fully discrete approximation of the variational problem based on a finite element method and on an implicit time integration scheme. We study this fully discrete approximation schemes and bound the errors of the approximate solutions. Under regularity assumptions imposed on the exact solution, optimal order error estimates are derived for the fully discrete solution. Finally, after recalling the solution of the frictional contact problem, some numerical simulations are provided in order to illustrate both the behavior of the solution related to the frictional contact conditions and the theoretical error estimate result.

  6. A DYNAMIC VARIATION PRINCIPLE FOR ELASTIC-FLUID CONTACTS, APPLIED TO ELASTOHYDRODYNAMIC LUBRICATION THEORY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groesen, E. van; Verstappen, R.W.C.P.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses the variational structure of the line contact problem between an elastic medium and a fluid. The equations for the deformation in the elastic material, and for the flow of the viscous fluid are assumed to be determined from an elastic energy E and a power functional P

  7. Dynamic Wheel/Rail Rolling Contact at Singular Defects with Application to Squats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, X.

    2012-01-01

    Squats, as a kind of short wavelength rail surface defects, have become one of the main rolling contact fatigue problems in railways worldwide. The purpose of this work is to better understand the squatting phenomenon, contribute to reduction and even prevention of squat occurrence, and thereby

  8. A dynamic variation principle for elastic-fluid contacts applied to elasto-hydrodynamic lubrication theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Groesen, Embrecht W.C.; Verstappen, R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses the variational structure of the line contact problem between an elastic medium and a fluid. The equations for the deformation in the elastic material, and for the flow of the viscous fluid are assumed to be determined from an elastic energy E and a power functional P

  9. Dynamic Contact between a Wire Rope and a Pulley Using Absolute Nodal Coordinate Formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoichiro Takehara

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wire rope and pulley devices are used in various machines. To use these machines more safely, it is necessary to analyze the behavior of the contact between them. In this study, we represent a wire rope by a numerical model of a flexible body. This flexible body is expressed in the absolute nodal coordinate formulation (ANCF, and the model includes the normal contact force and the frictional force between the wire rope and the pulley. The normal contact force is expressed by spring-damper elements, and the frictional force is expressed by the Quinn method. The advantage of the Quinn method is that it reduces the numerical problems associated with the discontinuities in Coulomb friction at zero velocity. By using the numerical model, simulations are performed, and the validity of this model is shown by comparing its results with those of an experiment. Through numerical simulations, we confirm the proposed model for the contact between the wire rope and the pulley. We confirmed that the behavior of the wire rope changes when both the bending elastic modulus of the wire rope and the mass added to each end of the wire rope are changed.

  10. Dynamics of a belt-drive system using a linear complementarity problem for the belt pulley contact description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čepon, Gregor; Boltežar, Miha

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an efficient and realistic numerical model in order to predict the dynamic response of belt drives. The belt was modeled as a planar beam element based on an absolute nodal coordinate formulation. A viscoelastic material was adopted for the belt and the corresponding damping and stiffness matrices were determined. The belt-pulley contact was formulated as a linear complementarity problem together with a penalty method. This made it possible for us to accurately predict the contact forces, including the stick and slip zones between the belt and the pulley. The belt-drive model was verified by comparing it with the available analytical solutions. A good agreement was found. Finally, the applicability of the method was demonstrated by considering non-steady belt-drive operating conditions.

  11. Contact forces between a particle and a wet wall at both quasi-static and dynamic state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Huang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The contact regime of particle-wall is investigated by the atomic force microscope (AFM and theoretical models. First, AFM is used to measure the cohesive force between a micron-sized grain and a glass plate at quasi-static state under various humidity. It is found out that the cohesive force starts to grow slowly and suddenly increase rapidly beyond a critical Relative Humidity (RH. Second, mathematical models of contacting forces are presented to depict the dynamic process that a particle impacts on a wet wall. Then the energy loss of a falling grain is calculated in comparison with the models and the experimental data from the previous references. The simulation results show that the force models presented here are adaptive for both low and high viscosity fluid films with different thickness.

  12. Dynamics of a New Strain of the H1N1 Influenza A Virus Incorporating the Effects of Repetitive Contacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puntani Pongsumpun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The respiratory disease caused by the Influenza A Virus is occurring worldwide. The transmission for new strain of the H1N1 Influenza A virus is studied by formulating a SEIQR (susceptible, exposed, infected, quarantine, and recovered model to describe its spread. In the present model, we have assumed that a fraction of the infected population will die from the disease. This changes the mathematical equations governing the transmission. The effect of repetitive contact is also included in the model. Analysis of the model by using standard dynamical modeling method is given. Conditions for the stability of equilibrium state are given. Numerical solutions are presented for different values of parameters. It is found that increasing the amount of repetitive contacts leads to a decrease in the peak numbers of exposed and infectious humans. A stability analysis shows that the solutions are robust.

  13. Field, temperature, and angle dependent critical current density Jc(H,T,θ) in coated conductors obtained via contact-free methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, J R; Christen, D K; Zhang Yifei; Zuev, Y L; Cantoni, C; Sinclair, J W; Chen Yimin; Selvamanickam, V

    2010-01-01

    Applications of coated conductors based on high- T c superconductors often require detailed knowledge of their critical current density J c as a function of magnetic field orientation as well as field strength and temperature. This work demonstrates experimental methods for obtaining the angularly dependent J c using contact-free magnetic measurements, and qualifies those methods using several well defined conditions. The studies complement traditional transport techniques and are readily extended to conditions of field and temperature where the current density is very large and transport methods become difficult. Results on representative materials are presented.

  14. Field, temperature, and angle dependent critical current density Jc(H,T, ) in coated conductors obtained via contact-free methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, James R [ORNL; Sinclair IV, John W [ORNL; Christen, David K [ORNL; Zhang, Yifei [ORNL; Zuev, Yuri L [ORNL; Cantoni, Claudia [ORNL; Chen, Y [SuperPower Incorporated, Schenectady, New York; Selvamanickam, V. [SuperPower Incorporated, Schenectady, New York

    2010-01-01

    Applications of coated conductors based on high-Tc superconductors often require detailed knowledge of their critical current density Jc as a function of magnetic field orientation as well as field strength and temperature. This work demonstrates experimental methods to obtain the angularly dependent Jc using contact-free magnetic measurements, and qualifies those methods using several well defined conditions. The studies complement traditional transport techniques and are readily extended to conditions of field and temperature where the current density is very large and transport methods become difficult. Results on representative materials are presented.

  15. Field, temperature, and angle dependent critical current density J{sub c}(H,T,{theta}) in coated conductors obtained via contact-free methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, J R; Christen, D K; Zhang Yifei; Zuev, Y L; Cantoni, C [Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6092 (United States); Sinclair, J W [Department of Physics, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996-1200 (United States); Chen Yimin; Selvamanickam, V [SuperPower, Incorporated, 450 Duane Avenue, Schenectady, NY 12304 (United States)

    2010-01-15

    Applications of coated conductors based on high- T{sub c} superconductors often require detailed knowledge of their critical current density J{sub c} as a function of magnetic field orientation as well as field strength and temperature. This work demonstrates experimental methods for obtaining the angularly dependent J{sub c} using contact-free magnetic measurements, and qualifies those methods using several well defined conditions. The studies complement traditional transport techniques and are readily extended to conditions of field and temperature where the current density is very large and transport methods become difficult. Results on representative materials are presented.

  16. Assessment of in vitro dynamics of pathogenic Acanthamoeba strains originating from contact lens wearers with infectious keratitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padzik, Marcin; Starościak, Bohdan; Szaflik, Jacek P; Pietruczuk-Padzik, Anna; Siczek, Paulina; Chomicz, Lidia

    Recently, incidents of Acanthamoeba keratitis, the vision-threatening eye disease, are reported with increasing frequency worldwide, particularly in contact lens wearers. In our study, the retrospective assessment of in vitro dynamics of subsequent pathogenic Acanthamoeba isolates cultured at 24°C, detected in Polish contact lens wearers with keratitis is presented and results compared with those of environmental A. castellanii Neff strain. There were delayed the proper diagnosis that influenced prolonged and severe course of this eye disease and treatment difficulties. The corneal material was examined directly to visualize developmental amoeba stages for diagnose verification, microbiologically tested for the specific identification of bacteriae and fungi, and in vitro grown in culture medium in temperature 24°C. Among twenty-six keratitis incidents analyzed, eleven were cases of Acanthamoeba keratitis; in the six of them, Acanthamoeba strains and concomitant bacterial and/or fungal infectious agents were detected. In vitro assays showed variability in population density of several clinical strains in the exponential growth phase expressed in various range of overall amoeba number and different proportion between trophozoites and cysts. The clear influence of temperature on the in vitro cultivation of the amoebae was observed: statistically significant lower population dynamics was revealed by most of pathogenic clinical isolates in comparison with those showed by environmental strain. The in vitro monitoring of dynamics of Acanthamoeba strains isolated from infected eyes may be helpful for diagnostics verification, especially in mixed infectious keratitis.

  17. Impact of large solar zenith angles on lower stratospheric dynamical and chemical processes in a coupled chemistry-climate model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Lamago

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Actinic fluxes at large solar zenith angles (SZAs are important for atmospheric chemistry, especially under twilight conditions in polar winter and spring. The results of a sensitivity experiment employing the fully coupled 3D chemistry-climate model ECHAM4.L39(DLR/CHEM have been analysed to quantify the impact of SZAs larger than 87.5º on dynamical and chemical processes in the lower stratosphere, in particular their influence on the ozone layer. Although the actinic fluxes at SZAs larger than 87.5º are small, ozone concentrations are significantly affected because daytime photolytic ozone destruction is switched on earlier, especially at the end of polar night the conversion of Cl2 and Cl2O2 into ClO in the lower stratosphere. Comparing climatological mean ozone column values of a simulation considering SZAs up to 93º with those of the sensitivity run with SZAs confined to 87.5º total ozone is reduced by about 20% in the polar Southern Hemisphere, i.e., the ozone hole is "deeper'' if twilight conditions are considered in the model because there is about 4 weeks more time for ozone destruction. This causes an additional cooling of the polar lower stratosphere (50 hPa up to -4 K with obvious consequences for chemical processes. In the Northern Hemisphere the impact of large SZAs cannot be determined on the basis of climatological mean values due to the pronounced dynamic variability of the stratosphere in winter and spring. This study clearly shows the necessity of considering large SZAs for the calculation of photolysis rates in atmospheric models.

  18. Human serum albumin interactions with C60 fullerene studied by spectroscopy, small-angle neutron scattering, and molecular dynamics simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Song; Zhao, Xiongce; Mo, Yiming; Cummings, Peter T.; Heller, William T.

    2013-07-01

    Concern about the toxicity of engineered nanoparticles, such as the prototypical nanomaterial C60 fullerene, continues to grow. While, evidence continues to mount that C60 and its derivatives may pose health hazards, the specific molecular interactions of these particles with biological macromolecules require further investigation. In this article, we report combined experimental and theoretical studies on the interaction of one of the most prevalent proteins in the human body, human serum albumin (HSA), with C60 in an aqueous environment. The C60-HSA interaction was probed by circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), and atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to understand C60-driven changes in the structure of HSA in solution. The CD spectroscopy demonstrates that the secondary structure of the protein decreases in α-helical content in response to the presence of C60 (0.68 nm in diameter). Similarly, C60 produces subtle changes in the solution conformation of HSA (an 8.0 nm × 3.8 nm protein), as evidenced by the SANS data and MD simulations, but the data do not indicate that C60 changes the oligomerization state of the protein, such as by inducing aggregation. The results demonstrate that the interaction is not highly disruptive to the protein in a manner that would prevent it from performing its physiological function.

  19. Characterization of nanoparticles of lidocaine in w/o microemulsions using small-angle neutron scattering and dynamic light scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, A.; Kiselev, M.A.; Hoell, A.; Neubert, R.H.H.

    2004-01-01

    Microemulsions (MEs) are of special interest because a variety of reactants can be introduced into the nanometer-sized aqueous domains, leading to materials with controlled size and shape. In the past few years, significant research has been conducted in the reverse ME-mediated synthesis of organic nanoparticles. In this study, a w/o ME medium was employed for the synthesis of lidocaine by direct precipitation in w/o microemulsion systems: water/isopropylpalmitat/Tween80/Span80. The particle size as well as the location of nanoparticles in the ME droplet were characterized by means of dynamic light scattering (DLS) and small angle neutron scattering (SANS). It is observed that lidocaine precipitated in the aqueous cores because of its insolubility in water. Hydrodynamic radius and gyration radius of microemulsion droplets were estimated as ∼15 nm and ∼4.50 nm from DLS and SANS respectively. Furthermore, different size parameters obtained by DLS and SANS experiments were compared. (author)

  20. Human serum albumin interactions with C60 fullerene studied by spectroscopy, small-angle neutron scattering, and molecular dynamics simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Song; Zhao, Xiongce; Mo, Yiming; Cummings, Peter T.; Heller, William T.

    2013-01-01

    Concern about the toxicity of engineered nanoparticles, such as the prototypical nanomaterial C 60 fullerene, continues to grow. While, evidence continues to mount that C 60 and its derivatives may pose health hazards, the specific molecular interactions of these particles with biological macromolecules require further investigation. In this article, we report combined experimental and theoretical studies on the interaction of one of the most prevalent proteins in the human body, human serum albumin (HSA), with C 60 in an aqueous environment. The C 60 –HSA interaction was probed by circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), and atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to understand C 60 -driven changes in the structure of HSA in solution. The CD spectroscopy demonstrates that the secondary structure of the protein decreases in α-helical content in response to the presence of C 60 (0.68 nm in diameter). Similarly, C 60 produces subtle changes in the solution conformation of HSA (an 8.0 nm × 3.8 nm protein), as evidenced by the SANS data and MD simulations, but the data do not indicate that C 60 changes the oligomerization state of the protein, such as by inducing aggregation. The results demonstrate that the interaction is not highly disruptive to the protein in a manner that would prevent it from performing its physiological function

  1. Review of the fundamental theories behind small angle X-ray scattering, molecular dynamics simulations, and relevant integrated application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Boldon

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the fundamental concepts and equations necessary for performing small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS experiments, molecular dynamics (MD simulations, and MD-SAXS analyses were reviewed. Furthermore, several key biological and non-biological applications for SAXS, MD, and MD-SAXS are presented in this review; however, this article does not cover all possible applications. SAXS is an experimental technique used for the analysis of a wide variety of biological and non-biological structures. SAXS utilizes spherical averaging to produce one- or two-dimensional intensity profiles, from which structural data may be extracted. MD simulation is a computer simulation technique that is used to model complex biological and non-biological systems at the atomic level. MD simulations apply classical Newtonian mechanics’ equations of motion to perform force calculations and to predict the theoretical physical properties of the system. This review presents several applications that highlight the ability of both SAXS and MD to study protein folding and function in addition to non-biological applications, such as the study of mechanical, electrical, and structural properties of non-biological nanoparticles. Lastly, the potential benefits of combining SAXS and MD simulations for the study of both biological and non-biological systems are demonstrated through the presentation of several examples that combine the two techniques.

  2. A simple running model with rolling contact and its role as a template for dynamic locomotion on a hexapod robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ke-Jung; Huang, Chun-Kai; Lin, Pei-Chun

    2014-10-07

    We report on the development of a robot's dynamic locomotion based on a template which fits the robot's natural dynamics. The developed template is a low degree-of-freedom planar model for running with rolling contact, which we call rolling spring loaded inverted pendulum (R-SLIP). Originating from a reduced-order model of the RHex-style robot with compliant circular legs, the R-SLIP model also acts as the template for general dynamic running. The model has a torsional spring and a large circular arc as the distributed foot, so during locomotion it rolls on the ground with varied equivalent linear stiffness. This differs from the well-known spring loaded inverted pendulum (SLIP) model with fixed stiffness and ground contact points. Through dimensionless steps-to-fall and return map analysis, within a wide range of parameter spaces, the R-SLIP model is revealed to have self-stable gaits and a larger stability region than that of the SLIP model. The R-SLIP model is then embedded as the reduced-order 'template' in a more complex 'anchor', the RHex-style robot, via various mapping definitions between the template and the anchor. Experimental validation confirms that by merely deploying the stable running gaits of the R-SLIP model on the empirical robot with simple open-loop control strategy, the robot can easily initiate its dynamic running behaviors with a flight phase and can move with similar body state profiles to those of the model, in all five testing speeds. The robot, embedded with the SLIP model but performing walking locomotion, further confirms the importance of finding an adequate template of the robot for dynamic locomotion.

  3. A simple running model with rolling contact and its role as a template for dynamic locomotion on a hexapod robot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Ke-Jung; Huang, Chun-Kai; Lin, Pei-Chun

    2014-01-01

    We report on the development of a robot’s dynamic locomotion based on a template which fits the robot’s natural dynamics. The developed template is a low degree-of-freedom planar model for running with rolling contact, which we call rolling spring loaded inverted pendulum (R-SLIP). Originating from a reduced-order model of the RHex-style robot with compliant circular legs, the R-SLIP model also acts as the template for general dynamic running. The model has a torsional spring and a large circular arc as the distributed foot, so during locomotion it rolls on the ground with varied equivalent linear stiffness. This differs from the well-known spring loaded inverted pendulum (SLIP) model with fixed stiffness and ground contact points. Through dimensionless steps-to-fall and return map analysis, within a wide range of parameter spaces, the R-SLIP model is revealed to have self-stable gaits and a larger stability region than that of the SLIP model. The R-SLIP model is then embedded as the reduced-order ‘template’ in a more complex ‘anchor’, the RHex-style robot, via various mapping definitions between the template and the anchor. Experimental validation confirms that by merely deploying the stable running gaits of the R-SLIP model on the empirical robot with simple open-loop control strategy, the robot can easily initiate its dynamic running behaviors with a flight phase and can move with similar body state profiles to those of the model, in all five testing speeds. The robot, embedded with the SLIP model but performing walking locomotion, further confirms the importance of finding an adequate template of the robot for dynamic locomotion. (paper)

  4. On the Rotor to Stator Contact Dynamics with Impacts and Friction - Theoretical and Experimental Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lahriri, Said

    The contact between a rotor and its stator can in some cases be considered as a serious malfunction that may lead to catastrophic failure. This major threat arises normally from full annular dry friction backward whirl and whip motion where the rotor runs and rubs at a high frequency on the inner...... of the friction coefficient behavior.......The contact between a rotor and its stator can in some cases be considered as a serious malfunction that may lead to catastrophic failure. This major threat arises normally from full annular dry friction backward whirl and whip motion where the rotor runs and rubs at a high frequency on the inner...... surface of the stator, and thereby traversing the full extent of the clearance. Normal and friction forces are exerted on the rotor at each impact and rubs. These particular forces can sustain the rotor in a persistent backward dry whirl or whip motion. In that case, the friction force plays a significant...

  5. Study of dynamic emission spectra from lubricant films in an elastohydrodynamic contact using Fourier transform spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauer, J. L.

    1978-01-01

    Infrared emission spectra were obtained through a diamond window from lubricating fluids in an operating sliding elastohydrodynamic contact and analyzed by comparison with static absorption spectra under similar pressures. Different loads, shear rates and temperatures were used. Most of the spectra exhibited polarization characteristics, indicating directional alignment of the lubricant in the EHD contact. Among the fluids studied were a "traction" fluid, an advanced ester, and their mixtures, a synthetic paraffin, a naphthenic reference fluid (N-1), both neat and containing 1 percent of p-tricresyl phosphate as an anti-wear additive, and a C-ether. Traction properties were found to be nearly proportional to mixture composition for traction fluid and ester mixtures. The anti-wear additive reduced traction and fluid temperature under low loads but increased them under higher loads, giving rise to formation of a friction polymer.

  6. Existence and uniqueness results for a class of dynamic elasto-plastic contact problems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krejčí, Pavel; Petrov, A.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 408, č. 1 (2013), s. 125-139 ISSN 0022-247X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP201/10/2315 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : contact with friction * elasto-plasticity * hysteresis operators Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.119, year: 2013 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022247X13004952

  7. Research on the dynamic response of high-contact-ratio spur gears influenced by surface roughness under EHL condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Huang; Xiong, Yangshou; Wang, Tao; Chen, Qi

    2017-01-01

    Employing high-contact-ratio (HCR) gear is an effective method of decreasing the load on a single tooth, as well as reducing vibration and noise. While the spindlier tooth leads to greater relative sliding, having more teeth participate in contact at the same time makes the HCR gear more sensitive to the surface quality. Available literature regarding HCR gear primarily investigates the geometrical optimization, load distribution, or efficiency calculation. Limited work has been conducted on the effect of rough surfaces on the dynamic performance of HCR gear. For this reason, a multi-degree-of-freedom (MDOF) model is presented mathematically to characterize the static transmission error based on fractal theory, investigate the relative sliding friction using an EHL-based friction coefficient formula, and detail the time-varying friction coefficient suitable for HCR gear. Based on numerical results, the surface roughness has little influence on system response in terms of the dynamic transmission error but has a large effect on the motion in off-line-of-action (OLOA) direction and friction force. The impact of shaft-bearing stiffness and damping ratio is also explored with results revealing that a greater shaft-bearing stiffness is beneficial in obtaining a more stable motion in OLOA direction, and a larger damping ratio results in a smaller effective friction force. The theory presented in this report outlines a new method of analyzing the dynamics of HCR gear in respect of introducing surface roughness into MDOF model directly, as well as establishing an indirect relationship between dynamic responses and surface roughness. This method is expected to guide surface roughness design and manufacturing in the future.

  8. Gait parameter control timing with dynamic manual contact or visual cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Peter; Werner, William

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the timing of gait parameter changes (stride length, peak toe velocity, and double-, single-support, and complete step duration) to control gait speed. Eleven healthy participants adjusted their gait speed on a treadmill to maintain a constant distance between them and a fore-aft oscillating cue (a place on a conveyor belt surface). The experimental design balanced conditions of cue modality (vision: eyes-open; manual contact: eyes-closed while touching the cue); treadmill speed (0.2, 0.4, 0.85, and 1.3 m/s); and cue motion (none, ±10 cm at 0.09, 0.11, and 0.18 Hz). Correlation analyses revealed a number of temporal relationships between gait parameters and cue speed. The results suggest that neural control ranged from feedforward to feedback. Specifically, step length preceded cue velocity during double-support duration suggesting anticipatory control. Peak toe velocity nearly coincided with its most-correlated cue velocity during single-support duration. The toe-off concluding step and double-support durations followed their most-correlated cue velocity, suggesting feedback control. Cue-tracking accuracy and cue velocity correlations with timing parameters were higher with the manual contact cue than visual cue. The cue/gait timing relationships generalized across cue modalities, albeit with greater delays of step-cycle events relative to manual contact cue velocity. We conclude that individual kinematic parameters of gait are controlled to achieve a desired velocity at different specific times during the gait cycle. The overall timing pattern of instantaneous cue velocities associated with different gait parameters is conserved across cues that afford different performance accuracies. This timing pattern may be temporally shifted to optimize control. Different cue/gait parameter latencies in our nonadaptation paradigm provide general-case evidence of the independent control of gait parameters previously demonstrated in gait adaptation paradigms

  9. Real-Time Dynamic Observation of Micro-Friction on the Contact Interface of Friction Lining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dekun; Chen, Kai; Guo, Yongbo

    2018-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate the microscopic friction mechanism based on in situ microscopic observation in order to record the deformation and contact situation of friction lining during the frictional process. The results show that friction coefficient increased with the shear deformation and energy loss of the surfacee, respectively. Furthermore, the friction mechanism mainly included adhesive friction in the high-pressure and high-speed conditions, whereas hysteresis friction was in the low-pressure and low-speed conditions. The mixed-friction mechanism was in the period when the working conditions varied from high pressure and speed to low pressure and speed. PMID:29498677

  10. Cellular dynamics in the draining lymph nodes during sensitization and elicitation phases of contact hypersensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jeppe Madura; Geisler, Carsten; Nielsen, Martin Weiss

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The different role of various immunological effector cells in contact hypersensitivity (CHS) is receiving increased attention. During the past decade, the involvement of different cell types in CHS has been investigated by the use of antibody-induced depletion of specific subtypes....../or challenged with 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene or oxazolone. Using multi-parameter flow cytometry we determined the proliferation, activation state, and absolute number of helper T cells, cytotoxic T cells, B cells, and natural killer cells in the draining lymph nodes. RESULTS: The presented method can be applied...

  11. Complex cytogeographical patterns reveal a dynamic tetraploid–octoploid contact zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Mariana; Castro, Sílvia; Figueiredo, Albano; Husband, Brian; Loureiro, João

    2018-01-01

    Abstract The distribution of cytotypes in mixed-ploidy species is crucial for evaluating ecological processes involved in the establishment and evolution of polyploid taxa. Here, we use flow cytometry and chromosome counts to explore cytotype diversity and distributions within a tetraploid–octoploid contact zone. We then use niche modelling and ploidy seed screening to assess the roles of niche differentiation among cytotypes and reproductive interactions, respectively, in promoting cytotype coexistence. Two cytotypes, tetraploids and octoploids, were dominant within the contact zone. They were most often distributed parapatrically or allopatrically, resulting in high geographic isolation. Still, 16.7 % of localities comprised two or more cytotypes, including the intermediate hexaploid cytotype. Tetraploids and octoploids had high environmental niche overlap and associated with similar climatic environments, suggesting they have similar ecological requirements. Given the geographical separation and habitat similarity among cytotypes, mixed-ploidy populations may be transitional and subject to the forces of minority cytotype exclusion which lead to pure-ploidy populations. However, seed ploidy analysis suggests that strong reproductive barriers may enforce assortative mating which favours stable cytotype coexistence. High cytogenetic diversity detected in the field suggests that unreduced gamete formation and hybridization events seem frequent in the studied polyploid complex and might be involved with the recurrent polyploid formation, governing, as well, the gene flow between cytogenetic entities. PMID:29593853

  12. Dynamic solar-powered multi-stage direct contact membrane distillation system: Concept design, modeling and simulation

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Jung Gil

    2017-04-26

    This paper presents a theoretical analysis of the monthly average daily and hourly performances of a solar-powered multi-stage direct contact membrane distillation (SMDCMD) system with an energy recovery scheme and dynamic operating system. Mid-latitude meteorological data from Busan, Korea is employed, featuring large climate variation over the course of one year. The number of module stages used by the dynamic operating scheme changes dynamically based on the inlet feed temperature of the successive modules, which results in an improvement of the water production and thermal efficiency. The simulations of the SMDCMD system are carried out to investigate the spatial and temporal variations in the feed and permeate temperatures and permeate flux. The monthly average daily water production increases from 0.37m3/day to 0.4m3/day and thermal efficiency increases from 31% to 45% when comparing systems both without and with dynamic operation in December. The water production with respect to collector area ranged from 350m2 to 550m2 and the seawater storage tank volume ranged from 16m3 to 28.8m3, and the solar fraction at various desired feed temperatures from 50°C to 80°C have been investigated in October and December.

  13. A parallel efficient partitioning algorithm for the statistical model of dynamic sea clutter at low grazing angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tao; Wu, Zhensen; Linghu, Longxiang

    2017-10-01

    Study of characteristics of sea clutter is very important for signal processing of radar, detection of targets on sea surface and remote sensing. The sea state is complex at Low grazing angle (LGA), and it is difficult with its large irradiation area and a great deal simulation facets. A practical and efficient model to obtain radar clutter of dynamic sea in different sea condition is proposed, basing on the physical mechanism of interaction between electromagnetic wave and sea wave. The classical analysis method for sea clutter is basing on amplitude and spectrum distribution, taking the clutter as random processing model, which is equivocal in its physical mechanism. To achieve electromagnetic field from sea surface, a modified phase from facets is considered, and the backscattering coefficient is calculated by Wu's improved two-scale model, which can solve the statistical sea backscattering problem less than 5 degree, considering the effects of the surface slopes joint probability density, the shadowing function, the skewness of sea waves and the curvature of the surface on the backscattering from the ocean surface. We make the assumption that the scattering contribution of each facet is independent, the total field is the superposition of each facet in the receiving direction. Such data characters are very suitable to compute on GPU threads. So we can make the best of GPU resource. We have achieved a speedup of 155-fold for S band and 162-fold for Ku/Χ band on the Tesla K80 GPU as compared with Intel® Core™ CPU. In this paper, we mainly study the high resolution data, and the time resolution is millisecond, so we may have 10,00 time points, and we analyze amplitude probability density distribution of radar clutter.

  14. The Shadow Map: A General Contact Definition for Capturing the Dynamics of Biomolecular Folding and Function

    OpenAIRE

    Noel, Jeffrey K.; Whitford, Paul C.; Onuchic, José N

    2012-01-01

    Structure-based models (SBMs) are simplified models of the biomolecular dynamics that arise from funneled energy landscapes. We recently introduced an all-atom SBM that explicitly represents the atomic geometry of a biomolecule. While this initial study showed the robustness of the all-atom SBM Hamiltonian to changes in many of the energetic parameters, an important aspect, which has not been explored previously, is the definition of native interactions. In this study, we propose a general de...

  15. Research on Method of Photoelectric Measurement for Tilt Angle of Scanning Mirror of Infrared Earth Sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, X P; Zhang, G Y; Zhang, N; Wang, L Y

    2006-01-01

    Tilt angle of scanning mirror is one of the important qualifications of performance measurement on the earth surface for swing scanning mode infrared the earth sensor. In order to settle the problem of measuring the tilt angle of scanning mirror in dynamic, real-time and non-contact, based on laser inspecting technology and CCD probing technology, a method of laser dynamical measurement for tilt angle of scanning mirror of the infrared earth sensor is presented. The measurement system developed in this paper can accomplish the dynamic and static laser non-contact measurement for the parameters of scanning mirror such as tilt angle, swing frequency, etc. In this paper the composition and overall structure of system are introduced. Emphasis on analyzing and discussing the theory of dynamically measuring tilt angle of scanning mirror, the problems of data processing and error correction are settled by established mathematic model of system. The accuracy of measurement system is verified by experiment, the results indicated that measurement range of system for tilt angle is 0∼±12 0 , accuracy of dynamic and static measurement is less than ±0.05 0 , this method of dynamically measuring tilt angle is suitable

  16. Real-time image processing for non-contact monitoring of dynamic displacements using smartphone technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Jae-Hong; Gelo, Nikolas J.; Jo, Hongki

    2016-04-01

    The newly developed smartphone application, named RINO, in this study allows measuring absolute dynamic displacements and processing them in real time using state-of-the-art smartphone technologies, such as high-performance graphics processing unit (GPU), in addition to already powerful CPU and memories, embedded high-speed/ resolution camera, and open-source computer vision libraries. A carefully designed color-patterned target and user-adjustable crop filter enable accurate and fast image processing, allowing up to 240fps for complete displacement calculation and real-time display. The performances of the developed smartphone application are experimentally validated, showing comparable accuracy with those of conventional laser displacement sensor.

  17. Contact Loss beneath Track Slab Caused by Deteriorated Cement Emulsified Asphalt Mortar: Dynamic Characteristics of Vehicle-Slab Track System and Prototype Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The contact loss beneath track slab caused by deteriorated cement emulsified asphalt mortar (CA mortar has been one of the main diseases occurring in the CRTS- (China Railway Track System- I Slab Track of high-speed railway in China. Based on the slab track design theory and the vehicle-track coupling vibration theory, a vehicle-track vertical coupling dynamic FEM model was established to analyze the influence of the contact loss length on the dynamic characteristics of vehicle and track subsystems at different train speeds. A prototype dynamic characteristic experimental test of CRTS-I Slab Track with CA mortar contact loss was conducted to verify the FEM model results. The train load was generated by the customized ZSS50 excitation car. The results showed that when the operation speed is less than 300 km/h, the contact loss with length smaller than 2.0 m barely affects the running smoothness ride safety of vehicle. The contact loss length effect on the dynamic characteristics of track subsystem is pronounced, especially on the track slab. Once the contact loss beneath the track slab occurs, the vibration displacement and the acceleration of the track slab increase rapidly, while it has little influence on the displacement and acceleration of the concrete roadbed.

  18. Energy conserving schemes for the simulation of musical instrument contact dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatziioannou, Vasileios; van Walstijn, Maarten

    2015-03-01

    Collisions are an innate part of the function of many musical instruments. Due to the nonlinear nature of contact forces, special care has to be taken in the construction of numerical schemes for simulation and sound synthesis. Finite difference schemes and other time-stepping algorithms used for musical instrument modelling purposes are normally arrived at by discretising a Newtonian description of the system. However because impact forces are non-analytic functions of the phase space variables, algorithm stability can rarely be established this way. This paper presents a systematic approach to deriving energy conserving schemes for frictionless impact modelling. The proposed numerical formulations follow from discretising Hamilton's equations of motion, generally leading to an implicit system of nonlinear equations that can be solved with Newton's method. The approach is first outlined for point mass collisions and then extended to distributed settings, such as vibrating strings and beams colliding with rigid obstacles. Stability and other relevant properties of the proposed approach are discussed and further demonstrated with simulation examples. The methodology is exemplified through a case study on tanpura string vibration, with the results confirming the main findings of previous studies on the role of the bridge in sound generation with this type of string instrument.

  19. HIV-1 Capsid Function is Regulated by Dynamics: Quantitative Atomic-Resolution Insights by Integrating Magic-Angle-Spinning NMR, QM/MM, and MD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huilan; Hou, Guangjin; Lu, Manman; Ahn, Jinwoo; Byeon, In-Ja L; Langmead, Christopher J; Perilla, Juan R; Hung, Ivan; Gor'kov, Peter L; Gan, Zhehong; Brey, William W; Case, David A; Schulten, Klaus; Gronenborn, Angela M; Polenova, Tatyana

    2016-10-05

    HIV-1 CA capsid protein possesses intrinsic conformational flexibility, which is essential for its assembly into conical capsids and interactions with host factors. CA is dynamic in the assembled capsid, and residues in functionally important regions of the protein undergo motions spanning many decades of timescales. Chemical shift anisotropy (CSA) tensors, recorded in magic-angle-spinning NMR experiments, provide direct residue-specific probes of motions on nano- to microsecond timescales. We combined NMR, MD, and Density-Functional-Theory calculations, to gain quantitative understanding of internal backbone dynamics in CA assemblies, and found that the dynamically averaged 15 N CSA tensors calculated by this joined protocol are in remarkable agreement with experiment. Thus, quantitative atomic-level understanding of the relationships between CSA tensors, local backbone structure and motions in CA assemblies is achieved, demonstrating the power of integrating NMR experimental data and theory for characterizing atomic-resolution dynamics in biological systems.

  20. Disease dynamics during wildlife translocations: disruptions to the host population and potential consequences for transmission in desert tortoise contact networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiello, Christina M.; Nussear, Kenneth E.; Walde, Andrew D.; Esque, Todd C.; Emblidge, Patrick G.; Sah, Pratha; Bansal, S.; Hudson, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Wildlife managers consider animal translocation a means of increasing the viability of a local population. However, augmentation may disrupt existing resident disease dynamics and initiate an outbreak that would effectively offset any advantages the translocation may have achieved. This paper examines fundamental concepts of disease ecology and identifies the conditions that will increase the likelihood of a disease outbreak following translocation. We highlight the importance of susceptibility to infection, population size and population connectivity – a characteristic likely affected by translocation but not often considered in risk assessments – in estimating outbreak risk due to translocation. We then explore these features in a species of conservation concern often translocated in the presence of infectious disease, the Mojave Desert tortoise, and use data from experimental tortoise translocations to detect changes in population connectivity that may influence pathogen transmission. Preliminary analyses comparing contact networks inferred from spatial data at control and translocation plots and infection simulation results through these networks suggest increased outbreak risk following translocation due to dispersal-driven changes in contact frequency and network structure. We outline future research goals to test these concepts and aid managers in designing effective risk assessment and intervention strategies that will improve translocation success.

  1. Low inertia impact dynamics for nanodrops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentner, F; Rioboo, R; Baland, J P; De Coninck, J

    2004-05-25

    Simulations of a droplet impacting a flat solid surface with a small initial speed have been studied using molecular dynamics. Approximating the shape of the drop by a spheroid, spreading radii, and dynamic contact angles are measured. The data reproduce well experimental results from literature. We show that the difference between the equilibrium and the dynamic contact angle cosines, that is, the spontaneous driving force, versus the spreading velocity of the three-phase line varies with impact speed and consists of two distinct regimes which can be described by existing models of moving contact lines.

  2. Dynamics of African swine fever virus shedding and excretion in domestic pigs infected by intramuscular inoculation and contact transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinat, Claire; Reis, Ana Luisa; Netherton, Christopher L; Goatley, Lynnette; Pfeiffer, Dirk U; Dixon, Linda

    2014-09-26

    African swine fever virus (ASFV) is a highly virulent swine pathogen that has spread across Eastern Europe since 2007 and for which there is no effective vaccine or treatment available. The dynamics of shedding and excretion is not well known for this currently circulating ASFV strain. Therefore, susceptible pigs were exposed to pigs intramuscularly infected with the Georgia 2007/1 ASFV strain to measure those dynamics through within- and between-pen transmission scenarios. Blood, oral, nasal and rectal fluid samples were tested for the presence of ASFV by virus titration (VT) and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Serum was tested for the presence of ASFV-specific antibodies. Both intramuscular inoculation and contact transmission resulted in development of acute disease in all pigs although the experiments indicated that the pathogenesis of the disease might be different, depending on the route of infection. Infectious ASFV was first isolated in blood among the inoculated pigs by day 3, and then chronologically among the direct and indirect contact pigs, by day 10 and 13, respectively. Close to the onset of clinical signs, higher ASFV titres were found in blood compared with nasal and rectal fluid samples among all pigs. No infectious ASFV was isolated in oral fluid samples although ASFV genome copies were detected. Only one animal developed antibodies starting after 12 days post-inoculation. The results provide quantitative data on shedding and excretion of the Georgia 2007/1 ASFV strain among domestic pigs and suggest a limited potential of this isolate to cause persistent infection.

  3. Contact in an expanding universe: an instructive exercise in dynamic geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, Seth

    2010-01-01

    The particular problem solved in this paper is that of calculating the time required to overtake a distant object receding under cosmic expansion, and the speed at which that object is passed. This is a rarely investigated problem leading to some interesting apparent paradoxes. We employ the problem to promote a deeper understanding of the dynamic geometry behind the expansion of space in three eras, especially for physics undergraduates. We do not utilize the standard cosmological formulae, but deliberately take a simpler approach, comprehensible to any student comfortable with differentials. This should offer an intuitive preparation for later courses in general relativity. The paper can be read straight through, or offered to a class in segments as problems to investigate. The overall intention is to leave students with a more tangible grasp of expanding space.

  4. Social mixing in Fiji: Who-eats-with-whom contact patterns and the implications of age and ethnic heterogeneity for disease dynamics in the Pacific Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Conall H; Coriakula, Jeremaia; Ngoc, Dung Tran Thi; Flasche, Stefan; Kucharski, Adam J; Lau, Colleen L; Thieu, Nga Tran Vu; le Polain de Waroux, Olivier; Rawalai, Kitione; Van, Tan Trinh; Taufa, Mere; Baker, Stephen; Nilles, Eric J; Kama, Mike; Edmunds, W John

    2017-01-01

    Empirical data on contact patterns can inform dynamic models of infectious disease transmission. Such information has not been widely reported from Pacific islands, nor strongly multi-ethnic settings, and few attempts have been made to quantify contact patterns relevant for the spread of gastrointestinal infections. As part of enteric fever investigations, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of the general public in Fiji, finding that within the 9,650 mealtime contacts reported by 1,814 participants, there was strong like-with-like mixing by age and ethnicity, with higher contact rates amongst iTaukei than non-iTaukei Fijians. Extra-domiciliary lunchtime contacts follow these mixing patterns, indicating the overall data do not simply reflect household structures. Inter-ethnic mixing was most common amongst school-age children. Serological responses indicative of recent Salmonella Typhi infection were found to be associated, after adjusting for age, with increased contact rates between meal-sharing iTaukei, with no association observed for other contact groups. Animal ownership and travel within the geographical division were common. These are novel data that identify ethnicity as an important social mixing variable, and use retrospective mealtime contacts as a socially acceptable metric of relevance to enteric, contact and respiratory diseases that can be collected in a single visit to participants. Application of these data to other island settings will enable communicable disease models to incorporate locally relevant mixing patterns in parameterisation.

  5. Direct Contact - Sorptive Tape Extraction coupled with Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry to reveal volatile topographical dynamics of lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.) upon herbivory by Spodoptera littoralis Boisd

    OpenAIRE

    Boggia, Lorenzo; Sgorbini, Barbara; Bertea, Cinzia M; Cagliero, Cecilia; Bicchi, Carlo; Maffei, Massimo E; Rubiolo, Patrizia

    2015-01-01

    Background The dynamics of plant volatile (PV) emission, and the relationship between damaged area and biosynthesis of bioactive molecules in plant-insect interactions, remain open questions. Direct Contact-Sorptive Tape Extraction (DC-STE) is a sorption sampling technique employing non adhesive polydimethylsiloxane tapes, which are placed in direct contact with a biologically-active surface. DC-STE coupled to Gas Chromatography ? Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) is a non-destructive, high concentra...

  6. Dynamics and stability of rigid rotors levitated by passive cylinder-magnet bearings and driven/supported axially by pointwise contact clutch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Søren Bøgh; Enemark, Søren; Santos, Ilmar

    2013-01-01

    A stable rotor—supported laterally by passive magnetic bearings and longitudinally by magnetic forces and a clutch—loses suddenly its contact to the clutch and executes abruptly longitudinal movements away from its original equilibrium position as a result of small increases in angular velocity...... contact stability dictated by mechanical–magnetic interaction. Load capacity and stiffness of passive multicylinder magnetic bearings (MCMB) are thoroughly investigated using two theoretical approaches followed by experimental validation. The contact dynamics between the clutch and the rotor supported...... contact to the clutch and (b) an accurate prediction of the threshold of stability based on the nonlinear rotor-bearing model, i.e. maximum angular velocity before the rotor misses its contact to the clutch as a function of rotor, bearing and clutch design parameters....

  7. Dynamics Modeling of a Continuum Robotic Arm with a Contact Point in Planar Grasp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Dehghani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Grasping objects by continuum arms or fingers is a new field of interest in robotics. Continuum manipulators have the advantages of high adaptation and compatibility with respect to the object shape. However, due to their extremely nonlinear behavior and infinite degrees of freedom, continuum arms cannot be easily modeled. In fact, dynamics modeling of continuum robotic manipulators is state-of-the-art. Using the exact modeling approaches, such as theory of Cosserat rod, the resulting models are either too much time-taking for computation or numerically unstable. Thus, such models are not suitable for applications such as real-time control. However, based on realistic assumptions and using some approximations, these systems can be modeled with reasonable computational efforts. In this paper, a planar continuum robotic arm is modeled, considering its backbone as two circular arcs. In order to simulate finger grasping, the continuum arm experiences a point-force along its body. Finally, the results are validated using obtained experimental data.

  8. Studies of dynamic contact of ceramics and alloys for advanced heat engines. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaydos, P.A.; Dufrane, K.F. [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States)

    1993-06-01

    Advanced materials and coatings for low heat rejection engines have been investigated for almost a decade. Much of the work has concentrated on the critical wear interface between the piston ring and cylinder liner. Simplified bench tests have identified families of coatings with high temperature wear performance that could meet or exceed that of conventional engine materials at today`s operating temperatures. More recently, engine manufacturers have begun to optimize material combinations and manufacturing processes so that the materials not only have promising friction and wear performance but are practical replacements for current materials from a materials and manufacturing cost standpoint. In this study, the advanced materials supplied by major diesel engine manufacturers were evaluated in an experimental apparatus that simulates many of the in-cylinder conditions of a low heat rejection diesel engine. Results include ring wear factors and average dynamic friction coefficients measured at intervals during the test. These results are compared with other advanced materials tested in the past as well as the baseline wear of current engines. Both fabricated specimens and sections of actual ring and cylinder liners were used in the testing. Observations and relative friction and wear performance of the individual materials are provided.

  9. New developments in the simultaneous measurement system of wide-angle and small-angle x-ray scatterings and vibrational spectra for the static and dynamic analyses of the hierarchical structures of polymer solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tashiro, Kohji; Yamamoto, Hiroko; Yoshioka, Taiyo; Ninh, Tran Hai; Shimada, Shigeru; Nakatani, Takeshi; Iwamoto, Hiroyuki; Ohta, Noboru; Masunaga, Hiroyasu

    2012-01-01

    A simultaneous measurement system of wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD), small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and Raman or transmission-type infrared spectroscopy was developed by us. Its purposes is to clarify the static and dynamic structural changes of polymer materials subjected to the various external condition changes. Some examples described here include the study of the stretch-induced reorientation phenomenon of a-axially-oriented polyethylene, the study of structural change in photo-induced solid-state polymerization reaction of muconic acid ester monomer crystal, the study of the two-stage high-temperature phase transitions of aliphatic nylons, the study of stress-induced crystalline phase transition of an oriented poly(tetramethylene terephthalate) sample and its relation to the higher-order structural change, and the study of structural regularization process of poly(L-lactic acid) in the isothermal crystallization of the meso phase. These case studies in the clarification of hierarchical structural changes of polymer materials have proven that the simultaneous measurement systems can be useful to examine the structural changes in polymer systems. (author)

  10. Contact Loss beneath Track Slab Caused by Deteriorated Cement Emulsified Asphalt Mortar: Dynamic Characteristics of Vehicle-Slab Track System and Prototype Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Dan; Liu, Yu-feng; Ren, Juan-juan; Yang, Rong-shan; Liu, Xue-yi

    2016-01-01

    The contact loss beneath track slab caused by deteriorated cement emulsified asphalt mortar (CA mortar) has been one of the main diseases occurring in the CRTS- (China Railway Track System-) I Slab Track of high-speed railway in China. Based on the slab track design theory and the vehicle-track coupling vibration theory, a vehicle-track vertical coupling dynamic FEM model was established to analyze the influence of the contact loss length on the dynamic characteristics of vehicle and track su...

  11. An investigation of correlation between left coronary bifurcation angle and hemodynamic changes in coronary stenosis by coronary computed tomography angiography-derived computational fluid dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhonghua; Chaichana, Thanapong

    2017-10-01

    To investigate the correlation between left coronary bifurcation angle and coronary stenosis as assessed by coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA)-generated computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis when compared to the CCTA analysis of coronary lumen stenosis and plaque lesion length with invasive coronary angiography (ICA) as the reference method. Thirty patients (22 males, mean age: 59±6.9 years) with calcified plaques at the left coronary artery were included in the study with all patients undergoing CCTA and ICA examinations. CFD simulation was performed to analyze hemodynamic changes to the left coronary artery models in terms of wall shear stress, wall pressure and flow velocity, with findings correlated to the coronary stenosis and degree of bifurcation angle. Calcified plaque length was measured in the left coronary artery with diagnostic value compared to that from coronary lumen and bifurcation angle assessments. Of 26 significant stenosis at left anterior descending (LAD) and 13 at left circumflex (LCx) on CCTA, only 14 and 5 of them were confirmed to be >50% stenosis at LAD and LCx respectively on ICA, resulting in sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of 100%, 52%, 49% and 100%. The mean plaque length was measured 5.3±3.6 and 4.4±1.9 mm at LAD and LCx, respectively, with diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV being 92.8%, 46.7%, 61.9% and 87.5% for extensively calcified plaques. The mean bifurcation angle was measured 83.9±13.6º and 83.8±13.3º on CCTA and ICA, respectively, with no significant difference (P=0.98). The corresponding sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV were 100%, 78.6%, 84.2% and 100% based on bifurcation angle measurement on CCTA, 100%, 73.3%, 78.9% and 100% based on bifurcation angle measurements on ICA, respectively. Wall shear stress was noted to increase in the LAD and LCx models with significant stenosis and wider angulation (>80º), but

  12. Effect of SiO{sub 2} addition on photocatalytic activity, water contact angle and mechanical stability of visible light activated TiO{sub 2} thin films applied on stainless steel by a sol gel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Momeni, Mansour [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Saghafian, Hasan, E-mail: Saghafian@iust.ac.ir [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Center of Excellence for High Strength Alloys Technology (CEHSAT), Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Golestani-Fard, Farhad [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Center of Excellence for Advanced Materials, Iran University of Science and Technology, P.O. Box 16845-195, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Barati, Nastaran; Khanahmadi, Amirhossein [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Adding SiO{sub 2} to N doped TiO{sub 2} films increased the band gap energy of the films. • SiO{sub 2} addition encouraged crack formation in N doped TiO{sub 2} thin films. • Addition of SiO{sub 2} weakened visible light activity and hydrophilicity of TiO{sub 2} films. • All films passed nanoscratch testing without detachment from the substrates. • Results propose using non-silica films on steel for application in visible light. - Abstract: Nanostructured N doped TiO{sub 2}/20%SiO{sub 2} thin films were developed on steel surface via sol gel method using a painting airbrush. Thin films then were calcined at various temperatures in a range of 400–600 °C. The effect of SiO{sub 2} addition on phase composition and microstructural evolution of N doped TiO{sub 2} films were studied using XRD and FESEM. Optical properties, visible light photocatalytic activity, hydrophilic behavior, and mechanical behavior of the films were also investigated by DRS, methylene blue degradation, water contact angle measurements, and nanoscratch testing. Results indicated that the band gap energy of N doped TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} was increased from 2.93 to 3.09 eV. Crack formation during calcination was also significantly promoted in the composite films. All composite films demonstrated weaker visible light photocatalytic activities and lower mechanical stability in comparison with N doped TiO{sub 2} films. Moreover, the N doped TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} film calcined at 600 °C showed undesirable hydrophilic behavior with a water contact angle of 57° after 31 h of visible light irradiation. Outcomes of the present study reveal some different results to previous reports on TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} films. In general, we believe the differences in substrate material as well as application in visible light are the main reasons for the above mentioned contradiction.

  13. The contact angle in inviscid fluid mechanics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    assumed to start and continue with a uniform pressure over the interface; we will assume the gas to be passive, i.e. it only exerts a constant pressure on the liquid interface. In. §2.1, we write down the equations governing the motion. In §2.2, we first consider planar motions; motions in a cylinder of arbitrary cross-section are ...

  14. Photoelectric angle converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podzharenko, Volodymyr A.; Kulakov, Pavlo I.

    2001-06-01

    The photo-electric angle transmitter of rotation is offered, at which the output voltage is linear function of entering magnitude. In a transmitter the linear phototransducer is used on the basis of pair photo diode -- operating amplifier, which output voltage is linear function of the area of an illuminated photosensitive stratum, and modulator of a light stream of the special shape, which ensures a linear dependence of this area from an angle of rotation. The transmitter has good frequent properties and can be used for dynamic measurements of an angular velocity and angle of rotation, in systems of exact drives and systems of autocontrol.

  15. BRISP, a new small-angle time-of-flight neutron spectrometer to study collective dynamics in disordered matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Orecchini

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available An outline is given of the new neutron Brillouin Spectrometer BRISP which was installed during the last years and recently became fully operational at the Institute Laue-Langevin in Grenoble (France. The main technical features are described and some of the first experimental results are presented, demonstrating the present capabilities of this new-type inelastic small-angle spectrometer. Future upgrades are foreseen and expected to further improve the instrument performances.

  16. The effect of pressure, isotopic (H/D) substitution, and other variables on miscibility in polymer-solvent systems. The nature of the demixing process; dynamic light scattering and small angle neutron scattering studies. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Hook, W.A.

    2000-01-01

    A research program examining the effects of pressure, isotope substitution and other variables on miscibility in polymer solvent systems is described. The techniques employed included phase equilibrium measurements and dynamic light scattering and small angle neutron scattering

  17. Scoliosis angle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marklund, T.

    1978-01-01

    The most commonly used methods of assessing the scoliotic deviation measure angles that are not clearly defined in relation to the anatomy of the patient. In order to give an anatomic basis for such measurements it is proposed to define the scoliotic deviation as the deviation the vertebral column makes with the sagittal plane. Both the Cobb and the Ferguson angles may be based on this definition. The present methods of measurement are then attempts to measure these angles. If the plane of these angles is parallel to the film, the measurement will be correct. Errors in the measurements may be incurred by the projection. A hypothetical projection, called a 'rectified orthogonal projection', is presented, which correctly represents all scoliotic angles in accordance with these principles. It can be constructed in practice with the aid of a computer and by performing measurements on two projections of the vertebral column; a scoliotic curve can be represented independent of the kyphosis and lordosis. (Auth.)

  18. THE DYNAMIC INTERACTION OF THE MOVING CONTACTING SURFACES AT THE EXAMPLE OF THE ELECTRIC ROLLING STOCK CURRENT COLLECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. O. Babiak

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The process of mutual moving and contacting of surfaces of current collecting pantograph elements and contact network is considered taking into account the particularities of inf1uence of speed and acceleration parameters, determination of which will allow to forecast mathematically the wear-out degree of contacting elements.

  19. Contact structure, mobility, environmental impact and behaviour: the importance of social forces to infectious disease dynamics and disease ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Ronan F; Gurley, Emily S; Salje, Henrik; Bloomfield, Laura S P; Jones, James H

    2017-05-05

    Human factors, including contact structure, movement, impact on the environment and patterns of behaviour, can have significant influence on the emergence of novel infectious diseases and the transmission and amplification of established ones. As anthropogenic climate change alters natural systems and global economic forces drive land-use and land-cover change, it becomes increasingly important to understand both the ecological and social factors that impact infectious disease outcomes for human populations. While the field of disease ecology explicitly studies the ecological aspects of infectious disease transmission, the effects of the social context on zoonotic pathogen spillover and subsequent human-to-human transmission are comparatively neglected in the literature. The social sciences encompass a variety of disciplines and frameworks for understanding infectious diseases; however, here we focus on four primary areas of social systems that quantitatively and qualitatively contribute to infectious diseases as social-ecological systems. These areas are social mixing and structure, space and mobility, geography and environmental impact, and behaviour and behaviour change. Incorporation of these social factors requires empirical studies for parametrization, phenomena characterization and integrated theoretical modelling of social-ecological interactions. The social-ecological system that dictates infectious disease dynamics is a complex system rich in interacting variables with dynamically significant heterogeneous properties. Future discussions about infectious disease spillover and transmission in human populations need to address the social context that affects particular disease systems by identifying and measuring qualitatively important drivers.This article is part of the themed issue 'Opening the black box: re-examining the ecology and evolution of parasite transmission'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  20. The influence of slope-angle ratio on the dynamics of granular flows: insights from laboratory experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulpizio, R.; Castioni, D.; Rodriguez-Sedano, L. A.; Sarocchi, D.; Lucchi, F.

    2016-11-01

    Laboratory experiments on granular flows using natural material were carried out in order to investigate the behaviour of granular flows passing over a break in slope. Sensors in the depositional area recorded the flow kinematics, while video footage permitted reconstruction of the deposit formation, which allowed investigation of the deposit shape as a function of the change in slope. We defined the slope-angle ratio as the proportion between slope angle in the depositional area and that of the channel. When the granular flow encounters the break in slope part of the flow front forms a bouncing clast zone due to elastic impact with the expansion box floor. During this process, part of the kinetic energy of the dense granular flow is transferred to elutriating fine ash, which subsequently forms turbulent ash cloud accompanying the granular flow until it comes to rest. Morphometric analysis of the deposits shows that they are all elliptical, with an almost constant minor axis and a variable major axis. The almost constant value of the minor axis relates to the spreading angle of flow at the end of the channel, which resembles the basal friction angle of the material. The variation of the major axis is interpreted to relate to the effect of competing inertial and frictional forces. This effect also reflects the partitioning of centripetal and tangential velocities, which changes as the flow passes over the break in slope. After normalization, morphometric data provided empirical relationships that highlight the dependence of runout from the product of slope-angle ratio and the difference in height between granular material release and deposit. The empirical relationships were tested against the runouts of hot avalanches formed during the 1944 ad eruption at Vesuvius, with differences among actual and calculated values are between 1.7 and 15 %. Velocity measurements of laboratory granular flows record deceleration paths at different breaks in slope. When normalized

  1. Structures and interactions among globular proteins above the isoelectric point in the presence of divalent ions: A small angle neutron scattering and dynamic light scattering study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Sarathi; Pandit, Subhankar; Abbas, Sohrab; Aswal, V. K.; Kohlbrecher, J.

    2018-02-01

    Small angle neutron scattering study reveals that at pD ≈ 7.0, above the isoelectric point of the globular protein Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA), in the presence of different divalent ions (Mg2+, Ca2+, Sr2+ and Ba2+), the short-range attractive interaction remains nearly constant and the intermediate-range repulsive interaction decreases with increasing salt concentration up to a certain concentration value but after that remains unchanged. However, for the monovalent ion (Na+), repulsive interaction decreases gradually up to 1 M salt concentration. Dynamic light scattering study shows that for all ions, diffusion coefficient of BSA decreases with increasing salt concentration and then nearly saturates.

  2. Reduced-Order Dynamic Modeling, Fouling Detection, and Optimal Control of Solar-Powered Direct Contact Membrane Distillation

    KAUST Repository

    Karam, Ayman M.

    2016-12-01

    Membrane Distillation (MD) is an emerging sustainable desalination technique. While MD has many advantages and can be powered by solar thermal energy, its main drawback is the low water production rate. However, the MD process has not been fully optimized in terms of its manipulated and controlled variables. This is largely due to the lack of adequate dynamic models to study and simulate the process. In addition, MD is prone to membrane fouling, which is a fault that degrades the performance of the MD process. This work has three contributions to address these challenges. First, we derive a mathematical model of Direct Contact Membrane Distillation (DCMD), which is the building block for the next parts. Then, the proposed model is extended to account for membrane fouling and an observer-based fouling detection method is developed. Finally, various control strategies are implemented to optimize the performance of the DCMD solar-powered process. In part one, a reduced-order dynamic model of DCMD is developed based on lumped capacitance method and electrical analogy to thermal systems. The result is an electrical equivalent thermal network to the DCMD process, which is modeled by a system of nonlinear differential algebraic equations (DAEs). This model predicts the water-vapor flux and the temperature distribution along the module length. Experimental data is collected to validate the steady-state and dynamic responses of the proposed model, with great agreement demonstrated in both. The second part proposes an extension of the model to account for membrane fouling. An adaptive observer for DAE systems is developed and convergence proof is presented. A method for membrane fouling detection is then proposed based on adaptive observers. Simulation results demonstrate the performance of the membrane fouling detection method. Finally, an optimization problem is formulated to maximize the process efficiency of a solar-powered DCMD. The adapted method is known as Extremum

  3. Investigation into the influence of dynamic forces on the tribological behavior of bodies in rolling/sliding contact with particular regard to surface corrugations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, H.; Senuma, T.

    1980-08-01

    The effect of a dynamic force on the tribological behavior of bodies in rolling-sliding contact without lubrication was analyzed experimentally and theoretically. The coefficient of traction and wear decrease with the increase in the amplitude of the dynamic normal force; the ripples in a carbon steel in the presence of slip result from the formation of oxide stripes, and their propagation depends on plastic deformation and periodic wear. It is concluded that the accuracy of test rig results requires a consideration of the effect of the dynamic system on the tribological behavior.

  4. Dynamics of field-induced ordering in magnetic colloids studied by new time-resolved small-angle neutron-scattering techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedenmann, A; Keiderling, U; Habicht, K; Russina, M; Gähler, R

    2006-08-04

    The reversal of magnetic moments of nanoparticles in concentrated Co ferrofluids was monitored in an oscillating magnetic field by new time-resolved stroboscopic small-angle neutron-scattering techniques. Time resolution in the micros range was achieved by using a pulsed beam technique, TISANE, while in continuous mode resolution was limited by the wavelength spread to about 1 ms. The frequency dependence of anisotropic scattering patterns has been modeled using Langevin dynamics. The dynamics follows a two step mechanism: field-induced ordering is governed by fast Brownian rotation of nanoparticles with a characteristic time of about 160 micros. Magnetic relaxation of locally ordered domains of about 100 nm in size takes place within a few seconds by Brownian rotation or by Néel type rotation of magnetic moments.

  5. Polymers pipeline study (PP and PEAD) for paraffin deposits inhibition: static (contact angle) and with flow (depolarization of the petroleum fluorescence); Estudo de dutos polimericos (PP e PEAD) para inibicao de depositos parafinicos: estatico (angulo de contato) e com fluxo (despolarizacao da fluorescencia do petroleo)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quintella, Cristina M.; Castro, Martha T.P.O.; Musse, Ana Paula S. [Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    This work evaluated the formation of paraffin deposits as a function of the chemical constitution of the pipeline walls. Two low cost polymers, available in the Brazilian market either as solids or as extruded films, were studied: polypropylene (PP) and high density polyethylene (PEAD). The static interfacial interactions were evaluated by contact angle and showed that the interaction between crude oil and PEAD was 16% stronger than with PP. For the dynamic studies a flow cell was developed in order to observe mainly the boundary layers. The paraffin deposits were identified through the decrease of the intermolecular alignment within the flowing oil. PEAD proved to be 43% more efficient that PP in interacting with the crude oil. Under flowing conditions, the chemical interfacial effects became more pronounced due to the molecular effects overcoming the hydrodynamic effects. Photos of the cell walls showed globular paraffin deposits on PEAD and their absence on PP. As both polymers are linear, the higher tendency of PEAD to yield paraffin deposits was attributed to the absence of lateral branches of methyl groups. There by PP was found to be better than PEAD to avoid paraffin deposition. (author)

  6. In Vivo Measurement of Glenohumeral Joint Contact Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Bey

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to describe a technique for measuring in-vivo glenohumeral joint contact patterns during dynamic activities and to demonstrate application of this technique. The experimental technique calculated joint contact patterns by combining CT-based 3D bone models with joint motion data that were accurately measured from biplane x-ray images. Joint contact patterns were calculated for the repaired and contralateral shoulders of 20 patients who had undergone rotator cuff repair. Significant differences in joint contact patterns were detected due to abduction angle and shoulder condition (i.e., repaired versus contralateral. Abduction angle had a significant effect on the superior/inferior contact center position, with the average joint contact center of the repaired shoulder 12.1% higher on the glenoid than the contralateral shoulder. This technique provides clinically relevant information by calculating in-vivo joint contact patterns during dynamic conditions and overcomes many limitations associated with conventional techniques for quantifying joint mechanics.

  7. Sensitivity of medial and lateral knee contact force predictions to frontal plane alignment and contact locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saliba, Christopher M; Brandon, Scott C E; Deluzio, Kevin J

    2017-05-24

    Musculoskeletal models are increasingly used to estimate medial and lateral knee contact forces, which are difficult to measure in vivo. The sensitivity of contact force predictions to modeling parameters is important to the interpretation and implication of results generated by the model. The purpose of this study was to quantify the sensitivity of knee contact force predictions to simultaneous errors in frontal plane knee alignment and contact locations under different dynamic conditions. We scaled a generic musculoskeletal model for N=23 subjects' stature and radiographic knee alignment, then perturbed frontal plane alignment and mediolateral contact locations within experimentally-possible ranges of 10° to -10° and 10 to -10mm, respectively. The sensitivity of first peak, second peak, and mean medial and lateral knee contact forces to knee adduction angle and contact locations was modeled using linear regression. Medial loads increased, and lateral loads decreased, by between 3% and 6% bodyweight for each degree of varus perturbation. Shifting the medial contact point medially increased medial loads and decreased lateral loads by between 1% and 4% bodyweight per millimeter. This study demonstrates that realistic measurement errors of 5mm (contact distance) or 5° (frontal plane alignment) could result in a combined 50% BW error in subject specific contact force estimates. We also show that model sensitivity varies between subjects as a result of differences in gait dynamics. These results demonstrate that predicted knee joint contact forces should be considered as a range of possible values determined by model uncertainty. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Dynamics of solid dispersions in oil during the lubrication of point of contacts. Part 2: Molybdenum disulfide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusano, C.; Sliney, H. E.

    1981-01-01

    A Hertzian contact consisting of a steel ball in contact with a glass disk is lubricated with MoS2 dispersions and observed by optical microscopy at various slide/roll conditions. In general the behavior of MoS2 and graphite are similar. That is, the solids tend to enter the contact and form a film on the contacting surfaces whenever a rolling component of motion is used, but solid particles seldom enter the contact during pure sliding. The MoS2 has more pronounced plastic flow behavior than graphite. However, the polished steel ball is more readily scratched by MoS2 than by graphite. Under the conditions of these studies, lower friction and wear are observed with pure oil rather than with the dispersions. However under other conditions (such as different contact geometry or rougher surfaces) the solid lubricant dispersions might be beneficial.

  9. Pinning of the Contact Line during Evaporation on Heterogeneous Surfaces: Slowdown or Temporary Immobilization? Insights from a Nanoscale Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianguo; Müller-Plathe, Florian; Leroy, Frédéric

    2015-07-14

    The question of the effect of surface heterogeneities on the evaporation of liquid droplets from solid surfaces is addressed through nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. The mechanism behind contact line pinning which is still unclear is discussed in detail on the nanoscale. Model systems with the Lennard-Jones interaction potential were employed to study the evaporation of nanometer-sized cylindrical droplets from a flat surface. The heterogeneity of the surface was modeled through alternating stripes of equal width but two chemical types. The first type leads to a contact angle of 67°, and the other leads to a contact angle of 115°. The stripe width was varied between 2 and 20 liquid-particle diameters. On the surface with the narrowest stripes, evaporation occurred at constant contact angle as if the surface was homogeneous, with a value of the contact angle as predicted by the regular Cassie-Baxter equation. When the width was increased, the contact angle oscillated during evaporation between two boundaries whose values depend on the stripe width. The evaporation behavior was thus found to be a direct signature of the typical size of the surface heterogeneity domains. The contact angle both at equilibrium and during evaporation could be predicted from a local Cassie-Baxter equation in which the surface composition within a distance of seven fluid-particle diameters around the contact line was considered, confirming the local nature of the interactions that drive the wetting behavior of droplets. More importantly, we propose a nanoscale explanation of pinning during evaporation. Pinning should be interpreted as a drastic slowdown of the contact line dynamics rather than a complete immobilization of it during a transition between two contact angle boundaries.

  10. Rapidly moving contact lines and damping contributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yi; Daniel, Susan; Steen, Paul

    2017-11-01

    Contact angle varies dynamically with contact line (CL) speed when a liquid moves across a solid support, as when a liquid spreads rapidly. For sufficiently rapid spreading, inertia competes with capillarity to influence the interface shape near the support. We use resonant-mode plane-normal support oscillations of droplets to drive lateral contact-line motion. Reynolds numbers based on CL speeds are high and capillary numbers are low. These are inertial-capillary motions. By scanning the driving frequency, we locate the frequency at peak amplification (resonance), obtain the scaled peak height (amplification factor) and a measure of band-width (damping ratio). We report how a parameter for CL mobility depends on these scanning metrics, with the goal of distinguishing contributions from the bulk- and CL-dissipation to overall damping.

  11. Molecular dynamics simulation of subnanometric tool-workpiece contact on a force sensor-integrated fast tool servo for ultra-precision microcutting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Yindi; Chen, Yuan-Liu; Shimizu, Yuki; Ito, So; Gao, Wei; Zhang, Liangchi

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Subnanometric contact between a diamond tool and a copper workpiece surface is investigated by MD simulation. • A multi-relaxation time technique is proposed to eliminate the influence of the atom vibrations. • The accuracy of the elastic-plastic transition contact depth estimation is improved by observing the residual defects. • The simulation results are beneficial for optimization of the next-generation microcutting instruments. - Abstract: This paper investigates the contact characteristics between a copper workpiece and a diamond tool in a force sensor-integrated fast tool servo (FS-FTS) for single point diamond microcutting and in-process measurement of ultra-precision surface forms of the workpiece. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are carried out to identify the subnanometric elastic-plastic transition contact depth, at which the plastic deformation in the workpiece is initiated. This critical depth can be used to optimize the FS-FTS as well as the cutting/measurement process. It is clarified that the vibrations of the copper atoms in the MD model have a great influence on the subnanometric MD simulation results. A multi-relaxation time method is then proposed to reduce the influence of the atom vibrations based on the fact that the dominant vibration component has a certain period determined by the size of the MD model. It is also identified that for a subnanometric contact depth, the position of the tool tip for the contact force to be zero during the retracting operation of the tool does not correspond to the final depth of the permanent contact impression on the workpiece surface. The accuracy for identification of the transition contact depth is then improved by observing the residual defects on the workpiece surface after the tool retracting.

  12. Experimental quantification of dynamic forces and shaft motion in two different types of backup bearings under several contact conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lahriri, Said; Santos, Ilmar

    2013-01-01

    This paper treats the experimental study on a shaft impacting its stator for different cases. The paper focuses mainly on the measured contact forces and the shaft motion in two different types of backup bearings. As such, the measured contact forces are thoroughly studied. These measured contact...... the first critical speed, the investigation revealed that different paths initiated the onset of backward whip and whirling motion. In order to improve the whirling and the full annular contact behavior, an unconventional pinned backup bearing is realized. The idea is to utilize pin connections that center...... the rotor during impacts and prevent the shaft from entering a full annular contact state. The experimental results show that the shaft escapes the pins and returns to a normal operational condition during an impact event. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  13. In Operando Monitoring of the Pore Dynamics in Ordered Mesoporous Electrode Materials by Small Angle X-ray Scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Gwi Ok; Yoon, Jeongbae; Park, Eunjun; Park, Su Bin; Kim, Hyunchul; Kim, Kyoung Ho; Jin, Xing; Shin, Tae Joo; Kim, Hansu; Yoon, Won-Sub; Kim, Ji Man

    2015-05-26

    To monitor dynamic volume changes of electrode materials during electrochemical lithium storage and removal process is of utmost importance for developing high performance lithium storage materials. We herein report an in operando probing of mesoscopic structural changes in ordered mesoporous electrode materials during cycling with synchrotron-based small angel X-ray scattering (SAXS) technique. In operando SAXS studies combined with electrochemical and other physical characterizations straightforwardly show how porous electrode materials underwent volume changes during the whole process of charge and discharge, with respect to their own reaction mechanism with lithium. This comprehensive information on the pore dynamics as well as volume changes of the electrode materials will not only be critical in further understanding of lithium ion storage reaction mechanism of materials, but also enable the innovative design of high performance nanostructured materials for next generation batteries.

  14. Three Different Ways of Calibrating Burger's Contact Model for Viscoelastic Model of Asphalt Mixtures by Discrete Element Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Huan; Pettinari, Matteo; Stang, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    in the commercial software PFC3D, including the slip model, linear stiffness-contact model, and contact bond model. A macro-scale Burger's model was first established and the input parameters of Burger's contact model were calibrated by adjusting them so that the model fitted the experimental data for the complex...... modulus. Three different approaches have been used and compared for calibrating the Burger's contact model. Values of the dynamic modulus and phase angle of asphalt mixtures were predicted by conducting DE simulation under dynamic strain control loading. The excellent agreement between the predicted...

  15. Evaluating wildlife-cattle contact rates to improve the understanding of dynamics of bovine tuberculosis transmission in Michigan, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavelle, Michael J; Kay, Shannon L; Pepin, Kim M; Grear, Daniel A; Campa, Henry; VerCauteren, Kurt C

    2016-12-01

    Direct and indirect contacts among individuals drive transmission of infectious disease. When multiple interacting species are susceptible to the same pathogen, risk assessment must include all potential host species. Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is an example of a disease that can be transmitted among several wildlife species and to cattle, although the potential role of several wildlife species in spillback to cattle remains unclear. To better understand the complex network of contacts and factors driving disease transmission, we fitted proximity logger collars to beef and dairy cattle (n=37), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus; n=29), raccoon (Procyon lotor; n=53), and Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana; n=79) for 16 months in Michigan's Lower Peninsula, USA. We determined inter- and intra-species direct and indirect contact rates. Data on indirect contact was calculated when collared animals visited stationary proximity loggers placed at cattle feed and water resources. Most contact between wildlife species and cattle was indirect, with the highest contact rates occurring between raccoons and cattle during summer and fall. Nearly all visits (>99%) to cattle feed and water sources were by cattle, whereas visitation to stored cattle feed was dominated by deer and raccoon (46% and 38%, respectively). Our results suggest that indirect contact resulting from wildlife species visiting cattle-related resources could pose a risk of disease transmission to cattle and deserves continued attention with active mitigation. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Dynamic elastic response prostheses alter approach angles and ground reaction forces but not leg stiffness during a start-stop task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haber, Cassandra Kay; Ritchie, Laura J; Strike, Siobhan C

    2018-04-01

    In a dynamic elastic response prosthesis (DERP), spring-like properties aim to replace the loss of musculature and soft tissues and optimise dynamic movement biomechanics, yet higher intact limb (IL) loading exists. It is unknown how amputees wearing a DERP will perform in start-stop movements and how altering the prosthetic stiffness will influence the performance and loading. This study assessed movement dynamics through comparisons in spatiotemporal, kinematic and kinetic variables and leg stiffness of intact, prosthetic and control limbs. The effect of prosthetic stiffness on movement dynamics was also determined. Eleven male unilateral transtibial amputees performed a start-stop task with one DERP set at two different stiffness - Prescribed and Stiffer. Eleven control participants performed the movement with the dominant limb. Kinematic and kinetic data were collected by a twelve-camera motion capture system synchronised with a Kistler force platform. Selected variables were compared between intact, prosthetic and control limbs, and against prosthetic stiffness using ANOVA and effect size. Pearson's Correlation was used to analyse relationship between leg stiffness and prosthetic deflection. Amputees showed a more horizontal approach to the bound during the start-stop movement, with lower horizontal velocities and a longer stance time on the IL compared to controls. In both stiffness conditions, the IL showed selected higher anteroposterior and vertical forces and impulses when compared to the controls. Leg stiffness was not significantly different between limbs as a result of the interplay between angle swept and magnitude of force, even with the change in prosthetic stiffness. A main effect for prosthetic stiffness was found only in higher impact forces of the prosthetic limb and more horizontal touchdown angles of the IL when using the prescribed DERP. In conclusion, amputees achieve the movement with a horizontal approach when compared to controls which

  17. Real-time small-angle neutron scattering techniques probing sub-millisecond dynamics in magnetic nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiedenmann, A.; Gaehler, R.; Dewhurst, C.; Keiderling, U.; Prevost, S.; Kohlbrecher, J.

    2010-01-01

    Stroboscopic Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS) techniques have recently been developed which allow ordering and relaxation processes of magnetic moments in nano-particles to be monitored. By applying a periodic external magnetic field the time-resolved SANS response to a forced oscillation could be analyzed. Here we present results from stroboscopic measurements on nanoscaled materials such as Cobalt ferrofluids and solid alloys by using polarised neutrons. SANS scattering response in an oscillating magnetic field was measured as a function of temperature, frequency and amplitude of the applied field. The fraction of superparamagnetic moments that can follow the oscillating field produces scattering patterns alternating between fully isotropic and strongly anisotropic. When the relaxation time of the ferrofluid to get in thermal equilibrium wit an applied magnetic field becomes similar to the period of the oscillating magnetic field one expects a phase shift and a damping in the magnetic response of the ferrofluid particles. To measure these polarized neutrons with polarisation analysis (POLARIS) are of great advantage

  18. Effect of meniscus constact angle during early regimes of spontaneous capillarity in nanochannels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karna, N.K.; Oyarzua, Elton; Walther, Jens Honore

    2016-01-01

    In capillary imbibition, the classical Lucas-Washburn equation predicts a singularity as the fluid enters the channel con-sisting in an anomalous innite velocity of the capillary meniscus. The Bosanquets equation overcomes this problem by taking into account fluid inertia predicting an initial...... 4 and 18 nm. We alsofind that the meniscus contact angle remains constant during the inertial regime and its value depends upon the height of the channel. We also find that the meniscus velocity computed at the channel entrance is related to the particular value of themeniscus contact angle....... Moreover, after the inertial regime, the meniscus contactangle is found to be time dependent for all the channels under study. We propose an expression for the time evolution of the dynamic contact angle in nanochannels which, when incorporated in Bosanquets equation, satisfactorily explains the initial...

  19. Comparison of the effect on bone healing process of different implants used in minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis: limited contact dynamic compression plate versus locking compression plate

    OpenAIRE

    Xue, Zichao; Xu, Haitao; Ding, Haoliang; Qin, Hui; An, Zhiquan

    2016-01-01

    Minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO) has been widely accepted because of its satisfactory clinical outcomes. However, the implant construct that works best for MIPO remains controversial. Different plate designs result in different influence mechanisms to blood flow. In this study, we created ulnar fractures in 42 beagle dogs and fixed the fractures using MIPO. The dogs were randomly divided into two groups and were fixed with a limited contact dynamic compression plate (LC-DCP) or ...

  20. Effect of core muscle thickness and static or dynamic balance on prone bridge exercise with sling by shoulder joint angle in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Mi Hwa; Yu, Jae Ho; Hong, Ji Heon; Kim, Jin Seop; Jung, Sang Woo; Lee, Dong Yeop

    2016-03-01

    [Purpose] To date, core muscle activity detected using ultrasonography during prone bridge exercises has not been reported. Here we investigated the effects of core muscle thickness and balance on sling exercise efficacy by shoulder joint angle in healthy individuals. [Subjects and Methods] Forty-three healthy university students were enrolled in this study. Ultrasonography thickness of external oblique, internal oblique, and transversus abdominis during sling workouts was investigated. Muscle thickness was measured on ultrasonography imaging before and after the experiment. Dynamic balance was tested using a functional reaching test. Static balance was tested using a Tetrax Interactive Balance System. [Results] Different muscle thicknesses were observed during the prone bridge exercise with the shoulder flexed at 60°, 90° or 120°. Shoulder flexion at 60° and 90° in the prone bridge exercise with a sling generated the greatest thickness of most transversus abdominis muscles. Shoulder flexion at 120° in the prone bridge exercise with a sling generated the greatest thickness of most external oblique muscles. [Conclusion] The results suggest that the prone bridge exercise with shoulder joint angle is an effective method of increasing global and local muscle strength.

  1. Spin-wave dynamics in Invar Fe sub 6 sub 5 Ni sub 3 sub 5 alloy studied by small-angle polarized neutron scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Grigoriev, S V; Deriglazov, V V; Okorokov, A I; Dijk, N H V; Brück, E; Klaasse, J C P; Eckerlebe, H; Kozik, G

    2002-01-01

    Spin dynamics in Fe sub 6 sub 5 Ni sub 3 sub 5 Invar alloy has been studied by left-right asymmetry of small-angle polarized neutron scattering below T sub C =485 K in external magnetic fields of H=0.05-0.25 T inclined relative to the incident beam. The spin-wave stiffness D and the damping GAMMA were obtained by fitting the antisymmetrical contribution to the scattering. The spin-wave stiffness extrapolated by a (T/T sub C) sup 5 sup / sup 2 law to T=0 K is D sub 0 =117+-2 meVA sup 2 , which is somewhat smaller than the spin-wave stiffness obtained by triple-axis spectrometry. (orig.)

  2. Use of dynamically scaled models for studies of the high-angle-of-attack behavior of airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Joseph R.

    1988-01-01

    Dynamically scaled, free-flying models are used by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to study the stalling and spinning characteristics of civil and military airplane configurations. Such tests have been conducted for many different designs, and it has been possible to correlate the results predicted by the model tests with flight test results obtained in the investigations. The present paper describes four of the dynamic model testing techniques used at the NASA Langley Research Center, including the scaling laws used in the construction of models and in the interpretation of results. Predictions of stall/spin behavior based on model results have generally been very accurate, and the model tests are regarded as an invaluable precursor to full-scale flight tests. However, aerodynamic scale effects between some models and full-scale airplanes due to differences in test values of Reynolds number have resulted in erroneous predictions for a few configurations. A discussion of these effects is provided, together with the approach used to modify the model so that its behavior more closely matches that of the airplane. Finally, two typical applications of the techniques to the X-29A research airplane and several general aviation research airplanes are presented to illustrate the type of information provided by the tests.

  3. Predictive models for moving contact line flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rame, Enrique; Garoff, Stephen

    2003-01-01

    Modeling flows with moving contact lines poses the formidable challenge that the usual assumptions of Newtonian fluid and no-slip condition give rise to a well-known singularity. This singularity prevents one from satisfying the contact angle condition to compute the shape of the fluid-fluid interface, a crucial calculation without which design parameters such as the pressure drop needed to move an immiscible 2-fluid system through a solid matrix cannot be evaluated. Some progress has been made for low Capillary number spreading flows. Combining experimental measurements of fluid-fluid interfaces very near the moving contact line with an analytical expression for the interface shape, we can determine a parameter that forms a boundary condition for the macroscopic interface shape when Ca much les than l. This parameter, which plays the role of an "apparent" or macroscopic dynamic contact angle, is shown by the theory to depend on the system geometry through the macroscopic length scale. This theoretically established dependence on geometry allows this parameter to be "transferable" from the geometry of the measurement to any other geometry involving the same material system. Unfortunately this prediction of the theory cannot be tested on Earth.

  4. Relationship of Adhesive, Contact and Electret Properties of PTFE Modified by DC Discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yablokov, M.; Piskarev, M.; Gilman, A.; Kechek'yan, A.; Kuznetsov, A.

    2018-02-01

    The relationship between the contact, adhesive and electret properties of PTFE films modified by direct current glow discharge has been studied. The film samples of 40 μm thickness were placed at the anode and cathode and treated in the air as a working gas. The contact properties of polymer surface were characterized by the values of deionized water contact angle. The peel strength was determined using T-peel test for the Scotch®810/PTFE film contact. The electret potential was measured by the compensation technique using dynamic capacitor, and from the measured potential value the effective surface charge density was calculated. It has been found that there is an undoubted correlation between the change in the value of water contact angle, the peel strength of the DC discharge-treated film, and the magnitude of the effective surface charge.

  5. Molecular Dynamics Study of the Effect of Interaction Parameters on the Contact Angle and Interface Thermal Transport between Water and Aluminum (Preprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-15

    magnetic nanoparticles: Design, synthesis, and biomedical applications, Accounts of Chemical Research, 42 (2009) 1097-1107. [4] S.A. Putnam , A.M...relaxation, Physical Review B, 44 (1991) 8927. [29] P. Dauber-Osguthorpe, V.A. Roberts , D.J. Osguthorpe, J. Wolff, M. Genest, A.T. Hagler, Structure and

  6. Influence of contact-line curvature on the evaporation of nanodroplets from solid substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianguo; Leroy, Frédéric; Müller-Plathe, Florian

    2014-07-25

    The effect of the three-phase contact-line curvature on the evaporation mechanism of nanoscopic droplets from smooth and chemically homogenous substrates is studied by molecular dynamics simulations. Spherical droplets, whose three-phase contact line is curved, and cylindrical droplets, whose contact radius is infinite, are compared. It is found that the evaporation of cylindrical droplets takes place at constant contact angle, while spherical droplets evaporate by simultaneous reduction of their contact area and their contact angle. This is independent of the substrate-liquid interaction strength. The dependence of the evaporation mechanism on the contact-line curvature can be rationalized with the help of the concept of a contact-line tension, and the evaporation simulations of the spherical droplets are used to extract the line tension on each surface. The corresponding values for the Lennard-Jones systems studied here are of the order of 10(-11)N, which is in a good agreement with previous theoretical and experimental estimates. With this order of magnitude, the line tension is expected to have an effect on the contact angle of spherical droplets only, when their diameter is less than about 100 nm. The observed difference in evaporation mechanism is interpreted as a manifestation of the line tension whose existence has been controversial.

  7. Contact Hamiltonian mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bravetti, Alessandro, E-mail: alessandro.bravetti@iimas.unam.mx [Instituto de Investigaciones en Matemáticas Aplicadas y en Sistemas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A. P. 70543, México, DF 04510 (Mexico); Cruz, Hans, E-mail: hans@ciencias.unam.mx [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A. P. 70543, México, DF 04510 (Mexico); Tapias, Diego, E-mail: diego.tapias@nucleares.unam.mx [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A.P. 70543, México, DF 04510 (Mexico)

    2017-01-15

    In this work we introduce contact Hamiltonian mechanics, an extension of symplectic Hamiltonian mechanics, and show that it is a natural candidate for a geometric description of non-dissipative and dissipative systems. For this purpose we review in detail the major features of standard symplectic Hamiltonian dynamics and show that all of them can be generalized to the contact case.

  8. EMG-driven Forward Dynamics Simulation to Estimate in Vivo Joint Contact Forces During Normal, Smooth, and Bouncy Gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razu, Swithin; Guess, Trent M

    2017-11-21

    This study leveraged data from the "Sixth Grand Challenge Competition to Predict in Vivo Knee Loads" to create a full-body musculoskeletal model that incorporates subject specific geometries of the right leg in order to concurrently predict knee contact forces, ligament forces, muscle forces, and ground contact forces. The objectives of this paper are twofold: First, to describe an electromyography (EMG)-driven modeling methodology to predict knee contact forces, and second to validate model predictions by evaluating the model predictions against known values for a patient with an instrumented total knee replacement (TKR) for three distinctly different gait styles (normal, smooth, and bouncy gait). A novel EMG-driven feedforward with feedback trim motor control strategy was used to concurrently estimate muscle forces and knee contact forces from standard motion capture data collected on the individual subject. The predicted medial, lateral, and total tibiofemoral forces represented the overall measured magnitude and temporal patterns with good root mean squared errors (RMSEs) and Pearson's correlation (?2). The model accuracy was high: medial, lateral, and total tibiofemoral contact force RMSEs = 0.15, 0.14, 0.21 body weight (BW), and (0.92< ?2<0.96) for normal gait; RMSEs = 0.18 BW, 0.21 BW, 0.29 BW, and (0.81< ?2<0.93) for smooth gait; and RMSEs = 0.21 BW, 0.22 BW, 0.33 BW, and (0.86< ?2<0.95) for bouncy gait, respectively.

  9. Étude de la réactivité de surface par mesure d'angle de contact : influence de la fonctionnalisation et de la structure. Applications aux films d'oxyde de zinc électrodéposés

    OpenAIRE

    Badre, Chantal

    2007-01-01

    In this work, we studied the surface reactivity by contact angle measurements. Wettability phenomenon is based on the nature of the interactions between a liquid and a surface. In our case, we were particularly interested in preparing textured surfaces with different roughness scales. Roughness is a key parameter to increase surface wettability. Firstly, we have prepared smooth polyvinylchloride polymers acidified with lauric acid. Then, aerosil balls are added to create some roughness on the...

  10. Mechanical Contact Experiments and Simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Chris Valentin; Martins, P; Zhang, W.

    2011-01-01

    Mechanical contact is studied under dynamic development by means of a combined numerical and experimental investigation. The experiments are designed to allow dynamical development of non-planar contact areas with significant expansion in all three directions as the load is increased. Different....... The overall investigation serves for testing and validating the numerical implementation of the mechanical contact, which is one of the main contributions to a system intended for 3D simulation of resistance welding. Correct modelling of contact between parts to be welded, as well as contact with electrodes......, is crucial for satisfactory modelling of the resistance welding process. The resistance heating at the contact interfaces depends on both contact area and pressure, and as the contact areas develop dynamically, the presented tests are relevant for assessing the validity and accuracy of the mechanical contact...

  11. MERA: a webserver for evaluating backbone torsion angle distributions in dynamic and disordered proteins from NMR data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mantsyzov, Alexey B. [M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Fundamental Medicine (Russian Federation); Shen, Yang; Lee, Jung Ho [National Institutes of Health, Laboratory of Chemical Physics, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (United States); Hummer, Gerhard [Max Planck Institute of Biophysics (Germany); Bax, Ad, E-mail: bax@nih.gov [National Institutes of Health, Laboratory of Chemical Physics, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (United States)

    2015-09-15

    MERA (Maximum Entropy Ramachandran map Analysis from NMR data) is a new webserver that generates residue-by-residue Ramachandran map distributions for disordered proteins or disordered regions in proteins on the basis of experimental NMR parameters. As input data, the program currently utilizes up to 12 different parameters. These include three different types of short-range NOEs, three types of backbone chemical shifts ({sup 15}N, {sup 13}C{sup α}, and {sup 13}C′), six types of J couplings ({sup 3}J{sub HNHα}, {sup 3}J{sub C′C′}, {sup 3}J{sub C′Hα}, {sup 1}J{sub HαCα}, {sup 2}J{sub CαN} and {sup 1}J{sub CαN}), as well as the {sup 15}N-relaxation derived J(0) spectral density. The Ramachandran map distributions are reported in terms of populations of their 15° × 15° voxels, and an adjustable maximum entropy weight factor is available to ensure that the obtained distributions will not deviate more from a newly derived coil library distribution than required to account for the experimental data. MERA output includes the agreement between each input parameter and its distribution-derived value. As an application, we demonstrate performance of the program for several residues in the intrinsically disordered protein α-synuclein, as well as for several static and dynamic residues in the folded protein GB3.

  12. Magic angle spinning NMR below 6 K with a computational fluid dynamics analysis of fluid flow and temperature gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sesti, Erika L; Alaniva, Nicholas; Rand, Peter W; Choi, Eric J; Albert, Brice J; Saliba, Edward P; Scott, Faith J; Barnes, Alexander B

    2018-01-01

    We report magic angle spinning (MAS) up to 8.5 kHz with a sample temperature below 6 K using liquid helium as a variable temperature fluid. Cross polarization 13 C NMR spectra exhibit exquisite sensitivity with a single transient. Remarkably, 1 H saturation recovery experiments show a 1 H T 1 of 21 s with MAS below 6 K in the presence of trityl radicals in a glassy matrix. Leveraging the thermal spin polarization available at 4.2 K versus 298 K should result in 71 times higher signal intensity. Taking the 1 H longitudinal relaxation into account, signal averaging times are therefore predicted to be expedited by a factor of >500. Computer assisted design (CAD) and finite element analysis were employed in both the design and diagnostic stages of this cryogenic MAS technology development. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models describing temperature gradients and fluid flow are presented. The CFD models bearing and drive gas maintained at 100 K, while a colder helium variable temperature fluid stream cools the center of a zirconia rotor. Results from the CFD were used to optimize the helium exhaust path and determine the sample temperature. This novel cryogenic experimental platform will be integrated with pulsed dynamic nuclear polarization and electron decoupling to interrogate biomolecular structure within intact human cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Implementation of 3D spatial indexing and compression in a large-scale molecular dynamics simulation database for rapid atomic contact detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toofanny Rudesh D

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Molecular dynamics (MD simulations offer the ability to observe the dynamics and interactions of both whole macromolecules and individual atoms as a function of time. Taken in context with experimental data, atomic interactions from simulation provide insight into the mechanics of protein folding, dynamics, and function. The calculation of atomic interactions or contacts from an MD trajectory is computationally demanding and the work required grows exponentially with the size of the simulation system. We describe the implementation of a spatial indexing algorithm in our multi-terabyte MD simulation database that significantly reduces the run-time required for discovery of contacts. The approach is applied to the Dynameomics project data. Spatial indexing, also known as spatial hashing, is a method that divides the simulation space into regular sized bins and attributes an index to each bin. Since, the calculation of contacts is widely employed in the simulation field, we also use this as the basis for testing compression of data tables. We investigate the effects of compression of the trajectory coordinate tables with different options of data and index compression within MS SQL SERVER 2008. Results Our implementation of spatial indexing speeds up the calculation of contacts over a 1 nanosecond (ns simulation window by between 14% and 90% (i.e., 1.2 and 10.3 times faster. For a 'full' simulation trajectory (51 ns spatial indexing reduces the calculation run-time between 31 and 81% (between 1.4 and 5.3 times faster. Compression resulted in reduced table sizes but resulted in no significant difference in the total execution time for neighbour discovery. The greatest compression (~36% was achieved using page level compression on both the data and indexes. Conclusions The spatial indexing scheme significantly decreases the time taken to calculate atomic contacts and could be applied to other multidimensional neighbor discovery

  14. Wettability-Water/brine Film Thickness Relationship and the Effect of Supercritical CO2 Pre-contact for CO2/brine/mineral Systems under Geologic CO2 Sequestration Conditions: Insights from Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C.; Song, Y.; Li, W.

    2016-12-01

    Injection CO2 into deep saline aquifers is one of the main options for geologic carbon sequestration (GCS). A successful GCS in saline aquifers requires full knowledge about CO2/brine/mineral systems under sequestration conditions to reduce uncertainties during subsurface storage of CO2. Adsorbed water film thickness and wettability on mineral surfaces are two key characteristics for CO2/brine/mineral systems. Wettability and water/brine film thickness have been measured experimentally and predicted by molecular simulation (MD) studies. However, these studies only consider the films apart from contact angles. Investigations on wettability for CO2/brine/mineral systems only consider contact angles without measurements on film thickness. The relationship between film thicknesses with water contact angles is open to questions. In this paper, MD simulations have been performed to investigate the interrelationship between water film thicknesses and water contact angles. Three silica surfaces with different silanol group number densities (Q3, Q3-50%, Q3/Q4) were selected to represent silica surfaces with different wettabilities. We found that as water contact angle increases, the film thickness decreases. We also studied the effect of CO2-mineral pre-contact and found that: on Q3 surface, if a CO2 bubble was pre-contacted with the surface, it can remain on the surface without forming a water film; however, if a CO2 bubble was placed certain distances away from the surface, it formed a water film. Wettability analysis revealed that on the same surface, water contact angle was larger when there was no water film. These findings show that on some silica surfaces, water film may be destroyed by supercritical CO2 even the silica surfaces are hydrophilic. A water film rupture mechanism was propsed for CO2 adhesion on mineral surfaces [Wang (2013) Environ. Sci. Technol. 47, 11858; Zhang (2016) Environ. Sci. Technol. Lett. 10.1021/acs.estlett.5b00359]. The rupture of water film

  15. Drops and bubbles in contact with solid surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrari, Michele

    2012-01-01

    The third volume in a series dedicated to colloids and interfaces, Drops and Bubbles in Contact with Solid Surfaces presents an up-to-date overview of the fundamentals and applications of drops and bubbles and their interaction with solid surfaces. The chapters cover the theoretical and experimental aspects of wetting and wettability, liquid-solid interfacial properties, and spreading dynamics on different surfaces, including a special section on polymers. The book examines issues related to interpretation of contact angle from nano to macro systems. Expert contributors discuss interesting pec

  16. Dynamic changes of anterior segment in patients with different stages of primary angle-closure in both eyes and normal subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jialiu Lin

    Full Text Available To compare changes in anterior segment parameters under light and dark (light-to-dark conditions among eyes with chronic primary angle-closure glaucoma (CPACG, fellow eyes with confirmed or suspect primary angle-closure (PAC or PACS, and age-matched healthy eyes.Consecutive patients with CPACG in one eye and PAC/PACS in the fellow eye, as well as age-matched healthy subjects were recruited. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography measurements were conducted under light and dark conditions, and anterior chamber, lens, and iris parameters compared. Demographic and biometric factors associated with light-to-dark change in iris area were analyzed by linear regression.Fifty-seven patients (mean age 59.6±8.9 years and 30 normal subjects matched for age (60.6±9.3 years and sex ratio were recruited. In regards to differences under light-to-dark conditions, angle opening distance at 500 μm (AOD500μm and iris area during light-to-dark transition were smaller in CPACG eyes than fellow PACS/PAC eyes and normal eyes (P<0.017. Pupil diameter change was largest in normal eyes, and larger in PACS/PAC eyes than CPACG eyes (P<0.017. There was an average reduction of 0.145 mm2 in iris area for each millimeter of pupil diameter increase in CPACG eyes, 0.161 mm2 in fellow PAC/PACS eyes, and 0.165 mm2 in normal eyes. Larger iris curvature in the dark and diagnosis of PACG were significantly associated with less light-to-dark iris area changes.Dynamic changes in iris parameters with light-to-dark transition differed significantly among CPACG eyes, fellow PAC/PACS eyes, and normal eyes. Greater iris curvature under dark conditions was correlated with reduced light-to-dark change in iris area and pupil diameter, which may contribute to disease progression.

  17. Dynamics and stability of rigid rotors levitated by passive cylinder-magnet bearings and driven/supported axially by pointwise contact clutch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Søren B.; Enemark, Søren; Santos, Ilmar F.

    2013-12-01

    A stable rotor—supported laterally by passive magnetic bearings and longitudinally by magnetic forces and a clutch—loses suddenly its contact to the clutch and executes abruptly longitudinal movements away from its original equilibrium position as a result of small increases in angular velocity. Such an abrupt unstable behaviour and its reasons are thoroughly theoretically as well as experimentally investigated in this work. In this context, this paper gives theoretical as well as experimental contributions to the problem of two dimensional passive magnetic levitation and one dimensional pointwise contact stability dictated by mechanical-magnetic interaction. Load capacity and stiffness of passive multicylinder magnetic bearings (MCMB) are thoroughly investigated using two theoretical approaches followed by experimental validation. The contact dynamics between the clutch and the rotor supported by MCMB using several configurations of magnet distribution are described based on an accurate nonlinear model able to reliably reproduce the rotor-bearing dynamic behaviour. Such investigations lead to: (a) clear physical explanation about the reasons for the rotor's unstable behaviour, losing its contact to the clutch and (b) an accurate prediction of the threshold of stability based on the nonlinear rotor-bearing model, i.e. maximum angular velocity before the rotor misses its contact to the clutch as a function of rotor, bearing and clutch design parameters. passive cylinder-magnet bearings, imbalance ring with a screw, passive rotating cylinder-magnets, rotor, Pointwise contact clutch, and DC-motor. The rotor (4) is levitated in the two horseshoe-shaped bearing houses (1) which contain several cylinder-magnets arranged in a circular pattern. These permanent magnets form a magnetic field around the rotor which repels similar cylinder-magnets (3) embedded in the rotor, thereby counteracting the gravity forces. As the shape of the magnetic field generated by the

  18. Self-similarity of contact line depinning from textured surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxson, Adam T; Varanasi, Kripa K

    2013-01-01

    The mobility of drops on surfaces is important in many biological and industrial processes, but the phenomena governing their adhesion, which is dictated by the morphology of the three-phase contact line, remain unclear. Here we describe a technique for measuring the dynamic behaviour of the three-phase contact line at micron length scales using environmental scanning electron microscopy. We examine a superhydrophobic surface on which a drop's adhesion is governed by capillary bridges at the receding contact line. We measure the microscale receding contact angle of each bridge and show that the Gibbs criterion is satisfied at the microscale. We reveal a hitherto unknown self-similar depinning mechanism that shows how some hierarchical textures such as lotus leaves lead to reduced pinning, and counter-intuitively, how some lead to increased pinning. We develop a model to predict adhesion force and experimentally verify the model's broad applicability on both synthetic and natural textured surfaces.

  19. Experimental and Numerical Simulation of the Dynamic Frictional Contact between an Aircraft Tire Rubber and a Rough Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian Rosu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a numerical simulation of an aircraft tire in contact with a rough surface using a variable friction coefficient dependent on temperature and contact pressure. A sliding facility was used in order to evaluate this dependence of the friction coefficient. The temperature diffusion throughout the tire cross-section was measured by means of thermocouples. Both frictional heating and temperature diffusion were compared to numerical two- and three- dimensional simulations. An adequate temperature prediction could be obtained. In future simulations, wear should be taken into account in order to have a more accurate simulation especially in the case of high pressures and slipping velocities. A 3D finite element model for a rolling tire at a velocity of 37.79 knots (19.44 m/s and in a cornering phase was investigated using a variable friction coefficient dependent on temperature and pressure. The numerical simulation tended to predict the temperature of the tire tread after a few seconds of rolling in skidding position, the temperature of the contact zone increases to 140 °C. Further investigations must be carried out in order to obtain the evolution of the temperature observed experimentally. The authors would like to point out that for confidentiality reasons, certain numerical data could not be revealed.

  20. Molecular-dynamics simulation of lateral friction in contact-mode atomic force microscopy of alkane films: The role of molecular flexibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soza, P.; Hansen, Flemming Yssing; Taub, H.

    2011-01-01

    Molecular-dynamics simulations are used to investigate lateral friction in contact-mode atomic force microscopy of tetracosane (n-C24H50) films. We find larger friction coefficients on the surface of monolayer and bilayer films in which the long axis of the molecules is parallel to the interface...... of this motion does not appear to be in itself a major channel of energy dissipation. As previously reported in the literature, the layer density and thereby the strength of the attractive film-tip interaction is also an important factor in energy dissipation....

  1. On the microstructure of organic solutions of mono-carboxylic acids: Combined study by infrared spectroscopy, small-angle neutron scattering and molecular dynamics simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eremin, Roman A., E-mail: era@jinr.ru [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna 141980 (Russian Federation); Kholmurodov, Kholmirzo T. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna 141980 (Russian Federation); International University “Dubna”, Dubna 141980 (Russian Federation); Petrenko, Viktor I. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna 141980 (Russian Federation); Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Kyiv 03022 (Ukraine); Rosta, László [Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest H-1525 (Hungary); Grigoryeva, Natalia A. [Faculty of Physics, Saint-Petersburg State University, 198504 Saint-Petersburg (Russian Federation); Avdeev, Mikhail V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna 141980 (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-05

    Highlights: • The model of the scattering particle for a reliable SANS analysis is proposed. • The structural parameters of saturated mono-carboxylic acids in solutions are obtained. • The differences in nematic transitions correlate to solvation peculiarities. - Abstract: The data of infrared spectroscopy (IR), molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) have been combined to conclude about the nanoscale structural organization of organic non-polar solutions of saturated mono-carboxylic acids with different alkyl chain lengths for diluted solutions of saturated myristic (C14) and stearic (C18) acids in benzene and decalin. In particular, the degree of dimerization was found from the IR spectra. The structural anisotropy of the acids and their dimers was used in the treatment of the data of MD simulations to describe the solute–solvent interface in a cylindrical approximation and show its rather strong influence on SANS. The corresponding scattering length density profiles were used to fit the experimental SANS data comprising the information about the acid molecule isomerization. The SANS data from concentrated solutions showed a partial self-assembling of the acids within the nematic transition is different for two solvents due to lyophobic peculiarities.

  2. Analysis of the solution structure of Thermosynechococcus elongatus photosystem I in n-dodecyl-β-D-maltoside using small-angle neutron scattering and molecular dynamics simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Rosemary K; Harris, Bradley J; Iwuchukwu, Ifeyinwa J; Bruce, Barry D; Cheng, Xiaolin; Qian, Shuo; Heller, William T; O'Neill, Hugh; Frymier, Paul D

    2014-05-15

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation were used to investigate the structure of trimeric photosystem I (PSI) from Thermosynechococcus elongatus (T. elongatus) stabilized in n-dodecyl-β-d-maltoside (DDM) detergent solution. Scattering curves of detergent and protein-detergent complexes were measured at 18% D2O, the contrast match point for the detergent, and 100% D2O, allowing observation of the structures of protein/detergent complexes. It was determined that the maximum dimension of the PSI-DDM complex was consistent with the presence of a monolayer belt of detergent around the periphery of PSI. A dummy-atom reconstruction of the shape of the complex from the SANS data indicates that the detergent envelope has an irregular shape around the hydrophobic periphery of the PSI trimer rather than a uniform, toroidal belt around the complex. A 50 ns MD simulation model (a DDM ring surrounding the PSI complex with extra interstitial DDM) of the PSI-DDM complex was developed for comparison with the SANS data. The results suggest that DDM undergoes additional structuring around the membrane-spanning surface of the complex instead of a simple, relatively uniform belt, as is generally assumed for studies that use detergents to solubilize membrane proteins. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Human serum albumin interactions with C{sub 60} fullerene studied by spectroscopy, small-angle neutron scattering, and molecular dynamics simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Song [Vanderbilt University, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering (United States); Zhao, Xiongce [NIDDK, National Institutes of Health (United States); Mo, Yiming [Institute of Agriculture, University of Tennessee (United States); Cummings, Peter T., E-mail: cummingspt@ornl.gov [Vanderbilt University, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering (United States); Heller, William T., E-mail: hellerwt@ornl.gov [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Center for Structural Molecular Biology (United States)

    2013-07-15

    Concern about the toxicity of engineered nanoparticles, such as the prototypical nanomaterial C{sub 60} fullerene, continues to grow. While, evidence continues to mount that C{sub 60} and its derivatives may pose health hazards, the specific molecular interactions of these particles with biological macromolecules require further investigation. In this article, we report combined experimental and theoretical studies on the interaction of one of the most prevalent proteins in the human body, human serum albumin (HSA), with C{sub 60} in an aqueous environment. The C{sub 60}-HSA interaction was probed by circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), and atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to understand C{sub 60}-driven changes in the structure of HSA in solution. The CD spectroscopy demonstrates that the secondary structure of the protein decreases in {alpha}-helical content in response to the presence of C{sub 60} (0.68 nm in diameter). Similarly, C{sub 60} produces subtle changes in the solution conformation of HSA (an 8.0 nm Multiplication-Sign 3.8 nm protein), as evidenced by the SANS data and MD simulations, but the data do not indicate that C{sub 60} changes the oligomerization state of the protein, such as by inducing aggregation. The results demonstrate that the interaction is not highly disruptive to the protein in a manner that would prevent it from performing its physiological function.

  4. Small angle neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Sanjay

    1982-01-01

    The technique of small angle neutron scattering was first used in Germany less than two decades ago. Since then it has developed very rapidly, and today it is regarded as one of the most powerful techniques in materials, chemical and biological research. During the last decade the combination of high flux reactors and sophisticated instrumentation has revolutionized the technique. This paper endeavours to present a brief but comprehensive review of small angle scattering of neutrons and its applications in solid state research. The domain in which small angle neutron scattering is particularly useful is delineated and some of the methods used in the analysis of data are discussed with special emphasis on recent developments. Typical small angle neutron scattering cameras are described. Finally some experimental results on heterogeneities in metallic systems (both static and dynamic studies), radiation damage in materials, superconductivity, magnetic materials and the technologically very important area of non-destructive testing are reviewed in order to illustrate the wide range of applicability of this technique to problems in solid state research. (author)

  5. Effect of water desorption on the rheology and dynamic response of human hair to a non-contact impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamart, J; Djaghloul, M; Bergheau, J M; Zahouani, H

    2015-06-01

    Human hair is a non-homogeneous complex material made of keratin fibers oriented along the longitudinal axis which offer anisotropic mechanical properties. Nowadays, it is possible to measure the mechanical properties of hairs with the classical tests, but most often, these tests are destructive and make hard to measure the influence of some external factors or treatments on the behavior of a same hair fiber. In the current paper, vibrations induced by a non-contact impact have been utilized as a representative response of the mechanical behavior of hair. The characteristics of the vibratory response allow measuring the variation in the mechanical properties and the instantaneous effect of an external factor on the properties of a same sample. First, load relaxation tests have been performed on hair samples after moisturization and for different times of an air-drying process in order to characterize the change in the visco-elastic behavior of hair during the water desorption. Other hair samples have been tested with our non-contact impact and vibration technique in order to observe the change in the vibratory response during the water desorption. The vibratory response has then been correlated to the mechanical properties of the hair fiber. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Dynamic behaviour of the contact line for 350 km/h on the new line Wuhan - Guangzhou; Dynamisches Verhalten der Oberleitung fuer 350 km/h auf der neuen Strecke Wuhan - Guangzhou

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmert, Gerhard [Balfour Beatty Rail, Beijing (China)

    2010-04-15

    Only after four and a half years of construction activities regular services started on the approximately 1 000 km long new high-speed line Wuhan - Guangzhou in the People's Republic of China. Achieving 320 to 330 km/h commercial speed, this line is the fastest railway connection in the world. The dynamic interaction between contact line and pantograph determines the maximally possible speed to an increasing extent. Worldwide, there is only low experience on the contact line dynamic behavior at this speed level. Balfour Beatty Rail designed the contact line for this installation, participated essentially in the implementation and, therefore, was in charge of proving the contact line quality. A series of test runs concerning the geometrical requirements and the contact force behaviour eventually proved the suitability of the system. (orig.)

  7. Extension to the dynamic modeling of the large angle magnetic suspension test fixture. M.S. Thesis - Old Dominion Univ., May 1995 Progress Report, 1 Nov. 1994 - 30 Apr. 1995

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Lucas E.; Britcher, Colin P.

    1995-01-01

    The Large Angle Magnetic Suspension Test Fixture (LAMSTF) is a laboratory scale proof-of-concept system. The configuration is unique in that the electromagnets are mounted in a circular planar array. A mathematical model of the system had previously been developed, but was shown to have inaccuracies. These inaccuracies showed up in the step responses. Eddy currents were found to be the major cause of the modeling errors. In the original system, eddy currents existed in the aluminum baseplate, iron cores, and the sensor support frame. An attempt to include the eddy current dynamics in the system model is presented. The dynamics of a dummy sensor ring were added to the system. Adding the eddy current dynamics to the simulation improves the way it compares to the actual experiment. Also presented is a new method of determining the yaw angle of the suspended element. From the coil currents the yaw angle can be determined and the controller can be updated to suspend at the new current. This method has been used to demonstrate a 360 degree yaw angle rotation.

  8. Electromechanical Design and Development of the Virginia Tech Roller Rig Testing Facility for Wheel-rail Contact Mechanics and Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Hosseinipour, Milad

    2016-01-01

    The electromechanical design and development of a sophisticated roller rig testing facility at the Railway Technologies Laboratory (RTL) of Virginia Polytechnic and State University (VT) is presented. The VT Roller Rig is intended for studying the complex dynamics and mechanics at the wheel-rail interface of railway vehicles in a controlled laboratory environment. Such measurements require excellent powering and driving architecture, high-performance motion control, accurate measurements, and...

  9. The Role of Pickup Ion Dynamics Outside of the Heliopause in the Limit of Weak Pitch Angle Scattering: Implications for the Source of the IBEX Ribbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirnstein, E. J.; Heerikhuisen, J.; Dayeh, M. A.

    2018-03-01

    We present a new model of the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) ribbon based on the secondary